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VIC-20 C-64 



C-64 VIC-20 



The COMMODORE Computer Users' Monthly Journal 




1 






1 



SPECIAL ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 



INSIDE: 



E YOUR COMPUTER SING 
CHRISTMAS 



•"BASIC EDUCATION: 
PROGRAMMING FOR LEARNIN 

• "ROAD RACE" GAME 
FOR THE VIC- 20 

CK COPY OF C-64 DISKS 

• GREMLINS & IMPS- REVIEW Or 
THE NEW MSD DISK DRIVE 
AND MORE.... 




I 74470"12426 , 





ANNIVERSARY 



c= 







» » 






£7AKK*S81 



■ 



Introducing the Most Powerful 
Business Software Ever! 

TRS-80 " (Model I, II, 111, or 16)* APPLE" • IBM'" • OSBORNE"* CP/M™* COMMODORE 64 



!&% 




*&*. 



The VersaBusiness" Series 

Each VERSABUSINESS module can be purchased and used independently, 
or can be linked in any combination to form a complete, coordinated business system. 



VERSARECEIVABLES t " $99.95 

VERSA RECEIVABLES™ is a complete menu-driven accounts receivable, invoicing, and 
monthly statement-generating system- It keeps track of all information related to who 
owes you or your company money, and can provide automatic billing for past due ac- 
counts. Versa RECEIVABLES" prints all necessary statements, invoices, and summary 
reports and can be linked with VERSALEDGER II™ and VERSAlNVErfTORY™. 

VERSaPAYABLES*" $99.95 

VERSA PAYABLES" is designed to keep track of current and aged payables, keeping you 
in touch with all information regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. VERSA PAYABLES" maintains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, transaction reports, aged payables reports, vendor reports, 
and more. With VersaPayablES". you can even let your computer automatically select 
which vouchers are to be paid. 

VERSAPAYROLL" $99.95 

VERSA Payroll" is a powerful and sophisticated, but easy to use payroll system that 
keeps track o( all government-required payroll information. Complete employee records 
are maintained, and all necessary payroll calculations are performed automatically, with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval. A payroll can be run totally, automati- 
cally, or the operator can intervene to prevent a check from being printed, or to alter 
information on it, If desired, totals may be posted to the VERSALEDGER IS™ system. 

VERSAINVENTORY'" $99.95 

VERSA INVENTORY" is a complete inventory control system that gives you instant access 
lo data on any item. VERSA INVENTORY" keeps track of all information related to what 
items are in stock, out of stock, on backorder. etc., stores sales and pricing data, alerts 
you when an item falls below a preset reorder point, and allows you to enter and print 
invoices directly or to link with the VERSA RECEIVABLES- system. VERSAlNVENTORY" prints 
all needed inventory listings, reports of items below reorder point, inventory value re- 
ports, period and year-to-date sales reports, price lists, inventory checklists, etc. 

•CQMPUTRQNICS! 

50 N. PASC ACK ROAD, SPRING VALLEY, N. Y. 10977 



VersaLedger ir $149.95 

Versa LEDGER II™ isa complete accounting system that grows as your business 
grows. VErsaLeDGER II™ can be used as a simple personal checkbook register, 
expanded to a small business bookkeeping system or developed into a large 
corporate general ledger system without any additional software. 

• VERSALEDGER II" gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

(300 to 10,000 entries per month, depending on the system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever, 

• prints tractor-feed checks, 

• handles multiple checkbooks and general ledgers, 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers, 
balance sheets, income statements, transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VersaLedger IT" comes with a professionally-written 150 page manual de- 
signed for first-time users. Trie VersaLeDGER II™ manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with VersaLeDGER IT", using complete sample data files 
supplied on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts. 



SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 



Every VERS A BUS [NESS™ module is guaranteed tooutperform all othercompetitive systems, 
and at a fraction of their cost. If you are not satisfied withany VERSABUSINESS" module, you 
may return it within 30 days for a refund. Manuals for any VERSA BUSINESS"" module may be 
purchased foT S25 each, credited toward a later purchase o( that module. 
AN CP'M-based Computers must be equipped with Microsoft BASIC 
(MBASIC or BASIC-30) 



To Order: 
Write or call Toll-free (800) 431-2818 
(N.Y.5. residents call 914-425-1535) 



1 add S5 to CANADA or MEXICO 
• add proper postage elsewhere 



1 add $3 lor shipping in UPS areas 
' add $4 lor COD. or non-UPS areas 



DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 

All prices and specifications subject to change / Delivery subject to availability. 



TRS 80 trademark Tandy Corp. ■ APPLE trademark Apple Corp - IBM PC trademark IBM Corp - OSBORNE trademark Osborne Corp. - XEROX trademark Xerox Corp. ■ KAYPRO tTadernarkNcnLrnear 

Systems Int - TELEV1DEO trademark Televideo Systems. Inc. ■ SANYO trademark Sanyo Corp. ■ NEC trademark NEC Corp. - DEC trademark Digital Equipment Corp ■ ZENITH trademark Zenith CoTp. 

Tl PROFESSIONAL COMPUTER trademark Tcx.is Instruments, Inc SUPERBRA1N trademark Intertec Corp. ■ CP/M trademark Digital Research - EPSTON trademark Epson Corp. 

Circle No. 108 




The Commodore 64 
Spreadsheet that 
puts you a 
million miles ahead 



CALC RESULT.. The one spreadsheet guaranteed to turn 
your Commodore into a powerful financial tool. 
Offering you every feature found on other more expensive 
programs for much less the cost. 
Flexible.. .you can view four different areas at once 
VersatlIe...customize your own print formats 
Distinctive,. .display beautiful color graphics 
CALC RESULT Advanced is a three-dimensional spread- 
sheet with built-in HELP function and 32 pages of memory. 
For the Commodore 64 $149.95. For the CBM™ 8032 $199.00. 
For first time users CALC RESULT Easy gives you a fast way to perform 
financial calculations— easily. For the Commodore 64 $79.95. 
For a down to earth demonstration of either version visit your 
local dealer today. 



A 



Developed by: 



nHrTai< 



vsoftwareabT 
-1 company in the Datatronit group- 



i 




A Product of: 



Distributed by: 



DES-DATA EQUIPMENT SOFTEAM COMPUTER MARKETING 

SUPPLY 800-421-0814 SERVICES, INC. 

213-923-9361 800-222-0585 

Commodore frl is a trademark ol Commodore Business Machines 



WAREHOUSE!, INC. 
EASTERN U.S./800-253-5330 
WESTERN U.S.-800-255-0056 



BLUE SKY SOFTWARE 
Ashland Office Center 
Evesham & Alpha Avenues 
Voorhees, NJ 08043 
609/795-4025 









wtm 



The first program 
you should buy. 

The more you use your computer, the more you 
want it to work for you. 

But where do you begin? There are literally 
thousands of programs. It's time consuming, 
confusing and frustrating! The answer is to 
begir^with THE U\ST ONE™. 

THE LAST ONE ... The program that writes 
programs! 

Now, for the first time, your computer is truly 
'personal'. Now, simply and easily, you can 
create software the way you want it. 

From Accounting to the Zodiac, THE LAST 
ONE puts you keystrokes away from whatever 
you need from your computer. 

THE LAST ONE ... See ft at your dealer 
and buy it first! 

Available for Commodore 64™, Commodore 8032™, 
IBM PC™. Victor 9000™, Apple II™ and lie"". Radio 
Shack Model II™ and most CP/M™ systems. 



Distributed By 




Marketing 



Services. Inc.* 



300 W. Marlton Pike, Cherry Hill, NJ 08002 (609) 795-9480 
Product of BLUE SKY SOFTWARE 

*THE LAST ONE Is a registered trademark of D. J. "Al" Systems, Ltd. 

The Commodore 64 & CBM B03Z IBM PC Victor 900G, Apple II & lie. Radio Shack Model R and CP/M are registered trademarks o( Commodore Business Machines. 
Inc. International Business Machines Corp. Victor Technologies Inc. Apple Computers Inc. The Tandy Corporation and Digital Research Corp. respectively 

Circle to 157 



Info Designs 
slashes the cost 
of small business 
accounting for the 
Commodore -64 

Now only 

SJQ95 




\lnfl0fcra5S' 



The power of Info Designs Manage- 
ment Accounting System is avail- 
able on the Commodore-64 in a full 
and faithful version! 

Thousands of these quality business accounting 
software packages have been sold on the CBM 
computer at $595 each. Now, similar features are 
available to the small business user on the 
Commodore-64 for £79.95 per module! 

Select the accounting modules you need— 

• Accounts Receivable/Billing 

• Accounts Payabie/Checkwriting 

• General Ledger 

• Inventory Management 

• Payroll 

Our SoftPack combination contains the "Bsg-3" 
accounting— A/R, A/P and G/L— for only $239.85 
Available for immediate delivery! 




Flexible Design 

The accounting system will work with one or two 

VIC-1541 disk drives (or 2031/4040 with IEEE" 

interface), 1525 printer, and color or b&w monitor or 

TV. 

Customer Support Plan 

As part of Info Designs ongoing effort to provide the 
highest quality microcomputer applications in the 
marketplace, we offer an optional telephone con- 
sulting service to support installation and ongoing 
operations. 

Order NOW. ..for immediate delivery 
See you local Commodore-64 Dealer or call us 
directly at (313) 540-4010. MasterCard and Visa 
accepted. 



lBfO®(3SDgDDS 

6905 Telegraph Road • Birmingham. Ml 48010 • (313) 540-4010 

Crcle No 52 



Vol. 2, Issue 1. 













,FOR^ 



PROGWW Duyne 



ev > 



SOUN' 



^KAA-STASS 



9V 1sn 




Ada™ 



DEPARTMENTS 



19 Editorial 

50 Letters 

70 Bits & Pieces 



Having reached the beginni ng of our second year, 
COMMANDER continues to look through the 
"electronic looking glass" of computer monitors 
toward an even bigger and better future. 



Contributing artists: Scott Bailey, p 40 
Stan Shaw pp. 12, 30, 70, 



^rtVcVe 



, Gu'«i e 



page 



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DEPARTMENTS 



86 REMs to Readers 
154 News Releases 
156 New Products 



ASHIFTINTIME 

In response to the rapidly increas- 
ing demand for our magazine, 
newsstand copies of COMMAN- 
Dffiwill soon be circulated through 
a major, national distribution net- 
work, with a necessary adjustment 
in our publication schedule. The 
special issue you are now holding, 
which becomes available around 
December 1, 1983, is labeled 
December and January. The next 
issue, Vol. 2, Issue 2, will be labeled 
February 1984 and should be on 
sale by early January. All yearly sub- 
scribers, of course, will still receive 
12 monthly issues. We hope this 
change causes no undue inconven- 
ience, and appreciate your bearing 
with us during this growth period. 



mwtn: 



Commander-is published monthly by Micro Systems Specialties, 3414 South 90th, Tacoma, WA 98409. Domestic Subscriptions, 12 issues, I 
Second Class Postage pending at Tacoma. WA 98413 and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to Commander-P, O. Box 
98827, Tacoma, WA 98498. Entire Contents copyright 1983 by Micro Systems Specialties. All Rights " 



1 








The world may be short of oil. And short of jobs. But there's no shortage of entertainment. 
Arcades. Movies. Amusement parks. TV Concerts. Records. You've got your choice. And every day, 
more of you are choosing HesWa re™ computer games. 

That's because only the best games earn the HesWare title. Tough, challenging, arcade quality 
action games like Gridrunner,™ Predator,™ Retro Ball,™and Robot Panic! r 

Mind-bending strategy and role playing adventures 
like Pharaoh's Curse™ and Oubliette™ 

Zany new titles that have to be seen to be believed. 
Would you believe Attack of the Mutant Camels™?? 

You don't need an expensive computer to enjoy 
HesWare action, either. HesWare programs are available 

on cartridge, diskette or cassette for VIC 20; v Commodore 64,"' £JU*»MA»«m* 
Atari" and IBM' personal computers. iiBSmWaiB 

When you pick up a HesWare game, you know it's ready. 



for the toughest test of all: beating out the tough competition 
for your attention. 

HesWare games. Just one of the ways HesWare is 
expanding the computer experience. Look for them at your 
favorite software retailer. 



Pleases the 

tough 
customer 



VIC 20 and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commodore Electronics Ltd, Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. 
IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. Pharaoh's Curse is a trademark of Synapse Software. 
Oubliette is a trademark of ISA Software. 




Human Engineered Software 

150 North Bill Drive 

Brisbane, CA 94005 

800-227-6703 

(in California 

800 632-7979} 

Dept. C20 



Circle No. 107 




6 o***' 







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P^afitV GOnie 



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For VIC-20 and Commodore 64 

Now you have the power of a professional quality Check 
Register System. Maintain multiple checking accounts, 
complete with full checkbook reconciliation and 16 budget 
categories. Change or delete any check, check or deposit 
amount, or deduction and CheckEase! will automatically 
update all balance figures. Review checks forward, 
backward or by check number. Configure for RS232 or 
compatable Commodore printer. Post checks as they clear 
the bank. Upgrade data from cassette to disk. Print by 
check number, category or if item is tax deductable. 
Commodore 64 and VIC-20 users can even save months 
worth of check data in a format compatable with 
Commodore's Personal Finance package for later 
analyzation. 



cassette (VIC-20 min. 8K), 



cassette: Commodore 64, 

'Atari 400®/800®/1200 XL® 



disk: Commodore 64, 
■Atari 400»/800®/1200 XL®, 
'IBM PC. 4 APPLE I|/llplus/IIe® 



V/otOSearch £t_, 

s t at £ s' /^rrrrr- 



■—.StfSPK? 



CO L I E ^ £..: 
P R 



flftadeSeardi £L 



CHARACTfH' 



For VIC-20 and Commodore 64 

There are 374 letters on the screen. Concealed within are 
20 words: 10 across and 10 down. You have 10 minutes. 
When you've found a hidden word, it changes color. Every 
game features a new screen. Over 300 different words and 
thousands of new games possible. $19.95 on cassette. 



3 categories: Capitals, Jumbled and Animals. 

3 categories: Pro Teams, College Teams and 
Sport Games. 

3 categories: Home Video Games, Arcade 
Video Games and Famous Video Game Characters. 



Sen 




m «#■ Commodore 64 

Planet Earth is under attack by ruthless aliens who hurl 
heat missies at our polar ice caps. Will the Earth flood? 
As the orbiting Space Sentinel, the 'Earth's fate is up to you. 
If you can hold out against the merciless attackers, Earth's 
population will have time to escape and colonize a new 
home planet. Complete sprite & character graphics with 
3-voice sound. $29.95 on disk. Joystick, Diskdrive 
& Commodore 64® required. 



* AVAILABLE 4TH QUARTER '83 



Available at finer Software Stores everywhere. 

Or Call (213) 501-5845 for the name of your local dealer or distributor. 



10902 Riverside Drive / North Hollywood, California 91602. (213) 501-5845 

©COPYRIGI IT 1982, MKi BY T&V SOFTWARE. SPACE SENTINEL IS A TRADEMARK 01-' MEGAGEM. CI [ECKEASE IS A TRADEMARK OF CMS SYSTEMS. 
SEARCI-f SERIES. ARCADESEARCI I. WORDSEARC1 1, Sl'ORTSEARCI I ARE TRADEMARKS OF GEORGE DENNIS VIC 211. COMM( )D( )HEM AND PERSONAL 
FINANCE ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OE COMMODORE COMPUTERS, INC. AND CREATIVE SOFTWARE. ATARI 400 800, 1200XL AND IBM P.C. ARE 
REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE COMPANIES. 






AARDVARK rfctiaH, Sofaxvie introduces 



i n 




THE ABSOLUTE ULTIMATE IN 

ARCADE REALITY 



BAG-IT-MAN , . , This one feels so arcade like, you'll 
want to put quarters in You'll be amazed and 
excited over three screens lull of arcade style dm. 
We have, bags ol gold, elevators, mineshafts. 
lolling carts, and two ol the nastiest guards 
you'll see in a long time, trying to protect it all 1 
All machine code with super color, excellent sound 
and continuous action and excitement. 
Available on: TRS-80C 32K CMD64 
Stock ft 1061 Tape $24.95 Disk: $29 95 



*SL i 



m 




We aie expanding our retail network If you are interested 
in becoming an authorized* Aardvark Action Software 
Deafer or Distributor, cat) or write, we'll be glad to send 
complete information. 

AUTHORS/PROGRAMMERS 

If you program innovative, high quality computer 
software. specifically original, machine code, high speed 
arcade style games or intriguing computer adventures, 
you can join the ranks ot top computer professionals now 
published by Aardvark Action Software Send a stamped, 
self addressed envelope to receive complete author's/ 
programmers information. 

CATALOG SPEC1AI 

Send one dollar tor our current catalog, receive catalog 
plus $i 00 cash certificate good towards your next 
purchase. 




PARANOIDS ANONYMOUS ... / 

Thisisoneolourrnosldelightiul / ' 

adventures You are invited to / 

Ihe weekly meeting of para- w 

noids anonymous but — : of 

course — they won** tell you 
^"sreitis. or.howtogetm 
r all makes perlecr sense, il you remember the 
articular brand of nut you're dealing wilh You'll 
te Ihis one 

ailable on TRS-80C-1GK Tl/99 CMD 64 V1C20-J3K 
?ek *5u90 TapeSt9.95 Disk $24.95 



* AARDVARK /tetton, Sofavwie 

' IS AVAILABLE 

AT SOFTWARE RETAILERS EVERYWHERE 

ASK FOR IT AT YOUR LOCAL COMPUTER OR SOFTWARE STORE 



If there is no Aardvark Action Software Retailer near you . . . you can order direct 

HERE'S HOW TO ORDER: Send check or money order for thecorrecl amount plus $2. 00 shipping, to Order Department, Aardvark Action Software. 
2352 South Commerce, Walled Lake Ml 48088 Charge card orders call toll free within the Continental U.S. 1-800-624-4327 except Michigan. 
(Michigan residents and outside continental U.S. call 313/669-31 10.) Phone orders accepted 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM E.S.T. Monday thru Friday. 
Mastercard and VISA cards only. Outside Continental U.S. add additional shipping charge ot $2.00 for Airmail delivery. All continental U.S. orders 
shipped via- First Class mail. All items unconditionally guaranteed, if defective return within 15 days for replacement. ©1983 Aardvark Ltd. 



King of the 
mountain! 




Workhorse solutions 
for tough questions 

When Southern Solutions acquired the exclusive marketing 
rights for the CMS Accounting System, the first (and the best) 
accounting system for the Commodore computer we offered 
dealers who were dissatisfied with their current accounting 
software the opportunity to swap ... ours for anyone else's. 

WOW! We were covered with the others ... MAS, BR. 
EBS. etc ... all trading for CMS. We provide the only 
complete coverage of real software for Commodore 
computers: 

THE PREMIER . . . SYSTEM IV. Real 
accounting. More like a mini, yet priced for the 
Commodore. SuperMatrT" gives precision to 
$1 billion. No one else comes close. 
General ledger; accounts receivable, 
accounts payable, payroll, inventory, 
mailing list Plus important vertical 
products: oil accounting, pharmacy 
management encumbrance 
accounting, church records and 
more. 

THE STANDARD... 
SYSTEM 111. Similar to 
System IV but lower priced. 
G/L, A/R. A/P, P/R, mailing list 

Commodore 64*. 
Complete line of bookkeeping 
record keeping, personal and 
household management 
Usually sells for under $100. 
Uses one or two drives, just about 
any printer 

Peripherals. Monitors, monitor 
cables, blank cassettes. 

Ail software has FileGuard™. Never 
lose data files. EVEN IF YOU LOSE 
ELECTRICITY! Compatible with almost any 
computer; disk drive and printer 
combination. User-definable reports. Fast 
file access. 

Sold only through professional 
computer dealers. 

To become a Southern Solutions 
dealer or for the name of your nearest 
retailer call or write our General 
Manager, Bill Swingler 

Dealer Hotline: 1-800-527-4548 



"Commodore 64 is a registered 

trademark of Commodore 

Circle No 62 



PO. Box P, M c Kirmey, Texas 75069 - (214) 542-027S 



Commander December 1983/9 



Award-Winning Hits for your Commodore 




CHOPLIFTER 

For the Commodore VIC-20. 

Those are our men (hey 're holding 
hostage! We don't care how you 
do it, but you ve got to shoot your 
way in there and bring 'em back 
aim. You've got three choppers, 
probably not enough but it's all we 
can spare. And the enemy camp 
is pretty heavily fortified. With tanks, 
jet fighters and truly nasty laser 
bombs. Okay, maybe it's a suicide 
mission, but somebody's got to do it. 
Dozens of innocent lives are at 
stake. We're counting on you. . . 
don't let them down! 









Now you can play some of America's hottest computer games on 
your Commodore, and get a FREE introduction to Home Manage- 
ment Software. It's our way of showing you that action-packed ~ 
gaming is only the beginning of your Commodore's capabilities. 







■SUtCliHASSOmOf THE most innovative computer programs- tss3CES software showcase awards. 



with a Free Software Bonus. 



SERPENTINE 
For the Commodore VIC-20. 

In the Kingdom of Serpents, the only 
rule is eat or be eaten. Three huge 
and evil red snakes are slithering 
through a complex series of mazes, 
closing in on your good blue serpent 
from all sides. Move fast and watch 
your tail! Try to survive long enough 
to let your eggs hatch into reinforce- 
ments. Swallow the magical frogs 
or your enemy's eggs and you can get 
the strength to go on... but look 
out to your left... and ahead of 
you! They 've got you surrounded, 
and it looks like meal time. 



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It can teach you. Manage your family finances. Even help you buy 
a new car. And now, for a limited time only, when you buy one of our 
specially-marked games you'll receive a certificate good for one 
of our Home Management Programs absolutely free. 







S€aJ?€G!fllRl€ 


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NOADOTIOKAI. MMORVSECURm 









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"CHOPUFTIH- AHD SCHPOIT1IK" ARE VK-X TRANSLATIONS Of ORIGINALS BY DAN GOBLIN AND OAVIO SNIBCH. RESPECTIVELY 



-CHOPLIFTCR-AND SlRPEiniNC "ARC LICENSED TRDH BRODIRBUNO SOFTWARE. MC 




Get more out of your Commodore. 









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P/PfS* 

fiwtfe VIC -20 and 

Commodore 64. 

\ \ Arlo is a hart-working plumber, but 
a touch absent-minded. He's building 

/ a water supply system for the 
whole neighborhood, and he really 
has his hands full. Help Arlo decide 
what kind of pipe to buy and where 
to put it... his limited budget 
doesn't leave him much margin for 
error. Figure out the shortest, most 
economical way to get everyone 
hooked up... and just hope poor Arlo 
has remembered to open and close 
the right valves. A marvelously 
entertaining and challenging 
exercise in planning, economics and 
I spatial relationships for all ages. 



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Look for complete promotional details inside each specially- 
marked box of our year's biggest hits. Or talk to your Creative 
Software dealer See how creative your Commodore really can be! 



'■"■■■-■ .r- • 



/ 





SELECTED AS SOME OF THE "MOST ISNOVATlVE COMPUTER PROGRAMS 1983 CESSOFTWAJtE SHOWCASE AWARDS. 



^Kg 



Get Creative! 



SAVE NEW YORK' 
For the Commodore 64. 

It was as peaceful a day as New York 

ever gets, when suddenly the sky 

went dark and a monstrous droning 

noise filled the air. Hordes of 

grotesque aliens were swooping 

down from all sides, biting info the 

Big Apple as if they hadn't eaten 

for days. They were laying eggs, too. 

Horrible slimy things that got down 

into the subway tunnels and began 

clawing their way up. If anyone 

was going to save the city it would 

have to be me. I leapt into my 

rocket and began blasting away. 

I thought I stood a fighting chance, 

but fuel's running low. . . another 

wave of invaders on the horizon 

...signing off... 



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■WC-aTAM comoBOnisrAiii traocmarks or commodore uiCTmtiKs.uo 



- ISUCMATIVl SOFTWARE 




'.by Maryanne Dodd'. 



I know there will be a multitude of 
COMMODORE computers under Christ- 
mas trees this year. Most of the older reci- 
pients have probably included a list of soft- 
ware with their request to Santa, but the 
very young tykes probably do not as yet 
understand just what this computer busi- 
ness is all about. In fact, many pre- 
schoolers and primary age children will 
probably be awestruck by- the new 
machine that has come to live at their 
house. So, not wanting the youngest 
computer generation to be left out and 
also to get them off to a good start, I am 
devoting this month's reviews to com- 
puter introduction software for the very 
young set. 



The name SPINNAKER has long been 
associated with educational software. 
They have built a reputation of providing 
first quality software using sound educa- 
tional principles. Their philosophy includes 
providing nonviolent software that is fun 
for kids to use and learn at the same time. 

FACEMAKER and KINDERCOMP are 
both older SPINNAKER favorites that were 
originally written for other systems but 
have recently been revised and translated 
for the COMMODORE 64. FACEMAKER is 
a program that introduces a youngster to 
the computer whileallowing him tocreate 
and animate faces. KINDERCOMP is a set 
of six programs designed for the very 
youngest computerists that teaches let- 



ters, number sequences, matching and 
other readiness skills. KIDS ON KEYS is a 
new program that provides keyboard 
familiarity and reinforces beginning 
reading skills. All three of the programs 
can be used by child ren who are three and 
older witha minimum of adult supervision 
after a short initial introduction. 

Some of the same SPINNAKER favorites 
are also available to VIC-20 owners from 
HUMAN ENGINEERED SOFTWARE. HES 
has secured the rights to translate and 
market some of the SPINNAKER products 
forthe VIC-20. The HES products will carry 
the same titles and provide the same 
educational benefits, 




FACEMAKER 

14/Commander December 1983 



KINDERCOMP 



KIDS ON KEYS 

Continued on page 37 



CSSSiCTioma 





CONNECTIONS 

Krell's Connections is the most exciting 
development in educational computing 
since LOGO. Connections offers 
children of all ages a new world of 
entertainment and intellectual challenge. 
Parents and educators will be gratified 
by the intriguing yet serious nature of 
Connections. 

Connections is accompanied by an 
initial set of data bases (included free 
with the game system) that deal with 
geography, chemistry, mammals, mathe- 
matics, tools, and everyday objects. 
Connections helps users to build their 
own data bases and to utilize the data 
bases created by others via the Connec- 
tions User Group Exchange Program, 
48K. s 99.95 



New.' ALEXANDER THE GREAT 

Available at fast!!! Alexander The Great is the ultimate 
game for developing word and arithmetic skills, far better 
than Scrabble'", Alexander The Great permits equal 
competition between players at different skill levels. 
Complete graphics and range of options make Alexander 
The Great the best and most challenging, educational tool 
ever devised. Available for ail microcomputers and in a 
board version. 48K. '39.95 



KRELL'S SAT* 
PREP SERIES 

70 POINT SAT' SCOP 
INCREASE WARRANTY 

42 program series. Complete coverage 
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presented in SAT* format and at the 
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provided instantly. Krell's uniquelogical 
design customizes this multi-disk set for 
each individual user. Seware of imita- 
tions! *299.95 
Sonus Included: The As & Bs of Academic 
Scholarships by Robert Leider and Shelly 
Schwab, 6th Edition. 

Available at Selected Dealers 




*:*1 



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KREIi'S 

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KRELL'S LOGO 

The M.I.T. authorized version. Compre- 
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editor, 21 program Alice in Logolcmd 
Tutorial Series, and massive documen- 
tation including full color wall chart. 
THIS IS THE GENUINE ARTICLE! 
Unlike the version marketed by Apple 
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full package of M.I.T. features including 
the ability to save pictures. 

Spectacular Price *89.95 

TOP RATED IN INFOWORLD 

EXCELLENT IN ALL 

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New.' PLATO'S CAVE 

Spectacular game for aspiring scientists of all ages. 
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all, 46K Circle No. 171 "49.95 

CALL OR WHITE FOR A COMPLETE CATALOG 



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~ INVITED 



SAT and College Board' are registered trademarks and service marks 01 the College Entrance Examination Board Krell Software Crop hasnonllihaiion 

A-ith the CEEB and is solely responsible lor these programs Krell s M i T LOGO ' I9BI Massachusetts institute ol Technology Inloworld « 1903 by Popular 

rting Inc a subsidiary of CW Communication Inc . Frnmingham MA Scrabble IS a registered trademark ol Selchow and Righter Company 



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• 






Commodore® owners: 
THE FUTURE IS HERE . . .' 



Will yarn printer interface pass the Commodate' printer test? We don't think so!! Oars wilt. 

The CONNECTION™ is truly the ultimate parallel interface for the 

VIC20"7COMMODORE 64'". This fully intelligent interface plugs into the disk 

(serial) socket just like the standard printer and you can easily assign it any 

device number. It will provide virtually TOTAL EMULATION of the 

Commodore* printer including all standard graphic characters (normal or 

inverse), column tabbing, dot tabbing, graphic repeat, dot addressable 

graphics, cursor up/down mode, and more. It responds to all of the 

standard commands (PRINT*, OPEN, CLOSE, etc.) to insure software 

designed for the Commodore* printer will operate with the 

CONNECTION™. In the TOTAL TEXT MODE, it will work with 

virtually EVERY PARALLEL PRINTER with standard Centronics 

configuration. All this plus: 

1) A 2K Printer buffer 

2) Full LED Status indicators. 

3) Complete Built in self test 

4) Printer reset switch 

5) Adds Skip over perf, margin set, programmable line 
length, program list format commands to your printer. 

6) No need for extra cost, special tape loader for graphics. 

7) All features easily accessed from software 

8) ASCII conversion, TOTAL TEXT, EMULATE, and TRANS- 
PARENT Modes 

To take full advantage of your printer's special features, please specify the printer type. Available for STAR 
MICRONICS, STX80, EPSON, OKI, NEC, PROWRITER, BANANA, SEIKOSHA, RITEMAN, GEMINI10X and 
others. ONLY S1 19.00 Complete (Additional ROMs are available if you should ever change printers) 














Circle No. 5 3 



micro 
umrE 



NOTE: We solicit hardware and software items for the VIC2Q b CBMB4. Royalties, license fees, or outright purchases 
can be negotiated. Commodore & VIC2D are trademarks of Commodore Business Machines. 



1342B RT 23 

BUTLER, NJ 07405 201-838-9027 



TYMAC SAYS, 

"We'll Pay* For Your Mistake 

That's right, by providing you with a $50 credit toward our Connection™ 

interface. After receiving thousands of calls that asked "BUT WHAT DO 

WE DO WITH OUR OLD ONE?", we now have the answer. Send in 

your old interface plus a good reason why you want ours, and we will 

send you the Connection (LIST S1 19 less $50 Credit) for $69.00. 

This is strictly a one time offer and TYMAC CONTROLS CORP 

may WITHDRAW it at any time. It is only for END USERS 

that are dissatisfied with their interface and is invalid to a 

DEALERS and DISTRIBUTORS. Offer good only in the 

USA until 1/84. Offer void where prohibited or taxed. 

Connections sent prepaid MASTERCARD, VISA, or COD, 

plus shipping and handling. Send old boards to TYMAC 

OFFER, BOX 31, RIVERDALE, NJ 07457 

'Ptfmmt a in tilt form of crtdit townd purchase. 




%1 




This Christmas, 

Atari and Commodore owners 

will go out of their minds. 



It'll take about 30 seconds. 

Because once you boot a Datamost game 
on your Atari home computer, or your 
Commodore 64, you'll come face to screen 
with the most mind-blasting games ever. 

And what better time to go out of your 
mind than Christmas? 
Our Music Will Have You Hearing Things. 
Going out of your mind never sounded so 
good. 

Because now our games have music. You 
heard right. Music. Original Music. Through 
out. And scored just for our newest 
releases. You'll go nuts over it. 

Our Graphics Will Have You Seeing 

Things. 

You and everybody else. 

Because our games are so great- 
how great are they? -they're so great 
you'll want to play them again and 
again and again. And then 
your friends will go 
bonkers over them. 




THE TAIL OF BETA 
LYRAE." Changes as 
you play. Unpredict. 
able. Impassible to 
master. (No one has.') 



DATAMOSf 

The most out of our minds: 




And they'll want to play And then your family 
will want to play. And then total strangers off 
the street will want to play and . . . 

Mind-blowing arcade-quality action like 
this makes it one mad world, pal. 

We'll Torment You Right From 

The Start. 

No time to settle down and get comfy. 

The tension begins building the moment 
you boot the game. 

Terrific screen titles tease you with the 
game's objective, scenario, characters. 

And while you wait, hand twitch- 
ing over the Joystick, you'll find 
out what planet you're on. 
What the fuss is all about. 
Why you're involved. And perhaps 
of singular importance to you 
personally, how to keep from being 
obliterated. So get ready to get the 
most out of your mind. 
By getting the most 
out of ours. 



Circle No. 129 



Datamost. Inc..B9i3Fullbri^(Ave..Chal5Worlh.CA 91311. (213) 709-1202 
Atari is a trademark of Atari Computer. "Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. TM Registered Trademark of Datamost. 





COSMIC TUNNELS. 1 " 
Four games in one. 
Four times the 
challenge! Incredible 
graphics. 



MONSTER SMASH." 
Deathly strategy. Mash 
the monsters' Let the 

visitors live. 



NICHTRAIDERS." 
Strafe a city under 
siege with 3D angled 
selective firing! 



ROUNDABOUT." 
Sharpens your shoot 
'em up skills. 24 
different ga me screens. 
Habit- forming! 



COHEN'S TOWERS." 
You 're the mailboy in a 
big city skyscraper. 
Work your way to the 
top. 



MR. ROBOT." Screens 
scream with color, 
action and sound! 
Design your own 
screens, too. 



TURN YOUR 

COMPUTER INTO A 

FULL-BLOODED WORD 

PROCESSOR. 




H983 Quick Brown Fox 



VIC 20™ and Commodore 64'" users, 
something very clever is lying in wait for 
you. It's called Quick Brown Fox!" 

Quite simply Quick Brown Fox is the 
quickest, easiest to learn, user-friendliest — 
and most versatile — word processing 
software running. 
Take a look at some of these crafty features. You 
get full editing, even on standard displays. (The Fox supports most 
80-column boards too.) You get automatic reformatting of edited 
text, not the tedious paragraph-by-paragraph runaround. There's more. 
You get single- key operation, text moving, boilerplating, tab and 
margin settings, right justification, proportional spacing. You get in- 
telligent software that uses less computer memory. (That's how come 
it even works with an off-the-shelf VIC 20.) You also get compatibility 
with a wide range of printers — plus plenty more. 
And you get it all for only $65. Doesn't that make you want to trot 
through your texts with a Quick Brown Fox? 

QUICK BROWN FOX " 

Call or write for more details: 
536 Broadway, I Ith Floor. New York. New York 10012 (212) 925-8290 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

Circle No. 142 



Publisher 

THOMAS L. ROSENBAUM 

Editor-in-Chief 
LINDA L. LINDEN 

Associate Editor 
DONALD ELMAN 
Editorial Assistant 
EVA R, JONES 

Marketing & Advertising 
ELIZABETH K. STEAN, Director 
LORI E. CLARK 
PATRICIA A. ANDERSON 

Circulation 

MARY OSBORN, Director 
CATHY A, SALZER 
PAULA M. ANDERSON 

Consultants 
GEORGE R. GAUKEL 
JOHN GABBARD 
HOWARD ROTENBERG 

Design and Production 
CHRISTIAN'S GRAPHICS: 
TERRY D. CHRISTIAN, Director 
K. MICHAEL SPOTTS, Associate 
TERILYN M, AICHLMAYR, Coordinator 



COMMANDER is published monthly by: 
MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES, RO. Box 98827, 
Tacoma, Washington 98498 

COMMANDER MAGAZINE 

Regional Advertising Offices 
Home Office, P.O Box 98827, 
Tacoma, Wa. 98498. (206) 584-6759 

Garland Associates, P.O. Box 314 S.H.S. 

Duxbury, Mass 02331. 
(617) 934-6464 or 934-6546 



Subscription Rates (U.S. Funds) 


Per Year 


U.S. 


$22.00 


Canadian, Mexican 


$26.00 


Surface Rates, Foreign 


S37.00 


Air Mail, Foreign 


$75.00 



For back issues, subscriptions, change of address 

or other information, write to: 

COMMANDER 

RO. Box 98827 

Tacoma, Washington 98498 

(206) 584-6757 

BACK ISSUES - 

2 months old— $4.50 
Copyright© 1983 by MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES 
All Rights Reserved 



TO THE FUTURE.... 

For some people a first anniversary is a major event, worthy of deep, reflective medita- 
tion orintense, prolonged celebration. In ourcase, however, amidst thepressure of pro- 
ducing a monthly magazine whose growth and enthusiastic reader response demands 
ever-increasing efforts, we can only note in passing that we have reached a milestone 
and then refocus on the present and future of microcomputers in home and educa- 
tional settings. 

As Commodore continues to dominate the low-end, personal computer market, 
COMMANDER remains dedicated to providing you, the Commodore user, with the best 
independent source of definitive information, effective instruction, and enjoyable re- 
creation. Since westrive to include material that appeals to the widest possible variety of 
interests, from serious utility to recreational applications and from beginning to advan- 
ced levels of sophistication, we hope you regard your copies of COMMANDER as per- 
manen t references instead of mere throwaways. We are also devoting more and more 
attention to issues and applications in educational computing, because the rapid 
changes in that area promise to revolutionize our school system -indeed, our whole 
concept of what education is. 

Part of COMMANDER 's growth is reflected in the expansion of our full-time editorial 
staff. In this issue we welcome Don Elman, Associa te Editor, who relates below how he 
became involved with Commodore microcomputers. 

Remember what the microcomputer world was like nearly two years ago? That's when 
my wife and I decided to be the first on our block (perhaps in the whole town) to own a 
home computer Only a handfut of strange little stores sold them; the choice among 
brands and modeis was small yet bewildering. Most consumer-oriented publications ig- 
nored them, mass advertising was virtually nonexistent, and the cost of a usable system 
ranged from "we could sell the car" to "we'll have to auction off our first-born child". 

Against that background, I walked into my local computer store, prepared to incur 
serious debt in order to buy a fairly complete Atari 800 system. A very astute salesman, 
however, sized up my needs and resources and then convinced me that a small tan box 
with brown keys-looking like a stripped-down typewriter under Captain Kirk's benign 
smile-was a better buy. To be sure, there wasn't much software available (other than a 
few primitive games), and many of the peripherals I wanted (printer, modem, etc.) would 
not be available for weeks or months. Still, this "VIC-20" (presumably a poor cousin of 
2001 's HAL) seemed easy to program, had a comfortable keyboard, and did offer sound, 
color, and graphics for a "mere" $300. 

Little did I suspect that my whimsical purchase was a harbinger of the farthest- 
ranging consumer market upheaval in recent memory. Within months we were sub- 
jected to the most intense national advertising battle since the Brillo-S.O.S. wars. The 
mass media treated the microcomputer as if it were a chip off the old diety. Soon, that 
odd-looking plastic box, whose price eventually dropped by more than two-thirds, 
became one of the most familiar items in every neighborhood discount store along with 
its higher-numbered look-alike. It showed up in my children's school, and even in the 
homes of neighbors who were anything but avant-garde. 

Having had only a slight head start over most others, I was often surprised to find 
myself regarded as a local expert on home and educational computing. Among my 
most valuable sources of information were such independent publications as COM- 
MANDER. I believe that education, as we have traditionally defined it, is on the verge of 
a magnificent revolution. The power of the microcomputer as an educational medium 
and motivator seems unlimited. 

Whether it takes place in or out of school, the most enduring learning is intrinsically 
motivated-that is, immediately rewarding and, simply, fun. As COMMANDER embarks 
on its second exciting year, we hope to enhance your computer experience in both an 
educational and an enjoyable way. Please let us know whether we have succeeded, and 
how we can serve you better. 

Don Elman 



Commander December 1983/19 




TELECOMMANDER 



By Donald L. Stoner 



HAM-COMPUTER 
COMMUNICATIONS 

I have been receiving a tremendous 
amount of correspondence from other 
amateurs around the country. More than 
half of my unanswered letters are from 
hams! 

Amateur radio is one of the most in- 
teresting aspects of electronics. With 
relatively simple and inexpensive equip- 
ment, hams are able to communicate 
with other radio amateurs in virtually every 
country of the world. 

Thousands of progressive hams have 
connected computers to their two-way 
radios. This is accomplished with a device 
called a terminal unit It is similar to a 
modem but has no telephone line inter- 
face. 

Via radio waves, hams areable to do vir- 
tually all the things we do with modems 
on the telephone network (other than 
business communications). Hams have 
bulletin boards and message centers 
which can be contacted by radio. At the 
present time, the government is consider- 
ing the adoption of new rules which will 
permit amateur radio licenses to be issued 
with a Morse code test. If this legisiation 
passes, tens of thousands of computer 
"buffs" will apply for these "code-free" 

20/CommanderDecemberl983 



licenses so they can communicate by radio 
rather than by telephone. 

A factor which reinforces this opinion is 
the upcoming increase in telephone rates. 
Even if your local telephone company is 
not able to extract the $50 per month 
"modem surcharge", telephone com- 
munication (either voice or data) is going 
to become increasingly expensive. Radio 
communication between computer 
owners, however, is going to become very 
attractive. 

There is one significant difference be- 
tween telephone and radio digital com- 
munications. On a telephone line, you are 
able to communicate both ways at the 
same time. This is called "full duplex" com- 
munications. However, a ham radio either 
transmits or receives at any given time. 
Thus, it is necessary to send your message, 
then switch the radio and terminal equip- 
ment to receive mode in order to obtain 
the response. This is called "half duplex" 
operation. 

All the terminal programs I have seen 
published to date are written for full 
duplex telephone communications. This 
month I am including a program written 
specifically for radio communications. It 
features a variable baud rate selection plus 
one-key switching between the receive 



and tranmit modes. In addition, I've in- 
cluded "canned" messages which can be 
sent with a single keystroke. 

The program, which is shown in Figure 
1, fits within the memory of the unex- 
pended VIC- 20 with 700 or so bytes to 
spare. I've omitted any fancy graphics to 
make the program compatible with the 
Commodore 64, To "rewrite" it for the 
C-64, you need only change a couple of 
POKES (see the remark in line 2). 

After you have typed in the program, 
save a couple of copies before running it. 
As soon as you run the program, it will ask 
for the baud rate. The program will accept 
a 110, 300 or 1200 baud input, and can be 
modified for other rates. After this selec- 
tion, the program opens the modem 
channel and initializes tables and 
variables. 

When the screen clears and RX appears 
in the corner, the program is in the receive 
mode. The F1 key toggles the program 
between receive and transmit. When this 
key is pressed, the screen again clears and 
TX appears in the corner. At the same 
time, a POKE to the user port causes the 
DTR line to go low. This can be used to trip 
a relay by wiring up the circuit shown in 
Figure 2. As long as the input to the tran- 
sistor is high, it will not conduct and the 



MttHJEB*! 



EESjEBB 



I Overview I 



"0 — Using CodePro-64 
1 — CBM-64 Keyboard Review 



BASIC Tutorial 



2 — Introduction to BASIC 

3 — BASIC Commands 

4 — BASIC Statements 

5 — BASIC Functions 



I Graphics & Music 



Keyboard GRAPHICS 
Introduction to SPRITES 
SPRITE Generator 
SPRITE Demonstrator 
Introduction to MUSIC 
MUSIC Generator 
MUSIC Demonstrator 



I Other Options I 



K — Keyword Inquiry 

R — Run Sample Programs 



SELECT CHOICE OR HIT SPACE FOR DEFAULT 



NEW! For the Commodore 64 

ANNOUNCING 



CodePro-64 

A new concept in 

interactive visual 

learning . . . 



Now you can learn to code in BASIC and develop 
advanced programming skills wilh graphics, sprites and 
music— visually. You learn by interacting with CodePro- 
64, a new concept In interactive visual learning. 

SEE PROGRAM EXECUTION 

Imagine actually seeing BASIC statements execute 
CodePro-64 guides you through structured examples ot 
BASIC program segments. You enter the requested data 
or let CodePro-64 do the typing for you. (It will not let you 
make a mistake.) 

After entering an example you invoke our exclusive 
Basic View™ which shows you how the BASIC program 
example executes. 

You step through and actually see the execution ot 
sample program statements by simply pressing the space 
oar CodePro-64 does the rest. 

Yoj see statements with corresponding flow chart 
graphics and variable value displays. You learn by visual 
examples. 



ID FOR I = ID TO 20 

STEP 2 
20 J -2'l 



CURRENT VALUES 



MAIM F3=CURRENT F5=NEKT F7PF F6 PB 



EXTENSIVE TUTORIAL 

CodePro-64's extensive tutorial guides you through 
each BASIC command, program statement, and function. 
You get clear explanations. Then you enter program 
statements as interactive examples. Where appropriate, 
you invoke BasicView to see examples execute and 
watch their How charts and variables change. 

By seeing graphic displays of program segment execu- 
tion you learn by visual example You learn faster and 
grasp programming concepts easier with CodePro-64 
because you immediately see the results of your input. 

You control your learning. You can go through the tutor- 
ial sequentially, or return to the main menu and select 
different topics, or use keywords to select language ele- 
ments to study. You can page back and forth between 
screens within a topic at the touch of a function key. 



CodePro-64 lets you follow your interests and prac- 
tice with interactive examples. But you can never get 
"lost". F1 will always return you to the main menu. Once 
you have practiced and mastered the BASIC language 
elements you move on to more advanced concepts. You 
learn about sprite and music programming. 

SPRITE GENERATOR S DEMONSTRATOR 

CodePro-64's sprite generator lets you define your 
own sprites on the screen. You learn how to define sprites 
and what data values correspond to your sprite defini- 
tions. (You can then use these values to write your own 
programs.) You can easily experiment with different defi- 
nitions and make changes to immediately see the effects. 




We also help you learn to progra m with sprites by giving 
you a sprite demonstrator so you can see the effect of 
changing register values. You can experiment by moving 
your sprite around in a screen segment, change its color 
or priority, and see the effects ot your changes You learn 
by visual examples. 

MUSIC GENERATOR & DEMONSTRATOR 

To teach you music programming CodePro-64 gives 
you an interactive music generator and demonstrator. 
First we help you set all your SID parameters (attack/ 
decay, sustain /release, waveform, etc.). Then you enter 
notes to play and we show your tune graphically as it 
plays, note by note, on the scale You learn by seeing and 
hearing the results of your input. 



OUR GUARANTEE 
We guarantee your satisfaction. You must be 
satisfied with CodePro-64 tor the Commodore- 
64 Try U for 1 days and if for any reason you are 
not satisfied return it to us (undamaged) lor a full 
refund. No risk. 




Our music demonstrator lets you experiment with var- 
ious combinations ot music programming parameters 
and hear the results. You can quickly modify any of the 
SID register values to hear the eftects of the change. For 
example, you could easily change waveform and attack/ 
decay values while holding all other SID values constant. 
By seeing your input and hearing the result you quickly 
learn how to create new musical sounds and special 
sound effects. 

AND MORE... 

We don't have enough space to tell you everything 
CodePro-64 offers You need to see for yourself. BASIC 
tutorials, graphics, sprites, music, keyboard review, sam- 
ple programs— the main menu shown above gives you 
just a summary of the contents of this powerful educa- 
tional product. 

Whether you re a beginning programmer or an experi- 
enced professional, CodePro-64 will help you improve 
your Commodore 64 programming skills. We're sure 
because CodePro-64 was developed by a team of two 
professionals with over 25 years of software development 
experience 

CodePro-64 is a professional quality educational pro- 
gram for the serious student of personal computing. And 
It's fully guaranteed. Order yours today. 

HOW TO ORDER 

Order your copy of CodePro-64 today by mail or phone 
Send only S59.95 plus S3 00 shipping and handling to 

*t 'A •J SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATES 
^^^U^t^U 3700 computer Drive. Depl CM 
^FWBW^m Rateign. N C 27609 

Available on diskette only. MasterCard/VlSA ac- 
cepted- For laster service on credit card orders call 
(91 9) 787-7703. 

Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore Business 

Machines, Inc. 

Ad no. 733. Copyright 1983, SMA 

Dealer inquiries invited. 



Circle No. 61 



relay will not actuate. However, when the 
DTR line is taken low, the relay trips. The 
contacts will close and they can be used to 
key the push to talk circuit on the two-way 
radio. All the parts can be obtained at your 
friendly Radio Shack store. The transistor 
can be virtua lly any N PN silicon device such 
as the 2N2222. A suitable part is their 
MPS222A {part number 276-2009). The 
relay is any 5-volt single pole, single throw 
type. Their 275-243 relay worksquite well. 
The 1 N4001 diode is essential or the 
"kickback" from the relay will destroy the 
transistor. I use the RS 276-1101 diode. 

The F3 key allows the user to reset the 
baud rate. Note that all variables are 
reinitialized if this selection is made. The F5 
key is used to insert the call letters of the 
station you are communicating with. I did 
not use the F7 key, which will allow the 
user to customize the program as desired. 

The F2, F4, F6 and F8 keys (shifted 
F1-F7) send the canned messages. F2 
sends the station identification. Don't 
press this key if you have not inserted the 
call letters of the other station or the pro- 
gram will crash. This can be fixed, if it is 
bothersome, by inserting another line 
(55ID${1) = " "). The F4 key sends the 
description of the equipment contained in 
ID$(2). The remaining two keys send "CQ" 
(a general call requesting a contact with 
other stations) and U* test signal. This test 
sends alternate ones and zeros for check- 
ing reception distortion. Note that the last 
two canned messages will be sent over 
and over until the RETURN key is held 
down and the program prints to the end 
of the line. When this is done, the operator 
will be returned to the tansmit mode. This 
can occur even before the computer buf- 
fer is empty. In other words the buffer con- 
tents will continue to be sent until empty. If 
you tape a few characters after sending 
the "canned" CQ message, make sure 
that everything has been sent before swit- 
ching back to receive. This should be kept 
in mind, particularly at slower baud rates, 

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION 

The first active line is 10, where the pro- 
gram branches to the baud rate selection 
between lines 1500 and 1550. Line 1540 is 
necessary if one resets the rate. If the line is 
omitted, a "file open" error will occur. Ad- 
ditional baud rates can be handled by ad- 
ding more "IFB$ = " in this section. 

Line 20 assigns C$ to the clear screen 
code, while K$ is the backspace and erase. 
A small cursor (CHR$ 187) is assigned to J$. 
By replacing the 187, you can make the 
cursor any character you wish. 

Lines 30-50 produce a small header 

22/Commander December 1 983 



5S 



Figure 1 



1 REM BY DON STONER W6TNS 

2 REM FOR C64 CHANGE 37136 IN LINES 200 
AND 300 TO 56577 

10 GOTO1500 

20 CS=CHR$ (147) :K$=CHR$ (20) : J$=CHR$ (187) : 

PRINTCHR$(14)+C$ 
30 F0RX=1T022:PRINTCHR$ (164) ; :NEXT 
40 PRINT"HAMTERM FOR VIC & C64" 
50 F0RX=1T022:PRINTCHR$(163) ; :NEXT 

60 PRINT :PRINT"LOADING DATA " 

70 ID$(2)="RIG IS RAYTHEON RAY40 

CONVERTED TO TWO MTRS COMPUTER 

IS VIC-20" 
80 ID$(3)="CQ CQ CQ DE DON, W6TNS 

LOCATED MERCER IS. WA." 
90 ID$(4)="U*U*U*U*U*U*U*U*U*rj*U* n 
100 DIMI% (255) ,0%(255) 

110 FORZ=3 2T064:0%(Z) =Z:NEXT:0% (13) =13: 
O%(20)=8:O%(160)=32 

12 FORZ=65TO90:Y=Z+3 2:O%(Z)=Y:NEXT: 

FORZ=91T095:0%(Z) =Z:NEXT 

13 FORZ=19 3T0218:Y=Z-128:0%(Z)=Y:NEXT 
140 FORZ = 0TO255:Y=O%(Z) : IFYOOTHENII (Y) =Z 
150 NEXT 

200 POKE3 713 6,10Q:PRINTCHR$ (147) +"RX": 

PRINT J$; 
205 GETA$:IFA$=CHR$ (133)THEN300 
210 GET#2,A$:IFA$=""THEN205 
220 A=I%(ASC(A$) ) :PRINTK$+CHR$(A)+J$; : 

IFA=34THENPOKE212 , 
230 GOTO210 

300 POKE3 713 6,96:PRINTC$+"TX":PRINTJ$; 
310 GETA$:IFA$=""THEN310 
320 IFA$=CHR$ (133)GOTO200 
330 IFA$=CHR$ (134) GOTO1500 
340 IFA$=CHR$ (135)GOTO900 
360 IFA$=CHR$ (137) THENS=1 :GOTO800 
370 IFA$=CHR$ (138) THENS=2 :GOTO800 
380 IFA$=CHR$ ( 139) THENS=3 :GOTO800 
390 IFA$=CHR$ (140) THENS=4 :GOTO800 
400 PRINTK$+A$+J$; :PRINT#2 ,CHR$ 

(0% (ASC(A$) ) ) ; :GOTO310 
800 FORX=lTOLEN(ID$(S) ) 
810 T$=MID$ (ID$(S) ,X,1) 

820 PRINTT$; :PRINT#2,CHR$ (0% (ASC(T$) ) ) ; 
830 NEXT:PRINTCHR3 (13) : PRINT#2 ,CHR$ (13) 
840 IFS<3GOTO300 
860 IFPEEK(203) 064GOT0300 
870 GOTO800 

900 PRINT"ENTER CALL" : INPUTCA$ 
910 ID$(1)=CA$+" DE DON, W6TNS" :GOTO300 
1500 PRINTCHR$(147) :PRINT"ENTER BAUD 

RATE" : INPUTB$ : IFB$=" "THEN1500 
1510 IFB$="110"THENB=3 
1520 IFB$="300"THENB=6 
1530 IFB$ = "1200 ,, THENB = 8 
1540 CLOSE2 
1550 OPEN2,2,3,CHR$(B) :GOTO20 



Continued on page 33 



.t-i^<fisr< 






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~ ByJimCrubbs 



Using your VIC-20 or C-64 as an 
amateur radio communications terminal 
requires two major additions to your 
computer equipment. You must have 
some kind of interface between the com- 
puter and your amateur equipment. This 
can be as simple as the interface 
previously published in COMMAND 
POST, or very sophisticated hardware 
costing hundreds of dollars. All the inter- 
faces in the world, though, don't do 
much good without software. Preferably 
the software you select will have the 
capability to send and receive all standard 
speeds of amateur radio teletype (RTTY), 
Morse code, and with this being the com- 
puter age, ASCII transmission and recep- 
tion are desirable. Additional features 
might include the ability to copy "com- 
mercial" or "press" transmissions on 
teletype at speeds not normally used by 
amateurs. If all of this can then be made 
menu selectable, you have quite a ver- 
satile piece of software! This month we 
take a look at several examples of the 
best. 

HAM TEXT- 
IT'S NOT PIG LATIN 

Two such software packages are of- 
fered by Kantronics. Kantronics has led 
the way in developing quality amateur 
communications programs for the Com- 
modore line. Hamsoft, and now Hamtext 
provide all of the features we have outlin- 
ed. One has only to find an on-the-air ex- 
ample of what Hamsoft or Hamtext 
sounds like. What you can't hear or see is 
how it performs on receive. 



Looking at each mode individually, 
Hamsoft and Hamtext will both send and 
receive Morse at 5 to 99 words per 
minute. Hearing code at 99 words per 
minute is certainly a thrill, but the novelty 
soon wears off. The point that should be 
noted is that over the entire range the 
code is "machine perfect" -no need to 
concern yourself with "weighting" or 
"spacing" problems. These packages do 
an equally good job at receiving code 
over this range. An interesting feature in- 
cludes display of not only the sending 
speed, but also the speed of the station 
you are receiving. Receive speed adjust- 
ment is totally automatic! Believe me it 
really does work. I tuned in to the W1 AW 
code practice sessions and bulletins and 
watched the speed track exactly asadver- 
tised. There isn't much else to say about 
the receive portion other than it works 
extremely well. As others have pointed 
out, computers certainly show a lot of the 
sloppy sending to be found on the bands. 
If someone is sending CQ (calling all sta- 
tions) and when sending the C sends 
dahdit (space) dahdit rather than dahdit- 
dahdit, Hamsoft will print NN rather than 
a C-just doing what it was told! 

On the send side the same speed range 
is available. Transmit speed can only be 
changed while in the receive mode, which 
can be a minor inconvenience. This is one 
CW program you are not likely to type too 
fast for, as there is a 1024 character buffer 
available. Split screen operation allows 
you to compose an outgoing message 
while receiving. "Canned" or preprogram- 
med messages can be sent by themselves 



or intermixed with regular text. 

Hamsoft will also allow you to use either 
a Centronics parallel printer or one of the 
sta nda rd Co m mod ore printers sue h as the 
1525. You can turn the printer on and off 
with one of the special function keys. 
There is a 12 page instruction booklet in- 
cluded and the necessary cord to connect 
the Kantronics interface to the joystick 
port on your VIC-20 or C-64. Although 
operation with other interfaces is not 
guaranteed, information is provided on in- 
terfacing to homebuilt and other 
manufacturers' equipment. For the most 
part this is not necessary since the other 
leaders recognize the popularity of the 
Kantronics software and provide direct 
connections to the supplied cord. 

The Hamsoft package performs equally 
well on RTTY and ASCII. The same split 
screen, transmit buffer and programmed 
messages are available. Additionally the 
unshift on space option (USOS) is available 
and can be a real help when copying a 
signal under adverse conditions. In stan- 
dard RTTY only a limited number of 
characters are available. All letters are sent 
as uppercase, and numbers and special 
characters are shifted characters. So what 
happens if you send K9EI and just as the 
signal is sent to shift back to letters after 
the 9 a static crash wipes out that signal? 
The result is the proper characters being 
decoded, but printing wrong since the 
receive unit still thinks it should be in the 
"figures" or shifted mode. The USOS 
feature insures that when a space is receiv- 
ed the unit is shifted back to the letters 
mode. 

Commander December 1983/27 



I found that both the RTTY and ASCII 
modes did an admirable job, just as the 
CW portion had. There is provision for an 
automatic CW ID when using RTTY and 
ASCII. Incidentally, there is a built-in 24 
hour clock displayed. This is also used to 
time your transmissions in order to know 
when to insert the CW ID. You can hear 
RTTY and ASCII sidetone through your 
monitor just as you hear a CW sidetone in 
the Morse mode. Standard RTTY speeds 
of 60, 67, 75, and 100wpm are supported 
as well as 1 10 and 300 baud ASCII. Those 
of us accustomed to old 60 wpm RTTY are 
awed by the seemingly fast 300 baud 
ASCII, even though computer types con- 
sider 300 baud ASCII almost antique! In- 
cidentally, the only ASCII transmissions I 
found on a regular basis were the W1 AW 
bulletins. They follow the regular RTTY 
transmissions and are sent at 1 10 baud. 

Both Hamsoft and Hamtext give you 
the ability to create 10 "message ports". 
These can include your CQ message, an 
RY test message for RTTY (or U* test 
message for ASCII), a brag message (infor- 
mation about yourself and your station), 
or anything else you wish. Any of the 10 
messages can be used in any or all of the 
modes available. Since your messages are 
normally lost when you turn off your VIC 
or C-64, you have the option of saving 
your message ports to cassette or disk and 
loading them back in next time you need 
them. 

HAMTEXT-AMATEUR 
RADIO WORD PROCESSING 

Hamtext gives you all of this and more, 
The name is well chosen, for Hamtext is 
sort of a cross between a communica- 
tions program and a simple word pro- 
cessor. Together the combination is really 
something. Hamtext comes with a 36 
page instruction manual in a very nice 
binder. On page one it suggests you read 
the entire book before attempting to use 
the program. DO IT! I am not usually in- 
timidated by either machinery or soft- 
ware, but the features available here at 
first seem somewhat overwhelming. The 
manual is written very clearly though and 
after fumbling around for an hour or so 
the features become clear. 

When using Hamtext you have the 
ability to store into memory everything 
that you send and receive up to the limits 
of the available memory. Once in 
memory you can use the simplified text 
editor (STE) to edit the text, just as you 
would with a simple word processing 
package. Additionally you can do text 
transmission directly from disk or tape! 

28/Commander December 1983 



Consider these possibilities: Did you ever 
have to copy a W1AW or a DX bulletin 
and later re-transmit to someone? With 
Hamtext, no problem . . . just turn on 
the "recorder" and later save it to tape or 
disk. Edit it if you wish and it is ready to 
transmit on your command! This has ob- 
vious implications for the serious traffic 
handler since messages can be edited 
and stored for later transmission. It also 
can be used by computer hobbyists. Pro- 
gram listings are really no more than 
regular text, therefore over the air 
transmission of programs becomes a very 
real possibility. In the months ahead we 
will explore how this can be done, but it is 
much like uploading and downloading a 
program to your local BBS. 

An additional feature is "keybeep" if 
you want it (audible click in your monitor 
whenever you press a key). Both software 
packages now come in a plastic cartridge. 
Early models were not so enclosed. If you 
happen to have an early model, contact 
Kantronics about arranging an appoint- 
ment to have your software encased. The 
programs go into the expansion port just 
like a game cartridge or the VICMON car- 
tridge. No additional memory is required 
for either package; however, with 
Hamtext in particular, additional memory 
will allow you to store more information in 
the holding buffer. In order to use both 
Hamtext and a memory expansion car- 
tridge with your VIC you will have to have 
a multiple slot expansion board. In order 
to run Hamsoft or Hamtext you must use 
the SYS command. This is a recent change 
so that the user can call the program from 
BASIC. Older versions included the "auto 
run" sequence, the current models do 
not. Hamsoft retails for $49.95. Hamtext 
is priced at $89.95. The choice should pro- 
bably be centered around your interest in 
using the extended message and re-trans- 
mission features. Both packages are ex- 
cellent values and carry a 90-day warranty. 

AEA-MBA #001 

Looks like alphabet soup doesn't it? 
AEA is Advanced Electronic Applications 
of Lynnwood, Washington. MBA is 
Morse, Baudot, ASCII! The #001 means 
that yours truiy got to test drive the new 
AEA MBATEST software package serial 
number one. It's a bit of the thrill of flying 
an experimental aircraft with almost 
none of the danger. 

