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VIC 



C-64 



$2.95 U.S. 

The Monthly Journal for Commodore Computer Users S3 - 5 ° CAN 





III 



SEPTEMBER 1983 



nside: 

TELL TIME ON THE VIC-20 

VIC- 20 & C-64 

SSEMBLY LANGUA 
PROGRAMMING 




THE BASICS OF 
ASIC— PART II 

,N INTRODUCTION 
TO PILOT LANGUAGE 



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Tired of chasing your tail? 

Ifyoure looking for Commodore 64 or VIC-20 
software, look no further than Synapse! 



■^N"V, y"V^, 



iuinM i | jw(r"".' i i "T *' 



PHARAOH'S CURSE 
tune — yours for the tak- 
_. But can you avoid the 
ghost of Rama and the evil 
mummy? Are you nimble 
enough to leap the chasms 
and avoid the booby traps 
standing between you and 
freedom? 



Ball and , 
' . and Astro 
Patrol. Squeeze and Harrier for the VIC-20' 
Cartridge versions available soon. 

Other tides available for the Atari 400 800' 
computers. 



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SURVIVOR 

The first multi-player coop- 
erative space adventure. 
Alone or with your hand- 
picked crew (1 to 4 players) 
you must out-maneuver the 
Xenogryph fleet and destroy 
their space fortresses. Can 
you train yourself and' or your 
crew to survive? 



SHAMUS 

The odor tells you the Shad- 
ow's there — in one of four 
levels of 32 rooms, each bris- 
tling with danger. You know 
it won't be a high school 
prom, but there's no turning 
back. Sham us — the sleu 
adventure classic. 



FT. APOCALYPSE 
Your mission — fly your heli- 
copter to capture fuel and 
weapons from the Kraalthan 
lords of Inner Earth, free the 
enslaved masses and destroy 
the fortress itself. Will you 
triumph or be crushed by its 
fiendish defenses? Encounter 
Fort Apocalypse! 



four dealer out of stock? Order 
direct — send your check or 
money order including $2 for 
shipping and handling. Or join 
the Synapse Elitel Write for free 
membership! 



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PROTECTOR It 
You are the last hope! The 
Fraxullan Slimehordes are 
attacking your cities and 
carrying off their citizens. 
Can you get your people to 
safety as volcanoes erupt and 
enemy forces conspire to 
thwart your every effort? 




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• Toddler Tutor * 

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English Invaders 
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ARCADE STYLE GAMES 

• Supercuda * 

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OTHER GAMES 

" Street Maze « 
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On Shelves Everywhere - 

Ask For Comm*Data 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome. 

t Commodore 64 
» VIC 20 
• Both 



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320 Summit Avenue 

Milford, Michigan 48042 

(313) 685-0113 

Arcade Style Games are High Res Full Machine Code, 
Commodore 64 and VIC 20 are Registered Trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc 







SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 

to 
Help you develop your skills and the power of your computer. 

These complete development systems for the VIC 20 and the Commodore 64 computers are tools 
for the professional and learning aids for the developing programmer. A must for anyone who wants 
to understand the internal workings of the computer or who wants to design fast-action graphics or 
other powerful machine language programs. 

The Full-featured Assembler, Screen editor, Loader, Decoder and Debugger are accompanied by a 
tutorial on machine language, graphics programming and sound generation programming. The book 
also guides you through step-by-step instructions for the use of the tools and contains the most 
complete memory map available. A complete list is included of all the internal programs in ROM and 
the means by which you can call them from your own programs. Sample programs are fully 
explained. 

All programs support disk, tape and printer output. A special limited-feature version is available for 
the 5K VIC 20. 

Ask (or Devetop-20 and Oevelop-64 at your local software store. 




^mm> 





To order direct send $49.95 U S. funds plus $2.00 p&h to 
French Silk. PO Box 207. Cannon Falls. MN 55009. 
VISA/MC charges accepted (please include expiration 
date). Please specity Develop-20 or Develop-64 and the 
5K version for the VIC 20 if so desired Programs are 
distributed on cassette or diskette Please specify your 
preference. 

Dealer enquiries invited. 



*Q$8$* 




VIC 20 and Commodore 64 are registered TM of Commodore Business Machines inc 




Circle No. 17 



Call for Clubs and Newsletters Directory 

To be included in the future issues of the Commander Ctubs and 
Newsletters Directory, your club or publication must supply the follow- 
ing information: 

1. Name of organization or publication 

2. Mailing address 

3. Contact person and telephone number 

4. Name of newsletter or publication 

5. Special interests 

Send your information to Clubs and Newsletters Directory, Com- 
mander, PO Box 98827. Tacoma, WA 98498. 



Commander— The Monthly Journal lor Commodore Computer Users is published monthly by Micro Systems 
Specialties, 3418 South 90. Tacoma, WA 98409. Domestic Subscriptions, 12 issues, $22.00. Second Class 
Postage pending at Tacoma, WA 98143 and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to 
Commander— The Monthly Journal for Commodore Users; PO Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 98498. Entire 
Contents copyright © 1983 by Micro Systems Specialties. All Rights Reserved. 



2/Commander September 1983 



VOLUME 1, ISSUE 10 



Info-Designs 

announces . . . \^ ^ 

Small Business Accounting 
for the Commodore-64 

7 A ^'^w 




llnfofcra 
lijfbtett 



Now the power of Info-Designs 
Management Accounting System 
is available on the Commodore-64 
in a full and faithful version! 

Thousands of these quality business accounting 
software packages have been sold on the CBM 
computer at $595 each. Now, similar features are 
available to the small business user on the new 
Commodore-64 for $199 per module! 

Select the accounting modules you need— 

• Accounts Receivable/Billing 

• Accounts Payable/Checkwriting 

• General Ledger 

• Inventory Management 

• Payroll 

• Electronic Calendar ($1 49) 

Limited Introductory Offer! 

Our SoftPack combination contains the "Big-3" 
accounting— A/R, A/P and G/L— for only $495. 
Available for immediate delivery! 



Flexible Design 

The accounting system will work with one or two 
VIC-154i disk drives (or 2031/4040 with IEEE 
interface), 1 525 printer, and color or b&w monitor 
or TV. 

Customer Support Plan 

As part of Info-Designs ongoing effort to provide the 
highest quality microcomputer applications in the 
marketplace, we offer an optional telephone con- 
sulting service to support installation and ongoing 
operations. 

Order NOW. . .for immediate delivery 

See your local Commodore-64 Dealer or call us 
directly at (313) 540-4010. MasterCard and Visa 
accepted. 



Circle No. 52 



lnMD@sO 




6905 Telegraph Road • Birmingham, Ml 48010 • (313) 540-4010 



Master Menu 




Commodore — Page 12 




Bits & Pieces -Page 82 




Critic's Page -Page 124 




New Products — Page 143 



Article Guide 


Page No 


VIC-20 


8 


GENERAL 


12 


GENERAL 


13 


C-64 


21 


GENERAL 


28 


VIC-20 


32 



VIC-20 


32 


COMMAND POST 
by Jim Grubbs 


VIC/64 


39 


A COMPREHENSIVE EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 
FOR THE VIC-20 AND C-64: PART III 
by Eric Giguere 



GENERAL 


45 


VIC-20 


49 


GENERAL 


56 


PET 


60 



GENERAL 


83 



VIC-20 
VIC-20 



GENERAL 
VIC/64 

GENERAL 
VIC/64 



COVER BY: Randy "Tarkas" Hoar 

"Commodore Goes to School" 
With the emergence of computers in the 
nation's school districts, more and more 
students are learning their A,B,C's & 
1,2,3's with the Commodore computers 
and software. 

4/Commander September 1983 



87 
92 

98 
110 
124 
128 



Article 

TELECOMMANDER 
By Donald L. Stoner 

COMMODORE-A COMMITMENT TO 
EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE WITH 
COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY 

AN INTRODUCTION TO PILOT 
by Richard F. Daley, PhD. 

MATH AND DRAW 
by Ted Jean 

COMUPTER INSTALLATION TIPS 
By Joe Rotello, Jr. 

COMMAND POST 
by Jim Grubbs 

ACOMPREHENSP 
FOR THE VIC-20 A 
by Eric Giguere 

THE BASICS OF BASIC: PART II: 

THE BASIC COMMANDS IN OVERVIEW 

by Tim Parker 

LIVING WITH THE VIC-20 
by Colin F. Thompson 

MAINTENANCE: PART III 
by Tony Lamartina 

PHONE DIRECTORY 
by Howard Rotenberg 

MICRO COMPUTERS: HOW THEY 
WILL AFFECT OUR HOMES TODAY 
AND IN THE FUTURE 
by Arthur Dudley 

INTRODUCTION TO ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 
PROGRAMMING PART IX: SUBROUTINES 
by Eric Gigure 

VIC CLOCK 

by Arthur J. Dudley 

GETTING DOWN TO BUSINESS 
WITH THE BUSINESS MAN: PART I 
by Kirk Anderson 

SO YOU BOUGHT A DISK DRIVE? PART II 
by R. G. Partner 

THE CRITIC'S PAGE 
by Eric Gigure 

COUNT LINES 

by Howard Rotenberg 



DEPARTMENTS 



6 Editorial 

7 Letters 

82 Bits & Pieces 

132 Educational Reviews 

137 Reviews for the C-64 

141 News Releases 

143 New Products 

152 Game Contest 






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Arcad 
AcrioHc 

Planet Earth is under 
attack by ruthless 
aliens who hurl heat 
missies at our polar 
ice caps. Will the Earth 
flood? As the orbiting 
Space Sentinel, the 
Earth's fate is up to 
you. If you can hold 
out against the 
merciless attackers, 
Earth's population will 
have time to escape 
and colonize a new 
home planet. 





Complete sprite & character graphics with 3-voice 
sound. Joystick, Diskdrive & Commodore 64 required. 



Available at finer Software Stores everywhere. 

OR CALL (213) 50J-5845 FOR THE NAME OF YOUR LOCAL DEALER OR DISTRIBUTOR. 



T&F Software Company 10902 Riverside Drive / North Hollywood, California 91602. (213) 501-5845 

©1983 MEGAGEM. SPACE SENTINEL IS A TRADEMARK OF T&F SOFTWARE. COMMODORE 64 IS A REG. TRADEMARK OF COMMODORE COMPUTERS. INC. 



Editorial 



STAFF 

Publisher 

THOMAS L. RQSENBAUM 

Editor-in-Chief 
LINDA L. LINDEN 

Technical Editor 
COLIN THOMPSON 

Editorial Assistant 
TERILYN M. AICHLMAYR 

Deafer/Distribution 

DEBBIE A. GABBARD, Manager 

PAULA M. ANDERSON, Assistant 

Sales/Subscription 
ELIZABETH K. STEAN, Manager 
CATHY A. SALZER, Assistant 

Advertising 

PATRICIA A. ANDERSON, Manager 

Consultant 
GEORGE R. GAUKEL 
JOHN GABBARD 
HOWARD ROTENBERG 

Graphics and Production 
TERRY D. CHRISTIAN 
K. MICHAEL SPOTTS 

Printed By 
GRANGE PRINTING 

COMMANDER is published monthly by: 
MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES, PO Box 96827, 
Tacoma, Washington 98498 



The Education Boom— Or Bust? 



Subscription Rates (U.S. Funds) 


Per Year 


U.S. 


$22.00 


Canadian, Mexican 


$26.00 


Surface Rates, Foreign 


$37.00 


Air Mail, Foreign 


$75.00 


For back issues, subscriptions, change of address or 


other information, write to: 




COMMANDER 




PO Box 98827 




Tacoma, Washington 98498 




(206) 584*757 




BACK ISSUES— 




2 months aid— $4.50 





Copyright© 1983 by MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES 
All Rights Reserved 



A recent survey published by 
Time magazine showed that 51% 
of all personal computer software 
manufacturers had a "game" in 
their line of products. This is not 
really much of a surprise since 
everyone knows that al! computer 
software manufacturers are only 
interested in making games— 
RIGHT? Wrong — the same survey 
also showed that 46% of the 
manufacturers produced some 
kind of educational program! 
Surely within one or two years the 
educational sector of the market 
will have surpassed the game 
market as the predominant force 
in the persona! computer soft- 
ware arena. 

The increase in availability of 
educational software is a natural 
progression of personal compu- 
ter evolution. At first, very few 
good programmers were available 
for personal computers so they 
programmed games because they 
were fun. Then, as more program- 
mers moved into the field, compe- 
tition became more intense and 
programmers were forced to pro- 
vide what the users wanted in- 
stead of what they thought the 
users should want. The rapid de- 
crease in price of the personal 
computer brought millions of 
first-time users with it and these 
newcomers wanted something 
"useful" for their new computers 
to do. The logical step was into 
education and the computer 
manufacturers are jumping on the 
bandwagon in a very big way. 
Commodore, IBM, Tandy and the 
other "biggies" are applying a lot 
of pressure to their programmers 
to produce educational software 
and offering huge discounts to 
school districts to induce them to 
buy their computers. 

The educational establishment 
of the U.S. seems to have caught 



"computeritis". There is an unbe- 
lievable push to teach our kids 
about computers and the rallying 
cry is "computer literacy". To be 
sure, the technology produced by 
the electronic revolution seems 
to be the natural path for our eco- 
nomy to follow and if such is the 
case there will be a need for hun- 
dreds of thousands of people to 
design, develop and maintain the 
technology and its offspring. 

So the word has come down 
from on high— "Thou shalt be 
computer literate". The pressure 
is on and the school districts are 
reacting. I pray that the results 
will be better than the previous ef- 
forts which have given us a gener- 
ation of citizens who cannot spell 
or do arithmetic without a calcu- 
lator but I fear it will. Policies and 
plans are being developed by peo- 
ple who have never even used a 
personal computer and have no 
desire to learn anything about 
them. There are virtually no teach- 
ers trained or available to teach 
computer technology in the pri- 
mary and secondary school sys- 
tem and no sign of a change from 
this situation for many years to 
come. 

The gauntlet has been flung 
and we must answer the chal- 
lenge. But how? The reasonable 
approach would be "Computer, 
teach thyself". Let the computer 
do all of the work through soft- 
ware. But today's programmers 
are writing good software and the 
good teachers can't program. 
Hmmm...l wonder what the 
answer is. Let's get on the stick, 
programmers and teachers, and 
make some top notch, high qual- 
ity educational programs. Let's 
get together and make sure that 
the promise offered by the per- 
sonal computer doesn't go bust.D 



6/Commander September 1983 



Letters 



Man Bytes Computer 

Dear Colin, 

Years ago, when I was a 
graduate student, I happened to 
visit the University computer 
center. To be quite candid, I have 
never been so completely and 
totally intimidated by a machine 
in my life! So for all these years I 
have resisted any temptation to 
even become mildly associated 
with computers. Then I saw my 
first VIC-20 about a year ago and I 
remember thinking to myself, 
"...a computer that size could 
not possibly be vicious. And if it 
is, I am still bigger than this 

machine I can always smash 

it before it charges me...." So 
here I sit in front of my VIC with 
full expansion, 40/80 adapter, disk 
drive, Gemini 10 printer, and 
Quick Brown Fox (thanks to your 

column in COMMANDER) 

Evolution works ! 

I do enjoy your column and 
among other things, you have a 
wonderful style which a rank 
novice (like myself) can read and 
not be confused with buzz talk 
and hacker rhetoric — God bless 
you for that much alone. 

I have purchased TOTL.LABEL 
and it is all you said it would be. I 
just received my PRACTICALC 
and eagerly wait to read your 
review. I am not sure how I can 
adapt PRACTICALC to my needs. 



I have no need for a business 
spreadsheet, but I am sure it can 
be used for a great many jobs- 
Please give your readers some 
ideas on other uses of a spread- 
sheet rather than the usual office- 
sales-projection applications. We 
beginners NEED to be hand-fed 
and our diapers changed until we 
"grow up" (soon I hope). 

Again, keep up the excellent 
job you are doing. 
Sincerely yours, Joel R. Crabbe 

Dear Joel, 

Thanks for your supportive let- 
ter. I try to explain each kind of 
program before I review an exam- 
ple. It sounds like we come from 
similar backgrounds. I repaired 
computers for 15 years and ac- 
tively avoided them in my off 
hours. The VIC is my third micro, 
and my favorite. 

I noted with interest your men- 
tion of a 40/80 card. I have the 
Data 20 64K Video Pak. In future 
columns, I will report how each 
piece of software works with this 
device. Practicalc will not work. 
I've talked with Sandy Ruby about 
it, but he said it would be too 
complex to change. Sandy will 
soon have some templates avail- 
able for PractiCalc. You should 
write for information. Totl. Label 
will work with 80 columns, but the 
version you have may have prob- 
lems. A fix is available, for free, 
from TOTL. 



I don't know exactly what you 
use your VIC for, but I have a lot of 
software and hardware under re- 
view that you might be interested 
in. In September, the column's 
format will change. I'll be writing 
about three or more items a 
month, instead of only one. I've 
enclosed the latest VIC List. It is 
done on Totl. Label now, but I'm 
changing it to a new Database 
program called Flex File. FF is 
the only "complete" database for 
the VIC now. At $110 it's not 
cheap, but it is the best. 

Thanks again for your letter, 
and if I can answer any questions, 
just write. 
Sincerely, Colin 



If you have any 

questions or 

comments for the 

editors of 

Commander please 

write to: 

LETTERS 
P.O. Box 98827 
Tacoma, WA 98498 



% 



Commander September 1983/7 



Ip 



Telecommander 



by Donald L. Stoner 



You'll never guess how I got 
"hooked" on the VIC-20. Forgive 
me, but I've been a TRS-80 user 
since the Model I was first intro- 
duced. 

About a year ago, however, I 
needed a low cost computer to 
use as a communications ter- 
minal. The primary application 
was to send electronic mail to the 
Source and CompuServe. Dan, 
the heir to the Stoner fortune, was 
using my main computer con- 
stantly for his school homework. 
Most evenings, fate decreed that 
we both needed the computer at 
the same time. 

The low cost of the VIC-20 
seemed a small price to pay for 
maintaining peace and tranquility 
in the Stoner household. Shortly 
after the transaction was con- 
summated at the local K-Mart, I 
began shopping for a modem to 
use with the VIC. The Commo- 
dore modem was out of the ques- 
tion. I live in the General 
Telephone service area and their 
telephones do not have handset 
connectors. 

Several modems can be used 
with the VIC-20 without requiring 
the Commodore RS-232 interface. 
For those not familiar with the 
RS-232 specification, it mandates 
that the data signals (between the 
computer and modem) vary from 
more than minus 3 volts (a one) to 
more than plus 3 volts (a zero). 
The VIC (and 64) user port is call- 
ed TTL (transistor-transistor 

8/Commander September 1983 



logic) compatible; that is, the data 
Signal varies from plus 5 volts (a 
one) to zero volts (a zero). 

There are no modems on the 
market that are directly TTL (and 
VIC) compatible with the excep- 
tion of the Commodore product. 
To use a conventional modem, it 
is necessary to reverse the polari- 
ty of the TTL signal; that is, make 
a "one" zero volts and a "zero" 
equivalent to five volts. This was 
done by constructing a simple cir- 
cuit (see Figure 1) using tran- 
sistors for polarity inversion. 

The modem I selected (The 
MicroConnection from The Micro- 
Peripheral Corp., 2565 152nd Ave. 
N.E., Redmond, WA 98052) has 
provision for 0-5 volt (instead of 
RS-232) data signals by adding a 
jumper to the DB-25 data connec- 
tor. As a result, the MicroConnec- 
tion can be easily interfaced to 
the VIC and 64 and works like a 
"charm". 

If you want to go "first cabin", 
the MicroConnection even has an 
autodial, autoanswer option. The 
money I saved by not buying the 
Commodore RS-232 adapter paid 
the cost of this option. My VIC-20, 
with only 3585 bytes of memory, 
will now dial other computers 
automatically from the keyboard. 
With suitable software and addi- 
tional memory, the VIC and Micro- 
Connection could also be used to 
make an inexpensive bulletin 
board system (BBS) with in- 
memory messages. 



Interfacing the VIC-20 to the 
MicroConnection was a simple 
task with a little assist from Radio 
Shack. The MicroConnection has 
a female DB-25 data connector on 
the rear panel, while the VIC-20 
(and 64) require a 24 contact card 
edge connector (two rows of 12, 
called a 12/24). A small perforated 
construction board was used to 
mount the interfacing compo- 
nents (see photo— Figure 1). 

Finding the mating male DB-25 
connector was easy. It is Radio 
Shack part number 276-1559. 
However, Radio Shack does not 
stock a 12/24 pin card edge con- 
nector. I solved the problem by 
purchasing one of their 25/50 con- 
nectors (part number 276-1545) 
and cutting it in half. A small 
piece of plastic was glued over 
the open end so the connector 
could not slide back and forth on 
the card edge. The contacts on 
the connector must match the 
card edge conductors on the 
VIC-20 as closely as possible. 
This modified connector was 
epoxied to a piece of "perf board" 
measuring 2.5 x 2.5 inches. Figure 
2 shows a rear view of the con- 
nector as described on page 283 
of "VIC-20 Programmers Refer- 
ence Guide". This is the same 
view you would see looking at the 
card edge from the back of the 
VIC-20. Ignore the pin numbers 
and letters stamped on the con- 
nector you modify. Instead, 
assign the designations shown in 



COLOR 
PROBLEMS? 

Solve Them With 
The Color Sharpener 

$18.95 

You're not alone. Thousands oi 
Commodore 64 owners have 
"fuzzy" color on their TV. Most 
have interference lines crowd- 
ing out their great graphics. 
Many have bought expensive 
monitors or new TVs, and often 
even that hasn't helped. But, 
most of us just lived with the 
problem. Now the engineers at 
Bytes & Pieces have a simple, 
inexpensive solution . . . The 
Color Sharpener. No soldering 
or wiring . . . just plug the Color 
Sharpener into your 64 and 
PRESTO! The interference disap- 
pears. Instantly. And if it doesn't 
work to your satisfaction, just 
send it back and we'll refund 
your purchase price in full. 



DUST PROBLEMS? 

Solve Them With 

Matching Dust Covers 

for Computer, 

Tape and Disk. 

$6.95-$8.95 

These are the deluxe covers for 
either the Commodore 64 or the 
Vic 20 made of brown leather 
grain Naugahyde, specially 
lined with a soft non-scratch 
liner, for a cover you just 
can't beat. 

Don't waste your money on those 
cheap looking, clear plastic, 
static filled covers. Get the 
quality ones, custom fitted to 
your Commodore computers. 

Available singly or as a matched 
set in beautiful brown simulated 
leather. 



Commodore 64 and Vic 20 are registered 
trademarks of Commodore Computer Company 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



ORDER TODAY! 

Please send me the following: 

Quantity Item Amount 

Color Sharpener 

@ $18.95 S _^ 



Computer Dust 
Covers @S8.95 

Computer Type, 



1541 Disk Dust 
Covers @$7,95 

Dataset Dust 
Covers @S6.95 



2.00 



Shipping 8c Handling 

5% State Tax 

(Wisconsin Residents only) S . 

TOTAL S ■ 
Check or Money Order enclosed 
Charge to my VISA or MasterCard 
VISA # . 

MasterCard** 

Inner Bank £ 



Expiration Date 



Signature 

SHIP TO: 

Name 

Address 

City 

Stale /Zip. 



BpteS OC P12CCS 550 W. 68th Street, Wauwcrtosa, WI 53213, 414/257-3562 



Circle No. 90 



Circle No 20 



Unlock Yotst Creativity. 

Commodore 64 Color Sketch F&d 

Whether you're six or sixty-six, you can use high resolution graphics 
and color to DOODLE! Draw up a house plan, sketch a landscape, 
create a colorful masterpiece or just "doodle." On-line MENUS 
make DOODLE easy to use; 100% machine language means 
instant response. With your Commodore 64 and joystick or 
WICO® Trackball you can: 

• DRAW pictures, and PAINT with 8 "brush" sizes. 

• ZOOM in to draw fine detail. • Instant BOXES and 
straight LINES anywhere on your screen. 

• DUPLICATE, Enlarge, Stretch, Squeeze or 
Rotate any part of your doodle. • Instant 
NEGATIVE or MIRROR IMAGE of a doodle 

• Type in LETTERS anywhere in a doodle... 
even sideways. • SAVE your doodle on a disk 
LOAD it in to doodle some 
more • PRINT your doodle on 
many popular printers. 



*39. 95 



For information, your nearest dealer, or to order direct, CALL TOLL FREE! 

1-800-558-1008 Sss* 1 

Dealer and Distributor Inquiries Invited 

City S&ftware 

City Software Distributors, Inc. f^m j^^gf 

735 W. Wisconsin Ave. S&' ■!£■ 

Milwaukee, WI 53233 

© Copyright 1983 by Mark R. Rubin & OMNI Unlimited. Commodore 64 is a registered 
trademark of Commodore Electronics, Ltd. 




Commander September 1983/9 



w 



Figure 2. The numeric row is on 
the top row while the alpha pins 
are on the bottom. Note that the 
pins in the alpha row do not 
follow an exact A-B-C sequence. 
When you epoxy the connector to 
the "pert board", make sure the 
alpha row is closest to the board. 
The top and bottom are in the 
same position as shown in 
Figure 2. 

Figure 1 shows a pictorial draw- 
ing of how the interface compo- 
nents are assembled. The circuit 
consists of three transistors and 
four resistors. If your modem 
does not have the autodial auto- 
answer option, you can eliminate 
transistor Q2, plus its associated 
resistor along with the "H" con- 
nection to the VIC and the wire to 
pin 8 of the DB-25 connector. The 
wire between pin 20 of the DB-25 
connector and the "E" pin to the 
VIC can also be eliminated. 

To make the modem cable stur- 
dy, wire terminations were placed 
at the edge of the board. This was 



done by looping a short length of 
bare tinned wire through a couple 
of holes. This provides a good 
junction between the compo- 
nents on the board and the five 
wires that go to the DB-25 con- 
nector. To further insure that the 
wires don't come loose, a plastic 
"tie wrap" was used to lash the 
cable wires to the board. Don't 
skip this step because, sooner or 
later, flexing of the wires will 
cause one to break where it con- 
nects to the board. 

Note the wire between pins 4 
and 7 on the DB-25 connector. 
This connection puts the Micro- 
Connection in the autodial mode. 
If you use the modem in an auto- 
answer application, this wire 
should be removed. The connec- 
tion between pins 1 and 7 is re- 
quired to insure the MicroCon- 
nection works with TTL level 
signals. 

The three transistors are 
2N2222 general purpose NPN 
types. Virtually any NPN small 



signal transistor can be used. The 
MPS2222 stocked by Radio Shack 
(part number 276-2009) works 
perfectly. The 22K ohm resistors 
are their part number 271-1339 (a 
package of five for 39 cents). 

The five wire cable may present 
a problem. Radio Shack has 
antenna five conductor rotor 
cable but only in 100 foot lengths. 
You can probably "scrounge" a 
piece from a friend who is into 
electronics or make one up by 
twisting five different colored 
wires together. 

The total cost for the com- 
ponents is about $12.00, assum- 
ing you already have the epoxy, 
bare wire, and tools such as a 
soldering iron. For those of you 
not into "home brew" construc- 
tion, the complete interface 
(wired and tested on an epoxy cir- 
cuit board) can be purchased for 
$24.95 from ByteSize Computer 
Products, P.O. Box 21 123, Seattle, 
WA 98111. □ 



r 



O 



O 
O 

UJ 

O 

o 

UJ 

o 

oc 
< 



CM 




Figure 1 

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 

MODEM INTERFACE 

FOR THE VIC 20 AND VIC 64 



PIN 2 



22K 



22K 

VvAA/V 



To be continued on page n 



PIN 8 

-E> 



PIN 20 



PIN 3 
-t> 



PIN 7 
PIN 4 
PIN 1 

-0 



a 

OB 

ro 
en 

O 
O 

z 



o 

3D 



10/Commander September 1983 



Continued from page 10 

Figure 2 

PICTORAL LAYOUT 
MODEM INTERFACE 

FOR THE VIC 20 AND VIC 64 



DB25 MALE 20 



~r 



oooooooooooo 
iooi o o % 9I0 0000 




12 3 4 5 6 7 



9 10 11 12 



ABCDEFHJKLMN 



PIN # 


TYPE 


NOTE 


PIN # 


TYPE 


NOTE 


1 


GND 




A 


GND 




2 


^5V 


100mA MAX 


B 


CB1 




3 


RESET 




C 


PB0 




4 


JOY0 




D 


PB1 




5 


JOY1 




E 


PB2 




6 


JOY2 




F 


PB3 




7 


LIGHT PEN 




H 


PB4 




8 


CASSETTE SWITCH 




J 


PB5 




9 


SERIAL ATN IN 




K 


PB6 




10 


+ 9V 


100mA MAX 


L 


PB7 




11 


1 9V 




M 


CB2 




12 


GND 




N 


GND 





Figure 3 

TEN ASSIGNMENTS 
FOR THE USER 
1/0 PORT 



PIN 


6522 




IN/ 


ID 


ID 


DESCRIPTION 
MODES 


EIA ABV OUT 


C 


PB0 


RECEIVED DATA 


(BB) Sin IN 1 2 


D 


PB1 


REQUEST TO SEND 


(CA) RTS OUT 1*2 


E 


PB2 


DATA TERMINAL READY 


(CD) DTR OUT 1*2 


F 


PB3 


RING INDICATOR 


(CE) Rl IN 3 


H 


PB4 


RECEIVED LINE SIGNAL 


(CF) DCDIN 2 


J 


PB5 


UNASSIGNED 


( ) XXX IN 3 


K 


PB6 


CLEAR TO SEND 


(CB) CTS IN 3 


L 


PB7 


DATA SET READY 


(CC) DSR IN 2 


B 


CB1 


RECEIVED DATA 


(BB) Sin IN 1 2 


M 


CB2 


TRANSMITTED DATA 


(BA) Sout OUT 1 2 


A 


GND 


PROTECTIVE GROUND 


(AA) GND 1 2 


N 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 


(AB) GND 1 2 3 



Commander September 1983/11 







mmodore 



A Commitment to Educational Excellence 
With Computer Technology 



As told by David Rosenwald, 
Director of Education Marketing, 
Commodore is more deeply com- 
mitted than ever to increasing 
service and support to education 
users. Commodore feels the Edu- 
cation Resource Center is only 
one of many grass root support 
systems being planned for educa- 
tors. Dave Rosenwald feels teach- 
er-to-teacher information ex- 
change through Resource Cen- 
ters will be one of the most eco- 
nomical ways for teachers to gain 
useful working knowledge of 
computers and software pro- 
grams. He further stated this pro- 
gram is available to every school 
that can meet our guidelines. 

To qualify as a Commodore 
education resource center you 
must be 

— A non-profit school organiza- 
tion or agency (public or private) 
serving students in one or more 
of the following categories: 

— Preschool 

— K-12 

— Post Secondary Educa- 
tional Institution 

—2 or 4 Year College or 

University 
—Adult Education Program 

— An intermediate unit or 
teacher center designated as a 
teacher training organization and 
given formal status by a Munici- 
pal, State, County or Federal 
School Authority. 

12/Commander September 1983 



Minimum Requirements: 

—A commitment to Commo- 
dore computers. 

—At least five Commodore 
computers. (If you do not have 
five computers and believe you 
can complete all other require- 
ments, please prepare a short 
note explaining your position and 
attach it to the Application Form. 

—Willing to allow educators at 
reasonable intervals from other 
districts or schools to: 

1. Observe use of Commo- 
dore equipment in 
classrooms. 

2. Discuss operation and 
uses with teachers and 
administrators. 

3. Allow teachers/adminis- 
trators to duplicate public 
domain programs. 

— Provide occasional inservice 
to other educators and public. 

—Assist Commodore to form 
educational support user groups. 

— Develop news items, arti- 
cles, success stories and photo- 
graphs about your computer ap- 
plications for potential use in 
Commodore and other publica- 
tions. 

— Evaluate software and hard- 
ware (provided by Commodore), 
as reasonably requested. 

—Willing to be listed as Com- 
modore Education Resource Cen- 
ter. 
Education Resource Center Must 



Provide: 

— Name, address, title and 
phone number of superintendent 
or other senior official as well as 
similar information for the Re- 
source Center Director. 

—Approval by Board of Educa- 
tion or similar legally designated 
approval agency. 
Commodore Will Provide (One 
Per School Organization Or Agen- 
cy): 

— Certificate of Appreciation 
for involvement in the Commo- 
dore Education Resource Center 
Program. 

—VIC/64 Modem if requested 
(free). (See Application Form- 
Second Signature Required.) 

— CompuServe subscription 
(free). (The center must pay for 
connect time and the telephone. 
Special CompuServe password 
for Resource Centers to be used 
for electronic bulletin board.) 

— Education Resource Center 
newsletters and information up- 
dates. 

— Early information on pro- 
ducts, software, etc. 

Schools interested in becom- 
ing an Education Resource Cen- 
ter can write to the Education Re- 
source Center Coordinator, Com- 
modore Business Machines, 1200 
Wilson Drive, West Chester, PA 
19380. 







tt»«° 



du c«on «> P** 



An Exclusive Instructional Aid 
By the Author of Vanilla Pilot 

Richard F. Daley, Ph.D. 



In educational computing 
circles today you hear and read 
about terms like 'authoring 
languages' or sometimes PILOT. 
This article will introduce you to 
these two terms and their mean- 
ing. In addition, an introduction to 
programming in PILOT will be 
given. 

Authoring languages in innu- 
merable variations are found as a 
part of many computer installa- 
tions. The main point of each of 
these languages is that they can 
be used by teachers who want to 
write computer assisted instruc- 
tion, but don't want to learn the 
inner workings of a typical com- 
puter language. Unfortunately, 
most are failures. They become 
much too complicated for anyone 
but computer professionals to 
use. 

PILOT, developed to be used as 
an authoring language, avoids the 
pitfalls of most other implementa- 
tions. It is best used in the 
development of interactive dialog 
program, conversational games, 
or, in modern enhancements of 
the language, with added turtle 
graphics features. 

I am frequently asked "Why use 
PILOT?" There are many, many 
computer languages from which 
to choose. Every computer 
language has some specific 
features which make it ideal for 



certain types of tasks. Most 
microcomputers have languages 
like BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, 
LOGO, APL, and ASSEMBLER 
available. All of these languages 
can be used to write interactive 
dialog programs. However, PILOT 
is a specialized language design- 
ed for dialogs, drills, and tests 
rather than the computation 
handled well by general purpose 
languages. 

BASIC, for example, can handle 
a free response dialog, but the 
programmer must often make un- 
wieldy arrangements for process- 
ing input and for comparing 
words or portions of words that 
the program must recognize. 

Before proceeding look at the 
term 'free response dialog'. 
Understanding this term can help 
us in understanding how the 
PILOT language can be used. To 
illustrate free response dialog, 
look at this simple example: 

THE WEATHER FORECAST 

FOR TODAY HAS A 100% 

PROBABILITY OF 

PRECIPITATION. 

WHAT WILL WE SEE: 

BLUE SKY, CLOUDS, RAIN, 

SUNSHINE 

As you can see there are two 
possible correct responses from 
the list of weather types. Precipi- 
tation is synonymous with rain 
and, if it rains, there are clouds. 
So any program written to work 



with this concept must look for 
BOTH responses and handle 
each appropriately. 

From the programmer's view- 
point, it is easier to require the 
user to enter one word replies like 
RAIN or CLOUDS. From the 
students viewpoint an answer 
such as: 

IT WILL LIKELY BE CLOUDY 

AND RAIN, 
is much easier to work with. It is 
more natural — like a conversa- 
tion. As shown by this example, 
free response dialog allows the 
user to respond to the computer 
in a normal conversational man- 
ner. 

Ideally, the language used in 
developing an interactive dialog, 
will handle such an interactive 
dialog efficiently and easily. This 
rules out most languages, in- 
cluding BASIC, as they use slow, 
complex program structures to 
accomplish this. 

The PILOT language is design- 
ed to take the pain out of writing 
an interactive dialog program. 
With PILOT, just as with a spoken 
language, you can express many 
ideas and accomplish many tasks 
by combining a handful of simple 
statements. 

Tamarack Software, Inc. mar- 
kets a version of PILOT, called 
Vanilla Pilot, for all Commodore 
computers currently on the 
market. I suggest you obtain a 
copy of Vanilla Pilot, a bargain at 

Commander September 1983/13 



its suggested retail of only 
$29.95, from your local computer 
store before continuing this arti- 
cle. It will help you appreciate the 
power and ease of use of the 
PILOT language. 

there are four types of PILOT 
statements which make up the 
majority of most PILOT programs. 
In fact, you can write programs of 
considerable complexity using 
only these four statement types. 
Look at each of these statements: 

The first statement is the TYPE 
statement. It is much like the 
PRINT statement in BASIC. It's 
function is to display, or TYPE, in- 
formation onto the computer 
screen. The format of this, and 
any other, PILOT statement is 

T: 

If you wish, for example, to 
display the word HELLO on the 
computer screen, the TYPE state- 
ment would look like this: 

T:HELLO 

When you run this PILOT pro- 
gram line the word HELLO will be 
displayed on the screen. 

All PILOT program lines have 
about the same format. This for- 
mat consists of four separate 
parts. Each program line needs a 
line number. A line number may 
be any whole number between 
and 63999. The line number is 
followed by a PILOT statement or 
command. These statements con- 
sist of a single character (like the 
T for TYPE). Next there is a colon. 
The colon is a separator between 
the PILOT statement and the 
operation field, or operand, which 
is the fourth part of a PILOT pro- 
gram line. Thus the TYPE state- 
ment shown above is incomplete. 
It would be better like this: 

100T:HELLO 

The next PILOT statement is 
the ACCEPT command. The AC- 
CEPT command takes input or in- 
formation from the keyboard 
while the program is executing or 
running. When the computer 
comes to an ACCEPT command, 

1 4/Commander September 1983 



LISTING 1 



100 T 


THE WEATHER FORECAST FOR TODAY 


110 T 


HAS A lmX PROBABILITY OF 


126 T 


PRECIPITATION. 


130 T 




140 T 


WHAT WILL WE SEE' 


150 T 


BLUE SKY, CLOGUDS, RAIN, SUNSHINE 


160 fl 


* 


170 T 




188 M 


CLOUD 


190 TV -YES!! IT HILL BE CLOUDY. 


200 M-RRIH 


210 TV: RIGHT, PRECIPITIN I ON HERNS RAIN. 


220 M' CLOUD, Rfl IN 


230 TH:RRE YOU SURE ABOUT THAT? 


240 E 








LISTING 2 

100 *START T^THE WEATHER FORECAST FOR TODAY 

240 T-MflHT TO TRY AGAIN? 

250 fl ' $ 

260 M : YES , V , OK , SURE , YEP , F I NE , GREAT 

270 JY: START 

280 E : 



LISTING 3 

THE WEATHER FORECAST FOR TODAY 
HAS fl 100;i PROBABILITY OF 
PRECIPITATION. 

WHAT WILL WE SEE^ 

BLUE SKY, CLOOUDS, Rft IN, SUNSHINE 

CLOUD 

YES!! IT WILL BE CLOUDY. 

RAIN 

RIGHT, PRECIFTTAION MEANS RAIN. 

CLOUD, RAIN 

ARE YOU SURE ABOUT THAT? 

WANT TO TRY AGAIN? 

$ 

VES, V, OK, SURE, YEP, FINE, GREAT 

START 



1 00 #: 


iTflRTT 


110 


T 

1 


120 


T 


130 


T 


140 


T 


150 


T 


160 


A 


170 


T 


ISO 


M 


190 


TY 


200 


M 


210 


TY 


220 


M 


236 


TN 


240 


T 


250 


A 


260 


M 


270 


JY 


280 


E 





LISTING 4 




100 G : 


CLEAR 




110 G 


COLOR 2 




120 G 


GOTO 20,20 




130 G 


DRAW 40 




140 G 


RIGHT 144 




150 G 


DRAW 40 




160 G 


RIGHT 144 




170 G 


DRAW 40 




180 G 


RIGHT 144 




190 G 


DRAW 40 




200 G 


RIGHT 144 




210 G 


:BRAW 40 




220 G 


: RIGHT 144 




230 E: 




LISTING 5 


100 


G 


CLEAR 


110 


G 


COLOR 2 


120 


G 


GOTO 20,20 


130 


U 


SIDE 


140 


IJ 


SIDE 


150 


U 


SIDE 


160 


U 


SIDE 


170 


II 


SIDE 


180 


E 




190 


*SIDE G 


DRAW 48 


206 


G 


RIGHT 144 


216 


E : 




LISTING 6 


100 


G •• CLEAR 


110 


G : COLOR 2 


120 


G :GQTD 26,20 


139 


C :E=5 


140 


C :T=0 


150 


*LOOP U :SIDE 


160 


C -T=T+1 


170 


C :*=T 


180 


M :#E 


190 


JH-LOOP 


200 


E : 


210 


+SIDE G = DRflW 40 


220 


G : RIGHT 144 


230 


E : 



it stops and waits for you to type 
something on the keyboard. 
There are a number of options for 
the operation field of the ACCEPT 
command in Vanilla Pilot; one is: 

A:$ 

When the computer sees the 
dollar sign ($), it ACCEPTS input 
from the keyboard, then transfers 
it to a section of memory called 
the 'ANSWER FIELD'. 

The third PILOT statement is 
the MATCH command. Here the 
PILOT program makes decisions. 
Complex pattern matching is 
done on the user input stored in 
the ANSWER FIELD. The program 
then makes decisions based on 
whether or not a match was 
found. 

The MATCH command con- 
tains a list of patterns to be 
searched for and matched with 
the input information stored in 
the ANSWER FIELD. For exam- 
ple, 

M:TEST,EXAM 

Suppose you wish to search 
the user input for the words TEST 
or its synonym EXAM. The 
MATCH command works by using 
what is called a 'sliding window' 
match. That means that each of 
the patterns in the MATCH state- 
ment are scanned across the con- 
tents of the ANSWER FIELD. 
Thus, the word TEST found in the 
above MATCH statement would 
match with the sentence 

THAT WAS A TOUGH TEST 
WE HAD TODAY! 
or the word EXAM in the sentence 
WE HAVE A HISTORY EXAM 
TOMORROW. 

The 'sliding window' match will 
match with the set of characters 
contained in the ANSWER FIELD 
no matter where they appear. 

There are only TWO possible 
outcomes of the MATCH. Either a 
match will be found or one will 
not be found. That is either YES or 
NO. The MATCH statement will 
communicate with the rest of the 
PILOT program using a memory 
location called the Yes/No flag. 

The Yes/No flag is important. 
Each PILOT statement type can 

Commander September 1983/15 



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have either a Y or a N between the 
command letter and the colon. 
The Y and N are conditionals and 
the statement will be executed 
ONLY if the conditional is the 
same as the Yes/No flag. For ex- 
ample, 

TY:WE WILL HAVE A 

TEST TOMORROW! 

The sentence following the col- 
on would only be typed if the 
Yes/No flag were set to YES. If the 
Yes/No flag were set to NO then 
this statement would be skipped. 

The final PILOT statement is 
the 

E: 
or END statement. The END state- 
ment is the last program line ex- 
ecuted by the PILOT program. It 
may come at any point in the pro- 
gram, but must be the last line ex- 
ecuted by the program. 

To pull this all together study 
the simple example of a PILOT 
program shown in Listing 1. If you 
have a copy of Vanilla Pilot 
available, load it and enter the 
program in Listing 1 into your 
computer. Based on what we 
have already talked about, study 
the listing for yourself to see if 
you understand the program. 

Lines 100 to 150 of the program 
are simply TYPE statements. The 
computer will display these lines 
on the screen as 

THE WEATHER FORECAST 

FOR TODAY HAS A 100% 

PROBABILITY OF 

PRECIPITATION. 

WHAT WILL WE SEE: 

BLUE SKY, CLOUDS, RAIN, 

SUNSHINE 

At this point the program will 
be waiting at line 160 for an entry 
from the keyboard. Remembering 
the 'sliding window' of the 
MATCH statement, enter a se- 
quence answer. For example, 

I EXPECT TO SEE SOME RAIN. 

When you press the RETURN 
key the computer takes the 
sentence you typed on the 
keyboard and places it in the 
ANSWER FIELD. Next, it checks 
for the match for the word CLOUD 
in line 180. There is no match, so 
the TY: in line 190 will not be ex- 
ecuted. 

There is a match with the word 
RAIN in line 200, so the computer 
will TYPE the words: 

RIGHT, PRECIPITATION 



16/Commander September 1983 



Circle No. 95 



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any DATA 20 DISPLAY 
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MEANS RAIN. 

Try it! 

Now RUN the program again. 
This time enter the words 

I WILL SEE CLOUDS. 

This time when you press 
RETURN the computer will test 
the input against the MATCH in 
line 180. The matchstring CLOUD 
matches with CLOUDS in the in- 
put. So the computer will res- 
pond: 

YES!! IT WILL BE CLOUDY. 

A word about lines 220 and 230. 
The MATCH in line 220 checks 
the contents of the ANSWER 
FIELD to see if either RAIN or 
CLOUD appears, if neither word is 
there, then the Yes/No flag is set 
to NO. This allows the TYPE 
statement in line 230 to be ex- 
ecuted. Thus, if neither RAIN nor 
CLOUD appears in the ANSWER 
FIELD the computer will respond: 

ARE YOU SURE ABOUT THAT? 

Try one final test of the pro- 
gram. What do you expect will 
happen if you enter a sentence 
with BOTH the words CLOUD and 
RAIN in it? 

Decide what you would expect, 
then try it! Type RUN, then enter 
the following sentence 

IT WILL PROBABLY BE 

RAINY AND CLOUDY. 

You should have successfully 
predicted that BOTH responses 

YES!! IT WILL BE CLOUDY, 
and 

RIGHT, PRECIPITATION 

MEANS RAIN, 
would be displayed. 

At this point, many of you are 
probably tired of typing RUN 
every time you wish to try another 
entry in this program. Here's how 
to modify Listing 1 so you can 
loop back to the start if you wish 
to try again. 

Begin by entering the program 
lines shown in Listing 2. LIST the 
program and notice that the old 
line 100 has been replaced by a 
new line 100. This new line con- 
tains a label. A label is a way of 
NAMING a program line. The 
label, *START, tells the computer 
that this program line is special. 
Whenever you tell the computer 
to search for a label, it looks 
through your program until it 
finds the correct label. When the 

1 8/Commander September 1983 



label is found, the program 
begins executing that program 
line. 

Until now all the program lines 
you have looked at have been ex- 
ecuted in numeric order. Labels 
in a PILOT program transfer con- 
trol to different parts of a program 
as needed. 

The other part of the transfer of 
control is found in the new line 
270. This part is the J: or JUMP 
command. Here you JUMP to the 
label START, if the Yes/No flag is 
set to YES. And the Yes/No flag is 
set to YES, when the input from 
line 250 contains one of the affir- 
mative answers from the MATCH 
statement in line 260. 

When writing your own pro- 
grams in Vanilla Pilot, there are 
two things you need to watch for. 
These are 

1. Be sure you have a label for 
every J: statement for the proper 

transfer of control. 

2. Be sure you have only one 

possible destination label for 
each JUMP statement. The rou- 
tine to search for a label will look 
at the same number of characters 
in the label as there is following 
the colon of the JUMP statement. 
That is— J:TEST will find the 
labels *TEST, 'TESTING or 
*TEST5. Thus, if the label *TEST 
comes after either 'TESTING or 
*TEST5, you will never reach that 
line with a JUMP. 

There is a variation of the LIST 
command you have been using in 
Vanilla Pilot. Try using the com- 
mand LLIST (Yes, there really 
should be two L's). You should 
see a listing on the screen of your 
computer that looks like Listing 3. 
By the way, PLIST sends the out- 
put to your printer. 

Now for a look at the Turtle 
Graphics features of Vanilla Pilot. 
Turtle Graphics means that the 
computer has an 'invisible' turtle 
with a pen. On a computer like the 
Commodore-64, the turtle actual- 
ly carries a set of 16 different col- 
ored pens. One corresponding to 
each of the various colors that the 
computer is able to display. 

The Turtle Graphics is access- 
ed by the GRAPHICS command 
G:. The G: command has a 



number of sub-commands which 
tell the computer which of the 
graphics options to do. 

In this article, you will look at 
some of the GRAPHICS sub- 
commands used on a computer 
like the Commodore-64. These 
commands also apply to the 
VIC-20, 4032, and 8032 versions of 
Vanilla Pilot. The VIC-20 version 
has 8 colors and the 4032 and 
8032 versions have no color 
capabilities. 

In the Turtle Graphics system, 
the computer screen becomes 
the playground for a tiny invisible 
turtle, with the turtle at the center 
of an invisible circle that moves 
with him. This circle is divided in- 
to 360 segments or angles, each 
measuring one degree. The turtle 
can face into any one of these 
segments. 

The turtle's position on the 
screen is determined by a system 
of coordinates. The top left hand 
corner of the screen is 0,0 while 
the bottom left hand corner, ex- 
cept on a VIC-20, is 0,49. With a 40 
column screen the center of the 
screen is 39,24 and the coor- 
dinates for the upper right corner 
are 0,79. 

Following is a description of 
seven graphics sub-commands 
for Vanilla Pilot. They are CLEAR, 
COLOR, DRAW, GOTO, DIREC- 
TION, LEFT, and RIGHT. There 
are several additional sub- 
commands, but these will be left 
for you to learn from your Vanilla 
Pilot manual. 

The CLEAR sub-command in- 
itializes the ' turtle. It ac- 
complishes, among other things, 
moving the turtle to location 0,0 
and setting its direction and color 
to 0. Always begin your Turtle 
Graphics program with a CLEAR. 

With the COLOR sub-command 
you can control the color of the 
pen the turtle is carrying. You 
need to specify a color number, c, 
from to 15 on the Commo- 
dore-64 (0 to 7 on the VIC-20). 

Using the DRAW z sub- 
command, you can DRAW a line z 
units long across the screen. This 
line is drawn using the current 
pen color and the turtle's current 
direction. 



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The GOTO x,y sub-command 
places the turtle at locations x,y 
in the coordinate grid of the 
screen. 

Change the direction the turtle 
is heading using the DIRECTION 
d. The value of d is in degrees and 
can be any value between and 
359. Direction is facing to the 
right side of the screen. The value 
of the direction increases in 
counter-clockwise fashion. 

The LEFT d sub-command ad- 
justs the heading of the turtle by 
d degrees to the turtle's left. This 
is different from the DIRECTION 
sub-command in that the change 
of direction is relative to the cur- 
rent direction. That is, if the turtle 
is facing degrees then a LEFT 
90 will turn the turtle left (counter- 
clockwise) to 90 degrees. 

The RIGHT d sub-command is 
like the LEFT sub-command but 
will adjust the turtle's heading to 
the right (or clockwise). Thus, a 
RIGHT 90 will turn the turtle to 
270 degrees. 

Now look at a simple example 
of a Turtle Graphics program. The 
program in Listing 4 is designed 
to work on the Commodore-64 
computer. The other Commodore 
computers will require some ad- 
justments to run properly. For the 
4032 and 8032 delete line 110. For 
the VIC-20 change the DRAW 40 
to DRAW 25 and the GOTO 20,20 
to GOTO 10,10. 

Enter the program into your 
computer. Try to deduce what the 
figure is that will be drawn. Lines 
100 to 120 simply initialize the tur- 
tle, set the color of his pen to col- 
or 3 (cyan) and locate the starting 
point of the first line at coor- 
dinates 20,20. 

Remember that the turtle is fac- 
ing to zero degrees or towards the 
right hand side of the screen. 
Draw a line 40 units long in that 
direction. Now the computer will 
turn to the turtle's (not your) right, 
or in a clockwise direction. This 
pair of actions is repeated four 
more times to complete the 
figure. 

To check your prediction about 
the shape of the figure, Listing 1 
shows the figure as you should 
see it on your computer screen. 

Many people get tired of enter- 

20/Commander September 1983 



ing the same lines repeatedly in a 
single program. Like most com- 
puter languages, PILOT takes 
care of this drudgery using a sub- 
program which is called from 
within the main program. This 
sub-program is called a sub- 
routine in some computer 
languages. When the sub-pro- 
gram has accomplished its task, 
control is returned to the program 
line immediately following the 
statement which called the sub- 
program. 

The start of a sub-program is 
marked with a label and the end is 
marked with E: or END statement. 
To visualize what this means, 
rewrite the program in Listing 4 
using sub-programs. The result of 
this rewriting is shown in Listing 
5. 

The first thing you can see is 
that, instead of repeating the 
DRAW and RIGHT graphics sub- 
commands, we repeat the com- 
mand U:SIDE 

This command operates much 
like the JUMP command, but has 
one important difference. The 
USE command remembers its 
location in the program. As soon 
as the END command is found, 
control is returned to the program 
line immediately after the USE 
command. In this case, the pro- 
gram would be executed in the 
following line number sequence: 

100 190 

110 200 190 

120 210 200 

130 140 etc. 

Try it! 

Vanilla Pilot also includes a 
command called TRACE. The 
TRACE command allows you to 
see each line at the top of the 
screen as it is being executed. To 
use the TRACE command type 
TRACE and then RUN. Watch the 
program lines as they appear on 
the screen. 

When you wish to stop the 
TRACE function, simply type 
OFF. 

Your first reaction in moving 
from Listing 4 to Listing 5 was 
probably that there is STILL a set 
of repeating lines. No self- 
respecting programmer would do 
this unless there was absolutely 
NO other choice.' 



Well, Vanilla Pilot allows you to 
keep your self-respect! Eliminate 
these repeating lines by using the 
COMPUTE statement. The COM- 
PUTE statement allows you to do 
arithmetic in PILOT. It takes the 
form of 

C:expression 

The expression is any equation 
including ONLY addition and sub- 
traction. An example of this 
would be in line 150 of Listing 6. 
Here the expression is T = T+ 1. 

There is a reserved character 
used in the COMPUTE statement. 
It is the dollar sign ($). The expres- 
sion, in the form 

$ = expression 
will be evaluated and the result of 
this evaluation will be placed in 
the ANSWER FIELD. This transfer 
to the ANSWER FIELD allows a 
comparison using the MATCH 
statement. A special form of the 
MATCH statement allows the 
contents of the ANSWER FIELD 
to be compared with a numeric 
variable. 

Look at the program in Listing 
6. It will do the same things as the 
programs in Listing 4 or Listing 5. 
However, there is no repetitive 
typing of the same lines. We are 
using a program structure called 
a LOOP. Lines 150 to 200 are the 
actual loop. A program loop is a 
set of program lines which are ex- 
ecuted until some condition is 
met. In this case, when the 
variable T is equal to the variable 
E the loop will be terminated. 

First the program draws a 
single line 40 units long. Next it 
adds 1 to the numeric variable T 
and transfers the new value to the 
ANSWER FIELD. Finally, in line 
180 this value is compared to the 
contents of the numeric variable 
E. If there is not a match, then the 
loop is repeated with the 
JN:LOOP. These few lines can be 
used as a general looping calcula- 
tion for any type of loop in PILOT. 

This is a brief overlook of the 
PILOT language, using Vanilla 
Pilot from Tamarack Software for 
our examples. There is much, 
much more that you can do with 
the PILOT language. I hope that 
this overview will get you as ex- 
cited about the PILOT language 
as I am.D 



* 



= by Ted Jean 



An educational program for the 
Commodore-64 that rewards correct 
answers to math problems with drawing 
time using a joystick. 



When I brought my Commo- 
dore-64 home, I didn't want it to 
turn into just another game 
machine. This time I wanted 
some educational value from it. 
On the other hand, "all work and 
no play, makes Johnny a dull 
boy". So, I was willing to com- 
promise. I would spend a little 
time with education, and then, as 
an incentive, give an equal 
amount of time to recreation. 
These were the guidelines I used 
in developing "MATH AND 
DRAW". 

First, I wanted the educational 
value for my two daughters. This 
was developed as math problems. 
Simple "ADDITION" problems for 
my first grader, and a little harder 
"SUBTRACTION" ones for the 
older, third grader. 

Second, build the FUN part. 
This was to use the C-64 color 
capability for drawing. The idea of 
KISS (Keep It Simple Susie) came 
to mind, and I only used a low 
resolution technique for the 
screen. This turned out to be a 
plus with my six year old who 



Math 

& Draw 



would have been lost trying to 
draw with a high resolution 
screen. 

Then, the final step was to con- 
nect the two. This gave the pro- 
gram a game environment. The 
person using the computer would 
be given five math problems. For 
each right answer, he would 
receive credit of one minute for 
drawing. After all five problems 
were done, the screen would 
clear. Then, by using a joystick, 
the student could draw or doodle 
with the computer. When time 
was up, it would be back to the 
chalkboard for five more prob- 
lems. Again, he would receive 
credit towards drawing time for 
each correct answer. 

My first program went to the ex- 
perts for review (my two 
daughters). The response was 
good but with two complaints. 

1) Saving the screen between 
math drills was very time consum- 
ing and boring. 

2) "SUBTRACTION" was a big 
person's word. Their school used 
the term "TAKE-AWAY" instead. 

Problem #2 was quick to solve; 
"SUBTRACTION" now reads 
"TAKE-AWAY". Problem #1 re- 
quired me to remove the BASIC 
routine of PEEKS and POKES to 
save the screen and color 



memory with a machine language 
routine. Don't worry about 
understanding how it works. If 
you type it in carefully and avoid 
mistakes, it will work all by itself. 
(Briefly, it copies the 1k of 
SCREEN MEMORY starting at ad- 
dress 1024, and the 1k of COLOR 
NYBBLES from 55296 into the 
protected RAM area just above 
the BASIC ROM chip.) 

With this done, the second pro- 
gram received much higher 
reviews from the two experts. So, 
here it is for your enjoyment. 

Instructions 

Five math problems are given 
using a Random Generator in 
lines 1010 and 1015. Two tries are 
allocated for each problem before 
the correct answer is displayed. 

During drawing, pressing the 
fire button will TURN ON the 
square. Pressing the SHIFT key 
will TURN OFF the square. To 
erase multiple squares, press the 
SHIFT LOCK key. 

Then, using the KISS technique 
again, I eliminated worrying about 
the CONTROLand COMMODORE 
keys for selecting the colors for 
the squares. You simply press the 
number keys 1 to 8 and the cor- 
responding color will replace the 
current cursor color. □ 

Commander September 1983/21 



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Continued from page 21 

5 REM - * - * - MATH RHD DRAW - % - * - 

10 REM- * - * - BY TED JEAN - * - # - 

1 5 REm*mmmmmmmmmmm ********* 

REM*** BUILD SCREEN CONTROL TRBLE*** 
DIM LINE$<25> 

LINE*Cl)aCHR*U9) 

FOR fl — 2 TO "'S 

LINE4KA) = LINE$<R-1> + CHR*<17) 

NEXT fl 



20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
65 
70 
75 
76 
80 



REM*** SEND TITLE TO SCREEN *** 

PGKE53280, 5 : PQKE53281 , 7 

P0KE646,9:RRINT CHR$U47> 

PRINT LINE$<5)3PCa2)"MATH RND DRAW" 

PRINT LINE*C6)SPCC12); 

FOR A=l TO 13: PRINT CHR*<183>; 

PRINT LINE$C9)SPC<7)"WHAT KIND 
OBLEMS ?" 

85 PRINT LIHE$<14)SPCC5)"PRESS + 
ADDING PROBLEMS." 
90 PRINT LINEfC 16 )SPC<5> "PRESS 
TAKE-AWAY PROBLEMS. " 
95 PRINT LINE$<20)SPC<10)"YQUR CHOICE 



NEXT 
OF PR 

FOR 



- FOR 






100 

105 

110 

115 
120 
125 
130 
135 
140 
145 
150 
155 
160 
165 
170 

200 

205 
210 
215 
220 
225 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 



REM******************************** 
REM*** CONSTANTS *** 

ZZ=l: SC=1024: C0*54272 : CL=0 



REM*** BUILD JOYSTICK TABLE *** 
FOR A = TO 10: READ XY<A) : NEXT 
DATA 0, -40, 40, 0, -1, -41 
DATA 39, 0, 1, -39, 41 



REM*** BUILD KEVBOARD TABLE 

DIM KEY C 64) 

FOR A = TO 64: KEV<A)=0: NEXT 



*** 



KEY<08)=11 
KEY a 9) =6 
KEV<56)=1 



KEY/11>=15: 
KEY<24)*7 : 
KEY < 59) =2 



KEYU6)=5 
KEY t 27) =8 



REM*MACHINE 
AD=49152 



LANGUAGE SCREEN MOVER** 



READ 
POKE 
GOTO 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
REM . 



X = -1 THEN 
AD - AD + 1 



310 



o0 



X: IF 

AD,X: 

215 

162, 4, 160, 196, 32, 30, 

162, 216, 160, 200, 32, 3 

192, 96, 162, 196, 160, 4 

32, 30, 192, 162, 200, 160 

216, 32, 30, 192, 96 

42, 192, 140, 45, 192 
4, 162, 0, 139, 0, 
0, 0, 202, 208, 247 
42, 192, 238, 45, 192 
208, 238, 96, -1 



192 






142, 
160, 
157, 
238, 
136, 



SYS (. 49 152) - SAVE SCREEN 



To be continued on page 24 




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Sprintyper": A typing tutorial for the 
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Commodore 64'" and vie 20" are registered 

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Jb / Continued from page 22 

T/245 REM ... SYSC 49167) = RESTORE SCREEN 

J|300 REM******************************** 

385 REM*** GET ANSWER *** 

3 1 POKE204 , : POKE 138,0 

315 PRINT "?"CHR$< 157); 

320 GET AN*: IF AN* O "+" AND AN$ O "- 

" THEN 320 

325 POKE204.1 



*30 PRINT AN$ 



335 FOR A = 1 TO 1000: NEXT 

400 REM******************************** 

405 REM*** INSTRUCTIONS TO SCREEN *** 

410 POKE53280,8-POKE53281,5 

420 PQKE646, 13= PRINT CHR$C147) 

425 PRINT LINE*<4)SPC<S> H V0U WILL NOW G 

ET 5 " 

430 IF AN#="+"THEN PRINT LINE*C6)SPCC8) 

"ADDING PROELEMS. " 

435 IF AH$="-"THEN PRINT LINE$<6>SPC<8) 

"TAKE-AWRV PROELEMS." 

