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The Monthly Journal for Commodore Computer Users 



®MNsANDER 

^•^^ JULY 1983 VOL 1 ISSUE 8 



INSIDE: 

• VIC-20 Assembling Language Programming: 

Simple Math 

• Revive that Old "Commodore PET" Computer 

• So You Bought a Disk Drive: 

A Primer for the Commodore 
1540/1541 Disk Drive 

• See the Centerfold 





• The PET Goes 

Teaching the C 




II 74470"12426 I 







Ifyoure looking for Commodore 64 or VIC-20 
software, look no further than Synapse! 




w. y*V^ r> THE PHARAOH'S CURSE 

\v" s|i // A fortune — yours for the tak- 

& ing. But can you avoid the 

ghost of Rama and the evil 
| T j mummy? Are you nimble 

enough to leap the chasms 
and avoid the booby traps 
standing between you and 
freedom? 



SURVIVOR 

The first multi-player coop- 
erative space adventure. 
Alone or with your hand- 
picked crew (1 to 4 players) 
you must out-maneuver the 
Xenogryph fleet and destroy 
their space fortresses. Can 
you train yourself and/or your 
"crew to survive? 



Ildl 

P 

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■■ 
w 

M 

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^S?»5B?3 



For Commodore 64 in disk < 
$34 95 Also available — Slam Ball and 
Drelbs for the Commodore 64 , and Astro 
Patrol, Squeeze and Harrier for the VIC-20 
Cartridge versions available soon. 

Other titles available for the Atari 400/800 
computers. 



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WMVS 



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imiiirit 






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Your dealer out of stock? Order 
direct — send your check or 
money order including $2 for 
shipping and handling. Or join 
the Synapse Elite! Write for fre, 
membership! 



jsm 



SHAMUS 

The odor tells you the Shad- 
ow's there — in one of four 
levels of 32 rooms, each bris- 
tling with danger. You know 
it won't be a high school 
prom, but there's no turning 
back. Shamus — the sleuth 
adventure classic. 



FT. APOCAl.YPSL 
Your mission — fly your hell- 
copter to capture fuel and 
weapons from the Kraalthan 
lords of inner Earth, free the 
enslaved masses and destroy 
the fortress itself. Will you 
triumph or be crushed by its 
fiendish defenses? Lncounter 
Fort Apocalypse! 



PROTICTOKII 

You are the bist hope! I he 
raxullan Slimehordes are 
ff<u king your cities «tnd 
arrying off their citizen*. 

Can you get your people to 

safety as volcanoes erupt and 
nemy forces conspire to 
lwart your every effort? 



^ 



5221 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 • (415) 527-7751 



tt\u! 



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CDrnm * data 

CDfTlPUTER HOUSE, inc. 




UTILITIES 

Basic Tools 1 

- Music Mentor 1 



EDUCATIONAL 

Sketch & Paint* 
Gotcha Math 
Alphabet Tutor* 
English Invaders 1 
Math Invaders 
Series v 
Tutor Math 
Series* 
And Many More 





ARCADE STYLE GAMES 

• Pakacuda* 

• Centropods* 

• Ape Craze* 

• Escape MCP* 

• Logger 1 
4 Supercuda* 

Firing Line 1 
► Pegasus 
Odyssey 1 



OTHER GAMES 

Caves of 
Annod v 
Dragons & 
Treasure v 
Street Maze : 
The Market 
And Many More 



On Shelves Everywhere - 

Ask For Comm*Data 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome. 

t Commodore 64 
v VIC 20 I 
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EQITIPLITER HDUSE, mE. 



320 Summit Avenue 

Milford, Michigan 48042 

(313) 685-0113 



Style Games are High Res Full Machine Code. 

^eqistered Trademarks of Commodore Business Ma 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS on the VIC and '64* 

"A versatile and exceedingly well-done package." David Malmberg, MICRO 

"Simply the best & nicest VIC terminal software I have seen." 

Greg Yob, CREATIVE COMPUTING 

We created quite a flurry and earned rave reviews with 
Terminal-40, the unique software that transforms the 

VIC screen into a 40-column smooth-scrolling display. >v -* 

And with features like a Receive Buffer and VIC MODEM 

printer dump, Term'mal-40 sets a new standard for per- 
sonal modem communications with networks such as -^ 
CompuServe and Source. Our '64 Terminal does the f^§s^4* 
same quality job for the '64. $Sbr^&4B 
And now there's even MORE!!! SuperTerm for the 
VIC and '64 supports text storage to disk or tape 
and program UPLOAD/DOWNLOAD. SuperTerm, 
used with our Smart ASCII interface, also 
supports popular parallel printers. 

Choose the one right for you. Call or write 

today for the "best", then ... ,j 






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For the VIC: 

Term'mal-40 freg 8K exp) $29.95 

SuperTerm <reg T6Kexpj — Call 

For the Commodore 64: 

'64 Terminal $29.95 

SuperTerm Call 

(On cassette. Requires modem.) 

MIDWEST 
MICRO inc. 



REACH OUT - 

and BYTE SOMEONE! 



311 W. 72nd ST. • KANSAS CITY • MO • 64114 



ORDER DESK: (816)333-7200 

Send for a free brochure describing our 
other quality products. 



MAIL ORDER: Add $1.50 shipping and handling 
($3.50 for C.O.D.); VIS A/Mastercard add 3% (card# 
and exp. date). Missouri residents include 4.6% 
sales tax. Foreign orders payable U.S.S, U.S. Bank 
ONLY; add $5 shp/hndlg. Dealer inquiries invited. 



Circle No. 25 



STAFF 






Publisher 


Advertising 


COMMANDER is published monthly by: 


THOMAS L. ROSENBAUM 


LINDA L. LINDEN, Manager 


MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES, PO Box 98827, 




PATRICIA A. ANDERSON, Assistant 


Tacoma, Washington 98498 


Editor-in-Chief 






LINDA L LINDEN 


Typesetting 


Subscription Rates (U.S. Funds) Per Year 




GRANGE PRINTING 


U.S. $22.00 


Technical Editor 
COLIN THOMPSON 


Consultant 
EDWIN SUND 


Canadian, Mexican $26.00 
Surface Rates, Foreign $37.00 
Air Mail, Foreign $54.00 


Editorial Assistant 


GEORGE R. GAUKEL 


For back issues, subscriptions, change of address or 


TERILYN M. AICHLMAYR 


JOHN GABBARD 


other information, write to: 
COMMANDER 


Dealer/Distribution 


Production Artists 


PO Box 98827 


DEBBIE A. GABBARD, Manager 


MIKE BRIGHENTI 


Tacoma, Washington 98498 


PAULA M. ANDERSON, Assistant 


BRIAN D. THOMPSON 
JON WONG 


(206) 584-6757 
BACK ISSUES— 
2 months old— $4.50 


Sales/Subscription 






ELIZABETH K. STEAN, Manager 


Printed By 


Copyright© 1983 by MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES 


CATHY A. SALZER, Assistant 


GRANGE PRINTING 


All Rights Reserved 



Commander— The Monthly Journal for Commodore Computer Users is published monthly by Micro Systems 
Specialties, 3418 South 90, Tacoma, WA 98409. Domestic Subscriptions, 12 issues, $22.00. Second Class 
Postage pending at Tacoma, WA 98143 and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to 
Commander— The Monthly Journal for Commodore Users; PO Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 98498. Entire 

Contents copyright © 1983 by Micro Systems Specialties. All Rights Reserved. 



2/Commancler July 1983 



Info-Designs 

announces . . . 

Small Business Accounting 

for the Commodore-64 / W 




Infold 



Now the power of Info-Designs 
Management Accounting System 
is available on the Commodore-64 
in a full and faithful version! 

Thousands of these quality business accounting 
software packages have been sold on the CBM 
computer at $595 each. Now, similar features are 
available to the small business user on the new 
Commodore-64 for $199 per module! 

Select the accounting modules you need— 

• Accounts Receivable/Billing 

• Accounts Payable/Checkwriting 

• General Ledger 

• Inventory Management 

• Payroll 

• Electronic Calendar ($149) 

Limited Introductory Offer! 

Our SoftPack combination contains the "Big-3" 
accounting— A/R, A/P and G/L— for only $495. 
Available for immediate delivery! 



Flexible Design 

The accounting system will work with one or two 
VIC-1541 disk drives (or 2031/4040 with IEEE 
interface), 1 525 printer, and color or b&w monitor 
or TV. 

Customer Support Plan 

As part of Info-Designs ongoing effort to provide the 
highest quality microcomputer applications in the 
marketplace, we offer an optional telephone con- 
sulting service to support installation and ongoing 
operations. 

Order NOW. . .for immediate delivery 

See your local Commodore-64 Dealer or call us 
directiy at (313) 540-4010. MasterCard and Visa 
accepted. 



Ctrcle No. 52 



IiiMDgsQ 




6905 Telegraph Road • Birmingham, Ml 48010 • (313) 540-4010 



Table of Contents 




PractiCalc, Page 55 




A Disk Drive, Page 40 



-O0Q04- 



000000- 




Programming on the VIC-20, 
Page 58 

COVER BY: 

Randy "Tarkas" Hoar 

Due to complications, the Basics of Basic, 
Part 2, will run in the August Issue. 

4/Commander July 1983 



Article Guide 
VIC 


Page No. 

18 


Article 

TELECOMMANDER 
by Donald L. Stoner 


GENERAL 


23 


AM I PREPARED FOR PROCESSING? 
by Barbara Naness 


64 


26 


REVISED SPRITE EDITOR FOR THE C-64 
by Garry Kizak 


V/64 


40 


SO YOU BOUGHT A DISK DRIVE 
by R.G. Partner 


V/64/PET 


46 


SCREEN SAVE: 
A SIMPLE UTILITY 
by Howard Rotenberg 


GENERAL 


48 


COMPUKIDS 

by Elizabeth Anders 


GENERAL 


51 


A PROBLEM OF SORTS 

by Roy McLean and Tim Parker 


V/64 


55 


LIVING WITH PRACTICALC 
by Colin F. Thompson 


VIC 


58 


AN INTRODUCTION TO ASSEMBLY 
LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING ON THE 
VIC-20: Part VIII 
by Eric Giguere 


PET 


60 


MACHINE LANGUAGE I/O: 

Part Three of Three 

By Howard N. Rotenberg 


GENERAL 


78 


UNIVERSAL ROLL PAPER HOLDER: MK I 
by Louis F. Sander 


GENERAL 


86 


MAINTENANCE: WHAT ARE YOUR 

OPTIONS 

by Tony LaMartina 


PET 


88 


REVIVE THAT OLD 
"COMMODORE PET" COMPUTER 
by Robert Mergy 


VIC 


96 


AUTO CLOCK 

by Colin F. Thompson 


64 


100 


PEEK & POKE #10: ON THE BUSS 
by George R. Gaukel 


VIC 


103 


RAVINGS OF A VIC-20 MADMAN 
by Tim Parker 


GENERAL 


114 


MICRO COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION 
by Arthur J. Dudley 


DEPARTMENTS 




6 

16 
66 
80 
82 
108 


New Products 
News Releases 
Bits & Pieces 
Reviews for the VIC-20 
Educational Reviews 
Game Contest 




You need more 
than ABC, BPI, MAS, 
BEC, EBS, XYZ... 



Workhorse solutions 
for tough questions. 

There are lots of bookkeeping and business systems for your 
Commodore computer. Maybe they all seem about the same. 

Ours is different: real business software tor real 
computers, with capabilities you need, at a price you 
can afford. 

When professional computer dealers who were 
dissatisified with their current accounting software were 
allowed to trade it in for our System III, we were 
inundated. We got practically everything — BPI, 
EBS, MAS — just about everyone's. 

We have general ledger accounts 
receivable, accounts payable, payroll, inventory, 
mail list management and much more. 
There are special packages for oil 
accounting, church records, 
encumbrance accounting, pharmacy 
management etc. 

You will like our user-defined 
reports. You decide what your 
Balance Sheet P&L. Budget 
Analysis, etc., will look like. 

If you have purchased a 
Commodore 64*, you will be 
pleased when you see our 
complete line of business 
software for the "64. This 
software is no rinky-dink, rip- I 
off software that is an upgrade % 
from the VIC. These are real 
workhorse programs that use file 
structures developed for the big 
boys. 

You have purchased the right 
computer when you bought 
Commodore. Now do it again. Buy 
the right software. Buy it from the right 
place: your professional computer dealer 
Thafe where you'll get the help you need 
as you start 

Call or write for the name of the 
dealer nearest you. a 

Dealer Hotline: 1-800-527-4548 M 



'Commodore 64 is a registered 
trademark of Commodore 



AVAILABLE IN CANADA THROUGH 

CANADIAN MICRO DISTRIBUTORS, LTD. 

500 Steeles Avenue, Milton, Ontairo, Canada L9T 3P7 

Telephone 416-878-7277*Telex 06-961243 



PQ Box P t M c Kinney, Texas jcp6g - (214) 542-027S 



Circle No. 62 




New Products 




Rat Hotel Available 
from Creative Software 

VIC-20— 

Creative Software announced on 
June 1, 1983, the release of Rat Hotel, 
the new game cartridge for the VIC-20. 

Rat Hotel is an arcade-style, hide- 
and-seek game in which the player 
takes the role of Ermine the Rat, a 
cheese-seeking inhabitant of the Hotel 
Paradisio who is pursued by Waldo 
the Maintenance Man. 

Using a joystick, the player 
maneuvers the Rat from the attic, 
down six floors and into the basement 
where he can eat Le Grand Cheese- 
ball. The Rat must reach the basement 
within a three-minute time period. 
Reaching the cheese at the very bot- 
tom enables the player to get to the 
next of a total of five difficulty levels in 
the game. 

Tension is created when the Rat en- 
counters the various obstacles in his 
path. The elevators that allow the Rat 
to move down each floor will only stop 
for him if he has eaten all the cheese 
on the floor he wishes to leave. The 
cheese, depending on color, will either 

6/Commander July 1983 



give the Rat energizing points or leave 
him paralyzed for a few seconds. In 
addition, traps are strategically placed 
in the Rat's favorite dining spots and 
hiding places. If the player is not care- 
ful, the Rat will lose lives by running in- 
to as many as three different obstacles: 
a player may run into Waldo, a trap, 
or simply run out of time. The Rat is 
allotted only three lives per game. 

Rat Hotel, which is compatible with 
the VIC-20, has a suggested retail 
price of $39.95. The new game will be 
shown at Creative Software's booth, 
#6580, during Summer CES in 
Chicago. 

Creative Software is the largest in- 
dependent publisher of VIC-20 soft- 
ware in the United States. The five-year 
old company is dedicated to 
publishing a full-line of consumer soft- 
ware programs. Offices are located at 
230 East Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale, 
CA. 94086, (408) 745-1 655. □ 

Circle No. 72 



Creative Software 
Introduces PIPES 

VIC-20/64— 

Creative Software introduces Pipes, 
a new concept home education title, 
for the VIC-20. Designed and written 
by John Doering who has written and 
adapted many successful programs 
for Creative Software, Pipes is the first 
in a series of programs intended to join 
the worlds of education and games. 
This new educational program plays 
like a game while teaching the con- 
cepts of spatial relationships and 



economics. 

The object of Pipes is to connect all 
the houses in town to the main water 
supply. A joystick is used to direct Arlo 
the Plumber from the factory where he 
carefully selects the right pipe, to the 
work-site where he attaches it. Arlo can 
select elbow-joints, T-joints and valves, 




each with differing dollar values and 
inventory limitations, to create a cost- 
effective and efficient water network. 
If the pipes are not connected and 
sealed properly, leaks will be sprung 
and the game will end. The challenge 
of "Pipes" is to connect all the houses 
without running out of the right kind of 
pipe or using too much money. 

"Although Pipes is geared for teach- 
ing children between the ages of 6 and 
1 5, adults can also enjoy the strategic 
challenge" commented Elliott Dahan, 
Director of Marketing. "The arcade- 
style graphics, a trademark of Mr. 
Doering, combined with the learning 
aspect of Pipes will provide entertain- 
ment in a self-teaching atmosphere." 

Pipes is currently available for the 
VIC-20 and will be available for the 



Commodore 64 in August. Suggested 
retail price for both versions is $39.95. 
Pipes can be seen at Creative Soft- 
ware's booth, #6580, at Summer CES 
in Chicago. 

Headquarters are located at 230 
East Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 
94086, (408) 745-1655. □ 



Circle No. 73 






I CIK ATI VE 
"1 SOFTWARE 



JPOKATIVE 
^pSOFTW 




Moondust is Released by 
Creative Software 

Creative Software has introduced 
Moondust by Jaron Lanier. The an- 
nouncement was made by Elliott 
Dahan, Director of Marketing for 
Creative Software. This new science- 
fantasy game is available for the Com- 
modore 64. 

Moondust is a whimsical game that 
challenges the player to draw colorful 
trails of moondust crystals through the 
heart of glowing concentric circles. It 
is a true computer game utilizing a full- 
range of sound and color capability. 
Music, composed according to 
joystick movement, accompanies 
every action. 

Moondust features the friendly 
Spacewalker who is the master painter 
for the Moondust Fleet. The game 
begins when he drops moondust to be 
spread across the screen. Depending 



upon how far away from the center the 
moondust is dropped, a certain 
number of possible points will appear 
on the screen. The Spacewalker 
directs his colorful fleet to drag the 
moondust toward the center. As they 
whirl around the screen they leave 
trails of aqua, emerald green, cobalt, 
coral and purple color-emmissions. 
The player has to watch for the fleet's 
flying patterns in order to protect the 
Spacewalker from being bumped 
three times and ending the game. 

The screen action produces mes- 
merizing, computer-generated music 
which reacts to the game play in 
musical patterns. Jaron Lanier, creator 
of Moondust, has a classical music 
background which he applied in the 
overall game design. 

"I wanted to create magnificent col- 
or accompanied by exceptional 
sound," said Lanier. Moondust is a 
pure reflex game but has the aesthetic 
elements of music and vibrant color in- 
corporated into a challenging theme." 

Moondust was shipped June 1, 
1983. It is available for $39.95. 

Moondust can be seen at Creative 
Software's booth, #6580, at Summer 
CES in Chicago. 

Headquarters are located at 230 
East Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 
94086. (408) 745-1655. □ 

Circle No. 73 



RTTY II Modifies 
VIC-20 into Terminal 

Turn your VIC-20 into a RTTY ter- 
minal. Features include split screen 
operation (compose your reply in a 
special text buffer while receiving), four 
255 character user defined messages 
and four preset messages, including 
CQ, RY, time, and CW ID. Select 
60,66,75, and 100 wpm BAUDOT 
speeds, morse code ID, RTTY ID (his 
call and yours), auto unshift on 
space— 1 6 different functions and con- 
trols in all! 

Manual includes instructions on how 
to modify software for your call and 
special 'permanent' messages. Hard- 
ware manual included with various in- 
terface designs (RS-232, TTL, current 



loop, etc.) as well as info on homebrew 
and commercial RTTY modulator/ 
demodulators. 

VIC RTTY II requires VIC-20 com- 
puter with 8K memory expansion, 
recorder, and VIC-to-Radio interface 
(RTTY terminal unit and interface) such 
as the HRA Electronics TU-][ for VIC, 
available from RAK Electronics. (The 
TU-][ is a complete, ready to use ter- 
minal unit for VIC MORSE and RTTY. 
It is available in kit or assembled and 
tested form. Write RAK Electronics for 
prices and availability.) 

Package includes software on 
cassette, software and hardware 
manuals, and I/O edge connector, 
$19.95 +2.00 shipping and handling. 

Computer catalog of products is 
available. Specify type of computer. 

RAK Electronics, PO Box 1585, 
Orange Park, FL 32067-1585.D 

Circle No. 75 



CW Morse Turns 
Amateur Radio Station 
into a Morse Terminal 

VIC-20/64/PET— 

CW Morse allows your computer to 
become a morse terminal for your 
amateur radio station. It is capable of 
sending and receiving morse code at 
speeds of 5 to 25 wpm or more. In- 
cludes multiple 255 character 
message buffers, numerous special 
function keys, type-ahead keyboard 
buffering, and automatic speed con- 
trol on receive. 

Available for PET 2000/4000 series 
with 8K or more memory, VIC-20 with 
5K memory (increased abilities with 
optional 3K memory expansion), 
Commodore-64, Morse requires con- 
struction of two transistor, one IC inter- 
face. Connection made through the 
I/O User Port on the VIC-20, C-64, and 
PET/CBM, Package includes software 
on cassette, complete documentation, 
interface schematic, and required con- 
nector—Si 7.95 + $2.00 shipping and 
handling. 

RAK Electronics, P.O. Box 1585, 
Orange Park, FL 32067-1585.D 

Circle No. 74 

Commander July 1983/7 



V-36 and C-64 
Expander Boards 

WC-20/64— 

The V-36 is a six-slot expander 
board for the VIC-20. It features in- 
dividually switched connectors, a reset 
button and a fuse. 

The C-64 is a four-slot expander 
board for the CBM-64. It also features 
individually switched connectors, a 
reset button and a fuse. 

All PTI expanders are based on pro- 
fessional quality fiberglass circuit 
boards with gold contacts and epoxy 
soldermask coating on both sides. 
Sturdy metal feet support the extend- 
ed portions. 

A 90-day warranty from the date of 
retail sale covers factory repair or 
replacement of any defective unit. 
Availability is by direct order or from 
many Commodore dealers. □ For 
more information see ad on page 98. 

Circle No. 76 

PET Joystick Interface 

J Systems Corp. announces the im- 
mediate availability of its new PET 
Joystick Interface. This versatile inter- 
face card adds joystick/paddle capa- 
bilities to all PET/CBM computers. 
Device enables the PET to accept in- 
puts directly from 2 Apple joysticks/4 
Apple game paddles or 2 Atari 
joysticks. Interface is complete and 
ready to plug into the user port. All 
modes of operation are software- 
selectable. The device features short 
access time (less than 10 
milliseconds/joystick) and high resolu- 
tion digitization (greater than 8 bits). 
This makes the interface ideal, not only 
for joysticks/paddles, but also, for con- 
necting any four resistive sensors to 
the PET/CBM. Fast machine language 
input routines, callable from a BASIC 
program, are included. 

The price of the PET Joystick Inter- 
face is $69.95. This price includes the 
card, power supply, documentation 
and sample software. VISA and 
MASTERCARD are welcome. The 
device can be ordered directly from: 

J Systems Corp., 1 Edmund Place, 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48103, (313) 

662-471 4. □ Circle No .77 

8/Commander July 1983 



Sales/Expense Program 

VIC-20/64— 

Sales/Expense programs now 
available for Commodore 64 and 
VIC-20 computers from RAK Elec- 
tronics. Sales/Expense is a home or 
small business program that maintains 
a full calendar year's sales and ex- 
pense record for each month by three 
sales categories and ten expense 
categories. Totals are calculated for 
each month for sales and expenses 
and a total year and average month 
calculations are provided. Profit is 
calculated and provided by subtrac- 



ting the total expense from the total 
sales for each month and the total year. 
Data is saved on tape for later use and 
updating. A print routine is provided 
and will work with the VIC-1515 and 
VIC-1525 Printers. Sales/Expense is 
available on cassette tape and sells 
for $7.95 plus $2.00 shipping and 
handling from RAK Electronics, PO 
Box 1585, Orange Park, FL 32067- 
1585. Sales/Expense requires an 8k 
memory expander (minimum) when 
used on the VIC-20 computer. 

RAK ELECTRONICS, PO Box 1585, 
Orange Park, FL 32073. D cnt^m.n 




Eleven New 

Commodore 64 Programs 
from Timeworks 

Eleven new programs for the Com- 
modore 64 are being introduced na- 
tionally by Timeworks, Inc., indepen- 
dent publisher of personal computer 
software. The first four of these pro- 
grams which "sell on sight," and are 
now available include Wall Street, a 
competitive game of financial specula- 
tion; Robbers of the Lost Tomb, great 
adventure search for the Sacred 
Tablets from the lost 100 room Egyp- 
tian tomb; The Money Manager, home 
and business budget and cash flow 
system; and the Data Manager, a 
general information storage and 
retrieval system with features usually 
found in much more expensive 
programs. 

Timeworks' new Commodore 64 
programs come with complete and 
comprehensive, yet easy-to- 
understand manuals; are simple to 



operate, and are complete with sound 
effects and color. 

Available in both cassette and S 1 /*" 
disc, the new Commodore 64 packag- 
ing is designed to self-sell at retail. 
Each carton includes superior 
dynamic graphics, intriguing descrip- 
tions, and program specifications to 
aid in identification of program 
parameters. 

Suggested retail prices range from 
$21 .95 to $29.95. The balance of the 
COMMODORE software programs 
are to be introduced at the rate of four 
per month. 

Timeworks publishes personal com- 
puter software in these categories: 
entertainment, education, program- 
ming and home/small business utility. 

Get the facts from the Timeworks 
sales representatives in your area, or 
communicate with Timeworks, Inc., 
405 Lake Cook Road, Building A, 
Deerfield, IL 60015. For really fast ac- 
tion on these sellers, call (312) 
291 -9200. □ 



Wordprocessing and 
Interface System 
for Commodore 64 

Computer Marketing has announc- 
ed distribution of two exciting new pro- 
ducts from Richvale Telecommunica- 
tions Corporation for the Commodore 
64. 

SCRIPT 64 is the first Commodore 
64 full-function wordprocessing 
system with a built-in dictionary, which 
can be expanded to 20,000 words. In 
addition to all normal text editing func- 
tions, SCRIPT 64 has enhancements 
such as the ability to hold 40 screen 
pages (1000 characters each) in the 
computer at one time, which can be 
linked for a document capacity of 999 
screen pages; storage of deleted text 
in a buffer for recall in the same or a 
different place; automatic page 
numbering, book fashion; headers 
and trailers; redefinable keyboard; out- 
put to video with horizontal 
(left/right) scrolling; and help screens. 
SCRIPT 64 supports the Commodore 
1541 Disk Drive and Commodore 
1525 Printer. Other serial or ASCII 
printers can be supported with an op- 
tional RS-232 interface. In addition, 
SCRIPT 64 supports all other CBM 
disk drives and IEEE printers via an 
optional C-64 LINK! Suggested Retail 
for SCRIPT 64— $139.95. 

The C-64 LINK is much more than 
just another IEEE Interface. It is smaller 
than competing units, yet adds more 
capability. In addition to providing 
compatibility with all Commodore IEE 
devices including letter quality printers 
and large capacity disk drives such as 
the 8050, 8250 and hard disks, the 
C-64 LINK adds 15 Basic 4.0 com- 
mands, and the ability to chain 
together eight or more Commodore 
64's to time share a disk drive or com- 
mon IEEE-interfaced printer. Sug- 
gested Retail for C-64 LINK— $169.95. 

Computer Marketing Services, Inc. 
is located at 300 W. Marlton Pike, 
Cherry Hill, NJ 08002. (609) 

795-9480. □ C.rcleNo.80 





Parallel Interfaces 
for Commodore 

VIC-20/64- 

Micro-Systems Development, 
(MSD), has announced two new pro- 
ducts for its Interbus Series of 
VIC-20™ and Commodore 64™ 
interfaces. 

MSD's CPI, a parallel interface for 
the Commodore 64 and VIC-20, 
solves several problems for the user 
such as converting serial-to-parallel, 
providing ASCII conversion, automatic 
line feed and program legibility. 

The use of the CPI interface will 
allow the user to choose from a varie- 
ty of available printers and not be 
limited to only serial printers. 

The CPI provides two listing modes 
to the user for program legibility. Since 
many printers do not support the 
codes that the VIC-20 and Commo- 
dore 64 produce, the CPI will generate 
"tags." For example, [YEL] is gener- 
ated for "change to yellow." For 
graphic characters, which are not 
standard ASCII, the decimal value of 
the symbol is printed. 

The CPI is compatible with virtually 
every program written for use with 
Commodore's 1515 and 1 525 
printers. If desired, the CPI can 
automatically send a line feed with 
each carriage return printed. This 
satisfies the requirements of some 
printers that do not have automatic line 
feed. The CPI will, if desired, 
automatically convert "Commodore 
ASCII" into standard ASCII. This 
feature is very desirable. These modes 
can be selected with either software or 
hardware control. 



The CPI connects directly to the 
VIC-20 or Commodore 64. It works 
directly through the serial port using 
the serial port driver software (already 
built into the computer), and is com- 
pletely interchangeable between the 
VIC-20 and Commodore 64. 

MSD's VPI is a parallel interface for 
the VIC-20 only. It is lower priced and 
has fewer features than the CPI. 

MSD manufactures a variety of ex- 
pansion products for VIC-20 and the 
Commodore 64. 

For further information, call 
1-800-527-5285. 

Commodore 64 and VIC-20 are 
trademarks of Commodore Business 
Machines, Inc. Interbus is a copyright 
of Micro-Systems Development, Inc. 

Micro Systems Development, Inc., 
1 1 1 05 Shady Trail, Suite 1 04, Dallas, 
Texas 75229, 1 -800-527-5285. □ 

Circle No 81 

Parallel Printer Interfaces 
for VIC20 and CBM64 

Tymac Controls Corp. of Franklin, 
NJ is proud to announce two new 
Parallel Interfaces for the VIC-20 and 
CBM64. Our first simple interface is 
reasonably priced and will provide the 
essential link between your computer 
and virtually any Parallel Printer with 
a standard type Centronics Interface 
and connector. It simply plugs into the 
USER Port of the computer and 
comes with an easy to implement 
printer driver software listing. It is fully 
buffered to insure complete protection 
of the computer. Simple commands 
make printing easy as pie. This is the 
least expensive way to add a printer 
to your computer. Only $19.95. 

If you're a VIC-20 owner and would 
like to take full advantage of graphics 
and the other special features that the 
Commodore printer provides, then the 
Printer Driver Cartridge should be pur- 
chased. This cartridge will provide the 
user with a way to do graphic and 
standard printing. Available for the 
Seikosha Printer, C. Itoh Prowriter, 
Okidata Microline Series and others in 
the near future. Specify printer when 
ordering. Only $29.95. 

Our second interface is a fully in- 
telligent device that plugs into the disk 

Commander July 1983/9 



(serial) socket just like the standard 
Commodore Printer. It can easily be 
assigned any device number and it is 
daisy-chained to other devices that 
may be plugged into your VIC20 or 
CBM64. Using state of the art 
technology, this parallel interface will 
display graphically or convert the 
special symbols to their equivalent 
representations in clear text. This inter- 
face also offers a buffer (almost 2K), 
a printer reset switch, and a complete 
self-test mode, Two LED indicators 
display status and buffer condition. 
Although this interface is priced higher 
than our other interface, it will allow vir- 
tually total emulation of the Com- 
modore Printer. Nothing has been 
sacrificed to bring you a superior in- 
telligent parallel board. There are even 
additional features such as skip over 
pert, margin set, and set length of line. 
This interface is printer specific to take 
full advantage of graphics, special 
print, and other items that apply in- 
dividually to your printer. This interface 
is designed to work with virtually all 
Centronics Compatible Printers with a 
standard Centronics connector. 
Available for the VIC20 and CBM64. 
Specify your printer when ordering. 
(Seikosha, C. Itoh, OKI, and others). 
Only $119.00. 

Micro-Ware Distributing, Inc., PO 
Box 113, Prompton Plains, NJ 07444, 

(201) 838-9027. □ Circle No. 82 

Computer/Videocassette 
Machine Connector 
Interface 

64— 

The VideoBook Corporation of 
Seattle, WA, has announced their new 
product. It is the Promethius I, a 
$49.95 interface module which will 
connect your Commodore 64 to your 
Panasonic VCR. The Promethius I will 
fit any of the following models; any of 
the Panasonic 5000 series (5000, 
5200, 5500) or the new 6500 portable 
models. This new interface module 
plugs into the back of the Commodore 
64 and into the front of the VCR. (Video 
Cassette Machine) 

These new computer Interactive 
interfaces will allow you to not only 
have computer educational products 
10/Commander July 1983 




New for VIC-20— 
The W20-35 

Now VIC-20 owners can have 35K 
of RAM and IEEE 488 interface on one 
standard size cartridge without the 
need for costly expansion chassis. The 
compactness of this design is achiev- 
ed by using 8Kx8 CMOS RAMs. 
These devices are also interchangable 
with the popular 2764 EPROMs allow- 
ing users to mix RAM and EPROM. 



The IEEE 488 interface allows VIC-20 
owners to expand their selection of ac- 
cessories such as high speed printers, 
hard disks, floppy disks, etc. 

All boards are fully socketed for 
future expansion and are available in 
any configuration from bare board to 
fully populated. 

For further information, contact 
Wave Computers, Inc., PO Box 3883, 
Federal Way, WA 98003, (206) 
839-WAVE or 839-9283. □ ordeNo.sa 



but video tape material as well, so for 
the first time the hardware can be had 
for under $1 ,000. Prior to this time the 
hardware alone has cost $5,000. All 
this is made possible because of the 
new interface designed and created 
by VideoBook's President Jerry Pier- 
son. VideoBook is a courseware (Pub- 
lishing/Prod ucing) House which 
makes Interactive Courseware (books, 
videocassettes and floppy discs) for 
the Commodore 64. Rumors also are 
flying about a new $49 (300, 600, 
1200, 2400 baud rate) phone modem 
for the Commodore 64 called the 
Hermes I and a fantastic new color 
graphics tablet for the Commodore 64 
called The Wizard. The cost to be 
about $399 but to have unbelievable 
features, including a discrimination 
rate of .005. This means no jawgels in 
your graphics— only smooth lines and 
128 different colors from the original 
16 colors of the Commodore. 



Contact: Jerry Pierson, VideoBook 
Corporation, PO Box 19597, Seattle, 
WA 981 09. □ 



Circle No. 84 



ooooooooooo 

^^ The following list of ^^ 

O VIC-20 product suppliers d 

£) was graciously provided (3 

£\ by Colin F. Thompson of f~% 

Vx BASF. It will be published *** 

j^ bimonthly, and weekly up- p* 

CJ dates are available. Please CJ 

£) send a self-addressed, (3 

£\ stamped envelope to the (~\ 

g^ following: ^-^ 

jz? Mr. Colin F. Thompson p^ 

\J BASF Systems Corp. CI 

|3 1307 Colorado Avenue (3 

g~S Santa Monica, CA 90404 ry 

g^ Circle No. 85 ^-^ 



86-85-83 — VIC 28 PRODUCT SUPPLLERS — Commander PAGE 1 



KEY: SORT 


TELEPHONE 


1 VTY 1 T<TTTMR 




J nt 1 L 1 1 1 no 

2 KEY LISTING — 


._ ______ 


3 SOFTWARE TYPES 


(after ""*) 


d 


: . WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTORS 


d: 


alp 


888 438 8676 


d 


avs 


888 638 1688 


d: 


csi 


914 425 2888 


d 


. ics 


881 373 2981 


d; 


lip 


888 245 6358 


d 


par 


888 251 5959 


d: 


ana 


415 964 8281 


d: 


soe 


213 412 1788 


d: 


sof 


888 828 7258 


d: 


50S 


415 887 6699 


h: 


. HARDWARE 




h: 


adv 


512 441 3282 


ti- 


. apr"H 


885 484 3684 


ll: 


arf 


318 988 2478 


h; 


baz 


286 874 3829 


hi 


bus 


413 567 8584 


h: 


byt 


286 236 BYTE 


h: 


cab 


888 343 4311 


h: 


cai 


517 687 7343 


hi 


car 


316 267 6525 


h: 


cen 




h: 


cir 




h- 


: con 


689 795 9488 


h: 


cos~EBUG 


617 961 5788 


h: 


CON 


682 249 8611 


h: 


dat-B 


714 778 2366 


hi 


des""GBH 


213 923 9361 


h: 


dig 


583 295 5898 


hi 


dyn 


214 542 6812 


h: 


dyt 


813 384 1539 


h 


. ecx 


415 944 9277 


h: 


elc— HG 


714 623 8314 


h 


exa 


888 538 8559 


h: 


fer 


317 297 8842 


h: 


gen 


215 861 8858 


h: 


gl o 


617 283 7719 


h 


. gos 


316 265 9992 


h: 


hyp~"UG 




h; 


ihc 


881 226 3889 


h: 


ind 


312 975 2848 


h 


int 


714 641 8181 


h 


karri? 


913 842 7745 


h 


lyn 




h- 


met"U 


583 232 1712 


h 


. mic 




h: 


mid'"UH 


383 934 1973 


h 


i ntik 


619 569 8988 


hi 


mis 


383 475 8883 


h: 


msd"GBH 


214 484 7836 


h: 


raws 


381 632 8628 


h: 


oenTUG 


385 465 9363 


h: 


opa 


884 973 5482 


h 


i opt 




h; 


ox* 




h: 


par 


415 651 3168 


h: 


per 


312 961 2347 


hi 


pre 


881 487 6266 


h: 


pro~"UG 


383 778 1312 


h: 


ran 




h: 


ric 


416 884.4165 


h: 


rvr"""u 


315 446 2763 


h: 


si (send SASE) 


313 846 6666 


h 


. so* 




h: 


sun 




h 


: sym 


313 272 2958 


hi 


. ver 


714 858 1188 


h 


: vip 


714 527 8264 


h 


voi 


714 481 7398 





: .OTHER SUPPLIERS 


o: 


, anv 


213 575 8614 





: car 







cie 


714 757 4849 





: con 


888 848 7548 





: cop 


888 258 7862 





: ere 





h: = HARDWARE MANUFACTURERS 

s: = SOFTWARE WRITERS 

~~G Games..,.. ~~B Business.... 

Alpha Et Cetera, Ltd. 

CSI Distributors 

ICS Micro Wholesale 

B. Lipsitz Co. 

B.A. Pargh 

Snail Systems Engineering 

Softsel 

Software Distribution Services 

Softsmith 

Advanced Processor Systems 

Apropos Technology 

Arfon Microelectronics, U.S. 

BAZ Electronics 

Business Comp. Sys. of New Eng 

Bytesize Micro Technology 

CAB-TEX. Inc. 

CAI Instruments 

Cardco 

Century Micro 

Cir-Kit Engineering 

Computer Marketing Services 

Computer Software Associates 

Computer Works 

Data 29 Corp. 

Data Equipment Supplies 

Digital Interface Systems 

Dynamic Technologies 

Dytek 

ECX Computer Co. 

El comp Publishing 

Exatron 

Ferris Associates 

Genesis Computer Corp. 

Glouster Computer Bus Co., Inc 

Gosub Int' 1. 

Hyper tech 

Interface Computerware 

Interdesign, Inc 

Integrated Controls 

Kantronics 

Frank Lyman 

Metaresearch, Inc. 

Micro-Star 

Micro World Electronic 

Microtek, Inc. 

Missing Link Products 

Micro-Systems Development 

H4S Electronics 

O.E.M. Inc. 

Optimal Technology Inc. 

(fetimized Data Systems 

Oxford Computer Systems 

Parsec Research 

Personal Peripheral Products 

Precision Technology 

Progressive Peripherals t< Sftw 

RAM/RBC Systems 

Richvale Telecommunications 

RUR Systems 

Slagh System Services 

Soft-Aware 

Sunshine Peripherals 

Symtec 

Vertex Int'l. 

VIP Enterprise 

Voice World 

Anvil Cases 

Carry Comp 

Computer Info Exchange 

Computer Case Company 

Computer Power Int'l. 

Creative Computing Catalog 



STREET ADDRESS 

p: = PERIODICALS - NEWSLETTERS 
d: = WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTORS 
~~E Education...~~U Utility... 

Box 231 

7566 Main Street 

33 Murry Hill Drive 

Box 1243 

458 Melwood Ave. 

1288 Murfreesboro Rd. 

1856 Elwell Court 

8295 South La Cienega 

1288 Main Street 

2935 Whipple Road 

Box 43886 

358 N. Lantana Suite 821 

111 Rena Drive 

Box 4895 

Box 2285 

Box 21123 

Riverside St. 

152 E. Saginaw Road 

313 Mathewson 

7881 La Riviera Dr. Suite 131 

18136 E. 96th St. 

388 W. Marl ton Pike Suite 26 

58 Teed Drive 

2828 West Callback 

28311 Moulton Parkway Ste. B18 

8315 Firestone Blvd. 

Box 8715 

Box 351 

Box 241 

2678 North Main Street 

53 Red Rock Lane 

181 Commercial St. 

Box 68421 

1444 Linden St. 

6 Brooks Road 

581 E. Pawnee Suite 438 

1828 NE 142nd St. Penthouse 7 

Box 862 

2854 Irvine Park Road 

1248-L Logan Avenue 

1282 East 23rd 

Box 3891 

1188 SE Woodward 

5633 Emigration Canyon 

3333 S. Wadsworth Blvd. tC-185 

9514 Chesapeake Dr. 

Box 6468 

11185 Shady Trail Suite 183 

Box 418 

2729 So. US I 1 Suite 12 

Blue Wood 127 

Box 595 

Kensington Rd. Woodstock 

Drawer 1766-P 

Box 3423 

2978 South Richard St. 

6348 H. Mississippi Ave. 

Box 351 

18618 Bayview 

Box 265 

Box 53 

Box 725 

1229 East 28th Street 

15933 H. 8 Mile Road 

3941 B So. Bristol 1188 

919 N. Cambria St. 

13855 Via Esperia 

4128 Temple City Blvd. 

24.87 Aric Way 

Box 158 

5658 Indian Hound Court 

1779 East Florida 

39 E. Hanover Ave,Dept MIX 



CITY / STATE / ZIP 

o: ■ OTHER 

m: - MAIL ORDER HOUSES 

"H Home ~~R Ham Radio 

vo 86-85 
Shelby, NC 28158 
Sykesville, MD 21784 
Spring Valley. NY 18977 
Provo, UT 84683 
Pittsburgh, PA 15213 
Nashville, TN 37217 
Palo Alto, CA 94383 
Inglewood, CA 98381 
Buffalo, NY 14289 
Union City, CA 94587 

Austin. TX 78745-8881 
Camarillo, CA 93818 
Lafayette, LA 78583 
Federal Hay, WA 98883 
Springfield, MA 81181 
Seattle, WA 98111 
Nashua, NH 83862 
Sanford, MI 48643 
Wichita, KS 67214 
Sacramento, CA 95826 
Indianapolis, IN 46256 
Cherry Hill, NJ 88882 
Randolph, HA 82368 
Phoenix, A2 85815 
Laguna Hills, CA 92652 
Downey, CA 98241 
Portland, OR 97287 
Allen, TX 75882 
Pinellas Park, FL 33565 
Walnut Creek, CA 94526 
Pomona, CA 91766 
Sunnyvale, CA 94886 
Indianapolis, IN 46268 
Bethlemem, PA 18818 
Glouster, MA 81938 
Wichita, KS 67211 
Miami, FL 33181 
Orem, UT 84857 
Chicago, IL 68618 
Costa Mesa, CA 92626 
Lawrence, KA 66844 
Nashua, NH 83861 
Portland, OR 97282 
Salt Lake City. UT 84188 
Lakewood, CO 88227 
San Diego. CA 92123 
Colorado Springs. CO 88934 
Dallas, TX 75229 
Pocomoke, MD 21851 
Fort Pierce, FL 33458 
Earlysvllle, UA 2293. 
Placentia, CA 92678 
Oxford 0X7 MR ENGLAND 
Fremont, CA 94538 
Aurora, IL 68585 
Salt Lake City, UT 84115 
Lakewood. CO 88226 
Maiden, HA 82148 
Richmond Hill ONT CAN L4C 3N8 
Dewitt, NY 13214 
Dearborn, MI 48121 
Glendora, CA 91748 
Brooklyn, NY 11218 
Detroit, MI 48235 
Santa Ana, CA 92784 
Anaheim, CA 92881 
Del Mar, CA 92814 

Rosemead, CA 91778 
Elkhart, IN 46517 
San Luis Rev, CA 92868 
Columbus, OH 43213 
Hemit, CA 92343 
Morris Plains, NJ 87958 



06-05-83 — VIC 26 PRODUCT SUPPLIERS — Commander PAGE 2 



615 457 5968 



KEY: SORT TELEPHONE 

des 
edu 

ele 916 677 8128 

hym 583 636 6888 

lor (nat'l VIC user group) 
mac 61? 452 5151 

mad 688 255 5552 

mic 488 374 4364 

nva 
pmp 
sof 

tor~GBEUH TORPET 

. PERIODICALS-MAGAZINES and 
coa $18-12 888 426 1838 
cog $28-12 888 334 8868 
com $28-12 888 334 8868 
coo $15-6 215 687 9758 

fox $53-12 cass713 473 6723 
jou $12-24 214 482 6679 
loa $58-12 cass913 762 4738 
mic -12 617 256 5515 
mid $28-6 217 864 5328 

nat $18-12 NUGGET$ 

pou$18-4 215 345 8112 

pro $58-12 cass919 489 2198 
str $15-6 
ps: by~G $6-12 VIC-NIC NEWS 
. MAIL ORDER HOUSES 
aa8 (cat $1) 313 669 3118 
abc 215 822 7727 

all 



(cat 



ane 

cib 

cma 

coe 

com 

cos 

cot 

cou 

cow 

cpm 

dis 

eas 

eav 

ekt 

emb 

hai 

har 

jmc 

lye 

mai 

mar 

mini 

mir 

mis 

miv 

miw 

moo 

mtg 

nat 

oly 

opt 

per 

or (send 

prg 

pri 

pro 

prs 

pyr 

que 

rde 

roc 

sav 

sjb 

soc 

so* 

sou 

spa"""BH 



888 323 4228 
484 981 5939 
313 528 1554 



316 
516 
. $1.25) 
414 
919 

415 
212 



558 8883 
684 4668 
621 1362 

231 1696 
924 2889 

489 1532 
961 9886 
645 9187 
221 8927 

233 8768 
752 1341 
331 9131 
841 8868 
982 6352 



281 838 9827 



(cat.$l) 888 



916 
315 
SASE) 682 
381 
899 
312 



383 
888 

317 
888 

214 



343 8854 
854 6654 
421 8845 
621 1899 
478.6888 
886 1585 
488 7719 
343 1878 
382 5244 
424 2738 
386 9363 
232 2224 

371 2438 
241 2682 

353 4855 
828 2838 
484 7836 



NAME 

Desert Charts 

Educational Software, Inc. 