When I was a youngster, Dad drove a 
Chevrolet. He always wanted just once to 
own an Oldsmobile. That day finally 
came in 1959. I would liken using the 
AEA MBATEST package to that of driving 



an Oldsmobile after many years of driving 
a Chevrolet ... it feels great! 

The MBATEST package release has 
been anticipated for some time. AEA has 
already achieved a high standard for in- 
terfaces with their CP-1 computer patch, 
which we will review later. The wait has 
been worth it. 

The overall "appearance" of MBA- 
TEXT is not dissimilar to the Kantronics 
Hamtext package. There are several 
noteworthy features that the guys at 
AEA have included that make it a really 
slick package. 

Rather than repeat all of the features 
already mentioned for Hamtext, suffice it 
to say that MBATEXT does all of those for 
starters! Operation and menu selection 
of modes and features is similar. 

The additional features include a CW 
"break in" mode. If selected, this mode 
allows you to begin transmitting simply 
by typing characters on the keyboard 
without manually having to switch to 
transmit. What is sacrificed is theability to 
type into a holding buffer while receiv- 
ing, since in this modethere is no holding 
buffer. If you can type faster than the 
code is being sent, you can of course 
backspace to correct errors. Therein lies 
the only fault I could find with MBATEXT 
and it is one of documentation, not soft- 
ware. I kept trying to correct text while 
transmitting by using the "delete" key or 
the CRSR (cursor) key. It didn't work! I re- 
read the 16 page instruction manual and 
although it is very clear and specifically 
mentions correcting typing mistakes it 
didn't tell me how to do it. At first I 
suspected a programming oversight, but 
applying a bit of "programmer's logic" I 
gave it one more try using the "backar- 
row" key located in the upper left hand 
corner of the keyboard ... if worked, 
and it even makes sense when you think 
about it. I also found it a bit inconvenient 
to have to go back to the options menu 
to turn the break-in feature on and off. 
Direct control while in the Morse mode 
would be nice. 

MBATEXT also offers an output mode 
option. Normally characters are sent as 
they are typed or appear in the buffer. 
This is the character mode. In the word 
mode, MBATEXT holds up transmission 
of a group of characters until a space is 
encountered. If you are a ten thumbs 
typist this will let you correct your 
mistakes before you send them. You can 
select a Morse fill option that is the CW 
equivalent to RTTY "diddle". On RTTY, 
when no characters are being sent there 
is normally a steady tone heard. "Diddle" 



transmits a null character when nothing 
is being sent. This servesa purpose on RT- 
TY by continually giving the receive sta- 
tion a shifted signal to lock to. The Morse 
fill option in MBATEXT transmits a BTsign 
while the operator tries to think of 
something to say. This is an interesting 
option, but personally I hope it will see 
only limited use. With all the options 
available for preparing your text while 
receiving, I think even the slowest think- 
ers could come up with something. 

For those operating at slower speeds, 
AEA has adjusted the transmitting por- 
tion of the program to use Farnsworth 
spacing. That is, for speeds from 5 to 14 
wpm the characters are sent at 15 wpm 
while the spaces between characters are 
lengthened to yield an overall rate equal 
to the selected speed. This is exactly the 
method used on W1AW code practice 
transmissions. Finally, while in the CW 
receive mode it is possible to override the 
automatic speed tracking. This can be 
handy when trying to copy a very weak 
signal or one covered with interference. 

The RTTY mode has some additions as 
well. A 132 wpm speed has been added 
to the standard 60, 67, 75, and 1 00 wpm 
speeds. What could truly be a nice op- 
tion, particularly for the beginner to RT- 
TY, is a speed guess mode. By pressing 
one of the special function keys, 
MBATEXT will evaluate the incoming 
data rate and take a guess at the speed of 
the transmitting RTTY station. Ittakesthe 
average of several guesses to get in the 
ball park. I found that this worked 
marginally well, though I frequently 
came up with a "best guess" of 67 wpm 
when the station was actually transmit- 
ting at 60. 

AEA is also offering a one year soft- 
ware support arrangement with MBA- 



tm 



TEXT. The ag reement is even transfera ble 
should you for some unknown reason 
decide you want to sell the software car- 
tridge to someone else before the year is 
up. MBATEXT loads like a game cartridge 
and requires a SYS command to make it 
active. 

AEA is offering some special prices on 
MBATEXT for the VIC and 64. If purchas- 
ed separately it retails for $89.95. If 
bought with the CP-1 interface the total 
package cost is $239.95. Incidentally Dad 
is driving a Chevrolet again these days. 

INTERFACING, 

OR I'M OK WITH MFJ 

MFJ offers a very reasonably priced in- 
terface that is completely compatible 
with the Kantronics software, and 
although! didn't get the chance to try it, it 
should work equally well with MBATEXT 
by AEA. At a list price of $99.95 the 
MFJ-1224 is sure to get a lot of attention. 

MFJ has thoughtfully provided a con- 
nector designed to mate with the one 
supplied with Hamsoft and Hamtext. It 
also comes with full interfacing informa- 
tion so that you should be able to figure 
out how to make it work in just about any 
situation. 

The 1224 requires external power. My 
review unit was supplied with the op- 
tional MFJ-1312 power unit which retails 
for $9.95. 

There is a RTTY and CW selection 
switch that places active filters "in line" to 
insure better CW reception. In the RTTY 
position with the unit set for 850 hertz 
shift the active filters are bypassed. In the 
other RTTY shifts, varying degrees of 
filtering are done. 

The MFJ-1224 is designed specifically 
to copy virtually all the different shifts 



-- ' B >r. ■ 
JL ..-. m. 


MFJ RTTY 
COMPUTER INI 

MODit Ml, 


0W 

T.RFACE 
* 

■21* 



1. The MFJ-1224 Computer Interface 



commonly used with RTTY. A combina- 
tion of two push button switches is used 
to select 170, 425, or 850 hertz shift. In 
addition, a normal/reverse switch is pro- 
vided to allow you to compensate for sta- 
tions sending with their mark and space 
tones reversed. A neat feature is that 
since most commercial stations use 425 
hertz reverse shift, when you setthe swit- 
ches for that mode the 1224 automati- 
cally switches from normal to reverse 
shift for you. On transmit, 170 and 850 
hertz shift tones are available depending 
on how the switches are set. Even the 
AEA CP-1 has only 170 hertz tones 
available. 

A RTTY loop output is included in case 
you would still like to make your old 
model 1 5 teleprinter copy along. Since no 
speed conversion is done in the 1 224 you 
will only be able to use your old teletype 
for the speed it was originally designed 
for. 

Electronically the MFJ-1 224 uses a cou- 
ple of EXAR integrated circuits. The 
XR221 1 is a single chip FSK demodulator 
■while theXR2206isusedfortransmit.lt is 
actually a function generator chip. 
Automatic noise limiting is incorporated 
into the circuitry, and when in the 170 
hertz mode an 8 pole active filter is inline. 
MFJ was a pioneer in active audio filter 
products and knows what they are doing 
in this area. Construction of the unit is 
solid. 

Two LED indicators are used for aid in 
tuning in signals. I found tuning a bit dif- 
ficult, but soon got accustomed to the 
best combination of flashing lights for 
best copy. 

The shift switches on the MFJ-1224 
didn't seem to help as much on commer- 
cial RTTY as I had hoped they would. All 
in all, I found the MFJ-1224 to be an ex- 
cellent dollar value and a good interface 
for those who want to get their feet wet 
in RTTY with the additional features of 
CW and ASCII and a minimal cost. For 
those interested only in reception a 
special version is available. The MFJ-1 225 
lists at $69.95. 

THE OLD CLOCK 
ON THE WALL 

The block counter on my word pro- 
cessor tells me I've exceeded my space for 
this month. Still to come, the AEA CP-1 
Computer patch, the Kantronics Interface 
and a lot more. 

My best wishes to each one of you for a 
wonderful holiday season. HAPPY BIRTH- 
DAY AND MERRY CHRISTMAS TO 
COMMANDER! □ 

Commander December 1983/29 



„-o» 







EUREKA! 



That's what we said when our new 

"invention" solved all our VIC-20™ and 

Commodore-64 m programming problems 



We had a problem. So we invented 
PC-DocuMate'" to solve it. The problem was 
how 1o quickly master the VIC-20 and 
CBM-64 keyboards and easily start pro- 
gramming in BASIC on our new personal 
computers. First we went through the 
manuals. 

INCONVENIENT MANUALS 

The user's guide was a nuisance and the 
programmers reference manual was just 
plain inconvenient to use. We found the 
control key combinations confusing and the 
introduction to BASIC to be too "basic" for 
our needs. We needed a simple solution to 
our documentation problems. 

So we decided to surround the keyboard 
of each PC with the information we wanted. 
We decided to print whatever we needed on 
sturdy plastic templates which would fit the 
keyboard of either the VIC-20 or Commo- 
dore 64. 

SIMPLE SOLUTION 

This was the simple solution to our prob- 
lem. Now we could have the essential 
information right at our fingertips. 

On the left side and top of the templates 
we put BASIC functions, commands, and 
statements. On the lower left we used key 
symbols to remind us of how to use SHIFT, 
RUN/STOP, CTRL and the "Commodore" 
key. Over on the bottom right side we pul 
some addilional keys to help remember 
about CLR/HOME and RESTORE. But we 
were still a little confused. 

STILL CONFUSED 

We found we were confused about music 
programming, color graphics, and sprites. 
On both the VIC-20 and the CBM-64 tem- 
plates we carefully organized and summar- 
ized the essential reference data for music 
programming and put it across the top- 
showing notes and the scale. All those 
values you must POKE and where to POKE 
them are listed. 

Then to clarify color graphics we laid out 
screen memory maps showing character 
and color addresses in a screen matrix. (We 
got this idea from the manuals.) 

For Ihe VIC-20 we added a complete 
memory address map tor documenting 
where everything is in an expanded or 
unexpanded VIC. 



For the Commodore 64 we came up with 
a really clever summary table tor showing 
almost everything you ever need to know for 
sprite graphics. 

GETTING EASIER 

Now we had organized the most essential 
information for our VIC and 64 in the most 
logical way. BASIC, music, color graphics, 
and sprites all seemed a lot easier. Our 
initial problem was solved by PC-Docu- 
Mate'". 

But we have a confession to make, 

WE CHEATED 

We had solved this kind of problem 
before. In fact, many times before. You see. 
we at SMA developeGthe original PC-Docu- 
Mate for the IBM PC, We've made templates 
for IBM BASIC and DOS, tor WORDSTAR'", 
VISICALC" and other best-selling software 
packages for the IBM PC. 

So we knew we could invent another 
PC-DocuMate" 1 to solve our problems with 
the VIC-20 and Commodore 64. Now our 
solution can be yours and you can join the 
thousands of satisfied users of our template 
products. 

Take advantage of our experience and 
success with PC-DocuMate templates. Get 
one for your personal computer. 

SOME SPECIFICS 

Our templates for the VIC and 64 are 
made from the same high quality non-glare 
plastic as the more expensive IBM PC 
versions. 

The templates are an attractive gray 
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ink which bonds permanently to the plastic. 
They are precision die-cut to fit your 
keyboard. 

Unlike some other products we've seen 
in this category, PC-DocuMate templates 
are professionally and expertly designed. 
And they are fully guaranteed. 



OUR GUARANTEE 

We guarantee your satisfaction. You niust 
be satisfied wild your PC-DocuMate for your 
VIC-20 or CBM-64. Try it tor 10 days and il 
for any reason you are not satisfied return il 
to us (undamaged) for a full refund. No risk. 



SOLVE YOUR PROGRAMMING 
PROBLEMS WITH PC-DocuMate r " 

Order your PC-DocuMate today (by 
phone or mail) and solve your VIC-20 or 
CBM-64 programming problems. Send only 
S12.95 and specify which computer you 
have. We pay for shipping and handling. 
Use the coupon below or call 919-787-7703 
tor faster service. 

Circle No. 61 

I YES! Please RUSH me . VIC-20 I 

| templates and/or CBM-64 tern- | 

plates at S1 2.95 each. I have enctosed | 

S by: 

Check Money order MC/VISA 



Name 


Address 


City 


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Z.p 


Card » 




Exp. 



Signature 
Foreign orders (except Canada) add $5.00 US I 

I 
Mail to: Systems Management Associates I 
3700 Computer Drive. Dept. 1-1 
P.O. Box 20025 
Raleigh, North Carolina 2761 9 

Canadians: Please send $18.95 CDN for I 
each template to: 

Systems Management Associates 

55A Westmore Dr.. Dept. 1-1 
Rexdale. ONTARIO M9V3Y6 

I 



VIC-20and Commodore 64 are trademarks ot Commodore Busi- 
ness Machines, Inc 

Ad no. 731 Copyright 1983. SMA. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 



If you've ever 
dreamed of 
playing the 
pro-tour golf 
circuit on the 
world's finest 
courses. .. 



Or fantasized 
about getting 
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Or drooled 
over the pros- 
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We've just answered all your hopes and wishes! 



And SSI's 14-day "satisfaction or your money 
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makeyourdreamsofsportsglorycome true. Infact 
the only way they won't is if you don't hurry to your 
nearest computer/software or game store and get 
these fine strategy sports games today. 



For the APPLE® and COMMODORE 64™: 

These games ($39.95 each) come on mini floppy 
disk for the APPLE® II with Applesoft ROM Card. 
Apple II Plus, Apple lie, or Apple III. 

Also on disk for the Commodore 64," 



Apple Is a registered trademark of 
Apple Computer Inc. 



%Jkl 



Commodore 64 Is a trademark of 
Commodore Electronics. Ltd. 



STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS INC 



If there are no convenient stores near you, VISA& Mastercard 
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Circle No. 119 



TAPES ON 

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The same great programs of- 
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Starting with the December 
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Christmas draws near, Santa has disappeared from his ice-castle. 
The player can solve the mystery using the available clues. Along the 
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room, he'll find a shimmering package addressed to him. And in Santa's 
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And that's just the start of it. We've designed "A Christmas 
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BltCards. A personalized greeting card. A customized gift. 

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Cassette versions available for C-64 and VIC-20® (specify 5K or 5K+8K) 
Also available on cassette (16K) for TRS-80® Models I, III & Color and tor Atari® 400/800 
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TO ORDER A CUSTOMIZED BITCARD: 

BY PHONE: (Visa or M/C accepted) call 1 -800-555-1 21 2 and ask (or the TOLL FREE NUMBER FOR BITCAflOS. 
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ordered Give your name and address and following info about recipient; (1) name |2) address (3) computer 
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Still the Best! 







Rated THE BEST educational 
program for the VIC 20JM by 
Creative Computing magazine. 

Commodore 64 version: "This 

is the best typing tutor we have 

seen yet; it can get your 

children touch typing in short 

order and bring an old hand up 

to speed. Includes excellent 

training modules and an 

arcade type mode to liven 

things up and put some 

pressure on; + *** + " INFO-64 

Our customers continue to tell 

us of their success — 

'.'. . delighted with my son's 

progress ... he Is the only 

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(58 year old man writes) . . . "great, excellent. To me a source 

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In daily use by schools across the USA. 

"Computer aided instruction at Its best" Commander magazine 

TYPING TUTOR + WORD INVADERS 

The proven way to learn touch typing, 
COMMODORE 64 Tape $21.95 
COMMODORE 64 Disk $24.95 
VIC20(unexpanded) Tape $21.95 




Continued from page 22 




Ttf* 1 



IFR 

(FLIGHT SIMULATOR) 

CARTRIDGE 
FOR THE VIC 20 

COMMODORE 64 

DISK OR TAPE 

$39.95 

JOYSTICK REQUIRED 



Put yourself in the pilot's seat! A very challenging realistic 
simulation of instrument flying in a light plane. Take off, 
navigate over difficult terrain, and land at one of the 4 airports. 
Artificial horizon, ILS, and other working Instruments on screen. 
Full aircraft features. Realistic aircraft performance — 
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S Shipping and handling $1.00 per Mj 
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P.O. Box 6277, San Rafael, CA 94903 (415) 499-0850 

Programmers: Write to our New Program Manager concerning 

any exceptional VIC 2CTM or Commodore 64TM game 

or other program you have developed. 



Figure 2 



~a 



PIN A = ' , E 



10 K 



O- 



n 



= ■, 7 






2N2222 




(A 



RADIO PUSH-TO-TALK 
CIRCUIT 



RELAY 



Relay Driver for Radio 



. 



with the program name. Line 60 is a pacifier message while 
waiting for the program to initialize. 

The "cannned" messages are found in lines 70-90 and 
should be modified to suit the user. 

Lines 100-150 build the table for translation between ASCII 
and Commodore characters. 

The POKE in line 200 insures that the DTR line is high during 
receive mode. I just noticed that replacing the PRINTCHRS- 
(147) with a PRINTCS will save a couple of bytes of memory. 
Line 205 checks the keyboard to see if the F1 key is pressed. If it 
is, the program branches to the transmit section. At 210 the 
program checks the input to see if there is a characterand line 
220 prints it on the screen. 

The POKE in line 300 takes the DTR line low and energizes 
the relay as mentioned earlier. Line 310 waits for a keyboard in- 
put. When one occurs, lines 320-390 check to see if one of the 
function keys is depressed . The F1 key isCHR${133). If this key is 
pressed, the program will return to the receive mode. If a "can- 
ned" is to be sent, the prog ram branches to line 800. The ASCII 
character is printed on the screen and sent out to the terminal 
unit by line 400. 

Line 800 and 810 disassemble the string with the individual 
character represented by T$. This is printed on the screen and 
transmitted by line 820. Line 830 sends a carriage return at the 
end of the string. 

If the ID or equipment string is being transmitted, line 840in- 
sures that it is oniy sent once. The CQ and test string are sent 
over and over until the RETURN key is pressed, as detected by 
line 860. 

The call of the other station is entered in line 900 and is 
merged with the user's call in line 910. 

The program can be modified by the readertosuita number 
of applications. I use it regularly in the form shown and enjoy its 
simple operation. 

Until next month, keep on telecomputing es 73 de Don, 
W6TNS. □ 

Commander December 1983/33 




THESE COULD BE THE 
KEYS TO YOUR FUTURE 




Unlock all the potential of your '<j*£»£s* 

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Enjoy key features like these: 

• Games for fun & strategy. 

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" Programs to add to your library. 

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• Hardware & software modifications help your 
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• Unique applications broaden your scope. 

Here's a system-specific magazine written with 
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'Commodore 64 and VIC-20 are registered trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 




Circle No. 182 

Commodore 64 and VIC-20 
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L 73DFCMJ 



A Christmas Poem 



By Ian & Linda Adam 

'Uwos the night before Christmas 
when all through the house 

Not a Usk drive Was whirring, 
nor eVen a mouse; 

Ohe monitor Was Warmed up, 

all tuned in with care, 
In hopes that St. Commodore 

soon Would he there; 

Ohe children Were nestled 

all snug in their beds, 
While Visions of pumpman 

danced in their heads; 

7bid Mamma in her \erchief, 

and I in my 'jams 
Had just settled our brains 

to Write some programs; 

When out on the laWn 
there arose such a clatter, 

I sprang from the keyboard 
to see what Was the matter. 

When, what to my Wondering 

eyes should appear, 
"But a chip-laden sleigh, and 

eight tiny reindeer. 




%s I drew in my head, 

and Was turning around, 
ThWn the chimney St. Commodore 

came with a bound. 



% wink of his eye 
and a twist of his head, 

Soon gate me to think 
What he meant when he said: 

"Just type in this program, 

"Please giie it a try; 
7lnd after it's run, 

then you 11 know why. " 

He spoke no more Words, 
but Went straight to his tasks, 

TLndftU'd all the stockings 
With Wonderful disks 

Of Trogger, Qrid JZunner 
Spreadsheets and Word Pro 's 

CJhen giving a nod, 
up the user port he rose; 

He sprang to his sleigh, 

said J^BJUKN to his team 
Tbid away they allfleW 

like a laser-disc beam. 

'But I heard him exclaim, 
ere he droVe out of sight 

'Happy Computing to all, 
and to all a good night!" 




Commander December 1 983 / 35 



Continued from page 35 



XMAS-CARD 



C-64 Stocking 



VIC-20 Stocking 



1 REM DEC 1983 FOR C-64 

2 REM COPYRIGHT CO 1983 

3 REM BV BONfiLD ELi'lflN 

18 POKE 53280, 0:pQKE53281,0: PRINT CHR*{ 

147) 
20 FOR 1 = 1 rO 5 : PR INT CHR* < 1 ? > , : NEXT 1 
30 PRINT CHR*<30)J 
40 FOR I = TO 17 
50 PRINT TRBC20-T;; 
60 FOR J = 1 TO 2*1+1 
70 PR I NT CHR* C42 ) , : NEXT J ■PRINT 
88 FOR T = 1 TO 580: NEXT T-NEXT 1 
90 FOR 1=1 TO 3- PRINT TR£<20)CHR*<2S);C 

HR* i 1 3 ) .; CHR* (. 32 ) ; CHR* i 1 46 ) 
100 NEXT TGOSUB 1088: PRINT CHR*<19> 
110 FOR 1=1 TO 10 
128 PRINT CHR*C17>; :NEXT I 
138 FOR 1=1 TO 4 
140 PRINT TABUS) 
158 FOR J = 1 TO 1 1 = RERS C 
1 SO PR I NT CHR* t C ) ; = NEXT J : PR I NT 
178 FOR T = 1 TO 10O0; NEXT 1 ■ NEXT I 
188 RESTORE: QQSUB 1000: END 
190 PRINT CHR*a7>iCHR*<144) 
100O 3L=54272 : 3H=SL+1 : POKESL+24, 15 
1005 P0KESL+5, 9 : POKESL+6, 
1010 FOR L=l TO 4:REHB N 
102O FOR 1=1 TO N:RERIi TH, TL, D 
1030 POKE SH,TH:ROKE SL, Tl_: PGKESL+4, 33 
1840 FOR T=l TO B*l50: NEXT: PGKESL+4, 33 
1058 POKE SL+4, 32 : FOR T=l TO 15: NEXT 
1060 NEXT I: NEXT L- RETURN 
2008 BRTR 9,25.30,2,33, 135,2,33, 135, 1/3 

7, 162,1 
2885 BRTR 33,135,1,31,165,1,28,49,2,23, 

49,1,0,0, 1 
2010 IifiTfi 9,28,49,2,37, i 62, 2, 37, 162, 1,4 

2,62, 1 
2015 BRTR 37,162,1,33,135,1,31,165,2,25 

,38, 1,0,0, 1 
2820 BRJR 9,25,30,2,42,62,2,42,62,1,44, 

193,1 
2025 BRTR 42,62,1,37,162,1,33,135,2,44, 

193,4,8,8,4 
2O30 DATA 7 , 23 , 49 , 1 , 23 , 49 , i , 25 , 30 , 2 , S3 • 

135,2 
2035 BATH 31,1 65 , 2 , 33 , 1 35 , 3 , 8 , 8 , 1 
284U BRTR2S, 29, 83, 69, 65, 33, 79, 78,83,29, 

2y 
2058 BflTR 1 54 , 7 1 , 82 , 69 , 69 , 34 , 73 , 78 , 7 1 .. 83 

,29 
2060 BRTR5, 29, 29, 70, 82, 79, 77, 29, 29, 29, 2 

9 
207O BRTR28, 67, 79, 77, 77, 31 t 65, 78, 68, 69, 



1 REM DEC 1983 FOR VIC-28 

2 REM COPYRIGHT CO 1983 

3 REM BV BGNALB ELllRN 

1 POKE 36879 , 8 : PR I NTCHR* ( 147) 

20 FOR 1 = 1 TO 5: PR I NT CHR$U7>, = NEXT I 

38 PRINT CHR*<38.j, 

40 FOR I = 8 TO 18 

50 PRINT TflB(ll-I); 

60 FOR J = 1 TO 2*1+1 

78 PR I NT CHR* < 42 > ; : NEXT J : PR I NT 

80 FOR T = 1 TO 500: NEXT PNEXT I 

90 FOR 1 = 1 TO 3: PRINT TftBai>CHR*<2S>;C 

HR$ < 18) ; CHR* < 32 > , CHR* ( 1 46 > 
1 00 NEXT I : GOSUE 1 080 : PR I NT CHR* < 1 9 > 
118 FOR 1=1 TO 18 
128 PRINT CHR* < 17); =NEXT I 
130 FOR 1=1 TO 4 
140 PRINT TRB<7>; 
150 FOR J = 1 TO 11: READ q 
160 PR I NT CHR* CO;: NEXT J : PR I NT 
170 FOR T = 1 TO 1800: NEXT T ■ NEXT I 
130 RESTORE: GOSUB 1808 
198 PRINT CHRSC17);CHR*<i44> 
1 088 V=36873 : S 1 =36874 : 33=36876 
1010 FOR L— 1 TO 4:RERB N 
1020 FOR 1=1 TO N:RERD TN, B 
1 030 POKES 1 , TN : POKE S3 , TN : POKE V , 1 5 
1040 FOR T=l TO B'*150NEXT 
1858 POKE V,0:FOR T=l TO 15: NEXT 
1060 NEXT I: NEXT L: RETURN 
2000 BRTR3,215,2,225,2,225, 1,228, 1,225, 

1 , 223, 1 , 219, 2, 219, 1,8,1 
2010 DRTR9, 219, 2, 223, 2, 228, 1 , 231 , 1 , 228 . 

1,225,1,223,2,215,1,0,1 
2820 BRTR9, 215, 2, 231, 2, 231, 1,232, 1,231, 

1,228, 1,225,2,232,4,0,4 
2030 BR l R7, 219, 1,219, 1,215,2,225,2,223, 

2,225,3,0, 1 
2840 BRTR28, 29, 83, 69, 65,83, 79, 78, S3, 29 ■ 

29 
2050 HATA154, 71 , 82, 69, 69, 84, 73, 73, 71 , 83 

,29 

2060 DRTfiS, 29, 29, 70, 82, 79, 77, 29, 29, 29, 2 

9 

2070 _ DRTR28 , 67 , 79 , 77 , 77 , 31 , 65 , 78 , 68, 69, 

**, <? j &j Uf t } *fj **, ^ 7* 



36/Commander December 1983 



Continued from page 14 

TITLE: PACEMAKER 

FORMAT: Cartridge 
PRICE: $34.95 

AUDIENCE: Ages 4-1 2 
SUMMARY: Introductory program that 
allows the creation and 
animation of cartoon type 
faces. 
MODEL/SOURCE: 
COMMODORE 64 
SPINNAKER SOFTWARE 
215 First Street 
Cambridge, MA 02142 
VIC-20 
HES 

Human Engineered Software 
71 Park Lane 
Brisbane, CA 94005 
(415)468-4110 

Everyone has sat with a piece of paper 
and found himself doodling away and 
creating faces. First you create a funny 
nose, then later add some ears, then 
comes the outlandish hair. FACEMAKER 
allows a youngster to create funny car- 
toon-type faces using the computer. 
FACEMAKER contains three selections in 
the menu: build, program and game. 

Face Building 

After loading the program, the first pro- 
cedure is to build the face. The child is 
presented with a blank oval shape and is 
given a choice of five features: mouth, 
eyes, ears, nose and hair. After choosing 
one of the features there are six different 
variations of the feature. A total of thirty 
different comica! faces can be built. 

Program Animation 

Once the child is satisfied with the face, 
the fun begins. If he or she decides to 
choose programming the face, the com- 
puter will animate the face on command. 
The face will wink, smile, wiggle its ears, 
frown, cry, or stick out its tongue when 
the proper letters are entered on the 
keyboard. I must admit that my favorite is 
the tongue. There is something hilarious 
about a funny face on the computer that 
sticks out its tongue accompanied by a 
weird sound. 

Memory Game 

The third menu selection is GAME. 

During GAME the computer animates 
the face and the player is asked to mimic 
the action using keyboard responses. The 
computer starts with one action and adds 
one action each time the player enters the 
correct sequence. A high score is displayed 
on the screen. 



Learning Experienced 

FACEMAKER is a very good way for 
young children to learn how to use the 
computer. During the BUILD segment, 
with the help of the instruction booklet ac- 
companying the cartridge, the player is in- 
troduced to basic computer fundamen- 
tals. The program uses concrete examples 
for introducing terms, such as menu, that 
even a young child can readily unders- 
tand. The PROGRAM selection teaches 
the young person the concept of writing a 
program in the simplest form. The child 
enters a sequence of instructions and the 
computer carries out his instructions in the 
proper sequence. The GAME selection is 
an interesting way for children to practice 
memory and concentration while using 
the computer. Since each action has both 
a visual and sound stimulus, the GAME 
section would be particularly useful for 
children who have difficulties with visual 
and auditory conceptualization. 

I feel that FACEMAKER is very well 
done. The graphics and color used in the 
face are simple but effective. The white 
screen background is not cluttered; 
therefore, young children will be able to 
focus their attention on the face and easi- 
ly observe the result of their interaction 
with the computer. The sounds used are 
an added bonus. They are typical compu- 
ter-type sounds that are guaranteed to 
amuse and delight while teaching audi- 
tory discrimination. 

TITLE: KINDERCOMP 

FORMAT: Cartridge 
PRICE: $29.95 

AUDIENCE: Ages 3-8 
SUMMARY: Set of early learning pro- 
grams featuring drawing, 
letters and numbers. 
MODEL/SOURCE: 
COMMODORE 64 

SPINNAKER SOFTWARE 

215 First Street 

Cambridge, MA 02142 
VIC-20 

HES 

Human Engineered Software 

71 Park Lane 

Brisbane, CA 94005 

(415)4684110 
KINDERCOMP is a real value for your 
money. It contains six different programs 
designed to familiarize preschoolers and 
primary students with the computer while 
teaching numbers, letters, and reading 
readiness skills. It was designed by Doug 
and Judy Davis for their daughter Amy, 
whom they wanted to have fun at the 
computer while learning. 



The program is menu driven. After 
loading KINDERCOMP, a title page ap- 
pears featuring six activities: DRAW PIC- 
TURES, SCRIBBLE, NAMES, SEQUENCES, 
LETTERS and MATCH. 

Joystick Drawing 

Drawing pictures is accomplished by us- 
ing the joystick and keyboard. The child 
uses the joystick to make line drawings. 
The keyboard may be used for added op- 
tions such as changing colors and filling 
enclosed areas. While drawing pictures, 
children will increase fine motor control 
and eye-hand coordination. Very young 
ones will enjoy having the power to draw 
on the screen while older ones will learn 
how to create imaginative but recogniz- 
able pictures on the computer screen. My 
only criticism of the DRAW PICTURE selec- 
tion is that there is no provision for saving 
the masterpieces that the children create. 

Computer Scribbling 

What is the first thing an inexperienced 
adult does when approaching a com- 
puter? Usually it is little more than random 
key pressing. Well, kids are no different. 
As soon as they can toddle over to the 
computer they start pressing keys with 
their sticky little fingers. SCRIBBLE is 
designed for the joy of randomly pushing 
a key and then seeing a whole line of the 
characters appear with musical accom- 
paniment. By using the shift keys and 
special characters the child can create a 
screen of designs. 

"VIP" Names 

The first word that most children learn 
to recognize is their name. NAMES allows 
a child to enter his name and after pushing 
RETURN the name will flash and scroll 
across, up, and downthescreen. Afterthe 
child has mastered his or her name, the 
NAMES selection may be used for spelling 
other short words or messages. 

Number Sequencing 

SEQUENCE presents three numbers on 
the screen and asks the child to enter the 
next number. The child has three chances 
to enter the correct response before it is 
displayed by the computer. If the correct 
response is entered consistently, the level 
of difficulty increases. After approximately 
thirty correct responses, the computer 
switches to sequences involving multiples 
of two (i.e., 4 6 8?). Thus, the computer 
continues to increase the difficulty as long 
as consistent correct responses are 
entered. If the child enters an incorrect 
response the level of difficulty drops back 
to an easier level. Each correct response 
adds a feature to a drawing that is at the 

Commander December 1983/37 



bottom of the screen. After five correct 
responses, the figure is animated and a 
short melody is heard. 

Lower Case Letters 

The LETTERS selection presents lower 
case letters, A letter appears on the screen. 
The child enters the correct matching let- 
ter from the keyboard. As in SEQUENCES, 
after five correct responses, there is an 
animation and the melody from a familiar 
nursery song is heard. This segment 
teaches the relationship among upper- 
and lower-case letters and their location 
on the keyboard. The screen is completely 
blank except for the letter that is being 
presented and the scene that is being built 
in the lefthand corner. 

Multiple Choice 

MATCH is a preschooler form of the 
multiple choice question. Three symbols 
such as a square, happy face, arrow, heart, 
etc. are presented in a box in the lefthand 
corner of the screen, Underneath there 
are three different rows of three symbols 
preceded by a number. The child is ex- 
pected to enter the number of the row 
that matches the symbols depicted in the 
box. After five correct responses, the child 
is again given a positive animated reward. 
This selection wiil give the child practice in 
symbol recognition that is required for 
reading readiness. 

A Real Bargain 

KINDERCOMP is an outstanding pro- 
gram for the preschool age group. I feel 



HOW DO WE DO IT? 

We're an electronics mautacturer selling 
direct to the public bv rraij order onlv 
In this way we can truly offer quality 
and economy. All items are guaranteed. 
PcveumtMiijIion is extensive. 

3 SLOT EXTENDER *!* 

GoUContac!?. Fuse, Reset Switch. iVIC! -"V 7 

CASSETTE INTERFACE s ? S 

Savr .and Load on vour recorder. iVIC&Co4> 1 ■*■* 

AUDIO/ VIDEO BOX *«[K 

Three independent outputs irom your V1C ; J-t»/ 
Low Level Audio (stereo, recorder, etc.). 
Video Monitor, dnd R.F. Modulator 

COMPUTER COVER S A 

Protect your VIC or C64 Irum iiust and **-^ 

spills, Gray, professional look 

All prices postage paid. Kansas residents -add ,* l J.. 
Money Order or Check onlv. 

Obbligato 

BOX 47398. WICHITA, KANSAS 67201 

Circle No 137 
38/Commander December 1983 



that it is unsurpassed in the quality and 
versatility that it offers for the price in one 
package. I have been recommending the 
program for other computers for over a 
year, and have yet to find a youngster or 
parent who was not enthusiastic with the 
selection. It has enough variety that 
children will continue using it long after 
they have mastered the letter, number 
and matching skills. The PICTURE DRAW- 
ING segment will continue to captivate a 
youngster's creative imagination after he 
or she is tired of the other selections. I even 
know one game-hardened ten-year-old 
who likes to draw pictures with his little 
brother's KINDERCOMP. 

TITLE: KIDS ON KEYS 

FORMAT: Cartridge 
PRICE: $29.95 

MODEL: COMMODORE 64 
AUDIENCE: Ages 3-9 
SUMMARY: Game format that teaches 
keyboard familiarization, 
first letter phonetic sounds, 
and beginning reading and 
spelling, 
SOURCE: 

SPINNAKER SOFTWARE 

215 First Street 

Cambridge, MA 02142 

KIDS ON KEYS was written by Frieda 
Lekkerkerker, a teacher and programmer 
who specializes in the development of 
learning games for young children. The 
program is a series of three games design- 
ed for children who have some know- 
ledge of the alphabet and are beginning 
to learn how to read. Each game has four 
levels of difficulty. 

Keyboard Familiarization 

Game one is a keyboard game. Letters 
descend between two horizontal bars on 
the screen. The object of the game is to 
type in the matching letter before the let- 
ter touches the lower bar on the screen. 
After twenty letters, a boy descends in a 
balloon with a word written on it. If the 
player types the word correctly before the 
balloon reaches the bottom bar, the 
balloon goes back up the screen and the 
boy waves, accompanied by music. Points 
are given for the number of letters correct- 
ly typed and bonus points are given if the 
word is also typed correctly. The current 
score is given on the lefthand side of the 
screen and the high score is displayed on 
the righthand side of the screen. Suc- 
cessive levels of difficulty increase both the 
speed of the game and the size of the 
word. 

This game will help children learn to 



identify letters of the alphabet and to 
become familiar with the location of let- 
ters on the computer keyboard. It will also 
give them experience in copying short 
words. There is an element of time involv- 
ed, so very young children who are just be- 
ing introduced to the alphabet may 
become frustrated, whereas older 
children will enjoy the challenge of playing 
a real game. 

Spelling 

During game two there are the same 
horizontal bars but this time there are fall- 
ing pictures. For level one the player is ex- 
pected to type in the first letter of the pic- 
ture before the picture reaches the bot- 
tom of the screen. During levels two 
through four the pictures fall faster and 
the player types in the entire word. Each 
game consists of a series of five pictures 
picked randomly from a set of approx- 
imately forty pictures. The player is given 
three chances to type the correct re- 
sponse, but the number of points de- 
creases with each chance. During the 
bonus round only half of the picture is 
shown. Points are given for correctly iden- 
tifying the picture. 

Game number two will give the child 
practice in identifying the beginning 
sounds of words and practice spelling 
nouns commonly found in primary voca- 
bulary lists. The partial picture will increase 
a child's ability to discriminate according to 
detail and visualize a whole when only a 
part is given. 

Sight Reading 

The last game presents five pictures 
with numbers underneath. A word is dis- 
played at the bottom of the screen and the 
player enters the number of the picture 
that the word identifies. Game three uses 
the same words and pictures that are used 
in game two. Also, as in game two, the 
player is given points based on three 
chances to enter the correct response. 
Each level of difficulty decreases the time 
allowed to enter the responses. 

Game three will help the beginning 
reader to quickly sight read the words con- 
tained in the program's word bank. I 
would recommend that game three be in- 
troduced to the child before game two so 
that the child can become familiar with 
the words and corresponding pictures. 

The pictures use in the program are very 
well done and easily recognized by the 
young child. The use of sound is limited to 
a pleasant sound for correct responses 
and a "bong" sound for incorrect 
responses. There is also a short melody at 
the end of each game. 



SOME OFTHE PROGRAMS 
THAT HAVE MADE THE GRADE 



EDUCATION 


Algebra 1 


Apple 


Algebra2 


Apple 


Algebra 3 


Apple 


Algebra 4 


Apple 


ArithmeVic 


VIC 20 


TheChanger 


TRS80 


Color Me 


Apple 


Confutation 


Apple 




Atari 


Counters 


TRS80 


Decimals 


Apple 




Atari 


Fractions 


Apple 




Atari 


Function Plot 


IBM 


Gamesof the U.S. 


Apple 


The Game Show 




Movies and T.V. 


Apple 


People, Places,Things 


; Apple 


GradebookPlus 


Apple 


History & Geography 


Apple 


Jesse's Busy Bugs 


TRS80 


Little Counter 


Apple 


LittleSpeller 


Apple 


The New Little Speller 


Apple 




Atari 


LogoMotion 


Apple 


MathSkills 


Apple 


Meet the Presidents 


Apple 


Morse Code Trainer 


VIC20 


Perception 


Apple 


PSATVoc. Skills 


Apple 


Portfolio 


Apple 


Rainbow Forest 


TRS80 


Reading Skills 


Apple 




Atari 


SAT Voc. Skills 


Apple 


So Big So Small 
SpellMasterSystem 


TRS80 


Apple 


Spell Master #4 


Apple 


Spell Master#5 


Apple 


Spell Master #6 


Apple 


Spell Master#7 


Apple 


Spell Master#8 


Apple 


Spell Master/Adult 


Apple 


Statistics 


Apple 


The New Step by Step 


Apple 


Supermap 


Apple 


Tanjali 


TRS80 


The Big Math Attack 


Apple 




Atari 


Tic Tac Show 




Fun With Facts 1 


Apple 


TouchTyping Tutor 


COM-64 




VIC 20 


Vic Lemonade 


VIC 20 


The Visible Computer 


Apple 


Win With Words 1 


Apple 


Win With Words II 


Apple 


Word Search 


Apple 


Softsmith, Corp., 1431 Doollttle Dr., Sa 




GAMES/ 




ENTERTAINMENT 


Abuse 


Atari 


Acey-Deucy 


Apple 




Atari 


Add-ErnUp 


VIC20 


Alien Invasion 


COM-64 




VIC 20 


Alien Panic 


COM-64 


AntimatterSplatter 


VIC20 


Astro Attack 


Apple 


The Catch 


VIC 20 


Championship Blackjack IBM 


ChimpChase 


VIC 20 


Chomps 


IBM 


Conglomerates Collide 


Apple 


Cosmic Combat 


Apple 


Creature Venture 


Apple 


Cribbage 


COM-64 


Cross Country Rallye 


Apple 


Crossword Magic 


Apple 




Atari 


Cyborg 


Apple 




IBM 


Cyclons 


COM-64 




VIC 20 


DefenderonTri 


VIC20 


Eureka 


TRS80 


Exterminator 


VIC20 


Falcons 


Apple 


Final Frontier 


Apple 


Firebird 


Apple 


Fun10 


IBM 


Gold Rush 


Apple 


Guardian 


Apple 


Haunted Hill 


Atari 


Head On 


COM-64 




VIC 20 


High Orbit 


Apple 


Horizon V 


Apple 



The Island Prison 


Apple 


It's A Living 


VIC20 


Juggler 


Apple 


Keyboard Golf 


Apple 


KillerCaterpillar 


VIC 20 


Krazy Kong 


VIC 20 


LA. Land Monopoly 


Apple 


Launch 2031 AD 


VIC 20 


Laser Blazer 


TRS80 


LazerMaze 


Apple 


Lazersilk 


Apple 


Lookahead 


Atari 


Lunar Pinball 


Apple 


Mad Painter 


VIC20 


Matchmaker 64 


COM-64 


Match Racer 


Atari 


Malh Football 


Atari 


Max-Command 


Apple 


Midnight Malady 


Apple 


Monster Match 


VIC20 


Mummy's Curse 


Apple 


Neptune 


Apple 


Paratrooper 


VIC20 


Pathfinder 


Atari 


The Prisoner 


Apple 


Pollywog 


Apple 


Racefun 


VIC 20 


RegilianWorm 


TRS80 


RusskiDuck 


Apple 


Snake Out 


VIC 20 


Space Chase 


TRS80 


Space Conquerors 


Apple 


Spox 


TRS80 


Starblaster 


Apple 


Swordthrust (series) 


Apple 


3-D Man 


COM-64 




VIC 20 


Ticker 


VIC20 


Trickshot 


Apple 


TriviaTrek 


Atari 


Vikman 


VIC20 


Volcanoes 


Apple 


Zenith 


Apple 


HOME APPLICATIONS 


Automaniac 


Apple 


Computer Artist 


VIC20 


Dietician 


Apple 


DinneronaDisk 


Apple 


Drinks on a Disk 


Apple 


Home Accountant 


Apple 




IBM 




TRS80 


HomeBudgel 


TRS80 


HomeBudgeter 


Apple 


Micro Barmate 


Apple 


Micro Cookbook 


Apple 

IBM 

Apple 


OPTIONX 


Roots-M 


Apple 


Synthy 


COM-64 



BUSINESS 



Accounts Payable Apple 

Accounts Receivable Apple 

General Ledger Apple 

Mailing List IBM 

Payroll Apple 
Retail Sales Management IBM 

StockCharting IBM 

Timetable TRS80 

DATA BASE 

Condor I Apple CP/M 

Condorlll AppleCP/M 

Data Base Manager IBM 

Datadex Apple 

EZ*Telephone IBM 

FCM Apple 

List Master Apple 

PC Mailer IBM 

WORD PROCESSING 



ElectricWebster 
Sensible Speller 
Smithwriter 

Wordsmith 



TRSB0 

Apple 

COM-64 

VIC 20 

Apple 



UTILITIES 



The Bug 


Apple 


Bugbyter 


Apple 


Character Generator 


IBM 


Cross Reference 


IBM 


Disk Director 


Apple 


Faster Master 


Apple 


Graphic Print Screen 


IBM 


Hi-Res MulticolorGraphic 


VIC 20 


The Liberator 


Apple 


Mach-20 


VIC20 


Memory Disk 


IBM 


Monitor 5 


TRS80 


Multi-Disk Catalog 


Apple 


Multi-RAM 


IBM 


Peeks 'N Pokes 


IBM 


Screen Print 


VIC 20 


Spool 


IBM 


System Diagnostics 


TRS80 



COMMUNICATIONS 



SecureGuard 



AP/CPM 



MEDIA 



5Vi" Blank Diskeltes 
(12 to a box) 
(100 to a box) 



SOFTSMITH 



SOFTWARE 




LIBRARY 



y it 




WE'RE VERY HARD ON OURSOFTWARE 

You might even say we're perfectionists. Because at Softsmith'/' we give our software the hardest workout, 
the toughest testing, the most rigorous evaluation. The result is software that has earned our confidence, and 
will justify yourtrust. 

In particular, we do three things that make Softsmith software the most dependable you can buy. 



1. 

We're picky. Out of the hundreds 
of programs Softsmith evaluates 
every month, we choose to 
publish very few. A lot of good pro- 
grams are rejected; but we think 
you can't be too picky when it 
comes to personal computer soft- 
ware. Our selectivity is your best 
assurance of quality. 



2. 

We complain a lot. If you were a 
programmer, and Softsmith 
accepted your program, you 
would have a right to be proud. 
But you shouldn't go on vacation 
yet. Because no matter how good 
that program may be, Softsmith 
evaluators will suggest some 
improvements; politely, but firmly. 
We may complain a lot, but 
people thank us later. 



3. 



We insist on plain English. After 
we've made the best program 
better, we're still not finished. 
Because we know that even the 
best program is no good if it's too 
hard to use. So we put a lot of time 
and effort into translating our 
instructions from computerese 
into plain English. 



We publish software you can trust. Yes, we pick our programs careful ly. And complain a lot to make them better. And insist 
on plain English instructions. The result is a library of personal computer software you can depend on. Even if you don't know 
a Pascal compiler from an emulation subroutine. 

Softsmith has programs you can trust for all the most popular personal computers. Programs for Education, Home Manage- 
ment, Entertainment, Word Processing, Business, Communications and Programming. Ours is the largest library of quality 
software under one brand name. 

So before you choose a software package for your computer, make sure someone's taken the time to be hard on it. Make sure 
it's Softsmith, the software you can trust. 

Ask for Softsmith brand software wherever computers or software are sold. Or call us TOLL-FREE at (800)341-4000 for the 
name and location of your nearest dealer. 

Softsmith Corp., 1431 DoolittleDr.,San Leandro, CA 94577. A company of The Software Guild" 



SOFTSMITH 



SOFTWARE 




LIBRARY 



SMITHWRITER 
JUMPS OVER 
THEQUICKBROWN FOX 




Take a great leap forward in word 
processing with Smithwriter, from 
Softsmith™ Corporation. It's the 
dependable, inexpensive and 
easy-to-use text-handling pro- 
gram for your Commodore 64 or 
VIC-20.* 

Smithwriter uses its power to 
simplify the mechanics of writing. 
Other programs require multiple 
keystroke commands for most 
editing functions. Smithwriter 
does them with a single stroke. 
And Smithwriter's simplicity car- 
ries over to the instructions, too. 
They're written in that rarest of all 
computer languages, plain 
English. 

Don't let the simplicity fool you, 
though. Smithwriter does things 



you would expect to find in pro- 
grams costing at least 3 times as 
much: automatic centering, 
super- and subscript printing, 
underlining, italicizing and 
double-width spacing. The pro- 
gram is already configured for the 
most popular printers, so you can 
start using it right away. 

Whether you're writing the Great 
American Novel or letters to 
friends, Smithwriter is the pro- 
gram you should trust with your 
words. It's part of the Softsmith 
library of quality software. All 
Softsmith programs have been 
painstakingly tested, improved 
and clearly documented to create 
the most dependable brand of 
software you can buy. Softsmith 



has the largest library of software 
programs under one brand name, 
for all the most popular personal 
computers. Programs for Educa- 
tion, Home Management, Enter- 
tainment, Business, Communica- 
tions and Programming. All are 
backed by ourToll-Free customer 
service number, to give you expert 
help if you need it. 

Ask for Softsmith brand software 
wherever computers or software 
are sold. Call usToll-Freeat 
(800) 341-4000 for the name and 
location of your nearest dealer. 

Dealer Inquiries Invited. 

■Requires 16Kexpander for VIC-20. Available on 

disk or cassette for both the Commodore 64 and 

VIC-20, 

Commodore and VI C-20 are trademarks of O. 

Commodore Business Machines, Inc. Quick B. 

Brown Fox is a trademark of Quick Brown Fox. Z 



& 



SOFTSMITH 



SOFTWARE 




LIBRARY 



A W SIFf CUM CHGWffMA 









athers can be difficult people to buy presents for. When I 
was a youngster of about eight I remember every gift giving event. I 
always made a trip to the five and ten to buy Dad a new wallet and key 
case. He won't admit it, but I suspect that to this day, when his wallet or 
key case wears out, he still can go to his dresser drawer and pull out a 
brand new one that I gave him 25 years ago. 

There was something special about those items. I insisted that we had 
to have them monogrammed. There was a specialist at the Honolulu air- 
port who did an exquisite job. That made each one of them Dad's. And 
by golly he smiled and thanked me every time he opened that same size 
box. Somehow I eventually caught on that it was a bit like getting a new 

42/Commander December 1983 



By Jim Grubbs 
tie every Christmas, and the wallet and key case era came to an end. 

Last year, just like each of the intervening 25 since Honolulu, the family 
tried to decide what to get Dad for Christmas. He spent most of his life in- 
volved in communications, but never did take much interest in using his 
amateur radio license for on-the-airwork. Later he taught aerospace sci- 
ence, but it's a bit difficult to find a space shuttle at a price that a family 
can afford- After some discussion, I was chosen as eldest son to select 
one of the low-priced home computers. It was agreed that we would 
keep it simple, both for budget reasons and in case Dad just turned out 
not to like computers. Little did any of us suspect what Christmas day 
would bring. 



For many reasons that most of you can 
identify with, the VIC-20 was chosen as 
the absolute best dollar value, hands 
down. A Datasette was a- necessity, and 
since both programmers in the family live 
several hundred miles from home, a 
BASIC self-paced course was secured. 
There was still something missing-there 
were no customized initials on all of this 
hardware to say "we love you, Dad". 

A solution finally appeared and an en- 
tire Plan A suddenly became clear. New 
computers are very nice things but they 
need software to really come to life. It 
wasn't too hard to come up with quite a 
collection of public domain material, and 
we even added a few programs of our 
own design. One program will always 
shine as the special star on this computer 
tree. 

While checking out the programs on 
the public domain tapes, it occurred to 
me that "electronic" greeting cards are 
all the rage these days, playing their little 
tune when you open them up. Why not a 
computer Christmas Card? 

The night before Christmas and all 
through the house, computer buzz- 
words filled the air in hushed tones. Mom 
and Billieanne put the final touches on 
wrapping presents, placing the shiny 
boxes ("what's in that big one?" Dad ask- 
ed) just so under the tree. Meanwhile, 
brother Jon, a television engineer, "work- 
ed" diligently on "repairing" a used 12 
inch black and white television 1 had 
brought home for him to fix. (Wanna by 
some land in Florida?). I carefully placed a 
small package, a gift wrapped cassette 
tape, in Dad's stocking. 

In the dawn of Christmas morn, all 
bleary eyed from the early hour, we 
gathered around the tree. In turn we 
each opened a present until everything 
but one stack was gone, it was time for 
Plan A. First, I handed Dad that small 
package with the cassette. "That's nice," 
he said, a bit bewildered since the 
cassette bore only a cryptic title. Next, 
Billieanne gave him the Datasette. "Aha, 
a cassette recorder to go with the tape, 
but I have a cassette recorder and this 
one doesn't have a speaker or a micro- 
phone and has a very strange cord com- 
ing out of the back of it." Another quick 
diversion, he has to be catching on by 
now-an entire box of blank cassettes. 

Now it was time to find out what was 
in the big box. We all held our breath, 
waiting for a reaction. Why is it that 
when everyone is on pins and needles it 
takes forever to get a package open? The 
moment was indeed climactic. I don't 



think I have ever seen a bigger smile on 
my father's face! 

It took a few minutes to get everything 
set up, including my "broken" TV Jon had 
"repaired". When it was ready. Dad was 
instructed to type LOAD. After about a 
minute when the READY prompt return- 
ed we told him to type RUN. The compu- 
ter sprang to life with a Christmas tune 
and the screen lit with an electronic Christ- 
mas tree, complete with flashing lights! 
Finally a message scrolled across the top of 
the screen, "Merry Christmas Dad, from 
Mom, Billieanne, Jon and Jimmy. ..." 
Plan A was complete, and Dad's VIC had 
some personalized initials etched in its 
electronics forever. 

You can make it a very special 
Christmas for someone just as easily. 
Commodore has done all the hard work, 
you just have to add the initials. This year, 
prices on all of the Commodore products 
are even more attractive. You can put 
together a completely functional system 
for under $200 for a VIC-20, or about 
$300foraC-64. 

Each machine has its own merits. I 
have both and like each of them for very 
different reasons. The graphics on the 
VIC are very clear, but the screen is only 
22 characters wide. In my Dad's case, the 
larger size of the letters is a plus. The 64 
looks more like a real computer on the 
screen, but does not exhibit the same 
crispness in display, particularly when used 
with a television set rather than a moni- 
tor. There is no need for memory expan- 
sion with a 64, whereas the VIC-20 user 
soon finds the need for some additional 
bytes. 

The options are many, and obviously 
you can tailor any of the suggested pack- 
ages to the needs of your special reci- 
pient. However, I dostrongly suggest that 
you keep it simple. Not everyone enjoys 
computers or feels comfortable with 
them. Besides, half the attraction of buy- 
ing a basic system is being able to buy 
add-ons as gifts for birthdays and other 
special occasions. 

In the case of the VIC, additional 
memory (16K) and a programmer's 
reference guide are the best additions. 
Next a printer is recommended. As a per- 
son progresses to more complex pro- 
gramming it becomes very frustrating 
trying to debug a program on the screen! 
The 1525 printer, recently reduced in 
price, does a fine job for general printing. 
Do nor expect quality suitable for sending 
a letter to the President, but it will be 
completely acceptable for most general 
correspondence. A letter quality machine 



is a big investment. There are some alter- 
natives as covered in my article, "VIC Let- 
ter Quality Printing On a Budget" which 
appeared in the November issue. 

The last two major additions I recom- 
mend are a 1 541 disk drive and/or a color 
monitor. The joys of a disk drive become 
readily apparent. The ease and speed of 
access alone make it a very nice invest- 
ment. A color monitor is a must for some- 
one who plans to do a lot of graphic 
work, or loves playing games. The Com- 
modore monitor is one of the best 
around. 

For those interested in the C-64, there 
is an immediate saving in that no extra 
memory is needed. Additional graphic 
capabilities are present, and the potential 
of the sound chip is amazing. Be fore- 
warned that these features are not all 
that simple to grasp, and the "user 
friendly" software to make them easy to 
use is just now coming on the market. 
Don't expect your new computer owners 
to be anything but frustrated with these 
features unless they are experienced pro- 
grammers and are good at digging out 
information, and sometimes even just 
guessing! 

Don't forget ail of the obvious extras 
that make nice stocking stuffers . . . 
blank tapes, paper for the printer, extra 
ribbons, a dust cover perhaps, a subscrip- 
tion to COMMANDER (I had to get in the 
commercial!), programmers aid cartridge, 
specialized software of interest to your 
giftee . . . The list goes on and on. 

For those interested, the Christmas 
greeting program I referred to earlier is 
available on tape V0 for the VIC only from 
the folks at Public Domain Software, 
5025 South Rangeline Road, West 
Milton, Ohio 45383. They offerthree col- 
lections on either tape or disk for the 
VIC-20, titled V0, VI, and V2. For the 64 
two sets a re offered ,C1,andC2.Eachset 
is only $10 and each is well worth the 
price. Not every program will be of inter- 
est-some of them even have bugs in the 
them, but each set is an excellent collec- 
tion for the price. 

I strongly recommend that you have 
someone familiar with computers test 
out all of the hardware and software that 
you purchased. Software has been 
known all too often notto load on Christ- 
mas morning. Hardware has been 
known to come out of the box broken. 
Avoid this possibility by checking it out 
before Christmas. 

It's easy to make it a very special Christ- 
mas for someone special in your life. I 
hope this helps you to put a big smile on 

Continued on page 45 



© 



BAS1£, 



flS»» 



■SSSS* 






JibyAndy VanDuyne'. 



Perhaps one of the areas to be most 
greatly affected by the 'Computer 
Revolution' is education. The machines 
offer exciting possibilities that were un- 
dreamed of only a few years ago. In the 
rush to develop software for the educa- 
tional field, however, several poor quality 
programs have been produced. The fun- 
damental problem seems to be that- 
much of the software was written by 
either: 

1. Computer Programmers who 
didn't know much about teaching. 

2. Teachers who didn't know much 
about Computer Programming. 

The aim of this column is to share ideas 
and techniques to help you write more 
effective BASIC educational programs for 
your Commodore computer. To illustrate 
the concepts and techniques discussed, 
programs will be included that you can 
copy and modify. And don't get the idea 
that if you don't teach in a school you 
won't find things of value. More and 
more of your child's education will be oc- 
curring right in the home. 

The techniques I will share with you 
have been developed through actual 
school use and are not from some dusty 
education theory book. In the several 
years that I have been writing educa- 
tional programs, teachers and students in 
my own and other districts have returned 
excellent and, when needed, critical 
feedback as to what works and what 
doesn't. Believe this — if a way can be 

44/Commander December 1983 



found to thwart a program's coding or 
intention, it will be discovered in about 
two minutes by the toughest critics you'll 
find: the kids themselves. 

Several installments of BASIC EDUCA- 
TION will center on 'kid-proofing' your 
software so that your innocent four year 
old won't cause your masterpiece to 
come crashing to a halt at the second 
answer. Others will deal with selecting in- 
put techniques (the full keyboard, a few 
selected keys, the space bar, or how 
about those big buttons on the right side 
of the VIC and C-64?). We'll also examine 
reward systems and reaction to in- 
put-one of the most important con- 
siderations when writing programs for 
kids. How do you reward right answers, 
and to what degree? How do you design 
program reaction so that the result of 
correct input is more entertaining than 
that for an incorrect response? Which 
type of rewards are appropriate-keep- 
ing score, making sounds, animation and 
graphics, or combinations? What con- 
siderations should you use when setting 
up the screen? The organization of the 
visual display is also a very important con- 
sideration when designing children's 
software. 

The first few columns will deal with 
several commonly used "styles" of 
educational programs: Drill and Practice, 
Tutorial, Quiz, and Simulation. Each style 
has advantages and drawbacks depen- 
ding on what type of material you are try- 



ing to present and what type of ex- 
perience you wish the child to have. 

DRILL AND 
PRACTICE PROGRAMS 

Our discussion of educational program 
types will start with the most common 
variety, Drill and Practice. Essentially, a 
program of this type presents a number 
of problems based on one (or, at the 
most, a very few) objectives. The user of 
the program offers solutions to the pro- 
blems, which are scored, evaluated, or 
rewarded according to the accuracy of 
the response. This is the most common 
type of educational program, probably 
because it is the easiest to program. A 
limited set of parameters can be 
established by the programmer, and the 
computer can do the actual formulation 
of the specific problems-something it 
can do indefinitely. 

Drill and Practice programs have many 
critics, most of whom believethatsimple, 
one objective programs are a waste of 
the interactive learning potential of the 
computer. Often the programs are early 
attempts by beginning programmers, or 
those with limited educational ex- 
perience. They often succumb to two 
great pitfalls common to early efforts; 
i.e., either the programmer has such 
limited ability that the program ends up 
lifeless and dull, leading to the ultimate 
boredom and frustration of the student, 
or, in an effort to really liven up' things, 

Continued on page 49 



Continued from page 43 

someone's face. Merry Christmas and 
Happy Computing in the New Year! 

RECOMMENDED SYSTEMS 

VIC-20 

$200 System 

VIC-20 $80 

Model 1530 Datasette $60 

Used Black and White TV 

Introduction to Basic I $25 

Public Domain Software $30 

$300 System -as above plus: 
16K Memory Expansion $50-$75 
Programmer's Reference Guide $17 
Introduction to Basic II $25 

$600 System -as above plus: 
1525 Printer $250 
Model 1600 Modem $60 

$1,000 System -as above plus: 

1541 Disk Drive $250 

Black and White Monitor $150 

$1500 System -as above plus: 
Model 1701 Color Monitor $250 
Additional memory $50-$75 
Expansion Board $30-5150 



Commodore 64 

$300 System 

C-64 $200 

Model 1530 Datasette $60 

Used Black and White TV 

Introduction to Basic I $25 

Public Domain Software $20 

5600 System-as above plus: 
1525 Printer $250 
Model 1600 Modem $60 
Programmer's Reference Guide $20 

$1,000 System -as above plus: 

1541 Disk Drive $250 

Black and White Monitor $150 

$1500 System-as above plus: 
Model 1701 Color Monitor $250 
Machine Language Monitor $30-$100 
Assorted accessories from below 

Additional Recommendations: 

Subscription to COMMANDER! 

Programmer's aid cartridge 

Additional Software 

Dust covers 

Tape or Disk Storage unit 

Extra tapes or disks 

Joystick/paddles 

The charts are based on average prices at 
the time of writing, and are suggested 
systems only. Within the suggested guide- 
lines there is plenty of room for substitu- 
tions and exchanges depending on the in- 
terests of the person receiving the gift. 



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Cirde No 95 



Commander December 1 9S3 /45 



l\\«* s 



VfOt** 






^~ By Co//n Thompson ! 



777LE: 



FORMAT: 

PRICE: 

LANGUAGE 

MODEL: 

AUDIENCE: 



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$350.00 



SUMMARY: 



SOURCE: 



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VIC and C-64 

Anyone needing a 

reliable disk drive 

A high quality 1541 

compatible disk 

drive 

Micro-Systems 

Development 

11 105 Shady Trail, 

Suite 103, Dallas, 

Texas 75229 

Excellent 

Fast, reliable and 

accurate 

90 days 

I am occasionally plagued by gremlins in 
my computer. They come and go as if their 
trips to my system were orchestrated by 
the Malfunction Junction Travel Agency. 
A couple of months ago the Agency's bus 
dropped off a small gremlin family inside 
my 1540 disk drive. Apparently the family 
liked the exotic location so much that they 
have taken up permanent residence. 