440 PRINT LINE$<S)SPCC8)"F0R EVERY RICH 

t ANSWER " 

445 PRINT LINEfa0)SPC<3)"YOU WILL GET 

1 MINUTE" 

450 PRINT LINE*a2)SPC<8)"0F DRAWING TI 

ME. " 

455 PRINT LINE*a6)SPC<12); 

456 FOR A=1T011 'PRINT CHR$( 175) ;: NEXT 
460 PRINT LINE$a7)SPC<12)CHR$<18)" GOO 
D LUCK " 

465 PRINT LINE$a8)SPCa2>; 

466 FOR A=1T01 SPRINT C'HR*C 163) j: NEXT 
470 PRINT LINE$(23)SPC(6)"PRESS ANY KEV 

TO CONTINUE "; 
475 POKE204 > = POKE 1 98 > 
480 PRINT"?"CHR$a57>; 
435 GET fl$: IF A$="" THEN 485 
490 POKE 204,1 

500 REM******************************** 
505 REM*** START OF MATH AREA *** 
510 PROE=i:TL=0 

515 GOSUB 1000:TRY»0:REM GET NUMBERS 
600 REM******************************** 
605 REM**** BUILD CHALKBOARD **** 
6 1 POKE53230 , 6 ■ P0KE5328 1 , 6 
615 PRINT CHR*a47);CHR*(31);CHR*a8>; 
620 FOR A=l TO 5 
625 PRINT" 

" ; = REM 40 SPACES 
630 NEXT A 

635 PRINT" "; :REM 3 SPACES 
640 PRINT CHR$a58)CHR*<109) H 

" ; : REM 20 SPACES 
645 PRINT CHR$ai0)CHR$<31)" "J 
:REM 3 SPACES 
£60 FOR fl=l TO 10 



665 PRINT" 



REM 9 SPACES 
'CHRf(144>; 



REM 20 



'CHR$<31>' 



REM 9 SPACES 



679 PRINT CHR*<153;" 
675 PRINT" 

SPACES 

680 PRINT CHR$-::i58>" 
" .; : REM 9 SPACES 

6S5 NEXT A 
690 PRINT" 
695 PRINT CHR*a58>CHR$ai0>" 

" , : REM 20 SPACES 
700 PRINT CHR*a09>CHR$<31>" "; 

:REM 9 SPACES 
705 FOR A=l TO 7 
710 PRINT" 

" i ■ REM 40 SPACES 
715 NEXT A 
720 PRINT" 

" .; : REM 38 SPACES 

P0KE5S294, 6 : P0KE2022, 224 

PGKE56295, 6 : P0KE2823, 224 

POKE53281,0 
740 PRINT CHR$U9> -PRINT CHR*C5) 
800 REM*********if:***#******'*****'******* 




fe£Z> 

736 
735 



80S REM*** 



DO MATH PROBLEMS 



810 PRINT LINE$(07;-SPCa0>"#" 



815 

820 

825 

830 

18>' 

835 



865 

870 

!75 



PR I NT L I NE* C 08 ) SPC (10) PROB 

PR I NT L I NE* ( 09 > SPC < 20 ) N 1 * 

PR I NT L I NE* (11) SPC ( 20 ) N2$ 

IF AN*="+" THEN PRINT LINE*<11)SPC( 

+ " 

IF AN*="~" THEN PRINT LIHE*(11)SPC( 
18)"-" 

840 PRINT LINE*(12>SPC<18>; 
845 FOR A=1T06: PRINT CHR*(100)j: NEXT 
850 PRINT LINE*a3)SPC(22>; 
855 GOSUB 2000 -REM GET FIRST DIGIT 
860 ANS = VAL<A*> 

IF N3<10 THEN 900 

GOSUB 2000: REM GET SECOND DIGIT 

ANS = ANS + < VAL(A$) * 18) 

IF H3C108 THEN 900 

GOSUB 2000: REM GET THIRD DIGIT 
890 ANS = ANS + < VAL(A$) * 100) 

IF N3=ANS THEN 935 

TRV=TRV+l:IF TRY=2 THEN 920 
910 PRINT LINE*(15)SPC( 12)" WRONG - TRY 
AGAIN" 

915 FOR A=1TO2000: NEXT: GOTO g@@ 
920 PR I NT L I HE* ( 1 4 ) SPC C 1 ) " WRONG . " 
925 PRINT LINE*(16)SPC(10)"THE ANSWER W 
AS "STR*(N3) 
930 GOTO 945 
935 TL=TL+1 

940 PRINT LINE*(15)SPC(15)"VERY GOOD!" 
945 FOR A=1TO3000:NEXT 
950 PROB=PROB+l:IF PROB < 6 THEN 515 



875 

880 
885 



yuy 
90S 



Circle No. 27 



Sid says: 

'get a FREE" 




PRINTERS 
CALL FOR BEST PRICES! 



VIDEO/AUDIO INTERFACE 

5 pin Of N to 4 RCA phono plugs 

guaranteed to improve resolution on 
Commodore Color Monitors. 

F REE wi t h purch ase of any m onitor. 
910.00 each if sold separately- 



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Commodore Computer 
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Custom lit dust covers lor 
computus and dish drives 
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• FOR UNBEATABLE PRICES! 
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COMPUTER OUTLET 



PUBLIC DOMAIN, Inc. 
- SOFTWARE - 

Supporting all COMMODORE computers 

Written by users, for users. 

• GAMES • UTILITIES • EDUCATIONAL • 

Over 1300 programs and growing. 

VIC-20 

VIC collection #1 - 70+ programs- Tape/Disk- $10.00 
VIC collection #2 - 70+ programs - Tape/Disk - $10.00 
VIC collection #3 - 70+ programs- Tape/Disk- $10.00 
VIC collection #4 - 50+ programs - Tape/Disk - $10.00 

COMMODORE 64 

COMMODORE 64 #1 -25+ programs- Tape/Disk- $10.00 
COMMODORE 64 #2 -25+ programs- Tape/Disk- $10.00 
COMMODORE 64 #3 -25+ programs- Taps/Disk- $10.00 

PET/CBM 

PET/CBM - 5 Unlily - Tapes/Disks - $10.00 each 

PET/CBM - 1 1 Game - Tapes/Disks - $10.00 each 

PET/CBM - 6 Educational - Tapes/Disks - $10.00 each 

DUSSEK Reset Switch 

Works on VIC-20 or Commodore 64 - $5.00 
All price include shipping and handling. 

We are YOU R world wide user software connectioa 
An alternative to the high cost of software. 

CHECK. MONEY ORDERS, 
VISA and MASTERCARD accepted. 

For A Free Flyer Write: 

Public Domain, Inc. 

5025 S. Rangeline Rd, W. Milton, OH 45383 
Phone (513) 698-5638 
Circle No. 47 



To be continued on page 26 



Commander September 1983/25 



Continued from page 25 



\ 




955 P0KE53288 ,14 = PQKE5328 1 , 2 

960 P0KE646.1: PRINT CHR*a47> 

965 PRINT LINE$a0)SPG<10)"VOU GOT "TL" 

RIGHT!" 
978 PRINT LINEf(12)SPC(8'J"N0W IT IS TIM 
E TO DRAW." 

975 PRINT LIHE*C15>SPC<8)"USE JOYSTICK 
IN CONTROL" 

980 PRINT LINE$<17)SPC<8>"P0RT # 2" 
985 FOR fl = 1 TO 4000: NEXT 
39Q GOTO 3000 

1000 REM******************************* 
1005 REN*** BUILD RANDOM NUMBERS *** 
1010 N1=INTC (RND(0>*99) + 1> 
1015 N2=INT< CRND<0>*49O + 1) 
1020 IF Nl = N2 THEN 1015 
1025 IF Nl < N2 THEN N3=N1 : N1=N2: N2=N 
3 

1030 IF AN*= n +" THEN N3 = Nl + N2 
1035 IF AN*="-" THEN H3 = Nl - N2 
1040 Nil = STR$<N1>-IF NK10 THEN Nil - 

" " + Nl* 
1045 N2* = STR$CN2>:IF H2<10 THEN N2* = 

» " + H2$ 
1050 RETURN 

2000 REM******************************* 
2005 REM*** GET 1 DIGIT FROM ANSWER *** 
2010 POKE204,0: POKE 198,0 
2015 PRINT"?"CHR*a57>; 
2020 GET fl*: IF fl*="" THEN 2020 
2025 IF fl* C "0" OR fl* > "9" THEN 2020 
2030 POKE204, 1 

2035 PRINT fl*.:CHR*U57>;CHR*a57>; 
2040 RETURN 
3000 REM******************************* 



•^laClS 



005 REM*** 



DRAWING ROUTINE 



*** 



3010 PRINT CHR*U44>;CHR*a47; 

30 1 5 P0KE53280 , 8 : P0KE5323 1,15 

3020 IF ZZ THEN ZZ=0 = GOTO 3030 

3025 SVS ( 49 1 67 >: REM ... RESTORE SCREEN 

3030 PRINT LINE*<25>SPC<10)"TIME LEFT = 

MIN."; 
3035 PRINT CHR*<157>CHR*U57)CHR*C157)C 
HR*U57>; 

3040 TIME* = "000000" 
3045 T2* = MID*< TIME*, 4, 1> 
3050 T2 = TL - VflL<T2*> 
3055 PRINT CHR*a57>CHR*C157)CHR*a57?; 
T2; 

3060 IF T2-0 THEN 3170 

3 1 00 J V=PEEK < 56320 > : K V=PEEK < 1 97 > ■' SV=PEE 
K | '653) 

3105 FB-16-UV AND 16>:JV=15-UV AND 15 
) 
3110 CH=PEEK < SC ? : CC=PEEK C SC+CO > 



26/Commander September 1983 



3115 IF CH>127 THEN POKE SC, 171 -G0T0312 
5 

3129 POKE SC, 43: POKE SC+CO.CL 
3125 FOR fi=l TO 100: NEXT 

3130 POKE SCCH: POKE SC+CO.CC 
3135 FOR fl=l TO 80: NEXT 

3140 IF FB THEN POKE SCI 60: POKE SC+CO, 

CL 

3145 IF SV THEN POKE SC32 

3150 IF KEVCKV) THEN CL = KEV < K V > - 1 

3155 SC = SC + XVCJV) 

3160 IF <SC C 1024) OR (SC > 1983) THEN 

SC = SC - XVUV) 
3165 GOTO 3045 

3170 SYS (49 152): REM ... SAVE SCREEN 
3175 GOTO 400 
3180 REN************ END ************** 

REflDV. 



FOX 20: 



FOXSCSOT 

"Crafty Software from THE FOX" 



TM 



The magazine for *VIC 20 users. On Cassette. 

The all magnetic magazine with 5 or more original programs per month. Game - Educational - Utility 
programs at an average cost of 88* per program. FOXTALES - our video newsletter has Articles, Hints. 
Reviews and more. Delivered monthly to your door. Give your VIC 20 value and power with FOX 20. 

Texas Residents add 5% Sales Tax $53/yr. U.a S63/vr. Canned* & Overseas S6.SO Singlet Back Issues 



UpryteQyter 1 



For the Commodore 64 



The user affectionate sprite development program. Menu-driven, mono/mulitcolor sprite*, Joystick/key- 
board, tape/disk, 20K w/FAST machine language routines. Over 60 commands: ROTATE (any angle 0-360), IN- 
VERT/OBVERT, SHIFT, SYMMETRY, AND/OR, REVERSE, REVIEW, MOVIE (animation). Create and edit 
up to 1 28 sprites per file. For programming efficiency and FUN! Include* the Game Maker - automatically 
prepares a base for game development 

__.._«_. _ Cauette 129.95 Disk $34.95 

FOXPACS 

Selected program collection* for the VIC 20 and Commodore 64 - Game*, Adventures, Educational*, Home 
Utilities, Programming Utilities, etc Each FOXPAC contain* 4 program* on individual cassette* See 
catalog for description* 

$20. 

All orders pre-paid (U.S. funds). Author and Dealer inquiries Invited. Send for our free catalog for mora 
information on these and other fine product* 

Don't be outFOXed - Run with 

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P.O. Box 507 

Deer Park, Texas 77536 

(713)473-6723 




Circle No 51 



A Division of Foxfire Systems, Inc. 
'VIC 20 & Commodore 64 *re trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, inc. 



GLOUCESTER 
COMPUTER 

Products for home, industry 
& education 




PRDMQLIEEN Write code for most 
common 8-bit microprocessors, test it 
in circuit, and 
burn it on EP- 
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all-in-one mic- 
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system cart- 
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game development. Commodore VIC-20 
host computer. Programs 2716, 2732, 
2758 EPROMS and similar EPROMS. 

$199.00 

PRDKIQUEEN RS pack add RS-232 
communications to Promqueen devel- 
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PQ/&U all features of Promqueen less 
mimic mode. Software enhanced to in- 
clude EPROM QC utilities, RS-232 com- 
munication, printouts. 28 pinZIF socket. 
Reads, edits 
runs and pro- 
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plus variety of 
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without per- 
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host computer. 
PQ/&U RS pack performs RS-232 
voltage conversions for PQ/64 system. 

$49.00 




Commodore C-64 
$299.00 



GLOUCESTER SEQUENCER Con- 
nect the VIC or 64 to the outside world 
for robotics, control, sensing. 16 inde- 
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plus unique software allowing user to 
define 255 "finite states." Includes 3 
software timers, and stepper motor driv- 
er software. 
100% machine 
coded soft- 
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speed. All se- 
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definitions are ROMable. VIC-20 or C-64 
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/**>* 




ROM Packs Industrial quality circuit 
cards are socketed, solder masked, fully 
bypassed, and include a ground plane 
for low noise operation. Includes 1 
EPROM. 8K& 16K models for VIC-20 and 
C-64. Specify 2732 or 2764 EPROM type. 
Molded plastic case. $39.00 



AM products shipped with comprehen- 
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line 617-283-7719 or write for infor- 
mation: Gloucester Computer, 1 Black- 
burn Center, Gloucester, MA 01930. 




Introduction 

Of all the areas of planning for 
a computer we see, the one that 
is most overlooked is the con- 
sideration given to the computer 
operating environment. 

Things like furniture, flooring, 
power supply and telephone lines 
are often remembered last, or, 
sometimes, forgotten entirely. 
Keep some of the following ideas 
in mind when it comes time to in- 
stall that new computer or 
change an existing installation 
around. 

Whether you are a personal, 
business or corporate micro- 
computer user, the same basic 
ideas presented here apply to just 
about any level of user. 

Where Is It Going To Go? 

The very first step is to size up 
the room or area that the com- 
puter system is going to be 
located in. Is the area well 
lighted, but not too well lighted 
that glare off the CRT will become 
a problem? 

Is the area cooled to the extent 
that the computer (and you) will 
not overheat or suffer from lack of 
sufficient ventilation? 

Are there sufficient GROUND- 
ED electrical outlets present 
around the room or at least in the 
area that will be specific to the 
computer work zone? One of the 

28/Commander September 1983 



most irritating problems is to find 
that the electrical outlet system 
you are on is shared with many 
other electrical noise producing 
machines, such as air condi- 
tioners, heating and cooling 
devices and motor driven devices. 

What happens when some of 
that "dirty" power gets into the 
computer system? Bad news, 
that's what. Lost data, periodic 
computer shutdowns and the like 
can be avoided if you take the 
time to survey the area, its power 
outlets, and the prospects for 
"clean power" BEFORE installing 
the computer system. 

Try to put each piece of com- 
puter hardware on its own outlet, 
or better yet, install a multiple 
outlet with a master power 
switch. The bottom line here is to 
give each peripherial its OWN 
outlet. Don't cram or overload the 
outlet either. 

Be sure to orient the cables and 
power cords of the computer 
system so that all safety hazards 
such as exposed connections, 
cords people could trip over or 
that a chair or table could pinch 
and the like are eliminated. 

What Are We Going 
To Set It On? 

Next, consider the tables or 
computer work stations you are 
going to use. 



Is each table and video monitor 
platform at a proper and comfor- 
table working height? Is the table 
area large enough for the ter- 
minal, video monitor, printer, disk 
drive and other accessories that 
you will be using? 

If the printer will be placed on 
its own table, will the table be 
easy to reach when the time 
comes to connect cables and 
change or remove paper? 

Be sure that the tables are stur- 
dy. One of the most humorous (to 
the person who is looking on) 
sights is to see a hefty letter 
quality printer rocking a flimsy 
table each time the printer per- 
forms a carriage return. One finds 
oneself placing small wagers on 
when the whole installation will 
come grandly crashing to the 
floor. 

So be sure to get firm, well 
assembled furniture. It does not 
have to be expensive, just well 
connected together and sturdy 
once assembled. DON'T EVER 
overload a table or desk 
REGARDLESS of how well it may 
seem to be constructed! 

One last point. Always plan for 
EXPANSION. Someday (and a lot 
sooner than you think), you are 
going to add to the present 
system. Don't run out of room to- 
day for something that you will do 
tomorrow. 



Moses 

THE ASSEMBLER OF THE AGES 
for the VIC 20 



Why MOSES? 

Programs written with MOSES run fifty to several hun- 
dred times faster than programs written in BASIC. A 
program that takes two minutes to execute in BASIC, 
will only take two seconds (or less) to execute when writ- 
ten with MOSES. 

ULTRA-FAST 

MOSES is written in MACHINE 
LANGUAGE! MOSES assembles 
dozens of times faster than 
assemblers written in BASIC. 

ULTRA-SOPHISTICATED 

MOSES makes 3 PASSES, not 
just one or two like most other 
assemblers. 

ULTRA-FRIENDLY 

On screen menu of EASY-TO- 
USE COMMANDS. 

ULTRA-CONVENIENT 

Comes in a CARTRIDGE with sturdy plastic case. 
MOSES is easy to learn and powerful. As you enter 
each line, MOSES verifies syntax, and partially 



Moses 



The 65C02 Assembler for the VIC 20 



assembles the line thereby reducing debugging time 
and conserving memory. This means an even faster 
assembly. Also included with MOSES is a machine lan- 
guage MONITOR with 34 powerful commands to help 
you debug your programs. 
Whether you program for fun or 
profit, or both, you need MOSES. 
You'll love the ability to program 
where imagination is your only 
limit. 

SPECIAL OFFER! 

For a limited time, we will include 
a free kit to upgrade your VIC 
20's outdated 6502 to the new, 
enhanced 65C02A microproces- 
sor, The 65C02A is totally com- 
patible with all VIC 20 software 
and hardware, uses 99% less 
energy, and has 27 new instructions to make program- 
ming easier and faster. And, of course, MOSES takes 
advantage of all 27 instructions. This is a $24.95 value, 
but is included free while quantities last. 



8K • 16K 

RAM EXPANSION 

A high quality memory expansion cartridge 
housed in a sturdy plastic case. This prod- 
uct has an easily accessible dip switch 
which gives you memory block switch- 
ing ability. Use one 8K and one 16K 
for 24K memory or two 1 6K cart- 
ridges for a total of 32K memory. 
6-Month Warranty. 




64K 

RAM EXPANSION 

It's finally here. This highly versatile 
ram cartridge allows you to store or 
write programs in two separate 32K 
banks that are bank selectable with 
software - NO SWITCHES. This pro- 
duct is power stingy using less than 200 
mA current. A must for programmers. 
6-Month Warranty. 



VIC 20 PRODUCTS: 

MOSES $59.95* 

MOSES with 8K RAM expansion 99.95* 



8K RAM Cartridge 
16K RAM Cartridge 
64K RAM Cartridge 



$46.95* 

69.95* 

169.95* 

'Manufacturer's suggested list price 



Call CENTURY MICRO at (916) 920-3656 for the name of a 
dealer in your area. Dealer inquiries invited. 

1832 Tribute Rd., Suite 213, Sacramento, CA 95815 

Circle No. 5 



■■ CEMTURy 
■micro 



What Type of Floor? 

The computer is remarkable! 
Remarkably sensitive to static, 
that is! 

The type of flooring that will be 
used in the area is very important 
to the life of your system (not to 
mention your sanity). 

If carpeting must be used, try 
to select one of non-static 
material. Another method is to in- 
stall a large area static mat over 
the carpet that will be centered 
under what one might call the 
"computer zone". The plastic 
static mat is grounded with a 
small slender wire and is perhaps 
the best safeguard against static. 

An interesting option, and a 
good one if static will be a pro- 
blem, is to locate one or more 
"static buttons" on the computer 
furniture. These "buttons" or 
"conductive foam" pads are 
grounded and act to drain off any 
static charge that you the 
operator may carry when they are 
touched. 

Most importantly, when using 
static buttons, make it a habit to 
discharge yourself BEFORE 
touching a piece of equipment. 
Although it seems all shoes carry 
some type of charge, try to NOT 
wear hard rubber or hard smooth 
man-made sole shoes. They seem 
to be the worst as far as static is 
concerned. On the other hand, 
"Hush Puppy"™ or other similar 
sole type shoes seem to be the 
most compatible around com- 
puters. 

Where Do We Store Things? 

Next, take a good look at how 
you will store the day to day files, 
printouts and new or active file 
floppy disks. A clean, dust proof 
environment is essential not only 
to the proper operation of the 
computer equipment, but to the 
safety of your critical paper and 
magnetic disk media as well. 

Disks should be able to stand 
up on shelves or in drawers. 
Paper should be stacked vertical- 
ly when possible so as to not curl 
or bend. Remember that both 
floppy disks and paper prefer a 
low humidity moderate tempera- 
ture environment. 

Ribbons and other accessories 

30/Commander September 1983 



should be available without hav- 
ing to tear apart a stocking area 
just to find them. 

Keep ALL magnetic media 
away from any magnetic field. 
That means do not store any disk 
or tape near loudspeakers, 
motors, electric typewriters, fans 
or other office or home equip- 
ment that generates magnetic 
fields when in use. 

Most importantly, the tele- 
phone is a remarkable magnetic 
field generator! Do NOT stack or 
store disks near, under or directly 
above a telephone! When the 
phone rings, there goes some 
data. 

Reminds us of the sad story we 
heard of the well known company 
that stored disks on the sides of 
metal cabinets using a magneti- 
cally held box 

Speaking of Telephones. . . 

With the ever increasing use of 
telephone modems, it pays to 
take a close look at your 
telephone and how it relates or 
will relate to the computer 
system. 

Locate the telephone in a con- 
venient spot. Not too close to the 
computer system (see above!) but 
within easy access. 

When using a modem, be sure 
that you try to have a private, non- 
extension phone line. Nothing 
disrupts a computer/modem 
system more than having a per- 
son picking up an extension 
phone and thereby terminating 
data transmission. 

If you are in business, be sure 
that the modem telephone line is 
NOT part of your switchboard or 
PBX type system or your com- 
puter modem transmission will 



suffer the same fate as that of an 
extension phone. 

Last but not least, make sure 
that the modem and telephone 
connectors are compatible and 
that your local telephone com- 
pany is aware that a modem will 
be in use. in many locales, since 
the telephone company central 
switching is done through com- 
puters, the phone company may 
have to "condition" the central 
unit to accept your modem data 
properly. 

Last Will and Testament 

The most important item is just 
about the most distant in our 
minds. Always have full records 
of model, serial #, date of pur- 
chase and replacement cost avail- 
able for each and every piece of 
computer hardware, software and 
accessories you own in case the 
unforeseen disaster occurs. Make 
MANY copies of this data, keep it 
up-to-date and store a copy at the 
computer site, your home and 
perhaps at your bank. 

DO NOT store this data in a 
computer file! That is a danger- 
ous mistake that we may make, 
thinking that if the computer is 
going to be used for data storage, 

why not , well, you get the 

picture! 

In conclusion, installing a 
micro-computer system, be it per- 
sonal, small business or big cor- 
poration, may take more work and 
thought than originally anticipa- 
ted. 

In the long run, you will be glad 
you took that extra hour or spent 
that extra dollar! □ 



SPORTS STRATEGY GAMES 
FOR THE VIC-20* 

No Joystick Required PLAYER VS COMPUTER Cassette 

BASEBALL ADVERSARY 5K $10.95 

PITCHHITTERS, RELIEF PITCHERS, SACRIFICES, ETC. 

FOOTBALL ADVERSARY 13K (5K plus 8K exp.) $14.95 

PENALTIES, SAFETIES, STATISTICS DISPLAY, ETC. 

PARR PROGRAMMING 

2664 TYLER STREET 
GARY, INDIANA 46407 
Circle No. 57 (219) 885-0611 



We pay shipping 
Ind. residents add 5% sales tax 
•VIC-20 is a TM of Commodore 



C-64 TI99/4ATIMEX VIC 20 ATARI 



Circle No. 3 T 

CHILD 

DEVELOPMENT 

SERIES 

(for the 3.5K VIC and 
16K ATARI) 

ADD/SUB— $16.95 

Displays single or multiple 

digits with or w/o pictures, 

borrows, carries, scoring, 

and audio/video feedback. 

NUMER-BECi— $16.95 

Number recognition, object 

counting, object grouping, 

and number/size/shape 

discrimination. 

BECi is composed of professionals dedicated to 

providing non-trivial educational materials for the home 

computer. In addition to our own software, we carry a full 

line of evaluated hardware and software. Send $2 

(refundable) for our catalog. 



Send check or money order to: 
BOSTON EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING, INC. 

78 Dartmouth Street, Boston, MA 02116 
(617)536-5116 "MA res. add 5% tax 

See Us At THE EAST COAST COMPUTER FAIR 



BEC 


I 1 


( aa A a\ 


17] 


A A 


-j"3 


\_aaaa\_A) 





, 



,H6 






*° 



<c 






EXPAND YOUR 

VIC-20 

686% 



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Our board Is the only memory board your VIC 
will ever need! Check these features: 

• Assembled & Tested • Software Slot 

• Full 27 K • Fully Guaranteed 

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• Kit Only 110.00 

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Send check or m/o to: D. C. Circuits 

C.O.D. add $1.50 7460 N - Hw V- "> Suile 35 



CA Res. add 6% tax 



Anderson, CA 96007 



Circle No. 72 



«s^H 



9%1 



sP 






\3V X 



. <J» N 



,es 









>*>' >' 



,>*<^ 



,« w ',o9" 






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\a* 






Circle No. 10 




Circle No. 43 

For your Commodore 64 

For only $12.95 each, our CURSOR 
64 tapes are your best buy for the 
Commodore 64. They take advantage 
of the color, sound, and sprites that 
make the 64 such a delight to use. 
Most of our packages include three 
excellent Basic programs on one cas- 
sette tape. The programs are not copy 
protected, so you can look at the 
source code, and learn how to make 
the 64 do its tricks. 

We don't have room to describe all 
25 of our CURSOR 64 programs here. 
As a sample, you may want to order 
tape 64-5 with the exciting Godzilla 
program. You'll be challenged as you 
try to save Tokyo from from the ram- 
paging Godzilla. Or try tape 64-3 with 
the popular Miser text adventure that 
will take you hours to solve (even if you 
cheat and read the program source). 

We have super programs for the 
VIC 20, such as Dungeon ($12.95), a 
visual adventure for 16K VICs. Our 
VIXEL programs are also popular with 
VIC owners. And, we still sell all 30 of 
the original CURSOR cassettes for the 
original PET and CBM. 

Call or write for a catalog today. Be 
sure and tell us whether you have a 64, 
a VIC, or a PET. We welcome credit 
cards, and ship most orders the same 
day they are received. Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

CURSOR 64, Box 6905 

Santa Barbara, CA 93110 

805-683-1585 



® 



ATTENTION ALL HAMS 

©VINSANDER J 



Magazine 

is proud to announce 
their monthly column 
for Amateur Radio 
Enthusiasts! 



Command Post 




= by Jim Grubbs -^^^—^^^^ 

The command post has always 
been the hub of communications. 
It is here that all information con- 
verges. Decisions are made bas- 
ed on all of the data that reaches 
the command post. Since the first 
leader organized the first govern- 
ment, communications has been 
one of the leading factors in suc- 
cess. The person who possesses 
the superior communication 
skills is victorious. 

The modern command post is a 
myriad of communication forms. 
Each generation has contributed 
to communication as we know it 
today. But not since the moment 
when men and women first learn- 
ed how to speak, and later 
created written language, has 
there been an advancement as far 
reaching as radio. Even in the 
crudest form, electro-magnetic 
propagation has been used for 
less than a century. Imagine the 
effect the Gettysburg address 
would have had on a populace 
listening world wide by radio! 

Radio has evolved fairly rapidly 
as technology goes. From early 
spark gap transmissions on low 
frequencies to today's use of 
radio waves approaching the mil- 
limeter wavelength of light for 
satellite transmission, one iden- 

32/Commander September 1983 



tifiable group of individuals has 
been at the leading edge of vir- 
tually all new developments. The 
commercial operators called 
them "hams", the government 
called them amateur radio 
operators. But they existed even 
before the labels were applied. 

To me an amateur radio 
operator is the perennial ex- 
perimenter, always trying a new 
circuit or modifying an old one. In 
our time though, amateur radio 
has become many things. Ama- 
teurs are involved in worldwide 
voice, morse code, radio teletype, 
slow scan television, regular TV, 
facsimile, satellite communica- 
tions, and such esoteric modes 
as moonbounce and meteor scat- 
ter propagation. 

The eighties have finally 
brought the power of digital com- 
puters to within the easy reach of 
most of us. In the fifties, ILLIAC 
at the University of Illinois, a very 
early forerunner of HAL, kept 
many technicians busy every day 
replacing vacuum tubes. It was a 
massive machine, difficult to 
house even in a very large barn. 
Your VIC has more power than 
that whole machine. Your ten 
dollar calculator even has more 
power! 



What happened in between IL- 
LIAC and VIC was the space pro- 
gram. We gave ourselves a goal 
and then found the way to make 
the dream become reality. Scien- 
tists challenged old ways of do- 
ing things, formulating the 
answers to the problems ever in- 
creasing miniaturization pre- 
sented. From all of this came the 
home computer. You may not 
realize it, but it was ready for you 
ten years ago. The captains of 
American industry though, realiz- 
ed you weren't ready for a com- 
puter yet. So they gave you PONG 
and then more sophisticated 
game machines. They designed 
plug in cartridges that looked like 
an eight track tape because you 
understood eight track tapes. All 
the while, you were being readied 
for a home computer. 

There were many pioneers 
along the road, among them the 
Heath Company who pioneered 
some of the first analog and 
digital computers for the ex- 
perimenter. I still fondly 
remember the Edmund Scientific 
analog computer my junior high 
math teacher bought and I 
assembled. 

As the market increased more 
companies jumped on the band 



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% 



wagon, some with very good pro- 
ducts, but still motivated by 
greed, with prices set as high as 
the market would bear. 

Then something happened. At 
a Commodore board meeting, the 
founder of the company announc- 
ed that Commodore was going to 
build a full color computer for 
$300! The skeptics were many. 
Little did they know that it was 
possible and before long they 
would be displaying proudly on 
their "golden arches" the over 
one million sold sign. The biggest 
surprise is perhaps that even with 
the VIC-20 in the $80 range and 
the C-64 at about $200, there is 
still room for a reasonable profit. 

There are about 400,000 
amateurs in the United States 
alone. Guess where a good many 
of those Commodore products 
have turned up. Since the beginn- 
ing of 1983, amateur operators 
have been able to purchase a full 
fledged computer for less than 
most any other piece of equip- 
ment in the station. Even 
microphones and special morse 
code keys cost more than a 
VIC-20. 

Amateur radio knows no age 
limits. The youngest is perhaps 
six, the oldest, who knows. The 
same is true of amateurs with 
computers. Most of you are aware 
of the possibilities of your Com- 
modore computer, few of you yet 
know how to realize that poten- 
tial. That is why Command Post 
was created, to help realize the 
possibilities. Every form of com- 
munications mentioned earlier 
can be enhanced or in some 
cases even revolutionized with 
the help of your computer. We 
will discuss ideas and concepts, 
look at commercially available 
amateur software and compatible 
hardware. We will concentrate on 
connecting your computer to the 
real world— your amateur station, 
and programs that assist in radio 
related activities that require no 
interfacing. 

I'd like to speak to the non- 
amateurs for a moment. I'm glad 
you are still reading! Perhaps the 
subjects we discuss will prompt 
an interest in amateur radio or 
rekindle an old desire to be a 
"ham". The licensing structure is 

34/Commander September 1983 



changing. In Canada "packet 
radio" already allows some com- 
puter hobbyists to exchange pro- 
grams over the air eliminating 
telephone costs and tying up the 
family line. Perhaps you are 
already a short-wave listener. 
Many of the subjects we discuss 
here will allow you to listen in on 
teletype and code transmissions 
using your home computer, hook- 
ed up to your receiver. Even this 
month's project falls into this 
category. For the rest of you, all 
of the interfacing we discuss has 
applications for virtually any kind 
of control. If you do not already 
own one, a programmers refer- 
ence guide is suggested. The 
memory map and explanations 
are particularly valuable. We will 
be looking at the pseudo RS-232 
port quite a bit also. 

For those of you who are in- 
terested, I have been a licensed 
amateur radio operator for 22 
years. I was first licensed as 
KN9EIV at age eleven. My interest 
in computers began about the 
same time. My home built digital 
computer that added and sub- 
tracted from zero to 127 in binary 
won me top honors for my divi- 
sion in the St. Louis Science fair 
in 1963. The VIC-20 is my first real 
home computer. I have done a lot 
of design and building of digital 
control circuitry for amateur ap- 
plications. 

So, with any luck at all, one of 
our fellow amateurs Owen Gar- 
riott, W5LFL is in space aboard 
the space shuttle STS-9/Spacelab 
flight as this column appears. It 
somehow seems appropriate for 
the program that brought us our 
home computers to have a 
pioneer like Owen, an amateur 
radio operator, aboard. In celebra- 
tion of these events, let's get on 
with the show! 

In looking for a subject for my 
first column, I asked myself 
which program do I hear asked 
about the most. Without a doubt I 
get more inquiries about a CW 
(morse code) receive program 
than any other. It seems almost a 
ritual that when a ham buys a new 
computer one of the first things 
he or she does is write a simple 
morse code sending program. We 
will cover that subject in future 



issues and show you how to add 
some very nice features to a basic 
keyboard. For now though let's 
concentrate on something more 
fascinating, a CW receive pro- 
gram. 

Before we proceed let me issue 
a few precautions. The receive 
program to follow has very 
definite limitations. Within these 
limitations it does work and is a 
good exercise in taking data and 
having our computer analyze it. It 
is a practical, simple program 
with practical applications, but it 
won't be everything we could 
hope for. After all, we have to 
save something for the future! 

Our program was written for 
the VIC-20. It should be easily 
adaptable to the C-64 and other 
machines. You will have to bear 
with me for a few columns. I do 
not yet have access to a C-64, but 
hope to before year's end. 

Machine sent morse code has 
several elements that make it a 
likely candidate for computer 
decoding. All the information in a 
morse code character is binary in 
nature. The key is either open or 
closed. Things get a bit more 
complicated when we realize that 
our on and off tones can be of two 
different lengths, one length for 
"dits" and another three times as 
long for "dahs". Additionally we 
have intra-letter spacing, inter-let- 
ter spacing and word spacing. We 
must be able to tell when each 
character begins and ends and 
when each word begins and ends. 
Our program must make allow- 
ances if we want it to decode 
more than one sending speed. 

Within the limitations of the 
BASIC language and the speed of 
the VIC-20 the Command Post RX 
program meets these require- 
ments. 

Take a few minutes to type in 
the program as listed and then 
save it (See Figure 1). Steal your 
joystick (with firebutton) back 
from the kids. We are going to use 
it to send code to the VIC! 

When a mathematical formula 
or set of formulas is used to 
represent a real world situation it 
is called an algorithm fal ge rith 
em), our buzzword for the month! 

Briefly, the program is broken 



down into several parts. Lines 100 
through 260 are initialization. 
Lines 280 through 480 are the 
meat of the program. The lines 
500 and above are the data for our 
look up table, RX$. 

We first determine if the key is 
up or down. Then we start timing 
the pulse if the key is down. When 
we let up on the key we do some 
more timing to decide whether 
the letter is finished. When you 
first run Command Post RX it real- 
ly doesn't know the difference 
between dits and dahs, you have 
to teach it. It is a quick learner 
though! With the joystick plugg- 
ed in use the fire button to send 
T E S T in morse code. Chances 
are you will get some gooble-di- 
gook on the screen. Now wait just 
a few seconds and try it again. If 
you are sending cleanly (not the 
easiest task with a joystick), by 
magic your VIC-20 printsT EST 
as you send the letters! 

Take a look at lines 310, 350, 
390, and 430. We are actually 
checking the joystick FB pin to 
see if the button is pushed. We 
will discuss this more next- time 
when we take a look at the I/O 
ports and how to get information 
into and out of them. The rest of 
our algorithm helps us determine 
dits and dahs and ultimately what 
character was received. That big 
long string in line 320 is our tim- 
ing. It also continually adjusts for 
speed variations. 

Now let's look at the data table 
for a minute. Notice anything 
about the arrangement of the let- 
ters and figures in our table? 
Sound out the letters or write 
down their morse equivalents. An 
"e" is a single dit. It holds posi- 
tion one in our table. How about 
the zero-dah,dah,dah,dah,dah. It 
is near the end of the table. Our 
final character is the period at 
position 83; notice it has six 
elements, the zero had five, the 
"e" only one. Look at the whole 
table and you begin to see the 
pattern. The shorter characters 
are first, the longer ones later. 
Can you spot the one confusing 
thing about this? How about "a" 
and "n", "d" and "u", etc. I'll let 
you think about those until next 
month. 



The "-" is a fill character used 
in the table for illegal combina- 
tions of dits and dahs. 

The program has two major 
limitations. Command Post RX 
has no way to adjust for sloppy 
sending. Unlike the human ear/ 
brain combination, it can't guess 
what you send. It does everything 
in a very objective manner and 
prints exactly what you send. You 
can achieve some fine-tuning by 
playing with the value in lines 330 
and 410-.60V. Try changing the 
.60 a bit one way or the other. 

The other major limitation is 
speed. With the execution time 
necessary for BASIC this program 
can only get through its loops ac- 
curately to about twenty words 
per minute. The obvious solution 
is a machine language routine. 
Who will be the first to write us 
one? 

The more experienced among 
you have probably already figured 
out how you can interface this to 
your receiver. For the rest of you, 
all the details come next month. 
In the meantime find yourself a 
567 PLL integrated circuit chip 
and either a plug for the joystick 
socket or a connector for the user 
I/O port. Command Post RX is as 
good as all of the inexpensive 
software programs on the market 
right now, and all it cost you was 
the price of this magazine. 

Finally, if you have any com- 
ments, suggestions, or general 
questions you can reach me at 
P.O. Box 3042, Springfield, Illinois 
62708. If you expect a reply in- 
clude an SASE and allow time for 
me to answer. In the meantime, 
welcome again to Command 
Post. Tell your friends! D 

To be continued on page 38 







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Commander September 1983/35 



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and 1 541 disk drives and recognizes 
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Commodore drives. Super Disk offers 
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following technical specifications apply 
to Super Disk. 

Disk Parameters: 5.25 inch single-sided, dou- 
ble density diskette media; number of tracks — 
35; number of sectors per track - 17 to 21 
(variable); sector size — 256 bytes; number of 
sectors per disk — 683. 

Capacities: User sectors per disk — 667; disk 
capacity — 174,648; data capacity — 168,656; 
relative data capacity — 167,132; program 
capacity — 168,656; directory capacity - 144 
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Electrical Interface: Power requirements — in- 
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MSD's CPI Parallel Interface works with either the VIC-20 or Commodore 64 
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switches. 

The CPI plugs into the serial port and directly interprets the signals generated by 
the computers built in software, therefore no software needs to be loaded or 
enabled. All you need is built into the CPI cartridge. This feature allows the CPI to be 
compatible with most software written for the VIC-20 and Commodore 64 that utilize 
1515 or 1525 printers. 

The CPI is capable of twelve printing modes, specified by software or hardware 
switch settings. These twelve printing modes are combinations of three options as 
follows: 

Line Feed, ASCII Conversion and Listing Legibility. 

Line Feed: The CPI can generate a line feed if needed through software or 
hardware switches. 

ASCII Conversion: The CPI converts Commodore ASCII into standard ASCII 
characters through software or hardware switches. 

Usting Legibility: Since many printers do not support the codes/graphics that the 
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 produce, program listing can become illegible if not 
impossible (Printer may "hang-up"). The CPI provides three listing modes to 
address this problem — Normal, Extended Tag and Abbreviated Tag. 

In the Normal mode the CPI passes all commands from the computer to the 
printer. The Normal code would be used for programs written by the user or 
programs with commands supported by the printer. 

In the Extended Tag mode the CPI will generate "tags" (neumonics) for graphics, 
cursor control, print control and special characters. For any graphics characters that 
are not standard ASCII, the decimal value of the graphics symbol is printed. For 
instance, the "checker board" character (press the Commodore key and the plus 
sign) lists as [166]. 

The Abbreviated Tag mode is the same as Extended Tag mode, except all the 
tags are replaced by the "#" sign. This mode would be used if you wanted a 
program listing to be formatted as the original program. That is without the "tags" 
using several print spaces instead of one print space. 

The CPI is equipped with a built-in self-test program that will check the RAM, 
ROM and 1/0 hardware of its microprocessor. This test can be helpful in determining 
if something is faulty or if the configuration you are using is valid. The self-test will 
print information to the printer. 



CPI LISTING LEGIBILITY TAGS 



TAG 


Is Printed For: 


CD1 


Cursor Down 


cui 


Cursor Up 


CL| 


Cursor Left 


CR1 


Cursor Right 


HC| 


Home Cursor 


csi 


Clear Screen 


RV) 


Reverse On 


ROl 


Reverse Off 


[IN] 


Insert 




Call toll free 



TAG Is Printed For: 

DL] Delete 
BLK] Change to Black 
WHt] Change to White 
RED] Change to Red 
Change to Cyan 
Change to Purple 
Change to Green 
Change to Blue 
Change to Yellow 

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CYN] 
PUR] 
GRN] 
BLU] 
YEL] 



TAG Is Printed For: 

ORA] Change to Orange 

BRN] Change to Brown 

LTR] Change to Light Red 

GY1] Change to Grey 1 

GY2] Change to Grey 2 

LTG] Change to Light Green 

LTB] Change to Light Blue 

GY3] Change to Gray 3 

F1] Function Key 1 



TAG 

F2 
F3 
F4 
F5 
F6' 
F7 
F8 
PI] 



Is Printed For: 

Function Key 2 
Function Key 3 
Function Key 4 
Function Key 5 
Function Key 6 
Function Key 7 
Function Key 8 
Pi Symbol 



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VIC-20 and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commodore Business 
Machines, Inc. circle no. 29 



Commander September 1983/37 



Commodore 

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OWNERS: 

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Continued from page 35 LISTING 1 

A 108 DII1 RX$<85) 
IF/ 206 JS=3?137-X=0:V=0:Z=0 
JK 21W FOR N=lTQS4:REFfD RX$<N>=NEXT 
™ 240 POKE 37138,96 

250 PRINT " [CLEAR] C REV J COMMAND POST RX- 

"sPRINT 

268 POKE JS,0 

280 JR-PEEK CJS) RND 32: IF JR<32 THEH38 



230 GOTO 280 

3G0 £=0 

310 JR=PEEK CJS) AND 32=S=S+10 

320 IF JR=32 THEN Z=CC5*Z)+C2*S) )/6 ■ V=C 

2# V ) + 1 •■ X= < 2*X ) : GOTO 330 

330 IF S <.£0*Z THEN 310 

340 V=C2*'t i >:X=C2*X) + 1 

350 JR=PEEK CJS) AND 32=5=3+10 

360 IF JR<32 THEN 350 

370 Z=<4*Z+SV5 

380 3=0 

390 JR=PEEK CJS) AND 32:3=3+10 

408 IF JR<32 THEN 300 

410 IF SC60*Z THEN 390 

420 GOSUE 470 

438 JR=PEEK CJS) AND 32=S=S+10 

440 IF JR-C32 THEN 308 

450 IF S<C2*Z) THEN 430 

460 PRINT" "J :G0T0 230 

470 X=C2#X):P=K+V:IF P>84 THEN P=84 

438 PRINT RX$CP); :X=0:V=0 : RETURN 

580 DATA E,T, I, A, N,M,S,U., R, W,D, K,-G;0,H, 

V*F#- 

505 DATA L,.-,P,J,B#><jC#V,Z*Gj-*-*5,4*-* 

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38/Commander September 1983 



A Comprehensive 

Editor/ Assembler 

for the VIC-2Q 

and C-64 



Part III 

by Eric Giguere 




This Is the third and final part of my 
series on EDIT/ASM, a comprehensive 
editor/assembler for the VIC-20 and Com- 
modore 64. It's of Interest mainly to 
cassette users but I would also like the 
disk users to pay attention for the first few 
paragraphs as I have some changes to 
make. 

Changes 

These changes are concerned 
with the Assembler module given 
last month. I noticed two prob- 
lems that need to be corrected. 
The first was when the program 
was getting the addressing 
modes it considered a label like 
LABEL+1 to be totally separate 
from LABEL, not just LABEL with 
one added. This created problems 
by giving error messages. The 
second problem also arose dur- 
ing the same section. The routine 
that figures out the addressing 
mode (lines 3175-3195) never 
bothered to check if there was a 
comma preceding an X or Y deno- 
tation. This meant that a state- 
ment such as STA LABELX would 
be interpreted as STA LABEL,X, 
the wrong addressing mode. To 
correct these problems I've in- 
cluded a list of changes to make 
at the end of this article (see 
Figure 1). Simply type in the lines 
exactly as listed (they'll write over 
some existing lines) and the pro- 
blems will disappear. Save your 
new version and then have fun 
assembling your programs. 

Assembling with Cassette 

If you use a cassette recorder 
you're probably wondering why 



the Assembler module can 
assemble to disk but not to tape. 
The problem lies with the way 
cassette and disk files operate. 
With a disk drive you can open 
what is called a program file. This 
is a file that will be considered a 
program and will be loaded as 
such. All you have to do is open it, 
send two bytes holding the start 
address of the program and then 
send the rest of your program, 
one byte at a time. This is what 
the assembler does. Unfortunate- 
ly, you cannot do this on a 
cassette recorder. The only type 
of files it will open are data or se- 
quential files. Here, too, you can 
send data to the file one byte at a 
time, but you can't load the file 
when finished. It can only be ac- 
cessed by an OPEN command, 
not a LOAD command. Because 
opening a file to cassette was not 
the solution, I had to find another 
answer to the problem. 

At first I considered moving the 
OPEN routine in ROM down into 
RAM and make a few changes to 
it. But I felt that there were two 
problems with this: it would use 
up too much memory and it would 
be tricky to make the modifica- 
tions. That is why I came up with 
the two programs CASS CONV 20 
(See Figure 2) and CASS CONV 64 
(see Figure 3). The will load in your 
data fi le from tape and then save the 
data as a program which can be 
loaded as usual. It's sort of a hassle, 
but it does work. 



How to Use CASS CONV 

Before you can use CASS 
CONV 20/64 it is necessary to add 
a few lines to the Assembler 
module. These are given at the 
end of the article and simply open 
a file to cassette and send a few 
parameters. From then on the 
assembled program will be sent 
in byte form using the CHR$ 
statement. When finished you'll 
have a data file that only needs to 
be converted into a program. 
REMEMBER: after the assembly 
you'll have only a data file, not a 
program. It will be necessary to 
use CASS CONV to change it to a 
program. 

Once you have made the 
changes and saved the Assem- 
bler you can proceed to typing in 
CASS CONV. (CASS CONV 20 Is 
for the VIC and CASS CONV 64 is 
for the C64.) Please make sure 
you have the appropriate version, 
as they are not interchangeable. 
After typing it in be sure to save 
the program, because a mistake 
in the data statements could 
cause the computer to lock up. 
Once you're sure everything is 
AOK you can run the program. Be 
sure to have a data tape prepared 
by the Assembler on hand. If you 
don't, use the Editor to create a 
simple little program and run it 
through the Assembler (which we 
just changed a while back). 
Reload CASS CONV and place 
the data tape in the recorder. 

Commander September 1983/39 




Now type RUN and hit 
RETURN. The screen will clear 
and there will be a momentary 
wait. Then the MESSAGE 
"ENTER FILE NAME:" ("FILE 
NAME:" on the VIC) will appear. 
Enter the name of the file you are 
going to convert. It will auto- 
matically add the suffix ".OBJ" 
(example: type in TEST and it will 
open TEST.OBJ). If you want to 
exit simply type QUIT when asked 
for the file name. It will then open 
the file and jump to a machine 
language routine which will load 
in your data, ask you to press a 
key and then save the data as a 
program. When it asks to press a 
key, rewind the tape or place a 
new one in the recorder. The pro- 
gram will then be saved under the 
same name. Once finished the 
computer may or may not return 
to the normal "READY.", depen- 
ding on where your program was 
located (as defined by the ORG 
statement). If it doesn't, simply 
power down and up again (turn it 
off and on). You may now load 
your assembly language program. 



A note of caution: if you ac- 
cidentally stop the program never 
type CONT to continue where you 
left off. Instead, always RUN it 
over. Also, always use CASS 
CONV on a VIC with 12K or more 
(8K expander or greater), never on 
a regular VIC. 

Moving the Cassette Buffer 

CASS CONV works fine with 
almost any assembly language 
program. The only exceptions to 
this are programs residing in the 
cassette buffer. These cannot 
properly be converted by CASS 
CONV because it already uses 
the cassette buffer when loading 
in the data. Solution: moving the 
Cassette buffer. This is achieved 
by typing 

POKE 178,0: POKE 179,30 (RTN) 
This moves the cassette buffer to 
7680 instead of the normal 828, 
leaving you free to convert pro- 
grams that normally reside there. 
After the conversion you should 
change it back: 

POKE 178,60: POKE 179,3 (RTN) 
The buffer will now be in its nor- 



mal location of 828. Notice that 
you should do this kind of thing 
only with small programs. If you 
moved the cassette buffer while 
using a large program (such as 
the Assembler) you could effec- 
tively create a hole in the middle 
of the program. Always be careful 
when moving things around. 

How CASS CONV Works 

CASS CONV uses a machine 
language routine to load and save 
the data. This routine is poked in- 
to the first few lines of screen 
memory (starting at 4096 on the 
VIC and 1024 on the C64). I chose 
this location because you may 
want to assemble a program in a 
certain location and CASS CONV 
might already be there. To avoid 
this I placed the routine in screen 
memory where no one will touch 
it. This also explains why you 
should never type CONT if you 
stop the program. If you're not 
careful the whole routine will 
scroll off the screen and when 
you try accessing it the computer 
will freeze up. Be careful. 



<", "THENXX-1 -OOTO320S 
<","THENY-2:GOTO3205 



Figure 1 

ADD THE FOLLOWING LINES TO THE ASSEMBLER MODULE 

3183 IFX*»"X"ANDMID*<C*,LEN<C*)-1,1)" 
3190 IFX*»"V"ANDMID*CC*, LEN<C*>-1 > 1 >« 
3220 V*»C* : OOSUB3000 ' C*-V* 

3222 I FLEFT* C B* > 1 > - " B " ANDB*<> "BIT" THENT-9 ■ 00T03235 

3223 F-0 : FOR I ■ 1 TOS V ■ I FC*-S* < I ) THEN I F V C I ) +RDC236THENOR-0 : F- 1 : 1 -8 V+ 1 

3226 NEXTJIFFTHEN3230 

3227 0R«4 

3230 T-GR+XX+V+P+IM+1 : IF<T-6ORT«7)AND<P-0>THENT«T+1 

3233 IFT-3ANDP-0THENT-T-1 

3233 PC-PC+1 : IFT<40RT«9THENPOPC-1 

3240 BKCQ)««T:NEXTG 

3353 NEXTG : PRI NT#3, CHR* <0>; -PR I NT#4,R*" ASSEMBLY COMPLETE.": 

IFSV-0THEN350 

53 1 Z**R I GHT* < V* > 1 > = I FZ*« " * " 0RZ*- " ) " THENV*-LEFT* < V* , F > ■ GOTO3003 

501 1 IFZ*O"X"AND2*O"Y"THEN5015 

3012 IFMID*<V*,F, 1)«","THENV**LEFT$CV*,F) :GOTQ5003 

READY. 

MAKE THE FOLLOWING ADDITIONS FOR CASSETTE: 

2680 OPENS , 1 * 2 * OF* : G0T027 1 

2715 D V-OG- 1 NT < OG/256 > *256 : PR I NT#3 , CHR * < DV > ; CHR* < 00/256 > i 

3245 I F0D* 1 THEND V-PC- 1 NT C PC236 > *256 : PR I NT#3 , CHR* C D V > i CHR* < PC/236 > i 

READ t . To be continued on page 42 



40/Commander September 1983 



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Circle No. 11 



w 






As I was saying, CASS CONV 
uses a machine language routine. 
I've provided the assembly listing 
(done on EDIT/ASM, of course) for 
all you assembly language fana- 
tics (see Figure 4). Basically what 
it does is load in the start address 
and set a pointer to this location. 
(The $FFFF at line 34 is just there 
as a dummy location. It is chang- 
ed by lines 24 and 27.) It also 
loads the ending address and 
places this in memory. The com- 
puter then loads each byte of the 
program and stores it in memory, 
incrementing the pointer each 
time. When it reaches the loca- 
tion pointed to by LENGTH it 
stops and loads the end-of- 
program pointer with this value. It 
closes the file, prints a message 
and saves the data as a program. 
It's a simple routine that does the 
job quite well. 

You probably noticed that I 
didn't have to use the pointer 
LENGTH in my program. Instead, 
I could have used ENDPRG, 
which would also save me the 
trouble of loading it in lines 45 to 
48. The only reason I put it in was 
to make the program a bit clearer. 
I think it is easier to follow with 
LENGTH and ENDPRG as 
separate pointers. (If you want, 
you could always use EDIT/ASM 
to change it!) 

A Final Word 

I have to admit that EDIT/ASM 
is a trifle slow when assembling. 
This is to be expected: the pro- 
gram is in BASIC. But it beats 
paying $50-$150 for an assembler. 
That's why I think EDIT/ASM is 
quite worth typing in. But for 
those cassette users who don't 
want to enter all three programs 
simply send me a self-addressed 
(no stamps unless Canadian) 
mailer and a blank cassette along 
with $6 to: Eric Giguere, Box 901, 
Peace River, Alberta, Canada TOH 
2X0. Please be sure to include 
which version you want, other- 
wise I'll send you the VIC version. 
If you have any questions or pro- 
blems please do not hesitate to 
write me at the above address. 
Have fun!D 

42/Commander September 1983 



Continued from page 40 Fiaiire 2 

5 PR I NT " [ CLEAR ] " : FOR I *0TO 1 32 : RE ABA : POKE 

4036+1 ,fl: NEXT 

10 P0KE36879,27 

20 PR I NT " [ BLACK ] C DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN 3 C DOWN 

] C DOWN ] [ DOWN ] C R I GHT 3 [ R I GHT 3 [ R I GHT 3 ED 1 1/ 

ASM CASSETTE [RIGHT 3 [RIGHT] [RIGHT 3 [RIGHT 

3 [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT3 [RIGHT3C0N 

VERTER" 

30 PR I NT " [ DOWN ] C BLUE ] F I LE NAME : " J = OPEN 

1,0=1 NPUT# 1 , Nfl* : PR I NT •• CLOSE 1 

35 IFNfl*="QUIT"THENEND 

40 Nfl*=Nfi*+".0BJ" = PR I NT "HIT RETURN WHEN 

RE AD V " : W A I T 1 97 , 64 : WA I T 1 97 , 1 3 
45 PR I NT "OK." 

50 OPEN 1,1,0, Nfl* : PR I NT " LOAD I NG " • SVS 

4096 
60 END 

100 DATA 32, 192, 255, 162, 1, 32, 198, 
255, 32, 207, 255, 133, 193, 141 

101 DATA 38, 16, 32, 207, 255, 133, 194 
, 141, 39, 16, 32, 207, 255, 133 






102 DATA 251, 32, 207, 255, 13? 
2, 207 

103 DATA 16, 208. 3, 238, 



252, 3 



C-J-J > 



141, 255, 255, 238, 38 

39, 16, 173, 
38, 16, 197, 251, 208, 235, 173 

104 DATA 39, 16, 197, 252, 208, 223, 17 
3, 38, 16, 133, 174, 173, 39, 16 

105 DATA 133, 175, 169, 1, 32, 195, 255 
, 162, 255, 232, 189, 109, 16, 240 

106 DATA 5, 32, 66, 231, 208, 245, 165, 
197, 201, 64, 240, 250, 169, 193 

107 DATA 166, 174, 164, 175, 32, 216, 2 
55, 32, 204, 255, 96, 72, 73, 84 



108 DATA 32, 65, 32, 75, 



63.- 89, 32, 84 
, 79, 32, 83, 65, 86, 69 
109 DATA 46, 46, 46, 46, 13, 0, 

Figure 3 
5 PR I NT " [ CLEAR 3 " : FOR I =0TO 1 32 : RE AD A : POKE 
1024+ I, A: NEXT 

1 POKE53280 , 3 : P0KE5328 1 , 1 
20 PR I NT " [ BLACK 3 C DOWN 3 C DOWN 3 C DOWN 3 C DOWN 
3 [ DOWN 3 C DOWN 3 ED I T/A3M CASSETTE CONVERTE 
R[ DOWN 3 [DOWN 3" 

33 PR I NT "ENTER NAME OF FILE: " ; = OPEN 1,0 
: INPUTttl , Nfl* : PR I NT : CLOSE 1 
35 I FNfl*= " QU I T " THENEND 

40 NA*=NA*+ " . OBJ " : PR I NT " C DOWN 3 PRESS RET 
URN WHEN READY . . " : Wfl I T 1 97 , 64 : Wfl I T 1 97 , 1 3 
45 PR I NT "OK..." 

50 OPEN 1,1,0, Nfl* : PR I NT " LOAD I NG " = SVS 

1024 
60 END 

100 DATA 32, 192, 255, 162, 1, 32, 198, 
255, 32, 207, 255, 133, 193, 141 
181 DATA 38, 4, 32, 207, 255, 133, 194, 











141. 39. 


4. 3 


2. 207. 2 


'55 j 1 33 \ Jft 








182 DATA 


251. 


32. 207. 


cl-J-J. Uo. cL-Jcl.' £i \t- 








2. 207. 2 


55. 141. 255. 


C.JJ.- {LOO J OO fflSOi 








183 DATA 


4. 208. 3. 238. 39. 4. 173. 38 "^* 








. 


4. 197. 


251. 


288. 23S 


i. 173 








104 DATA 


39. 4 


. 197. 25 


i2. 288. 223. 173 








i 


33. 4. 


133. 


174. 173. 


39. 4 








\ 


105 DATA 


133. 


175. 169. 


1. 32. 195. 255 








) 


162. 255. 2c 


2. 189. 109. 4. 240 








10 


5. 32 


. 22. 231 


. 288. 245. 165. 










1ST, 201 


. 64. 


240. 256 


!. 169. 193 








107 DATA 


166. 


174. 164. 


175. 32. 216. 2 








55. 32. 204. 2 


55. 96. 7 


"2. 73. 84 








108 DATA 


32. € 


5. 32. 7= 


i. 69. 89. 32. 84 








. 


79. 32. 


CO 
0*5. 


65. 36. 69 








109 DATA 


46. 46. 46. 46. 13. 13. 














Figure 4 


0001 


0400 








0802 


0400 






* EDIT/AS 


!M III - CASSETTE SAVER 


0003 


0400 








0004 


0400 






} 








0005 


0400 








ORG 


$0400 


; SCREEN MEMORY <*100O FOR VIC) 


0006 


0400 






J 








0007 


0400 






OPEN 


EQU 


*FFC0 


.'OPEN FILE 


0006 


0400 






CHKIN 


EQU 


*FFC6 


;SET INPUT CHANNEL 


0009 


0400 






CHRIN 


EQU 


$FFCF 


J GET CHARACTER FROM FILE 


0010 


0400 






PRINT 


EQU 


*E716 


jPRINT-$E742 FOR VIC 


0011 


0400 






CLOSE 


EQU 


*FFC3 


; CLOSE FILE 


0012 


0400 






CLRCHN EQU 


*FFCC 


; CLEAR I/O CHANNELS 


0013 


0400 






SAVE 


EQU 


*FFDS 


J SAVE MEMORY 


0014 


0400 






STPROG EQU 


*C1 


; START OF ASSEMBLY PROGRAM 


0015 


0400 






ENDPRG EQU 


*AE 


;end of program 


0016 


0400 






KEV 


EQU 


197 


/KEYBOARD MATRIX 


0017 


8400 






LENGTH EQU 


*FB 


j COMPARISON POINTER 


0018 


0400 






. 








0019 


0400 


20 


C0 


FF START 


JSR 


OPEN 


;make sure file is open 


0020 


0403 


A2 


01 




LUX 


#1 




0021 


0485 


20 


C6 


FF 


JSR 


CHKIN 


;OPEN INPUT LINE TO FILE #1 


0022 


0408 


20 


CF 


FF 


JSR 


CHRIN 


;get low-byte of start address 


0023 


040B 


85 


CI 




STA 


STPROG 




0024 


0401) 


8D 


26 


04 


STA 


POINTR+1 




0025 


0418 


28 


CF 


FF 


JSR 


CHRIN 


;get high-bvte 


0026 


0413 


85 


C2 




STA 


STPROG+1 




0027 


8415 


8D 


27 


04 


STA 


POINTR+2 




0026 


0418 


20 


CF 


FF 


JSR 


CHRIN 


;now get low-byte of length 


0029 


041B 


85 


FB 




STA 


LENGTH 




0030 


041D 


28 


CF 


FF 


JSR 


CHRIN 


;get high-byte 


0031 


0428 


65 


FC 




STA 


LENGTH* 1 




0032 


8422 






. 