Electrosmith 

Hymac Systems 

Lords of Basic 

Macro Dynamics 

Madison Computer 

Micro Mittens 

National Vic Association 

PM Products 

Software To Go 

Systems Management Associates 

Toronto PET Users Group 

NEWSLETTERS key $YEARLY 

Commander Magazine 

The Compute! Gazette 

Compute! 

Cammodore-Microcomp. Magazine 

Foxfire Systems, Inc. 

Journal /2B 

Load 28 Magazine 

Micro 

Midnite/Paper 

National VIC-28 Users Group 

Power Play 

Progr aimer's Institute 

Strictly Commodore 

The Byte House 

Aardvark-88 

AB Computers 

Allegiance Enterprises 

American Peripherals 

Cibcoa 

CMart 

Computer Express 

Computer Mail Order 

Computer Specialties 

Comstar 

Compu Sense 

Compuway, Inc. 

CPM 

Discount Software House 

Eastern House 

EAV Software 

Ektype Office Systems 

Embassy Computer Products 

Harrison Computer Center 

Harmony Video b Electronics 

JMC 

Lyco Computer 

Mail Comb 

Marco Polo Co. 

Micro Management Systems, Inc. 

Micro Sense 

Microsignal Publications 

Micro-VfC-Computers 

Micro-Ware Distributors 

Mooseware. Inc. 

MTG Technical Sales 

National Computer Products 

Olympic Sales 

Optomam Consumer Products 

Personal Computer Systems 

Prickly-Pear Software 

Programs International 

P.R.I.C.E. 

Protecto Enterprizes 

The Program Store 

Pyramid Computerware 

Queue Cat. 811 

RDE Services, Games Dept. 

Rocky Mountain Micro, Inc. 

SAVE 

SJB Distributors 

Software Clearing House 

The Software Connection 

Southwest Micro Systems 

Space Shuttle Software 



STREET ADDRESS 

Box 818 

4565 Cherryvale Ave. 

Box 1438 

Box 446 

Box 459 

8958 Villa La Jolla Dr. 81288 

1825 Monroe 

Box 18246 

9 Crabapple Lane 

4455 Torrance Blvd. 8177 

Rt. 3 Box 389 A 52 

3789 Computer Drive 

1912A Avenue Road. Suite 1 

SUBSCRIPTION- 9 of ISSUES 

P.O. Box 98827 

Box 5496 

Box 5496 

487 Devon Park Drive 

3811 Newton 

Box 1149 

558 Grant Ave. 

Box 6592 

635 Maple 

Box 34575 

Box 651 

Box 3191 

47 Coachwood Place N.N. 

Box 981 

2352 S. Commerce 

252 Bethlehem Pike 

868 96th Ave. N.E. 

122 Bangor Street 

6252 W. Oakton 

Box 77286 

Box 569 

EAST (899) 233-8959 

1253 Broadway 

Box 1739 

812 S. Lightner 

24 Lumber Road 

Box 19137 

Box 93 

3239 Linda Drive 

17 Marble Avenue 

1655 Whipple Road 

Box 88 

2263 Broadhollow Road 

2357 Coney Island Ave. 

1825 Industrial Drive 

Box 19 

9434 Chesapeake Drive 

4681 S. 83rd E. Ave. 

2883 Thomasville Road 

Box 6273 

Box 22 

Box 587 

Box 113 

Box 17868 

281 Needham Street 

8338 Center Drive 

216 South Oxford Avenue 

Box 1838 

Box 1873 

9822 East Stella Road 

Moravia Center Industrial Park 

67 Teed Drive 

Box 558 

4288 Wisconson toe. N4 

278 Warren Street 

5 Chapel Hill Drive 

3588 Warringham 

18898 E. 47th 

1782 Marrietta Blvd. N.H. 

18528 Piano Road Suite 286 

Box 68756 

5133 Vista Del Oro 

2554 Southwell 

Box 252 



CITY / STATE / ZIP 

Glendale, AZ 85311 
Soquel, CA 95873 
Shingle Springs, CA 95682 
West Linn, OR 97868 
Ladson, SC 29456 
La Jolla, CA 92837 
Madison, WI 53711 
San Jose. CA 95157 
Nanuet, NY 18954 
Torrance, CA 99593 
Clinton, TN 37716 
Raleigh, NC 27619 
Toronto, ONT CAN M5M 4B1 

Tacoma. NA 98498 
Greensboro, NC 27493 
Greensboro, NC 27483 
Wayne, PA 19887 
Pasadena, TX 77583 
Van Alstyne, TX 75895 
Junction City, KS 66441 
Chelmsford. MA 91824 
Mt. Zion. IL 62549 
Omaha, NE 68134 
Holmes, PA 19943 
Chapel Hill, NC 27514 
Calgary, ALTA CAN T3H 1E1 
Salem, NH 93979 

vm 96-95 
Walled Lake, MI 48888 
Col mar, PA 18915 
Blaine, ffl 55434 
Lindenhurst, NY 11757 
Morton Grove, IL 68953 
Atlanta. GA 39357 
Troy, HI 48999 
WEST (899) 648-3311 
El Cajon, CA 92921 
Goleta, CA 93116 
Wichita, KS 67218 
Roslyn, NY 11576 
Charlotte, NC 2821? 
Winnebago, WI 54985 
Winston Salem, NC 27196 
Pleasantville, NY 18578 
Hayward, CA 94544 
Little Neck, NY 11363 
E. Farmingdale, NY 11735 
Brooklyn, NY 11223 
Bensonville, IL 68186-12?7 
Cogan Station, PA 17728 
San Diego, CA 92123 
Tulsa, OK 74145 
Cairo, GA 31728 
San Bernardino, CA 92412 
Millwood. NY 18546 
Pittsfiefd, HA 81292 
Ponton Plains. NJ 87444 
Irvine, CA 92713 
Newton, MA 82164 
La Mesa, CA 92841-3791 
Los Angeles, CA 98884 
Placerville, CA 95667 
Syracuse, NY 13281 
Tucson, AZ 85738 
Baltimore, MD 21286 
Randolph, MA 82368 
Barrington, IL 68818 
Washington DC 28816 
Edgewater Park. NJ 88918 
Fairfield, CT 46483 
Haterford, HI 48895 
Denver, CO 88239 
Atlanta, GA 38318 
Dallas, TX 75238 
Indianapolis. IN 46268 
Fair Oaks, CA 95628 
Dallas, TX 75229 
Cape Canaveral , FL 32928 



94-95-83 — VIC 26 PRODUCT SUPPLIERS — CowrmndT PAGE 3 

KEY: SORT 

m: sun 

in: sue 

n: tel 

m: tis 

n: ust 

m: Mds 

m: zep 

i«h: wor (cat. 



TELEPHONE 

583 257 9464 
888 255 2888 

61? 224 8816 
688 271 6889 
215 387 5266 



$1) 

. SOFTWARE 

3oc-H 583 357 9889 

aba-U 616 241 5518 

aca"""EG 

art~G 888 828 6573 

ath-E 

ava-U 381 254 5388 

bas~~B 888 835 2246 x237 

bec-E (cat .$2) 6 17 536 5116 

beh~~E 488 438 5649 

bri~H 415 455 9139 

bro-G 415 456 6424 

cac 

cbs-~G 

cen-U 215 536 2135 

coa 386 525 3386 

cob-G 488 757 8788 

cod~~GEU 885 683 1585 

ccni-E 313 685 8113 

cop~"GU 682 855 3357 

cre-~EGH 415 948 9595 

dtc 

eag~"UE 

edu*""E 

epy~"G 

fatr~B 



'BH 

far~EBUGH 
toI^HUGE 
fox~~G 
ire~"\} 
fsh~G 
ga!~~8G 
gen~B 

girn 

gpnr~UG 

gru"HU 

hal 

har"15 

hdr^B 

hes"BEUG 

ids~E 

inl 

int~G 

isa 

k8s~E 

ker"U 

leo"~l) 

'GU 
log 

lun^BG 
nar~G 
nag—HU 
marr~U 
nar 
nel 

ner"15 
nici"U 
nidw-BU 
nied"1 
nigr*"E 
niin^E 
niaa 
miph"-E 
nipl~GH 
BiirfU 
mirp~GBE 
mis— HEG 
mor 
nos**E 

HWS~~8 



lig~ 
lit~ 



39? 382 3191 
498 988 6666 



488 247 4434 



413 549 3744 
415 448 4116 

415 45? 2985 
213 328 9422 



614 846 1823 
415 327 3288 
414 273 5468 
885 687 8285 
488 378 7793 

612 559 1188 
587 345 7848 



213 316 8945 



612 926 2292 
815 965 2464 



212 646 0148 



214 867 1333 
488 338 9546 

295 837 3356 



HttC 

Sunrise Electronics 
SW Computers 
Tele Soft, Inc. 
Total Information Services 
U.S. Technologies 
Nisconson Discount Sales 
Zepher Micros 
World Electronics 

3G Company 

Abacus Software 

Academy Software 

Artworx Software Company 

Athena Software 

Aval on Hill Games 

Basic Byte, Inc. 

Boston Educational Computing 

Behavioral Engineering 

Br i ley Software 

Broderbund Software 

Cactus Computing 

CBS Software (unit of CBS Inc) 

Center Line Mfg. 

Conmercial Data Systems, Ltd. 

Computer Barn 

The Code Works 

CamtXData Computer House 

Computermat 

Creative Software 

DTC Software 

David Eagle 

Edufun/Mil liken 

EPYX / Automated Simulations 

Fabtronics 

Farthest Fringe s,a. 

Folklife Terminal Club 

Fox Video Games, Inc. 

French & Silk Smoothware 

Frederick Scheper 

Galactic Software 

General Systems Consulting 

Martin Glasser 

GP Microsystems 

Jim Grubbs K9EI 

J. Halliday 

Harli Software 

H.D. Manufacturing 

Human Engineered Software 

Ideal Development Software 

Intel lioent Software 

Interesting Software 

ISA Software 

K8 Software 

Kerr Software 

Harry F. Leonard 

Lightning Software 

Little Wizard Distributing 

Logos Software 

Luna Software 

Magic Carpet 

(MJagreeable software, inc. 

Mantronics Software Design 

Mariah Computing 

Melbourne House Software 

Merlin Enterprises 

Micro-Digital 

Midwest Micro Associates 

Micro-Ed, Inc. 

Micrograms 

MicRo Information Systems 

Micro-Mania 

Microphys Programs 

Micro Plus 

Microsignal 

MicroSpec Ltd. 

MIS 

L. Morris 

Moses Engineering 

W Software 



STREET ADDRESS 

7857 Lompoc Court 

1125 N.E. 82nd 

Box 3456 

Box 921 

Box 7735 

2417 H. Badger Rd, 

323 S. 43rd St. Suite C 

177 27th Street 

Rt. 3. Box 28A 

Box 7211 

Box 9403 

158 N. Main St. 

727 Swart hmore 

4517 Hartford Road 

Box 924 

78 Dartmouth St. 

230 Mt. Hermon Rd. «207 

Box 2913 

1938 Fourth Street 

Box 261 

41 Madison tae. 

Box 295 

730 Eastview Ave. 

319 Main St. *2 

Box 550 

P.O. Box 325 

Box 1664 

201 San Antonio Circle 1278 

Box 916 

Box 982 

1180 Research Blvd. 

1043 Kiel Court 

51 Quarry St. 

101 Highway Blvd. 

Box 2222-M 

4781 Patrick Henry Dr. Bldg 9 

Box 207 

8347 Dock Road 

Box 10516 

2312 Rolling Rock Drive 

121B Birch Circle 

72-31 67th Place 

Box 3842 

302 Dogwood Circle 

1748 Garden Briar Court RR*2 

91 Long Hill Road 

71 Park Lane 

652 W 780 N 

Box 3745 

21191 So. Harvard Blvd. 

14114 Dallas Parkway Suite 530 

Box 248 C 

1399 S. Newton 

5556 Cherrywood Road 

Box 11725 

1211 Lmbeth Rd. Suite 4 

3192 Laurel Canyon Road 

Box 26922 

Box 35115 

5925 Magnolia Lane 

369 Pierce Plaza 

Box 513 

333 East 46th St. 

Box 2876 

752 John Glenn Blvd. 

Box 6148 

Box 24156 

Box 2146 

Box 73 

Box 4119 

2048 Ford Street 

Box 473 

988 Embarcadero Del Mar Unit A 

2985 Ports O'Call Court 

258 Fern Rock Way 

2481 Wengert 826 

Box 11839 

Box 126 



CITY / STATE / ZIP 
Citrus Heights, CA 95618 
Portland, OR 97228 
Troy, HI 48884 
Los Alamos, NH 87544 
San Diego, CA 92187 
Hadison, HI 53713 
Philadelphia, PA 19184 
Brooklyn, NY 11232 

vs 86-85 
Gaston. OR 97119 
Grand Rapids, HI 94518 
San Rafael, CA 94912 
Fairport, NY 14458 
Newark, DE 19711 
Baltimore, HD 21214 
Southfield, HI 48837-8824 
Boston, HA 82116 
Scotts Valley, CA 95866 
Livermore, CA 94558-8291 
San Rafael, CA 94981 
Bouse, A2 85325 
New York. NY 18818 
Hi 1 ford Square. PA 18935 
Regina, SAS CAN S4N 8A2 
Salinas, CA 93981 
Goleta, CA 93116 
Hi 1 ford, HI 48842 
Lake Havasu City, AZ 86483 
Hountain View, CA 94848 
Janesville, MI 53547 
King of Prussia, PA 19486 
St. Louis, HO 63132 
Sunnyvale, CA 94886 
Brockport, NY 14428 
North Pekin, IL 61554 
Ht. Vernon, NY 18551 
Santa Clara, CA 95858 
Cannon Falls, HN 55889 
Pasadena, HD 21122 
San Jose, CA 95157 
Conley, GA 38827 
EglinAFB, FL 32542 
Gfendale, NY 11385 
Springfield, IL 62788 
LaFayette, GA 38728 
Thundar Bay ONT CAN P7C4V1 
Leveret t, HA 81854 
Brisbane, CA 94885 
Clearfield, UT 84815 
San Rafael , CA 94912 
Torrance, CA 98581 
Dallas, TX 75248 
Canton, CT 86819 
Denver, CO 88219 
Columbus, OH 43229 
Palo Alto, CA 94386 
Haukesha, HI 53186 
Santa Barbara, CA 93815 
San Jose, CA 95159-6922 
Phoenix, AZ 85869 
Plymouth, HN 55442 
No. Hankato, HN 56881 
Columbia, HD 65287 
New York, NY 18817 
Torrance, CA 98589 
Hebster. NY 14588 
Kansas City, HO 64118 
Hinneapolis, HN 55424 
Loves Park. IL 61138 
Hayne, NJ 07478 
Elkhart, IN 46514 
Brooklyn, NY 11229 
Kenville. NJ 87847 
Goleta, CA 93117 
Piano, TX 75875 
Boulder Creek, CA 95886 
Las Vegas, NV 89184 
Huntsville, AL 35885 
Urbana, IL 61881 



06-85-83 — VIC 29 PRODUCT SUPPLIERS — Commandtr PAQE 4 



KEY: SORT 



TELEPI0C 

612 738 1888 
484 92? 7347 



nel~~BG 

ne*r~BGEH 

nib~~G 

nor~~B 218 834 3688 

nuf~"GU 583 878 2113 

pal~~E 

pan (cat.il) 

par~G 219 885 8411 

pas~~G 

per~U 312 961 2347 

pms~B 412 633 8891 

paw 

pra~~H 

priCsend sase) 682 886 1585 

pro 381 366 8818 

prs*"*G 

pub~HUGE 513 698 5638 

qbf~B 212 925 8298 

qunr~UEG 716 338 2145 

rak-~HUGER 

rin-HGU 984 837 7281 

rar^GU 

ray~BE 488 338 9848 

ros"13(send stamp -for cat.) 

rotr'B SASE for cat. 

sau~B 987 272 1373 

scr-EH 

sch~E 212 585 3888 

sci~U 

scp"U 

sie^G 289 683 6858 

§ii 

sir~G 916 366 1195 

skl~GU 

sky*"U 415 965 1735 

smi~~G 488 738 1751 

so4~~U 

soc~~BEUGH 

SOS 

sou*"*E 

stalls 

str~G 813 939 1318 

sub~~U 

sus-GHB 312 394 5165 

sya~G 415 527 7751 

syrT-G 416 221 8888 

tan 

ta^UG 482 464 9851 

tea~~E 

tel~EHBG(cat58)416 263 8864 

tho~~G 888 526 7843 x291 

tot~B 415 943 7877 

trc 

tri 714 771 4838 

tro~G 213 671 8448 

umi~GBU 714 594 1351 

val 

vir~GE 215 576 5625 

vid 488 263 9858 

vix~1J 

voy^G 415 343.8955 

wes~1J 

wun~GE 583 899 7549 

zir"G 213 217 8877 



MHE 

Nelson Software 

New Horizons Group 

Nibbles + Bits, Inc. 

Northland Accounting, Inc. 

Nufekop 

Pal os Verdes Learning Center 

M. Pascall Software 

Parr Programming 

Janes Pas lay 

Personal Peripheral Products 

PM Software 

Power line Software 

Practical Applications of Cal. 

Prickly^Pear Software 

Professional Micro Service 

P.R. Software 

Public Domain 

Quick Brown Fox 

Qumax / GRN Laboratories 

RAK Electronics 

Random Access Computers 

RAR-TECH 

RAYMAC Software Group 

R.G. Software 

William Robbins 

Saura 

Scientific & Educational Sftw. 

Scholastic, Inc. 

Scientivic Software 

Fred Scheper 

Sierra On-Line. Inc. 

Simplexsoft, Ltd. 

Sinus Software 

Skylight Software 

Skyles Electric Norks 

D. Smith & Co. 

Soft 4 You 

The Software Co-Op 

Soft-Sell 

Southern Solutions 

Star tech. Inc. 

Straley System Software 

Suburban Electronics 

Susie Software 

Synapse 

Syntax Software, Inc. 

TfcF Software Co. 

Tanerack Software 

Taylormade Software 

Teachware 

Telegames Software 

THORN EMI Video 

TOTL Software 

Tronic Software 

Tri-Micro 

Tronix Publishing 

Type Thrift 

lift Research Associates 

United Microware Industries 

Valley Sof'touch 

Victory Software 

Video wizards, Inc. 

Victrix fc Co. 

Voyager Software 

Western New England Software 

kunderware 

ZiMag 



STREET ADDRESS 

2232 Odgen Court 

13-119 Charles St. 

Box 2844 

686 Second Ave. 

Box 156 

716 Yarmouth Road I283L 

Box 1143 

2664 Tyler Street 

883 Lucerne Or. 

Box 3423 

4488 Arden View Court 

118 Woodview Dr. 

P.O. Box 255768 

9822 East Stella Road 

188 West 22nd Street 

Box 169 

5825 So. Rangeline Road 

548 Broadway Suite 4F 

Box 17818 

Box 1585 

Box 1453 

Box 761 

495 Band Road 

417 Susquehanna Avenue 

Box 3745 

7518 Foxridge May 

Box 54 

738 Broadway 

525 Lohnes Drive 

8347 Dock Rd. 

Sierra On-Line Building 

617 N. Property Lane 

18364 Rockingham Dr. 

22 Miller Street 

23 IE South Whisman Road 

1164 Andover Dr. 

Box 3259 

Box 275 

Box 1226 

Box P 

13458 Maxell a G 185 Suite 288 

1868 Grace Ave. 

6224 Transit Road 

Box 388 

5221 Central Ave. 1288 

33 Elmhurst Ave. Suite 582 

18982 Riverside Dr. 

Water Street 

8853 East Avon Avenue 

3277-B Roswell Rd. Suite 458 

Hamoton, Box 152 

137B Avenue of the Americas 

1555 Third toenue 

#125-1458 Jonston Rd. 

58 Plaza Square Suite J 

781 West Manchester Blvd. 

Shelburne, Ontario 

7926 Berner St. 

3583-C Temple Ave. 

4974 N. Fresno Suite 132 

2827-ASJ Russell Circle 

292 Charcot Avenue 

Box 12232 

Box 1126 

Box 31 

Box 1287 

14688 S. Broadway 



CITY / STATE / ZIP 

St. Paul, m 55119 
N. Vancouver. BC CAN V7H 1S1 
Orcutt, CA 93455 
Two Harbors, m 55616 
Shady Cave, OR 97539 
Palos Verdes Estates, CA 98274 
Santee, CA 92871 
Gary, IN 46487 
Spartansburg, SC 29382 
Aurora, IL 68585 
St. Paul. Hi 55132 
Horseheads, NY 14845 
Sacramento. CA 95825 
Tucson, A2 85738 
Baltimore, MD 21218 
S. San Fransisco, CA 94888 
West Milton, OH 45383 
New York, NY 18812 
Rochester, NY 14617 
Orange Park, FL 32873 
Benning, FL 32541 
Rochester, MI 48863 
Boulder Creek, CA 95886 
Wyoming, PA 18644 
San Rafael, CA 94912 
Anchorage. AK 99582 
Dayton, OH 45428 
New York, NY 18883 
Fairborn, OH 45324 
Pasadena. MD 21122 
Coarsegold, CA 93614 
Marion, IA 52382 
Sacramento. CA 95827 
Belfast, ME 84915 
Mountain View, CA 94841 
Sunnyvale, CA 94887 
Res ton, VA 22898 
Elizabeth, NJ 87287 
LaFayette, GA 38728 
McKinney, TX 75869 
Marina Del Rev, CA 98291 
Ft. Meyers, FL 33981 
DePew, W 14843 
Prospect Heights, IL 68878 
Richmond, CA 94884 
Willowdale ONT CAN MZN 668 
North Hollywood. CA 91682 
Darby. MT 59829 
Lincoln, NE 68585 
Atlanta, GA 38385 
Ontario. Canada LOB 1J8 
New York, NY 18819 
Walnut Creek. CA 94596 
White Rock, BC CAN V4B 5E9 
Orange. CA 92666 
Ingllwood. CA 98381 
Canada L8N 1S8 
Long Beach, CA 98888 
Pomona, CA 91768 
Fresno, CA 93776 
Elkins Park. PA 19117 
San Jose, CA 95131 
Boulder, CO 88383 
Burlingame, CA 94818 
Wilbraham, MA 81895 
Jacksonville, OR 97538 
Gardena, CA 98248 



THIS LIST IS PUBLISHED SOLELY TO PROMOTE THE VIC 2« INDUSTRY. IT IS UPDATED TWICE MONTHLY. 
TO RECEIVE AN UPDATED LIST, SEND A STAMPED SELF-ADDRESSED ENVELOPE TO: 

Colin F. Thompson 
BASF SYSTEMS CORPORATION 
1397 Colorado Avtnut 
Santa Monica, CA 964*4 




SOUTHERN AUDIO VIDEO ELECTRONICS, INC. 
1782 Marietta Blvd., N.W., Atlanta, Georgia 30318 



COMMODORE VIC20 $119.00' 



PRINTER 



DISK DRIVE 




COMMODORE 64 ALSO AVAILABLE 

Commodore VIC20/64 1541 Single Disk Drive 325.00 

Commodore VIC20/64 1530 Datassette 62.00 

Commodore VIC20/64 1525 Printer 325.00 

Commodore VIC20/64 1701 Color Monitor 245.00 

Commodore VIC20/64 1600 Vicmodem (Telephone Interface) 91.00 

*When purchased with 1530 Datassette and VIA 10 Reference Programmers Guide. 



VIC1110 VIC 8K Memory Expander Cartridge 41.00 

VIC1111 VIC 16K Memory Expander Cartridge 65.00 

VIC1923 Gorf. 28.00 

VIC1924 Adventure Land Adventure 28.00 

VIC1917 The Count 28.00 

VIC1929 Personal Finance 28.00 

VIC1211A VIC 20 Super Expander 5300 

VIC1212 Programmers Aid Cartridge 44.00 

VIC1213 Vicmon Machine Language Monitor 44.00 

VL102 Introduction to Basic Programming-Part 1 18.00 

VL103 Basic Programming-Part n 18.00 

VH07A Home Calculation Program Six Pack 42.00 

VI164 Programmable Character Set/ 

Gamegraphics Editor 11.00 

VM100 Personal Computing On The VIC20 4.50 

VL110 VIC20 Programmers Reference Guide 1300 




CM6-A 



Get the best prices on hardware and software. For a complete 
listing of all SAVE's products, send $5.00 for our catalogue (refund- 
able with your first order). 

Enjoy the convenience of in-home shopping. Call our toll free 
number today for orders only. 

Use your American Express, VISA, Mastercard, check or money 
order. Minimum order of $50. Shipping and handling charges 
are extra. All prices are subject to change without notice. Allow 
2-4 weeks for delivery. Prices good through July 15, 1983. 

Order Toll Free 1-800-241-2682 
In Georgia (404)351-8459 

Circle No. 59 



News Releases 



Thanks for Inquiries on 
Commodore 64 Software 

We are pleased to announce that 
beginning June 1 983, we should have 
all of our regular line of Software 
adapted to the Commodore 64 
Computer. 

The pricing will be the same as for 
the 8032 and 4032 machines, and will 
all be disk based. (Designed for the 
1 541 Disk Drive but can be used with 
the Commodore 4040 with proper 
IEEE interface.) 

New programs that do not appear 
on the printed brochure are: Amortiza- 
tion Program— $30; and the Inventory 
Control Program— $55. 

The description of the programs on 
the brochure called An Overview, also 
describe the programs for the Com- 
modore 64. 

We support and stand behind all 
Software produced or distributed by 
Input Systems, Inc. 

Contact: Input Systems, Inc., 25101 
SW 194th Avenue, Homestead, FL 
3303 1 , (305) 245-3 1 4 1 . □ Crete no. m 

Typro Data Manager 
and Wordprocessor 

PET— 

The TYPRO Data Manager and 
Word Processor Package is compris- 
ed of two independent programs on 
disk that can be used separately, but 
work excellently together when there 
is a need to integrate Data Base infor- 
mation with Text. 

This set of programs is not intend- 
ed to compete directly with the WORD- 
PRO'S or the QZZ's or the Big Boys, 
however, this set is offered as a cost 
effective alternative for the serious 
computerist who can use this type pro- 
gram for his business applications. 

16/Commander July 1983 



With TYPRO he can do so without the 
big price tag. TYPRO Data Base Man- 
ager and Wordprocessor contain 
many of the features of the Big Boys, 
yet at only a fraction of the price. 

Input Systems suggests that the pur- 
chaser Backup the TYPRO Master 
Disk the very first thing. Set the master 
aside so if a disk is corrupted, you may 
make another copy. 

The Data Manager 

The user formats his own fields 
within the records. Once this has been 
done it remains permanent in the Key 
file. TYPRO Data Manager will handle 
records to the maximum limit deter- 
mined by the capacity of the disk. All 
Data files are formatted into Relative 
files, and it is suggested that these files 
be stored on a separate disk and drive 
than the Master program file. This 
allows maximum space on disk for file 
data. 

The sample Data file named db test 
is included on the TYPRO Master Disk 
for the new user to get the feel of 
TYPRO Data Base. 

Direct screen editing is used, 
thereby eliminating the necessity of in- 
dividual Input statements for each field 
of data. If a field within a record is 
changed, the field is reversed, empha- 
sizing the change. Two shift returns 
are necessary to permanentize the 
record before going to another record. 
This allows changes to be made, but 
not permanentized, unless deliberately 
done. 

The Sort Search feature is used in 
making labels or mailing lists, and in 
putting addresses to form letter text. 
Each field in each record may be 
searched, and if desired, put into 
Alpha Numeric Order. A separate file 
called a Search Data File is created 
which handles this chore. 



Pattern matching is another feature 
which will enable a user to search a 
field and only retrieve those which ac- 
tually match the prescribed pattern. 
Wild Card Pattern Matching can be 
used for the matching of only part of 
a field, searching through the entire 
Data Base. 

You may get hard copy printing of 
selected fields within a Record when 
in screen display mode by simply 
pressing the ampersand (@) key when 
the cursor is on the line you want 
printed. 

Hard Copy printing of all fields or 
selected fields can be done to fan-fold 
cards (such as Rolodex or postcards) 
through print Menu Selections five and 
six. These allow you to format to any 
size fan-fold paper or card. You may 
select to have each Field Number 
printed at the beginning of each line, 
or you may have the Field Name print- 
ed in sequence after the field number. 
This feature can come in handy for 
auxiliary files such as inventory 
records. All Fields of each record may 
be printed, or you may print only 
selected fields of each record. 

Address insertion can be done with 
Form letter text prepared with TYPRO 
Word Processor, and again uses the 
Search Data file which has been 
previously prepared. 

TYPRO Word Processor 

The Word Processor has two modes 
for writing text— the Write Mode and 
Edit Mode. The 8032 and 4032 will ac- 
commodate about 250 average lines 
of text at 55 characters per line. The 
append feature extends this to the 
outer limits. You may append hun- 
dreds of files together in the Print 
Modes, thereby enabling the user to 
assemble a gigantic manuscript, one 
file at a time. 



The Edit Mode features Screen Line 
Editing, Insert Lines, Delete Lines, 
Global Edit, (moving blocks of text 
from one place in the text to another), 
Forward and Backward scroll. 

Text may be right justified. 

All text may be Saved to disk. (If the 
same name file is used as previously 
on disk, then the new Save will replace 
the one on disk.) 

Retrieval of text from Disk is 
simplified by the program which reads 
the Disk Directory and displays the 
Directory to screen. You may then 
move the cursor to the desired file, 
press return and it will be retrieved 
automatically. (The same feature can 
be used with Save text file.) 

You may underscore a line or part 
of a line by enclosing the part to be 
underscored with less than and 
greater than signs. 

Page numbering (at top or bottom) 
and line titling (top) are available by 
selection. 

All major portions of TYPRO are 
compiled with Petspeed compiler, and 
are fast enough for the best typist. 

The system prompts you for every 
command. Anticipated errors are trap- 
ped and you will be returned to the 
prompt or to the Menu. An 
unbelievable package for the price! 

For more information, see ad on 
page 42. □ circle no. 33 



Software Protection 
Devices for Commodores 

VIC-20/64— 

Softlock Technology has introduced 
a complete line of software protection 
devices for Commodore computers. 
These devices attach to either cassette 
port on all Commodore computers ex- 
cept the Commodore 64 and VIC 20 
on which they connect to the second 
games port. Each device is custom 
manufactured to return a code which 
is unique to the protected program. 
Programs can periodically check for 
these codes and be told to malfunc- 
tion if they are not found. The routine 
provided to check for these codes is 
conveniently integrated with Basic, 
assembly, and Petspeed programs. 
There are stackable versions of some 



of the devices so that more than one 
uniquely protected program can be 
run on a computer without concern 
about switching devices between pro- 
grams. The advantage that device 
protection offers over "copy- 
protected" disks is that it allows end- 
users to make back-up copies of their 
program disks. The devices are 
roughly matchbox size and smaller 
and are simple to attach. There is also 
a mini device (non-stackable) for the 
Commodore 64 and VIC 20 for which 
there are only 20 unique codes. 
Screen printing of logos, etc. is 
available for the non-stackable devices 
except the mini device. The device 
prices vary from $5.98 to $18.60 per 
unit depending upon the computer, 
type, and quantity desired. 

Call or write for further details and 
complete pricing information. 

Softlock Technology, 13031 San An- 
tonio Drive, Norwalk, CA 90650, (213) 

868-7820. D Circle No. 87 



Hypnotist II— 
Latest from Psycom 

64— 

Patrick Williams, president of 
Psycom Software International Cor- 
poration announced today that their 
latest product for the Commodore 64, 
The Hypnotist II, would be available for 
shipment May 23. The suggested retail 
price will be $59.90 including the 
$19.95 Biofeedback device. 

The Hypnotist II is the latest in the 
series of programs by Psycom Soft- 
ware International aimed at the mature 
market place. The Hypnotist II contains 



five major program modules: 

1. Introduction and Vital Data 
Gathering. 

2. Relaxation and Stress Reduction 
through Biofeedback. 

3. Trance Induction. 

4. Neural Reprogramming and 
Suggestion. 

5. Return to Consciousness. 

The second of these, Relaxation and 
Stress Reduction through Biofeed- 
back, will require the use of the PSI 
Biofeedback device; and will be 
available for purchase separately for 
anyone who is not interested in being 
hypnotized. 

The Biofeedback device will be us- 
ed in still another program soon to be 
available from PSI, called The Lie 
Detector. The Lie Detector will operate 
with the Heartbeat Trance and Digital, 
Pulse Read-Out displays that are us- 
ed in the Hynotist II. Hardcopy output 
will utilize the new pen plotters when 
they are available. 

Still another program in this series 
is called Super-Learning, Super Learn- 
ing should be popular with anyone try- 
ing a last minute cram for a test or im- 
portant presentation. 

Psycom Software International is a 
software development and manufac- 
turing corporation located in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. Psycom specializes in in- 
teractive software dealing with 
psychological self-discovery, aware- 
ness, decision making, biofeedback 
and parapsychological subjects, all 
aimed at the adult marketplace. In- 
quiries from distributors, dealers, in- 
dividuals and organizations interested 
in our work are warmly welcomed. 

For more information, see ad on 
page 118.D 

Circle No. 35 



SPORTS STRATEGY GAMES 
FOR THE VIC-20* 

No Joystick Required PLAYER VS COMPUTER Cassette 

BASEBALL ADVERSARY 5K $10.95 

PITCHHITTERS, RELIEF PITCHERS, SACRIFICES, ETC. 

FOOTBALL ADVERSARY 13K (5K plus 8K exp.) $14.95 

PENALTIES, SAFETIES, STATISTICS DISPLAY, ETC. 

PARR PROGRAMMING 

2664 TYLER STREET 

GARY, INDIANA 46407 

(219) 885-0611 



We pay shipping 
Ind. residents add 5% sales tax 
*VIC-20 is a TM of Commodore 



Circle No. 5? 



Commander July 1983/17 




Ik 



by Donald L. Stoner 
Mercer Island, WA 



This month I'd like to present a "they 
said it couldn't be done" program. 
How would you like to be able to 
download programs to your cassette 
recorder with an unexpanded VIC 
(3583 bytes)? Well, you can, and the 
accompanying programs accomplish 
this miraculous task. 

What is Downloading? Shortly after 
you acquire a modem, you will dis- 
cover bulletin boards, The Source and 
CompuServe. Many of these data 
bases hold free programs that will run 
on your VIC-20. They also contain text 
information, such as electronic mail, 
mailing lists, or instructions and docu- 
ments that you may wish to retrieve. 
The trick is to transfer the information 
from the memory of the host computer 
to the memory of your computer. This 
is called downloading. 

The downloading of programs and 
text involves opening a buffer in your 
computer. The incoming characters 
are then placed in this storage area. 
When the operator wants to terminate 
the download, the buffer storage is 
turned off and the material saved on 
a cassette or disk drive. 

Unfortunately, the unexpanded 
VIC-20 has barely sufficient memory 
for a decent terminal program. How 
can you store a 2-3K program in your 
memory when it is already occupied 
by the terminal program? The answer 
is simple. You cannot do it. 

However, a genius VIC programmer 
named Terry Imler figured out a crafty 
way to have your cake and eat it too. 
His program allows you to download 
with nothing more than the memory 

18/Commander July 1983 



available on an unexpanded VIC. He 
placed the program on CompuServe's 
public access program storage for 
others to use and enjoy. This is where 
I discovered Terry's program. I 
downloaded it to my printer, then 
entered the program on my VIC-20. 

Essentially what Terry does is to 
open a small buffer that just fits within 
the available VIC memory. As soon as 
the incoming data fills the buffer, the 
program sends a character (Control S) 
to the host to pause the transmission 
of the material being downloaded. 
Then the program turns on the cas- 
sette recorder and dumps the buffer 
contents. As soon as the buffer is 
empty, another signal (Control Q) is 
sent to the host and the transmission 
resumes, once again filling the buffer. 
As soon as the downloading is com- 
plete, the program closes the cassette 
file. Using this technique, programs of 
virtually any length can be down- 
loaded. 

In most cases, the material to be 
downloaded is stored in the ASCII 
code. This presents no problem if you 
are downloading text since you can 
read the ASCII characters on your 
screen. 
Token Conversion 

BASIC programs, however, are 
stored in your computer as tokens to 
minimize the amount of memory re- 
quired. For example, the command 
PRINT does not require five bytes of 
memory. Rather, it is tokenized and 
stored as a single byte (a decimal 
1 53). When the VIC operating system 
brings the byte in from the program in 



memory, the computer knows the 1 53 
token really means PRINT. This is 
what's shown on the screen when the 
program is listed, not a 1 53. If the pro- 
gram is running, the token prints the 
information following the 153 rather 
than appending a 153 to it. 

What all this means is that the down- 
loading program stored on the cas- 
sette recorder is not in the correct form 
to run properly on the VIC-20. The pur- 
pose of the second program. (Pro- 
gram 2) is to convert the ASCII char- 
acters stored on the cassette into the 
token characters required by the VIC 
operating system. Enter this program 
as shown, then save and verify several 
copies: 

SAVE"TOKEN ,, :SAVE"TOKEN" 

The program also allows the user 
the discard unwanted lines. For exam- 
ple, when downloading, extraneous 
line feeds often accompany the 
wanted material. Also, it is difficult to 
open and close the buffer at exactly 
the right instant. As a result, you may 
set a please close your buffer, or 
similar message, tacked onto the end 
of the wanted program. Obviously, this 
is not going to load into the computer 
without a line number and would 
cause a syntax error even if it did. The 
tokenizing program in Program 2 
allows you to edit out unwanted infor- 
mation. More about this later. 
How It Works 

First, let's look at the downloader 
program (Program 1) and see how it 
functions. Line 100 opens the modem 
file and sets the parameters to 300 
baud, a 7-bit word, even parity and 



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one stop bit. The next line dimensions 
the input and output buffers along with 
a small buffer for pointer storage. 

Line 1 20 defines strings for the cur- 
sor and assigns numbers to several 
variables. The lines between 200 and 
290 set up the ASCII to Commodore 
conversion tables. Line 250 allows the 
F1 -F4 keys to transmit Control C, P, Q 
and S respectively. 

The end of line 290 opens a cassette 
file for the storage of the material to be 
downloaded. For lack of a better 
name, it is called COMP. You must 
place a cassette into your recorder 
before running the downloader pro- 
gram. This is so the downloader can 
write the file open information before 
proceeding to the terminal section 
starting at line 300. 

Line 300 clears the screen while line 
310 looks to see if the keyboard buf- 
fer is empty. Line 320 examines the 
modem for a character. If a character 
is present, the program jumps to line 
330 and prints it on the screen. 
Assuming no character is present, the 
program passes to line 325. This line 
is active if the buffer is open and con- 
trols the on/off codes sent to the host 
computer. 

Line 360 examines the keyboard to 
see if a key is pressed. If it is, the 
character is sent out the modem by 
line 370. Line 376 looks to see if the 
buffer open (F7) or buffer close (F8) 
key is pressed. The value of M deter- 
mines if the buffer is open or closed. 
Line 380 is part of the cursor blink 
routine. Each time the program loops 
through this line it increments CT by 
one. If the total equals eight in line 390, 
the cursor is reversed and appears to 
blink. Line 400 loops the modem I/O 
routine back to the beginning. 

Lines 420-690 are part of the cas- 
sette write routine. Line 420 writes the 
headers. Lines 600 and 610 set and 
reset the pointers while the DATA 
statements in line 690 provide the 
memory locations for these pointers. 
Using the Program 

After you have entered the program 
as shown in Program 1, be sure to 
save and verify it. Then replace the 
cassette with a fresh one and run the 
program. Log onto a system or BBS 
that recognizes the Control Q and S, 

20/Commander July 1983 



X-on/X-off handshaking protocol. 
CompuServe is a good system on 
which to test the program. Their 
routines are constantly checking for 
the handshaking protocol. 

As soon as you find something you 
wish to download, press the F6 key 
(shift F2). The buffer will open to ac- 
cept characters. As soon as it fills, you 
will see the screen suddenly stop print- 
ing and the motor on the cassette will 
run. When you have captured the 
desired information, press the F8 key 
(shift F4). The cassette will again run 
and close the file, then the handshak- 
ing will tell the host to proceed. 

After you log off the system, remove 
the data cassette and load the token 
conversion program (Program 2). 
Make certain you have saved a copy 
before running the tokenizer program. 
It erases itself from the VIC memory 
after it completes the conversion. By 
the way, I'd love to tell you how this 
program works. However, after line 
60100, I'm lost! 

After the program is loaded, replace 
the cassette with the original cassette 
of data downloaded from the host. 
Run the program, which will open the 
original COMP file you recorded. All 
material up to a carriage return will be 
displayed on the screen and you will 
be asked if you want to keep the line 
or skip (discard) it. If you see a line that 
seems to end in the wrong place, or 
one that does not have a line number, 
write down exactly what you see. This 
unusual display means a line feed 
crept into the middle of a line of 
BASIC. Every line of BASIC must start 
with a line number. If it does not, the 
program will not load and/or run. You 
should discard defective lines (or parts 
of lines), then reenter them to splice 
the line together. You'll have an oppor- 
tunity to do this after the program is 
converted to tokens. 



Once you have edited the material, 
the program will go through some in- 
credible gyrations caused by lines 
601 00 to 60200. Finally, if all goes well, 
you should see the READY prompt ap- 
pear. Now, if you type list, the program 
should float up the screen just like nor- 
mal. If it was necessary to discard a 
defective line, it should be reentered 
at this time. It is a good idea to save 
the program on yet another cassette 
before you run it. It is possible that a 
lock up could occur for unexplained 
reasons. 

Now, when you run the program, it 
should do whatever it was designed 
to do. If it does not, list the program 
section by section until the problem is 
uncovered. 

The preceeding instructions are 
related to downloading BASIC pro- 
grams. Downloadng and reviewing 
text files is considerably less com- 
plicated. For ASCII files, open and 
close the buffer exactly as before. After 
logging off, load the program shown 
in Program 3. This will bring in the file 
(either text of BASIC) and display it on 
the screen. The display will continue 
to scroll until you press a key. This will 
pause the display so you can read it. 

Next month, I'll present another of 
Terry Imler's programs. This one will 
allow you to upload programs to a host 
computer or a friend with another VIC. 