The Commodore drive had served me 
well for nearly two years. Previous gremlin 
field trips had lasted but a few days at a 
time and the little devils had been evicted 
with comparative ease. The latest group 
seems to be Raid proof, so I've arranged 
an exorcism at my local repair shop. 

46/Commander December 1983 



The timing of these gremlins' visits is 
very bad. Commodore has finally taken 
some drastic steps to correct the 1 541 's 
high infant mortality rate by removing 
them from the dealer's shelves. Since 
Commodore's answer to the 1541 pro- 
blems, the fabled 1542, has not been 
released as of this writing in earfy October, 
I have sought disk salvation from another 
source. THE MSD DISK DRIVE. 

While on a trip to Dallas this summer I 
visited the manufacturing plant of Micro- 
Systems Development. The highlight of 
the plant tour was a small workshop 
where four engineers were working on 
the prototype of a 1 541 -compatible disk 
drive. The men were filled with en- 
thusiasm about the project and promised 
me a working sample for evaluation. 
Three months later the sample arrived in 
the midst of my latest round of gremlin in- 
festation. The MSD drive was a welcome 
sight and was pressed into service im- 
mediately. At this point I've given the new 
drive a month's hard work and am quite 
pleased with the results. 

A SUPER DRIVE? 

Yes. Commodore has some real com- 
petition here. The MSD drive is completely 
compatible with the VIC, C-64 and Pet 
systems. It is a direct replacement for the 
1 540 and 1 541 drives. No special interface 
cards or wiring modifications are 
necessary. To use the drive you need only 
to plug it into the wall and connect the 
serial bus cable to the computer. You can 



add the MSD drive as a second disk drive 
on the system also. It works with another 
1541 as device 9. 

OK- it's compatible, but why is it better? 
The MSD drive is a REAL disk drive, not a 
stripped down imitation. The mechanical 
part of the drive is the highly reliable T.E.C. 
single side, half-height drive with exten- 
sive electronic error correction and motor 
speed control circuitry. This combination 
of superior mechanics and electronics 
results in an overall speed improvement. 
The "intelligent" part of the drive is a 
printed circuit card which communicates 
with the computer and keeps track of 
you r data on the diskette. These f u nctions 
are accomplished with the help of a 
651 1 Q microprocessor chip. 

CHIPS AND DIPS 

The 1 540/41 uses a 6502 microproces- 
sor chip and two 6522 VIA chips to handle 
the communication chores. The MSD 
Super Disk's 651 1Q seems to have a big 
advantage over the 6502/6522 combina- 
tion - speed. You will see the speed when 
you NEW a disk for the first time. The 1 541 
takes about 80 seconds for that task. The 
MSD NEWs a diskette in only 17 seconds. 
That's a good example of how much 
faster the MSD accomplishes internal 
operations. The drive finds (seeks) tracks 
faster and needs fewer revolutions to read 
data from the track. This could mean an 
improvement of as much as 20 percent in 
retrieval times. 

Continued on page 72 



Tax 
Pack 



I designed Taxpack so 
you could do something 
really practical with your 
VIC 20. 

Peter Lambert, MBA 
Vice-President, 
Product Development 
Cosmopolitan Software 







■H • 




Mfe^ 



Taxpack 

Powerful income tax computing 
software specially designed for 
the VIC 20. 



Now you can use your VIC 20 to 
perform all the calculations on your 
Canadian Tl general tax form. 
Taxpack guides you easily through 
every aspect of the form with 
friendly prompts and a 
comprehensive instruction manual. 
This new software is available on 
cassette tape and will run on the 
standard 3.5k memory in your 
VIC 20 home computer.* 
Taxpack lets you tackle your income 
tax form at your own pace. A 
convenient save-and-restore 
function lets you record and review 
historical results. Professional 
editing features assure easy and 
accurate data entry. Taxpack puts 
the power of tax modelling and 
planning for subsequent years in 
your hands, today. 

Many happy returns 

Because you can calculate and 
preview more tax scenarios with 
Taxpack than you'd have the 
patience or the time to do manually, 
rhis software can help you save tax 
dollars. Custom-tailored to the 





Canadian Tl general form, Taxpack 
will be updated every year to reflect 
changes in the government's income 
tax regulations. Innovative program 
design allows us to update Taxpack 
within days of the new Tl's 
availability. 

Special introductory offer 

Order early and j;et your Taxpack for 
only Sig.95. 1 That's a ten dollar 
saving off our regular retail price of 
$29.95. If you're giving Taxpack for 
Christmas, we'll send you a special 
gift card to put under the tree. 
To use your Visa or Mastercard, 
phone us toll free; or, send your 
checjue or money order with the 
handy mail-order form attached. 
We'll confirm your order by return 
mail. Your up-to-date Taxpack 
cassette and manual will be shipped 
within 15 days of the release of the 
1983 Tl general form. 

*Tnc t'oisette also includes an cspantkd itrsion of 
Tanpack uith enhanced display features, fut the 
VIC 20's vith 8k+ memory expansion. 



To order with Visa or Mastercard 
call us toll-free: 

l-800~268~6364 

(from B.C., call 112-800.j68-6.564> 



Satisfaction Guaranteed 

We guarantee that you will find 
Taxpack an excellent software value. 
If you are not totally satisfied, drop 
us a note to say why, and return the 
product post paid to us within 10 
days for a full refund of the 
purchase price. 



I Want Taxpack! 

Please send me 



-Taxpacks @ $29.95 



Discount $10 per unit for orders before Dec 31, 1983 

Subtotal 
Nova Scotia residents only, add 10% Sales Tax 
Add $2 per unit shipping and handling charges 

Total 



$^ 
-$- 

$- 
+ S- 
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•x 



My Name 


Address 


City 


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Postal Code 


Telephone 





□ I am buying Taxpack as a gift. Please send me a gift card. Attached please 

find the name and address of the person(s) to receive Taxpack. 

Make Cheaue or Money Order pajaole to: 

Cosmopolitan Software Services Limited 

and mail u'ith this order form to: 

Box 953 Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 3Z6 Attn: Order Desk 



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Continued from page 44 

faulty evaluation/reward systems are us- 
ed that distract the user from the main 
purpose of the program. 

Many educators, however, can use 
well-written Drill and Practice programs 
very effectively. For example, armed with 
a battery of math software covering a 
wide range of objectives, a teacher can 
provide individuals in a class with as 
much (or as little . . .) practice as they need 
for mastery of a multitude of discrete 
concepts. 

To develop a Drill and Practice pro- 
gram, you must first know exactly what 
objective(s) wiil be studied. A system for 
problem synthesis must then be formed. 
Wiil the program randomly create pro- 
blems (very easify done in math)? Will a 
limited number of problems be drawn 
from DATA included in the program? 
Maybe the program will draw data from 
a tape or disk file. (This method, by the 
way, allows one program to offer prac- 
tice on many objective levels by accessing 
several files). The main point is: define 
which objective(s) shall be dealt with, 
how the material is to be presented, and 
how the responses will be evaluated. 
Then construct a program that sticks to 
the plan, and can still be interesting to 
use. The program should also help the 
student recognize mistakes and give op- 
portunities for correction. Ideally, the stu- 
dent's performance will improve with 
each program run. 

"TIMES TABLES" 

If the performance reaches perfection, 
then it's time to move to the next difficul- 
ty level, included here are VIC and C-64 
versions of "Times Tables". As you might 
surmise from the rather mundane title, 
this is a multiplication drill. The objective, 
stated in my best educationese is as 
follows: 
The user will solve all problems in the 
multiplication tables for the numbers 
to 9 when the problems are presented 
in random order. 
This objective is at a higher level than 
reciting the times tables in order, but at a 
lower level than multiplying double digit 
numbers (1 and greater). To meet these 
specifications, the user must be 
presented with 1 00 problems, covering 
each problem from 8*0 to 9*9 in ran- 
dom order. The method used here in- 
volves creating all 100 problems at the 
beginning of the RUN in lines 105-120, 
and storing the values in a two- 
dimensional array set up in line 20. This 
method supplies numbers between 1 
and 10, which are rectified to the correct 



range in line 1 30. The same array is also 
used to store any problems that are miss- 
ed in the first round. The first section, giv- 
ing all 100 problems the first time, is in 
lines 200-220. Since 100 problems in a 
row can get pretty boring, a "Time Out" 
routine at line 800 is occasionally called. 
A little music never hurt, and the break 
helps users concentrate better on the full 
battery of problems. Should the student 
correctly answer all the problems the first 
time, the program goes to the ending 
routine. If any problems were missed, the 
student is told how many were correct 
the first time (245) and the second try at 
those missed begins (300-330). If the pro- 
blems are answered correctly this time, 
the program goes to the end. if some 
were still missed, they are slowly printed 
on the screen with their answers, with 
the user (and teacher?) being advised of 
which problems could stand review. At 
the end the student is given the oppor- 
tunity eithertoquit the program orto run 
it again. 

There are no substantial differences 
between the VIC and C-64 versions, 
other than instructions concerning the 
different screen sizes and music ad- 
dresses. The extra memory in the C-64 
could be used to add features to the pro- 
gram, such as hardcopy reporting, 
changing difficulty levels to match 
achievement, or routines to store perfor- 
mance data to disk or tape. Future sug- 
gestions in this column may prompt you 
to add or change features as you see fit. 

Try "Times Tables" on your little multi- 
pliers. You might also want to make some 
changes to have versions for your little ad- 
ders or subtracters or dividers. Just keep 
your objectives in mind, and don't frus- 
trate them with material that is too diffi- 
cult for them. Any insights and ideas you 
may have on any of the topics discussed 
here will always be appreciated, so please 
don't hesitate to send them in. As men- 
tioned earlier, one of the most important 
uses of computers is in education, and one 
of the most rewarding things that you, as 
an interested programmer, can do is to 
write programs that will let kids ex- 
perience the joy of learning. 

(Program on page 1 08) 




SEE US AT 

world of 

commodore 

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE, TORONTO 
DEC. B.11. -I9B3 

Commander December 1983/49 




Dear Mr. Rotenberg: 

I have just recently purchased a Com- 
modore 64 computer, and at the time I 
bought a copy of the August 1983 issue 
of Commander magazine. 

In going through the magazine I ran 
across your article "An Introduction to 
Finances". I am very interested in the pro- 
grams that were part of your article, and I 
immediately put them on tape so I could 
use them. Unfortunately, I could not get 
programs #6 or #7 to work at all. The 
computer kept coming up with "bad 
subscript" in both programs. 

I wonder if there was a misprint in the 
article, or if ! am doing something wrong. 
I would appreciate any help you might 
give me on this matter. 

Robert A. McDermott 



Dear Mr. McDermott: 

I am glad that my article "An Introduc- 
tion to Finances" was of interest and help 
to you. In answer to your q ues tions about 
the errors you are getting in program #6 
and #7 / offer this response: 

SO/Commander December 1983 



The only part of the program that the 
C-64 might not like is a statement such as 
line 100 of program #6. This line reads 
100 INPUT"principal";p. Sometimes the 
C-64 will not accept a statement like that 
especially if it is over 40 characters long. 
This is not a fault of the program and the 
fix for it is as follows: Take any input state- 
ment in that format and make it into two 
statements. The first would be line 100 
PRINT "principal". The second would be 
line 105 INPUT p. By separating this into 
two sta temen tsyou will no longer get the 
possible "redo from start error" that 
some people may experience. Regarding 
the error you said you were getting (bad 
subscript), I would have to say that you 
must be en tering something wrong since 
the programs do not use any subscripted 
variables, 

I have checked the magazine and the 
program listing is correct. You may want 
to read the part of the article that asks 
you to remove the code that sets the win- 
dow for the 8032 in program #7, 
althought it will not harm the program 
on the C-64 even if left in. 

Howard Rotenberg 



Dear Sirs: 

It was early in February, 1983 when I 
first purchased COMMANDER and 
telephoned Colin Thompson about the 
VIC. His enthusiasm sent me to a local 
store for my first personal computer. I 
was off and crawling. 

Well to make a short common story 
shorter, I am now well past the game 
stage and anxiously saving $100 biils to 
buy a good printer, disc drive {not a 1 541 ), 
Data base, word processor, and spread 
sheet +40-80 column card. Colin has 
been of tremendous assistance in all 
these areas. 

Your monthly journal, along with other 
publications has been a great help to my 
quickly moving into the VIC and feeling 
comfortable enough that I may soon be 
able to earn some money with my new 
toy. 

Alan Williamson 




MicroSpec 

SOFTWARE MEANS 

BUSINESS FOR THE 

COMMODORE 64 



When it's time to get serious, it's time to boot up 
MicroSpec business software. Our complete line 
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applications for your Commodore 64. From data 
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It's attention to detail that makes our packages 
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eliminate disk swapping. Other features like 
non destructive input routines really make 
our software easy to use. But all this doesn't 
restrict you. Pure random access file struc- 
ture maximizes your disk capacity and 
allows you to bring up any record for viewing 
in less than a second. 

In our efforts to put together the best pack- 
ages available, we worked on more than the 
software. We took the same approach with the 
documentation as the software. We made it com- 
plete and easily understood for the first time user. 
We even provide sample reports in many cases. 




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The Demonstration Package, which shows how 
each program runs, is available for $19.95. So, if 
you're serious about your 64, call or write for a 
complete brochure or go right down to your 
nearest computer retailer for a demonstration. 



WHEN YOU AND YOUR 64 ARE READY TO GET DOWN TO BUSINESS 

GIVE US A CALL 



Tlwm 




Circle No. 28 



P.O. BOX 863085 • PLANO, TX 75086 

(214) 867-1333 CommanderDecember1983/51 





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3EST-SELLI1 


^OUTTHERE^ 
HG PROGRAM 



WHERE is rr? 

Wherever it is, we want it. Maybe, just maybe, we're 
searching for your program, but we'll never find it 
unless you call us. 

It has to be good, though. Because we're The 
Software Guild'", an organization devoted to finding 
the very best microcomputer programs for packaging 
and distribution under the Soft-smith'" label. Hundreds 
of titles have already been licensed to the Softsmith 
library. But they're only the beginning. Ourgoal is to 
have the best program in major categories on every 



popular machine. Of course, we can't do it without you. 

If you're a program author or publisher, The 
Software Guild offers some distinct professional and 
monetary advantages. 

First, you devote your time to what you do best: 
programming. You can leave the manufacturing, 
packaging, documentation, distribution and customer 
service to us. 

Second, our revolutionary retail merchandising 
system will put your program before the public through 
the normal computer and software stores, plus record 
outlets, department stores, book shops, and more 
places where software has never before been available. 







.; 




Third, is royalties. Wider distribution means more 
substantial royalties. And, your Software Guild 
royalties start to accrue when the dealer makes his pur- 
chase in quantity, so you aren't left waiting while 
money trickles in. 

Fourth is flexibility. We do not insist on the 
exclusive rights to your program. You can deal with 
other publishers and distributors, or market your pro- 
gram yourself, while it is in Softsmith distribution. 

We know you're out there, working and dream- 
ing, and we want to help make your dream come true. 
Our full staff of professional evaluators are waiting to 
review your best-seller. 



So call us, wherever you are. 

Contact Regina Roberts at (415) 487-5200. 

Or write: 

The Software Guild 

2935 Whipple Rd. 

Union City, CA 94587 



The Software Guild" 

(415)487-5200 




Circle No. 117 






Quick Copy of C-64 Disks 




— By Noel Nyman and Larry Coats ^^^ 

This article describes a disk utility pro- 
gram for the Commodore 64/1541 Disk 
Drive that will make back-up copies of 
Program, Sequential, and User files using 
a single disk drive. The read and write 
routines are written in machine language 
for fast disk operation. Up to 134 disk 
blocks can be copied in one "pass". 
Several back-up disks of the same files 
can be created without re-reading the 
originals each time. 

To leave maximum RAM (computer 
memory) available to copy files, we've 
located the machine language routines 
above the normal BASIC memory area in 
the C-64. This is usually done using 
POKEs and DATA statements in the BASIC 
program. We chose a different method, 
since the DATA statements are unneces- 
sary once the program is running and 
"waste" a lot of space. 

First, type in the MACHINE LAN- 
GUAGE LOADER program, listing #1. 
Check the DATA statements carefully, 
since even one error may cause the pro- 
gram to crash later, or may give you bad 
copies. SAVE the program to disk (use any 
name for the program except ML DATA, 
which you'll use later), then RUN it. You 
should see the program name and a 
series of numbers flashing on the screen. 
If all goes well, you'll see the message 
"Program Loaded" after about thirty 
seconds. If there is a mistake in your DATA 
statements, an error message will direct 
you to the appropriate series of 
statements. 

54/Commander December 1983 



Once you've successfully RUN the 
Loader, you'll have two machine 
language programs in memory, one to 
read disk files and the other to write 
them. You need to SAVE these two pro- 
grams to be used with the copier pro- 
gram, but since they are located above 
normal BASIC memory, the usual SAVE 
command won't work on them without 
some modifications. Do the following 
EXACTLY as shown: 

Type CLR 

Hit RETURN 

Type (all on one line): 
POKE 43,0:POKE 44,193:POKE 
45,1 58:POKE 46,194 

Hit RETURN 
These commands clear all BASIC 
variables, then change the memory loca- 
tions that tell the C-64 where BASIC 
memory resides. 

Type SAVE "ML DATA",8 

Hit RETURN 
The SAVE command will now work 
because BASIC memory has been relo- 
cated to the machine language area. 
Both programs are saved at the same 
time. 

Once the SAVE is complete, reset the 
BASIC pointers to normal by typing SYS 
64738 (RETURN) or turning the 64 off 
and on again. 

Now type in the COPIER program, 
listing #2. This program prompts you 
through the copying processand calls the 
machine language programs when 



necessary. SAVE the program before 
RUNning it. 

When you RUN the Copier program, 
be sure the disk with ML DATA is in your 
disk drive. Once the program title and 
copyright notice appear on the screen 
you can remove the disk. 

You'll be shown your available buffer 
space and the approximate number of 
blocks of program you can copy. Place 
the disk with files you wish to copy in the 
drive and press RETURN. The program 
will ask for the first file name. Type in the 
name as it appears in the disk directory. If 
you misspell the name, the "File Not 
Found" message wiil appear and you'll 
be asked for the file name again. You can 
usethe "'"wildcard if you wish, but the 
asterisk will become part of the copy file 
name. 

Next you'll be asked for the file type: 
Program, User, or Sequential. Type the 
appropriate letter and hit RETURN. The 
cursor flashes over the letter "P," so if 
you're copying a program just hit 
RETURN. 

The computer will copy the file, then 
ask if you want to copy more files. You 
can change disks at this point if you wish, 
they type "Y" to continue copying. You 
can do this until you've copied 24 files or 
you exceed the 134 block memory 
limit.To write the copied files to a new 
disk, type "N" in response to the prompt 
for more files or just hit RETURN instead 
of typing a file name. 




Cyberworld, the science fiction adventure challenges you to accomplish the missions of the CYBERLEAGUE. You must 
infiltrate a Drokon warship by moving through the ship's corridors via joystick while dodging death. The entire sequence is in 
stunning 3D! Then you must steal the ship and fly through alien-ridden guadrants of space as you return to CYBER where you 
must fend off the Zaxxars with laser cannon and quick reflexes. And there is more as the action moves to Deep Space! 

Suggested retail price: $49.95 • We accept check, money order or VISA/MASTERCARD. 

AVAILABLE ON DISKETTE ONLY • DEALER AND DISTRIBUTOR INQUIRIES INVITED 

Buy other fine Progressive Peripherals S. Software products at your local deafer, or order directly: 

Progressive Peripherals & Software • 2189 S. Holly St., #2, Denver, Colorado 80222 

ORDER HOTLINE: (303) 759-5713 

® Commodore 64 is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines. 




FLIGHT SIMULATOR GAMES 



Sky Pilot (8K VIC-20) $18.00 

Runway 20 (1 6K VIC-20) $25.00 

Runway 64 (Commodore 64) $25.00 

Micro-Pilot (EPSON HX-20) $18.00 

ADD $2 00 FOR DISK VERSION 



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8K VIC-20 or Commodore 64 $25.00 

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(312)394-5165 ccieNo m 



The computer will ask you to place the 
output disk in the drive and hit 
RETURN.(The disk must be properly in- 
itialized before using this program. 
Check your 1541 Disk Drive manual.) 
Then as each file is copied its name will 
appear on the screen. When all files have 
been transferred to the new disk, you'll 
be asked if you want more copies of 
these same fifes. If you're making several 
back-up disks, type "Y" and insert the 
next disk. 

The last prompt will ask if you want to 
make more copies of different files. If you 
type "Y" the computer memory will be 
cleared and you can copy another 134 
blocks. When you type "N" to this prompt 
you'l! exit the copier program. 

If there is any problem reading or 
writing the file copies, an error message 
will appearand the program will stop. The 
most common errors are trying to write to 



an unformatted disk, writing to a disk with 
a write-protect tab in place, or trying to 
write a file to a disk that already has a file 
with the same name. If you want to save a 
program that has the same name as one 
already on the disk, use the RENAME disk 
command to change the name of one of 
the files before using the Copier program. 
We think you'll find this utility fast and 
easy to use for making back-up copies of 
your disk files. 












X 


h 




LISTING 1 


10 PR 


MTCHR*U47> " CFVj MfiCHINE LANGUAGE LOADER " 


20 PR TNT" t 
25 Si=0 
30 FOR !<=1 


3D3 PLEASE WAIT" 


TO 172: READ D : POKE X + 49 4-07 , D i SI =S1+D 


40 X* 


-STR* 


<X) :PRINT"a-IM} ECD3 CCD> CCD3 CCDJ CCDJ CCD!) " ; SPC (20-LEN < Xf) ) : " " ; X'fl :NEXT 


4-5 IF 

A "7 <I"i 


.SK.>23377 THEN PRINT "ERROR IN 30000 DATA STATEMENTS ": END 


50 FOR X = l 


TO 154: READ DiPOKE X+49663. D: S2=S2+D 


60 X* 


-STR'li 


(X) :PRINT" CHMJ rCD} CCD> CCD'J XD> ■CCD3 CCDJ " s SPC (20-LEN (X*) ) : " " ; X* : NEXT 


bS IF 


S2O213&0 THEN PRINT "ERROR IN 40000 DATA STATEMENTS" : END 


70 PRINT" { 


HTO CGD3 CCDKCD: CCDJICD} CCDI " : SPC aO) : "PROGRAM LOADED" 


SO END 




472 »' 






30000 


DATA 


32.204,255, 169.2, 162,3. 160,2,32. 186,255, 173,0, 192. 162 


30010 


DATA 


1. 160. 192.32. 109,255,32, 192,255, 144 „ 9, 1 4 1 , 47, 192, 1 69. 1 


30020 


DATA 


234.76, 164. 193,32, 133,255.201.0, 240,9, 1 4 1 , 47, 192, 169. 2 


30030 


DATA 


234,76, 164. 193, 162.2,32, 193.255. 144,9,141,47, 172. 169.3 


30040 


DATA 


234,76, 164, 193. 169.0, 141,54. 192,141.55, 192, 173,48, 192, 133 


30050 


DATA 


251. 173,49, 192, 133,252. 160,0,32.207.255. 170, 173.54. 192.205 


300.': 


DATA 


52. 1 92 . 20S . 1 4 . 1 73 . 55 . 1 "2 . 205 , 53 , 1 92 . 203 , 6 , 1 69 , 4 , 234 , 76 


30070 


DATA 


164, 193,238,54, 192,203,3,233,55. 192.138,145,251,200.208.2 


3009 


DATA 


230,252,32, 133,255,201.0.240.207.201,64.240,9, 141.47, 192 


30090 


DATA 


169.5,234,76. 164. 193, 169.2,32, 195,255,32.204.255. 169,0 


30100 


DATA 


141. 46, 192,96. 141 ,46, 192, 169.0, 133, 144, 96 


40000 


DATA 


32,204.255. 169, 2, 162. B, 160, 2. 32. 136,255, 173,23. 192, 162 


40010 


DATA 


24, 160. 192. 32, 139,255.32, 192,255, 144, 9, 1 41 , 47 , 192 , 169, 6 


40020 


DATA 


234,76, 164, 193,32,183,255,201,0,240,9, 141,47. 192, 169.7 


40030 


DATA 


234.76, 164, 193, 162,2.32,201,255, 1 44, 9. 1 4 1 , 47, 192, 169,8 


40040 


DATA 


234,76, 164, 193, 169,0, 141.56, 192, 14 1.57. 192, 173.43, 192, 133 


4 0050 


DATA 


251, 173,49, 192, 133,252, 160,0, 177,251,32,210,255.32, 133,255 


40060 


DATA 


201 ,0.240.9, 141,47, 192, 169,9.234,76, 164. 193.233.56, 192 


40070 


DATA 


208,3,233,57, 192, 173,56, 192,205.54, 192,203.3, 177,57. 192 


40080 


DATA 


203,55, 192.24 0,7, 200,208, 20B, 230, 252.208,204, 169.2,32. 195 


4- 0090 


DATA 


255,32.204.255, 169.0, 141 . 46. 192,96 

Continued on page 58 



56/Commander December 1983 



- 




THE MASTER KEY 






unlocks the door to fhe Commodore 64 x 


)i 








• 


*v 




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■^ 


HRP?*^^H 




MmSBt 








7 

■ 


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^B 


Word Processing 
File Management 


^^ 






Home Finance 








Electronic Paintbrush 




Wl 


^m 


Terrestrial Game 


ifc**-^^ 


The Gorewoy ro Five Worlds 


1 29.95 










f III hid. 




^* - International Tri Miao 


If VJ 






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V 




Orange 


, CA 92667 


v 




714-771-4038 


1 


* 


* Circle No. 158 



Circle No. 154 




The Banner Machine 

For the Commodore 64 (4 extra fonts available). 
For the V1C-20 with 24K memory (3 extra font5 
available) * Use on any Gemini or Epson MX with 
Graft rax or the FX and RX printers Also Commo- 
dore 1525E and Ban-ana with the C-W_ • Menu- 
driven program operates like a word processor * 
Makes 519ns up to 13" tall by any length. * Makes 
borders of widths up to K" • a sizes of letters 
Yom Va" toS" hi$h- * Proportional spacing; Auto- 
matic centering,- Right and left justifyiris, • 549.95 
Tape or Disk (Specify computer equipment) 

For the Commodore 64: 

Space Raider An amazing arcade simulation Your 
mission is to destroy the enemy ships S19.95 
Super Roller Challenging dice game. Sprite graph- 
ics and sound. Vahtzee-style rules of play. 514.95 
Microbroker Exatmg, realistic and educational 
stock market simulation. S34.95 Tape or Disk 
Preschool Educatronar Programs ABC Fun; 123 fun, 
and Ginger the Cat with Addition and Subtraction, 
Number Hunt, and Letter Hunt. All programs have 
bright coJor, music, and action. Each $14,95 
Formulaior A scientific calculator for tasks which 
require repetitive arithmetic computations. Save 
formulas and numeric expressions. S3? -95 
Sprite Editor The easy way to create, copy, alter, 
and save up to 2£4 sprite shapes S24.95 
Cross Reference Generator for BASIC programs 
Locates Irnes with BASIC words or variable names 
and allows changes, and more 519 95 
VIC-90 Programs Also Available. Ask for Catalog. 

«© Cardinal Software 



-4 



Virginia Micro Systems 
13645 Jeff Davis Highway 
Woodb:idae. Virginia 22191 
Phone (703) 491-6S02 



VIC-20/C-64 

SAVE 

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GridderU/K) (14.96 (17.95 419.96 Ml .95 

Pinball Wizard (Kl 91496 117.95 

Utility File (plus 3K) (17.96 - (19.95 122.95 

Tenant File - (27.95 

Develop 20/64 M2.95 M6.95 (46.95 (50.95 

Spitemaster64 - - (29,95 «29.9S 

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Lazer Strike 64 - - (24.95 (27.95 

Card Print 20*4 (Cartridge) (63.96 

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58/Commander December 1983 



Continued from page 56 



LISTING 2 



198 IF X=8 THEN X=l .PRINT CHR*( 147) 'LOADING ML PRO 
GRAM": LOAD "ML DATA ",8,1 



118 PRINT CHRSC147)" 

Y" 

115 PRINT "<DWNXDWN> 

128 PRINT "<DWNXDWN> 



PROGRAM COPIER UTILIT 

BY LARRY COATS" 
(C) 1983" 

130 CLR:TP=PEEK(55)+256*PEEK<56) :BT=PEEK<45) +256*P 
EEK(46)+2880:3Z=TP-BT 

148 PRINT '<DWN>BUFFER SIZE " ;SZ ; "-" ;BT; "THRU" ;TP 
158 IF SZ<2008 THEN PRINT "<:DWNXRON>NQT ENOUGH BU 
FFER SPACE" SEND 

160 PRINT "<DWN>APPROXIMATE BLOCKS: " ; INTCSZ/254) 
170 HI=INT(BT/256) :L0=8T-256*HI :P0KE49218 ,L0:P0KE4 
9211, HI 

175 HI=INT(TP/256) :L0=TP-256*HI :P0KE49212,L0:P0KE4 
9213 S HI 

189 HI=INT(3Z/256) :L0=SZ-256*HI :P0KE49214,L0:P0KE4 
9215, HI 

135 HI=INT(BT/256) :L0=BT-256*HI :PQKE51 ,L0:P0KE52,H 
I : P0KE55 , LO : P0KE56 , H I : CLR 

198 DEF FNA<X)=PEEK(X)+256*PEEK(X+1) :DIM BT<25) ,NB 
<25) ,NI$<25) ,PGf(25) 

200 PRINT "<DWNXDWNX RON) INSERT SOURCE DISKETTE T 
HEN HIT RETURN" 
285 GET X$:IF Xt=" u THEN 205 

210 FZ=1:BT<1)=FNA<49218) :TP=FNA(49212) :S2=FNA(492 
14) 

220 POKE 49201, BT(FZ)/256:POKE49280 ,BT(FZ) -256SPEE 
KC49291) :P0KE49283,TP/256 

225 POKE49202,TP-256*PEEK(49283) :P0KE49285,SZ/256: 
POKE49204,SZ-256*PEEK( 49285) 

230 NI*(FZ)="":INPUT"<DWN><DWN>NAME OF INPUT FILE" 
;NI$(FZ) 

233 IF NI$CFZ)="" THEN FZ=FZ-1:G0T0 408 
235 IF LENCNI$<FZ>)>16 THEN PRINT "FILE NAME TOO L 
0NG":G0T0 239 

240 CL$=CHR$(157) : PR I NT "PROGRAM, USER OR SEQUENTIA 
L (P/U/S) P";CL$;CL$;CL*j 
245 INPUT P6t(FZ):IF PG*(FZK>"P" AND PG*<FZ)O u U H 

AND PG$(FZ)0 K S" GOTO 245 
247 GOSUB 1808 

259 CI*="0:"+NI$<F2)+","+PG*<FZ)+",R";CI=LEN(CI$) : 
P0KE49152,CI:F0R I=1T0CI 

255 P0KE49152+I ,ASC(MIDS(CI$, I , 1) ) :NEXT:SYS49488: I 
F PEEK(49198)=8 GOTO 265 

260 PRINT "CDWNXR0N>ERR0R IN FILE READ, RE-RUN PR 
OGRAM FROM START": GOTO 568 

265 NB(FZ)=FNA(49206) :BT(FZ+1)=BT(FZ) +NB(FZ) :SZ=SZ 
-NB(FZ) 



Continued on page 60 




*&%&* 






THAT'S 



MOB E 



wwfp* 



e^'we 






*A^ 






B* sl * w W \ . ... ,.««iu»8 e _:!; Q ene» 8W 






64 







Program Your Own EPROMS 



► VIC 20 

► C 64 

► PET 64 



$99.50 



promenade 



0) 

(3 
C 

E 



ID 



PLUGS INTO USER PORT 
NOTHING ELSE NEEDED 
EASY TO USE VERSATILE 

• Read or Program One byie or 
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OR Use like a disk drive. LOAD. 

SAVE. GET. INPUT. PRINT. CMD, 

OPEN. CLOSE— EPROM FILES! 

Our software lets you use familiar BASIC commands to 

create, modify, scratch dies on reaaily available EPROM 

chips Acids a new dimension to your computing capability 

Works with most ML Monitors too 

• The promenade C1 gives you 4 programming voltages. 
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algorithms. 15 bit chip addressing. 3 LEDs and NO 
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• Textool socket Anti-slaltc aluminum housing 

• Extension cable, cartridge PC boards, etc. at extra charge 

• Some EPROM types you can use with the promenade" 



2758 
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Circle No. 109 



SAIL YOUR COMMODORE 
INTO NEW HORIZONS 



■ask AM 

■ Programmers support tool 

■ Renumbe r all or part of a program 

• C ross reference any BASIC program 

• Produces automatic back-ups 

■ Renumbers all or part of a program 
■Merges 

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■ Finds and replaces 

■ One disk 

low price $29.95 

Koala Fad 

Simply stated, (he best new accessory 
made for the 64. It is a full graphics tablet 
which can be user programmed! Also 
opens many new applications, art and 
music possibilities. Includes the fantastic 
koala painter program on disk! 
price $75.00 

Alien Croup Voice Box 

|ust plug it in: Totally programmable from 
BASIC or use m, I. routines from disk which 
are included with demo. It has so much 
control it sings! 
price $85.00 



The Smart — 64 Ter m in a l 

Exploits every feature of you r C- 64! Go on 
line to public databases or university 
mainframes. Has user defined keys auto 
answer/auto diaJ for 1 6S0 modem, full file 
type conversions, unlimited download 
buffer and easy upload routines. The very 
best emulator! 
price S39.95 

Codewrtter 

Why write subroutines or data bases? The 

most fantastic item we've seen! A program 
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the screen you want by being prompted. 
The parameters codewrlter wil I the n write 
the sweetest stand along BASIC database 
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price $99.95 

The Best Available For The 



Sywe» 

1 he ultimate programming aid Extended 
dos support plus extended editor which 
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Over 700 find'change commands list any 
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Has m. I . monitors on board, 3 trace 
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In addition to the most powerful collection 
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anywhere, SAIL also carries a full line of 
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and support. 

Shippi ng will be add ed to al I o rders. 
We accept mastercard, visa or ship 
c.o.d. — Call or write! 



£t64 



SOFTWARE 



SAIL SOFTWARE 

532 Main St. 

PO. Box 2405 

Branford. Ct 0640S 

phone (203) 468 7414 

or evenings { 203 1 48 1 ■ 723 I 



Circle No. 144 



GLOUCESTER 
COMPUTER 

Tools for learning and 

dedicated applications 

programming. 



PRQMOJEEN Write code for most 
common 8-bit microprocessors, test it 
in circuit, and 
burn it on EP- 
ROM with this 
all-in-one mic- 
ro development 
system cart- 
ridge. Power- 
ful machine code editor provides com- 
prehensive ROHware development sup- 
port. Ideal for robotics, process control, 
game development. Commodore VIC-20 
host computer. Programs 2716, 2732. 
2758 EPROMS and similar EPROMS. 

$199.00 




FQ/'&L, all features of Promqueen less 
mimic mode. Software enhanced to in- 
clude EPROM QC utilities, RS-232 com- 
munication, printouts. 28 pin ZIF socket. 
Reads, edits 
runs and pro- 
grams all 5 volt 
2500 and 2700 
series EPROMS 
plus variety of 
EEPROMS all 
without per- 
sonality modules 
host computer. 
PQ/Bli RS pack performs RS-232 
voltage conversions for PQ/64 system. 

$49.00 




Commodore C-64 
$299.00 



Plug you; applications software into 
Commodore,'s,computers on Gloucester 
Computer ROM Packs. Our top quality 
ROM cartridges include 

- bypassing on 
all chips 

- low noise lay- 
out with ground 
plane 

- solder mask 
and gold plated edge connector 

- wave soldered assembly and solvent 
cleaning 

- DIP switch for address selection 
VIC-20 versions include model V-8 for 
two 2732 EPROMS and model V-16 for 4 
2732 EPROMS. C-64 versions include 
model C-16 for four 2732 EPROMS and 
model B-16 for two 2764 EPROMS. 




All products shipped with comprehen- 
sive documentation. Call our user hot- 
line 617-283-7719 or write for infor- 
mation: Gloucester Computer, 1 Black- 
bum Center, Gloucester, MA 01930. 



* 



Continued from page 58 



276 PRINT"<DWN>BYTES COPIED: " ;NB(F2) 
275 PR I NT "SPACE LEFT: ";SZ;" BYTES -" ; INT<S2/254) ; " 
BLOCKS" 

277 IF F2=24 THEN PRINT "<DWN>MAXIMUM 24 FILE LIMI 
T REACHED": GOTO 460 

280 PRINT"<DWN>ANOTHER INPUT FILE? CY/N) "; 
285 GET Xf:IF X*0"N" AND X$0"Y" GOTO 285 
290 PRINT X$:IF X*="Y" THEN F2=FZ+1:G0T0 220 
408 PRINT"<DWNXDWNXRON> INSERT OUTPUT DISKETTE TH 
EN HIT RETURN<ROFXDWN>" 
485 GET X$:IF X*="" GOTO 485 

410 FOR F=lTOFZ:CO$= u 0:"+NI$(F)+","+PGt(F)+",W":CO 
=LEN(CQf) 

415 P0KE4928 1 ,BT(F>/256:POKE49280 ,BT(F) -PEEKC4920 1 
)S256 

426 POKE49207 ,NB.CF) /256 : POKE49206 ,NB(F) -PEEK(49207 
)*256:P0KE49175,C0 
425 FQRI=1T0CQ:P0KE49175+I,ASCCMID$<CQ*,I,1)) :NEXT 

438 SYS 49664: IF PEEK(49198)=8 GOTO 440 
435 PRINT"<DWNXRON>ERRQR IN OUTPUT, RE-RUN PROGRA 
M FROM START": GOTO 560 

448 PRINT NIS(F)}" SUCCESSFULLY COPIED" :NEXT 
580 PRINT "<DWN>ANOTHER COPY OF THESE SAME FILES? 
(Y/N) " ; 

518 GET X*:IF X*=O n Y" AND X*<>"N" GOTO 519 
520 PRINT Xf:IF X$="Y" GOTO 488 
530 PRINT H <DWN>CQPY MORE FILES? (Y/N) " ; 
548 GET X$:IF X$=<>"Y" AND X$0"N" GOTO 540 
550 PRINT X*:IF X$="Y" GOTO 288 
569 L0=PEEK(49212) :HI=PEEK(49213> 
576 POKE 51,L0:P0KE 52,HI:P0KE 55,L0:P0KE 56,HI:CL 
R:END 

1008 0PEN15,8,15:0PEN2,3,2,NI$(FZ> : INPUT* 15, AA,AA* 
:CL0SE2: CLOSE 15 
1010 IF AA=8 THEN RETURN 

1028 IF AA=62 THEN PRINT"<DWN>FILE ";NI*<FZ);" NOT 
FOUND": GOTO 230 
1830 PRINT" <DWN>DISK ERROR, ";AA$":GOTO 269 




|Ol 



I 



• 24K MEMORY EXPANSION ,.„..».., 

Give your PET/CBM a boost to 32K ! 
Loaded with nifty features. Low, low power. 

•"Real World" SOFTWARE wwi 

Word Processor, Mailing List, Catalog, Ham Radio, Frequency Counter 

-i'OLPl' 8K_PETs _ 
• 2114 -TO- 6550 RAM ADAPTER 



| w i I I t - iu-ujuu nMiil f\u*\r I En (S12-S25) 
Replace 6550 RAMs with law cost 21 14s. Hundreds Sold! 

Lm, »4K MEMORY EXPANSION ists-sssi 

-jWffWftj Lovv cost memory expansion using 21 14s lor bigger programs. 



Prore«iioriii Pcoducti at Personal Prion 

OPTIMIZED DATA SYSTEMS 

Dept. O. P.O. Box 595 - Placentia, CA 92670 



CJISK-O-MATE trademark Optimized Data Srslems - PET/CBM trademark Commodore 



60/Commander December 1 983 



Circle No. 31 



Universal 
Software 



WISH 



LIST 



TITLE 



COST 



Neutral Zone (T/D) 


S27 9S 


Paper Clip (D) 


99 95 


Delphi Qncle (D) 


120 00 


Caic Result (easyl 


67 95 


Calc Result (advanced) 


127 95 


Choplitter [Can ) 


31 95 


Sea Fox (Can.) 


31 95 


Serpentine (Can.) 


31 95 


Bank Street Writer (D) 


56 95 


Lode Runner (D) 


27 95 


PractiCalc 64 |D) 


4395 


PracliCalc 64 (T| 


39 95 


Dome Business Syslem 


44 95 


The Home Accountant (D) 


56 95 


Household Finance (D) 


29 95 


Household Finance (T) 


25 95 


Loan Analyzer (D) 


1695 


Loan Analyzer (T) 


12 95 


Car Cost |D) 


16 95 


Car Cost (T) 


I2 95 


Home Inventory (Dl 


16 95 


Home Inventory (T) 


12 95 


Moon Dust (Can ) 


29 95 


Trashman (C) 


29.95 


Astroblitz (C) 


31 96 


Moon Shuttle (D) 


23 95 


Temple ol Apshai (D) 


29 95 


Upper Reaches ol Apshai 




(0) 


(4,95 


Curse ol Ra (D) 


14 95 


Jumpman (D/T] 


29 95 


Sword of Fargoal (D/T) 


23 95 


Crush. Crumble. Chomp 




(D/T) 


23 95 


Jumpman Jr (Can ) 


31 95 


Pit Stop (D) 


31 95 


Gateway to Apshai (D&C) 


31 95 


Luna Outpost (D/C) 


31 95 


Silicon Warrior (D/C) 


31 95 


Dragon Rider ot Pern(T/D) 


31 95 


Fun with Music (D/C) 


31 95 


Fun with Art (D/C) 


31 95 


Fax (D/T) 


31 95 


Startire/Fire One (C/D) 


31 95 


Pro Sports Stats (0) 


71.95 


Gndrunner (C) 


29 95 


HES Writer (C) 


37 95 


HES Mon (C) 


29 95 


HES Forth (C) 


47 95 


Turtle Graphics II (C) 


44 95 


Retro Ball (C) 


29 95 


Coco (D) 


37 95 


Ben|i s Space Rescue (D) 


35.95 


Attack of the Mutant 




Camels (C) 


27 95 


Omm-Caic (D) 


79 95 


Inlidel |D) 


39 95 


Enchanter (D) 


39 95 


Witness (D) 


39 95 


Planetfall (D) 


39 95 


Koala PaO w/Micro Hius 




Comm 64 


79 95 


Master Type (D) 


31 95 



TITLE 




and there's more! 
us toll-free 1-800-343-8019 
for our complete list. 



Weather War 1! |T) 


514 95 


Medicine Man |T) 


16 95 


Forced Encounter (Dl 


21 95 


Forced Encounter (T) 


18 95 


Zeppelin Rescue [Dl 


19 95 


Zeppelin Rescue (T) 


15 95 


3-D 64 Man (Ti 


14 95 


Word Pro 3 Plus (0| 


71 95 


Word Pro 3 Plus SdbII 




Right i0| 


79 95 


Spell Right (D) 


39 95 


Quick Brown Fox (C) 


55 95 


Writer s Asst |D| 


65 00 


Filing Asst |D] 


65 00 


Spread Sheel Asst (Di 


65 00 


Personal Finance Asst (D) 


50 95 


Pogo Joe (Di 


19 95 


Dunzhm (D) 


23 95 


Kaiv (D) 


23 95 


Wylde (D) 


23 95 


Ziggurat ID) 


23 95 


Asylum |D) 


23 95 


Playful Professor (D) 


19 95 


Ken Ustons Professional 




Black|ack (Dl 


55 95 


Mr Cool (C) 


27 95 


Frogger (D/T| 


27 95 


Hew Jawbreaker |D) 


23 95 


New Jawbreaker (C) 


27 95 


Crossfire (D) 


23 95 


Learning with Leeper(D/C| 


23 95 


Oil Wells (D/C) 


23 95 


Apple Spider Cider 


23 9d 


Lunar Leeper (D) 


23 95 


Sammy Lighlfoot (Di 


23 95 


Quest tor Fires (D) 


27 95 


Creepy Corridors (Dl 


23 95 


Threshold (D) 


23 95 


Color Craft (T) 


22 95 


Color Craft (D| 


26 95 


Fasl Eddie (Di 


26 95 


Turmoil ID) 


2625 


Squish Um (D) 


26 25 


Snake Byte (D) 


26 25 


Type Attack (Dl 


31 95 


Way Out (D) 


31 95 


Critical Mass (D) 


31 95 


Blade of Blackpool iD] 


31 95 


ReptDn (D) 


3195 


Bandits |D| 


27 95 


Meteor Madness |T| 


18 95 


Meteor Madness ID) 


21 95 


Kinder Comp (D) 


25 95 


Facemaker (0) 


29 95 


Hey Diddle Diddle (Dl 


25 95 


Alphabet Zoo (C) 


27 95 


Kids on Keys (C) 


27 95 


Up c or Grabs |C) 


31 95 


Cosmic Life (C) 


27 95 


Computer Baseball (D| 


31 95 


Night Mission Pmball (D) 


31 95 


Night Mission Pmball (C) 


23 95 


Fort Apocalypse (D/T) 


26 25 





This month 




we ship free anywhere in the U.S.A. 


TITLE 


COST 


TITLE 


COST 


Survivor lD/T| 


S26 95 


Research Assist (T) 


S29 95 


Protector II (T/D I 


27.95 


Research Assist (D) 


33.95 


Shamus (D) 


27 95 


Totl Business (D) 


79 95 


Touch Typing Tutor (T) 


14 95 


Juice (0) 


27 95 


Touch Typing Tutor (D) 


18 95 


Adventure Pack 1 (T) 


14.95 


Snakman (D) 


23 95 


Adveniure Pack 2 (T) 


14 95 


Snakman (T) 


19 95 


Grave Robbers (T) 


14.95 


Robbers ol the Lost Tomb 




Trek (T) 


12 95 


(T/D) 


18 95 


Annihilator (T) 


16.95 


Sprite Master (T/D) 


31 95 


Kongo Kong (T) 


18 95 


Enchanler (D) 


39 95 


Flight Simulator (D) 


27 95 


Wan Street (T/D| 
Money Manager (T/D) 


18 95 
18 95 


'HARDWARE* 


Data Manager |T/D| 


18 95 


Cardpnnl/a 


b/ y5 


nvenlory Management (Dl 


63 95 


Cardetle/1 


33 95 


Sales Analysis Manag (Di 
A/R Management & 
Invoicing (D| 


63 95 
63 95 


Cardwnter/I 
CardPoaro 5 Slot 
TG Joy Stick 


33.95 

56 95 
23 95 


A/P Management A 




Kraft Joy Stick 


15 95 


Checkwnting |D) 


63 95 


HES Modem 


63 95 


General Ledger (Dl 


63 95 


Printer Utility Pkg 


15 95 


Programmer Kit No 1 |D| 


19 95 


Key Pad 


31 95 


Electric Check Book (Di 


19 95 


* BOOKS* 




Presidential Campagne 




Elementary 64 


11 25 


(D/C) 


19 95 


Computer Playground 


7 95 


Dungeons of the Algebra 




Kids and the Commodore 64 


15 95 


Dragons (D) 


19 95 






Toti Text 2 6<T) 


34 95 






Totl Text 2 6 (D) 
Toll Label <T| 


38 95 
18 95 


T = Tape (or cassette) C = Cartridge 
D = Disk 


Totl Label (D| 


21 95 






Time Manager <.T) 


29 95 


Complete list available, please call 


Time Manager (D) 


33 95 


us 





TO ORDER Send certified checks. 
money orders, or use your Master 
Card or Visa Cards and call 1-800- 
343-8019. From inside New Hamp- 
shire call (603) 542-6175. Personai 
or company checks require two to 
three weeks to clear. All prices are 
subject to change without notice 



Please include S2 00 tor complete 
order For COD add additional 
S1.70. 2-day air (UPS) add S4.00 
FOREIGN ORDERS INCL CANADA. 
Please add S5 00 (US) Service lee 
and 10% ground and 15% by air 
Hours Monday thru Saturday 8 00 
to 10 00 Eastern Time 




Circle No. 123 

UNIVERSAL 
SOFTWARE 

The Best Software for Less 
P O Box 955 
Claremoni N H 03743 



CALL NOW • 1-800-343-8019 • TOLL FREE 



c 



OMMODORE 



64 



(mora power than Apple II at hall the pries) 



COMPUTER AND SOFTWARE 

CHRISTMAS SALE 



$99. 



50* 



• 170K DISK DRIVE S159.00 

• TRACTION FRICTION PRINTER S1 19.00 

( * with software savings applied) 



COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER S99.50 

You pay only $199.50 when you order the powerful 
B4K COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER! LESS the 
value ol the SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON we 
pack with your computer that allows you to SAVE 
OVER 1100 off software sale prices!! With only 
$100 of savings applied, your net computer cost is 
$99.50!! 

SOFTWARE BONUS PACK S29.95 

When you buy the Commodore 64 Computer from 
Protecto Enterprizes you qualify to purchase ONE 
SOFTWARE BONUS PACK lor a special price Of 
529.95!! Normal price is $49-95 (40 programs on 
disk or 24 programs on 5 tapes). 

170 DISK DRIVE $159.00 
You pay only S259.00 when you order the 170K 
Disk Drive! LESS the value of the SPECIAL SOFT- 
WARE COUPON we pack with your disk drive that 
allows you to SAVE OVER $100 oil software sale 
prices! 1 With only $100 of savings applied, your 
net disk drive cost is $15900. 

TRACTION FRICTION PRINTER 11 19.00 

You pay only $219.00 when you order the Com- 
star T/F deluxe tine printer that prints 8 V2 x 11 
lull size, single sheet, roll or fan fold paper, 
labels elc. 40. 66, 80. 132 columns. Impact dot 
matrix bi-directional. 80 CPS. LESS the value ol 
the SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON we pack 
with your printer that allows you to SAVE OVER 
$100 olf software sale prices!! With only $100 Ol 
savings applied your net primer cost is only 
$119.00. 

SO COLUMN BOARD $149.00 

You pay only $149.00 for this 80 Column Board. 
Included with this board is word processor pack, 
electronic spread sheet and mail merge data 
base on two tapes. List $249.00. {Disk add 
$10.00) 

SO COLUMN 
WORD PROCESSING PACKAGE $79.00 

SCRIPT 64 EXECUTIVE WORD PROCESSOR is 
the finest available tor the COMMODORE 64 
Computer! THE ULTIMATE for PROFESSIONAL 
wordprocessing application. DISPLAYS 80 COL- 
UMNS IN COLOR. Featuring simple operation, 
powerful text editing with a customized 250 
word dictionary, complete cursor and in- 
sert/delete key controls, line and paragraph in- 
sertion, automatic deletion, centering, margin 
settings and output to all printers. Included is a 
powerful MAIL MERGE When used with THE 
COMPLETE DATA BASE PACKAGE. List $99.00. 
Sale $79.00. Coupon Price $52.00. (Disk only). 



WE 
HAVE 

THE 

best! 

SERVICE 



WE 

HAVE 

THE 

LOWEST 

PRICES 



SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON 



We pack a SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON 


with every COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER- 


DISK DRIVE-PRINTER-MONITOR we sell! 


This coupon allows you 


to SAVE 


OVER 


$100 OFF SALE PRICES 


! $200-$300 sav 


ings are possible!! , 


example) 




PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE 


COMMODORE64 




Hhm 


Lill 


Coupon 


Executive Word Processor 


S99 0C 


$52 00 


Complete Data Base 


{39 00 


$46.00 


Electronic Spreadsheet 


$89.00 


$46 00 


Accounting Pack 


$69 00 


$32 00 


Total 5.2 Word Processor— Plus 






Tape 


169 00 


$37 00 


Disk 


179 95 


$42 00 


Total Text 2 6 Word Processor- 






Tape 


$*4 95 


126 00 


Disk 


$49 95 


$26 00 


Total LaMt 2 6 


J24.95 


$1200 


Disk 


$29 95 


$15 00 


Quick Brown Fox Word 






Processor 


169 00 


$40 00 


Programmers Reference 






Guide 


$20.05 


$1250 


Programmers Helper 


$69 00 


$4000 


BasicTutor 


$29 95 


$15 00 


Typing Teacher 


$29 95 


$1500 


Sprite Designer 


SI695 


$1000 


Medicinemen 


$1995 


$1200 


Weather War II 


$1995 


$1200 


Music-Maker 


$19.95 


$1200 


EDUPack 


$24.95 


J13O0 


3D Maze Craze 


$2495 


$13 00' 


Professional Jay Slick 


$2495 


$12 00 


Light Pen 


$39 95 


$20 00 


Deluxe Dust Cover 


$ 8.95 


$ 460 


(and many other 


ttcms) 




Write ores 


I tor 




Sample SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON! 









PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS SOFTWARE 
EXECUTIVE QUALITY BY TIME WORKS! 

The Cadillac of business programs 
for Commodore 64 Computers 



Item 


List 


■SALE 


Inventory Management 


S89.00 


$69.00 


Accounts Receivable 


S89.00 


S59.00 


Accounts Payable 


SB9.00 


$69.00 


Payroll Management 


$89.00 


$59. CO 


Cash Flow Management 


$89.00 


$69.00 


Sales Analysis 


S89.O0 


$69.00 


General Ledger 


S89.00 


$69.00 


(■COUPON PRICE $59.00) 







VIC-20 

(a real computer at the price of a toy) 



$77. 



00* 



• 40-80 COLUMN BOARD S89.00 

• VOICE SYNTHESIZER S59.00 

i * with Cassette and Gorlek purchase! 



VIC-20 COMPUTER $77.00 

You get the Commodore VIC-20 Computer for 
only S77.00 when you buy at sale prices: The 
Commodore Data Cassette for only $69.00 and 
the Gortek Introduction to Basic program (or on- 
ly S19.95. TOTAL LIST PRICE $302.95. SPECIAL 
PACKAGE SALE PRICE$165.25. 



40-80 COLUMN BOARD $89.00 
A lantastic price breakthrough lor VIC-20 Owners 
on this most wanted accessory!! "Now you can 
gel 40 or 80 Columns on your T.V. or Monitor 
Screen " Plus we add a word processor with 
mail merge, electronic spread sheet, time 
manager and terminal emulator!! These PLUS 
programs require 8K or 16K RAM memory. (Disk 
add S10.00). 

VOICE SYNTHESIZER $59.00 

Votrax Based Make your VIC-20 COMPUTER 
TALK 1 Has features equivalent to other models 
costing over $370.00 You can program an 
unlimited number of words and sentences and 
even adjust volume and pitch. You can make 
adventure games that talk! A must tor enhanc- 
ing your programming creativity and pleasure. 

60K MEMORY EXPANDER $59.00 
Sixslot — Switch selectable — Resei button — 
Ribbon cable A must to get Ihe most out of 
your VIC-20 Computer Includes FREE $29 95 
adventure game. 

8K RAM CARTRIDGE $39.95 

Increases programming power 2 1/2 times. Ex- 
pands total memory 1o 33K (33,000 bytes). 
Memory block swllches are on outside of cover 
Includes FREE $16.95 game. 

1 6K RAM CARTRIDGE $69.00 

Increases programming power 4 times. Expands 
total memory to 41K (41.000 bytesl. Memory 
block switches are an outside cover! Includes 
FREE $29.95 adventure game! ! 

12" GREEN SCREEN MONITOR $99.00 

Excellent quality GREEN PHOSPHOROUS 
VIDEO MONITOR with antiglare. 1920 characters 
ISO characters x 24 rows). Save your TV! a must 
for 80 column word processors. PLUS $9.95 for 
VIC 20 or Commodore 64 Cable. 

12' AMBER SCREEN MONITOR $119.00 

Premium quality AMBER VIDEO MONITOR With 
antiglare. (60 characters x 24 rows), exceptional- 
ly clear screen, faster scanning, 1000 lines. 
PLUS $9.95 for VIC 20 orCommodore 64 Cable. 



• LOWEST PRICES* 15 DAY FREE TRIAL • 90 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY 
• BEST SERVICE IN U.S.A. • ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL • OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS 



| Add $10.00 for shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois residents 
j please add 6% tax. Add $20.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RICO. HAWAII 
j orders. WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES. 
j Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 days 
. for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day express mail! Canada 
■ orders must be in U.S. dollars. VISA— MASTERCARD - C.O.D 

Circle No. 34 



] 



ENTERPRIZES (W£ love ouR cijstomehs > 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phone 312/382.5244 to order 




COMMODORE 64 



80 COLUMN SCREEN -COLOR 
PROGRAM SALE $49.00 




Free excellent P. D. programs!! 

• Word Processor 

• Electronic spreadsheet 

• Data Base 

•Modem Terminal Program 




Now you can program 80 Columns on the screen at one time! "In color or black and white' 

Get these excellent P. D. Programs Free! 

"Word Processor — Spreadsheet — Data Base — Modem Terminal Program" 

(Disk Only) List Price $59.00 Sale $49.00 'Coupon Price $39.00 (Disk Only). 



COMMODORE 64 

FANTASTIC!! 
PROGRAMMERS AID 

(Disk Program) 

sale $39.95 



This is a must for all Programmers, New and Experienced! 33 New Basic Commands! 
Renumber, Move Sections, Merge Programs, Rename Variables, Trace and Edit Commands to find 
out exactly where the mistakes are! Easy to use and understand. Fantastic!!! 
List Price $59.95 Sale $39.95 'Coupon Price $29.95. 



I Add $3.00 for postage- Add $6 00 for CANADA. PUERTO RICO, HAWAII 

orders. WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES 
| Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check Allow 14 
J days for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day express mail 1 
I Canada orders musl be in US dollars. We accept Visa and Master- 
I Card. We ship C.O.D. 



(WE LOVE OUR CUSTOMERS) 



ENTERPRIZES 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phone 312/382-5244 1o order 



Circle No, 34 



WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM s 995 00 

(Everything you need for word processing — LIST PRICE M800.00) 

FARM BUSINESS SYSTEM $ 1095 00 

(Everything you need to computerize your farm — LIST PRICE * 1900.00) 

SMALL BUSINESS SYSTEM $ 1195 00 

(Everything you need to computerize your business — LIST PRICE *2200.00) 




LOOK AT WHAT YOU GET WITH EACH SYSTEM 
PACKAGE!!! 

• The powerful 84K Commodore 64 Computer! 
(More features than Apple II) 

• 170K Commodore 64 Disk Drive! 

• Box of 10 "Loam" Disks! 

• Gemini 10X Starmicronics 10" Carriage Deluxe, 120CPS, 
Dot Bit Addressable Tractor-Friction Printer! 

• Deluxe Cardco Printer Interface! 

• Box of Printer Paper! 

• Your choice of 12" Green Screen or Amber Screen Monitor! 

• Monitor Interface Cable! 

The '995 complete word processing system includes: "Script-64 Executive Word Processor Program, 80 
columns in color, 20,000 word customizable dictionary, powerful mail merge" — List Price $130) 

The '1095 complete farm business package includes: "Cyber Farmer" Farm Business Program! (Budget 
Analysis, Cash Flow, Depreciation, General Ledger, Inventory, Money Borrowed, Dept. Paid.) 
PLUS-YOU CAN BUY THE FOLLOWING SPECIALIZED FARM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS! 

1. GENERAL BUSINESS: Investment, loan analysis, land purchase, machine cost, business study — $49.50 

2. BEEF PRODUCTION: Calf production, cattle feeder, heavy cattle, beef marketing, ration analyser — $49.50 

3. PORK PRODUCTION: Pig production, pig feeder, heavy hogs, ration analyser — $49.50 

4. GRAIN MANAGEMENT: All crop comparison, corn yield, wet grain, early freeze, grain marketing — $49.50 

The '1195 complete small business system includes: "General Ledger, Accounts Payable and Check Writing, 
Accounts Receivable, Payroll, Inventory, Database Manager" — List Price $595) 

15 DAY FREE TRIAL We give you 15 days to try out these SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGES!! If it doesn't meet 
your expectations, just send it back to us prepaid and we will refund your purchase price!! 

90 DAY IMMEDIATE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY If any of the SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGE equipment or 
programs fail due to faulty workmanship or material we will replace it IMMEDIATELY at no charge! 



Add $50.00 for shipping and handling!! 



• LOWEST PRICES • 15 DAY FREE TRIAL • 90 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY 
« BEST SERVICE IN U.S.A. « ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL • OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS 



_l 



WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES EXCEPT 
CANADA. 

Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 
14 days for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day express 
mail! Canada orders must be In U.S. dollars. We accept Visa 
and MasterCard. We ship C.O.D. 

Circle No. E4 



ENTERPRIZES w^ 10 " **^ 510 "" 5 ! 

BOX 550, BARRINQTON; ILLINOIS 80010 
Phone 312/3825244 to order 



Commodore • 64 



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SCRIPT-64 EXECUTIVE WORD PROCESSOR 



(80 Columns in Color) 



j 40 or 80 columns in color or black and white; turns your computer in to a Business Machine! 
Rated best by COMMODORE. This is the finest word processor available. Features include line and paragraph insertion/deletion, in- 

( dentation, right and left Justification, titles, page numbering, characters per inch, etc. All features are easy to use and understand. 
With tabs, etc. SCRIPT-64 even includes a 250 word dictionary/spelling checker to make sure your spelling is correct. The dictionary is 
user customizable to any technical words you may use. Furthermore, all paragraphs can be printed in writing and everyday letters a 
snap. To top things off, there is a 100 page manual and help screens to make learning how to use SCRIPT-64 a snap. This word proc- 
essor is so complete we can't think of anything it doesn't have. When combined with the complete database you have a powerful 
matlmerge and label program that lets you customize any mailing list with personalized letters. List 199.95. Sal* $79.00. "Coupon Price 

I $59.00. (Disk only.) 



SCRIPT-64 20,000 WORD DICTIONARY 



Allows you to check spelling on 20,000 most often mispelled words! List $29.95, Sal* $19.95. (Disk only.) 



SCRIPT-64 DATABASE 



[This is a user friendly database that makes any information easy to store and retrieve. The user defines the fields and then can add, 
[change, delete and search for any category he wants. When combined with the SCRIPT-64 Executive Word Processor you can search 

out any category (zip codes, hair color, etc.) and print super personalized letters. List $89.00. Sal* $09.00. "Coupon Price $46.00. (Disk 

only.) 