0033 


0422 


28 


CF 


FF LOOP 


JSR 


CHRIN 


J LOOP TO STORE VALUES IN MEMORY 


0034 


0425 


8D 


FF 


FFPOINTR STfl 


♦FFFF 


;as pointed to by pointr 


0035 


0428 


EE 


26 


04 


INC 


POINTR+1 


;mqve pointr up i 


0036 


042B 


B0 


03 




BNE 


SKIP 




0037 


842D 


EE 


27 


04 


INC 


POINTR+2 




0038 


8438 


RD 


26 


04 SKIP 


LDA 


POINTR+1 


; compare pointr to see if it 



To be continued on page 44 



Commander September 1983/43 



w 



Continued from page 43 












— — 


0039 


0433 


C5 


FB 






CMP 


LENGTH 


.:HflS REACHED MEMORV 
POINTED TO BV 


0040 


0435 


D8 


EB 






BNE 


LOOP 


; LENGTH 


0041 


0437 


AB 


27 


84 




LDR 


POINTR+2 




0042 


843R 


C5 


FC 






CMP 


LENGTH+1 




0043 


043C 


D0 


E4 






BNE 


LOOP 


;NO, GO BACK FOR MORE 
CHARACTERS 


9044 


043E 








,1 








0045 


043E 


RD 


26 


04 




LDR 


POINTR+1 


.: ENBPRG IS POINTER TO WHERE 


0046 


0441 


85 


RE 






STR 


ENBPRG 


;TO SAVE UP TO 


0047 


0443 


RD 


27 


04 




LBR 


POINTR+2 




0048 


0446 


85 


RF 






STR 


ENBPRG+1 




0049 


0448 








) 








0050 


0448 


R9 


01 






LDR 


#1 




0051 


044R 


20 


C3 


FF 




JSR 


CLOSE 


; CLOSE FILE #1 


0052 


044D 








t 








0053 


044D 


R2 


FF 






LBX 


#255 


; PR I NT MESSAGE 


0054 


044F 


E8 






GET 


I NX 






0055 


0450 


BD 


6D 


04 




LDR 


MESSGE.X 




0056 


0453 


F0 


05 






BEQ 


WRIT 




0057 


0455 


20 


16 


E7 




JSR 


PRINT 




0053 


0458 


D0 


F5 






BNE 


GET 




0059 


045fl 








A 








0060 


0458 


85 


C5 




WRIT 


LDR 


KEV 


;WAIT FOR A KEVPRESS 


0061 


045C 


C9 


40 






CMP 


#64 




0062 


045E 


F0 


Ffl 






BEQ 


WRIT 




0063 


0460 








t 








0064 


0460 


R9 


CI 




RESflVE 


LBR 


#STPROG 


;lorb POINTERS 


0065 


0462 


R6 


RE 






LDX 


ENBPRG 




(dQ66 


0464 


R4 


RF 






LDV 


ENBPRG+1 




me? 


0466 


20 


B3 


FF 




JSR 


SAVE 


; SAVE FROM STPROG TO ENBPRG 


0068 


0469 








> 








Q&69 


0469 


20 


CC 


FF 




JSR 


CLRCHN 


;mrke sure everything is 


0070 


046C 


60 






EXIT 


RTS 




jNICE & TIDV RND LEAVE 


0071 


046D 








t 








0072 


046D 


48 
20 
4B 
20 
28 
56 
2E 


49 
41 
45 
54 
53 
45 
2E 


54 
20 
59 
4F 
41 
2E 
2E 


ME8SGE 


RSC 


'HIT R KEV 


TO SAVE....' 


0073 


046D 








t 








0074 


046D 








;TWO CRRRIRGE RETURNS 


ANB A ZERO DELIMITER 


0075 


046D 


0D 


8B 


00 




BVT 


13,13,8 




0076 


0470 








i 








0077 


0470 








;VIC VERSION HRS ONE 1 


:.R. RND TWO ZEROS 


SYMBOL TABLE 














OPEN- 


*FFC0 


CHKIH 


— *FFC6 


CHRIN— *FFCF 


PRINT— *E7 16 CLOSE— *FFC3 


CLRCHN-*FFCC 


SRVE- 


— *FFB8 


STPROG-*Cl ENDPRG-*AE KEV *C5 


LENGTH~*FB START- 


*0400 LOOP- 


— $0422 POINTR-*0425 SKIP $0430 


GET— 


*044F 


WRIT- 


— *043A 


RE8AVE-*0460 


EXIT *046C MESSGE-*046B 



44/Commander September 1983 




v** Ba ?S « 



Ot B«» S '» C 



Commands in Overview 

by Tim Parker 





In the last column of this 
series, I mentioned a few of the 
ways to make BASIC programm- 
ing a painless undertaking. Such 
things as structuring programs, 
documenting well, and using 
descriptive variable names seem 
like common sense, but are 
seldom employed. 

In this second part, as promis- 
ed, we'll look at a few of the more 
advanced BASIC functions that 
are readily available to the Com- 
modore computer user, and also 
delve into a few other assorted 
subjects. Once again, a reminder 
that this series is not going to 
teach you the fundamentals of 
BASIC. For that you require a well 
written book. Instead, this series 
will examine a few of the "tricks" 
that make BASIC programming 
easy, fast, and versatile from a 
programmer's point of view. 
(Those that missed the first in- 
stallment, can order a back copy 
of Commander's June issue.) 

First a word about the Com- 
modore BASICs. On all Com- 
modore machines I have seen, 
the ability to use full screen 
editing exists. That means that if 
an error is made in a line, the 
operator (programmer) merely has 
to move the cursor to the error 
and correct it on the screen. 



When the RETURN key is hit, the 
error will have been corrected. 
The ability to employ full screen 
editing is a virtue few program- 
mers appreciate until they use a 
computer without the function. 
Many machines running a stan- 
dard BASIC require either an ex- 
asperatingly complex editing se- 
quence to be learned, or need the 
faulty line to be typed. When a 
program has many bugs, that can 
get to be very frustrating! 

Another feature that is sported 
by most Commodores is the abili- 
ty to abbreviate instructions. For 
example, the VICs allow a two key 
sequence to replace a typed word 
in most cases. This again speeds 
up programming. The most useful 
feature is using question marks 
in place of print statements. 
When these programs are LISTed, 
the computer usually replaces 
the abbreviation with the full 
word to ease reading and debugg- 
ing. 

The instructions in a BASIC 
version can be grouped according 
to function. Some control the 
machine and its workings in a 
physical sense, such as RUN/ 
STOP, CLEAR, etc. These are 
command functions. Others are 
used to communicate with 
storage devices, screens, and 



other peripherals. These are IN- 
PUT/OUTPUT commands, usually 
abbreviated to I/O. There are built 
in mathematical functions, and 
string manipulation functions, 
and there are the BASIC instruc- 
tions that are used to write the 
program. We'll examine the latter 
first. 

Statements are the controlling 
aspects of any program. They 
direct the machine's actions. 
Although the number of state- 
ments, and their syntax may be 
different on certain machines, 
they all share a similar "core" 
series. Instructions such as 
IF/THEN and GOTO are required 
in all BASIC versions in order to 
work. A rapid look at the Com- 
modore BASIC statements 
follows. 

To clear a program from 
memory, we know to type NEW. 
NEW is not really a statement as 
defined above, but is a command 
function. The task of clearing all 
memory except for the program 
currently loaded is relegated to 
the CLEAR function (sometimes 
abbreviated as CLR). To under- 
stand what CLEAR does, it is first 
necessary to realize that BASIC 
will assign a memory location for 
each variable defined in a pro- 
gram. If ten variables are used. 

Commander September 1983/45 



there will be ten "slots" reserved 
in memory for the values of the 
variables. These are updated 
throughout the execution of the 
program to new values. (Inciden- 
tally, this is also involved in 
memory saving: since each new 
variable takes up memory, it 
makes sense to use as few dif- 
ferent variables as required when 
memory is scarce. (More on that at 
a later time.) If a subscripted array 
was used (e.g. VA(10)) then the 
values of all ten VA variables will 
be used. CLEAR will erase the 
values of the variables from 
memory, allowing full use of all 
the available space. This may be 
required in programming from 
time to time when the values of 
all variables up to a certain point 
are no longer needed. If they were 
all set to zero with a LET state- 
ment, they would still occupy 
memory space, but the CLEAR 
gets rid of them entirely. 

While on the subject of 
memory, it is useful to examine 
the DIM statement. DIM will 
dimension an array. An array is a 
number of variables with the 
same name, but different values 
according to an index. For exam- 
ple: A(1) is not the same variable 
as A(2) or A. Each is separate. So 
what good is the array? It allows 
fast access in loops, routines, 
and other repeated series to the 
variables without a lot of coding. 
For a full explanation, consult a 
good BASIC instruction book. 
The DIM statement will set the 
number of array elements re- 
quired by the program. If the in- 
struction DIM A(10) is used, then 
ten variables A(1) through A(10) 
are set up. The default value for 
an array is ten, if not otherwise 
declared by a DIM statement. 

Probably the least understood 
BASIC instruction is the DEF FN 
sequence. DEF FN represents the 
command DEFine a FuNction. A 
function is a series of instruc- 
tions that have to be executed. 
For example, if we wanted to add 
ten to a number, then divide by 
three to get the answer, and the 
sequence was to be repeated at 
several locations throughout the 
program, it would be tedious and 

46/Commander September 1983 



memory wasting to type in the se- 
quence wherever required. By 
defining the function "add ten, 
divide by three" and calling it 
some name, whenever the func- 
tion is required, we can call it by 
name. This saves memory, time, 
and coding. Variables can be 
passed into the function, and ex- 
tracted. It can be repeated as 
many times as required, and 
several functions can be access- 
ed. 

There are a few rules governing 
the DEF FN function in Com- 
modore BASIC. Most versions 
allow only one lettertobeusedas 
the name of the function, such as 
FNZ, or FNC. Also, in almost all 
BASICs, the definition of the 
function has to be declared 
before it is used. Most program- 
mers define all the required func- 
tions at the start of the program, 
instead of interspersed through- 
out. This aids in debugging, and 
makes it easy to locate functions 
as required. 

The FOR/NEXT (STEP) function 
allows looping for a certain 
number of times to be achieved in 
a BASIC program. A variable is 
used as a counter in the loop, and 
is incremented when the NEXT in- 
struction is encountered. The 
loop is terminated after the FOR 
conditional is satisfied. The STEP 
command allows control of the 
way the variable is counted. It can 
be incremented or decremented 
by any number of steps as re- 
quired by the programmer. The 
STEP can be a function in some 
versions of BASIC. 

While on the IF/THEN loop, it 
can be pointed out that some ad- 
vanced versions of BASIC allow 
variations on the theme. Loops of 
the DO WHILE or REPEAT UNTIL 
conditionals can be encountered, 
but these are not usually included 
in home computer versions. 

Some commands don't have to 
be written at all. BASIC has the 
LET command to assign a value 
to a variable, but almost all BASIC 
versions do not require the LET to 
be explicitly stated. Also, the 
END statement, which is in most 
BASICs, doesn't have to be in- 
cluded at the conclusion of most 



programs. When the program 
runs out of lines, it is ENDed, 
whether with the command END 
or not. END is only used in a pro- 
gram when an END is. part of the 
way through the program, with 
code following it. 

Mathematical routines are in- 
cluded in BASIC for the standard 
functions such as sine (SIN), 
cosine (COS), tangent (TAN), ex- 
ponent (EXP), logarithm (LOG), 
absolute value (ABS), and others. 
Note that Commodore BASIC and 
most others compute trigonomet- 
ric values (SIN, COS and TAN) in 
radians, which will require con- 
version to degrees or gradiants, 
as required. Also precision on the 
trigonometric functions varies 
widely depending on the version. 
Some hyperbolic and inverse 
trigonometric functions (ATN for 
arctangent, etc.) are usually sup- 
ported. 

The logarithm function (LOG) 
requires a value greater than zero 
in order to avoid an error. The 
LOG function computes the 
natural logarithm, usually refer- 
red to as 1n, instead of the base 
10 logarithm. Similarly, the 
square root function (SQR) re- 
quires a value greater than zero to 
avoid an error. 

Some character manipulation 
instructions are included in most 
BASICs, including the Com- 
modore version. For a character 
string, the length of the string can 
be found using the LEN com- 
mand. The left most series of 
characters can be accessed us- 
ing LEFTS, while RIGHTS will ac- 
cess the right most number of 
digits required. If a sequence is 
required out of the middle of the 
string, the MIDS command is 
used. With most of these, the 
starting position for the search, 
and the length of the string to be 
recovered, can be specified. 

These commands allow great 
flexibility in program design us- 
ing character string variables. A 
great deal of information can be 
stored in a string, and accessed 
chunk by chunk as required. 

A couple of commands allow 
conversion from character string 
to number variable, and vice ver- 
sa. These are VAL and STRS, and 



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VIC-20* 
VIC-20* 

64 

64 

To order, send check or money order to: 

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Circle No. 50 



require careful use in order to get 
the information required. 

PEEK and POKE are two very 
misunderstood and misused 
commands. They are used to 
place a value in a certain memory 
location, or to go and look at the 
value in a memory location. These 
values can control many things 
such as the color of the cursor, 
screen, etc. Instead of dealing 
with the two here, a future part in 
this series will deal with the 
memory locations of value in the 
Commodore computers. 

In the next part of this series, 
we'll take a look at the last few 
things to be addressed in the 
understanding of BASIC, before 
actually dealing with specific 
Commodore computers and their 
idiosyncrasies. These include 
Boolean operators (always a fun 
subject) and their related truth 
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Circle No. 69 



48/Commander September 1983 




I love surprises. Recently I re- 
ceived a mystery cassette tape in 
the mail. No explanation of its 
contents was indicated, save for 
the name M. Pascall Software on 
the label. I popped it into my cob- 
web covered datasette and load- 
ed it. The tape proved to be a mas- 
terstroke of advertising genius. It 
was a catalog! A program sampler 
would be a more accurate des- 
cription. It took 30 minutes to 
completely review the tape. 21 
VIC programs are previewed. 
Games and other home entertain- 
ment seem to make up the bulk of 
the product line, with some pro- 
gramming charts and dust covers 
added at the end. I liked the high 
resolution color graphics and 
sound. Novice programmers can 
find some good programming tips 
in the program listings. Although 
I haven't seen any of the com- 
plete programs, I highly recom- 
mend the catalog, which I dis- 
covered costs one dollar. It's cer- 
tainly worth a buck. M. Pascall 
Software, Box 1143, Santee, CA 
92017. 

Super VIC-Kit 

For a year I toyed with the idea 
of buying a Programmer's Aid. I 
think the name (PA) intimidated 
me. Since I rarely write programs, 
I really don't consider myself a 
programmer. Usually I modify 
commercial programs to match 
my hardware. I always thought a 
PA was useful only to profes- 



sional programmers. Now I know 
better. 

PA's are available from several 
companies, including Commo- 
dore, Skyles and UMI. Their 
primary function is to add some 
extra BASIC commands that the 
VIC doesn't have. All of the var- 
ious PA's have some common 
commands. Renumber, Append, 
Delete and Decimal to Hex con- 
version are typical of these extra 
commands. Each PA, however, 
has its own unique commands, 
which means you should examine 
each user's manual before you 
buy. The price for each of the 
three PA's listed above is $60 and 
up. 

They are all quality products, 
and I recommend them, but they 
now have some stiff competition 
from a PA with a $25 price tag. 

But What Does It Mean? 

It means more BASIC com- 
mands for your use. All VICs have 
commands like PRINT, GOTO and 
RND. Super VIC-Kit (SVK) adds 22 
more commands and several 
useful features. Take a moment 
to read the new commands listed 
in Figure 1. 

Experienced VIC users should 
notice two commands imme- 
diately: DLOAD and DSAVE. 
These are BASIC 4.0 disk com- 
mands, not normally useable on 
the BASIC 2.0 VIC. These com- 
mands illustrate as well as any, 



the power of SVK. This is how you 
usually load a program from the 
disk: 

LOAD"PROGRAM NAME",8 
SVK does it like this: 

DLOAD"PROGRAM NAME 
Notice the ",8 is missing. The 
syntax for DSAVE is the same. All 
disk commands are simplified. 
You don't have to OPEN 1,8,15 to 
send commands. SEND does it 
for you, and then CLOSE'S the 
channel automatically. 

One feature I like is the Space 
Bar/Pause option. When lines are 
scrolling on the screen from the 
LIST, DLIST, FIND, CATALOG and 
hex dump commands, you can 
pause the listing by pressing the 
space bar. Scrolling continues 
when it's hit again. SVK won't 
scroll backwards, though. All of 
the commands can be typed in 
the abbreviated style like the 
standard VIC commands. Type 
the first letter and shift the sec- 
ond letter. 

Another useful feature is also a 
form of abbreviation. By entering 
"KEY", your keyboard comes 
alive. 24 alphabet keys are now 
pre-programmed function keys. 
Type a shifted C, for example, and 
the word CHR$ appears on the 
screen. Figure 2 lists the Automa- 
tic Keywords. This speeds up pro- 
gram writing and really helps 
when you are copying a program 
from a magazine into the compu- 
ter. I suggest you label each key, 

Commander September 1983/49 



$ 



w 



rather than looking up the proper 
key from a table. The keyword 
function is not active when you 
are keying inside quotes. 

The British pound sign will let 
you escape from the dreaded 
"quotes mode" without frustra- 
tion. RENUMBER will not only re- 
number your program line num- 
bers but will renumber all the 
GOTO and GOSUB's as well. If a 
bad target line is found, it will be 
annotated for easy repair. A 16K 
program takes about 45 seconds 
to renumber. That is slow by 
some standards, but it seems fast 
enough for me. 
Dessert 

I've left my favorites for last. 
CATALOG will bring in the disk 
directory and scroll it onto the 
screen without disturbing the pro- 
gram in memory. You can't print 
the directory with the CATALOG 
command, but seeing it on the 
screen is usually sufficient. 
DLIST works just like CATALOG, 
except it lists a program on the 
disk while another program is in 
the memory. 

Machine Language, 
Anyone? 

Super VIC-Kit has a built in 
machine language monitor, 
MACH-20, for the advanced user. 
It is activated by the BREAK com- 
mand. A separate user's manual 
for the monitor comes with SVK. 
If you are not already proficient in 
machine coding, the monitor 
won't be of much use to you. On 
the other hand, it does allow me 
to keep up with Eric Giguere's ex- 
cellent series "An Introduction to 
Assembly Language" found every 
month in Commander. The moni- 
tor supports L,S,M,R,X,G,; and : 
commands. 

Now that I've used a Program- 
mer's Aid, I would recommend it 
to anyone who uses BASIC. The 
new commands are not difficult 
to learn or use, and are especially 
useful for program writing and 
disk operations. The user's man- 
ual is short, clear and to the point. 

Specifications 

SVK is written entirely in mach- 
ine language. It requires a mini- 
mum of 8K and when loaded will 

50/Commander September 1983 



automatically relocate to the top 
of available memory. No zero 
page locations are altered. Al- 
though no warranty is stated in 
the manual, I found that the disk 
will be replaced to a registered 
owner at any time. Super VIC-Kit 
was written by Thomas Henry and 
is available on disk only for $25, 
from Mantronics Software De- 
signs, 360 Pierce Avenue Suite 
210, No. Mankato, MN 56001, (507) 
345-7048. The C-64 version will be 
available in August. 

3QI I ll#** + !f SSSX"— "H-'-t 
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The Connection— 

A Parallel Printer Interface 

You can have your cake and eat 
it too. In this world of technologi- 
cal trade-offs, it's good to see a 
product that does it all, with no 
compromises. 

While shopping for a printer for 
my VIC, I discovered that all dot 
matrix printers fall into one of two 
classes: slow printers with Com- 
modore graphics and fast printers 
without Commodore graphics. Of 
course I wanted speed and gra- 
phics, but since I couldn't have 
both, I chose speed and bought 
an NEC 8023A. The performance 
and reliability of the NEC has 
never disappointed me. The lack 
of graphics has been a burr under 
my saddle for a year. 

The NEC will print graphic sym- 
bols from its ROM, but the pro- 
cess is overly complex and 
beyond the abilities of novice pro- 
grammers. One reason for the 
complexity is the user's manual. 
It is vague, incomplete, inac- 
curate, and was written by some- 
one who does not have a good 
grasp of the English language. 
Given all that, you can see why 
I've been looking for a device that 
would emulate the VIC 1525 
printer at 120 Characters Per Sec- 
ond. 

Electronic Nirvana 

The device responsible for this 
miracle is called The Connection. 
It will allow communication bet- 
ween the VIC/64 and any printer 
using the Centronics (parallel) in- 
terface. Letter quality printers will 



work with the device. The Con- 
nection plugs into the serial (disk) 
port on the VIC. It can be daisy- 
chained as the last device on the 
bus and can be assigned any valid 
device number. Device 4 is stan- 
dard. 

The Connection performs many 
other functions, besides graphics 
emulation. There are nine modes 
of operation, selected by a sec- 
ondary address. For example, the 
"Emulate Cursor Up Mode" can 
be entered by typing OPEN4.4 or 
OPEN4,4,1. The ",1" is the sec- 
ondary address. This mode will 
print upper case letters and gra- 
phics. VIC 1525 users will already 
be familiar with this concept. 
Figure 3 shows the secondary ad- 
dresses required to use the dif- 
ferent modes. 

Secondary addresses 0, 2, 4 
and 7 will automatically send a 
line feed following a carriage 
return. Addresses 0, 3, 5, 6 and 8 
will not generate a line feed. The 
secondary address scheme is us- 
ed by many other parallel inter- 
faces, but this is the first one that 
will generate Commodore gra- 
phics. The reason for this is quite 
simple: The Connection is intelli- 
gent. It is "powered" by a 6502 
microprocessor. The 6502 inter- 
cepts all data sent to the printer 
and acts on it according to the 
secondary address it received 
previously. The 6502 is aided in 
this task by a ROM chip which 
has been preprogrammed with all 
the instructions necessary to 
communicate with your printer. 
ROMs are available for a wide 
range of printers. My NEC uses 
the ROM programmed for the C. 
Itoh Prowriter. 

The Emulate mode also allows 
you access to several functions 
unique to the VIC 1515/1525. 
Figure 4 lists these useful func- 
tions. Coupled with the graphics 
abilities, they allow me to key in 
and run programs written for the 
VIC printers. The Connection also 
has its own set of unique com- 
mands which are implemented 
from the Emulate mode. They let 
you reassign the device number, 
define the number of columns to 



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giving the appearance of artificial intelligence. Requires 16k RAM 
or more. 
$14.95 shipping included. 

WORD PLAY 

"WORDPLAY" is a collection of programs which allow the user to 
make original stories, write a form of Japanese poetry, play the fun 
game of Animal (children love this one), and create jargon. A 
bonus secret message (cypher) program is also included. In a 
word, "WORDPLAY" is a bargain. 
Requires 16k RAM or more. 
$14.95 shipping included. 

TYPE FOR YOUR LIFE 

With more challenge than an arcade game, learn to type up to 75+ 
words/min. (User selectable, but no FOOLING AROUND allowed). 
TEXT IS WIDELY VARIED SINCE IT COMES FROM THE 
PROGRAM TAPE. Action color graphics with sound fix your eyes 
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print, set a TAB and check printer 
status. 

All of The Connection's com- 
mands may be sent from a BASIC 
program. Program listings look 
sharp and clear with the graphic 
characters printed by my NEC. 
Listings may be enhanced by us- 
ing the "Total Text Mode" with 
secondary address 2 or 3. This 
will print keyboard control keys 
as an abbreviation between 
brackets like this: (CLR), (HOM), 
(RED), (DWN) and (166). The 166 is 
an example of a graphic symbol's 
CHR$ code. By using this mode 
for program listings, all the 
guesswork is taken out of your in- 
terpretation of the various 
graphic symbols. Figure 5 lists 
these mnemonic representations. 
Software? 

I've tried using The Connection 
with many pieces of software, 
and found it to be compatible 
with just about everything. The 
only thing that gave me trouble 
was Quick Brown Fox. To print a 
QBF file, I have to answer the 
question "Commodore?" with a 
"Y". Printer control codes sent 
from the body of the text must 
have two escape codes (#n027 
#n027) before the letter com- 
mand. 

The Connection solved one big 
problem for me immediately. My 
NEC printer is one of those rare 
ones that require a line feed sent 
after a carriage return. This 
means I must open a logical file 
number greater than 127. Most 
commercial software uses LFN 4, 
requiring me to change the OPEN 
statement from OPEN4.4 to 



OPEN 128,4. Since The Connec- 
tion already knows this, it auto- 
matically adds the line feed. 

Two LED indicator lights ref- 
lect the status of the device, and 
a push button reset will clear the 
1.3K buffer. The push button will 
also send a printer test to check 
the operation of the interface and 
the printer. 

Is it worth the price? Definitely. 
Now I have a printer that lists and 
performs like the VIC printer, but 
with clarity, high speed, and 
some added formatting com- 
mands. The user's manual is well 
written and illustrated. A novice 
user would have no trouble under- 
standing it. The Connection is 
available from Micro-Ware Distri- 
buting, P.O. Box 113, Pompton 
Plains, NJ 07444. $119.00 for the 
VIC and C-64. 

In the Queue 

In the coming months some 
very powerful software will be ex- 
amined in these pages. TOTL 
Software is on the verge of releas- 
ing its long awaited TOTL.BUSI- 
NESS package for the VIC and 
C-64. I've been using it for a 
month and believe it will make a 
lot of small business owners very 
happy. Michael Riley has already 
released his ultimate database for 
the VIC-64-Pet called Flex File. 
I've had it under review for 6 
weeks now and I'm convinced it's 
the most powerful database yet 
for the two smaller Commodores. 

If you have a VIC and are con- 
sidering "upgrading" to a C-64, 
let me give you something to 
think about. The two programs 




ENTHUSED WITH YOUR VIC??? 



Members of the National VIC Association receive: 



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9 Crabapple Lane 
Nanuet, NY 109t>4 

Circle No. 23 



just mentioned and several more I 
use, including PractiCalc and 
Quick Brown Fox operate on the 
VIC and the 64 with no reduction 
in computing power for the VIC 
version. They are the same pro- 
grams. 
Double Vision 

This fall, I'll be adding some- 
thing new to the column. I will be 
reviewing the Data 20 Corpora- 
tion's 40/80 column card with 64K 
of bank selected memory. To date 
I've found few programs are 
directly compatible with this 
device. What I mean is many pro- 
grams will work but few take ad- 
vantage of the extra screen size. 
No programs will use the paged 
memory. Data 20 has collected 
the names of several programs 
that are compatible with the 
device. I will print that list here 
next month. I will also report 
which software I've used that 
works or doesn't. Each month a 
small space in the column will be 
devoted to news on the 40/80 col- 
umn front. In some applications I 
like to use 40 columns on my VIC. 
TOTL.LABEL is easier to use this 
way. Some new 40/80 column de- 
vices are on the market now, at af- 
fordable prices. Perhaps more 
software writers will take note of 
this expansion explosion and pro- 
vide us with expandable software. 
Maybe— just maybe— this will 
delay the inevitable demise of the 
VIC. If you use the Data 20 card 
with commercial software, please 
write and let me know how well it 
performs. I'll mention any new 
"finds" each month. The latest 
revision of TOTL.LABEL 2.1-6 will 
work. QBF will work, but will need 
a short transfer program to be run 
first. Call QBF for the details. 
QBF is directly compatible if you 
use Cardco's 3 slot expansion 
board and their 16K RAM card. 
SVK and PractiCalc do not work 
on 40/80 columns. 

Next month we will look at Flex 
File and, as they say around 
Christmas time, "some sur- 
prises". □ 



JT 



52/Commander September 1983 



Figure 1 

Summary of Commands for 

Super VIC-Kit 

# followed by a decimal 
number, gives the hexadecimal 
equivalent. 

$ followed by a hexadecimal 
number, gives the decimal equiv- 
alent. 

APPEND followed by the pro- 
gram name, appends a program 
from disk onto a program in mem- 
ory. 

AUTO followed by an incre- 
ment number, generates automa- 
tic line numbers when keying in a 
program. 

BREAK breaks to the machine 
language monitor. 

CATALOG lists the disk direc- 
tory to the screen, but leaves the 
current program in memory in- 
tact. 

DELETE followed by range 
numbers, deletes blocks of pro- 
gram lines specified by the range. 

DLIST followed by a program 
name, lists that program from 
disk directly to the screen, leav- 
ing the program in memory intact. 

DLOAD followed by a program 
name loads that BASIC program 
from the disk. 

DSAVE followed by a program 
name saves that BASIC Program 
to the disk. 

FIND followed by a start de- 
limiter, string, end delimiter and 
optional range, finds any oc- 
curence of the string within range 
and prints that line to the screen. 

HEADER followed by disk 
name, comma, I and a two charac- 
ter ID NEW's the disk with the 
given name and ID. 

INIT initializes the disk drive. 

KEY toggles the automatic key- 
word option. 

KILL resets the computer to a 
cold start. 

LIST same as normal list, but 
may be paused by the space bar. 

NUMBER renumbers the entire 
program according to your incre- 
ment and default values. 

OFF disables Super VIC-Kit. 

OLD restores a program lost by 
inadvertent use of the NEW com- 
mand. 

RENAME followed by an old 
name, TO and new name, re- 



Join the 




Micro-Ed 




educational 
software 

Send for free catalogs 
Specify: Pet • VIC 

• Commodore 64 

telephone 

us at 

612-926-2292 

Micro-Ed Inc. 
P.O. Box 24156 
Minneapolis, MN 55424 



Circle No 26 



Commander September 1983/53 



% 



names a disk program. 

SCRATCH scratches (erases) a 
program from the disk. 

SEND followed by a command 
string, sends that string to the 
disk drive via the command chan- 
nel. 

SIZE returns the size of the pro- 
gram in memory, exclusive of 
variables. This is not the same as 
FRE(O). 

STATUS gives a disk error mes- 
sage, or gives nothing if the disk 
is OK. 



Quick Brown Fox Tip 

Are you tired of white on black? Try this: from the main menu, type a 
shifted period. The characters on the screen will change color. 
Shifted comma and question mark yields two different colors. This 
should ease your eyestrain. 



Figure 2 

Automatic Keywords for 

Super VIC-Kit 



A =ASC 
B = STEP 
C =CHR$ 
D = DIM 
E = END 
F =GET 
H =STOP 
I = INPUT 
J =GOTO 
K =GOSUB 
L = LEFTS 
M = MID$ 
N = NEXT 
=OPEN 
P = POKE 
Q •= PEEK 
R = RIGHTS 
S =STR$ 
T =TAB( 
U =USR 

V =VAL 
W = DATA 
X = READ 

Y = RESTORE 
Z =SYS 



Figure 3 

SECONDARY 
ADDRESS FUNCTIONAL MODE 

(or null) —EMULATE MODE. Same as Commodore's Cur- 
sor Up mode. Prints uppercase and graphics 
symbols. Automatic linefeed at end of each 
line. 

1 - EMULATE MODE. Same as except that there 

is no automatic linefeed at the end of each line. 

2 TOTAL TEXT MODE. Prints uppercase letters 

and prints graphics symbols as either com- 
mand mnemonics. or decimal value. Automatic 
linefeed at end of each line. 

3 -TOTAL TEXT MODE. Same as 2 except that 

there is no automatic linefeed at the end of 
each line. 

4- -TOTAL TEXT MODE. Prints both lower and up- 
percase letters. Otherwise same as 2. 

5 - -TOTAL TEXT MODE. Same as 4 except that 

there is no automatic linefeed at the end of 
each line. 

6- - -TRANSPARENT MODE. Sends all data directly 

from the computer to the printer without any in- 
tervention. 

7 EMULATE MODE. Same as Commodore's Cur- 
sor Down Mode. Prints both lower and upper- 
case letters and graphics. Automatic linefeed 
at the end of each line. 

8- EMULATE MODE. Same as 7 except that there 

Is no automatic linefeed at the end of each line. 



Figure 4 



Commodore Commands in The Emulate Mode 

There are a number of special commands which are unique to the 
Commodore 1515 and 1525 printers. The EMULATE MODE 
duplicates all of these functions except one, inverse alpha- 
numerics. All other functions, however, are supported. 
Command Code Description 

BS CHR$(8) Turn on graphics mode 

NL CHR$(10) Scroll paper up one line 

CR CHR$(13) Print line and scrolls one line 

50 CHR$(14) Turn on double width printing 

51 CHR$(15) Turn off double width & graphics 
POS CHR$(16) Dot and column TAB 
CURSOR DWN CHR$(17) Shift to lower/upper case letters 
RVS ON CHR$(18) Print characters in reverse 

SUB CHR$(26) Repeat graphics 

ESC CHR$(27) Used with POS for dot tabbing 

CURSOR UP CHR$(145) Shift to upper case letters 

RVS OFF CHR$(146) Print normal characters 



Figure 5 



(HOM) 


= HOME 


(RON) 


= REV ON 


( UP) 


= UP 


(INS) 


= INSERT 


( F1) 


= F1 


(LFT) 


= LEFT 


( F5) 


= F5 


( F3) 


= F3 


(BLK) 


= BLACK 


( F7) 


= F7 


(PUR) 


= PURPLE 


(RED) 


= RED 


(STP) 


= STOP 


(BLU) 


= BLUE 


(CLR) 


= CLEAR 


(ROF) 


= REV OFF 


(DWN) 


= DOWN 


(DEL) 


= DELETE 


( F2) 


= F2 


(RHT) 


= RIGHT 


( F6) 


= F6 


( F4) 


= F4 


(WHT) 


= WHITE 


( F8) 


= F8 


(GRN) 


= GREEN 


(CYN) 


= CYAN 






(YEL) 


= YELLOW 



54/Commander September 1983 



VIC-20 & C64 

Exclusive needs . . . Exclusive source! 
Southwest Micro Systems Inc 



Hardware & Peripherals: 

VIC-20 Color Computer 1 S 145.00 

Commodore 64 1 395.00 

Commodore B128 Computer 1 (128K) 895.00 
MSD Single Disk Drive 7 

(VIC 1541 Compatible) 395.00 
Star Gemini — 10 Printer 

wVcable interface 8 399.00 
Star Gemini — 15 Printer 

w/cable interface 8 575.00 

Amdex Color I Monitor w/cable 9 340.00 

CIE Cartridge (IEEE-488 for C64) 95.00 

VIE Cartridge (IEEE-488 for VIC-20) 75.00 

RS-232R Interface for VIC or C64 45.00 

SPI Parallel Interface for VIC or C64 65.00 

VPI VIC Parallel Interface 45.00 

VEX-3 Expander for VIC 29.95 

VEX-6 Expander for VIC 85.00 

4 Slot Expander for C64 75.00 

V3K Static RAM Expansion 35.00 

V8K Static RAM Expansion 45.00 

V16K Static RAM Expansion 85.00 

V24K Static RAM Expansion 1 15.00 
40/80 Col VIC Video Expander w/16K 10 175.00 
40/80 Col VIC Video Expander w/64K 10 350.00 

80 Col C64 Video Expander 10 149.00 

Z80 Video Pak for C64 10 250.00 

Light Pen for VIC or C64 25.00 

VAC Audio Cassette Interface 29.95 

VMC/CMC VIC 8<. C64 Monitor Cables 15.00 

Joy Stick (Arcade Quality) 25.00 

Atari VCS 2600 Game Adapter 79.95 



C64 Software Products: 

EPYX-Temple of Apshai 3 

EPYX-Upper Reaches of Apshai 3 

EPYX-Curse of Ra 3 

EPYX-Sword of Fargoal 3 

EPYX-Crush, Crumble & Chomp 3 

Wordpro 3+ Wordprocessing 5 

Info Designs Soft Pack (G/L,A/R,A/P) 6 

Data Base for C64 

Financial Spreadsheet for C64 

Super Sprite Cassette 35.00 

Ultra Mail 64 Cassette 20.00 

Personal Finance C64 

Tax Qwik/Personal Tax Program for C64 11 

Quick Brown Fox C64 12 



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475.00 
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135.00 
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75.00 
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55.00 



VIC-20 Software Products: 

VTE/CTE Terminal Program for VIC & C64 

Cassette 
Diskette 
VT-40 VIC 40 Col Terminal Communicator 

Cartridge with Downloading 
VIC Super Expander 1 
VIC Programmers Aid Cartridge 1 
VIC Intro to Basic Part I 8<. II 1 
Home Inventory 2 Cassette 12.00 Disk 
Household Finance 2 Cassette 25.00 Disk 
Logic Games 2 Cassette 

Action Games 2 Cassette 

City Bomber & Minefield 2 Cassette 



dge 
dge 
dge 
dge 
dge 
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dge 
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dge 
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Black Hole Game 2 Cartri 

Trashman Game 2 Cartri 

Astroblitz Game 2 Cartr 

Choplifter Game 2 Cartr 

Serpentine Game 2 Cartri 

Apple Panic Game 2 Cartri 

Terraguard Game 2 Cartri 

Videomania Game 2 Cartr! 

Spills 8<. Fills 2 Cartri 

Pipes 2 Cartr 

EPYX-lnvasion of Orion 

(16K Extra) 3 
EPYX-Datestones of Ryn 

(16K Extra) 3 
EPYX-Rescue at Rigel 

(16K Extra) 3 
EPYX-Crush, Crumble & Chomp 

(16K Extra) 3 Cassette 

EPYX-Plattermania 3 Cartridge 

Heswriter for VIC-20" Cartridge 

HES-MON for VIC-20 4 Cartridge 

HES-Turtle Graphics" Cartridge 

VIC-20 Data Base 
Wordprocessing for VIC-20 
Quick Brown Fox VIC-20 12 



8.95 
12.95 

45.00 
49.95 
45.00 
45.00 
15.00 
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10.95 
15.00 
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Cassette 24.95 



Cassette 19.95 
Cassette 29.95 



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Immediate delivery on all items. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



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MODEL# 


NAME 


PRICE 










































TOTAL (In Texas, add 5% sales tax) 





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payment method: Check Q Card-Exp. Date. 

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1-800-527-7573 
Souttiwes^icroSystemsli^ 



Circle No. 54 






by Tony Lamartina 



This is part 3 of a three part 
series. We've looked at warranty 
service and non-warranty service. 
This month we'll examine some 
maintenance plans and some 
maintenance steps that you can 
perform without fear of voiding 
your warranty or causing damage 
to your equipment. 

Basically, there are two types 
of maintenance: preventive main- 
tenance and remedial mainte- 
nance. Preventive maintenance is 
corrective action prior to a failure, 
or a "prevention" of failure. It's 
just like preventive medicine. By 
performing certain maintenance 
steps periodically throughout the 
life of your equipment, you avoid 
lengthy down times. Remedial 
maintenance on the other hand, is 
the corrective action taken after a 
failure. 

As discussed last month, reme- 
dial maintenance is available thru 
the manufacturer, dealer, third 
party service company and na- 
tional dealer service organiza- 
tions. These organizations are 
prepared for and in the business 
of providing service as a product. 
Unless you are electronically and 
technically capable, never at- 

56/Commander September 1983 



tempt remedial maintenance 
yourself. If your equipment is 
under warranty and you attempt 
the repair yourself, you will in all 
likelihood, void the warranty. If 
your unit is out of warranty, it's 
your choice. I have seen users at- 
tempt repairs and ultimately wind 
up with a much larger repair bill 
than if they had left the repair to 
the experts. 

Preventive maintenance can be 
accomplished, however, by a 
careful user or through an agree- 
ment with one of the service orga- 
nizations mentioned previously. 
Before we get into the preventive 
maintenance steps that you can 
perform, let's assume for a mom- 
ent that your system is not func- 
tioning correctly. There are a few 
steps that you should go through 
prior to lugging your entire sys- 
tem in for service. 

1. Isolate the fault— disconnect 
all peripherals (i.e. tape drive, disc 
drive and printer). If the computer 
resumes normal operation, then 
add the peripherals one at a time 
until the fault reoccurs. The pe- 
ripheral that causes the fault to 
reappear is probably the one that 
caused the fault to begin with. 



2. If the fault is not peripheral 
related, use the backup copy of 
your software. Also, if the fault 
seems to be associated with sev- 
eral peripheral devices, then sus- 
pect the software. For instance, a 
contaminated program diskette 
may suddenly cause the printer to 
spew garbage, the drive to run 
continuously and the computer it- 
self to hang indefinitely. If a fresh 
copy of the software resumes nor- 
mal operation, make a fresh back- 
up and get rid of the offending 
diskette. Don't try to renew the 
diskette by bulk erasing. While it 
may appear to be OK, someday 
that very diskette will come back 
to haunt you! 

3. If problems become intermit- 
tent in nature (they come and go), 
check your line voltage. While 
computers and computer periph- 
erals have excellent filtering in 
their power supplies, a very noisy 
line can cause random and inter- 
mittent problems to occur. Many 
computerists may have their set 
up in the basement, where the 
washing machine or some other 
such appliance may be on the 
same circuit. Appliance motors 
turning off and on can place large 



spikes on the line and wreak 
havoc with your computer. 

4. Check all interconnecting 
cables for tightness of fit and 
plug orientation. One case in- 
volves a person who could not get 
the disc drive to respond. A 
"device not present error" kept 
occurring. Everything was check- 
ed and checked again. The end 
result was that the PET to IEEE 
cable was upside down at the 
computer end. Commodore does 
not mark which end is up! 

5. Check all switches and 
switch positions. This may sound 
odd but every now and then, 
someone brings a unit in and the 
switch was in off position! By the 
same token, check the fuse. A 
fuse of the same type and rating 
can easily be installed by the 
user. Sometimes fuses may open 
due to a one time line surge (light- 
ing) or simply open with age. 

If the replacement fuse does 
not open right away, chances are 
everything is OK. If, however, the 
fuse immediately opens again or 
consistently fails about once a 
day or once a week, the unit is in 
need of service. 

Besides checking and replac- 
ing fuses, there are several more 
preventive measures that will 
help cut those repair bills down. 
One step that you can take is not 
to wear wool clothing while oper- 
ating your computer. Wool cloth- 
ing builds up static electricity 
rather quickly. If you become 
"statically charged" and touch a 
metal switch post on your compu- 
ter or peripheral, you may trans- 
mit several hundred to a thousand 
volts of static charge directly to 
your unit causing chip and com- 
ponent failures. 

Never smoke around your com- 
puter. Nicotine and tar, being by- 
products of smoking, will be de- 
posited on internal as well as ex- 
ternal surfaces of the computer, 
printer or drive. A particle of 
smoke looks like a boulder sized 
rock to the drive head as it speeds 
across the disk surface. A particle 
of smoke can physically jar the 
drive head causing loss of data or 



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Learn at your own pace at home or at school. 

GRAMMAR: 3 or 4 complete programs 
MATH: 4 or 5 programs 
PHONICS: 12 programs 
FUN PACKS: 3 or 4 programs 



GRAMMAR PROGRAMS 

G1 Parts of Speech I $19.95 

Nouns 
Adjectives 
Personal Pronouns 
Indefinite Pronouns 

G2 Parts of Speech II $19.95 

Verbs 

Helping Verbs 
Adverbs 

G3 Parts of Speech III $19.95 

Prepositions 
Conjunctions 
Interjections 

G4 Sentence Structure $19.95 

Subjects 

Predicates 

Objects 

G5 Capitalization 

and Punctuation $19. 95 

Capitalization 

Punctuation. Apostrophes and 

Quotation Marks 
Punctuation II. End Marks 

G6 Homonyms, Antonyms, 

and Synonyms $19.95 

Homonyms 

Antonyms 

Synonyms 

G7 Phrases, Prefixes, 

and Suffixes $19.95 

Phrases 
Prefixes 
Suffixes 

COMPUTER PHONICS 
$49.95 

Pre- Test 

Long and Short Vowels {10 programs) 

Post-Test 



MATH PROGRAMS 



M1 Number Theory 

Place Value 

Reading Large Numbers 

Rounding Off 

Math Drills 



.$19.95 



$19.95 



M2 Conversions 

Inches to Feet to Yards 
Pints to Quarts to Gallons 
Roman to Arabit Numerals 
Metrics 1.2 



M3 Fractions I S19.95 

Fractions to Percent Conversion 
Adding Fractions (with carrying) 
Subtracting Fractions (with borrowing) 
Sequence Patterns 

M4 Fractions I I/Decimals. . ..$19.95 

Multiplying Fractions 
Reducing Fractions 
Adding and Subtracting Decimals 
Multiplying Decimals 



FUN PACKS 



F1 Fun Pack I 

Quarter Back Challenge 
Magic Cards 
Latin Magic 
Haunted Mansion 



.$19.95 



F2 Fun Pack II 

Amazing Craze 
Missile Attack 
Roaring Cycle 



F3 Fun Pack III ... 

Magic Spell 
States and Capitals 
Choice Hangman 



.$19.95 



.$19.95 






ALL PROGRAMS AVAILABLE ON 
DISKETTE OR CASSETTE 



Grammar. Math and Fun Pack Series are $19.95 each. Computer Phonics is $49.95. 
To Order Indicate program number and name quantity desired, and whether diskette 
or cassette. Send check or money order plus $1 50 postage and handling. California 
residents add 6% sales tax. VISA and MasterCard are accepted Give Account number 
and expiration date, and add3% service charge. Mail to: REES Software Laboratories. 
Post Office Box 763. Cucamonga California 91 730. 
For phone orders: Call the Distributor Software International. (714) 981-5925 



QTY. 



SERIES NO. & NAME 



DISK. 



CASS. 



PRICE EA. 



Rees Software Laboratories, Inc. 

Post Office Box 763 
Cucamonga CA 91 730 



SUBTOTAL 

Postage & handling 

3%(VISA/MC) 

CA residents 6% tax 

TOTAL 



TOTAL 



$1.50 



Circle No. 77 



Commander September 1983/57 



a read or write error. Also, the 
sticky substance of tar and nico- 
tine can readily gum up the me- 
chanical action of keyboard keys, 
printer mechanisms and print 
head action. 

One particular instance comes 
to mind in relation to smoking 
and computers. A customer 
brought his computer in for 
repair. The complaint was the dis- 
play was very dim. After checking 
all the power supply voltages and 
circuitry, the problem persisted. 
A careful visual perusal of the 
problem revealed a display tube 
face so coated with tar and nico- 
tine, it was a wonder one could 
see anything! Cleaning the glass 
picture tube face cured the prob- 
lem, maximum brightness and 
clarity! 

Let's look at your computer 
system's components box by 
box. The computer itself, or CPU 
as it's sometimes called, is pro- 
bably the most troublefree com- 
ponent. There are no moving 
parts to wear out and the elec- 
tronics as a whole are very relia- 
ble. About the only maintenance 
that you can perform on the CPU 
itself is fuse replacement and 
keeping the exterior surfaces 
clean. Use dust covers and avoid 
dusty environments. 

Also, never open your compu- 
ter, especially the video display 
cover. Within the display tube 
compartment, there are voltages 
in excess of 12,000 volts. Contact- 
ing these voltages can cause ser- 
ious injury. Opening the lower 
computer compartment has its 
hazards too. While only low volt- 
ages are present, it's very easy for 
the top display section of the 
computer case (which is hinged 
to the upper box) to get away from 
you and rock backward jarring the 
display tube, possibly causing a 
crack in the tube and the display 
cover will certainly break off. Sim- 
ply put, for safety reasons and 
warranty considerations, don't 
open the computer unless you 
have the training and are techni- 
cally capable of performing re- 
pairs. 

58/Commander September 1983 



Tape and disk drives basically 
require the same considerations, 
although the disk drive is much 
more sensitive to these consider- 
ations. The tape drive, being 
mechanical in nature, depends on 
proper alignment of its read/write 
head for accurate operation. 
Smoke, dust and foreign objects 
can eventually ruin the internal 
workings of a tape unit. You can 
clean the heads of the tape unit 
with a soft swab and denatured 
alcohol. Be very careful and swab 
the head of the tape drive. Allow 
to air dry. 

Proper alignment of the head 
should be attempted only by 
qualified service people. One in- 
dication that your tape drive is in 
need of head alignment is when a 
tape recorded on your tape drive 
will not load properly from ano- 
ther drive. One of the two drives is 
out of alignment. Usually a third 
drive is needed to determine 
which is at fault. 

Contaminated tapes are ano- 
ther source of trouble. Finger- 
prints on the recorded tape can 
cause contamination. The skin 
oils from your fingertips can 
cause disruption of the recorded 
data. One sure fire prevention 
method when saving any data, be 
it on tape drive or disk drive, is to 
make use of the verify command. 
You'll always know that the just 
recorded data is exactly the same 
as the data in memory. 

Printers can be either very relia- 
ble or very unreliable. Printers are 
very mechanical and not very well 
protected from outside dust and 
dirt. The print mechanisms are 
within reach of falling objects, 
curious hands, fingers and spilled 
fluids. The best preventive medi- 
cine here is the use of dust 
covers. In fact, the use of dust 
covers for all your equipment is 
highly recommended. 

As a user, you should be able to 
clean the exterior and the print 
mechanism. There are several 
good printer cleaning kits on the 
market. Minor lubrication can be 
accomplished by the user, also. 
Clean and dust the air intake 



vents and clean the filters in mild 
soap and water. In depth preven- 
tive maintenance should be per- 
formed by qualified service per- 
sonnel each 6 months or 500 
hours usage. 

Some preventive steps you can 
take are: keep it clean, change the 
ribbon when print becomes light, 
do not print reverse characters 
too long, (reverse character print- 
ing causes extreme printhead 
heat and eventual failure) and 
check for proper carriage align- 
ment. 

Disk drives are the most trou- 
blesome of all computer equip- 
ment. Disk drives are not very tol- 
erant of dust, dirt and mis-align- 
ment. Under ideal conditions, a 
disk drive would run 8,000 hours 
on the average between repairs! 
Ideally, a disk would last for sev- 
eral million passes over the same 
track without any degradation in 
data integrity! 

In practice, however, condi- 
tions are far from ideal. The disk 
drive should have preventive 
maintenance performed every 40 
hours of operation by a qualified 
service technician. As a user, 
however, you could purchase s 
commercially available head 
cleaning disk and use it every 20 
hours of operation or about once 
every two to four weeks. Tandon, 
Shugart and Micropolis have all 
stated through memorandum that 
the "proper" use of head cleaning 
kits will not void the warranty. 
This simple preventive mainte- 
nance step can greatly expand 
the life of your drive and disk 
media. 

The 8050 and 8250 drives, by 
virtue of their format (77 track), 
are more sensitive to proper drive 
alignment than the 4040, 2031 or 
1540/41 disk drives (40 track). 

Periodically, you should run the 
performance test for your drive in- 
cluded on the test/demo diskette 
supplied when you purchased 
your equipment. These tests will 
verify belt tension, motor speed 
and error detection circuits and 
components of the drive unit. 
Avoid vibration and shock when 






transporting disk drives. 

Inspect diskettes frequently. If 
there is any doubt, throw it out 
and make a fresh backup. Disk- 
ette life depends on several fac- 
tors: the environment, condition 
of the disk drive and quality of the 
disk itself. Sometimes, it's a vic- 
ious circle. A contaminated disk 
can cause problems for the disk 
drive, and a dirty disk drive can 
contaminate and ruin a disk! 

Basic preventive measures, 

then, for disk drives include head 
cleaning disks, clean environ- 
ment, periodic performance tests 
and a dust cover. 
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Commodore 64 and VIC-20 

Stock HELPER is a tool to maintain a history of stock 
prices and market indicators on diskette" to display 
charts, and to calculate moving averages. Stock 
HELPER was designed and written by a "weekend 
investor" for other weekend investors. 
Stock HELPER is available on diskette for: 

Commodore 64 $30.00 ($37.00 Canadian) 
VIC-20 (16K) $27.00 ($33.25 Canadian) 
plus $1.25 shipping ($1.55 Canadian) 

The VIC-20 version only charts 26 bi-weekly periods rather than 
52 weekly periods. 

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(M)agreeable and HELPER are trademarks of (M)agreeable software, inc. ^ 
Commodore 64 and VIC-20 are trademarks of Commodore Electronics Ltd. 



Commander September 1983/59 




The following program is a per- 
sonal phone directory using rela- 
tive files. It is not very com- 
plicated, but does show how to 
use relative files in an application 
that may be useful to many peo- 
ple. In this example, I chose to 
use only two fields, the person's 
name and phone number. It may 
be expanded upon if you wish. 
There is one prerequisite to using 
this program, and that is to initial- 
ly open the relative file that we 
will be using. The name of the file 
used in this program is called 
phones. For those who are not 
familiar with the opening of this 
type of files, the following is a 
quick example. 



Opening the File: 

10 DOPEN#1, "FILENAME", 

150 
20 REM BASIC 4 OPEN 

STATEMENT 
25 REM LOGICAL FILE# 
35 REM NAME OF FILE 
45 REM SPECIFIES REL 
55 REM LENGTH OF EACH 

RECORD 
60 RECORDS 1,1 00,40 
70 REM ALLOCATE SPACE 

FOR 100 RECORDS 
80 REM GOTO END OF 

RECORD 



10 
20 
30 
48 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 

100 
110 

120 
130 
140 



GOTO70 

SAVE "08 : PH0HE #16" , 8 : STOP 

GOSUB" PHONES" 

RESTORE "PHONES BACKUP " TO "PHONES 

READ "PHONES" TO "PHONES BACKUP" 

STOP 

REN 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

PRINT 

SP$=" 




PHONE #16 * 

EXAMPLE OF RELATIVE FILES * 

USING A PHONE DIRECTORY * 

LAST UPDATE OCTOBER 9/82 * 



[CLEAR]" 



1 50 DW$= " C HOME ] C BONN ] [ DOWN ] C DOWN ] C DOWN ] 

C DOWN 3 C DOWN ] C DOWN ] C DOWN 3 C DOWN ] C DOWN ] C DO 

WN 3 CD0WN] [DOWN]" 

168 FOR#l, "PHONES" 

170 IFDSTHENPRINTDSf: PRINT "PLEASE CHEC 

K DISK DRIVE": END 



1S0 
190 
208 
210 
220 
238 
240 
250 
260 



DAT A# 1,1 

INPUT#1,NR 

DIM Sl*<NR+50)^S2*<HR+58) 

REM 

REM 

REM* MAIN MENU 



* 



REM 



PR I NT " [ CLEAR 3 " T AB < 3 1 ) " PHONE D I RECTO 
RV":LINE=4 

270 PRINTTAB<31>" " 

280 PR I NT " [ DOWN 3 C DOWN 3 C DOWN 3 C DOWN 3 [ DOWN 
3 " To be continued on page 62 



60/Commander September 1983 



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Includes RANDOM, RELATIVE, SEQUENTIAL disk read and write. 
Also explains load, save, new, copy, scratch, initialize, validate, 
error channel, command channel, and rename in both the standard 
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VIC-20 AND COMMOOORE 64 ARE TRADEMARKS OF COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES. INC. 

Circle No. 70 



Commander September 1983/61 



% 



85 PRINT#,CHR$(255) 
95 CREATE ALL THOSE 

RECORDS 
100 DCLOSE 

110 REM CLOSE THE FILE 
You may, of course, choose to 
make the record size larger or 
smaller depending upon your 
needs. After opening this file we 
are now ready to use the program. 

The Program: 

The program when first run 
comes up with a main menu with 
six selections. These are: 

1) INPUT A NUMBER 

2) RETRIEVE A RECORD 

3) DELETE RECORD 

4) EDIT A RECORD 

5) SORT ALL RECORDS 

6) QUIT 

Each of these selections has its 
own subsection which we will 
discuss as we get into the pro- 
gram. 

Input a Number: 

This section allows the user to 
enter the names and phone num- 
bers of their choosing. When this 
and any subsection is used the 
current number of records is 
always displayed for your infor- 
mation. I chose to use the very 
first record in the file to hold this 
number. This section is divided 
into three subsections as follows: 

1) ADD TO RECORD LIST 

2) FILL IN OPEN RECORDS 

3) BACK TO MENU 

When you add a record to the 
list as in option #1, you simply 
add the new record to the end of 
your current phone list. Option 
#2, however, allows you to fill in 
any empty records that might 
have been left over from deleting 
names. The way this is done is as 
follows: if you have previously 
deleted a record and chose to 
leave the record open as opposed 
to updating all records, then this 
record is flagged with a chr$(1). 
When attempting to fill in these 
records, the record numbers are 
checked for this flag and dis- 
played at the same time. If an 
empty record is found, then it is 
filled with your current name and 
number you are about to enter. If 
no empty records are found, then 
you are informed and you go back 

62/Commander September 1983 



>"[ REV] I [OFF INPUT Pi NUMB 



Continued from page 60 

290 PRINTTRBC30 

ERCBOWN]" 

380 PRIHTTflB<31)"CREV]RC0FF]ETRIEVE fl R 

ECQRBCBOWN]" 

310 PR I HTTPB-; 3 D" [REV] DC OFF DELETE RECOR 

BE DOWN]" 

320 PRINTTflB<31>"CREV3ECQFF]BIT fl RECOR 

DC DOWN]" 

330 PRINTTRB<31>"CREV]SC0FF]0RT ALL REC 

0RBSCB0WN]" 

340 PRIHTTflB<31V'CREV]QC0FF]UIT" 

358 PRINT 

360 GETfl$ : I Ffl$= " " THEN360 

370 IFR** ,, Q"THENNEXT:END 

330 I Ffi*0 " I " RNBRSO " R " RNDfl$<> " B " RNDR$< 

> " E " AMDfWO " S " THEN368 

390 IFfi$="E ,, THEH3320 

400 IFfi$="B"THEN1680 

410 IFfi*="R"THENS80 

420 IFfl$="S"THEN4170 

430 REM 

440 REM****************************** 

450 REM* NEW RECORD INPUT * 

460 REM****************************** 

470 REM 

480 PRINT"CCLEflR]"TflB(3i;'"NEN RECORD IN 

PUT" 

490 PRINTTRBC31}" " 

500 DRTR#1,1 

510 INPUT#1,NR 

520 PRINTTflEC20V'HUMBER OF RECORBS ~"NR 

" <EW> FOR MENU" 

530 PR I NT " C DOWN ] C DOWN 1 C DOWN ] C DOWN ] " 

540 PR I NTTflB < 3 1 ) " C DOWN ] C REV ] Fl C OFF 3 BB TO 

RECORD LI ST CDOWN]" 
550 PRINTTflB<31)"CREV]FC0FF]ILL IN OPEN 

RECORDSC BONN]" 
560 PRINTTflB<31)"CREV]BCOFF3flCK TO MENU 
CDOWN]" 

570 GETR$: IFfl$0"fl"flNDfl$0"B"flNDfl*0"F n 
THEN57S 

580 IFfl$="F"THEN2940 
590 IFR*="B"THEN260 
600 PRINT 

610 INPUT "NAME ";N* 
620 IFN$="END"THEN260 
630 INPUT "PHONE ";P$ 
640 PRINT 

650 PR I NT "NAME ";N$" PH0NE# " 

iPS 

662 PRINT 

670 INPUT "CORRECT <V OR N) [RIGHT] CRIGH 
T] CRIGHT]VCLEFT] CLEFT] CLEFT] " ; Z% 
688 IFC$="N"THEN480 
632 DflTfl#l,<NR+2> 
700 PR I NT# 1 > N$ To be continued on page I 



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^ 



into the menu. At this point you 
may either add it to the end of the 
list or go back to the main menu. 
Before any record is entered, the 
information you have entered is 
redisplayed for your confirmation 
before writing it to the file. 

Retrieve a Record: 

This section allows the user to 
recall any or all records on file. It 
is split up into the following sub- 
sections: 

1) NAME 

2) PHONE NUMBER 

3) ALL RECORDS 

4) BACK TO MENU 

From the selections, it is ob- 
vious how you may choose to 
recall a record. You may enter the 
name of the person, the phone 
number (for those of us that 
remember a phone number but 
forget to whom it belongs) or 
choose to see all records present. 
The third choice is by far the most 
versatile. It allows you to display 
all records present or get a hard 
copy of the names and phone 
numbers on hand. It has a special 
feature that allows you to use pat- 
tern matching. For those of you 
not familiar with this term, it 
simply means that you may 
choose to display all names that 
start with a D or any names that 
start with any pattern you chose. 
For example, if you chose the pat- 
tern DA you would see the num- 
bers of people as such: Danny 
Smith, Daffy Duck, Dandy Candy 
and not to forget Dear old DAD. 
(ALL NAMES ARE FICTITIOUS 
AND HAVE BEEN CHANGED TO 
PROTECT THE INNOCENT.) If 
you choose to display all or some 
of the names, only twenty at a 
time will be on the screen at any 
one time to prevent scrolling. You 
may then move on by pressing 
return. 

Delete Record: 

This command like the others 
is spread out into other subsec- 
tions. These are: 

1) NAME 

2) PHONE NUMBER 

3) SCAN 

4) BACK TO MENU 

Once again, you may choose to 
delete a record by the person's 
name or by the phone number if 

64/Commander September 1983 



Continued from page 62 

716 DRTfi#l,<MR+2>,35 

728 PRINT#1,P* 

738 REM 

740 REM******************************* 

750 REM* UPDATE RECORD NUMBER * 

768 REM******************************* 

770 REM 

788 I FERTHENER=9 : G0T08 1 9 : REN*EMPTV RECO 

RD FILLED 30 DONT INCREMENT COUNTER** 

790 BATfl#l,l 

800 PRINT#1,NR+1 

8 1 PR I NTTflB < 29 ) " C DOWN ] RECORD ENTERED " 

820 FOR J= 1 TO2009 : NEXT : I =0 : GO T0489 

830 REM 

840 REM****************************** 

850 REM* RETRIEVE RECORDS * 

860 REM****************************** 

870 REM 

S&& PRINT" CCLERR3"TflB<31) "RETRIEVE RECO 

RLS" : LINE* 1 

839 PR I NTTflB < 3 1 ) " — " 

990 PRINTTfiB<23;'NR" RECORDS PRESENT" 

910 PRINT 

920 PR I NT " C DOWN ] C DOWN ] C DOWN ] [ DOWN 3 [ DOWN 

3" 

930 PR I NTTflB ( 3 1 ) " C REV ] N [ OFF ] RME C DOWN ] " 

940 PR I NTTflB i 3 1 ) " t REV ] P [ OFF ] HONE NUMBER 

[DOWN]" 

950 PR I NTTflB ( 3 1 > " C REV 3 fl C OFF ] LL RECORDS C 

DOWN 3" 

Sm PRINTTRE'::31>"CREV3BCOFF3flCK TO MENU 
ii 

370 GETA* : I Ffl*= " " THEN979 

980 IFASO " N " RNDflSO " P " RNDRtO " fl " AND A*< 

>"B"THEN370 

33% IFA*="B"TH.ENGGTO260 

1 900 I FH$= " N" THENTM*= " NAME " = GOTO 1 369 

1919 IFA$="P"THENTM*="PHONE tt"--G0T01369 

1029 REM 

1 039 REM****************************** 

1940 REM* ALL RECORDS * 

1 050 REM****************************** 

1960 REM 

1070 PR I NT "[CLEAR 3": 

1080 INPUT"PRINTER OR CRT [RIGHT3 [RIGHT 

3 [RIGHT3C[LEFT3 [LEFT3 [LEFT3 " ; DV$ : PRINT" 

[CLEAR 3 " 

1090 INPUT "PATTERN MATCHING V[LEFT3[L 

EFT 3 [LEFT 3", A* 

1 1 00 I FA*= " V " THEN I NPUT " TITER PATTERN 

* [LEFT 3 [LEFT 3 [LEFT] " ; PM* : PM=1 

1110 I FPM*= " * " THEN 1 309 

1 1 20 LN=LEN ( PM* ) : V*= " Z " 

1 130 IFDV*="P"THEN0PEN2, 4 : GOTO 1 159 

1149 0PEN2,3 

1159 PRINT#2," NAME"TflE<49> "NUMBER" 
^ To be continued on page 66 




%*> 



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you recall it. If the record chosen 
to be deleted is present, then you 
are asked to confirm it before it is 
actually deleted. If you decide to 
delete the record then you are 
given two more choices on the 
method of deletion. This is the 
part that was discussed earlier 
during the input record when it 
came to adding to the list or fill- 
ing in empty records. Your two 
choices are: 

1) UPDATE ALL RECORDS 

2) DELETE PRESENT RECORD 
If you choose to update all the 

records this is what happens. If 
you have 20 records and you are 
deleting number 10, then each 
successive record is put in its 
predecessor's place. This means 
record number 1 1 is now in record 
10's old position, record 12 is in 
11's and so on down to the last 
record. If you choose number 2 
then the records remain intact 
and that record is flagged with 
the chr$(1) and remains open to 
be filled in at a later time. 