In the meantime, if you have any 
telecommunications programs, tips or 
information which you would like to 
share with other readers, be sure to 
send it to Donald L. Stoner, c/o Com- 
mander Magazine, PO Box 98827, 
Tacoma, WA 98498. If there are any 
radio amateurs out there in reader- 
land, let me know if you are interested 
in ham radio.applications for the.VIC. 
My call is W6TNS/7 and I use the 
VIC-20 extensively for RTTY communi- 
cations. □ 



Program 1 

100 0PEN5*2»3rCHR*< 38 )+CHR*< 224 ) 

110 dimfz< 255 )*t%< 255 >*x%< 6 >:r*198 
120 k** h "+chr$< 157):j**k*+chr$< 146): 
m==o:t=166:l=i9o:y=212:e=34:d^o 

200 FQRJ=32T064:T%< jw:next 

210 TX< 13)=13:T%<20)=S:RV=18:CT = 



"?*? 







forj=65T09o:k=j+32:t%< j >»k:next 



230 


F0RJ»91TG95U%< J >==JSNEXT ^ / 


240 


F R ..J •-■•193 T 2 1 8 : K = J - 123; T % ( J ) - K X N £ X T jmf 


250 


•V" K/ I A "v "V ', -V 6 'f " »' ■' ■) "v / ■- 4 f * "V- ti.' * .1 '»* I"*" J ' v .-, ••*• at .• / ,i -v ; -. ,i ••.. ^fc § 


260 


r» n '-/ T •- "K '*> *?' n ,: * !:: - * ( - "■' / r ** — v * *j (:. ■-.- T -■ i~ n k> r — o r ■>■■ f .- -.• '*> •"> * c "/ / v \ .... r .... ■>: •} * ;■. .■ nr v r A^\ 

1 L» i '* »J — vi) *■- i u / %-j * i /u % iJ / — * J * 1 1 1... /-, J y I '.-• i ••■ \j- -' / / i o j. *■- *» * j /h \ U / J vJ *; v 1 \ C A i JVvvA 


270 


F0RJ*I23T0126fF%< J >-J~64INEXT w^ 


280 


F%C96)~32JFE<92)~17SF£< 12/ >*20J 


F%< 8 ) = 


«20:F%( 13 )~13tFZ< 10 )--17 


290 


FOR J=0T0127 J i :: '%< J T 1 28 >«FX< J ) £ NEXT ; GPEN1 * 1 1 2 ? !! CGMP" 


300 


PRINT" "CHR*< 147 ) 


310 


IFPEEK<R )<>DTHEN360 


320 


GET#5 » A$ J IFA$<>" " THEN330 


325 


IFM*2THENM"liG0SUB$10:PRIfJT#5*CHft*< 17)5 JG0TO310 


327 


G0TG360 


330 


A*»ASC< A* )tPR!NTK$rCHR*( F%< A > >J 1 IFA-ETH£NP0KEY*B 


340 


IFMTHENPRINTfl »CHR$< FXi A ) >! JIFPEEKt F )">LTBEN50Q 


350 


G0T0310 


360 


PRINTCHR*< RV 5 J J* * J G£TA$ t IFA*~" " THEN380 


370 


A«ASC<A* )JIFA<137THENPRINT*5tCHR*< T%< A > )5 SCOT0380 


376 


IFA=i40THEN410 


378 


IFA*139THENM»i 


380 


CT=CT+1 


390 


IFCT»8THENCT=GiRV~164-RV 


400 


GOT 03 10 


410 


IFM-0THEN380 


420 


C0SUS550SPRINT41*CHR« 60 )?CHR*< 3 )?CHR*< 252 )* CHR*( 3 }i 


430 


I=PEEK< T )tPRINT#l»CHR*< 10 >J tIFPEEK* T )>ITHEN430 


440 


G0SUB61 J PR INT*5 » CHR$( 17 ) J t tt»0 J G0T0380 


500 


I F H ■••:.' > 2 T H E N G 3 U B 550 


510 


PRINT*! »CHR*< 10 )$ JIFPEEK< T )=>LTHEM51C 


520 


M»2$G0TO3I0 


550 


PRINT#5rCHR*< 19)? 


560 


J==PEEK< 667)tF0RI»0TO500tM£XTJIFPEEK< 667 )<>JTHEN560 


570 


G0SUB600 J RETURN 


600 


RESTORE : FOR I = 0T06JREADA t X%( I )*PEEK( A ) t NEXT X RETURN 


610 


RESTORE J FOR I-0T06 X REABA I PGKEA t X%< I ) I NEXT J RETURN 


690 


BATA167 -j 168 > 169 1 170 » 180 » 181 » 182 



60000 
60010 
60020 
60030 
TO FI 
60040 
60050 
60060 
60070 
PRINT 
60080 
60090 
60100 
60110 
60120 
60130 



Program 2 

OPENl ; »i»0» ,, CO«P" 

B$=CHR$(60 5tC* ! =CHR*(3)JPOKE152rltB=OJGOSUB60190 
GET#1 /A$ I IFA*«" "THEN60020 

IFA*aC$AMDD*«B$THENPRINT" END OF FILE" tPRINT"HIT 
NISH" :G0TQ60120 

IFA*=CHR$< 13 )ANDB-OTHENPRINTCHR$( 19 )? JG0TG60020 
PRINTAf 5 tB«B+iJD$«A*SIFA*«CHR*< 34 JTHE«POKE212»0 

:i:fa$oghr$< 13 )the.N60020 

CHR*< 5 )?"G0T060010" ?CHR*< 3.1 ){PRI«TtPRINTJ.E*«" " iPOKti 
PRINT"RETURN«KEEP LINE S«SKIP LINE" tB^O 
GETE* : IFE*=" " THEN60090 
:i:FEifc="S"THEN60010 
GOT060200 

I F P E E K < 1 9 7 ) < > 1 5 T l-l E N 6 1 2 
A*60000JA*= H 60140" tGOT060170 




RETURN 



198: 




Commander July 1983/21 



1^ 



PROGRAM 2— continued from page 21 


60140 


A-60060 X A*= '' 60 1 50 " t GOTQ60 1 70 


60150 


A~60 100 X A*= " 60 1 60 " { G0T0&0 1 70 


60160 


A--==60160:CQT060170 


60170 




G0SUB6019QJFCRI*ATQA«?0STEP10SP.RINTCHR*< 137 >» IfCHR*< 141 >JNEXT 


60180 


PRINT" GOTO" i A* 5 G0TOAO200 


60190 




PRINTCH 


R$< 147 )»CHR*< 17 )5CHR$< 17 )JCHR$< 17 >»CHR*< 17 )J J RETURN 


60200 




FOR 1=63 


iTG640JP0KEI»13SNEXTtP0KEi9S»10JP'RINTCHR$( 19)5 X END 







Program 3 






64 


PRINT" SEARCHING FOR FILE" XQPEU1 




65 


K == 1 9 7 X M - 2 1 2 X N = 1 P * = :: C H R * < 3 > t G * « C H R $ < 1 ) X J ™ 6 4 J R % ~ 


=CHR$< 34 ) 




70 


IFPEEK<K)=JTHEN70 






80 


IFPEEK< K 5OJTHEM80 






90 


GET*1 irA$SPRINTA$ 9 X IFA«*R$THENPOKEH*N 






100 


IFA$*P*THEN200 




110 


IFA$=G$THENPRINTJPRIHT"END OF THIS SECTION* !- 


ill ANY KEY 




TO CONT*" JG0T070 






120 


G0T080 






200 


print:print ,! end OF FILEtCLOSEI :stop 


1 



THE CDI 4C/8C VIDEO CARTRIDGES 

Quantum Data, Inc. produces two 40/80 Video Cartridges for the Commodore VIC-20 computer. The 
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the 



The 40/80 Video Cartridge or the 40/80 Video Combo Cartridge is the means to upgrade 
VIC-20 computer to a 40 * 24 or an 80 x 24 character display. This provides a wealth of new uses 
for the VIC-20 and with the appropriate software you con now accomplish quality word processing 
and various business functions that previously were difficult to achieve with only the VICs standard 
22 character video display. Both Cartridges feature a screen printing routine and a terminal 
emulator routine which are written in BASIC so that you can odd these capabilities to your 
programs. 

€ither Cartridges con be plugged Into the memory expansion port of the VIC-20 or an expansion 
chassis. The 40 character mode may be easily viewed on most standard T.V. sets but a monitor is 
required for the 80 column mode to provide the necessary additional resolution. 

VIDCO CARTRIDGC $1 59.95 

VIDCO COMBO CAftTMDGC $259.95 

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Ask for other VIC-20 hardware and software peripherals! 



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Circle No 36 



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Items in stock ready for immediate delivery. 

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VIC-20 is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines 



22/Commander July 1983 



Am I Prepared 
for Processing? 



by Barbara Naness 
Staten Island, NY 



It isn't easy saying goodby to an old 
friend. The time and place are never 
right. Parting words seem shallow and 
insignificant. Motive and rationale 
wither and wane as you wrestle with 
guilt and uncertainty. 

Can I, with clear conscience and no 
qualms or regrets, trade in a perfectly 
good electric typewriter for a word 
processor? 

Webster's defines typewriter as "a 
writing machine with a keyboard for 
reproducing letters, figures, etc. that 
resemble printed type." 

How impersonal. How antiseptic, in- 
sensitive and insufficient. Had Mr. 
Webster ever had the pleasure of 
spending a week with me and my 
typewriter, he would certainly have 
described it as the living, breathing 
organism that it is. 

Amid the cozy clutter of coffee cups, 
reference books and unfinished 
drafts, my faithful friend and constant 
companion sits patiently awaiting our 
daily sojourn. Like a stoic and stalwart 
soldier, it bolts to life and attention as 
I approach. 

Unwavering, uncomplaining and 
unrelentless in strength and stamina, 
this mighty machine gives substance 
to my thoughts and sanity to my 
senseless and scatterbrained babbl- 
ing. Its steady hum (of contentment, no 
doubt) soothes and inspires as my 
fingers dance across the smooth and 
familiar keys. Jumbled ideas and 
rambling and elusive concepts 
become pearls of wisdom and wit. It 
is an extension of my mind, an analyst, 
editor, interpreter and translator- 
nothing short of a magician. 

I feed my typewriter a couple of 
cassettes a month. It's oiled and 
dusted and carted off to the Type- 



Righter for semi-annual checkups. 
Preventative medicine, I have found, 
is the key to a healthy, happy and pro- 
ductive machine. 

My typewriter has been good to me 
in return. It has read my mind, record- 
ed ingenious ideas and half-baked 
brainstorms and journeyed with me 
through fantasylands of imagination. 
Together we've weathered severe and 
debilitating cases of writer's block, rac- 
ed against deadlines and agonized 
over usage and spelling. 

I haven't always been easy to live 
with, but my typewriter's never com- 
plained. I've pummeled it, cursed it 
and blamed it mercilessly and unjust- 
ly. I've driven it beyond exhaustion in- 
to the wee hours, then neglected it for 
days on end. I've cried on it, spilled 
on it and yes, even pulled the plug on 
it. But never has this pillar of strength 
and stability let me down. 

Now like the infamous ice age, 
growing, spreading, blanketing every- 
thing in its path, the computer age is 
upon us. Digital watches, pocket 
calculators and video games have 
embedded themselves in our culture. 
The secrets of the universe are stored 
on chips. Our lives are laid bare and 
our future programmed for us through 
the mesmerizing display of electrons 
on cathode ray tubes. 

Typewriters, we are told, are ar- 
chaic, inadequate and obsolete. Word 
processors boast features that the 
typewriter, in its prehistoric ignorance 
and infancy, can never hope to com- 
pete with. These electronic geniuses 
have powers and abilities far beyond 
those of mortal machines. We can now 
work less, produce more and perform 
mind-boggling, literary miracles. 

Programs and disks replace file 



cabinets and all manner of paperwork. 
RAMS and ROMS, the remarkable 
memory components, summon up 
and spew forth anything they've ever 
been fed. With the flick of a switch and 
the push of a button, artificial brain- 
waves take over. 

Rough copies, those fresh first drafts 
of creativity, can be changed, rear- 
ranged and corrected right before 
your eyes— without the tedious, time- 
consuming use of dictionary, 
thesaurus or human intellect. Spelling 
is corrected, sentences deleted and 
paragraphs transposed while you sit 
idly by. With lightning speed and ac- 
curacy, a printer rearranges and 
records what's been typed onto the 
screen, eliminating all personal 
contact. 

Global search, word wrapping and 
interrobanging become everyday ac- 
tivities, replacing proofreading, plan- 
ning and polishing. It's a whole new 
world. 

It all sounds . . . well . . . oddly en- 
ticing. Scary, in a seductive sort of 
way. Progressive, yet somehow cold 
and calculating. 

The naturally inquisitive mind of a 
writer wonders at the sacrifices, pro- 
blems and drawbacks to owning a 
machine that is smarter than I am. 

What if, heaven forbid, it doesn't like 
what I've written? Will it, in its infinite 
wisdom, refuse to print my less than 
perfect prose? My typewriter would 
never pass judgment or take matters 
into its own keys. But if I've programm- 
ed this omnipotent creature to revise, 
retouch and reconstruct, who am I to 
intervene in its hallowed and divine 
decisions? 

The disk drive can become 

Commander July 1983/23 




FIVE POWERFUL SOFTWARE 
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24/Commander July 1983 



Circle No 64 



hungry— ravenously so, I am told — 
devouring and digesting software, 
floppy disks and valuable information 
(without reason, warning or use of 
ketchup). Although it's rare, this culinary 
calamity has been known to occur. 

Suppose I pour out my heart and 
soul at the keyboard for months— ' 
brilliance and beauty unbridled, if I do 
say so myself. My Pulitzer Prize- 
winning novel stares back at me in all 
its dazzling iridescence, corrected to 
perfection, waiting to be immortalized. 
Dare I push the button? It couldn't 
possibly erase when it's supposed to 
print, could it? How silly of me to fear 
such an implausible error. But could 
it? Alas, I've been warned that it could. 
Naturally, without premeditated malice 
or a forethought (so they say). 

Computers don't make mistakes 
very often. But when they do, be 
prepared for a whopper. 

Am I ready to face the conse- 
quences of such untimely and unfor- 
tunate acts? Consequences that could 
rival those incurred by the stock 
market crash? At least when a 
manuscript is typed on paper, it can 
be stored safely without fear of instant 
eradication. 

Physically, mentally and emotional- 
ly speaking, will staring at those glar- 
ing electrons all day cause eye strain, 
backaches and irritability in one who 
already does daily battle with ridicule, 
rejection and writer's block? 

Finally, won't I miss the intimacy and 
interaction I've come to need and ex- 
pect from my own writing? 

Maybe I'm just the cautious type. 
The type who has a good thing going 
and knows it. The type who wouldn't 
divorce a perfectly good husband just 
because someone younger, hand- 
somer, richer, smarter and sexier 
came along. Hmm. Maybe there is 
something to be said for modern 
technology. Maybe its byte isn't as 
bad as its bark. 

Maybe my trusty, true-blue friend 
deserves a rest. After all, his 
predecessor, that cute little, rickety old 
portable could use some company in 
typewriter heaven. □ 



ENTER THE GALACTIC EXPERIENCE 

WITH 




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manager. With capabilities reaching into alphabetizing upon entry, sorting and searching on all fields, printing labels and printing 
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Currently there are four versions to cover anybodies needs. 



These are: 



The mailing list 
The mailing list 
The mailing list 
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Circle No. 18 



VIC-20* 

VlC-20* 

64 

64 * 

To order, send check or money order to: 

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P.O. Box 10516 
San Jose, CA 95157 

or phone (408) 247-4434 for COD 

or 

see your local dealer 
dealer inquiries invited 



tape $25.95 
Disk $27.95 
tape $27.95 
Disk $29.95 



*VIC-20 and 64 are trade marks of Commodore Business Machines. 



Commander July 1983/25 



^ 



Revised Sprite Editor 
for the Commodore 64 



by Gary Kiziak 
Burlington, Ontario, Canada 



Since my Sprite Editor first appeared 
in the February issue of Commander 
magazine, I have had numerous re- 
quests for the changes necessary to 
make the program work with cassette 
as well as disk. This article will present 
a new version of the Sprite Editor that 
incorporates those changes as well as 
a few others in the form of the addi- 
tional commands. 

If you typed in the Sprite Editor from 
the February issue, then you will not 
have to retype the whole program. 
Most of the lines are exactly the same. 
Some new lines have been added to 
incorporate the cassette routines and 
the new commands. Some of the old 
lines have also been changed for 
various reasons. 

Rather than list only the lines that 
have changed and the new lines 
(which could cause problems should 
I forget just one) I have chosen to in- 
clude the entire listing for both the 
Sprite Boot and the Sprite Editor pro- 
grams. When making the changes, 
make sure you check each line 
carefully to see if any changes have 
been made. 

One of the first changes that I decid- 
ed to make was to include the data for 
the machine language routines in the 
Sprite Boot program, thus eliminating 
the necessity of the Scroll. Data pro- 
gram. This change is necessary for 
cassette users. For disk users, it will 
facilitate the copying of these pro- 
grams from one disk to another (just 
Load the programs and Save them). 

The New Commands 

Here are the new commands that I 
added together with a brief description 
of their use. For a complete descrip- 
tion of all the other commands see the 
February issue of Commander. 

Shift-C— Copies the current sprite to 

26/Commander July 1983 



LISTING 1 



IS REM 

15 REM SPRITE EDITOR BOOT 
20 REM 

25 PRINT "[CLEAR] [WHITE]": POKE 53230,14 
'POKE 53281,6 

30 PR I NT " C HOME ] E DOWN ] C DOWN ] C DOWN ] C DOWN ] 
[ DOWN ] C DOWN ] C DOWN 3 C DOWN ] C DOWN ] C DOWN ] C DO 
WN] CDOWN] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] CR 
IGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT 
] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] LOADING .. 
. [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] " = GOSUB 1 08 
40 PRINT " [HOME 3 [BLUE] LOAD" CHR*< 34V SPR 
I TE EDI TOR " CHR$ ( 34 > " , 8 " 
50 POKE 133,3 

55 FOR 1=32422 TO 32761 : READ X = POKE I,X 
: NEXT 

60 FOR 1 = 1 TO SPREAD X^POKE 630+I,X**NEX 
T 

70 POKE 44 , 64 : POKE 1 6* 1 024 , : POKE 56 , 1 2 
6 : CLR = NEW 

100 PRINT" [REV] [OFF] [REV] 
[OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] 
[OFF] [REV] [OFF] 
110 PRINT 11 [REV] [OFF] [REV] [0 
FF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [OF 
F] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] CO 
FF] 

120 PRINT" [REV] [OFF] [REV] [0 

FF] [REV] [OFF]™! [REV] [OFF] [RE 

V] [0FF3 [REV] [OFF]" 

130 P RINT" 7 * *" 

140 PRINT" [REV] [OFF] [REV] 

[OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV 
] [OFF] [REV] [OFF] 

150 PRINT" [REV] [OFF] [REV] CO 

FF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [0 

FF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] CO 
FF] [REV] [OFF] 



the next page. 

The previous Sprite Editor did have 
a command (CTRL-C) for copying a 
range of sprites from one area to 
another, but I found it awkward to use 
when I simply wanted to copy a single 
sprite from one page to the next— the 
kind of thing that you want to do when 
creating a series of almost identical 
sprites for animation purposes. Now 
the creation of these sprites can be 
simplified by pressing Shift-C and then 
making the necessary changes to the 
sprite on the next page. Note: before 
pressing Shift-C, make certain that the 
next page doesn't contain a sprite that 
you want to keep. 

Shift-S — This is the command that 
saves a range of sprite definitions to 
cassette (S by itself saves it to disk.) 
The sprites are saved as a Data file 
and can later be loaded into the Editor 
for further editing or additional sprite 
creation. 

Shift-L — Loads a Data file of sprites 
from cassette (CTRL-L loads it from 
disk). 

Remember, if any of the commands 
CTRL-L, Shift-L, S, Shift-S, CTRL-C, 
CTRL-D, or CTRL-P is pressed ac- 
cidently, you can return to the editor 
without carrying out that command 
simply by pressing RETURN at the 
next prompt, 

CTRL-F— Flips the sprite being 
edited upside down. 

I required this command when 
creating a sprite (actually a car) that 
was to move up and down the screen. 
Moving up the screen required one 
sprite, while moving down required the 
exact same sprite but flipped upside 
down. So now I simply copy the sprite 
that I am working on to the next page 
(Shift-C) and then flip it upside down 
(CTRL-F). 

Shift-F— Flips the sprite being 
edited sideways. 

As above, this command will be 
useful for creating sprites that will 
move left and right on the screen. The 
sequence Shift-C followed by Shift-F 
creates the necessary sprites. 

CTRL-I— Inserts a blank line at the 
current cursor position, moving 
everything on and below that line 
down one line. 

I found this command useful when 



168 PRINT 1 ' [REV] [OFF]™" [REV] CO 
FF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [0 
FF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [OFF] [REV] [0 
FF]-~1 

170 PRINT 11 " ~ 

~ "[HOME] 

180 RETURN 

20Q DRTR 1 69 , 8 .■ 1 68 , 7 1 , 1 53 , 9 , 1 26 , 1 36 , 1 32 

, 62 , 208 , 243 , 177, 25 1,153,0 

2 i 8 DATA 1 26 , 1 36 ,16, 248 ,96,1 68 , 7 1 , 1 85 * 8 

, 126, 141, 13, 127, 136, 185,8 

228 DRTR 126,141,12,127,136,185,0,126,1 

41,11,127,162,2,46,13, 127 

230 DRTR 46,12,127,46,11,1 27 , 62 , 72 , 1 26 , 

202, 62, 72, 126, 202, 62, 72 

248 LfiTR 126,232,232,232,232,232,224,74 

, 144,227, 136, 192,255,288,208, 162 

258 DRTR 71,189,72,126,157,8,126,202,16 

, 247 , 1 68 , 62 , 1 85 , 8 , 1 26 ,145 

260 DRTR 251,1 36 ,16, 248 , 96 , , 8 , 8 , 1 69 , 2 1 

,141,2,8,163,83, 141 

278 IiRTfl 253 ,8,169,4,141, 254 ,8,1 62 , 8 , 1 6 

0,0, 161,251, 10,72, 169 

280 IiRTfl 46,144,2,169,160,145,253,208,1 

04, 192,24,240, 16, 192, 16,240 

290 DRTR 4,192,8,288,232,230,251,208,2, 

238 , 252 , 288 , 222 , 238 J 25 1 , 283 

388 DRTR 2 , 238 , 252 , 24 , 1 73 , 253 , 8 , 1 85 , 48 , 

141,253,8, 173,254,8, 185 

318 DRTR 8,141,254,8,286,2,8,288,192,36 

, 169,28, 133,251, 162,3 

320 DRTR 1 34 , 252 , 1 60 , 3 ,177, 253 , 1 36 , 1 36 , 

136, 145,253,238,253,208,2,238 

330 DRTR 254,198,252,208,237,198,251,20 

8 , 23 1,169,8,1 45 , 253 , 200 ,145, 253 

340 DRTR 200 , 1 45 , 253 ,96,1 63 , 28 , 1 33 , 25 1 , 

162,3, 134,252, 160,8, 177,253 

358 DRTR 288 , 288 , 288 ,145, 253 , 1 65 , 253 , 28 

8,2, 198, 254, 198, 253, 198, 252, 288 

368 DRTR 235 , 1 98 , 25 1,283, 229 , 1 69 ,8,1 68 , 

1, 145,253,288, 145,253,288, 145 

378 DRTfl 253 , 96 , 1 62 ,21,168,2, 24 , 1 77 , 253 

,42, 145,253, 136, 16,248,24 

388 DRTR 1 69 ,3,181, 253 ,133, 253 , 1 69 , 8 , 1 8 

1 , 254, 133, 254, 282, 288, 229, 96 

398 DRTR 169,21,133,251,168,8,162,3,24, 

177,253, 186, 145,253,288,282 

408 DRTR 288,247,24,152,181,253,133,253 

, 169,8, 181,254, 133,254,286,251 

418 DRTfl 8,288,225,96 

428 DRTR 19,13,32,32,82,85,78,13 



READY. 



continued on page 28 



Commander July 1983/27 



as 



creating a Pac-Man like sprite. My first 
attempt produced a somewhat skinny 
Pac-Man. I found it easier to move the 
bottom half of the sprite down and fill 
in the empty line than to work around 
the outline of the sprite to make it fatter. 
CTRL-K— Kills (deletes) the line at 
the current cursor position, moving 
everything below upwards to fill in. 

Some Other Changes 

A number of other changes have 
been made simply for cosmetic pur- 
poses. For example, when the Sprite 
Editor is first run, page 200 comes up 
clear— not with the garbage that it us- 
ed to have. I have also changed the 
large dot, that signified that the cor- 
responding pixel of the sprite was on, 
to a reversed space. I feel that it looks 
better. Actually, you can change it to 
whatever character that you want by 
changing the value of PT in line 148. 
PT=160 gives the reversed space, 
PT = 81 gives the large dot. You can 
choose whatever you feel looks best. 

Working With Sprites on 
Cassette Based Systems 

If you are writing programs to work 
with cassette, it would be somewhat 
awkward for the user to have to load 
a Data file of sprites from tape. It would 
be better to save the sprite tables 
along with the BASIC program, as I 
demonstrated in the previous Sprite 
Editor article, or to include the sprite 
definitions within the program itself us- 
ing Data statements. 

To facilitate converting your sprite 
definitions to Data statements, the pro- 
gram Sprites to Data (listing 3), is also 
included. To use it, first load the sprites 
into memory using the Sprite Editor. 
Then load the Sprites to Data pro- 
gram, run it and follow the prompts. 
Your Data statements will be created 
automatically for you. Delete lines to 
11 of the resulting program and you 
can now type in your BASIC program, 
or, if it already exists, you can Append 
this to the end of your BASIC program 
using the method that I described in 
my article A Character Editor for the 
Commodore 64 which appeared in the 
June '83 issue. ENJOYMMD 

28/Commander July 1983 



ft SPRITE EDITOR 



FOR THE COMMODORE 64 



REVISED SPRITE EDITOR— continued from page 27 

se rem ******************************** 
***** 

87 REM * 

* 

88 REM * 

* 

89 REM * 

* 

90 REM * 

* 

91 REM * 

* 

92 REM * 

* 

93 REM * 

* 

94 REM * 

* 

95 REM * 

* 

96 REM * 

* 

97 REM * 

* 

98 REM ******************************** 

ST» •¥• «T« * * 

99 : 

100 PRINT "[CLEAR] [WHITE]"; : IF G=0 THEN 
DIN CQ*<15) 

110 DEF FNX'L"X>=X-INT(X/24>*24:DEF FNV<X 

>=X-INT<X/21)*21 

120 IF PEEK<8181K>81 THEN FOKE 8181,81 

:FOR X=0 TO 63: POKE 12800+X, 0=NEXT 

1 30 V*=» " [ HOME ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DO WN ] [ DOWN ] [ 

DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DO WN ] [ DOWN ] [ DO WN ] [ DO W 

N ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DO WN ] [ DOWN ] [ 

DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOW 

N]" 

140 D0T*=" " : BL* 



BV 



GflRRV 0. KIZIflK 



COPVRIGHT 1982 



— II 
II 



141 FOR 1=0 TO 7:TW0(I>=2tI=NEXT 

142 00$ < ) - " BLACK " : CO* < 1 ) * " WH I TE " : CO* < 2 
) = " RED " : CO* < 3 > = " CV AN " : CO* C4 > * " PURPL " 
144 CO* C 5 > = " GREEN " : CO* (. 6 > * " BLUE " : CO* ( 7 
) - " VELOW " : CO* <. 8 > = " ORNGE " : CO* < 9 ) « " BROWN " 
146 CO*a0>="LT RD":C0*ai>="DK GV'XO* 
C12>="MD GV":C0*(13>="LT GN" 

148 CD*a4)="LT BL":C0*(15>="LT GY" :MR= 
PEEK ( 53276 ) : PT= 1 60 : POKE 32554 1 PT 

1 49 M0=PEEK ( 53285 ) AND 1 5 : M 1 =PEEK i 53286 ) A 
ND 1 5 = B=PEEK < 5328 1 > AND 1 5 : E=PEEK ( 53280 > AN 
D15 



150 


0=13*4096 


: CR$=CHR$< 13) : BE$=CHR$C20) 


:C=PEEK 03+39 >flND 15 
—a 


SX=30 : SV=150:X1=0 : 


VI 


—a 
160 


PR= 


=200 : SP= 


=0 : SC* 


- 1 024+80+3 : AD=32688 


170 


GOSUB 960 








180 


GOSUB 870 








190 


GOSUB 930 








200 


GOS 


5UB 850 








210 


PX= 


=0 : PV=0 








220 


P=SC+PV*40+PX ■■ Q=PEEK<P) = R=Q 




230 


R=> 


: NOTRHNB 1 28 ) OR C NOT 1 28RNBR > 




246 


POKE P,R 








250 


FOR 1=1 TO 30 -GET fl$=IF fl$="" THEN 


NEXT'- GOTO 238 








268 


POKE P,Q 








270 


IF 


A*"" [RIGHT]' 


' THEN PX=FNX<PX+i; 


• : G 


OTO 


220 








280 


IF 


fl$=" CLEFT]" 


THEN PX=FNX(PX-H 


GO 


TO 220 










290 


IF 


fl$="r.BOk 


THEN PV=FNV<PV+1) 


GO 


TO 228 










300 


IF 


R$a " C UP ] " THEN PV=FNV ( PV- 1 > : GOTO 


310 IF 


A$=BE$ 


THEN 


Z2=<PEEK<P>AND127: 


. :p 


OKE 


P,- 


-(Z2=46>*46-« 


:Z2O46)*PT:G0T0 680 


320 


IF 


fl$=» " 


THEN 


GOSUB 660:PX=FNX<PX+ 


1):G0T0 220 








330 


IF 


fi$=CR* 


THEN 


PX=0:PV=FNV<PV+1>: 


GO 


TO 220 










340 


IF 


R$="." 


THEN 


740 




350 


IF 


fl*="C CLEAR]' 


' THEN GOSUB 820= GOTO 


210 










360 


IF 


A$="CRE^ 


10 












370 


IF 


A$="+" 


THEN 


780 




380 


IF 


R$="~" 


THEN 


300 




390 


IF 


A$="Q" 


THEN 


POKE G+21.,0: PRINT 


"[ 


CLEAR]' 


' ; : END 








400 


IF 


A$=">" 


THEN 


C=(C+UAND15:P0KE 


G+ 


39, C: GOSUB 30: 


20 






410 


IF 


fl*«"ir 


THEN 


B=<B+1)AHD15:P0KE 


53 


231, 


B: GOSUB 3010 






420 


IF 


R$=" [WHITE]' 


' THEN E=(E+1>RNH15:P 


OKE 


53280, E= GOSUB 3000 




430 


IF 


A$=">a" 


THEN 


XI *1 -XI : GOSUB 900 


GO 


SUB 


870: GOTO 228 






440 


IF 


R$="W" 


THEN 


V 1=1 -VI : GOSUB 908 


GO 


SUB 


870: GOTO 220 






450 


IF 


fl$="«" 


THEN 


580 




460 


IF 


fl$="l" 


THEN 


600 




470 


IF 


R$="ll" 


THEN 


620 




480 


IF 


A$="ll" 


THEN 


640 




490 


IF 


A$="W" 


THEN 


1510 




500 


IF 


fl$="S" 


THEN 


1270 




505 


IF 


fl** H # M 


THEN 


3500 continued on 


page 30 



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Commander July 1983/29 



REVISED SPRITE EDITOR— continued from page 29 

A/ 510 IF 1=1$=" fl" THEN 103Q 

W/ 520 IF fi$="iB]" THEN 1070 

tL 530 IF fl*="r THEN 1430 

g% 535 IF fl*="L" THEN 3800 

*^ 540 IF fl$="i:HOME3" THEN 210 

550 IF fl$="ffl" THEN GOSUB I860: GOTO 179 

555 IF m="£" THEN 690 

556 IF fl*="M" THEN MR=255-MR : POKE 53276 
, MR: GOSUB 3339 

557 IF fl$*"0" THEN M0»<M0+1>ANBI5:POKE 
53285 1 M0 = GOSUB 3039 

558 IF fl**"l" THEN M1 = <M1 + 1 > AND 15 = POKE 
53286 , Ml : GOSUB 3030 

559 IF 1=1*=" a" THEN 3100 

560 IF A$="-" THEN 3200 

56 1 I F A$= " -" ANDPRO 1 5RNDPR063RNBPR025 
5THENFORX=0TO63 : POKECPA+l >*64+X, PEEK < PA 
*64+X>:NEXT 

562 IF A*="H" THEN FOR X=62 TO PV#3+3 S 
TEP- 1 : 22=PA*64+X : POKE Z2 , PEEK < 22-3 ) : NEK T 

563 IF A$="H" THEN FOR J=0 TO 2- POKE PR 
*64+PV*3+ J , : NEXT : GOSUB 850 

564 IF A$="8I" THEN FOR X=PV*3 TO 59=22= 
PA*64+X : POKE 22, PEEK < 22+3 > : NEXT 

565 IF fl$="a" THEN FOR J=0 TO 2- POKE PR 
*64+60+J,0: NEXT: GOSUB 850 

569 GOTO 220 

570 POKE G+2 1,0: GOSUB 930: GOSUB 870=003 
UB 850: GOTO 210 

574 rem **************************** 

5*75 pPM & $ 

576 REM * MOVE ENTIRE SPRITE UP, * 

577 REM * DOWN, LEFT, OR RIGHT * 

578 REM * * 

579 rem **************************** 

580 j=pr*64 : poke 253,j-256*inkj/256>'-p 

OKE 254, J/256 

590 SVS RD: GOSUB 850:GOTQ220 

600 J=PA*64+59 : POKE 253, J-256* INK J/256 

):POKE 254, J/256 

610 SVS RD+42: GOSUB 850:GOTO220 

620 J=Pfi*64 : POKE 253 , J-256* I NT < J/256 ) = P 

OKE 254, J/256 

630 SVS RB+88: GOSUB 850:GOTO220 

640 J=PR*64=P0KE 253, J-256*INT< J/256) : P 

OKE 254, J/256 

650 SVS fiD+1 18: GOSUB 850:GOTO220 

655 REM **************************** 

656 REM * * 

657 REM * ERASE OR DELETE fl POINT * 

658 REM * * 

659 REM **************************** 
66Q POKE P,46:PP=Pfl*64+PV*3+INTCPX/8) 
670 POKE PP,PEEKCPP> AND 255-2t<7-<PX-I 
NT<PX/8>*8>): RETURN 



30/Commander July 1983 



630 PX=FNX<PX-1):P=SC+PV*40+PX:GO3UB 66 
0:GOTO 220 

685 REM ***•**#********************** 

686 REM * 

687 REM * ROTATE SPRITE 30 DEGREES 

688 REM * 

689 rem mmmmmmmmmmmmmm 

692 HI=INT<PR/4):L0=Pfl*64-256*Hl:P0KE 2 

51,L0:P0KE 252,HI=SVS 32422 

700 3VS 32443 =SVS 32526= POKE 251,LQ:PGK 



* 
* 



■£_> 



2, HI 



710 
720 
730 
735 
736 
737 
738 
739 
740 
750 
760 



fl$0"£" RNII 
THEN 700 



R$OCR$ THEN 710 



PLOT fl POINT 



* 

# 



GET fl*:IF 

IF fl$="£" 

GOTO 220 

REM 

REM * 

REM * 

REM * 

REM 

POKE P,PT 

PP=Pfl*64+PV*3+ 1 NT < PX/8) 

POKE PP^PEEKCPP) OR 2TC7-CPX-INKPX 
/S '■ #8) ) 
770 PX*FNX<PX+1 ) = GOTO 

REM 

* 
NEXT OR PREVIOUS SPRITE * 

* 



220 



775 
776 
777 
778 
779 
780 






Pfl<15 



REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

IF 
27RNDPR<255> 
?9& GOTO 220 
800 IF<PR>13RNDPR<16) 
■> GR<Pfl>128RNDPfi<256) 
570 

GOTO 220 

REM 
* 

* 



OR <PR>31RNDPfl<63> OR<Pfi>l 
THEN PR=Pfl+l:GOTO570 



OR <Pfl>32RHDPR<64 
THEN Pfl=Pfl-l:GOTO 



810 
815 
816 
817 
818 
819 
820 
OSUB 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
FOR 
850 



CLEAR SPRITE 



* 



**************************** 
X=0 TO 63: POKE PR*64+X,0:NEXT 
RETURN 



G 



8*5 
826 
827 
828 
829 
830 



* 
* 
* 



REVERSE SPRITE 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 

FOR X=0 TO 
<PR*64+X):NEXT 

845 REM 

846 REM * 

847 REM * DISPLRV SPRITE ON SCREEN 

848 REM * 

849 REM 



* 
* 
* 



63 : POKE 

GOSUB 850 : RETURN 



PR*64+X,255-PEEK 



* 
* 
* 



continued on page 32 



SELLING 

EDUCATIONAL 

SOFTWARE 

CAN HELP PROTECT 

DEALER PROFIT 

MARGINS 

AGAINST ERODING 

HARDWARE 

PRICING 



OUR COMPANY 

MICRO-ED 
INCORPORATED 

MEANS 

EDUCATIONAL 

SOFTWARE 



FOR FURTHER 
INFORMATION 

CALL 

1-800-MICRO-ED 

AND TALK WITH 

GEORGE 

ESBENSEN 

OUR NATIONAL 

SALES 
COORDINATOR 




Creators of more than 1,000 programs 
LMICRQED Pre-school through adult 

CfeCfe No 26 



Commander July 1983/31 



REVISED SPRITE EDITOR— continued from page 31 

§L I 350 POKE 251, PA*64-INKPR/4)#256: POKE 2 

W 52, PA/4 

J4 860 svs 32526: PRINT" [WHITE] [HOME]" : RETU 

ra RN 

^^ 865 rem mmmmmmmmmmmmmm 

see rem * * 

867 REM * INITIALIZE SPRITE DflTfl * 

868 REM * # 

869 REM **************************if:* 

879 POKE G+2 1,0: POKE 2040+SP,PA:FOKE G+ 
39, C 

880 POKE G+SP*2,SX:P0KE G+SP*2+ 1 , SV = POK 
E 6+23, VI = POKE 0+29, XI 

890 POKE G+16,2-TSP:P0KE G+21 ,2TSP :RETUR 
N 

895 rem mmmmmmmmmmmmmm 

896 REM * * 

897 REM * EXPAND/CONTRACT SPRITE * 

898 REM * * 

899 rem mmmmmmmmmmmmmm 

900 SX-17: IF X1=0 THEN SX=38 
910 SV=138:IF V1=0 THEN SV=150 
920 RETURN 

925 rem mmmmmmmmmmmmmm 

926 REM * # 

927 REM * DISPLAY EDITING SCREEN * 

928 REM * * 

929 rem mmmmmmw.mmmmw.mmm 

938 PRINT "[HOME] [DOWN] [DOWN] [DOWN]" THE 
<29)"l I" : PRINT TflB<29)"l PAGE 
I" 

940 PRINT TAEt29;'"l I": PRINT "CU 

P][iJP]"TAB(34>PA 
950 RETURN 

960 PRINT "[HOME]!! 

[WHITE] „ 

970 PRINT " KCREV3 1234567890123456789 
01234 [OFF] [REV] [WHITE] SPRITE [DOWN 
] [LEFT] [LEFT] [LEFTHLEFT] [LEFT] [LEFT] [L 
EFT] [LEFT] [LEFT] [LEFT] EDITOR [HOMEH 
DOWN]" 

988 FOR X=l TO 21 

999 PRINT " 5i[ REV] "RIGHTS " "+STR*<X>,2 
>"[OFF][WHITE]"DOT$"K[REV] [OFF]" ■ NEXT 
1080 PRINT " [REV] 
[OFF] [WHITE]" 

1001 PRINT LEFTS ( V$, 1 8> TAB < 30 >" COLOURS" 
: PR I NTT AB C 38 ) " " 

1002 PRINT TAB(29)"BRDR:":G0SUB 3000 
1004 PRINT TABC29VBKGD: 
1086 PRINT TAB<29)"SPRT 

MR=0 THEN RETURN 
1008 GOSUB 3030 
1010 RETURN 



GOSUB 3810 
GOSUB 3020: if 



32/Commander July 1983 



i@i5 rem mmmmmmmm^mmmmmm 

1016 rem * * 

1017 REM * PROMPT FOR NEW PACE * 

1018 REM * * 

1019 REM **************************** 

1020 IF IN*-"" THEN Pfl=flp:GOTO 180 

1 030 L I = 1 = CDL=3 1 = LE=3 : MSG$= " C OFF ] PAGE t 
OFF ] " : GOSUB 1 700 : flP=Pfi : PH= VflL < I N$ ) 
1040 PRINTLEFT$<V»*LI)TflBCCOL-l>" 

1050 IF INf="" OR Pfl<13 OR <Pfl>15RNDPR< 

32 > OR <PR>63RNDPR<128> OR PA>255 THEN P 

fl=HP 

1060 GOTO 180 

1065 REM **************************** 

1066 REM * # 

1067 REM * DISPLRV RANGE OF SPRITES * 

1068 REM * * 

1069 REM **************************** 

1070 POKE G+2 1,0= POKE 0+16,0= POKE 0+23, 
0=POKE G+29,0: GOSUB 1250 

1080 LI=8:C0L=6 = LE=3-MSG$= ,, [0FF]FR0M PA 
GE=[OFF]" 

1 090 GOSUB 1 700 = GP=PG = PG=V AL ( IN* > = I F I N* 
="" THEN PRINT "[CLEAR]" = GOTO 170 
1100 IF PG<0 OR PG>255 OR CPG=0 AND IN* 
O"0") THEN 1080 

1110 LI=8:C0L=22=MSG*="[0FF]T0 PACE = [OF 
F3" 

1120 GOSUB 1700=PH=VAL<IN*>=IF PH<PG OR 
PH>255 THEN 1110 
1130 SW=PG 

1140 SUM=0=EN=SW+7=IF EN>PH THEN EN=PH= 
IF SW>PH THEN 170 

1150 GOSUB 1250 -FOR I=SW TO EN=K=I-SW=M 
*K=IF M>3 THEN M=M-4 
1160 POKE 2040+K,I=SUM=SUM+21K 
1170 POKE G+K*2,M*48+104:L=93=L1=10=IF 
K>3 THEN L=155=L1=17 

1180 POKE G+K*2+1,L=P0KE G+39+K, 1 =POKE 
0+21, SUM 

1190 PRINT LEFT*';V*,L1)TABCM*6+9H 
1200 NEXT 
1210 PRINTLEFTtCVS^eJTflB*?)" 



1220 PRINTTABC7VPRESS [REV] SPACE BAR[0 

FF] TO CONTINUE" 

1230 GET A*: IF A*<>" "THEN 1230 

1240 POKE 0+21,0= PR I NT "[CLEAR] " =SW-EN+ 

1=G0T0 1140 

1250 PRINT "[CLEAR] 



1260 PRINT " 

PRITES [OFF]": RETURN 



[REV] DISPLAV S 

continued on page 34 



5SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS 

Wi-tDiDPU SEAlSEH/ 

CARDBOARD 3 

An Economy Expansion Interface 
(Motherboard) 

For the VIC-20® Personal 
Computer 

The "CARDBOARD/3" is an expansion inter- 
face designed to allow the user to access more 
than one of the plug-in-type memory or utility 
cartridges now available. It will accept up to 3 
RAM or ROM cartridges at once. For example: 

• 16k RAM * 16k RAM * 3k RAM 

• 16k RAM + 8k RAM + Super Expander 

• 16k RAM * 8k RAM * Vtc-Mon 

• 16k RAM + 3k RAM + Programmer's Aid 

• High quality TRW. gold plated connectors 

• This board is fused 

• 90 day free replacement warranty covering j 
everything except the fuse 

$35.95 

CARDBOARD 6 

An Expansion Interface for VIC-20® 

• Allows memory expansion up to 40K 

• Accepts up to six games 

• Includes a system reset button 

• All slots are switch selectable 

• Daisy chain several units for even more 
versatility 

TO ORDER: $87.50 

P. O. BOX 18765 

WICHITA, KS 67218 

(316) 263-1095 

Personal checks accepted (U**rtwd) 

(Allow 3 weeks) or \S=^=^J 

COD. (Add $2) 

Handling charge $2.00 Ode no 9 

VIC-20" is a registered trademark of Commodore 



PROGR€XTIV€ 
P€RIPIH€RQL/ 
6/OfTUJflR€ 



THE AUTO CLOCK' 



A TRUE MULTI-FUNCTION CARD 

• Switch your VIC-20/64 or other AC devices on 
and off under software control 

• 256 year clock/calendar. 

• 2K CMOS battery backed up RAM 

• Menu driven software. 

• Plugs into the buss expansion slot. 

• Cartridge style case. 

• 19 user accessible subroutines. 

• 20 page illustrated manual with detailed 
programming examples. 

AUTO CLOCK $129.95 



• State of the art Pro-Adventure Series for the 
Commodore 64. 

• Realistic sound effects and animated color 
graphics. 

• Over eighty areas. 70 objects, and 40 
commands. 

• A "real-time" adventure with a user-friendly 
help feature, updated constantly. 

• Comprehensive, illustrated manual with a 
fold-out map. 

• Your success in Gothmog's Lair will depend on 
your skill and resourcefulness. NOT on pure luck. 