"WRITE NOW" WORD PROCESSOR 



Finally, a word processor that is easy to use and easy to learn. This cartridge system has all the features of professional systems at 
I only a fraction of the cost. Some features include: margin setting, word wrap, search and replace, centering, page numbering, user 
defined characters, plus ascii code set that allows you to use all the features of your printer. List $49.94. Sal* $44.95. 'Coupon $39.95. 
(Cartridge). 



'WRITE NOW" MAILING LIST 



1 600 names, addresses, etc. can be sorted and formulated in any order and by any category (zip code, name, etc.) lor merging into the 
"write now" word processor. Fantastic speed. List $34.95. Sal* $24.95. "Coupon $14.95. (Disk only.) 



! TOTAL WORD PROCESSOR PLUS 5.2 



This top quality word processor was specially designed for PROTECTO ENTERPRIZES. Features include line and paragraph insert and 
delete, right and left justification, multiple copies, and line spacing. Extra functions include mailmerge, embedded footnotes, extra 
user defined character sets, plus a complete label program. List $69.90. Sal* $56.00. "Coupon $37.00 Tape, $42.00 Disk 



i TOTAL TEXT WORD PROCESSOR 2 . 6 



This is a complete word processor program which allows you to create and format professional looking documents. Features include: 
page numbering, margin control, full screen editing and footnotes. Tape — List $44.95. Sal* $39.00. "Coupon $26.00. Disk — List 
$49.95. Sale $42.00. 'Coupon $29.00. 



QUICK BROWN FOX WORD PROCESSOR 



Nationally advertised all purpose word processor that uses menu control to let you manipulate your text. Includes the features most 
| often asked for Including right and left justification, wordwrap, and more. List $69.00. Sal* $59.00. 'Coupon $40,00. (Cartridge). 



] 



• LOWEST PRICES • 15 DAY FREE TRIAL • 90 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY 
• BEST SERVICE IN U.S.A. ■ ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL • OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS 



WE SHIP C.O.D. HONOR VISA AND MASTER CHARGE 
ADD $3.00 SHIPPING FOR C.O.D. ADD $2.00 MORE 
SPECIAL SERVICES: 
One Day — Express Mail add $10.00 



ENXERPRI ES | * elwe *" custwe " si 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 80010 
Phont 312/382-5244 to ordtr 



Circle No. 34 



® SANYO MONITOR SALEM 




9" Doto Monitor 



80 Columns x 24 lines 
Green text display 
East to read - no eye strain 
Up front brightness control 
High resolution graphics 
Quick start - no preheating 
Regulated power supply 
Attractive metal cabinet 
UL and FCC approved 



• 15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty 



9" Screen -Green Text Display $ 79.00 

12" Screen - Green Text Display (anti-reflective screen) $ 99.00 
12" Screen- Amber Text Display (anti-reflective screen) $119.00 
14" Screen - Color Monitor (national brand) $249.00 

Display Monitors From Sanyo 

With the need for computing power growing every day, Sanyo has 
stepped in to meet the demand with a whole new line of low cost, high 
quality data monitors. Designed for commercial and personal com- 
puter use. All models come with an array of features, including up- 
front brightness and contrast controls. The capacity 5x7 dot 
characters as the input is 24 lines of characters with up to 
80 characters per line. 

Equally important, all are built with Sanyo's commitment 
to technological excellence. In the world of Audio/Video, Sanyo is 
synonymous with reliability and performance. And Sanyo quality is 
reflected in our reputation. Unlike some suppliers, Sanyo designs, 
manufactures and tests virtually all the parts that go into our products, 
from cameras to stereos. That's an assurance not everybody can 
give you! 



@ SANYO 



Official Video Products 
of the Los Angeies 1984 Olympics 



089 



• LOWEST PRICES • 15 DAY FREE TRIAL • 90 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY 
'BEST SERVICE IN U.S.A. • ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL • OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS 






I Add 110.00 (or shipping, handling and Insurance. Illinois residents 1 
| please add B% tax. Add $20.00 lor CANADA, PUERTO RICO, HAWAII I 
j orders. WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES. 

I Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 | 
| days for delivery, 2 to 7 days (or phone orders, 1 day express mail! | 
| Canada orders must be in U.S. dollars. Visa ■ MasterCard • C.O.D. 

Circle No. 34 



ENTERPRIZES WE LOvE ouB cus * r ° MERs ) 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phont 312/382-5244 to order 



80 COLUMN PRINTER SALE— $149.00 




*STX-80 COLUMN 
PRINTER— $149.00 

Prints full 80 columns. Super silent operation, 
60 CPS, prints Hi-resolution graphics and 
block graphics, expanded character set, ex- 
ceptionally clear characters, fantastic print 
quality, uses inexpensive thermal roll paper! 

DELUXE COMSTAR T/F 
PRINTER-S219.00 

The Comstar T/F is an excellent addition to 
any micro-computer system. (Interfaces are 
available for Apple, VlC-20, Commodore-64, 
Pet, Atari 400 and 800, and Hewlett Packard). 
At only 1219 the Comstar gives you print quali- 
ty and features found only on printers costing 
twice as much. Compare these features. 

• BI-DIRECTIONAL PRINTING with a LOGIC 
SEEKING CARRIAGE CONTROL for higher 
through-put In actual text printing. BO 
characters per second. 

• PRINTING VERSATILITY: standard 96 ASCII 
character set plus block graphics and Interna- 
tional scripts. An EPROM character generator 
includes up to 224 characters. 

• INTERFACE FLEXIBILITY: Centronics Is 
standard. Options Include E1A RS232C, 20mA 
Current Loop. 

• LONG LIFE PRINT HEAD: 100 million 
character life expectancy. 

• THREE SELECTABLE LINE SPACINGS: 8, 8 

or 12 lines per inch, 



« THREE SELECTABLE CHARACTER 
PITCHES: • 10, 12 or 16.5 characters per Inch. 
132 columns maximum. Double-width font also 
Is standard for each character pitch, 

■ PROGRAMMABLE LINE FEED: program- 
mable length from 1/144 to 255/144 inches. 

» VERTICAL FORMAT CONTROL: program 
mable form length up to 127 lines, useful lor 
short or over-sized preprinted forms. 

• FRICTION AND TRACTOR FEED: will accept 
single sheet paper. 

• 224 TOTAL CHARACTERS 

• USES STANDARD SIZE PAPER 
If you want more try — 

Premium Quality 

COMSTAR T/F SUPER-10X 

PRINTER-S299.00 

More Features Than RX-80 

For $299 you get all of the features of the 
Comstar T/F plus 10" carriage 120 cps, 9x9 
dot matrix with double strike capability for 18 
x 18 dot matrix. High resolution bit image (120 
x 144 dot matrix), underlining, backspacing, 
left and right margin settings, true lower 
descenders, with super and subscripts, and 
prints standard, Italic, Block Graphics, special 
characters, plus 2K of user definable char- 
acters. For the ultimate in price performance 
the Comstar T/F Super 10" leads the pack! 



Double 

Immediate Replacement 

Warranty 

We have doubled the normal 90 day warranty 
to 180 days. Therefore if your printer fails 
within "180 days" from the dale of purchase 
you simply send your printer to us via United 
Parcel Service, prepaid. We wilt IMMEDIATELY 
send you a replacement printer at no charge 
vra United Parcel Service, prepaid. This warran- 
ty, once again, proves that WE LOVE OUR 
CUSTOMERS! 

15 DAY FREE TRIAL 

OTHER OPTIONS 

Extra Ribbons J 5.95 

Roll Paper Holder 32,95 

Roil Paper 4.95 

5000 Labels 19.95 

1 100 Sheets Fan Fold Paper 13.95 

Add $17.50 shipping, handling and insurance. 
Illinois residents please add G% tax. Add 
$40.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RICO. HAWAII, 
ALASKA orders. WE DO NOT EXPORT TO 
OTHER COUNTRIES. Enclose cashiers check, 
money order or personal check. Allow 14 days 
for delivery. 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 
day express mail available!! Canada orders 
must be in US dollars. 



ENTERPRIZES^E L0VE 0UR CUSTOMERS] 

BOX 550, BARRINGTQN, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phont 312/382-5244 to order 



SUPER-10" ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRB 

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVUXYZ 1234S6 



LIVWXYZ 

B90 



Circle No. 34 



^ADVERTISERS' PRODUCT LISTINGI 



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Bit Card 
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Users Group Warehouse 
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Eastern House 

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Computer Equipment 

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Other Hardware Product! 
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Progressive Peripherals 
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Leading Edge 

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Sail Software 

The Software Clearing House 

Toronto Pet Users Group 

Wayne Green 



OTHER PRODUCTS 
B. R. Green 



68/Commander December 1983 



Finally! An Affordable Full-Size, Full-Feature PRINTER 

For your VIC-20®, C-64® & $ 199.95 ! ! 

ATARI® 

Centronics Parallel Types 
And RS-232 Serial Types 



FEATURES: 

• Full graphics capability. 

• In the graphic mode, a column of 
graphic data can be repeated as many 
times as you want with a single command. 

• Double width character output under 
software control (5 char, per inch). 

• Print position addressable by character 
or dot {positioning control). 

• Graphic character and double width 
character modes can be intermixed on 
a single line. 

• Automatic printing. When the text 
exceeds the maximum line length no 
data is lost due to overflow. 

• Self-test printing mode. 

• Paper width is adjustable up to 1 inches. 
Standard plain paper. Tractor feed. 

• Unidirectional printing - Better registration. 

• 80 characters per line. 

• 5 x 7 dot matrix. 

• Full 1 yr, Warranty. 

• Foreign character sets 

For U.S.. U.K., Sweden, and Germany. 



BASIC PRINTER 
(Requires one 
Option Below) 




This printer's mechanism 
(manufactured by Seikosha) 
is the same as used by 
Commodore, Gorilla, 
Bannana (Leading Edge) 
and others. It is 67% faster 
than a Commodore 1525! 



Any of these Options allow you to connect and print. 

APROPRINT-2064™ (pictured) Add: 35.95 

For Commodore VIC-20 & C-64 - Cable included. 50 cps. 

APROPRINT-4080™ Add: 45,95 

For all Atari Computers - Cable included. 30 cps. 2 yr. warranty. 

APROPRINT-1000™ Add: 29.95 

RS-232-Serial 

APROPRINT-8000™ Add: 29.95 

Centronics type Parallel - 50 cps. 

ADD: S8.00 shipp ng (cont. USA), S35.00 (Canada, HI, AK) 

(All other foreign orders Add $75.00 (shipped by Air) 



The ONE VIC-20® Memory Expansion Board that DOES IT ALL! 



Maximum Memory allows you to use more powerful programs for: 

• EDUCATION • ENTERTAINMENT • MAIL LISTS 

• BUSINESS APPLICATIONS • FINANCIAL RECOHDS 



APROPOS TtCHNOUKV 

RAMAX 



/ 



Extenson 
Connectors 

,l :*:.->■- 
carrndgeito 

3eu£M- 



Very K>* -_ 
power usage 
require? no 
eitemai 
ppwar source' 



TntaJly self- 
contained' 





To equal the total memory of RAMAX " you would 
have to buy a 16k Memory Expansion, PLUS an 8k 
Expansion, PLUS 3k Expansion THEN you would 
need a mother board" Wilh RAMAX" you buy just 
ONE piece at ABOUT HALF THE PRICE' 

flAMAX - FAlturnind Sp*Clttcatkxia: 

• Adas up 10 a, full 27k syles ol adcMiortai RAM to 
trie standard ViC-20's internal RAM ot 5k 

» Butf-m switch allows User Seiect-Oi oi any com- 
Q _ s: c oi £ areas or RAM memory" 

0LK1 iflh Act 8)92^6381 

BLK2 (8* Ad> T63a4-.24.575l 

BLK3 IB* Adr 24576-32767] 

BLK5 (Adr 40980491B1, allow 5' disallows 

8k POM camesl 

RAM i3k Afl< iOEJ1Q954 

RESET [Resets correuW wnout power oP/P"! 

* Built iHfllea'caiFiiSe TO P'OlfrCleouiprneril 

« Totally 3£tf -contained No eternal pow&r Supply 

needed 

• Two !2) e«!fi-n.s»on corcnecipfs a How ANY add- 
lupnal can'id^BS and^O*" devices Oes^ned tor me 
ViC eipansjpfi owl 

* Veryto*pc*ef corrsunption) l^aarrpuiuai] 



signed toMpng iiTe 
» Complete Operating Manual 



TO ORDER: 

Send Check or Money Order For the Total 

Calif, residents add 6% tax. 

Of Contact your Local Dealer 

Phone orders Call (805) 482-3604 

..'. -'''. ; _ All Dollars VV 



CHARGE CARDS ADD 3% 
DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 



&■ man Ihs parts 
and labor 
warrranry 



WE SERVICE WHAT WE SELL 

VIC-20 & Commodore -64 are registered 
trademarks of Commodore International 
Alan is a trademark of Atari Inc. 

APROPOS TECHNOLOGY 

1071 -A Avenida Acaso 

Camarillo, CA 93010 



L APROPOS TECHNOLOGY 



Circle No. 37 



A period mvBSirwni togive your lam>ry ana ypufseH 

more enjoyment and us* 'rom you'nome compute'" 
Tn-e ease o< operation ihe neat appearance. a*xl me 
real POWER it adds tc your VIC al this tow pr-ce 
makes H a MUST for even/ ViC nome 1 

SPECIAL LOW PHJCE' 

Only ^995 

P' .:*• "■: jdess f i'P»'"Kja'»3iand]-.q * '" - 
Congenial USA Foreign aiders pie ft M 
add $25 00 Cail ■flusidenisadd 6".taios 

10 DAY MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE 

H not satsTwO Sfli(Hy return in origins* 

COf-fliWn (pr your money PaPfc. 

RAMAX Jr." 

Airuady Own an Bk Expander*' Gel ffte NEW 
RAMAX Jr. " loolt-cal TO me RAMAX ' 
e«cept*im !$n instead oT2?ji Owimsnuc- 
Ions will SfWw you now 10 use you' &h as 
BLK 3 "tn J> to gel Ino ftd cpmplemflnf O* 
memory' 

Special Only 5109.95 
Shipping included 

New Product! 

ArRUbr AND~OH- Gives your Commodore fri full expandaarhTy Trits 

superbly designed expansion module plugs <nio the 54 & gives you 4 swjichable (smglyor in any 
combination! exoan.sion connectors - plus fuse protection - plus a reset button' onivS JQ 95 

Shipping included 

In Canada contact TENTREX Phone (416) 272-1 1 98 



* 6 montn pans antf laoo* aa/ranty !□ of^mi 
purchase 

• Factory service 

"Many VIC-20 cartridges and programs require car 
taiftCOntigu'aiion&o! trie memory ti e certain games 
will only run sfl tFift Lneipanjed VIC wrvile oi'w'S 
require me upper potion pt rne eipanttea >r*mory) 
Will RAMAX - you nave switches mar lum-on and 
tum-off pWcns of fM# merrKKy 10 provde m* iignt 
area o' memory a' 1 friinpui piugg^nq or unplugging 
IT'S sP easy h 




Dear Mr. Gaukel: 

Your "USER.DATA" program in COM- 
MANDER May Issue has opened up a 
world of possibilities for me. It's a 
fabulous deal for the price of a magazine 
and the effort of getting it running. 

Since my knowledge of machine lan- 
guage is not that great, there is one little 
bug I haven't been able to solve. 
Whenever I use USR (71) or U5R (72) the 
lines are plotted incorrectly. 

I have triple checked the data state- 
ments in the basic loader program and 
can't find any typing errors. 

1 have enclosed a listing and a diagram 
of the resultant plots. Is there a misprint in 
the magazine or am I making an error 
somewhere? 

I'm at my wit's end trying to figure this 
out. f would greatly appreciate your help. 

Fred Kohler 

Dear Fred, 

There definitely is a bug in the USER 71 
and 72 commands. The instruction and 
code at 51267 ($C843) needs to be dele- 
ted by changing to NOP (No-Operation). 
Make the following changes in line 3680 
of data statements: 
3680 DATA 207, 240, 3, 234, 234, 234 
If you have machine language versions 
on disk, that you have saved /relocated 
using a system monitor, then you also 
have the options of making direct 

70/Commander December 1 983 



changes and resaving the program or 
changing the code during a BASIC boot 
(this would apply to disks I have sent out 
with precompiled versions for various 
load addresses). 

141 BASE = 491 52 :REM SC000 

142 OFFSET = BASE + 21 15 

143 NOP =234 

144FORI=0to2 POKE OFFSET + l,NOP 
;NEXT 

While on the subject of USER bugs, 
there are some in the command table. 
USER 99 and 100 require the argument 
of a voice number after the command. 
USER 102 requires two arguments, the 
voice number then the waveform 0-3 
(triangle, sawtooth, pulse or noise). As I 
set the value of zero to default to the first 
voice, zero and one can be used inter- 
changeably for the first voice. 

George 



A ROM BUG 
IN THE C-64 

I spent more time solving this little pro- 
blem than I care to admit. The two dif- 
ferent versions of the C-64 KERNAL ROM 
have some very small differences on how 
the VIC chip is initialized. In V2, a raster 
scan reading is taken in order to fine tune 
the IRQ countdown constant for 50 or 60 



Hz. What this means is that the raster 
scan latch is left on the read mode. In VI 
the raster scan latch was initialized to the 
write mode. The high bit of 53265 
($D01 1) controls whether the raster scan 
latch at 53266 (SD012) is in the read or 
write mode. 

A program I had written using raster 
scan interrupts to move sprites worked 
on my VI machine, but did absolutely 
nothing on a V2 machine. I finally located 
the offending code sequence in the table 
used for the initialization of the VIC chip. 
This is the type of thing that wifl put pro- 
grammers and software vendors into lit- 
tle padded cells. If you have a program 
written on a V1 machine, which does not 
seem to operate properly on a V2, try 
POKE 53265,27 before you load and run 
the application. This may not work in all 
cases, as some programs may call the 
routine that initializes the VIC chip. 

George Gaukel 




DQ5UB 
DF SLJDELL, JflC. 



COMMODORE 64 50FTUAPE 
:-43SL)B of SI idill s 

fa4-nflTH FLAgH . - -IT 9, 95^0 11.95) 

Math drill for -il 1 ages. Numbers on screen 
are iik times tr-.Bir normal «i:s. Addition, 

Subtraction* Mul tip. l c*tion, and Division. 
Operations nay be niiixj. 13 levels of 

rfj f 4 i eul t v. 

FPL LOU ME IT/D 15.95) 

Smon style gams f ur thft CQflwnodare 64;, Game 

is played bv repeating uqutntai of lights 
and tone* that the comDuter or another pla/er 

fErTFERPTUPE <T 9-95/0 11.95) 

Fart one ■KPlftinft temperature, thy seals used 
to .r.i ■ asui , • tenperature and the ml at i onshi ps 
between then. Part tuo is a temper ature 

tonvtf si on program al lowing tonvarsiafi 

b#tuwn Fahrenheit* CdIbiui. Hlvtn, and 

Rank in seal 4*. En eel 1 ant Graphics f or the 

CoiwadOre £4. 

FlH. _RPI1D - - * tT/[ > 4 9.95) 

lhis m a program for the Coiwuorfore 64 that 
computes the ratios involved in Manufacturing 
Industries. The -following ratios are 

comqjtidi Liquidity Ratios. Leverage Ratios, 
Ptctivitv Ratios. Profitability Ratios. 

Coverage Ratios and Stock Ratios. 

C0F"f UTILITY 15.95 

Tuo utility programs, one for a single 1541 
system the other for a two 1541 system. This 
routine will copy each Track and Sector 
starting with Track 1 Sector <j and will 
continue through Track 35 Sector 16. For the 
Connodore 64. 

SOUTHERN SOFTWARE i 

CDHFuTEft CHECKfOOK ... ....... (D 15.95) 

keeps a running tabulation ot deposits. 

Checks. and 1 service charges. 

MUSI C MAKER ID 15. 9B) 

14 qti t ferent instrument* can be played using 
the Donmodore 64 keyboard. 

GRf.DE EO0K -A« 49. 93 

Enter and &»*« alt grades (or up to nine 
cl asset. Each c) ass nay contain up to 50 
students and up tn nine report periods per 
student. Constantly updated grade average, 
by week and by subject. Al 1 output may be to 
screen or printer. 

CuMHQDOftE SOFTWARE 

C-64 CjfcttClatai . . » n 

hvenne.-. . . * . . 1 1 . oD 

KicfcMi... .. . 13.50 

Speed/ Bingo Hath. 13.50 

Jupiter Lander 1 1 . 50 

visible Solar System, , 16.50 

Leffians. . . . .- ,,,..11.50 

Radar Rat Race 1 1 . 50 

Pinball Spectacular., 11.50 

Super Snash 1 1 . SO 

Klufl Print 13,50 

Gar* 1 3. 50 

Cwega Race. .... . . 13. 30 

Lazarian 16,50 

Clowns... ... *♦. . - ■ * 13.50 

5** WoU..--,.,-. 15.50 

Tooth Invaders 11.50 

Star Post * 13.50 

Wizard of ktor. . 13.50 

Frog**aster, . , . . . . _ 13, 5t> 

5t ar Ranger 13.50 

CP/M 2. 2 . . . . , 53. 95 

simons' 6as1c 16-93 

Easy BbRFpT ..40,00 

easy mail. . .. 15.95 

EASY SPELL , *2»*3 

GENERAL LEDGER . ...37.95 

LOGO 40. 00 

ZDRK 1 24.95 

ZQR* II 24. 95 

ZOftK 111 - . . 24 . 93 

5USPENDED -. S 4 "S- 

STTARCRDSS ........ 24-95 

DEADLINE ...24.93 

BRODEPBUNP SOTrHAftE 

David's Midnight hagic ID).... 23.00 

Choplifter (cart) 33. 00 

Seat ox (cart)... .33.00 

Lade Runner Ici-t) .. 30. 00 

Lod* Runnstr (D) ...... , 25.00 



SIERRA QM-HNE 
Froqgef (D) . . . . 



EPYX 

Tsapla o* Apfchai ID) ....29.93 

Upper Roaches of Apshai ID).., l i'Zi 

Curse of Ra ID).. . .......... •I4*S 

Sword Df Fargoal ID) . 22. 9^ 

Crush, Crumb I ■ i. Cho*p ID). .. JS'SS 

Junpnan (D) ...29.9^ 

Pitstop (D),., - "*™'« 

Lunar Outpost ID) ?£- " 

Swat Rescue (D) * '12*23 

Dragonnders <D).... S'oS 

Silicon Warrior (**)-. 29.95 



Circle No. 16 



CfiBDBP FRtiPuCTS 

CflRDFIj.NT . , 69.00 

vTC-20 X c 64 Par al 1 el i nput pr i n tor 

interface. 

CARD6OAR0/S i'??"* 8 

Fwe si ot e::pansi on interface for the L (*4. 

UjRITE MOW 49 . 95 

BqTQ processor nn cartridge tar the C 64. 

r}A I L NOW 34 . 93 

Hail ing list program on Di st for the C 64. 

CARP KEY/ 1 . 39. 95 

Six teen numerical key pad with sot tware for 
the V1C-20 E. C 64. 

CARDETTE/1 . - . , 30.43 

i/IC-ZO 4 C 64 univermal cassettw interface. 

CARDR I TER/ 1 .£3.95 

^'lC-20 t C 64 Lignt pen Nith switch t 
programs. 

felNTER UTILITY .PROERrtftS . 13. 95 

Tape lotcuara Si scruun dump for the- 0JC-2O It 
C 64. 



ACCESS BPFTMflRE 



Neutral Zona ID/T> 27.95 

beach Head ID/T) - . . , 27. 95 

SPRlTErlASTER ID/T) ....29.95 

Datasette-old style. 5.00 

Data set te-new style 5.00 

1541 Disk Drive 10.00 

V1C-2QYC 64 Keyboard.-.-...... ....9.00 




THE FLEXIKEY SYSTEM 
*69.95 



seperata 
program. 



19 keys, each of which nay have 

definitions' 

Cowlete dac u mentation including 

1 i st i ngs ! 

Works on th* VIC-20 (bnpanded) and C-64 

computers' 

CoMiatible with most s*isting software! 

&reat for use hi th business programs and 

electronic spread sheets! 

Ideal for machine language programmers 



Udell. La 70 
5041641-S3O7 



TO DRDERs 

&0SU& a* Slsdell. 

P.O. Box 17S1 

SI i dell. La 70459 

* 

Handling charges »2.0O 
C.O.D. add i?,oo 
nastsr Card L VISA (add t;:: 
Price* subject to change 

Dealer Inquiries on Goaub, Hi 11 son Data 
Products and Southern Software Helco**. 



WIlLSQN DflTfl FRQDUCTS 

gPMEY nANAGEHUNT SYSTEM 4. u ,»/ T ) 2V. 9i 

The easy prof ressi onal way to manage all your 
bank, accounts. Tracks all outstanding cnec* & 
; and deposits until paid, prints statements, 
balances accounts, and ftllowS searching .u 
f iteva by any parameters you cnose. The .:...■ 
versati 1 e checkbook proqr < t mb have ever 

PERSONAL DATA &fiSE 2._2 (D) 29.95 

Uses relative f i I es to" al 1 w -*■:-...- number 
oi records possible on the :■■■!■!: disk drive. 
User formated screens and reports. 
HAILING ■ " 



LIST ID)... 

TaTtvw filus to 



allow 



Uses 

ch^usantf names on a imalf mailing 
Prints mailing labels and fvts you si 
field. 

SYSTEn 7,1 , ID) 

for 



1-9 . 9o 
one 



C~M and UIC-20 ar« real stared trad*aark« of 
Co rood ore IntsTnational. 



irWEWI PRY CONTROL 
Camp] i>te i nventory 
bi 



Control System 



omp] 
sinesses. 
.=.RGUAKD (D/T) . , . . 24.95 

a at action two pi ayer drc.ijp game. 

STAP TREK ID/T) .24."r3 

Scuped up version of the Did favorite ml tn 
lots of color. Sound and super exc » tefPEV". t . 

THE LI GHT FEN. ?4.9S 

Low cost, high sensitivity model with barrrel 
rtounted swi tch. and • : . •• * .. ■ ■ cor-d. Cones 

Mith instruction manual and software. 

T^E F-gRTA BTAnT...... .. 14.95 

A reset module that pi ugs into the user port 
of 1*1 t her the YiC-20 ar the C-64 and comes 
with a program an tape which allows you to 
recover a progra* after lock-up. reset, or 
accidental new. 

Home Budget (T) 14.93 

Home Budget (D )..... ld '25 

Master Mind (Tl..... 14.95 

Master Hind ID). . . ... -. -- 16.9? 

Personal Ledqer IT I 14.9 > 

Personal Ledger 10) la, 9^ 

Home Inventory IT J 1 *.9i 

Hone Inventory ID>. .16, 9j 



Fort Apocal ypse ID) , . . .2&.9S 

F-haraoh's Curse <DI .....26.95 

Survivor ID) 26. 95 

Survives ID) 26. 95 

Frot.ee tor 11 ID> . -26. 9S 

£hamus ID> .26.95 

Drebs ID) 26. 95 

Morgal ID) 26. 95 

Sent inal ID) 26. 95 



vie- ; 

GOSUB OF SL1DELL 



m 



H'NER. IT IS. 93) 

¥Dur Sold Hmir through thw mn, 

ft. op«mng n.H th.ft. with your 

'■ ■■•■ ■■■- chiroti >nii picking LU3 gDld .s /ou 

But b. t.raful, ths H.J I. n.y c.v. in on 



eapl 

go. 

you. 

And .:ich 

tn. 



for c»mti .nd than r .turn 
or Aorfr. Four 1 .v*l . ot 

Excellent Er.phits (Un.Hp.nd.d 



fiPUTHFRN BOFTUftRE ITagFl 

COrPuTEK CHECKBOOK <?. 95 

SPELLIMG FLASH 9.93 

COMPUTER HANGMAN 9. 93 

A EOHB SQUAD 9. 93 

PSEMORy CHALLENGE 9, 93 

YdT-ZEE 9. 95 

MONTHLY EUDGET 9. 93 

E.T.nATH. ...........9.95 

SEA WAR 9. 95 

TDT TUTOR 9. 93 

TEACHER ' S PET 9. 93 

BATTLE FLEET 9, 95 

m mnmRF software 

w&g&az ...» 

Sup.r.loE ...SO 

Sup.r Al»*n 1 1. ISO 

Jup i tar Llodir 1 1 . 30 

Dr.u 1'ot.or 11.30 

Midnight trriva 11.30 

R.d»r Rat R.C. 11.30 

Sarqcn Ch«. II l&.SO 

Pins.li SgKtiUlir 16.50 

Supar S...D 11. SO 

Cavil c Crunchar. -•-•-ii'S 

Got* 5-22 

Dwgi R.c. '?■ 5S 

Honay u.r » ! i - 32 

CI owA. 1 3. 30 

H1LLS0W DATA PRODUCTS 

Mistar Mind IBK-T) 'MS 

M.atar Mind IBK-R) H'li 

St^" Trak <BK-TJ ff'S 

St»r Tr.k (BK-D) fS'SI 

F-araor... LKljar I16K-T) il - is 

p.ram.l Ladgar U6K-D) i^'Z- 

Hon Invwitory IBk-T) ! 4 Si 

FUna In.mtDry (BK-D) IS'™ 

Chackiiinclar <BK-T '*-25 

CliKkmnd.r (BK-D) !5=i 

Ho«a Budg.t (T) }J"S 

Hcm» Budgat ID) 14.95 



Continued from page 46 

IS IT 8 TIMES FASTER? 

No. I'm asked that question because the 
ads for the MSD drive clearly state that it 
can use the parallel IEEE interface. This in- 
terface transfers data 8 bits (one byte) at a 
time. Pets use the IEEE to achieve high 
data transfer rates, VICs & C-64s normally 
use the serial interface. The serial bus 
transfers data to the disk or printer 1 bit at 
a time, hence the question "Is it 8 times 
faster?". 

If you use the MSD with the standard 
serial bus, the operation is 10 to 20 per 
cent faster. The IEEE bus will net you a 
much greater improvement, but not the 
theoretical "8 times". The rear of the 
MSD drive has the usual two serial bus 
sockets and one IEEE socket. I have not 
tried the IEEE bus yet, but I will report its 
usefulness in a future column. 

STOCKING STUFFER 

Physically, the MSD differs from the 
Commodore drive in many ways. It is 
smallerand sits upright. The case is aircraft 
aluminum and serves double duty as a 
heatsink for the power regulation tran- 
sistors, In normal operation the case is 
slightly warm to the touch. The "disk ac- 
tivity" LED on the front panel displays 
either a red or green color depending on 
the status of the drive. The diskette is in- 
serted vertically, with no extra pressure re- 
quired to seat it, A small handle rotates 90 
degrees to lock the diskette in place. The 
drive is noisier than the 1 541 but it is faster 
and more accurate. I think the trade-off 
favors the MSD. 

THE MANUAL 
SPEAKS VOLUMES 

The user's manual that accompanies 
the drive is a complete, lucid explanation 
of how a disk drive works and how to 
make it work for you. After reading it 
through one time I realized that I finally 
understood how blocks are allocated for a 
random access file. The B-A, B-Pand all the 
other disk commands are no longer mys- 
teries to me. Each command is illustrated 
by an example program, written in BASIC. 
The manual reveals the meaning of such 
esoteric commands as Memory Read, 
Write and Execute. The MSD drive uses 
651 1Q, a 16K ROM operating system and 
8K or RAM to keep track of everything. 
The 8K of RAM is available to high level 
programmers for tasks that only high level 
programmers should attempt. 

DOUBLE YOUR PLEASURE 
DOUBLE YOUR FUN 

A double disk drive? Jim Gragg, the 
Chief Engineer of the disk drive project at 

72/Commander December 1983 



MSD, reports that a 4040 compatible 
drive is in the works. The release date has 
not been set, but if the rumors of the 
demise of the Commodore 4040 prove to 
be true, the MSD Double might be the on- 
ly game in town. (If you know what Com- 
modore is doing, please write me. The rest 
of us would like to know.) 

THE SUPER DISK DRIVE 

MSD had delivered the product that 
their ads have been telling us about for 
several months. It's everything they claim. 
The $350 price tag is certainly within 



reason. It reflects the high quality 
mechanics and advanced electronics that 
are built into drive. The only hitch I can 
report is a problem of success-the drive is 
in short supply. 

GOODBYE GREMLINS, 
HELLO IMPS 

I'll bet you thought I was just kidding 
when I suggested the MSD drive as a 
stocking stuffer, (You will need an in- 
dustrial grade stocking.) Well, would you 
believe a 40 column printer that DOES fit 
into Johnny's stocking? 




TITLE: 

FORMAT: 

PRICE: 

LANGUAGE: 

MODEL: 

AUDIENCE: 



IMP PRINTER 

$1 29.00 



VIC and C-64 
Anyone needing a 
low cost printer 

SUMMARY: A small dot matrix 

printer 

SOURCE: Fidelity Electronics 

8800 N.W. 36th St. 
Miami, FL 33178 

RATING: Good 

PERFORMANCE: Its usefulness is 

limited by the nar- 
row paper width, 
but performs well. 

WARRANTY: 90 days 

The IMP, short for IMpact Printer, is just 
such a critter. At first glance, the printer 
looks too small to do anything useful. It 
easily fits in the palm of your hand and 



weighs about one pound. It uses ordinary 
two-and-a-quarter-inch adding machine 
paper rolls. 

A close examination of the user's 
manual reveals a host of printing modes 
and options. The IMP is a dot matrix 
printer, but differs from the bigger printers 
in one important area. Its print head has 
only one wire, not the usual 7, 8 or 9. This 
means the print head makes 8 passes 
across the page to form a complete 
character. 

IMP plugs into the serial port of the VIC 
or C-64 just like the VIC 1525 printer. 
When the printer is turned on it prints 
READY and awaits your commands. I've 
found that the IMP behaves in most 
respects like the 1 525 printer, only smaller. 
It can print in three different widths: 24, 
32 and 40 columns. It will print the entire 
Commodore character set, including the 
graphics characters. Redefined (custom) 



GET THE MOST OUT OF YOUR 

COMMODORE- 

orVIC-20computer 




#? 


5j3q£ 


-53H 


Triifl f *Jt 


S 


BlliHr 






^r 






ULTflAB«IC-64...Add 50 

commands: graphics, 
music, TURTLE and game 
features.Tutorial.demo plus. 
TAPE $39.95 DISK M2.95 

ASSEMBLER-MONITOR-64 

High speed language 
development. Eleven func- 
tion monitor. Screen editing 
of source file DISK $32.95 

DATAMAT-84... Simple 
powerful data base manage- 
ment with search, sort, 
report capability at low price. 
DISK $32.95 



SYNTHY-M... Sets the standard for ail of the rest. 
Best 64-synthestzer anywhere. Samples and manual. 
CASSETTE $29.95 DISK $32.95. Also available: 3 great 
companion music albums; Classical, Chrittmn, and 
Ragtime Sing-Along. DISK S12.95 Each. 



CHAHTPAK-54... Profes- 
sional qualtiy pie, line and 
bar charts. Menu driven, in- 
teractive, hardcopy. 
DISK $42.95 



ZOOM PASCAL-64.. .Pro- 
duces 6502 machine code 
for speed. Floating point, In- 
tegers, strings File handling. 
DISK $39.95 



SUPER DISK UTILITY- W... 
Speed copy 4 ways: Total, 
Bam, Append or File. Dump 
or modify sectors. More. 
DISK $22,95 



GRAPHICS DESIGNER-*!... TINY FORTH-54/20...Ex- SKIEH-64. . .This arcade- 

Menu-driven drawings, floor citing language-low price, quality game adds hours of 

plans and illustrations etc.. Powerful, extensible, 200 + action and excitement to 

Slide program capability, word vocabulary. your Commodore-64. 

DISK $32.95 TAPE $24,95 DISK $27.95 TAPE $14.95 DISK $17.95 



POOL-MAO.. .Play Fulirack SCflEEN GRAPWCS-«4Adds 

or nine ball using hires 24 hires, multicolor, sprite 

graphics, vlc-20 required 8K commands to 54-8ASIC. 

expander Demo, tutorial and manual, 

TAPE $14.95 DISK $17.95 TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 



CHECKBOOK MANAOER -64 

Simple check account rnairt- 
tainance. Optional screen or 
printer report and backup. 
DISK $22.95 



ANATOMY OF A COMMO- 
DORE-64 Complete guide. 
Full comment ROMS list, de- 
tailed internals, descriptions, 
300 PAGE BOOK $19.95 



MA8TER-64.„Full ISAM file management; powerful screen management; excellent printer 
generator; programmer's aid; BASIC 4.0 commands; machine language monitor; Soft- 
ware developers; NO RUNTIME ROYALTIES; With 150 page manual in three-ring binder 
and development software. _•,«_.,_-, .*.-.. ..-.-- ,.,„.„„ 
SOFTWARE^ ON DISK $84.95 "%. DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



FREE CATALOG Ask for a listing of other 
Abacus Software for Commodore-64 or Vlc-20 

DISTRIBUTORS 
Great Britain: 
ADAMSOFT 
18 Norwich Ave. 
Rochdale. Lanes 
Will Germany: 
DATA BECKER 
Merowingerstr 30 
4000 Dusseldorf 
0211/312085 



AVAILABLE AT COMPUTER STORES, OR WRITE: 



Great Britain 

CCI Software 
167 Great Portland St 
London Wl 
01-636-6354 


Canada East: Canada Watt: 
KING MICROWARE LTD. L.S.I. Distributors Ltd. 
5950 Cote des Neiges 810 W Bfoadway #163 
Montreal, Quebec H3S 1Z6 Vancouver. BC V5Z 4C9 
514/737-9335 604/733-0211 


Sweden: 
TIAL TRADING 
PO 516 
34300 Almhult 
476-12304 


Auitralla: 

CW ELECTRONICS 

416 Logan Road 

Brisbane. Queens. 

07-397-OBOB 


New Zealand: 

VISCOUNT ELECTRONICS 
306-308 Church Street 
Palmerston North 
63-86-696 

Circle No 



Abacus B Software 



a 



P.O. BOX 7211 GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 49510 

For postage & handling, add $1.50 (U.S. and Canada), add S3.00 
for foreign. Make payment in U.S. dollars by check, money order 
or charge card. (Michigan Residents add 4% sales tax). 

FOR QUICK SERVICE PHONE 616-241-5510 



characters may also be printed. Two dif- 
ferent printing modes may be selected by 
using a secondary address, just likethe VIC 
printer. 

HAVE PRINTER, 
WILL TRAVEL 

I can see some useful applications for 
this midget. The most obvious is portabili- 
ty. It would also serve well as a "first 
printer" for those on a tight budget. It 
doesn't require an expensive printer inter- 
face-you simply plug it in and start print- 
ing. The owner's manual is one of the best 
printer primers I've seen. There is a BASIC 
example program for each feature. The 
manual features program listings for a 
screen dump, a mini word processor, 
custom characters and bit-mapped 
graphics. The printer will not print double 
wide characters (chr$(14)) like the VIC 
printer, but will print double height 
characters. 

The print quality at 24 columns is very 
good, but gets harder to read as it is ex- 
panded to 32 and then 40 wide. The print- 
ing sample included here actually looks 
better in real life than on this printed page. 

READV 

| FIDELITY HWzMlflMIIIBa 

liiaaaifii electronics i 
I fidelity ■^■amanairei 
uinawm electronics i 



I 



1 



I i 



I 



! "**>&' <>*+, -./01234567 
89: !<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO 
PGRSTlMJXYZr.£DT<-*l — "-I 
h ^LVTTtL-fl #0* !♦■« I ITT 

i-~j i ur h-iH-Hthii r 

m ^\ ^'Vlabcdefghijklmno 
p^rstuuwxyz[£]f *■ 

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF 24 
COLUMN PRINTING 

THIS IS AH EXAMPLE OF 32 COLUMN 

PRINTING - CHR*< 152 ) 

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF 32 COLUMN 

PR1HTINS - CHR$( 129 ) 

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF 32 COLUMN 

PRINTING - CHR*< 138 ) 

THIS IS AN iMWlE OF # CUM FSINTDB 

- GMK 13! ) 

THIS IS Ah SIMPLE OF *B CQLUtf PRINTING 

- d(g< 131 i 

THIS IS AH E/WFLE OF 40 CON PRIHTING 

- CJW( 1*L i 



74/Commander December 1983 



The suggested retail price of $ 1 29.00 is 
probably a myth. I expect to see it at less 
than $100.00 in the mail order houses. 
The price includes the printer, a roll of 
paper, a replaceable ribbon cartridge, and 
a 90-day warranty. Available from Fidelity 
Electronics, 8800 N.W. 36th Street, 
Miami, Fl 33178. 

CHRISTMAS CARDS 

One of the most useful items to cross 
my desk this year is a set of System 
Reference Cards for the VIC, C-64 and the 
6502 microprocessor. The fold-up, shirt 
pocket sized cards instantly reminded me 
of my misspent youth. I repaired Univac 
computers for several years following my 
hitch in the Air Force. Each of the main- 
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reference card. The cards provided ready 
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occasionally, but were too complex to 
memorize. 



The Commodore cards are the result of 
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The C-64 card explains how musical tones 
are generated and how the alternate 
screens work. After reading the section on 
music, I finally understood what was 
necessary to make music. Attack, sustain, 
decay and release finally mean something 
to me! 

The 6502 card is an absolute must for 
novice M/L programmers (like me). I 
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and are worth every penny. They are also 
available for the "off-brand" computers 
like Apple and Atari. Nanos Systems, Box 
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Figure 1 



VIC-20 IB PAGES COMPLETE SUMMXRY PLUS GRAPHICS 
95.95 INCLUDED ; 



• BASIC FUNCTIONS • COMMANDS .STATEMENTS • MESSAGES 

• DERIVED FUNCTIONS • SPECIAL KEYS . STATUS CODES 

• INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICE CODES ■ MEMORY ROUTINE ADDRESSES 

• HEX-TO-DEC CONVERSION CHART . MEMORY MAP 

• ASCII CONTROL CODE DESCRIPTIONS • MUSICAL SCALE 

• SPECIAL CHARACTERS AND OPERATORS 

• SCREEN LINE LAYOUT WITH GRAPHIC AND COLOR LOCATIONS 

• OPEN STATEMENT COMMAND DATA CODES 

■ 0-255 GET KEY, CHRI, POKE. ASCII, TOKEN CHART 

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• ALL GRAPHICS KEYS BY GRAPHIC. UPPER AND LOWER MODE 

. ALL GRAPHICS CHR* CODES BY GRAPHIC. UPPER AND LOWER MODE 

» ALL GRAPHICS PEEK/POKE CODES BY GHAPHIC. UPPER AND LOWER MODE 



Figure 2 



KEYS 


CO 


Cw 


CE 


CH 


CD 


eF 


CC 


cv 


8£ 


C • 


SB 






CHR( 


171 


179 


177 


178 


17! 


187 


199 


190 


199 


223 


191 






CHHS 


235 


243 


241 


242 


236 


251 


252 


254 


233 


127 








POKE 


107 


115 


113 


114 


101 


123 


124 


126 


105 


95 


127 








I 


3C 


i 


-c 


■ 


■ 


■ 


"j 


P 


5 


". 


5 


g 


KEYS 


CO 


ew 


CE 


en 


CD 


CF 


CC 


CV 






CB 


»- 


e" 


CHRJ 


171 


179 


177 


179 


172 


197 


199 


190 






191 


255 


255 


CHRJ 


235 


243 


241 


242 


236 


251 


252 


254 








129 


222 


POKE 


107 


115 


113 


114 


108 


123 


124 


129 






127 


94 


94 



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Sounds Good 




^m^^f^^u^m^^^^^i 



76/Commander December 1983 



By Ian Adam 



There are many published programs 
for producing conventional notes and 
tones on the excellent sound chip in the 
Commodore 64. This article explores 
some of the more complex sounds avail- 
able through software control of the 
chip. Although the techniques are ad- 
vanced, no special expertise is required, 
and the program is easy to enter. 

ABSTRACT 

Interesting and realistic sounds can 
add a great deal of sparkle to your 
favorite programs. They can also be used 
to intrigue and entertain the user, while 
drawing attention to important inputs. 
The sound synthesizer chip in the Com- 
modore 64 offers a world of sounds 
previously unavailable from a computer. 
Immediately available are four different 
waveforms, as well as control of pitch, 
volume, and shape of the note. There are 
several programs and interesting articles 
available to make access to these sounds 
easy; one example is the 'Piano Key- 
board' program on page 147 in the 
User's Guide. Programs of this type give 
the user immediate access to the basic 
facilities of the sound chip, while 
demystifying the many POKEs that are 
required. 

INTRODUCTION 

For those who are new to the sound 
chip, here is a brief review of how 'SID' 
works (that's short for Sound Interface 
Device). If this sounds like deja vu to the 
more experienced user, just skip to the 
next paragraph. There are three separate 
voices in the sound chip, and each of 
these has seven control registers. A fur- 
ther four registers provide overall control 
of volume and filters. Appropriate values 
are POKEd into these registers, then the 
chip operates independently to create 
the specified sound. While this is in pro- 
gress, the computer is free to continue 
with other tasks. The seven registers for 
each voice are: 
0, 1 Pitch control, to select a note. 
2,3 Waveform width (for pulse wave 

only). 
4 Master register to select 
waveform shape, and turn it on 
and off. 
5,6 To control attack, decay, sustain, 
and release; these determine 
whether the note will pluck, 
hum, or strum, etc. 
These seven registers begin at location 
54272 for voice 1 , 54279 for voice 2, and 
54286 for voice 3. The four overall con- 



trol registers are: 
54293 & 54294 Filter frequency. 

54295 Filter and resonance control. 

54296 Master volume and filter 
control. 

It is not my intent in this article to 
review the details of using these controls 
to make very basic sounds, as this has 
been covered elsewhere. What we will 
be doing is using some different tech- 
niques on these same registers to create 
some very interesting sounds. 

SOFTWARE CONTROL 

There is an additional dimension of 
sounds that can be produced through 
software control of the SID chip. While the 
User's Guide and Programmer's Reference 
Manual make passing reference to these 
techniques, they provide very little in the 
way of detail. This is quite surprising, since 
they are really very easy to use, and allow 
the programmer a lot of imagination in 
creating sound. So . . . here we go. 

What we will do is prepare a very short 
program as a framework for experimen- 
tation. By changing a couple of lines, we 
can then try out the various techniques 
easily. After experimenting and develop- 
ing a sound effect you like, it is a simple 
matter to incorporate these statements 
as a subroutine in another program. 
Some of the additional tricks we will be 
exploring with this program are: 

1. Sweeping through a frequency 
range with a software loop. 

2. Ring modulation of two voices. 

3. Synchronization of two voices. 

4. Peeking location 54299, which reads 
the waveform output of voice 3. 

5. Peeking location 54300, which reads 
the output of the envelope gener- 
ator of voice 3. 

These techniques can be used singly or 
in combination when generating sounds, 
as we will see shortly. 

Here is our framework program, which 
we will modify as we go: 

10SI = 54272:W1=SI+4:W3 = SI + 
18:V=SI + 24:PW=SI+27:PE = 
SI +28 
20 FOR I = SI TO PE:POKEI,0:NEXT 
30 POKE W1 + 1,17;POKE W1 + 2,251 
:POKEW3 + 1,187:POKEW3 + 2, 
140 
40POKEV,143:POKEW3,17 
50: 
60 
70 
80 
90 
1 00 POKE V,0:POKE W1,0:POKEW3,0 



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Line 10 defines a series of variables 
equal to important SID registers, to save 
us the trouble of typing in the same 
numbers repeatedly. 

Line 20 clears all SID registers to zero. 

Line 30 sets some basic values for at- 
tack, decay, sustain, and release of both 
voices. In some of the examples, these 
may be changed. 

Line40turnsonthevolume. But wait . , . 
wouldn't POKE V,15 be the usual way to 
do this? Yes, but adding 128 to this value 
has the effect of turning OFF voice 3; we 
don't want to hear it because we will be 
using its output to modulate voice 1 . 

Lines 50 to 90 are blank now, but we 
will fill them in as we go. 

Line 1 00 turns everything off when we 
are finished. 

Don't run the program just yet; it won't 
do anything until we fill in the missing 
lines. 

FREQUENCY SWEEPS 

Normally when a note is played, a 
value is placed into one or both of the first 
two control registers, to select the fre- 
quency (or 'Pitch') of the note. The tech- 
nique of frequency sweeps involves 
rapidly changing that value WHILE the 
note is being played, so as to produce a 
rising orswooping tone. This is done with 
FOR-NEXT loops, for the greatest control 
of the effect. For example, add these two 
lines to the framework program and run it: 

50 POKE W1, 17 

60 FOR I = 30 TO 200 STEP 3:POKE 
SI+UNEXT 

Line 50 turns on voice 1 with a 
triangular waveform, 

Line 60 generates a series of increasing 
numberswiththeFOR-NEXTioop(thatis, 
30, 33, 36, etc., up to 200), then POKEs 
these into the frequency register of voice 
1, creating a rising tone. 

Asa further example of the flexibility of 
this approach, add these three lines to 
the program for a familiar sound: 

70 POKE W1,0:FOR I = 1 TO 150: 

NEXT:POKEW1,17 
80 FOR I = 30 TO 120 STEP 3:POKE 

SI + 1,I:NEXT 
90 FOR I = 120 TO 20 STEP -1.5: 

POKESI + 1,l:NEXT 

Line 70 turns voice 1 off for a short 
delay, then back on again. 

Line 80 produces another rising tone. 

Line 90 is very similar, but note that the 
STEP value is negative, so the resulting 
sound is a falling tone instead of a rising 
one. 

Experiment with different values for 
the loop parameters; it is amazing what a 



78/CommanderDecember1983 




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variety of different effects can be achiev- 
ed. One good example would be sirens, 
although we will see a much better way 
of creating them later. 

Another potential variable is the wave- 
form. For the sound of a rocket blastoff, 
try this example using the white noise 
generator: 

50 POKE W1 + 2,253:POKE W1.129 

60 FOR I = TO 90:POKE SI,0:POKE 
51 + 1,1 

70 FOR J = 1 TO 254-I STEP I/2 OR 
1:POKESI,J:NEXTJ:NEXTI 

80 POKE W1,128:FOR I = 1 TO 5000: 
NEXT 90: 

Line 50 adjusts the sustain and release, 
and starts voice 1 with the noise 
generator. 

Lines 60 and 70 are the frequency 
sweep; in order to get a finer-grained 
sweep we are using both of the frequency 
registers, instead of just one as we did 
before. 

Line 80 signals the noise to begin its 
release, then a delay before turning off. 
RING MODULATION 

This is one of the built-in features of the 
64. In brief, the SID combines two notes 
of different frequencies to produce a 
single 'ring-modulated' output. The re- 
sult is a note with non-harmonic over- 
tones; by varying the frequency of both 
voices, a wide range of gongs, bells, 
chimes, etc. can be created. Any pair of 
voices can be selected, but we will use 
voice 3 to modulate voice 1. This is why 
we silenced the output of voice 3 in line 
40 of the program. Here are the steps to 
use ring modulation: 

- frequencies must be selected for both 
voices. 

-the triangular waveform MUST be 
selected for the output voice. 

- the ring modulation bit {bit 2 of the 
voice's control register) must be turn- 
ed on. 

This is not as complicated as it sounds; 
the last two steps simply involve poking a 
combined value of 21 into location 54276 
(which we have called W1). Enter these 
additional lines, then run the program: 
50 POKE W1 + 2, 122 
60 POKE W1-3,30:POKE W3-3.23 
70 FOR ! = 1 TO 8:POKE W1,21 
80 FORJ= 1 TO 200: NEXT: POKE 

W1.20 
90 FOR J = 1 TO1500:NEXTJ:NEXTI 
Line 50 sets a sustain/release value 
suitable for a bell or gong, which has a 
sharp attack and decay when struck, 
then a very slow release as the sound 
gradually fades away. 

80/Commander December 1983 



Line 60 sets the two frequencies. 

Line 70sets the number of chimes, and 
selects ring mod. 

Line 80 calls for a delay before releas- 
ing the note. 

Line 90 is a second delay to allow the 
note to fade before sounding the next. 

Try experimenting with the two fre- 
quencies, both of which are contained in 
line 60. For another example, replace the 
first value (30) with 50, and the second 
(23) with 56. Many other combinations 
are possible, so feel free to experiment. 

SYNCHRONIZATION 

This technique is very similar in concept 
to ring modulation. The output from two 
separate voices is combined to produce 
one composite note. However, the 
method of combining them is somewhat 
different, with the analog value of the 
two notes being logically ANDed. Don't 
try to understand that (I don't) . . . just 
listen to the result! ft produces a different 
overtone, one that I can only describe as 
being somewhat 'reedy', or even 
metallic, such as you might hear from 
rotating machinery. The process of using 
it is also similarto ring mod, requiring the 
selection of two frequencies for the two 
voices, and POKEing location 54276 with 
a value of 19 (for triangular wave), or 35 
or 67 (for sawtooth or pulse waves). 
Unlike ring mod, synch will work with any 
waveform, not just triangular. 

This simple example illustrates several 
typical combinations of frequencies: 

50 POKE W1-3,31:POKEW1,19 

60 FOR I = 1 TO 8:POKE W3-3,4+l 

70 FOR J = 1 TO 300:NEXTJ:NEXTI 

80: 

90: 

Line 50 selects a frequency for voice 1, 
and gates it with the synch bit (bit 1). 

Line 60 generates 8 different numbers 
with the FOR-NEXT loop, and POKEs 
each in turn as the frequency for voice 3. 

Line 70 simply inserts a delay aftereach 
note. 

After you run this an interesting point 
to note is that you hear the output of 
voice 1, yet the pitch of this voice wasn't 
changed ... the different notes are pro- 
duced by varying the pitch of voice 3, 
whose output has been silenced! It is only 
because voice 1 is being synchronized 
with voice 3 that the differing notes are 
heard. 

Again, there is an almost limitless 
number of possible combinations, so ex- 
periment as you will. Change only these 
two lines to add a short, repetitive fre- 
quency sweep and create a waver: 



60 FOR I = 1T015 

70 FOR J = 0TO10:POKEW3-3,20 + 
ABS(J-5):NEXTJ:NEXTI 

Line 60 introduces the waver. 

Line 70 generates a series of numbers 
varying rapidly between 20 and 25, and 
POKEs these into the frequency of voice 3. 

COMBINATIONS 

Now let's try combining some of these 
different techniques. The first example 
uses ring modulation as the basic note, 
then introduces a frequency sweep on 
the pitch of voice 3. Listen to the amaz- 
ingly complex sounds this very simple 
program generates: 

50 POKE W1-3,31:POKE W1,21 

60 FOR I = 1 TO 175 STEP 0.1 

70 POKE W3-3,I:NEXT 

Line 50 selects a basic frequency and 
ring mod for voice 1. 

Lines 60 and 70 add the frequency 
sweep to voice 3. 

At any point during this example, you 
can stop the program with the RUN/ 
STOP key to hear the sound being pro- 
duced, then restart it by typing CONT and 
pressing 'return'. Experiment by chang- 
ing the value of 21 in line 50 to 19 or 35 
for synchronization. 

The next example illustrates a musical 
effect called 'beating'. When two 
musical notes are very close to one 
another in frequency (or to multiples of 
one another), the two sound waves will 
create an interference pattern. They are 
momentarily in phase and reinforcing 
each other, and then out of phase and 
opposing. The result is that the sound 
volume wavers up and down. This effect 
is used by guitar players to tune their in- 
struments; as one string is tuned to 
another, the beating frequency will 
gradually get slower. When it stops, the 
strings are in perfect tune. 

Add these three lines to the program: 

50 POKE W1-3,13:POKE W3-3.12: 
POKEW3-4,225;POKEWl,21 

60 FOR I = 1 TO 3000:NEXT:POKE 
W1,20 

70 FOR I = 1TO1500:NEXT 

Line 50 establishes two frequencies 
that are within one percent of one 
another, then specifies ring mod so the 
notes will be combined. 

Line 60 introduces a delay before 
releasing the note. 

Line 70 is another delay before the 
note is turned off. 

This effect sounds much like one of the 
previous examples, but the method used 
to achieve it is totally different. In the 
previous case, a series of different values 

Continued on page 142 



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FILING ASSISTANT • Disk 


67.95 


INVENTORY PACKAGE • Disk 


77.95 


TOUCH TYPING TUTOR • Disk & Cass. 


18.95 


CALC RESULT EASY • Carl 


67,95 


CALC RESULT ADVANCED • Disk 


127.45 


PAPERCLIP IW.P ) • Disk 


99,95 


M'FILE • Disk 


94,95 


WORD PRDJ3 IW.P.) • Disk 


71.95 


SPELL RIGHT PLUS (DICTIONARY) • Carl. 


49.95 


DELPHI'S ORACLE (DATA BASE) • Disk 


125,95 


TIME & MONEY MANAGER • Disk 


55,95 


OMNICALC iSPBEADSHEETi • Disk 


79.95 


CARDCD PRINTER INTERFACE 


54.95 



POLICY 
All orders are shipped U.P.S. Shipping charges are S2.00 lor 
prepaid orders and S3. 25 lor C.O.D. For fast delivery send 
money order, certilied check or credit card. 
Please allow approximately three weeks for clearance on 
personal checks. 

All items are subject to availability and price change. Thanks 
for ordering IroTi House ot Software 1 Call lor free catalog' 



EDUCATIONAL 

HUNDREDS MORE AVAILABLE 

SNOOPER TROOPERS I, II • Disk S29.95 

KINDERCOMP • Disk & Crt 19.95 

IN SEARCH DF MOST AMAZING THING • Disk 25.95 

PROGRAMMING KIT I • Disk 19.95 

PAGEMAKER • Disk 22.95 

KIDS ON KEYS • Cart. 29.95 

FRACTION FEVER • Cart 29 95 

PIPES • Cart, 29 70 

ENGLISH INVADERS • Disk & Cass. 21.95 

DUNGEONS ALGEBRA DRAGONS • Disk 8, Cass. 19.95 

UP FOR GRABS • Carl. 29 95 

BENJI'S SPACE RESCUE • Disk 29.95 




HOUSE Of 
SOFTWARE 



•From EN-TECH Software 



ENTERTAINMENT 

STUDID 64 (MUSIC MAKER) • Disk & Cass. S29.95 

GAME DESIGNER • Disk & Cass. 25.95 

GRIDRUNNER • Cart 20.25 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI • Disk 25.95 

UPPER REACHES OF APSHAI • Disk 13.50 

CURSE OF RA • Disk 13.50 

ASTROBLITZ • Cart. 29.20 

SAVE NEW YORK • Cart. 29.70 

PERSONALITY ANALYZER • Disk 28.00 

PHANTOM KARATE DEVILS • Disk 29.70 

PLANET FAIL • Disk 3B.20 

ENCHANTER • Disk 38.20 

SEA FOX • Disk 33.95 

CHOPLIFTER • Disk 33.95 

PROTECTOR II • Disk & Cass. 24.95 

TELENGARD • Cass. 16.95 

FROGGER • Disk & Cass 22.95 

FORT APOCALYPSE • Disk 8. Cass 22.95 

ROBBERS OF THE LOST TOMB • Disk 19.95 

JUMPMAN • Disk 25.95 

SWORD DF FARGOAL • Disk & Cass 20.25 

PAKACUDA * Disk & Cass, 11.95 

SURVIVOR • Disk & Cass. 22.95 

PEGASUS ODYSSEY • Disk & Cass 19,95 

NEUTRAL ZONE • Disk & Cass. 27.95 

COMPETITION PRO. JOYSTICK 17.95 



To Order Call: 

(213) 768-8866 

Or 
Write To: 
HOUSE OF SOFTWARE 

91B3 Mercedes Ave.* Arleta. CA 91331 



SHOW US A BETTER PRICE AND WE'LL BEAT IT! 



IF ITS FOR 
AND IT'S C 



THE COMMODORE 64 
iOOD, IT'S PROBABLY 




MANAGEMENT SYSTEM €4 

This integrated business program g.ves you the computer power 
once reserved for large corporations. Capabilities include mvocing, 
inventory control, and customer mailing lists. Disk S6B.S5 

FINANCE CALC 64 

The leader in home and business financial analysis. You can have 
up to 144Q itemized expenses and print 10B5 different financial 
reports and bar graphs In addition, it keeps and compares as 
many as IP budgets at once. Disk S59.9B 

DATA BABE B4 

A perfect record system for any business or home. It can store 
up co 1 200 records and has up to £0 fields for each one. A special 
label and report designer is included- It can aiso merge with popular 
word processors. Disk SJ59-95 

GAME DESIGNER 64 

Use to animate 1 6 sprites Bnd design colorful background screens. 

Several game sub-routines included. Disk $35.95 



STUDIO 64 SERIES 

Anyone can now creete muse as beautiful as the most advanced 
programers could one year ago!! Just pfay and the computer will 
instantly write the music on the screen. Included are powerful 
features Nke btock move, single note editing and scroiling H It will save 
and recall, add music to your own programs and print lead sheets. 
Disk S39.95 

FAMILY PAK {3 in 1) [ALL] 855,95 

Three of the finest home programs available: 

• CHECKBOOK EASE B4 

Handles over 1300 transactions. Fnnts statements, and all types 
of checks, and «30 expense categories. 5539. 95 

• RECIPE KEEPER 

Searches by ingredient, category or name. Calculates 
measurements for different serving amounts and prints copies. 

• SPACE MATH 64 

Leern math, explore the universe, dance to the music and watch 
the show. 



Circle No. 106 



SABLES OF THE DIRT 

An earthquake sucks you Co the center of the earth, To escape 
you must battle the BABIES OF THE DIRT. But. don't mas or its 
doomsday! Watch out for their mother. S39.95 

i PROGRAMS ARE COMPATIBLE WITH ALL PRINTERS AND UTILIZE FULL-SCREEN PROCESSING. 



P.O. BOX SSI, SUN VALLEY, CA 91353 • [S13] "768-6646 



I 



Commander December 1983/81 






: By Harry Met? 




In the spirit of the season, Commander invites you to enter the 
following program on your C-64. You should have no problem 
telling when the program is working properly. 