Choice number 2 is much 
quicker, especially if you have a 
large numberof records. The third 
choice is to scan the records. By 
this statement I mean we will se- 
quentially display each record 
and ask if it is the record you want 
to delete until we find it or reach 
the end of the file. The current 
record number is always being 
updated by any of our actions. 
Before we go on to the next com- 
mand in the menu, I would just 
like to backtrack and mention 
that you may not update all 
records if the record chosen to 
delete was the last record. 

Edit a Record: 

The phone directory or any file 
system would not be complete 
without the capability to edit your 
records. The section on editing 
records has 4 subsections once 
more. These sections are as fol- 
lows: 

1) NAME 

2) PHONE 

3) SCAN 

4) BACK TO MENU 

These sections work just the 
same as the preceding one on 
deleting records. Once again, you 
may choose to search for a record 

66/Commander September 1983 



Continued from page 64 

1 1 60 PR I NT#2 , " " TAB -:! 40 > " [ DOW 

N ] " 

1176 F0RT*2TQNR+1 

1180 BfiTFl#l,<T> 

1190 INPUT#1,N$ 

1200 IFN*=CHR*< 1 )0RN**CHR*C255>THENPRIN 

TTflB< 20 >" RECORD #"1+1" EMPTY " •- GOTO 1270 

1210 BrTm#l,a>,35 

1220 INPUT#1,P$ 

1 230 I FB V$= " P " THENC3J-45-LEN < N* > : GOTO 1 25 



1248 C2=38-LENCN*> 

1 250 I FPMTHEN I FLEFT* ( H$ , LN >=PM*THENPR I H 

T#2 , N$ ; SPC i CK ') ; P$ " " 1+ 1 : V*=N$ : GOTO 1 270 

1268 IFF«»0THENPRINT*2jN*;SPC(CX>;P*" " 

1 + 1 

1270 1 = 1 + 1 =K=K+1 : IFDV$= 1, C"THEHIFK=20THE 

NIFPM=0THEN1590 

1 230 I FPMTHEN I FN*>V$THENT=T+ 1 000 

129Q NEKTT 

1300 N=0 : 1=0 : K=0 : PN-0 : CL0SE2 : GOTO 1560 

1310 REN 

1 320 rem************ ********##**#***** 

1330 rem* retrieval by field * 

1340 REM****************************** 

1350 REM 

1360 PRINT" C DOWN ] n TM$; 

1370 INPUTRS* 

1 380 I FTM*= " NAME " THENP= 1 : K=35 : N= 1 

1390 IFTM*="PHONE #"THENP==35 -X-l :N=0 

1460 F0RT=2T0HR+1 

1410 DflTfl#l,a> J CP) 

1426 INPUT#1,PR* 

1430 IFPR*=RS*THEHG=T = T=HR+1000 

1440 NEXTT 

1450 IFT=NR+2THEHGOTO1620:REM**NOT FOUN 

D** 

1460 DflTfl#l,CG?.(K? 

1470 PRINT 

1480 INPUT#1,PN$ 

1 498 I FNTHENPR I NTPR*TflB i 30 > PN$ 

1 500 I FN=0THENPR I NTPN*TflB < 30 ) PR* 

1510 REM 

1 520 REM****************************** 

1530 REM* WAIT ROUTINES * 

1 540 REM****************************** 

1550 REM 

1560 POK:E158,0:PRINTTFIBC26> ,, I:DOWH3I:REV] 

PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUECOFF]" 

1 578 GETfl* = I Ffl$OCHR* a 3 > THEN 1 57S 

1580 N=0:ONLINEGOTO880, 1680,3328,260 

1590 POKE 153, : PRINTTRBC22) " CDOWN J CREV] 

PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE LISTINGCDOWNK 

OFF]" 

1600 GETfi*: IFfl*OCHR* a 3) THEN 1600 

To be continued on page 68 




Vanilla Pilot? 

Yes, Vanilla Pilot! 

What is Vanilla Pilot? C 



Vanilla Pilot is a full- featured pilot 
language interpreter including TURTLE 
GRAPHICS for the PET or CBM 4000, 
80C0, 9000 and CBM-64 series computers 

At last! A Pilot interpreter for the 
Commodore computers. This Pilot in- 
cludes some powerful extensions to 
the screen editor of the computer. 
Things like FIND /CHANGE, TRACE 
and DUMP enhance the programming 
environment. 



The TURTLE has a very powerful set 
of graphics commands. You can set the 
Turtle's DIRECTION and turn him LEFT 
or RIGHT. The pen he carries can be 
set to any of the 16 colors in the CBM- 
64. He can DRAW or ERASE a Line. 

What else? Vanilla Pilot is all this and 
much, much more. In fact, we can't 
tell you about all of the features of 
the language in this small ad. So 
rush down to your local Commodore 
computer dealer and ask him to show 
you Vanilla Pilot in action. 



Tamarack Software 
Darby, MT. 59829 




Circle No. 42 
Commander September 1983/67 






% 



to edit by a name, phone number 
or sequential scan of all present 
records. As with all changes that 
will be reflected in your file, you 
are given a chance to abort the 
change before it is written to disk. 
When you have finished editing a 
record you are informed that the 
record has been updated. 
Sort All Records: 

This selection unlike the other 
commands has no subsections. 
When the command is invoked, 
the first thing that is done is the 
reading of the current file into 
memory. You are informed of all 
operations as they are being per- 
formed. If any empty record is 
found, then you are informed that 
the records cannot be sorted until 
all records are updated. At this 
point you must update all of your 
records. Only when this is done 
will you have an accurate count of 
your records and the sorting will 
be allowed. If a record is empty 
then the record count is not 
decremented. If all was well or 
you have updated your records 
then the sorting procedure 
begins. While the records are be- 
ing sorted I chose to print out 
dashes to let the user know that 
the computer is indeed working. 
When the sorting procedure is 
finished, you are once again in- 
formed and the new file is written 
to the disk. 
Quit: 

This is not a hard command to 
figure out. It simply closes the 
relative file (which incidentally is 
open during the whole program) 
and then ends the program. 

In this phone directory, I chose 
to allow 35 characters for the 
name, and 15 for the phone 
number. This should allow for the 
longest of names and any phone 
number along with the area code 
to be entered. If you anticipate 
needing larger fields for your file 
then you must consider this when 
you first open your file and also 
change all the record positions at 
35 to your new position. 

Conclusion: 

As I had mentioned at the 
beginning of this article, I have 
only touched upon the use of 
relative files. The way they are be- 

68/Commander September 1983 



Continued from page 66 

1610 K=0= GOTO 1290 

1620 PRINTTflB<29>"[DQWN]REC0RD HOT PRES 

ENT" : 1=0: GOTO 1560 

1630 REN 

1 640 rem****************************** 
1650 rem* menu for record deletion * 

1660 

1670 REM 

1630 PRINT 
D. c " : LINE = 2 

1690 PRIHTTfiB<31>" " 

1700 PRINT 

1710 PRINTTHBC31> ,, CREV]NC0FF]flMECD0WH]" 

1720 PRINTTflBOl)" ERE V3PCOFF3 HONE NUMBE 

REDOUND" 

1 730 PR I HTTflB i 3 1 ) u I REV ] 3 C OFF 3 CRN C DOWN 3 " 

1740 PRINTTflBc:31;'"CREV3BCOFF3flCK TO MEN 

U" 

1750 GETfi* 



[CLEAR 3 "TAB (31)" DELETE RECOR 



1768 

,.--s ii ■ni 

1770 



#":P=35 : tf=l 



IFfl$=""THEN1750 

I Ffl$0 " N " RNDR$0 " P " RNDRSO " S " flNDfl* 

THEN 1758 

IFfi$= ,, N"THENTM$="NRME" 
1 : GOTO I860 

1 780 I Ffl$= *' P " THENTM$= " PHONE 
:N=0: GOTO I860 
1790 IFR*="S"THEN2720 
1800 GOTO260 
1810 REM 

1820 REM****************************** 
1830 REM*SEflRCH FOR RECORDS TO DELETE* 
1 840 REM****************************** 
1350 REM 

I860 PRINT " [DOWN 3" TM$; :REM**LOOK FOR RE 
CORDS'** 
1870 INPUTRSf 
1880 F0RT=2T0NR+1 
1890 DRTfittl, CT>, <P> 

INPUT#1,PR* 

IFPR*=RS*THEHG=T : T=NR+1000 

1=1+1 : REM**COUNTER FOR RECORD NO.* 



1900 

1910 

1920 

* 

1930 

1940 



NEXT T 

I FT=NR+2THEN 1 620 : REM**N0T FOUND** 



1950 REM 
I960 



1970 REM* PRINT OUT RECORD AND * 

1980 REM* QUERY FOR DELETION * 

1 99Q REM***************************** 

2000 REM 

2010 DRTflttl^OAX) 

2020 PRINT 

2030 INPUT#1,PN* 

2040 PRINTTflBOl) "RECORD NUMBER" I 

2850 PRINTTflBOD" " 

2060 I FNTHENPR I NTPR$TRB C 30 ) PN$ : GOTO2O80 

To be continued on page 70 




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Circle No. 46 



ing used here is not really direct 
access since we usually have to 
search for the name or number. 
Only when we are editing records 
etc. do we really use direct ac- 
cess to replace the old record. 
The real effectiveness of relative 
files comes into play when you 
know the record number or can 
calculate it easily. When this is 
the case, then you can say get 
record number 55 and it will be 
done. An example of an applica- 
tion that needs this type of direct 
access would be an inventory 
package. If you want to know the 
price of a certain number, you 
enter the code and it immediately 
gets it. In a future article I will in- 
clude a direct access inventory 
package that will do this. I have 
not mentioned anything about 
side sectors that relative files use 
since this was just a taste of what 
they can do. If there is interest in 
how files such as these or any 
other type (including programs) 
are stored on disk then please 
feel free to contact me through 
Commander. Until next time, Hap- 
py computing. □ 



CARDBOARD 5 

Five Slot Expansion Interface 
fortheC-64" 

The CARDBOARD/5 (CB/5) is an enclosed 
five slot, fully switch selectable, expansion 
interface for the Commodore 64 '". This qual- 
ity product allows the user to switch select 
any cartridge slot or combination of car- 
tridge slots. There are twenty-two color 
coded light emitting diodes to give status in- 
dication. Each slot has four LEDs and two 
toggle switches for indication and control. 
The CARDBOARD/5 is fully fused and a 
reset button is provided. 

• high quality glass/epoxy circuit board 

• gold plated contacts 

• logic lines are switched by solid state IC 
switches 

• full LED status indication 

• convenient toggle switches 

• full support under the board to prevent 
flexing 

• full plastic enclosure to insure safety 

• fused to protect your computer 

• convenient reset button 

• CARDCO, Inc.'s exclusive Lifetime 
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■■■■<M1PU SENSE":/ 



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WICHITA. KS 67201 
(316)263-1095 



Handling charges $300 

COD. (Add $2.00) 

Personal checks allow 3 week delivery 

Commodore 64" is a registered trademark of 

Commodore Business Systems. Inc. 

Prices subject to change 



Lion 



'PR* 



Continued from page 68 

2076 PR I NTPH$T AB < 30 ! 

2080 PRINT 

2090 INPUT "DELETE THIS RECORD [RIGHT] CR 

IGHT] [RIGHT] VCLEFT] CLEFT] CLEFT] " ; DR* 

2180 IFDR$O"Y"THENI=0:GQTO1680 

2110 INPUT "ARE YOU SURE [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [ 

RIGHT] Y[ LEFT] [LEFT] [LEFT] " ; DR* 

2 1 20 I FDR*0 " V " THEN I =0 : GOTO 1 6S0 

REN 

REM****************************** 

REM* MINI MENU FOR DELETION * 

REM****************************** 

REM 

PR I NTT AB (. 29 > " C REV ] U C OFF ] PDFITE ALL 
RECORDS [DOWN]" 

2190 PRINTTflB<29)"CREV]D[0FF]ELETE PRES 
ENT RECORD [DOWN]" 

2200 GET A* : I F A*<> " U " ANBA*<> " D " THEN2200 
2210 IFA*="U"THEN2410 

2220 PR I NTTflE < 29;- "[DOWN] DELETING PRESEN 
T RECORD" 
2230 BATA#l,a + l;< 

PRINT#l,CHR*a) 

DATfl#l,a + l>,35 

PRINT#l,CHR*a> 

1=0 : FORJ=1TO20O0 : NEXT ; GOTO 1688 

REM 

REM***************************** 



2138 
2140 
2150 
2160 
2170 
2180 



2240 
2258 
2260 
2270 
2280 
2290 



2300 
2310 
2320 
2330 
2340 
2350 
2360 
2370 
2330 
2390 
2480 
2410 



REM* DELETE RECORD * 
REM* AND UPDATE THE EXISTING * 
REM* RECORDS BY READING THE * 
REM* NEXT ONE INTO THE DELETED * 
REM* RECORD * 



REM 



REM***************************** 

REM* REPLACE NAME * 

REM***************************** 

REM 

PR I NTTRB < 29 >"[ DOWN] UPDATING ALL RE 
CORD 1 -' " 

2420 IFI=NRTHENPRINTTAB<18>" CANNOT UPD 
ATE! THIS WAS THE LAST RECORD" 
2430 I F I =NRTHENFORJ= 1 TO2000 : NEXT : I =0 : GO 
TO 1680 
2440 F0RT=I+2T0NR+1 

DATfl#l,(T) 

INPUT* 1,DN* 

DATA#l,<T-n 

PRINT#1,DN* 

REM 

REM***************************** 

REM* REPLACE PHONE NUMBER * 

REM***************************** 

REM 

Continued from page 72 



2450 
2460 
2470 
2480 
2490 
2500 
2518 
2520 
2538 



70/Commander September 1983 



'■ •• 



MMUMtiMiMM 



SEND FOR OUR CATALOG OF CBM 64 SOFTWARE. Over 1 50 different pieces of software and 
accessories for the CBM 64. With full descriptions and screen pictures. Send $2.00 postage and 
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VIC - 20 SOFTWARE 



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DATA BASE MGR $49.95 

HOME INVENTORY 15.95 

CHECKBOOK MANAGER 39 95 

DATA MANAGER 1 7.95 



CALC RESULT $1 39.95 

3 Dimensional Electronic Spreadsheet with: built-in 
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Programmer's utility package gives you AUTO-NUM- 
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- MANY MORE FEATURES- 
PAPERCLIP $1 25.00 

Professional Word Processor. Full Screen Editing, 
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This program does so much we can't list it - call for 
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M- FILE $99.95 

A truly relational data base manager. Up to 1200 
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64 SOFTWARE 



SPELLMASTER $89.95 

Proofreading software for the C-64! Now with the 
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DATA 20 VIDEO PAK 80 $164.95 

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OTHER SERIOUS SOFTWARE 

VISICALC $21 995 

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MICRO SPEC MAILING LIST. 44.95 

MICRO SPEC INVENTORY 79.95 

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MICRO SPEC PAYROLL 79.95 

MICRO SPEC DATA BASE MGR 74.95 

MINI JINI DATA BASE (CART.) 79.95 

BUSICALC 69.95 

'64 TERMINAL 24.95 



TOTAL 

TIME MANAGEMENT $24.95 

MAILING LIST & LABELS 1 7.95 

RESEARCH ASST. 24.95 



GAMES 

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STARCROSS $31 .95 

ZORKI 31.95 

ZORK II 31.95 

ZORK III 31.95 

DEADLINE 41.95 

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EPYX/AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI $34.95 

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JUMPMAN 31 .95 

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FROGGER $29.95 

JAWBREAKER 21 .95 

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NEUTRAL ZONE $29.95 

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GEMINI 10X $399. 95 



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4 DIFFERENT PITCHES 




COMMODORE 64 $249 

COMMODORE 1541 DISK DRIVE 259 

COMMODORE 1525 PRINTER 239 

1 701 COLOR MONITOR 279. 

1 520 4 COLOR PLOTTER 1 99 

1 600 MODEM 99. 

1 530 DATASETTE 60 

COMMODORE 64 REF. MANUAL 17.! 

GEMINI 10 PRINTER 349. 

SCM TPI PRINTER 599. 

CARDCO CARD INTERFACE 69 

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CARDCO LIGHT PEN 24. 

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CARDPRINT: Parallel Printer Interlace (or Vic or 64 $64.99 

CARDRfTER: Light Pen with 6 good programs. Vic or 6d . .. $31.99 

CARDADAPTER: Play Atari VCS Games on your Vic . . . . $74.99 

CARDBOARD/3S: slot exp. -fused- switched -reset button . VIC $31.99 

CARDETTE'1: Use standard cassette recorders on VIC/ 64 $31.99 



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Imerfece coble for printer! obove 124.99 
INCLUDES DRIVER LISTING 



GRID RUNNER: Avoid Droids Weapons and Annihilate them . $29.99 

AGGRESSOR: Space Battle - Nine Levels VIC {39.99 

TURTLE GRAPHICS: Easy to Learn Computer Lang vic/64 $33.99 
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ROBOT PANIC: Battle your way through the Cosmos . . V ' K . . $J9.99 
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HESMON:Mach Language Monitor - Assembler . VIC/64 $29. 99 
HES WRITER: Surprisingly Complete Word Processing Cart . $29.99 



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mWAkHcUKI: Avoid Roma"! Ghost & Find Lost Treasure, Vic/64. $29.' 

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FT. APOCALTPSL Fly Helicopter & Capture Fuel & Weapons. Vic/64. $29." 
PtOTKTQ* II: Get Your People 10 SAfety os Volcanoes Erupt. Vic/64$29. 



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FLIGHT SIMULATOR - 3 MILE ISLAND 



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LOGGER: Move Lumberjack Across Trails& River. 64 Cass $22.99 

APE CHASE; Jump or Climb Various Structures. Avoid Bombs. 64 . . . $22.99 
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MISCELLANEOUS — 



QUICK BROWN FOX: Professional Word Processing Cart VIC/64 $49.99 
TOTL TEXT 2.0: Cass. - Basic Won) Processor . . VIC J19.99 

TOTL TEXT 2Jj: Cass. - Advanced Word Processor - Req. SK Exp. . J". 99 

TOTL LABEL: Cass. - Mailing Lisl . VIC/ 64 J16.99 

RrlSEARCHASSISTAm:Cass.-Nc«ekeer^lc»TermPapers.elc. . $24.99 

ROAD TOAD: Cass. - Uke Frogger VIC .... (16.99 

MILLIPEDE: Cass. - Like Centipede Vic ... . S16.99 

SOICIRErS APPRENTICE: Super-Graphics Utility Kit. Disk 64 (39.99 

WRITER'S ASSISTANT: Powerful Disk Based Word Processor. 64 . (99.99 

FILING ASSISTANT: Dato Monagemenr for all your needs. .64 S99.99 

SPREADSHEET ASSISTANT: Visitype software for the 64 S99.99 

COMMODORE LOOO: Similar to Apple logo. 64 SS4.99 

VANILLA PILOT: Easy to use longuage. VIC or 64 SJ7.99 

PET EMULATOR: Run many PET programs on 64 SJ7.99 

IUSINESSMAN BTCMS: General Ledger, Runs on 1 Disk.. 64 S 109.99 

(III PATER BTCMS: Accounts Poyable. Aging Reports. Print ChecksSII>9.99 
BILL COLLECTOR BTCMS: Accounts Receivoble. Print Statements. . .S109.99 
PATMASTER BTCMS: Payroll System. Print checks. Payroll register 1109.99 
OALACTICCONOUEST:Req.SKE«p.-Slralegyaame-tto6 S 9.99 
MARTIAN RAIDER: Intergalactjc ships in attack on Mars Vic. . $16.99 
SHARK TRAP: Snare the sharks with atomic net or die . Vic . . $16.99 
MULTI-SOUND SYNTHE SISER: Compose your ow n kind ol music $ 1 6.99 
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ANNIHILATOI. Like Defender VIC/ 64 (17.99 

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rPuwvjusmcwan 



Continued from page 70 

-. I 2540 BflTfltti 
%[ 2550 

1^2560 

^ 2570 
2580 






(T), 



INPUTri,DP$ 
BfiTfl#l,<T-l>,35 
PRINT* 1. DP* 

NEKTT:I=0 

REM 

R! 

REM* RESET RECORD NUMBER * 

REM************************** 

REM 

PRINT#1,NR-1 

NR=NR-1 : GOTO 1680 

REM 

REM****************************** 

REM* SCRN FOR RECORD TO DELETE * 

REM****************************** 

REM 

PRINT" CDOWNJ [DOWN] LDOWN3 " 

F0RT=2T0NR+1 

DRTfl#l,<T> 

INPUT#1,N$ 

IFN$-CHR$< 1 ';<THENT=T+1 = 1 = 1 + 1 : G0T027 



2590 

2600 

2610 

2620 

2630 

2640 

2650 

266S 

2670 

2680 

2696 

2700 

2710 

2720 

2730 

2740 

2756 

276© 

4u 

2770 BPiTR#i,a>,35 

2788 INPUT* 1,P$ 

2790 1=1+1 

2800 PR I NT " RECORD* " I ;" "; H$, SPCO0)P* 

2810 INPUT" CDG1JN 3 DELETE THIS RECORDCRIG 

HT] [RIGHT] CRIGHTTNCLEFT] CLEFT] CLEFT] ";B 

R4> 

2820 IFDR$O"V"THEN2850 

2830 INPUT "ARE YOU SUREC RIGHT] [RIGHT] CR 

IGHT] V CLEFT] CLEFT] CLEFT] " ; BR$ 

2840 I FDR** " V " THENT=NR+ i 060 ; G0T02 1 80 

2850 PR IHTDW*:PRINTSP$: PRINT "CUP] CUP]": 

NEXTT 

2860 IFT=HR+2THEHPRINTTflBC31>"END OF FI 

LE" 

2370 

2330 

2890 

2900 

2910 

2920 

2930 

2940 

2958 

2960 

2970 

2930 

RD"I 

2990 

3000 




FORJ«iTO2000:NEXT 

I=0:GOTO1688 

REM 



REM* 



SCRN FOR OPEN RECORD 



REM 

F0RT=2T0NR+1 

DflTR*i.,m 

INPUT** 1,BL* 

1 = 1+1 

PR I NT "[ DOWN] 

PRINTTREC31>" 

I FBL*=CHR* C 1 ) THENT=NR+ 1 000 : G0T03B7 

Continued from page 74 



TABC31; "CHECKING RECO 



72/Commander September 1983 



AARDVARK L.T.D. 
TRS-80 COLOR COMMODORE 64 VIC-20 SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99/4A 







QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Different from all the others. 
Quest is played on a computer generated 
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, explor- 
ation of ruins and temples and outright 
banditry. When your force is strong enough, 
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable 
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every 
time. TRS-80 Color, and Sinclair, 13K VIC- 
20. Extended BASIC required for TRS-80 
Color and T199/A. $19.95 each. 

32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $29.95. 
Adds a second level with dungeons and 
more Questing. 




Wizards! 



WIZARDS TOWER - This is very similar to 
Quest (see above). We added wizards, magic, 
dragons, and dungeons to come up with a 
Quest with a D&D flavor. It requires 16k 
extended color BASIC. 13k VIC, Commo- 
dore 64, TRS-80 16k Extended BASIC, 
T199/A extended BASIC. $19.95 Tape, 
$24.95 Disk. 

Authors — Aardvark pays the highest com- 
missions in the industry and gives programs 
the widest possible advertising coverage. 
Send a Self Addressed Stamped Envelope 
for our Authors Information Package. 




v- %m 




ZEUS — It's fast and furious as you become 
the WIZARD fighting off the Thurderbolts 
of an angry ZEUS. Your Cone of Cold will 
destroy a thunderbolt and your shield will 
protect you — for a while. This is the best 
and highest speed arcade action we have 
ever done. Difficulty increases in wave after 
wave, providing hours of challenging fun 
and a game that you may never completely 
master. Commodore 64, Vic20 (16k ex- 
pander), and 16k TRS-80 Color Computer. 
(ALL MACHINE CODE!) 

$24.95 tape $29.95 disk. (Tape will not 
transfer to disk.) 




SEAWOLFE - ALL MACHINE CODE In 
this high speed arcade game, you lay out 
patterns of torpedoes ahead of the attacking 
PT boats. Requires Joysticks, at least 13k 
RAM, and fast reflexes. Lots of Color and 
Sound. A fun game. Tape or Disk for Vic20, 
Commodore 64, and TRS-80 Color. NOTE: 
tape will not transfer to disk! 
$24.95 Tape — $29.95 Disk. 




ADVENTURES!!! 

The Adventures below are written in BASIC, 
are full featured, fast action, full plotted ad- 
ventures that take 30-50 hours to play. (Ad- 
ventures are interactive fantasies. It's like 
reading a book except that you are the main 
character as you give the computer, com- 
mands like "Look in the Coffin" and "Light 
the torch.") 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, 
and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on VIC-20. Now available for TI99. 
Any Commodore 64. 

$19.95 Tape - $24.95 Disk. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS 

(by Rodger Olsen) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian 
city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to 
survive this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of 
problems. Exciting and tough ! 



Dungeons of Death — This is the first D&D 
type game good enough to qualify at Aard- 
vark. This is serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 
players to go on a Dragon Hunting, Monster 
Killing, Dungeon Exploring Quest. Played 
on an on-screen map, you get a choice of 
race and character (Human, Dwarf, Soldier, 
Wizard, etc.), a chance to grow from game 
to game, and a 15 page manual. 16k Ex- 
tended TRS-80 Color, 13k VIC, Commo- 
dore 64. At the normal price for an Adven- 
ture ($19.95 tape, $24.95 disk), this is a 
give-away. 

Dealers — We have a line of about 100 origi- 
nal programs for the machines listed here. 
We have High speed Arcades, Quality Ad- 
ventures, Word processors and Business 
Software for Small machines. Better yet, 
we have excellent Dealer support. Phone for 
information. 



Send $1 .00 for Complete Catalogue - Please specify system on all orders - $2.00 Shipping Charge on each order 




AARDVARK L.T.D. 1-800-624-4327 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 / (313) 669-3110 
Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 



M °sterCc 






COMMAND-BOARD 



Show us how you command your 
favorite computer game. We want 
you to put your best effort on 
record in the COMMAND- 
BOARD. To show the Com- 
modore world your best score 
send your entries to: 

COMMAND-BOARD 
P.O. Box 98827 
Tacoma, WA 98498 

All entries must be received by the 
first of the month to be eligible for 
the following month. 

SCORE PLAYER 
KEY QUEST 

74,798 * Darrell Eastman, Tacoma, WA 

24,962 Nick Blenkush, Santa Monica, 

CA 
VIDEO VERMIN 
10,164,437 * Richard Seemayer, Fresh 

Meadows, N.Y. 
2,150,836 Darrell Eastman, Tacoma, WA 

GRIDDER 
45,678 * Nick Blenkush, Santa Monica, CA 

FROGGEE 
65,425 * Keith Floyd, Belt, MT 



WANTED! 

Game 
Programmers 

Enter your original 

Recreational Listings to 

COMMANDER and receive 

CASH 

MERCHANDISE 

PEER RECOGNITION 

Enter as many games as you 
like: Submit your game(s) on 
cassette tape or disk to 
Games, Commander Maga- 
zine, P.O. Box 98827, Tacoma, 
WA 98498. 

74/Commander September 1983 



9 



Continued irosr. page 72 

3010 PRINT" CUP] CUP] CUP] CUP]" 
3026 NEXTT 
3030 PR I NT "C DOWN]" 

3040 PR I NT " C DOWN ]" TAB < 23) "NO EMPTY RECO 
RDS PRESENT" : 1=0 
3050 FOR J= 1 TO3O00 : NEXT 
3060 G0T0488 
3070 REM 

3030 REM****************************** 
3090 REM* FILL IN EMPTY RECORDS * 
3 1 00 REM****************************** 
3110 REM 

3120 PR I NT " C CLEAR ]" TAB i 22)" RECORD BEING 
PLACED INTO RECORD #"I 

3 1 30 PR I NT TAB ( 22 ) " ~~ 

n 

3140 INPUT"NAME";N$ 

3150 IFN$="END ,, THENI=0:GOTO260 

3160 INPUT"PHONE";P* 

3170 PRINT 

3130 PR I NT "NAME ";H$" PH0NE# " 

' P$ 

3190 PRINT 

3200 INPUT "CORRECT <Y OR N) [RIGHT] [RIG 

HT] CRIGHT]YCLEFT] CLEFT] CLEFT] " ; C$ 

32 1 I FC*<> " Y " THENGOT03 1 20 

3220 DATA#1,U + 1> 

3230 PRINT#1,N$ 

3240 DAT A# 1 , < I + 1 ) , 35 

3250 PRINT#1,P$ 

3260 ER=1 •' GOTO730 

3270 REM 

3230 REM****************************** 

3290 REM* MENU FOR EDITING RECORDS * 

3300 REM****************************** 

3310 REM 

3320 PRINT"CCLEAR]"TAB';31)"EDIT RECORDS 

":LINE=3 

3330 PRINTTAE<31)" " 

3340 PRINT 

3350 PR I NTT ABC 31 )" CREV]NC OFF ]RMEC DOWN]" 

3360 PRINTTAB<31)"CREV]PC0FF]H0NECD0WN] 
ii 

3370 PR I NT TAB C3 1 ) " C REV ] S C OFF ] CAN C DOWN ] " 

3330 PRINTTABC31)"CREV3BCOFF]ACK TO MEN 

U" 

3390 GET A* : I FA$= " " THEN3399 

3400 I F A$0 " N " ANDASO " P " AND fl$<> " S " AND A$ 

O"B"THEN3320 

3410 PRINT 

3420 IFA$="N"THENTM$-"NAME" : P=l : X=35 = N= 

l:GOTO3460 

3430 I FA$= " P " THENTM** " PHONE " : P=35 : X= 1 : H 

=0 = GOTO3460 

3440 IFA$="S"THEN3770 

3450 GOTO260 To be continued on page 76 



^jfm^smm^ 




zxsmtt 



&W* 



Ofak jfebL Akfe JMfe j^A f 



•^p*mm**^*timt*4m 



■ 






^t7T5^ 






"» 



• 'V. 



ndhabolical Ninjas have 

. irea" -the- Master and his 

A - .' daughter! 

-, ^.h<.'«>" -^%J%ust avenge the foul 
f' ••»5*Sk& A'-X'Vv crime! 

■ pghj^yaur way through 
cCessive doors to 
different worlds 

>,rent weapons! 
._Hbcis arcade action 
i^*?J<^^ ; O animation! 
is'-- i< IT - k v '"Tfom ttie master of liqht, 
l A -S^'^ . sound-.and action! 
\V Joystick required. 



■•".-.'•v>. 






ZiSf&g-'jffil 



'.■..V..14; :•"£..* 
.•. v .^:. , ^ 




$ J4.95 






Just released for the Commodore 64® Also available - Surf, and Particle Beam War. 
See your local dealer, or order direct from: 






PHANTOM 



Software 



1116-A8th St. 



* - ■ f « -vj ** : 



Suite 155 • Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 • (213)379-8686 
Send Check or Money Order. 
Specify Tape or Disk. Add $2.00 for shipping. Calif, residents add 6.5% tax 



mbk*"-*-. :-.■-:«?*,- 



;(PnMm*ft . 



VIAC/VAAB 



VIAC-VIC INTERFACE to ANY CASSETTE 

This adapter will allow you to connect most any 
audio tape recorder to the VIC-20. COM-64 or any 
Commodore computer with a cassette interlace. 
Although the VIAC is a low cost alternative to the 
Datasette. you may want a VIAC even if you already 
own a Datasette because it can be a powerful 
enhancement to your system providing new and 
exciting capabilities. 

• Make backup copies of any tape directly with 
another cassette that will be compatable with the 
Datasette due to our unique polarity switching 
feature. 

Rf.cord verbal remarks directly on program tape 
and playback under program control. 

• Has audio earphone jack and LED data mdicatoi 
Can be used as an external controller lor low 

voltage/current switching applications. 
Emulates all the leatures of the Datasette but C3n 
do so much more! You can pay more or less for 
other cassette adapters but you can not buy 
another unit with all the features and capabilities of 
the VIAC. Full money back guarantee if not 
completely satisfied. The VIAC is only available ful 
ly assembled for $44.95. 

************************ 
VAAB-VIDEO AUDIO ADAPTER BOX 
Provides easy access to Video/Audio Dm Jack of 
the VIC-20, COM-64, TI99/4 and Atari 800 even 
with TV modulator plugged in. 

Record & playback audio/video directly from 
computer to external audio or video recorder. 

• Provide easy connec'ion to monitor with 
standard RCA plugs eliminating need lor ex 
pensive video adapter cable. 

• When used in conjunction with the VIAC, you 
can playback your own voice recorded on your 
program tapes through the TV speaker. 
You will find many more innovative applications 
(or this versatile device. 

The VAAB is only $24.95, KM: $15.95, Plans only 
$5.95. Combo Special VIAC/VAAB $64.95 
Include $2.50 shipping per order. Check, Money 
Order, COD (+ 2.00), Visa/MC(+4%).CaliH + 6% tax) 



INTEGRATED CONTROLS (714)641-0181 

1240-L LOGAN AVE. Dealer Inquiries Invited 

COSTA MESA. CA 92626 



Circle No. 87 



COMMODORE 64 
OWNERS ONLY 

• SHARE • LEARN • ENJOY • 

• Monthly Newsletter 

• Public Domain Software 

• Reports of Recent 64 Articles 

• Local Chapter Meetings 

• Product Discounts 

• Service Advice 

• Bi-Monthly Magazine 

• Advice on Training 

• Annual Convention 

• Member Bulletin Board 



Send Name, address, 

phone no. and annual 

dues ($25) to: 

The Commodore 64 Users Group 

Suite 100, Corporate West 

4200 Commerce Court 

Lisle, Illinois 60532 

Or Call: 

(312) 369-6525 (Weekdays 
9:00am— 5:00pm— Central Time) 

MASTERCARD OR VISA ACCEPTED 
"An Independent not-for-profit organization". 



^ 



Continued from page 74 



3468 
3470 
3480 
3490 
3500 
3510 
3520 
3530 
3540 
3550 
3560 
3570 
3530 
3530 
3600 
3610 
3620 
3630 
3640 
3650 
3666 
3670 



REM 



REM* EDIT BY FIELD * 

REM*********:***************;***** 

REM 

PRINT 1, ED0UN]"TM$; 

INPUTRS* 

F0RT=2TQNR+1 

DflTfi#i,<T>.. <p:> 

INPUT#1,PR$ 

IFPR$~RS$THENG=T : T=NR+1000 

1 = 1 + 1 

NEXTT 

IFT=NR+2THEN162B 

DftTfl#l^C),<X> 

INPUT#1,PN* 

PRINTTflBOl ) "RECORD NUMBER" I 

PRINTTflB<31>" " 



I FNTHENPR I NTPRSTFlB C 30 > PH* : GOTO3660 

PRINTPN*TflB(30)PR* 

PRINT 

INPUT "EDIT THIS RECORBLRIGHTHRIGH 
T]V CLEFT] CLEFT] CLEFT] " ; ER$ 
3680 I FER$<> " Y " THEN I «8 : GOTG3320 
3690 INPUT "ARE YOU SURE ERIGHTK RIGHT] Y 
CLEFT] CLEFT] CLEFT] " ; ER* 



3700 IFER*0"Y 
GOTO3390 
REM 



'THENI=0:GGTQ3 



3710 

3720 

3730 

3740 

3750 

3760 

3770 

3780 

3790 

3800 

3310 

90 

3320 

3S30 

3840 

3850 

3860 



REM* SCAN FOR RECORD TO EDIT 



REM 

PR I NT " C DOWN H DOWN]" 

F0RT-2T0NR+1 

DflTB#l#<T> 

INPUT#1,N* 

IFN*=CHR$< 1 >THENT«T+1 

DflTfl#l,CT),35 

INPUT#1,P* 

1=1 + 1 

PR I NT "RECORD* "I; 



I-I+1'G0T037 



INPUT" t DOWN] ED IT 



1 ";N$,SPC<10>P$ 
THIS REC0RDERIGHT 



] CRIGHT]NCLEFT] CLEFT] CLEFT] " j ER$ 
3879 IFER*O"Y"THEN3900 



76/Commander September 1983 



* 



3880 INPUT "ARE VOU SURE [RIGHT] [RIGHT ]VC 

LEFT] [LEFT H LEFT] " ; ER* 

3890 I FER$= " V " THENT=NR+ 1 000 : G0T0399S 

3380 PRIHTDUf •■FRINTSP$:FRIHT"uUP][UP]" : 

NEXTT 

3910 IFT=NR+2THEHPRINTTflE(31>"EHD OF FI 

LE" 

3920 

3930 

3940 

3950 



3960 
3970 



3990 

4000 

4010 

4020 

P* 

4830 



FQRJ=1TG2000:NEXT 

I~0:GUTO3320 

REM 

RE 

REM* EDIT RECORD * 

REM***************************** 

REM 

INPUT" NAME M ;H» 

I FN*= " END " THEN I =0 : GOTO3320 

INPUT "PHONE ";P$ 

PR I NT" NAME ";N*" PHONEtt ' 



INPUT "CORRECT CV OR H) [RIGHT] [RIGH 
T ] V[ LEFT ][ LEFT ][ LEFT ]".;C$ 
4040 IFC$C>"V" THEN 1=0 : GOTO3320 

PR I NTTflB <31 ) "RECORD UPDATED" 

FORJ=1TQ2000:NEXTJ 

DflTfl#l,<I+l) 

PRINT#1,N$ 

DflTflttl, CI+D/35 

PRINT#1,P$ 

I=0:GOTO3320 

REM 

REM*****^*********************'*** 

REM* READ IN RECORDS FOR SORT * 

REM****'*******'******i********#**** 

REM 

PR I NT " [ CLEAR ] " : PR I NTTflB < 32 > " [ UP 3 C U 
P][ REV] READING FILEC0FF3" 
4180 Ol :F0RT=2T0NR+1 
4190 DRTfi#l,Cn 
4200 I NPUTtt 1 , N$ : S 1 $ <C > =H$ 
42 1 I FNf =CHR* C 1 > THENPR I NTTflB < 29 ) " RECOR 
D #"1 + 1" EMPTY" :EM=l:T=NR+1000--GOTO4240 
4220 BATfl#i,<T>,35 

INPUT#1 J P$:S2$<C>=P$ 

1 = 1 + 1 -X=C+1 

NEXTT 

N*0-.I«0-K«0 

I FEMTHENPR I NTTflB C 16 V [ DOWN ] [ RE V ]CFl 

SORT UNTIL EMPTY RECORDS UPDATED CO 



4056 
4060 
4070 
4030 
4090 

4100 

4110 
4120 
4130 
4140 
4150 
4160 
4170 



4230 
4240 
4250 
4260 
4270 
NNOT 
FF3" 



To be continued on page 80 



ft commodore 

SUPER-MART 

•••••••••••••• 

SSS SAVE TIME & MONEY SSS 

HANNA ENTERPRISES 

1303 COLUMBIA DR suite 207 
Richardson Texas 75081 

TO ORDER CALL (214) 

231-2645 [IN TEXAS) 

800-527-1738 (OUTSIDE TEXAS) 

MasterCard & Visa accepted 

add 3% surcharge for credit cards 

F.O B. Dallas. Texas 

9:30 a.m. - 6:30 p.m. (m-f) 

10:30 a m. - 2:30 p m. sat 



COMMODORE COMPUTERS 

B-500-128k $777.20 

PET 64 $627.50 

8032 $627.50 

8096 $876.25 

9000 Super Pet $1071.25 

c-64 $233.00 
Executive 64 Dortable CALL 



COMMODORE 
DISK DRIVES 

1541 (170k) $250.50 

2031 $311.00 

4040 (340k) $657.85 

8050 (1mg) $981.90 

8250 (2mg) $1226.50 

9060 hard disk (5mg) $2040.00 

9090 hard disk (7.5mg) $2290.00 



COMMODORE PRINTERS 

1525(30cps) $238.75 

1526(100cps) $343.95 

4023 CBM (100cps) $330.95 

8023(160cps) $537.95 

6400 daisy wheel CBM $1417.75 

new! 1520 plotter printer $178.50 

COMMODORE 
PERIPHERALS 

1701 color monitor $249.95 

d 600 modem $59.30 

C1650 automatic modem $94.50 

Datasette 1530 $58.50 

CBM 64k memory board $246.95 

Super Pet upgrade board $488.95 

Cables PET-IEEE $34.95 

Cables IEEE-IEEE $42.95 



COMMODORE 
SOFTWARE FOR CMB 

Wordpro4t or 5^ $305.00 

Visicalc (Expanded) $195.00 

BPI G/L A/R A/P Inv. etc $320 ea. 

MANAGER (database) $195.00 
C64 SOFTWARE: 

Easy script $99.95 

Easy mail $49.95 

Word/name machine $29.95 

Logo $99.95 

Pilot $99.95 

Music machine $29.95 

Music composer $29.95 



h 




«r# 






I 






% 




Continued from page 77 



428Q IFEMTHENEM=0 : GOTO 1568 

4298 REM 

4300 REM****************************** 

4310 REM* SORT ALL RECORDS * 

4320 REM****************************** 

4339 REM 

4340 PR I NTT AB < 35 > " C REV ] C DOWN 3 SORT I HO C OF 
F3CDOWN3" 

4350 C=C-l:REM CORRECT FOR LAST TIME TH 

ROUGH LOOP 

4368 FORJ-lTOC-1 

4370 FORK-J+1TOC 

43S0 IFS 1 $< J ) <S 1 $ < K > GOTO4420 

4390 T1*=S1$<J>:T2$=S2$U):REM SRVE TWO 

TEMP STRINGS 
4408 Sl*<J>*Sl*<fO:S2*<J>*S2*0O: REM S 
WITCH VALUES 
4410 S1*(K)=T1*:S2*(K)*T2* = REM RESTORE 

TEMP 
4420 NEXTK 

4430 PR I NT " -" ; : NEXT J : K*0 
4440 REM 

4450 REM******************************* 
** 
4460 REM* UPDATE SORTED LIST TO FILE 

* 
4470 REM******************************* 
** 

4480 REM 

4490 PR I NT : PR I NTTflB < 30 > " C DOWN 3 [ RE V ] OR I T 
ING NEW FILE [OFF 3" 
4500 F0RT=2TQNR+1 
4510 DATAttlAT;- 
4528 PRINT#1,S1$<T-1) 
4530 DATA#l,a;<,35 
4540 PRINT#1,S2$<T-1> 
4550 MEXTt 

4560 PRINTTABC21 > " C DOWN 3 C DOWN 3 C REV 3 -ECO 
RDS SORTED AND WRITTEN TO FILECOFF3CDOW 
N3" 
4570 GOTO 1560 

READV. 




80/Commander September 1983 



24K 



MEMORY 

EXPANSION 

BOARD 



\& VIC-20" 

ORDER FACTORY DIRECT 

$119.95 

ADD $2.00 FOR POSTAGE & HANDLING 
TEXAS RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX 

PLUGS INSIDE VIC-20 
LEAVES EXPANSION SLOT FREE 
- USES HIGHEST QUALITY PARTS 
90 DAY WARRANTY 
COMPLETELY ASSEMBLED 
NO SOLDERING 

Dunamic Technologies 

2104 CHALICE ROAD 
ARLINGTON, TEXAS 76014 

(817) 261-8363 

VIC-20 is a registered TM of Commodore Business Machines 




Circle No. 93 



CANT MAKE ENDS MEET? 

We couldn't either. At least, not until 1978 when we 
began connecting RS-232 devices to IEEE-488 
computers with our family of serial interfaces. Three 
units available for use with Commodore's PET/CBM, 
the HP-85, Osborne-1 and others, plus our auto- 
answer/auto-dial 103 Modem, automatic calling unit 
(Operator), and data communications software. All with 
cabinet, one-year warranty, documentation. Priced 
from $129-389. Details from George Masters: 



#TNW 



\. 



Dept. C, 3444 Hancock St., San Diego, CA 921 10 

(619) 296-21 15 • TWX 910-335-1194 

VISWMasterCard • Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



Circle No. 73 



FLOPPY DISK STORAGE 



PROTECT AND STORE FILE BOX 

UNIQUE DESIGN WITH PULL OUT 
DRAWER FOR FILING EASE 

STORES 5" DISKS 
MODULAR DESIGN 
LABELS INCLUDED 
STACKABLE 



RETAIL PRICE 

ORDER ONE FOR 
GET 2ND FOR 

2 FOR ONLY 



$19.95 

$19.95 
9.95 



$29.95 



A $39.95 VALUE 

DEALERS INQUIRIES WELCOME 

TO ORDER PHONE 
OR WRITE 




"DISKETTES** 

DOUBLE DENSITY 

VERBATIM DATALIFE 

FIVE YEAR WARRANTY 

ONLY $25.00 BOX OF 10 

C.O.D. Orders add $3.00 



LYNN COMPUTER SERVICE 

6831 West 1 57th Street Tinley Park, Illinois 60477 
(312)429-1915 



- — ^^^^ ^^^^ \ 


|| BankAmericard J 


master charge J 


, pi ,v/sa.. 

b ^b^m 


^^^ ^^^^^ J 



Circle No. 70 



Commander September 1983/81 




Memorial 

We at Commander would like 
to dedicate our September issue 
to the memory of Mr. Neil 
Omvedt. Neil was one of our first 
writers on staff and made many 
valuable contributions to Com- 
mander Magazine. His experience 
and knowledge will be missed by 
many. 

1541 Disk Drive 

Dear Sir: 

The article in your July 1983 
issue (page 40) about the Com- 
modore 1540/1541 disk drive writ- 
ten by R. G. Partner of Federal 
Way, Washington was well writ- 
ten and very welcome reading 
material for a lot of us frustrated 
owners. I hope that the expres- 
sion of possible follow-on articles 
comes true. 

I have been using the 1541 with 
my Commodore 64 constantly 
since the beginning of the year 
and am quite pleased with it. 

Your readers should be aware 
that the Commodore 1541 User's 
Manual ranks as one of the worst 
computer technical publications I 
have seen. It is full of typos, er- 
rors and just plain confusion. My 
recommendation is that it be read 
for some rather good ideas but 
that it should be taken with a 
grain of salt. It starts in the begin- 
ning of the manual with the state- 
ment that one should never 
remove the disk when the green 

82/Commander September 1983 



light is on (the power indicator), is 
badly written throughout and 
ends with contradictory descrip- 
tions of the directory header lay- 
out. 

My advice is to read all of the 
user submitted articles you can 
get your hands on, starting with 
"So You Bought a Disk Drive!?" 
To save some confusion, al- 
though the article mentioned the 
ability to perform a directory com- 
mand with only "$" or "$0", I've 
found that, at least with the 64, I 
must prefix it with the ">" or the 
"@". Also the article states that 
in loading a machine code pro- 
gram at its original address, one 
must use the LOAD "program 
name",8,1 command. Using "@" 
or" %" will perform the function 
nicely, e.g., % program name. 
While that command may be used 
with the DOS shorthand, I have 
not found an equivalent for 
VERIFY "program name",8. 
Sincerely, 
David CampbellD 

White Flashes 

Dear Commander, 

In regards to the "white flash- 
es" in the C-64, I found the 
answer to my problem in the 
schematic of the Programmer's 
Guide. After studying the video 
circuit, I bought a 220 pf capacitor 
from Radio Shack (2/39<p) and in- 
serted it. My "white flashes" are 
gone forever. 



Incidentally, I have one of the 
latest mother boards that has 
holes for one or two (future?) 
chips so I am sure the "white 
flashes" are not restricted only to 
older boards. 

Sincerely, Toshiro KatsuraD 
Dear Editor, 

In your June issue, two letters 
were published stating that my 
problem with white flashes on the 
C-64 screen should be referred 
back to the dealer. I did just that 
and was given a new C-64, pre- 
tested by the dealer in 5 days. 
There was no exchange fee of any 
sort— just sympathy and prompt 
handling of the problem. 

My dealer was Professional 
Micro Service of Baltimore, MD, 
who also introduced me to Com- 
mander Magazine. 
Thank you! 
Vincent J. Mooney, Jr. 

Recorded Phone Messages 
Give VIC-20 Advice 

You can get help for your Commodore 
VIC-20 by dialing a series of recorded 
voice messages at (206) 935-7032. Twenty 
different messages are available. Each 
time you hang up and redlal you get a dif- 
ferent message. In addition, the entire 
series is changed every week. 

In addition to advice, space is available 
for your own personal messages on this 
hotline. If you have a Computer product or 
service to sell, mall a cassette recording 
of your own message to Gazaway, VIC-20 
Computer Club, 790634th Ave. S.W., Seat- 
tle, WA 98126 and the club will try to in- 
clude your message on the recorded 
message hotline. There is no charge for 
this service. □ 



Microcomputers: How They Will 

Affect Our Homes Today 

And In the Future 



by Arthur J. Dudley 



With the advent of the micro- 
processor, we have been thrust 
into a technological revolution. 
Within the next few years, we will 
witness advances in the micro- 
computing industry which will 
significantly affect not only our 
work environment but our lives at 
home. I believe computers will 
cause significant changes in 
three general areas relating to the 
home environment. They are 1) 
education, 2) data retrieval, and 3) 
financial transactions. 

Current predictions forecast 
that by 1985, approximately 85% 
of the homeowners will own 
some brand of microcomputer. 
Using price and product quality 
as a basis, it seems highly pro- 
bable that this prediction will 
come true. Prices are dropping at 
a staggering rate with little or no 
sacrifice in quality. Hardware and 
software companies are coming 
into being on a daily basis, and 
many are meeting with success. 
This demonstrates a truly com- 
petitive market; a market that will 
continue to grow and prosper in 
the years to come. 

Education 

Microcomputers will continue 
to play a major role in education, 
both in school and at home. Soft- 
ware presently on the market will 



make learning less tedious and 
more enjoyable. In addition, the 
teacher's needs are also the con- 
cern of software developers. 
Teachers will be able to purchase 
software packages which will 
assist them in areas of exam 
preparation, student evaluation, 
and curriculum development all 
at a touch of a few buttons. 

If you have children and are 
wondering what to do with your 
Commodore computer, the an- 
swer is simple. Use it as a learn- 
ing tool. For some strange and in- 
explicable reason, the younger 
generation seems to have a 
strong affinity for the computer. 
They can relate to it, they accept 
it, and by all means they will use 
it. So as a parent, here is your 
chance to teach your child 
without all the pain and anguish. 
One word of caution. Before you 
purchase educational software, 
gather all the information you can 
on the product to insure it meets 
your needs. This rule of thumb 
should be applied to all your soft- 
ware purchases whether for per- 
sonal or business applications. 

We are going to see the day 
when a student can take an exam, 
research a term paper, or attend 
class in the comfort of his home. 



Data Retrieval 

Huge integrated data bases 
and artificial intelligence (a pro- 
cess by which computers will 
simulate human reasoning) are 
around the corner. These two 
areas are receiving large amounts 
of attention from computer spe- 
cialists and government officials. 
One reason for their interest is 
the realization that the Japanese 
are also making significant gains 
in the same two areas. The in- 
volvement of the Japanese and 
United States in computer 
technology further demonstrates 
the intense competition charac- 
teristic of the computer industry. 

Integrated data bases and arti- 
ficial intelligence will affect our 
lives in many ways. To name a 
few. . . 

1) We will be able to research 
topics and collect data at our 
home in a matter of minutes. No 
longer will visiting the library and 
searching through endless card 
files be necessary. 

2) High level programming lan- 
guages based on our own English 
language will be available. Users 
will not have to learn how to pro- 
gram to develop custom applica- 
tions; all that will be necessary is 
literally to tell the computer what 
is needed in everyday ter- 

Commander September 1983/83 



minology and the program will be 
created automatically. 

3) We will see advanced speech 
understanding systems. This in- 
cludes voice input, speaker iden- 
tification, and speech response. 
The keyboard will become obso- 
lete. 

4) Applied picture and image 
understanding systems will be 
available. We will be able to store 
and retrieve images of three 
dimensional objects with a com- 
puterized system. 

5) Access to an endless wealth 
of information such as travel in- 
formation, federal and local news, 
weather reports, sports informa- 
tion, job opportunities, scientific 
data. . .Newspapers as we know 
them today will become a thing of 
the past. 

When will all this come into 
play? It is happening now. There 
are services currently available 
such as CompuServe, Omnet, 
NewsNet, Dow Jones News/Ret- 
rieval Service. . .that allow us ac- 
cess to large data bases for a 
reasonable fee. Even as impres- 
sive as these services are, they 
are still in their infancy. I believe 
by the late 1990's we will reach a 
stage that accessing huge data 
bases will be as common place as 
using the telephone is today. Fur- 
thermore, as telecommunication 
methods improve and as com- 
puters become more common in 
the home, a gradual shift in the 
workplace will occur. Profes- 
sionals will be able to perform 
their routine and everyday tasks 
at the breakfast table via their ter- 
minal. As a result, we as a society 
will have greater flexibility, will 
become more efficient, and will 
be able to accomplish a great 
deal more in our profession and 
daily activities. 
Financial Transactions 

Of all the various computer ap- 
plications, this is the most con- 
troversial. Imagine a society in 
which all transactions are done 
electronically without the need 
for paper money and checks. To 
some people this is disturbing; to 
others, a convenience. This ap- 
plication is downstream a bit, not 
because of technology but pri- 

84/Commander September 1983 



marily because of cost. A conver- 
sion from our present system to a 
computerized system will be 
done gradually over a period of 
time. 

Let us take a look at some of 
the advantages and disadvan- 
tages of "electronic money". 

Disadvantages: 

1. Since all transactions will be 
done electronically, access to our 
financial affairs can be more easi- 
ly obtained by individuals or 
organizations. Regulations will 
need to be established defining 
guidelines and restrictions, but 
consumers will still experience a 
loss of privacy from a financial 
perspective. 

2. Sophisticated computerized 
fraud is extremely difficult to 
detect. Complex computer sys- 
tems will be understood only by a 
few; therefore, crimes dealing 
with money transactions will be 
committed only by a few of those 
individuals who understand the 
system. The Federal Government 
realizes the significance of this 
problem and is currently taking 
positive steps towards its preven- 
tion. 

3. Detecting and correcting 
transaction errors may be dif- 
ficult. This is evident in our pre- 
sent day systems. However, with 
proper planning and systems 
design, this can be avoided. 

4. Since all transactions will be 
recorded, we may lose more pri- 
vacy than realized. You can gain 
large amounts of information on 
an individual by knowing what 
he/she purchases. Strict federal 
controls must be established on 
this matter. 

Advantages 

1. Since paper money will 
become obsolete and products 
coded, theft, robbery, and burg- 
lary will be reduced considerably. 

2. Federal and local law en- 
forcement agencies will easily be 
able to apprehend fugitives by 
gaining access to their com- 
puterized transaction records. 

3. Consumers will be able to 
obtain loans faster and easier. 
Major purchases such as buying a 
car or home could be accomplish- 
ed in a fraction of the time. 



4. Sophisticated and effective 
financial management packages 
will be made available to help the 
consumer stay within their bud- 
get. 

5. Businesses will not lose 
money because of bad credit, bad 
checks, or non payment of bills. 

6. Consumers will not have to 
be concerned with the payment of 
bills— this will be done auto- 
matically. 

With any newfound concept or 
idea, there are advantages and 
disadvantages. From an overall 
standpoint, computers do pose 
problems. But their ability to help 
with everyday tasks and make 
lives easier far outweigh any 
disadvantages. A computer is a 
tool, a bit complex maybe, but 
still a tool. As long as it is 
remembered that we are the con- 
trolling force, problems will be 
minimized and our living stan- 
dards will be improved. If you 
have just purchased a Commo- 
dore computer, you will soon 
realize its applications are end- 
less, and as a result, life a little 
easier. □ 



Intelligent Software For 
Commodore Computers 

Copycalc Is an affordable electronic 
spread-sheet which turns your video screen 
Into a window on a matrix of numbers. Cur- 
sor around the matrix, enter numbers; the 
totals reflect the changes. You can save the 
matrix to disk or tape, or print It or your 
printer. For S20 (S 1 5 with another program), 
this program might justify the cost of your 
computer. Requires 6k RAM; smaller version 
available for a standard VIC. 

Word Processor Plus was not designed 
to be an expensive toy; It was designed 
solely to facilitate, correspondence, for a 
wide range of personal and business uses, 
quickly and easily, with a minimum of train- 
ing and frustration on the part of its user, 
and at the least possible cost, both In hard- 
ware and software. The most thoroughly 
tested, useable word processor available 
at anywhere near the price, $25; 10k RAM, 
printer req'd.; RS-232C version available for 
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Also available: Baseball Manager, a 
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tory, a perpetual Inventory control program 
for a small retail business (various reports, 
multiple vendors); $30 each; 10k RAM 
req'd., printer suggested. 

All programs will load and run on any 
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Prices include documentation and ship- 
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Circle No. 21 



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99 locations (or funds) 

99 departments 

12 digit account numbers 

No account predefined 

Open year accounting system 

Full year detail may be on line 

Full detail postings 

All modules interlock 

All files user defined 

Fill in the blanks screens 

Operator instructions on screen 

On screen curser control 

Job Queing 

Output spooling 

Dealers inquiries invited 



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General ledger 

Accounts Receivable 

Accounts Payable 

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Inventory (lot based) 
Point of Sale 
Client Write up 
Job Costing 
Time Accounting 
Route Sales Inventory 

B.E.B. Systems, Inc. 
11430 Bissonnet, C-l 
Houston Texas, 77099 
713 - 530 - 2515 



Circle No. 68 



THE VIC 4C/8C VI DEC CARTRIDGES 

Quantum Data. Inc. produces two 40/80 Video Cartridges for the Commodore V1C-20 computer. The Video 
Cartridge which does not contain memory, and the Video Combo Cartridge which contains 16K 
composed of eight 6116 CMOS memory chips. 



: 



The 40/80 Video Cartridge or the 40/80 Video Combo Cartridge Is the means to upgrade the VIC- 
computer to a 40 * 24 or an 80 * 24 character display, (black and white composite video). This provides a 
wealth of new uses for the VIC-20 and with the appropriate software you con now accomplish quality word 
processing and various business functions that previously were difficult to achieve with only the VIC s 
standard £2 character video display. These Cartridges are compatible with QUICK 8ROUUN FOX and TOR 
Text 2.5 word processing programs. Both Cartridges feature screen printing routine and a terminal emulator 
routine which ore written in BASIC so that you con odd these capabilities to your programs. 

ether Cartridges can be plugged Into the memory expansion port of the VIC- 20 or an expansion chassis. The 
40 character mode may be easily viewed on most standard T.V. sets but a monitor Is required for the 80 
column mode to provide the necessary additional resolution. 

VIDCO CARiBIDGC $95.95 

VIDCO COMBO CARTA IDG€ $1 85.95 

Call (714) 555-1945 to place your order today! 

Ask for other VIC-20 hardware and software peripherals I 






Circle No 36 



QUANTUM DATA. INC. 

14252 Culver Drive, Suite A, Box 285, Irvine, CA 92714 

Items in stock ready for immediate delivery. 

Wso or /Vtasterco/d accepted. Above pnees retail in U.S dollars. Shipping and handling not included. 

VIC-20 is a trodemort* of Commodore Business Machines 




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Subroutines 

toy £r/c Giguere 




Part IX 



In many ways an assembly lan- 
guage program may resemble a 
BASIC program. Probably the 
most prevalent is their use of 
subroutines. Subroutines are fre- 
quently used blocks of code set 
off from and called by the main 
code of the program. When it is 
finished executing it returns to 
the part of the program that called 
it. Subroutines are used to save 
memory and clarify the program. 
In BASIC a subroutine is called by 
the instruction GOSUB (for GOto 
SUBroutine) and a line number. In 
assembly language it is called by 
the instruction 

JSR address 
JSR stands for Jump to Subrou- 
tine and 'address' represents the 
memory location the subroutine 
starts at. Upon encountering the 
JSR the computer would start ex- 
ecuting the code at 'address' until 
it was told to return to where it 
came from. In BASIC we use the 
statement RETURN whereas 
assembly language uses 

RTS 
or Return from Subroutine. This is 
basically all you need to know on 
how to call and return from a 
subroutine— just use a JSR and 
end the subroutine with an RTS. 
Let's explore some uses for 
subroutines. 



Uses of Subroutines 

When is a subroutine useful? 
Usually when a routine is ex- 
ecuted more than once or twice. 
At this time it may be advan- 
tageous to move the routine 
somewhere else in memory and 
call it as a subroutine. For exam- 
ple, say you wanted to display the 
message "Hit any Key to Con- 
tinue" on the screen and wait for 
the user to hit a key. If you didn't 
use a subroutine you might end 
up with a couple of hundred bytes 
of identical code spread through- 
out the program. Executing it as a 
subroutine saves memory and 
makes your program more effi- 
cient. Each time you needed the 
message displayed you simply 
use a JSR to the proper location. 
It sure saves a lot of hassle. 

Subroutines may also call other 
subroutines to execute other 
functions. Our previous example 
of a message-displaying subrou- 
tine could perhaps call another 
subroutine to display the 
message and would only do the 
other half itself (wait for a key to 
be pressed). It's all up to the pro- 
grammer to decide how the sub- 
routines should work. 