• Prepare for the most challenging adventure 
you will ever undertake as you enter 

GOTHMOG'S LAIR . . cassette version — $39.95 
diskette version — $39.95 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 
ORDER FROM: 

PROGRESSIVE PERIPHERALS & SOFTWARE 
6340 West Mississippi Avenue 
Lakewood. Colorado 80226 
(303) 778-1312 Circ)e No 58 



Commander July 1983/33 



REVISED SPRITE EDITOR— continued from page 33 

A / 1265 REM **************************** 

W/ 1266 REM * * 

11 1267 REM * SAVE SPRITES TO DISK * 

JJ^ 1268 REM * * 

**^ 1269 REM **************************** 

1270 POKE G+21,0: PRINT "CCLEHR] 



1280 PRINT " [REV] SAVE SPRITES 

TO DISK [OFF]" 
1290 LI =8 : C0L=6 : LE=3 : MSG$= " [ OFF ] FROM Pfl 
GE:[OFF]" 

1300 GOSUB 1700:PG=VflL(IN$>:IF IN*="" T 
HEN PRINT " [CLEAR] "= GOTO 178 
1310 IF PG<13 OR <PG>15 AND PG<32) OR ( 
PG>63 AND PG<128> OR PG>255 THEN 1298 
1320 LI=8:C0L=22:MSG$="[0FF]T0 PAGE: [OF 
F ] " : GOSUB 1 700 = PH-VAL < I N$ ) 
1330 IF PH<PG OR <PH>15 AND PHC32) OR < 
PH>63 AND PHK128) OR PH>255 THEN 1320 
1340 BEG=PG*64 : EN=PH*64+63 = H 1 = 1 MX BEG/2 
56) :LO=BEG-H 1*256 

1350 LI*19 = C0L*12: LE=16 : MSG$=" COFFDFILE 
NAME : [ OFF ] " : GOSUB 1 700 : FL** " : " + I H$+ " , P 
RG, WRITE" 

1360 OPEN 1,8, 15, "10": GOSUB 1810 
1370 OPEN 2,3, 1,FL$: GOSUB 1810 
1 380 PR I MT#2 , CHR$ C LO > ; CHR$ (HI); 
1390 FOR I=BEG TO EN=X=PEEK< I) :PRINT#2, 
CHR*<X>; : NEXT •" GOSUB 1810 
1400 CLOSE 2 
1410 CLOSE 1 
1420 PRINT "[CLEAR]": GOTO 170 

1425 REM **************************** 

1426 REM * * 

1427 REM * LOAD SPRITES FROM DISK * 

1428 REM * * 

1429 REM **************************** 

1430 POKE G+21,0: PR I NT "[CLEAR] 



1440 PRINT " [REV] DISK LO 

AD [OFF]" 

1450 LI=10 = C0L*12: LE=16 : MSG$=" COFF3FILE 

NAME : [OFF] " : GOSUB 1700 = FL$="0 : " + IN$ 

1460 IF IN**"" THEN PRINT "[CLEAR]" : GOT 

170 

1470 0PEN1,8, 15, H I@" 

1480 OPEN2,8,0,FL*:GOSUB 1810: CLOSE 2=C 

LOSE 1 

1490 LOAD FL*,8,1 1500 END 

1504 REM **************************** 

1505 REM * * 

1506 REM * COPV SPRITES TO ANOTHER * 

1507 REM * AREA IN MEMORY * 

1508 REM * * 

1509 REM **************************** 



34/Commander July 1983 



1510 POKE G+2 1,0: PRINT "[CLEAR] 



[REV] COPY SPRIT 



1520 PRINT " 
E DflTFl [OFF]" 

1530 PRINT LEFT*<V*,4>" j 

" : PRINT " [REV]** SOURCE PRGES **' 

1 540 L I =? : C0L=4 : LE=3 : MSG$= " [ OFF ] FROM 



Pfl 



IN**' 



GE:[OFF]" 

1 550 GOSUB 1 700 : PG-VfiL ( I N$ ) : I F 

HEN PRINT "[CLEAR]": GOTO 170 

1560 IF PG<13 OR <PG>15 AND P0C32> OR <. 

PG>63 AND PG<128> OR PG>255 THEN 1540 

1570 LI=3:C0L=4:LE=3:MSG$="[0FF]..T0 PA 

GE : [ OFF ] " : GOSUB 1 700 : PH= V AL ( I Nf > 

15S0 IF PH<PG OR (PH>15 AND PH<32) OR C 

PH>63 AND PH028> OR PH>255 THEN 

1590 PRINT LEFT$<V$,4)TRB<21;'" 



1570 



": PRINT TAB(21>"[REV]** TARGET 

1600 LI=7:C0L=24:LE==3:MSG$="[0FF]FR0M P 

AGE: [OFF]" -GOSUB 1700:PD=VALUN$> 

1616 IF PD<13 OR <PD>15 AND PD<32> OR C 

PD>63 AND PD<128) OR PD>255 THEN 1600 

1620 PE=PD+PH-PG:IF PE>255 THEN PE=255 

1 630 PR I NTLEFTS C V$ , 3 ) TAB i 23 > " . . TO PAGE = 

"PE 

1640 IF PD>PG AND PD<=PH THEN 1670 

1650 FOR I=PD TO PE= PRINT LEFT$<V$, 12>T 

ABC 12) "COPYING PAGE" I 

1660 FOR J=0 TO 63: POKE I*64+J, PEEK<<PG 

+ 1 -PD ) *64+ J ) : NEXT : NEXT = PR I NT " [ CLEAR ] " : 

GOTO 170 

1670 FOR I=PE TO PD STEP -1 = PRINT LEFT* 

C V$ > 1 2 ) TAB U 2 ) " COPY I NG PAGE " I 

1680 FOR J=0 TO 63: POKE I*64+J,PEEK((PG 

+ I -PD ) *64+ J ) : NEXT : NEXT : PR I NT " [ CLEAR ] " : 

GOTO 170 

END 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

V3-2 = INS*" " : UC~@ : UB$*LEFTiCBL$, LE> 
: GOSUB 1800:IJB*=" ":U03 
1710 UT=TI 

1720 GET Z9S-1F 29$="" THEN 1780 
1730 IF Z3$=CR$ THEN 79*2= GOSUB 1800= PR 
INT "[LEFT] [LEFT] " : RETURN 
1740 IF Z9S=BE* THEN ON -<LEN<IN*)=0) G 
OTO 1780: IN*=LEFT*<IN*, LENUN$)-1) : GOTO 
1780 

IF (HSC< 29$) AND 127X32 OR 29*=CHR$ 

THEN 1780 

IF LE=LEN<IN$) THEN 1780 

IN^-IN* + 29$ continued on page 36 



1690 
1695 
1696 
1697 
1698 
1699 
1700 



**************************** 

* * 

* INPUT ROUTINE * 

* * 



1750 
C34) 
1760 
1770 



BMLEY SOFTWARE 
For Commodore 64™ 

DELUXE ADDRESSER C101F 

Easy moiling labels, each data file holds 
250 addresses. Update. Delete. Add. List, 
Labels, Sort. $40.00/Tape. 

HIGH SEAS C204F 

Soil the Atlantic in 1811. recover stolen 
gold, ovoid mutiny, bring in wanted 
pirates. $14.95/Tape. 

FUR TRAPPER C205F 

Explore the Rocky Mountains in 1848, 
gather pelts, trade for food. Lakes, villages, 
ferns il4.95/Tape. 

BLACKJACK TUTOR C210F 

Learn to stand, hit, double, and split. Prac- 
tice scenarios. $14.95/Tape. 

MISSION 64 C215F 

Cirion enemy spacecraft threaten your 
mission. Joystick or Keys. $19.95/Tape. 



Add shipping of $.75 per cassette tape. 
(Dealers: (816) 760-2001 for sales rep.) 
• All programs can be used on disk, too • 

P.O. DOX2913 
LIVERMORE. CA 945500291 

Circle No 39 



COMMODORE 64 
and VIC-20 " 



expansion) 



EERIE MANSION-Explorethe 

mansion and find the treasures but 
beware the dangers. 19 9b tape 24 9b disk 

* FUN GAMES ' 

MONOPOLY - Sound and 
graphics make this family favorite 
more fun than ever. 64 only — 
19 95 tape 24 95 disk 

* SELF IMPROVEMENT - 

DIET CALC — Tell the computer 
what you eat and what activity you do 
and it will calculate your gain or loss. 
VIC 19 95 tape 24 95 disk 
64 available soon. 

All orders add 1 50 handling 
Send for Free Catalog 



MYSTIC SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 536 

LAKESIDE, CA 92040-0536 

(619) 443-9776 

Commodore 64 1 " and vie 20 1 " are registered 

trademarks of Commodore Business 

Machines, Inc. 



Circle No 56 

Commander July 1983/35 



REVISED SPRITE EDITOR— continued from page 35 

a . 1730 GOSUB 1800: IF TI-UK10 THEN 1720 

ml 1790 V9=3-Y9 : GOTO 1710 

\l 1800 PRINT LEFT*<V$,LI)TRB<C0L-1>MID$<M 

g\ SG*,V9>UB*IN*MID*<"CREV] [OFF]", V9,UC>" 

13^ " ; : RETURN 

1805 rem **************************** 

1806 REM * * 

1807 REM * CHECK FOR DISK ERRORS * 
1308 REM * * 

1809 rem **************************** 

1810 INPUT#l,fl$,B$,C$,D$ 

1820 IF VflL<fl*)=B THEN RETURN 

1 830 PR I NT " C CLEAR ] C DOWN ] C DOWN ] C R I GHT ] C R 

EV3DI3K ERROR: C OFF] »%$ 

1840 CL0SE2 

1850 END 

1855 rem **************************** 

l'-'Sfi REM fc # 

1857 REM * VIEW SPRITE IN MOTION * 

1858 REM * * 

1859 REM **************************** 

1860 POKE G+21,0:PRINT "[CLEAR] " : POKE G 
+ 16,0 

1 870 X= I NT ( RND CI > * 1 OO > + 1 55 : V= I NT < RND ( 1 > 

* 1 00 ) +75 •• DX=2 = DV= 1 : X2=0 = Y2=0 

1380 POKE G,X:POKE G+1,Y:P0KE G+21,1 

1890 B$=" " = X=X+DX : V=V+DV : GET fl$:lF fl*< 

>"" THEN 1950 

1900 IF X>255 THEN X=255:DX=-DX 

1910 IF V>200 THEN V-200 ■' DY=-DY 

1920 IF X<65 THEN X=65:DX=-DX 

1930 IF Y<75 THEN Y-75:DV--DY 

1940 GOTO 1880 

1950 IF fi$="+" THEN DX=DX+SGN-:DX> :DV=DV 

+SGN<DV) :DX=DX-CDX=0> = DV=DV-CDV=0> 

I960 IF fl$="-" THEN DX=DX-SGHCDX) =DV=DV 

-SGN<DV> :DX=DX+<DX=0) :DV=DV+<DV=0> 

1970 IF fl$="+" OR flfa"-" THEN 1890 

1980 IF R$="ia" THEN E=CB+l)fiND15:P0KE 5 

328 1,B 

1990 IF Fl$=" [WHITE]" THEN E=<E+l)flND15-- 

POKE 53230, E 

2000 IF A$=">" THEN C=CC+DHND15:P0KE G 

+39, C 

2010 IF fi$="ffl" THEN X2=1-X2:P0KE G+29,X2 

2020 IF fl$="fl" THEN V2=1-V2:P0KE G+23,Y 

2 

2030 IF fi*=CR$ THEN POKE 0+2 1,0 = RETURN 

2040 IF fl*OB* THEN 1890 

2050 GET B$:fl$=B$=IF B$0" " THEN 1930 

2060 GOTO 1890 

2095 REM **************************** 

2096 REM * * 

2097 REM * DISPLflV COLOUR REGISTERS * 

2098 REM * * 

2099 REM **************************** 



36/Commander July 1983 



3009 PR I NT LEFT* C V* , 20 > THE < 34 ) CO* < E > : RE 
TURN 

30 1 PR I NT LEFT* C V* , 2 1 ) TAB ( 34 > CO* < E ) : RE 
TURN 

3020 PR I NT LEFT* C V* t 22 ) TAB ( 34 ) C0*< C > : RE 
TURN 

3030 Rl$«"RG-0:- ,, +CO*<M0> :R2*- ,, RG-1 : "+CQ 
*<M ) ■ IFMR=0THEN fll$=" " : H2*=fl 

1* 

3040 PR I NT LEFT* < V* , 23 ) TAB < 23 ) A 1 * : PR I NT 
TAB(29)A2$" [HOME] " : RETURN 

3035 REM **************************** 

3036 REM * * 

3037 REM * FLIP SPRITE UPSIDE DOWN * 
3098 REM * * 
3033 REM **************************** 
3100 FOR 1=0 TO 3:Z1=PA*64+I*3:W1 = -::PA+1 
>*64-I#3-4 

3110 FOR J=0 TO 2:Z2=PEEKC21+J):P0KE Zl 

+j,peek<wi+j>:poke wi+j,z2:ne:*:t J 

3120 NEXT I : GOSUB 850: GOTO 220 

3135 REM **************************** 

3136 REM * * 

3137 REM * FLIP SPRITE SIDEWAYS * 

3138 REM * * 
3133 REM **************************** 
3200 FOR 1=0 TO 20:Z1=PA*64+I*3 

3210 FOR J=0 TO 2:X4=PEEK<Z1+J>:G0SUB 3 

240 :XU>»XS: NEXT J 

3220 FOR J=0TO 2- POKE Z1+J,XC2-J> =NEXT 

J 

3230 NEXT I: GOSUB 850: GOTO 220 

3240 X5=0:FOR L=0 TO 7: IF X4flNDTW0<L> T 

HEN X5=X5+TW0^7-L> 

3250 NEXT: RETURN 

3495 REM **************************** 

3436 REM * * 

3497 REM * SAVE SPRITES TO CASSETTE * 

3498 REM * * 

3499 REM **************************** 

3500 POKE G+21,0:PRINT "C CLEAR] 



3510 PRINT " [REV] SAVE SPRITES T 

CASSETTE COFF]" 

3520 LI=8:C0L=7:LE=3:MSG$="C0FF]FR0M PA 

GE:[OFF]" 

3530 GOSUB 1700:PG=VAL<IH$):IF IN$="" T 

HEN PRINT "[CLEAR]" : GOTO 170 

3540 IF PG<13 OR (PG>15 AND PG<32) OR C 

PG>63 AND PGC128) OR PG>255 THEN 3520 

3550 LI=8:C0L=23:MSG$="C0FF]T0 PAGE -l OF 

F]": GOSUB 1700:PH=VRLCIN$) 

3560 IF PH<PG OR (PH>15 AND PH<32> OR < 

PH>63 AND PH<128> OR PH>255 THEN 3550 

3570 BEG=PG*64 • EN=PH*64+63 : H I • I NT < BEG/2 

56 J : L0 : = : BEG , -'HI#k l 56 continued on page 38 



Circle No. 15 



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Indianapolis, IN 46268 

(317)253-4855 

NAME 

ADDRESS 

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MasterCard & Visa Accepted 



Circle No 65 



Commander July 1983/37 



REVISED SPRITE EDITOR— continued from page 37 

fk/ 3575 HZ-INT<EN/256>:LZ-EN-HZ*256 
'W/ 3580 L I = 1 8 = COL= 1 2 : LE= 1 6 : MSGt= " [ OFF 3 F I LE 

1L NAME : C OFF ] " : GOSUE 1 788 = FL$= I N* 

Ul 35S5 PR l HT " c D0WN 3 1 D0WN 1LRl GHT 3 C R * GHT ] c R 
IGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] PRESS RECORD 

& PLAV OH TAPE[DGWM3[DOWN3" ^PRINTTRBU 

1)"THEN PRESS [REV] RETURN [OFF]" 

3588 GET fl$=IF A$OCHR$U3)THEN 3588 

3598 OPEN 2,1,1,FL$ 

3608 PRINT#2,CHR$CL0>;CHR$<HI ) ; CHR*CL2> 

;CHR*CHZ->J 

3610 FOR I=BEG TO EN=X=PEEK<I) =PRINT#2, 

CHR*<X>; = NEXT 

3620 CLOSE 2 

3630 PRINT "[CLEAR]": GOTO 170 

3735 rem mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 

3796 REM * * 

3797 REM * LORD SPRITES FROM CASSETTE * 

3798 REM * * 

3799 REM Mmmmwm*WMM*mMMmW 

3800 POKE G+2 1,0 '.PRINT "[CLEAR] 



3810 PRINT " [REV] CASSETTE 

LOAD [OFF]" 

3820 LI=»7 : C0L=13 : LE=16 = MSG$=" [OFF3FILEN 

AME : [ OFF ] " = GOSUB 1 708 = FL$= I N$ 

3830 IF IN$="" THEN PRINT "[CLEAR]" : GOT 

170 

3833 PRINT T AB < 12> "[DOWN] [DOWN] [DOWN] [D 

OWN] INSERT DATA TAPE [DOWN]" : PRINT TABU 

1> "PRESS PLAV ON TAPE [DOWN]" 

3835 PRINT TAB Cm" THEN PRESS [REV] RET 

URN [OFF]" 

3838 GET A*: IF A$OCHR$<13) THEN 3838 

3840 OPEN 2,1,0,FL$ 

3850 GET#2 , X* , Y$ , Z$ , Wf : BEG= ASC < X*+CHR$ < 

■) > +256*ASC < V#+CHR$ C 8 > ) 

3860 EN= ASC ( Z$+CHR$ C > ) +256* ASC C W$+CHR$ 

C0>) 

3870 FOR I=BEG TO EN:GET#2,X$:P0KE I, AS 

CCX*+CHR$C0>>:NEXT 

3880 CLOSE 2- PRINT "[CLEAR]" : GOTO 170 

READV. 

1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 8 PGKE53281 > 6 : G0T07 

1 READL, I , S, E : PRINT" [WHITE] [CLEAR] [DOWN 
] [DOWN] [DOWN] ";MID$CSTR$<L),2>;" DATA " 

2 PR I NTM I D$ C STR$ C PEEK C S ) > , 2 > i 

3 S=S+ 1 : T=T+ 1 : I FS>=ETHENPR I NT : PR I NT " [ BL 
UE ] PR I NTCHR* U 47 > CHR$ < 5 > " = G0T06 

4 I FT< 1 6THENPR I NT " , " ; : G0T02 

5 L=L+ 1 = PR I NT " [ BLUE ] [ HOME 3 [ DOWN ] [ DOWN 3 
DATA" ; L; " [LEFT3 , " ; I ; " [LEFT3 , " J S J " [LEFT3 
, " J E : PR I NT " [ HOME 3 C DOWN 3 [ DOWN 3 i DOWN 3 [ DOW 










38/Commander July 1983 



Circle No 38 



NIC DOWN 3 RUN"; 

6 PR I NT " [ HONE J " > ■ P0KE63 1*13: P0KE632 ,13 = 
P0KE633, 13- P0KE634, 13 : POKE 198, 4 : END 

7 PRINT" [CLEAR] [WHITE] "TflB«::4::' M 



L 



8 PRINTTflB<4>°CREV] SPRITE DATA TO DATA 
STATEMENTS " 

9 I NPUT " [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ DOWN ] [ R I 
] [ R I GHT ] [ R I GHT ] START I NG L I HE 
: I NPUT " [ DOWN ] [ R I GHT ] [ R I GHT ] [ 
HT] INCREMENT ";I:L-L-I 

10 INPUT" [DOWN] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] 
GHT] STARTING PAGE ";S:S=S*S4: 
N] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT] [RIGHT 
GE ";E:E=CE+1)#64 

11 PRINT" [CLEAR] "^GOTOS 
READV. 



I GHT] [RIGHT 

NUMBER ";L 

[RIGHT] [RIG 

[RIGHT] [RI 
INPUT" [DOW 
] ENDING PA 



Circle No. 10 




■ 







\\\\& 






. l« a< ^SnV^^tStn enlS 



\. 




pja& 



an<* 



-.•SiS« 



fee? *«'S53tf£ 







-, 22 B MILLER STREET, BELFAST. MAINE 0491 5 

V (207)338-1410 commooo«64x 

Software & Accessories for the VIC-20 



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CARDADAPTER: Play Alan VCS Games on your Vic $74.99 

CARDB0ARD3S: slot exp.-fused-swiiched-resei button VIC S3 1 .99 

CARDETTEM: Use standard cassette recorders on VIC/64 $31.99 



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Interface cable for printers above $24.99 
INCLUDES DRIVER LISTING 



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AGGRESSOR: Space Battle - Nine Levels VIC $39.99 

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ROBOT PANIC: Battle your way through (he Cosmos . . vic . . $39.99 
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HES MON: Mach Language Monitor - Assembler . . . viC/64 $39.99 
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WE HAVE COMMODORE'S COMPLETE EDUCATION LIBRARY 
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MAROJOfS CURSE: Avoid Rama's Ghost & Find Lost Treasure, Vic/64 . $29.1 

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TRQNIX— 1 

IRPIOH: Predatory World of Killer Worms, Dragons, Traps, Vic. . . $33.9 
DEADLY SKIES: Guide Helicopter thru Smart Bombs, Ami- Aircraft, Vic $33.9 

COLD FEVER: A Fortune Awaits, But So Does Grove Danger, Vic $33.9 

SIDE WINDER: Fast Action Arcode Type Game, Req. 8K Exp., Vic ... . $24.9 

SWARM: The Fastest Arcode Game You've Seen, Cos s. Vic $24.9 

GALACTIC BLITI: 15 Different Enemy Pottems, Cass. Vic SI 9, 



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TAPE #1 - Canon Duel - Breakout - Runaround - Stockcar - Space 
TAPE #2 - Target Pistol - Space Duel - B29 - Tank - Roadblock 
TAPE #3 - Sub Hunt - Bbckade - Indy 500 - UFO - Jungle Drivef 
$939 EACH 1- ALL 15 GAMES ON ONE TAPE . . $25.00 

NEWI COMMODORE 64 LIBRARY-DISK ONLY $29/99 

BOMBER - POKER - BLACKJACK - 3D MAZE - TREASURE 

ISLE ADV — 64 DATA MANAGER — SPRITE AID 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR - 3 MILE ISLAND 



- COMM DATA - 



PAUCUDA: EaT Smaller Fish, Wotch 4 Octopi, Vic/64 Ca S $17.99 

LOGGER: Move Lumberjoc* Across Trolls & River, 64 Cass $17.99 

APECRASE: Jump or Climb Various Structures, Avoid Bombs, 64 $17.99 

ESCAPE MCP:Roce thru Mc:e, Avoid Main Control Program, 64 $17.99 

CENTROPODS: Defend Agoinst Pods, Suirers, Missiles, Saucers, 64. $17.99 



— MISCELLANEOUS — 



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TOTL TEXT 2.0: Cass. - Basic Word Processor . VIC $19.99 

TOTL TEXT 2.5: Cass. -Advanced Word Processor- Req. 8K Exp. . $27- 99 

TOTL LABEL: Cass -Mailing List. VIC/64 $16.99 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT: Cass.-Notekeepng for Term Papers, etc. . $2459 

ROAD TOAD: Cass. - Like Frogger VIC .... $16.99 

MILLIPEDE: Cass. - Like Centipede Vic . . $!•-« 

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WRITER'S ASSISTANT: Powerful Disk BoserJ Word Processor . 64 . 599.99 

FILING ASSISTANT: Data Monogement for all your needs. .64 $99.99 

SPREADSHEET ASSISTANT: Visi-Type software for the 64 $99.99 

COMMODORE LOGO: Similar to Apple logo 64 SS4.99 

VANILLA PHOT: Easy to use longuage, VIC or 64 $27.99 

PET EMULATOR: Run many PET yogroms on 64 $27.99 

BUSINESSMAN BYCMS: General Ledger, Runs on 1 Disk. .64 $109.99 

BILL PAYER BYCMS: Accounts Payable, Aging Reports, Print Checks$109.99 
BILL COLLECTOR BYCMS: Accounts Receivable, Print Statements. . $109.99 
PAYMASTER BYCMS: Payroll System. Print checks. Payroll register $109.99 
GALACTIC C ONQU EST: Req. 8K Exp- Strategy Game-1 to 6 $ 9.99 
MARTIAN RAIDER: Intergalactic ships in attack on Mars Vic $16.99 
SHARK TRAP: Snare the sharks with atomic net or die . Vic . . $16.99 
MULTt-SOUNDSYNTHESISER: Compose your own kind of music $1 6.99 
| - VICTORY - 

AWHIHIUTM: Like Defender VTOT . . "" '$" ,7,99 

KONGO KONG: Like Donkey Kong VIC/ 64 $17^99 

ADVENTURE PACK I: 5 Adventures VIC/64 $17.99 

ADVENTURE PACK II: 5 Adventures VIC/64 $17.99 

GRAVE ROBBERS: Graphic Adventure VIC/64 $14.99 

ADO $2.00 FOR SHIPPING a HANDLING 



PRCES REFLECT 
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ADO Jr. FOR 
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mrtxion»CM<l**xnmcn) 



Commander July 1983/39 




So You Bought a Disk Drive!? 



by R.G. Partner 
Federal Way, WA 



The Commodore 1540/1541 disk 
drive is a remarkable piece of equip- 
ment. It is one of the few disk drives 
on the market which, when plugged 
in, allows the computer mainframe to 
retain all the memory that was 
available without the disk drive. 

How can that be, you ask? The 
1540/1541 disk drive could be called 
a Smart Disk Drive. It has its own 
microprocessor, ROM (read only 
memory) and RAM (random access 
memory) built in. In other words it is 
self-contained. No extra cables to 
make it work. No expansion chassis to 
make it work. When you buy the 
1 540/1 541 disk drive it is ready to go 
with whatever memory your machine 
has. 

It has a total storage capacity of 
174848 bytes of data on a 5Va inch 
diskette. When storing sequential files 
and relative files you have slightly less 
capacity. The disk will hold 664 blocks 
of information. Each block contains 
255 bytes of information. 

In case you're counting, that does 
not come out to 1 74848 bytes. There 
is a track taken up with directory infor- 
mation and something called Block 
Availability Map or BAM (more about 
this later). 

I must preface the Load and Save 

40/Commander July 1983 



operation with a brief discussion about 
disk drive operation. There are several 
important items that need to be 
covered before we actually perform 
Load and Save. 

One of the most important things 
is that each disk must or should have 
a Unique ID number. It may save you 
hours of frustration later. Non- Unique 
ID's may become a real problem later 
on. 

Commodore has chosen the word 
Format to mean the process of For- 
matting a disk. Industry often uses 
the term Initialize. What does Format- 
ting mean? Formatting is the process 
used to allocate specific spaces on the 
diskette where information will be 
stored. Six hundred sixty four blocks 
of 255 Bytes are marked electro- 
magnetically so the disk drive can go 
to any one track and sector and re- 
trieve data. There are three basic types 
of disk drives used. They are: 

1) Soft sectored 

2) Hard sectored 

3) Hard disks 

Type one, the Soft Sectored disk, is 
the type used by the 1540/1541 disk 
drive and other Commodore Disk 
Drives. 

A phonograph record could be used 
to illustrate what the Sectored Disk 



actually is. A phonograph record is 
Hard Sectored. You cannot change 
the placement of the music (or tracks) 
on the record. The Producers planned 
for a song or track to occupy a specific 
place on the record. They Formatted 
the record to contain specific informa- 
tion. We cannot change that format 
without damaging the record. So it is 
with Hard Sectored Disks. The data 
and programs can be erased but you 
cannot change the location of the in- 
dividual sectors. The Hard Sectored 
diskette contains a series of holes 
around the disk. The holes mark the 
beginning and ending of individual 
tracks and sectors. Disk drives which 
require Hard Sectored Disks contain 
a sensor to check for the additional 
holes. The manufacturer has defined 
the placement of information on the 
disk and you cannot change it. The 
Soft Sectored disk on the other hand 
allows you, the user, to define, within 
the limits of the disk, and operating 
system, where you will put information. 
With this type of disk system we must 
Format the disk (i.e., we must define 
the sectors). This is done for us by the 
internal Disk Operating System (DOS) 
when we give the command. 

Commodore packages with the 
1540/1541 disk drive a disk titled 



SOUTHERN AUDIO VIDEO ELECTRONICS, INC. 

1782 Marietta Blvd., N.W., Atlanta, Georgia 30318 

Everything you need 
to support your 

fs commodore VIC20 



m m m m m m 



Cardco, Inc. CB/6 Cardboard/6 66.00 

Cardco, Inc. C/Cardprint/a 53.00 

Cardco, Inc. CE/1 Cardette/1 , 26.00 

Creative Software Decision Maker/tape 12.25 

Creative Software Loan Analyzer/tape 9.50 

Creative Software Car Costs/tape 12.25 

Creative Software Home Inventory/tape 12.25 

Creative Software Choplifter/cartridge 31 .50 

EPYX 126 C Invasion Orion 16.00 

EPYX 237 D Upper Reaches of Apshai 12.00 

EPYX 436 C Crush, Crumble & Chomp!. 18.00 

EPYX 526 C Ricochet 12.00 

HES C301 Vic Forth 38.00 

HES C302 Hes Mon 25.00 

HES C303 Turtle Graphics 25.00 

HES C304 Hes Writer 25.00 

HES C305 Aggressor 25.00 

HES C307 Shamus 25.00 

HES C308 Protector 27.50 

HESG213Torg 12.00 

HES G214 Raid On Isram 13.00 

HES C310 Robot Panic 24.00 

HES C312 Gridrunner 24.00 

UMI 1604 Spiders of Mars 27.00 

UMI 1635 Outworld 27.00 

UMI 661 1 Amok. . 17.00 

WICO 15-9714 Joystick 21.00 

WICO 72-4545 Commodore 47.00 

WICO 15-1756 12'-0" Extension Cord. . 4.75 

Maxell. Mini-Disks. 6%". 

MD-2D Double sided, double density. For use on Tl, Shugart 
or equivalent (10 pkg.) $47.50 

MD-1 Single sided, single density for mini floppy disc 

drives (10 pkg.) $33.50 

Cardco, Creative Software, EPYX, 
HES, UMI, WICO, Romox. 

Get the best prices on hardware and software. For a com- 
plete listing of all SAVE's products, send $5.00 for our cata- 
logue (refundable with your first order). 

Enjoy the convenience of in-home shopping. Call our toll free 
number today for orders only. 

Use your American Express, VISA, Mastercard, check or 
money order. Minimum order of $50. Shipping and handling 
charges are extra. All prices are subject to change without 
notice. Allow 2-4 weeks for delivery. Prices good through 
July 15, 1983. 

Order Toll Free 1-800-241-2682 
In Georgia (404)351-8459 

CM6-B 

Circle No. 59 



PLAYFUL MADE USEFUL 

Stop playing games and start programming your 
Commodore® with PC-DocuMate™, the keyboard 
template designed with the new programmer in 
mind. PC-DocuMate™ surrounds the keyboard 
with logically formatted, comprehensive reference 
data. The essential information you need is at your 
fingertips. Programming your VIC-20® or Commo- 
dore 64® has never been easier. Order your PC- 
DocuMate™ today for only $1 2.95! 

BASIC statements and 

options are documented 



Complete reference for 
MUSIC programming 




FEATURES 

• Control keys defined 

• BASIC language reference 
(Commands/Statements/ 

Functions) 

• Music programming guide 

• Screen memory map 

• Color graphics reference 

• VIC-20® and CBM-64® 
versions 



Color and character 
SCREEN map defined 



PC-DOCUMATE * IS ONLY *12.95 m*m#*#m 
Please send personal check, money order, or credit card 
information. Specify VIC-20® or Commodore-64® version. 
Foreign orders add $5.00 (excepi Canada). No COD's please. 
Telephone orders: Call 91 9/787-7703. NCres<denisadd4%saies tax. 
No-Risk, Moneyback Offer If you are not completely 
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1 days for a full refund. 



Systems Management Associates 

3700 Computer Drive 
P.O. Box 20025, Dept. N-1 
Raleigh, N.C 2761 9 



VMMrMr 



Circle No. 61 



Commander July 1983/41 




Test/Demo. One program on the disk 
is a Performance Test which checks 
the Disk drive for proper operation. It 
cannot check for all possible disk drive 
problems but it does cover many of 
the common problems that can arise. 

Also on the disk is a program titled 
Wedge. This is perhaps one of the 
most useful programs to the beginner 
and experienced user alike. The in- 
struction book that comes with the 
1540 disk drive does not tell how to 
use this program. In fact the book 
does not even acknowledge the pro- 
gram is present on the Test/Demo 
disk. The 1541 book does mention it 
briefly. We will be covering the use of 
this nifty little program a little later so 
hold on. 

Let's go through some of the opera- 
tions of the disk so you can become 
familiar with how to Format a disk and 
how to Load and Save a program. 
Formatting a new disk or reformatting 
an old disk. Caution: Formatting a disk 
will erase all programs, files, and 
records. 

It is a simple process with the 
1540/1541 disk drive. 

We type in the command: 



OPEN 15,8,15,"N:?????????,nn": 
CLOSE 15 

We are telling the disk drive to For- 
mat a new disk (or an old one we want 
to re-use). The N is short for New. 
The question marks represent the 
name we wish to give the new disk (up 
to 16 characters). The nn represents 
the Disk ID number. This can be two 
letters, two numbers or a combination. 

We need to assign to each disk a 
special and Unique ID Number. When 
you insert a disk in the drive and load 
a program into the computer the Disk 
Operating System (DOS) goes to 
the directory information on the disk. 
It checks to see if the program you 
seek is actually there. It also stores the 
directory information in memory in the 
disk drive. 

It also stores something called Block 
Availability Map (BAM for short) in disk 
memory. When we want to load 
another program, the computer looks 
in disk memory for the information. 
What does the directory contain? In- 
formation about on which track and in 
which sector the program you want 
resides. BAM (Block Availability Map) 




DATA MANAGER 

• Number of records is only 
limited by disk capacity. 

• Unlimited fields per record. 

• Up to 75 characters per field. 

User formatted. 
Screen editing. 
Sort/Search feature. 
Pattern matching search. 
Selective field printing. 
Form letter address insertion. 



WORD PROCESSOR 

Screen Editing. 
Automatic line set. 
Add, move or delete text. 
Global edit. 

Page numbering/titling. 
Form letter address insert. 
File append for printing. 
Selective underlining. 
Line justification. 



Special Introductory Offer. 

Both DATA MANAGER and WORD PROCESSOR for only $89.00 
(or either one @ $55.00 each.) 
When ordering: Specify Computer model number and Disk model number. 
For Instruction Manual only: send $3.50 (Refunded with first order.) 



INPUT SYSTEMS. INC. 25101 S.W. 194 Ave. Homestead, FL 33031 (305) 245-3141 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



is a Disk memory representation of 
available and allocated space on the 
Disk. BAM is checked by DOS for 
available space to save a program or 
data to. The BAM is updated each 
time a program or data is stored on the 
disk. A separate and unique ID 
number should be assigned to each 
disk. If you have two disks with the 
same ID number and put the first one 
into the drive, Load a program then 
insert a second disk and load another 
program, reinsert the first disk and 
load a program from the first disk. 
There is a chance that the DOS (Disk 
Operating System) could get them 
confused and try to load a program 
that is not there. 

Worse yet is the possibility that you 
would Save a program after changing 
disks and the DOS, thinking the first 
disk was still in place, would Save the 
program based on the Old Directory 
and BAM information. 

This could result in the program you 
are trying to save writing over another 
program thereby destroying not one 
but two programs. This can easily hap- 
pen if you do not assign a Unique ID 
number to each disk. A solution to pre- 
vent the directory mixup is to type: 

OPEN15,8,15,"i":CLOSE15 

each time you change diskettes. This 
commands the disk operating system 
to get the directory and put it into the 
disk memory. Now you have current 
directory information and the BAM is 
update. 

Right at the beginning decide on a 
plan of action for labeling your disks, 
eg. UA to UZ for disks containing Utili- 
ty programs. GA to GZ for Games, 
MA to MZ for Math programs WA to 
WZ for wordprocessors. That allows 
26 Unique and individual ID numbers 
for each disk category. That should be 
more than enough for a long time and 
many many disks full of data. 

We will look at another way of do- 
ing this with the Wedge and save 
some typing. If you have a program 
saved on tape, now is the time to load 
it into the computer. The next step will 
be to save that program to the newly 
formatted disk. Got it loaded? Good, 



42/Commander July 1983 



Circle No. 70 



now let's save it to the disk. Type the 
following: 

SAVE"program name", 8 

The red disk light should come on 
and you should hear the disk motor 
running. When the program is saved 
the disk drive motor should shut off. 
The red light on the disk drive should 
go out. Before you get too far in stor- 
ing programs to your disk why not 
read on for some short cuts! 

Directory 

Caution: Typing in the following 
command will erase what you have 
in memory! 

How do I know what is on my disk? 
Easy, type the command: 

LOAD"$'\8 press RETURN 

the disk will spring into action. When 
the computer signals READY type: 

LIST 

There you have information about 
what is on the disk you now have in 
the disk drive. What does the informa- 
tion mean? The number to the far left 
represents the number of blocks your 



program occupies on the disk. 
Remember that one block contained 
255 bytes of information? To deter- 
mine how long your program takes 
multiply the number of blocks the pro- 
gram takes up by 255 and presto you 
have the length of the program. The 
next thing you see is the name of the 
program. Just under the program 
name you should see the abbreviation 
"prg" for program. If this was a se- 
quential date file it would say SEQ. 
There are some other words and sym- 



bols that may appear. An important 
one is the * which indicates that the 
file was not properly closed. 

Short Cut with VIC Wedge 

Take your disk out of the drive and 
insert the Test/Demo disk. Type: 

LOAD"VICWEDGE" 1 8 
RETURN 

When the computer signals READY 
type RUN. This will bring up an 
unusual display which is quite cryptic. 
Don't despair. If you will follow closely 



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Circle No. 31 




oUNGENEss 




&p mm 



software 







cL& 



Our "64-PENCIL" Is a 100% MACHINE LANGUAGE high-res 
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Design, store and print high quality drawings, game back- 
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• Concise single-key command 
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• 10 drawing speeds for flexibility 
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• 16 pencil and 16 pad colors 

• Special "block-shuttle" sprite 
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Images 



• High-res and block erase modes 
for both line and color corrections 

• Hard copy Is obtained rapidly 
with the integral "DUNGENESS 
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Images 



Send check or money order for $24.95 to: 
DUNGENESS SOFTWARE 
specify disc 323 Lotzgesell Road 

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FREE 

Catalog 

Included I 



Circle No. 49 



Commander July 1983/43 




you will save a lot of time typing later. 
This is the short cut I promised. 
VIC Wedge will look something like the 
following: 

VIC-20 VERSION 2.6 

DISK STATUS 

@ OR COMMANDS 

$0 DIRECTORY 

@$0 

/FILENAME LOAD 

Let's start at the top of the command 
list. The first is > 

DISK STATUS 
With the Wedge in memory, this sym- 
bol' > ' can be typed when we have 
any kind of a Disk Error. When the 
RED light on the disk drive is flashing 
typing ' > ' will tell you what the er- 
ror message is. Your operator's man- 
ual has a list of these error messages 
in it and should be consulted to deter- 
mine the specific error code. 

The next symbol: 

@ OR COMMANDS 

Using this symbol allows you to ex- 
ecute all the disk commands except 
SAVE. Some of the commands are as 
follows: 

NEW 

SCRATCH 

INITIALIZE 

RENAME 

VALIDATE 

The nice thing about this is that you 
do not have to use the full word when 
issuing a command. An example of 
formatting a new disk would be: 

@N:disk name, ID 



Note the absence of 
quotation marks. 

That's all there is to it. Isn't that 
simpler than typing: 

OPEN 15,8,1 5," N: program 

name,ID":CLOSE15? 

The other commands can be ab- 
breviated by using just the FIRST in- 
itial or letter of the word. eg:@l will in- 
itialize the disk. To Re-name a pro- 
gram on the disk type the following: 
@R:new program name = old pro- 
gram name (Renames a program on 
the disk). Just that simple. Using the 
long way we would type: 

OPEN 15,8,15,"R:new program 
name = old program name": 
CLOSE 15 

The next command is: 
$0 DIRECTORY 

Just as the command implies, typ- 
ing ' > $' will get you the directory 
and it will Not load over a program you 
presently have in computer memory. 
If you use the long way shown earlier 
LOAD"$",8 you are loading the direc- 
tory into memory and you will over- 
write whatever is or was in memory! 

Either command can be used for 
DIRECTORY $0 or @$0 actually 
you can ignore the '0' on the end 
unless you are using two disk drives 
or a dual drive with your computer. 
Thus you would type: $ or @$ 

The last command is the 



/FILENAME LOAD. This does just 
what it implies, LOADS a program 
from the disk into computer memory. 

Type: /(and the program or file 
name) and presto the disk springs in- 
to action, finds the file and loads it. 

One exception is loading an AB- 
SOLUTE file/program. That is a file 
which must load somewhere else in 
memory other than at the start of 
BASIC. Usually this will be a Machine 
language program or perhaps a utili- 
ty routine that resides out of the nor- 
mal basic area. Those programs will 
still require you to type. 

LOAD"program name", 8,1 

There are many more disk com- 
mands. Some can be used to load in- 
dividual tracks and sectors into disk 
memory and allow you to execute 
them like they were in the computer 
mainframe memory. The book ex- 
plains these but it will take study on 
your part to understand how to use 
them. Perhaps we can cover some of 
these another time. Happy Disking. □ 





*^7 



JOURNAL/20 

A publication that shares your 

enthusiasm for the VIC-20.* i 

Published every two weeks for : 
$12 per year, JOURNAL/20 has 

up-to-date news, reviews, and c 

practical tips on hardware and i 

software. Send check or money- ! 

order to: i 

JOURNAL/20 

PO Box 1149 

Van Alstyne, TX 75095 



44/Commander July 1983 



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The VIE and CIE are IEEE 488 interfaces for the VIC-20. 
When plugged into the expansion port, the cartridge is 
"transparent", that is, the user can still attach other 
peripherals without any interference. Devices such as 4040, 
8050, 2031, 2032, 4022 and 8023 can be controlled. The 
IEEE software can be called by using the "SYS" command, 
even in the middle of a BASIC program. 

The V232 and C232 are serial interface cartridges which 
allow connection of various input/output devices such as 
printers, modems, plotters, etc. to VIC-20 or Commodore 64 
computers. Features include: positive and negative voltage 
swings to meet full EIA standards, straps and jumpers to 
allow reconfiguration to meet pinouts for any RS-232 device, 
and software selectable reconfiguration such as baud rate, 
parity, and duplex mode. 

The VPI and CPI are parallel interfaces for the VIC-20 and 
Commodore 64. These interfaces provide direct BASIC use 
of the parallel printer bus and give "invisible" access to the 
bus. The VPI can be used only on the VIC-20 and uses the 
expansion port. The CPI will work with both the VIC-20 and 
Commodore 64 and does not use the expansion port. The 
CPI also has switches for setting insertion or deletion of line 
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Development, Inc. 






A Simple Utility 



by Howard Rotenberg 
Scarborough, Ontario, Canada 



This is an article that will present two 
short and simple screen save routines 
that I hope you will find useful. They 
will both save a complete screen of 
text or graphics in a flash. For the best 
speed, the routines were done in 
assembler. There are many ways that 
you may want to utilize these routines; 
however, I originally used them for a 
fast recall of a menu driven program. 

There are two programs as I men- 
tioned before, the first called 
switchl.src and the second called 
switch2.src. They are similar in the way 
they work; however, they are func- 
tionally different. They are both called 
with a SYS 634. 

Switchl.src will save or recall a 
screen depending on a flag that is set 
in the program. If the program did not 
save the screen the last time it was call- 
ed, then it will do so. On the other 
hand, if the screen was saved, then it 
will be recalled. 

Switch2.src is a little different in that 
it will toggle two screens back and 
forth. On each call to the subroutine, 



the current screen will be saved and 
the saved screen recalled. 

Both the programs were originally 
written for a 40 column computer and 
then changed to be used on a 80 col- 
umn. The only difference is the 
number of pages or blocks that will be 
saved or recalled. A 40 column com- 
puter has only 1 K of screen RAM or 
4 blocks to be concerned with, while 
an eighty column computer has 2K of 
screen RAM or 8 blocks. In the com- 
ments in the program it explains that 
to use this on a forty column computer 
you just have to change the CPX #8 
to CPX #4. This is of course assuming 
that you are using a 2001 computer 
with the screen RAM, and memory ad- 
dresses in the same place. 

If you are using a VIC or a Com- 
modore 64 then you will have to 
change the screen address where I in- 
itialize the pointers. The memory loca- 
tions that I use in zero page and the 
load address will also have to be 
altered to the ones you have available 
to you. One other consideration will be 



to add a similar routine that will save 
the color table along with the screen. 
It can be done in the same way. 