Non-Beginners: As a challenge to your BASIC programming 
skill, see if you can predict what the program will do before you 
RUN it 



%. 



5 3=54272 

1 F0RL=STGS+24 : PQKEL , • NEXT 
POKES+24, 15 
POKES+3 , 3 • POKES+2 , 
POKES+10, 3 : POKES+9, © 
POKES+1?.»8 : POKES+16,0 
POKES+5, S • POKES+6, 
P0KES+ 1 2t 9 : POKES+ 13-0 
POKES+19, 9 : POKES+20, 8 
REftDFlS 



20 

30 
40 
58 

60 
70 
30 

100 
110 

120 
130 

140 

200 

210 
220 

230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
230 
290 

300 



310 PGKES+4,64:P0KES+il,64 

320 REHHH1 , LI , Dl , H2, L2, 1)2, H3, L3, D3 

330 POKES+1, HI : POKES- LI : POKES+3, H2 = POKES 

+7,L2 
340 POKES+4, 65= POKES+1 1,65 
350 F0RT=1T0125^NEKT 

360 POKES+4, 64 : PDKES+1 1 , 64 : POKE+18, 64 
370 REfli3Hl,Ll,Di,H2,L2,D2,H3/L3,II3 
330 POKES+1 , HI : POKES, LI :P0KES+8,H2- POKES 

+7, L2 : POKES+1 5, H3' POKES+1 4, L3 



IFft*="R"GGTO200 
IFR*="E"GOTO500 
IFR$="C"GOTO700 
IFfi*="D"OOTO500 

RERIiHl,Ll,Dl,H2,L2,B2,H3,L3,Ii3 
IFHK0THEHEND 

POKES+1 , HI : POKES, LI : POKES+3, H2 : POKES 
+?,L2 
POKES+1 5, H3 : PGKES+14, L3 
POKES+4, 65 : POKES+1 1 , 65 i POKES+18, 65 
F0RT=1T0D3-HEXT 
POKES+18, 64 

RERLHi , LI , Dl , H2, L2,D2, H3, L3,B3 
POKES+15, H3 : POKES+1 4, L3 
POKES+18, 65 
FQRT=1T0125:NEXT 



■ POKES+1 1 , 65 = POKES+18, 65 
NEXT 
! POKES+1 1 , 64 : POKES+18, 64 



390 POKES+4, 65 : 1 

400 F0RT=1T0D1M 

410 P0KES+4,64=I 

420 GOTO 100 

500 RERBH1,L1,D1,H2,L2,D2,H3,L3,B3 

513 IFHK0THENEND 

520 POKES+1, HI : POKES, LI -P0KES+8,H2= POKES 

+7,L2 
530 P0KES+ 1 5, H3 : POKES+1 4, L3 
540 POKES+4 , 65 : P0KE3+ 1 1 > 65 : P0KES+ 1 8 , 65 
550 F0RT=1T0D3'NEXT 
560 POKES+18, 64 

570 RERLHI , LI , Dl , H2, L2, B2,H3, L3, H3 
530 P0KES+15,H3:P0KES+14,L3 
590 POKES+3, 65 



600 FQRT=1TQB3:NEXT 



82/Commander December 1983 




Now you can make 



|£ MUSIC 

^2^ and 



SOUND EFFECTS 

7^ '\*J >- "1'' on your Commodore 64 

NOTE PRO II, music and sound effects editor and generator is 
untouched by the competition. It gives you all this and more: 32 
step TREBLE CLEF edit pad, 254 choices of tempo, all note 
durations, choice of LEGATO and STACCATO for each note. 
TRANSPOSING by octaves. ARRANGEMENT in any sequence, 
and control of ALL TONE SETTINGS. Use Note Pro II to compose. 
or type in sheet music. No musical or sound effects 
accomplishment is out of your reach with Note Pro II. 

NOTE PRO BRIDGE is a powerful machine language subrouline 
which you may copy and add to your own programs. By adding as 
few as 14 lines to your basic program you can get music and 
sound effects thai would be impossible in BASIC. NOTE PRO 
BRIDGE will play Note Pro music files or use data that you create 
within your programs 

NOTE PRO I is a music editor that combines simplicity and 
versatility. Nothing compares for the money. 

PLOT-A-LOT is a hi-res screen utility which allows you to create 
hi-res screens and add them to your own programs easily, 



Note Pro I 


tape: $24.95 


disk 


S27.9S 


Note Pro II 


tape: $46.95 


disk 


S49.95 


Note Pro Bridge 


tape: $24.95 


disk 


S27.95 


Plot-A-Lot 


tape: $8.95 


disk 


$17.95 



Visa/MC accepted. We are ELECTRONIC 
LAB INDUSTRIES. 100 W 22nd ST, PO Box 
7167, Baltimore, MD— (301 ) 366-8138. Call or 
write today for your FREE BROCHURE! 



EU 



COMMODORE 64 SOFTWARE 


GAMES 








HUNTER/KILLER grafic submarine adventure 








IT&D! 


reg. 


24.95 


now 19.95 


JUMPMAM 30 screens-best arcade game vet 








IT&DI 


reg. 


39.95 


now 33.95 


APE CRAZE like donky kono (T&D) 


reg. 


27.95 


now 23.95 


ESCAPE MCP fantastic maze oame 10 screens 








(T&Dl 


reo. 


27.95 


now 23.95 


SUPERCUDA multi screen Pacman type game 








(T&D! 


reg. 


27.95 


now 23.95 


PEGASUS ODYSSEY colorful-graphic-challenging 








(T&Dl 


reg. 


27.95 


now 23.95 


OMEGA RACE popular arcade game comes home 








(T&D) 


reg. 


29.95 


now 19.95 


BUSINESS 








DATA BASE MANAGER up 10 1200 files per disk 


reg. 


149.95 


now 99.95 


GENERAL LEDGER can chart up to 350 accounts 


reg. 


199.95 


now 149.95 


ACCOUNTS REC. interactive with a/p, 9/1, & 








payroll 


reg. 


199.95 


now 149.95 


ACCOUNTS PAY interactive with a/r, 9/1, & 








payroll 


reg, 


199.95 


now 149.95 


PAYROLL interactive with a/r, a/p, & 9/1 


reg. 


199.95 


now 149.95 


EASY SCRIPT word processor 


reg. 


99.95 


now 69.95 


UTILITIES 








ASSEMBLER 64 


reg. 


49,95 


now 29.95 


LOGO 


reg. 


99.95 


now 69.95 


PILOT 


reg. 


99.95 


now 69.95 


HOME UTILITIES 








ELECTRONIC CHECKBOOK 


reg. 


39.95 


now 29.95 


FORGET-ME-NOT electronic calendar 


reg. 


29.95 


now 24.95 


MONEY MANAGER budget planner 


reg. 


29.95 


now 24.95 


/\ Send check or money 






/ \ order. COD add 52 


00. 






n / \ Shipping SI. 50 








3 / \ 278 Warren Street 


£ / \ Edgewater Park N.J. 08010 


\ /Dvr&mid Te 


609-386-9353 


/ computerware 



VIC 20 & C-64 OWNERS 
40-80 Column Video Boards 



viMf 



VIC 20 

List 99.95 

SALE 
fiCftOO 



C-64 
List 159.95 



■■■MftWBHlBm 1 ! 




nee your VIC 20 or . 

Commodore 64 to BO , 

, columns. This product , 

allows word processing, 

mall merge, electronic 

■ spread sheet and more. • 
Order now to take ad- 
vantage of sale prices. 

■ VISA/M.C. Prices sub- 
ject to change. 

For free catalog call or write: 

WAy* Compulen; Inc. 

P.O. Box 3883 
Federal Way. WA S6003 
Phone (206) 839-WAVE 



Circle No 53 



TREE CATALOG ! 

HOME. EDUCATIONAL, AND 
BUSINESS SOFTWARE 
FOR THE VIC AND 64 



Hew Items... 

Che< khook/64 (Disk) Handles 

all checking account data. $16.00 

Capitals/64 Teaches U.S. and 

Foreign capitals. Disk SI 0.00 

Tape $8.00 

Mailing List/64 Disk features sort- 
ing and mailing labels. $16.00 
Typing Practice improves typing 
speed and accuracy. 64/disk $8.00 
VIC/TAPE $6.00 



Over 50 other titles! 

Law-Priced Practical 

Put- your VIC or 64 to work with 

quality software from 

Farthest Fringe S.A. 

101 Highway Blvd. 

M. Fekin. IL 61554 

TREE CATALOG ! 

HOME, EDUCATIONAL. AND 
BUSINESS SOFTWARE 
FOR THE VIC AND 64 



Circle No 131 



Circle No. Ill 

MEGA 
SOFTWARE 

Guaranteed Mega Fun With 
Software for the Commodore 

64. 

MEGA DRAW 

Use Commodores hires abilities to draw 
on the screen using its 64K dots to 
compose your pictures, 

• Precise drawings using the keyboard 
and^ar joystick. 

■ 16 line. 16 pad and 16 background 
colors. 

• Erase lines and pad colors for 
corrections. 

• 4 size copies with the 1525 printer. 

• Images saved or load on disk. 

• Fuh Commodore character set. 

DISK ONLY $18.96 
MEGA TREK 

A hires game using sprites and sound. 
Mega Trek is not just a shooting game 
but It is also a logical game, needing 
logical thinking to obtain high scores. 
Captain's log Star Date 2437.9. The 
Kllngons have Invaded a neutral system. 
You are the Enterprise, faced with a 
mission to seek out and destroy the 
Klingons and their captured planets. 
Joystick Required 

TAPE, $12.95* DISK, $15.95 

Send check or money order to: 

MEGA SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 2398 
Klamath Falls, OR 97601 



% 



618 PGKES+18,64 

628 RERDH 1 , L i , D i , H2 , L2 , D2 .. H3 , L3 > D3 

636 POKES+1 5, H3 = POKES+1 4, L3 

640 FQRT=1 TODS = NEXT 

650 POKES+4 , 64 : POKES+1 1 .. 64 ■ PGKES+ 1 8 , 64 

66W GOTO 100 

788 RERUN 1 , L 1 , D 1 , H2 , L2 , 112 , H3 , L3 > D3 

71G IFH1C0THENEND 

720 POKES+1 , HI "POKES. LI :PQKES+8,H2: POKES 

+7,L2 
730 POKES'* 1 5 , H3 : P0KES+ 14 , L3 
748 POKES+4 , 65 : P0KES+ 1 1 , 65 ; PGKES+ 18,65 
750 F0RT=1 TODS = NEXT 
755 POKES+1 8, 64 

760 REfiDHl , Li , Dl , H2, L2, D2, H3, L3, D3 
7?0 P0KES+ 15, H3 : P0KES+ 1 4 , L3 
7S0 POKES+18,65 
790 F0RT=1T0D3:NEXT 

SOW POKES+4/ 64 : POKES+1 1 , 64 : P0KES+ 1 8, 64 
818 RERDH1 , LI , Dl , H2, L2, D2, H3., L3,B3 
828 P0KES+ 1 , H 1 : POKES , LI : PQKES+8 , H2 : POKES 

+7.L2 
830 P0KES+ 1 5 , H3 : POKES+1 4 , L3 
840 POKES+4 , 65 : PGKES+ 1 1 , 65 : F0KES+ 18,65 
85U F0RT=ITQD1 : NEXT 

860 POKES+4 , 64 : P0KES+ 11,64- PDKES+ 18,64 
870 GOTO 108 

9U0 RERDH 1 , L 1 , i) 1 , H2 , L2 , D2 , H3 , L3 , D3 
910 IFHKOTHENEND 
920 P0KES+ 1 > HI .: POKES , L 1 : POKES+8 , H2 : POKES 

+7,L2 
930 POKES+1 5 , H3 : P0KES+ 1 4 , L3 
940 POKES+4 , 65 • P0KES+ 1 1 , 65 : P0KES+ 1 8 , 65 
950 F0RT-1T0D3-NEXT 

S6& POKES+4 , 64 : P0KES+ 1 1 , 64 "= P.0KES+ 1 8 , 64 
973 GOTO100 

i 006 DR T HH ,51,97,375,42, 53 , 375 ,17, 37 , 250 
1 1 8 DRTR , , , , , , 21,1 54 , 250 
1 020 DflTR 57,172,1 25 ,45,1 98 ,125,0 , @ , 
1080 DRFR 51,97,250,43,52,250,25, 177,250 
1040 DhTRB, 43, 53, 758, 34, 75, 750, 17,37,250 
1 050 DRTR8 , , , 8 ,0,0,21,1 54 , 258 
1 060 DRTR8 , O , , , , 8 , 25 , 1 77 , 250 
1 070 DR T RR , 5 1 , 97 , 375 , 42 ,53,375,1 7 , 37 , 258 
1080 DRTR8,8,8,8,8,8,21, 154,250 
1 090 DRTR57 , 1 72 , 1 25 , 45 , 1 3'<i > 1 25 , 8 , 8 , 8 
1 1 80 HRTR5 1 , 97 > 258 , 43 , 52 , 258 ,25,1 77 , 258 
1110 DRTRB, 43, 53, 758,34,75,758, 17,37,258 
1 1 28 DRT R0 , 8 , , 8 , 8 , U ,21,154, 258 
1 l 30 DRTR0 , , , > 8 , , 25 ,177, 250 
1 148 IiRTRC, 76, 252, 500,45, 198, 508, 12, 216, 

250 
1 1 5U DRTM0 , ,0,8,8,0,16, 47 , 258 
1 1 68 DRTR76 , 252 , 258 ,45,1 98 > 258 , 1 9 , 63 . 258 
1 170 DRTRE, 51 , 37 .• 750, 45, 198, 758, 12, 216, 2 

50 
1180 DRTR0,0,8,0,8,8, 16,47,258 
1 1 98 DRTRU , 8 , 8 ,0,0 , ,19, 63 , 250 
1 248 DRTRC , 43 , 52 , 580 , 68 , 1 49 , 588 ,17, 37 , 25 

8 
1 258 DRTR8 , 8 , 8 , 0,0,0,21,1 54 , 250 
1 268 DRTR43 , 52 , 580 , 68 , 1 49 , 508 ,25,1 7 7 , 588 
1278 DRTRE, 51, 97, 758, 43, 52, 758, 17,37 ..250 



84/Commander December 1983 



NEW FOR YOUR VIC 20 



wAyr 



*£££?«« ei»« 



NOW YOU CAN HAVE 
35KQF RAM + IEEE 408 

0JV OWE CARTRIDGE! 

3K RAM CARTRIDGE ONLY $39" 

All Boards are fully socketed tor future expansion 

Add memory in SK increments simply Dy inserting up to 

(4}HM 6264 RAMS. (Call for price) Add IEEE 4SS Chip Set 

for $59" Avaiable in any configuration Irom date board 

to fully populated Dealer inquiries invited 

WnSKC Computort inc. — flfc 

P.O. Bdi 38B3, Federal Way. Washington 98003 

Add S2 00 Postage Washing ion Restfenls Actf Sales Tax 
No COD'S Pease Phone No. {2061 839- WAVE 
Ocle No 63 



C64-FORTH 
for the Commodore 64 
FORTH SOFTWARE FOR THE COMMODORE 64 
C64-FORTH(TM} for the Commodore 64 - S99 95 

• Fig Fonh-79 impiementation with extensjans 

• Full feature screen editor and macro assembler 
■ Trace feature for easy debuggirg 

• 320 x 200, 2 color bit mapped graphics 

• 15 color sprite and character graphics 

• Compatible with VIC peripheral including disks, data 
set. modeum, printer and cartridges 

• Extensive 144 page manual with examples and appli- 
cation screens 

• "SAVE TURNKEY* normally allows application pro- 
gram distributor without licensing or royalties 

C64-XTEND(TM) FORTH Extension 
for C64-CORTH .$59.95 

[Requires original C64-FQRTH copy) 

• Fu% compatible floating point package including 
arithmetic, relational, logical and transcendental 
functions 

• String ex*.ensrons including LEP$, RIGHTS, and MlD$ 
» BCD fiinct'ons for 1 digit numbers including muttipfy, 

dwide, and percentage. BCD numbers may be used for 
DOLLAR CENTS calcu ations without the round-off error 
inherent .n BASIC real numbers. 

• Special words are provided for inputting and outputtr-g 
DOLLAR CENTS values 

• Detailed manual with examples and applications screens 
(Commodore 64 & a trade mark of Commodore) 

TO ORDER ■ Specify dis* or cassette version 

■ Check, money order, bank card, COD'S 
addS 1.50 

- Add $4.00 postage and handling in USA and 
Canada 

■ Mass orders add 5% sales tax 

- For&gn orders add 20% sapping and 
handing 

■ Dea'er nqunes welcome 

PERFORMANCE MICRO PRODUCTS 

770 Dedharn Slreet. S-2 
Canton, MA 02021 , . 

(617)828-1209 Circle No. 32 



% 



288 Dfl "I R0 , 8 , 6 .. , 8 .. Q , 2 1 , 1 54 , 25S 
290 Dfi'T R0 , , 0j 9 .. y , , 25 , 1 71 , 258 
300 DflTflC , 57 ,172, 500 , 45. 1 98 , 509 , 11 , 11 4 , 

250 
3 1 DA T H0 , 9 .. .. , .. , 1 4 , 1 07 .■ 250 
320 DATA57, 172, 250,45.. 133,250, 17,37,250 
330 DfiTHfl , 68 , 1 49 , 375, 57 , 1 72, 3 75, 11 , 1 14 , 

250 
340 Dh T R0 , 0,0,0,0,0,14,107 , 250 
350 DAVA64, 183, 125,51, 197, 125,0,0,0 
360 DATA57, 1/2,250,45, 19b, 250, 17,37,250 
370 DAT Flfi , 5 1 , 97 , 375 , 43 , 52 , 375, 17 , 37 , 250 
380 DATA'S, 0,0, 0,0, 0,21, 154,250 
390 DATA57, 172, 125, 45, 198, 125, 0, 0, 
400 DRTR5 1 , 97 , 259 , 43 , 52 , 250 , 25 , 1 7 ? > 250 
420 DflTflB,43,52,758,34,75,758, 17,37,250 
422 DATA0 , , 0,0,0,0,21,1 54 , 250 
424 DRTR0 , , , , , , 25 ,177, 250 
430 BfiTBC , 57 , 1 72 , 580 , 45 , 1 98 , 500 ,11,114, 

250 
448 DRTfiQ , , 8 , 8 , , , 1 4 , 1 07 , 258 
450 DATR57, 172,250,45, 198,258,17,33,250 
468 BRTfiR , 68 , 1 49 , 375 , 57 > 1 72, 8 75 , 1 2 , 89 , 2 

58 

4 78 Dfl FR0 ,8,8,0,8,0,14,10?, 258 
488 DRTR64, 188, 125,51,97, 125,8,8,8 

498 Dfl TA57 , 1 72 , 250 , 45, 1 93 , 258 , 1 7 , 38 , 258 
508 URTRR , 5 1 , 9 ? , 375 , 43 , 52 , 375 , 1 7 , 3 ? > 258 
518 DRTR8, 0,8, 0,0, 0,21, 154,258 
528 DATA57, 172, 125, 45, 198, 125, 8, 8,8 
538 BflTflS 1 , 97, 258 , 43 , 52 , 250 , 25, 177, 250 
540 BflTRB , 43 , 52 , 750 , 34 , 75 , 758 , 1 7 , 37 , 258 
558 DRTR8 ,0,8,8,8,8,21,154, 258 
568 DAT A0 ,0,8,0, , , 25 , 1 77 ,250 

5 ?0 DRTRC , ?S ,251, 588 ,64,1 88 , 580 , 1 2 , 89 , 2 

50 
580 DRTR0, 8 , 0, 8,8, 8 , 16, 47, 258 
598 II fl l"R76 , 25 1 , 258 , 64 , 1 88 , 250 ,19, 63 , 258 
680 DRTRR, 90, 48, 3^5,84,188, 375, 12,89,25 



6 1 DRTR0 , , 0,0,0, , 1 6 i 47 , 250 

620 HRTR76, 251, 125,64, 188, 125,0,8,0 

630 DAT R64 , 1 88 , 258 , , 8 ,0,19, 63, 250 

640 DflTflC , 68 , 1 49, 750, 5 1 , 97 , 750 ,17, 37 , 25 



650 DATA0, 8, 0, 0, 8, 8,21, 154, 250 
660 DAT A0 , 8 , , , 8 , 8 , 25 , 1 77 , 250 
678 DflTflC, 86, 104,750,68, 149,750, 17,37,2 

58 
680 DATA0, 8, 8, 0,0, 0,21, 154, 250 
685 DATA8, 8, 8, 8,0, 0, 25, 177, 258 
698 DfiTRfl, bS, 1 49, 375, 43, 52, 375j 1 7 , 37, 25 

8 
708 DATA8, 8, 0,0, 8, 8,21, 154, 250 
7 1 8 DATA5 1 , 97 , 1 25 , 8 , 8,8,8, 8 , 8 
728 DAT A43 , 52 , 250 , 84 , 75 , 250 , 25 , 1 77 , 258 
730 HATHA , 5 1 , 97 , 375, 43 , 52 , 375 , 1 2 , 2 1 6 , 25 

8 
743 BATA0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 16, 47, 250 
758 DA 1' A45 , 1 98 ,125, 38 , 1 26 , 1 25 , , , 
768 DATA38, 126,250,32,94,250, 19,63,258 
770 HAT AD , 34 , 75 , 1 258 ,21,1 54 , 1 250 , 1 7 , 3 1 , 

1259 
!888 DflTflC,- 1,-1, -1,-1, -1,-1, -1,-1,-1 



Commander December 1983/B5 



REMs to Readers 



•••••••••• 

SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION 

Thank you for your subscription to 
COMMANDER Magazine. Below we have 
outlined some guidelines and information 
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86/CommarderDecemberl983 



READER SERVICE UPDATE 

The response to COMMANDER Reader 
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The response was so overwhelming in 
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ATTENTION 
COMPUTER CAMPERS 

Did you or your children attend one of 
the many "computer camps" last sum- 
mer? COMMANDER Magazine is plan- 
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perience, along with the following details: 

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COMMUNICATE 
through COMMANDER 

We have a continuing need for publish- 
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from beginners to advanced program- 
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COMMANDER 
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14 SESSIONS ON VIDEO TAPE 



1) What Is A Commodore 64? 

2) Getting Started 

3} Lets Run Programs 
4-A) What Makes Programs Work? 
4-B} Putting Programs To Work 

5/ Storing information 

6) The Commodore 64 
As A Learning Tool 



7/ Computers Talking to Computers 
Si Commodore 64 Language 
9j Graphics 

101 Commodore 64 Working For You 

11) Commodore 64 Music 

12] Computer Games And Simulations 

13) Now What? 



pfSl* 



o* v 



Otdet 



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ilftOtt e 






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Circle No. 175 






The Pro Gram 



'By Jerry B. Byrdi 



"IS SCRIBBLING 

ONLY FOR CHILDREN?" 

Flow charts represent the buzz words 
of buzz words. Perhaps some newcomers 
to the world of the computer are not 
familiar with it. Back in the dark ages of 
computerdom (the 1960's), almost every 
college or technical course began with 
flow charting. Now, many do not even ad- 
dress it in introductory courses. Rather, it is 
only for advanced students. I disagree 
with this philosophy. 

What is a flow chart? What is its pur- 
pose? Why is it ever needed? When is it 
not needed? 

A ffow chart is nothing but a symbolic 
representation (a drawing) of an algo- 
rithm. An algorithm is a step-by-step solu- 
tion to a problem. A computer program is 
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of problem solving is critical in making cer- 
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the street." The instructions presuppose 
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you are not a good scout and thus do not 
help people across the street. 

One night at a meeting, little Johnny 
came in looking as if he had been in a fight 
with a bobcat and lost. The scoutmaster 

88/Commander December 1983 



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Circle No. 12 



Commander December 1983/89 



asked what happened. Johnny indicated 
that he had been doing a good deed, and 
had helped a tittle old lady across the 
street. The scoutmaster asked if they had 
been hit by a car. 

"No," replied Johnny, "the lady didn't 
want to go," Oftentimes, we write pro- 
grams that "don't want to go." We forget 
one or two other conditions that need to 
be addressed. A flowchart usually helps to 
cover more of the possibilities. This is 
especially true of package programs writ- 
ten for the general public. There is ab- 
solutely nothing that will not be tried by 
users of a package. Ongoing software 
support is the acid test of a package. Our 
incoming calls reflect one of the extremes: 
either the user hasn't plugged in the com- 
puter or the circumstance is rather eso- 
teric. Testing can never cover everthing. 

Flow charting, by its very nature, will 
lead to better handling of the two biggest 
"bugs" in complex programs: extension 
errors and errors of magnitude. Every pro- 
gram should deal with what to do if too 
much (ortoo tittle) of something is done. It 
could be too many lines on an invoice, too 
many items in inventory, too few accounts 
on file, linked records not found, etc., etc. 
Usually one possibility is covered, but 
others are overlooked or not considered. 

Entire books are written about flow 
charts and flow charting. My observation 
is that some, if not many or all, miss out on 
real world usefulness, lam not going to at- 
tempt to teach you how to draw or write a 
flow chart. Others can do it better than I. 
My desire is to encourage you to create a 
flow chart occasionally. 

Flow charts may be formal, if used for a 
presentation. If a flow chart exists primarily 
to help you, then it certainly may be very 
informal. In Figure A, I have shown one of 
mine for a printing module I recently 
wrote. As you can see, it is informal, but it 
suited my needs. Seldom do I create a new 
program that ! don't create something like 
this to speed me on my way. 

The main purpose of the flow chart is to 
address the conditional branches. A con- 
ditional branch is a place in a program 
where the program takes different direc- 
tions, according to some circumstance: 
Are you through? Is this the maximum? Is 
there a hardware or a media malfunction? 
Did the user make an illegal entry? Has 
everything been printed? Is the printer not 
there? Has this already been done? 

When these kinds of things happen, it's 
often easy to forget to tidy up everything. 
In fact, last week I found a bug in the DOS 
(disk operating system) of the 1541 disk 
drive that probably would not have been 

90/Commander December 1983 



LISTING 1 
REM 3-B 
10 FRINTCHR*<147) :GQTQT000 

100 IF DP < THEN DP = 2 
1 1 N*=M I D* i STR* < I NT < m 1 TDP+ . 5 ) > , 2) 
1 20 I FLEH < N* ) <DP+ 1 THENN*=R I GHT* i " OGOOGU 
08@"+N*,DP+l) 

1 30 I FDP>0THENN*=LEF T* i H$ , LEU ( N* ) -DP > + " 

. "+RIGHT$<N$,BP> 
140 IFH<0THENN*="-"+N* 
150 BP=-l-N=VflL<N*>: RETURN 
900 I NPUT# 1 5 , E* .. EM* , T$ , S* : E- VfiL < E* ) 
910 I FE<26THENRETURN 
920 PRINTE*", "EM*", "T*", "S* 
930 STOP 
940 RETURN 
1000 FOR I =1 TO 22:SP* = SP* + " " ; HE^ 

T:DP = -1 
1010 CR*-CHR*C133 
4000 FOR I = O TO 9 
401OI NPUT " NAME > GRADE " > Nfi* <I > , GR <.!)■ HE 

XT 
4020 PRINT LEFT* ("STUDENT NfiME"+SP*, lb) 

; R I GHT* <. SP*+ " GRADE " , 6 ) 
4030 FOR I = O TO 9 = N - GR'iD-DP = : G0 

SUE 100 
4040 PR I NT LEFT* C Nfi* ( 1 ) +SP* , 1 S > ; R I GHT* 

CSP*+N*,3> 
4045 TG=TG+N 
4050 NEXT 

4G60 PRIHTRIGHT*<SP*+" " ,21 ) 

4070 N=TG/ 1 : DP=2 : G03UB 1 00 

40S0 PR 1 NTR I GHT* ( SP*+ " AVER AGE ",15 > ; R I GH 

T*(SP*+N*,6) 
SOU© PR I NT "STORE LIST CV/N>"; 
50 1 I NPUT A* ■ fi*=LEFT $ C A* , 1 ) 
5020 IFfi*="N"THEN5999 

5030 IFA$O"V"THEH5000 

5040 PR I NT "TAPE OR DISK CT/D)"; 

5050 INPUTfi* : A*=LEFT* C A$ , 1 > 

5060 I F fl$<> " T " THEN5O30 

5070 OPENS, 1 , 1 ; "LIST" : GO 105 120 

5080 I F A*0 " D " THEN5U00 

5090 OPEN 1 5 , 8 , 1 5 '• GOSUB900 

5100 PRINTttl5, , 'S0-LIST u :GOSUB900 

5110 OPENS, S, 3, "0:LIST,S, W" = GOSUB980 

5120 FOR I = TO 9 

5140 PR I NT #3 , Nfi* CD; CR* ; GR ( I ) J CR* ; 

5 1 50 I F A*= " D " THENGOSUB900 

5160 NEXT 

5170 CLOSES: CLOSETS 

5999 END 



what does Commodore have that Apple, IBM & 

TRS 80 Don't? 

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THE LIMBIC CONNECTION. . . 

CONNECTING THE FEATURES OF THE FUTURE FOR TODAY'S 

COMMODORE USERS. a* nun 



Commander December 1983/91 



there had flow charting taken place. (I'm 
sure this will elicit a response from some- 
one on the job at Commodore that 
50,000 pages of flow charting was done.) 
If you open a file to append information to 
it, and the disk cannot find a channel 
available for use, the DOS forgets to go 
back to the directory and tidy everything 
up. This leaves you with an open write file, 
one that cannot be fixed in any of the 
usual ways. 

There are some things that flow char- 
ting will not help. I really wish it would im- 
prove my typing and cut down on syntax 
errors, but it doesn't. It will not assure you 
that you will correctly respond to an event. 
It does not usually address the method of 
ascertaining the occurrence of an event. 
Does your program, in fact, find out that 
the maximum number has been entered? 
Did you find out about the printer being 
turned off, etc.? For most programmers, 
learning all these tricks is the hardest part. 
My friend and partner, Chuck Stuart, is 
one of the few people creative enough to 
have figured most of these tricks out on 
his own. Most everyone else (myself in- 
cluded) hears about them from someone 
else. I never thought about it, but I guess 
someone does have to think about them 
first. I guess I thought Jim Butterfield 
always found them all. 

Let me summarize by saying that I think 
programming will always be improved by 
having a pencil and paper handy while 
working. If nothing else, you can jot down 
that great idea forfixing another program, 
or the message from Aunt Matilda who 
called for your spouse. 

Next session we'll continue to look at 
files as used by Commodore. I will try to 
give a little insight that may not be written 
elsewhere. We will also look at other kinds 
of files, although not directly supported by 
Commodore, that can be used on Com- 
modore equipment. 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: 

Retrieving Data Files 

Last time we looked at files that can 
hold information: data files. The easiest 
data file to use on the Commodore family 
of computers is the sequential file. Next 
month in the Philosophy section we are 
going to look at files in detail and 1 will, at 
that time, look at turning this whole pro- 
ject into a random access file program that 
will let you change any item at will. 

Listing 1 shows the listing of our pro- 
gram last time, as it finally ended up. I am 
going to make some changes and addi- 
tions to give us the ability to retrieve the 



. rrM . _ LISTING 2 

a REM 3~C 

2008 PRINT" [CLEAR 3 STUDENT GRADE EXAMPLE" 
20 1 PR I NT " C DOWN 3 C DOWN ] C REV ] G [ OFF 3 ET OLD 

NAMES" 
2O20 I FGF-0THENPR I NT " IREV D'EE OFF 3 NT ER NAM 

E8" :GOTO2040 
203O PR I NT " L REV 3 EC OFF 3D IT OLD NAMES" 
2040 PR I NT " C REV 3 S L" OFF 3 AVE NAMES " 
2050 PR I NT " C REV 3 Q C OFF 3 U I T " 
210O GETA*- IFA$="E"THEN4000 
2118 IFR$="G"THEN4100 
2120 IFR$="S ,1 THEHS000 
2 1 30 I Ffi*= " Q " ANDGF=8THEN5999 
2 1 40 I FA*- " Q " THENPR I NT " C DOWN 3 C REV 3 NAMES 

NOT SAVED C DOWN 3 " : G0T028 1 
2158 GOTO2100 

LISTING 3 

REM 3-D 

4099 REM GET NAMES FROM TAPE 

4100 PR I NT "GET LIST? CV/H>? V CLEFT 3 CLEFT 
3 CLEFT J"; 

4110 INPUTfi$ : A$=LEFT*(A$, 1 > 

4120 IFA$="N"THEN4290 

4 1 30 I Pfl*0 " V " THEH4 1 00 

4148 PRINT"TAPE OR DISK? CT/B)? DLLEFT3C 

LEFT 3 CLEFT 3" J 
4150 INPUT A* : A$=LEFT$<A$, 1 ) 
4 1 SO I FA$0 " T " GOT04 1 80 
4178 0PEN1 , 1,0.. "LIST" =00X04230 
4 1 SO I FfitO " D " THEN4 1 00 
4 1 90 OPEN 15 > 8 ; 15 : G0SUB980 
4200 OPENS, 8,- 3, "0 = LIST,S,R" : INPUT#15, E$, 

EM$:E=VAL(E$) 
4218 I FEO62THENG0SUB9 1 ; GOTO4230 
4220 PR I NT " L DOWN 3 C REV 3L I ST FILE NOT FOUN 

D [ DOWN 3 " : CLOSES : CLOSE 1 5 = G0T04 1 08 
4230 FOR 1-0 TO 9 
4240 I NPUT#3 , NA* ( I > : H-ST • I FA$= " D " THENGOS 

UB900 
4250 IFH=0THEHINPUT#3, GR< I > : H=ST ■' IFA$="D 

"THENGOSUE900 
4268 IFH>0THENI=9 
4270 NEXT 

4280 GF= 1 ■• CLOSES '■ CLOSE 1 5 
4290 GOT02000 



92/Commander December 1 983 



WE WILL MEET 

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wui {S5 00 Minimum). Cllllorrvli te»- 
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VISA and MASTERCARD Accepted. 

not below our cost. 



Circle No 99 


q&^A^A&ML&s 


I 


o 




<=?£> CSS dc? O Cdoc a \ 


STOCK HELPER" 

Commodore 64 and VIC-20 

Stock HELPER is a tool to maintain a history of stock 
prices and market indicators on diskette, to display 
charts, and to calculate moving averages. Stock 
HELPER was designed and written by a "weekend 
investor" for other weekend investors. 
Stock HELPER is available on diskette for: 

Commodore 64 $30.00 ($37.00 Canadian) 
VIC-20 (16K) $27.00 ($33.25 Canadian) 
plus $1.25 shipping (S1.55 Canadian) 

Output diskettes are interchangeable between versions, but the 
VIC-20 version charts 26 bi-weekly periods rather than 52 week- 
ly periods 

(M)agreeabie software, inc. 

5925 Magnolia Lane • Plymouth, MN 55442 
(612)559-1108 

iMtagreeable and HELPER are trademarks of M)agreeable software, inc- 
Commodore 64 and VIC-20 are trademarks of Commodore Electronics Ltd. 



COLOR 
PROBLEMS? 

Solve Them With 
The Color Sharpener 

$18.95 

You're not alone. Thousands of 
Commodore 64 owners have 
"fuzzy" color on their TV. Most 
have interference lines crowd- 
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even that hasn't helped. But, 
most of us just lived with the 
problem. Now the engineers at 
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PRESTO! The interference disap- 
pears. Instantly. And if it doesn't 
work to your satisfaction, just 
send it back and we'll refund 
your purchase price in full. 



DUST PROBLEMS? 

Solve Them With 

Matching Dust Covers 

for Computer, 

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$6.95-58.95 

These are the deluxe covers for 
either the Commodore 64 or the 
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lined with a soft non-scratch 
liner, for a cover you just 
can't beat. 

Don't waste your money on those 
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your Commodore computers. 

Available singly or as a matched 
set in beautiful brown simulated 
leather. 



Commodore 64 and Vic 20 cue registered 
nademaiks ol Commodore Computer Company 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



ORDER TODAY! 

Please send me the following: 



Quantity Item 


Amount 


Color Sharpener 




C« S18.95 


S 


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Covers (<i $6.95 


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550 W. 68th Street, Wauwcrtosa, WI 53213, 414/257-3562 circle no 90 



Commander December 1983/93 



data entered previously, change it, and 
then put it back on the tape or disk. 

Listing 2 shows a new routine in the 
2000 area. This is a menu . Every good pro- 
gram, I believe, should be menu driven. 
This is not a substitute for documentation, 
it just makes life easier. I am also using a 
new listing convention that I think you will 
find easier to read. Lines 2000 through 
2050 clear the screen and then ask forthe 
user's choice of options, Notice that line 
2020 prints only if names have not been 
entered, either from a file (more on that 
later) or from the keyboard. The variable 
GF, get flag, will be zero if the program 
has just been entered or the names have 
been written to a file. Once names are 
entered, or read in, the variable is set to 1 
to let us know this fact. By knowing this, 
we can either prompt to edit the names, 
which means we have some, or enter the 
names, which means we have none. This 
is a professional touch that will set your 
program apart from the pack. 

Lines 2100-2150 get the user's desired 
action. If none of the possible choices are 
entered, then the program returns to line 
2100. One word about the GET as used by 
Commodore. When the program hits a 
GET within a program, it goes immediate- 
ly to the keyboard to see if a key is pressed, 
or has been pressed since it iast looked. 
The computer can remember up to 9 key- 
strokes. If there is nothing out there in the 
keyboard buffer, the variable you are get- 
ting will be nothing. Nothing in computer 
lingo is a null (""). Once the computer ar- 
rives at the routine at 2100-2150, it will 
stay looping around until you rescue it by 
pressing an acceptable key, as checked in 
lines 2100-2140. Notice that lines 
2130-2140 will not let the user exit until 
the names have been safely tucked away 
to tape or disk. 

Listing 3 shows a routine for the 4100 
area. These lines read in a file from tape or 
disk. These are very similar to the lines 
discussed last month in the 5000 area to 
store the names. Notice lines 4200-4220. 
These are making certain that the file ex- 
ists. If it is not there, the user is informed. 

How can you be sure that you have 
found the end of a sequential file? Easy. 
Just check the status flag, the system 
variable, ST, which we set to be equal to H 
in line 4240 immediately after reading the 
variable. This must be done immediately, 
for the computer uses ST for other things 
and it might change later. Like a train with 
a caboose at the end, so you will know 
when the train has finished passing, the 
iast item read from a file has a flag, ST. 
When the last item comes by, the com- 

94/Commander December 1983 



REM 3-E LISTING 4 
10 GOTG10J00 

100 IF UP < THEN DP = 2 
110 N$=MID*':STR*aHT<H*10TDP+.5>>,2;:' 
1 20 I FLEN C H$ > <UP+ 1 THENN$-R I GHT$ < " 0000000 
00 "+N*.. BP+1) 

1 30 i fdp>0thehh$=lef i' $ < n$ , len ( h$ ') -dp ) + " . 

"+right*';h* j dp;' 
1 40 i fh<0thehn*= h - " +n$ 

150 DP=-l:N*VflL<N$>: RETURN 

300 I NPUT# 1 5 , E$ , EM$ , T$, S$ : E=VflL ( E* > 

916 I FE<20THENRETURN 



920 PRINT"[DOWH3i:REV3"E$", "EM* 1 



'T$' 



"S*"[DQWN3" 
930 CLOSES: CLOSE 15 
940 GOT 020 10 
1000 FOR I =1 TO 22:SP$ = SP* + " "-NEXT 

= DP = -1 

1010 CR$-CHR$a3> 

1020 FOR I =0T09 : Nfl$< I ) =" " : OR CI ) =0 : NEXT 
2S00 PRINT" C CLEAR 3 STUDENT GRADE EXAMPLE" 
20 18 PR I NT " L" DOWN 3 C DOWN ] [ REV 3 G L OFF 3 ET OLD 

NAMES" 
2020 I FGF-0THENPR I NT " C REV 3 E t OFF 3 NTER NAM 

ES" : GOTO204O 
2030 PRINT" [REV 3 EC OFF 3 HIT OLD NAMES" 
2040 PRINT" C REV 3SC OFF 3 AVE NAMES" 
2050 PR I NT " C REV 3 Q [ OFF J 1 T " 
2 1 00 GET At- : 1 F A$= " E " THEN4O0O 
2110 IFA$="G"THEN4100 
2120 IFA$="S"THEH5000 
2130 I FA*- " Q " ANDGF-0 IHEN5939 
2140 IFA$="£i" THENPRINT" CD0WN3 [REV3NAMES 

NOT SAVED C DOWN 3 " : GOTO20 1 Q 
2150 GOTO2100 
4000 PRINT" [CLEAR 3" 
4002 FOR I = TO 9 
4004 PR I NT " NAME " : PR I NT " ? " NR* CI > " I UP 3 " : H 

fi$a> = " " 
4006 INPUTNH$-:. I) 

4008 PR I NT " GRADE " : PR I NT " ? " OR < I ) " L" UP 3 " : GR 
CI>=0 

4009 INPUTGRU) 

4010 NEXT 

4012 PRINT" t DOWN 3 PRESS RETURN TO SEE 

4014 PR INT "NAMES DISPLAYED" 

4016 GETA$: IFA$OCR*THEN4016 

4020 PRINT LEFT* C "STUDENT NAME"+SP$, 15>; 

RIGHT$<SP$+"GRADE",6> 
4030 FOR I = TO 9 = N = GRU> : DP = U : G0S 

UB100 
•4035 IFNA*<n = " "THEN4050 
4040 PRINT LEFT#<Hfl*CI)+SP**-18Jj RIGHT^C 

SP*+N$,3; 

4045 TG=TG+N:TS=TS+1 

4050 NEXT 

4060 PRINTRIGHT$CSP$+" " , 21 > 



commodore 



SOFTWARE FOR C-64 



Business 

WordPro 3-1-/64 W SpellRight Plus . . . S 79.00 

SpellRight Plus S 55.00 

Easy Script S 45.00 

Calc Result (Advanced) S 1Z5.00 

Calc Result (Easy) S 75.00 

Mirage Concepts (65000 records) . . , . S 95.00 

M-File (merge w/wordpro) S 89.00 

Home Accountant (Continental) S 75.00 

Code Writer 

(writes basic programs) S 95.00 

Easy Finance S 22.00 

Complete Accounting 

G/l, A'R, A/R P R. INV S 75.00 

Entertainment 
Assembler Package (cassette or disk) 

(compiled, includes editor, loader. 

disassembler) S 39.00 

Sprite Master S 30.00 

Neutral Zone S 35.00 

Vic Tree (programmers utilities) S 75.00 

Commander Ultra 

(terminal package) S 59.00 

Pilot S 39.00 

80 Column Expander S 55.00 

Vic 1600 Modem S 75.QD 

Vic 1650 Modem S 109.00 

Hayes Smart 300 Modem S 249.00 

Hayes Smart 1200 Modem S 629.00 

Vic 1530 Datasette S 60.D0 

5 Slot Expander (64) S 65.00 

6 Slot Expander (vie) S 70.00 

24 K Ram (vie) S 105.00 

16 K Ram (vie) S 70.00 

8 K Ram (vie) S 45.00 

64 Relay Cartridge S 45.00 

Numeric Key Pad (vie & 64) S 35.00 

Programmers Ref Guide S 18.00 

Verbatim Diskettes S 26.00 



ACCESSORIES 



INTERFACES 



Interpod (full compatibility!!) 

(Intelligent IEEE &RS232) Call 

The Connection 

(full graphics of 64) S 95.00 

Cardco Parallel Interlace S 70.00 

RS-232 Communications Interface , . . , $ 45.00 

Vic Switch S 149.00 

ADA 1800 (Parallel) S 129.00 

ADA 1450 (Serial) S 149.00 

Pet-to-IEEE Cable S 39.00 

lEEE-to-IEEE Cable . .... S 49.00 

4 Prong AV Cable S 15.00 

Custom Computer Cables 

(we make to your specifications) Call 



MONITORS 



irrrER quality printers 



CBM 1701 Color Monitor S 249.00 

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Panasonic TR-120 Green Screen S 159.00 

Sanyo Green Screen 5 95.00 

Amdek Color Plus S 295.00 

Amdek300A... . S 175.00 

Transtar 120 (80 column) S 495.00 

Transtar 130 (132 column) S 769.00 

CBM 6400 Printer S1425.00 

NEC Spmwritsr . . , Call 

CBM 1525 30 cps S 235.00 

CBM 8023 150 cps S 539.00 

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CBM 1526 100 cps. (serial) S 349.00 

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COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES 



Executive 64 portable (new) Call 

B126-80 128k Bus. Machine (new) . . . Call 

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CBM 8032 S625.00 

CBM 2031 single disk S 295.00 

CBM 8050 Dual Disk 1 meg S 995.00 

CBM 8250 Dual Disk 2 meg S1295.00 

CBM D906O Hard Disk 5 meg SI 995.00 

64K Expansion Board S 275.00 

SuperPet Upgrade Kit S 695.00 



BUSINESS SOFTWARE— 8052 



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Circle No. 94 



Commander December 1983/95 



puter will set the flag to a number other 
than zero. In other words, as line 4250 
says, if the status was 0, everything is okay 
to continue. Line 4260 stops the loop by 
pushing the counter to the end if, for 
some reason, the file didn't contain all the 
variables we thought it would, thus set- 
ting the flag early. 

Line 4280 sets our "get flag" to show 
we now have names, closes our files, and 
then returns to the menu. Notice that in 
line 4240 we go to our subroutine at 900 
only if we were reading our file from the 
disk. 

Listing 4 shows the new program in 
final form. Since last time, I have changed 
lines 930 and 940 to make it work better. I 
have also changed line 10, deleting the 
clear screen, since the menu does that for 
us. I also added line 1 020 to initialize our 
variables for use in the entry/edit area of 
lines 4000-4099. 

The routine at 4000 has been changed 
to allow editing of previously entered 
data. I have used here, and also in lines 
410®, 4140, 5000, 5040, a technique to 
allow all Commodore computers to input 
data that has already been entered. 

Notice how I have used a shifted space. 
The computer recognizes that it is 
something (as opposed to the space, 
which it sees as nothing). Those using a 
PET or 8000 or SuperPET will note thatyou 
can hit return at a particular name entry 
and the machine will not stop. For C-64 
and VIC users I set the name to a shifted 
space in line 4004 to make certain that if 
you erase an entry the name will besetto a 
shifted space. Otherwise, erasing the 
previous name from the screen and then 
pressing return would have changed 
nothing at all, due to the way these 
machines respond to the user pressing the 
return without entering something. One 
word for non-64 and non-VIC users: if you 
erase the name or press the space bar, 
there will be nothing for your machine to 
input and everything will stop. You can 
get around this by typing a shifted space if 
you erase everything. 

I also changed the routine from 
4050-4080 to print only the grades with 
some name, and then average just those. I 
did that in line 4035 by skipping the print 
and incrementation lines if the name was 
a shifted space. 

Next month we will take this whole 
thing and let it become a random access 
file where we can call up any student we 
would like and see his or her name, last 
grade, total number of grades on file, and 
average. 

96/Commander December 1983 



4078 I FTS>0THENN=TG/'TS : DP=2 : GOSUB 1 00 
4080 PR I NTR 1 0HT$ <. SP$+ " AVERAGE " .. 1 5 > i R I GHT 

$CSP$+N$,6) 
4085 TS=0 : TG=0 : Gr- = l 

4098 GOTO2010 

4099 REM GET NAMES FROM TAPE 

4100 PR I NT "GET LIST? WN>? V CLEFT H'LEFT 
] CLEFT] "J 

4110 I NPUTfl* : fl$=LEFT$<A$ J 1 ) 

4120 IFA*="N"THEN4290 

4130 IFA$O"V"THEH4100 

4140 PR I NT "TAPE OR DISK? (T/D>? DC LEFT H 

LEFT] CLEFT]"; 
4150 INPUT A* • A$=LEFT$< A*, 1 > 
4 1 60 I Ffi*0 " T " G0TG4 1 80 
4 1 70 OPEN 1,1.. W , " L I ST " : GOTQ4230 
4180 IFA*O"D"THEN4100 
4 1 90 OPEN 15,8,15= GOSUB900 
4200 OPENS , 3 > 3 > " : L I ST , S , R" : I NPUTtt 1 5 > E* , 

EM*:E=VALCE$) 
4210 IFEO62THENGOSUB910 = GOTG4230 
4220 PRINT" CD0WN3 11 REV J L 1ST FILE NOT FOUN 

D C DOWN ] " : CLOSES : CLOSE 1 5 : G0T04 1 00 
4230 FOR 1-0 TO 9 
4240 I NPUT#3 , Nfl$ < I > : H=ST : I Ffl$= " D " THENGOS 

UB90O 
4250 I F H=OTHEH I NPUT#3 .■ GR \ I ) : H=ST : I FAf = " D 

"THENGOSUB900 
4260 IFH>0THENI=9 
4270 NEXT 

4280 GF= 1 ■ CLOSES : CLOSE 1 5 
4290 6OTO20Q0 
5000 PR I NT "STORE LIST CV/N>? V CLEFT] CLEF 

T] CLEFT]", 
50 1 I NPUTfl* : fl$=LEFT* < A* , 1 > 
5020 I Ffl*= " N " THEN5 1 80 
5030 I Ffl*0 " V " THEN5O00 
5040 PR INT "TAPE OR DISK CT/D>? DC LEFT J EL 

EFT] CLEFT]", 
5050 I NPUTfl* : fl*=LEFT* < fl*, 1 ) 
5060 I Ffl*0 " T " THEN508O 
507O OPENS , 1 , 1 , " L I ST " : G0T05 1 20 
5080 I Ffl*<> " D " THEN5000 
509Q OPEN 15,8,15: GOSUB900 
5 1 00 PR I NTtt 1 5 , " SO : L I ST " : GOSUB900 
5110 OPENS , 8 , 3 j " ; L I ST , S , U " ■ GOSUB900 
5120 FOR I = TO 9 
5 1 40 PR I NT#3 , NA$ ( I ) .; CR$ ; GR ( I ) .; CR$ ; 
5145 NA*a) = " " :GR(I>=0 
5 1 50 I Ffl$= " D " THENGGSUB900 
5160 NEXT 

5 1 70 CLOSES ■• CLOSE 1 5 : GF=0 
5180 GOTO2O00 
5999 END 



mil 



COMMODORE 64* 



Ba The BR IMG 



No matter which direction you wish to travel in, experience 
the advantage of computer communications with The 
SMART 64 Terminal. Discover the program rhar puts you 
on the Right Road to: Public-Access Networks, University 
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The SMART 64 Terminal designed with Quality-Bred features, 
Affordable Pricing. . .And Service. 

So why nor travel the communications highways the SMART way! 
Accessories included: 



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□ Selective Storage of Received 
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□ Adjustable transmit/receive tables allow custom requirements. These and other features make The SMART 64 Terminal 
the best choice for grand touring telecommunications. 

MICROTECHIMIC- 



"Commodore 64 registered trademark 
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■Supports 80-column cartridge 
by Da ra20 Corporation 



Circle No. 173 



Dealer Availability 
Call (200) 389-8383 



ME ^SOLUTIONS! 

* P.O. BOX 2940, New Haven, Ct. 06515 




M'FILE is a powerful data management 
program designed specifically for the 
Commodore 64 Computer. The package is 
extremely powerful yet friendly enough 
for the first time user. Menu driven 
operation eliminates the need for 
continuous reference 
documentation. 



to the printed 



HARDW/VRE REUUIREMENTS: 

* Commodore 64 

* Commodore 1541 

* Commodore 1525 or 1515 Printers 

* Host Parallel Printers 

CONTACT: 

Double E Electronics, Inc. 

12027 Pacific Street 
Omaha, Nebraska 68154 
Phone 402-334-7870 



M'FILE DATA MANAGEMENT 

SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS 

Up lo 32 fields per record 

Up la 250 characters per record 

Maximum of 78 characters per tield 

Maximum of 1 000 records per disk 

(125 character records) 

Numeric and/or alphanumeric fields 

Full arithmetic calculations between 

fiefds 

Maximum of 10 user-defined interfield 

formulas 

"If-Then" syntax available within 

formulas 

Search on any or all fields 

Extremely last record keyfield search 

Sort on any tield 

Report generator allows columnar or 

horijontal printout 

Maximum of 15 user-defined report 

lormats on Ihe same tile disk 

Screen Dump allows data lo be 

printed al any point in ihe program 

Text'merge allows metging to most 

major wordprocessors 

Applications: 

Inventory, Mall List, Client Records, Collections, 
Patient Records, Personnel Files, Library Index, 
Phone List and many more. 

M'File may be used for nearly all conventional 
Filing Applications. 



m sbh he 



SOPHISTICATED SOFTWARE 



Programming Your Own 

Adventure Game 



Of all the computer game types, one of 
the most addicting is the adventure game. 
Adventure games for the purposes of this 
discussion will be limited to text style 
games. In these, typically, the computer 
describes your surroundings to you, and 
you then enter a one-or two-word com- 
mand. The computer interprets the com- 
mand and takes appropriate action. 
Although in the last few years a large 
number of adventure games have been 
appearing with graphics, these generally 
are somewhat more restricted in varia- 
tions of play than a straight text game. 

When Crowthers and Woods wrote the 
original adventure game on a mainframe 
system (sometimes referred to as the "Col- 
ossal Cave" adventure), they could not 
have foreseen the tremendous response it 
received. Since then, this game has been 
reincarnated for almost every computer 
known, and in almost every language. 

Other people got in on the act, and a 
series of more fully developed games 
began to appear. Games in the "Zork" 
series still are tremendously popular, and 
the appearance of games designed by 
Scott Adams has helped increase the 
potential of the medium. 

Although the programming behind an 
adventure game is not difficult, it does re- 
quire considerable advance planning. 
When an expansion is considered, a 
reworking of some of the old material is 
usually required. An alternative is to use 
the "modular approach" to the adventure 
game design. 

The modular approach requires no 
preplanning, and can be changed with a 
minimum of effort by a programmer. It 
has one major problem, however, and 
that is memory usage. (This can be over- 
come to some extent by using chaining of 
programs. More on that later.) 

CONVENTIONAL 
PROGRAMMING 
OF ADVENTURE GAMES 

Before describing the modular system, 
it will be useful to take a look at the usual 
method of programming adventure 
games in order to appreciate the dif- 
ferences. Most adventure games have 
two components, an "action" section, 
and a "data" section. The data section is 
easy to understand. It consists of a series of 
lines that are descriptions of the areas an 
adventurer will encounter. These are call- 

98/Commander December 1983 



THE MODULAR 
APPROACH 




ed up by the program when needed. For 
example, one of the data lines may read 
"You are in a large cave, with piles of dust 
covering the floor. On the west wall is a 
mirror. Exits are visible to the north and 
south." When an adventurer moves into 
that particular location in the adventure 
universe (the space taken up by the adven- 
ture game), the computer runs through 
the data files until it locates some marker 
that tells it that the room entered cor- 
responds to the location. It then pulls the 
description from the files, and prints it on 
the screen. 

The data file is usually quite big. The 
original adventure consisted of many 
rooms, and has been expanded to over 
two hundred and fifty. All that is stored in 
the data file are these descriptions of loca- 
tions (with some system to allow the com- 
puter to get the correct one for each loca- 
tion), and perhaps some details of 
monsters, objects, or features that can be 
encountered randomly. For example, one 
section of the data file may consist of 
treasure information, such as "a gold 
crown", "a silver sword", etc. Anothersec- 
tion may have the nasty types en- 
countered in the adventure (after all, what 
fun is it without some nasties?) such as "a 
large green slime mold", or "a three head- 
ed giant mouse". 



Also stored in some data areas are the 
messages that may have to be displayed at 
certain times, although some games in- 
clude these inthe program area. Examples 
are "I don't understand what you want to 
do.", or "You can't do that!!". These 
would be accessed when needed by the 
program control section. 

The other section in a typical adventure 
game is the program itself. This is the 
routine that will loop to the required data 
area, analyze responses, figure ratios, 
move monsters, etc. 

The program area has to be divided 
again into sections. The most important is 
the response analysis section. This takes 
an instruction from the player and deter- 
mines exactly what should be done. If the 
player says "MOVE WEST", the program 
should send the description of the next 
area to the west back to the screen. 

These instructions are analyzed by a 
series of IF statements (in BASIC). For ex- 
ample, a few lines of the program may 
read: 

1000 IF LOCATION = 12 AND 
TREASURE1 = ©THEN PRINT "There 
is gold!" 

101© IF LOCATION = 12 AND 
TREASURE2 = ©THEN PRINT "There 
is silver!" 

1100 IF LOCATION = 12 AND 





CO 



-f^>-" B 



*«S^^ A «tS^ 



WORD PROCESSING 

TOTL.TEXT 

MAILING LIST AND LABELS 

TOTL.LABEL 

TIME MANAGEMENT 

TOTLTIME MANAGER 

KEYWORD CROSS REFERENCE 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT 

For Commodore 64™ and VIC 20™ 



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Quality you can atiorct 



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Ask your dealer about TOTL Software 
or sand in the coupon tor further 
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PLEASE SEND ME MORE INFORMATION ON TOTL SOFTWARE 



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FOR COMMODORE 64™ 
and VIC-20™ 

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FEATURES: 

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Circle No. 174 



Commander December 1983/99 



M0NSTER1 = THEN PRINT 'There 

are pirates!" 
In these examples, the first two lines 
decide whether the adventurer is in a cer- 
tain room represented by a variable LOCA- 
TION, If the adventurer has not picked up 
the treasure that could exist there, it will be 
shown by a value of zero in the variables 
TREASURE1 and TREASURE2. Therefore, 
if the location is correct, and the treasure 
has not been picked up, the computerwill 
display a message that says the treasure is 
there. In the last line, if the location cor- 
responds and a monster has not been en- 
countered before (and therefore the vari- 
able MONSTER1 is assigned a value of 
zero), it will print a message to that effect. 
Obviously the above three lines of code 
are very rudimentary. In truth, the control 
sections are organized for maximum 
speed and efficiency, with many variables 
being checked for their values. Also, sim- 
ple messages will probably be accessed by 
looping into the data file. For example: 
2000 IF LOCATION = 12 THEN PRINT 

LOCDESC12 
In other words, if the location is assigned 
as 12, then the variable LOCDESC12 (loca- 
tion description for room 12) is printed. 
These descriptions will have been loaded 
in from the data area. 

Although this approach does allow 
some flexibility, the variables should all be 
assigned during the programming, and 
changes are difficult, as the program area 
has to be reaccessed, and alternate in- 
structions added. If a simple language 
such as BASIC is being used, this can lead 
to congestion and confusion. 

USING THE 

MODULAR DESIGN METHOD 

The modular approach requires a 
separate section of code for each possible 
action an adventurer could take in a situa- 
tion, and a loop to a new location if re- 
quired. One of the nice things about a 
modular approach is that the programm- 
ing can be done more easily in an unstruc- 
tured language such as BASIC than in a 
more structured language. 

The modular approach employs two 
subsections. The first is the response 
analysis routine, similar to the approach 
indicated above, except that the resulting 
action can be stored to a variable. An ex- 
ample is: 

1000 REM ADVENTURER RESPONSE 
ANALYSIS (SIMPLIFIED) 

1010 PRINT "WHAT DO YOU WANT 
TO DO?" 

102© INPUT RESPONSES 



1030 IF RESPONSES = "WEST" OR 
RESPONSES = "MOVE WEST" THEN 
ACTION = 1 
1 040 IF RESPONSES = "EAST" OR 
RESPONSES = "MOVE EAST" THEN 
ACTION = 2 
1050 IF RESPONSES = "NORTH" OR 
RESPONSES = "MOVE NORTH" 
THEN ACTION = 3 
1060 IF RESPONSES = "SOUTH" OR 
RESPONSES = "MOVE SOUTH" 
THEN ACTION = 4 
1070 IF RESPONSES = "UP" OR 
RESPONSES = "MOVE UP" THEN 
ACTION = 5 
1080 IF RESPONSES = "DOWN" OR 
RESPONSES = "MOVE DOWN" 
THEN ACTION = 6 
1 100 IF LEF$(RESPONSE$,3)<? "GET" 

THEN GOTO 1200 
1 020 REM AND ASSIGN A VALUE OF 

ACTION... 
. 1 030 REM AN ALTERNATIVE IS TO DO 

THIS IN THE CAVE 
1 040 REM DESCRIPTIONSTHEMSELVES 
1 100 IF RESPONSES = "EAT" THEN 

ACTION = 10 
1 1 10 IF RESPONSES = "DRINK" THEN 
ACTION = 1 1 

1120 REM ETC 

and so on. In this way, a variable called AC- 
TION will contain the instruction the com- 
puter should consider. This analysis sec- 
tion should cover the majority of simple 
commands that occur in the adventure. (If 
an instruction occurs only in one cave, for 
example, then the analysis routine could 
be included in the cave's details.) 

Each location in the adventure has its 
own code area assigned in the modular 
adventure game. Thus, location 1 may oc- 
cupy code from lines 1 00 to 1 99, location 
2 from 200 to 299, location 1 from 1 000 
to 1099, etc. This is the modularization 
that the title refers to. In this way, if an 
adventurer is in cave 1 2 and has to go to 
cave 1 1 due to a "WEST" command, in 
the above analysis section the variable AC- 
TION will contain the value of 1 , and in the 
location 1 2 section, the loop: 

IF ACTION = 1 THEN GOTO 1100 
could be included. 

The obvious advantage to this is that if 
you wish to expand the adventure later 
you simply add in the new caves at their 
respective line numbers, and add 
references to the new materials where re- 
quired. 