The KERNAL 

No, we're not talking about 
fried chicken. The KERNAL is a 



table at the top of memory in all 
Commodore machines that ac- 
cesses certain functions in the 
computers, mostly input/output. 
A JSR to any of these locations 
will execute that function and 
then return to the calling pro- 
gram. For example, one of the 
most used routines is the one at 
$FFD2 (65490 decimal). This 
routine prints the ASCII value of 
the accumulator to the screen at 
the present cursor location. This 
means that if the accumulator 
holds $41 (65) and you do a JSR 
$FFD2 the character 'A' will be 
printed to the screen, just as if 
you did a PRINT ASC(65) from 
BASIC. All of these locations are 
the same in every Commodore 
computer to provide compatibility 
between machines. Several of the 
most useful routines you can call 
are: 

CHROUT ($FFD2)— outputs the 
ASCII value of the accumulator to 
the screen 

CLOSE ($FFC3) — close a 
specified logical file (number of 
file in accumulator') 

GETIN ($FFE4)-get the next 
character in the keyboard buffer 

OPEN ($FFC0)— open a logical 
file 

READST ($FFB7)— read the 
status variable ST 

Commander September 1983/87 



STOP ($FFE1)— check to see if 
STOP key is pressed 
There are a whole bunch more 
routines but these require detail- 
ed explanations (check the VIC-20 
or C64 Programmer's Reference 
Guide). The routines given above 
are the most common. 
Examples of Subroutines 

Let's say we wanted to keep a 
numeric counter of some kind in 
memory— we won't define any 
specific use for it. We could code 
it as such: 

INCR INC COUNTR 
BNE EXIT 

INCRHI INC COUNTR+1 

EXIT RTS 

In this subroutine COUNTR is the 
low byte of the counter and 
COUNTR+1 is the high byte. A 
JSR to INCR would increase the 
low byte by one. It would then 
check to see if the byte has rolled 
over to zero. If it isn't zero yet it 
simply branches to the RTS 
which returns the computerto the 
main program. But if COUNTR 
has rolled over this means that we 
should also add one to the high 
byte, lest our counter be inac- 
curate. The INC COUNTR + 1 ac- 
complishes this. It then returns to 
the calling program. Nothing 
spectacular about this code, but 
it does the job. 

You've probably noticed the 
three labels in our example. INCR 
is the entry point of the sub- 
routine and EXIT indicates the ex- 
it point. But what is INCRHI there 
for? Suppose we suddenly 
wanted to increase our counter by 
256. We could call INCR 256 
times OR we could simply call IN- 
CRHI instead of INCR. INCRHI 
would automatically increment 
the high byte by one and return. 
Each increment of the high byte 
adds 256 to the whole counter 
(remember our discussions about 
high and low bytes?). This shows 
us that a subroutine does not 
need to be called from its beginn- 
ing. You can jump only to what- 
ever part of the subroutine you 
need. 

Another example would be a 
subroutine to print out a mes- 

88/Commander September 1983 



sage. How would you accomplish 
this? Try and figure out a way, 
then examine the following exam- 
ple: 

PRMESG LDX#0 

NEXT LDA MESSGE,X 

BEQ EXIT 

PRINT JSR CHROUT 
;CHROUT = $FFD2 

INX 

JMP NEXT 

EXIT RTS 

MESSGE ACS 'HIT ANY KEY 

TO CONTINUE' 

BYTO 
This example might seem a trifle 

complicated but it does work. 
PRMESG is the start of the sub- 
routine and here we initialize the 
X-register by loading it with zero. 
NEXT gets the next character 
from location MESSGE plus the 
X-register. If the character is zero 
the subroutine returns via EXIT. 
Otherwise the character is sent to 
CHROUT which prints it to the 
screen. After returning from this 
subroutine we increment the 
X-register to point it to the next 
character and JuMP (go) to NEXT 
to continue until we reach a zero. 
This routine shows some of the 
advantages of using the KERNAL 
table at the top of memory. Again, 
another useful application for a 
subroutine. 

The Stack 

Remember back in February 
when we talked about registers 
and I mentioned something call- 
ed the stack? I skimmed the sub- 
ject because it was over our 
heads, unnecessary at the time. 
But in reality it is a very useful 
part of the computer. Think about 
this: how does the computer 
know where to return to after ex- 
ecuting a subroutine and encoun- 
tering an RTS? That information 
has to be kept somewhere. This is 
what the stack is for. It serves as 
a temporary storage area for the 
computer. It is always located on 
page 1 ($0100-$01FF) of memory, 
so never place any data here 
unless you're absolutely sure of 
what you are doing, because you 
could mess things up pretty bad- 
ly- 



The stack pointer is a register 
used by the computer to point to 
the next free memory location on 
the stack. Strangely enough, the 
stack starts at $01 FF and goes 
down to $0100. This means that 
any data placed on the stack is 
placed beginning at the top of 
page 1 and going down. For this 
reason incrementing the stack 
pointer decreases the amount of 
information on the stack (see 
figure 1). Decrementing the 
pointer actually adds to the data 
already on the stack. This is a fact 
you cannot forget when dealing 
with the stack. 

To know where to return after a 
JSR statement the computer 
uses the stack in this way: it 
places its present location in 
memory plus 2 (to point to the 
next instruction following the 
JSR) onto the stack and then 
jumps to the subroutine. Upon 
hitting an RTS it takes the loca- 
tion back off the stack and starts 
execution from there. It's not too 
complicated when you think 
about it. 

PHA and PLA 

Remember I said the stack was 
a temporary storage area. We can 
place and retrieve information on 
it in the same manner the 
JSR/RTS pair does. The two in- 
structions to accomplish this are 
PHA (Push Accumulator onto 
stack) and PLA (Pull contents of 
Accumulator from stack). PHA 
will place the current value of the 
accumulator onto the next 
available stack location. PLA 
does the opposite, retrieving that 
value and placing it back into the 
accumulator. These instructions 
are needed only when you have to 
store data temporarily. But care 
must be taken when using them. 
If you don't push or pull the cor- 
rect amount of bytes off the stack 
you could cause havoc when the 
computer encounters an RTS. Ex- 
ample: 

SUBRTN PHA 
PHA 



PLA 
RTS 



Introducing 
the Financial Assistant 




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The Financial Assistant does. It allows you to print not only a net worth but also a personalized finance 
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Commodore 64 diskette $49.95 



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Circle No. 18 



GALACTIC SOFTWARE • P.O.Box10516 • San Jose, CA 951 57 • (408)247-4434 



% 



RTS 
If you call SUBRTN via a JSR it 
will execute normally but the RTS 
won't jump back to the proper 
location in memory. Why? Be- 
cause we did two PHA's but in the 
end we only did one PLA. When 
the RTS is encountered the com- 
puter will first see your value and 



then the high byte of the correct 
location, effectively sending it 
where it shouldn't go. Caution is 
needed here. 
PHP and PLP 

These two instructions are 
identical to PHA and PLA except 
that they push or pull the Status 



Register onto the stack. Caution 
should again be used with these. 
Next Month 

Next month we're taking a look 
at the masking instructions— 
AND, EOR and ORA. Until then 
have fun applying what you learn- 
ed today in your own programs. □ 




by 
Michael 
RILEY 



DATA BASE MANAGER 
NEW FOR VIC-20, C64, PET/CBM 

FLEX FILE 2.1 is the iost versatile and powerful calcu- 
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BOX 9, Southeastern PA 19399 
(215) 687-5607 „ , N 1A 

Circle No. 74 





Figu 


re 1: The Stack ' 

add to stack: 
$01 FF 


$01 FF 
01 FE 
01 FD 

$0100 


^sll 


Stack pointer 

$FE $01FE 
$01 FD 
$01 FC 




$FE 
$FD 


^P 




















taking from stack is 
the exact opposite 







VL 



Circle 




' JOURKAL/20 

• PUBLSWD EVBH TWO WtSCS * _ 




Jgr-JSa gglgj^ 


jKjEysza. 


SJTJT^T^r L^-iSJE— - 


^~J~~ 


SKEST "£T-£ir 


EsSirsssi 








ssslr |ff?sgr 


r^lf-f^rL 


P-- ^p31 



^77" 



JOURNAL/20 

A publication that shares your 
enthusiasm for the VIC-20.* 
Published every two weeks for 
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up-to-date news, reviews, and 
practical tips on hardware and 
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90/Commander September 1983 



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COSMIC CRUZER Hot action and 3 challenging scenarios. Move your 
I cruzer into the tunnel • fire missiles and drop bombs. Hit the fuel dumps to get 
I more fuel. Move as quick as you dare to hit the surface-to-air missiles. If you are 
good enough you will make it to the asteroidz field and then try to destroy the 
| base. No one has destroyed the base yet. Will you be the first. $19.95 

VIC ALL STARS We took the best selling VIC programs and put them in a 
I package to save you $35. If purchased seperately it would cost you $85. You get 
I Paratrooper, Target Command, Head On, Cattle Round-up, Snake 
Out, Trapper, Double Snake Out and Artillery. All eight games for $49.95. 
Hurry because at this price they won't last long. Limited quantity. 8 
Games. $49.95 



Let the COMPUTERMAT 
turn your 64 into a home arcade! 

COLOR . GRAPHICS . SOUND 
ON CASSETTE 

(Disk Versions Auailable — Add $5.°°j 
ARCADE PAK - $24.« EDUCATION PAK - $24.« I 
3 Programs 4 Programs 

Head On Geography Match 

Alien Invasion Math Adventure 

Target Command Ruler & Micro 



TREASURE PAK - $14.« 
3 Programs 

Adventure 
Caves of Silver 
Shuttle Voyage 



GAME PAK - $14.« 
3 Programs 

Dragon Chase 
Deflect 
Rip It 



Joystick and Keyboard versions included. 



COMPUTERMAT 

Box 1664 . Dept. M • Lake Havasu City, Az. 86403 
(602) 855-3357 circle no 12 



Commander September 1983/91 




VIC with use of 3K Super Expander by CoMModo 

The listed program will demon- 
strate some of the strengths and 
weaknesses of the Super Ex- 
pander cartridge and at the same 
time help teach first and second 
graders how to tell time. If you do 
not have a Super Expander cart- 
ridge and are interested in runn- 
ing this program, try borrowing 
one from a friend. It may prove 
worthwhile. 
Instructions 

The first display you will see 
after entering RUN is a user 
menu. Below is a breakdown of 
each section: 

■1- SELECT The clock will in- 
dicate any time you input as long 
as it is an increment of five (i.e. 
1:05, 12:05, 10:15, 3:45. . .). Times 
such as 1:03, 3:42, 12:06, etc., can- 
not be entered. After the entry is 
made, there is no need to hit 
RETURN; however, each entry 
must be four characters long. If 
the time consists of three digits, 
the first must be a SPACE. For ex- 
ample: To enter 1:15, press 
SPACE, 1, 1, and 5 (Do not enter 
the colon). After you have made 
your entries the correct time will 
be displayed in the upper right 
hand corner of the screen. 

■2- BY 5 Each time the SPACE 
BAR is pressed the clock will in- 

92/Commander September 1983 



crement by five minutes. If the 
SPACE BAR is held down, the 
hands will continue to rotate until 
the SPACE BAR is released. 

DRILLS Times will be selected 
at random and displayed on the 
clock face. The operator will then 
enter the time he feels is 
displayed on the clock in the 
same fashion as in section one. If 
the entered time is correct, an 
alarm will sound with the entered 
time displayed in the upper right 
hand corner. A new problem will 
then be displayed. If the entered 
time is incorrect, a buzzer will 
sound. You have one more 
chance to answer correctly 
before the correct time is dis- 
played in digital format. Even 
after the correct time is 
displayed, it must be entered via 
keyboard for the program to con- 
tinue. The four problem sections 
are as follows: 

-3- HR Times displayed will be 
based on the hour (i.e. 1:00, 3:00, 
12:00,4:00...) 

■4- VfeHR Times displayed will 
be based on the half-hour (i.e. 
1:00,3:30,4:00,5:30...) 

-5- 1/4 HR Times displayed will 
be based on the quarter-hour (i.e. 
1:00, 2:45,3:15, 5:30...) 

-6- 5 MIN Times displayed will 



be based on 1/12th of an hour (i.e. 
1:00, 4:50, 12:05, 4:35, 6:30, 
7:25...) 

•7- END This will end the pro- 
gram. 

Notes 

1. To enter a section, enter the 
appropriate SECTION NUMBER 
and press RETURN. 

2. To exit a section and return 
to the menu, press an X (no need 
to hit return). 

3. When exiting a problem sec- 
tion, the number of problems 
answered correctly and incorrect- 
ly will be displayed prior to return- 
ing to the menu. 

4. All entered times must be 
four characters long and be in- 
crements of five. If this format is 
not followed the program will not 
accept your entry. 

5. The dot below the digital 
time in the upper right hand cor- 
ner is a place keeper. Since you 
cannot see your entered time un- 
til after all four characters are 
entered, this is a handy way of 
keeping track of where you are. 

The following is a guide you 
may follow to teach your child to 
tell time. Remember, progress to 
higher levels only after the child 
becomes proficient at the current 
level. 



VIC 20 Printers/Etc. COMMODORE 



1541 DISK DRIVE $239 

1701 Color Monitor . {255 1530 Recorder $59 

1525 Printer $239 1600 Modem $59 



GEMINI 10X 
GORILLA . . 



$289 
$199 



PROWRITER 
SMITH TPI 



1520 Color Ptr jk 

Hescard $23 



1650 Auto Modam 
Microtek 16K Ram 



$158 
$82 



$27 
S27 
S27 
$27 

tat 

$27 
$27 
$27 
$27 
$27 
S27 



Hes Sound Bon $13 UMI3KRam $56 

Data 20 Exp. Chassis $56 



Large Selection 

of Vic 20 Software 

at Great Prices! 

VIC 20 SOFTWARE VIC 20 

APPLIED SYSTEMS 
Number Gulper(C) ...$17 
Number Chaser (C) ... $17 
BRODERBUND 
Martian Raider (C) . . . $14 
Multisound Synth. (C) $14 
Shark Trap (C) . ... $14 

Sky Blazer (R) $27 

Seafox(R) $27 

AE(R) . $27 

CBS 

K-Razy Patrol (R) $29 

K-Ra2yAntiks(R) .... $29 
COMM-DATA 

Pakacuda(C) $13 

Sketch and Paint (C) . . $13 

Eight Ball(C) $13 

Invader Educ. Series 

{each)(Q $13 

COMPUTERMAT 
Paratroopers (C) . $15 
Bug Blast (C) . . . $12 

Cricket (C) $12 

CREATIVE S.W. 

Black Hole (R) $36 

Trashman(R) . . . . $36 

Astroblitz(R) $36 

City Bomber (R) $20 

Apple Panic (R) $36 

Choplifter(R) $36 

Serpentine (R) $36 

Videomania(R, . $36 

Terraguard(R) .... $36 

EPYX 

Monster Maze(R) . . . $27 

Sword of Fargoal (C) . $20 

Ricochet (C) $14 

Rescue at Rigel (C) . . $20 
Temple of Apshai (D) . $27 
HES 

Gridrunner(R) $27 

Raid of Isram(C) $14 

Robot Panic (R) $27 

Protector (R) $29 

Shamus(R) $27 

Predator (R) $27 

Syn The Sound (R) . . . S39 

Aggressor (R) $27 

Heswriter(R) $27 

Turtle Graphics (R) ... $27 

Hesmon(R) $27 

Vic Forth (Ft) $39 

6502 Prof .Dev.Sys. (C) $20 

Torg(C) $13 

Concentration (C) .... $12 

Fuel Pirates (C) $12 

Simon (C) $12 

Vic Trek (C) $13 

CoColl(C/D) $27 

IMAGIC 

Demon Attack (R) $25 

Atlantis(R) $25 

LITTLE WIZARD 

Pro Football (C) $15 

Cosmic Crusader (C) .$12 
LOGISTIC 

X-Rated(C) $9 

Algebra Wiz (C) $9 

Profess. Journal (C) . . $36 
Viccalc(C) $36 



CITOH 

Prowrlter $359 

Prowrlterll $639 

Starwriter $1149 

Prlntmaster $1448 

NEC 

8023 AC $409 

3510 $1375 

3530 $1579 

3550 $1779 

7710/7730 $1998 



AMDEK 

Color I 
V300 . . 
V300A . 
Color II . 



SILVER REED P 
QUME 11/40+ . 
OKI-DATA 
Microllne82A . . 
Microline83A . . 
Microline84P ., 
Microline92 . . 
Microline93 . . 
DIABLO 

620R 

630R 

MONITORS 

.. $289 GRN(JB1260) . . 

... $139 GRN(JB1201) .. 

...$149 Color Composite 

. . . $449 RGB Color 



$359 
$488 

. $669 
$1299 

. $398 
. $638 
. $958 
. $488 



. $939 

$1719 



. $115 
. $155 
. $298 
. $598 



MODEMS 



Budget & Bill Payer (C) $15 
Accounts Payable (C) $36 

MadBomber(C) $10 

MIS 

Vic Vango(C) $10 

Galactic Crossfire (C) $1 1 

Checkbook (C) $14 

Frultfly(C) $10 

Alien Soccer(C) $11 

NUFEKOP 
Kra*ryKong(C) . . $11 

3-D Man (C) $17 

Exterminator (C) $20 

ON LINE 

Crossfire (C) $20 

umma(C) $14 



QUICK BROWN FOX 

Prof. Word. Proc. . . 
SIRIUS 

Snake Byte (R) 

Fly Wars(R) 

Type Attack (R) . . 

Fast Eddy (R) 

Deadly Duck(R) 
Turmoil (R) . 
Plasmania(R) ... 
Spider City (R) ... . 
Squish 'Em (R) . 
Final Orbit(R) ... . 
Bumper Bash(R) . . . 
SPECTRAVISION 
Cave In (R) 
Number Crunch (R) 
ReaganomicsfR) 
Gold Mme(D> . . . 
Ape Escape (D) . , 
STARTECH 
Asteroids |C) . . . 
Backgammon {C) . 
Ski Run (C) 
Meteor (C) 
VicMen(C) 
Vic Panic (C) 
SYNAPSE 
Harrier (C) . 
Squeeze (C) 
Astro Patrol (C) 
TAYLORMADE 
Fun Fractions (C) . . . 
Vic Lemonade (C) . . . 
Teh Typing Tutor (C) . . 
TAP SOFTWARE 
Word Search (C) . 
SporisSearchfC) 
Arcade Search (Ci . . 
TOTL 

Mailing List(C) 

Time Management (C) 
Research Assi. (C) 
THORN EMI 
River Rescue (R) 
Vic Music Comp. (R) 
Submarine Comm. |R) 

Mutant Herd(R) 

Fourth Encounter (R) 
TRONIX 
Galactic BMz(C) . 

Swarm (C) 

Sidewmder(C) 

Scorpion (R) 

Gold Fever (R) 

Deadly Skies (R) 

UMI 

Video Vermin (R) . 

Amok(C/R) 

Outworld(R) 

Satellites & Met. (R) . . 

Subchase(C) 

Kosmic Kamikaze(C) . 
Meteor Shower (C) . . . 
Super Hangman (C) . . 
Spiders of Mars (R) . . . 

Meteor Run (R) 

Vicalc(C) 

ViTerm A (C) 

ViCat(C) 

Vi Check (C) 

Alien Blitz (C/R) 

Sky Math (C) 

Space Division (C) . . 

The Alien (C) 

Grand Master (C) . . . 
Renaissance (R) 

Cloud Burst (R) 

Skibbereen(R) 

Wordcraft 20 (R) . . . 
VICTORY 
Adv. Pak I (C) ... 
Adv. Pak II (C) . . 
Annihilator(C) 
Grave Robbers (C) 
Kongo Kong (C) 
Trek(C) 



HAYES 




Smartmodem . . . 


$209 


Smartmodem 1200 


. $498 


Micromodem II . . . 


. $259 


ANCHOR AUTOMATION 


Mark I or II Modem 


$78 


<$ .& 


f\ 


* 1 / 




o & 





NOVATION 
J-Cat . . 

Apple Cal II 
Deal . . . 



. . $99 

$259 

. $149 




$14 
$14 
$14 

$14 
$22 
$22 

$29 
$29 
$29 
$29 
$29 

. $17 
$20 
. $20 
. $27 
. $27 
. $27 

$27 

$20 

. $27 

. $27 

. $17 

. $17 

. $11 

. $14 

. $27 

. $27 

. $11 

. $14 

$17 

$17 

. $20 

. $11 

$11 

$17 

. $27 

. $33 

. $20 

$20 

. $65 

. $14 
$14 
. $18 
. $12 
. $18 
. $12 



SPECIALS 

Gemini'lOX Printer $289 

Prowriter D rinter $359 

Gorilla Banana Printer $199 

Card ? Printer Interface $60 

The Connection Printer Interface $85 

1541 Disk Drive $239 

Koala Graphics Tablet $69 

Flip N' File Diskette Box $21 

Elephant Disks (10) $21 

The Boss Joystick (Wico) $15 

Wico Joystick $23 

Wico Trackball $49 

COSMIC 
COMPUTERS 

UNLIMITED 

727 BREA CANYON RD., SUITE 16 
WALNUT, CA 91789 

ORDER LINES OPEN M0N-SAT 8 am - 6 pm 

(714) 861-1265 

Add $2.00 shipping per software order in continental 
U.S. Add $5.00 shipping per software order (or AK. HI. 
FPO-APO. Add $1000 or 15% (whichever is greater) per 
software order for non-U. S. Call for cost of hardware 
shipping. Calif, residents add 6Vi% sales tax. Cashiers 
checks or money orders filled within '24 hours for items 
in stock. Personal checks require 4 weeks to clear. 
MasterCard and Visa OK for software only within conti- 
nental U.S.. add 3% surcharge. Include card no., expira- 
tion date and signature. Due to our low prices, all sales 
are final. All defective returns must have a return 
authorization number Please call to obtain one before 
returning goods for replacement or repair. Prices & 
availability subject to change. 



O 



L- CBM 64 CALL 

1541 DISK DRIVE . .. $239 



1701 Color Monitor . $255 

1525 Printer $239 

1520 Color Ptr $169 

Card ? (Infc) $60 

Light Pon $29 

Cassatle Infc $29 

Card ? Software $16 



1530 Recorder $59 

1600 Modem $59 

1650 Auto Modem . .. $158 
CMB 6x Ret Guide $18 

The Connection (lnfc| ..$85 

MSD Disk Drive $339 

PTI 45 Lot Board $59 



64 



Large Selection of 

64 Software at 

Great Prices 

SOFTWARE 



64 



ACCESS SOFTWARE 

Neutral Zone (C/D) ... $26 
Sprite Master (C/D) ... $27 
AVALON HILL 
81 Nuc. Bomber (C) $12 

Nukewar (C) $12 

Planet Miners (C) $12 

Androm. Conquest (C) $14 
Midway Campaign (_C) $12 
North All Convoy (C) . $12 
Comp. Stcks/8nds(C) $15 
Computer Football (C> $12 

Telengard(C) $16 

BATTERIES INCLUDED 

Paper Clip (D) $89 

BRODERBUND 

Cnoplifter(R) $29 

Serpentine (R) $27 

Seatox (R) $27 

David's Midnight (0) . . $23 

COMMODORE 

Easy File iD) $75 

Easy Finance (D) . . . $38 

Easy Mail (D) $38 

Easy Script (D) $75 

Easy Schedule (0) .. $59 

Logo (R) $75 

Pilot (D) $75 

Assembler (D) $38 

Music Machine (D) ... $25 
Music Composer (D) .. $25 

Meza Music (D) $75 

Video/Music Supt.(D) $38 
Jupiter Lander (R) . . . $25 
Radar Rat Race(R) . $25 

Sea Wolf (R) $25 

Kickman(R) $25 

COMM. DATA 

Pakacuda . (C)$14 (D)$18 
Escp.MCP . <C)$14(D)$18 
Centropods (C) $14 ID) $18 
COMPUTERMAT 
Arcade-Pak (C) $18 

EducationPak(C) . . $18 

CREATIVE SOFTWARE 

Moondus! (R) $25 

Trashman(R) $25 

Save New York (R) ... $25 

Aslroblltz(R) $25 

Household Fin. (D) . $25 

DATA 20 

Video Pak 80 $139 

Z80 Video Pak $229 

EN-TECH 

Finance Calc 64 .. ..$56 

Data Base 64 $56 

Invoice Ease 64 $34 

EPYX 

Temple of APS (D) . . $27 
Upper Reach. APS (D) $14 
Jumpman(D) $27 

HES 

HES Modem $59 

6502 Prof. Dev.Sys. (C) . $22 

Hesmon64(R) $27 

Turtle Graplcs II (R) . . $41 
Heswriter64.(R) . . . . $32 

Gridrunner(R) $27 

RetrobalMR) $27 

INFOCOM 

Zorkl. II or III (D) $27 

Deadline (D) $35 

Starcross(D) $27 

JIN SAM 

Mini-Jini(R) $75 

LITTLE WIZARD 

Pro.Mall.List (C)$22(D)$25 
Stockmaster 

(Inventory) (C)$25 (D)$28 
LOGISTIC 

Dalacalc64 (C)$55(D)$59 
Home Journal (D) ....$55 



MICROSPEC 

Payroll System (D) ... $73 
Inventory Pkg(D) .... $73 
General Ledger (D) . . . $73 

Disk Data Mgr(D) $62 

Mail List Mgr(D) $41 

Checkbook Mgr(D) . . $39 
MSOFT 

M-File(D) $89 

ON. LINE 

Ftogger(D) $23 

Jawbreaker(D) $17 

PACIFIC COAST SOFT. 
PCS (80 Col BD. word Proc. 
D. Base, Spreadsheet) CALL 
Account PAC (C/D) ... $25 

FilePAC(D) $30 

Editor PAC (D) $39 

Inquire PAC (D) $57 

Happy Tutor Typng(D) $18 
PROFESS. SOFTWARE 
WordPro 3 + /64(D) ... $68 
QUICK BROWN FOX 
Prof.Word Proc. (R) ... $50 
RAINBOW 

Writers Assistant .... $95 
Spreadsheet Assist. . . $95 

File Assistant $95 

SIRIUS 
Blade/8lackpoodle(D) $27 

Type Attack (D> $27 

Repton(D) $27 

Critical Mass (D) $27 

Snake Byte (D) $23 

Way Out (D) $27 

Fast Eddie (D) $23 

Turmoil (D) $23 

Spider City (D) $27 

SquishEm(D) $23 

Final Orbit (D) $27 

Alpha Shield (D) $27 

SKYLES ELEC. WORKS 

Busicalc(C/D) $52 

Busiwriter(D) $72 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper Troops 1 (D) $29 

Pacemaker (D) $23 

Kindercomp(D) $20 

Hey Diddle (D) $20 

Most Amaz. Thing (D) . $27 

SYNAPSE 

Fort Apocalypse (C/D) $23 

Survivor (C/D) $23 

Drelbs(C/D) $23 

Pharoh's Curse (C/D) . $23 

Protector II (D) $23 

Morgal (D)' $23 

Shamus(D) $23 

TAYLORMADE 
Touch Typing Tutor 

3.0(D) $21 

TIMEWORKS 

Rbbrs/Lost Tomb (C/D) $21 

Wall Street (C/D) $21 

Money Manager (C/D) $21 
Data Master (C/D) ... $21 
Dungeons ot Alg. 

Dragons (C/D) $21 

TOTL 

Text 2.6 . .. (C)$32(D)$34 

Label2.6 . . (C)$15(D)$17 

Time Manager 2.6(C) .$24 

Time Manager 2.6(D) . $27 

Resrch Assist. 2.0(C) . $24 

Resrch Assist. 2.0(D) $27 

UMI 

Motor Mania (C) ... . $20 

Renaissance (C) $27 

VICTORY 

Annlhllator(C/D) .. $16 
Kongo Kong (C/D) .... $16 

TreklC/D) $13 

Adv. Pack «1 (C/D) ... $16 
Adv. Pack «2 (C/D) ... $16 
Grave Robbers (C/D) . . $13 
Chomper Man(CJD) .. $18 



Circle No. 49 
Commander September 1983/93 



4§ 



1. Show the different hours on 
the clock face and guide your 
child through by explaining the 
functions of the long and short 
hand. This is a good time to ex- 
plain clockwise. Use section 1 
when explaining the above con- 
cepts and section 2 to 
demonstrate how the small hand 
moves in relation to the big hand. 
Allow your child to practice in 
section 3. 

2. Utilizing section 2, count by 
fives from 12 to 6. Do this as many 
times as necessary until the child 
can do this on his/her own. Ex- 
plain to your child that each 
number on the clock face repre- 
sents five minutes. 

3. Explain to your child the 
meaning of half-past. Show ex- 
amples using section 1. Allow 
your child to practice in section 4. 

4. Using section 2, count by 
fives from 12 to 3, from 3 to 6, 
from 6 to 9, and from 9 to 12. 
Again do this as many times as 
necessary until the child can do 
this on his own. 

5. Explain the meaning of 
quarter-past and quarter-to using 
section 1. Allow your child to 
practice in section 5. 

6. Count by fives from 12 back 
to 12 using section 2. Insure the 
child understands each number 
on the clock face represents five 
minutes. Provide examples of dif- 
ferent times using section 1. 
Allow your child to practice in 
section 6. 

Note: It will be beneficial at 
times to review sections already 
accomplished. 

A big advantage of the Super 
Expander cartridge is it provides 
users with additional instructions 
devoted to graphics. Without the 
Super Expander, one can still 
work with graphics using CBM 
BASIC or machine language. But 
CBM BASIC when applied to 
graphics is cumbersome and 
slow; machine language, which is 
by far more efficient, is difficult to 
use. The Super Expander is a 
good compromise. It will not pro- 
vide the smooth animation of 
machine language but is much 

94/Commander September 1983 



1 PGKE36879 , 60 : RC=8 : W=0 

2 PR I NT " C CLEAR 3 C BLACK ] - 1 - SELECT " : PR I NT 
"-2- BY 5" 

5 PR I NT "PROBLEMS" 

7 PR I NT "-3- HR": PR I NT "-4- 1/2 HR":PRIHT 
"-5- 1/4 HR": PR I NT "~6~ 5 HIM": PRINT 

8 PR I NT " -7- END " : W\=m ■ H=l 2 : 1 NPUTCH$ : I F 
CH*<" 1 "0RCH*>"7"THEN2 

9 IFCH$="7"THEN9999 

20 GRAPH I C2= COLORS, 4, 0,4 

38 CIRCLED 51 1,51 1,488, 500 

40 CHAR1 , 9, " 12" : CHARS, 13, " 1 " : CHAR6, 15, " 

2" :CHAR10, 16, "3" :CHAR14, 15, "4" :CHRR17, 1 

3 "5" 

100 CHAR1S, 10, "6" :CHAR17,6, "7" :CHAR14,4 

, "8":CHAR10,3, "9" :CHAR6,3, " 18" : CHARS, 5, 

"11" 

155 A= 1 •■ X=5 1 1 ■■ V= 1 60 : X 1 =X ■ V 1 =V 

160 GOSUB1800 

1 65 A= 1 = X=5 1 1 : V=300 : X2=X ■ V2=V 

170 GOSUB20U0 : CHRR8, 15, "12 : 88" ■ t'FCH*>"2 
"THEN:CHRR0 J 15,"KX:XX" 

1 7 1 I FCH*= " 2 " THENGOSUB7808 '• GOTO 1 82 

1 72 I FCH#> " 2 " THEHOOSUB8S00 : GOTO 1 85 

173 CHAR1,15,". ":GETHU : IFH1*=""TH 
EN 173 

174 IFH1$="X"THEH9936 

175 CHAR 1,1 5," . "•|jETH2*:IFH2f=""THE 
N175 

176 CHAR1..15," . " 

177 GETHir-IFMl*=""THEN176 

178 CHAR1,15," 

179 GETM2*-IFM2*=""THEN17S 

181 H*=H 1 *+H2* : H*=M 1 *+M2t ■' H= V AL < m J : M= V 
RL<Mt> 

182 IFCH*>"2"AHDF=0THEHGOSUB6000 

1 S3 I FCH*> " 2 " AND ( HR$=H*AND^R*=M* ) THEHGG 
TO9580 

1 84 I FCH*> " 2 " AND (. HR$OH*ORI1R*<>ri* ) THENG 
OTO9708 

1 85 B= I NT ( M/5 ) *30 : 1 FCH$< " 3 " AND < H> 1 20RH< 
OTHEN9700 

1 86 I FCH*< " 3 " AND ( M/5<> I NT < M/5 > 0RN>55 > TH 
EN9700 

1 87 I FCH*< " 3 " THENGOSUB6080 

1 90 A=0 : X=X 1 : V=V 1 ■' GOSUB 1 088 

200 C=35 1 : GOSUB3800 = GOSUB 1 008 : X 1 =X : V 1 = V 

■' D=H*38+M/60*30 : A=0 = X=X2 : V=V2 : 6OSUB2009 

230 C=2 1 1 : GOSUB3088 ■' GOSUB2088 : X2=X : V2=V 

:X=Xl:V=Vl: GOSUB I860 

390 IFCH*>"2"AHBF=1THENF=0 : G0T0173 

400 G0T0171 

999 END 

1000 DRAW.A,511,511TOX,V:DRfiUA,508,511T 
OX-10,V: RETURN 

2080 DRAWA ,511,51 1 TOX , V = DRAWA ,511,51110 

X, V: RETURN- 

3088 A=l : IFDO30THEN3080 

3040 IFD<=98THEN30S8 

3850 I FDO 1 80THEHD= 1 S0-D : G0TO3 1 28 

3060 I FDC=278THEHD=D~ 1 88 : G0T03 1 68 

3870 IFD<=360THEHD'=360-D ; GOT 03 20 8 

3880 GOSUB4000 

3090 GOSUB5080 : RETURN 

To be continued on page 96 



Write For Free Vic Catalog 



NEW 



Write For Free 64 Catalog 



VIC™ Software VIC 



TM 




CRICKET 




PARATROOPER 



s t 




MOW 




ALIEN 
INVASION 




CRICKET - From the company that brought you Asteroidz, Munchman and a host of other 
blockbusters. We now present CRICKET. This is a challenging game with a cast of characters you 
will love and hate. All you have to do is get Cherp from one side of the road to the river and then 
across the river. Not so fast though. First you have to figure out how to dodge the traffic and get to 
\ the center. Then how are you going to get across the river? Look here comes a log — even a turtle. 
Hitch a ride across the river and jump from one to the other. Keep a sharp eye out for Ade the Gator. 
He loves to have crickets for lunch. How many times can you get across the road and river. You will 
have to work as fast as you can. Time limit and bonus. You will find this game addictive and 
challenging and it will entertain you with hours of fun and enjoyment. $14.95 

BUG BLAST - If you think Centipede was fun — look out for BUG BLAST. A new and fast action 
arcade game with realistic smooth action, quality hires graphics and trouble. Its very calm as the 
first wave attacks. Only a few bugs to kill. Jast shoot thru the cactus and wipe them out. After a few 
attacks you feel you have everything under control. Now the attacks really start. Those protection 
areas have to go. Blast away. Will they ever stop? OK — the BUGS got me this time. Now its my 
turn, Just one more time — BUG BLAST — Now its your turn to get even. $14.95 

BOMB'S AWAY - Can you stop him? The crazy bomber drops the bombs from the top of the 
screen. You get 3 buckets to catch them. Before you know it bombs are falling so fast you wonder 
when he will stop. Just when you think you have him under control your bucket gets smaller. Is your 
hand quicker than your eye? Special $9.95 

PARATROOPER - You are the only one left to stop them. The sky is full of enemy choppers. 
Paratroopers keep dropping into your area with nonstop barrage of enemy troops. They are out to 
destroy you. This new game is an unbeatable blend of arcade action and quick thinking strategy. 
You must make every shot count — don't be to fast on the trigger. Every time you hit a chopper or 
paratrooper you get extra points. Wait until you see the climax of this game — you won't believe it! 
This is a multiple skill level game with razor-sharp graphics and sound. $19.95 

MOW - Get ready for the fast and furious action of the craziest mower you have ever seen. How 
much grass can you cut? Joystick moves your mower around as fast as you dare. Watch out for 
granny's dafodils and grandpa's radio antenna. $14.95 

COSMIC CRUZER - Bring the coin-op game into your VIC 3 Scenarios. Your Cruzer moves over 
a mountainous landscape & into a tunnel of surface - to - air missle, silos and ground - to - air 
weapons. If you can make it in and out of the tunnel you fly into the asteroid field. Drop bombs and 
fire missiles at the fuel dumps to keep your fuel supply up. If you are really good you can get to the 
base and try, to destroy it. We don't know of any one that has hit the base yet. Maybe you will be the 
1st. Cosmic Cruzer is a fun filled magnificently rendered home video game that will last for months 
of challenge. Highly addicting. Hi-Res Graphics, Color & Sound. SPECIAL PRICE - $14.95 

SPACE PAK - Can you survive? 3 space games with the sights and sounds of arcade games. The 
excitement builds as the action is unending. Blast away at everything in sight. The alien attacks will 
stop at nothing to destroy you. Prepare for battle, there is no escape, unless you can help. Can you 
survive? Hi-Res, Color, Graphic & Sound. Joystick or keyboard. $19.95 

ALIEN INVASION - Invaders from space are attacking your home planet. Hurry and man your 
lasers and prepare your robot forces for the inevitable attack of the Alien Invaders. The excitment 
builds as you command a battery of missile bases in a bunker. Each invader has a laser aimed right at 
you. Will they ever stop. Only you can save the Galaxy. You can compete with 4 people in the solar 
system. There are 20 levels of play. If you destroy the Aliens in the correct order you will receive 
bonus points. Can you get the top score? $14.95 

TARGET COMMAND - The whole West Coast is being bombarded and only you can save it. You 
are at the controls of the missile launcher and hold the destiny of our country in your hands. It takes 
a cooj head, not hand and fast reflexes to zap those missiles right out of the air. Get ready to 
pulverize — atomize and vaporize them. Oh, my God, those warheads are heading right for our 
ammo dumps. They are everywhere. NO ONE CAN SAVE US — EXCEPT YOU. You must move 
your laser into position and fire as fast as you dare. Time limit with arcade style excitement. Protect 
your ammo at all costs. 10 levels of play. $14.95 

SNAKEOUT - Slip your snake into position and score by chomping the blotks. Watch the way you 
slither because your escape routes get smaller. 2 Bonus games included. $14.95 

HEAD-ON - Please do not buy this game if you are the type that says Til play it just one more time". 
Players have been known to start playing HEAD ON at 8:30 p.m. and at 2 a.m., wonder where the 
time went? Have you ever tried to explain to someone why you played a game for five and a half 
hours. We know of no remedy for the addiction to HEAD ON except to beat the VIC on ievel 9. No 
one has done it, YET, will you? We think not. Move your car as fast as you can dare around the 
tracks. You get 3 cars and MUST avoid the computer car. Points for the most dots covered. Bonus 
cars, nine levels of play. $14.95 



SNAKE OUT 




BUG BLAST 




TARGET 
COMMAND 




COSMIC 
CRUZER 




SPACE PAK 



ComputerMat • Box 1664B • Lake Havasu City, AZ 86403 Circle No. 12 Add $1.00 For Shipping 






HEAD ON 



Commander September 1983/95 






% 



faster and requires fewer instruc- 
tions for graphic representations 
than CBM BASIC. Try the circle 
program listed in your program- 
mer's reference manual and com- 
pare it to the CIRCLE instruction 
used by the Super Expander to 
see what I mean. 

Some disadvantages of the 
Super Expander are you cannot 
print string or numeric variables 
when in the graphics mode. How- 
ever, string constants can be 
displayed in the high resolution 
mode only. This is why lines 6000 
to 6900 are structured the way 
they are. Using the INPUT state- 
ment while in the graphics mode 
can cause strange and inconsist- 
ent things to happen. After work- 
ing with the INPUT statement for 
a while and getting nowhere, I 
finally reverted to using the GET 
statement. This explains why you 
must enter four characters when 
inputting time. If anybody has 
successfully used the INPUT 
statement in the graphics mode, 
please write and tell me how you 
did it. 

Even with the disadvantages I 
mentioned, the ease with which 
one can create graphic displays 
and the additional 3K of memory 
more than justifies having one. If 
you have any comments on this 
program or suggestions for future 
articles, do not hesitate to write. I 
will be glad to hear from you. 

Address all correspondence to: 
Art Dudley, c/o Commander, P.O. 
Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 98498. 

If you desire a copy of the 
listed program, please send me a 
blank cassette and $2.00 to cover 
shipping and duplicating. □ 







yw^ L j jij 


wmt 


> ^p>» rwjr 







Continued from page 94 




3120 


GOSUE4008:VV=VY*-1 




3130 


GOSUB5808 RETURN 




3160 


GOSUE4008 : VV=VV*-1 : XX*K 


*:*~i 


3179 


GOSUB5008 : RETURN 




3200 


G0SUB4000:XX=KX*-1 




3210 


GOSUB5008: RETURN 




4000 


KX= K £ I H < D/57 . 3 > *C ) / 1 . 3 




4810 


VV=CGS(L/57.3>*C 




4620 


RETURN 




5000 


X=511+KX 




5010 


V=51i-W:RETURN 




6000 


REM 




6061 

1 

6003 


I FN I Ii$ < : H$ , 1 , 1 3 = " " RNBCHf < " 3 " THEN 1 7 


IFH*="12"THEN 


CHARS, 15, 


"12" 


6810 


1FH*=" 1"THEH 


CHflR8,15, 


" 1" 


6820 


IFH*=" 2" THEN 


GHAR8. 15 ^ 


Km 


6830 


IFH$=" 3 "THEN 


CHARS > 1,5, 


11 '-J 11 


6840 


IFH$=" 4 "THEN 


CHAR 8,15.. 


II ^11 


6858 


IFH*=" 5 "THEN 


CHflR0,15, 


|| 5 „ 


6063 


1FH*=" 6 "THEN 


CHAR8, 15, 


11 gll 


6878 


IFH*=" 7 "THEN 


CHAR0, 15, 


II ~f" 


6838 


IFH*«" S"THEN 


CHARG, 15, 


M o »* 


6890 


IFH£=" 9 "THEN 


CHARS, 15, 


II §., 


6168 


IFH$="18"THEH 


CHfiR.0, 15, 


"10" 


6118 


IFH*="11"THEN 


CHHR9, 15, 


" 1 1 " 


6208 


IFH*="00"THEN 


CHRRSj 18, 


"00" 


6285 


IFN*="05"THEH 


CHfiR0,18, 


II Qcr II 


6210 


IFM$="18"THEN 


CHHR0, 18, 


"18" 


6215 


I'FMS="15"THEN 


CHAR8, 18, 


"15" 


6220 


IFt1$="20"THEN 


CHRR8, IB, 


"20" 




IFM*="25"THEN 


CHflR6,18, 


"25" 


6238 


IFM$="30"THEN 


CHRR8, 18, 


"30" 




IFM*-"35"THEN 


CHHR0,18, 


II 9c tl 


6248 


XFM*="48"THEN 


CHRR0, la, 


"48" 


6245 


I FH*=" 45 "THEN 


CHRR8, 18, 


"45" 


6250 


IFM*="58"THEN 


CHRR8,18, 


"58" 


6255 


IFM*="55"THEN 


CHHR8, 13, 


"55" 


6880 


CHARS, 17, ,! : " 




6989 


RETURN 




7000 


GETXX* : IFKX$=" "THEN7008 




7001 


IFXX$="X"THEH3930 




7062 


M=M+5 : 1FM>55THENM=8 : GOTO7830 


7018 


G0T07838 




7030 


IFH=12THENH=1 GGT07S38 




7035 


IFH<12THEHH=H+1 




7838 


G0SUB900S 




7850 


RETURN 




8800 


H=INT<RND<1>*133 




S810 


N=INT'::RNIi<1>*12)*5 




sail 


IFH=0THENGOTG8608 




S812 


IFCH$="3"THENM=08 




8813 


I F CHf = " 4 " T HENM= I NT < M / 30 


■i*30 


8015 


I FCH*« " 5 " THENM= I NT < IV 1 5 


3*15 


8826 


GGSUB9808 




8030 


HR$=H$ : MR$=h$ : F= 1 




8100 


RETURN 




9000 


M*=MID$CSTR$<M),2,2> : IFLEH<N*;' = 1TH 


ENM*= 


-••'&" +m 




9010 


Hf=MID.fC3TR*(H>,2,2> : IFLENXHfJ-lTH 



96/Commander September 1983 



Continued from page 94 



% 



EHH*=" "+H* 

9028 RETURN 

9040 END 

9500 PQKE3687S .-15: FORL= 1 TO 1 5 : FORM- 1 T039 

: PQKE36S76 ,215: F0RN= 1 TO 1 5 : NEKTN 

9505 P0KE36S76 , : NEXTM 

95 1 GOTO0 , 1 5 , " XX : XX " ■ flC»flC+ 1 

9512 GOTO 172 

9700 P0KE36878 , 1 5 : P0KE36874 , 1 65 : FOR J= 1 T 

0450 : NEXT : PQKE36368, O : P0KE36874, 8 

97 1 8 W=W+ 1 : U 1 = W 1 + 1 = I FN 1 > 1 THENH*=HR* : M*= 

MR* : GOSUB6080 : W1=0 

9720 GOTO 173 

9938 FOR0-IFCH$>"2"THENPRINTflC;" RIGHT" 

•• PR I NTW ; " WRONG " : FOR J J= 1 TO 1 008 : NEXT J J 

9940 RUN 

9999 PR I NT " C CLEAR 3 " : P0KE36879 , 27 




Tbw 




JOIN THE 
COMPUTER 
REVOLUTION 
WITH A MASTERY 
OF THE KEYBOARD! 
In the age of the computer, everyone 
from the school child to the Chairman of 
the Board should be at home at the 
computer keyboard. Soon there will be 
a computer terminal on every desk and 
in every home. Learn how to use it right 
...and have some fun at the same time! 

Rated THE BEST educational program for the VIC 20™ 
by Creative Computing Magazine 

TYPING TUTOR PLUS WORD INVADERS — $21.95 

(2 programs on one cassette tape for the unexpanded VIC 20™) 

Typing Tutor plus Word Invaders makes learning the keyboard easy and fun! 
Typing Tutor teaches the keyboard in easy steps. Word Invaders makes typing 
practice an entertaining game. Highly praised by customers: 

"Typing Tutor is great!", "Fantastic", "Excellent", High quality", "A source of 
great joy and learning for our children", "Even my little sister likes it", "Word 
Invaders is sensational!" 

Customer comment says it all . . . 

"... and it was everything you advertised it would be. In three weeks, my 13 year 
old son, who had never typed before, was typing 35 w.p.m. I had improved my 
typing speed 15 w.p.m. and my husband was able to keep up with his college 
typing class by practicing at home. " 




SPECIAL 

VERSION OF 

TYPING TUTOR 

PLUS WORD INVADERS 

NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE 

COMMODORE 64™... gffigBj 

All of the features. of the VIC 20™ Version and more 




SPRITE | 




DESIGNER 
by Dr. Lee T. Hill \ 

$1 6.95 (Tape) $21. 95 (Disk) 

Create and then transform sprites automatically. We 
have theother sprite making programs, but this is the 
one we use to make sprites. The automatic transfor- 
mations are great! 

^^^^ Shipping and handling $1.00 per 

v5s< order. California residents add 6% <^Bjfll>i 
^^^B sales tax. VISA and Mastercard HUPKr 
orders must include full name as shown on card, card 
number, and expiration date. Free catalog sent with 
order and on request. 

ACADEIilV 

SOFTl^lRE 1 

P.O. Box 9403, San Rafael, CA 9491 2 (41 5) 4990850 ° 



Programmers: Write to our New Program Manager concerning any exceptional VIC 20TM or Commodore 64TM game or other program you have developed. 



Commander September 1983/97 



t* Bus\ne* s 

Part One 

/by Kirk G. Anderson 



My first experience with 
business came with the lemon- 
ade stand and continued on 
through my college days when I 
found myself holding, instead of 
a pitcher of lemonade, a degree in 
business administration. Need- 
less to say, it was good to get 
away from the old lemonade out- 
fit and into something more 
stable. After a few years as a pro- 
fessional managerial type, and 
having acquired a personal com- 
puter, I started noticing the 
business programs for personal 
computers are a desirable pro- 
duct for more than just business 
organizations and MBA's. Every- 
one wants to be more profitable. 
Whether it's an organization or an 
individual, improving one's finan- 
cial security and position is just 
plain smart. The only problems 
for many seem to be "how do I get 
the expertise to answer my finan- 
cial questions and where do I find 
the time?". Not everyone cares to 
know how answers to certain 
financial questions are arrived at, 
but only how to put the answers 
to work in order to become more 
profitable. This is where the per- 
sonal computer is revolutionaliz- 
ing the way individuals and 
organizations are viewing and 

98/Commander September 1983 



performing accounting functions. 
More people are now realizing 
that personal computers can 
bring to their fingertips the ser- 
vices of a myriad of accounting 
clerks and financial analysts 
diligently recording and for- 
mating information for accurate 
analysis and interpretation. When 
the time to prepare tax returns ar- 
rives, some of the more fortunate 
personal computer users need 
only spend a half hour or so with 
their computers and the dirty 
work is done. But even the less 
fortunate users have an oppor- 
tunity to increase the efficiency 
and accuracy of their bookkeep- 
ing and gain a much more in- 
timate understanding of how to 
manipulate their finances. 

Beginning to emerge into the 
software marketplace are a 
notably diversified array of 
business related program pack- 
ages. Some of these are quite im- 
pressive, performing a number of 
valuable analytical functions and 
offering bookkeeping Systems as 
an integral part of the program. A 
definite advantage for any 
organization is the business ap- 
plication software for the Com- 
modore 64 which is beginning to 
become more available and 



relatively inexpensive. Compared 
to outlays you would be facing for 
some of the more expensive per- 
sonal computer systems you 
simply cannot afford to overlook 
the amazing things that can be 
done with a Commodore 64. If 
you're an individual user like me 
you probably wouldn't mind hav- 
ing a high quality business 
oriented accounting system at 
your disposal. This being the 
case, you should be prepared to 
pay much more than the going 
rate for the home accounting 
packages that are presently on 
the shelf. Both individuals and 
organizations should consider 
that even if you purchase some of 
the top line business accounting 
programs you are still paying far 
less than someone who has the 
more expensive, personal com- 
puter, and getting just as much (if 
not more) in capability. If you own 
a Commodore 64 or VIC 20 you 
have the most affordable and yet 
one of the most powerful per- 
sonal computers on the market 
today. If you find it difficult 
locating business software for 
your Commodore that satisfies 
your palate, just hang tight. 
There's plenty about to come 
your way and this portion of Com- 



COM-STAR F/T 



Tractor 
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only 




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40, 46, 66, 80, 96, or 132 characters per line spacing • Prints labels, letters, graphs, and tables 
• List your programs • Print out data from modem services 



Deluxe 

COMSTAR F/T 

PRINTER — $259.00 

The Comstar Is an excellent addition to any 
micro-computer system. (Interfaces are 
available for Apple, VIC-20, Commodore-64, 
Pet, Atari 400 and 800, and Hewlett Packard). 
At only $259 the Comstar gives you print quali- 
ty and featuers found only on printers costing 
twice as much. Compare these features. 

• BI-DIRECTIONAL PRINTING with a LOGIC 
SEEKING CARRIAGE CONTROL for higher 
through-put In actual text printing. 80 
characters per second. 

• PRINTING VERSATILITY: standard 96 ASCII 
character set plus block graphics and interna- 
tional scripts. An EPROM character generator 
Includes up to 224 characters. 

• INTERFACE FLEXIBILITY: Centronics Is 
standard. Options include EIA RS232C, 20mA 
Current Loop. (Add $20.00 for RS232) 

• LONG LIFE PRINT HEAD: 100 million 
character life expectancy. 

• THREE SELECTABLE CHARACTER 
PITCHES: • 10, 12 or 16.5 characters per Inch. 
132 columns maximum. Double-width font also 
is standard for each character pitch. 

• THREE SELECTABLE LINE SPACINGS: 6, 8 

or 12 lines per Inch. 

• PROGRAMMABLE LINE FEED: program- 
mable length from 1/144 to 255/144 inches. 

COMSTAR F/T 



• VERTICAL FORMAT CONTROL: program- 
mable form length up to 127 lines, useful for 
short or over-sized preprinted forms. 

• FRICTION AND TRACTOR FEED: will accept 
single sheet paper. 

• 224 TOTAL CHARACTERS 

• USES STANDARD SIZE PAPER 

If you want more try — 

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More Features Than MX-80 
For $299 you get all of the features of the 
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buffer, left and right margin settings, true 
lower descenders, with super and subscripts, 
and prints standard, Italic, Block Graphics, 
special characters, plus 2K of user definable 
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80 COLUMN PRINTER $189 

Super silent operation, 60 CPS, prints Hl- 
resolutlon graphics and block graphics, ex- 
panded character set, exceptionally clear 
characters, fantastic print quality, uses Inex- 
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Double 

Immediate Replacement 

Warranty 

We have doubled the normal 90 day warranty 
to 180 days. Therefore if your printer falls 
within "180 days" from the date of purchase 
you simply send your printer to us via United 
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h i _i l< 



Circle No. 34 






mander will be dedicated to infor- 
ming you of these new programs, 
as well as some older ones, and 
their potential uses. 

One company that is working 
hard at developing business ap- 
plications software is Southern 
Solutions located in McKinney, 
Texas (address and telephone are 
noted at the end of this article). 
Southern Solutions has devel- 
oped a program we'll be looking 
at entitled The Business Man™, 
written by Chuck Stuart of 
Southern Solutions. The program 
retails for $99.95. In a nutshell, 
the program is a general ledger 
recordkeeping system and does a 
good job at what it's designed to 
do. It's menu driven and totally 
self-contained. If you are looking 
for a general ledger accounting 
system for your 64 you may find 
The Business Man™ relatively 
flexible and "user-friendly" (to 
use an old phrase). The program 
does have a budgeting capability 
that impressed me due to its flex- 
ibility and simplicity. It provides 
you monthly, quarterly, or year to 
date options for reporting and 
comparison for all financial 
statements, and prints individual- 
ly formated reports. Without 
jumping rudely ahead in our 
review of the program, I think I 
can safely wrap up our nutshell 
preview by saying that the pro- 
gram is a quality product, pro- 
bably not the best on the market, 
but presumably better than a 
good portion of it. If you want to 
use a real live accounting system 
for your personal finances and 
would like to know how, stay tun- 
ed because that's what this first 
article is going to address. If 
you're an individual looking for a 
slick way to computerize your 
bookwork, or, simply looking for 
an analytical tool to aid in finan- 
cial decisions, I don't think the 
program would interest you. 
However, if you're an organization 
or an individual that desires a 
high quality format for accoun- 
ting information and wishes to 
use, or learn to use, a general 
ledger recordkeeping system, 

100/Commander September 1983 



then you may do well to consider 
The Business Man™. 

Getting Started 

The Business Man™ is an ac- 
counting program designed for 
use on the Commodore 64 with a 
variety of peripheral equipment. 
The program is an actual general 
ledger bookkeeping system, but 
does not allow designation or use 
of individual subsidiary ledgers 
as one may have in manual 
general ledger systems. Before 
proceeding I should mention that 
The Business Man™ does 
assume a working knowledge of 
some basic accounting prin- 
ciples. For those of you with little 
or no accounting background, or, 
if you have little or no experience 
with computers, please don't 
panic. If I can learn these basics 
then so can you. Besides, I am 
not going to use exotic ter- 
minology or address important 
concepts unless somewhere in 
the article I plan on explaining 
them to you. As previously men- 
tioned, this is the first article of 
two that will be devoted to review- 
ing The Business Man™ by 
Southern Solutions. In this first 
article we are going to spend 
some time becoming a little 
familiar with some of the basic 
accounting rules, terminology, 
and concepts that are necessary 
and/or helpful for us to better 
evaluate and use The Business 
Man™. For those of you already 
familiar with accounting 
methods, and using a general 
ledger system, you may wish to 
lightly breeze over this month's 
article as a refresher before we 
explore The Business Man™ 
more fully in next month's issue. 
For those of you who would like 
to have just a small peek at what 
can be done using a general 
ledger system, please, read on. 

Accounting 101 

A general ledger system of 
recordkeeping, or bookkeeping, 
is a means whereby your financial 
data is input and handled within a 
series of journals and ledgers 
that accumulate related informa- 



tion on transactions. The process 
of inputting transaction related 
data is called "journalizing" or 
"posting". This posted or record- 
ed information is then classified 
into specified categories or 
groupings and then summarized 
in financial reports. This entire 
series of operations is what is 
known as the Accounting Pro- 
cess. In other words, the whole 
purpose of any and all accounting 
system(s) is to perform the follow- 
ing three basic functions or 
steps. 

1). Recording information 
2). Classifying information 
3). Summarizing information 
These three steps are all part of 
creating accounting information 
which can then be used to better 
understand your financial posi- 
tion. Once you have a jbetter pic- 
ture of your financial position and 
structure, more profitable deci- 
sions concerning where to use 
the money you've earned can be 
confidently made. 

Defining Some Terms 

For us to proceed in any mean- 
ingful and expeditious fashion we 
need at this time to consider 
some new terms. Some of them 
I'm certain you may have heard 
before, but as related to accoun- 
ting you may well find the term 
has a whole different meaning. 
Therefore, it may well be best to 
assimilate information just as if 
you've never heard the term 
before. This helps prevent any 
headaches over wondering why 
the accounting definition of a cer- 
tain term may differ from that of 
some other discipline, or for that 
matter, even common sense. 

An ASSET is defined as an eco- 
nomic resource that has value 
and is owned by an individual, a 
business, or some form of organi- 
zation, whereby, the asset is ex- 
pected to contribute to and 
benefit future and/or present 
operations. The first most logical 
example of an asset is cash. 
Whether in a savings account, 
checking account, stocks or 
other marketable securities it rep- 



resents what is often called the 
most "liquid" asset. The concept 
of liquidity is very important in 
that assets are classified in order 
of liquidity. To illustrate briefly, 
cash in your savings account is 
fairly liquid because all you must 
do to obtain the usable cash is go 
into your bank and ask for the 
funds in your account. Depending 
on the proximity of your bank 
(which also affects liquidity) you 
can typically have your cash im- 
mediately, or at least at the end of 
the same business day in which 
you requested the funds. Now, 
compare this to attempting to 
cash in your automobile which 
has a blue book value of, let's say 
$6000.00. Typically, unless you 
wanted to take less than your 
established base value (blue 
book) it would take you much 
longer to convert your automobile 
into cash available for your use. 
Both the automobile and the 
money in your savings account 
are assets, but the savings ac- 
count is a far more liquid asset 



than the automobile. For this 
reason, the cash in the savings 
account would be called a "cur- 
rent asset". A current asset is an 
asset that can be converted into 
cash ready for use within a 
relatively short period of time 
without disrupting normal opera- 
tions. In most accounting opera- 
tion that segregate current assets 
from other assets, the period of 
time designated for this conver- 
sion into cash is dependent upon 
what is called "the operating cy- 
cle" of the organization. The 
operating cycle is simply the 
average (mean) amount of time 
between the acquisition of 
goods, or merchandise, and the 
transformation of these goods 
back into cash. An operating cy- 
cle is often a basis for determin- 
ing efficiency in the use of funds. 
As an individual you may not ac- 
tually go out and purchase goods 
for resale, per se', but you do pur- 
chase dollars with your time. Your 
"operating cycle" may well be 
defined as the average amount of 



time for you to convert those 
earned dollars into income 
generating dollars and back into 
earned dollars as a return on your 
initial investment. The process 
that you may designate to 
achieve that return and generate 
your operating cycle could well 
be defined as your cycle of "nor- 
mal operations". 

Moving Right Along 

Now we have an example of a 
framework within which to iden- 
tify those of your assets that 
would qualify as current assets. 
Other assets might be insurance 
policies, retirement and pension 
plans, real property such as your 
house or any rental property, and 
maybe even accounts receivable. 
For an organization that extends 
loans and credit on merchandise 
purchased, or has outstanding in- 
voices that are unpaid, accounts 
receivable represents a 
somewhat liquid asset; often 
times classified as a current 
asset. For an individual the same 



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Commander September 1983/101 



may be true. If you had a rental 
house and your tenant was two 
months behind in paying the rent, 
you would show an accounts re- 
ceivable for the amount in ar- 
rears. The accounts receivable for 
an individual, though, would be 
considered somewhat less liquid 
than those of an organization due 
to the ability of organizations to 
take their "high quality" receiv- 
ables to a bank and either sell 
them to the bank (which is called 
"factoring") or putting them up as 
collateral for a loan. An individual 
can rarely claim receivables of 
high enough quality to use these 
options. (By the way, "high quali- 
ty" receivables are those that 
have a very good chance of ac- 
tually being paid back in full.) 

The next category that we are 
going to take a brief look at con- 
tains what are called "LIABILI- 
TIES". These are plainly the debts 
of an organization or an indivi- 
dual. These debts, or obligations, 
are classified in much the same 
fashion as the assets we just 
discussed. The important thing to 
remember about a liability is it is 
a claim, held by the person to 
whom you owe money, who is 
called a "creditor", against the 
assets that you hold. A creditor 
may have a claim not only against 
the asset you owe them money on 
(such as your car), but against all 
your assets, if need be, in order to 
satisfy an amount you may owe to 
them plus any fees they had to in- 
cur in collecting it. 



Liabilities are also classified in- 
to current and noncurrent cate- 
gories. A current liability is a debt 
that must be paid usually within 
one (1) year or the operating cy- 
cle, whichever is longer. Obliga- 
tions that are of a longer term 
than current liabilities are often 
called "long term liabilities". An 
example of a current liability for 
an individual would be a gas com- 
pany credit card billing. These 
obligations are usually required 
to be paid in full each month or 
you incur substantial service 
charges and fees. If you con- 
tinually fail to pay the balance 
upon demand the company may 
well decide against granting you 
credit and take away your ability 
to use the credit card. A current 
liability for an organization might 
be something called "accounts 
payable". Accounts payable are 
usually short term or current debt 
obligations that the company has 
incurred by purchasing goods or 
services on credit. The unique 
thing about corporate accounts 
payable is that the credit extend- 
ed on the purchase usually bears 
no interest charges or fees. This 
is sometimes liberally referred to 
as "trade credit". This type of 
credit is often negotiated and it is 
important to pay the obligation in 
a timely fashion. If an organiza- 
tion loses its trade credit then it 
becomes extremely difficult to 
purchase needed goods and ser- 
vices any other way except "cash 
over the counter". This can be 




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tremendously cumbersome and 
one usually will find that 
organizations jealously guard 
their access to trade credit. 