For those of you who do not have an 
assembler, you may enter the monitor 
with a SYS 4 and enter the code like 
this. I will enter the code for 
switch2.src, however the same 
method may be used for switchl .src. 

.m 027a 02a5 

027a a9 00 85 01 a9 80 85 02 

0282 a9 00 85 b1 a9 70 85 b2 

028a a0 00 a2 00 b1 01 48 b1 

0292 b1 91 01 68 91 b1 c8 d0 

029a f3 e6 02 e6 b2 e8 e0 08 

02a2 d0 ea 60 00 00 00 00 00 

.x 

READY. 

Conclusion: 

I hope that you will be able to use 
this routine as is, or alter it to your own 
needs. It is short and very simple to 
use and if it helps any of the readers 
with a problem, or gives a little more 
insight into assembler, then this article 
was not written in vain.D 









Program 1 


LINEtt 


LOC CODE 


LINE 




00001 


0000 


;PUT' 


'@0: SWITCH!. SRC" 


00002 


0000 


; ++-H 


-+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 


00003 


0000 


;+ i 


PROGRAM TO STGRE THE CURRENT SCREEN + 


00004 


0000 


; + 


RT $7000 IN MEMORY. + 


00005 


0000 


.; + 


EfiCH SUCESSIVE CALL EITHER SAVES + 


00006 


0000 


.; + 


OR RECALLS THE LAST SCREEN. + 


00007 


0000 


; + 


FOR fl 48 COLUMN SCREEN CHANGE THE + 


00008 


0000 


; + 


CPX #8 TO CPX#4 ON THE SAVE AND + 


00003 


0000 


; + 


RESET SUBROUTINES. + 


00010 


0060 


; + 


+ 


00011 


0000 


.; + 


PROGRAM BY + 


00012 


0000 


; + 


HOWARD ROTENBERG + 


00013 


0000 


.; + 


TORONTO ONTARIO + 


00014 


0000 


;+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 


00015 


0000 


i 




00016 


0900 




*=*027A J LOAD ADDRESS 



46/Commander July 1983 



30017 


827m 












98018 


k'Jxi, f rl 






LUWP i"R 


~ $81 


:LOW PTR FOR CRT 


■38013 


027R 






HI PTR 


= $62 


:HIGH PTR FOR CRT 


;802Q 


027R 






SAVLGW 


- •* £■ i 


LOW PTR FOR STORING 


30921 


82 7 R 






oHv'HI 


* £B2 


HIGH PTR FOR STORING 


88022 


627ft 






,; 






86823 


627R 








1 11 i i x rli_ i i_c 


POINTERS 


30824 


827fl 






., 






38825 


327R 


hS 


00 




LHR #0 


;OET LOW BYTE OF 
SCREEN RDDRE3S 


08826 


027C 


85 


01 




STfi LGNPTR ; STORE 


IT 


88627 


827E 


fi9 






Lfifi #$88 


•GET HIGH BVTE OF 
SCREEN ADDRESS 


^ji-jyk!'-' 


8230 


35 


02 




STR HIPTR 


■STORE IT 


38829 


0232 


A3 


30 




LDR #00 


GET LOW BVTE OF 
STORRGE fiREfi 


80830 


3234 


35 


t'l 




SIR SAVLOW 


• .-■ -r r,f r" r t 

• O i uKt i i 


88031 


8236 


R3 


70 




Llifi #$70 


;GET HIGH BVTE OF 
STORRGE fiREfi 


80032 


0283 


O '~, 


B2 




STR SRVKI 


•SRVE IT 


88833 


828R 






,i 






80834 


323R 






; CHECK 


TO SEE IF SCREEN 


WRS SAVED LRST CALL 


80035 


0230 






; 






08036 


323fl 


h'6 


21 




LDX $21 


GET STATUS OF FLAG 


30037 


@2 8 U 


E@ 


01 




CPU #1 


;WflS SCREEN SAVED 


80838 


82SE 


F0 


19 




J_' <\._ ( »\ l\ U. ■_.» L_ i 


: VES 


08833 


6238 












30048 


8238 






; ROUT I 


HE TO SAVE THE CUF 


;:RENT SCREEN 


88041 


8238 






.. 






80042 


8238 


A 9 


01 




LDR #1 




00043 


8232 


C ■ cr 
C.'-J 


£_ a 




errs ■*••"» i 


-STORE FLAG TO INDI 
GATE SCREEN SAVED 


8010144 


8234 


A0 


00 




Lj-iV H0 


; INITIALIZE INDEX 
COUNTERS 


; : !0045 


8236 


A2 


00 




LDX #0 




00846 




El 


01 


on v'b 


LDR <LOWPTR>..V . 


:GET CHR FROM CRT 


ru ru i"j a -? 


32 9R 


91 


Bl 




STR <SAVLOW>,V 


: STORE IT IN MEMORY 


30043 


823C 


i_ - O 






INV 


: FIRST PAGE DONE ? 


38043 


823D 


DO 


F9 




BNE SRVE 




80058 


823F 


E6 


02 




INC HI FIR 


:YES INCREMENT FTP'S 


0101051 


82R1 


E§ 


B2 




INC SRVHI 




: " -i C-i C-i c *"• 


02R3 


CO 






I NX 




80053 


02R4 


E@ 


98 




cpy, #s 


: EIGHT PRGES DONE 


88054 


02R6 


B0 


F0 




BNE SRVE 


; YES 


80855 


02R8 


60 






R I S 


BACK TO BASIC 


80856 


82R9 






.; 






00857 


02R3 






; ROUT I 


NE TO PRINT SAVED 


SCREEN TO CRT 


80053 


82fl9 






; 






00853 


82R9 


A9 


00 


RESET 


LDR #0 


j 


010860 


82RE 


85 


21 




STR $21 


; RESET FOR NEXT SAVE 


00061 


32fiH 


R2 


00 




LDX #0 


: REINITIALIZE COUNTER 


80062 


82RF 


R0 


00 




LDY #M 


; REINITIALIZE INDEX 


010063 


82B1 


Bl 


Bl 


GET 


LDR < SRVLOW ),V 


;get SAVED CHR 


00064 


82E3 


91 


01 




STR CLOMPTR>,V 


: WRITE TO CRT 


010865 


32E5 


w O 






INV 




08866 


82E6 


m 


F9 




BNE GET 


: FIRST PAGE FINISHED 
continued on page 76 



Commander July 1983/47 



c 
o 

M 
P 
U 
K 
I 

D 
S 




"It's fun. It's not work. It's more like 
play." Five enthusiastic kids crowded 
around my tape recorder to talk ex- 
citedly about their experiences with 
computers. The kids, four boys and 
one girl, ages 9-1 1 , are part of the up- 
per level class at Compukids, a Calfor- 
nia based computer school. I visited 
the West Los Angeles site of Compu- 
kids for an afternoon session. The kids 
took charge immediately. Games and 
student-written programs were soon 
up and running. The class before had 
left a colorful cowboy with a perfect 
lariat in his hand on one screen. All the 
kids were eager to show what they 
could do. 

But first, the lesson for the day. A 
semi-circle formed around teacher and 
co-founder of Compukids, Ellen 
Newman. The lesson was on graphics 
and the students paid close attention 
as Ms. Newman led them through 
commands and concepts printed on 
a flip chart. Her questions prompted 
the class members to discover the 
logic of the program and to visualize 
its operation. Next, students eagerly 
approached their computers to begin 

48/Commander July 1983 



the process of writing code and 
debugging until their programs were 
ready to RUN. 

I tried to compete with the excite- 
ment and collect some personal ob- 
servations about working with com- 
puters. The youngest boy, Robert, 
gave the best description possible of 
how it is for young people the first time 
they sit in front of a keyboard and see 
their input come up on a screen: 
"First time when I came here I 
hardly knew what a computer 
was. I couldn't do anything with it. 
I looked at the computer and turn- 
ed it on. I started letting my fingers 
bounce around on the keys and 
all this stuff started coming up on 
the screen and then I just wrote 
something. And then something 
weird happened. I pushed the 
shift button and it gave me 
graphics. It was neat!" 
According to Dr. Julie Chan, pro- 
fessor of education and cofounder of 
Compukuds, most kids are like Robert 
when it comes to approaching the 
computer. They are fearless and open. 
Adults fear that they will do the wrong 



thing; kids jump right in. 

Dr. Chan and Ms. Newman found- 
ed Compukids in 1981. Both educa- 
tors, they believed they had found a 
learning tool that offered something to 
learners of all ages. They set out to 
create a computer literacy program 
that would maximize the excitement 
about computers and meet high 
educational standards. Since that first 
summer afternoon in July in a 
storefront office with twelve PETs, 
Chan and Newman have seen hun- 
dreds of kids and adults have their first 
experiences with computers. Com- 
pukids now has three locations in 
Southern California and franchises are 
being opened elsewhere in the state. 

An expert in learning theory and 
developmental reading, Dr. Chan has 
seen the benefits of computer instruc- 
tion for students as young as five years 
old. Her first piece of advice to parents 
is: "Get them involved early ... as 
young as possible. By the time they 
are 1 2 and older, they don't do as well 
on the computer. They are too busy 
with their lives and they have the same 
hesitancy as adults. About age 14 is 



the cut-off for the ideal time to learn 
about computers." 

What makes it so easy for kids? 
Chan says, "Most kids have played 
computer games. When they come to 
Compukids or anywhere else to learn 
about computers, they are in a learn- 
ing mode. They are open to learning. 
They have a mindset that programm- 
ing a computer is going to be fun. 
They don't expect anything academic 
or dull." 

What keeps them coming back for 
more? Chan: "Kids often have little 
control over anything in their lives ex- 
cept the family pet. Computers have 
brought children and adults to the 
same level. When kids command a 
computer, they have a sense of status, 
power, and prestige. The kids want 
their parents to come in and see what 
they've learned." 

I was curious about what kind of 
child does well with computer instruc- 
tion. Again, Dr. Chan's experience 
provided the answer. "Every kid does 
well on computers. I had one kid 
brought to me that I was told to han- 
dle with kid gloves. I made up my 
mind to treat him just like everyone 
else and I was right." I met Greg, the 
young man Dr. Chan described. He 
was assisting Ellen Newman in the 
afternoon class! Greg, 14, had 
reportedly been in a learning handi- 
capped class in school when he first 
came to Chan. He is in now in gifted 
classes in his junior high school. 

"His parents say his whole sense of 
well-being changed when he began to 
learn about computers," says Chan. 
He's the youngest of eight kids. Sud- 
denly he knew something no one else 
in the family knew." 

Chan tells another story of a child 
diagnosed as hyperactive who sat at 
the computer one summer afternoon 
as his parent watched through the 
open door from her car. After the 
lesson she told Chan that she had 
never seen her child concentrate like 
that or sit in one place for so long a 
time. She was delighted. 

Chan and Newman also teach 
classes for adults, Compufolks; for 
families, Compufamily; and for 
business people, Compubiz. The 
parents in these classes often report 




Commander July 1983/49 



improvement in their children's 
homework habits or concentration as 
a result of coming to computer 
classes. 

Besides the confidence, patience, 
determination, and enjoyment that 
seem to be obvious results of learning 
to program, Chan offers an easy way 
to remember other benefts. She calls 
it PIES . . . Personal, Intellectual, 
Educational and Social benefits of 
computer instruction. Chan feels that 
she will someday be able to show that 
even a few hours of computer use can 
change the way a child thinks. She 
says that on the first day of classes, 
there is an observable difference bet- 
ween how students think when they 
come in and when they leave. In only 
four hours they have learned to plan 
and organize differently than they ever 
have before. They have developed an 
ability to analyze a problem while 
working to find errors and debug 
programs. 

Use of computers encourages 
hypothesizing, estimating, and 
creative problem solving. Since there 
are several possible solutions to every 
computer problem, students can try 
things, make mistakes, and try another 
approach. They discover as they 
learn. 

The computer is also a good 
teaching tool for reading skills. 
Students learn the importance of 
vocabulary and syntax. They learn to 
find main ideas and predict outcomes. 
They come to know the importance of 
attending to every detail, recognizing 
key words, and spelling each word 
correctly. Reading and following direc- 
tions are essential skills for good 
programming. 

Not only do students learn how to 
operate a computer and how to type. 
In the process, they collaborate, 
cooperate, and interact. They gain ac- 
ceptance, prestige, and status. 

Do the kids know what they're get- 
ting? As eleven-year-old Paul tells me, 
' There will be a lot of computers in the 
future ... a lot of jobs with computers. 
I want to know all about it so I can be 
prepared and maybe get a job. 
Besides I like the kids here and it's 
fun." 

Compukids is not unique in its effort 

50/Commander July 1983 



to reach kids this way. There are over 
two hundred computer schools across 
the country. There are classes in 
schools and computer camps for sum- 
mer vacation. Every program has the 
same goal: computer literacy for the 
masses. What is it? Well, despite dif- 
ferent definitions and course objec- 
tives, an overall approach seems to 
lead to giving people a sense of power 
with the computer. Young and old 
alike need to know that they are in con- 
trol of the computer, not slaves to it. 
Programming, or speaking the com- 
puter's language, is one way to gain 
control over the computer. 

At Compukids, Dr. Chan uses the 
Madelyn Hunter learning model as a 
basis for planning curriculum and 
lessons. She believes that: "To teach 
computer literacy, you need structure 
and a scope and sequence just as you 
do for any other part of the curriculum. 
Left to their own devices with a com- 
puter, kids usually get so far in the 
tutorial and then they need help. Also, 
those who learn on their own often 
develop bad habits that can waste 
time later when they're program- 
ming." 

Chan feels that most computer 
classes taught in schools do not pro- 
vide follow-up beyond the basic level 
of understanding. Compukids has four 
levels of classes and students typical- 
ly are enrolled in a nine month series 
of courses. The approach follows a 
stairstepped BASIC. There is structure 
and follow-up. In schools, Chan sug- 
gests that computer literacy classes be 
taught across the curriculum as part of 
every class. 



Classes at Compukids usually begin 
with a sponge activity like playing com- 
puter games or showing off software 
designed the day before. Some of the 
kids come in early to attempt to do 
their homework on the computers. In 
their very first class, they get 10 
lessons, starting right on the machine. 
They go through a program, copy a 
program, make changes in the pro- 
gram and create their own personaliz- 
ed computer letter. All the activities are 
practical and applicable to their real 
lives. 

I asked Dr. Chan about her use of 
PETs. "People who know the Com- 
modore love it. The keyboard graphics 
are great. What you see is what you 
get! The editing function is terrific. The 
stop button is so easy to use. You 
don't have to press shift to get certain 
characters. The clear screen com- 
mand is easier than on other 
machines. We find that kids do better 
on the Commodore than on other 
machines we use!" 

My attention back on the kids, I saw 
some of the results of the day's work. 
Dr. Chan's advice to parents and 
teachers about the readiness of 
children to learn computers and the 
benefits of well-planned instruction 
seemed to be borne out by the kids 
themselves. "I love it here!," said one 
of them with a smile, on her way out 
the door. The other kids had not mov- 
ed from their machines even though 
the class was over. 

"We have to throw them out of 
here," says Chan with a twinkle in her 
eye. "Say, whose mother's got the red 
Mercedes? Better get on out there. ' ' □ 




A Problem of Sorts 



by Roy MacLean and Tim Parker 



Sorting, a routine problem to most 
programmers, is the arrangement of a 
series of elements in some order. Ex- 
amples of sorted files are numerous. 
They include the telephone book, 
which is sorted into alphabetical order, 
to car license plates, which can be a 
mixture of both alphanumeric and 
numeric ordering. While sorting may 
be common, efficiency of the sorting 
procedure varies widely according to 
the type of sort used. A good indica- 
tion of the speed and efficiency of a 
sort is by finding the number of com- 
parisons required to completely sort a 
file. The fewer the number of com- 
parisons, the faster the sort is likely to 
be. 

Within the sphere of sorting techni- 
ques there is some common ter- 
minology, that will need introduction. 
When data processing, you sort a file 
of records by a selected key. An ex- 
cellent example is the personnel office 
of a company. They maintain a file of 
data on all of the firm's employees. If 
you seek the information on one par- 
ticular employee, then you are looking 
for his record. The employee's record 
will contain several fields; for example, 
name, address, telephone number, 
employee number, social security 
number, and so on. If we were to sort 
the file according to the employee's 
telephone number, then the telephone 
number is the key. If we sort the file 
according to the employee's name 
and then by the employee number, for 
cases where more than one employee 
has the same name, then we require 
a compound sort key. 

There are essentially two general 
types of sorts. The first is where an en- 
tire file is stored in memory. These are 
termed internal sorts. When the file is 
large, it may not be possible to keep 
the records in memory. Therefore the 



file is kept on a storage medium, a 
floppy disk for example, with limited 
methods of access. Sorts of this type 
are defined as external sorts. 

There are numerous types of sorts. 
For our purposes, we will concentrate 
on internal sorts though the methods 
may be applied to external sorts in 
most cases. 

Many different sorting procedures 
have gained popularity for microcom- 
puters, due to the limited memory 
available, and the ease of programm- 
ing. The most popular sorts are the 
simple selection sort, exchange or 
bubble sort, insertion sort, and the 
more modern quick sort. 

The selection sort is the slowest of 
the sorts and most closely mimics a 
method you might use to sort a list. It 
consists of searching a list for the 
smallest value in it. This value is then 
copied to another new list while it is 
scratched out (or replaced with a value 
deemed not under consideration) on 
the original list. The original list is then 
searched to find the smallest value re- 
maining on the list and then that 
number is copied to the end of the 
new list while eliminating it in the old 
list. This process is repeated until the 
old list is emptied. The new list is now 
a sorted copy of the old list. 

Using this method, the original list 
could just as easily have been sorted 
for a largest first (ascending) order in 
the new list by merely always selecting 
the largest remaining value in the 
original list. 

With the selection sort, the process 
of selection must be repeated once for 
each entry in the original list. In each 
pass of the original list, the first entry 
is taken as the smallest and is com- 
pared with the remaining entries 
replacing it only if a smaller value is en- 
countered. Thus the number of com- 



parisons is (n-1) for each of n passes, 
where n is the number of records to 
be sorted. Note that for each record, 
this method requires another complete 
pass over the file when sorting it. This 
results in n(n-1 ) comparisons per 
sorted file where n is the number of 
records in the file regardless of the 
original order of the file. This algorithm 
can be improved to the point where 
about half of the previous comparisons 
are executed by using a single list and 
storing the partially sorted entries at 
the start of the same list. This is 
because the number of entries to scan 
for the smallest decreases by one after 
each pass. 

Generally, the selection sort is used 
on small files or files that are not to be 
frequently sorted. The forte of selection 
process is that you need not alter the 
original. Thus, when using an external 
sort with this method, you have a 
backup copy of the file should the 
system falter during the sort. In addi- 
tion, this sort is simple to write and use. 
So, if you are in a rush to write a sort 
program for your purposes, the sim- 
ple selection sort is about the fastest 
around when it comes to programm- 
ing time. Should you want to run a 
selection sort on a moderate to large 
file, start it, then get a coffee, danish, 
and read Ravings of a Madman. 

The exchange or bubble sort in- 
volves comparing pairs of entries in 
the list. If the entries are out of order, 
then they are interchanged. This is 
done repeatedly until no interchang- 
ing occurs in a pass through the list 
being sorted. 

Suppose we have an array with N 
elements. We now do an exchange 
sort on the array. What happens? First 
we compare Array(1) and Array(2) and 
arrange them in the desired order de- 
pending on if ascending or descend- 

Commander July 1983/51 



ing order is required. We will use 
ascending order in this example. If 
Array(1) is larger than Array(2), then 
we interchange the values, placing the 
value of Array(1) in Array(2) and 
Array(2) in Array(1). We then do the 
same process on Array(2) and 
Array(3), interchanging the values if 
Array(2) is greater than Array(N), ar- 
ranging them so that the value in 
Array(N-l) is less than that at Array(N). 
This is repeated until one pass is com- 
pleted without any interchanging oc- 
curring. This will result in the smallest 
element "bubbling" to the top of the 
list. 

A loop is used to repeat the ex- 
change/comparison process for each 
pair of elements in the array. We can 
determine the maximum number of 
comparisons that will occur in a par- 
ticular exchange sort by noting that 
during the first pass, N-1 pairs must be 
examined and compared. Each suc- 
cessive pass will cause the next 
largest entry to move into position near 
the end of the list. Therefore the max- 
imum number of pairs for every follow- 
ing pass can be reduced by one. Then 
the maximum number of comparisons 
that will be done is; 

(N-1) + (N-2) + (N-3)+ + 3 + 2+1 

= N(N-1)/2 

The maximum number of com- 
parisons would occur only if the 
smallest element in the array were 
located at the bottom (last element) of 
the array, giving it the longest possi- 
ble distance to "bubble" up. However, 
if the array was already sorted, then 
this method wcuTd require only N-1 
comparisons, much better than the 
N(N-1) for the simple selection sort. 

The exchange or bubble sort is con- 
siderably quicker than the simple 
selection sort. The bubble sort is still 
rather inefficient, but maintains ease of 
programmability. The bubble sort is 
probably the most often used sort for 
small files (under 500 records). With 
large files, go for coffee and nibble on 
that danish. 

The insertion sort requires that 
elements be taken sequentially from 
the original list and be placed im- 
mediately in their correct relative place 
in the new list. Suppose we have a set 

52/Commander July 1983 



of elements in Oldlist of 7,5,4,6,8,7 
which we will describe as 
Oldlist(7,5,4,6,8,7) while we have a 
new file which is empty, 
Newlist(-, -,-,-,-,-)■ The Newlist is first 
given the initial entry of 7 from Oldlist. 
To insert the second entry, we must 
shift the 7 in Newlist if we want the file 
in ascending order. Thus we have 
Newlist(-, 7, -,-,-,-) after which the 5 is 
transferred to give Newlist(5, 6, -,-,-). To 
insert the 4 into Newlist, we must move 
over the 5 and 7 to give 
Newlist(-,5,7,-,-,-), then transfer the 4, 
giving Newlist(4,5,7,-,-,-). This con- 
tinues until we have the final sorted list 
of Newlist(4,5,6,7,7,8) where the last 
7 is placed after the location of the first. 
The required number of com- 
parisons needed to determine the 
position for each entry will change as 
the size of the new list increases. 
However, it is reasonable to assume 
that you will go through half the new 
list for each entry. Therefore, to insert 
the j-th entry, you would have to do 
(j-1)/2 comparisons in the new list. 
Then for N entries in the old list, "the 
number of comparisons would be, on 
average; 

(0+1+2 + 3+... + (N-2) + (N-1))/2 
= N(N-1)/4 

The maximum number of com- 
parisons would be required only if the 
file to be sorted is in reverse order. If 
the list is already sorted, then only N-1 
comparisons are required. This 
method is an improvement over the 
simple selection sort and the bubble 
sort for most applications. 

The insertion sort has one advan- 
tage similar to the selection sort. It 
allows for an automatic backup file 
should the worst happen. The biggest 
drawback to the insertion sort, when 
doing internal sorts, is having to keep 
two identical files in storage at the 
same time. It is a waste and will limit 
the size of file you can sort with this 
method. This is also true of the simple 
selection sort. When using the inser- 
tion sort on large to moderate files, I 
suggest you just get a coffee and skip 
the danish. 

The most rapid sorting algorithm we 
will discuss at this time is one devised 
by CAR. Hoare. It is a recent 



development and is termed 
"Quicksort" for reasons which will 
become obvious as we continue. This 
method is a variation on the ex- 
change/insertion idea as at each stage 
it succeeds in placing at least one 
value correctly in the final sorted list. 
The fact that this element is correctly 
positioned in the final list is used to 
lower the total number of comparisons 
needed to place future entries. 

The logic behind Quicksort is to 
rearrange or partition the file relative 
to a specific entry called the pivot. 
Thus in the final partitioned list, all en- 
tries before the pivot are less than or 
equal to the pivot while all entries after 
the pivot are less than or equal the 
pivot. This ensures that the pivot has 
the correct final position in the file. The 
same idea is applied to the two parti- 
tions on each side of the now correct- 
ly positioned pivot. This means that the 
original list is gradually reduced to 
several smaller subtists of length one 
that are sorted relative to each other. 

Consider the example of the series 
7,5,4,6,8,7. First we choose the first 7 
as the pivot. The series might be then 
partitioned as 4,6,5,7pivot,8,7 where 
everything before the pivot (7) is less 
than 7 and all of that after the pivot is 
greater than or equal to the pivot. 
When the list is ultimately sorted, the 
pivot 7 should be in exactly the same 
place with three entries before it and 
two after it. The partitioning process is 
then applied to the two sublists of 4;6,5 
and 8,7. It is not necessary to select 
the first entry as the pivot element, but 
its choice makes the sort easier. 

After the pivot entry is chosen, the 
quicksort algorithm scans the list from 
each end of the file, exchanging 
smaller entries near the right with 
larger entries on the left. When the two 
scans meet, the pivot is positioned. 
This maintains relative positioning. 

To better show the partitioning tak- 
ing place, we will take another larger 
example. Suppose we want to sort the 
file consisting of fifteen numeric en- 
tries. The file is composed of the follow- 
ing data, 58, 1 7, 60, 99, 25, 98, 35, 73, 
50, 23, 59, 69, 76, 85, and 78, in that 
order. For the purpose of describing 
what happens, we will 'number' the 
numbers with a position label. The first 



entry, 58 will be position 1 while the 
last entry, 78, will be position 1 5. Thus, 
the entry 73 would be in position 8 and 
so on. Initially, Quicksort chooses the 
value of 58 (in position 1) as the pivot 
value. The list is then scanned from 
each end. The scan from left to right 
searches for an entry greater than or 
equal to the pivot (58) while the scan 
from right to left on the file searches 
for values less than or equal to the 
pivot. The scan starting on the left will 
start at position 2 (the designated pivot 
is in position 1) and stop at position 3 
where it finds a value of 60 which is 
greater than the pivot. The right to left 
scan starts at position 15 and scans 
until it stops at position 10 where the 
value 23 is located. We can now see 
that all of the entries before position 3 
are less than or equal to 58 while all 
of those after position 10 are greater 
than or equal to the pivot. To maintain 
this trend, we exchange the values in 
position 3 and 1 0. Thus we now have 

58, 17, 23, 99, 25, 98, 35, 73, 50, 60, 

59, 69, 76, 85, and 78. The scans then 
continue with the left to right scan stop- 
ping at position 4 and the right to left 
scan stopping at position 9. The values 
of 99 and 50 are then exchanged. The 
scans continue again until the value of 
98 is found by the left to right scan and 
the value of 35 is found by the right to 
left scan. These are then exchanged 
giving the file a new order of 58, 17, 
23, 50, 25, 35, 98, 73, 99, 60, 59, 69, 
76, 85, and 78. The scan continues, 
resulting in the left to right scan stop- 
ping at position 7 (value 98) and the 
right to left scan ending in position 6 
(value 35). We now have all of the en- 
tries before position 7 less than or 
equal to the pivot and all of those after 
position 6 having a value greater than 
or equal to the pivot value of 58. We 
now exchange the pivot with position 
6 as the pivot lies on the side with the 
values less than or equal to the pivot. 
Thus we now have 35, 1 7, 23, 50, 25, 
58pivot, 98, 73, 99, 60, 59, 69, 76, 85, 
and 78. At this point, we have the 
value 58 (position 6) positioned in its 
final location. This now creates two 
partitions. One composed of entries 
35, 17, 23, 50, 25 and another com- 
posed of 98, 73, 99, 60, 59, 76, 85, 
and 78. These partitions then follow 



the same process until all of the parti- 
tions are of length one or less, at which 
point the sort is complete. 

How fast is Quicksort? The statistics 
required to compute the average 
number of comparisons is rather 
lengthy and boring, however, it can be 
shown that the average number of 
comparisons is about 2N(log(N)). From 
this, we know that Quicksort is much 
faster than any of the previously 
discussed sorts. The bad side of 
Quicksort is apparent when you sort 
an already sorted file. This is 
Quicksort's worst case. It requires 
N(N-1)/2 comparisons to sort an 
already sorted file, where N is the 
number of records in the file to be 
sorted. Thus, it is best to use Quicksort 
on poorly sorted files or completely 
unordered files. 

Quicksort is a more involved pro- 
gramming task. For this reason, a wise 
idea is to make a backup of the file to 
be sorted before you run your 
Quicksort. This method of sorting has 
not yet achieved widespread use, 
however, it is most useful for ordering 
poorly sorted files regardless of their 
size. When running, you have just 
enough time to get a glance at Rav- 
ings before the file is sorted. 

The final question is of course which 
sort to use when. For short lists of less 
than 30 records, the Quicksort is con- 
siderably faster. Below is a list of 
estimates for the efficiency of the sorts 
covered where N is the number of 
records in a file to be sorted. 
FIGURE 1 

Another good indication of what to 
choose can be found off of the table 



listed below. The number in the " 
brackets indicate the number of 
records to be sorted while the 
numbers under them indicate the 
number of comparisons done on the 
file to sort it on average. 

FIGURE 2 

When you are sorting a file, it is not 
necessary to manipulate the entire 
record at one time. You can just work 
with the key. If the file contains many 
fields, then it becomes important to 
limit the amount of data you must 
manipulate or your sort will slow from 
a fast rocket to a slow turtle. One 
method to use when working with 
records containing many fields is to 
maintain a list of pointers which are 
manipulated and are symbolic of the 
remainder of the records. During the 
actual sort, it is the pointers that are 
moved, since the same record may be 
moved many times before it arrives in 
its ultimate location. The pointer list will 
point to the original location of the 
record and is moved with the key field 
for that record. After the sort, the 
pointers pull the record back to the 
sorted field. This will result in the re- 
maining unsorted fields combining 
with the key field to form a complete 
record, but will allow a more rapid sort. 
However, this is another story for 
another time. 

In a forthcoming article, examples of 
the above sorting techniques will be 
presented with program listings. (They 
are not included this month as there 
would be very little left in the magazine 
after its inclusion!) Good luck and hap- 
py sorting. □ 







Figure 1 




— 


Method 


Average 


Maximum 




Minimum 


Selection 


N(N-1) 


N(N-1) 




N(N-1) 


Exchange 


((N(N-1)/2 


N(N-1)/2 




N-1 


Insertion 


N(N-1)/4 


N(N-1)/2 




N-1 


Quicksort 


2Log(N) 


N(N-1)/2 




0.51/N(N) 






Figure 2 






Method 


16 


64 


256 


1024 


Selection 


240 


4032 


65280 


1047552 


Exchange 


120 


2016 


8128 


523776 


Insertion 


60 


243 


4064 


261888 


Quicksort 


90 


224 


1255 


14336 



Commander July 1983/53 




Circle No 43 

For your Commodore 64 

For only $12.95 each, our CURSOR 
64 tapes are your best buy for the 
Commodore 64. They take advantage 
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Most of our packages include three 
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We don't have room to describe all 
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As a sample, you may want to order 
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We have super programs for the 
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CURSOR 64, Box 6905 

Santa Barbara, CA 93110 

805-683-1585 



Circle No 45 



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Ws/'Ca/c 
/s a registered trademark of Visicorp 

Everyone should have a spread- 
sheet for his or her computer. If you 
don't have a spreadsheet, I'm going 
to tell yu what you are missing out on. 

PractiCalc™ is easily the most pow- 
erful and versatile program I use. This is 
a program that lets you use your imag- 
ination. Most programs have specific 
jobs to perform. They process words, 
print labels, do your taxes, play games 
or teach your kids to spell. A good 
spreadsheet is not limited to a single 
application. Instead, it will perform just 
about any task you define. The key 
word here is define. You are in con- 
trol, and the spreadsheet does the 
calculations you define. 
Calc Wars 

I bought my first PractiCalc on the 
weight of a friend's rave review. I 
wasn't expecting much. I expected a 
MiniCalc, but got a MaxiCalc. Prac- 
tiCalc compares favorably with the 
grand-daddy of Calcs, VisiCalc(r). I'm 
very familiar with VisiCalc, and didn't 
expect to see anything with its power 
for the VIC. 
Rows and Columns 

The language of spreadsheets is 
cryptic. See the sample spreadsheet 
in Figure 1 . The first thing to learn is 
the difference between Rows and Col- 
umns. Columns run vertically and are 
labeled by number. Rows go across 
the page and are labeled by letters. A 
blank spreadsheet is really a large 



sheet of blank paper awaiting your en- 
tries. By looking through the window 
of your TV screen, you can view any 
portion of the entire screen. The in- 
tersection of each row and column 
forms a cell. Cells can hold Titles, 
Labels, Data, Numbers, Bar Graphs or 
Formulas. By manipulating all these 
various entries, PractiCalc will yield 
answers to the problems you pose. As 
an example, let's use a common 
problem. 

Checks and Balances 

Anyone with a checking account 
already has a manual spreadsheet. It's 
called a Check Register. Take your 
.checkbook out and look at the register. 
/The top Row has a Title in each Col- 
umn. The titles should be Date, Check 
Number, Description, Other (+ -), 
Amount of Deposit, Amount of Pay- 
ment or Withdrawal and under Bal- 
ance Forward should be your calcu- 
lated balance. Each of the Rows below 
the Title Row hold information con- 
cerning one check or transaction. 
Think about what you do when you 
record a check. You write into sepa- 
rate Cells the Date, Number, Payee 
and Amount. Finally, you subtract the 
check's dollar amount from the pre- 
vious balance and enter it in the far 
right Column. A simple spreadsheet 
could do the same thing. 
What If? 

If you have noticed the ads for 
various spreadsheets, you probably 
spotted the phrase what if mentioned 



Living 

with 

PractiCalc 



by Colin F. Thompson 
Santa Monica, CA 



repeatedly. What if accurately des- 
cribes the job most spreadsheets are 
used for. A typical business applica- 
tion would have PractiCalc project 
sales and profits into the future, based 
on a fixed cost and sales rate. What 
if sales go up by 32% and the cost of 
production goes down by 15%? Prac- 
tiCalc will instantly calculate the results. 
The spreadsheet concept has been at- 
tributed by some to be the foundation 
of the fabled Information Age. No 
management tool ever conceived can 
supply so many critical answers so 
fast. 

Specs 

PractiCalc is available from Com- 
puter Software Associates in three ver- 
sions. The original version is PractiCalc 
20. With its extra RAM memory, the 
64's version is more versatile. Prac- 
tiCalc 64 (P64) has a maximum capac- 
ity of 100 columns or 250 rows. The 
latest VIC version, PractiCalc Plus, has 
all the P64 features but fewer total cells 
available. P20 and Plus require a mini- 
mum of 16K expansion, but may use 
up to 24K. This will yield from 600 to 
2000 cells available. All three versions 
have the following features: 

• Available on disk and tape 

• Will print a sheet to a printer 

• Will print all formulas to a printer 

• Sort any column on either numeric 
or alphanumeric data 

• Prompt a cell for key entry 

• Replicate any formula, data or cell 
format 

Commander July 1983/55 



W 



• Perform all basic mathematic func- 
tions 

• Has high level math functions- 
count, sum, average, square roots, 
logarithms, etc. 

• Makes good use of the function 
keys, sound and color 

• Fix titles on the screen 

• Move a column or row 

• Column width may vary between 
3 and 38 characters 

The Sort function is an unexpected 
bonus. To sort aVisiCalc® sheet you 
must pay at least $100 extra for the 
privilege. If you plan on using an 
RS-232 printer, order the special ver- 
sion of PractiCalc designed to handle 
that interface. Files generated on one 
VIC version are compatible with the 
other VIC version. PractiCalc is com- 
patible with almost any printer. Several 
versions are available for different 
printers. 

PractiCalc Unleashed 

If you are an original owner of Prac- 
tiCalc 20, you may upgrade the Prac- 
tiCalc Plus for a small charge. Contact 
Computer Software Associates for 
details. 

Plus and P64 have some useful en- 
hancements. They will allow one col- 
umn, anywhere in the sheet, to be a 
different width than the rest. Titles are 
right justified, making a more legible 
printout. Plus and P64 will Search the 
entire sheet for a specified letter, word 
or number. The results of any mathe- 
matic calculation may be displayed in 
a cell by a bar graph instead of the ac- 
tual number. The bar may be printed 
on your Commodore 1515/1 525 print- 
er using the graphics mode. Other 
printers will print a number of asterisks 
equal to the resulting number. (See 
Figure 2) 

PractiCalcly Perfect 

The original PractiCalc 20 is still be- 
ing sold, but I wouldn't recommend 
buying it. For only $10 more, Prac- 
tiCalc Plus offers much more flexibil- 
ity. The variable column width on Plus 
is worth $10 alone. Plus and P64 are 
$49.95 on cassette and $54.95 on 
disk. 

56/Commander July 1983 



In the months I've been using Prac- 
tiCalc, I've found some very handy 
uses for it. I have replaced my Home 
Inventory program with PractiCalc. My 
Checking Account program also lies 
unused. Weekly travel expenses are 
now entered and printed in record 
time (without the math errors I usually 
cause). The best template I've done so 
far is a household budget planner. I 
really haven't made a dent in Prac- 
tiCalc's abilities. Template? It's another 
cryptic spreadsheet term. When set- 
ting up a sheet to do a specific job, you 
must enter the titles, labels, data fields, 
and formulas in proper cells. When 
completed, the result is a template. 
Templates are like programs. They 



allow you to enter data to be manipu- 
lated. 
On the Horizon 

In the near future, CSA will release 
some templates for use with the Prac- 
tiCalcs. CSA's Kate Nolan tells me they 
are also working on something called 
a programmable spreadsheet. I 
twisted her arm but she wouldn't 
divulge any details. When I find out 
more, I'll tell you about it. Watch this 
space. Kate is the wizard responsible 
for PractiCalc's great user manuals. 
These manuals are a picture of perfec- 
tion. Someday, I hope all manuals will 
be as well written and illustrated as 
these. Special thanks go out to Sandy 
Ruby, Kate Nolan and Sue Robbins for 
their help.D 







Figure 


1— Sample Spreadsheet 






A 


TER 


NAME SALES 


TER.TTL SALEDIF 3MSALES 


DAYSALE 


%TSALE 


B 














C 


A 


SMITH 500 








5 


D 




JONES 700 








7.77778 


E 




HOGAN 900 


2100 6300 




84 


10 


F 














G 


B 


NELSON 1000 








11.1111 


H 




PARSONS 1200 








13.3313 


I 

J 
K 




ANDREWS 500 


2700 600 8100 




108 


5.55556 


C 


ALLEN 800 








8.88889 


L 




SHEA 400 








4.44444 


M 




CONNORS 600 


1800 5400 




72 


6.66667 


N 














O 


D 


BENNETT 900 








10 


P 




RYAN 700 








7.77778 


Q 




EDWARDS 800 


2400 600 7200 




96 


9 


R 














S 




12 9000 






90 




T 




PEOPLE TSALES 




AVDSALE 




U 














V 




2700 










w 




HIGHEST 










X 




1800 










Y 




LOWEST 















1 2 


3 4 5 


6 




7 



Figure 2— Graphics with PractiCalc 



Low resolution graphics depict the 
histograms with a series of aster- 
isks^) in the appropriate columns. 



High resolution graphics show bar 
graphics comprised of shaded rec- 
tangular areas that are representative 
of numeric quantities. 



A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

I 

J 

K 



NAME UNITS COST 

JONES **"* 630.00 

SMITH *** 315.00 

ALLEN " 735.00 

NELSON **"* 520.00 

ANDREWS "" 210.00 

RYAN 940.00 



TOTAL 



32 



3360.00 



A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

I 

J 

K 



NAME 

JONES 

SMITH 

ALLEN 

NELSON 

ANDREWS 

RYAN 

TOTAL 



%SALES 




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Circle No. 12 



j& 



An Introduction to 
Assembly Language Programming 

on the Vic-20 
Part VII Simple Math 




Over the last few months we've 
gone from the basic concepts of 
assembly language programming to 
loops. Now we start to get a bit more 
complicated as we progress to new, 
more powerful instructions. Math can 
be very useful but at the same time 
complicated, so we are going to ap- 
proach it a piece at a time. 

Simple Math 

At one time in our life we have to use 
the math we learned at school. We 
may not use the more complex con- 
cepts learned in high school, but we 
usually do use the basic arithmetic 
learned in grade school. The 6502 
chip in the Commodore machines can 
be thought of as a little pupil in the 
elementary grades: it uses only basic 
arithmetic. There are no instructions for 
complex functions. Instead, we have 
to "teach it how," using a combination 
of simpler instructions, to simulate 
those functions. This is what makes 
math in assembly language such a 
pain: what we take almost for granted 
on a calculator is hard to program. If 
you ever try disassembling the ROM 
math routines in your computer, you 
will know what I mean. Yet there are 
times when your basic arithmetic can 
come in handy, so we will take a look 
at these this month. 

Adding 

Try and stretch your memory back 
to your first years in school. After the 

58/Commander July 1983 



basic concept of numbers and 
numbering systems what did they 
teach you? You guessed it— the con- 
cept of addition, that 1+1=2. 
Assembly language has an addition in- 
struction, so this is probably the best 
place to start. The instruction looks like 
this: 

ADC #$FF 

ADC stands for Add with Carry and 
will only work with the accumulator (in 
fact, no math instructions work with 
other registers). Notice the "with 
Carry". Remember the C (carry) bit in 
the status register that we talked about 
before? This bit is added at along with 
the value you wish to add, so if the 
carry is 1 the actual number will be one 
more than expected. Unless you want 
this (you'll find it useful later on) you 
should always make sure that the carry 
bit is cleared (zeroed) with this 
instruction: 

CLC 

CLC stands for Clear the Carry bit, 
and it does so without disturbing any 
registers or memory locations. Once 
cleared, you can proceed with your 
addition since the carry won't make a 
difference anymore (adding zero is the 
same as not adding anything). An ex- 
ample is as follows: 

CLC 

LDA $00 
ADC #$01 
STR $00 



Following the logic, the program first 
clears the carry bit, loads the ac- 
cumulator from memory location $00, 
adds $01 (1) to it, and then stores it 
back in $00. ADC will work only on the 
accumulator itself and you have to use 
a STA to store your data if you so wish. 
ADC also has other addressing modes 
(as many as LDA), but remember: 
these are used only to get the value 
to be added, as such: 

CLC 

LDA $1E2F 

ADC $02,X 

STA$1E2F 

This example will not add the value 
found in $1E2F to memory location 
$02,X but instead will add the value it 
finds in 102,X to the present value in 
the accumulator (which we just load- 
ed from $1 E2F). Because of this, most 
of the different addressing modes 
available are seldom used. 

What happens if the result from the 
addition is greater than 255 ($FF)? 
The carry bit in the status register is set 
and then the byte rolls over (turns back 
to zero) and is incremented the re- 
maining amount. For example, if you 
add $01 to $FF, the carry will be set and 
the result will be $00. Adding two to 
$FF would result in an answer of. $01 . 
This will work for any value if the total 
exceeds $FF. (Question: adding $FF 
to any value is like subtracting 
$01— can you figure out why?). 



Two-byte additions 

Adding a number to one byte is 
simple— just use ADC. But what if you 
want to add to a two-byte number? 
The answer lies in the carry bit. 
Remember that a number greater than 
$FF has to be stored in two bytes, with 
the low-order byte first and the high- 
order byte second. An example: 

FF 01 

This number reads as $01 FF hex or 
51 1 decimal (multiply high-order byte 
by 256 and add the low-order byte, so 
1*256 + 255 = 511). If we want to pro- 
perly add a value to this number we'll 
also have to watch out for the high- 
order byte ($01) and add one to this 
as necessary. As an example let's add 
one to the previous number. The 
number is now stored as 

00 02 

or $0200 (512). Two things have 
changed— the low-order byte rolled 
over from $FF to $00 and the high- 
order byte increased by one. If the 
high byte hadn't been increased when 
the low byte rolled over, the number 
would be $01 00, 256 less than the true 
value. This is the importance of keep- 
ing a lookout for the high byte. The 
way you take care of this problem is 
as follows: 

CLC 

LDA VALLO 
ADC #$01 
STA VALLO 
LDA VALHI 
ADC #$00 
STA VALHI 

The first four lines we saw before: a 
value is loaded from location VALLO 
(the low lyte of a two-byte number), 
one is added to it, and then the new 
number is stored back in VALLO. The 
last three lines take care of the high- 
order byte: the high byte is loaded 
from location VALHI, zero is added, 
and the result is stored back in VALHI. 
If we are simply adding zero why 
should we even worry about the high 
byte? The secret lies in the instructions' 
name: add with carry. If the first addi- 
tion causes a rollover, the carry bit will 
be set. It will then be included in the 
next addition unless cleared, so add- 
ing with the carry bit on is the same 
as adding 1 (and adding with it clear 



is the same as adding 0). This then is 
the solution to our little problem. The 
logic is as follows: 

1. Clear Carry bit. 

2. Load the accumulator with the 
low-order byte. 

3. Add to the ace. and if there is a 
rollover set the carry. 

4. Store new low-order byte. 

5. Load the ace. with the high-order 
byte. 

6. Add zero to it in case the carry bit 
is set. 

7. Store it back into memory. 

If you follow these steps you should 
have no problems in your additions. If 
you want you can also code it a dif- 
ferent way: 



CLC 
ADDLO LDA VALLO 

ADC #$80 

STA VALLO 

BCC SKIP 
ADDHI CLC 

LDA VALHI 

ADC #$01 

STA VALHI 
SKIP . . . 