In each cave's description, the use of 
multiple IF statements would be slow and 
tedious. A much better approach is the 
ON statement: 



100 PRINT "You are in a cave 3 metres 

by 4 metres." 
1 1 PRINT "There is an exit to the west, 

and a tunnel to the east." 
1 20 GOSUB 1 5000: REM * * *THIS 
LOOPS TO THE INPUT ANALYSIS 
SECTION*** 
1 30 ON A GOTO 1 40, 1 50, 1 60, 1 70, 

180,190 
140 GOTO 200 
150 GOTO 400 
160 GOTO 700 

170IFRIGHT${RESPONSE$,4) = 
"FOOD" AND FOOD1 = THEN 
PRINT "GOT THE FOOD.": FOOD1 
- 1: GOTO 1000 
175IFRIGHTS(RESPONSE$,4) = 
"FOOD" AND FOOD1 = 1 THEN 
PRINT "ALREADY GOT IT!": 
GOTO 100 
180 PRINT "THERE IS NOTHING TO 

SHOOT AT!":GOTO 100 
1 90 PRINT "YOU CAN'T DO THAT 

HERE!":GOTO 100 
In the above code, which has been 
simplified for illustration purposes, the 
variable ACTION is used by the ON state- 
ment in line 130 to loop to lines 200 if 
moving WEST, lines 400 if moving EAST, 
lines 700 if moving UPWARDS, analyze to 
see if food has been received, if the com- 
mand GET FOOD was issued {note the 
two cases), to respond negatively if the 
command SHOOT was given, and to print 
a message if nothing else is relevant in that 
section of cave. 

As stated, the above does nothing to il- 
lustrate the complexity, as very trivial ex- 
amples are used. However, if thought out, 
a cave section could be written that will 
allow all circumstances to be considered. 
In a modularized game, it is also possi- 
ble to add certain features to a location. If 
we wanted to have a giant spider inhabit a 
cave at a certain location, then the follow- 
ing lines could be included: 
1 560 IF RND{X)< .5 THEN GOTO 1 500 
1 570 PRINT "A GIANT SPIDER DROPS 

ON YOU FROM THE ROOF!" 
1580 REM ***ANALYZE RESPONSE 
TO SPIDER HERE*** 
Line 1 560 gives a fifty percent chance the 
spider will drop. If it doesn't, the routine is 
sent back to the location description. If it 
does, the adventurer will be given a 
chance to fight, or take the consequences. 
In such a way, several caves can be con- 
structed easily. If they are virtually iden- 
tical, it is possible to take advantage of the 
Commodore machine's on-screen edit- 
ing, and create a standard routine. Sup- 



10O/CommanderDecember1983 



pose we have three caves in a row, all with 
exits to the east and west. If, in the input 
analysis section, a move to the east results 
in a value of 1 being assigned to the 
variable ACTION and a move to the west 
results in a value of 2, then a simple cave 
would be programmed as follows: 

500 REM CAVE #5 

501 PRINT "YOU ARE IN A ROUGHLY 
HEWN CAVE 3 METRES BY 3 
METRES" 

502 PRINT "THERE ARE EXITS TO THE 
EAST AND WEST." 

510 GOSUB 15000: REM LOOPS TO 

INPUT SECTION 
520 ON ACTION GOTO 530,540,550, 

550,560 
525 REM GOTO SECTIONS FOR 

ACTION = 1,2,3,4 and ACTION 4 
530 GOTO 400: REM GOTO CAVE #4 

TO THE EAST 
540 GOTO 600: REM GOTO CAVE #6 

TO THE WEST 
550 PRINT "THERE'S ONLY A CAVE 
WALL IN THAT DIRECTION!": 
GOTO 500 
560 PRINT "YOU CANT DO THAT 
HERE!": GOTO 500 
Once this cave was LISTed on the screen, 
the programmer could use the full-screen 
editing to change the line numbers to 
40Q's or 600's (and change the 
references, of course) to build up a 
dungeon rapidly. 

This type of description for each area in 
the adventure comprises the data details 
that, together with the input analysis 
routine, will provide a complete, working 
adventure game. 

CHAINING 

One of the major drawbacks of this ap- 
proach is the amount of memory re- 
quired. As there is a lot of repetition in the 
programming, itdoes occupy quitea large 
chunk of the computer's available RAM. 
An obvious solution is to CHAIN pro- 
grams, which is one advantage this 
method of game programming has over 
the structured version. At some point in 
the adventure, have the victim(s) fall into a 
crevice, pass through a door that locks 
behind them, or teleport them some- 
where where the old caves no longer are 
required. A new routine with a similar in- 
put routine but different cave descriptions 
can then be called up from the cassette 
tape or disk drive. In this method, there is 
virtually unlimited size to the dungeons. 

With a cassette, it is best to have the 
cave programs in sequential order so the 
player doesn't have to touch the tape 
deck. With a random-access disk the 



order is less important. In either case, the 
LOAD commands can be made part of 
your program. 

SHOULD YOU TRY IT? 

How well does the modular approach 
work? That depends on what you are 
looking for in the game design process. 
Obviously, this approach takes much less 
planning than the structured versions, but 
also occupies many times the space in 
memory. The way around that, as just 
described, is easy. As far as convenience 



for the programmer, the modular ap- 
proach wins hands down. Not only can 
the game be played at various stages of 
completion, as long as the input routine is 
written, but changes are easy, and future 
expansion is just as simple. 

While the modular approach may not 
be to everyone's tastes, it does fill a need in 
the programming community. It provides 
an excellent way for relatively new pro- 
grammers to begin adventure game 
design. 



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Circle No. 150 



Commander December1983/101 



It's time for your 
computer to grow up. 

Meet PractiCalc." The world's most versatile spreadsheet at only $40* 




Commodore 64 and VIC-20. 
Not just for games... 



Games are fun when it's time to play. But at 
heart, your Commodore 64" or VIC-20" is a full- 
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But the problem 
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PractiCalc gives you 



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calculating 




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PractiCalc gives you 
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Want to make 
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and the high or low 
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Want a lot of facts and figures at your 
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You can add 
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And you'll find 
PractiCalc unusually 
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All of which is a far cry from just playing with 
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©1983 Computer Software Associates, Inc. Commodore 64 1 " and VIC-20*" are trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 

Circle No 91 



•••••• 



f 



t 

* 

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COMMAND-BOARD 

Show us how you command your favorite computer game. We want you to put 
your best effort on record in the COMMAND-BOARD. To show the Commodore 
world your best score send your entries to: COMMAND-BOARD, P.O. Box 98827, 
Tacoma, WA 98498 



Annihilates from Victory Software 

• 150,000 James Thompson, New York, NY 

Applepanic from Creative Software 

• 5,000 Susan Fenton, Yonkers, NY 

Arcadia from Startech 

• 250,224 Paul Tuch, Baltimore, MD 

Astroblitz from Creative Software 

■k 12,000 Kevin O'Neil, Hampton, NH 

Baldors Castle from Daedous Digital 

• 500 Peter Morns, Orlando, FL 

Chomperman from Victory Software 

• 50,368 Steve Carter, Milwaukee, Wl 

D'Use from Tymac 

• 7,513 David Anderson, San Diego, CA 

Frogee from Sierra-On-Line 

• 65,425 Keith Floyd, Belt, MT 

Gridder from MicroDigital 

• 45,678 Nick Blenkush, Santa Monica, CA 

Keyquest from Microware Distributing 

• 74,798 Darrelf Eastman, Tacoma, WA 

• 24,962 Nick Blenkush, Santa Monica, CA 

• 13,510 George Bergman, Atlantic City, NJ 





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Mazeman from TSI 

• 94,000 Jack Smith, Pierre, SD 

Mutants Heard from UMI 

• 600 Alan Snyder, Eugene, OR 

Pinball from MicroDigital 

• 50,600 Jane Wilcox, Chicago, IL 

Scramble from MicroDigital 

• 500 Peter Morns, Orlando, FL 

Skibberan from UMI 

• 15,990 Carl Whitney, Las Vegas, NV 

Snakman from MicroDigital 

• 2,247,140 Mike Strezo, Richton Park, IL 

Trashman from Creative Software 

• 8,610 Keith Swanson, Nashville, TN 

ideo Vermin from UMI 

• 10,164,437 Richard Seemayer, Fresh Meadows, 

• 2,1 50,836 Darrell Eastman, Tacoma, WA 

• 200,000 John White, Rockport, MA 

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• 25,000 Richard Cambell, Wichita, KS 



"K"K"K"W' All entries must be received by the first of the month to be eligible for the following month. 




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— By Ca! Overhulser ' 



ts> 



Road Race is a joystick-controlled action 
game forthe unexpanded VIC 20. The ob- 
ject is to speed down a forest road to the 
finish line in the shortest possible time, 
while avoiding other cars and oil slicks. 

GAME PLAYING NOTES 

The road has markers on both sides. 
Push forward on the joystick to start the 
car moving, and move the joystick to 
either side to steer right or left. Watch out 
for obstacles on the road. When you hit a 
road edge marker, you are knocked back 
onto the road, If you run into a car, you 
crash, lose time, and lose points. When 
you run into an oil slick, you lose points 
and go out of control. There are four skill 
levels with level four as the hardest. Your 
elapsed time is shown continuously on the 
screen and when you cross the finish line, 
your final score is displayed. Your final 
score is passed on your elapsed time, the 
number of collisions and how many times 
you bounced off the edge of the road. 

PROGRAM NOTES 

To fit the program in the unexpanded 
VIC, I had to remove all REM Statements 
but the following notes should help you 
track the program logic. Lines 10-33 are 
housekeeping activities. Upper RAM is 

104/Commander December 1983 



protected from BASIC by line 10. A copy 
of the normal upper case character set is 
moved into this protected area by line 17. 
Line 22 READs custom character infor- 
mation from the DATA statements (lines 
700-740) and POKEs it into the place of 
some of the normal characters (Table 1 
lists the characters replaced with custom 
characters). The switch to the custom 
character set is in line 29. 

The main loop is in lines 55-99. Lines 
1 00-176 calculate the random right or left 
shift of the road, randomly place the 
obstacles, and PRINT the new row at the 
top of the screen. The screen scrolls down 
instead of up because of a little trick in line 
160 PRINT "HOME DOWN LEFT INSERT 
SPACE" scrolls the screen down. 
POKE218,158 tells the line link table that 
screen line two is not a continuation of 
screen line one. The subroutines in lines 
191-193 update the car's location. Lines 
200-298 are the collision checking 
routine. 

The joystick condition is checked to be 
processed twice as fast as it could be in 
BASIC. It is contained in the DATA 
statements and POKEd into the cassette 
buffer by line 20. Line 60 calls the routine 
with SYS828. The joystick condition is 
returned to address zero. The ON/GOSUB 
... in line 62 checks the joystick condi- 
tion in memory address zero and goes to 



the appropriate subroutine to update the 
current location of the race car. Having 
the joystick condition returned in address 
zero allows this location to be POKEd 
with direction information when the race 
care is out of control. I do this in line 66 
when the bounce is calculated after hit- 
ting a road edge marker. The flag OS is 
then set to cause line 60 (the SYS) to be 
skipped. Our out of control direction is 
then sampled in line 62 as though it were 
joystick information. 

TYPING NOTES 

The program will 'just fit' in the unex- 
panded ViC, so don't add any spaces 
while typing the program. To make the 
typing go faster try using keyword ab- 
breviations (see 'Personal Computing On 
the VIC 20', Appendix D, supplied with 
your VIC). 

TABLE 1: 
CUSTOM CHARACTERS 



SCREEN 


ORIGINAL 


CUSTOM 


CODE 


CHARACTER 


CHARACTER 


33 


! 


race car front 


34 




race car rear 


35 


# 


crashed car front 


36 


S 


crashed car rear 


37 


% 


obstacle car rear 


38 


& 


obstacle car front 


39 




oil slick 


40 


( 


tree top 


41 


) 


tree bottom 



* / IS P0KE52 .. 28 : P0KE56 > 28 = PR I NT " CCUBR] C DO 

T/ WH J [ DOWN ] [ DOWN J C DOWN 3 C DOWN ] [ DOWN ] " 

© 14 PRINT" CDOWH] CVELLOW3*#****[REV3ROflD 

RACE [ OFF ] ******* [ DOWN J [ DOWN J L CYAN 3 * 

t REV] BY CRL OVERHULSERCOFF]* L DOWN 3 

C DOWN 3 * [ REV J WESTFORD , MRSS . C OFF 3 * 
17 PRINT: FOR i =7 1 68 TQ767S : POKE I , PEEK < 256 

00+ D :<N£XT 
20 FDR I =828T09 1 5 : REflDfl : POKE I , ft ■ NEXT 
22 FOR I -7 168+33*8107 168+4 1*8+7 : REflDfl : PO 

KEI,fl:NEXT 
25 GO3OB380:fl$'::O;' = ,i >>;O>>::OLRED3 [ 

GREEN 3 > > ) :> > > > " : ft$i 1 > = " C < C C C < < ( I RED 3 . 
. [GREEN3<'U<X(t:":W=3 
27 Pl = l : P2=2 = P3=3 : P4=4 = P5=5 : P6=6 : Ql=21 = 

t!2=22 : Q3=23 : Q4=135 : V=36878 : SN=3S877 : 

SL=36874 

29 Q5= 1 99 : Q6-2 1 8-fl : 3C=768@ : CM=384Q0 : POK 
E36869, 255 : PRINT" C CLEAR 3 " ; CL-SC+297- 
22*fl 

30 FOR 1=1 TO 1 1 • FORJ =0T0 1 : PR I NT " L GREEN 3 " fl 
*C-J> : LC=LC+1 : IFLC=12-ftTHENGOSUB410 

32 IFLC=Q1THEN50 

33 NEXT^ NEXT 

50 P'OKECL > 33 : P0KECL+Q2 , 34 : POKECM-SC+CL , 
3 = PGKECM-SC+CL+Q2j 3 '• 3V3828 : IFPEEK03) 
=OTHEN50 

52 IFF4=OTHENTI$=' i 00OOO8" 

53 F4=Q 

55 I FOSOQTHENQS-OS-P 1 : G0T062 : REM SK I D 

60 3VS828 

6 1 POKESL , Q4 = PGKEV .. PS : POKESN > 

62 F3=0 : TL=CL = Lfl=CL : F I =0 : ONPEEK ( O ) GOSUE 
230.. 191* 191 j 230.. 236. 230.. 193.. 193 

63 IFF1=0THENF1=P1 : Lfl=Lfi-Q2 

65 FOR I =0T0Q23T EPQ2 = Q=PEEK < Lfl+ 1 ) -36 : GOS 
OE2O0 = NEXT 

66 I FF3OOTHENPOKE0 , 3+- C F3=P 1 > *4 : CL=T L : 
PC=PC+P1 :G0T055 

78 GOSUB 1 80 : POKECL ; 3 1 +P2*F 1 : P0KECL+Q2 .- 3 

1 +P2*F 1+P 1 : POKECM-SC+CL .. P3 : POKECM-SC 

+CL+Q2.P3 
7 i PR INT " l BLACK 3 C HONE 3 T I ME : " M I D$ C T I $ , 

3 J 2>":"RIGHT$Cn$>2;'" " • IFLC 

"Q6THEN450 
88 I FF4THENF0R I = 1 5T09STEP- . 02 : POKEV , I : N 

EXT : POKESN , : OS-0 : GOTO50 

99 GOT 055 

100 IFF2=P1THEN110 

1 05 Z= I NT < RND <1 > *P2 > : V= I NT i RND (. 1 > *P2) 

116 IFV=P1THEN148 

120 B$=RIGHT$Cfi$(F2> , Z; i +LEFT$(H$'::F2> > Q3 

-Z) : W=W+Z/P2 : IFW>14THENW=14 = GOTO 155 
130 GOTO ISO 
140 B$=RiGHT*<fl*<F2>,Q3-Z>+LEFT$<R$<F2) 

,Z> : W=W-Z/'P2 = IFW<P3THENW=P3 : GOTO 155 



!wow! 

VIC 20 OWNERS 

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D Easy Script' 
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Stndcti«A cmone^ BMW oftrs ;?- aM tanAng 
PA iwsidenis add & 'A s.<iei !a» 










.m.: h ..'. 


CHEATSHEET PRODUCTS '" ^i Sa3 
RO. 6o« 8299 Piltsbuigti PA. 15218 (412)456-7420 



Commander December 1983/10S 



SJB DISTRIBUTORS 

One Stop Shopping for 
COMMODORE Systems 



Gift Ideas 

for Computer Lovers! 

J^frg^ Holiday Specials! £§gg^ 

*Word Processing $1995.00 Recreation 

CBM 8032 CBM 8050 PET /IEEE CABLE Buy 2 Games, Get 1 Surprise 

Game FREE1 (While slock losts) 



4022 PRINTER WP4 + VERBATIM DISKS 




NEW COMMODORE PRODUCTS 

The Executive 64 Call 

CBM Bl 28-80 S 825 

CBM B256-80 1 095 

CBM BX700 2990 

B Series Software Call 

CBM 1520 Plotter .:. 169 

CBM 1526 Printer 349 

SOFTWARE FOR CBM 64 
BUSINESS 

WordPro 3< /64w/Spell Right Plus .... S 95 

Spell Right Plus 55 

Calc Result (Advanced) 125 

Calc Result (Easy) 75 

Busicalc II 95 

Mirage Concepts 

(Powerful Data Base) 95 

M File (merge with WordPro) 89 

Home Utilities 49 

64 Mailing List (Galactic) 28 

The Manager 50 

Home Accountant (continental) 75 

Code Writer (Writes Basic Programs) ... 95 

Stock (investment analysis) 80 

Agricultural Management Call 

General Ledger, A/R, A/P, P/R, Inv .... Call 

RECREATION 
Assembler Package (cassette or disk, 

compiled, includes editor, loader. 

disassembler) 39 

Sprite Master (access) 30 

Neutral 2one (access) 35 

Space Belt 19 

Pet Emulator 30 

Coco II (build your own gomes) 40 

Vic Tree (programmers utilities). 75 

Micro -Term £ove to printer disk ) 39 

Hesmon 35 

Synthesound 45 

Gothmogs Lair , , 30 

Road Toad 15 

Commodore Games Call 

INTERFACES ft ACCESSORIES 

80 Column Expander s 159 

VIC 1600 Modem ..,95 

VIC 1650 (auto answer, aulo dial). ... 150 

VIC 1 525 Graphic Printer 225 

VIC 1530 Datasette Recorder 65 

VIC 1541 Disk Drive 249 

VIC Switch {connect 8 64s or vies 
to printer, dd) 149 



PET -IEEE cable 33 

1EEEHEEE cable (2m) 49 

5 Slot Expander tor 64 ..:.... 65 

Parallel Interface (Epson, Okidato, 

IDS, NEC) 70 

Programmers Reference Guide 18 

Verbatim Diskettes (10 per box) 26 

Hes Modem 75 

ADA 1450 149 

ADA 1800 (new) 129 

Numeric Keypad 35 

VIC PRODUCTS Si ACCESSORIES 

8K RAM Memory Expansion Cartridge . . . S 40 

16KRAM 70 

24KRAM 105 

VIC 3 Slot Expander 27 

VIC 6 Slot Expander. 70 

Gorf (64 also) 30 

Omega Race 30 

Arcade Joystick - Heavy duty w/2 firing 

Buttons! Great for the VIC or 64 25 

Auto Clock 12* 

MONITORS -GREAT 
RESOLUTION (64 OR VIC) 

CBM 1701 Color Monitor S 249 

Amdek Color Plus 299 

Panasonic TR-120 C« /speaker) 155 

BMC (green screen) 95 

Video/Audio Cable 15 

PRINTERS - LETTER QUALITY 

CBM 6400, 40 Ops S 1450 

DiOOlo 620, 25 cps. , . , 949 

Transtar 140 (serial) 1395 

Transtar 130, 16 cps (auto load, 

wo features !) 769 

NEC 3500 Series 1 600 

NEC 7700 Series 2350 

TL 20 500 

PRINTERS - DOT MATRIX 

CBM 8023, 150 cps /graphics S 545 

CBM 4023 Printer 395 

Epson FX Printer, 160 cps 549 

Epson MX -80 FT w/graftrax Coll 

Epson FX-1 00 859 

Okidata 82A, 120 cos (serial 

and parallel) 429 

NEC 8023A (parallel) 429 

Okidata 92 559 

Star Gemini, lfJX 329 

Star Gemini, 15 499 

Transtar 315 (hkes, color) 575 



COMMODORE 
BUSINESS SERIES 

SuperPet (5 languages, 

2 processors) S 1 059 

CBM 8032 Computer, 80 Column 625 

CBM Memory Expansion, 64K 259 

CBM 8050, 1 mg. Dual Drive 995 

CBM 8250, 2 mg. Dual Drive 1295 

CBM D9060, 5 mg. Hard Disk 1995 

CBM D9090, 7.5 mg. Hard Disk .... 2250 1 
CBM 203 1 , 1 70K Si ngle drive (New ) . . . 295 
DC Hayes Smart Modem 220 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE-8032 

WordPro 4* or 5' S 309 

InfoPra 219 

Administrator 489 

VlsiColc (expanded) 1 99 

BPI A/R, G/L, Job Cost, Inventory, 
Payroll ea. 325 

SJB has a full line of computer media in stock, 
call or write for more information. 

Product Selection Advice 

Customer Service 

214- 343-1328 





SjB DISTRIBUTORS INC. 

10520 Piano Road, Suite 206 
Dallas, Texas 75238 

To Order— Call Toll Free: 

800-5 27-4893 
800-442-1048 

(Within Texas) 

Business Hours: 

Man. -Fri. 8:30 -5:30 

Saturday 10-2 

# POUCY % 

VISA/MASTERCARD Odd 3%. 

COD. tor Casli or Bank Check. 

Exoct Freight Calculated. 

Products shipped with monutocturerS watranty. 

Prices and stock subject to change withoul norice. 

FOB. DALLAS. TEXAS. 
"Customers must call for return authorization 

before reluming any product. 
'Minimum order of $50.00. 

WRITE for FREE Catalog! Chde No M 



'PUBLIC DOMALV " 
— SOFTWARE — 

Supporting all COMMODORE computBrs 

Written by users, for users 

* GAMES * UTILITIES * EDUCATIONAL * 



vie ao~ 

Collection #1 - coUeetion #2 - collection #3 

collection #4 - collection #5 

70+ programs par collection - Tape/Disk- Si 0.00 



COMMODORE 64" 

64 collection #i-64 collection #2 

64 collection **3 - 64 collection #4 

25+ programs pe* collection - Tape/Disk - S 10.00 



PET" / CBM* 

5 Utility- Tapes/Disks- S1Q.00 each 

11 Game - Tapes/Disks - Si 0.00 eaeti 

6 Educational - Tapes/Disks - $10.00 each 



DIXSET": Reset Switch 

Work* on Vie 20 or Commodoie 64 - $5.00 



All prices include shipping and handling. 

CHECK, MONEY ORDERS, 

VISA and MASTERCARD accepted. 



Far A Free Catalog Write: 
Public Domain, Inc. 

5025 S. Rangeline fld, W. Milton, OH 45363 

10:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. EST- Mon, thru Fa 

{51 3) 698-5638 or (513) 339- 1 725 




Circle No. 167 

WHERE 
DOES 
IT 
GO ? 

This package makes short work of 
tracking 35 expenses and 7 incomes 
(which may be changed, deleted or 
added too). Suggestions and instructions 
for its use are provided. 

Daily or weekly records may be stored 
and then entered on supplied monthly 
forms. 

Household financial record keeping 
becomes easy and pleasant. (The results 
may surprise you.) 

Commodore 64 or TI-99/4A 

Tape - S14.45 

with Forms and Step by Step Instructions 

Free Additional Information 



I.S.A. 
9B08 N.W. 67th Court 
Tamarac, Florida 33321 



.1^ 



I5Q fi*CF2>-B$ 

1 55 B$= " " : POKETL > 32 : P0KETL+Q2 > 32 
1 60 PR I HT " I HONE ] C GREEN ] L BONN ] I LEFT ] ii 
■PQKE218, 158:PRINTH$(E2> -LC=LC+P1 
i 65 I FF2=0THENF2=P 1 : RETURN 

1 70 I FLOQ5THENG0SUB4 1 : GOTO 1 76 

1 7 1 Q= I NT i RNB < 1 > *P2 ) : R= I NT ( RNB < 1 ) *P4 > ; R 
1 = I NT ( RNB < 1 V*P2> : I FQOP 1 THEN 1 76 

1 73 P0KESC+Q2+W+R > 39-R 1 : P0KECM+Q2+W+R . P 

174 IFFd=PlTHENPuKESC+Q2+Q2+W+R. 37 : POKE 
CM+Q2+Q2+W+R , P6-R-R1 

176 F2=0= RETURN 

191 F 1 =P 1 = CL=CL+P 1 : Lfl=Lfl-Q 1 : RETURN 

193 F1=P1 = CL=CL-P1 : Lfi=Lfl-Q3 : RETURN 

200 I FiXOTHENQ=G 

2 1 GNQG0SUB293 , 295 , 297 . 293 , 298 > 236 , 230 

. 230, 230,298 
238 RETURN 

293 F4=P 1 = F 1 =P2 : POKESN , 255 : I F I =0T HENPOK 
ELA-Q2,32:P0KELA.32 

294 RETURN 

295 F4=P 1 • F 1 =P2 : POKESN . 255 : 1 F I THENPOKEL 
fi+44/32 : P0KELA+G2. 32 

296 PETI IRN 

297 0S=P5 : POKESL. Q4 : POKEV, P5 : RETURN 

298 0S=P1 :EC=EC+P1 =F3=P1 : IFPEEKXCL-P2)* 
40ORPEEK ( CL-P2 ) =4 1 THENF3=-P 1 

299 POKEV .15: POKESL , 1 84 : F 1 -P2 : RETURN 

300 PRINT" C RED J ENTER SKILL LEVEL 1-4" 
305 GETfi*:IFfi*= ,l "THEN305 

310 fls=Vfll_<fl#) : IFR<lORfl>4THEN300 

315 fl=2*fi: RETURN 

4 1 PR I NT " i BLACK 3 " 

: RETURN 
450 PR I NT " C HONE J L BONN J C BLACK ] SCORE " I N 

T C 339- (. T I /6O-S0 > * 1 8-EC* 1 0-PC#5S ) * A !i C 

LEFT] ": POKEV/ 0-RUN25 
6O0 BAT A 1 73 ,19,145. 72 , 1 73 .■ 34 > 145 > ?2 > 1 69 

, 0, 133, 0, 133, 1 , 169, 127, 141 . 34, 145, 17 



6 1 O DATA 1 45 , 73 , 255,41,128,42 , 8 , 1 69 , 1 95 , 

141, 19, 145, 173, 17, i4s, 73, 255. 41 . 60, 7, 4 
620 BAT A74 , 40 , 42 , 1 68 , 4 1 . 1 6 .. 20 1 .. 1 6 , 298 , 2 

, 133, 1, 152.41, 15, 162,0.-232,224,9 
630 HATA240,7,221, 139,3,208,246, 134,0, 1 

04,141,34, 145, 104, 141., 19, 145,96 
640 DATA0.2.3. 1,5,4, 1^,8, 10 
700 BHTR24 , 1 89 , 255 , 1 89 , 52 . 36 , 52 , 1 1 8 , 1 1 8 

,227,255,255, 189,68.68,24 
710 HATA8. 4, 46, 184. 240,232. 178, 47, 110,7 

O , 1 26 , 29 ,111, 247 , 245 , 96 
720 BRTR60 , 6 , 1 89 . 255 . 255 , 1 89 . 60 , 24 . 24 , 

1 89 , 255 , 1 89 , 68 , 68 , 60 . 60 , 1 8 , 85 . 170. 85 

, 170.84, 40,0 
740 DATA8, 16,56.56, 124,124,254,254,254, 

254, 16, 16. 16. 16. i6,0 



Commander December 1983/107 



Continued from page 49 

LISTING 1 



©3 



1 REM TIMES TABLES 

2 REM VIC VERSION 

3 : 

4 PRINT i, r»"SPC.''201)"*TinES TABLES*"SPC<72)"BY ANDY VAN DUVNE" 

5 OOSUB700 : GOSUB700 

7 PRINr'KSSJTOUCH A KEV. . . " 

8 GETA*:IFA*=""THEN8 
10 X=RND<-TO 

29 DIM PX<100,2) 

30 P0KE36878 ,15: GGSUB750 
100 REM *SET PROBLEMS* 

102 PRINT":HKIHtSETTING UP PROBLEMS..." 

105 FORN=1TO10:FORZ=1TO10 

110 R=INT<RND<1)#100)+1 

112 IFPZCR, l>=0ANDP/i>;R,2)=3THENPX(R, 1 >=Z:P?«R,2)=N : GOTO 120 

115 G0T0119 

120 NEXTZ,N 

130 FQRH=iT0im-'Py.<H,i>=pyj.H J n-i'-py.<H,2>*p'/.<iH>2>-i , -m i xr 

200 FORH=1TO100 

210 GOSUBS00 

215 PR"PR+1 : IFPR=TZANDN<:i00THEHPR=0:GOSUB800 

220 NEXT 

240 PRINT'TMWTHRT'S 100 PROBLEMS. .." :GOSUB520 

242 IFWR=0THENPRINT"*Wt , OU GOT THEM ALL RIGHTM! ! ! ! ! ! ! M ! 1 M ! ! ! H ! ! ! I " :GOSUB520:QO 

TO1000 

245 PRINT"MYOU GOT" 100-WR"CORRECT" :PRINT"ILET'S REVIEW THOSE YOU MISSED..." 

250 PRINT"WTOUCH RETURNS" 

255 GETA$:lFfi*OCHR*<13)THEN255 

300 REM#RETRV WRONG* 

305 Z=WR:WR=0 

310 FORN=lTOZ 

320 GOSUB600 

330 NEXT 

340 PRINT"MWHLL DONE WITH THESEM" 

350 IFWP.=BTHENPRINT"YOU GOT THEM ALL THIS TIME! " :GOSUB520: GOTO 1000 

360 GOSUB700:GOSUB700:PRINT"^VOU STILL NEED TO WORK ON THESE : MM" 

370 FORN=lTOWR 

375 PRINTPXCN, D"X"PJiCN,2)"=" J 

380 GOSUB700 

385 PRINTP?i(N,l)*PX<N,2) 

389 GOSUB700 

390 GOSUB700 : NEXT 
395 GOTO 1000 

500 REM*RIGHT HNS* 

502 F0R5= 1 T03 : FORZ= 1 50TO240STEP 1 : P0KE36876, Z = HEXTZ > S : P0KE3S876 , : RETURN 

520 REM *WHOLE SECT.* 

522 FORS= 1 T05 : FORZ=250TO1 90STEP-2 : P0KE36876 , Z : NEXTZ , S ! POKE36876 , : RETURN 

600 REM SHOW PROBLEM 

601 PRINT' 1 :* i 1" 

602 PRINT" igNUMBER"N;TAB(12>"IBI" 

603 PRINT" ' "' 

605 PRINT ,r iffl!rilnMro!B":pRINTTAB(:6>"a " :PRINTTAB<6 >" SI T 

606 PRINT" a"TAB<7>P%<N, i;>"X"PX<H,2> 

607 PRINTTflB<6)"S ■" 
650 REM *GET ANSWER* 

652 PR I NT "MB" TAB (8): AN=-1 : INPUTflN 

655 IFAN=P*^<N> n*PX(N..2>THENGOSUB500:RETURN 

660 PRINT"WJO, THAT'S NOT IT." 

665 WR=WR+1 -Py.mR, l>*P?i<N, 1):PH<WR,2>»>P7«N,2) 

670 GOSUB700 

675 RETURN 

700 FORPs 1 TO 1E3: NEXT: RETURN: REM *DELAV* 

750 TZ=INT(RND( 1 >*8>+10 ■ RETURN 

800 REM *TIME OUT* 

802 PRINT":? 1 :GOSUB750 

805 RERDPI,T:IFPI=-1THENPRIHT ,, MSWIME IN!" :QOSUB700: RESTORE: RETURN 

807 P0KE646,RNDa>*6+2: PRINT" SITIME OUT-"; 

810 P0KE36876..PI :FORP=1TOT*60:NEXT:GOTO805 

Continued on page 110 



108/Commander December 1983 



ETT64 



(c) 19BJ 



Electronic Typing Teacher for the COMMODORE 64 Personal Computer 



KEYBOARD INTRODUCTION 



Meet ETT64'5 Video Keyboard 



1) Your Electronic Keyboard lot* you practice with all key* labeled.. A* you 
watch the icreen you bacnnw iccirttCHti to where each key i* layed out on the 
Commodore 64 computer keyboard. 



FINGER EXERCISES 



Type Without Watching the Key! 



2) ETTW5 Video Keyboard with 'VISUAL CUES* guides you while you learn 
to type without watching your fingers! 

3] ETTM keepi icora and times you: You quickly see that you are improving 
with practice! 



ETT64 TALK 



Fun Sentence! For Practice 



4) Over 1000 variation! — Chosen because they include every letter in the 
alphabet. A Train net every time you run ETT64, 

TEST YOURSELF? 

CREATE YOUR OWN EXECI5ES 



Type Your Own Practice Sets 



Then „».Teft your lell 

W ALSO you can tave your e&ercliei on tape / di«k 



RUN YOUR EXEC15ES 



Self-Test for Self Improvement 



61 Practice your own ewrciaei- or those provided. Options include typing 
each line once ~ to improve accuracy, or typing each line more that once ~ 
to improve speed. 

TAPE VERSION $24.95 / DISK VER5ION....J29.95 / Shipping 13.00 

Oi*k vertion comes with 64 prewritten data files 

SCHOOLS CAN SAVE upto 50* per order - Write Tor detail! 

Recommended for Grades 1 thru College. 

Knight Writer Software 

P BOX 503 WESTLANO MICHIGAN 401BS 
Phone (513) 728-0946 
SENO YOUR NASt IN FOB OUR MAILING LIST AND WE WILL 5EMO YOU A 
| FREE MACHINE LANGUAGE MERGE PROGRAM FOR YOUR COMMOOORE 64. 

THIS SPECIAL OFFER EXPIRES JAN 1981 





Circle No. 169 



BASIC BYTE JUST 

MADE MANAGING YOUR 

STOCK PORTFOLIO EASIER 

Introducing PORTFOLIO MANAGER by Basic Byte, a high- 
quality, easy-to-use software program for use on your 
Commodore 64 or VIC 20 (16K RAM) personal computer. 

It's designed to eliminate hours of time consuming 
paperwork. And make it easy for you to handle your 
investments. 

PORTFOLIO MANAGER lets you instantly update your 
stock's current value, Calculate gains and losses. Record 
dividends. Print reports. Even determine the price per 
share after your broker's commission. All you have to do 
is follow the easy, step-by-step instructions. 

The price? Only $29.95. And that makes PORTFOLIO 
MANAGER a great investment by itself. 

You'll find PORTFOLIO MANAGER on tape or disk drive 
at your local dealer. Or call direct (313) 540-0655 or write 
P.O. Box 924, Southfield, Ml 48037 and order yours today. 




BASIC BYTE, INC. 



Circle No, 162 




Commodore 64 

and 

VTC-20 



Telecommuni cations 

with a difference! 

Unexcelled communications power and 
1 compatibility, especially for professionals and 
serious computer users. Look us over; SuperTerm 

I isn't just "another" terminal program. Like our 
famous Terminal-40, it's the one others will be 
Judged by. 

• EMULATION— Most popular terminal protocols: 
cursor addressing, clear, home, etc. 

I" EDITING— Full-screen editing of Receive Buffer 
• UP/DOWNLOAD FORMATS-CBM, Xon-Xoff, 
ACK-NAK, CompuServe, etc. 

■ FLEXIBILITY— Select baud, duplex, parity, stopbits, 
etc. Even work off-line, then upload to system! 

• DISPLAY MODES-40 column; 80/132 with 
side-scrolling 

■ FUNCTION KEYS -8 standard, 52 user-defined 

• BUFFERS— Receive, Transmit, Program, and Screen 

■ PRINTING— Continuous printing with Smart ASCII 
interface and parallel printer; buffered printing 
otherwise 

• DISK SUPPORT— Directory, Copy, Rename, Scratch 

Program options are selected by menus and function 
keys. For maximum convenience, an EXEC file sets all 
options on start-up. SuperTerm may be backed-up for 
safety. Software on disk with special cartridge module. 

Write for the full story on SuperTerm; or, if you 
already want that difference, order todayl 

Requires: Commodore 64 or VfC-20, disk drive or Datasette. and 
compatible modem. VIC version requires I6K memory expansion. Please 
specify VIC or 64 when ordering. 
^^ g^l ■■■■^■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■IBHi 

Smart ASCII Pius .. . $59 9J 



The only Interface which supports streaming —sending 
characters simultaneously to the screen and printer — with 
SuperTerm. 

Also great for use with your own programs or most 
application programs, i.e., word processors. Print modes: z 
CBM Graphics, TRANSLATE, DaisyTRANSLATE, CBM/True | 
ASCII, and PIPELINE. O 

Complete with printer cable and manual. On disk or cassette. 

VIC 20 and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commodore Electronics. Lid. 



(816) 



333-7200 

MIDWEST 
MICRO inc 



Send for a free brochure. 

MAIL ORDER: Add 51.50 shipping ana 
handling ($150 (or C.O.D.); VISA/Mastercard 
accepted (card* and exp. date). MO residents 
add 5.625% sales Sax. Foreign orders payable 
USS. U.S. Bank ONLY; add $3 shprtindkj. 



311 WEST 72nd ST, • KANSAS CITY • MO '64114 



Continued from page 108 

829 DATR201, 2, 195, 2, 201, 2, 195, 2.. 201, 2, 195, 4, 183, 2, 191, 2, 183, 2, 191 ,2, 183, 2, 191,2, 

133,6 

822 BATA207, 2, 195, 2, 175, 2, 195, 2, 207,4, 201, 4, 195, 4, 175, 4, 195, 6, 0,0, -1,0 

1000 REM USE AGRIN 

1005 PRINT"MSH0 YOU WRNT TO USE THIS PROGRAM RORIN? M <Y/N> 

1010 OETfi$:IFfi$="N"THEHCLR: PRINT":]": END 

1012 IFA$="V"THENRUN 

1014 GOTO1010 

LISTING 2 

1 REM TIMES TABLES 

2 REM 64 VERSION 

3 P0KE53281,1 

4 PRINT":JS"SPC>:211>"*TIMES TRBLES*"SPC<144)"8Y ANDY VAN DUYNE" 

5 GOSUB700 : GOSUB700 

7 PRINT"W«Er'OUCH A KEY..." 

8 GETA*:lFfl*=""THEN8 
10 X=RNB<-TI) 

20 DIM P*a00,2> 

30 G0SUB756 

40 FORN=54272TO54296:POKEN,0:NEXT:POKE54296, 15 

42 Sl=54272 : P0KES1 +5, : P0KES1+6, 255 

100 REM *SET PROBLEMS* 

102 PRINT'TKMWDflSETTING UP PROBLEMS..." 

105 FORN=1TO10:FORZ=1TO1@ 

110 R=INT(RHDa)*100)+l 

112 IFP>iCR,l)=0ANDP?iCR,2)=0THENPJi<R,l>«Z:P?i<R,2)-N:GOTO120 
115 GOTO110 
120 NEXTZ,N 

130 FORN=lTO100:pX(N,l)=PK<N,l)-l:PX(;N,2)=P?i<N,2)-l:NEXT 

200 FORN=1TO100 

210 GOSUB600 

215 PR=PR+1 •• IFPR=TZRNDN<100THENPR=0:GOSUB800 

220 NEXT 

240 PRINT'TnSMTHHT'S 100 PROBLEMS... ":GOSUB520 

242 IFNR=0THENPRINT")«raYOU GOT THEM ALL RIGHTWI I !!!!!!!!! i ! !!!!!!!! ! " : GOSUB520 : GO 

TO1000 

245 PRINT-'SWOU GOT" 188-WR" CORRECT" :PRINT"M.ET'S REVIEW THOSE YOU MISSED..." 

250 PRINT "MTOUCH SRETURNi" 

255 GETA* : IFA*OCHR$<13)THEN255 

300 REM*RETRY WRONG* 

305 Z=WR:WR=3 

307 POKE53230, 14 

310 FORN=1TOZ 

320 GOSUB600 

330 NEXT 

340 PRINT"MBALL DONE WITH THESES" 

350 IFWR=0THEHPRINT ,, WVOU GOT THEM ALL THIS TIME! " =GOSUB520: GOTO1000 

360 GOSUB700:GOSUB700:PRINT n ^r'OU STILL NEED TO WORK ON THESE s Ml" 

370 F0RN=1T0WR 

375 PRINTPr^H, 1)"X"PX<:N,2>"="; 

380 GOSUB700 

385 PRINTPX(H,l)*P?i(N,2) 

389 GOSUB700 

398 GOSUB700:NEXT 

395 GOTO 1000 

588 REM*RIGHT RNS SOUND* 

502 F0RS=1T03 : FORZ=50TO105STEP15 : P0KES1 , Z = P0KES1+1 , Z ■ P0KES1+4, 17 

504 NEXTZ,S 

506 P0KES1+4, 16 : POKES 1+1,0: P0KES1 , : RETURN 

520 REM *WHOLE SECT.* 

522 FORS=lTO5:FORZ=150TO30STEP-4 

524 P0KES1 , Z : P0KES1 + 1 , Z ■ P0KES1+4, 33 

526 NEXTZ/S 

528 POKES 1 +4 , 32 : P0KES1 , = P0KES1 + 1 , 

530 RETURN 

600 REM SHOW PROBLEM 

Continued on page 112 



110/Commander December 1983 



New VIC Super chassis 11 




M* 



GOSUB 



<*, 



4 



INTERNATIONAL INCORPORATED 




Retail 
S69.95 



Features: 

19 Keys, each of which may have 3 sep- 
erate definitions! 

Complete documentation including pro- 
gram listings' 

Works on the VI C20 (Expanded) and C-64 
computers' 

Compatible with most existing software! 

Great for use with business programs and 
electronic spread sheets! 

Ideal for machine language programmer! 



VISA & MASTERCARD WELCOME 
Prices subiecl lo change 

"C-64 and VIC 20 are registered trademarks ot Commodore International 



Dealer Inquires Invited - (316) 265-985S 

GOSUB International -501 E. Pawnee- Suite 430 

Wichita. Kansas 67211 



Circle No. 86 



Commander December 1983/111 



Continued from page 110 



% 



601 PRINT'TH r- 



602 PRINT" l»<UMBER"N;TRB(12V , llil" 

603 PRINT"' '" 

605 PRIHT^rTO-MSE'' :pRINTTRB<14)"a " :PRINTTRBa4>"a H" 

606 PRIHT"a"TflB<15>PK<N,l>"X"PX<N.2) 

607 PRINTTRB(14)"a ■" 
650 REM *GET ANSWER* 

652 PRINT"MCTRB<14) :RN=-i : INPUTRN 

655 IFRN=PJJ(N, 1)*PX<:N,2>THENGOSUB500:RETURN 

€.62) PRINT"T?NO, THRT'S NOT IT." 

665 WR=WR+i:pfi(UR/l>=PJi<N>l):P/iCWR*2)'*P5i(HA2) 

670 GOSUB700 

675 RETURN 

700 F0RP= 1 TO 1E3 = NEXT: RETURN: REM *DELRV* 

750 TZ=INT<RNIK1>*3>+10: RETURN 

809 REM *TIME OUT* 

882 PRINT'T]" : GOSUB750 

605 RERDPI.T: IFPI=-lTHENPRIHTSPC<20>"SftWIME IN! " : GOSUB700 : GOTO850 

807 P0KE646,RNB(l>*6+2: PRINT" 3TIME OUT-"; 

818 Rl=INT(PI/256^:R2=PI-256*Ri 

812 POKES 1, R2 = POKES 1 + 1 ,R1 '■ POKES 1+4. 33 

814 FORP=1TO30*T:NEXT 

816 POKES1+4,32:GOTO805 

820 DflTfl 9634. 2, 8583, 2, 9634, 2, 8583. 2.9634, 2, 8583. 4, 7217, 2, 8101 ,2, 7217, 2, 8101, 2 

822 DRTR7217, 2, 8101, 2, 7217, 4, 0,2, 10814, 2, 8583, 2, 6430, 2, 8583, 2 

824 BRTR9S34, 6, 10814,6,8583,6,6430,6,8583,2,6430,2,8583,2,0,0,-1,0 

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Circle No, 160 



112/CommanderDecember1983 



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Circle No. 103 



Commander December 1983/113 



p 



ROftt* 



Cort^ 



Data 





By Diana Sikes for Audio Visions 



Have you ever wondered what a com- 
mercial software firm is really like? Have 
you conjured up the image of a pressure- 
cooker environment with a bunch of 
"mad programmers" hacking away all 
day and night, taking breaks only to 
shoot rubber bands and paper airplanes 
at each other? 

Our occasional series profiling a variety 
of commercial computer firms should 
convince you that not all of them fit the 
stereotype. The following example, in 
fact, makes it clear that even a very suc- 
cessful company can retain a "family at- 
mosphere. ". 

COMM*DATA 

Four years ago, in the kitchen of their 
home in Milford, Michigan, Larry Jones 
and his wife Mary started Comm*Data 
Computer House. Today, it is one of the 
three largest independently owned soft- 
ware producers in America, with 3 facili- 
ties, 42 employees, and worldwide distri- 
bution. Given the state s recent depressed 
economic climate, Comm* Data's success 
is quite an accomplishment. Business is 
growing at an estimated 500% annually. 

Larry traced the company's evolution. "I 
bought one of the first microcomputers, 
and decided it was a good field to get into. , 
So I got a franchise for a Commodore 
dealership (Comm*Data Computer 
Center), and started selling them out of 
my home. Almost immediately, I discov- 
ered you cou Idn 't sell those th ings without 
software. At the time, 80% of our custo- 

114/Commander December 1 983 






COfflfll'DATA COmPUTER CENTER 



a 




Comm*Data Computer Center is the largest dealership in Michigan. 



mers were educators and school systems. 
We found the better oureducational soft- 
ware, the more computers we'd sell. They 
went hand in hand." Soon, the market for 
Comm* Data software expanded to in- 
clude other computer retailers who were 
finding themselves in a similar bind. 

In 1981, with the advent of such per- 
sonal computer systems as the Commo- 
dore VIC-20, it became apparent that the 
computer's role as an instructional device 
wasn't limited to the classroom. Jones ex- 
plains an advantage of educational soft- 
ware designed for home use. "The com- 
puter has infinite patience. Even the most 



perfect parent can't match it as a tutor. If 
Johnny blows it again and again, the com- 
puter won't fly into a rage. It takes the 
pressure off the child, as well as the 
parent." I have kids, so I know. They use 
the computer in our home. 

From his experience with the school 
systems, Larry realized there is more to 
designing educational software than 
simply programming the information. 
Home tutor programs must incorporate 
the principles of positive reinforcement. 
"We have to be careful that the biggest 
and best things happen when the correct 
answer is given. In the early stages, we had 



a program in which a wrong answer 
would elicit great graphic explosions on 
the screen. In effect, we were rewarding 
the kids for the wrong response." A team 
of professional educators reviews each 
program for both qualitative content and 
effective presentation. Jones continued, 
"The computer has to do more than just 
differentiate between right and wrong 
answers. With each wrong answer, it must 
go back through the problem, and, using 
words and pictures, explain what went 
wrong and how to fix it. We are producing 
educational games like Gotcha Math and 
English Invaders that really make learning 
fun." 

Com m* Data was well on its way to 
becoming a software market leader when 
the Jones' began to shift their attention 
from strictly educational programs. The 
company's reputation for integrity in the 
educational arena gave them a natural 
edge in the computer video game market. 
Although they could not ignore the 
tremendous appeal of games in the 
marketplace, they were careful to apply 
the techniques they'd acquired while 
working with the schools. 

"We learn from playing games. Our pro- 
grams don't reward the violent capture or 
the 'kill' at the end of the chase. We con- 
centrate on the chase itself, encourage 
players to strive for improvement and help 
them learn to deal with successand failure 
while they improve their hand/eye motor 
coordination." 

In addition to producing games and 
educational software, Comm*Data is ex- 
panding into the utility and home business 
m a rket to satisfy the g rowi ngneedsofthe 
Commodore user. This year, they introduc- 
ed the Multi-level Marketing Manager 
(MLM), an extensive and easy to use 
system to maintain profit control for the 
independent business person. This area is 
perhaps the major rapid-growth segment 
of the software industry today. 

The responsibility for program develop- 
ment lies mainly with the company's staff 
and educational consultants. Once an 
idea is agreed upon, it is "storybooked" 
and represented pictorially. An educator 
or staff member draws a representation of 
the computer screen at various program 
stages. A storybook may be anywhere 
from two to thirty pages or more. The 
completed storybook is then reviewed by 
a head programmer to determine its pro- 
gram feasibility. Jones notes with pride 
thatthe"program-ability" is growing. "We 
are doing things now which would have 
been considered impossible two years 
ago." They now use a high-resolution 




Commodore 64 -Vic 20- 



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COMPETITIVE GAMES DESIGNED TO 
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AH programs self-exolanatory. Easy lo use. 
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MATH: 4 or 5 programs 
PHONICS 3 or 12 programs 
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Prepositions 
Conjunctions 
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Subjects 

Predicates 

Objects 

G5 Capitalization 

and Punctuation S19.95 

Capitalization 

Punctuation Apostrophes and 

Quotation Marks 
Punctuation II End Marks 

G6 Homonyms. Antonyms, 

and Synonyms. ....... ...SI 9. 9 5 

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Antonyms 

Synonyms 

G7 Phrases, Prefixes. 

and Suffixes S1 9.95 

Phrases 
Prefixes 
Suffixes 

PHONICS PROGRAMS 

PI Phonic Blends $39,95 

3 Programs 
3 Voice Tapes 

P2 Word Blends.,.. S49.95 

3 Programs 

4 Voice Tapes 



P3 Computer Phonics $49.95 

Pre -Test 

Long and short vowels (10 programs) 

Post-Test 

MATH PROGRAMS 

Ml Number Theory $19.95 

Place Value 

Reading Large Numbers 

Rounding Off 

Math Drills 

Addition 

Subtraction 

Multiplication 

Division 

M2 Conversions S19.95 

inches to Feet to Yards 
Pints to Quarts to Gallons 
Roman to Arabic Numerals 
Metrics 1.2 

M3 Fractions I $19,95 

Fractions to Percent Conversion 
Adding Fractions Iwrth carrying) 
Subtracting Fractions (with borrowing) 
Sequence Patterns 

M4 Fractions ([/Decimals.. ..$19. 95 

Multiplying Fractions 
Reducing Fractions 
Adding and Subtracting Decimals 
Multiplying Decimals 

FUN PACKS 

F1 Fun Pack I S19.95 

Quarter Back Challenge 
Magic Cards 
Latin Magic 
Haunted Mansion 

F2 Fgn Packl! 519.95 

Amazing Craze 
Missile Attack 
Roaring Cycle 

F3 Fun Pack III $19.95 

Magic Spell 
Slates and Capitals 
Choice Hangman 



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Phone Orders: REES SOFTWARE LABORATORIES (714) 980-9562 



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CA residents 6% tax 



VISA/MC (Include charge card no. & expiration date) 



TOTAL 



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S1.50 



graphics computer, vastly expanding 
graphics capabilities, and are involved in 
their own research and development pro- 
jects. Once a storybook concept is deter- 
mined to be workable, it goes to a pro- 
gramming team for the detailed writing. 
The leader of the programming team is 
responsible for coordinating the activities 
of the various audio and visual program- 
mers. 

Comm*Data takes a consumer-driven 
approach to marketing their products. 
Suggestions from stores and customers 
figure prominently in the development of 
new product concepts. No matter how 
good the concept, though, Comm*Data 
realizes it will not sell if it is not packaged 
correctly. The firm was an originator of the 
"library-box" package. Stronger and more 
functional than its ziploc and blister card 
predecessors, the heavy duty vinyl library- 
box allows for easy storage of software. 
Comm* Data's concern for packaging led 
them to form a subsidiary, P&L Packaging, 
in Denver, Colorado. 

Although software production takes up 
most of the Jones' attention, they haven't 
lost sight of the retail computer business 
that started it all. TheirComm*Data Com- 
puter Center is the largest dealership in 
Michigan, and is currently seeking state 
certification to begin a vocational training 
program. 

Above all else, Jones attributes Comm* 
Data's success to the healthy working en- 
vironment he and Mary have managed to 
establish in the company. "Comm* 
Data is a cooperation of people. We all 
work together to get the job done." Every 
Wednesday morning, the entire company 
staff gets together for breakfast and 'bull', 
in an atmosphere which encourages 
everyone to air feelings on a variety of 
topics from the latest program concept to 
company policy. This spirit of camaraderie 
extends beyond the workplace. The staff's 
computer-shaped entry placed 3rd in the 
1983 Milford Raft Race down the nearby 
Huron River. As Larry said, "It may not have 
been very fast, but it took a great picture!" 
Although the company has attained 
worldwide stature, it still hasn't lost touch 
with its small town roots. 




SEE US AT 



world of . 

commodore 

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE TORONTO 
DEC B 1-1 1983 





Mr. Larry Jones, President of Conrun*-Data, attributes his success to "a coopera- 
tion of people. . .we all work together to get the job done," 



5PK*?- * 


t 


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■^^^^H^HBw^-'^-v i ** ^^n 




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Comm*Data Computer House launched four years ago in Milford, Michigan, 
Now employs 42 people out of a town of 9,000. 




ANY ONE $19.98 



SO Y. O Ffj 

ea. 2nd item! 
DISKS 



P.O. Box 155 
Groton, N.Y. 
13073-0155 
(607) 898-5114 



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Snakman, Gridder, Skramble, Hang-Spell, Night-Flyer 
Dragster. Moon Lander, Othello, Speed Read, 3-D Maze, 
Horserace-64, Bio rhythm- 6 4 , Tutor Math-64, Football, 
Hi Res. Sketchin, Oregon trail, Personal Finance, 
Sprite Editor, Maps "& Capitals, Castle Adventure, 

SEE 



s&h $2.00 
NYS add sales 



tax/ 



'OUR 
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Per Cks 3 Wks Clr 



116/Commander December 1983 



I Write For FREE Cataloo 



Call your order in and 
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Circle No. 185 



Commander December 1983m7 



£%&& 



INTERRUPTS 



Part XII 



: By Eric Giguere 



We're really advancing here! This 
month we look at the hardware inter- 
rupt, or IRQ. The things that can be 
achieved with a little creativity will 
astound you. Also, piease make sure to 
read the last section of the article as I have 
an important notice to give you. 

INTERRUPTS 

Every 60th of a second the 6502 (or 
6510) chip in the VIC or C-64 is literally in- 
terrupted by the IRQ. 'IRQ' stands for In- 
terrupt ReQuest and is a signal telling the 
chip to drop whatever it is doing at the 
moment and jump to a location in me- 
mory to take care of something else. 
Usually the chip uses the IRQ to update 
the clock, check the STOP key and check 
the keyboard for keypresses. Notice I said 
'usually'. Yes, it is very possible (and very 
easy) for us to change what the chip does 
during the IRQ. But first let's take a closer 
look at what happens during an IRQ. 

When the chip receives the interrupt 
signal, it doesn't literally drop everything 
just to handle (carry out) the IRQ. First it 
finishes executing the current instruc- 
tion, saves the current memory address 
(program counter) and the status pointer 
onto the stack, and then jumps off to the 
IRQ routine. When this routine is finished 
it executes and RTf or 'ReTurn from Inter- 
rupt', which causes the chip to re-load 
the status register and program counter 
from the stack, continuing where it left 
off, just as if nothing happened. And to 
think, this happens 60 times a second but 
to the chip it happens only once every 
few thousand instructions. Now that is 
fast! 
118/Commander December 1983 



CHANGING THE IRQ 

The nice thing about the IRQ is that it 
uses two memory locations in RAM to tell 
it where to go. These locations form an 
indirect pointer or 'vector', with the ad- 
dress in standard low-byte, high-byte for- 
mat. Normally this vector (located at 
$0314-$0315 on both the VIC and C-64) 
points to $EABF for the VIC and $EA31 
for the C-64. These addresses are the 
starting locations of the interrupt hand- 
ling routines for both machines. The 
routines themselves cannot be changed 
because they are in ROM. But the IRQ 
vector happens to be in RAM, meaning 
that we can change it by storing new 
values in the bytes. If we do that, we can 
send the interrupt wherever we want in 
memory, usually at our own special pro- 
gram. This can be used to achieve some 
pretty neat tricks. 

Using what we've learned so far, we 
could probably code the routine to 
change the IRQ vector as such: 

LDA #IRQLO 

STA #0314 

LDA #IRQHI 

STA $0315 
where lRQLO and IRQHI are the low and 
high bytes of the new IRQ routine's ad- 
dress. There is only one problem with this 
method. What happens if, say, an inter- 
rupt occurswhen only half of the new ad- 
dress has been stored? The chip will be 
sent to some mixed-up address, probably 
somewhere in Never-Never Land. Con- 
sider yourself lucky if you don't have to 
shut off the computer because it froze up 
on you. Here we need something to tem- 



porarily shut out interrupts. Fortunately 
for us, 6502/6510 assembly language 
gives us such a capability via the status 
register. 

SEI/CLI 

In the status register there is one 
special bit that enables and disables the 
hardware (IRQ) interrupt. When set (1) it 
disables the IRQ and when clear (0) it 
allows them through. Two special in- 
structions allow us to set and clear this 
handy bit: 
SEI 
and CLI 
The first SEts the Interrupt bit and the se- 
cond Clears the Interrupt bit, effectively 
disabling and enabling the IRQ. 
Placing SEI before our previous routine 
and CLI after it will make sure no interrupt 
will arise while changing the vector (just 
remember that SEI disables and CLI en- 
ables). In fact, a general assembler 
routine for changing the IRQ looks like 
this: 

CHANGE SEI 

LDA #(NEWIRQ 

STA $0314 

LDA #)NEWIRQ 

STA $0315 

CLI 

RTS 

NEWIRQ . . . 

This routine would be called from either 
BASIC via the SYS command or as a sub- 
routine in a larger assembly language 
program. It changes the IRQ vector to 
point to NEWIRQ, which will then be- 



TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE • TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE 



Fill your Christmas stocking 
with useful software 



^COMMODORE 64™ 1 
W' VIC 20 



TOUCH TYPING TUTOR 

1 9 lessons -Watch your TV screen lo learn proper linger / 
placement. 

PRACTICE- learn your word/min. rale typing pseudofj 
words. 

TEXT - English sentence fragments 'or limed tests ol any J 
duration. Includes 12-page manual. 

TTT64d Diskette S24.95 

TTT64 Cassetie $19.95 

TTT5K VIC Casselte S19.95 

, PINBALL HATH 

Improve malh skills playing PINBALL MATH! Add. sub- 
tract, multiply, divide, each with 3 levels Irom basic facts 
to two-digit operands Sprites, sound, pmball graphics. 
scoreboard For students in grades 1-6. 

PM64D Diskette 524.95 

PM64 CassBlte S19.95 

PM-VIC + 8K Cassette 519 95 

FUN FRACTIONS 

Watch VIC show you all the steps to do addition, suoirac- ' 
lion, multiplication, division, and reduclons ol fractions Your 
, turn; can you answer before the parachute lumper crashes' 
l For students in grades 4-9: includes 16-page manual. 
FF-VIC+8K Cassette S19.95 

^",'OrSE CODE TRAINER 

Practice International Morse Code Irom 1 to 35 W.P.M.I 
Your message, or random code groups. Learn quickly byl 
setting character rale faster than W.P M. rale 
, MC-VIC5K Cassette $19 95 

• AEROBICS POINTS CALCULATOR 

Monitor your fitness program and learn your exact \ 
aerobics points and calories used lor 25 different activities 

APC-VIC Cassette $24.95 

APC-D-VIC Diskette 529.95 

VIC LEMONADE 

Classic economics game for 1 or 2 players demonstrates 
outstanding color graphics and music of the VIC 20 After 
12 plays, will your $2 assels grow lo SI million? 
VL-5K-VIC Cassette $14.95 

STAKEOUT 

Strategy game lo improve your logic and reasoning 
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NUMER-BECi — $16.95 

Number recognition, 
object counting, object 
grouping, and 
number/size/shape 
discrimination. 



ALPHA-BECi — $16.95 

Twenty-six screens with 
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Multiplication program 
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All programs feature numerals and letters in 
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Write for a free brochure! 

Circle No. 3 



BOSTON EDUCATIONAL COMI^ING^WC. 

78 Dartmouth Street 

Boston, MA 02116 

(617)536-5116 



COMMODORE 64 and VIC 20 are trademarks d Commodore Electronics Lid 



TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE • TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE 




Dealer Inquiries Invited 




Commander December 1983/119 



come the new IRQ handling routine. One 
thing that should always be done at the 
end of your own IRQ routine is to do a 
JMP SEABF (VIC) 
orjMP$EA31 (C-64) 
This will make sure the interrupt handles 
the usual housekeeping chores it's sup- 
posed to. Otherwise you should always 
end your routine with an RTI. An example 
IRQ routine is shown in listing 1. To try it 
out type in the BASIC program in either 
listing 2a (VIC) or 2b (C-64). Explanation s 
as to what it does are given in listing 1 . 



USES FOR IRQ 

The uses for the IRQ vector are pretty 
weil limited to your imagination. Because 
they happen every 60th of a second they 
are useful for running 'user transparent' 
routines, routines that run without 
notice. Games use it for such things as 
scrolling the screen or playing music 
without interruption. Or it could be used 
in a utility program, such as Program 1. 



A QUESTION 
FOR MY READERS 

I'm nearing the end of my series on 
assembly language and I would like your 
opinions as to whether I should continue 
it or start a new column on some other 
aspect of computing (or both?). If I con- 
tinued with the column I could call it "Ex- 
plorations into Assembly Language" and 
examine more advanced aspects of as- 
sembly language, preferably from sug- 
gestions sent in by readers. Please send 
your comments about this to COMMAN- 
DER. A simple post card will do. Thanks. 



Is> 


LISTING 1 














FILE 


NAME 


IRQ EX. OBJ 


OP. 


OPERRND 


COMMENTS 


LINE 


LOC. 


CODE I. 


«mjbc.l 


0(361 


033C 








'PAUSE LOOP-' BV RRETO WEST 


0032 


033C 








RS FOUND 


IN 'PROGRAMMING THE PET/CBM' 


0003 


033C 








MODIFIED 


FOR USE ON 


THE VIC & C64 


0004 


033C 
















0003 


033C 










ORG 


$833C 


.: CASSETTE BUFFER 


0006 


033C 
















0007 


033C 






( 


5ETCHR 


EO.U 


*FFE4 




0009 


033C 








[RQVEC 


EQU 


$0314 




0009 


033C 
















0010 


033C 


79 




r 


CHANGE 


SET 




; BLOCK OUT IRQ 


0011 


033D 


A9 


49 






LDR 


#<NEWIRQ 


J GET lQW-BYTE 


0012 


033F 


3D 


14 


03 




STR 


I RQVEC 


;-& REPLRCE 


0013 


0342 


39 


03 






LUR 


#>NEWIRQ 


;DO SRME FOR HIGH-BYTE 


0014 


0344 


8E 


15 


83 




STR 


IRQVEC+1 




0015 


0347 


58 








CLI 




; RE-ENABLE IRQ 


0016 


0348 


60 








RTS 




; RETURN TO BASIC 


801? 