Examples of long term liabili- 
ties for an organization would be 
called "notes payable". These are 
different from accounts payable 
in that this is not just extended 
credit against purchases but a 
formal arrangement to use a 
given amount of borrowed funds 
for a specified period of time 
which is usually greater than one 
year. A note payable is often 
represented by a formal written 
promise to pay and includes a 
fee, paid by the organization bor- 
rowing the funds, called interest. 
An example of an individual's 
long term liability would be the 
mortgage on your house or the 
loan on your automobile. 

Equity Funds 

The last basic category of ac- 
counting information is called 
"Equity". Equity is the guts of any 
operation because it represents 
the available resources that have 
been invested by the principals 
(or owners) of the organization. A 
company has a couple of ways in 
which to raise funds, or capital, 
for planned operations. It could 
borrow the funds, using debt 
(notes payable). It could ac- 
cumulate reserves from opera- 
tions (this would usually take too 
much time to rely upon fully). Or, 
it could sell shares of ownership 
interest in the company to the 
public. This is called a stock 
issue and is the most common 
way that American business 
raises capital. For an organization 
this paid-in capital received from 
the sale of stock becomes the 
equity share of the business. The 
more stock you own in a company 
the more of its assets you own. 
But, your claim to those assets, 
should anything go wrong, is not 
before the claims of the creditors 
of the organization. You would be 
entitled to whatever was left after 
the claims of creditors were 
satisfied. This is why you find in- 
vestors always watching the debt 



102/Commander September 1983 



composition of the firms they 
hold stock in. Too much debt is 
unstable and erodes the claims of 
stockholders against the assets 
that their invested dollars helped 
purchase. For an individual, equi- 
ty would represent the amount of 
any asset that you hold that is ac- 
tually "owned" or financed by you 
personally. For example, you pur- 
chase a house, and let's assume 
that the total purchase price is 
$100,000. You have been saving 
for this day for quite some time 
and have $30,000 in cash to give 
the seller. You talk to your banker 
friend who agrees to loan you the 
remaining $70,000 at a 12% an- 
nual interest rate for 30 years. 
You close the deal and go home 
to post the transaction on your 
computerized bookkeeping sys- 
tem. The $30,000 cash you paid to 
the seller represents your "equi- 
ty" while the $70,000 represents 
your "liability" which is a long 



term note payable. The house you 
just purchased represents a 
$100,000 asset. The inter- 
relationship of these factors is 
expressed in a very short cardinal 
rule of accounting: EQUITY = 
TOTAL ASSETS - TOTAL LIA- 
BILITIES. Thus, in the preceeding 
example, the equation would be 
represented as such: 

$30,000 (equity) = $100,000 
(asset) - $70,000 (liability) 

The following equation il- 
lustrates the summarization of 
these three accounting classifi- 
cations into a single accounting 
report called a balance sheet. It's 
called a balance sheet because 
the accounting equation of EQUI- 
TY = TOTAL ASSETS - TOTAL 
LIABILITIES must always be true. 
If it isn't then the books are out of 
balance and there is an error 
somewhere. Before we take a 
look at a balance sheet we need 
to touch on one more concept. 



The definition and difference bet- 
ween DEBIT and CREDIT. 

Learning Left and Right 

Those in the accounting world 
have thought of new names for 
left and right. I suppose the first 
accountants thought the words 
"right" and "left" seemed a bit 
simplistic so they called left 
"debit" and right "credit". So 
began the horrors of many an ac- 
counting student. 

Actually, if you remember debit 
and credit represent left and 
right, you should have no trouble 
understanding how to post to the 
different journals and accounts in 
a general ledger accounting 
system. 
Putting It All Together 

Now let's see if we can record 
something in a general ledger 
system. Each basic classification 
of accounts, asset, liability, and 
equity, has either a debit or a 



Figure 1 



♦♦ASSETS** 



♦♦LIABILITIES** 



Cash 6,000 Notes Payable 70,000 
Automobi 1 e 5, OOO 
House 100,000 

♦♦EQUITY** 

Owner equity 41,000 

TOTAL TOTAL EQUITY 

ASSETS 111,000 8< LI ABILITIES 1 1 1 . OOO 



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CASH 

DEBIT * CREDIT 
********************** 
lOOO * 

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Commander September 1983/103 



credit balance. This is actually 
determined by the logic of the ac- 
counting equation we discussed 
earlier. As we also discussed, 
these three main classifications 
are summarized in a financial 
report called a balance sheet. In 
looking at a balance sheet one 
will notice the assets on the left 
hand side of the report while the 
liabilities and equity are listed on 
the right hand side (refer to 
Figure #1). Notice the total of the 
assets equal the total of the 
liabilities and equity. This is ex- 
actly what our accounting equa- 
tion tells us should happen when 
everything is correct and in 
balance. Now, the accounts listed 
on the balance sheet (automobile, 
etc..) have the account balance 
listed on the report. The account 
balance is arrived at through 
posting transaction data to the 
account ledger from a journal. 
(We will talk about journals later 
in the article.) 

Each account that appears on 
the balance sheet has either a 
debit or credit balance depending 
upon whether it is an asset, 
liability, or equity account. When 
entries are made to an account 
you either debit or credit the ac- 
count. In other words, you either 
record the amount of the transac- 
tion on the left or the right hand 
side of the account ledger. A sim- 
ple account ledger can be repre- 
sented by the "T account" in 
Figure #2. If an account is an 
asset account, then it has a debit 
balance. Any entries to increase 
the balance of the account would 
be recorded on the left hand side 
of the ledger account. Therefore, 
to increase (add to) an asset ac- 
count you debit it. To decrease an 
asset account you would do the 
opposite of increasing it. This 
means that you would credit the 
account ledger by entering the 
amount on the right hand side of 
the ledger. To arrive at an account 
balance that would be transferred 
to the balance sheet you would 
first prove your debit and credit 
entries by using a "trial balance". 
A trial balance is a way to make 

104/Commander September 1983 



sure that all of your debits equal 
all of your credits. If they don't, 
then your books are out of 
balance and you've most likely 
made a posting or addition error. 
Your debits must equal your 
credits because a general ledger 
accounting system uses what is 
termed the "double entry 
method" of entering transac- 
tional data. The basic rational is 
that every transaction that takes 
place affects at least two or more 
accounts. If only two accounts 
are affected then one is debited 
and one is credited. If more than 
two accounts are involved the 
sum of the debits must equal the 
sum of the credits. For example, 
let's use our home purchase il- 
lustration again . Instead of hav- 
ing to go for a loan of your house 
purchase you just happen to have 
$100,000 on hand from last year's 
sale of mineral rights on some 
raw land that you own in Saudi 
Arabia. Therefore, you walk in and 
place the entire amount in the 
seller's hand and, after he 
recovers, you go home and enter 
the transaction on your computer- 
ized bookkeeping system. You 
call up your cash journal and 
enter a $100,000 credit to your 
cash account and create a new 
asset of $100,000 called "house", 
which you appropriately debit for 
$100,000. At the end of the 
posting, your credits equal 
$100,000 and your debits equal 
$100,000. This transaction result- 
ed in no net change to your total 
assets because your already had 
the cash on hand of $100,000 
(previously recorded from the 
sale of mineral rights), and you 
"exchanged" that $100,000 cash 
asset for a $100,000 house asset. 
Therefore, if you remember our 
balance sheet, no entry to equity 
is called for because the asset 
base was not increased. But, let's 
look at a second example. One in 
which the transaction involves 
more than two accounts. 

You are back in your original 
situation where you have been 
able to scrape up $30,000 for a 
down payment on that $100,000 



dream house. You have borrowed 
the remaining $70,000 and closed 
the deal. Now, at home, you're 
entering the transaction into your 
computer. You properly credit 
(decrease) your cash account by 
$30,000 and then you debit (in- 
crease) a new asset account call- 
ed "house" for $100,000. Wait, 
you're not done. Your debits of 
$100,000 do not equal your 
credits of $30,000. You must 
come up with a $70,000 credit to 
make your books balance. You do 
this by crediting (increasing) the 
LIABILITY account'called "notes 
payable". Remember, you had to 
borrow that $70,000 and the credit 
to notes payable accounts for 
that debt and balances your 
books! In applying this back to 
our accounting equation, you 
now have a $100,000 asset for 
which you paid $30,000, which 
becomes your equity, and is 
represented by the $100,000 asset 
less the $70,000 liability. 

So, now you should be able to 
understand what is meant when 
we say that your debits must 
equal your credits. It is all based 
upon one simple equation and the 
trial balance is just the check 
point in a general ledger system 
to make certain that you have 
posted all your credits and debits. 



Definitions. . .Again! 

You undoubtedly noticed that I 
previously have made mention of 
a "journal". Well, I do believe an 
explanation is in order. A journal 
is what accountants call an origi- 
nal book of entry. It's a daily 
record showing the various debit 
and credit changes which affect 
the several ledger accounts. It is 
quite standard for a journal to in- 
clude a description or explana- 
tion of the transaction. If you are 
confused about the distinction 
between a journal and a ledger ac- 
count, the easiest way to remem- 
ber the difference is to think of 
the journal as organized 
specifically for recording and 
maintaining a record of transac- 
tions. The ledger, instead, is 



organized to maintain the ac- 
counts themselves. At periodic 
intervals (for example, once per 
month) the transactions recorded 
in the journal(s) are posted to the 
ledger and the appropriate ac- 
counts are debited and credited. 
The journal also has debit and 
credit entries that are made when 
transactions are recorded. In a 
manual journal there is a column 
for debits as well as credits. If you 
were recording a trip to the 
grocery store you would, after 
entering the date, enter your tran- 
saction information using the 
same rules for debit and credit 
that we have already discussed. 
Food is an expense and expenses 
have debit balances because they 
decrease equity. The cash you 
used to buy the food evidences a 
decrease in cash which would be 
a credit. In entering transactions 
to a journal it is customary to 
always enter the debit first, then 
the credit, with the explanation of 
the transaction following. When 
you go to post from the journal, 
you would pick up the credit to 
cash and credit the cash account 



for that amount. Likewise, you 
would post the debit to the food 
account. 

The journal provides a link be- 
tween several debit and credit en- 
tries in the various accounts, 
showing which are related to 
which transaction. As in our food 
example, if you were to look at the 
accounts "cash" or "food" you 
would have some difficulty con- 
necting the given cash expen- 
diture with food, unless you had a 
very good memory. Therefore, the 
journal is a vitally important tool 
in an accounting system. 

The General Ledger 

The Business Man™, by 
Southern Solutions, is a "general 
ledger record keeping system". In 
other words, the basis for the pro- 
gram's accounting system and 
processing of financial informa- 
tion is a general ledger. 

A general ledger is defined as 
an accumulation register for all 
types of accounts. Transactions 
are entered in the journal(s) and 
then posted to the various ac- 



counts in the ledger. At the end of 
the accounting period the ac- 
counts are "closed" and the 
balances used to prepare the 
financial reports. This is the fun- 
damental operation of the pro- 
gram that we will be reviewing in 
part two of this series. Remem- 
bering this process will help you 
tremendously not to lose per- 
spective when we start talking 
about what The Business Man™ 
can do. 

The Business Man™ has two 
journals (original books of entry). 
One is called the "general jour- 
nal" and the other the "cash jour- 
nal". 

The General Journal 

This is often called the easiest 
journal to work with, so, it is a 
good place to begin. A manual 
general journal has a column for 
debits, credits, account titles, ex- 
planations, and the date. You will 
also find a thin reference column 
with the heading "LP". This 
stands for "ledger page" and 
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24.95 



Vic Forth vic-20"- & c-64" 59.95 54.95 

Is a powerful language for those who want to go beyond BASIC programming. It 
is an interactive language that is very memory efficient and much faster than 
BASIC, yet easier to use than assembly language 

Hes Mon VIC-20" & C-64™ 39.95 34.95 

Allows serious program development on the VIC-20'". HES MON is a 6502 

machine language monitor, with a mini-assembler, that is indispensible for ail 
assembly language programmers. 

Hes Writer vic-20- 39.95 34.95 

Hes Writer c-64" 44.95 40.95 

Is a sophisticated, time-saving word processing tool for your VIC-20'". Now you 
can produce professional-quality letters, memos and manuscripts with ease. 

Turtle Graphics vic-20- 39.95 34.95 

Turtle Graphics II C-64- 59.95 54.95 

It is the ideal way for computer novices to learn programming. It is fun, easy-to- 
use computer language that lets even beginners master the computer in just a 
few minutes. 



Games for VIC-20™ 



Aggressor 

Synthesound 

Shamus 

Proctor 

Robot Panic 

Pirate Peril 

Retro Ball 

Gridrunner vic-20™ & c-64- 



39.95 


34.95 


59.95 


54.95 


39.95 


34.95 


43.95 


40.95 


39.95 


34.95 


39.95 


34.95 


39.95 


34.95 


39.95 


34.95 



UMI Software for VIC-20™ 



Suggested Sale 

Retail Price 

Cassette 24.95 20.00 

Cartridge 39.95 36.00 

Destroy the robots to escape. 



Amok 

Prisoner of the Amok Robots 

Spides Of Mars Cartridge 39.95 36.00 

You are Martian Space Fly. You battle: evil forces of interplanetary space. 

Renaissance Cartridge 39.95 36.00 

Use your intellect against the computer s logic; 1 000 years ago. 

Meteor Run Cartridge 39.00 36.95 

Command the Flagship of Solar. Your mission . . . conquer Aldebaron. 

Outworld Cartridge 39.95 36.00 

Insure safe passage for supply freighter. Outworld depends on you. 

Satellites and Meteorites Cartridge 39.00 36.95 

Survival: depends on quick reactions against meteorites and satellites. 

Alien Blitz Cartridge 29.95 26.00 

Your nerves of steel, prevent intruders from demolishing your city. 

Cloudburst Cartridge 29.95 26.00 

Save earth: Destroy cloudhoppers and violent storms. 

Sub Chase Cassette 24.95 20.00 

Attention Commander: Destroy the enemy submarines; VIC-8K. 

Kozmic Kamikazee Cassette 24.95 20.00 

Defend earth: against a hoard of Alien Attackers. VIC, 3K-8K. 

Renaissance for C-64™ Cassette 17.96 15.96 

Use your intellect against the computer's logic; 1000 years ago. 

Motormania for C-64™ Cassette 17.96 15.00 

Drive your car through or around different obstacles. 



EPYX Software 

Suggested Sale 

Temple of Apshai C-64- 39.95 36.00 

A fantasy world — magic, monsters, doomed cities and damsels in distress. 

Upper Reaches of Apshai c-64"* 19.95 16.00 

Horrible Monsters — gardens — berry patches and caverns; purchase Temple 
of Asphai to play. 

Curse of Ra c-64" 19.95 16.00 

A journey into the deserts of Egypt. Purchase "Temple'' to play. 

The Datestones of Ryn vic-20" 19.95 16.00 

Your mission: recover the Datastones, before the clock stops. 

Sword of Fargoal vic-20™ & c-64" 29.95 26.00 

Search for the Sword in bottomless Dungeons. 

Ricochet vic-2o ,m 19.95 16.00 

The strategy game with bounce. Challenge the computer or friends. 

Platter Mania vic-20- 39.95 36.00 

Great circus performers — spinning plates on rods. Test your skills. 

Monster Maze vic-20™ 39.95 26.00 

Trapped in chamber of horrors. Find vitamins; Reach for gold. 

Jump Man c-64" 39.95 36.oo 

A fantastic game 



Midwest Micro Software for C-64™ 

64 Terminal 29.95 25.00 

(Terminal Emulator) Same impressive features as TERMINAL-40; smooth-scroll- 
ing, 40-character lines, VIC printer dump, etc. Plus, GIANT 24K Receiver Buffer 
and UPPER/lowercase text. No memory exp. required. Requires '64 and 
modem. 

64 Grafix Sampler 19.95 17.00 

Indulge in the graphics splendor of the '64. Interact with demos of techniques 
such as plotting of points, lines and 3-D objects in the hi-rez mode; animating 
sprites; plus assorted graphics displays. Routines may be extracted for use in 
your own programs. 

64 Panorama 19.95 17.00 

Explore pictures graphics on the amazing '64! Nineteen fascinating digitized 
pictures PLUS hi-rez draw routine for your joystick AND hi-rez dump to VIC 
printer. Capture our pics or your creativity on paper. 



Midwest Micro Software for VIC-20™ 

Suggested Sale 
_ ._, Retail Price 

Terminal 40 Tape 29.95 25.00 

(Terminal Emulator 8K Required) Terminal telecommunications program with 
40-character lines and smooth scrolling text for easy reading! All software-no 
expensive hardware to buy. 4K (or larger). Receive Buffer with optional dump to 
VIC printer. Function key access to frequently-used modes. Fully programmable 
Baud, Duplex, Parity, Wordsize, Stopbit, and Linefeed: supports control charac- 
ters With 24 p. manual and Bulletin Board directory. Requires VIC-20'". 8K (or 
larger) mem exp. and modem. 

ViC-PiCS 19.95 17.00 

Nineteen fascinating high-resolution digitized pictures plus hi-rez drawing with 
your joystick plus hi-rez dump to VIC printer. 

Ticker Tape 14.95 12.00 

Watch your message glide smoothly across the screen. Adds motion and inter- 
est to any message display. Two built-in character sets; standard and BOLD (or 
use custom sets from Library Vol. 1 ). Programming experience recommended. 

Library Vol. 1 14.95 12.00 

Six full sets of custom character fonts each with UPPERCASE, lowercase, nu- 
merals, punctuation. May be used with Tickertape. Programming experience 
recommended. 

Disassembler 14.95 12.00 

Fast disassembly to screen or printer with handy hex/dec and dec/hex conver- 
sion. Includes key VIC addresses to study. VIC or RS-232 printer. Programming 
experience recommended. 



Total Software for VIC-20™ 

Suggested Sale 
Retail Price 

*..,■_ 2.5 Tape 35.00 30.00 

Total Text Disk 39.00 34.00 

All of the features of Total Text BASIC with 3K additional working memory for edit- 
ing, footnoting, right margin justification, and up to 4 heading lines per page. 
Req. 8K exp. 

_ 2.1 Tape 20.00 16.00 

Total Label 2.1 Disk 24.00 20.00 

A mailing list and label program which will sort either alphabetically or numeri- 
cally. Will print any or all stored labels at your command and has a browse func- 
tion. Req. 8K exp. 

,,,..,., 2.1 Tape 30.00 26.00 

Total Time Manager 2.1 Disk 34.00 29.00 

Creates personal or business schedules, calendars of events, and checklists of 
activities. Describe each activity, the person responsible, project codes, dates, 
times and comments. Req. 8K exp. 

2.0 Tape 30.00 26.00 

Research Assistant 2.0 Disk 34.00 29.00 

This is a set of programs which allows you to keep track of reference data and 
create keyword cross reference lists. Requires 8K expansion. 

Total Software for C-64™ 

Total Text 2.6 Disk 44.00 40.00 

Total Label 2.6 Disk 24.00 20.00 

Total Time Manager 2.6 Disk 39.00 34.00 

Research Assistant 2.0 Disk 39.00 34.00 



ii'-'ta/DPU 5ei\i$ei:/ 



TO ORDER: 

P.O. BOX 768 

WICHITA, KS 67201 

(316) 263-1095 

Handling charges $3.00 

C.O.D. (Add $2.00) 

Personal checks allow 3 week delivery 

Prices subject to change 




VIC-20'" & Commodore 64'" are registered trademarks of Commodore Business System, Inc 



about earlier. When you post to 
the ledger from the journal you 
would normally place the page of 
the ledger that contains the 
posted account in the "LP" col- 
umn next to the debit or credit 
you are posting. This leaves what 
accountants like to call "tracks". 
This way you can later follow 
where you've been and what 
you've been doing. This step is 
absolutely necessary for a proper 
audit trail. Any computerized 
system that doesn't have some 
way to trace the journal entry to 
the ledger has failed a very impor- 
tant test. There is absolutely no 
value in using a "full-blown" ac- 
counting system that doesn't 
leave a proper audit trail. If your 
books are ever looked at by some- 
one else (say the IRS) and they 
run into this kind of trouble you 
will have a difficult time explain- 
ing yourself. (If this ever happens 
to you, what good did all that 
money you spent on the program 
do you?) Be very careful to watch 
for this before you buy any ac- 
counting software. I cannot 
stress this point enough. 

Subsidiary Journals 

The general journal is for all 
types of transactions and can 
reference any account; that's why 
it's called a general journal. But if 
you want to segregate your cash 
transactions into one place, for 
whatever reason, you would use a 
"cash journal". 

In manual ledger systems there 
are two cash journals. One is call- 
ed the "cash receipts journal" 
and the other the "cash payments 
journal". Obviously their respec- 
tive purposes are quite clear. The 
former records all receipts of 
cash while the latter records all 
transactions resulting in dis- 
bursement of cash. The Business 
Man™, by Southern Solutions, 
uses the cash journal as both a 
cash receipts and payments jour- 
nal. When you call up the cash 
journal from the program menu 
the first thing asked is if you are 
recording transactions dealing 

108/Commander September 1983 



with either receipts of cash or 
disbursements. The net result is 
the same. Transactions represen- 
ting receipts of cash are segrega- 
ted from those of disbursements. 
For most individuals, a general 
journal serving as the original 
book of entry would do just fine. 
For business organizations, more 
detail in recording transactions 
affecting either the balance sheet 
accounts or the income state- 
ment accounts (to be defined 
later) is often required. Subsidiary 
journals and ledgers provide this 
detail which is an important justi- 
fication of the general ledger ac- 
count balance. As discussed, the 
general ledger contains all asset, 
liability, equity, revenue, and ex- 
pense accounts. These general 
ledger accounts are often called 
"control accounts", because they 
contain the sum of all the related 
subsidiary ledger accounts. For 
example, in your general ledger 
you would have an accounts 
payable control account. The 
balance of this control account 
would be comprised of the in- 
dividual balances of all your sub- 
sidiary, or, individual accounts 
payable. Therefore, posting 
would occur from the journal to 
the subsidiary ledger to the 
general ledger; each one pro- 
viding a check upon the other. 



The Income Statement 

We're going to wrap up this 
first article with a look at the so 
called "bottom line" and the ac- 
counting statement that provides 
the perspective for that look. 

The balance sheet that we look- 
ed at earlier shows us the overall 
financial position of the person or 
firm we're looking at. In contrast, 
the income statement shows us 
the actual revenue from opera- 
tions. Revenue is the gross 
amount of asset value received 
through operations. It would in- 
clude both cash and accounts 
receivable (credit sales). There is 
often a tendency to call all cash 
brought into the operation reve- 



nue. This is not proper. Not every 
receipt of cash is revenue. For in- 
stance, when we borrowed 
$70,000 to purchase the dream 
house earlier, the $70,000 was 
brought into our "operation" but 
it is not revenue. The distinction 
here is that the equity did not 
change (increase) due to the bor- 
rowing transaction itself which 
brought the funds into the organi- 
zation. A second example would 
deal with collection of an outstan- 
ding debt (account receivable) 
you may have. The revenue is pro- 
perly recorded at the time the 
receivable is created so when the 
funds are collected and received, 
it simply results in the decrease 
of the asset "accounts receiv- 
able" and an increase in the asset 
"cash". The net effect is no 
change in the total asset/equity 
position. 

The most important concept 
behind the income statement is 
that it shows revenue over certain 
periods of time. If I were to tell 
you I made $200,000, that 
wouldn't give you much informa- 
tion. But if I told you I made 
$200,000 over the last ten years, 
then you have an idea as to my 
financial position. This is the im- 
portance of relating income and 
expense data to time. 

I'm sure you've heard of a 
"fiscal year". This represents a 
period of time used to accumu- 
late, segregate, and identify 
financial data. An "accounting 
period" is the length of time 
covered by the income statement. 
It is also a period of time by which 
you schedule your financial 
reporting. This can be monthly, 
quarterly, semiannually, or an- 
nually. Within this period you 
would usually perform your final 
postings and close out your 
books. 

The actual definition of a fiscal 
year now becomes meaningful. 
Any period of time adopted by a 
business or individual that covers 
twelve (12) full months is known 
as a "fiscal year". An accounting 
period, therefore, is defined 
within your fiscal year. 



The Business Man™ has dif- 
ferent options for accounting 
periods. It allows you to choose 
between monthly, quarterly and 
annually. In using the system you 
can generate full accounting 
reports by accounting period. The 
Business Man™ also has a 
budget feature. The budget can 
be compared by accounting 
period to your actual performance 
so that you may evaluate where 
you stand as compared to where 
you wanted to be. 
Revenue Vs. Expense 

The accounts which adorn the 
income statement are called 
either revenue or expense ac- 
counts. The difference is so sim- 
ple it will surprise you. Revenue 
accounts increase the equity 
(remember the balance sheet) 
while expenses decrease the 
equity. The convention for the 
debit and credit balances of these 
accounts follows the same debit 



and credit logic we discussed 
before. Equity accounts have a 
credit balance because they are 
listed on the right hand side of 
the balance sheet. To increase an 
account with a credit balance you 
credit it, while debiting the ac- 
count decreases it. Revenue ac- 
counts increase the equity, 
therefore, a revenue account 
would have a credit balance. Ex- 
pense accounts, on the other 
hand, decrease the equity. Conse- 
quently, an expense account 
would have a debit balance. 

Account ledgers are kept for 
revenue and expense accounts 
just as for asset, liability, and 
equity accounts. Transactions are 
recorded and postings made to 
the accounts in the same fashion. 

I'm sure that you can see ac- 
counting in a general ledger 
system is fairly straightforward 
and consistent. After all this in- 
formation we've gone through in 



the first part of our review you 
should have no trouble under- 
standing and working with most 
general ledger accounting 
systems including The Business 
Man™. As you work with them, 
your knowledge and understan- 
ding will continue to grow and 
before long you'll be an expert. 

For our purposes of evaluating 
The Business Man™ this 
background will help us in part 
two of this series to concentrate 
on the capabilities of the program 
instead of "accounting". I 
sincerely hope that you find this 
information helpful and useful in 
other areas besides evaluating 
software. I look forward to next 
month when we will scrutinize 
Southern Solutions' Business 
Man™.D 



% 



Quadra-Rom 



• A unique space making device 
for CBM® computers. 

• Allows up to 4 roms to reside in 
the same address. 



• Also available with 
switches. 



external 





Available from: 




PUG 



Software & 
Accessories 



777 Warden Avenue 
Scarborough Ontario Mil 40 
Phone. (4lc) 755 SOW 



Wloste ,C 




or your CBM® dealer 



CBM Registered Trademark 



Suggested List Price $39.95 



Circle No. 24 





Bougttf 




A primer for the Commodore 
1540/1541 Disk Drive 
by ft. G. Partner 



In the July issue of COM- 
MANDER MAGAZINE I covered 
the use of a program oh the TEST/ 
DEMO DISK enclosed with the 
1540/1541 disk drives titled: VIC- 
WEDGE. This program 'WEDGES' 
into memory above user basic, 
allowing the user to access most 
of the DISK COMMANDS. Since it 
does 'WEDGE' above basic you 
are able to load BASIC programs 
into the computer without losing 
the ability to perform disk com- 
mands at the touch of a key (or 
two). While monitoring informa- 
tion on the new 1541 disk drives I 
discovered that Commodore was 
not including the 'WEDGE' pro- 
gram on some of the new TEST/ 
DEMO disks. A short time later 
they began including two pro- 
grams titled: C-64 WEDGE and 
DOS 5.1. C-64 WEDGE is a 
LOADER program, i.e., it loads 
the program DOS 5.1. 

If you have a 1540 disk drive or 
the 1541 disk drive and find the 
TEST/DEMO disk does not in- 
clude VIC-WEDGE or the C-64 

1 10/Commander September 1983 



WEDGE/DOS 5.1, check with your 
local Commodore dealer. He may 
be able to help you out. Now let's 
see what new things we can learn 
about the 1540/1541 disk drive. 

I have included in this article 
two programs. These programs 
should help out those of you who 
may have need to change the 
NAME (or HEADER) on your disk 
(see figure 1 & 2) and a program to 
allow you to change the disk ID 
number (see figure 3 & 4). A good 
friend, Jack Marx, did some trans- 
lating and re-writing so they 
would work on the VIC. I re-wrote 
those sections that were applica- 
ble to the C-64. I include both ver- 
sions at the end of this article and 
hope that they may be of help for 
those of you needing to make 
some changes on your disks. 
C-64 WEDGE 

This 'WEDGE' has many 
features that the VIC-20 'WEDGE' 
does not have. It supports all the 
disk commands found in the Disk 
Operating System and in BASIC. 

This makes it an extremely 
powerful tool to have in place 
when operating the disk. Unlike 
the VIC 20 WEDGE the C-64 gives 
no hints about use after loading. 
It simply gives a title line and a 
credit line to the writer and a 
READY indication. The DISK 



DRIVE BOOK is of little help; in 
fact one Disk Drive Book I have 
makes no mention of it at all. 
Many of the same commands that 
were available with the VIC 
WEDGE are the same on the C-64 
WEDGE. There are, however, 
many new commands which 
make the C-64 WEDGE much 
more powerful and versatile. 

The following is a description 
of the C-64 WEDGE commands: 

The '@' and '>' symbols are us- 
ed interchangeably. I find the '>' 
(greater than symbol) easier to 
use many times. The main disad- 
vantage is that the shift key must 
be pressed to access it. The '@' 
(commercial at symbol) does not 
require a shift to reach it but it is 
not a key I am used to hitting 
when typing. Use whichever one 
is comfortable to you. 

©—This symbol used alone 
will provide the user with the cur- 
rent disk status. It performs the 
same function as typing in the 
following BASIC code: 

10 OPEN 15,8,15 

20 INPUT#15,A,B$,C,D 

30 PRINT A;B$;C;D 

I am sure you can see a slight 
time savings using this com- 
mand. 

@$ or $— This is the 'READ 
DISK DIRECTORY COMMAND'. It 



To be continued on page 112 



Figure 1 



SCREEN MEM 
" : NEXT 



1 REM— 

2 REM 20. HEW ID 

3 REM REVISED BY JRCK MARX 

4 REM WRAPPED BV R.G. PARTNER 

5 REM ■ 

10 OPEN 9, 0,0 'OPEN 15,3,15 
15 POKE 36879,233 

20 REM POKE 59468, 12= REM 

36 MD$=" [HOME]" : FORI =1 TO 

DOWN]": NEXT 

40 FOR 1=1 TO 39:BL*=BL$+" 

50 PS$= " l CLEAR ] [ DOWN ] t DOWN 3 [ DOWN 3 C R I GHT 

][RIGHT][REV][REB]DISK I D # CHANGER: 

60 RE$=" C BLACK] PRESS [REV ] RETURN 

70 DATA2,OUT OF RANGE, TOO LONG 

80 READ R:DIM EM*<fl> =FORI=l TO A = READ E 

M*<I):HEKT 

99 GOTO 1000 

100 IHPUT#15,ER:IF ER=8 THEN RETURN 
110 INPUT#15,ER,EM$,ET$,ES$ 

120 PRINTMD$"CREV]DISK ERROR! [OFF] #"ER 

11 "EM* ET$", "ES$ 

130 END 

200 INP!JT#3,Q$:PRINT:Ql*=LEFT$<ia$, 1) :RE 

TURN 

300 CLOSE 2: CLOSE 15: POKE 59468, PK=PRIN 

T" [CLEAR]": PRINT" [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [ 

RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT3END": END 

400 PRINT LEFT*<MD*,ME)BL*: PRINT BL$ 

410 PRINT LEFT$(MD*,MD>j : RETURN 

500 MD=21 :GOSUB400 

510 PRINT" [REV] UNACCEPTABLE ENTRY — "E 

M$(EM> 

520 PRINT RE$:GOSUB 200:GQSUB 400 

530 RETURN 

1000 F=0:PRINTP0* 

1020 DV=0 

1040 PRINT P0*= PRINT" C DOWN 3 PLACE DISK I 
N DRIVE"DV"[DOWN]" 

1041 REM CCDHCD3 

1050 PRINT RE$:QOSUB 200 

1060 PRINT#15, "I"+STR*<DV) =eOSUB 



1070 OPEN 2,8.2,"#":PRINT J #15,"U1 
'M8,0":GOSUB 100 



100 

2 m ;dv; 



will NOT overwrite a program in 
memory. This is the same com- 
mand that is used for obtaining a 
directory with the VIC-WEDGE ex- 
cept that the commercial '©' 
symbol is used instead of the '>' 
symbol. You may add a semicolon 
and then specify a file you are 
searching for. Another bonus is 
that you may add an '*' after the 
FILENAME. You may then add a 
second command which I will call 
RECORD. 

This allows you to set up files 
with a RECORD number/ charac- 
ter and search for ONLY those 
files with a specific RECORD 
number. 

Here is an example: 

@$0:FILENAME* RECORD 

@SO:FILENAMEand 

@SO:FILENAME*RECORD 
—This command has remained 
the same. It will scratch the file 
specified by the FILENAME. You 
may specify a particular RECORD 
within a particular FILE if you use 
the second example. 

@RO:NEWFILE NAME = OLD 
FILENAME— This command 
RENAMES an existing disk file. 
You must specify the NEW FILE- 
NAME first then the ' = ' and OLD 
FILENAME remains the same as 
with the VIC-WEDGE. 

QU1— This command resets 
the Disk Drive DOS. 

@IO— This command updates 
the Directory and BAM (Block 
Availability Map) in the disk drive. 
If you should find yourself with 
two diskettes having identical ID 
numbers or characters this com- 
mand can be used to update the 
Disk Directory and the BAM 
(Block Availability Map). 

@Q— Use this command if you 
wish to quit using the 'WEDGE'. 

/FILENAME— This will load the 
program specified by 'FILE- 
NAME' into the computer. It will 
NOT load MACHINE LANGUAGE 
programs to the proper address. It 
will load all programs at the start 
of C-64 Basic. On the C-64 this 
will be at $0800 or decimal 2048. 
The VIC loads at $1200 or decimal 
4096/4606). It will also load pro- 
grams that Boot from Basic. 

Commander September 1983/111 



* 



w 



%FILENAME— This is one of 
the new commands added to the 
wedge. With this command you 
can load machine code programs 
at their OWN LOAD ADDRESS. If 
you were doing this from BASIC it 
would look like this: 

LOAD"FILENAME",8,1; press 
RETURN 

(up arrow) FILENAME— This 
is what I call the AUTO RUN com- 
mand. It will load a BASIC pro- 
gram and once loaded automati- 
cally run it without you typing the 
command RUN. I must stress 
again that this will ONLY WORK 
WITH BASIC PROGRAMS OR 
PROGRAMS THAT ARE BOOTED 
FROM BASIC. 

As you can see this has greatly 
enhanced the value of the 
'WEDGE' particularly in loading 
and saving programs from the 
'WEDGE'. One of my pet com- 
plaints about the VIC-WEDGE 
was that I could not load Machine 
Code programs from the 
'WEDGE'. 

Advanced Disk Commands 

As I promised, we are going in- 
to some of the more advanced 
disk commands. Those of you 
who are more adventurous can 
type in the accompanying code 
and have some fun learning more 
about your disk drive operation. I 
would highly recommend that you 
DO NOT USE a good disk (i.e., a 
disk with good programs on it) for 
your experimentation: 

U1 or B-R— BLOCK READ com- 
mand has been replaced by the 
command U1. 

This command allows you to 
read any block on a normally for- 
matted disk. This disk must have 
been formatted in the same way 
that the drive reads it. An example 
of different formatting is trying to 
read a disk formatted on an 8050 
drive using your 1541 drive. The 
tracks are formatted differently 
and you will be unable to read 
those disks. Ui or B-R may some- 
times be used to recover informa- 
tion stored on a disk which may 
have been destroyed during the 
save operation. Sometimes this 

1 12/Commander September 1983 



Continued from page 111 



1080 PR I NT# 1 5 , " B-P : 2 , 1 62 " : GOSUB 1 80 : DN$ 
_ ii ii 

1096 FOR 1 = 1 TO 16:GET#2,flf :DH$=BNf-+fi$: 

NEXT 

1100 MD=10= GOSUB 400: IF F THEN RETURN 

1110 PR I NT "C BLUE] THE DISK ID # ISC BLACK 

3" 

1120 PRINT TAB (5) CHR*<34) DNS CHR3K34) 

1138 rai-13 

1178 MB=16 
1175 PRINT" C RED 3 ENTER" 
1180 PRINT" C BLACK 3 NEW DISK ID #": PRINT" 
LIMIT TO 2 CHARACTERS [REV 3" 
1 1 90 GOSUB 280 : I FLEN ( Q* ) >2THEN EM=2 : GOS- 
UB 508 :MD=1S: GOSUB 400: GOTO 1190 
1280 NDN*=LEFT$<Q$+BL*, 2) 
1210 MD-21: GOSUB 489 
1220 PR I NT "SHALL I SEND CREV3"NDN$ 

1230 PR I NT "TO THE DISKETTE ON DRIVE"DV" 
? (.WAV) [REV 3"; 

1231 INPUT E* 

1232 IF E$=="N"THEN300 
1248 GOTO 1270 

1250 IFQl*O n N"THEN GOSUB 480: MD=18 = GOT 

1170 

1260 GOTO 1210 

1270 rlD=21:pRINT"BE PATIENT... 

1288 PRINT#15, !, B-p: 2,162": GOSUB igg 

1290 PRINT#2,NDN$; : GOSUB 188 

1 300 PR I NT# 1 5 , " U2 : 2 " ; DV J " , 18,8": GOSUB 1 

88 

1318 PR I NT# 1 5 , " I " +STR$ < D V > : GOSUB 1 88 : CL 

OSE 2 

1320 F=l: PRINT P8$: GOSUB 1868-F=8 

1338 PR I NT "THE NEW DISK NAME IS = 

1340 PRINT CHR*-::34> DN$ CHPJK34) 

1358 CL0SE2:riD=21: GOSUB 488:pRINT"D0 VO 

U WISH TO DO 

1368 PR I NT "ANOTHER DISKETTE? CVXN) [REV 
3" 

1369 INPUT U* 

1370 IFU$="Y"THEN 1848 
1380 IFU$="N"THEN 388 
1390 GOTO 1361 

Figure 2 

1 REM — 

2 REM 20. NEW NAME 

3 REM REVISED BV JACK MARX. 

4 REM WRAPPED BV R.G. PARTNER 

5 REM 

To be continued on page 114 



Commodore 64 
and 
VIC-20 



G0^ 




DRAW 



with your joystick! 

Now, you can create high-resolution pictures 

on-screen with your joystick as a "pen." Design critters, 
objects, pie-charts — whatever your imagination wishes! 
SAVE your creations to tape or disk, and PRINT 
them on a VIC printer. Educational and fun! 

Draw narrow or wide lines, curvy or straight; set points; 
add captions; create background patterns; change 
picture, background, and border colors; reverse colors for 
a negative; even connect dots with straight lines 
automatically! You control every dot on the screen. 

A large "Picture Library" is included to get you started, 
plus a 20-page instruction manual. Joystick required. VIC 
printer and disk drive optional. On cassette. 

For the Commodore 64: 

'64 Panorama S29.95 

For the VIC-20: 

VIC-PICS S29.95 

(Full features need 8K mem exp: reduced 
version Included for unexpanded VIC.) 

Available for other printers— Call! 




"FLY" from Picture Library 



Pr 



PRINT (the unprintable) . . . 
with Smart ASCII Plus -$59.95 

Now, print the unprintable Commodore graphics on 
your dot-addressable parallel printer* with Smart 
ASCII Plus. This powerful, low-cost software 

interface converts your user port into a fast, intelligent 
port for "Centronics" protocol printers, and we even 
supply the cable! 

Six flexible print modes: GRAPHICS, TRANSLATE, 
DaisyTRANSLATE, CBM ASCII, True ASCII, PIPELINE. 
GRAPHICS mode creates actual VIC/64 keyboard 
graphics. TRANSLATE converts normally unprintable 
control-codes into text: (CLR), (RVS), (BLU), etc., with an 
extended mode for Daisywheel printers. Convenient 
set-up menu and simplified operation. Compatible with 
most application programs: WordPro 3+. EasyScript, 
Quick Brown Fox (for the VIC), Writer's Assistant, etc. 
Complete with connecting cable for printer and 
instruction manual. On cassette. Copy to your disk for 
quick loading. (Upgrades available for original Smart 
ASCII owners.) 

"Requires dot-addressable printer such as: Epson FX-80 or MX-80/100 
with Graftrax; Okidata Microline 84; C. Itoh Prowriter I & 2: Star 
Micronics Gemini-10 or 15. Other printers — Call! 




333-7200 



MIDWEST 
MICRO mc 



Send lor a free brochure. 
MAIL ORDER: Add v w shipping u*t 

Handling {S3£0 lot COD* VISA/Ma3torcart 
accepted (card* and up. dais). MO resWenta 
add 5£25% sates tax Foreign orders payaU* 
U.St, U.S. Bank ONLY; add S5 shfKhftdlo 



WEST 72nd ST. • KANSAS CITY • MO • 641 14 



VIC* OWNERS 





TELGAMES SOFTWARE PRESENTS: 

LAUNCH 
2031 A.D.! 

Using keys or the joy-stick, 

try and maneuver your 

spaceship from your home planet (Zentar) through the 

dangerous asteriod belt, known as the Kriptamon zone to 

reach the other side. Dazziing coiours and graphics 

combined with the speea of machine language makes this a 

great game.- $17.95 

TELEGAMES SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 152 
Hampton, Ontario, Canada LOB 1JG 
Canadian or U.S. Funds Visa. M/C. M/C, Check Shipping & Handling add $1.75 
(416)263-8064 circle No. 66 Dealer Inquires are Welcome 



INTRODUCTORY 

OFFER! 

VIC-20 



4 GREAT ARCADE GAMES AT A 

PRICE OUR COMPETITORS CHARGE 

FORI! 

FRONTIER 

You are a shuttle pilot in the depths of space. Avoid and 
destroy stars and asteroids. Totally machine language. 

TANK 

Battle your friends in one of very few 2 player Vic games. 
100% machine language. 

ALIEN VADERS 

A two-dimensional spin-off of an old favorite. Machine 
language fast. 

BREAKTHROUGH 

Use your high resolution paddle to break through the 
wad of bricks. 

Send $1 9.95 (B.C. residents add tax) or a self addressed 
stamped envelope for information to: 

TRONIC SOFTWARE 

# 1 25 - 1 450 Johnston Road 
White Rock, B.C. V4B5E9 
Dealer Inquires Invited 

Circle No. 82 



V 



command can be used to re- 
construct a partially destroyed 
sector. 

Here is an example of the syn- 
tax: 

PRINT#15,"U1";Channel 
number;drive;track;sector 
OR: 

PRINT#15,"U1":a string of four 
characters which represent Chan- 
nel; Drive; Track; Sector. 

When the BLOCK-READ com- 
mand is encountered in the pro- 
gram the command is read into 
the buffer and the buffer pointer 
is set to the beginning bit of the 
buffer. This is so that the first bit 
of information may be read from 
the beginning. The buffer pointer 
may be set to read at any Byte by 
using the B-P Command. 

Here is a short Basic routine to 
read 256 characters from any sec- 
tor and display it to the screen: 

10 OPEN 1,8,2,"#":OPEN 
15,8,15 

20 INPUT "DRIVE, TRACK, 
SECTOR";D,T,S 

30 PRINT#15,"U1";2;D;T;S 

40GET#1;X$:IFST=64 
GOTO 20 

50 PRINT X$;: GOTO40 
With a slight modification this 
could allow you to daisy chain 
sectors together. 

B-P— BUFFER POINT com- 
mand: 

This command controls the 
pointer position to a buffer which 
is used by the BLOCK com- 
mands. This command must be 
used when PRINTING data to a 
buffer and when reading data 
from a buffer. Here is an example 
of the syntax: 

There are only two parameters 
needed for BLOCK POINTER to 
work. 

(1) The buffer channel number 

(2) Byte position which is usual- 
ly a number between 1 and 255. 
Thus we have the command: 

PRINT#15,"B-P";channel 
number; byte position 
With this information and the fact 
that each file's data occupies 32 
bytes we should be able to write a 
program that will read any sector 
from the directory so here we go: 

1 1 4/Commander September 1983 



Continued from page 1 12 

1 OPENS ,0,0: OPEN 15,8,15: PQKE36879 ,127 
20 P0KE53468,12 

30 MD*="EH0r1EJ" :FORI*lT02eJMB*=MD*+"CDG 

UN]": NEXT 

40 F0RI«1T039 : BL**BL*+" " : NEXT 

50 P0$=" [CLEAR] [DOWN] C DOWN ] C BLACK] DIS 

K NAME CHANCER 

60 RE*= " PRESS [ REV ] C BLUE ] RETURN C OFF ] 

70 DATA2,0UT OF RANGE, TOO LONG 

80 REflDfl:DIMEM*<fi) :FORI=lTOR:REflDEM*<I) 

: NEXT 

99 GOTO 1000 

100 IHPUT#15,ER: IFER=0THENRETURN 
110' INPUT* 15. ER, EN$, ET$, ES$ 

120 PRINTMD*" [REV] DISK ERROR! [OFF] #"ER 

11 "EM$" "ET$", "ES$ 
130 END 

200 INPUT#9,Q$:PRINT:Ql*=LEFT$CQ$,n:RE 

TURN 

300 CL0SE2 : CLOSE 1 5 : P0KE594S8 , PK : PR I NT " C 

CLEAR]": END 

400 PRIHTLEFT*aiD$, MD)BL* : PR INTEL* 

410 PRINTLEFTSCMD*, MD> / = RETURN 

500 MD=2l:GOSUB400 

510 PR I NT "[REV] UNACCEPTABLE ENTRY — "E 

M*<EM) 

520 PR I NTRE* : GOSUE200 : GGSUB400 

530 RETURN 

1000 F=0:PRINTP0$ 

1005 PRINT" [DOWN] ON WHICH DRIVE FOR CHA 

NOES? C 0/ 1 ) [ REV ] " .: : I NPUTQ* 

1020 DV=VAL<Q$>:REN IFDV<G0RDV>1THENEM= 

1= GOTO 1000 

1 030 I FDV=0ANDQ 1 $<> " 8 " THENEM= 1 

1040 PR I NTP0*= PR I NT "[DOWN] PL ACE DISK IN 

DRIVE"DV"[D0WN]" 

1 050 PR I NTRE* : GGSUB200 

1060 PRINT#15, "T"+STR$CDV? :GOSUE100 

1070 0PEN2,8,2, *'#" :PRINT#15, "Ul : 2" J DV; " 

,13,0" :GOSUB100 

1080 PRINT#15, "B-P : 2, 144" : GOSUB108 : DH*= 
H ii 

1 090 FOR I = 1 TO 1 6 : GET#2 , A* : BN*=BH*+ A* : NEX 

T 

1100 MD=10:GOSUB400:IF F THEN RETURN 

1110 PR I NT "THE PRESENT DISK NflME IS" =PR 

I NT" [BLACK]" 

1120 PRINTTAB(5>"[ BLACK] "CHR$<34)DN*CHR 
$<34) 

1130 MD=13 

1140 PRINT" [BLUE] DO YOU WISH TO CHANGE 
IT? < Y/N ) [ REV ] " ; : GOSUB280 
1150 IFQ1$="N"THEN1350 

To be continued on page 116 



64K let VIC 20 

-fl-MM 




SELECT ft RAM 

STANDARD FEATURES 

• 8K BLOCKS SELECTABLE FROM THE 
KEYBOARD OR BY SOFTWARE COMMAND 

• TWO EXPANSION SLOTS 

• WRITE PROTECTION 

• RESET SWITCH 

• EXPANDABLE TO 192K WITH ADDITION 
OF 64K EXPANSION MODULES 

• COMPATIBLE WITH ROM CARTRIDGES 

• ONE YEAR WARRANTY ON PARTS 
AND LABOR 

• 15 DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 



SELECT-A-RAM $169. 

64K 

EXPANSION MODULE ....$149. 

TRADE-INS ACCEPTED 

3K $5 8K$10 16K-$20 



OPTIONAL POWER SUPPLY FOR USE 
WITH ADDITIONAL 64K RAM MODULES OR 
MULTIPLE EXPANSION SLOTS $25. 

VIC 20 IS A TRADEMARK OF COMMODORE 
ELECTRONICS LIMITED 



512-441-3202 PO BOX 43006 Austin, Tx. 78745-0001 





ADVANCED-PROCESSOR-SYSTEMS 



Circle No. 89 



VISA* 



V 



10 REM DIRECTORY TRACK 

IS=18SECTORS=19 
20 OPEN 1,8,2,"#": OPEN 

15,8,15 
30 INPUT"DRIVE, SECTOR"; 

D,S 
40PRINT#15,"U1",2,D,18,S 
50 INPUT'WHICH FILE ";F 
60 PRINT#15,"B-P";2;32*F-31 

:REM THE POINTER MUST 
BESET AT 1,33,65,97 

:ETC. IT MUST BE A 
MULTIPLE OF 32. 
70 PRINT CHR$(34); 
80 FOR J=1 TO 32 
90GET#1,X$: PRINT X$ 
100 NEXT J 
110 GOTO 50 

These two short programs 
together with NAME DOCTOR 
and ID DOCTOR should keep you 
busy exploring some of the more 
advanced features of your disk 
drive. 

There are some additional ad- 
vanced commands available for 
disk use; however, I think until 
you master the use of these it 
would be best to avoid their use. 
One command will allow you to 
write directly to a block on the 
disk; this is the BLOCK-WRITE 
(replaced by U2) command. There 
is a BLOCK-ALLOCATE com- 
mand which when used prevents 
a sector on the disk from being 
overwritten by data or program. 
There is a BLOCK-EXECUTE com- 
mand which is like the LOAD- 
RUN feature of Basic. It loads a 
specified sector into the buffer 
then in machine language jumps 
to the start of the buffer and ex- 
ecutes the program until it en- 
counters a RTS command (that's 
like a GOSUB and RETURN com- 
mand in Basic). When it finds the 
RTS command it returns to the 
Basic program using the B-E com- 
mand. You will find this command 
seldom used as it requires a very 
detailed knowledge of the Disk 
Operating System ROM. Few pro- 
grammers have that detailed 
knowledge and that is one bit of 
information Commodore has not 
shared with us yet. As you can 
see what you bought as a simple 

116/Commander September 1983 



Continued from page 114 

1170 MB- 16 

1189 PR I NT" ENTER NEW DISK NAME" : PRINT "L 

I MIT TO 16 CHARACTERS [REV 3" 

1 130 GOSUB200 : lFLENCQ$»16THENEM-2 : G0SU 

E5S0 : MD=18 : GOSUB400 : GOTO 1 190 

1200 HDN$=LEFT$'::Q$+BL$, 16) 

1219 MB=2l:GOSUB400 

1220 PR I NT "SHALL I SEND [REV]"NDN$ 
1230 PRIHT"T0 THE DISKETTE ON DRIVE"DV" 
? <V/N> [REV]"; ••GOSUE200 

1240 GO TO 1270 

1250 IFQ1* O"N"THEHGO3UE400 : MD»lfi: G0T01 

170 

1260 GOTO 1210 

1270 MD=2 1= PR I NT "BE PATIENT... 

1280 PRINT* 15. "B-P:2, 144" : GOSUB 100 

1290 PRINT#2,NBN$; : GOSUB ISO 

1 300 PR I NT* 1 5 j " U2 = 2 " ; DV ;'M8, " : GOSUB 1 



1310 PRINT#15, "I"+STR*':DV> : GOSUB 100: CL0 

SE2 

1320 F=l : PRINTPB* : GOSUB 1060 : F=0 

1330 PR I NT "THE HEW DISK NAME IS : 

1 340 PR I NT " I BLUE ] " CHR* C 34 >BN£CHR* < 34 > 

1350 CL0SE2 : MD=21 : GOSUB400 

1360 PR I NT "LBLACK ] ANOTHER DISKETTE? W 

N> [REV3"; : IHPUTF* 

1370 IFF$="V"THEN1040 

1380 IFF*="N"THEN300 

1390 GOTO1049 



Figure 3 



1 REM- 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 



64. NEW ID 
REVISED BV JACK MARX 
WRAPPED By R.G. PARTNER 



6 REM- 



10 OPEN9,0,0:QPEN15,8,15 

15 PQKE53280,14:REM BORDER COLOR 

16 POKE 53231,1: REM SCREEN COLOR 

30 MD$= " [ HOME 3 " : FOR I * 1 T032 = MD$=MD*+ " [ DO 

WN]":NEXT 

40 F0RI-lT03^:BL$-BL$+ ,, " :NEXT 

50 P0$- " C CLE AR ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN J [ R I GHT 

] [RIGHT] [REV] [REDJDISK I D # CHANGER: 

60 RE$=" CBLACK]PRESS [REV]RETURN 

70 DAT fl2, OUT OF RANGE /TOO LONG 

80 RERDfl : DIMEM$< A> : FORKTOA : READEMSC I ) 

:NEXT 

To be continued on page 118 



Circle No 45 



COMMODORE USERS 



Join the largest, active Commodore users group. 
Benefit from: 

— Access to hundreds of public domain 
programs on tape and disk for your 
Commodore 64, VIC 20 and PET/CBM. 

— Informative monthly club magazine 
THE TORPET. 

Send $1 .00 for Program & Information Catalogue. 

(Free with membership). 



Membership 
Fees for 
12 Months 



Canada — $20 Can. 
U.S.A. — $20 U.S. 
Overseas — $30 U.S. 



Toronto Pet Users Group Inc. 

Department "D" 

1912A Avenue Road, Suite 1 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5M 4A1 

* LET US KNOW WHICH MACHINE YOU USE * 



].. 

2.. 
3.. 



WE WILL MEET 

OR BEAT ANY 

ADVERTISED 

PRICE.* 




Catalog available for $3.00 
Please specify computer 



PRODUCT NAME 




SUBTOTAL 

TAX 

SHIPPING 

TOTAL 



P.O. Box 1075 
Glendale, CA 91209 
Phone (213) 247-6484 



For Fast Delivery, send certified or 
cashier checks, money orders, or di- 
rect bank wire transfers. Personal 
checks allow 2 lo 3 weeks to clear. 
Prices reflect a cash discount only 
and are subject to change. Shipping 
— Software (S2.00 Minimum). Hard- 
ware ($5.00 Minimum). California res- 
idents add sales tax. 
VISA and MASTERCARD Accepted. 



Circle No. 80 



*That is not below our cost. 



MV° 



& 



GOSUB 



<*< 



INTERNATIONAL INCORPORATED 




Features: 

19 Keys, each of which may have 3 sep- 
erate definitions! 

Complete documentation including pro- 
gram listings! 

Works on the VIC20 (Expanded) and C-64 
computers! 

Compatible with most existing software! 

Great for use with business programs and 
electronic spread sheets! 

Ideal for machine language programmer! 



VISA & MASTERCARD WELCOME 
Prices subject to change 

"C-64 and VIC 20 are registered trademarks of Commodore International 



Dealer Inquires Invited - (316) 265-9858 

GOSUB lnternational-501 E. Pawnee- Suite 430 

Wichita. Kansas 67211 

Circle No. 84 



J 



Commander September 1983/117 



w 



disk drive has far greater capabili- 
ty than you may have expected. 
You can spend many interesting 
hours looking into the internal 
workings of your disk drive. 

Those of you who have a 1540 
and are contemplating the pur- 
chase of a C-64 need not despair. 
RELIABLE SOURCES tell me that 
an UP-GRADE ROM has been 
manufactured but not released 
yet. I have been attempting to 
confirm this with Commodore 
directly. To date they have been 
reluctant to confirm or deny the 
ROM. The 1540 disk drive will 
work with the C-64. The one hitch 
is not really a hitch at all. You 
simply need to turn off the screen 
while loading in a program. 

This is accomplished as 
follows: 

POKE 53265,11 

LOAD"PROGRAM NAME",1 
(or ,8 for disk drive) 

You are addressing the VIC 
(Video Interface Chip) control 
register with this POKE. The 
screen will blank out while the 
program loads. Once the loading 
process has been completed you 
will need to type in the following 
command: (you will be typing 
'blind', i.e., with no lettering on 
the screen, so be careful) 

POKE 53265,27 

That completes the process, 
am sure you can write a short rou 
tine to reside in protected mem 
ory. Once that is done you can for 
get about typing it in each time 
Perhaps you could use the func 
tion keys to perform the com 
mands.D 




Continued from page 116 

33 GOTO 1000 

100 INPUT#15,ER: IFER-BTHENRETURN 

110 INPUT#15,ER,EM*,ET$,ES$ 

120 PRINTMB$"[REV]DISK ERROR! [OFF] #"ER 

" "Em" "ET$", "ES$ 

130 END 

260 INPUT#9,Q$ : PRINT : Q1$=LEFT*(Q$, 1 > : RE 

TURN 

300 CL03E2 : CLOSE 1 5 : P0KE594S8 , PK - PR I NT " I 

CLEAR]" :PRINT" [RIGHT] [RIGHTHRIGHTHRIG 

HT3[RIGHT3[RIGHT3END":END 

400 PRINTLEFTSCMB*, MD)BL$ : PRINTBL* 

410 PRIHTLEFT*<MD*,ME>; : RETURN 

500 ND=21 :GO3UB400 

510 PRINT" [REV 3 UNACCEPTABLE ENTRY — "£ 

M*<EM> 

520 PRINTRE$:GOSUB200:GOSUB400 

530 RETURN 

1000 F=0:PRINTP0* 

1020 DV«0 

1640 PRINTP0$:pRINT"EDQWN]PLACE DISK IN 
DRIVE !i BV"[DQWN3" 
1 050 PR I NTRES : GOSUB200 
1060 PRINTttlS; "I M +STR*(DV> :GOSUB1D0 
1070 0PEN2, 3/ 2/ "#" : PRINT#15, "Ul • 2"; DV; " 
a3,0":GOSUB100 
1080 



1090 

T 

1100 

1110 

3" 

1120 
1130 
1170 
1175 
1188 
LIMIT 



PRINT#15,"B-P:2,162' 

F0RI=1T016:GET#2,A$: 

ND-10:GOSUB400:IF F 
PRINT" [BLUE 3 THE DISK 



:GOSUB100:DN*= 

BN$=DN$+A$ : HEX 

THEN RETURN 
ID # ISEBLACK 



PRINTTAB<5)CHR$(34>DN$CHR$C34) 
MB»13 

MD-16 

PRINT" [RED] ENTER" 
PRINT" [BLACK 3 NEW DISK ID #"■' PRINT" 
TO 2 CHARACTERS [REV 3" 



1 190 GOSUE200 : IFLEN<Q$»2THENEM=2 : GOSUB 

500 :MB*18 : GOSUB400 : GOTO 1 190 

1200 NDN**LEFT*CQ*+BL*,2) 

1210 MD=21:GGSUB400 

1220 PRINT"SHALL I SEND [REV]' 

1230 PR INT" TO THE DISKETTE ON 
? <V/N) [REV3"; 

1231 GETE$:IFE$-""THEN1231 
IFE$«"N"THEN300 
GOTO 1270 



NDH* 
DRIVE"DV" 



1232 

1240 

1250 

170 

1250 

1270 

1280 



IFQ1$O"N , 'THENGQSUB400 = MD-1S = G0T01 

GOTO1210 

MD*2l:PRINT"BE PATIENT... 

PRINT#15, "B-P : 2/ 162" : GOSUB 180 



To be continued on page 120 



1 1 8/Commander September 1983 



If you like adventure 
you will love 

Gothmog's Lair 




Journey through forests, a swamp, the haunted mansion 
and its dungeon in your quest for the fabulous Arkenstone 
diamond, one of many treasures hidden in Gothmog's 
vast world. Battle with the dreaded Giant Spider and 
Baron Ahriman's undead army . . . can your gnome 
friend help you outwit the Old Man or recover the chest 
of antique coins from a shark-infested lake? You may 
even find the enchanted elven sword and slay Gothmog 
himself! But don't let the Thief and Cutthroat get to the 
treasures before you do I 



Prepare for one of the most 
will ever undertake as your 



GOTHMOG'S LAIR features full-color animated 
graphics, sound effects, and two selectable levels of 
play — for the novice and the seasoned veteran. It's a 
"real-time" adventure ... the longer you take to find 
the treasures, the more time you allow the Thief and 
Cutthroat to get them before you! 

A thoroughly illustrated manual with a fold-out map is 
provided to explain the wide variety of options available 
to you during play. Your success in GOTHMOG'S LAIR 
will depend on your skill and resourcefulness. NOT on 
your luck at guessing the right words to say. 

challenging adventures you 
enter . . . 



GOTHMOG'S LAIR 

For the Commodore 64. Suggested Retail Price is $39.95. 

To order, send check or money order to: Galactic Software, P.O. Box 10516, San Jose, CA 95157 

or phone (408) 247-4434 for COD 
or see your local dealer (dealer inquiries invited) circle no is 



Continued from page 118 




1 29@ PR I NT#2 , HDN* J : GOSUE 1 @0 
1 306 PR I NT# 1 5 , " U2 = 2 " ; DV i'M8^": G03UB 1 
©LIST 300-350 

1310 PRINTttlS, " I "+8TR#<DV> : GOSUB109 : CLO 
SE2 

1 320 F= 1 : PR I HTPB* : GOSUE 1 060 : F«8 
1330 PR I HT" THE HEW DISK NAME IS 1 - 
1 340 PR I HTCHR$ ( 34 ) DN$CHR* ( 34 ) 
1 350 CL0SE2 : HD=2 1 : GG3UE400 = PR I NT " EG VOU 
WISH TO DO 

1360 PR I NT "ANOTHER DISKETTE? CV/H) CREV 
]" 

1361 GETU*: IFU*=""THEN1361 
1378 IFU$="Y"THEN1040 
1330 IFU*- ,, N"THEN300 

1390 GOTO 1361 

Figure 4 

1 REM- — 

2 REM 64. NEW NAME 

3 REN REVISED BV JACK MARX 

4 REM WRAPPED BV R.G. PARTNER 

5 REM 

10 OPENS , , : OPEN 1 5 , 8 .■ 1 5 : PQKE53230 > 1 4 ■ P 

OKE 53281,15 

20 PQKE59468, 12 

38 MD$=" [HOME] " : FORI=1TO20 : MD$=MD$+" EDO 

UN] "J NEXT 

40 FOR I = 1 T039 : EL*=BL* + " " : NEXT 

50 P0$=" [CLEAR] E DOWN] [DOWN] [BLUE] DISK 

NAME CHANGER 
60 RE*=" PRESS EREV] EBLUE] RETURN C OFF] 
70 DAT R2, OUT OF RANGE, TOO LONG 
30 RERDfl = D I MEM* C A ) : FOR I = 1 TOA : RE ADEM* C I ) 
: NEXT 

99 GOTO 1000 

1 00 I NPUTft 1 5 , ER : I FER=0THENRETURN 
110 1 NPUT# 1 5 , ER , EM$ , ET$ , ES$ 

120 PRINTMD$' , [REV3DISK ERROR! EGFFJ #"ER 

" "EMS" "ET*", "ESS 

130 END 

200 INPUT#9, Q* : PRINT : Q1**LEFT*<Q*, 1 ) ' RE 

TURN 

300 CL0SE2 : CLOSE 15 : P0KE59468, PK : PRINT" [ 

CLEAR ] " '■ END 

480 PRINTLEFT*a<1D*,MD)BL*:pRINTBL* 

4i0 PRINTLEFT3KMD$,MD); = RETURN 

500 MD=2i:GOSUB400 

510 PRINT" [REV] UNACCEPTABLE ENTRY — "E 

M*<EM> 



5""' 



PR I NTRE* : GOSUB200 : GOSUB400 



To be continued on page 122 530 RETURN 



120/Commander September 1983 



King of the 
mountain! 