If, after adding to the lower byte, the 
carry is clear (meaning there was no 
rollover), the program will branch to 
SKIP. Otherwise it will clear the carry 
and add 1 to the high byte. It's easy 
to follow but very inefficient. 

Subtraction 

The reverse of addition is subtrac- 
tion and the 6502 has an instruction for 
this too, called Subtract with Carry: 

SBC #$02 

Again, this instruction has as many 
addressing modes as ADC and works 
only on the accumulator, but has one 
little difference concerning the carry: 
instead of clearing it before subtracting, 
you get it by using the instruction SEC 
(Set the Carry bit). Why? Because dur- 
ing the subtraction SBC will also sub- 
tract the complement of the carry bit 
from the accumulator (the complement 
of 1 is and vice-versa). This means 
that if the carry is clear (0) one more 
will be subtracted. An example of a 
subtraction: 

SEC 

LDA VALUE 



SBC #$05 

STA VALUE 

This has the effect of subtracting 5 
from the memory location VALUE. 
Now then, can you figure out how to 
subtract from a two-byte number? 
Write one down and check it against 
this: 

SEC 

LDA VALLO 
SBC #$80 
STA VALLO 
LDA VALHI 
SBC #$00 
STA VALHI 

It's just like the last three lines of the 
addition example except that the ADC 
#$00 is replaced with SBC #$00. If the 
low-order byte rolled over from $00 to 
$FF (backwards) the carry would be 
cleared and this would have the effect 
of subtracting 1 from VALHI later on 
(remember: you subtract the comple- 
ment). Otherwise the carry would stay 
set and VALHI wouldn't be affected by 
the subtraction. 

Adding and Subtracting by 1 's 

Before leaving there are two other 
instructions I wish to discuss: INC and 
DEC. These instructions are used to 
INCrement or DECrement a memory 
location by 1 , instead of having to use 
ADC or SBC. They must be followed 
by an address and have the form 

INC $FB 

DEC $14DF,X 

Note: INC and DEC only work on 
memory locations, not on the ac- 
cumulator. They resemble INX, DEX, 
INY and DEY which affect the X- and 
Y-registers. Also, the status registers 
are affected by any changes to a 
memory location brought about by 
INC or DEC (ex: decrementing a loca- 
tion to sets the Z flag). These instruc- 
tions are useful for things that need to 
be incremented or decremented by 
regularly, such as a countdown timer 
or perhaps a screen color register. 
Next Month 

As you can see, I wasn't kidding you 
when I said things would get more 
complicated. Yet we've really only 
scratched the surface of math. Next 
month we'll go a little deeper with 
some multiplication and division. See 
you then!D 

Commander July 1983/59 



rDDOOOODOOOOOOOOODDOODDOCOQOOOOOOOOOODOOOOOOQOOGOOOOOODOGDOOOOC 




Machine Language I/O: 
Part Three of Three 



by Howard N. Rotenberg 
Toronto, Canada 



This is the last part of this series of 
articles. In Part One we discussed the 
opening of a disk file and an all pur- 
pose input routine. Part Two of the ar- 
ticle took us into the realm of a simple 
PET and ASCII terminal package. Now 
that we have come to the last part, I 
have included as a sample program, 
a CBM or ASCII terminal package that 
includes all the aspects we dealt with 
earlier. There are just a few routines 
that I have used that were not dis- 
cussed before. The others are either the 
same or variations of the first routines 
to make them more flexible. 

To just use the terminal package is 
quite simple since all of the instructions 
are included in the program and given 
if warranted. The terminal will talk to 
another computer in either PET ASCII 
or regular ASCII. It will also send files 
to or from your disk. It has the capabil- 
ity of pausing the transmission or re- 
ceiving of files and then resuming. 
Lastly, it may receive an ASCII file and 
store it in PET format or visa-versa. An 
example of the instructions you would 
receive if you are going to use PET 
ASCII is the possibility of sending a se- 
quential file or a program file. This 
question would not appear if you were 
using ASCII since you would be re- 
stricted to sequential files. 

Since we have been through most 
of the routines in the preceding articles 
I will just step through the program ac- 
cording the remarks outlining the dif- 
ferent routines. I will lightly mention 
some of the routines that have not 
been discussed before. 

All variables and constants are 
declared first. I have chosen to put the 
program at $7000, however, if you are 
using a 1 6K computer you may 
change it to wherever you have 2K of 
room available. The buffers that will be 



LINE# 


LOG CODE 


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IEEE 


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FOR BASIC 4 f 


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1982 + 


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00014 


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= 


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;FILE NAME POINTER 


00015 


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OPEN 


= 


$F563 




:RGM DEPENDENT 2,0 = $F524 


00016 


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= 


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;ROM DEPENDENT 2.0 = $F770 


00017 


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= 


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00018 


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= 


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00019 


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a 


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00020 


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= 


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00025 


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GETCHR 


ss 


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00026 


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00027 


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00028 


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00034 


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00035 


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00037 


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09038 


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00039 


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00040 


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00041 


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- 


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00042 


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= 


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00043 


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DISKO^ 


ss 


*3» 




. FERMENENT FLAG FOR DISf READ 


80044 


0000 


CLOSER 


- 


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,FLAG FOR INPUT FILE CLOSED 


00045 


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DJSKER 


- 


$3F 




.;FLAG FOR DISK ERROR 


00046 


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DISKO 


= 


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;FLAG FOR READ FROM DISK 


00047 


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TYPE 


- 


$55 




;FLAG FOR PRO OR SEO FILE 


0004S 


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TEMPFL 


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00049 


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ss 


1-57 




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00050 


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= 


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00051 


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60052 


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00053 


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00054 


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00055 


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00956 


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00057 


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00058 


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00059 


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00071 


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= $7000 




;LOAD ADDRESS 



60/Commander July 1983 



used for the input routine are cleared 
right at the start. This will contain the 
name of the files that we may wish to 
send or receive. At this point I should 
mention that you may open both files 
to send as well as receive. 

The signon message is printed at 
the top of the screen using a useful 
routine that only requires that you have 
the low byte of the address in the ac- 
cumulator and the high byte in the Y 
register. You then just have to JSR to 
PRMSG which will print your message. 
The program is then set up for PET or 
ASCII and will put the screen into 
either graphic or upper/lower case 
mode respectively. If you chose ASCII 
then you have the option of sending 
linefeeds. 

The next thing that is done is to 
determine if you wish to send a file 
from your disk. If you are conversing 
in ASCII then you may only send a se- 
quential file, otherwise you are asked 
if the file is a program or sequential. 
If you have chosen to send a file, then 
the name is asked for and after it is 
given it is transferred from out tempor- 
ary buffer to the one we utilized to put 
in the s,r, or ,p,r. The file is then opened 
using the information in our buffer 
as opposed to the file in the first arti- 
cle that was hard coded into the pro- 
gram. If the file is to be a PET file, then 
we decide if it will be sent in PET or 
ASCII format. Following this, if we had 
earlier decided to send line feeds, then 
we are given the option to send a line 
at a time rather than a continuous 
character string. 

We now determine if we will send a 
file to our disk. Once again we may 
choose a program or sequential file, 
ONLY if we are using PET ASCII. The 
default once again for ASCII is a se- 
quential file. The file is opened with the 
appropriate error checking as in the 
first OPEN and the appropriate instruc- 
tions are then displayed. 

For transmitting from disk, these two 
messages are displayed: 

PRESS CURSOR-LEFT TO 
TRANSMIT 

PRESS CURSOR-RIGHT TO 
PAUSE 

For receiving a file, these two 

messages are displayed: 

OOOOOOOOCOOOOOflODOQOOOQOODOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOaOOOOODOOOOOOOQ 1 

Commander July 1983/61 



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i~BA #0 






00108 


782F 


S5 


57 






STR FLAG! 




.CLEAR FLAG FOR LINE FEEDS 


00 1 09 


703 1 


85 


54 






ST A DISKO 




-CLEAR FROM DISK FLOG 


00110 


703 3 


85 


3D 






ST A DISK02 




■CLEAR FROM DISK FLAG 


00111 


7035 


85 


3C 






STR DISK 




■CLEAR TO DISK FLRG 


00112 


7037 


A9 


01 






LDR #1 






00113 


7039 


85 


B5 






STR FNPTRM 




■ MLM FLAG, FILE FTP 


00114 


703E 


85 


58 






STR PFLRG 




,SET TO 1 FOR PRO OK 


00115 


703B 


A 9 


CC 






LDR #:msc.4 




; PRINT MESSAGE TO 


88116 


703F 


R0 


73 






LDV 9X1SG4 




■ASK IF FORMAT IS 


00117 


7041 


20 


ID 


BB 




JSR PRMSG 




-ASCII OR PET 


00118 


7044 


20 


E4 


FF 


I NPUT2 


JSR GETCHR 




■GET ANSWER 


00 1 1 9 


704 ? 


F0 


FB 






BEQ INPUT2 




■ IF NOTHING LOOP BhO: 


00120 


7049 


C9 


50 






CMP # P 




[S IT PET 


00121 


704 B 


FO 


0C 






EEC UPCflSE 




OJPCASE,' PUT INTO UPPER CRSE 


00122 


704 D 


C9 


41 






CMP #"R 




■IS IT ASCII 


00123 


704 F 


m 


F3 






ENE INPUT 2 




■WRONG LETTER ENTERED 


00124 


7051 


AO 


0E 






LDV tf 14 




■GET NUMBER TO 


08125 


7053 


8C 


4C 


m 




■-TV CASE 




■PUT INTO LOWER CRSE 


00126 


7056 


4C 


5E 


70 




IMP DISP1 




■SKIP UPPER CASE 


00127 


705 9 


H0 


0C 




UP CASE 


LDV #12 




■GET NUMBER TO 


00128 


705B 


8C 


4C 


E8 




STV CRSE 




PUT INTO UPPER CRSE 


00129 


785E 


20 


D2 


FF 


I0SP1 


JSR WRITE 




■PRINT CHR 


00130 


7061 


C9 


50 






CMP # y F 




. IF PET THEN 


00131 


7063 


F0 


IF 






EEC SENDFL 




■GOTO SENDFILE 


00132 


7065 


A3 


01 






LDA #1 




■SET UP FOR ASCII 


00133 


7067 


85 


B2 






STh FORMAT 






00134 


7069 
















00135 


7069 










QUERV FOR 


LINE 1 


00136 


7069 
















06137 


7069 


C6 


58 






DEC PFLRG 




■CLEAR NO PRO BECAUSE ASCII 


00138 


7S6E 


H9 


F2 






LDR #CMSG5 




■ASK IF 


00139 


7060 


m 


73 






LDV #>MSG5 




■LINE FEEDS 


00140 


706F 


20 


ID 


m 




JSR F'PMSG 




. WANTED 


00141 


7072 


20 


E4 


FF 


INPUT 3 


JSR GETCHR 




■GET ANSWER 


00142 


7075 


FW 


FE 






EEQ INPUTS 






00143 


7077 


C9 


4E 






CMP # N 




•IF NOT 


00144 


7079 


F0 


86 






BEG H ISPS 




:G0T0 SENDFILE 


00145 


707E 


C9 


59 






CMP tt "V 




, IF HOT VES 


00146 


707Ii 


D0 


F3 






ENE INPUT 3 




•GO EACK FOR GOOD ANSWER 


00147 


707F 


E6 


57 






INC FLRG1 




= I NPUT L I HE F EE DS < SAVE F L AG ,- 


00148 


7081 


20 


m 


FF 


DISP2 


JSR WRITE 




: PRINT CHR 


00149 


7084 
















00150 


7084 








i DETE, 


00151 


7084 
















00152 


7084 


A9 


0D 




SENDFL 


LDR #CMSG6 




■PRINT MESSAGE TO 


00 1 53 


7036 


AS 


74 






LDV #>MSG6 




;RSK IF FILE IS TO 


00154 


7088 


20 


ID 


BE 




JSR PRMSG 




,BE SENT FROM DISK 


08155 


788B 


20 


E4 


FF 


IHPUT4 


JSR GETCHR 




,GET A CHR 


00156 


708E 


F0 


FE 






EEQ IHPUT4 




..NOTHING SO LOOP EACK 


00157 


7090 


\~3 


4E 






CMP tt'N 




, IF NOT THEN 


00158 


7092 


F0 


04 






EEC BISP4 




:SKIP AND PRINT CHR 


0S159 


7094 


C9 


59 






CMP #V 




.VES SO SET UP 


00160 


70^6 


D0 


F3 






EHE INPUT 4 




■INVALID GO EACK FOR ANSWER 


00161 


7098 


20 


D2 


FF 


DISP4 


JSR WRITE 




■PRINT CHR 


00162 


709E 


C9 


4E 






CMP #'N 






00163 


709D 


F0 


34 






EEQ SKIP2 




;SK1P AND GOTO 0UT1 < TO DISK) 


00164 


709F 








, 








00165 


709F 








; s 


ET UP FOR SENDII 


FROM DISK 


O0166 


769F 








, 








00167 


709F 


ftS 


58 






LDR PFLRG 




;IS I/O PET OR ASCII 


00168 


70H1 


C9 


01 






CMP #1 




: IF PET CO 


66169 


79R3 


F0 


07 






EEC! flSKPR 




■THEN BRRHCH . 

continued on page 64 



i 



% 




.•OCOOQOODOQDOCOOOOODOOOOOOOOOOOCOOOQOOOOOGOOQOOOOOOODDOOOOOOOC 



#> 



MACHINE LANGUAGE 


-continued from page 


61 


eeire 


70fl5 


R9 


53 






LDR 


#'S 


■ ELSE 


00171 


70fl7 


85 


55 






STfl 


TYPE 


;MUST BE SEQ FILE 


00172 


70A9 


4C 


C5 


79 




JMP 


PSKIP 


.SKIP QUERV FOR PRO OR SEQ 


00173 


70AC 


09 


31 




RSKPfl 


LDR 


#<MSG7 


■PRINT MESSAGE TO 


00174 


70flE 


R0 


74 






LDV 


#>MSG? 


;RSK TO PRG OR 


00175 


70E0 


26 


ID 


EB 




JSR 


PRMSG 


= SEQ FILE 


00176 


7&B3 


20 


E4 


FF 


INPUTS 


JSR 


GETCHR 


,GET fl CHR 


00177 


70B6 


F0 


FE 






BEQ 


INPUTS 


..NOTHING LOOP BACK 


00178 


70E8 


£3 


50 






CMP 


#'P 


;IS IT PET 


00175 


76BA 


F0 


04 






BEQ 


STVPE 


,VES SAVE TYPE 


001 80 


70BC 


C9 


53 






CMP 


*rs 


, IS IT SEQ FILE 


001S1 


70BE 


DS F3 






BNE 


I NPUT5 




00182 


70C0 


85 


55 




STVPE 


SIR 


TYPE 


;SAVE: P OR R FOR WRITE 


60183 


70C2 


20 


D2 


FF 




JSR 


WRITE 


; PR I NT CHR 


S0184 


70C5 


R* 


56 




PSKIP 


LDR 


#<MSDS 


■PRINT MESSAGE TO 


0S185 


70C7 


R0 


74 






LDV 


#>MSGS 


,RSK THE INPUT 


00186 


70C9 


20 


ID 


EB 




JSR 


PRMSG 


■FILE NAME 


00187 


70CC 


20 


31 


72 




JSR 


INPUT 


.GET FILE NAME 


00188 


70CF 


84 


56 






STY 


TEMPFL 


■STORE FILE LEN FROM V 


00189 


70B1 


CS 


00 






CPY 


#0 


, IF LENGTH = @ 


00190 


70D3 


F0 


47 




SKIP2 


BEQ 


OUT1 


,NO NAME ENTERED S GET OUT 


00191 


76B5 


E6 


54 






INC 


DISKO 


.SET WRITE FROM DISK 


06192 


70D7 


Efc 


3D 






INC 


DISK02 


:SET WRITE FROM DISK 


00193 


70D9 


fl9 


52 






LDR 


#'R 


■PUT R FOR READ FILE 


00194 


70BE 


85 


59 






STR 


TVFE2 


;IN THE BUFFER 


00195 


70BD 


26 


FF 


72 




JSR 


FILLB 


■FILL BUFFER 


00196 


70E0 


20 


39 


7'd 




JSR 


CMDCH 


■OPEN COMMAND CHANNEL 


00197 


70E3 








; 








00198 


70E3 










OPEN 


00199 


70E3 
















00260 


70E3 


H9 


07 






LDR 


#7 


;GET FILE NUMBER 


00201 


70E5 


85 


B3 






STfi 


SRVELR 


.SAVE L.fl, 


00292 


70E7 


P.fi 


D2 






STR 


Ffiurn 


.STORE FILE NUMBER 


00203 


70E9 


A3 


08 






LDR 


#3 


,GET DEVICE 


00204 


70EB 


85 


D4 






STfi 


DEV 


-STORE IT 


00205 


70EB 


ffl 


07 






LDR 


#7 


■ STORE 


002S6 


70EF 


09 


60 






ORfi 


#$60 


• SECONDARY 


00207 


70F1 


85 


D3 






STR 


SECRDR 


; ADDRESS 


00208 


79F3 


R5 


56 






LDR 


TEMPFL 


.GET FILE LENGTH 


00209 


70F5 


85 


Dl 






STR 


FNLEN 


.STORE IT 


00210 


70F7 


H9 


85 






LDR 


#<BUF2 


•GET LOW BYTE OF FILE NAME 


00211 


70F9 


85 


Dfl 






STR 


FNPTR 


•STORE RT FILENAME POINTER 


00212 


78FB 


R9 


02 






LDR 


#>BUF2 


•GET HIGH BYTE 


00213 


70FD 


85 


DB 






STR 


FHPTR+1 


,RNH STORE IT 


00214 


70FF 


R9 


00 






LDR 


#0 




00215 


7101 


85 


96 






STfi 


STATUS 


.SET STATUS TO 


00216 


7103 


20 


63 


F5 




JSR 


OPEN 


■OPEN FILE 


00217 


7106 


20 


E5 


72 




JSR 


ERRCHK 


: CHECK FOR DISK ERROR 


00218 


71 139 


R2 


07 






LDX 


#7 


;GET FILE NUMBER 


90219 


718B 


20 


RF 


F7 




JSR 


OPEN I 


;OFEN FOR INF LIT 


00226 


719E 


R2 


07 






LDX 


#7 




00221 


711© 


20 R6 


F2 




JSR 


CLEAR 




00222 


7113 


R5 


3F 






LDR 


DISKER 


.GET DISK ERROR 


00223 


7115 


C9 


91 






CMP 


#1 


. IF AH ERROR 


00224 


7117 


F0 


03 






BEQ 


OUTl 


.GOTO SEND TO DISK 


00225 


7119 


4C 


23 


71 




JMP 


SKIPEX 


;SKIP EXIT 


00226 


711C 


R0 


00 




0UT1 


LBV 


#0 


.CLEAR FLRG FOR 


O0227 


711E 


84 


3D 






STV 


DISK02 


•SEND FROM DISK 


00228 


7120 


4C 


69 


71 




JMP 


TODISK 


■GOTO SEND TO DISK 


00229 


7123 


R5 


58 




SKIPEX 


LDR 


PFLRG 


.IF FLAG IS FDR 


00230 


7125 


C9 


01 






CHP 


#1 


.THE PET THEN 


00231 


7127 


F0 40 






BEQ 


TODISK 


.GOTO SEND TO DISK 


60232 


7129 


R9 


79 






LDR 


(KMSG9 


.PRINT MESSAGE TO 


00233 


712B 


R0 


74 






LDV 


#>MSG9 


.ASK FOR FILE 


00234 


712B 


20 


ID 


EB 




JSR 


PRMSG 


, FORMAT 


00235 


7130 


20 


E4 


FF 


I NPUTt 


JSR 


GETCHR 


.GET R CHR 


00236 


7133 


F0 


FB 






BEG 


INPUT6 




00237 


7135 


C9 


41 






CMP 


# fl 


■IF ASCII THEN 


00238 


7137 


F0 


0R 






BEQ 


DISF5 


.PRINT IT 


00239 


7139 


C9 


50 






CMP 


#'P 


; IF NOT PET 


00240 


71 3B 


D8 F3 






BNE 


IHPUT6 


, INVALID SO ASK AGAIN 


00241 


71 3D 


43 








PHR 




;SAVE P 


00242 


713E 


R9 


01 






LDR 


#1 


;ELSE POKE 


00243 


7140 


ft5 


B6 






STR 


FNPTRN+1 


.MLM FLAG/COUNTER/F PTR 


60244 


7142 


68 








FIR 




■RESTORE TO WRITE 


00245 


7143 


20 


D2 


FF 


DISP5 


JSR 


WRITE 


.PRINT CHR 


00246 


7146 


R5 


57 






LDR 


FLRG1 


.GET LINE FEED FLAG 


00247 


7143 


C9 


01 






CMP 


#1 


.IF LINE FEEDS (1) 


00248 


714R 


F0 


ID 






BEQ 


TODISK 


.THEN SKIP 


00249 


714C 


R9 


9F 






LDR 


#<MSGifl 


.PRINT MESSAGE TO 


00250 


714E 


R0 


74 






LDV 


#>MSG10 


.ASK IF A LINE RT A 


00251 


7150 


20 


ID 


BB 




JSR 


PRMSG 


.TIME SHOULD BE SENT 


0O252 


7153 


20 E4 


FF 


INPUT? 


JSR 


GETCHR 


;GET R CHR 


00253 


7156 


F0 


FE 






BEQ 


INPUT? 


.NOTHING CO BACK 


00254 


7158 


C9 4E 






CMP 


#'N 


■NO SO EXIT 


00255 


715FI 


F0 


0R 






BEQ 


PISP7 


;AND PRINT IT 


00256 


715C 


C9 


59 






CMP 


# V 


; YES 


00257 


715E 


S0 F3 






BNE 


I NPUT7 


.INVALID SO LOOP BACK 


00258 


7160 


48 








PHR 




.SAVE CHR 


00259 


7161 


R9 


00 






LDR 


#0 


.POKE WITH 


00260 


7163 


85 


B5 






STfi 


FHPTRM 


;0 


00261 


7165 


68 








PLR 




; RESTORE CHR FOR PRINTING 


00262 


7166 


20 


D2 


FF 


DISP7 


JSR 


WRITE 


.PRINT CHR 



PRESS CURSOR-UP TO ENGAGE 
THE DISK 

PRESS CURSOR-DOWN TO 
DISENGAGE 

The last two messages displayed: 

PRESS INST TO QUIT 

YOU ARE ON LINE 

At this point the program opens the 
file to the modem and JSR's to the 
main driver routine. When it returns it 
will come back to this point to close all 
the files. The next section should be 
familiar since it is the input routine that 
we discussed in Part One. It is followed 
by a simple disk error routine that 
will display *** DISK ERROR *** if 
one occurs. An alternative could have 
been to actually take the address con- 
tained in ($0e) and the length in $0d 
and display the actual disk error 
message. I found this caused me a 
problem since after the message was 
displayed and the program would try 
to continue I would get a "file not 
open" error. 

The routine is to fill the buffer for the 
file name with the appropriate drive 
number and commas, etc. it also 
retrieves the information in our tem- 
porary buffer that contains our file 
names. 

This brings us to the last routines in 
this section that will simply open the 
command channel and get the drive 
number that is asked for when open- 
ing files. 

The Driver: 

At this point we go into the meat of 
the terminal package. I will only brief- 
ly mention the routines that are used 
since a full explanation would con- 
stitute another article. 

The modem is set up to receive, and 
the cursor is turned on. If we are using 
PET ASCII, we will do our checking for 
its special characters next. The next 
routine is used for ASCII to PET ASCII 
conversion. This is a fairly standard 
way to do the conversions. It is not the 
same one that I used in the second ar- 
ticle of this series. We now set the 

OOOOOOOOOOOOODOOOOOOOQOOOOOGDOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOGODODGOOOOGOOOO 

64/Commander July 1983 



5O0OOOOOOOQCOOOOOO0OOOD0OOOOOO0OODOOOOOO00OOOOOOODOO00OOOOOOO-JI 



modem to be the output device and 
check if line feeds are being used. You 
must keep in mind that we are con- 
stantly jumping back to INIT to utilize 
the IEEE routines that take care of the 
bus. These routines are at the end of 
the program. We set up to send a file 
from disk now, and if the end of file is 
reached, we close it. The next set of 
routines is used to detect if any of the 
keys to initiate the disk commands are 
used, and the appropriate action is 
taken if the tests do not fail. The RVS 
key is also checked at this time to see 
if we want to send any control char- 
acters. Now it is time to do the PET 
ASCII to ASCII conversions and then 
we may send our characters. 

The last set of subroutines is stand- 
ard IEEE routines that you will prob- 
ably see time and time again for man- 
ipulating the bus. These routines are 
outlined in the book called Program- 
ming the PET/CBM by Raeto Collin 
West, quite well. 

I have commented the program list- 
ing quite intensively so that each 
routine should be almost self explan- 
atory. I have included a cross refer- 
ence of all variables and labels used 
in the program for easy access. I 
would like to give my sincere thanks 
to Jim Butterfield for his guidance and 
the use of some of his routines used 
in the driver of this program. 

Conclusion: 

Well, this brings us to the end of my 
Machine Language I/O articles. This, 
however, only brings us all to the start 
of getting more involved in this in- 
teresting and complex part of pro- 
gramming. This is something that 
many of you will have to get involved 
with when speed and precision is of 
the most importance. With patience 
and practice, there should be nothing 
that you cannot do in this fashion. All 
listings have been assembled using 
Commodore's assembler. □ 




00263 


7169 








; 








00264 


7169 








DET 


GOES TO DISK 


00265 


7169 
















00266 


7169 


R9 


71 




TODISK 


LDfl 


#<M561 


; PRINT MESSAGE TO 


00267 


716B 


M0 


73 






LDV 


#>MSG1 


J ASK IF VOU WANT TO 


38268 


716D 


20 


in 


EE 




JSR 


PRMSG 


.SEND FILE TO DISK 


90269 


7170 


20 


E4 


FF 


INPUT 1 


JSR 


GETCHR 


.GET A CHR 


00270 


7173 


F0 


FE 






EEG 


INPUT! 


;IF NOTHING LOOP BACK 


00271 


7175 


C9 


59 






CUP 


# V 


;IS IT R V 


00272 


7177 


F0 


04 






EEQ 


DISP3 


,GOT0 B1SPLAV CHR 


00273 


7179 


C9 


4E 






CMP 


#N 


■IS IT NO 


Q0274 


717B 


DO 


F3 






ENE 


INPUT1 


; INVALID INPUT LOOP EfiCK 


00275 


71 7D 


20 


02 


FF 


BISP3 


JSR 


WRITE 


; PRINT CHR 


60276 


7180 


C3 


59 






CMP 


#"V 


;IF v 


00277 


7182 


F0 


03 






EEQ 


PORfl 


;VES SO ASK FOR A OR P 


00278 


71S4 


4C 


FE 


71 




JMP 


PIHST 


;nq SO SKIP OPEN 


00279 


718? 








; 








00280 


7187 








.; 


ASK 


SEQ FILE 


00281 


7187 
















00282 


7187 


m 


B2 




PORA 


LDfi 


FORMAT 


;IS I/O PET OR ASCII 


06283 


7189 


C9 


00 






CMP 


#0 


; IF PETC0> 


00284 


718E 


FO 


07 






BEQ 


RSKfiP 


;THEN RSK FOR FILE TVPE 


00285 


718D 


AS 


53 






LDfi 


# S 


.ELSE MUST EE SEQ 


00286 


71SF 


85 


55 






STfi 


TVPE 


;S0 STORE IT 


00287 


7191 


4C 


fiD 


71 




JMP 


INEUF 


:SKIP QUERV FOR PRO OR SEQ 


00288 


7194 


fl9 


31 




RSKAP 


LDfi 


#<M3G7 


.PRINT MESSAGE TO 


00289 


719b 


H0 


74 






LDV 


#>MSG? 


.ASK IF PRG OR 


80290 


7198 


20 


ID 


EE 




JSR 


PRMSG 


.SEw FILE 


00291 


719B 


20 


E4 


FF 


INPUTS 


•JSR 


GETCHR 


■GET A CHR 


00292 


719E 


FO 


FE 






EEQ 


INPUTS 


, NOTHING LOOP BACK 


00293 


7 11=10 


C9 


50 






CMP 


#"P 


;IS IT ft PRG 


00294 


71A2 


FO 


04 






BEQ 


STVPE2 


;VES SO STORE TVPE 


00295 


71A4 


C9 


53 






CMP 


#'S 


.IS IT A SEQ FILE 


00296 


71fl6 


m F: 






ENE 


INPUTS 


; INVALID SO LOOP BACK 


00297 


71flS 


85 


55 




STVPE2 


STfi 


TVPE 


;SAVE F OR S 


00298 


71AA 


20 


D2 


FF 




JSR 


WRITE 


; PRINT IT 


00299 


71RE 
















00309 


71RD 








; GET 


THE 


INPUT FILE NAM 


00301 


71flD 
















00382 


7i ah 


R9 


93 




INEUF 


LDfl 


#<MS02 


; PRINT MESSAGE TO 


00303 


71flF 


m 


73 






LDV 


#>MSG2 


:fiSK FOR THE 


00304 


71B1 


20 


ID 


EE 




JSR 


PRMSG 


.; INPUT FILE NAME 


00305 


71E4 


20 


31 


72 




JSR 


INPUT 


,GET FILE NAME 


00306 


71B7 


84 


56 






STV 


TEMPFL 


.STORE FILE NAME LEN FROM V 


00307 


71B9 


CO 


00 






CPV 


#0 


; IF LENGTH = 


00308 


71 BE 


D© 


03 






EHE 


G£TFL 




00309 


71 EH 


4C 


FE 


71 




JMP 


PINST 


;N0 NAME ENTERED, SO EXIT 


80310 


7 ice 


fi9 


57 




GETFL 


LDfi 


#'W 


,PUT to IN THE 


00311 


71C2 


85 


59 






STfl 


TVPE2 


•BUFFER FOP WRITE 


00312 


71C4 


20 


FF 


72 




JSR 


FILLE 


•FILL BUFFER 


00313 


71C7 


20 


39 


73 




JSR 


CflBCH 


•OPEN COMMAND CHANNEL 


80314 


71CA 


A 9 


03 






LDfl 


#8 


.GET FILE NUMBER 


00315 


r LCC 


05 


112 






STfi 


FNUM 


.-STORE IT 


00316 


7 ICE 


35 


114 






STfi 


DEV 


, STORE DtV 


0031? 


71 D0 


09 


60 






ORR 


#$60 


• 8/8-8 


S8318 


71D2 


85 


D3 






STfi 


SECftDR 




06319 


71D4 


AS 


56 






LDfi 


TEMPFL 


GET FILE LENGTH 


00320 


71D6 


35 


Dl 






STfl 


FNLEN 


, STORE IT 


0032 1 


7 IDS 


H9 


65 






LDfi 


#<BUF2 


■GET LOW BYTE OF FIlE NAME 


00322 


71BA 


85 


Dh 






STfi 


FNPTF 


..STORE AT FILENAME POINTER 


00323 


7 1IC 


AS 


02 






LDfi 


#>BUF2 


■GET HIGH BYTE 


00324 


71 HE 


85 


BE 






STfi 


FiiPTF + 1 


.AND STORE IT 


00325 


71E0 


R9 


00 






LfJfl 


m 




00326 


71 £2 


b'5 


96 






STfi 


STATUS 


•SET STATUS TO 


0032' 


71E4 


20 


63 


F5 




JSR 


OPEN 


;0PEH FILE 


00328 


"IE? 


20 


E5 


72 




JSP 


ERRCHK 


..CHECK FOR DISK ERROR 


0032$ 


71 ER 


A2 


OS 






LBX 


#3 


•GET FILE NUMBER 


08330 


71 EC 


20 


Ft 


i : ; 




JSR 


OFENQ 


■OPEN DEVICE FOR OUTPUT 


00331 


71EF 


fiO 


08 






LDV 


#S 


•SET S IN FLAG 


00332 


71 Fi 


54 


3C 






STV 


DISK 


;for SEND TO DISK 


O0333 


71 F3 


Fi^ 


03 






!_DX 


#3 


■GET FILE NUMBER 


00*334 


71F5 


20 


fl6 


F2 




JSR 


CLEAR 


;AND CLEAR CHANNEL 


00335 


71F3 


fl5 


3F 






LDfi 


DISKER 


;IF A DISK ERROR 


00336 


71FR 


C9 


01 






CMP 


#1 


■THEN SKIP NEXT 


00337 


71FC 


FO 


14 






EEQ 


PINST2 


: INSTRUCTIONS 


00 338 


71FE 
















003 39 


71FE 










PRINT 3 


U0340 


71FE 
















00341 


71FE 


R5 


3C 




PIH3T 


LDfi 


DISK 


;IF NOT TO DISK 


00342 


7209 


C9 


00 






CMP 


#0 


,THEN SKIP FIRST 


00343 


7202 


FO 


OE 






EEQ 


FINST2 


, FIRST INSTRUCTIONS 


00344 


7204 


A3 


C5 






LDfi 


*KMSG11 


•PRINT MESSAGE TO 


00345 


7206 


m 


74 






LDV 


#>MSG11 


PRESS CURSOR UP TO 


00346 


7203 


20 


ID 


EE 




JSR 


PRMSG 


..ENGAGE DISK LOG 


00347 


729E 


R9 


Ef\ 






LDfi 


tt::MSG12 


..PRINT MESSAGE TO 


0U343 


720D 


R0 


74 






LDV 


#::J"13G12 


■PRESS CURSOR DOWN 


00349 


720F 


20 


in 


BE 




JSR 


PRMSG 


,T0 DISENGAGE 


00358 


?212 


A5 


3D 




PIN8T2 


LDfi 


DISK02 


■FIND OUT IF 


00351 


7214 


C9 


00 






CMP 


#8 


isekb r#m DISK 


00352 


7216 


FO 


OE 






BEQ 


START 


-WAS INITIATED OR ERROR 


00353 


721 S 


R9 


0fl 






LDfi 


JKMSG13 


; PRINT MESSAGE TO 


M0354 


721Fi 


AS 


75 






LDV 


#>MSG13 


•PRESS CURSOR LEFT TO 


J0355 


"? 2 1 C 


20 


ID 


EE 




JSP 


PRMSG 


;SEND FROM DISK 


00356 


721F 


A 9 


2A 






LDfi 


#:msgi4 


.PRINT MESSAGE TO 

continued on page 68 



Commander July 1983/65 




Editor's Note— 

We at Commander would like to 
extend our apologies to Mr. David 
A. Hook, for not giving proper 
acknowledgement of his review 
"C64-Link: Review" published in 
our March/April 1983 issue. 

In the May '83 issue, we publish- 
ed a helpful hint titled "Screen 
Clean-up for the VIC-20 and the 64" 
without giving proper acknowl- 
edgement. With this in mind, we 
would like to give proper credit, and 
extend an apology to Public Do- 
main. If you would like more infor- 
mation about Public Domain, 
please see their advertisement on 
page 72. □ 



Dear Editor— 

I am a subscriber to your very infor- 
mative magazine. While using my 
computer (VIC-20) tonight, I dis- 
covered an error in the Joy Stick 
Modification routine of the game pro- 
gram Gobble! that was featured in 
your January and February issues. 
The corrections are as follows: 
Line 9010 POKE DD.127: 
P = PEEK(P2) and 128: 
J0= -(P = 0) 
Line 9030 J1 = -((P AND 8) = 0): 
J2= -((P AND 16) = 0): 
J3= -((P AND 4) = 0):RETURN 
The parts in bold face have been 
corrected and the modifications now 
run well.D 
Elmer W. McKay 

66/Commander July 1983 



Dear Editor- 
Congratulations on a fine publica- 
tion! 

I'm a new owner of a Commodore 
64, and I think I can shed some light 
on the white flashes described by Vin- 
cent Mooney, Jr., in your Bits and 
Pieces section in the March/April 
issue. 

I had a similar problem. The flashes 
appear as horizontal streaks near text. 
They are in text color. (Mine are black 
since I usually use a white background 
with black characters.) They first 
showed up on my screen when I started 
using a word processing program. 

My dealer explained that this glitch 
only occurs in some machines when 
the computer executes GET state- 
ments. You can test this on your own 
64 by running a program that fills the 
screen about half full with any text 
(numbers seem worse than letters) and 
then GETs a key from the keyboard. 

Unfortunately, the only cure seems 
to be a new machine. If Mr. Mooney 
Jr's computer is still under warranty, 
I suggest he contact his dealer and try 
the exchange machine for the same 
glitch before accepting it.D 

Sincerely, 

Noel Nyman 

Seattle, WA 



Dear Editor— 

I enjoy your magazine very much 
and find it very informative. I do, 
however, have a question. How do I 



get a program that was written on my 
64 to list on my 8032? I would like to 
use the utility ROM in the 8032 to re- 
number and clean up in general, pro- 
grams that I have written for the 64. □ 

Thank you, 

Jerry Fellows 

Box 114 

Ocean City, WA 98569-0114 



Dear Editor: 

Reference: Review Paper Clip in 
March/April '83 Issue. 

We would like to add our comments 
to the review of PaperClip by David 
Hook in your March/April issue. Davis 
has said it almost all. 

However, I would like to emphasize 
the EXCELLENT support provided by 
Batteries Included, the vendors of 
PaperClip. I met Alan Krofchick for the 
first time at a Commodore Dealer 
Meeting in Calgary last year. 

Since that time, we have sold a lot 
of PaperClips. Hardly a week goes by 
without us getting a call from Alan to 
inquire about any problems or ques- 
tions. Any questions are dealt with 
almost immediately, or very shortly 
after if the answer isn't obvious. We 
also sell their disksharing Arbiter 
system, with equal top-of-the-line sup- 
port and returns of defective units with 
immediate replacement. □ 

Kobetek Systems Limited 

Sieg Deleu 

President 



Dear Editor- 
Reference: Bits and Pieces White 
Flashes in March/April '83 Issue. 

In response to Bits and Pieces, the 
white flashes reported by Vincent 
Mooney on his 64 may well have to do 
with a heating problem. If the flashes 
do not occur initially, but only after 
warm-up, the problem lies in the 
voltage-regulator. The early 64's ex- 
hibited this problem, and we had to 
build heat-sinks for the regulator to 
cure the problem. □ 
Kobetek Systems Limited 
Sieg Deleu 
President 



Dear Readers, 

As a result of questions from Mr. 
Florence, I entered the program as 
listed in the December issue of Com- 
mander, pages 43, 44 which turned 
up the following errors: 

Line 2000 change semicolon to 
colon. 

Line 2060 remove parenthesis 
before the numeral one and insert a 



comma after the second E$. 

Line 2090 the same change as line 
2060. 

Line 3120 change the plus sign to 
a bracket. 

Line 3240 the 3 UP should be 
enclosed in brackets. 

Line 3380 add an R before the 
IGHTS. 

Line 3395 add a minus one after the 
L%. 

These lines should read as follows: 

2000 PRINTENTER DATE IN 

FORM 08DEC82":PRINT 
2060 E$ = RIGHT$(H$,2):IF 

LEFT$(E$,1)='\"GOTO 2080 
2090 E$ = RIGHT$(L$,2):IF 

LEFT$(E$,1)="."GOTO 2110 
3240 D(I) = VAL(D$(I)):IF 
D(l)oD(l-1)THEN PRINT"{3 

UP}"TAB(X);M$ 
3380 L = (VAL(LEFT$(LS(1),J-1)) + 

VAL INT(L + 1):J = 1 
3395 IF H% = L°/o - 1 GOTO 

3500 □ 
Sincerely, 
Claud E. Cleeton 



Miscellaneous- 
Have you ever wanted to 
'remember' the X,Y coordinates of the 
location where the next PRINT will oc- 
cur in your VIC-20 programs? Have 
you ever wanted to be able to set the 
coordinates back again after having 
printed in another part of the screen? 
The following functions and subroutine 
will allow you to do this: 

10 DEFFNA(X) = PEEK(214)*22 + 

PEEK(211) 
20 DEFFNX(A) = A-INT(A/22)*22 
30 DEFFNY(A) = INT(A/22)-1 

100 REM Your Program 

110 PRINT'[clear][10down][10 

right]'; 
120X = FNA(0) 

130 PRINT'[3 right][3 down]*' 
140 GOSUB1000:PRINTT:END 
1000 POKE214,FNY(X):PRINT: 

POKE211,FNX(X):RETURN 
When run, the "*" will print under 
the "1", where it would have printed 
earlier, just like you wanted it to! 

Scott C. Jensen, 1359 Palace Ave., 
St. Paul, MN 551 05. □ 



Sv a /COMPUTERS 






BRINGS YOU THESE NEW ITEMS! 