0349 
















0018 


0349 


20 


E4 


FF y 


•IE W IRQ 


JSR 


GETCHR 


;GET KEYPRESS 


0019 


03 4C 


C9 


40 






CMP 


#-'@ 


.; CHECK FOR '(!•' -PRESS 


0020 


034E 


D0 


97 






BWE 


EXIT 


;NOT '<»' LEAVE ROUTINE 


0021 


0350 


20 


E4 


FF I 


-IF) IT 


JSR 


GETCHR 


.iWRIT UNTIL '<*' 


0022 


0353 


C9 


40 






CMP 


#'3 


J IS PRESSED RGRIN 


0023 


0355 


BO 


F9 






BNE 


WRIT 




0024 


0357 


4C 


31 


EA E 


iMIT 


JMP 


*ER31 


.IJUMP TO NORMAL IRQ ROUTINE 


0025 


035R 








CJMP 


SEflBF 




0026 


035R 






, 










RSSEMBLV COMPLETE. 










SYMBOL TABLE 














GETCHR-SFFE4 


IRQVEC 


:-*0314 CHANGE-S033C 


: NEWIRQ-$0349 WAIT £8350 


EXIT- 


— £0357 






























Continued on page 122 



120/Commander December 1 983 



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Why have a dumb card when you could have a 

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Four-slot, software-selectable interface 

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Commander December 1983/121 



Continued from page 120 



LISTING 2A 



j& 



REM 'PAUSE LOOP'' BV RflETO WEST 
REM MODIFIED VERSION FOR THE VIC 
REM BV ERIC OIGUERE SEPT. 26/83 



10 
11 

12 

15 
29 
25 
30 

35 
48 
45 
50 
55 
£0 
65 
70 
75 

99 : 

100 DATA 
110 DATA 
120 DATA 

READV. 



POKE 36879 .-27 

FOR 1=828 TO 957= READ J- POKE I,J : NEXT: SYS 823 

CWR*<142>.i 'TEPAUSE PROGRAM HAS BEEN LOADED $<" 
"ACTIVATED. TO USE, SIMPLV HIT THE '@'" 
"KEV WHEN VOU WISH TO PAUSE A PROGRAM OR" 
"A LISTING. WHEN READV HIT THE '9' KEV" 
"ONCE MORE TO CONTINUE WHERE VOU LEFT OFF" 
"TO DEACTIVATE PAUSE HIT RUN/STOP 8>" 
"RESTORE. TO RE-ACTIVATE TVPE "SVS 828 / ." 
"WflRNING : DEACTIVATE BEFORE USING TAPE" 
"IN ANY WAV." 



PR I NT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
END 



120, 169.. 
228, 255- 
191, 234 



73, 141, 20, 3, 169, 3, 141, 21, 3, 
201, 64, 208, 7, 32, 228, 255, 291, 



88, 

64, 



96, 
209. 



32 
249. 



76 



LISTING 2 B 



% 



10 
11 
12 
15 

20 

25 

30 

35 

40 

45 

50 

55 

60 

65 

70 

75 

99 

100 

110 

120 



REM ''PAUSE LOOP'' BV RAETG WEST 
REM MODIFIED VERSION FOR THE C64 
REM BV ERIC GIGUERE SEPT. 26/93 



POKE 

FOR I 

PRINT 

PR I NT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

END 



S32A 1 i 1 

=828 TO 957: READ J- POKE I, 



NEXT 



r'S 823 



CHRSC142>; "rSFAUSE PROGRAM HAS BEEN LOADED &" 
"ACTIVATED. TO USE, SIMPLV HIT THE '@'" 
"KEV WHEN VOU WISH TO PAUSE A PROGRAM OR" 
"A LISTING. WHEN READV HIT THE "S" KEV" 

"ONCE MORE TO CONTINUE WHERE VOU LEFT OFF" 
"TO DEACTIVATE PAUSE HIT RUN/STOP &" 
"RESTORE. TO RE-ACTIVATE TVPE 'SYS 823"'." 
"WARNING: DEACTIVATE BEFORE USING TAPE" 
"IN PHY WAV. " 



DATA 120, 169, 73, 141, 20, 3, 169, 3, 141, 21, 3, 88, 96, 32 

DATA 228, 255, 201, 64, 208, 7, 32, 228.. 255, 201, 64, 208, 249, 76 

DATA 49, 234 



READV. 



122/Commander December 1983 



Commobore 
anb H>ing! 




f* 



Yes, the VOICE BOX™ from 
The Alien Group, the world's ONLY 
singing speech synthesizer, now grants 
the power of speech to the VIC 20™ and the 
Commodore 64™ A commented. all-BASIC demo 
program gets the VOICE BOX talking righi away, and, since 
it can be "taught" to say anything, the VOICE BOX has an unlimited 
vocabulary! The voice speaks with natural speech inflection controlled either from the pro- 
gram or from the precise, built-in Pitch control, No other speech synthesizer has this feature! 
Want to add speech to a new or existing BASIC program! The VOICE BOX has FOUR ways 
to do it on VIC 20's of any memory size and on any Commodore 64: entirely from BASIC, 
or using one of the three machine language programs readily added to other programs - 
English text-to-speech, the same with the lip-synch "Alien" face added, or use of the 64 basic 
phonemes as input. A challenging spelling quiz that accepts new words (expanded memory 
required with VIC 20) is provided on the cassette supplied. 

The VOICE BOX plugs directly into the computers user port, comes with built-in speaker. 
Volume and Pitch controls and lots of instructions from The Alien Group, the people who got 
Atarii ^d Apple' to speak! 

Available at leading computer stores everywhere, or order direct by sending S129. 00 to: 
The Alien Group, 27 W. 23rd St. , NY, NY 10010. Specify whether for VIC 20, Commodore 
64 cassette or Commodore 64 disk, Programs for a high- res talking human face and a com- 
prehensive music and singing system available on separate cassette for $25.00 (expanded 
RAM necessary when used on VIC 20). Extra main cassette for either computer available 
for S19.D0. 

Vic 20 arro Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commodore Eiectioncs Lid VOICE BOX .5 a trademark of The Align Group . 



C-64/VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



WALLB ANGER - Blast your way through the dodge'm, blast" m, 
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Each time you park 5 toads, you enter a tougher level where the action is 
faster and the toad-eaters are more numerous, ROADTOAD is written in 
machine language and uses high resolution graphics. The sound effects are 
excellent and you can use a joystick or the keyboard to control your toad. 

C-B4/CABS/5K/VIC 20 (Includes ShippingfHandlingl 

[CALIF RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX) 

AfATMES NIBBLEBfi BITB ' INC ' Write For 
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C-64/VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



Bear computer Systems 

P.O.Box 2317 • WICHITA, KANSAS 67201 

CARD"?" CARD/PRINT 
$76.00 

Universal Centronics Parallel Printer Interface 
for the VIC-20 S or CBM-64. Use any parallel 
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CARDBOARD 3 
$35.95 

Economy expansion interface for the 
VIC-20 E 

CARDBOARD 6 
$87.50 

An expansion interface for the VIC-20® 
Allows expansion to 40K or accepts up to six 
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CARDETTE 
$30.95 

Use any standard cassette player/recorder 
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LIGHT PEN 
$29.95 

A light pen with programs to use with your 
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TELEPHONE 
(316)263-6555 



Circle No. 163 



Hanoling charges S3 00 

COD (AddSIOO) 

Personal checks allow 3 weeks delivery 

VIC-20 1 is a registered Trademark of Commodore 

Prices subject to change 



G-64 







— — Circle No. 134 I 

Commander December 1983/123 



% 



Data Organization 
For The VIC-20: Part II 



By Arthur J. Dudley 



Last month's article dealt with the 
storage of integers in memory. This 
month, I am going to cover floating point 
reai numbers. The method of storing 
floating point reals may be difficult to 
understand at first; therefore, take your 
time and read each paragraph carefully. 
Before you start, LOAD and RUN the 
memory dump program provided in last 
month's issue and use it as a reference 
while reading. It is important that the 
memory dump program be inputted ex- 
actly as listed in the first article. (This in- 
cludes line numbers and spaces.) Failure 
to do so may not affect program opera- 
tion but will cause your memory addresses 
to differ from those given in examples. 

As you know, an integer occupies 
seven bytes of memory. This is also the 
amount of memory occupied by a 
floating point real number. As stated in 
last month's article, the VIC only uses four 
of the seven bytes for integers (two for 
the variable name, one for the MSB, and 
one for the L5B); however, floating point 
reals need all seven bytes. 

The seven bytes that represent a 
floating point real are shown in figure 1. 
(Use the SPACE BAR to advance to ad- 
dress number 4916 on your screen dis- 
play.) The first two bytes are reserved for 
the variable name, just as they are for in- 
tegers. The only difference is floating 
point reals use straight ASCII code to 
represent variable names, while integers 
have the number 128 added to each 
decimal representation. The remaining 
five bytes are used to store the actual 

124/Commander December 1983 




J) 



Addrs 


Figure 1: 


CD = 


1.564565329 




4916 
4917 

4918 
4919 
4920 

4921 


IN 
rN 
cn 




(67) 
C 


(68) 
D 


129 


72 


67 


173 


60 



value. Byte number three is the expo- 
nent, and byte numbers four through 
seven are the mantissa. 

The least significant byte (LSB) of the 
mantissa is byte seven, and the most 
significant byte (MSB) is byte four. The dif- 
ference between the LSB and the MSB is 
nothing more than their impact on the 
numbers they represent. For example, if 
you change the value of the LSB, the 
number it represents will change slightly; 
however, if you change the value of the 
MSB by the same amount, it will cause 
the number to change by a much larger 
factor. This will be more apparent 'later. 

Byte number seven is the exponent, 
and is formed according to a technique 
called "excess 128" or "offset 128" nota- 
tion, which means the number 128 is ad- 
ded to the true value of the exponent. For 
example, ifthenumber3 is the true expo- 
nent, VIC will add 128 to this true expo- 
nent (128 + 3 = 131). Thus the number 
131 will represent a true exponent of 3 in 
memory. This technique allows the VIC to 
have negative exponents (i.e. If byte 
number three contains the number 1 20, 
the true exponent is 120 - 128 or a -8). 



Byte No. 
1 

Variable 
Name 



4 
t 

MSB 



7 
\ 

LSB 




Exponent Mantissa 

The floating point real variable "CD" as 
shown on the screen display: 

Address 

67] Cl Variable name as listed 

esJxPJ in program 

29^ \Decimal representation of 

variable name stored in 

memory 

Exponent 

Mantissa 

MSB LSB 

Note: The following explanation will 
be based on the information 
shown in figures 1 and 2. 
To convert the decimal representation 
seen in memory over to their true value, 
follow the five steps below. I will be us- 
ing CD = 1.564565329 in the following 
examples. 

STEP 1: Convert the mantissa into its bi- 
nary configuration. See figure 2. 
STEP 2: Number each bit from one to 
thirty-two starting form the left- 
most bit of the MSB. 



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Circle No 89 



Figure 2 



Byte No. 
4 



Address 




Binary 
Configuration 




Decimal 
Equivalent 




4919 

Sit # 



1 


10 10 
© 3 A © 6 



7 S 


72 (MSB) 




4920 

Bil# . . . 



9 


10 
® 11 12 13 14 


1 1 


67 




4921 


1 


10 11 


1 


173 




Bit* ... . 


© 


18 @ 20 @ © 


23 @ 


4922 

Bit* 




25 


1111 
26 @ © © ® 




31 32 


60 (LSB) 





TALK OR SING— The "64" responds 

IN YOUR OWN VOICE 

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STEP 3: If a bit is set to one, then its 
number will be an exponent of 
Vi. To determine the number 
represented by the mantissa, add these 
values of Vi raised to their proper expo- 
nent. The number the mantissa repre- 
sents will range from ,5 to but not in- 
cluding 1. The lowest value the first bit 
can represent is Vi (Vi^-Vi). Since the 
lowest fraction cannot be less than Vi, 
the VIC assumes that Vi is the first bit- 
value in the fraction. This then frees the 
left-most bit to represent the sign of a 
number (1 for negative, and for 
positive). 

Example: (Refer to figure 2) 
Bit numbers 2, 5, 10, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 
22, 24, 27, 28, 29, and 30 are set to one. 
This sets up an equation of Yi ] (always 
implied) + Vi 2 + Vi s + Vi™ + 1 /2 15 + 
y 2 i6 + i/ 2 i7 + y 2 i9 + y 2 2i + y 2 22 + y 2 u 

+ \ 



+ %" + 1 /2 : 



+ V: 



30 _ 



.782282664 

STEP 4: Subtract the number 128 from 

byte three to obtain the true 

exponent. 
Example: (Refer to figure 1 ) 
129-128 = 1 (true exponent) 
The true exponent will have a base of 2. 
STEP: 5: Multiply the fraction obtained in 

step three by the number 2 raised 

to the true exponent obtained in step 4. 

Example: ^ Determined 

^^ in step 4 

.782282664 x 2'= 1.56456533 

i 
Determined 

in step 3 

The values shown in bytes three 
through seven represent the value of 
1.56456533. If you list line 6 of the 
memory dump program you will see the 
variable assignment for the above exam- 
ple. You may have noticed that in line 6, 
Variable CD equals 1 .564565329, but the 
value stored in memory is 1.56456533. 
Because floating point reals can have only 
nine places, the VIC will round off any 
number exceeding this limitation prior to 
storing it in memory. 

When you understand the above con- 
version process, try the below problem 
(Hint: The answer will be a negative 
number). 

Byte#1 651 Variable Name 

Byte#2 63j 

Byte#3 135 Exponent 

Byte#4 200 MSB 

Byte* 5 63 Mai ■-.: 

Byte#6 46 

Byte#7 73 LSB. 



126/Commander December 1 983 




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W64-EXF 


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40/80 Column Video Board 
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99 


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W-Mode 


300 Band Direct Connect Modem 
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79 


59 


W20-E 


32K Eprom Board for VIC 20. 
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29 


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W-PI 


Parallel Printer Interface 
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Stores like disk drive at '/a the cost 


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1 1K Ram Board. Fully socketed 
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69 


W20-WD 


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129 


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139 


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W20-I 


IEEE 488 Interface for VIC 20 
Allows use of powerful peripherals 


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Circle No. 63 



Commander December 1983 M27 



Announcing: 

Jpectrum 
-64 




A comprehensive FFT 
(Fast Fourier Transform) 
program package for 
the Commodore 64 ® 



• 1024 Complex Points 

• Hi -Res Display 

• Tape or Disk 

• Detailed Manual 

For free brochure 
write to: 

RED-SHIFT Software j 
P.O. Box 45488 
Seattle, WA 98145-0488 
(SSAE Appreciated) 



Intelligent Software For 
Commodore Computers 

Copycalc is on affordable electronic 
spread-sheet which turns vour video screen 
into a window on a matrix of numbers. Cur- 
sor around the matrix, enter numbers; the 
totals reflect the changes. Vou can save the 
matrix to disk or tape, or print it or your 
printer. For S20 (S1S with another program], 
this program might justify 1he cost of your 
computer. Requires 6k RAM; smaller version 
available for a standard VIC 

Word Processor Plus was not designed 
to be an expensive toy. It was designed 
solely to facilitate, correspondence, tor o 
wide range of personal and business uses, 
quickly and easily, with a minimum of train- 
ing and frustration on the part of its user, 
and at the least possible cost, both in hard- 
ware and software. The most thoroughly 
tested, useable word processor available 
at anywhere near the price, S25; 10k RAM, 
printer req'd.; RS-232C version dvallable for 
VIC and 64. 

Also available: Baseball Manager, a 
sports-documentation program; and Inven- 
tory, a perpetual inventory control program 
for a small retail business (various reports, 
multiple vendors); S30 each; 10k RAM 
req'd., printer suggested. 

All programs will load and run on ony 
Commodore computer; all support tape, 
disk, and printer. 

Prices include documentation and ship- 
ping; Calif, residents add 6%, Please 
specify hardware configuration when 
ordering. Sorry, no games available. 
Wiilam Robbfm, Boi 374S. San Rafael, CA M9« 



What is the Variable name? 
What is the Va I ue? 



To simplify the calculations of step three, 
utilize the conversion program on the fol- 
lowing page. I will provide the answers in 
next months issue; however, you can still 
check your answer by replacing the value 
of variable "CD" with your result. 



That concludes the section on floating 
point real numbers. Next issue, I will cover 
string variables and provide some input 
regarding practical uses for the memory 
dump program. If you have any ques- 
tions or comments, please send your cor- 
respondence to the address below. 
Arthur J. Dudley, COMMANDER 
MAGAZINE, P.O. Box 98827 
Tacoma, WA 98498 



MANTISSA CONVERSION PROGRAM 

5 SU=0 

10 PRINT"INPUT AMDUNT OF BITS SET TO 1" 

:PHINT"IGNORE THE 1ST BIT" 
20 INPUT BA:DIMB1(EA) 
25 PRINT"INPUT BIT NUMBERS SET TO 1" 
30 FOR J=l TO BA 
40 INPUT B! {J) 
50 NEXTJ:PRjOSIT''CAIjCIIIATTNG" 
60 FOR J=l TO BA 
70 TS=.5 

80 FOR JJ=2 TO Bl (J) 

90 TS=TS*.5 

100 NEXTJJ:SU=SU+TS 
110 NEXTJ 

115 PRINT "MANTISSA EQUALS ";SU+.5 
120 END 



INSTRUCTIONS: 

1 . Enter the amount of bits set to one 

in your mantissa (do not include the 

first bit). 

2 .Enter all bit numbers that are set to 
one (do not include the first bit). 

3 The output will equal the value 
represented by the mantissa, (will 
always be a fraction from .5 to but not 
including 1). 



Circle No 21 

128/Commander December 1983 



******************* *********** 




PCI'B COMPLETE 

PRACTICAL GUIDE 
TO THE 

COMMODORE 64 

Where the C-64's owner's man- 
ual falls down or leaves off 
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d 

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When the C-64 was first introduced, a 
highly-advertised potential feature was 
"CP/M capability" through a plug-in car- 
tridge containing a Z80 microprocessor. 
As usual, it took Commodore some time 
to bring this expansion package to the 
market, Following is a review of this new 
product by one of our knowledgeable 
consultants. 



Z-80 CP/M for C-64 



by George Gaukel 



MODEL: 
AUDIENCE: 



SUMMARY: 



SOURCE: 



FORMAT: Disk 

PRICE: S60.00 

LANGUAGE: 8080/Z80 Operating 

System 
C-64 

C-64 owners who 
wish to add CP/M 
capability. 
An excellent 
8080/Z80 tutorial 
system, 

Commodore Busi- 
ness Machines, INC. 
1200 Wilson Drive 
West Chester, PA. 
19380 

RATING: Excellent 

PERFORMANCE: Slow and reliable 

DOCUMENTATION: Fair 

WARRANTY: 90 days 

The CP/M operating system purchased 
had one master disk, a 237 page USER'S 
GUIDE and a Z80 cartridge. 

THE USER'S GUIDE 

The guide has some serious omissions, 
which makes using the CP/M assembler 
difficult. The section describing the assem- 
bler does not give a listing of acceptable 
opcodes and pseudo operators (assem- 
bler directives). Also, there is not a listing of 
the mathematical operators and their 
precedence. I will attempt to identify these 
at the end of this review. The omission of 
this technical data makes it difficult to key 
in programs from source listings or modify 
down-loaded assembler files. 

Pages 1 73 to 1 84 of the manual were 
deleted. Evidently this code was still under 
revision at press time. 

The manual makes reference to a se- 
cond disk, which was not included in my 
package. 



The manual also refers to a IEEE-488 in- 
terface which was not yet available 
(hopefully by Christmas). 

THE Z80 CARTRIDGE 

There is nothing complicated here. Just 
plug in the cartridge with the power off 
and you are ready to boot CP/M. The I/O 
slot at SDE00 is used for co-processor con- 
trol. The I/O slot at $DF00 is free for user 
use. 

The MSD CIE C64-IEEE interface is not 
compatible with the Z80 cartridge. The 
Richvale C-64-UNK, according to an East 
Coast distributer, is also not compatible. 

THE CP/M DISK 

This disk contains the CP/M operating 
system and some utility programs. As only 
one disk is supplied, the first thing to do is 
make several backup copies as outlined in 
the guide. The following items are on the 
disk: 



TRANSIENT 

MOVCPM 

PIP 
SUBMIT 

XSUB 

ED 
ASM 
DDT 
LOAD 

STAT 

SYSGEN 

DUMP 



COMMAND FILES 

Recreate the CP/M 

System 

Copy specified file(s) 

READ file and execute 

commands 

Enter data in a SUBMIT 

file 

Line oriented editor 

8080 Assembler 

Debugger 

Generate a command 

file from a hex file 

Provide file and disk 

status 

Create new system disk 

parameters 

Print the contents of a 

file in HEX 



COPY Format, backup or 

copy CP/M system 
tracks 

CONFIG Change I/O assign- 

ments, function keys or 
key codes 

OTHER FILES 

DUMP.ASM Assembler text file for the 
DUMP command 

CP/M COMMANDS 

SAVE Save memory starting at 

$0100 
ERA Erase file(s) 

DIR List disk directory 

REN Rename a disk file 

TYPE Type the contents of a 

file 
USER Setusernumber 

The disk is in DOS 2A format, which 
means disks from other CP/M systems will 
not work directly with the Commodore 
system. Users will need to purchase 
specially prepared disks with the CP/M 
languages or utilities on them or 
write/purchase their own down-loading 
utilities. The most common method for 
down-loading CP/M utilities is the use of 
an R5-232 interface. However, the RS-232 
was not implemented in my version of 
CP/M for I/O use. This means users will 
have to purchase an RS-232 utility pack- 
age or write their own driver routines 
using the 6510 co-processor and KERNAL 
routines. As an alternative, users could use 
standard DOS 2A fiies for down-loading 
and then write a CP/M utility to transfer 
the standard DOS file to a CP/M file. I ex- 
pect both methods will be implemented 
and eventually available for purchase. 

It should be noted that there are no high 
level languages supplied with the CP/M 



130/Commander December 1983 



system. These languages and associated 
applications must be purchased separate- 
ly in a compatible disk format or down- 
loaded. Some of these programs and 
languages may also require modification 
for 40-column screen compatibility. 

GENERAL COMMENTS 

The assembler provided is an 8080 
assembler. This means the full power of 
the Z80 instruction set is not available 
unless a Z80 assembler is purchased. This 
was probably done to keep the overall 
cost down. The package as a whole is an 
excellent value. 

Because the serial disks are slow, I do 
not forecast much success for business ap- 
plications, unless the IEEE-488disksare us- 
ed. For those wishing to use the system in 
the home, this package opens the door to 
a wide range of applications without the 
investment in another computer system 
For individuals wishing to learn the CP/M 
system and 8080/Z80 programming, this 
is a very cost-effective way of getting 
started. Schools and programming in- 
structors should like this package. It makes 
available, on a single machine, two of the 
most widely distributed microcomputer 
operating systems. 

Appendix B of the guide is a bibliogra- 
phy for CP/M and Z80 references. I have 
found that Alan R. Miller's 8080/Z80 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE: TECHNIQUES 
FOR IMPROVED PROGRAMMING (JOHN 
WILEY $1 0.95) a good starting reference. 
This book gives extensive cross-reference 
between the two instruction sets, I have 
coded a large portion of the system 
monitor he presents for instructional pur- 
poses, using the alternate code for CP/M 
systems. The only modifications I had to 
make were for 40 column screen format- 
ting. 

ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES 
AND MATH OPERATORS 

The following information is the best I 
have to date for filling in the technical data 
gap in the USER'S GUIDE. 

PSEUDO OPERATORS 
ORG END EQU SET 
IF ENDIF 
DB DW DS 

MATH OPERATORS AND PRECEDENCE 
* / MOD SHL SHR 
-+ NOTANDOREOR 

NOTE: Parenthesis can be used for expres- 
sion delimiters. 



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Circle No. 168 TOTAL 



Open your mind 



Personality 
ftnaty** 



""^Hypnotist 

o/o 



..-/L// 






Reveal secrets of the mind. 
Use your Commodore 64 system to 
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Price S32.95 Disk (S27.95 Cassette). 



Behavior Modification. 
Use your Commodore 64 system to 
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Get this software 
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SOFTWARE 
INTERNATIONAL 



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Telephone: 513 474-2188 



TELEPHONE LINES OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK, 24 HOURS A DAY 

Commander December 1 983/131 




USING A MACHINE - 
LANGUAGE MONITOR 

This article requires the use of a 
machine-language monitor. If you do not 
have a monitor, then you may tape in the 
program alongside the article. Called 
BASICMON, it is a monitor written in 
BASIC for the VIC-20 and Commodore 
64. If you plan to use it on an unexpand- 
ed VIC, then DO NOT type in any REM 
statements, line with colons (':') or any 
other comments (surrounded by aste- 
risks). The program will then fit into a nor- 
mal VIC with about 300 bytes left free. 

WHAT IS A MONITOR? 

First of all, we aren't talking about a 
video monitor you use in place of a TV. A 
machine-language (ML) monitor is a 

program (usually in machine language 
itself) that allows you to: 1) display and 
change bytes of memory, 2) enter and ex- 
ecute machine language programs, 3) 
load and save blocks of memory, 4) view 
the contents of the internal registers, and 
5) exit to BASIC (i.e., reactivate the BASIC 
interpreter). More sophisticated monitor 
programs may include other capabilities 
but any monitor should contain at least 
these five features. A note should be add- 
ed here; ML monitors are not the same 
as assemblers. An assembler is a pro- 
gram designed to translate assembly 
language programs into binary, machine 
language instructions. Although some 
monitors may contain single-line assem- 
bler/disassemblers, they are not true 

132/CommanderDecember1983 



xxxxxxxxxxxx 

X BASICMON X 
XXXXXXXXXXXX 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 

MA=0 : IFPEEK< 806) =202THENM0 
UIC, MA=1 FOR C64 



<C> 1983 BY 



ERIC GIGUERE 



10 
15 
20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 

FOR 
52 : 

55 I FMATHENPOKE53280 , 3 : P0KE5328 1,1: GOTO* 
5 

60 P0KE36879,27s REM CHANGE COLOURS 
62 : 

65 L0MEM=PEEK<44)X256+PEEK(43)-2: HIMEM= 
PEEKC 46) X256+PEEKC 45) + 1 

70 PRINT CHR*( 142) ;"<CLRXBLKXDWNXDWN> 
<RHTXRHTXRHTXRHT>XX BASICMON XX" 
75 PRINT "<DWNXRHTXO 1983 BY E. GIGUERE 
<BLU>" ! GOTO 400 
95 : 

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

X MAIN ROUTINE X 

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 



96 
97 
98 
99 
160 
105 
XDC 
110 

J 
111 

112 REM CHANGE MEMORY COMMAND <':') 

113 : 

115 IF ASC<Z*)058 OR LEN<IN*><8 THEN 15 

80 

120 V*=MID*<IN*,2,4) j GOSUB 2020: IF DV< 

HI MEM AND DV>LOMEM THEN 1500 

125 P=DU: FOR Z=7 TO LEN<IN*> STEP 3: U* 



PRINT" <BLK>." ; :GOSUB1000 
J=0: FOR 1=1 TO 8: IF Z*=MID*< "LMRGS 
,1,1) THEN J=I : 1=9 

NEXT: IF JO0 THEN PRINT "<BLU>";: ON 
GOTO 200 , 600 , 400 , 500 , 300 , 700 ,80 ,825 



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Circle No. 102 



assemblers because they are unable to 
handle [able names, pseudo-opcodes and 
comments. Be sure when purchasing a 
program that it is what you want: a 
monitor or an assembler. 

So what are the main uses of a 
machine-language monitor? Basically, it is 
used to examine and change bytes of 
memory, and to enter or modify small ML 
programs. (Large programs should really 
be done on an assembler as it becomes 
tedious looking upthe codes forcertain in- 
structions in reference books.) Monitors 
are also used to enter data tables for 
assembly language programs when it is 
too tedious to do so with the assembler. 
Sometimes monitors are just used to fool 
around in memory with no specific pur- 
pose, becoming an interesting learning 
tool. 

The purpose of this article is to learn 
how to usea monitor. Before going on any 
further; load and execute your monitor 
program. Users of BASICMON can simply 
load and RUN it. PET/CBM owners can 
type SYS 1024 and hit RETURN. 

MONITOR COMMANDS 

Every monitor should have at least the 
following set of one-letter commands: 
G,L,M,R,S, and X. These stand for Goto 
program, Load memory, Memory 
display/change, display Registers, Save 
memory and eXit to BASIC. Got your 
monitor loaded? Good, We're about to 
explore the first command: M. 

MEMORY CHANGE/DISPLAY 

One thing you'll notice about a monitor 
is that every line has a period at its beginn- 
ing. This is to remind you that the monitor 
is active and you are not in BASIC. Type 
your one-letter command immediately 
after this period. Most monitors will ig- 
nore spaces between the period and the 
command but if you are using BASIC- 
MON, always make sure there are no 
spaces or the commands will not be inter- 
preted properly. We are now ready to ex- 
amine memory using the M command. 
Your cursor should be flashing just to the 
right of a period. If so, type the letter "M" 
and press RETURN. 

What happened? A question mark pro- 
bably appeared, right? This is because we 
didn't give it any parameters to work 
with-we didn't tell the monitor which 
part of memory we wanted to view. It 
responded with a question mark, mean- 
ing there is an error somewhere. The pro- 
per form for the M command is some- 
thing likethis (for you beginners out there, 
the last word on the line below is simply a 
reminder to press the RETURN key): 

134/Commander December 1983 



IF MID*(IN 
X=X+1 



=MID*(IN*,Z,2> : GOSUB 2620: POKE P, DV 
138 P=P+i: NEXT: GOTO 189 

195 : 

196 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

197 X LOAD MACHINE-LANGUAGE PROGRAM X 

198 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

199 : 

288 IF LENUN*Xfl THEN 1580 
205 X=0s FOR 2=3 TO LEN<IN*): 
*,2, 1>=CHR*<34) THEN GU<X>=2: 
218 NEXT: IF X>2 THEN 1588 
215 IF QU< 1)=QU<0> + 1 THEN 1580 

220 P=512: FOR Z=QU(0>+1 TO QU(1)-1: X=A 

SC(MID*<IN*,Z,1)> : POKE P,X: P=P+ 1 

225 NEXT: POKE 183, P-512: POKE 187,0: P 

OKE 188, 2: POKE 185, 1: POKE 184, 127 

238 POKE P, 1<S9: POKE P+1,8: POKE P+2, 3 

2: POKE P+3, 213: POKE P+4, 255 

235 POKE P+5, 96:^*=MID*ON*,QU( l>+2> : G 

OSUB 2020: POKE 186, DV : POKE 157, 128 

240 PRINT "< UP> w s: SYS P: PRINT: GOTO 1 

00 

295 : 

296 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

297 X SAVE MACHINE-LANGUAGE PROGRAM X 

298 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

299 : 
30 8 



IF MID*(IN 
X=X+1 



X=A 



IF LENUN*><18 THEN 1580 
385 X=8: FOR 2=3 TO LENCINt) 
*,2, 1)=CHR*C34) THEN QU<X>=2 
318 NEXT: IF X>2 THEN 1588 
315 IF QU< D=QU(8> + 1 THEN 1508 
328 P=512: FOR 2=QUC0) + 1 TO QU<1)-1 
SC<M1D*(IN*,Z , 1>> : POKE P,X: P=P+ 1 
325 NEXT: POKE 183, P-512: POKE 187,8: P 
OKE 188, 2: POKE 185, 0: POKE 184, 127 
330 V4=MID*<IN*,QU< l>+2,2> : GOSUB 2020: 
POKE 186, DV: POKE 157, 128 
335 V*=MID*<IN*,QU< l)+5,4) : GOSUB 2828: 
DVX=DV/256: POKE 194, DVX 

340 POKE 193, DV-DUXX256: POKE P, 169: P 
OKE P+l, 193: POKE P+2, 162 
345 POKE P+4, 160: POKE P+6, 32s POKE P+ 
7, 216: POKE P+8, 255: POKE P+9, 96 
350 V*=MID*(IN*,QU< 1> + 10,4> : GOSUB 2028: 

DVX=DU/256: POKE P+3, DV-DVXX256 
355 POKE P+5, DVX: PRINT "< UP> " j : SYS P 
: PRINT: GOTO 100 

395 : 

396 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

397 X 'R' COMMAND (DISPLAY REGISTERS) X 

398 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

399 ! 

408 PRINT "<DWN> f^C 
485 FOR Z=780 TO 782: 



PRINT 



[HX*j 



XR YR" 

DV=PEEKC2) : GOSUB 
NEXT: PRINT "<DWN 



188 



2608 

>" 

418 GOTO 

495 : 

496 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

497 X 'G' COMMAND (GOTO PROGRAM) X 

498 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

499 : 

500 IF LEN<IN*)<6 THEN 1500 

585 U*=MID*UN*,3,4> : GOSUB 2020: SYS DV 



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.M 0000 00FF (RETURN) 

This will display all the bytes of memory 
starting from location to location 255. 1 
forgot to mention that all numbers in a 
monitor are entered and displayed in 
HEXADECIMAL, or base 16, If you don't 
know what that means then read my col- 
umn in the January 1983 issue of Com- 
mander or Tim Parker's article "Bits, Bytes 
and Binary" in the February issue. For now, 
though, the main thing to remember is 
that, in hexadecimal (often called hex) the 
letters Athrough F are used as single digits 
to represent the numbers 11 through 15, 
in the rest of this article, I'll follow the con- 
vention of indicating a hex number by 
starting it with a "$" (such as $B34F). 
However, the $ will not appear on your 
screen display. 

Getting back to our example, your 
screen should have filled up with an array 
of hex numbers, all neatly arranged in 
rows. These are the contents of the 
memory locations from $00 to $FF (0 to 
255), just as if you had PEEKed them. 

Because there are too many numbers to 
fool around with we'll do another M com- 
mand, this time displaying the contents of 
the first five bytes of the cassette buffer. 
Type: 

,M 033C 0340 (RETURN) 
The next line should look like this: 

,:033C 00 00 00 00 00 
The first number ($033C) is the memory 
location in hex. The second number is the 
value within that location, right now a 
zero. The third to sixth numbers are the 
value of the four locations following 
$033C. This means that the last zero on 
the line is the displayed contents of loca- 
tion $0340. A note to PET and C-64 
owners: on your machines (unless using 
BASICMON) you will get 8 numbers 
following $033C. These are the values of 
the next memory locations, meaning that 
the last number is the value in location 
$0343. Because the VIC can display only 
five values on one line, I will be using five in 
my examples, but otherwise, the monitors 
work the same. 

Notice that in typing our command, the 
first number indicated the starting loca- 
tion, and the second indicated the last 
location we wished to examine. What if 
we had typed: 

,M 033C 0341 (RETURN) 
Do it just to see. On the 30-column 
machines you shouldn't see any dif- 
ference, but if you use the VIC you will see: 

,:033C 00 00 00 00 00 
,:0341 00 00 00 00 00 

136/Commander December 1 983 



510 
595 
596 
597 

598 
599 
600 
605 



GOTO 100 

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 
X 'M' COMMAND (DISPLAY MEMORY) X 
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX 



$l§ 



IF LEN(IN*X8 THEN 1500 
V*=MID*(IN*,3,4) : GOSUB 2020s SM=DU : 
V*=MID*(IN*,8,4) ! GOSUB 2020; EM=DY 
610 PRINT: FOR Z=SM TO EM STEP 5: DU=Z s 



GOSUB 2080: 

615 FOR Y=Z 

00: PRINT " 

620 GET A*: 

: GOTO 108 

625 NEXT: PRINT 

695 : 

696 

69? 

698 

699 

700 

795 

796 

797 

798 

799 

800 

805 

818 



PRINT ' 
TO Z + 4i 
" ; HX* : : 
IF A*=' 



. : " 5 HX* ; 
DV=PEEK(Y) 



GOSUB 28 



NEXT Yi 
" THEN 



PRINT 
Z=EM+ 1 i 



PRINT 



GOTO 106 



XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 
X 'X' COMMAND (END) X 
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

END 

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

X DISK ROUTINES X 
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

IF LEN(IN*)<3 THEN 1580 
IF MID*(IN*,3,1)="E" THEN 815 
OPEN 15,8,15: PRINTttl5, MID*(IN*,3) 
15: GOTO 188 



15,8,15: INPUT«15, E,E*,T,S: CL 



U <DWNXRED> U sE:"<LFT> 
B ;S: PRINT: GOTO 100 



:E*i 



CLOSE 
PRINT 



15: OPEN 1,8 



CLOSE 

811 : 

812 REM INPUT FROM ERROR CHANNEL 
B13 : 
815 OPEN 
OSE 15 

820 PRINT 
;T;"<LFT> 

821 : 

822 REM CATALOG ROUTINE 

823 : 
825 
,0 , ' 
836 
835 
846 
845 
858 
855 
866 
865 
878 
875 
886 
885 
995 
996 
997 
998 
999 : 

1060 IN*= U " : PRINT' <LFT>" ; 

1802 P=PEEK(289)+PEEK(210)X256+POS<6) : CH 

=PEEK(P) :RC=128:TT=0 

1884 POKEP,CH+RC:TT=TT+l : I FTT> 10THENTT=0 
:RC=128-RC:GOTO1084 

1885 GETX*:IFX*= UU THEN1004 



OPEN 15,8, 15," I" : 
"*0" : NU*=CHR*(8) : 
GETttl,A*,B* 
GET«1,A*,B* 
IF A*="" THEN 885 
GETH1,A*,B* 

PRINT ASC(A*+NU*)+ASC(B*+NU*)X256i 
GETtU,A* 

IF A*="" THEN PRINT: GOTO 835 
PRINT A*; 

GET A*: IF A*=' 1 " THEN 885 
WAIT 197, 64 
GOTO 855 
PRINT: CLOSE 1: GOTO 100 

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 
X GENERAL INPUT ROUTINE X 
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 



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Kongo Kong (C) $18 

Trek(C) $12 



BATTERIES INCLUDED 

Delphis Oracle(D| 114 

Paper ClipfD] ,. 89 

COMM-DATA 
(New Versions; 

Supercuda{C/D) 18 

Pegassus Odyssey(C/P| 18 

Escape MCP(C/D) 18 

Toddler Tutor(C/D[ 18 

Prim. Math Tulor(C/D) . IB 

Math Tutor(C/D) IB 

English lnvaders(C/D) . IB 

DATA 20 

Pro Word Ptoc.(C) 21 

General LedgerfC] . 21 

Accounts Rec.(C) 21 

Elec. Spreedsheet(C) .. 21 



EN-TECH 

Studio 64(D) 
Sprite Fgn(C) 



28 B 



INFO-DESIGNS 

G/L (D) 61 

A/P (D) 61 

A/R (D) 61 

NUFEKOP 

Exlerminator(C) 20 

3-D Man|C) 16 

RAINBOW 

Pers. Finance Assist (D) 41 

PSYCOM SOFTWARE 
Personality Analyzer(D) 24 



SIERRA ON-LINE 

Crossfire(O) 20 

SOUTHERN SOLUTIONS 

Bill Payer) A/P) 68 

Business Man(G/L) 
Paymaster(Payroll) 
Collector(A/R) 
Widget(lnventory) 



EPYX 

sword Fargoal(C/D) 20 

Crush Crumble(D) 20 

Upper Reaches APS(D) 14 

HES 

Syntne Sound 64(R) 34 

64Forth(R] 40 

Time/Money Mgr ID) .. 48 



T&F SOFTWARE 

Word Search(C) 15 

Sport Search(C) 15 

Arcade Search(C) 15 

TIMEWOHKS 

Programming Kit 1(D) . 18 

Programming Kit 2(D) . 18 

Programming Kit 3 (D) . 18 



SPECIALS 

Gemini 10X Printer $289 

Gemini 15X Printer $379 

Gorilla Banana Printer $199 

COSMIC 



Printers/Etc. COMPUTERS 



GEMINI 10X 
GORILLA 



$289 
$199 



PROWRITER . $345 
SMITH TPI ... $488 



C 




UNLIMITED 



CITOH 

Prowriler $345 

Prowrilerll $629 

Starwrlter $1149 

Prlntmaster $1448 

NEC 

8023 A-C $409 

3510 $1375 

3530 $1579 

3550 $1779 

7710/7730 $1998 



. . $669 
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SILVER REED P 
QUME 11/40 f 
OKI- DATA 

M)crollne82A $398 

Mlcrollne83A $638 

MlcrollneB4P $958 

Mlcrollne92 $468 

Mlcrollne93 $858 

DIABLO 

620R $939 

630R $1719 



MONITORS 



AMDEK 

Color I $289 

V3O0 $139 

V300A $149 

Color II $449 



NEC 

GRNUB1260) $115 

GRNIJB1201) $155 

ColorComposite . . . $298 
RGB Color $598 



MODEMS 



HAYES 

Smartmodem $209 

Smartmodem 1200 .. $498 
Mlcromodem II $259 



NOVATION 

J-Cat $99 

AppleCatll $259 

D-Cat $149 



y CBM 64 CALL 

1541 DISK DRIVE ... $239 



1701 Color Monitor . , S255 

1525 Printer S239 

1520 Color Ptr S169 

Card 7 (Ink) $80 

Light Pen S29 

Cassette Infc $29 

Card ? Software $16 



1530 Recorder $59 

1600 Modem $59 

1650 Auto Modem . . $158 

CMB 64 Ret Guide $18 

The Connection (Infc) . . $85 

MS0 Disk Drive $339 

PTI 45 Lot Board $59 



Script 64 $77 

Calc Result Prof S114 

Calc Result Easy S68 

The Home Accountant S4S 

Delphis Oracle S1 14 

Ward Pro 3 with Spell $78 



64 



SOFTWARE 



64 



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ACCESS SOFTWARE 

Neutral Zone (C/D) ... $26 
Sprite Master (C/D) ... $27 

AVALON HILL 

Nukewar(C) $12 

Planet Miners (C) $12 

And rom. Conquest (C) $14 
Midway Campaign fcj $12 
North AIL Convoy (C) . $12 
Comp. Stcks/Bnds (C) $15 
Computer Football (C) S1B 

Telengard (C) $16 

BATTERIES INCLUDED 

Paper Clip (D) $B9 

D.Base $114 

BRODERBUND 

Choplifter(R) S29 

Serpentine (R) $27 

Seafox (R) $27 

David's Midnight (D) .. $23 

COMMODORE 

Easy File (D) $75 

Easy Finance (D) $38 

Easy Mail (D) $38 

Easy Script (D) $75 

Easy Schedule (D) ...$59 

Logo (R) $75 

Pilot (D) $75 

Assembler (D) $38 

Music Machine (D) ... $25 
Music Composer (D) .. $25 

Meza Music (D) $75 

Video/Music Supt. (D| $38 
Jupiter Lander(R) .... $25 
Radar Rat Raoe(R) ... $25 

Sea Wolf (R) $25 

Kickman(R) $25 

COMM-DATA 

Pakaeuda . (C)$14(D)$1B 
Escp.MCP . (C)$14(D)$18 
Centropods (C)$14(D)$18 

COMPUTERMAT 

Arcacfe-Pak (C) $18 

Educalion-Pak (C) .... $18 

CREATIVE SOFTWARE 

Moondust(R) $25 

Trashman (R) $25 

Save New York (R| , . . $25 

Astroblltz(R) $25 

Household Fin. (D) ... $25 

DATA 20 

Video Pak 80 $139 

Z80 Video Pak $229 

EN-TECH 

Finance Calc 64 $34 

Data Bass 64 $56 

Invoice Ease 64 $56 

EPYX 

Temple of APS (D) ... $27 
Upper Reach. APS (D) $14 
Jumpman(D) $27 

HES 

HES Modem $59 

6502 Prof.Dev.Sys.(C) . $22 

Hesmon64(R) $27 

Turtle Graplcstl(R) . . $41 

Haswriter64(R) $32 

GrldrunnBr(R) $27 

Retroball(R) $27 

INFOCOM 

ZorkUlorllllD) $27 

Deadline |D) $35 

Starcross (D) $27 

JIN SAM 

Mlni-Jlnl(R) $75 

LITTLE WIZARD 
Pro.Mall.Llsl (C)$22(D)$25 
Stockmaster 

(Inventory) (C}$25 (D>$28 
LOGISTIC 

Datacalc64 IC)$5S(D)$59 
Home Journal (D) ....$55 



MICROSPEC 

Payroll System (D) ... $73 
Inventory Pkg (D) ... $73 
General Ledger(D) ... $73 

Disk Data Mgr(D) $62 

Mail List Mgr(D) $41 

Checkbook Mgr(D) ... $39 
M-SOFT 

MFile(D| $89 

ON-LINE 

Frogger(D) $23 

Jawbreaker (O) $20 

PACIFIC COAST SOFT. 
PCS (80 Co I B D, Word Proc. 
D. Base, Spreadsheet) CALL 
Account PACCC/D) ... $34 

FilePAC(D) $30 

Editor PAC(D) $39 

Inquire PAC(D) $57 

Happy Tutor Typng(D) $18 
PROFESS. SOFTWARE 
Wordpro 3 + /64(D) ... $68 
QUICK BROWN FOX 
Prof.Word Proc.(R) ... $50 
RAINBOW 

Writers Assistant .... $95 
Spreadsheet Assist, .. $95 

File Assistant $95 

SIRIUS 
Blade'Blackpoodle(D) $27 

Type Attack (D) $27 

Repton(D) $27 

Critical Mass i D] $27 

Snake Byte (D) $23 

Way Out (D) $27 

Fast Eddie (D) $23 

Turmoil (D) $23 

Spider City (D) $27 

Squish'Em(D) S23 

Final Orbit <D| $27 

Alpha Shield (D) $27 

SKYLES ELEC. WORKS 

Busicalc(OD) $52 

BusiwrtterjDI $72 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper Troops 1 (D) . $29 

Facemaker(D) $23 

Klndercomp(D) $20 

Hey Diddle (D) $20 

Most Amaz. Thing (D) . $27 

SYNAPSE 

Fort Apocalypse (C/D) $23 

Survivor (C/D) $23 

Drelbs(CfD) $23 

Pharoh's Curse (C/D) .$23 

Protector II (D) $23 

Morgal(D) S23 

Shamus (D) $23 

TAYLORMADE 
Touch Typing Tutor 

3.0(D) $21 

TIMEWORKS 

Rbbrs/Lost Tomb (C/D) $21 

Wall Street (C/D) $21 

Money Manager (C/D) $21 
DataMaster(C)D) .... $21 
Dungeons of Alg. 

Dragons (C/D) $2f 

TOTL 

Tent 2.6 . .. (C)$32(D)$34 
Label2,6 . . (C]$15(0)$17 
TimeManager2.6(C] .$24 
Time Manager 2.6(D) .$27 
Resrch Assist. 2.0(C) . $24 
Resrch Assist. 2.0(D) . $27 
UMI 

Motor Mania (C) $20 

Renaissance (C) $27 

VICTORY 

AnnlhllatOf.(C/DI $16 

Kongo Kong (C/D) $16 

Trek (C/D) $14 

Adv. Pack #1 (C/D) ...$16 
Adv. Pack #2 (C/D) ,..*« 
Grave Robbers (C/D) . . $13 
Chomper Man (C/D) ,. $18 



Circle No. 49 



Notice the difference? When displaying 
memory, you will always see a full line of 
bytes. Even if you typed 

.M 033C 033D 
you would still see five (or eight) bytes 
displayed. Each new line also has a new 
starting number to show where in 
memory you are at the moment. Thethird 
zero following $0341 shows the value in 
location $0343. It's easier than counting 
from the original number. 

Now that we can display memory, how 
about changing it? On most monitors this 
is very simple: just move the cursor up and 
across to the byte or bytes you want to 
change, type in the new value, and press 
RETURN when finished with a line. The 
new values will automatically be changed 
for you. If you're not using BASICMON, try 
to change the byte at $033C to read $FF. 
The BASICMON monitor doesn't have 
the capability to move the cursor around 
and change things, mainly because this 
would be too complicated and long for 
BASIC. Instead, I opted for another way, 
which will also work on any other monitor. 
Type a colon (":"), the four-digit hex loca- 
tion you want to change, a space, and 
then the new value in two digits. You may 
also change the bytes followed by typing 
in the values for these, all separated by 
spaces. Example: 

,:033C 01 02 03 (RETURN) 
This would place the bytes $01 , $02 a nd 
$03 in locations $033C, $033D, and 
$033E, respectively (you don't need to 
have five numbers following the location 
number). To prove what I just said, display 
the memory from $033C to $033E. It 
should look like this: 

.:033C 01 02 03 00 00 
All very neat and simple. You now 
know how to display and change bytes in 
memory, so give yourself a pat on the 
back. Now we can explore another com- 
mand. But first, type in the following: 

.:033CA9FF 00 (RETURN) 
What you just entered was a small 
machine language program that we'll use 
in later examples. In case you're wonder- 
ing what it says, it decodes as 

LDA #$FF 

BRK 
It will load the accumulator with $FF 
and exit (BReak) back to the monitor. If this 
makes no sense to you, then find a begin- 
ning book on 6502 assembly language or 
read my series in earlier issues of COM- 
MANDER. BASICMON users should 
make the following change: 

.:033E 60 (RETURN) 
138/Commander December 1983 



$36 



1007 X=LEN(IN*) 

1008 IFX*=CHR*(2S>ANDX>0THENIN*= 



LEFT* (IN 



*,X-1> :POKEP,CH:PRINT"<LFT> <LFT>" ; :GOTO 

1002 

10 10 IFX*=CHR*( 13>ANDX>0THENPOKEP,CH:PRI 
NT : Z*=LEFT* ( I N* , 1 > : RETURN 
10 12 IFASC(X*X32ORASC<X*)>90THEN1004 
1015 IN*=IN*+X*:POKEP,CH:PRINTX*; : I FX*=C 
HR*<34>THENPOKE212,0 
1020 PRINT" <LFT>" ;: GOTO 1002 
1497 : 
1498 
1499 
1500 
1995 
1996 
1997 
1998 
1999 
2000 
2005 
20 10 



REM ERROR MESSAGE 

PRINT "< UPXRHT>?": GOTO 100 

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 
X CONVERSION ROUTINES X 
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 



IF DU<256 THEN M=2 



HX*= H " : M=4i 

DV=DV/4096 

FOR 1=1 TO 4: NX=DU: HX*=HX*+CHR*< 4 
8+NX-<N>0 9>X7) i DV=16X<DU-NX> : NEXT 
2015 HX*=RIGHT*<HX*,M> : RETURN 
20 16 : 
20 17 
20 18 
2020 
(U*> : 
2025 


2030 
2999 
3000 
300 1 



REM HEX TO DEC. 

DV=0:X=0:FOR 1=1 TO LEN<V*> : NX=ASC 

NX=N'/-48+(NX>64)X7; V*=MI D*(V* , 2) 
DV=DVX16+N"/:: NEXT: IF DV<0 THEN 150 

RETURN 

XXXXX END OF PROGRAM XXXXX 



This will change the BRK at the end to 
an RTS, which is needed since we are 
working from BASIC. When using a 
monitor written in machine language, you 
must end your programs with a BRK, but 
from BASIC, you end them with an RTS. 

REGISTER DISPLAY 

The next command is the R, or register 
display command. It shows you the cur- 
rent status of the 6502's internal registers: 
the accumulator (AC), X-register (XR) and 
Y-register (YR), with their current values 
displayed underneath the abbreviations. 
More sophisticated monitors will also 
show other things, such as the PC counter 
(Program counter), SP (Stack pointer) and 



IRQ (interrupt request address) but they 
aren't really important. Typing R in BASIC- 
MON will give you something like this: 

AC XR YR 

2F E8 78 
Don't concern yourself if the numbers are 
different. As long as you get something 
then the command works properly. If you 
are using a monitor other than BASIC- 
MON you can probably cursor up to the 
display and change any of the numbers, 
just like in the M command. Be sure to 
know what you are doing first. 

GOTO PROGRAM 

The third command is G, for Goto Pro- 
gram. This executes a machine language 



V 



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TORO DIGITAL SYSTEMS, Suite 233, 15127 N.E. 24th C-3. Redmond, WA 98052 



VIC 20 is a Irade mark ol Commodore Business Machines 
Circle No. 121 



Commander December 1983/139 



program starting at the address following 
the command. Example: 

.G 033C (RETURN) 
Upon hitting RETURN the computer will 
execute (like RUN in BASIC) the machine 
language program at memory location 
$033C. As long as there is a program at 
that location you shouldn't have any pro- 
blems. Don't just execute from anywhere 
you want, because that could freeze up 
the computer. If you know what you are 
doing then you are safe. 

Before going on to the next command 
type in the above example. The cursor 
should reappear almost immediately on 
the line below. What has happened? We 
have executed the three-byte program we 
store at $033C-$033E. To show that it 
really did work, type the R command 
again. The accumulator should have 
changed to $FF(225). If it didn't then you 
probably did something wrong. Check 
over the program using the M command 
and try again. 

Our fourth command is used to save a 
block of memory to disk or tape. It has the 
format: 

.S "PROGRAM",0,033C,033F 

The '0:' before PROGRAM specifies drive 
#0 (in case you use a double disk drive) and 
the device number was changed to 08. 
This will save the block of memory from 
$033C to $033F onto device #1 
(cassette) under the name PROGRAM. 
For disk (device #8) you would use the 
format 

.S "0:PROGRAM", 08,033C,033F 
When typing in these commands make 
sure your spacing is correct, with commas 



separating the numbers. Otherwise, there 
could be an error. 

When specifying what parts of memory 
you want saved, you should always add 
one to the end add ress. That is, if you want 
to save up to $097D you should enterthe 
value 097E. This means that in our exam- 
ple above the memory from $033C to 
$033Ewill be saved, not the memory from 
$0C to $033C to $033F. Save our little 
program to disk or tape using one of the 
commands above. Then type the follow- 
ing: 

.:033C 00 00 FF (RETURN) 
This will erase our program from memory. 
We are now ready to load it back in. 

Our fifth command is used to load what 
we saved back into memory. It has the for- 
mat 

1 "PROGRAM",01 
What will load the program called PRO- 
GRAM from cassette. Disk users can type 

1 "0:PROGRAM",08 
for the same reasons as before (drive 0, 
device 8). Always make sure the device 
number is in two digits. To prove that it 
works, display the memory from $033C to 
S033E. Then load PROGRAM using one of 
the above. Now display the same bytes 
again. Voila! The original bytes should 
now be back. We have proved that both 
the S and L routines worked. 

The last command, X, is a simple one. 
Simply type: 

.X (RETURN) 
and you will be returned to BASIC with the 
familiar 'READY' message. At this time it is 
usually helpful to type the CLR command 



to make sure all the pointers for BASIC are 
in good shape, as you might have chang- 
ed them while in monitor. 

ADDITIONAL COMMANDS 

This is intended only for BASICMON 
users with disk drives. I've included two 
additional commands: C and D. C gives 
you a directory or Catalog of all the pro- 
gram on the disk. Simply type C and Press 
RETURN. Pressing a key will pause the 
listing until the key is released. Hitting the 
space bar will abort the command 
altogether. The D command is used to 
send commands to the disk drive and to 
read the error channel. Type D, a space, 
and then the command (without quotes). 
Example: to scratch a program, type: 

.D S:PROGRAM (RETURN) 
To read the error channel, you would type: 

,D E (RETURN) 
The current error status will be displayed. 

CONCLUSION 

You should now know the basics of us- 
ing a monitor. It's always practical to 
know how to use this handy tool, even if 
you only use it once in awhile. If you have 
any problems or questions you can write 
me in care of COMMANDER: 

P.O. Box 98827 

Tacoma,WA 98498 

P,S. To all BASICMON Users: By using 
BASICMON you can examine the 
memory where the BASIC Program is 
held, but you cannot change it. I made 
sure of this so that you don't ruin the 
monitor program, as I have sometime 
done. 



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The Organizer solves the clutter problem and creates 
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140/ Commander December 1983 



^ B,Rr *<w 



HAPPY BIRTHDAY! By some 

*reat coincidence 
warack Software and 
Couander Magazine both 
began operations in 
December, 1982 . So . . . 

Happy Birthday to us! 

To begin our second 
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is announcing PILOT II. 
PILOT II builds on the 
already strong version 
of Pilot - Vanilla 
Pilot. While we're only 
the second biggest 
company marketing a 
version of Pilot for the 
Commodore-64, we try 
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Our documentati 
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PILOT II takes advan- 
tage of virtually all 
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GradeCalc is another 
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program. It handles most 
any teacher's gradebook 
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and attendance. 

Vanilla Pilot is still 
the second best Pilot 
interpreter available 
for the '64. It is the 
ONLY one available for 
the VIC-20, CBM and PET 
computers. 




Tamarack Software 

Darby, MT. 59829 



Circle No. 42 



Commander December 1983/141 



Continued from page 80 
wasPOKEd into the frequency registerto 
vary the output. With the current exam- 
ple, however, the effect is achieved en- 
tirely within the SID chip, requiring no 
assistance from the central processor. 

Prove this to yourself by replacing line 
60 with: 

60 STOP 

Now when you run the program, even 
though execution stops, the beating 
sound continues. 

ENVELOPE GENERATOR 

The SID register at location 54300 con- 
tains the analog output of the envelope 
generatorforvoice 3. This function is what 
defines the volume of each individual note 
as it is played, by means of its attack, 
decay, sustain, and release (ADSR). While 
this concept may seem a little nebulous at 
first, let's consider some examples. The at- 
tack governs how much time a note takes 
to build initially to its peak: 

-when a guitar is plucked or a piano 
key struck, the note is created very sud- 
denly (low attack time). 

-when a vioiin bow is gently drawn, 
the note builds slowly (high attack time). 

Similarly, the decay value governs how 
much time is needed to drop from the ini- 
tial peak to the sustain level. 

The sustain and release levels govern 
the volume at which a note holds steady, 
and the length of time it takes to drop 
from that level. A very resonant instru- 
ment like the violin will have a high sus- 
tain level, plus it will take a long time to 
eventually drop from that volume (high 
release level). The piano would have a 
fairly high sustain volume; if you then 
hold the key down, the note will continue 
to sound a long time (high release time). 
If the key is not held, then the note will be 
immediately damped (low release time). 

The envelope generator represents 
these characteristics of a note by a series 
of analog numbers varying from to 
255, which can then be read. This sam- 
ple program simply reads those values, 
then POKEs them into the frequency 
register of voice 1. This serves no useful 
purpose, other than to help you under- 
stand the function of this portion of the 
SID chip. Add these lines to the frame- 
work program: 

50 POKE W1 + 1,187:POKE W1 + 2,140: 
POKEW1.33 

60 POKE W3,0:POKE W3.33 
70 FOR I = 1TO150:POKEW1-3, 

PEEK(PE)/3 + 10:NEXT 
80POKEW1,32:POKEW3,32 
90 FOR I = 1 TO 300:POKE W1-3, 

PEEK(PE)/3-t-10:NEXT 

142/Commander December 1983 



Line 5© gives voice 1 the same ADSR 
values as we gave voice 3 back in line 30. 

Line 60 instructs the envelope gener- 
ator for voice 3 to start its cycle. 

Line 70 turns off bit of both voices, 
which instructs the envelope generator to 
commence the release phase of its cycle. 

Run the program: the rising and falling 
pitch you hear, remember, represents the 
analog value of voice 3's ADSR. A more 
useful application of this concept would 
be to apply it to the filter frequency. We 
will cover this one next time. 

WAVEFORM OUTPUT 

The register at location 54299 is very 
similar, but provides an analog output of 
thewaveform of voice3. For example, ifa 
triangular wave is selected, the value will 
rise in a straight line from to 255, then 
drop evenly back down again. For a saw- 
tooth wave, the value rises in a similar 
fashion to 255, then jumps back to zero 
instantly. The frequency with which this 
happens governs the pitch of the note; 
for a typical note, the value rises from to 
255 and back to 0, a couple hundred 
times per second. 

For the white noise generator, PEEK 
(54299) yields a random number. This is 
one of the uses of this feature, as a quick, 
if imperfect, random number generator. 
A second application is what I promised 
you earlier-sirens!! 

Here are four examples, all essentially 
the same, but using the four different 
waveforms: 

Triangular waveform example: 

50 POKE W1+1,224:POKEWU 2,253 

60 POKE W3^,15:POKE W1,33 

70POKEW3J7 

80 FOR I = 1 TO 1500: POKE W1 -3, 
PEEK(PW)/10 + 25:NEXT:POKE 
W1,32 

90 FOR I = 1 TO 1500:POKE W1-3, 
PEEK(PW)/1Q + 25:NEXT 

Line 50 sets very high ADSR times into 
voice 1, to simulate an emergency vehicle 
gradually approaching and (hopefully) 
passing by. 

Line 60 sets a very low frequency into 
voice 3; this governs the rise and fall of 
our siren's pitch. The second command 
turns on voice 1. 

Line 70 selects the triangular wave for 
the waveform generator. 

Line 80 reads the wave generator, and 
POKEs its output into voice 1 "s frequency 
register. It then releases voice 1. 

Line 90 continues reading the wave- 
form as the siren fades away. 



Sawtooth waveform example: 

Simply changing the value 17 in line 70 
to a 33 will give a 'sawtooth siren'. 

Pulse wave example: 

This is a little more complex, since we 
must set the pulse width as well. Add this: 

70 POKE W3-1,8:POKE W3.65 

This produces the 'bee-boop' siren that 
originated in Europe. 

I will leave it to the adventurous experi- 
menter to add the doppler effect to these 
sirens. Hint-it only requires two very 
small changes to line 90. 