Workhorse solutions 
for tough questions 

When Southern Solutions acquired the exclusive marketing 
rights for the CMS Accounting System, the first (and the best) 
accounting system for the Commodore computer; we offered 
dealers who were dissatisfied with their current accounting 
software the opportunity to swap ... ours for anyone else's, 

WOW! We were covered with the others . . . MAS, BPI, 
EBS, etc ... all trading for CMS. We provide the only 
complete coverage of real software for Commodore 
computers: 

THE PREMIER . . . SYSTEM IV. Real 
accounting. More like a mini, yet priced for the 
Commodore. SuperMath™ gives precision to 
$1 billion. No one else comes close. 
General ledger, accounts receivable, 
accounts payable, payroll, inventory, 
mailing list Plus important vertical 
products: oil accounting, pharmacy 
management encumbrance 
accounting, church records and 
more. 

THE STANDARD... 
SYSTEM III. Similar to 
System IV but lower priced. 
G/L, A/R. A/P, P/R, mailing list 

Commodore 64*. 
Complete line of bookkeeping 
record keeping, personal and 
household management 
Usually sells for under $100. 
Uses one or two drives, just about 
any printer. 

Peripherals. Monitors, monitor 
cables, blank cassettes. 

All software has FileGuard™. Never 
lose data files. EVEN IF YOU LOSE 
ELECTRICITY! Compatible with almost any 
computer disk drive and printer 
combination. User-definable reports. Fast 
file access. 

Sold only through professional 
computer dealers. 

To become a Southern Solutions 
dealer or for the name of your nearest 
retailer, call or write our General 
Manager Bill Swingler 

Dealer Hotline: 1-800-S27-4S48 



'Commodore 64 is a registered 
trademark of Commodore 






$3herfi 
\ufwns 

PO. Ban P, M l 'Kitmey, Texas 7506$ - (214) 542-027$ 





Continued from page 120 j 000 p=0 . pR j HTp0$ 

1085 PR INT "t DOWN 3 OH WHICH DRIVE FOR CHfl 
NOES? < 0/ 1 ) C REV 3 " ; : I NPUTQ* 
102O DV=VAL(Q$) :REM IFDVC0QRDV>1THENEM= 
1 : GOTO 1 000 

1 030 I FD V=0flNDQ 1 $0 " 9 " THENEM* 1 
1 O40 PR I NTP0* : PR I NT " L DO WN 3 PLACE D I SK I N 
i:iRIVE"DV"[D0WM3" 
1 850 PR I NTRE* : GOSUE2O0 
1 068 PR I NT# 15, "I" +STR* < DV ) ' GOSUE 1 00 
1070 0PEN2,8,2,"#" :PRINT#15,"U1 :2%DV; " 
> 18,8" : GOSUE 100 
1 08O PR I NT# 15," B-F ■ 2, 144" = GOSUB 1 00 : DH$= 



M ii 



1 090 FOR I = 1 TO 1 6 : GET#2 , A* : DN$=DN$+R$ : NEK 

T 

1100 riD=10:GOSUE400:IF F THEN RETURN 

1110 PR I NT "THE PRESENT DISK NAME IS": PR 

INT" [BLACK 3" 

1 1 20 PR I NTTAB ( 5 ) " C BLACK 3 " CHR* ( 34 ) BN$CHR 

$<34> 

1130 MB* 13 

1140 PRINT" [BLUE 3 DO VOL! WISH TO CHANGE 

I T? < V/'N > C REV 3 " J : GOSUB280 

1150 IFQ1$="N "THEN 1350 

1 1 60 REN I FQ 1 $<> " V " THEN 1 1 30 

1170 MD=16 

1180 PR I NT "ENTER NEW DISK NAME" : PR INT" L 

I NIT TO 16 CHARACTERS [REV 3" 

1 1 90 GOSUE200 : I FLEN ( Q$ > > 1 6THENEN=2 : GOSU 

B500 : MD-1S : GOSUB400 : GOTO 1 19W 

1200 NHN$=LEFT$<Q$+BL$, 16) 

1210 MB=21 :GOSUB400 

1220 PR INT "SHALL I SEND CREV3"NDN$ 

1230 PR I NT "TO THE DISKETTE ON DRIVE "DV" 

? ( V/N > C REV 3 " ; : GOSUE20O 

1240 GO TO 1270 

1250 IFQ1$O"N"THENGOSUB400 : MD=18 = G0T01 

170 

1260 GOTO1210 

1270 MD«21 : PRINT" BE PATIENT... 

1280 PRINTttlS, "B--p:2, 144" : GOSUB 1 00 

1 290 PR I NT#2 , NDN$ J : GOSUB 1 08 

1380 PRINTM5, "U2:2";DV; " , 18, 0" : GOSUB10 



1 3 10 PR I NT# 1 5 , " I " +STR$ i DV ) : GOSUB 1 OS : CLO 

SE2 

1320 F=l : PRINTP0$ : GOSUB 1060 : F*0 

1330 PR I NT "THE NEW DISK NAME IS: 

1 340 PR I NT " C BLUE 3 " CHR$ < 34 ) DNJCHR* < 34 > 

1350 CL0SE2 : ND=21 : GOSUB400 

1360 PRINT" CBLRCK 3 ANOTHER DISKETTE? <V/ 

N) [REV3", :INPUTF$ 

1370 IFF$="V"THEN1040 

1388 IFF*="N"THEN300 

1390 GOTO 1040 




122/Commander September 1983 



(Advertisement) 

Growing computer industry 
expands authors' choices 

The rapidly expanding personal computer industry 
offers greater opportunities for the software pro- 
grammer and author in search of a publisher. 

Yet the growth poses its own problem - the choice of 
a publisher. 

Here is a list of questions to consider when looking 
for the publisher best-suited for your product: 
-How large is the publisher's distribution network? 
A publisher with international connections can offer 
more exposure than companies limited to regional or 
national sales. 

-How will your product be marketed and advertised? 
No matter how good the program is, if people don't 
know about it, it won't sell. Look for a publisher with 
a marketing budget large enough to give individual 
attention to the program. 

-Does the publisher market programs for more than 
one computer? The days of limited selection in 
hardware are long gone. Limiting programs to one or 
two computers can limit sales and profits. Authors can 
increase their share of the marketplace by looking for 
a publisher devoted to converting programs to a 
variety of popular computers. 
-Does the publishing house lend technical support to 
authors? Some publishers only accept programs ready 
for the marketplace. A lot of good ideas are lost in the 
long run. The publisher that offers assistance invests a 
greater stake in the product, the author and the success 
of the product. 

-Does the publisher offer complete product support 
to consumers? In these times of consumer awareness, 
the company that has established a network to answer 
customer questions about its products fares better 
than those who do not offer this support. 

Each of these services leads to greater sales which in 
turn lead to greater profits for the individual 
programmer. 

Sierra On-Line, Inc. is committed to paving the way 
for an author's success. 

Sierra On-Line's product line is distributed 
worldwide with production facilities in the United 
States, Japan, Australia, the United Kingdom and 
South Africa. 

Sierra On-Line employs a well-financed, in-house 
marketing and advertising staff with a knack for 
creating tailor-made campaigns for products. 

Each program is evaluated by experts, who may 
suggest enhancements to improve the product and to 
increase its appeal to customers. 

Further, Sierra On-Line isn't limited to a single 
computer. The company closely monitors computer 
trends and makes existing products available for the 
most popular lines - all to the author's benefit. 

A packet for authors with more information about 
the software submission process and our company is 
available by writing Sierra On-Line, Inc., Sierra On- 
Line Building, Coarsegold, CA 93614, or by 
contacting David Siri or Howard Luthy by phone at 
(209)683-6858. circle no. 39 



BASIC ELECTRONIC BUSINESS SYSTEMS, INC. 

SOFTWARE FOR 8032 WITH 2031 OR 8050 

General Ledger $129.95 

300 Chart Accounts * 700 J/E ' Detail G/L & 
Income Statement " Budget Variance Stmt. * Trial 
Bal. * Cash Flow Analysis " Bal. Sheet Journals * 

Payroll System $129.95 

300 Employees YTD * Emp. Wage Analysis * Emp. 
Time Card Lists ' W-2 Forms * 941 Reports * Pre- 
payment Register " LaPels Work. Comp. Report & 
Check Register " Payroll checks " 50 Hourly 
Employees * 

Accounts Payable $129.95 

Open invoices (300) " Vendor Report " Pur- 
chases Journal " Pre-Payment Register * Cash 
Need Projection " 

Accounts Receivable $129.95 

Customer List (300) " Sales Journals * Customer 
Sales History * Statements * LaPels * Open In- 
voice (300) " Invoice Income Projection * 

Client Accounting $199.95 

Everything a Pookkeeper needs to keep Pooks for 
a typical small business client. Includes all features 
on G/L plus the ability to produce disbursement 
registers, 941-B Forms and W-2 Forms. 

Each module includes the logic to allow posting to 
the G/L. Each module may be used as a stand alone 
system or a total system. These systems will operate 
on a 4032 or 8032 with 2031, 4040 or 8050 Please 
specify format. 

8032 Business Computer $595 

B-128-80 (128k) Computer $795 

B-256-80 (256k) Computer $995 

2031 IEEE Single Disk $295 

8050 IEEE Dual Disk lmg $995 

8250 IEEE Dual Disk 2 mg $1,245 

1701 Color Monitor with sound $259 

6400 Letter Quality Printer $1,395 

8023P150cps Printer $585 

4023 P 80 cps Printer $379 

Typewriter interface to allow 64 or Vic-20 to be used 
with TEC TW IOOO, Swintec-all models, Olivetti series 
30, 35, 40 Olympia Compac and Royal 
Price $179 



TO ORDER CALL (713) 530-2515 

M.C. or Visa Add 3% 

BEB SYSTEMS, INC. 

11430 Bissonnet, C-7, Houston, TX 77099 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



Circle No. 68 



Commander September 1983/123 



% 




Critics P age 



The Lost Tomb of Egypt has 
finally been uncovered! As senior 
member of the archeological 
team, you, Dr. P. Ramid, have 
been chosen to explore the tomb. 
Your mission is to find and return 
four sacred golden tablets hidden 
within the tomb. After making a 
few changes to your will and say- 
ing goodbye to your friends you 
head for the tomb, determined to 
succeed. 

You enter the tomb armed only 
with a supply of magic knives. 
While descending a ladder to the 
first level you notice that the en- 
tryway has been sealed off. A 
brief message tells you the only 
way out now is to find the four 
golden tablets and bring them 
back to this room. Each tablet has 
a magic word inscribed upon it, 
and saying these words will 
reopen the entrance. Until then 
you are trapped inside the tomb. 

Upon taking a look around you 
notice that there are three doors 
leading to other rooms. Floating 
inside each doorway is the num- 
ber of the room the door leads to, 
to aid you in finding your way. 
Helpful, these ancient Egyptians. 
Not sure where to go you pick a 
door at random and find yourself 
in room 9. This room has a ladder 
going down to the next level so 
you make a 'mental note of this 
and continue your explorations. 

124/Commander September 1983 



by Eric Giguere 



You hear the hiss of a snake from 
one of the adjoining rooms. Not 
sure where it comes from you 
again pick a room at random. As 
you enter room 2 you realize this 
wasn't such a good choice: a 
snake attacks you. Whipping out 
one of your magic knives you 
move back and throw it at the 
snake. Got it! The snake falls 
dead on the floor, one less thing 
to worry about. You then notice a 
draft coming from one of the adja- 
cent rooms, indicating a pit in one 
of them. It can't be from room 9, 
you just came from there. Feeling 
adventurous you choose room 17 
and then wish you hadn't. You fell 
down the pit and landed on the 
second level. Luckily, you were 
only a bit dazed by the fall. You 
continue your search. Where are 
those tablets? 
Robbers of the Lost Tomb 

The above is a typical scene 
from the game Robbers of the 
Lost Tomb. Produced by Time- 
works, Inc., for the Commodore 
64 on both cassette and disk, 
Robbers of the Lost Tomb (no 
similarity to Raiders of the Lost 
Ark) offers a change of pace for 
those tired of arcade-style games. 
Instead of fighting off alien 



marauders you must watch out 
for snakes, ghosts, mummies and 
bottomless pits while trying to 
find the four sacred tablets. The 
use of graphics and real-time ac- 
tion makes Robbers of the Lost 
Tomb more enjoyable than regu- 
lar, non-graphical adventure 
games. It's impressed Comman- 
der enough to use it for the 
September/October game con- 
test. See the Game Contest col- 
umn on page 152 for details. 

Description 

As was previously mentioned, 
your objective in Robbers of the 
Lost Tomb is to retrieve four 
sacred tablets found within the 
tomb and to achieve this in the 
least time possible. The tomb has 
five levels of 20 rooms, giving you 
a total of 100 rooms to explore. 
Using the keyboard or a joystick 
you must move your on-screen 
character throughout the tomb in 
search of the treasures. Each 
room you enter has three doors 
leading to other rooms: one on 
the left, one in the middle and one 
on the right. The rooms are de- 
signed to give a 3D perspective, 
as if you were looking from one of 
the walls into the center of the 



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pace 



For: COMMODORE VIC-20 



RIVER RESCUE Thorn-EMI. Save the ex- 
plorers from the jungle as you dodge a va r- 
ietyof hazards. 2 variations fori or2 players. 
4325-022001 Cartridge SALE $31 .95 
GRIDRUNNER HES. Avoid a variety of 
alien weapons while destroying the advan- 
cing legions. Multiple level. 
4428-000312 Cartridge SAL £ $31 .95 
SPIDERS OF MARS UMI You are the Mar- 
tian Space Fly protecting your home from 
Web-throwing Martian spiders and Satuhan 
bats. Plutonian dragonfhes and Jovian hor- 
nets. 256 skill levels! 
4850-001604 Cartridge SALE $31 .95 

AMOK UMI. Four levels of treacherous pass- 
ages laced with deadly robots. Save the 

humans, if you're fast enough! 
4850-001611 Cartridge SALE $23.95 

AGGRESSOR HES. Fast paced arcade- 
style action in the Avenger' vein. 
4428-000305 Cartridge SALE $31 .95 
INTRUDER SCRAMBLER American Per- 
ipherals. Avoid the mountains, bomb the 
targets and avoid the missiles. Multilevel. 
4125-000428 Cassette SALE $15.95 
GAME 6 PAC American Peripherals. A set 
of 6 games for your vie*: Galaxy Wars; Cat 
Has 9 Lives; Maze of Dragons; Othello; Am- 
bulance; and Barricade. 
4125-100006 Cass. (6) Sal t $31 .95 
DEVELOP-20 French Silk Smooth Ware. 
The game programmer's tool kit Includes: 
Book, Decoder. Editor, Assembler. Loader 
and Monitor. Requires minimum 5K memory. 
4365-004020 Cassette/Book $4g.95 

MASTERING THE VIC-20 Wiley & Sons. 
With little knowledge of BASIC, book will 
teach you to write programs, make music, 
create pictures and learn to communicate 

with 6502 machine language 
4925-088892 Book, 178 Pgs $14.95 

VIC-20* USER GUIDE Osborne/McGraw 
Hill. How to operate, including peripherals, 
programming, color graphics and sound. 

plus more! 
4665-000086 Book, 388 Pgs $14.95 

TYPING TUTOR Academy Software. Teach 
yourself to type with this easy to use. four 

level program. 
4005-000001 Cassette $12.95 

DATA MANAGER Micro Spec Create, 
write and read files. You can 'browse'. 
search and maintain with this data manager 

Requires 16K memory expansion. 
4538-000016 Cassette. 1 1 K $19.95 

WORDCRAFT 20 UMI Great 

new. inexpensive wordprocess- 

fortheVIC*. Needs8K Expan 

4850-001101 Cartridge $99.95 

VIC BASIC Prentice-Hall Auser-tnendly 
guide explains how- to-do-it. Make rainbows. 

music and more' 
4690-008378 Book $12.95 

VIC-20* PROGRAMMER'SREFERENCE 
GUIDE Commodore Business Machines. 
Complete BASIC vocabuiarly guide, mach- 
ine language programming, tips and more. 
4760-021948 Book, 290 Pgs $16.95 
COMPUTERS) FIRST BOOK OF VIC* 
A compilation of articles from COMPUTE 1 

magazine. 
4105-000007 Book,212Pgs $12.95 

KIDS AND THE VIC Datamost. Written 
#t children, not down to them. Turns kids. 
and unsuspecting parents), into computer 
experts m days' Includes parent's section 

for help over the rougher' parts. 
4560-000056 Book. 220 Pgs S19.95 

CARDBOARD6Cardco. Expansion inter- 
face for the VIC-20-' Fuse protected. Will 
tiold up to six cartridges, or up to 35K of 
additional RAM memory Allowsswitching 
Detween up to six different games or util- 
ities without shutting off the computer Also 
allows for future expansion by -daisy-Cham-' 
ing- two or more CARDBOARD 6 boards. 
4135-000006 Cardboard 6 $99.95 

CARDETTE 1 Cardco. Universal cassette 
nterfacefor the VIC-20' and Commodore 
64' Don't throw away your old cassette 
player/recorder This interface simulates 
all the functions of the data cassettes 
4135-000001 Cardettel $29.95 



TURTLE GRAPHICS HES. Probably the 
best, fun way for the novice to learn pro- 

§ ramming. Easy-to-use language w/over 
commands. (Many games are written in 
this programming system.). 
4428-000303 Cartridge $39.95 

SYNTHESOUND"" HES. State-of-the-art 
technical musical ability and special effects 
for the VIC-20* user. Make it a synthesizer* 
4428-000306 Cartridge $59.95 

6502 PROFESSIONALDEVELOPMENT 
SYSTE M HES. A cassette based assembler 
package offering a one or two pass 6502 
assembler that uses standard MOS mne- 
monics and operand functions. 
4428-000101 Cassette $29.95 



NEW NEW NEW NEW m 



rnvsuuee it s easy: jusi yei your r fOflfleefrorn I he bottom of t^fl 

screen tot he top. Avoid the cars and trucks, hop on the logs and the 
leaves. Eight levels, with crocodiles snakes and other neat stuff 
out to do you in! Uses Joystick. Needs no memory expansion 
4180-020001 For 3K VIC-20* (Cassette) $29.95 

4180-064001 For Commodore" 64' (Cassette) $29.95 

CENTIPOD Fast paced, decending bugs, falling projectiles, boun- 
cing spiders and more! Quick reactions needed here, just to keep 

alive 1 Uses Joystick. No memory expansion needed 
4180-020002 For 3K VIC-20* (Cassette) $29.95 

MOTOR MOUSE Up and down the grandfather clock, pickmg-up 
the cheese But. watch out! There are cats hiding in the cheese 1 7 
progressively haroer levels and a time factor to beat. Very fast paced 
arcade quality game. Uses Joystick No memory expansion needed 
4180-020003 For3KVIC-20 s (Cassette) $29. 95 



For: COMMODORE 64' 





QUICKBROWNFOX'Oneofthequickest EASYMAIL 64 Commodore Business TINY BASIC COMPILER Abacus. Gives 

easiest to learn, user friendly word pro- Machines. Fully featured name and address the benefit of a high-speed compiled lan- 
cessors available. Full screen editing, sup- program for business, club or organization, guage at a modest cost Supports: IF, THEN 



ports most 80-column boards, auto reform- 4100-064204 Disk 
ating of edited terxt, single-key operation, 
text moving, boilerplating, tab and margins, 
right justification, proportional spacing & 

more. 
4702-000100 For VIC-20' $65.00 



For: COMMODORE 64" 



THE ELEMENTARY 64From 
Datamost. Probably THE BEST 



ion. guage at a modest cost bupports: IhTHtN, 
$49.95 END, INPUT GOSUB, GOTO. LET, PRINT. 
REM. RETURN, STOP, USR PEEK and 100% 
6502/6510 PROFESSIONAL DEVEL- of floatingpoint math and functions Written 
OPMENTSYSTEMHES.Acassette based "? BASIC it is easily modifiable by user, 
assembler package. With a one or two pass Generates pure 6502 machine relocatable 
assembler using standard MOS mnemonics c °<;e..Can be ,es, S d ;. and has listing capa- 
dd?R-r>oniri? raftflnttA c^qqs bthties if desired. With user's manual. 

4428OO0102 cassette * 2995 4001 -000177 Disk $28.00 

TURTLE GRAPHICS II HES Advanced „„..,,. ,„„- ,., „ 

version of David Malmberg's program.de- QUICK BROWN FOX Word processor, 
signed for the C-64« graphics system. See full description under VIC-20*, this ad. 
$59 95 4702-000101 For C-64* $65.00 

(Cartridge and Cassette) 



book available todate on this sup- 4^8-000503 Cartridg 
erb new computer. Easy to under- ^*° wv^-o "•»"«« 

stand and master. For Commodore HESWRITER64 HES. Sophisticated time- DEVELOP-64 French Silk Smooth Ware 
^ K 6 a rt 'S^^^ e ^T^ here! ... ftK saving word processor for the C-64*. Incl- Game programmer's toolkit. See full de- 
4560-000034 224 P«g«s $14.95 udesfull screen editing, justification, cen- scription under VIC-20 in this ad 
HES WRITER 64 HES. Word processing tering. page headersand numbering.Com- 4 365 . 06401 3 Casaette/Book $34 95 
cartridge for the Commodore 64« computer " 




Easy editing, preview output and word wrap- 
around. Save on tape or disk. 
4428-000504 Cartridge $44.95 

WORD MACHINE/NAME MACHINE Com 

modore Business Machines. Perfect easy- 
to-understand word processing product 
designed as an entry level item for home. 
For notes 10 kids, letters to friends, etc. 
4100-064210 Disk $29.95 

PET EMULATOR' Commodore Business 
Machines. An emulator that will allow a high 
level of existing PET* software to be exec- 
uted on the Commodore 64', especially 

educational materials. 
4100-064107 Disk $29.95 



SPEECH SYNTHESIZER 



TYPE-N-TALK * Votrax Text to speech syn- 
thesizer. Self-contained, easy to program. 
Interfaces w/computer. modem or any RS- 
232 compatible serial device Contains: low 
data rate Votrax' SC01 : phoneme-based 
speech synthesizer CMOS chip w/uniimi ted 
vocab, and a microprocessor based text-to- 
speech algorithm. Operates independently 
Has a one-watt audio amplifier 7 50 charac- 
ter buffer data switching capability: Baud 
(7 5-9600). 100- hour elevated temperature 
burn-m. data echo of ASCII characters. 

Unit requires cables, (sold below). 
4900-003900 (Less Cables) $249.00 

NOTE: Although TYPE-'N-TALK" can be 
used with a serial printer, (on the same port), 
M cannot be used with a parallel printer, or 
on a parallel port In addition. you MUSThave^™ 
the follow equipment to make il operate | £ 
i) Special Card, as noted: 2) An RS-232J 
3) Expansion Interface ANDJ 



ith all Commodore printers or any 4365-064014 DWt/BoolT $39 95 

IEEE compatible printer. NEW PACE COMPUTERWARE CATALOG 



4428-000504 Cartridge 



$44.95 0009-198301 fDu 



iummer) $ 3.00 



Just Who Is P.A.C.E.? 



We want you to have confidence in buying from PACE, so, we thinkthat it is im- 
portant to take this opportunity to explain something about our company. 

Drawing from our more than 25 years of merchandising experience, our aim is 
to provide microcomputer users with a ONE STOP Software Source forall your needs: 
SOFTWARE. BOOKS, MAGAZINES and ACCESSORIES. No longer will you have to 
run around to different stores, looking for what you want. It will be afl in ONE place, 
your local PACE Micro Software Center. 

By the time that you read this ad, our first PACE store in the Western Suburbs of 
Chicago will be open, soon to be followed by many others. Until a PACE store opens 
in your city, you may order direct from the PACE central warehouse with confidence, 
where we stock over 6,000 products. 

PACE has been founded by businessmen with impeccable reputations built on 
over 25 years of experience in the business community and we would be most will- 
ing to provide references on request. 

PACE will be concentrating on offering your a ONE STOP SOURCE for Software, 
Books and Accessories covering the following brands of personal computers: Apple*, 
Atari*, Franklin*, Commodore*, Texas Instruments*, IBM PC*, CP/M* Systems, Timex*/ 
Sinclair* and Radio Shack*. 

Our President, John Rhodebeck, demands that our stores and mail-order depart- 
ments be friendly and informative to all levels of computer users, and he invites you 
to drop in our first store, or contact us by mail for our latest catalog. 




NEW The COM MODORE 64" PROGRAMMER'SREFERENCE 
GUIDE. Everything you need to know to get started programming 
Commodore's' newest, and most versatile personal computer 
Step by step guides m language that is easy to understand Tips 

and a whole lot more 1 Our most asked for publication 1 
4760-022056 $19.95 



COUPON Please Send Me: 



Option. 



RS-232 Card. 



DESCRIPTION 



TYPE-'N-TALK CABLES (ONLY) 



4900001007 For VIC-20 $34.9ol 

JOYSTICK Wico Command Co. Ultimate! 
one hand control. Bat handle. Two firingl 
buttons. For Atari 2600/400/800*. Sears! 
Arcade Game, and Commodore VIC-20* I 
4920-159714 S4L£$23.99J 

RED BALL Wico Command Co. Ball handle I 
so familiar to arcade game users 6-leaf| 
switch assembly. Two tire buttons. For:| 
Atari 2600/400/800* Sears Arcade Game. 1 

and Commodore VIC-20' 
4920-159730 SALE $27.99i 

TRACK BALL Wico Command Co. A phen- 1 
olic ball offers the magic of 360 degree! 
movement Same design as the arcadel 
games. For all Atari*, Sears' Video games,! 
Commodore 64* and VIC-20* computers.1 
4920-724545 $55,991 



SHIPPING 



TOTAL 



$ 2.50 



Illinois Residents Please Add 6% Sales Tax. 
Foreign Orders. (All outside Continental US). Add 

10% Shipping (Minimum $4.00) 
Catalogs Shipped Postage Paid 
PAYMENT ENCLOSED: DCASH DCHECK DMONEY ORDER 
PLEASE CHARGE TO MY: DMASTERCARD DVISA (Min Chg $25) 

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RUSH 

ORDER 

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p.a.c.e. 

DEPARTMENT: C-D 

Lock Box 328 

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room. Consequently you can 
move the character away from or 
towards you, as well as left and 
right. And each time you move 
your character a measure of 
music is played. These things 
make the game far more interest- 
ing than a simple text adventure 
with no graphics. 

Of course, there are other 
features to the game. To go up or 
down a level simply find a room 
with a ladder in the proper direc- 
tion (a down ladder is indicated 
by an opening in the floor) and 
walk over to it. The program takes 
over and automatically moves you 
up or down as the case may be. It 
should be noted that once start- 
ed, you cannot stop your ascent 
or descent until you are back on 
the floor. If there are any hazards 
in the room above or below, you 
had better be prepared to face 
them. 

Aside from ladders you may 
find other helpful items in the 
rooms. Once in a while a magic 
knife will appear in a room. Move 



quickly to grab it, for if you enter 
another room and then return, it 
will have disappeared. To grab it 
simply pass over it and it will be 
included with your present arsen- 
al, though you won't see it being 
carried. Another useful object is 
the blue ruby. If picked up it will 
immediately kill the mummies in 
any room you enter. The last 
useful items you will find are the 
golden tablets themselves. They 
are scattered throughout the 
maze, with no clues as to their 
locations. They don't have any 
special powers but they do bring 
you that much closer to your goal 
of finding all four. 

So things aren't too easy, 
several perils may be found in the 
rooms. Pits are probably the most 
vexing. Entering a room with a pit 
causes you to fall to the next level 
down. They don't really do you 
any harm, just frustrate you— 
unless you happen to fall in a pit 
on level 5. Pits here are bot- 
tomless and you will find yourself 
falling and falling forever and 



C-64/VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



WALLBANGER - Blast your way through the dodge'm, blast'm, 
and attack modes. If you destroy the bouncing balls before they destroy 
you, the walls close in for the next round. WALLBANGER is written in 
machine language, has great sound, and encourages complex strategies. 

CASS/5K/VIC 20 

ALL 40/80 COLUMN PETS BCBM8 (Includes Shipping/Handling) $1 9.95 

[CALIF. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX] 

CHICKEN CHASE - Help your hapless hen avoid hungry 
chicken hawks, sneaky coyotes, and fiendish zompys. If your chicken gets 
into trouble, "hyper-hen" to a new spot on the maze. If your chicken 
travels the entire maze, you advance to the next level where the action is 
faster and the predators more numerous. Hi-res graphics, great sounds, 
and machine language help make CHICKEN CHASE a hilarious fun-filled 
game for the whole family. 

C-84/CASS/5K/VIC SO (Includes Shipping/Handling) 819.95 

[CALIF. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAXJ 

ROADTOAD - Hop your toad across 5 lanes of traffic, avoid 
deadly snakes, and dodge the dreaded toad-eaters. Cross a raging river 
full of logs, turtles, alligators, and park your toad in the safety of a harbor. 
Each time you park 5 toads, you enter a tougher level where the action is 
faster and the toad-eaters are more numerous. ROADTOAD is written in 
machine language and uses high resolution graphics. The sound effects are 
excellent and you can use a joystick or the keyboard to control your toad. 

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Circle No. 30 



C 64/VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



ever, with no end in sight. You are 
effectively dead and will be asked 
if you want to play again. Too bad. 
Note: If you enter a room with a 
pit nearby the message "I FEEL A 
DRAFT" will flash on the screen, 
warning you of any potential 
perils. Unfortunately, it doesn't 
say in which room (none of the 
messages do) so be careful and 
use your judgement in deciding 
which room is safe. 

Mummies also walk about the 
tomb. They're probably the most 
dangerous creatures you can 
face. If you enter a room and spot 
the mummy fast enough you can 
either throw a magic knife at it or 
flee. But most of the time you're 
too close to do either and you get 
killed. The warning "I SMELL A 
MUMMY" will be displayed if a 
mummy is in a room nearby. Of 
course, if you have the blue ruby 
then you don't have to worry 
about the mummies* at all — 
they're killed the instant you set 
foot in the room. Pretty good, eh? 

Snakes can also be deadly, but 
rarely so. If you enter a room with 
a snake a simple press of the fire 
button (or the space bar) will 
launch a knife and kill the snake 
— providing it's not too close, 
otherwise you have to run. Most 
of the time you can easily outrun 
it. The warning message for 
snakes is "I HEAR SNAKES". 

Last and least of the hazards 
are the ghosts. More of an an- 
noyance than a threat, these 
mischievous creatures spirit you 
away to another room on the 
same level. Usually it is harmless, 
but sometimes they can deposit 
you in a room with a mummy. 
Even if it doesn't you still have to 
retrace your steps— sometimes 
across other ghosts. A ghosts 
supersedes mummies and 
snakes. Entering a room with a 
ghost automatically freezes you 
and the other creatures until it 
carries you off to another room. 
The message "GHOSTS NEAR- 
BY" warns you of the presence of 
ghosts. 



126/Commander September 1983 



Other Features 

SKILL LEVELS: Upon loading 
the game (a couple of minutes 
with disk, 15-16 minutes with 
tape) you will be asked what skill 
level you want to play at (1-10). 
Levels 1 to 9 are all preprogramm- 
ed with differing numbers of 
hazards but level 10 lets you 
choose how many of each you 
want. After deciding, you will be 
asked if you want moving mum- 
mies. A yes here means that any 
mummies in the maze will con- 
tinually wander throughout the 
rooms and you won't know where 
they will show up next. It makes 
the game harder, but also a bit 
more exciting. 

SAVING A GAME: In my opin- 
ion this is one of the best features 
of the game. Having the ability to 
stop and save the game on disk or 
tape to continue later on where 
you left off is a great feature. It is 
useful in case something unex- 
pected comes up or the game 
takes longer than you thought 
and you simply have to stop. It 



also makes it easy to "cheat": if 
you mess up in a game you simp- 
ly reload the saved part and con- 
tinue from there, sort of like hav- 
ing a backup. Useful. 

Documentation 

The program comes with an 
eight-page manual that explains 
how to load and play the game 
and gives a bit of strategy on how 
to finish. It is quite sufficient and 
I cannot see anything else that 
could have been included in it. (In 
case you're wondering, both disk 
and cassette come with a backup 
copy of the program.) 

Strategy 

The best strategy for Robbers 
of the Lost Tomb is to scour every 
room and keep a map of each 
level. The latter is very important. 
Keeping maps allow you to avoid 
hazards, know where you've been 
and find the quickest way out 
when you have the last tablet. It 
doesn't matter how you keep your 
maps as long as they are deci- 



pherable. Apart from this there is 
really no other specific advice on 
strategy that I can give you. 

Finishing the Game 

Once you've found the fourth 
tablet you must make your way as 
quickly as possible to the en- 
trance on the first level and climb 
out. You will then see yourself 
walk out of the tomb at night, 
jumping for joy. Congratulations 
are given, your time in hours, 
minutes and seconds is dis- 
played, and you are asked if you 
want to play again. It's a proud 
feeling when you make it out, but 
I guess you always feel that you 
can do it better, in less time. Time 
to try again. 

Recommendations 

Robbers of the Lost Tomb is a 
game I heartily recommend for 
any Commodore 64 owner. Time- 
works Inc. has produced a piece 
of quality software and I hope 
they continue to do so. I give this 
game a 10 out of 10 rating. □ 




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Circle No. 67 



Commander September 1983/127 






Count Lines: A Utility 
You Can Count On 



^by Howard Rotenberg: 



The program count lines is a 
fairly simple one that may only be 
needed once in a blue moon. I 
have had the need for many 
reasons to use it quite often 
though, so I thought that I might 
pass it on to others who might 
find it useful. The title of the pro- 
gram explains exactly what it 
does, COUNT LINES. It is used to 
count the number of lines in one 
or a series of BASIC programs. It 
counts the lines from the pro- 
grams on disk. I will briefly ex- 
plain how the program works. 
Initialization: 

Line 70 pokes a small machine 
language subroutine into the first 
cassette buffer that will scan 
through a program line after its 
number has been picked up. 
Lines 80 through 190 get the 
number of programs to work on, 
their names, drive number, and 
output device. A few strings are 
set up and the files are opened. 

The Load Address: 

When the file is opened suc- 
cessfully, line 200 checks the ad- 
dress that the program starts at. 
This is the first two bytes that are 
stored on a disk for a program. If 
it is not 1025 on any CBM com- 
puter that preceeds the VIC then 
it is not a BASIC program. At this 
point it closes that file arid in- 
forms you that the program is not 
in BASIC, so no lines are counted. 
The Link Address: 

The next two bytes are the link 
address to the next line. This is 
picked up in line 270. If this num- 
ber is zero then we know that we 
have come to the end of the pro- 
gram and we close the file and 
put the number of lines counted 
into an array. This information 
will be displayed or printed at the 
end of the program. 

128/Commander September 1983 



The Line Number: 

The next two bytes that are 
picked up in line 330 are the line 
number. In this line we print out 
the line number just to show that 
the program is working. We also 
count the lines at this point. I 
have always added N$ which was 
defined as CHR$(0) at the beginn- 
ing of the program for the follow- 
ing reason: if you try to print out 
an ASC value that is zero, you will 
get an illegal quantity error. Since 
there are very likely to be many 
zeros in the line numbers or links, 
the CHR$(0) allows us to display 
them. 

Machine Language: 

The small machine language 
subroutine in line 400 is used to 
quickly get through the rest of the 
line. The actual code used is: 
LDX#$01 ; GET THE FILE 

NUMBER 
JSR $FFC6 ; SET THE INPUT 

DEVICE 
GETCH JSR$FFE4; GET A 

CHARACTER 
PHA ; SAVE IT 
LDX $96 ; GET THE STATUS 
BNEOUT; IF NOT THEN 

GET OUT 
PLA ; RESTORE CHARACTER 
BNE GETCH ; NOT END OF 

LINE— GET ANOTHER 
OUT RTS ; RETURN TO BASIC 



The BASIC equivalent to this rou- 
tine is as follows: 
400 get#1,a$: if st 64 and 
asc(a$+n$) then 400 
If you substitute this for line 400 
you will see a significant de- 
crease in speed. 

The Finishing Touch: 

The last part of the program 
just displays the program name, 
number of lines in each program 
and the time it took to count the 
lines. If you wanted to you could 
put an additional counter in line 
440 to keep track of the total lines 
of all the program lines you have 
counted. 

Conclusion: 

As mentioned earlier, this pro- 
gram may not be needed very 
often but it beats counting the 
lines by hand if this information is 
needed. If you are programming 
for somebody and part of your 
remuneration is a result of the 
number of lines of code that you 
write, then this program will 
come in very handy. Even if you 
do not use it as such, it shows 
how a program is stored on disk 
and will allow you to do some of 
your own experimenting. □ 



% 



10 


REM 










20 


REM 


* , 1 , a'»Pn'T**TW"T*"T*T******* 




30 


REM 


* COUNT 


LINES 


* 




40 


REM 


* BY HOWARD 


ROTENBERG 


* 




50 


REM 


*A* *Ai ?A* *^*^ *A* *Ai '■** "^ "^ "^* ^* *^ "^ *^* *A* '■A'tfa aIj *A» *A* »X> *te*±t *£a 




60 


REM 










70 


FOR 


J=0TO17:REflDfl 


PDKE634+J, 


ft- 


NEXT 


80 


INPUT "HOW MflNV PROS TO WORK 


ON 


'•;p:m 


MF*(P), 


L2<P> 












To be continued 


on page 130 







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Circle No. 61 



Commander September 1983/129 







Continued from page 128 



I NPUT " PROGRAM NAME " i F$ < J > 




N=0:R1$= 
OR P 

to 

= IFB 



90 FORJ=lTOP 

NEXT: 1=1 

1 08 I NPUT " DR I VE " ; D '• N$=CHR* < 9 ) 

CHRSC 18) : R2*=CHR$< 146) : DV=3 

110 I NPUT "SEND FINAL OUTPUT TO CRT 

RINTER C [ LEFT H LEFT] CLEFT] " ; DV$ 

1 20 I FLEFT$ C DV$ , 1 > = " P " THENDV-4 

130 TI**"000000 ,, :FOR#l,<F*a>),D<D) 

STHENPRINTBS* = NEXT : G0T0440 

140 REM 

rem m^mmmmmmmmmmmw. 

REM # CHECK LOAD ADDRESS # 
REM * AND ABORT IF NOT BASIC * 

rem mMmwmmMmmwvmmm 

REM 

GET# 1 , A* , B$ = K=ASC < fl$+N* ) + ASC < B$+N$ > 
'A1 flO<=mJCWWFii*T : G0T0430 



150 
160 
170 
180 
130 

200 

*256 

210 

220 

230 
240 
250 
260 



IFKO1025THENNEXT 
REM 
REM 

REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 



CHECK LINK ADDRESS * 
AND QUIT IF END OF PRG # 






* 



SCAN THROUGH REST OF 
PROGRAM LINE IN ML 



* 
* 



270 GET#1,A*,B$: IFHSCtfl*+N*>+ASC<B$+N*> 
=NTHENNEXT : G0T0440 
280 REM 

290 rem *mwmmMmw*MMmM#.w 

300 REM * PRINT LINE NUMBER # 

310 rem mmm*mmm*wmw*w*m 

320 REM 

330 GET# 1 , A$ , B$ : L= ASC C fl*+N* > + ASC ( B$+N* > 

*256:PRIHTLi =L1*L1+1 :REMLINE 

340 REM 

350 REM 

360 REM 

370 REM 

380 REM 

390 REM 

400 SVS634 

410 REM 

420 GOTO 270 

430 PRINT F$<I)J" PROGRAM STARTS AT"K:P 

R I NT" IT IS NOT A BASIC PROGRAM" 

440 PRINT : PRINTLr'LINES" = L2< I >=L1 = T*< I) 

=TI*= 1 = 1 + 1 : IFKP+1THENL1=0:GOTO130 

450 0PEN4,DV 

460 PRINT: FOR K*1TQP:PRINT#4,R1*F$<K>R2 

*; SPCa7~LEN(F$(K; > > " HflS"L2<K) "LINES" ; 

470 PRINT#4," AND TOOK ",MID$a$<K>,3,2 

■>;" MINUTES AND "RIGHT*<T*<IO,2>; 

480 PRINT" SECONDS TO COUNT. ": NEXT :CL0S 

E4 

490 DATA162, 1 , 32, 198, 255, 32, 228, 255, 72, 

174, 150, 0, 208, 3, 104, 208, 244, 96 

READV. 



1 30/Commander September 1983 




ZARCON 



By Steven Prentiss 

Destined to be one of the best arcade style games 
on commodore computers. Can you in your 
Zarcon Fighter shoot all the alien formations 
while flying through an asteriod field! 

5 Levels of excitement 

Joystick required 

Vic-20 cassette 9.95 

Commodore 64 cassette 9.95 



SHROOMS 

Subterranean Encounter 
By Michael Koberstein 

Inner Earth has invaded the surface world. The 
mutant spiders and the moles have taken 
humans captive and changed them into mus- 
srooms. To rescue them you must enter the 
caverns. You are their only hope. Good Luck! 
Vic-20 & 8K Expander, -Joystick-cass 9.95 





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3-D ADVENTURE 

By Cory Christensen 






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Commodore 64-cassette 9.95 



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Circle No. 13 



Commander September 1983/131 









Educational 
Reviews 



^= by Maryanne Dodd i 



Introduction 

Summer vacation is over. 
September is here and another 
school year is just around the cor- 
ner. Whether you are a veteran 
with the computer or you are just 
taking the plunge into the murky 
waters of computer learning you 
will find some useful software in 
this month's column. 

At the beginning of the year 
students will be starting to pro- 
gram in BASIC. For the young 
elementary student there is COM- 
MODORE'S GORTEK AND THE 
MICROCHIPS. For the more 
mature person I have THE 
ELEMENTARY COMMODORE 64 
by William B. Sanders from DATA- 
MOST. 

For those preparing lesson 
plans for the new year I have from 
GREENWOOD SOFTWARE, GEN- 
ESIS, a computer assisted author- 
ing program. To keep track of the 
lessons and to aid in doing 
research I have TOTL'S RE- 
SEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 which 
turns your computer into an ad- 
vanced automated index for "3 x 
5" filing cards. Then last of all I 
will comment on a products 
resource guide for the COMMO- 
DORE 64 called WHAT'S FOR 
THE '64 by Richard V. Mucci. 

1 32/Commander September 1983 



j^E|\ 



GORTEK AND THE 

MICROCHIPS 

COMMODORE 64 

Cassette 

Commodore 

$24.95 

When you think of kids and 
computers, what is the first thing 
that comes to mind? Space 
games of course! With this in 
mind COMMODORE designed a 
space adventure game for ten to 
thirteen year olds called GORTEK 
AND THE MICROCHIPS. Gortek 
is a robot that trains a cadet corps 
known as Microchips to program 
a computer called Creativity. The 
Microchips must program Crea- 
tivity in order to save the planet 
Syntax from Zitrons who are in- 
tent on destroying every planet 
but their own. 

Coincidentally while the 
planets are being saved the 
youngsters are being introduced 
to programming. 



Games Mixed With 
Programming 

The two cassettes are accom- 
panied by a full color forty two 
page book. Intertwined in the 
story are directions for using the 
computer and programming in 
BASIC. The student begins by 
reading a few pages in the manual 
then is prompted to load from the 
cassette a game that reinforces 
skills presented in the text. An ex- 
ample of the game is ANNIHILA- 
TION. The student attempts to 
wipe out all of the letters the 
Zitrons are firing. ANNIHILATION 
is a good keyboard familiarization 
drill. Another game is called 
BOXES. To play this the student 
must be able to sort strings and 
variables. 

Introductory Knowledge 

After a student has finished 
GORTEK AND THE MICROCHIPS 
he will be able to wear the "I PRO- 
GRAM WITH GORTEK" badge. 
He will also be able to use the 
computer and have an introduc- 
tory knowledge of BASIC. Some 
of the concepts learned include: 
list, writing input and output 
statement, introduction to string 
variables, goto and for next loops. 



I would recommend GORTEK 
AND THE MICROCHIPS for the 
younger students. I am fascinated 
by the novel approach that the 
authors, Heather Scott, Stuart 
Alexander and Gary Bowie, used 
to design GORTEK AND THE 
MICROCHIPS for introducing 
children to the computer. 



THE ELEMENTARY 
COMMODORE 64 
William B. Sanders 
DATAMOST 
$14.95 

Chalk up another winner for 
Datamost. ELEMENTARY COM- 
MODORE 64 introduces in plain 
English the Commodore 64 com- 
puter. The book is written for the 
beginner. I knew I liked William 
Sanders when I read his philoso- 
phy in the preface. He feels that 
to use computers you don't need 
to know everything about how 
they work. After all, how many 
people learn how to drive a car 
and do so for a lifetime without 
understanding the internal com- 
bustion principle of the 
automobile. With this in mind 
Sanders has written a book for 
the person that wants to learn 
how to work their Commodore 64 
computer and to program in 
BASIC, not build a computer. 

Terms Are Defined 

The ten chapters each start 
with an introduction followed by 
the text and then a summary. 
Before a computer term is used in 
the text it is defined. The author 
does not assume that the reader 
knows anything about compu- 
ters. I think having the terms 
defined is an asset because it 
eliminates doing one of two 
things. Reading and thinking that 
you understand the technical 
terms when you don't or sitting 
with a dictionary or reference 
guide and looking up each new 
term. 

Beware of Rundy 

Interspersed throughout the 
book are paragraphs outlined 



with rectangles. Written within 
the rectangles are hints and tips 
on programming and common er- 
rors that beginners most often 
make. These tips are written in a 
very light manner that is often 
humorous. For example, "The 
Parentheses Dungeon" is the title 
of one block Sanders uses to ex- 
plain how math operations are 
performed within the paren- 
theses. In the analogy the 
prisoners are the math opera- 
tions. The parentheses are the 
cells. The prisoners must break 
out of the inner most cells first. 
All math operations are ex- 
ecuted—so the prisoners die 
while escaping. Sanders also cau- 
tions the reader to watch out for 
"Rundy". "Rundy" occurs when 
run is typed over the ready pro- 
mpt. "Rundy" is a common error 
of people who are familiar with 
other computers. 

The illustrations in the book are 
cartoons with a style very similar 
to the political cartoons found on 
the editorial pages of newspa- 
pers. The cartoons are very clever 
and emphasize either a point or a 
common misconception. 

Computer Does 
Not Bite 

The first chapter starts out 
assuring you that the computer 
will not "bite". It is to be used the 
same as any other piece of elec- 
tronic equipment "with care but 
without fear". Sanders really 
starts at the very beginning by 
describing hardware, then telling 
the user how to hook it up and 
then turn it on. 

The chapters and materials 
following are arranged in sequen- 
tial order so that the user does 
not have to skip around in the 
book or refer to another section 
for special applications or more 
information. 

For Those Afraid of Math 

Since a lot of people think they 
would not be able to program 
because their math skills are 
undeveloped, one chapter is 
devoted to the Commodore 64 



memory. ASCII values, CHR$ 
functions, POKES and PEEKS are 
introduced in a way that people 
who are afraid of math are not in- 
timidated by binary numbers and 
algorithms. 

Another chapter introduces 
screen and sprite graphics. The 
user is given some simple ap- 
plications and there are sugges- 
tions for exploring more difficult 
animation and creating some ori- 
ginal demonstrations and saving 
them. 

Hints and Helps 

The final chapter in the book 
presents some hints and helps. It 
covers user groups, publications, 
languages, and programming 
tricks not previously covered. 
Sanders also discusses some of 
the ways the Commodore 64 can 
be used— word processing, data 
base programming and business 
applications. 

ELEMENTARY COMMODORE 
64 is an excellent choice for 
someone that is thinking of buy- 
ing a Commodore 64 or has 
recently bought one and is having 
difficulty using it. Even though 
the book was written for adults, 
the style is straightforward and 
simple enough that the book 
could be used by students as 
young as junior high school. 

GENESIS 

PET, 8032 

Commodore 64 

8K VIC 20 

5K VIC 20 (Abbreviated) 

Disk or Cassette 

$20 

Greenwood Software 

GENESIS is a computer 
assisted instruction (CAI) author- 
ing system that allows parents or 
teachers to prepare their own 
lessons for drills or evaluation. It 
can be used to create any instruc- 
tional program that asks ques- 
tions where there are one or two 
word definite answers. 

GENESIS is well documented 
and user friendly. The program is 
menu driven. Lessons are pre- 

Commander September 1983/133 



pared by choosing options on a 
master menu. Upon loading 
GENESIS the instructor is given 
the choice of: title, instructions, 
questions, edit, new, format, run 
and save. 

Format Options 

After preparing the lesson 
there are several choices for the 
format of the lesson to be pre- 
sented. The questions may be 
presented in random order with a 
time limit for the exercise or se- 
quential order with the questions 
presented in sequence. The ques- 
tions may be presented in lower- 
case, capitals or uppercase. 
Another featureof the format sec- 
tion is the capability of formatting 
the lesson so it will allow the 
students to type their name at the 
beginning of the lesson. The com- 
puter then records the number of 
questions attempted, number 
correct and the percentile. The 
computer will accept a class list 
of up to thirty names. 

GENESIS is designed so that 
the students do not see the 
master menu nor do they have ac- 
cess to the scores of other 
members of the class. If the 
students do learn how to enter 
the menu the code words can be 
changed. 
Complete Documentation 

The manual accompanying 
GENESIS is complete and even 
gives examples of lessons that 
can be prepared. The program can 
be used by people that have no 
previous programming experi- 
ence. For the more experienced 
programmer, technical informa- 
tion containing the program 
outline and a list of the string 
variables are contained in the 
manual. This allows the program 
to be modified and fit unique 
situations or individual needs. 

Lessons prepared with the pro- 
gram are pure CAI. There are no 
graphics involved. There is a 
positive reinforcement consisting 
Of the word "correct" flashing on 
the screen accompanied by 
sound when the proper response 
is entered. 

134/Commander September 1983 



Utilization 

I feel that GENESIS would be 
beneficial to parents and teach- 
ers that want to create unique and 
individualized lessons. The les- 
sons could be tailored to a par- 
ticular remedial need or they 
could be presented sequentially 
to gradually introduce new mate- 
rial. Lessons requiring drill or rote 
memory would be particularly 
suited to GENESIS especially 
with the questions presented in 
random order. 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT 
COMMODORE 64 
Cassette or Disk 
TOTL 

$35.00 Tape 
$39.00 Disk 

With September here and 
school starting there are new 
beginnings and papers to be writ- 
ten. If you own a computer you no 
longer need to file your informa- 
tion on those bulky "3 x 5" cards 
which tend to get dog-eared, 
smudged, or even worse, the rub- 
ber band breaks or the box spills 
and you have instant chaos. 
Specialized Data Base 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 by 
TOTL is a specialized data base 
system. It takes the place of the 
"3 x 5" file cards and stores infor- 
mation from books, journals, 
magazines and newspapers on 
tape or disk. It sorts and searches 
on the basis of keywords and data 
ranges. Then, it will print out 
detailed source and reference 
data. A printer is required to take 
full advantage of all the features 
of the program. 
Contains Two Programs 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 
contains two programs: RA. 
BUILD AND RA. XREF BUILD. RA. 
BUILD allows the user to enter 
reference data and to print both 
reference and cross reference 
data files in order to produce a 
permanent copy for easy refer- 
ence. 

RA. XREF BUILD reads data 
files created by RA. BUILD and 



creates a cross reference list in 
sorted keyword order. With RA. 
XREF BUILD inquiries can be 
done on combinations of key- 
words, dates, or information can 
be saved to disk or tape to be 
printed later. 

RA. BUILD 

RA. BUILD is menu driven. The 
choices given on the main menu 
are: new file, update/append file, 
change I/O, print RA. file, print 
RAX. file and quit. 

When you first choose new file 
you will be able to build reference 
records. Each reference record is 
like a"3 x 5" card. Each card is 
given a reference number from 1 
to 9999. The next item on the card 
is pages. Pages accepts free form 
data of any notation up to 40 
characters in length. Next we see 
comments, which is the body of 
the notes. In this section, data up 
to 1020 characters may be 
entered. The last section is key- 
words. Each reference may have 
up to twelve keywords forty 
characters long. If the data is time 
sensitive a beginning and ending 
date may be entered. 

Update/append file can only be 
used if a disk drive is used for in- 
put and output. Existing records 
may be updated or new files may 
be inserted. 

Another option allows you to 
change your input/output option 
(I/O). This is for changing devices 
from disc to tape. The main menu 
also allows printing the RA. files 
and the RAX. files. 

RA. XREF BUILD 

The RA. XREF BUILD program 
is also menu driven. The options 
available are: set dates/new 
XREF. BUILD, save XREF. load 
XREF. inquiry and quit. 

Set dates/new XREF. is design- 
ed to clear all keyboard data cur- 
rently in memory and to allow the 
user to do the necessary setup 
before building the cross refer- 
ence table. Up to twenty date 
periods, each defined by its end- 
ing date may be entered. 




H commodore 

NEW COMMODORE PRODUCTS 

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CBM BX700 2990 

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CBM 1520 Plotter 169 

CBM 1526 Printer 349 

SOFTWARE FOR CBM 64S 
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Word Processing (WordPro 3+) S 69 

Quick Brown Fox 56 

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Busicalc II 95 

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Data Manager 70 

M File (merge with WordPro) 89 

Into Mast 139 

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RECREATION 
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to printer, dd) 1 49 

PET-IEEE cable 33 

IEEE-IEEE cable (2m) 49 



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Numeric Keypad 65 

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8K RAM Memory Expansion Cartridge ... $ 40 

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DC Hayes Smart Modem 220 

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BUILD XREF. adds data to the 
cross reference table in memory 
from the RA. file. The only limit to 
size is the amount of memory left 
in the computer. 

Inquiry allows the user to inter- 
rogate the cross reference table 
in memory. One or several key- 
words or dates are entered and 
then the source number and 
reference number of any refer- 
ence which contains all the key- 
words and date periods will be 
displayed. 

Documentation 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 is 
very well documented. Prior com- 
puter knowledge is not neces- 
sary. This program could be the 
user's first experience with the 
COMMODORE 64 and there 
would be little difficulty en- 
countered. The manual even ex- 
plains how to format and initialize 
disks and how to use the program 
with a printer otherthan the COM- 
MODORE printer. The programs 
are written in BASIC; therefore 
backups and modifications can 
be made without difficulty. The 
manual suggests some modifica- 
tions that the user might want to 
make to suit his individual needs. 

TOTL Support 

One quality that really impress- 
ed me in this software package 
was TOTL's support to the regis- 
tered owner of the package. If a 
problem is encountered or the 
user desires technical assistance 
TOTL offers to provide help with 
only $2.00 for postage and handl- 
ing required. If the user has made 
modifications it is requested that 
a disc/tape with the modifications 
be enclosed. Having struggled 
with programs that didn't work or 
contained bugs, I really appreci- 
ate a company that offers this 
kind of service and actually adver- 
tises it in their manual. 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 
could be used by those doing 
original research or writing 
papers. It could also be used by 
anyone that needs to catalog col- 
lections or cross reference infor- 



mation. As a teacher I would find 
RESEARCH ASSISTANT particu- 
larly useful in indexing materials 
used when preparing new units or 
organizing supplies. 






WHAT'S FOR THE 64 
Richard V. Mucci 
Commodore 64 
$15.00 



WHAT'S FOR THE 64 is a pro- 
ducts resource guide for the 
COMMODORE 64 computer. With 
the sale of computers by the 
mass merchants there are quite a 
few people with a COMMODORE 
64 and no idea of the support of- 
fered or software and peripherals 
available. Richard Mucci was in 
this predicament a short while 
back. He decided to gather all the 
diverse and nebulous information 
into an ordered and meaningful 
file for the COMMODORE 64. 
After compiling all the informa- 
tion, Mucci decided that he would 
share these resources with 
others in the form of a book. 

What's In The Book 

In the book WHAT'S FOR THE 
64 you will find listings of: soft- 
ware; enablers (compilers, emula- 
tors, interfaces, etc.); peripherals; 
books, magazines and periodical 
articles; user groups and sources. 

If you are new to the COM- 
MODORE 64 the index of periodi- 
cal articles written for the 64 and 
the lists of magazines and books 
supporting the 64 would be par- 
ticularly useful. Both oldtimers 
and newcomers will find the 
directory of sources which con- 
tains addresses and phone 
numbers very helpful. 

A Living Resource 

Another interesting feature of 
the WHAT'S FOR THE 64 is that 
Richard Mucci envisions the book 
to be a living source which will 
grow with the COMMODORE 64. 
Addends and supplements will be 
published and readers are asked 
to participate with input and sug- 
gestions. □ 



Reviews 
for the C-64 



Meteor Madness 
Rated **** 

by R. G. Partner 

Are you ready for many hours of 
excitement? If you are, then 
Meteor Madness is for you. Are 
you ready for a real challenge? 
Then Meteor Madness is just the 
game to keep you on the edge of 
your chair! Get a co-pilot or two; 
in fact up to FOUR people can 
play this one. After loading this 
DISK game, you find yourself in 
outer space, miles above earth. 
Suddenly you are confronted with 
the absolute blackness of space, 
in front of you is a gun sight 
cross-hair, your thumb rests gent- 
ly on the fire button of your 
Nuclear Powered Laser. You are 
in control of robot drone ships. 
All you can see in the blackness 
of space is the light from hun- 
dreds of stars. Somewhere out 
there are huge clusters of deadly 
meteors headed toward civiliza- 
tion. You wait, uneasy, knowing 
the danger you're confronting. 
You MUST protect earth at all 
costs. You scan the view screen, 
nothing, nothing but stars, but 
wait, as you watch several seem 
to get larger and larger until you 
realize THIS is one of the 
METEORS which will destroy 
earth if you don't get it first! 



The screen begins to fill with 
METEORS, different colors and 
sizes moving in different direc- 
tions. If you have a quick hand 
and a quick eye you can bring the 
cross-hair of your NUCLEAR 
POWERED LASER CANNON to 
bear on a meteor; there, it's 
centered in the sight, NOW push 
the fire button. The meteor is 
destroyed! But look out, there is a 
large one moving in on your ship! 
Swing around quick! Fire! Fire! 
Wheeeewwww, almost missed 
that one! There are more coming, 
you must complete your mission! 
Life on earth depends on it! Good 
luck! 

This is just level ONE of many 
levels. Then there are the 
CHALLENGE levels. Each one 
more difficult than the one 
before. Points gained for blasting 
the meteors vary with the size of 
the meteor. Very small meteors 
count more than medium sized 
ones and very large ones count 
almost as much as the very small. 
The large meteors (large enough 
to fill your laser sight) count 
bonus points. That is because 
they are about to explode and if 
you happen to have your laser 
trained on one when it explodes 
IT'S ALL OVER FOR YOU!! 

As you go from level to level 
there are more meteors and they 
get larger quicker so you must be 



faster with moving the laser can- 
non on target and firing. My son 
and I have gotten to level 8 and 
that has been a real challenge. 

This game created by SOFT- 
PLUS in Lawrence, Kansas, 
should keep anyone who enjoys a 
challenge occupied. Be prepared 
to lose some games in the begin- 
ning however. If you are patient 
and improve your skill you can ad- 
vance on to the next level. I don't 
know how many levels there are 
so let us know how you are doing. 
Remember EARTH MUST BE 
PRESERVED AT ALL COSTS. . . 
THE METEORS MUST BE 
DESTROYED! !D 




Tyler's Dungeons 
Rated **** 

by R. G. Partner 

From Creative Equipment in 
Miami, Florida comes the first 
3-dimensional graphic cartridge 
game. All machine language for 
fast action, this combines the fun 

Commander September 1983/137 



of the 'ADVENTURE TYPE 
GAMES' with the excellent 
graphics of the C-64. 

Two hundred and fifty rooms 
(that's right 250) to search 
through while looking for eight 
treasures. Now that sounds easy 
enough, right? Let me tell you 
that you're in for a surprise. While 
looking for this treasure you must 
avoid surprise cave-ins! 

Yep, there you are hurrying 
through a room and all of a sud- 
den it caves in and you find 
yourself trapped in a little tiny 
space with no place to go and run- 
ning out of air. 

If that's not enough to keep you 
from playing, how about SNAKE 
PITS! I thought that might do it!! 
Yes, there are snake pits and 
worst of all you don't know where 
they are or when they will appear! 
You cannot see them until sud- 
denly you are confronted with a 
SNAKE! Now I don't mean some 
dinky slithering snake. This is a 
BIG snake with fangs and every- 
thing and it seems that you are 
his favorite attraction. Some 
rooms have snake pits and you 
can enter the room and look 
around but trying to exit is a dif- 
ferent matter. Not easily done! 

Oh, I didn't mention the 

LURKS, did I? Let's see no, I 

guess I didn't. Well, let me tell 
you about LURKS! There is one 
Lurk in each of the two hundred 
fifty rooms. That's right, two hun- 
dred and fifty LURKS. They are 
the keepers of the rooms and they 
are indestructible! It does not 
matter what you do, there is 
always a LURK following you, 
always pursuing. The snakes 
don't stop him, the cave-ins don't 
stop him. Nothing stops him. A 
LURK'S touch is deadly, so be 
careful! 

I guess I didn't mention 
elevators yet. The dungeon is 
made up of four levels. To travel 
from level to level, you must find 
the elevators. An elevator looks 
like a small checkerboard sec- 
tion. Which one goes up and 
which one goes down? I will let 
you figure that one out. I will tell 

1 38/Commander September 1983 



you that a DOWN elevator will 
transport you to the next lower 
level. There will not be an UP 
elevator directly underneath or 
vice versa. One more hint, make 
sure you have thoroughly ex- 
plored the level you are on before 
entering an elevator. 