5 1 /4" FLOPPY DISCS, Boxes of 10, Guaranteed 
5 yrs. 12MM Passes. . . SS, SD $20.30/SS,DD 
$23.10/DS DP $27.30 

C-10 Blank Cassette Tapes, Case of 50, 
screw-pac Commercial Grade. , , $25,00 

The TAPEWORM™ the Amazing Cassette 
Recorder interface for all COMMODORF M 
Products. . . $24.95 

COMPUTER FURNITURE, All styles and sizes 
Ask for our catalog 

^COMPUTERS 



SPEECH SYNTHESIZER • by METAVOX™ for 
Vic-20™ and COMMODORE™ 64. . . $168.00 

BACK ISSUES • COMPUTE! Magazine • 5 Issue 
minimum, $2.50 per issue, specify month 

A/V Interface for COMMODORE™ 64. . . $19.95 

VISA, MASTERCHARGE, NoCOD's 

Prices exclude delivery COSt(allow 30 days delivery) 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

1125 N.E. 82nd 

Portland, OR 97220, (503) 257-9464 



Circle No. 40 



Commander July 1983/67 



lOOOOC OO O O OO OO QQGQODOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQQOGC-P g P O OOCOSOOOQOOOOC 

MACHINE LANGUAGE— continued from page 65 



S0357 


7221 


HO 


75 




LBV #>MSG14 


..PRESS CURSOR RIGHT 


00358 


7223 


20 


id 


BB 


JSR PRMSG 


-TO PAUSE 


90355 


7226 


as 


47 




START LBft #<MSG15 


■PRINT MESSAGE 


00360 


7223 


AO 


75 




LBV #>MSG15 


.; PRESS INST 


00:361 


722ft 


20 


ID 


BB 


JSR PRMSG 


■TO QUIT 


00362 


722B 


A3 


5C 




LBfl #<MSG16 


.PRINT MESSAGE 


00363 


722F 


H0 


v-j 




LBV #>MSG16 


;T0 INFORM THAT 


00364 


7231 
7234 

7234 


20 


IB 


BB 


JSR PRMSG 


.USER IS ON LINE 


00366 








; OPEN MODEM 




00367 


7234 








; 




0036S 


7234 


m 


05 




LBfl^ #5 


,GET FILE NUMBER 


00363 


7236 


85 


B2 




STft FNUM 


•STORE IT 


00370 


7238 


85 


B4 




STft BEV 


..STORE BEV 


00371 


723ft 


A3 


00 




LBfl #0 


,NG FILE NAME 


00372 


723C 


85 


Bl 




STR FNLEH 




00373 


723E 


93 


FF 




LBfl #255 


, HO SECONBARV 


00374 


7240 


CjEJ 


D3 




STft SECflBR 


; RBBRESS 


00375 


7242 


fii 


00 




LBR #0 


;SET STATUS 


00376 


7244 


35 


96 




STft STATUS 


;T0 9 


00377 


7246 


20 


S3 


F5 


JSR OPEN 


..OPEN MOBEM 


00373 


7249 


R5 


30 




LBfl DISK 


,GET DISK 3 OR 0<NO INPUT;- 


00379 


724B 


35 


D0 




STR OUTBEV 


; STORE AT BEV ICE 


O0388 


724D 


A3 


00 




LBft #0 


..POKE LEN FILE NAME 


00381 


724F 


35 


m 




STft FNLEH 


;WITH 


00332 


7251 


A5 


57 




LBR FLRG1 


.GET LINE FEEB FLAG 


O03S3 


7253 


85 


B8 




STft LFEEB 


,ANB STORE IT 


O03S4 


7255 


20 


E5 


75 


JSR HTERM 


iGOTO MAIN ROUTINE 


00385 


7258 


A2 


03 




FCLOSE LBX #8 


,GET FILE NUMBER 


06386 


725* 


26 


R6 


F2 


•JSR CLEAR 


; CLEAR CHANNEL 


Q0387 


725H 


A3 


08 




LBfl #8 


;GET FILE NUMBER 


00388 


725F 


20 


E2 


F2 


JSR CLOSE 


.CLOSE INPUT FILE 


00389 


7262 


R2 


07 




LDX #7 


;GET FILE NUMBER 


00330 


7264 


20 


A6 


F2 


JSR CLEAR 


.CLEAR CHANNEL 


00391 


7267 


R9 


97 




LBfl #7 


:GET FILE NUMBER 


00392 


7269 


20 


E2 


F2 


JSR CLOSE 


.: CLOSE FILE 


66393 


726C 


A2 


65 




LBX #5 


;GET MOBEM FILE 


00394 


726E 


26 


f\6 


F2 


JSR CLEAR 


; CLEAR CHANNEL 


O0395 


7271 


A3 


05 




LBfl #5 


;GET FILE NUMBER 


O0396 


7273 


20 


E2 


F2 


JSR CLOSE 


; CLOSE MOBEM 


00397 


7276 


A2 


0F 




LBX #15 


:GET FILE NUMBER 


00398 


7278 


20 A6 


F2 


JSR CLEAR 


; CLEAR CHANNEL 


00399 


727B 


A3 


0F 




LBft #15 


.:GET FILE NUMBER 


00490 


727B 


20 


E2 


F2 


JSR CLOSE 


: CLOSE FILE 


00401 


7280 


60 






GETOUT RTS 


.: RETURN TO BASIC 


00402 


7281 








; 




00403 


7281 








INPUT ROUTINE 




O0404 


7281 








, 




00405 


7281 


R0 


00 




INPUT LBV #0 


.: INITIALIZE INDEX 


00406 


7283 


R9 


B9 




PCURS LBft #135 


;PRINT CURSOR 


00407 


7235 


20 


D2 


FF 


JSR NRITE 


.CHRACTER 


00408 


7283 


R3 


m 




LBft #BACK 


■POSITION CURSOR 


O0409 


72SR 


20 


D2 


FF 


JSR WRITE 


;OVER IT 


00410 


723B 


93 






TVR 


;SRVE INDEX 


004 1 1 


728E 


43 






PHR 




00412 


728F 


20 


£4 


FF 


JSR GETCHR 


;GET A CHR 


00413 


7292 


85 


Oft 




STR LASTCH 


■STORE IT 


00414 


7294 


68 






PLfl 




O0415 


7295 


R3 






TRV 


.; RESTORE INDEX 


00416 


7296 


R5 


©R 




LBR LASTCH 


;GET CHR SRVEB 


0O417 


7238 


FO 


E3 




BEQ PCURS 


■NOTHING LOOP BACK 


00418 


729A 


C9 


14 




CMP #BEL 


J IS A BELETE 


004 1 9 


723C 


FO 


2fl 




BED DELETE 


.GOTO DELETE ROUTINE 


0O420 


729E 


C9 


SB 




CUP #CR 


:fl CARRIAGE RETURN 


00421 


7280 


FO 


25 




BEQ FINISH 


; ENTRY FINISHED 


00422 


72A2 


C9 


22 




CMP #'" 


;R QUOTE 


08423 


72A4 


FO 


BB 




BEQ PCURS 


;dont ALLOW 


O0424 


72A6 


93 


7R 


02 


STft BUF1.V 


STORE FIRST CHR 


00425 


72A9 


20 


B2 


FF 


JSR WRITE 


; PRINT TO SCREEN 


00426 


72AC 


C8 






INV 


.INCREMENT BUFFER INDEX 


09427 


72AB 


CO 


OR 




CPV #MftXCHR 


..ARE ALL ELEVEN CHR-S USED 


00428 


72AF 


F0 


03 




BEQ WHIT 


;VES SO WAIT FOR CR OR LAST BEL 


80429 


72B1 


4C 


33 


72 


JMP PCURS 


;N0 30 GET ANOTHER 


004 30 


72B4 


98 






WRIT TVfl 


..XFER IHBEX 


00431 


72B5 


48 






PHR 


;SAVE IT 


00432 


72B6 


20 


E4 


FF 


JSR GETCHR 


•GET ft CHR 


00433 


72B3 


35 


OR 




STA LASTCH 


■STORE IT 


©0434 


?2BB 


68 






PLR 


; RESTORE INDEX 


00435 


72BC 


R3 






TAV 


..IN V REGISTER 


00436 


72BD 


R5 


0R 




LBft LRSTCH 


■GET THE LAST CHR 


00437 


72EF 


09 


14 




CMP #BEL 


•IS IT A DELETE 


00438 


72C1 


FO 


05 




BEQ DELETE 


;VES GO BACK TO DELETE ROUTINE 


0*3439 


72C3 


C9 


OB 




CMP #CR 


;IS IT A CRPRAIGE RETURN 


00440 


72C5 


I-O 


EB 




BHE WRIT 


.NO 00 BACK FOR ANOTHER CHR 


0044 1 


72C7 


60 






FINISH RTS 


;RETURH TO CALLER 


O0442 


72C8 












00443 


72C8 








; DELETE ROUTINE 




80444 


72C8 












00445 


72CS 


CO 


00 




BELETE CPV #00 


;RNV CHRS TO BELETE 


O0446 


72CH 


FO 


E7 




BEQ PCURS 


.NO SO IGNORE AND LOOP BACK 


00447 


72CC 


R3 


9B 




LBft #BACK 


J GET BACKSPACE 


O044S 


72CE 


20 


B2 


FF 


JSR WRITE 


•POSITION BACK 


O0449 


72D1 


R3 


20 




LBA #SPRCE 


•GET SPACE 


00450 


72B3 


20 


B2 


FF 


JSR WRITE 


; WRITE TMICE TO 


00451 


72B6 


20 


B2 


FF 


JSR WRITE 


■DELETE CHR AND CURSOR 


00452 


72B9 


R3 


3D 




LBft #BACK 


, GET BACKSPACE 


00453 


72HB 


20 


B2 


FF 


JSR WRITE 


..POSITION BACK 



0@454 


72BE 


20 B2 FF 




JSR 


O0455 


72E1 


88 




DEV 


00456 


72E2 


4C 83 72 




JMP 


00457 


72E5 








00458 


72E5 








00459 


72E5 








O0460 


72E5 


R@ 0O 


ERRCHf 


LDV 


00461 


72E7 


84 3F 




STV 


00462 


72E3 


20 EB FF 




JSR 


00463 


72EC 


AO 00 




LDV 


O0464 


72EE 


Bl OE 




LBA 


00465 


72FO 


C9 32 




CMP 


00466 


72F2 


B0 01 




BCS 


Q0467 


72F4 


60 




RTS 


0O468 


72F5 


A3 B6 


PERRGfc 


LDA 


00463 


72F7 


AO 73 




LBV 


00470 


72F9 


20 IB BB 




JSR 


00471 


72FC 


E6 3F 




INC 


0O472 


72FE 


60 




RTS 


00473 


72FF 




, 




0O474 


72FF 








O0475 


72FF 








00476 


72FF 


26 57 73 


FILLB 


JSR 


O0477 


7302 


A5 21 




LBR 


00478 


73S4 


SB 85 02 




STA 


00479 


7307 


A3 3ft 




LDA 


00480 


7309 


SB '36 02 




STR 


00481 


730C 


A2 00 




LBX 


O0482 


730E 


BB 7A 02 


STORE 


LBA 


00483 


7311 


3B 87 02 




STR 


0O484 


7314 


E8 




I NX 


0O485 


7315 


E4 56 




CPX 


00486 


7317 


FO 03 




BEQ 


O0487 


731 ,=i 


4C @E 73 




JMP 


004S8 


731 C 


A5 56 


FIN 


LBR 


80483 


731E 


A8 




TAV 


O049G 


73 IF 


18 




CLC 


00491 


7320 


63 06 




ADC 


00492 


7322 


85 56 




STA 


0O493 


7324 


A3 2C 




LDA 


00434 


7326 


93 'B? 02 




STA 


O0495 


7329 


A5 55 




LBA 


O0436 


732B 


93 88 02 




STR 


00497 


732E 


A3 2C 




LBfl 


00498 


7330 


93 S3 02 




STR 


00433 


7333 


A5 59 




LDA 


00500 


7335 


99 8fl 02 




STft 


00501 


7338 


60 




RTS 


00502 


7339 




;, 




00503 


7333 








00504 


7333 








00505 


7333 


A5 54 


CMDCH 


LBft 


00506 


733B 


C9 01 




CMP 


00507 


733D 


F0 01 




BEQ 


O0508 


733F 


69 




RTS 


00509 


7340 


A3 OF 


CMDOK 


LBft 


00510 


7342 


85 B2 




STft 


00511 


7344 


A3 08 




LBR 


0O512 


7346 


85 B4 




STft 


O0513 


7348 


R3 OF 




LBR 


00514 


734A 


03 60 




ORft 


00515 


734C 


85 D3 




STft 


O0516 


734E 


R3 00 




LBft 


0O517 


7350 


85 Bl 




STR 


00518 


7352 


85 96 




STR 


0O519 


7354 


85 54 




STR 


O0520 


7356 


60 




RTS 


0O521 


7357 




; 




0O522 


7357 








O0523 


7357 








0O524 


7357 


A3 CF 


GETDRV 


LBR 


00525 


7353 


AO 75 




LBV 


O0526 


735B 


20 ID BB 




JSR 


00527 


735E 


20 E4 FF 


INPUTS 


JSR 


O0528 


7361 


FO FB 




BEQ 


00529 


7363 


C9 30 




CMP 


0053O 


7365 


FO 04 




BEQ 


00531 


7367 


C3 31 




CMP 


00532 


7369 


BO F3 




BHE 


00533 


736B 


85 21 


DISP6 


STft 


O0534 


736B 


20 D2 FF 




JSR 


00535 


7370 


60 




RTS 


O0536 


7371 








00537 


7371 








00533 


7371 








00539 


7371 


OD 


MSG1 




0053'^ 


7372 


53 45 






O0539 


7392 


00 






O054O 


7393 








O0541 

, 

00541 


7333 


OB 


MSG2 




7394 


45 4E 






O054 1 


73B4 


OD 






0054 1 


73E5 


OO 






00542 


73E6 








00543 


73B6 


OD 


MSG3 




00543 


73B7 


OD 







68/Commander July 1983 



?OOOOOODQOOOOOOOOODQC»QCK>DOgODOOOQQOOC»0000&P O QOeOOQ O OQeOOOO&j 



WRITE 


■OVER DELETED CHR 




; DECREMENT BUFFER INDE 


FOURS 


. GO BACK FOR ANOTHER 


DISK tRROR 


ROUTINE 


m 


.CLEAR DISK ERROR 


DISKER 


: FLAG 


HISKBS 


;GET DS* 


#0 


■GET FIRST CHR 


($0£>,V 


.AND COMPARE IT 


#$32 


;IS IT LESS THAN 2 


PERROR 


;VES SO ERROR 




■RETURN TO CALLER 


#<MSG3 


; PRINT R MESSAGE 


#>ftSG3 


■ TO INFORM USER THAT 


FRMSG 


,H DISK ERROR OCCURED 


DISKER 


;S£T DISK FLRO 



FILL BUFFER WITH FILE HfiME 



GETDRV 


,GET DRIVE 


DRIVE 


..RETRIEVE DRIVE HO 


BUF2+9 


..STORE IT IN IT'S PROPER 


#' : 


■POSITION IN THE BUFFER 


EUF2+1 


; ALONG W I TH THE 


#0 


J SET BUFFER INDEX 


BUF1.X 


.:OET CHR FROM INPUT BUFFER 


BUF2+2.K 


; STORE IT IN FILE BUFFER 




; INC INDEX 


TEMPFL 


.ALL NAME TRANSFEREE 


FIN 


;VES SO CONTINUE 


STORE 


-LOOP BACK FOR MORE 


TEMPFL 


; GET FILE LENGTH 




•RESET V INDEX 


#6 


.COMPENSATE FOR 0,S,W OR P 


TEMPFL 


;SET PROPER FILE LENGTH 


#', 


.STORE THE , 


BUF2+2 , V 


, IN THE CORRECT POSITION 


TVFE 


;get P OR S 


BUF2+3.-Y 


.STORE IT 


tt ■-.. 


; STORE THE , 


BUF2+4,Y 


;AND THE R OR 


TVPE2 


,;THE W IN THE 


BUF2+5,V 


..CORRECT POSITIONS 




; RETURN TO CRLLER 



OPEN COMMAND AND DISK FILE 



DISKO 

#1 

CMDOK 

#*@F 

FNUN 

#8 

DEV 

#*0F 

#*60 

SECfiDR 

#0 

FNLEN 

STATUS 

DISKO 



;WflSNT CHANNEL OPENED (SET TO Q; 

;NO SO OPEN 

: RETURN TO CALLER 

.STORE COMMAND 

; CHANNEL 

; STORE DEVICE 

; NUMBER 

: STORE 

; SECONDARY 

; ADDRESS 

■NO FILE NAME 

;SET STATUS TO 

; RESET TO SO NOT REOPENED 

; RETURN TO CALLER 



SET THE DRIVE NUMBER 

IKHSG28 ;ASK WHICH 

tt>MSG20 .DRIVE THE FILE WILL 

PftMSG ;BE ON 

GETCHR J WAIT FOR CHR 

INPUTS' .: NOTHING SO LOOP BACK 

#U ..IS IT DRIVE 

D1SP6 :VES SO BRANCH 

#1 ;IS IT DRIVE 1 

INPUT? .. INVALID DRIVE SO ASK AGAIN 

DRIVE ; STORE DRIVE NUMBER 

WRITE ; PRINT IT 

;BACK TO CALLER 

MESSAGES 

.BYTE $m* SEND FILE TO DISK ENTER V OR N ' ,0 

. BYT E $011 , - ENTER F I LE NAME , 1 CHRS MAX I MUM ' , $0B 
.BYTE $8B,*@D,'**# DISK ERROR *** ,*OD,0 



0054 S 


73B8 


2A 


2A 


O054S 


73CH 


0D 




00543 


73CB 


00 




00544 


73CC 






90545 

.0 
80545 


73CC 


00 




73CD 


46 


4F 


80545 


73F1 


00 




00546 


73F2 






00547 


73F2 


0D 




00547 


73F3 


4C 


49 


O0547 


740C 


00 




00548 


746D 






O0549 


740D 


0D 




00543 


74 OE 


53 


45 


00549 


7430 


00 




U0550 


7431 






0G551 


7431 


OH 













O0551 


7432 


45 


4E 


0O551 


7455 


00 




00552 


7456 






00553 


7456 


0D 




..0 








00553 


7457 


49 


4E 


00553 


7477 


9D 




0O553 


7478 


00 




00554 


7479 






O0555 


7479 


8D 




,0 








O0555 


747A 


46 


49 


00555 


749E 


00 




O0556 


749F 






00557 


749F 


0D 




,0 








O0557 


74AQ 


■_' C' 


45 


O0557 


74C4 


00 




00558 


74C5 






00559 


74C5 


OD 




K.-0 








00559 


74C6 


8D 




90559 


74C7 


50 


52 


00559 


74E9 


m 




60560 


74EA 






06561 


74EA 


OD 




00561 


74EB 


50 


52 


00561 


7599 


00 




00562 


750A 






00563 


75SA 


0D 




00563 


759B 


0D 




O0563 


?5@C 


59 


52 


00563 


7529 


00 




0O564 


752A 






00565 


752A 


OD 




00565 


752E 


50 


52 


00565 


7546 


00 




00566 


7547 






0056? 


754? 


0D 




00567 


7543 


0D 




00567 


7549 


58 


52 


O0567 


755B 


00 




00568 


755C 






06569 


755C 


0D 




00569 


755D 


59 


4F 


09569 


756C 


0D 




00569 


756D 


00 




00570 


756E 






00571 


756E 


93 




G0571 


756F 


20 


29 


90571 


753B 


00 




00572 


758C 






00573 


758C 


0D 




00573 


758D 


20 


20 


00573 


75R9 


00 




00574 


75AA 






00575 


75AA 


OD 




D...T0D, 









08575 


75HB 


20 


20 


0O575 


75CC 


OD 




00575 


75CD 


OD 




0S575 


75CE 


00 




0O576 


75CF 






O0577 


75CF 


OD 




00577 


75D0 


44 


52 


00577 


75E4 


00 




00578 


75E5 






O0579 


75E5 






00580 


75E5 






90581 


75E5 


A2 


01 


00582 


75E7 


36 


3E 


O0583 


75E9 


A2 


00 


00584 


75EB 


A9 


^0 


80585 


75ED 


85 


Bl 


O0586 


75EF 






O0587 


75EF 






0O5S8 


75EF 







MSG4 .BYTE *0D, ' FORMAT ■ ENTER A FOR ASCII P FOR RET 



WSD5 .BYTE *8B,'LINE FEEDS < ENTER Y OP N .0 



MSG6 .BYTE *0P, SEND FILE FROM DISK ENTER V OR N ,0 



MSG7 .BYTE 10D, ENTER P FOR FRG OR S FOR SEQ FILE 



MSG8 .BYTE *SD, " INPUT FILE NAME, 10 CHRS MAXIMUM , * OD 



MSG9 .BYTE *0D,'FILE FORMAT- A FOR ASCII.. P FOR PET 



MSG10 .BYTE *0D, -'SEND A LINE AT A TIME ENTER Y OR N 



MSG11 .BYTE *0D>$0D, PRESS CURSOR-UP TO ENGAGE THE Die 



MSG12 .BYTE f6D, "FRESS CURSOR- DOWN TO DISENGAGED 



MSG13 .BYTE *8D,$--0D. PRESS CURSOR-LEFT TO TRANSMIT ,0 



MSG14 .BYTE *6D, 'PRESS CURSOR-RIGHT TO PAUSE', 



MSG15 .BYTE SOD. *0D, PRESS INST TO SUIT 



MSG 1 6 , BYTE $0D , " VOU ARE ON L I HE ' , *0D , O 



MSG17 .BYTE *93, " 



MSG18 .BYTE *0D, 



**# IEEE TERM ***',0 



<C> 1982 ,0 



MSG19 .BYTE $ OD, ' PROGRAM BV HOWARD ROTENBERG , $ O 



MSG20 .BYTE *0D, DRIVE: ENTER OR 1 .0 



.FIL HTERM.SRC 
PUT "SO HTERM.SRC" 

HTERM LDX #$01 .INITIAL 

STX CLOSEF .FILE OPEN 

LDX tt$O0 ; INITIALIZE X REG 

LDA #*O0 ;GET AND 

STA TCHPAR ; STORE IN TAPE CHR PARITY 



SETUP FOR MODEM RECIEVE & FILE 



continued on page 71 



» W O OOQOGQOQOOQOGQOQOOOWOQOOOWOOOQOQQO OQ OQ Q Q QQ OOOGWOOQGOOC- 

Commander July 1983/69 




TURTLE GRAPHICS HES. Probably the 
best, fun way for the novice to learn pro- 
gramming. Easy-to-use language w/over 
30 commands. (Many games are written in 

this programming system.). 
4428-000303 Cartridge $39.95 

SYNTHESOUND" HES State-of-the-art 
technical musical ability and special effects 
for the VIC-20* user. Make it a synthesized 
4428-000306 Cartridge $59.95 

6502 PROFESSIONALDEVELOPMENT 

SYSTE M H ES. A cassette based assembler 
package offering a one or two pass 6502 
assembler that uses standard MOS mne- 
monics and operand functions. 
4428-000101 Cassette $29.95 



FROGGEE It's easy! Just get your Froggee from the bottom of the 
screen to the top. Avoid the cars and trucks, hop on the logs and the 
leaves. Eight levels, with crocodiles, snakes and other neat stuff 
out to do you in! Uses Joystick. Needs no memory expansion. 
4180-020001 For 3K VIC-20* (Cassette) $29.95 

4180-064001 ForCommodore* 64* (Cassette) $29.95 

CENTIPOD Fast paced, decending bugs, falling projectiles, boun- 
cing spiders and more 1 Quick reactions needed here, just to keep 

alive 1 Uses Joystick. No memory expansion needed 
4180-020002 For 3K VIC-20* (Cassette) $29.95 

MOTOR MOUSE Up and down the grandfather clock, pickmg-up 
the cheese. But. watch out! There are cats hiding in the cheese! 7 
progressively harder levels and a time factor to beat. Very fast paced 
arcade quality game. Uses Joystick No memory expansion needed 
4180-020003 For 3K VIC-20* (Cassette) $29.95 



For: COMMODORE 64' 



QUICK BROWN FOX" One of the quickest EASYMAIL 64 Commodore Business TINY BASIC COMPILER Abacus. Gives 
easiest to learn, user friendly word pro- Machines. Fully featured name and address the benefit of a high-speed compiled lan- 
cessors available. Fuji screen editing^sup- prograrnjor business, club or organization, guage at a modest cost Supports: IF, THEN, 



$49.95 



YOUR PROBLEM IS SOLVED! 

Now you can rely on PACE for ONE STOP shopping forall your Micro Computer needs. We have picked out the 
BEST 2000 Books, Programs and Accessories— covering all the major brands and put them Into one friendly 
store. And, this Is backed up by THOUSANDS of additional items we stock In our central warehouse, ready for 
overnight shipping to our stores. Magazines? You bet! We carry almost 60 different Micro Magazines on our racks! 
Plan to visit us soon. Can't visit? Then you can order from ourglgantlc catalog. Just write foryour personal copy 

today, Just $ 3.00 per copy. 



For: COMMODORE VIC-20 



RIVER RESCUE Thorn-EMI. Save the ex- 
plorers from the jungle as you dodge a var- 
iety of hazards. 2 variations for 1 or 2 players 
4325-022001 Cartridge SALE $31 .95 

GRIDRUNNER HES. Avoid a variety of 
alien weapons while destroying the advan- 
cing legions Multiple level. 
4428-000312 Cartridge. SALE $31 .95 
SPIDERS OF MARS UMI. You arethe Mar- 
tian Space Fly protecting your home from 
Web-throwing Martian spiders and Saturian 
bats, Plutonian dragonflies and Jovian hor- 
nets. 256 skill levels! 
4850-001604 Cartridge SALE $3 1.95 

AMOK UMI. Four levels of treacherous pass- 
ages laced with deadly robots. Save the 

humans, if you're fast enough! 
4850-001611 Cartridge SALE $23.95 

AGGRESSOR HES. Fast paced arcade- 
style action in the Avenger 1 vein. 
4428-000305 Cartridge SALE$31.95 
NTRUDER SCRAMBLER American Per- 
ipherals. Avoid the mountains, bomb the 
targets and avoid the missiles. Multilevel. 
4125-000428 Cassette SALE $15.95 
GAME 6 PAC American Peripherals. A set 
of 6 games for your VIC*: Galaxy Wars; Cat 
Has 9 Lives; Maze of Dragons; Othello. Am- 
bulance; and Barricade 
4125-100006 Ceaa- (6) SALE $31 .95 
DEVELOP-20 French Silk Smooth Ware. 
The game programmer's tool kit. Includes. 
Book, Decoder. Editor. Assembler. Loader 
and Monitor. Requires minimum 5K memory. 
4365-004020 Cassette/Book $49.95 

MASTERING THE VIC-20 Wiley & Sons. 
With little knowledge of BASIC, book will 
teach you to write programs, make music. 
create pictures and learn to communicate 

with 6502 machine language 
4925-088892 Book, 178 Pga $14.95 

VIC-20* USER GUIDE Osbome/McGraw- 

Hill How to operate, including peripherals, 
programming, color graphics and sound. 

plus more! 
4665-000086 Book. 386 Pga $14.95 

TYPING TUTOR AcademySoftware. Teach 
yourself to type with thiseasy to use. four 

level program. 
4005000001 Cassette $12.95 

DATA MANAGER Micro Spec Create. | 
write and read files. You can browse'. 
search and maintain with this data manager. 

Requires 16K memory expansion. 
4538-000016 Cassette. 11K $19.95 



pace 




ports most 80-column boards, auto reform- 4100-064204 Disk 
ating of edited terxt. single-key operation, 
text moving, boilerplating, tab and margins, 
right justification, proportional spacing & 

more. 
4702-000100 For VIC-20* $6500 



For: COMMODORE 64 



eW INPUT GOSUB, GOTO, LET, PRINT 
REM, RETURN, STOP, USR, PEEK and 100% 
6502/6510 PROFESSIONAL DEVEL- of floatingpoint math and functions. Written 
OPMENTSYSTEMHESAcassette based j" BASIC it is easily modifiable by user, 
assembler package. With a one or two pass Generates pure 6502 machine relocatable 
assembler using standard MOS mnemonics coa > Can , be tested and has listing capa- 
4428-000102 Cassette $29.95 ^'j^^ 1 ^'^ USe ^ S m £2eOO 

T uc pi puppjURViuFmm TURTLE GRAPHICS II HES. Advanced aiiiau „»-».,*, ^„ w . li( 

IENTARY64From MWBi m,^u,uK am > 6n ™„ m h~. QUICK BROWN FOX Word processor. 

See full description under VIC-20*, this ad. 
4702-000101 ForC-64* $65.00 

(Cartridge and Cassette) 
stand and master. For Commodore HESWRITER 64 HES. Sophisticated time- DEVFLOP-64 Fr^nrh qui* im« n ihw„ a 
64* owners everywhere! saving word processor for the C-64*. Incl- Qame proa ramme"s too kit lee full d£ 

4560-000034 224 Pages $14.95 udes Full screen edfflngjustiffcation, cen^ ^ 
HES WRITER 64 HES. Word processing t erin 9. page headers and numbering. Com- 4365-06401 3 Casaette/Book $34 95 
cartridge for the Commodore 64* computer, patible with all Commodore printers or any 4365-06401 4 Disk/Book $39 95 

449A r^nln4 CO rTrt a ri5i e » Prmter *44 as NEW PACE COMPUTERWARE CATALOG 
4428-000504 Cartridge $44.95 QO09-19S301 'Due Summ»ri $ 3,00 



PrnhJii«TH?RP%T version of David Malmberg's program, de- QUIC 
Si^nthicc,^ signed for the C-64 f graphics system. Seef 
i?.£?S?.?"JL h .^;i?' 4428-000503 Cartridge $59.95 4702 



Datamost. 
book available t 
erb new computer. Easy to under- 



Er 4850-C 



WORDCRAFT 20 UMI Great 

new, inexpensive wordprocess- 

orfor the VIC*. Needs SKExpan. 

4850-001101 Cartridge $99.95 

VIC* BASIC Prentice-Hall A user-friendly 
guide explains how-to-do-it. Make rainbows. 

music and more' 
4690-008378 Book $12.95 

VlC-20' PROGRAMMERS REFERENCE 
GUIDE Commodore Business Machines. 
Complete BASIC vocabularlyguide, mach- 
ne language programming, tips and more. 
4760-021948 Book, 290 Pgs $16.95 
COMPUTERS) FIRST BOOK OF VIC 
A compilation of articles from COMPUTE 1 

magazine. 
4105-000007 Book,212Pgs $12.95 

KIDS AND THE VIC' Daiamosi. Written 
at children, not down to them. Turns kids. 
(and unsuspecting parents), into computer 
experts m days! Includes parent's section 

for help over the 'rougher 1 parts. 
4560-000056 Book. 220 Pgs S19.95 

CARDBOARD 6 Cardco. Expansion inter- 
face for the VIC-20'. Fuse protected. Will 
noid up to six cartridges, or up to 35K of 
additional RAM memory. Allows switching 
between up to six different games or util- 
ities without shutting off the computer. Also 
allows tor future expansion by "daisy-chain-' 
mg" two or more CARDBOARD 6 boards. 
4135-000006 Cardboard 6 $99.95 

CARDETTE 1 Cardco. Universal cassette 
nterface for the VIC-20' and Commodore 
64" Don't throw away your old cassette 
player/recorder This interface simulates 
the functions of the data cassettes 
35-000001 Cardette! $29.95 



Easy editing, preview output and word wrap- 
around. Save on tape or disk, 
4428-000504 Cartridge $44.95 

WORD MACHINE/NAME MACHINECom- 

modore Business Machines. Perfect easy- 
to-understand word processing product 
designed as an entry level item for home. 
For notes to kids, letters to friends, etc. 
4100-064210 Disk $29.95 

PET EMULATOR "Commodore Business 
Machines. An emulator that will allow a high 
level of existing PET* software to be exec- 
uted on the Commodore 64'. especially 

educational materials. 
4100-064107 Disk $29.95 



SPEECH SYNTHESIZER 



TYPE-'N-TALK* Votrax Text tospeech syn- 
thesizer. Self-contained, easy to program. 
interfaces w/computer. modem or any RS- 
232 compatible serial device. Contains: low 
data rateVotrax' SC01; phoneme-based 
speech synthesizer CMOS chip w/unlimited 
vocab; and a microprocessor based text-to- 
speech algorithm. Operates independently 
Has a one-watt audio amplifier. 750 charac- 
ter buffer: data switching capability: Baud 
(75-9600). 100-hourelevated temperature 
burn-in. data echo of ASCII characters 

Unit requires cables, (sold below). 
4900-003900 (Less Cables) $249.00 



Just Who Is P.A.C.E.? 



We want you to have confidence in buying from PACE, so, we think that it is im- 
portant to take this opportunity to explain something about our company. 

Drawing from our more than 25 years of merchandising experience, our aim is 
to provide microcomputer users with a ONE STOP Software Source forall your needs: 
SOFTWARE, BOOKS, MAGAZINES and ACCESSORIES. No longer will you have to 
run around to different stores, looking for what you want. It will be all in ONE place, 
your local PACE Micro Software Center. 

By the time that you read this ad, our first PACE store in the Western Suburbs of 
Chicago will be open, soon to be followed by many others. Until a PACE store opens 
in your city, you may order direct from the PACE central warehouse with confidence, 
where we stock over 6,000 products. 

PACE has been founded by businessmen with impeccable reputations built on 
over 25 years of experience in the business community and we would be most will- 
ing to provide references on request 

PACE will be concentrating on offering your a ONE STOP SOURCE for Software, 
Books and Accessories covering the following brands of personal computers; Apple*, 
Atarf*, Franklin*, Commodore*, Texas Instruments*, IBM PC*, CP/M* Systems, Timex*/ 
Sinclair* and Radio Shack*. 

Our President, John Rhodebeck, demands that ourstores and mail-orderdepart- 
ments be friendly and informative to all levels of computer users, and he invites you 
to drop in our first store, or contact us by mail for our latest catalog. 



NOTE: Although TYPE-N-TALrO can be 
used with a serial printer, (on the same port), 




■NEW The COMMODORE 64' PROGRAMMER'S REFERENCE 
GUIDE. Everything you need to know toget started programming 
Commodore's" newest, and most versatile personal computer 
Step by step guides m language that is easy to understand. Tips 

I , T c^ n ^£' e ' 0t m ° re * ° Ur m ° S ' aSKGd f ° r PUb " Cat ^ n o o 5 

it cannot be used with a parallel printer, or »■— 4760-022056 ______ 

on a parallel port In addition, you MUST havef™ 1 
thefollow equipment to make it qperate:| — * 

Option, or. 3) Expansion Interface AND! 
RS-232 Card. ■ 



TYPE-'N-TALK CABLES (ONLY) 



1) Special Card, as noted: 2) An RS-232 j COUPON 



Please Send Me: 



QTY 



NUMBER 



DESCRIPTION 



COST 



TOTAL 



4900-001007 For VIC-20 



$34.95 1 

>-3___j 

JOYSTICK Wico Command Co. Ultimate! 
one hand control Bat handle Two firing! 
buttons. For Atari 2600/400/800*. Sears J 
Arcade Game, and Commodore VIC-20*. I 
4920-159714 SALE $23.99! 

RED BALLWicoCommandCo. Ball handle! 
so familiar to arcade game users 6-leaf| 
switch assembly Two fire buttons For:| 
Atari 2600/400/800*. Sears Arcade Game.i 

and Commodore VIC-20* 
4920-159730 SALE $27. 99J 

TRACK BALL Wico Command Co. A phen- 1 
olic ball offers the magic of 360 degree! 
movement Same design as the arcade! 

games. Forall Atari*, Sears* VideogamesJ 
;ommodore 64* and VIC-20* computers. I 
4920-724545 SALE $55,991 



SHIPPING 



TOTAL 



$ 2.50 



Illinois Residents Please Add 6% Sales Tax. 
Foreign Orders. (AH outside Continental US). Add 

10% Shipping (Minimum $4.00) 
Catalogs Shipped Postage Paid 
PAYMENT ENCLOSED: DCASH DCHECK DMONEY ORDER 
PLEASE CHARGE TO MY: DMASTERCARD GVISA (Min. Chg. $25) 

CARD NUMBER 

EXPIRES 

SHIP TO 



_INTRBNK# 



STREET ADDRESS. 
CITY 



APT 



_ STATE 



ZIP 



I General Office: 345 East Irving Park Road. Wood Dale, IL60191 
PHONE: (312) 595-0238 



RUSH 

ORDER 

DEPART. 




p.a.c.e. 

DEPARTMENT: C-D 

Lock Box 328 
Bensenvllle, IL 60106 



[ MACHINE LANGUAGE— continued from page 69 ^ i J 


Q0583 


75EF 


A2 00 




INIT 


LDX 


#*00 


;GET ^Bt / i 


1 06590 
1 F 

1 00591 


75F1 


$6 fl7 






STX 


I-R7 


; STORE FOR FLASHING CURSOR <1>0F fiW 1 1, 


75F3 


A2 05 






LDX 


#$05 


,GET FILE NUMBER 1L. i 1 


005'3i' 


75F5 


20 C6 


FF 




JSR 


SET IN 


,SET MODEM TO INPUT DEVICE JRt ' 


1 80593 


75F3 


20 42 


77 




JSR 


I EER0U 


;GOSUB IEEE ROUTINES W3r 'i 


1 0B594 


75FB 


A€ 96 






LBX 


STRTUS 


;get STRTUS \*^ | 


1 00595 


75FD 


DO 72 






BNE 


GMODEM 


:IF NO CHR THEN GOTO MODEM I 1 


■ 00596 


75FF 


A6 in 






LDX 


FNLEN 


;GET FILE NAME LENGTH i 


■ 00597 


760 1 


F0 0H 






BEQ 


SUE IS 


;IF NO FILE THEN BRANCH ', 


I y0593 


7663 


48 






PHA 




:SAVE CHR | 


1 00599 


7664 














• 00600 


7604 






; SET 


JP D 


SK TO REC 


I EVE & CHECK FORMAT ' 


' 0060 1 


7604 














1 30602 


7604 


A2 08 






LBX 


#$@8 


,GET FILE NUMBER 1 


1 00603 


7606 


20 C9 


FF 




JSR 


SET OUT 


;SET DISK TO OUTPUT | 


■ 00604 


7609 


20 D2 


FF 




JSR 


WRITE 


:SEND A CHR ,' 


! 0S605 


76SC 


20 CC 


FF 




JSR 


DFRULT 


■ RESTORE DEFAULT DEVICE 'i 


1 00686 


760F 


63 






PLh 




.: RESTORE CHR 1. 


| 00607 


7 b 10 


A6 E2 




SUB 18 


LUX 


FORMAT 


;IS FORMAT ASCII Cl> | 


i 0060:-: 


7612 


Fu 57 






EEO 


PRINT 


;H0 SO BRANCH ,' 


0060.9 


7614 


>9 7F 






RND 


#*7F 


■ YES SO MASK OUT S'TH BIT ', 


1 ' 006 l 


7b lb 


C9 7F 






CMP 


#f7F 


, IS IT 127 1, 


IEEE. TERM. SR 


~: 


PAGE 


0013 








I LINE* 


LOC 


:0DE 




LIME 








1 006 1 1 


7613 


fu re 






BEG! 


INIT 


:VES SO BACK TO INIT 1, 


1 00612 


761 A 


C9 IF 






CMP 


#*1F 


,IS IT <= 31 <CTRL> | 


| 00b 1 3 


76 1C 


B0 3E 






ECS 


F ASCII 


■ YES SO CHANGE TO ASCII ? 


1 006 1 4 


76 IE 






; 








' 006 1 5 


761E 








PE1 


' STUFF 




1 006 1 6 


761E 














| 00617 


761E 


CS 0D 






CMP 


#CR 


:IS IT R CARRIAGE RETURN i 1 


, 006 1 8 


7620 


D0 0B 






ENE 


PET1 


;N0 SO BRANCH ' 1 


1 00613 


7622 


E6 A7 






INC 


*A7 


■ TURN OFF CURSOR ', 


1 0062O 


7624 


fl9 20 






LDA 


#T20 


;GET SPACE CHR | 


| 00621 


7626 


20 D2 


FF 




JSR 


HRITE 


.PRINT IT I 1 


1 00622 


7629 


A9 0D 






LDA 


#CR 


;IS IT R CARRIAGE RETURN i 


80623 


762E 


D0 3E 






BNE 


PRINT 


-NO SO BRANCH ', 


1 00624 


762D 


CS 03 




FET1 


CMP 


#*08 


;IS IT A BACK SPACE 1, 


| 00625 


762F 


D0 04 






BNE 


PET2 


,N0 SO BRANCH i 1 


1 U0626 


7631 


m 14 






LDA 


#$14 


:IS IT A DELETE i 


00627 


7633 


BO 36 






BNE 


PRINT 


;no SO BRANCH 'i 


1 00628 


7635 


OS 0L- 




PET2 


CMP 


#$0C 


;IS IT R FORM FEED 1, 


| 00629 


7637 


Ii0 04 






BNE 


PET3 


;no so branch i 1 


1 00630 


7639 


fl9 93 






LDA 


#$93 


,GET CLEAR SCREEN CHR ,' 


00631 


763E 


DO 2E 






ENE 


PRINT 


;G0 AND PRINT IT ', 


1 00632 


763D 


C3 13 




PETS' 


CMP 


#HOME 


;IS IT A HOME 1 


| 00633 


763F 


D0 03 






ENE 


PET4 


,N0 SO BRANCH 1 


1 80634 


7641 


A9 00 






LDR 


#$08 


■GET O J 


! 00635 


7643 


85 E4 






STA 


TPBUFF 


;TG CLEAR TAPE BUFFER i 


1 00636 


7645 


65 Bl 






STA 


FNLEN 


;no file name 1. 


| 80637 


7647 


F0 A6 






BEG! 


INIT 


; BRANCH ALWAYS | 


i 00633 


7649 


C5 E7 




FET4 


CMP 


$B7 


; is file o i 1 


! 00639 


764B 


F0 fl2 




TO INT 


BEQ 


INIT 


.:VES SO BRANCH i 


1 00640 


764D 


C9 11 






CMP 


ttCUDOWN 


,13 IT CURSOR DOWN 1, 


I 0064 1 


764F 


D0 9E 






BNE 


INIT 


;no SO branch I 


| 00642 


7651 


A5 E3 






LDR 


SAVELA 


,GET THE LOGICAL ADDRESS i 1 


U0643 


7653 


35 E4 






STA 


TPBUFF 


; STORE IT AT TAPE BUFFER I 


• 00644 


7655 


10 98 




TOINIT 


EPL 


INIT 


.BRANCH IF LA IS O OR POSITIVE 1, 


00645 


7657 


30 96 






EMI 


INIT 


; BRANCH IF NEGATIVE -:>t BRANCH R | 


| | LWflVS 
















1 . 00646 


7659 






, 








1 ' Q0647 


7659 








ASC 


I 1 00648 


7659 






; 








| | 00643 


7659 


C9 61 




F ASCI I 


CMP 


#*61 


J<- ASCII LOWER CASE A i 1 


1 ■ O0650 


765E 


90 04 






BCC 


CHK2 


,;N0 SO BRANCH i 


1 ' 00651 


765B 


29 5F 






AND 


#$5F 


;no, change to pet upper case I, 


1 1 00652 


765F 


D0 0R 






BNE 


PRINT 


> BRANCH ALWAYS | 


| | 00653 


7661 


C9 41 




CHK2 


CMP 


#$41 


;<= PET UPPER CASE A I 1 


1 1 00654 


7663 


90 06 






BCC 


PRINT 


,N0 SO BRANCH i 


00655 


7665 


C9 5E 






CMP 


#*5B 


; >= PET UPPER CASE Z <$5R? ', 


1 1 00656 


7667 


E0 02 






ECS 


PRINT 


;H0 SO BRANCH 1 


| | 00657 


7669 


09 30 






ORfl 


**80 


,N0, CHANGE TO PET LOWER CASE l 1 


1 0O658 


766B 


20 D2 


FF 


PRINT 


JSR 


WRITE 


; PR INT CHR I 


00659 


766E 


4C EF 


75 


JMPINT 


JMP 


INIT 


;GGTO INIT i 


1 00660 


7671 














1 88661 


7671 








SET 


■ UP MODEM 


FOR XM1T | 


1 O0662 


7671 














. 00663 


7671 


R2 65 




OMGDEM 


LDX 


#*05 


;GET FILE NUMBER i 


1 00664 


7673 


20 C9 


FF 




JSR 


SETOUT 


.:SET MODEM TO OUTPUT DEVICE 1, 


i 00665 


7676 


2C 40 


E8 




BIT 


VIA 




I &&6€S 


7679 


08 






FHP 




;SAVE STATUS REG l 1 


00667 


767R 


20 CC 


FF 




JSR 


DFRULT 


; RESTORE DEFAULT DEVICE i 


1 00663 


767D 


28 






PLp 




.: RESTORE STRTUS REG 1, 


1 1 mees 


767E 


50 EE 






BVC 


JMPINT 




1 l 00670 


7680 


R6 E9 






LDX 


*B9 


,GET CYCLE COUNTER i 1 


00671 


76S2 


F0 0C 






BEQ 


SUB 19 


;IF THEN BRANCH I 


1 00672 


7684 


A9 OA 






LDR 


#LNFEEB 


;GET LINE FEED CHR ', 

continued on page 72 \ 



DOQQOOQQOOOOOOOQOOOQOOOQOOO OOO Q OOQ O QQO QQQQQOQOQQQQQOQdQQOQQi 



Commander July 1983/71 



MACHINE LANGUAGE— continued from page 


71 










fk / 06673 


7686 


E4 


BS 




CPX 


LFEED 


JftRE LINE FEEDS BEING USED ( 1 > 




^T 1 013674 


7688 


F0 


02 




BEQ 


SUB20 


;VES SO BRANCH 




^^ / 60675 


768A 


A3 


7F 




LDfi 


#$7F 


;GET MASK 




lL O0676 


768C 


C6 


B9 


SUE20 


DEC 


$E9 


.: DECREMENT CYCLE COUNTER 




m/Pi 00677 


76SE 


10 


2H 




BFL 


SEND 


.BRANCH IF POSITIVE 




W50 00673 


7690 


20 


E4 FF 


SUFI 9 


JSR GETCHR 


.GET A CHR 




QP' 00673 


7693 


m 


2B 




BHE 


DSKCMD 


.NOTHING SO CHECK DISK 




^^ 00630 


7635 


f\€ 


B4 




LUX 


TPBUFF 


;IF FILE ENDED 




00681 


7637 
















00682 


7697 








SET 


UP TO SEND 


FROM DISK 




00633 


7697 






; 










0O634 


?€B7 


F0 


B2 


3ENDSK 


BEQ 


TO I NT 


:THEN BRANCH 




00635 


7699 


AS 


3E 




LDX 


CL03EF 


;WRS FILE CLOSED 




00636 


769B 


F0 


BE 




BEQ 


TQINT 


;VES SO SKIP 




0O6S? 


763H 


fi2 


07 




LUX 


#$07 


;GET XMIT FILE NUMBER 




U063S 


763F 


20 


C6 FF 




JSR 


SETIN 


;SET INPUT DEVICE 




00639 


76A2 


20 


E4 FF 




JSR 


GETCHR 


,GET A CHR 




00690 


76A5 


43 






FHA 




;SAVE IT 




00691 


76A6 


20 


CC FF 




JSR 


DFAULT 


■RESTORE DEFAULT DEVICE 




00692 


76A3 


68 






FLA 




.: RESTORE CHR 




0O633 


76AA 


R6 


96 




LDX 


STATUS 


,GET STATUS 




00634 


76AC 


F0 


0E 




BEQ 


SUB22 


;ZER0 SO BRANCH 




00695 


76AE 


A2 


00 




LUX 


mm 


;6ET FLAG FOR NO FILE 




00696 


76E0 


36 


B3 




STX 


SAVELA 


.STORE AT L.A 




00697 


76 B2 


"8t> 


E4 




3TX 


TPBUFF 


; STORE FILE ENDED FLAG 




0O693 


76E4 


43 






PHA 




,SflVE A 




00639 


76B5 


20 


31 77 




JSR 


CLOSE? 