White noise example: 

As I mentioned before, selecting white 
noise produces a randomly varying num- 
ber at register 54299. As a result, this 
doesn't give a siren at all, but an inter- 
esting bubbling noise. Just make these 
changes: 

50: 

60POKEW3-3,15:POKEW1,17 

70POKEW3,129 

80 FOR I = 1 to 300:POKE 54273, 
PEEK(54299)/7 + 3:NEXT 

90: 

Line 60 sets upthe frequency of voice 3 
somewhat faster than before. 

Line 70 selects white noise. 

Line 80 does all the hard work, just like 
before. 

TELSTAR 

And yes, I know it's getting late, but I 
can't resist just one more example. 
Change the '17 in line 60 to a '19' (that 
selects synchronization). Change line 80 
to read: 

80 FOR I = 1 TO 300:POKE 54273, 
PEEK(54299):NEXT 

Run the program, and if you can figure 
out what that sound represents, please 
let me know. We'll have a contest-best 
name wins a free pair of earmuffs. 

Well, since you've stayed with me this 
far, I hope you've discovered some inter- 
esting new methods for getting the most 
out of SID, your 64's fascinating sound 
chip. I haven't tried to cover all possible 
variations of these techniques, for that 
would be impossible in even a substantial 
book. Perhaps these aren't the best ex- 
amples of the potential sounds at your 
fingertips— that would depend on your 
own personal preferences. What I have 
tried to do is outline the possibilities and 
why they work. The rest of it is u p to you !! I 

Next time, we'll look at the filters, and 
how to make the most of them. 

oo ooo oooo o ooo o ooooooo 



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connector slots for full memory expansion and utility cartridges; 
Gold-plated contact fingers for solid, long-lasting connection; An 
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without turning off the computer; Four individual slot ON-OFF 
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Commodore 64 and VIC-20 are trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 



CircieNo. 104 



Commander December 1983/143 



(£ fl*="CREV3 

1 POKE53230, 6 : P0KE53281 > 15 : PRINT" C CLEAR 
]CRED]"A$:A:*:fi$"** SOUNDS GOOD ** "fl$fl$fl$ 

2 PR I NT "33 COPYRIGHT IRN ADAM J 
UNE 1983 [DOWN] 

3 PRINT" [RED3NOTE:53 THE ARTICLE RCCO 
MPRNVINO THIS" 

4 PRINT" PROGRAM PROMPTS THE RERDER TO 
MODIFV THE SOUND-CREATING PROGRAM 14 

HILE HE 

5 PRINT" READS, TO DEMONSTRATE A SERIE 

5 OF": PR I NT" EFFECTS. 

6 PRINT" FOR VOUR BENEFIT, THESE EFFEC 
TS HRVE":PRINT" BEEN COMBINED INTO ONE 

PROGRAM. 

7 PRINT" YOU MAY SELECT: C DOWN]" : PRINT" 
1-3 FREQUENCY SWEEPS" : PR I NT "4, 5 RIN 
G MODULATION 

8 PRINT"6j7 SYNCHRONIZATION": PRINT" 8 

RING MOD + SWEEP" :PRINT"9 BERTI 
NG 

9 PRINT"10 ENVELOPE GENERATOR" : PRINT 
"11-13 FIRENS": PRINT" 14 BUBBLING": PR 
INT" 15 TELSTRRCHOME] 

18 SI=54272:Wl=SI+4:W3=SIfl8:V=SI+24.'PW 
=SI+27:PE=SI+28 

29 FQRI=SITOPE:POKEI,0:NEXT 

30 POKEW1+1 , 17 : P0KEW1+2, 251 : P0KEW3+1 , 18 
7:P0KEW3+2, 140 
40 P0KEV,143:p0KEW3,17 

50 P0KE214, 22 = PRINT : P0KE21 1 , 27 : INPUT"DE 
MO # CLEFT] CLEFT3 CLEFT] CLEFT] ";D 
60 DNDGQSUB150,250,350,450,550,650,750, 
850,950.1050,1150, 1250,1350,1450, 1550 
70 
80 
90 

100 

118 

147 

14S 

149 

150 

160 

178 

247 

248 

249 

250 

260 

270 

288 

290 

T 

300 

347 

348 

349 

358 

368 

370 



P0KEV,8 
G0TO28 



POKEW1,0:PQKEW3,8 



#1 SWEEP 

P0KEW1,17 

FORI=38TO200STEP3: 

RETURN 



POKES I +1,1: NEXT 



#2 WHISTLE 

PGKEW1,17 

FORI=30TO200STEP3 : POKES I +1 , I : NEXT 

POKEW1,0:FORI=1TO150:HEXT:POKEW1,17 

FOR I =38T0 1 28STEP3 : POKES I + 1 , I : NEXT 

FORI=120TO20STEP-1 . 5 : POKESI+1 , I : NEX 



LISTING 1 

447 

44Q 

449 

450 

468 

478 

488 

490 

547 

543 

549 

558 

568 

570 

580 

598 

647 

643 

649 

650 

668 

670 

688 

698 

780 

747 

748 

749 

750 

760 

770 

XT 

780 

790 

800 

847 
843 
849 
858 
868 
878 
888 
898 
988 
947 
943 
949 
950 



RETURN 



#3 ROCKET 



P0KEW1+2,253:P0KEW1,129 
FORI=0TO98 : POKESI , : POKESI+1 , I 
FQRJ=1T0254-ISTEPI/20R1 : POKESI , 

XTJ, I 

388 POKEW 1 , 1 23 : FOR I = 1 TO5008 : NEXT 

398 RETURN 



J:NE 



#4 RING MODULRTION - GONG 

POKEWl+2,122 

POKEW 1-3,30: PQKEW3-3 , 23 

F0RI=1T08: POKEW 1,21 

FORJ= 1TO200 : NEXT : POKEW 1 , 20 

FORJ=1TO1500 : NEXT : NEXT = RETURN 

: #5 RING MODULRTION - CHIME 

POKEWl+2,122 

POKEW 1-3, 58 : P0KEW3-3, 56 

F0RI=1T06:P0KEW1,21 

FOR J= 1 TO200 = NEXT : POKEW 1 , 20 

FORJ=1TO1080 : NEXT : NEXT : RETURN 

#6 SYNCHRONIZATION 

POKEWl-3,31 :POKEWl, 19 
F0RI=1T08 : P0KEW3-3, 4+1 
FOR J= 1 T0388 : NEXT : NEXT 
RETURN 



#7 SYNCHRONIZATION + WAVER 



POKEWl-3,31: 

F0RI=1T015 

:FORJ=8TO10: 

NEXT 
RETURN 



POKEWl,19 

P0KEW3-3, 28+ABSCJ-5) =NE 



#8 RING MOD RND SWEEP 

POKEWl-3,31: POKEW 1,21 
FORI=1T0175STEP. 1 
P0KEW3-3, I: NEXT 
RETURN 



#9 BEATING 



P0KEW1-3, 13 : P0KEW3-3, 12 : P0KEW3-4, 22 
5:POKEWl,21 

968 FORI =1TO3000: NEXT: POKEW 1,20 
970 FOR 1=1 TO 1500: HEXT : RETURN 
980 : 
998 : 
1047 
1048 
1049 

1050 POKEW1+1 , 187 : P0KEW1+2, 140 : POKEW1 , 3 
3 

1060 

1870 

:NEXT 

1 030 POKEW 1 , 32 : P0KEW3 , 32 

1890 FORI=1TO380 : P0KEW1-3, PEEK<PEV3+18 

= NEXT 



#10 ENVELOPE GENERATOR 



POKEW3,0:ROKEW3,33 
FORI=lTO150:POKEWl-3,PEEKCPE>/3+18 



Continued on page 146 



144/Commander December 1983 




/ECf 



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Continued from page 144 



1100 RETURN 

1147 : 

1148 : #11 SIREN #1 

1149 : 

1150 POKEU 1+1, 224= POKEW 1+2 ,253 
1160 P0KEU3-4,15:P0KEW1,33 
1170 PQKEW3,1? 

1180 FORI=lTO500:PGKEWl-3,PEEK<PW)/10+2 

5 : NEXT : POKE U 1,32 

1190 FORI=1TO500 = POKE W 1-3 > PEEK CPW) /10+2 

5= NEXT 

1200 RETURN 

1247 

1243 

1249 

1250 P0KE141+l,224:POKEUl+2,253 

1260 P0KEW3-4,15:P0KEW1,33 

1270 P0KEW3,33 

1230 FORI=lTO500;POKEWl-3 J PEEK<PW>/10+2 

5 : NEXT : POKE U 1,32 

1290 FOR I = 1 TO500 : POKEW 1-3 , PEEK <PW ) /l 0+2 

5 : NEXT 

1300 RETURN 

1347 : 

1348 : #13 SIREN #3 

1349 : 



#12 SIREN #2 



1358 PGKEWl+l,224:P0KEWl+2,253 

1360 P0KEU3-4, 15= POKEW 1,33 

1370 P0KEW3,65:P0KEU3-1,8 

1380 FQRI=lTO500:PGKEWl-3,PEEKCPW>/10+2 

5: NEXT: POKEW 1,32 

1390 FOR I * 1 TO500 : POKEW 1 -3 , PEEK < P W ) / 1 0+2 

5 : NEXT 

1400 RETURN 

1447 : 

1448 = #14 BUBBLING 

1449 : 

1450 P0KEW3-3,I5:P0KEW1,17 
1460 P0KEW3, 129 

1 470 FOR I = 1 TO300 s POKE54273 , PEEK (54299 ) / 

7+3 : NEXT 

1480 RETURN 

1490 

1547 

1548 

1549 



#15 SATELLITE 



1560 PGKEW3-3,15:PQKEW1,19 

1570 P0KEW3, 129 

1530 FORI=1TO300 : P0KE54273, PEEKC54299) 

NEXT 

1590 RETURN 



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peripherals 

Powered by your VIC-20 (175 ma typ) 

Plugs directly into VIC expansion slot, or 

motherboard 

Complete, assembled, and tested 

90 day "No questions asked" money back 

return 

5 year manufacturer's warranty 

SI 09.95 I 

TEMPOS f 

Oepl. C101. 830 Brown Thrush 

Wichita. KS 67212 S 

Handling charges, add S3 00 
Personal checks lake 3 weeks Id clear Oetore we 
ship 

We carry Ihe enure XETEC line lor VIC 20 and C64 
Write lor literature 

MaslerCarrJ & Visa - Send card number & expiration 
date 
VIC-20 & Commodore 64 are Commodore trademarks 



Commander December 1983yi47 



NEW DEALERS 



Maine 

The Program Store 
Harvard Square 
13 DunsterSt. 
Cambridge, MA 02138 

New Jersey 

The Program Store 
Route 35 &WyckottRd 
Monmouth Mall 
Eatontown, NJ 07724 

New York 

Usercom 

35 W. 35th St. 

New York, NY 10001 

(212)736-1018 

Pennsylvania 

Computronix 
2021 NobleSt. 
Pittsburg, PA 15218 
(412)271-2330 
Frank Harris 

The Program Store 
Westmoreland Mall 
Route 30 East 
Greensburg, PA 15601 

The Program Store 
500 Germantown Pike 
Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462 

Washington DC 

The Program Store 
Tenley Mall 

4200 Wisconsin Ave. NW 
Washington DC 20016 

Maryland 

The Program Store 
White Flint Mall 
11301 Rockville Pike 
Kensington, MD 20895 

The Program Store 
W. Belle Plaza 
6634 Security Blvd. 
Baltimore, MD 21207 

Virginia 

The Program Store 
Seven Comers Center 
6201 Arlington Blvd. 
Falls Church, VA 22044 

Florida 

Anderson News 
18185. Monroe St, 
Tallahassee, FL 32301 
George Pirrie 

Adventure Internationa! 
722 Commerce Circle 
Longwood, FL 32750 

Wongco Merchandising 
7848 NW 44th 5t. 
Sunrise, FL 33321 
(305)7484611 
Wong Choy 



Alabama 

Anderson News 
PO 219 Helton Dr. 
Florence, AL 3 5633 
(205) 766-3789 

Tennessee 

Anderson News 
1 220 McCallin Ave. 
Chattanooga, TN 37404 
(615)629-0011 

Anderson News 
10612 Dutchtown 
Knoxville.TN 37922 
(615)966-7575 

Ohio 

The Program Store 
Olentangy Plaza 
B29 Bethel Rd. 
Columbus, OH 43214 

Software City 

1959 E. Dublin Granville Rd. 

Columbus, OH 43229 

Computer Potentials 

3897 Everhard NW 

Canton, OH 44709 

(216)45*8355 

Indiana 

The Ham Shack 

808 N. Main 

Evansville, IN 47711 

(812)422-0231 

Dan L Mitchell 

Michigan 

Professional Computer Systems 
2603 5. Cleveland Ave. 
St Joseph, Ml 49805 
(616)429-9616 
Ken Baldwin 

Illinois 

Northshore District 
411 N.WolfRd. 
Wheeling, IL 60090 
(312)507-6900 
Jerry Favia 

Missouri 

Gateway Elect. Inc. of MO. 
81323-25 Page Blvd. 
St. Louis, MO 63130 
(314)427-6116 
L Elkins 

Kansas 

Blains Bookworm 

303 N, Main 

El Dorado, KS 67042 

(316)321-5660 

Mike Blain 

Arkansas 

Anderson News 
6301 Forbing Rd. 
Little Rock, AR 7221 9 
(501)562-7360 
George Pirrie 



Arizona 

MHZ Sect Inc. 

2111 West Camelback Rd. 

Phoenix, AZ 8501 5 

(602) 242-8916 

Richard Finkelstein 

Computer Superstore 
4001 E. Thomas Rd. 
Phoenix, AZ 85018 
(602)957-6810 
Richard Sarhan 

Anderson News 
3669 E. Lasalle St, 
Phoenix, AZ 85040 
(602)243-5178 

Anderson News 
1847 W, Grant 
Tuscon, AZ 85705 
(602) 622-2831 

California 

Compurents Inc. 
9301 Airport Dr. 
Visila.CA 93277 
(209)651-2111 
Mrs, Gambini 

Alpha Computer 
1035 W.Lancaster 
Lancaster, CA 93534 
(805) 942-2626 
Priscilla Wlcox 

Computer Games & Programs 
711 w. Shaw Ave. MM 
Ctovis, CA 93612 
(209)297-7778 

Hawaii 

Video Center of Hawaii 
2810 Paa St, Suite 2 
Honolulu, Hawaii 96819 
(808) 836-5050 
Johnnie L. Wolverton 

Oregon 

Execuline Company 
1 8670 S. Pacific Hwy. 
West Lyn, OR 97608 
Jeff Andrews 

Washington 

Computer Hack Shack 
506 N. 188th St. 
Seattle, WA 98133 
(206) 542-3555 
Pam Dymond-Weed 

Canada 

Messageries De Presse 
Benjamin Enr 
0160 Jean Milot 
La Salle, Quebec 
Canada, HSR 1X7 
(514)364-1780 

MGI Computer Corp. 
1501 Curling Ave. 
Ottowa, Canada K1Z7M1 
Christopher Fellows 



148/Commander December 1983 



VIDEO INSTRUCTION TAPES! 




PICTURES ARE WORTH 

THOUSANDS OF WORDS AND SAVE 

HOUR OF FRUSTRATION 

Programming BASIC V.I.S. tape includes: 

Shows basic language programming, using commands such 

as IF, READ, DATA LET, GOTO, INPUT, etc. Instruction 

proceeds to intermediate level with commands such as LEN, 

MIDS, LEFTS, RIGHTS, CHR, etc. 

Also demonstrates advanced logical and mathematical 

functions. Includes example programs. 



STEP BY STEP 
INSTRUCTIONS 

USE YOUR VCR SIDE BY SIDE WITH YOUR 
COMPUTER TO LEARN HOW TO PROGRAM 
IN BASIC AND HOWTOUSETHE 1541 DISK 
DRIVE. WHY SPEND DAYS WITH A MANUAL 
WHEN YOU CAN LEARN MORE IN A FEW 
HOURS WITH YOUR VCR. REVIEW AND 
LEARN AT YOUR OWN PACE. 



CAT* 



TOPIC 



APPROX RUN TIME 



BP-3 
BP-4 
DIO-1 
DIO-2 



LEARNING C-64 BASIC 
LEARNING VIC-20 BASIC 
COMMODORE 64 DISK I/O 
VIC 20 DISK I/O 



2 HR 
2 HR 

1 HR45 MIN 
1 HR45 MIN 

Disk I/O Tapes include RANDOM, RELATIVE, SEQUENTIAL 
disk read and write. Also explains load, save, new, copy, scratch, 
initialize, validate, error channel, command channel, and rename 
in both the standard and wedge syntax. Explains the verify, 
open print #, input #, get #, status BAM commands. Lesson 
includes several programs and a large checkbook program. 



VHS or BETA FORMAT only $49.95 



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Orders taken 9:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m. Central Time Add $3.00 per order for shipping and handling 



LYNN COMPUTER SERVICE 

6831 West 157th Street Tinley Park, Illinois 60477 
(312)429-1915 

WC-20 AND COMMODORE S4 ABE TRADEMARKS OF COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES. INC. 



f «h did hk 


[master charge] 


BankAmericard 


V/SA 


"^■*^^^j 





Circle NO- 70 




TITLE: 


RUNWAY 20^ 


FORMAT: 


Cassette or Disk ^B 


PRICE: 


$25.00 shipping and ; 




handling included 


LANGUAGE: 


Basic 


MODEL: 


VIC-20with16K 


AUDIENCE: 


Pilots and would-be fly- 




ing aces 


SUMMARY: 


Simulates in game form 




flight of small aircraft 


SOURCE: 


Susie Software 




709 Wilshire Drive 




Mount 




Prospect, IL 60056 


RATING: 


Good 



Performance: 

I grew up as an air force dependent, 
always near an airport and fascinated by 
flying machines of all shapes and sizes. 
One of my big disappointments as a 
youngster was that due to a depth 
perception problem, I would never be 
able to fly commercially or be an 
astronaut. I was searching for a flight 
simulator for my Dad's VIC. After retiring 
from the air force, he taught aerospace 
science and is truly impressed with all the 
things his VIC can do. Runway 20 seemed 
to be the perfect birthday present for 
him. Delivery time on the program was a 
bit long, but no longer than many mail 
order houses. The cassette I ordered load- 
ed without difficulty, and even on a black 
and white monitor the graphics are truly 
impressive! It takes a few "flights" to get 
oriented to the cockpit. The instruments 
are there, though: a compass that scrolls 

150/Commander Decern ber19S3 



and flashes yellow when you are on 
course, an altimeter, fuel gauge, DME 
(estimated distance from the landing 
field), flaps, landing gear, air speed, ar- 
tificial horizon, elapsed time clock, and a 
"view out the window"! When I saw it in 
color ! was very impressed. 

Keep in mind that 
Runway 20 is marketed 
as a game, not a flight 
simulator, In this respect it 
keeps "score", awarding and 
taking away points depending 
whether you are on course, fly- 
ing at the recommended altitude 
and so on. The program even 
throws in some "turbulence" usually 
just about the time you think you have 
everything under control. Changes to the 
flying parameters may be input from 
eitherthekeybord or a joystick. Even if you 
use a joystick, certain fuctions still must be 
controlled from the keyboard. 

My only complaint is the speed with 
which the controls react. Forget the 
joystick-it takes forever. Keyboard inputs 
are recognized somewhat slowly, no 
doubt due to the use entirely of BASIC 
and all the things on the screen that must 
be kept updated. After about 10 
miserable attempts at flight, I finally got 
the feel for how much to "lead" my in- 
puts in order to accomplish the desired 
result. After that, the game became a lot 
of fun! 



If you successfully land the plane at one 
of the six randomly selected fields, your 
total score is calculated and you receive a 
critique of your flight. 

All in all, I would heartily recommend 
this program for its entertainment value. I 
do not recommend it to use for flight 
training-it's just too slow. A similar pro- 
gram, Runway 64, is available for the 
C-64. 

Documentation: 

A single instruction sheet is included. It 
is fairly comprehensive, but could use 
some graphics to familiarize you with 
where to find things when you first run 
the program. 



Jeff and Marilyn Mitchell 
"designed" their new program 
themselves. Code Writer wrote 
all the computer code. The 
Mitchells' dream is thriving on 
fulfilling other people's wishes. 
Their new home business needs 
eWriftr^k verv special information fast: 
mmmmumi^mSfu Which fantasies are still open? 
What's our next completion date? Can we get a list of 
all fantasies needing out of state travel? 
They got it all — with no computer hassle. 
And you can too, 'with CodeWriter. No 
programming. No. 'computerese'. At home or at the 
office, you create your own programs to handle any 
information you want— at your fingertips; Payables, 
receivables, inventory, credit cards, tax details, club 
or church records — always organized your way. 
You work with CodeWriter in plain English. 
Simply 'draw' any screen layout, add any calculations 
you'd like done — or help messages you need — and 
you're done. CodeWriter writes all the BASIC code. 

"This is our first business, 4 
our first computer, 
and our first program — 
and we really did it 
ourselves!" 



In minutes you've got YOUR OWN PROGRAM on 

YOUR OWN DISK. You don't need CodeWriter again 

until you want a new program. 

m You can begin with Home 

FileWriter™ and expand to 
more complete business systems 
with full report and menu 
design features. 

You can get CodeWriter for 
the Commodore 64®, Atari®, 
Apple®, IBM PC®, Commodore 
Business Machine®, Victor 

9000®, and Kay Pro II®, computers. Prices range 

from $69 to $249. 

You think this much power can't come this easy? 
There are thousands of CodeWriter systems in use all 
over the world— 80% are first 
time computer owners. 
CodeWriter writes solutions the 
first time you try! 



PiieWriter 



"-=•*. 



"Si 



^"'*L 










CodeWriter 



p^A Dynatech Company 7847 N. Caldwell Ave. Niles, III. 60648 

TW Dynatech Microsoftware Inc. Toil-Free 1-800-621-4109 (in 111. 312-470-0700) 



AVAILABLE AT 



iVideoConcepts 



Your Home Entertainment Stare 
Circle No. 153 



® ISO STORES NATIONWIDE 



GAME CONTEST 




The contest will end March 15, 1984. Entries must be mailed to 
COMMANDER, Your Program in Pilot Contest, PO Box 98827, 
Tacoma, WA 98498. Your program must be on diskette or cassette, 
and include a copy of your sales receipt or invoice. All entries will 
become property of Tamarack Software, Inc., and will be nonreturn- 
able unless accompanied by a self-addressed mailer with sufficient 
postage attached. 

DEADLINE FOR ENTRIES 
MARCH 15, 1984 

VANILLA PILOT or PILOT II may be purchased from any 
one of Tamarack Software's fine dealers. 



A new twist to the Game Contest. The 
time has come for you to try your hand at 
programming. Who can write the best 
program in VANILLA PILOT or the new 
PILOT II? 

Stop! Don't try pressing the panic but- 
ton—we hid it! Anyway, it's easy! People 
from kindergarten to grandpas are al- 
ready using VANILLA PILOT and loving it. 
Now with our advanced Pilot, you get a 



TERMS FOR GAME CONTEST — 

double scoop— an easy to use Pilot lan- 
guage using virtually all the capabilities of 
the Commodore- 64 and an expanded 
manual to help you learn. 

OK, got your thinking cap on? Here's 
the rules, You can write any kind of pro- 
gram that your mind can dream up. 
Make it innovative— we will be looking 
for the best idea and how well you pro- 
grammed that idea. Anyone can enter, 



except employees of Tamarack Soft- 
ware, Inc., and their families. The grand 
prize of $150 will go to the best overall 
program. There are two first prizes of $75 
and two second prizes of $50 to be 
awarded to two groups, one— Jr. High 
and younger, and two— High School and 
up. 



The COMMODORE- USERS' Monthly Journal 




» 



>*&? 







COMMAND THE UNIVERSE 



COMMODORE COMPUTERS 

• Articles written by leading experts in their field. 

• In depth and unbiased analysis of the latest in educational 
software. 

• Fascinating glimpses into the wonders of computer future. 

• Objective comparisons of Commodore Computers. 

• New products previews of the latest and best equipment on 
the market. 



TO SUBSCRIBE 

CALL TOLL-FREE 

1-800-426-1830 

except WA, HI, AK 

Call Direct (206) 584-6757 



COMMODORE C-64 And Vic-20 Are Trademarks Of COMMODORE Business Machines, Inc. 



NEW HEADQUARTERS 

Computer Center Inc. is proud to an- 
nounce the grand opening of their new 
corporate headquarters located at 253 
West 35th Street in New York City. 

The eight thousand square foot facility 
will include a full service-training division 
featuring a total support staff. Computer 
Center's new 3,000 square foot ware- 
house will accommodate this new phase 
in their rapid growth. 

Computer Center's new facility will act 
as the control center for the ongoing ex- 
pansion of their retail store chain, allow- 
ing for the addition of three new retail 
locations by 1984. 

If you have any questions please call 
Mr. Michael Dubno at (212) 563-7280. 

COMMODORE 

CONTINUES REALIGNMENT 1 
OF SALES ORGANIZATION 

West Chester, PA-Commodore 
Business Machines, Inc. announced to- 
day the latest activities in the real ig nment 
of its field sales organization. These steps 
continue a process initiated in March to 
bring its sales support structure more in 
line with its expanded distribution base. 

The Commodore Field sales force is be- 
ing grouped into five (5) separate activities 
to provide better, and more direct support 
to Commodore's key customer segments: 

1 . Education 

2. Professional Dealers 

3. Distributors 

4. Direct Retailers 

5. National Accounts 

Field support centers in Philadelphia, 
Chicago, Dallas and Los Angeles will con- 

154/Commander December 1983 



tinue to provide regional service, ad- 
ministrative and technical support. Cus- 
tomer support activities at these loca- 
tions will be strengthened. 

These changes have been made to 
reflect the changing marketplace and en- 
sure that Commodore builds on the 
distribution channels that have made 
Commodore the #1 computer supplier in 
both the USA and the world. 

Jack Tramiel, Vice Chairman, Com- 
modore International, Ltd. said, "Our 
new organizational structure will better 
equip us to meet the challenges that will 
unquestionably face the industry. Our 
1983 fiscal year has been enormously 
successful. Commodore is committed to 
remain number one in both hardware 
and software sales in the coming year. 
We will accomplish this only by getting 
closer to our distribution." 

TAX COMMAND PREPARES 
INDIVIDUAL TAX RETURNS! 

Brookfield, Wis.,— TAX COMMAND, a 
Federal Income Tax calculation program, 
is now in its second year of publication. It 
provides a line by line method of 
calculating income tax for federal tax 
forms, including form 1040, income 
averaging. Schedule A-itemized deduc- 
tions (including medical), capital gains 
and losses and contains all tax tables for 
every filing status. On computers with 
over 48K, Tax Command includes 
numerous other schedules as well. 

Tax Command is easy to use. It does all 
mathematical calculations automatically, 
contains built-in tax tables that calculate 
your tax refund or payment, and tells 
when to income average. While the pro- 



gram does not print on the actual form, 
in most versions it does print (or list if you 
do not have a printer) each entry needed 
on your tax form. 

Since this is its second year of distribu- 
tion, all known "bugs" on Tax Command 
have been eliminated, and the program 
has been extensively tested and mar- 
keted. Users of last year's program liked 
the control it gave them over the tax 
preparation process, especially the ability 
to make changes and test options. 

Suggested retail is $24.95. Tax Com- 
mand has been developed for the Com- 
modore 64 and the VIC-20. Tax Com- 
mand is available for dealer and distri- 
butor sales and also for individual sales. 
Contact: Practical Programs, 17850 
Wessex Drive, Brookfileld, Wl 53005. 
(414) 278-0829. 

PERSONAL COMPUTER SHOW 
DEMONSTRATES SPREAD- 
SHEETS WITH PRACTICALC 

Computer Software Associates presi- 
dent Sandow (Sandy) Ruby was the re- 
cent featured guest on the Personal 
Computer Show, a cable TV-syndicated 
program devoted to the world of com- 
puters. Ruby, author of the PractiCalc 
series, demonstrated how a spreadsheet 
operates, illustrating his talk with CSA's 
program, PractiCalc 64. He was joined on 
the show by Robert Shapiro, executive 
vice president of Micro Software Interna- 
tional, the firm that distributes and 
markets CSA products worldwide. 

John Edson, co-host of The Personal 
Computer Show, explained, "Most of 
our viewers already have, or are planning 
to purchase home computers in the near 



future. A large number of them own 
Commodores and want to know about 
the kinds of programs that are available 
to them, particularly in the home, 
business and educational areas. We were 
very excited to have Sandy on the show 
to demonstrate his PractiCalc program, 
giving our audience a chance to see how 
a spreadsheet operates, the kinds of 
calculations it can do, and sortie of its 
practical applications." 

The PractiCalc segment was aired via 
the Satellite Program Network (SPN) 
cable network between July 26 and 
August 3, and was shown to over 
900,000 viewers. Ruby returns to the 
show for two more engagements: one 
later in August, where Ruby will 
demonstrate CSA's tutorial VID PAK #7, 
and a third segment scheduled for the 
Fall, where he will show the ins and outs 
of PS: The Programmable Spreadsheet. 

Ruby is very excited about his three ap- 
pearances on The Personal Computer 
Show, commenting, 'They give us an op- 
portunity to show large numbers of peo- 
ple how a spreadsheet works. The VID 
PAK #7 portion is aimed at novice com- 
puterists who are just learning about their 
machines and want to know how to run 
their micros. The PS segment will again 
bring the spreadsheet to the fore. This 
time, it will show the unique aspects of PS, 
with its modular subroutines that are pro- 
grammable in BASIC, a feature that is not 
available on any other spreadsheet." 

The Personal Computer Show is taped 
in San Antonio and appears throughout 
forty-two states, Puerto Rico and Guam. 

VIC-20 HITS, PIPES AND 
ASTROBLITZ, TRANSLATED 
FOR THE COMMODORE 64 

Sunnyvale, CA-Astroblitz, a popular 
space "shoot-'em-up" game, and Pipes, 
an award winning educational program, 
have been released for the Commodore 



apt. - ***** 



NAL 
PUTEf? 



SHOW 



bBm 







PractiCalc puts a byte on TV 

Robert Shapiro, Executive Vice President of Micro Software International, left, and 
Sandy Ruby, President of Computer Software Associates, center, join co-host 
John Edson on The Personal Computer Show. Ruby, author of PractiCalc, 
demonstrated the functions of a spreadsheet. He's slotted for two return 
engagements, showing off VIC PAK # I and PS: The Programmable Spreadsheet. 



Pipes is an educational program that 
plays like a game while teaching the con- 
cepts of spatial relationships and eco- 
nomics. The object of Pipes is to connect 
all the houses in town to the main water 
supply, A joystick is used to direct "Arlo 
the Plumber" from the factory, where he 
carefully selects the right pipe, to the 
work-site where he attaches it. Arlo can 
select elbow-joints, T-joints and valves, 
each with differing dollar values and in- 
ventory limitations, to create a cost-effec- 
tive and efficient water network. If the 
pipes are not connected and sealed pro- 
perly, there will be leaks and the game 
will end. 

Astroblitz features the playerasthe last 
surviving pilot of an interplanetary patrol 
squadron. In orderto save planet Nahad, 



he must maneuver his rocketship around 
alien fire and fallout from volcanoes 
while destroying spinners, saucers, 
seekers and radar dishes. When the 
player has destroyed all the space ene- 
mies, he must move on to save other pla- 
nets with even more aliens to destroy. 

Astroblitz and Pipes are available for 
the Commodore 64 in cartridge format a 
suggested retail price of $34.95. 

Creative Software is the largest inde- 
pendent publisher of VIC-20 software in 
the United States. The company is dedi- 
cated to offering a full lineof software for 
entry-level computers. Headquarters are 
located at 230 East Caribbean Drive, Sun- 
nyvale, CA 94089. 




Commander December 1 983 /155 




CIMARRON 

INTRODUCES MAJOR LINE 
OF SOFTWARE FOR THE C-64 

SANTA ANA, CA-The INSTA series soft- 
ware line of productivity software for the 
Commodore 64 personal computer was 
announced by Cimarron Corporation, a 
three-year-old manufacturer of vertical 
market application packages for the 
Commodore line of business computers. 

The INSTA series consists of nine initial 
packages targeted for the first time com- 
puter user in the home, the office and 
places in between. 

The packages are INSTA-WRJTER, a 
cartridge-based word processor which 
features "instant on" operation and a 
greatly simplified approach to generating 
computer documents. 

INSTA-MAIL is a mail list program 
featuring mail merge, alpha sorting and 
label printing. 

INSTA-CALC, a low cost financial 
spreadsheet program features a 
mnemonic command structure, a self- 
instructing tutorial, instant HELP 
5CREEN5 and graphing capability. 

Home investors will appreciate INSTA- 
VE5TOR, a stock management program 
which tracks BUYS and SELLS, calculates 
moving stock price averages and com- 
putes earnings. 

For data base management tasks such 

156/Commander December 1 983 




INSTA 
INSTA 
INSTA 
INSTA 
INSTA 




as filing, sorting, merging, and modifying 
user defined fields, INSTA-FILE is very 
useful. And, through a software "link" to 
INSTA-WRITER, a complete REPORT 
WRITING facility is available, 

INSTA-SCHED is a cartridge-based, 
machine code module that allows the 
user to manage appointments via a mon- 
thly calendar system. 

INSTA-CHECK, through a series of sim- 
ple but complete ledger codes, helps 
create an error free environment for 
assisting in control of personal finances. 

INSTA-GRAPH works as a stand-alone 
graphing module or interacts with INSTA- 
CALC or INSTA-VESTOR to plot bar charts 
(historgrams) or line graphs. 

INSTA-SPEED, a BASIC compiler, in- 
creases the speed of a BASIC program by 
up to 55 times and reduces normal pro- 
gram size by 20% to 50%. 

INSTA series software prices range from 
$34.95 to $99.95. Point of purchase 
displays, collateral material and ad reprints 
are also offered. circle no. 250 

For more information contact Head- 
quarters at 2158 South Hathaway Street, 
Santa Ana, CA 92705, (714) 662-2801. 

BRODERBUND RELEASES 
"DAVID'S MIDNIGHT MAGIC" 
FOR THE COMMODORE 64 

SAN RAFAEL, CA . . . Broderbund's first 
of several programs anticipated for the 
Commodore 64 is available now. 

An award winning pinball game 
already well-known to Apple and Atari 
computer users, DAVID'S MIDNIGHT 
MAGIC is sure to bring out the pinball 
wizard in Commodore 64 owners as 
well. 

Anyone who has never challenged a 
real pinball machine (and those who 
have) will experience the next best thing 
in this fast action computer game that 
simulates dual flipper controls, bumper 
action, rollovers, multiple ball play, and all 
the sounds and lights of a classic arcade 
pinball unit. You can even "put English 
on the ball" and jostle the machine-but 
overdo it and you'll ring up a tilt! Color 
and graphics are the same outstanding 
quality expected from Broderbund! 

DAVID'S MIDNIGHT MAGIC by David 
Snider (conversion by Martin Kahn) is 
available on disk for the Commodore 64 
at a suggested retail price of $34.95. 

For more information on this and other 
Broderbund products, please contact 
Lois Levin, Director Public Relations, 
Frank Barth, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New 
York, NY 101 10 (212) 398-0820. 

Circle No. 251 



WORD GAME FOR THE C-64! 

CRYPTOWORD™ 64 is a word game 
for one to four players. The play consists 
of forming words using letters randomly 
generated by the computer. Game op- 
tions allow the players to select the 
number of letters used during play, the 
winning score, whether spelling errors 
can be corrected, and the time limit each 
player will have to form a word. The 
game options selected can be reviewed 
and changed or corrected before play 
begins. Words are accepted or rejected 
by the next player in the order of play. 
Each player can pass the alphabet 
generated by the computer if a word can- 
not be formed. 

Immediately available for the Com- 
modore 64. Requires a set of game pad- 
dles for each two players. 

Price: $14.95 on tape, $19.95 on disk. 

For further information contact Puzzle 
King, Ltd., P.O. Box 1337, Cupertino, CA 
98015, Phone (408) 733-0739 drd.N0.2u 

WORD GAME FOR THE VIC-20 

CRYPTOWORD™ THREE is a word 
game for one or two players. The play 
consists of forming words using letters 
randomly generated by the computer. 
The players select the number of letters 
used in the game and the winning score 
from menus. Spelling errors can be cor- 
rected before a word is completed. The 
time allowed for each player to form a 
word can be limited. The game options 
selected can be reviewed and changed or 
corrected before play begins. Each player 
accepts or rejects the words formed by 
the opposing player. Players can pass the 
alphabet generated by the computer if a 
word cannot be formed. 

Immediately available for the VIC-20. 
Requires an 8K memory expander and 
game paddles. 

Price: $14.95 on tape, $19.95 on disk. 

For further information contact Puzzle 
King, Ltd., P.O. Box 1337, Cupertino, CA 
95015, Phone (408} 733-0739 cirdi no. 253 

"HOW TO MAKE 
GOOD INVESTMENTS" 

The objective is to teach you the fun- 
damentals of stock market and real 
estate investment analysis. 

This is the first course in a series of 
courses on investment and financial 
analysis developed by experienced pro- 
fessionals from the top business schools. 
The courses are designed to cover the 
same material as is covered in the best 
business schools with some practical 



street techniques, The investment techni- 
ques in this initial course were selected 
for their ease of use and understanding. 
This is an ideal course for the beginner or 
occasional investor. 

Programs and examples using those 
programs are provided as learning aids 
and subsequent investment tools. 

COURSE I: "How To Make Good In- 
vestments" comes complete with text 
and programs on cassette for $39.95. 

Send $39.95 check (allow 3 weeks) or 
money order to: circle no. 254 

COURSE I 
THE WIZARDS 
P.O. Box 7118 
The Woodlands, Texas 77387 

NEW BOOK 

FOR SOFTWARE MARKETING 

How to Effectively Market Your Com- 
puter Software, by Celestial Software: 
$19.95. This is a sourcebook for those 
marketing and/or developing software. 
Subjects covered include copyright pro- 
cedures, license agreements, software 
distributors, information on over 150 
computer magazines and publications, 
software directories, cassette and disk 
duplication, software author's markets, 
and more. Available from Celestial Soft- 
ware, 3010 Warrington Ave., Lakeland, 
FL 33803. For more information contact 
Lee Woas at the above address.circieN0.255 

NEW PERIODICAL 
TO AID PHYSICIAN 
COMPUTER USERS 

ATLANTA, GA-A new medical 
newsletter, Physician Computer Monthly, 
provides information to the growing 
number of doctors who use micro and 
minicomputers in their practices. 

This 12-page, independent periodical 
covers computer applications for practice 
management, patient care, continuing 
medical education, and communica- 
tions. Written in non-technical language, 
Physician Computer Monthly em- 
phasizes practical uses of computers by 
physicians. 

One year subscription is $95. A sample 
issue will be provided free to physicians 
upon receipt of letterhead request; non- 
physician samples, $2.00 each. Write 
Physician Computer Monthly, 67 
Peachtree Park Dr., Atlanta, GA 30309. 

Physician Computer Monthly joins 
eleven other newsletters published by 
American Health Consultants, aten-year- 
old medical communications firm. 

For more information contact Scott 
Wilson, (404)351-4523. circle no. 256 

Com mander December 1 983 M57 



NEW LOW COST 
INTERACTIVE COMMODORE 
COMPUTER/VIDEO INTERFACE 

The VIDEOBOOK CORPORATION of 
Seattle announces a new COMPUTER/ 
VCR INTERACTIVE INTERFACE and 
AUTHORING SYSTEM for the Com- 
modore 64 and the VIC-20 computers 
and home videocassette recorders. The 
new interactive interface, called the PRO- 
METHEUS 1 ™, will connect the VIC-20 or 
the Commodore 64 computers to any of 
the older Panasonic 5000 series 
videocassette machines or to the newer 
Panasonic 6500 or 8500 standard VCRs. 
The PROMETHEUS 1™ will also connect 
various models of Magnavox, Canon, 
and Hitachi VCRs to the computers. A 
retrofit mod kit for solenoid VCRs that do 
not have the required input plug will be 
available before Christmas, 1983. The in- 
terface costs $49.95 by direct mail. 

This new module clears the way for 
mass development of the long an- 
ticipated VIDEOTAPE INTERACTIVE 
COURSEWARE MARKET. 

The PROMETHEUS 2™ Interface will 
connect your Commodore or VIC to the 
Pioneer 1100 Laser Disk machine. The 
PROMETHEUS 3™ connects the Com- 
modore or VIC to the RCA CED Interac- 
tive Disk machine. These interfaces will 
sell for $199.00. 




All of these units use the same Comp- 
U-Tutor™ Authoring System for com- 
plete computer /video interactivity. 

Videobook intends to provide a com- 
plete system of computer and video com- 
ponents, paving the way toward the 
twenty billion dollar computer/video in- 
teractive coursewares market predicted 
by Dun and Bradstreet three years ago. 



For more information, free literature, 
or the Videobook 1983 Computer/Video 
Interactive Educational Coursewares and 
Entertainment Catalog (for $14.95 + 
$2.00 shipping}, send your inquiry to 
Videobook Corporation, P.O. Box 19597, 
Seattle, WA 98109, or call (206) 

282-3636. Circle No. 257 



CASINO ROULETTE 

A casino style roulette game for the 
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 is available 
from Powerline Software. 

The game uses sound, color and 
graphics, produces a roulette board 
display and places chips as bets are plac- 
ed. Options selected when the game is 
started allow for European or American 
style play and for changing casino 
payoffs on winning bets. Up to 5 people 
may play at once and the game keeps a 
running tally for all players and the 
casino. Special prompts make placing 
bets through the keyboard quick and 
easy. Each player may wager up to 60 dif- 
ferent bets. 

A cassette tape version is available for 
the VIC-20 with an extra 8K, and both 
cassette and floppy disk versions for the 
Commodore 64. 

Each version is available for $19.95 
which includes shipping in the U.S. and a 
complete user's manual, circle no. zss 
Powerline Software 
P.O. Box 635 
New Hartford, New York 13413 

158/Commander December 1983 



PUZZLES FOR VIC-20 

CRYPTOLOGIC™ ONE: CENTER LOGIC 
is a puzzle for one person. Successful 
solution of the puzzle requires the 
removal of "balls" from a square playing 
"board" with notched corners until a 
single "ball" remains in the center of the 
board. Five different playing "boards" are 
generated at random to provide addi- 
tional challenge. The player can choose 
to play against the clock for even more 
challenge. 

CRYPTOLOGIC™ ONE: PYRAMID 
LOGIC is a puzzle for one person. 
Successful solution of the puzzle requires 
the removal of "balls" from a pyramid 
playing "board" until a single "ball" re- 
mains in one corner of the "board". 

Three different playing "boards" are 
generated at random to provide addi- 
tional challenge. The player can choose 
to play against the clock for an even 
greater challenge. 

Immediately available for the VIC-20. 
Requires an 8K memory expander and 

joystick. Circle No. 259 

Price: $14.95 on tape, $19.95 on disk. 



SIRIUS RELEASES 
TYPE ATTACK FOR 
COMMODORE 64 

Sacramento, CA-Type Attack, the top- 
selling typing game from Sirius Software, 
Inc., is now available on disk for the Com- 
modore 64 personal computer. 

Developed by a game designer and a 
professional educator, Type Attack 
teaches typing skills in a fast-action 
arcade-style game. Groups of words and 
letters falling from the top of the playing 
field must be stopped by typing the same 
words or letters on the computer key- 
board. 

Type Attack includes 39 pre-program- 
med lessons designed to follow a stan- 
dard typing course format, in such a way 
that the player automatically learns typ- 
ing conventions and concepts while play- 
ing the game. Also featured are a Lesson 
Creator, with which the player can design 
lessons to help with specific typing or 
vocabulary problems, and a real-time 
words-per-minute bar with settings from 
1 to 99. 

Suggested retail price is $39.95. Type 



Attack is also available on cartridge for 
the VIC-20. 

Sirius Software, Inc., develops, 
manufactures and markets entertain- 
ment software. The company, founded 
in 1980, currently has over 70 games on 
the market, circle no. 260 

THE BANNER MACHINE 

The Banner Machine, by Celia Durand, 
is a menu driven program that operates 
like a word processor, making it very easy 
to use. Prints signs in minutes, very useful 
in retail businesses, medical offices, 
schools or any organization with a need 
for large, eye catching signs. Prints greet- 
ings for celebrations in the home, signs 
for student elections and creates profes- 
sional looking reports for school. 

The Banner Machine ma kessigns up to 
10" tall by any length. Borders are vari- 
able, up to W wide. Eight sizes of letters 
are available from %" to 6V2" high. In- 
cluded areproportional spacing, auto- 
matic centering and right and left justifi- 
cation. Two modes of print, standard and 
compressed. A laminated template for 
the function keys is included. Several 
additional fonts are available. Use with 
any of the following printers: Epson MX 
with Graftrax, the FX or the RX; Gemini 
10 or 10X. The Prowriter, Commodore 
1525E and the Okidata with Okigraph 
versions available in September 1983. 8 
bit printer interfaces are required. The 
BannerMachine is available for the Com- 
modore 64 and the VIC-20. 

The VIC-20 version requires 24K 
memory expansion. 

Price: $49.94 circle no. 261 

THE BANNER MACHINE II 

Exactly like the Banner Machine 
described above except it prints the sign 
in reverse. The background is black and 
the letters are the color of the paper used 
to print the sign. This is especially attrac- 
tive using colored paper! 

Price: $49.95 

Mail Orders; Virginia Micro Systems, 
13646 Jeff Davis Hwy., Woodbridge, VA 

22191 Circle No, 262 

Phone Orders: (703) 491-6502 Hours: 
1 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday thru Saturday. 

SUBLOGIC ANNOUNCES 
AVAILABILITY OF NIGHT 
MISSION PINBALL FOR THE 
COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER 

Night Mission Pinball from SubLOGIC 
is now available for the Commodore 64 
computer. Written by Bruce Artwick, 



author of Flight Simulator, the program 
recreates the look and feel of a real pin- 
ball table down to the finest detail. The 
playfield has five bumpers, seven stand- 
up targets, nine rollovers, two spinners, 
and much more. One to four players may 
compete at a time. 




The game's theme is based on a WWII 
night bombing run. Incredibly realistic 
sound affects actually place you in the 
cockpit of a B-1 7 Flying Fortress over war- 
torn enemy territory as you try to 
maneuver your ball down the bomb re- 
lease line. Four standuptargets control the 
bonus multiplier. A hole kicker can catch 
your ball, activating a number of bonus 
features before ejecting the ball back into 
play. The game allows you to keep up to 
four balls in play simultaneously. 

Night Mission Pinball offers ten dif- 
ferent modes of play, from COMPETITION 
to COSMIC. Forty user-adjustable pro- 
gram parameters allow you to create your 
own custom games or redesign any play 
mode to yourown specifications. Joysticks 
are recommended but not required; 
keyboard control is available. 

Night Mission Pinball for the Com- 
modore 64 comes with a twenty-page ad- 
justment manual and instruction card, 
and is available at most computer /soft- 
ware stores or from SubLOGIC direct. The 
program is available on disk or cassette for 
$29.95. For direct orders add $1.50 for 
shipping and specify UPS or first class mail 
delivery. Visa, MasterCard, American Ex- 
press, and Diner's Club accepted. 

For further information contact 
SubLOGIC Corporation, 713 Edgebrook 
Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, Phone (217) 
359-8482, Telex: 206995 cirdeuaws 

THE COLOR SHARPENER 
SOLVES PROBLEMS 
ON COMMODORE 64 

BROOKFIELD, Wis., -The Color 
Sharpener from Bytes & Pieces will solve 
the color resolution and intensity pro- 
blems of the Commodore 64. The sharp- 
ener is an electronic unit that plugs into 
the Commodore 64 and substantially in- 



creases picture quality. It brightens the 
picture on any standard television and 
eliminates much of the common interfer- 
ence noticed when using the 64 with a 
regular television set. It requires no 
soldering, wiring or opening of the com- 
puter. 

Suggested retail is $ 1 8.95 and it comes 
with a moneyback guarantee. Dealer in- 
quiries are invited. 

For additional information, contact 
Bytes & Pieces, 550 N. 68th Street, 
Wauwatosa, Wis., 53213. circle no. 2m 

THREE SOPHISTICATED 
C-64 GAMES FROM 
STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

KNIGHTS OF THE DESERT is a faithful re- 
creation of the North African campaign of 
World War II in which the British troops 
held off the sweep of Rommel's Panzer 
divisions as they moved toward Alexan- 
dria. Containing division/regiment-sized 
units of infantry, motorized infantry and 
tanks, KNIGHTS OF THE DESERT intro- 
duces an innovative system of play: during 
logistics phase, the players must first 
assign supply and re-supply priority for 
each unit— before moving it. The opera- 
tions phase allows multiple movements 
per turn by one piayer while permitting 
the opponent to make reaction and 
limited reaction moves. 

COMBAT LEADER offers a complete 
strategy game where you are in charge of 
a battle force of tanks and mechanized in- 
fantry against a similarly equipped enemy 
(controlled by the computer). The game 
has a scrolling battlefield, the ability to 
choose the level of command, platoon or 
squad leader, and the choice of over 70 
tanks at your disposal. Each tank is histori- 
cally rated for armor thickness, strength, 
speed and fire accuracy. 

PROFESSIONAL TOUR GOLF gives you a 
choice between two different champion- 
ship courses: the famed seaside course at 
Pebble Beach, or a course which was 
created from the most famous and dif- 
ficult holes from courses around the 
world, such as the Augusta National, 
Merion and Oakmont. Twenty of the best 
players have been realistically recreated, 
each rated according to his power, ac- 
curacy and skill. You can play againstthese 
famous pros, play alone, or against your 
skillful friends. 

Each program, complete with rule- 
book, is available on C-64 disk for $39.95 
from Strategic Simulations, Inc., 883 
Stierlin Road, Bids. A-200, Mountain 

View, CA 94043. Circle NO. 265 

Commander December 1983/159 



Take COMMAND by patronizing our advertisers who support the 
wide selection of products for the Commodore computer line. 
COMMANDER Magazine would appreciate you mentioning our 
name when dealing with these organizations. 



Advertising Index 



Circle No. 



Page No. Circle No. 



1 Aardvark 8,48,49 

69 Abacus 73 

2 Academy Software 33 

89 Advanced Processor Systems 125 

101 Alien Group 123 

161 American Made Software 37 

37 Apropos Technology 69. 135 

102 Arfon Micro Electronics 111,133 

162 Basic Byte - 109 

68 Basic Electronic Business Systems, Inc 87 

163 Bear Computer 123 

bitCard (Chart Scan) 32 

3 Bcston Educational Computing, Inc 119 

126 B.R. Green#1 140 

157 BSI, Blue Sky Software 1,2,24 

50 Bytes and Pieces #1 145 

90 Bytes and Pieces #2 93 

5 Century Micro 75 

6 CGRSMicroTech 78 

164 Cheatsheet 105 

7 Comm*Data Software 26 

8 Commodore 64 Users Group 147 

10 Computer Alliance 59, 99 

12 ComputerMat 89,117 

103 Computer Network 113 

27 Computer Outlet 128 

104 Computer Place 143 

91 Computer Software 102 

49 Cosmic Computers 137 

105 Cosmopolitan Software 47 

170 Covox 126 

44 Creative Software 10,11,12,13 

129 Datamost 17, 23 

67 Double E Electronics 97 

159 Dynatech 151 

14 Eastern House -139 

184 Electronic Lab., Inc 83 

165 Excaliber 79 

40 Fabtronics 58 

131 Farthest Fringe 84 

17 FrenchSilk 79 

166 General Systems Consulting 127 

19 Gloucester Computer, Inc 60 

84 GOSUB International Ill 

16 GOSUB of Slktell 71,113 

106 House of Software 81 

107 Human Engineered Software 6 

108 H&EComputronics Inside Front Cover 

95 ICD Corporation .45 

167 I.S.A 107 

52 Info Designs 3 

21 Intelligent Software , 128 

97 JMD Enterprises 32, 1 16,146, 

168 Jack Degnan 8i Associates 131 

109 Jason Ranheim 59 

110 Jini Micro 143 

169 Knight Writer Software 109 

171 Krell 15 

134 L&L Engineering 123 

22 Leading Edge Back Cover 

172 Limbic 91 



Page No. 

70 Lynn Computers 149 

99 (M)agreeable 93 

1 1 1 Mega Software 84 

100 Micro Management 77 

113 Micro Peripherals 133 

28 Micro Specialists 51 

94 Micro-Sys Distributors 95 

173 Micro Technic Solutions 97 

55 Microware Distributors 16, 25 

2S Midwest Micro 109 

56 Mystic Software 79 

174 Newport Controls 99 

30 Nibbles and Bits, inc 123 

137 Obbligato 38 

31 Optimized Data Systems 60 

32 Performance Micro Products 85 

175 P.F. Communications 87 

176 Personal Computer 128 

177 Practical Programs 145 

33 Precision Technology, Inc. . 133 

58 Progressive Peripherals 55, 121 

34 Protecto 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67 

35 Psycom Software 131 

47 Public Domain 107 

140 Pyramid Computerware 83 

141 Quality Computer . 127 

142 Quick Brown Fox 18 

116 R & C Software Lab 105 

77 Rees Software Lab 11S 

143 RockySoftware 145 

178 Red Shift . 128 

144 SailSoftware 59 

179 SAURA 146 

60 SJB Distributor 106 

38 Skylight Software 129 

117 Software Guild 52,53 

146 Softsmith 39, 40, 41 

Software Clearing House 145 

62 Southern Soiutions 9. 

119 Strategic Simulations 31 

149 Susie Software 56 

150 Subterranea Designworks 101 

160 Superior Graphics Emporium 112 

61 Systems Management Associates 21,30 

79 T&FSoftware 7 

42 Tamarack Software 141 

Taylormade Software 119 

180 Tempus 147 

1 21 Toro Digital Systems 139 

45 Toronto Pet Users Group 113 

46 TOTL 99 

122 Superbyte 146 

158 Tri Micro 57 

123 Universal Software 61 

80 Users Group Warehouse 93 

1S2 ValteyVideo 129 

48 Victory Software Inside Back Cover 

154 Virginia Micro Systems 58 

63 Wave Computers 83, 85, 1 27 

182 Wayne Green 34 

155 The Wizards 129, 147 

183 Xetec 147 



160/Commander December 1 983 




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girt subscriptions below. 

I I would iike to renew my subscription. 

D Please start the gift subscriptions only. 
Zip 



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One Year Subscription $18.00 One Year in Canada $22.00 (U.S. Funds) 
Prepaid Order Only, Please! 

Payment enclosed $ Charge to D Visa □ Mastercard D American Express 

Account* Expiration Date 



. Mew Subscription 
Gift to 



Please Send Gift Subscriptions To: 

D Hew Subscription 
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DECEMBER 1983 r VOL. 2, ISSUE 1 



fflease type or prinu 



Address 



City. 



State. 



Zip. 



Commande fs tdilorial SUFfis i ntcrcsted i n Knowing wha t you would like to see in each Issue, P lease respond 
by assigning the desired percentage for each question. 

A) Content Level Of Difficult) 

I) % Beginning. 7] ^Intermediate 3) % Advanced 

B) Monthly Department* 

I) % Educational 2| <k Business 3[ % Games 4) % Utilities if % General. 

C) Content Within Departments 

l| % Tutorials 2| % Reviews 3| % Applications 4) % Programming Tips 5) °b Special reature Articles 

D| How many programs that the user can type In would you like lo seer 

t| Where did you purchase this copy? 

II SuoscrlpUon I) News Stand |Namc| 3) OKI 4) Retail Outlet [71ame| 

Circle Number 300 If You Would Like A One Year Subscription for $22.00 

Circle the numbei|s| on the card that corresponds to the numbers neit to the Advertisement, Hew Product, or flews Release for which you 
would like more Information. The Reader Service numbers also appear neat to the Advertisers' names In the Advertisers Index, llall the card 
and the literature you have requested will be mailed to you. free of charge, directly horn the manufacturer. 

1 2 3 ' S 6 T t 9 ID II 13 13 U IS 16 17 13 IS 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 11 32 J] 34 JS 36 37 31 39 40 
41 1? 43 11 15 It 47 it 49 50 51 57 S3 S< SS Sri 57 SI 53 60 (1 67 61 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 71 75 76 77 76 79 60 
SI B2 S3 84 85 85 87 86 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 93 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 101 109 110 111 112 113 1U1I5 116 117 116 119 120 
12: 122 173 124 125 126 127 126 123 133 13! 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 110 111 142 113 144 145 US 147 HI 149 ISO 151 1S2 1S3 151 155 155 157 156 159 160 
161 162 163 161 165 166 16? 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 HO 181 182 183 1S1 185 IBS 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 191 199 200 
201 202 20J201 205 236 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 213 219 220 221 222 223 221 225 226 227226 229 230 231 232 223 231 235 236 237 238 239 240 
211 212 243211 245 246 21? 246 219 250 251 2J22S3 254255256257 251 269 260 261 262 263 2S1 265 266 2S7 266 269 270 271 272273 271 275 276 277 276279 2B0 
211 282 263261 265 286 217 286 219 290 291 292293 294 235 296297 291 299300 




COMMANDER 

P. 0. Box 98827 

Tacoma, Washington 98498 




COMMANDER 

P. 0. Box 362 
Dalton, MA. 01226 




^FEATURING PROGRAMS 
FOR THE VIC-20 AND 
THE COMMODORE 64. 



BOUNTY HUNTER 



$19.95 



An adventure in the Old West. Journey back with 
us into the days of Jessie James and Billy the Kid 
where the only form of justice was a loaded 
revolver and a hangman's noose. In this full-length 
text adventure, you play the role of Bounty Hunter, 
battling against ruthless outlaws, hostile Indians, 
wild animals and the elements of the wilderness 
with only your wits and your six gun. Average 
solving time: 20-30 hours. If you love adventures, 
this one is a real treat. 

Available for COMMODORE 64 and the VIC-20 
(with 8K or 16K expander). Available on TAPE or 
DISK Played with JOYSTICK 



KONGO KONG 



$19.95 



Climb ladders, avoid the barrels the crazy ape is 
rolling at you, and rescue the damsel. Commodore 
64 version features 4 different screens! 
Available for COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20. 
Available on TAPE or DISK Played with JOY- 
STICK 



GRAVE ROBBERS 



$14.95 



Introducing the first GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 
ever available for the VIC-20 or COMMODORE 64! 
With realistic audio-visual effects, you explore an 
old deserted graveyard and actually see the perils 
that lie beyond. 

Available for COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20. 
Available on TAPE or DISK Played with KEY- 
BOARD. 



CHOMPER MAN 



$19.95 



l Av 
\ST 



Don't let the bullies catch you as you gobble the 
goodies! This program has 8 screens and still fits in 
the standard memory. 

Available for COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20. 
Available on TAPE or DISK Played with JOY- 
STICK or KEYBOARD. 



Victory ^ 

Software 



WOULD LIKE TO WISH OUR CUSTOMERS 



H 


• 


A 


• 


P • 


P 


• 


Y 


H 


O 


L 


I 


D 


A 


Y 


S 



AND THANK THEM FOR THEIR 
PATRONAGE THROUGHOUT THE YEAR 



THE • EARTH • WARRIOR 



METAMORPHOSIS 



You stumbled into the nest of the Cyglorx and 
find yourself fighting off robot tanks guarding 
the Cyglorx eggs. You think you have everything 
under control and then the eggs start hatching. 
Available for COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20. 
Available on TAPE or DISK Played with JOY- 
STICK 




CREATOR'S REVENGE 



$19.95 



The creator assembled a massive army of robots and insects to take 
revenge on the earth. Destroy insects, get treasures, and get the neutron 
bomb deactivator. Battle robots and destroy the neutron bomb before it 
annihilates your city. Miss and you must face the mutants. Features 4 
different screens. 

Available for COMMODORE 64. Available on TAPE or DISK Played 
with JOYSTICK 



r LABYRINTH OF THE CREATOR 



$19.95 




Journey into the most complex and dangerous 
fortress ever built by the creator. You will en- 
counter deadly robots, skulls, lakes, avalanches, 
false creators, and a creature who roams 256 
rooms relentlessly pursuing you. 
Available for COMMODORE 64. Available on 
TAPE or DISK Played with JOYSTICK 



ILLUSTRATIONS: ELIZABETH HAL'CK 



Check your LOCAL DEALER or order directly. 

ORDERING: We accept personal checks, money orders, VISA, and MasterCard. 

Charge orders please include number and expiration date. 

OV ERSE AS ORDER: Please use charge, or have check payable through a U.S. 

bank. 

CANADIAN CUSTOMERS: If you wish to write a check drawn through a 

Canadian bank, please multiply the total order by 1.25 for proper conversion. 

Add S1.50 postage and handling per order. PA residents please add 6% sales tax. 



VICTORY SOFTWARE INC. 

7 Valley Brook Road 

Paoli, Pennsylvania 19301 

(215) 2%-3787 




Circle No. 48 



THE SECRETS OF PERFECT MEMORY: 
ONE AND ONE HALF EARTH DOLLARS 



AT LAST: THE WHOLE 
TRUTH ABOUT FLOPPIES. 

Amazing book reveals 
all! 

How to keep from 
brainwashing your disk 
so it never loses it's 
memory. 

How fingerprints can 
actually damage disks. 
Unretouched Kirlian 
photographs of UFO's 
(Unidentified Flippy 
Objects)! The-fhcredible. 
importance of making 
copies: the Department 
of Redundancy Depart- 
ment- and what goes on 
when it gdes on! Power- 
ful secret methods that 
scientists claim can ac- 
tually prevent computer 
amnesia! All this, and 
much more . . . 

In short, it's an 80- 
page plain-English, 
graphically stunning, 
pocket-sized definitive 
guide to the care and 
feeding of flexible disks. 
', For The Book, ask your 
nearest computer store 
that sells Elephant'" 
disks, and bring along 
one and one half earth 
dollars. 

For the name of the 
store, ask us. 

ELEPHANT MEMORY 

SYSTEMS'" Marketed 
exclusively by Leading 
Edge Products, Inc, 
Information Systems 
and Supplies Division, 
55 Providence Highway, 
Norwood, MA 02062. Call 
toll free i-800-J43-84B, 
in Massachusetts, call 
collect (617) 769-8150, 
Telex 951-624. 



m ■ 







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