** Treasures ** Treasures 

If you manage to evade the 
dangers and acquire all eight 
treasures, A SPECIAL MESSAGE 
will appear on the screen. Follow- 
ing those directions will make 
you eligible for a random drawing 
on April 1, 1984. The ONE winner 
will receive $500.00 for his or her 
efforts. NOW THAT'S WHAT I 
CALL REAL TREASURE!! 

Good luck with the game. 

P.S. I'm still trying to find away 
out of one of the snake pit rooms 

they just don't want to let 

me through and oh, 

no, here comes a LURK 

hhhheeeeeeellllllppppppp! □ 

FROGGER 

by Eric Giguere 

Author: Chuck Benton 

Available from: Sierra On-Line, 
Inc., 36576 Mudge Ranch Road, 
Coarsegold, CA 93614 

For use with: Commodore 64 
(disk or cassette) 

If you're a person who likes to 
frequent arcades then you pro- 
bably noticed the game FROG- 
GER a few months back. This 
"cute" game with its enchanting 
graphics and catchy soundtrack 
is now available for the Com- 
modore 64 as an official licensed 
version from Sega. Produced by 
Sierra On-Line, Inc., FROGGER is 
the best arcade game that I've 
seen for the C64. Smooth, colour- 
ful graphics and a faithful repro- 
duction of the soundtrack make 
this game a must for C64 owners. 

Description 

The basic idea behind FROG- 
GER is very simple: jump your 
frog across the highway, through 
the river and into one of his 
"homes" before the clock runs 
out. Life isn't easy for the poor 



frog, though. The highway has a 
steady stream of bulldozers, race 
cars and trucks driving across, 
usually at high speeds. Careful 
timing here is a must if Herbie 
(my nickname for the frog) is to 
survive and attempt the river. If he 
does survive he may rest a while 
on the river bank, although watch 
out for roving snakes at higher 
levels! Crossing the river is the 
hardest part of Herbie's act 
because, strangely enough, Her- 
bie cannot swim in the river. I 
assume this is because the river 
is polluted with some poison 
deadly only to frogs. In any case, 
Herbie must instead use the 
floating logs and swimming 
turtles, jumping from the back of 
one onto the back of another. He 
may then jump into one of his 
home bases, finishing (for awhile) 
his ordeal. 

Each time Herbie makes it to 
one of his home bases he leaves 
behind an image of himself (his 
way of saying "Herbie was here") 
and starts all over again at the 
bottom. If he succeeds in visiting 
all five bases Herbie advances to 
the next level where there are five 
new, empty lairs and faster 
hazards. Ah, well! No one said 
that being a frog was easy. . . 

Loads of Features 

FROGGER could have probably 
been an average game if it didn't 
have any special features. What 
makes it stand out from the 
crowd are the options. You can 
select between a SLOW mode 
and a FAST mode depending 
upon your skill. If you are using 
the keyboard you can choose 
which keys you want to represent 
up, down, left and right, a pretty 
nice feature. Another option is 
the ability to shut off the back- 
ground music, leaving Herbie's 
leaps as the only sound heard. 
Something I really like is the 
pause feature which enables you 
to freeze the game if you need to 
take a break or answer a phone 
call. This ensures you don't have 
to blow a perfect game because 
of a useless distraction. 




WHEELE R 






SOFT GUIDE 



NEWSLETTER 



TMP 



VIC 20 



MMODORE 64 



TM 




You don't have to buy JUNK! 

Ever spend $30 fora disappointing program? 
All of us have — But never again. For less than 
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issues per year of SOFT-GUIDE Newsletter. We 
don't carry any advertising so we can tell you the 
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For Commodore 64 or Vic 20 owners only No need to wade 

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The graphics on FROGGER are 
what I would call superb. The 
background objects like the logs 
are finely detailed, beautifully col- 
oured and smooth-scrolling. The 
frog is a sprite (an albino— it's 
white) and there is absolutely no 
flicker whatsoever when it moves. 
Sometimes I just sit there and 
stare at what's passing on the 
screen, or I just sit there listen- 
ing, I'm so impressed. The back- 
ground music must be heard to 
be believed. It makes full use of 
the SID chip inside the C64 and 
reminds me of the arcade version 
itself, it's so good. Good music 
and charming graphics are ano- 
ther reason FROGGER is a super 
deal. 

Recommendations 

If you like arcade-style games 
then FROGGER is a definite must 
for your software library. The 
quality of the game makes it a 
sure winner for anyone. It's the 
best game I've seen so far for the 
Commodore 64. My advice: get it. 

A Review of 
John F. Zacharias' 
L. D. Menu Program For 
Commodore Computers 

by Lanny Hertzberg 



One of the more frustrating 
things for teachers who use 
microcomputers is trying to find 




.<•*> 






»<® 






^ 




MASTERCARD 
DINERS CLU6 
CARTE BLANCHE 



the right title of a program on a 
disk, so that you can load it into 
the computer. When you have 
students who are unfamiliar with 
the workings of computers, and 
yet want to use those programs 
as well, it can turn into a night- 
mare. 

I teach Computer Science in a 
high school in the Elk Grove 
School District (south of 
Sacramento). I have a lab of 20 
Commodore 64's with both indivi- 
dual disk drives (VIC 1541s) for 
each computer as well as a net- 
working system (Commodore 
8250). I have over 5000 programs, 
700 of which I use with some 
regularity. Because many of my 
students are using computers for 
CAI, it was necessary to put the 
most used programs together on 
as few disks as possible (thus the 
networked 8250). Commodore's 
method of letting you get a direc- 
tory (or catalog) is to load the 
directory as a program and then 
list it. The list then scrolls down 
the screen the same way a pro- 
gram would. If you want to stop 
the list before it finishes, you can, 
but you cannot back the list up. 
The user then has to load the pro- 
gram by typing the load command 
followed by an exact name of the 
program. A missed space, com- 
ma, colon, whatever will all result 
in a "FILE NOT FOUND" error. 

A program that would list your 
disk directory one page (screen) 
at a time, let you go back and 
forth from page to page, and load 
a program by just typing the 
number in front of the program 
would be a boon. Such programs 
exist; they are called MENU pro- 
grams, because they are similar 
to restaurant menus. Unfortunate- 
ly, every one I have seen has been 
written in BASIC and suffers from 
four faults: 

1. They are slooowww. 

2. They only work on one type 
of computer and/or disk drive. 

3. They will not work for any 
device number other than 8 (Com- 
modore uses "intelligent" disks 
that have device numbers, typi- 
cally number 8. The computer can 



be hooked up to as many as eight 
disks at the same time numbered 
from 8 to 15.) 

4. They usually store their 
directory information as data 
files, either within the program or 
as a sequential/relative file on the 
disk. Both of these options take 
up disk space and require a 
periodic "updating" of the file to 
keep the directory accurate. 

The L. D. Menu program takes 
care of all those problems, plus 
has some nice additional fea- 
tures. It is written in machine lan- 
guage, so it is fast (10 seconds to 
load a 200 program directory from 
the 2 megabyte floppy disk). It will 
work with every Commodore com- 
puter, including the VIC, except 
for the original 1.0 rom PET. It will 
work with any Commodore floppy 
disk drive, with the drive set to 
any device number from 8 to 15. In 
fact it will read all 8 drives at 
once, if you have such hooked up 
to your computer. It does not 
store the directory as a file on the 
disk or in the program. Instead it 
reads the disk directory directly 
and stores it in a buffer in the 
computer, displaying it in a 14 
program page. 

The additional features include 
the ability to "hide" programs 
(make them not appear on the 
menu) by placing an exclamation 
point as the first character in the 
name. The menu program itself is 
unlistable, so you don't have peo- 
ple using the menu to load the 
menu ad nauseum. You can re- 
load the menu from within the 
program (so that you could re- 
place a disk and read the new 
directory) by pressing the equal 
sign. Programs may be booted 
(loaded and started running) or 
just loaded. Machine code pro- 
grams can be loaded into their 
proper memory location also from 
the menu. 

The cost is a reasonable $20.00 
for the program and a very com- 
prehensive manual. Further infor- 
mation can be obtained by writ- 
ing: John Zacharias, 10004 
Vanguard Drive, Sacramento, CA 
95827. □ 



140/Commander September 1983 



Computer Media Directory 

A reference book for marketing 
communications and public rela- 
tions personnel in the computer 
industry. 

The first section of the direc- 
tory includes listings of computer 
media and allied publications 
such as those concerned with off- 
ice automation, word processing, 
office equipment and data com- 
munications. 

Included are the names of top 
editors, reporters or editors 
responsible for specialized cate- 
gories of subject matter, bureau 
chiefs and correspondents in 
other cities. Direct telephone 
numbers and addresses for off- 
ices outside the headquarters are 
provided as available. 

Computer Media Directory also 
carries a section listing computer 
editors or special reporters on 
major daily newspapers and 
general and business magazines, 
as well as feature and news ser- 
vices. 

A third section, which will be 
expanded in updates and future 
editions, lists accredited free- 
lance writers whose computer- 
related articles have appeared in 
established publications. 

Cost of the directory is $99.95, 
or $149.95 with quarterly updates. 



News 
Releases 



Orders and additional publication 
and free-lance listing can be plac- 
ed with Computer Media Direc- 
tory, 2518 Grant Street, Houston, 
Texas 77006. □ 



N.E.C.L. 

The National Educational Com- 
puter Library is calling for papers 
on behalf of an educational com- 
puter conference it is sponsoring 
on November 5, 6 and 7 of 1983 at 
the McCormick Inn in Chicago. 
The conference proceedings and 
papers will afterwards be publish- 
ed and made available to any in- 
terested party. All interested 
speakers should submit a brief 
outline of their proposed presen- 
tation. For further information 
contact the: National Educational 
Library, P.O. Box 293, New 
Milford, CT 96776, Telephone 
203-354-7760. 

In addition to the seminars this 
major educational conference 
will feature exhibits, hands on 
demonstrations and workshops. 
The National Educational Com- 
puter Library is a non-profit 
educational organization which 
seeks to promote learning and 
education in grammar and high 



school students through the use 
of computers and educational 
computer programs. □ 

Micro Software 
International to Distribute 
Software Arts Products 
In England, Europe 

MicroSoftware International of 
Newton, Upper Falls, Massachu- 
setts, the marketing and distribut- 
ing firm recently formed in the 
U.S. by Robert Shapiro, has an- 
nounced that it will be the exclu- 
sive distributors for Software Arts 
programs in Great Britain, France, 
Germany, and the Benelux coun- 
tries. 

The announcement comes 
after several months of negotia- 
tion between MicroSoftware 
International and Software Arts. 
TK Solver™ — Software Arts' 
highly acclaimed equation- 
solving program for the IBM/PC, 
will be the initial program 
marketed overseas by MSI. 

According to MSI's Executive 
Vice President Shapiro, "We fore- 
see a bright future for Software 
Arts in the European business 
market. We are augmenting the 
distribution with marketing and 
advertising backup, and project 
that the product will be on Euro- 

Commander September 1983/141 



pean store shelves by June 30, 
1983." 

In addition to Software Arts, 
MSI also is the worldwide distri- 
butor for Computer Software 
Associates products. 

Additional information can be 
obtained by contacting Micro- 
Software International, Inc., The 
Silk Mill, 44 Oak Street, Newton, 
Upper Falls, MA 02164; telephone 
(617)527-7510. 



European inquiries can be 
directed to Marketing Micro Soft- 
ware Ltd., Goddard Road, White- 
house Industrial Estate, Ipswich, 
Suffolk, England; telephone 
(0473) 462-721. D 

PRACTICALC 64 WINS BIG 
AT CONSUMER 
ELECTRONICS SHOW 

PractiCalc 64, the spreadsheet 
program from Computer Software 



COMPUTER BUGS 

THE "PET" OF THE COMPUTER AGEI! 



ftw^*?' 



^ 






- 



VJC.M U ^ 



*5T.trt«sr 



REAL COMPUTER CHIPS!! 
TIE TACK/DECORATIVE PIN 



You've had bugs in your pro- 
grams and bugs in your system. 
But, what happens to these 
evasive creatures when they 
are "worked out"? Some hang 
around to pester you again, but 
a few are caught and taught 
manners* 

We proudly present the 
FRIENDLY Computer Bug - I.C. 
Mite. These once bothersome 
pests have been transformed 
into friendly, talented pets that 
you can train and display with 
pride. You. the owner, are 
supplied with a comprehensive 
Care and Training Manual that 
answers such pressing ques- 
tions as: 

— What do I.C. 
Mites eat? 

— Can computer bugs swim? 

— And, how fast can they run? 




These computer pets make 
great gifts. And, when ordered 
in families of 3 or more, you'll 
save $1.00 each. So, when or- 
dering your Friendly Computer 
Bug, order one for each of your 
friends and save I 

TO ORDER 
SEND: 

• $3.50 each for 3 or more OR $4.50 
each for leu than 3. 

• Check or Money Order. COD's 
add $1.50. 

• Add $1.00 for postage and han- 
dling. 

• California orders add 6% sales 
tax. 

• Please be sure to Include your 
Name, Address, Zip Code, and 
full payment with your order. 

• Have fun with your new pet. 

ORDER TODAYI 

H&H ENTERPRISES 

P.O. BOX 2272 

FULLERTON.CA 92633 



DEALER INQUIRIES: (714) 525-8745 / (714) 992-2137 



Associates garnered an impres- 
sive "win" at the Summer Con- 
sumer Electronics Show recently 
held in Chicago. PractiCalc 64 
was singled out as the only pro- 
gram in the Home Management 
category in the CES Software 
Showcase to be worthy of cita- 
tion. The selection was made by a 
panel of six judges, who are 
editors in the computer industry. 

In all, there are nine software 
categories: the aforementioned 
home management, word pro- 
cessing, education, adventure, ar- 
cade, maze, space, strategy and 
"other". A total of 62 prizes were 
awarded from over 180 entries. 
The competition was open to 
software written for all com- 
puters, and only five other awards 
were presented to publishers of 
Commodore 64 software. 

"Although PractiCalc 64 is writ- 
ten for the Commodore 64, its 
'sister program', PractiCalc Plus 
has clearly been recognized as 
the most powerful spreadsheet 
program for the VIC," says Sandy 
Ruby, author of the PractiCalc 
series and President of Computer 
Software Associates, "and the 
award for the '64' version con- 
firms that as well for '64' owners. 
We're extremely pleased that our 
industry colleagues were so im- 
pressed with the program." 

PractiCalc Plus and PractiCalc 
64 are both spreadsheet pro- 
grams that offer high- and low- 
resolution graphics, alpha- 
numeric sort and search, as well 
as mathematical and trigono- 
metric functions. Both programs 
are available in either cassette or 
disk version. Suggested retail 
prices are: PractiCalc 20 $39.95- 
cassette, $44.95-disk; PractiCalc 
Plus (for the VIC 20) $49.95- 
cassette, $54.95-disk; PractiCalc 
64 (for the Commodore 64) $54.95- 
cassette, $59.95-disk. 

Additional information can be 
obtained by writing to Micro Soft- 
ware International, Inc., 44 Oak 
Street, The Silk Mill, Newton Up- 
per Falls, MA 02164; (617) 
527-751 0.D 



1 42/Commander September 1983 



Circle No. 85 




NEW PRODUCTS 



THREE NEW 
SOFTWARE PROGRAMS 
FOR COMMODORE 64 

Three NEW informative pro- 
grams have just been made avail- 
able nationally by TIMEWORKS, 
INC., Deerfield, Illinois, indepen- 
dent publisher of personal com- 
puter software. Created specifi- 
cally for the popular COM- 
MODORE 64 computer, these 
new programs are some of the 
eleven new TIMEWORKS' Com- 
modore 64 programs. 

The programs include THE 
ELECTRONIC CHECKBOOK, a 
check recording, sorting, and 
balancing system; DUNGEON of 
the ALGEBRA DRAGONS, an ad- 
venture-in-learning game which 
provides a challenging and en- 
joyable way to develop algebra 
skills; and PROGRAMMING KIT I, 
a practical "How-to" learning ap- 
proach to basic programming. 
The package includes TIME- 
WORKS' exclusive eight-step ap- 
proach to program design, easily 
and fully explained. 

The caliber of programming 
(usually found in much more ex- 
pensive programs) and the ease 
of understanding of TIME- 



-COMVOM 



commodore 
tA eameams , 



ssssy 



TimeujcRKS. 

'rtlqcUni TittflOH. _ n Kill ™ 9 

.,,; The Electronic *. 

U4^ <,' Checkbook L-V> 




WORKS' programs have proven 
outstanding in these four cate- 
gories: Entertainment, Education, 
Programming and Home/Small 
Business. Suggested retail price 



of each program is $24.95. 

Each program is packaged in 
attractive four-color boxes with 
an overview, and at-a-glance pro- 
gram parameters. And a compre- 

Commander September 1983/143 



hensive, easy-to-understand 
manual is included. 

For further information write or 
call TIMEWORKS, INC., 405 Lake 
Cook Road, Building A, Deerfield, 
IL 60015, (312) 291-9200, TW 
#607. D 



NEW BOOK FOR THE 64 

A book devoted just to pro- 
ducts available for the use of the 
Commodore 64 Computer; NOT A 
MAIL ORDER COMPANY CATA- 
LOG! 

Over 120 pages of PROGRAMS 
& SOFTWARE, PERIPHERALS, 
INTERFACES, BOOK TITLES, 
MAGAZINES catering to the 64, 
and 64 USER GROUPS. 

Contains a DIRECTORY of 
SOURCES strongly supporting 
the COMMODORE 64 in all areas. 

Contains a MAGAZINE ARTI- 
CLE BIBLIOGRAPHY of literature 
and written programs since the 
inception of the COMMODORE 
64. 

ONLY $15.00 plus $2.00 shipp- 
ing. (Florida residents include 5% 
sales tax.) Send a Check or 
Money Order TO: What's? FOR 
THE 64, 3494 Chickasaw Circle, 
Lake Worth, FL 33463. 
REMEMBER TO INCLUDE YOUR 
NAME AND ADDRESS 
PLEASE! □ 



PAL 64— PERSONAL 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 
FOR THE COMMODORE 64 

Written by BRAD TEMPLETON, 
author of POWER and other PET 
products. 

PAL 64 is a new program for the 
Commodore 64 that allows you to 
easily write machine language 
programs. With PAL 64, you can 
type in machine language pro- 
grams in symbolic form and 
quickly assemble them into real 
machine language for the com- 
puter to run. It was the first, and is 
still the fastest and most easy to 
use, assembler for your Commo- 
dore 64. 

With PAL 64, you type your 
assembler program in with the 
standard Basic program editor 
that is well known to all Com- 
modore 64 users. There is no 
change of environment and there 
are no new tricks to learn. Tools 
like POWER can be used to help 
in this task if desired. PAL 64 can 
work entirely from memory, tak- 
ing a "source" program from 
RAM and assembling it into a run- 
ning program in another area of 
RAM. These two abilities allow 
PAL 64 to be used with a mini- 
mum of fuss and a maximum of 
speed. 



Although PAL 64 is fast and 
compact, it also is loaded with 
big assembler features, in- 
cluding: 

1. Relocatable output with re- 
locating loader 

2. Conditional assembly 

3. Loading and saving symbol 
tables from disk 

4. User customization of out- 
put, pseudo-ops and expressions 

5. File chaining for large pro- 
grams 

You can express your values to 
PAL 64 in all kinds of handy ways. 
Expressions can be highly com- 
plex, including parentheses. 
There are 7 different operators, 
and values can be given in 
decimal, hexadecimal, binary and 
several other methods. Symbols 
can be up to 8 characters long. 

One of the best features of PAL 
64 is the ability to produce pro- 
grams that are a combination of 
Basic and machine language. 
With PAL 64, you can write a 
Basic program that calls machine 
language routines by their sym- 
bolic name, and PAL 64 will figure 
out the addresses for you, creat- 
ing a program than can be LOAD- 
ed and RUN. This is especially 
good for beginners who wish to 
start with Basic and move slowly 
to machine language, letting PAL 
(Continued on page 146) 



NUMERIC KEYPAD FOR COMMODORE-64 AND VIC-20 



Computer Place introduces a 
numeric keypad for Commo- 
dore-64 and VIC-20. The keypad is 
designed with top quality, low 
profile key switches for smooth^ 
reliable and low-cost data entry. It 
lets you zip through your numeric 
work sheet, input your numbers 
and figures comfortably, quickly, 
and more easily than ever before. 

The keypad easily connects in 
parallel with the existing key- 
board connector. The setup is 
simple. The usage is comfortable. 
And the price is very affordable at 
only $69.95. 

Contact W. Huang of Computer 
Place, 23914 Crenshaw Blvd., Tor- 
rance, CA 90505/(213) 325-4754. □ 




i2i£q_wj2zif \ 



144/Commander September 1983 



Take COMMAND by patronizing our advertisers who support the 
wide selection ot products tor the Commodore computer line. 
COMMANDER Magazine would appreciate you mentioning our 
name when dealing with these organizations. 



Advertising Index 



Circle No. Page No. 

1 Aardvark 73 

69 Abacus 48 

2 Academy Software 97 

89 Advanced Processor Systems 115 

37 Apropos Technology 51 

68 Basic Electronic Business Systems, Inc. .123,85 

3 Boston Educational Computing, Inc 31 

50 Bytes and Pieces #1 48 

90 Bytes and Pieces #2 9 

5 Century Micro 29 

6 CGRS Micro Tech 151 

20 City Software 9 

43 Codeworks 31 

7 Comm* Data Software 1,78-79 

8 Commodore 64 Users Group 76 

Compu-sense 106,107,63,70 

10 Computer Alliance 31,59 

41 Computer Learning Center 65 

11 Computer Marketing 41,155 

12 ComputerMat 95,91 

27 ComputerOutlet 25 

91 Computer Software 23 

49 Cosmic Computers 93 

44 Creative Software 86 

13 Data Equipment Supply Corp 131 

92 Data20Corp 17 

72 DC Circuits 31 

67 Double E Electronics 127 

93 Dynamic Tech 81 

14 Eastern House 148 

15 Electronic Specialists, Inc 24 

40 Fabtronics 22 

51 Fox Fire Systems 27 

17 FrenchSilk .' 2 

18 Galactic 89,47,119 

19 GloucesterComputer, Inc 27 

84 GOSUB 117 

16 GOSUBofSlidell 63,129 

85 H & H Enterprises 142 

94 Hanna Enterprises 77 

95 ICD Corporation 16 

52 Info Designs 3 

87 Integrated Controls 76 

21 Intelligent Software 84 

96 J. H.Wheeler and Co 139 

97 JMD 38 

53 Journal/20 90 

22 Leading Edge BackCover 

70 LynnComputers 61,81 

98 M & M ComputerSystems 140 



Circle No. 



Page No. 



99 M'Agreeable 59 

26 Micro Ed 35, 53 

100 Micro Management 136 

28 Micro Spec 105 

29 Micro Systems Development 36,37 

55 Microware Distributors 33,156 

25 Midwest Micro 113 

4 Mirage Concepts 154 

56 Mystic Software 24 

23 National VIC Assoc 52 

30 Nibbles and Bits, Inc 126 

31 Optimized Data Systems 102 

71 PACE 125 

57 Parr Programming 30 

32 Performance Micro Products 105 

75 Phantom Software 75 

33 Precision Technology, Inc 69 

58 Progressive Peripherals and Software 22 

76 Proline . 63, 69 

34 Protecto 99 

35 Psycom Software 103 

47 Public Domain 25 

24 Pug Software 109 

36 Quantum Data 85 

77 Rees Software Lab 57 

59 SAVE 59 

39 Sierra On-Line 123 

60 SJB Distributors 135 

38 Skylight Software 72 

65 The Software Clearing House 38 

78 Software International 71 

9 Software International 101 

62 Southern Solutions 121 

55 Southwest Micro 55 

Synapse Software Inside Front Cover 

61 Systems Management Associates 129 

79 T&FSoftware 5 

42 Tamarack Software 67 

66 Telegames Software 113 

73 TNW 81 

45 Toronto Pet Users Group 117 

46 TOTLSoftware 69 

81 Texas Technical Services 129 

82 Tronic 113 

80 Users Group Warehouse 117 

86 Videobook 19 

48 Victory Software Inside Back Cover 

63 WAVE Computers, Inc 91 

74 Webber Software 90 

88 What's? For the 64 38 



64 take care of the nitty-gritty. 

There's lots more the PAL 64, 
including a complete manual. 

See your nearest Commodore 
or software dealer for complete 
details. 

ALSO AVAILABLE FOR THE 
COMMODORE 8000 AND 9000 
SERIES. D 

APPLICATION TEMPLATES 
FOR HAM RADIO 
OPERATORS 

JINI MICRO-SYSTEMS, Inc. an- 
nounces the first of 24 MINI JINI 
ready-to-use application pack- 
ages. This premier package con- 
tains 12 templates for the ham 
radio operator plus easy-to-follow 
directions. The templates include 
applications for contests like 
DXCC, WAC, WAS, SATELLITE 
1000 plus templates for inventory, 
logs, mail lists, magazines, pro- 
jects, hamfest shopping and 
more. 

Most hamshack management 
systems consist of logbooks, 
QSL cards stuffed in drawers or 
on the wall, wrinkled bills and 
warranties, tons of magazine 
modifications, shoe boxes of 
parts and slips of paper. Now 
ORGANIZE THE HAMSHACK 
makes hamshack recordkeeping 
a breeze. 

Features: 

12 ready-to-use templates for 
ham radio operator contests, 
logs, magazines, QSL's, inven- 
tory, projects 

Easy-to-follow directions for 
alphabetizing, calculations, print- 
ing labels, printing reports, 
searching 
Requires: 

VIC 20 or Commodore 64 
Disk drive or tape player 
MINI JINI Record Keeper 

Optional 

Printer (1515/1525, serial or 
parallel) 

Price 

$14.95 

Contact Nancy Iscaro at (212) 
796-6200 for further information. 

146/Commander September 1983 



NEW SCIENCE AND 
ENGLISH EDUCATIONAL 
PROGRAMS 

Pet 

The Skeletal System, Word 
Functions, and Classes of Nouns, 

new science and English educa- 
tional software programs design- 
ed to run on Commodore PET® 
computers and supplement class- 
room studies, are now available 
from BrainBank, Inc. All three 
titles, in 16K, represent Brain- 
Bank's high-quality courseware. 

The Skeletal System contains 
five programs, each covering a 
different part of the system. They 
are entitled: "A Bone to Pick", 
"Major Skeletal Bones", "Joints, 
Ligaments and Cartilage", and a 
Review/Test. This title is the first 
follow-up to the popular BBI title: 
The Human Body, An Overview, 
which has received rave reviews 
for its fine graphics and student 
effectiveness. This follow-up title 
is equally well-crafted and ex- 
citing. The Skeletal System is 
available on disk or cassette for 
$70 and $32 each for back-up 
copies, and includes an extensive 
documentation package with line 
drawings and a Teacher Guide. 

Word Functions is available on 
two disks or cassettes, contain- 
ing a total of nine separate pro- 
grams in two parts. Part I on one 
disk includes "Homonyms", 
"Homonyms Matching Game", 
"Synonyms", and "A Synonym 
Matching Game". Part II, on the 
second disk, includes "Anto- 
nyms", "More Antonyms", 
"Troublesome Words (to, too, 
two)", "Troublesome Words (it's, 
its)", and a Review/Test. This title 
contains a matching game in a 
maze format, wherein a sentence 
appears missing one word which 
the student has to find and cor- 
rectly place. It can be played com- 
petitively between two players. 
Word Functions is available for 
$99 and $37 for each back-up set, 
and includes documentation and 
Teacher Guide. 

Classes of Nouns helps teach 
recognition of common nouns, 
proper nouns and special classes 



of nouns. This user-friendly, inter- 
active title is designed for high 
school English students. Its five 
programs are: "Proper Nouns", 
"Capitalization: Titles Are 
Tricky", "Special Classes of 
Nouns", "Common Nouns", and 
a Review/Test. With extensive 
documentation and Teacher 
Guide, Classes of Nouns is 
available for $60 and $22 each for 
back-ups on either disks or 
cassettes. 

"The Skeletal System, Word 
Functions and Classes of Nouns 
have been designed to educate as 
well as offer fun and diversion," 
said Ruth Landa, founder and 
president of BrainBank. "The pro- 
grams contain lively graphics, in- 
teractive features, and like all BBI 
BrainWare, are pedagogically 
sound." 

Additional, information on 
these three new BrainBank titles, 
as well as BBI's other educational 
courseware and games, is avail- 
able by writing to BrainBank, Inc., 
220 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 
10001, or by telephoning (212) 
686-6565. □ 

POWER 64 

A Commodore 64 program- 
mer's utility package written by 
Brad Templeton with a compre- 
hensive manual by Jim Butter- 
field. 

Why Power 64? 

— Power 64 produces a spec- 
tacular improvement in the ease 
of Basic programming on the 
Commodore 64. It is easy to learn 
and fast to use. 

What Does Power 64 Do? 

— Power 64's features include: 
— automatic line numbering 

and re-numbering 

— complete tracing func- 
tions 

— single stepping through 
programs 

— definition of keys as 
BASIC keywords 

—de-bugging ease with a 
"Why" command 

—addition of auto repeat 
function to cursor keys 



— text search and replace 
functions 

—ability to merge basic pro- 
grams 

— listing and scrolling up 
and down of BASIC programs in 
memory 

— hexadecimal and decimal 
conversions 

— and much, much more 



How Does Power 64 Work? 

— Power 64 contains a series of 
new commands and utilities 
which are added to the screen 
editor and BASIC interpreter. Us- 
ing only 4K of memory, Power 
64's collection of special editing, 
programming and software de- 
bugging tools are not found in 
any other microcomputer BASIC. 



How Much Does 
Power 64 Cost? 

— Only $99.95; from your Com- 
modore Dealer. 

HOW MUCH IS YOUR TIME 
WORTH?! D 



MUSIC AND SOUND 
EFFECTS SYNTHESIS 
SOFTWARE WITH ALL 
GRAPHICS ENTRY 
AND EDITING 

Two new programs, Note Pro I 
and Note Pro II, allow creation 
and play of music and sound ef- 
fects on a treble clef musical 
staff. A third new program, Note 
Pro Bridge is a package for the 
beginneror experienced program- 
mer. It is a set of copyable 
MACHINE LANGUAGE Programs 
which play Note Pro music/sound 
effect files and can be added to 
any program. End users can use 
Note Pro I or Note Pro II to enter 
and play music and sound ef- 
fects. Programmers can use Note 
Pro Bridge to add music and 
sound effects to their entertain- 
ment or educational programs. 

Note Pro II is loaded with uses 
and features. It allows you to 
enter or edit an eight measure 
section of music on each screen 
using a special five line musical 
staff. Each voice has a full eight 
octave range. Notes can be 
strung together to create note 



durations of unlimited length, or 
kept separate (staccato). Two- 
hundred and fifty-four gradations 
of tempo allow speeds ranging 
from one to four-hundred and fifty 
notes per second. ADSR, wave 
shape, and filter settings can be 
manipulated and saved. Best of 
all, Note Pro II allows you to AR- 
RANGE your music independent- 
ly of its actual sequence in 
memory. You can repeat sections, 
switch their order of occurrence, 
and even play music backwards! 
Note Pro II was field tested in a 
rock band which now uses it 
along with the 64 in its regular 
performances. 

Note Pro I offers one measure 
of treble clef per screeen, two- 
hundred and fifty-five gradations 
of tempo, and control of ADSR 
and wave shape. Each voice is 
given a two octave range, pro- 
viding you with bass, tenor, and 
soprano melody lines. 

Note Pro Bridge provides the 
beginner or expert programmer 
with control overthe SID chip that 
isn't possible in BASIC. Note Pro 
Bridge actually makes music and 
sound effects part of your com- 
puter's operating system. The 
programmer controls Note Pro 



COMMODORE 
AUTOMODEM FEATURES 
PARALLEL PRINTER PORT 

The Microperipheral Corp. has 
just announced a low cost 
modem for the VIC-20 and Com- 
modore 64. The unit features both 
an autodial and autoanswer capa- 
bility. In addition, it has a built in 
Centronics compatible parallel 
printer port. 

The new product, called an 
AutoPrint-Microconnection, 
retails for $149.94 and is enclosed 
in a professional quality extruded 
aluminum case. It operates at 300 
baud (Bell 103) in either originate 
or answer mode and is FCC Type 
Accepted. The combination 
modem and printer interface 
plugs directly into the computer 
without the need for additional in- 
terface devices. Telecommunica- 
tions software is provided in the 
user manual. 




The printer port permits con- 
necting conventional parallel 
printers such as the Epson and 
Oki. With the modem connected 
to the phone line, the printer will 
simultaneously provide hard copy 
of whatever appears on the 
screen. Word processing soft- 
ware is available which routes 



text to the printer via the modem. 
The unit measures 5" x 6" x 2" 
and weighs 2 pounds. For addi- 
tional information, contact 
Norene Scott, Director of Sales, 
The Microperipheral Corp., 2565 
152nd Ave. N.E., Redmond, WA 
98052. Telephone (206) 881-7544. 



Commander September 1983/147 



NEW DEALERS 


Massachusetts 

Microcron Software Center 
Woburn Mall 
Woburn, MA 01801 


Illinois 

The Book Baazare 
Eastland Shopping Center 
Bloomington, IL 61701 


Arizona 

Copperstate Cash Register Co. 
3125 E. McDowell 
Phoenix, AZ 85008 


LCA 

679 Washington St. 

Norwood, MA 02062 

New Jersey 

Software City 
102 Cranford Road 
Cherry Hill, NJ 08003 


Computer Clinic 
560 N.St. #203 
Springfield, IL 61704 

Texas 

Microbase 

8525 Stella Link Rd. #5 

Houston, TX 77025 


California 

Kens Computer & Video 
263 S. Western Ave. 
Los Angeles, CA 90004 

Software Center 
8324 Wilshire Blvd. 
Beverly Hills, CA 90211 


Software Center 

372 Hwy 18 

East Brunswick, NJ 08816 


Video Rama 

2425 Bay Area Blvd. 

Houston, TX 77058 


Access To Software 

4720 Geary Blvd. 

San Francisco, CA 94118 


New York 

Software City 

187 Main St. 

Mt. Kisco, NY 10549 


Computers Plus + 
2350 E. Southcross Blvd. 
San Antonio, TX 78223 

Idaho 


Oregon 

80 Plus 

4535 SE Soodstock 

Portland, OR 97206 


Florida 

Sunshine Software 

956 NE62nd St. 

Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33334 


Friendly Computers 
3655 Gov't Way Suite 5 
Cour D'Alene, ID 83814 

Utah 

ICS 

1700 N. State #21 

Provo, UT 84603 


Rainy Day Bookshop 
643 SE Jackson St. 
Roseburg, OR 97470 

Canada 


Alabama 

Software City 
7771 E. Wood Mall 
Birmingham, AL 35210 


Interactive Computer Systems 
554 Queen Street 
Fredericton, New Brunswick 
Canada E3B 1W9 



<t^v STC p_ 30fl/1200Baud 

Standard Terminal Communications Package 

•PFO"IOD OOA CP<DI>D2 BELL - 12:30:0010:14:36 

Don'i settle tor non-standard Communications Protocol! 
Access Micro Net. Source. Bulletin Boards, Local Main- 
frame, etc. 

/ • Complete Package — Includes RS232 Imer- 
1 tace Board and software (does not include 
§ modem) 
■ • Communicates in Industry Standard ASCII 

^ • Upload/Download to/from Disk 

• Automatic File Translation 

• Can be controlled from keyboard or user sup- 
plied basic or machine language program 

Specify 3.0 or 4.0 ROMS or 8032 Commodore Computer 
4040 or 8050 or PEDISK II Disk or CBM64 on 1541. 

Price: $129.95 




ATARI AND PET 
EPROM PROGRAMMER 

Programs 2716 and 2532 
EPROMs. Includes hardware 
and software. PET = $75.00- 
ATARI (includes sophisticated 
machine language monitor! = 
$119.95 




Prownter Pnnler - Excellent dot matrix prim Parallel = $489 00 
Serial - $600.00. IEEE = $589 00 



tf 



* 



VIC RABBIT CARTRIDGE 
AND CBM 64 RABBIT CARTRIDGE 

NEW FEATURE! 

DATA FILESI ff - 

"Highspeed /f.^/ 

Cassette ff ^. 

Load and Save!" 

$39.95 

(includes cartridge 
and manual) 





for VIC 



Don't waste your Life away waiting to LOAD 
and SAVE programs on Cassette Deck 
Load or Save 8K in approximately 30 seconds! 
Try it— your Un-Rabbitized VIC or 64 takes 
almost 3 minutes. It's not only fast but VERY 
RELIABLE. 

Almost as fast as 1541 Disk Drive! Don't be fool- 
ish — Why buy the disk when you can get the 
Rabbit for much, much less! 
Allows one to APPEND Basic Programs! 
Easy to install — just plugs in. 
Expansion Connector on rear of the VIC Rabbit. 
Works with or without Expansion Memory. 
Works with VIC or 64 Cassette Deck. 
12 Commands provide other neat features. 
Fast Data Files - two data file modes. 
Also Available for 2001, 4001. and 8032. 




TRAP 65 

TRAP 65 is a hardware device that 

plugs into your 6502s socket. Prevents 

execution of unimplemented opcodes 

and provides capability to extend the 

machines' instruction set. 

For PET/APPLE/SYM. 

Reduced from 1149.95 to $69.95 



DC Hayes Smart Modem » $235.00 
DC Hayes Micro Modem II a $289.00 



Rana Disk Drive - 375 
4 Drive Controller - 114 



It's a 

Professionally 

Designed 

Software 

Development 

System 




MAE 



More than just an Assembler/Editor! 
Now for the "64" A 

-K 

"for 

PET 

APPLE 

ATARI 

5*69S& 

New 

Price 

$99.95 

Blast off with the software used on the space 
shuttle project! 

• Designed to improve Programmer Productivity. 

• Similar syntax and commands — No need (o relearn 
peculiar syntaxes and commands when you go 
Irom PET to APPLE to ATARI. 

• Coresidant Assembler/Editor -- No need to load 
the Editor then the Assembler then the Editor, etc. 

• Also includes Word Processor, Relocating Loader, 
and much more. 

• Options: EPROM Programmer, unimplamented 
opcode circuitry. 

• STILL NOT CONVINCED: Send tor tree spec sheet! 



554 INCH SOFT 
SECTORED DISKETTES 

Highest quality. We use them on 
our PETs, APPLEs, ATARIs, and other 
compute rs. $22.50/10 or $44.50/20 




EPR0MS 2716 = $4.50 2532 = $7.50 

Over 40 Commodore Programs by Baker (on 4040) = 



$25.00 



3239 Linda Dr. 
Winston-Salem. N.C. 27106 
(919)924-2889 (919)748-8446 
Send for free catalog! 




148/Commander September 1983 



Circle No. 14 






User Clubs 



Massachusetts 

Masspet Commodore User Group 
P.O. Box 307 
East Taunton, MA 02718 
Contact— David A. Rogers 

New Hampshire 
TBH VIC-NIC CLUB 
P.O. Box 961 
Salem, NH 03079 
Contact— J. Newman 
Publication— VIC-NIC NEWS 
Interests— VIC-20 Exclusively 

C-64 U.S.E.R.S. (User Software 
Exchange Resources) 
P.O. Box 4022 
Rochester, NH 03867 
Publication— Companion 
Interests— All 64 uses. 

New Jersey 

Somerset Commodore User's Club 
6 Lilac Lane 
Somerset, NJ 08873 
Contact— Marty Skoultchi 
President 
(201) 846-2866 

New York 

JINSAM User's Group 

P.O. Box 274 

Riverdale, NY 10463 

Contact— Nancy Iscaro 

(212) 796-6200 

Publication— JINSAM Newsletter 

Interests — For users of JINSAM 

Data Managers and the MINI JINI 

series published by JINI MICRO 

Systems, Inc. (for all 

CBMWIC2WC64) 

National VIC Association 
9 Crabapple Lane 
Nanuet, NY 10954 
Contact— Michael Kleiner! 
(914)623-8929 

North Carolina 

Micro-Computer Users Club 
P.O. Box 17142 
Bethabara Station 
Winston-Salem, NC 27116 
Contact— Joel D. Brown 
Interests— VIC-20 & CBM 64 
Newsletter— The "VIC" 
Connection 

Georgia 

VIC-DATASWAPPERS 

1 794 Alabama Ave. 

Albany, GA 31 705 

Contact— David L. Via 

(912) 436-5596 

Interests— All uses of the VIC-20 

Florida 

Miami 2064 

1291 1 SW 49th Street 

Miami, FL 33175 

Contact— Jim Luftman 

(305)226-1185 



Kentucky 

The Commodore Connection 
1010 South Elm 
Henderson, KY 42420 
Contact— Jim Kemp 
(502)827-8153 
Interests- VIC, CBM 64, PET 

Ohio 

Central Ohio PET User's Group 
107 South West moor Avenue 
Columbus, OH 43204 
Contact— Philip H. Lynch 
(614) 274-0304 
Interests— Support of all 
Commodore Products 

Commodore Youths of Ohio 

9729 Lawndell 

Navarre, OH 44662 

Contact— Todd Archlnal 

(216) 767-3514 

Interests— Com mod o re U sers 

under 20 

SW Ohio VIC Users Club 
659 Carthage Avenue 
Cincinnati, OH 45215 
Contact— Tom E. Harris 
761-7510 

Indiana 

The V1C Indy Club 
P.O. Box 1 1543 
Indianapolis, IN 46201 
Contact— Linda Kropzer 
(317) 878-3342 

Michigan 

Michigan's Commodofe-64 

Users Club 

14342 Stephens 

Warren, Ml 48089 

Contact— Doug Schwartz 

(313) 776-5835 or 

Chuck Ciesliga 

(313) 7736302 

Newsletter— Sprite 64 (monthly) 

Interests— All uses of 

Commodore 64 

South Dakota 

VIC-64 Users Club 
608 West 5th 
Pierre, SD 57501 
Contact— Larry J. Lundeen 
(605) 224-4863 

Illinois 

The Fox Valley PET User's Club 

833 Willow Street 

Lake In the Hills, IL 60102 

Contact— Art Dekneef 

(312)658-7321 

Chicsgoland C-64 Users Club 
190 Oakwood Drive 
Woodale, IL 60191 
Contact— Russ Hurlbut 
(312)860-2015 



Vic Users, Salem 

306 S. Marion 

Salem, IL 62881 

Contact— John McConnell 

(618) 548-6904 

Newsletter — Published in 

near future 

Interests— VIC software library 

information exchange 

Missouri 

The Commodore Users Group 

of Saint Louis 
Box 6653 

St. Louis, MO 63125-0653 
Membership Director- 
Dan Weidman 
(314) 968-4409 (after 5 pm) 
Interests— For all Commodore 
Users and Educators using 
microcomputers. 
Publication— Monthly 24-page 
Magazine 

Kansas 

Commodore Users Group 
of Wichita 
Route 1, Box 115 
Viola, Kansas 67149 

Nebraska 

Greater Omaha Commodore 64 
Users Group 
2932 Leawood Drive 
Omaha, NE 68123 
Contact— Bob Quisenberry 
(402) 292-2753 

Texas 

Mid Cities Commodore Club 
413 Chisolm Trail 
Hurst, Texas 76053 
Contact— Garry Wordelman 
President 

Commodore (Houston) 
Users Group 
8738 Wildforest 
Houston, TX 77088 

Colorado 

Computer Clubs of America, 

Denver Chapter 1 

4979 W. 44th Ave. 

Denver, CO 80212 

Contact— Office: Jim McTaggart 

(313) 455-4200 or 

Library: Pat Cummings 

(303) 424-8841 

Newsletter— CCA Newsletter 

Support for New Users— Classes 

in Microsoft Basic, etc. 

California 

SFVCUG (San Fernando Valley 
Commodore Users Group) 
21208 Nashville 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 
Contact — Thomas Lynch 
(President) 

(213)889-2211 X2015 Days 
(213) 709-4736 Nights 
Newsletter— Monthly 
Interests— All Commodore 
Products 



Commodore Interest Association 
c/o Computer Data 
1 4660 La Paz Drive 
Vlctorville, CA 92392 

20/64 Users Group 

P.O. Box 18473 

San Jose, CA 95158 

Contact— Don Cracraft, President 

Membership— Thirty 

Founded— 1983 

Meetings— First Sunday, 6 pm 

Mercury Savings 

859 Blossom Hill Rd. 

San Jose, CA 

Features— Large library, with copy 

facilities at local computer 

store. Discounts of merchandise 

and a swap/sell period after 

each meeting. 

Amateurs and Artesian 
P.O. Box 682 
Cobb, CA 95426 
Contact— B. Alexander KR6G 

Washington 

Queen City Computer Club 
P.O. Box 19597 
Seattle, WA 98109 
Contact— Dr. Ted Cooper 
(206) 282-3271 

A.T.S. VIC-20 Computer Club 
7906-34th Avenue SW 
Seattle, WA 98126 
Contact— Ken Gazaway 
(206) 935-2697 
Publication— For VIC-20 only 

Whidbey Island 

Commodore Computer Club 

P.O. Box 1471 

Oak Harbor, WA 98277 

Contact— Michael Clark 

(206)875-4815 

Donald Sims 

(206) 675-0301 

Newsletter— Chips 'N Bits 

CBM Users Group 

803 Euclid Way 

Centralia, WA 98531 

Contact— Rick Beaber 

(206) 736-4085 

Special Interests— Programming 

and sharing ideas. 

Central Washington Commodore 

User's Club 

1222 South 1st Street 

Yakima, WA 98902 

Contact— Bob Wood or 

Tim McElroy 

Commodore 64 Users 
West 1918 Boone Avenue 
Spokane, WA 99201 
Contact— Terrv or Sara Voss 
(509) 327-7202 

Canada 

Winnipeg PET Users 
9-300 Ennls Kilieo 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 
Canada R2V 0H9 
Contact— Larry Nevfeld 



/ 



Commander September 1983/149 



Bridge by poking into its special 
registers to control tempo, note 
duration, wave shape and more. 
The package includes sample 
programs written in easy to read 
BASIC which shows you how to 
load and play Note Pro music and 
tone setting files, or create music 
and sound effects from within 
your programs. Note Pro Bridge is 
interrupt driven. This means that 
you can add sound and music to 
existing programs without affect- 
ing their execution. 

All three packages are docu- 
mented in detail, and come with 
sample compositions and tone 
settings. N.P. I and N.P. Bridge 
sell for $24.95 on tape and $27.95 
on diskette. N.P. II, the full func- 
tion music editor, sells for $46.95 
on tape and $49.95 on diskette. 
For information contact ELEC- 
TRONIC LAB INDUSTRIES, 100 
W. 22nd st - box 7167, Baltimore, 
MD 21218 or phone 301-366-8138. 

A GRADE & ATTENDANCE 
MANAGEMENT PACKAGE 

GradeCalc is a grade and atten- 
dance management package de- 
signed to free the teacher from 
many of the time consuming 
tasks of record keeping. Grade fil- 
ing and reporting are set up in a 
flexible manner to accomodate 
any teacher's existing gradebook 
format. 



With GradeCalc the teacher 
has on file all the raw grades and 
assignment information. This file 
can then average grades using a 
variety of methods. These meth- 
ods range from percentage 
scores to symbolic (letter) grades. 
In addition to averaging, a number 
of useful reports can be genera- 
ted. For example, the teacher can 
easily obtain a cumulative listing 
of missing assignments. Other 
reports include grade totals, 
averages, grade book listings, 
assignment summaries, and 
more. 

GradeCalc also maintains at- 
tendance records in the same 
flexible manner as grade records. 
The teacher can recover a variety 
of reports based on the atten- 
dance records. These reports in- 
clude cumulative totals of all at- 
tendance records and problem 
reports based on excessive 
absences or other problems. 

The GradeCalc package is 
available on disk for Commo- 
dore-64, the 40 or 80 column CBM 
or PET computer. The price is 
$29.95. 

Contact TAMARACK SOFT- 
WARE, INC., Water St., Darby, 
Montana 59829, (406) 821-4596 for 
further information. □ 



MASTER MATH 

PMI, Inc. of Buckfield, Maine 
has introduced a new software 
package, MASTER MATH, that is 
a comprehensive program for 
teaching high school level math. 

High resolution color graphics 
and games are used to build in- 
terest and enthusiasm. MASTER 
MATH is comprised of six inde- 
pendent discs with 50 specific 
tutorial or problematic subjects 
including Algebra, Geometry, 
Trigonometry, Statistics and 
Basic Accounting. The program is 
self-paced and allows the student 
to determine the most comfort- 
able learning rate. 

MASTER MATH sells for $150 
(for the entire six disc or cassette 
package) or $30 per disc, and is 
accompanied by support mater- 
ials. It is currently compatible 
with the Commodore PET, Com- 
modore 64 or CBM 8032. 

Additionally, MASTER MATH 4 
and/or 5 (which consists of a com- 
prehensive exam package) are 
available on cassette for the VIC 
20. 

For more information, contact: 
PMI Inc., P.O. Box 87, Buckfield, 
Maine 04220, (207) 336-2500. □ 




A NEW EXPANSION UNIT 
FOR COMMODORE VIC-20 
PERSONAL COMPUTER 

Computer Place has announc- 
ed the release of a new VIC-20 Ex- 
pander. It differs from the others 
as it has such built-in quality 
features as: 

* Four high quality positively 
keyed connector slots for full 
memory expansion and utility car- 
tridges. 

* Gold-plated contact fingers 
for solid, long-lasting connection. 

* An on-board RESET button 
that allows the restart of the 
VIC-20 without turning off the 
computer. 

* Four individual slot ON-OFF 




control switches which are ar- 
ranged for easy access and 
designed with fingertip control 
rather than pentip. 

* An external power supply 
hook-up provision with a two-way 
power source switch. 

* A fuse block for overload and 
short protection. 

This VIC-20 Expander truly is 
the one all the VIC users have 
been waiting for. It incorporates 
all the features the users have 
ever asked for. It enhances the 
VIC-20 computer system for many 
various applications. It is priced 
at $54.95. 

Contact W. Huang of Computer 
Place, 23914 Crenshaw Blvd., Tor- 
rance, CA 90505/(213) 325-4754. □ 



1 50/Commander September 1983 



"BUSINESS PACK" 
ON DISK FOR THE 
COMMODORE 64 AND 
VIC 20 (8K) 

Contained within the software 
package are the most widely used 
and popular business utility pro- 
grams including: 

*THE ACCOUNTANT-General 
Ledger, Income Statement and 
Balance Sheet 

'ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/ 
PAYABLE— Journal for current & 
paid accounts 

*THE EDITOR — Full feature 
word processor 

'SPREAD SHEET CALC— 
Complete spread sheet/ 
calculating program 

'BUSINESS INVENTORY— In- 
ventory control system 

'CHECKBOOK MATE— 

Checkbook maintenance and 
writer 

*THE MAILMAN— Address file 
with sorting 

*PLUS 6 UTILITY PROGRAMS^ 
Profit Margin Calculator; 
Business Calendar & Data Base; 
Program Evaluation Review 
Technique (PERT); Linear Regres- 
sion Analysis; Depreciation; and 
Amortization programs 

The software package has full 
printer capabilities and comes 
complete with a detailed 
reference manual including pro- 
gram examples and a hard bound 
binder. Programming assistance 
in utilizing the software is also of- 
fered during specified hours. 

The entire package is now be- 
ing offered on an introductory 
basis of $100.00. 

Information may be obtained by 
writing or calling SUPERBYTE 
SOFTWARE at 2 Chipley Run, 
West Berlin, New Jersey 08091, 
Telephone (609) 346-3063. D 



Commander's Toll Free 

Subscription Number is 

1-800-426-1830 



Commodore 64 

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 



MASS STORAGE: 



C 



pmaisKii 



J" 



gh Performance FLOPPY DISK 
for Commodore 64 



PEDISK directly transfers data to computer memory. This and the 
250000 bps transfer rate means performance up to 10 times fasterthan 
a serial bus disk. 

Model C340-2 Dual 3'. . . $995.00 ModelC877-1 Single8'. . . $1095.00 
Model C540-2 Dual 5'. . . $895.00 Model C877-2 Dual 8' . . . $1695.00 

80 COLUMN VIDEO: 

Screenmaker so column video board $1 79.95 

Give the 64 a screen full of characters. Screenmaker gives a complete 
set of characters (80X24) in a 2K Video RAM. Software to link the system 
is included. 

WORD PROCESSING: 

COPY-WRITER Professional Word Processor $145.00 

The next logical step in the evolution of Word Processors. Copy-Writer 
has the features found in the best and more. Double columns, shorthand, 
the works! 

COMMUNICATIONS: 

COM PACK Intelligent Terminal Package $1 29.95 

A complete communications control center- record/read to/from disk- 
convert files ASCII, BASIC, BINARY, MAE - print incoming data. Complete 
with software, port board and cable. 

LANGUAGES: 

fllllFORTH+ enhanced fig Forth forCommodore 64. . . $100.00 
Strings, floating point, editor, conditional assembler, interpreter, and 
more are included in fullFORTH +. Target Compiler is also available for 
$50.00 

KMMM PASCAL forCommodore64byWilserve.... $85.00 
One of the newest HL languages, KMMM PASCAL isatruecompilerthat 
generates machine code from PASCAL source. . . FAST! Editor, Compiler, 
Translator included. 

UTILITIES: 

Copymaker single disk backup routine $30.00 

Copymaker allows a 1541 owner to quickly backup an entire floppy disk 
on ONE DRIVE! Sim pie swap prompting and full use of memory make this 
easy to use and essential for any disk owner. 

MAE Macro Assembler Editor from EHS $ 99.95 

MAE has become the standard of the 6502 industry by providing the 
powerandeaseof use needed by the best assembly programmers. MAE 
is a complete development system including a word processor and lots 
of source goodies. 

MICROTECH is your complete 64 center. Dealer inquiries invited. 



Cm cgrs ^^^^^^^B^^^^M^^H^^HMIk 
MICROTECH] 



P.O. BOX 102 

LANGHORNE.PA 19047 
215-757 0284 



Circle No. 6 
Commander September 1983/151 



GAME CONTEST 




The Game Contest is a continuing feature of 
Commander Magazine aimed at providing enter- 
tainment for and promoting competition among 
our readers. TIMEWORKS has graciously 
provided us with this Game Contest. 

DEADLINE FOR ENTRIES 
NOVEMBER 1, 1983 

ROBBERS OF THE LOST TOMB may be 

purchased from 

TIMEWORKS 

405 Lake Cool Road 

Building A 

Deerfield, IL 60015 

1-312-291-9200 inside Illinois 

1-800-323-9755 toll free outside of Illinois 

152/Commander September 1983 



Terms for 
Game Contest 

First prize will be awarded to 
the person with the highest 
score. The winning entry must 
contain a photograph of the 
highest score of the game along 
with a ROBBERS OF THE LOST 
TOMB package front and proof of 
purchase. 

Entries must be mailed to Com- 
mander, TIMEWORKS Contest, 
P.O. Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 
98498. All entries must be mailed, 
as postmarks are required to 
determine the earliest winning 
entry. In the event of a tie, 
duplicate prizes will be awarded. 
Employees of TIMEWORKS and 
their families may not participate. 
First prize will be $100, second 
prize $50, third prize $25 in mer- 
chandise. 

The contest will run until 
November 30. 





©41NSANDER 





Only COMMANDER will do all this 



Reports that give you hands-on, user oriented information on the entire range of 
Commodore Computers • More comparison charts, diagrams, instructional illustra- 
tions, and how-to photos than any other publication in the field • Articles written 
by the top working experts in the field. 

Innovative ways to use your computer equipment— from self-improvement 
to home security • Valuable tricks and practical advice on how to get the most from 
your investment in the high tech field of computers • In depth and unbiased analyses 
of the latest in educational software. 

Fascinating glimpses into the wonders of the computer future • Profiles of 
the industry's most creative people • Provocative discussions on the impact com- 
puters will have on you and your family. 

Critical comparisons of the Commodore Computers • Exactly how your 
computer equipment works • What those computer "buzz words" mean and ex- 
pensive "special features" do • Useful trouble-shooting & maintenance advice. 

An expanded directory of the latest programs on ROM-PAK, tape and disc 
• New product previews of the latest and best equipment on the market • Exciting 
technologies in development for tomorrow • Important applications of computers 
for health, education, business, and the public good • New directions in computers 
• Much More . . . 

Subscribe now and take advantage of our Limited Offer of $4 off the one year subscriptions 



GUIDE 

INSTRUCT 

ENTERTAIN 

SIMPLIFY 

INFORM 




Subscription Orders Only- 
Toll Free Number: 1-800-426-1830 
(except WA, HI, AK) 

COMMANDER 

PO BOX 98827 
TACOMA, WASHINGTON 98498 

□ 1 YR. $22 □ 2 YR. $40 

□ 3 YR. $58 

(Prices do not include $4 discount) 

Prices in U.S. Funds 

Washington residents please add 7.8% sales tax 

Allow 5-6 weeks for delivery. 



DON'T MISS OUT 

on the most informative 
magazine dedicated to the 
COMMODORE COMPUTERS 

HAVE YOU GOT WHAT 
IT TAKES TO BE A 



©UNSANDER 



For All 

Walks of Life 




MIRAGE CONCEPTS offers you a step in the right direction by 
presenting the All New DATABASE MANAGER and ... 
WORD PROCESSOR programs, the most powerful and easy to 
use software available for the Commodore 64. 



DATABASE MANAGER 

The Most Powerful 

Database Management System 

• 100% Machine Language 

• Free Form Design and Input 

• Sort on Any Field/Any Level 

• Calculated Fields 

• Max. Record size = 2,000 
Characters 



WORD PROCESSOR 

80 Column Screen Display 
Without Additional Hardware 

• 100% Machine Language 

• Over 70 Single Keystroke Commands 

• Printed Page/Line/Character Counters 

• True Word Wrap 

• Search, Replace and Block 
Operations 




FOR THE COMMODORE 64 



mRAGE concEPn, inc. 



'A Step Ahead! 



2519 W. Shaw, Suite 106 / Fresno, CA 93711 / Customer Support: (209) 227-8369 
Order Number: (800) 641-1441 Order Number (in Calif.): (800) 641-1442 




/. 



( software ab 

J i uiii|i.iiiv 111 thr I >.i I, id on ii tittup- 



The Commodore 64 
Spreadsheet that 
puts you a 
million miles ahead 



CALC RESULT. The one spreadsheet guaranteed to turn 
your Commodore Into a powerful financial tool. 
Offering you every feature found on other more 
expensive programs for much less the cost. 
Flexible.. .you can view four different areas at once 
Versatile... customize your own print formats 
Distinctive... display beautiful color graphics 
CALC RESULT Advanced Is a three-dimensional 
spreadsheet with built-in HELP function and 32 pages 
of memory. For the Commodore 64 $149.95. For the 
CBM™8032 $199.00. 

For first time users CALC RESULT Easy gives you a fasl way 
to perform financial calculations— easily. For the 
Commodore 64 $79.95. 

For a down to earth demonstration of either version visit 
your local dealer today. 





Distributed b 



Computer 
Marketing 

r\\ I rid *^^^ 



Services 



Iilllll tl>1 I" .1 I', Mr 



opest EXPERIENCE A NEW 
v i DIMENSION IN SOFTWARE 



'•■■ 




WORD WIZARD 




rrri 1 i 



Mm tkti tlliw »» 1* »■■•■• tut 

Ml I It tttrtu » Mill 1 1, mi lilt It III ••< 
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m*kt tblt word practtior simpl* 

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catMtM«|i)f«rbyitiMMtppliettiei». 




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75£ J 



The quality and amazing visual displays of these software 
packages adds the extra dimension other programs don't 
have. And at an affordable price ... 

KEY QUEST 

With arcade action and adventure intrigue, multiple players 
explore the many levels of an ancient dungeon. Collect 
treasure and destroy monsters while searching for the 
magical Key. Its power unlocks the doors to deeper 
dungeon levels $34.95 

ZAP! 

This multi-player arcade/action game uses keyboard or 
joystick control. Players work their men up the many levels of 
corporate structure while avoiding the constant obstacles 
which can Zap your chances for success. Dare you try for 
brownie points? $29,95 

WORD WIZARD 

An advanced word processing system, everyone can use 
with ease. Features include: Edit, Search, Delete, Insert, and 
retrieve text. Page layouts with T/B/L/R margins. Justify, 
Center, and Embeded print commands can be used with 
Centronics type printer $34.95 



Dealer and Distributor 
Inquiries Invited 

2tM-m-SC2? 



K ^ ^II 1 

MosterCordjII M 7V^ B 





[ «2B Knife 23. Buller, NJ 07)0 



DISTRIBUTING INC 



Key Quest, Zap!, Word Wizard '-' 1983 by COMPUTER;applicaiions. Inc 
Vic-20 is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines 




; ■■■..■■. v. 






'■'■■-.• 




$19.95 



»u o 



■ ADVENTURE. 

THE KEY 

IS 

YOUR COMPUTER 




macWne c 
SA9-95 




SA9.95 






t«o95 






„_. tor N"» e 

7 ValWT »«»*,« 2,6-37*7 . „ y . ^f0* 






053* 




TRUNKS FOR THE 




Introducing the most logical place to store 
Elephant Memory Systems® (or lesser brands 
of disks): The Trunk. 

With its alphabetized library index, you can 
file or retrieve up to 60 disks, instantly. 

The Trunk is made of durable molded 
plastic with a hinged, one-piece lid, to keep 
disks safe from dust, dirt, and other detriments 
which disks despise. 



And, it's portable. Because the lid doubles 
as a carrying handle so your Elephant Memory 
Systems® disks can go anywhere you do. 

There's a model for 5V4" and 8" floppies, as 
well as a cassette -and -game file and a special 
Atari® version. 

So if you're looking for the best disk storage 
system on the market . . . 

The Trunk is an open-and-shut case. 



THE TRUNK. ENDORSED DY ELEPHANTS. 

Elephant Memory Systems^Disks 

A full line of top-quality floppies, in virtually every 5W and 8' model, for ccrmpatibility with virtually et'erj computer on the market. 

Guaranteed to meet or exceeaevery industry standard, certified 100% error-free and problem-free, and to maintain its quality forai least 

12 million passes (or over a life-time of heavy-duty use). 

Marketed exclusively by Leading Edge Jrt/ormatiVm Systems and Supplies Division, 55 Providence Highway, Norwood Massachusetts 02062 
Dealers.- Call toll-free 1-800-343-8413; or in Massachusetts call colka (617) 769-8150. Telex 951-624-