:END OF FILE SO CLOSE 




00700 


76BS 


63 






PLA 




; RESTORE A 




0070 1 


76B9 


A6 


06 


3UB22 


LDX 


FHPTR'M+1 


;GET MLM FLAG, 'COUNTER, *F PTR 




00702 


76BB 


DO 


30 




BNE 


3UB23 


; 1 F HOT O BRANCH 




00703 


76BD 


4C 


22 77 


SEND 


JMP 


MODEMQ 


;GOT0 SEND TO MODEM 




O0704 


76C0 
















O0705 


76C0 








CHECK F 


QMNANDS 




00706 


76C0 
















00707 


76C0 


C3 


3D 


DSKCMI 


CMP 


#CULEF T 


■START TO XMIT 




00703 


76C2 


no 


06 




BNE 


DCMIU 


,NG CHECK FOP TODISK 




00709 


76 04 


A5 


B3 




LDA 


SAVELA 


■ GET L.A 




00710 


76C6 


35 


E4 




STfl 


TPBUFF 


■STORE AT TAPE BUFFER 




00711 


76C3 


10 


31 


TO I NT 1 


BPL 


TO INT 


..POSITIVE GOTO INIT 




00712 


76CA 


OS 


91 


DCMB1 


CMP 


#CURS'JF 


,ENGAGAGE DISK FOR RECV 




007 1 3 


76CC 


00 


06 




BNE 


BCMD2 


, NO CHECK FOR PAUSE 




00714 


76CE 


A5 


B0 




LHA 


OUTDEV 


;GET FLAG FROM DISK 8 OR NOT 




007 1 5 


76DQ 


qct 


Dl 




3TA 


FNLEN 


■STORE AT FN LEN 




007 1 6 


76D2 


10 


F4 




BPL 


TO I NT 1 


, IF TO DISK(3> GOTO INIT 




©0717 


76 D4 


09 


in 


DCMD2 


CHP 


ttCPIGHT 


..PAUSE ON KNIT FROM DISK: 




087 IS 


76D6 


Iiy 


06 




BHE 


DCMD3 


■NO CHECK FOR DISENGAGE DISK 




U07 1 9 


76D3 


A9 


00 




LDA 


Hm 


■ VES GET FLAG 




00720 


76BA 


S5 


B4 




STfl 


TPBUFF 


■STORE IT AT TAPE BUFFER 




O072 1 


76DC 


F0 


B9 


3UB24 


BEQ 


SENDSK 


.BRANCH ALWAVS TO INIT 




00722 


76BE 


C3 


11 


DCMD3 


CMP 


#CODOWN 


; CURSOR: DOWN 




00723 


76E0 


D0 


06 




BHE 


DCMD4 


;.N0 CHECK FOP INST (QUIT;- 




00724 


76E2 


AS 


0fl 




LDA 


mm 


;VES STORE FLAG 




00725 


76E4 


85 


Dl 




STA 


FHLEN 


;T0 DISENGAGE DISK 




00726 


76E6 


F0 


F4 




BEQ 


SUB24 


; BRANCH ALWAVS TO INIT 




00727 


76E3 


C9 


34 


UCMD4 


CMP 


#IN3T 


;INST 




00723 


76EA 


m 


01 




BNE 


SUB29 


;N0 BRANCH 




00729 


76EC 


60 






RTS 




;EXIT TO CLOSE FILES AND END 




8073O 


76EH 


m 


B2 


3UB29 


LEX 


FORMAT 


; IS IT ASCII 




00731 


76EF 


FO 


31 




BEQ 


MODEMQ 


IVES SO SEND TO MODEM 




00732 


76FI 


fle 


Ei 




LDX 


TCHPAR 


;GET VALUE FROM BEGIHING 




00733 


76F3 


F0 


$? 




BEG! 


CTRL 


;ZERO SO BRANCH 




00734 


76F5 


AS 






TAV 




.SAVE IN V REG 




00735 


76F6 


29 


IF 




AHD 


#$1F 


-MASK TOP 3 BITS. «32 FOR CTRL) 




00736 


76F3 


46 


El 




LSR 


TCHPAR 


, MULT I PL V BV TWO 




00737 


76FA 


10 


26 




BPL 


MODEMQ 


JON PLUS SEND TO MODEM 




00733 


76FC 


03 


12 


CTRL 


CMP 


#$12 


.; IS IT THE RVS KEV ''CTRL) 




00733 


76FE 


BO 


0=i 




EHE 


T0A3C 


:NCi GOTO CONVERT TO ASCII 




00740 


77O0 


E6 


El 




INC 


TCHPAR 


: INCREMENT 




00741 


7702 


4C 


EF 75 




JMP 


INIT 


.'■GOTO INIT 




00742 


7705 






; 










00743 


7705 








PET 




00744 


7705 
















00745 


7705 


C9 


0H 


fdfisc 


CMP 


#CR 


.; CARRIAGE RETURN 




00746 


77o7 


F0 


13 




BEQ 


MGDEMO 


,GOT0 SEND TO MODEM 




00747 


7709 


C9 


41 




CMP 


#$41 


,<= PET LOWER CASE A 




00743 


770B 


90 


06 




BCC 


MASK 


J NO SO NO CONVERT 




00749 


770D 


C'9 


5B 




CMP 


#$5B 


;>= PET LOWER CASE Z <5A) 




00750 


770F 


m 


02 




BCS 


MASK 


;no so no convert 




00751 


7711 


09 


20 




GRA 


#$20 


; CONVERT TO ASCII UPPER CASE 




00752 


7713 


23 


7F 


MASK 


AHD 


#$7F 


;MASK OUT 7TH BIT 




00753 


7715 


C9 


20 




CMP 


#$20 


, IS IT <= SPACE 




00754 


7717 


BO 


09 




BCS 


MODEMQ 


;VES SO BRANCH TO SEND 




00755 


7719 


C9 


14 




CMP 


#$14 


;IS IT A PET DELETE 




00756 


771B 


F9 


03 




BEQ 


SKIPl 


;VES SO BRANCH TO CHANGE 




00757 


771D 


4C 


6E 76 




JMP 


PRINT 


;GOTO PRINT CHR 




00753 


772© 


A9 


08 


SKI PI 


LDfl 


#$88 


;T0 ASCII BACKSPACE 




00759 


7722 
















00760 


7722 










SET UP FOR 


MODEM XMIT 




00761 


7722 
















00762 


7722 


A2 


05 


MODEMQ 


LDX 


#$05 


,GET FILE NUMBER 




00763 


7724 


20 


C9 FF 




JSR 


SETOUT 


,SET MODEM TO OUTPUT 

continued on 


page 73 



Commander July 1983/72 



MACHINE LANGUAGE— continued from 


page 


72 








09764 


7727 


85 


h? 






STR *B7 


; STORE FILE NUMBER 




08765 


7729 


20 


D2 


FF 




JSR WRITE 


■PRINT CHR 




00766 


772C 


09 


0D 






CMP #CR 


:IS IT A CARRIAGE RETURN 




08767 


772E 


m 


@C 






BHE SUB 17 


■NO SO BRANCH 




00768 


7730 


R6 


E5 






LBX FNPTRM 


.GET FILE PTR 




80769 


7732 


F0 


0b 






BEG SUB28 


;IF ZERO STORE AT TPBUFF 




00776 


7734 


ne 


PR 






LDX LFEED 


;CET FLAG FOR LINEFEEDS 




00771 


7736 


86 B9 






STX $B9 


.STORE IT CVCLE COUNT 




©0772 


7738 


10 


62 






BPL SUB 17 


:IF LINE FEEDS CI) BRANCH 




00773 


773R 


86 


B4 




SUB2S 


STX TPBUFF 


.STORE RT TAPE BUFF 




00774 


773C 


20 


CC 


FF 


SUB 17 


JSR DFAULT 


..RESET DEFAULT DEVICE 




00775 


773F 


4C 


EF 


75 




JMP IHIT 


;GOTO I NIT 




00776 


7742 
















00777 


7742 










IEEE SUBROl; 




06778 


7742 








, 








00779 


7742 


f»9 


34 




IEEROU 


LDR #$34 


;SET RTN IN LOW AND NDAC 




007S0 


7744 


8Ii 


21 


E8 




STR IEEIS 


;OUT LOW, 'DATA NOT ACCEPTED' 




007S1 


7747 


ftD 


40 


E8 




LDR VIA 


■> SET NRFD OUT HIGH 




00782 


774fl 


09 


02 






ORR #$02 


.; IE. CFALSE;- 




00783 


774C 


SB 


40 


ES 




STR Vlft 


.; 'READY FOR DATA ' 




007S4 


774F 


R9 


28 






LDR #$28 


;GET DEVICE FOR DISK 




00785 


7751 


3D 


45 


ES 




STR TIH 


..STORE IT IN TIMER 




007S6 


7754 


2C 


4B 


ES 


TIMOUT 


BIT IFR 


■USES VIA TIMER TO DETECT 




007S7 


7757 


70 


IF 






BVS NOTRDV 


.; TIMEOUT 1 FDR WRITE 2 FOR READ 




80788 


7759 


2C 


40 


E8 




BIT VIA 






00789 


775C 


39 F6 






BMI TIMOUT 






00790 


775E 


flD 


4* 


E8 




LDR VIA 


,SET NRFD OUT LOW 




00791 


7761 


29 


FD 






AND #$FB 


,IE. (TRUE) 




00792 


7763 


8D 


40 


E8 




STA VIA 


, "NOT READY FOR DATfl- 




00793 


7766 


AD 


20 


E8 


GETCH 


LDR IEEI 


.iGET CHR FROM INPUT BUFFER 




00794 


7769 


49 


FF 






EOR #$FF 


..COMPLEMENT IT FOR USUAL FORMAT 




00795 


776B 


43 








RHA 


:SAVE CHR 




00796 


776C 


A9 


3C 






LDA ##3C 


■SET ATN IN LOW & NDAC OUT 




00797 


776E 


SB 


21 


ES 




STA IEEIS 


:HIGH, DATA ACCEPTED 




0079S 


7771 


2C 


43 


ES 


DELAY 


BIT VIA 






00799 


7774 


10 


r r 






BPL DELAY 






00800 


7776 


30 


14 






BMI EXIT 






0088 1 


7778 


fill 


4h 


ES 


HOTRDV 


LDR VIR 


,SET NRFD OUT LOW 




00S02 


777E 


29 


FD 






AND #$FD 


,IE. (TRUE) 




00803 


777D 


8H 


40 


ES 




STR VIA 


■NOT READY FOR DATA 




00804 


7780 


2C 


40 


E8 




BIT VIA 






00305 


7783 


10 


El 






BPL GETCH 






00806 


7785 


R5 


96 






LDR STATUS 


-GET STATUS 




00807 


7787 


09 


01 






ORR #$01 


•SET FOR TIMEOUT OH WRITE 




00808 


7789 


35 


96 






STR STATUS 


;RND STORE IT 




00809 


778B 


48 








RHA 


,SAVE CHR 




00810 


778C 


20 CC 


FF 


EXIT 


JSR HFRULT 


.; RESET DEFAULT DEVICE 




00811 


778F 


ss 








PL A 


; RESTORE CHR 




00812 


7790 


60 








RTS 


; RETURN TO CALLER 




00813 


7791 


R2 


07 




CLOSE? 


LDX #7 


;GET FILE NUMBER 




00814 


7793 


20 


fi€ 


F2 




JSR CLEAR 


, CLEAR CHANNEL 




00815 


77% 


A9 


9? 






LDR #7 


.GET FILE NUMBER 




00816 


7793 


20 


E2 


F£ 




JSR CLOSE 


; CLOSE IT 




00817 


779B 


A9 


00 






LDR #*@ 






00818 


779H 


85 


3E 






STR CLOSEF 


;SET FILE TO CLOSED 




00319 


779F 


60 








RTS 


■ BACK TO CALLER 




00826 


77A0 










. END 






ERRORS 


= 00000 














SYMBOL 


TABLE 
















SYMBOL 


VALUE 
















HSKAF 


7194 




RSKPfl 


78AC 


BACK 


0O9D BUF1 027A 




EUF2 


02 


35 




CASE 


E84C 


CHK2 


7661 CLEAR F2A6 




CLOSE 


F2 


E2 




XOSE7 


7791 


CLOSER 


F2A2 CLOSEF O03E 




CLR 


7004 




CLR2 


7016 


CMDCH 


7339 CMDOK 7340 




CR 


000B 




::RIGHT 


001 D 


CTRL 


76FC CUDOWH 00 11 




CULEFT 009D 




CURSUP 


0091 


DCMD1 


76CA DCMD2 76D4 




dumb:-: 


76BE 




DCMD4 


76E8 


DEL 


0014 DELAY 7771 




DELETE 72 


C8 




DEV 


0OD4 


DFAULT 


FFCC DISK 0O3C 




DISKH 


3 FFBD 




DISKER 


00SF 


DISKO 


0054 DISK02 003D 




DISP1 


76 


5E 




DISP2 


7681 


DISP3 


717D DISP4 7093 




DISP5 


7143 




DISP6 


736B 


DISP7 


7166 DRIVE 0021 




BSKCMD 76C0 




ERRCHK 


72E5 


EttIT 


778C FRSCII 7659 




FCLGS 


E 7* 


158 




FILLE 


72FF 


FIN 


73 1C FINISH 72C7 




FLflGl 


0G 


57 




FNLEN 


eon 1 


FNPTR 


U0DR FNPTRM 00B5 




FNUM 


00D2 




FORMAT 


0OB2 


GETCH 


7766 GETCHR FFE4 




GET DRV 7:5 


57 




GETFL 


71C0 


GET OUT 


7230 HOME 0013 




HTERM 


7S 


£5 




IEEI 


£320 


IEEIS 


E821 IEEROU 7742 




IFR 


E84D 




IHBLIF 


71 flD 


IHIT 


75EF INPUT 72-81 




INPUT1 71 


70 




INPUTS 


7044 


INPUTS 


7072 INPUT4 708B 




INPUT 


5 70B3 




INPUT 6 


7130 


INPUT 7 


7153 INPUTS 719B 




INPUTS 72 


5E 




I NST 


0694 


JMP I NT 


766E LASTCH O0OA 




LFEED 


00 B3 




LHFEED 


OO0R 


MASK 


7713 MRXCHR 00OA 




MODEMQ 77 


"22 




MSG1 


787 1 


MSG10 


749F MSG1 1 74C5 




MSG12 


74 E A 




MSG13 


750fl 


MSG14 


752A MSG15 7547 




MSG16 


7 = 


»5C 




MSG17 


756E 


MSG18 


758C MSG19 75AR 




MSG2 


?£ 


93 




MSG20 


75CF 


MSGS 


73B6 MSG4 73CC 




M3G5 


72 


F2 




MSG6 


740 D 


MSG7 


7431 MSGS 7456 




MSG9 


74 


79 




MOTRBV 


7778 


mown 


7671 OPEN F563 


















continued on page 74 



Commander July 1983/73 



MACHINE LANGUAGE— continued from page 73 














SYMBOL 


TABLE 
















ML / SYMBOL 


VALUE 
















jBT/ OPENI 


F7RF 


OPENO 


F7FE 


OUT1 


71 1C 


OUTDEV 


00D0 


^L 1 PCURS 


7283 


PERROR 


72F5 


PET1 


762D 


PET2 


7635 


m^ PET3 


763D 


PET4 


7649 


PFLAG 


0058 


PIHST 


71FE 


M&i PINST2 


7212 


PORfi 


71S7 


PRINT 


766B 


PRMSG 


BBir 


IKSO PSKIP 


70C5 


SAVELA 


09B3 


SECADR 


00D3 


SEND 


76BB 


\j^ SEHDFL 


7034 


SENDSK 


7697 


SETIN 


FFC6 


SETOUT 


FFC9 


SKI PI 


7720 


SKIP2 


79D3 


SKIPEX 


7123 


SPACE 


0020 


START 


7226 


STATUS 


0096 


STORE 


730E 


STYPE 


70C0 


STYPE2 


7 IAS 


SUB 


7 


773C 


SUB 18 


7610 


SUB19 


7690 


SUB29 


76SC 


SUB22 


76B9 


SUB24 


76DC 


SUB2S 


??3A 


SUB29 


76ED 


TCHPAR 


00B1 


TEMPFL 


0056 


TIH 


E845 


TIMOUT 


7754 


TOASC 


7705 


TODISK 


7169 


TQINIT 


7655 


TO I NT 


764 B 


TOIHT1 


76C8 


TPBUFF 


00B4 


TYPE 


0955 


TYPE2 


O059 


UPCflSE 


7059 


VIA 


E346 


WAIT 


72B4 


WRITE 


FFB2 
















END OF ASSEMBLY 
















CROSS REFERENCE. 
















HSKflP 


$7194 


284 


288 












flSKPfl 


*70fiC 


169 


173 












BACK 


$00911 


54 


408 


447 


452 








EUF1 


$027fl 
$0285 


52 


82 


424 


482 








BUF2 


53 


216 


212 


321 323 


478 


480 


483 494 496 






498 


500 












CASE 


*E84C 


27 


125 


128 










CHK2 


$7661 


653 


653 












CLEAR 


$F2fl6 


23 


221 


334 


386 390 


394 


398 


814 


CLOSE 


*F2E2 


21 


388 


392 


396 406 


816 






CLOSE? 


$7791 


699 


813 












* CLOSER 


$F2A2 


20 














CLOSEF 


$063E 


44 


582 


685 


818 








CLR 


$7004 


82 


85 












CLR2 


$7610 


38 


91 












CMBCH 


$7339 


196 


313 


505 










CMDOK 


$7340 


507 


509 












CR 


$8000 


63 


428 


439 


617 622 


745 


766 





COMMODORE 64S 

ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE 

General Ledger $ 129.95 

Detail G /L Income Stmt. • Bal. Sheet Journals • Budget 
Variance Stmt. • Trial Bal. Cash Flow Anolysis • 300 
Chart of Accounts • 700 J/E. 

Payroll System $ 129.95 

Emp. Time Card Lists • Work. Comp. Repr. Ck. Register 

• W-2 Forms • Payroll Cks. • 94 1 Reports Employee Wage 
Analysis • Pre-Pymt. Register Emp. Info. Labels • 300 
Emp. YTD • Hourly Employees (50). 

Accounts Payable $ 129.95 

Purchases Journal • Vendor Report • Pre-Payment Reg. 

• Open Invoices (300) • Cosh Register Projection 

Accounts Receivable $ 129.95 

Cus. Soles History • Cust. List (300) • Sales Journals* 
Inv. Income Pro|. • Cust. Stmts. • Labels • Open Inv. (300) 

Client Accounting $ 229.95 

Everything a bookkeeping service needs to keep books for 
a typical small business client. Includes all features on 

G/Lg plus the ability to produce disbursements registers. 

941-B Forms and W-2 Forms. 

Each of the modules includes all logic to allow it to post to 
the G/L. All interface logic for these systems is included in 
this software. This is a simple disk system. It will operate 
on a Commodore 64. using o 1541 disk drive. 

ORDER FROM 

TEXAS TECHNICAL SERVICES, INC. 

3115 W. Loop, S., Suite 26 • Houston, Tex. 77027 

PH: (713)965-9977 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 
VISA & Master Card Accepted 




Quit Playing Games . . . 

Disk Based Software to Make Your 

Computer Get Down to Business 

Disk Data Manager— Create and manage your own data 

base. Allows you to create, add, change, delete, search, 

sort, print, etc. Up to 1200 records on a single disk. 

VIC 20. . . 59.95 CBM 64 . . .89.95 

Payroll System— Full featured, complete payroll sys- 
tem. Even prints checks. 

VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

Mailing List— Up to 1200 records on a single disk. 
Presorts by Zip Code. Prints on stock up to four 
labels wide. 

VIC 20. . . 44.95 CBM 64 . . .54.95 

Inventory Package— Maintains quantity on nand, cost, 
sales price, reorder point, etc. Generates suggested 
reorder, sales report, and sales analysis. 

VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

General Ledger— Up to 75 accounts! Generates Balance 
Sheet, Income Statement, Update Report, etc. 
VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

Checkbook Manager— up to 25 expense categories. 

Tracks all outstanding checks until they are paid. 

VIC 20. . . 49.95 CBM 64 . . .69.95 

Commodore 64 and VfC 20 are ■ icemarks of Commodore 

CONTACT YOUR DEALER FOR COMPLETE 

INFORMATION ON ALL YOUR 

DISK-BASED SOFTWARE NEEDS 

Send Self-Addressed Stamped Envelope for 

Catalogue of Games and other Applications 

DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 



PO Box 863085 
Piano, Texas 75086 

(214) 867-1333 

VISA and MASTERCARD Accepted 



QQ 1 

MasterCard 



Circle No. 28 



74/Commander July 1983 



Circle .No. 67 



MACHINE LANGUAGE— continued from 


page 


74 












CRIGHT 


fee id 


61 


717 












CTRL 


$76FC 


733 


7-J8 












CUDOWN 


$0011 


59 


640 


722 










CULEFT 


$009D 


60 


707 












CURSUP 


$009 i 


58 


712 












ncMDi 


$76Cfl 


70S 


712 












DCMD2 


$76D4 


713 


717 












DCWD3 


$?6De 


718 


722 












DCMD4 


$76E8 


723 


727 


,. 










DEL 


*Gi0 1 4 


55 


418 


43? 










DELRV 


$7771 


798 


799 












DELETE 


$72C8 


419 


438 


445 










DEV 


$00D4 


29 


204 


316 


376 


512 






DFflULT 


*FFCC 


22 


605 


667 


691 


774 


810 




DISK 


$0©3C 


42 


111 


332 


341 


378 






DISKDS 


$FFBD 


28 


462 












DISKER 


$B83F 


,45 


222 


335 


461 


471 






DISKO 


$0054 


46 


109 


191 


565 


519 






DISKG2 


*063D 


43 


lie 


192 


227 


350 






DISF'l 


$795E 


126 


129 












BISP2 


$7081 


144 


148 












DISP3 


$717B 


272 


275 












DISP4 


$7093 


158 


161 












DISP5 


$7143 


238 


245 












DISP6 


$?36B 


530 


533 












DISP7 


$7166 


255 


262 












DRIVE 


$0021 


41 


47? 


533 










DSKCMD $76C0 


679 


707 












ERRCHK 


$72E5 


217 


328 


460 










EXIT 


$778C 


800 


810 












FflSCII 


$7659 


613 


649 












* F CLOSE 


$7253 


385 














FILLB 


$72FF 


195 


312 


476 










FIH 


$731C 


436 


488 












FINISH 


$72C? 


421 


441 












FLHG1 


$0057 


49 


108 


147 


246 


382 






FNLEH 


$00D1 


13 


209 


320 


372 


381 


517 596 636 


715 725 


FHPTR 


$00Dfl 


14 


211 


213 


322 


324 






FNPTRM 


$00E5 


34 


113 


243 


269 


701 


768 




FNUM 


$@0D2 


12 


202 


315 


369 


510 






FORMAT 


$0@B2 


33 


133 


232 


667 


730 






GETCH 


$7766 


793 


305 












CETCHR 


$FFE4 


25 
432 


118 
52? 


141 
678 


155 
6S9 


176 


235 252 26$ 


231 412 


GETDRV 


$7357 


476 


524 












GETFL 


$7 ice 


308 


310 












* GETOUT 


$7280 


401 














HOME 


$0013 


62 


632 












HTERM 


$75E5 


384 


581 












IEEI 


$E320 


63 


793 












IEEIS 


$E321 


63 


780 


797 










IEEROU 


$7742 


593 


779 












IFR 


$ES4D 


72 


786 












IHBUF 


$71flD 


287 


302 












INIT 


$?5EF 


589 


611 


637 


639 


641 


644 645 659 


741 775 


INPUT 


$7281 


18? 


305 


405 










INPUT 1 


$7170 


269 


270 


274 










INPUT2 


$7044 


118 


119 


123 










INPUTS 


$7072 


141 


142 


146 










IHPLIT4 


$703E 


155 


156 


160 










INPUTS 


$70B3 


176 


177 


181 










INPUTS 


$7130 


235 


236 


240 










INPUT? 


$7153 


252 


253 


25? 










INPUTS 


$?19B 


291 


292 


296 










INPUTS' 


$735E 


527 


528 


532 










INST 


$0894 


5? 


727 












JMPINT 


$766E 


659 


669 












LflSTCH 


$0001=1 


39 


413 


416 


433 


436 






LFEED 


$00BS 


38 


333 


673 


770 








LNFEED 


$000fi 


64 


672 












MASK 


$7713 


748 


750 


752 










MfiXCHR 


*00@fl 


40 


427 












MGBEMQ 


*7?22 


703 


731 


737 


746 


754 


762 




MSG1 


$7371 


266 


26? 


539 










MSGie 


$749F 


249 


250 


557 










MSG1 1 


*74C5 


344 


345 


559 










MSG12 


$?4Efi 


347 


343 


561 










MSG13 


*750Fl 


353 


354 


563 










MSG14 


$752FI 


356 


357 


565 










MSG15 


$754? 


359 


360 


567 










MSG16 


$?55C 


362 


363 


569 










MSG17 


$756E 


95 


96 


571 










MSG18 


$758C 


9S 


99 


573 










MSG19 


$75RA 


101 


102 


575 










MSG2 


$7393 


302 


303 


541 










MSG2© 


$75CF 


524 


525 


577 










MSG3 


$?3B6 


468 


469 


543 










MSG4 


$73CC 


115 


116 


545 










MSG5 


$73F2 


138 


139 


547 










MSG6 


$740D 


152 


153 


549 










MSG7 


$7431 


173 


174 


288 


289 


551 






MS68 


$7456 


184 


185 


553 










MSG9 


$7479 


232 


233 


555 










NOTRHV 


$7773 


787 


801 










continued on page 76 



Commander July 1983/75 



MACHINE LANGUAGE— continued from page 75 • 




OMODEM 


$7671 


595 


663 
















OPEN 


$F563 


15 


216 


327 


377 












OPEN I 


$F7AF 


16 


219 
















OPENO 


*F7FE 


17 


330 
















OUT! 


$711C 


190 


224 


226 














OUTDEV 


$0©D0 


37 


379 


714 














PCLIRS 


*72S3 


406 


417 


423 


429 


446 


456 








PERROR 


$72F5 


466 


468 
















PET1 


$762B 


618 


624 
















PET2 


$7635 


625 


628 
















PETS 


$7630 


629 


632 
















PET4 


$7643 


633 


638 
















PFLAG 


$0058 


50 


114 


137 


167 


223 










PINST 


$71 FE 


278 


309 


341 














PINST2 


$7212 


337 


343 


350 














PORfl 


$7187 


277 


282 
















PRINT 


*766E 


608 


623 


627 


631 


652 


654 


656 


658 


757 


PRMSG 


fBBID 


26 


97 


100 


103 


117 


140 


154 


175 


186 234 






251 


268 


290 


304 


346 


349 


355 


358 


361 364 






470 


526 
















PSKIP 


*7©C5 


172 


184 
















SAVELA 


$90B3 


35 


201 


642 


636 


709 










SECRHR 


*@0D3 


38 


207 


318 


374 


515 










SEND 


$76BD 


677 


703 
















SENDFL 


*7©84 


131 


152 
















SENDSK 


17697 


684 


721 
















SETIH 


$FFC6 


19 


592 


638 














SETOUT 


$FFC9 


IS 


603 


664 


763 












SKI PI 


$7720 


756 


758 
















SKIP2 


$70113 


163 


190 
















SKIPEX 


$7123 


225 


229 
















SPACE 


$0020 


56 


31 


449 














START 


$7226 


352 


359 
















STATUS 


$0036 


31 


215 


326 


376 


518 


594 


693 


306 


80S 


STORE 


*730E 


482 


487 
















STVFE 


$70C0 


179 


132 
















STVPE2 


*71fl8 


294 


297 
















SUB 17 


$773C 


767 


772 


774 














SUB IS 


$7610 


597 


607 
















SUB 13 


$7690 


671 


678 
















3UB2G 


$768C 


674 


676 
















SUE22 


$76B9 


694 


701 
















SUB24 


$76 DC 


721 


726 
















SUB28 


$773A 


76-9 


773 
















SUB29 


$76ED 


702 


728 


730 














TCHPRR 


mm i 


36 


585 


732 


736 


740 










TEMPFL 


$0056 


48 


188 


208 


306 


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76/Commander July 1983 



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Commander July 1983/77 



Universal Roll 

Paper Holder, 

MK II 



by Louis F. Sander 
Pittsburgh, PA 




If you built, or are planning to build, 
the $8 roll paper holder described in 
the May issue, you might want to con- 
sider this improved version, which 
gives better performance for less 
money. Of course every improvement 
has its drawbacks, and the one here 
is minor— the builder needs to use a 
power saw. But only two cuts and two 
dadoes are required, so if you aren't 
a woodworker yourself, a woodwork- 
ing friend won't mind spending the 
twenty minutes it takes to do the 
sawing. 

The holder lets you use inexpensive 
roll paper with your printer, freeing you 
to invest in better things than fanfold. 
As you can see in the photograph, the 
MK II uses the same Ekco rolling pin 
as the original model, but only uses 
one. (There's where the savings 
comes in!) There's much less friction 
associated with the MK II, and no 
tendency for the paper to wrinkle, 
since the roll's weight is supported 
from inside. 

To make a MK II, get 2 feet of 1 "x8" 
pine or other wood at you local 
lumberyard. (The actual dimensions 
will be closer to 3/4"x7 3/4", since 
lumber measurements are taken 
before finish planing is performed.) Cut 
you wood into one piece 11 1/2" 
long, and two pieces 6" long, prepar- 
ing the short pieces as shown in the 
accompanying drawing. The dadoes 
should be exactly as wide as your 

78/Commander July 1983 



lumber, nominally 3/4". The dimen- 
sions of the notch are not critical, as 
long as it is centered on the upper 
edge. The long piece will work perfect- 
ly with a 10 1/2" roller; if yours is a dif- 
ferent size, lengthen or shorten this 
piece accordingly. 

Assemble the pieces with wood- 
screws, or with nails and glue, and 
you'll have a sturdy paper holder that 
should last longer than your printer. 
My son Bill built the unit shown in the 



photo, and as you can see, he 
countersunk and plugged the screw 
holes. He also put rubber feet on the 
bottom, and stained the whole thing to 
match my computer desk. The entire 
project took him two periods in high- 
school wood shop, earning him an 'A', 
plus his father's proud appreciation. 
Your MK II can turn out just as well, 
and if you built a MKI, you'll even have 
a leftover roller to return to kitchen ser- 
vice. Bon appetitlD 



FIGURE 2— Endpiece Construction Detail 



NOTCH 

1/2" Wx 1/2" D 



DADO 

3/4" W x 3/8" D 



^ 



CJ 



1" 



F 



7 3/4' 



UNIVERSAL ROLL PAPER HOLDER MK I 
©1983 LOUIS F. SANDER 




WORDPROCESSOR 
)R THE COMMODORE 64 
ALSO CHECKS YOUR SPELLING! 



SCRIPT 64 



Suggested Retail: $139.95 



(i 



REALLY FOXY IS BEING LETTER PERFECT" 



Contact Your Nearest Commodore Dealer Today . . . 

You'll Be So Glad You Did! 





Distributed By: 

COMPUTER 



MARKETING services inc. (609)795 -9430 



300 W. Marlton Pike 
Cherry Hill, New Jersey 08002 



Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Limited 
Script 64 is a trademark of Richvale Telecommunications 



Reviews for the Vic-20 



by Robert L. Foster 
Salt Lake City, UT 




Apple Panic 

Rated • • • • 

A strange name for a strange game! 
Believe it or not this one has apple 
monsters! What is an apple monster 
you ask? It's an unusual little video 
beast in the shape of an apple. As the 
game begins the red apples wander 
about indiscriminately looking for a 
farmer to pounce on! You are given 
four farmers to fight these voracious 
little pouncing creatures. They will 
devour your farmers unless you have 
steady nerves, a fast hand and a quick 
eye. As your farmer moves along the 
brick roadway he can punch a hole in 
the brick into which, hopefully, an ap- 
ple monster will fall. If and when this 
happens you move the farmer in 
quickly to pound and mash the 
monster all the way down into the hole. 
If you do not hurry the monster can 
crawl out of the hole and destroy your 
farmer. 

On your first screen there are three 
red apples to mash into the holes. The 
second screen has five red apples and 
the third screen has seven red apples. 
If your farmer succeeds in mashing all 
the apples into holes you progress to 
a much more difficult level where 
things start to get a bit more 
complicated. 

Now three red apple monsters and 
a green apple monster appear. The 

80/Commander July 1983 



danger now facing your farmer is that 
the green apple is a pursuer— it will 
pursue your farmer no matter where 
he goes, hoping the farmer will drop 
his vigilance and run into one of the 
red apples which will pounce on 
him— and if a red one doesn't it's like- 
ly the green one will! In order to 
destroy the green apple your farmer 
must smash it through two brick levels, 
and of course finish off the red apples 
too! If this should happen you pro- 
gress to the next level with five red ap- 
ples and one green apple— then on to 
the next level with seven red apples 
and one green apple. However, we've 
never made it past the second level. 
Either the green apple gets our farmer 
or the red ones do. We are still trying 
though— we never say die! One of 
these days we'll master all the skill 
levels. 

Apple Panic is an intriguing, exciting 
video game which will provide many 
hours of entertainment for the entire 
family, from any age 6 to 60. Our fami- 
ly was addicted to Apple Panic after 
playing it only once. 

Created by Creative Software, the 
graphics are excellent as is the sound. 
Anyone who enjoys a challenge and 
has the patience to lose fairly often will 
certainly like Apple Panic, and will 
keep trying to improve his skill level so 
he can progress to the next more dif- 
ficult level. □ 

Hangman-Hangmath 

Rated • • • 

Hangman and Hangmath are video 
games for entertainment as well as 
education. Developed by Creative 
Software, the games are on two-sided 
cassettes, and were developed for pa- 
tient people over the age of 1 2, though 
small children love the excellent 



graphics and sound. 

Hangman is a video adaptation of 
the traditional game of Hangman, a 
game of spelling skill, with many in- 
teresting and challenging words to 
guess— some of them rather difficult! 
It is fun to win but it is also fun and a 
bit frustrating when you miss a letter- 




put the noose over the doomed man's 
head, see the trap door release, and 
watch the very humorous antics of the 
man at the end of the rope. Smaller 
children will most certainly hope you 
don't get the word right so they can 
see the hangman drop your man 
through the trap door and laugh at the 
funny things he does and listen to the 
interesting sounds which accompany 
the action! 

Hangmath is a game of double-digit 
multiplication. It is somewhat difficult 
because the computer gives you only 
seven guesses for your numbers and 
you are out. This is a brain twister and 
quite a challenge. Not for smaller 
children this game is, however, fun for 
older children and adults. If you want 
to lose yourself from the cares of the 
world in a bit of mathematical fun, and 
at the same time improve your math 
skills, this is the game for you.D 

Baseball Adversary 

Rated • • • 

It's the bottom of the ninth inning, a 



tie game; the bases are loaded, with 
two outs! The man batting eighth is 
stepping up to the plate. You have 
three choices, 1 . Bunt, 2. Get a pinch- 
hitter, 3. Let him bat. Since he is bat- 
ting eighth you decide to put in a 
pinch-hitter, and he snags a double, 
scoring two men! 

Baseball Adversary is a different 
look at one of America's favorite 
games. You take the place of the 
coach, deciding what to do with the 
outfield, whether to bring the in-field in, 
change pitchers, walk the batter, or a 
combination of any of these. 

This new game combines a bit of 
skill with a certain amount of luck. You 
are pitted against a worthy adversary, 
the computer. You have a fairly wide 
range of choices and a roster keeps 
track of which batter is "up", so you 
can decide what strategy you are go- 
ing to use to win the game. 

This game is an armchair coach's 
delight. You actually imagine yourself 
in a dug-out at the world series look- 
ing grimly at the situation you find your 
team in. There are few graphics; 
however, since this is not a graphics 
and sound game you use a little 
imagination— and your coaching 
abilities will eihter win or lose the 
game. 

Developed by Parr Programming, 
Baseball Adversary is a game of skill, 
and geared more for an older au- 
dience, those who have played or 
understand the fundamentals of 
baseball. It will provide many hours of 
fun and relaxation for you and your 
friends. □ 



Treasure of the Bat Cave 

Rated **** 

Thar's gold in them thar hills, or at 
least within the caves in the mountain! 
From your vantage point, as you ap- 
proach the cave, you can see gold glit- 
tering. As you get closer and enter the 
cave a bat swoops out of nowhere, like 
the proverbial "bat out of h— !" You 
put your gunsight on him and fire. A 
hit! The gold is now yours for the 
taking. 

You find yourself in an endless maze 
of tunnels with gold treasure scattered 



about. But the bats, which protect the 
gold from interlopers, continue to 
swoop from the dark recesses of the 
maze trying to stop you. They come 
from every direction! 

This new 3D maze game, develop- 
ed by Victroy Softwear, is a fast-paced 
action game, requiring a quick eye for 
sighting through the cross-hairs, lining 
up on a bat, and making sure he is 
shot down before reaching you. The 
button on your joy stick serves as the 
trigger. 

The game becomes progressively 



more difficult as you probe deeper in- 
to the tunnels in your search for more 
gold. Bats become much more num- 
erous and fly much, much faster. Your 
reaction time must become faster and 
faster. You can only sustain three hits 
by the bats and that's it— you are 
finished. 

Treasure of the Bat Cave will prove 
challenging to young and old alike and 
will provide many hours of fun and 
relaxation for the entire family. □ 



Excellent — **** Good — * * * 




of 

JULY 

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£k commodore 



VIC-1541 Disk Drive 339 

VIC-1525 Printer 

VIC-1781 Color Monitor ... 

vic-ieee nodem 

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Low DOLLAR 
Price PRICE 



PLUS ONE pre-1363 LIBERTY DOLLAR Or SILVER 
U1TH EACH ITEM ORDERED. 
Add 3X Shipping and Handling 




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SELECTION OF 64 

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LIBERTY COfTlPUTER DISTRIBUTORS 

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DEARBORN, MICHIGAN 48121 




Canadian urciers add b '/. 
OFFER EXPIRES AUGUST 4, 1983 "COMMODORE" REG. TRADEMARK CBH IMC. 



Circle No. 23 



Commander July 1983/81 



Educational Reviews 



by Mary Ann Dodd 
Tacoma, WA 



Math Softwear Reviews 

The answer given most often by 
families when asked the question, 
"Why are you buying a personal com- 
puter?" is "education for the child- 
ren." But sometimes the children's 
idea of education is increasing their 
dexterity with the joystick and improv- 
ing their arcade game score. In this 
month's column I will offer some alter- 
native to the arcade games in the area 
of math software. □ 

Math Improvement 
Six Pack 

Commodore 
VIC-20 5K Cassette 
$59.95 

Commodore's Math Improvement 
Six Pack differs from CAI in that the 
programs are not designed to teach 
skills but to provide practice in improv- 
ing and applying math skills. 

The programmers did this in an in- 
genious way. They disguised the pro- 
grams as games. In fact, some of the 
games are so good that if you don't 
tell the kids they are practicing math 
skills they just might not know it. The 
games cover utilization of the four 
basic operations (addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division) and all of 
the basic facts involved with these 
operations. 

LCM Machine is a slot machine 
game with three levels of difficulty. On 
the screen you are presented with a 
slot machine with a beeping sound. 
There are numbers rotating. Press 
"return" to choose the numbers. You 
have the numbers. What is LCM of 
these numbers? A choice is made. If 
correct you win a jackpot and the win- 
nings are added to the Big Dollar 
Board. Get all ten of the jackpots or 
$1 00 on the Big Dollar Board and you 

82/Commander July 1983 



get a chance to go to the Jackpot 
Mine. If the wrong answer is 
entered— no jackpot and the correct 
answer is displayed. 

Sounds like fun, doesn't it? LCM is 
an acronym for lowest common multi- 
ple. While the kids are winning their 
jackpots they are practicing finding 
lowest common multiples which is a 
necessary skill when performing 
operations involving fractions such as 
common denominators and reducing 
to lowest terms. 

Numbowl is loosely based on bowl- 
ing. The goal of the game is to take 
three random numbers and combine 
them by addition, subtraction, multipli- 
cation and division and reach as close 
to thirty as possible without going over. 
The player is given a choice of two 
equation patterns. If thirty is exceed- 
ed or an illegal operation is perform- 
ed the computer flashes that the pins 
are being reset and that the player 
must try again. A running score is kept 
in the frame at the bottom of the 
screen. While playing this game skill 
is gained in manipulation of numbers 
within an equation. 

Ruler Dueler is a space game with 
the object being to blast the target on 
a ruler. This is the only game in the six 
pack that has optional computer as- 
sisted instruction. The computer 
flashes a fractional number on the 
screen. The player must choose the 
corresponding point on the ruler 
target. A correct response is a hit. If 
incorrect the laser bounces back and 
burns the ship. A score is given with 
the number of right &nd wrong. The 
wrong points are left on the screen so 
that the player can check the mistakes. 
A rating is given according to the 
score— study the ruler, good eye or 
expert. 

The game is a clever way to learn 



how to read a ruler. The student can 
count the points or as he gets more 
proficient he can glance at the screen 
and increase his speed. 

Backfire starts with displaying an in- 
strument panel on the screen. The ob- 
ject of the game is to identify all the 
divisors in a given number. There are 
three levels of difficulty. Each correct 
answer is a hit. Each incorrect answer 
is a burn. The score is given as the 
number of hits, burns and the percen- 
tage of accuracy. This game gives the 
player practice in factoring. 

Sector Five is another space game. 
Upon hearing the warp sounds you 
are suddenly cast into space as an 
observer. The colony is being attack- 
ed by the Kuminons. The number of 
invaders must be estimated so that 
defenses can be prepared. You must 
be 80% accurate or the colony will be 
lost. The Kuminons come and the ten 
second countdown begins. It is im- 
possible to count that fast. The screen 
is blank. How many were attacking? 
You enter a number. Alas, you guess- 
ed too many and wasted some 
weapons. The accuracy percentile 
was not too great. Another attack is 
coming. This time you guess too low 
and miss some Kuminons. At the end 
of ten invasions you are given a 
percentile rating and the status of the 
colony. 

As the player's skill in saving the col- 
ony improves so does his skill in quick 
visual estimation. 

Scare City Motel opens with detec- 
tive type music. The player is the pro- 
prietor of a motel. The assignment is 
to charge the highest room rate possi- 
ble and fill all 100 rooms. The com- 
puter randomly picks an optimal rate 
and the player must find it to increase 
his score. After ten days a score is 
given as: the best rate, could have 




Vanilla Pilot? 

Yes, Vanilla Pilot! 



What is Vanilla Pilot? 



Vanilla Pilot is a full- featured pilot 
language interpreter including TURTLE 
GRAPHICS for the PET or CBM 4000, 
80C0, 9000 and CBM-64 series computers 

At last! A Pilot interpreter for the 
Commodore computers. This Pilot in- 
cludes some powerful extensions to 
the screen editor of the computer. 
Things like FIND /CHANGE, TRACE 
and DUMP enhance the programming 
environment . 



The TURTLE has a very powerful set 
of graphics commands. You can set the 
Turtle's DIRECTION and turn him LEFT 
or RIGHT. The pen he carries can be 
set to any of the 16 colors in the CBM- 
64. He can DRAW or ERASE a Line, 

What else? Vanilla Pilot is all this and 
much, much more. In fact, we can't 
tell you about all of the features of 
the language in this small ad. So 
rush down to your local Commodore 
computer dealer and ask him to show 
you Vanilla Pilot in action. 



Tamarack Software 
Darby, MT. 59829 




Circle No. 42 
Commander July 1983/83 



made, what was made, and percen- 
tage of how well the player did. This 
game is a simple simulation that re- 
quires players to use all of their math 
skills and reasoning ability. 

With summer vacation approaching, 
Commodore's Math Improvement Six 
Pack would be a good choice for sum- 
mer computer fun. These games 
would enable youngsters to retain and 
improve their math skills while really 
enjoying themselves. Who knows, they 
might surprise their teachers and 
themselves by returning to school in 
the fall with better math skills than they 
had in the spring. □ 




Addition Tutor I 

COMM*DATA Computer House 

VIC-5K Cassette 

$16.95 

One of the applications of the com- 
puter in education is CAI (computer 
assisted instruction). COMM * DATA in 
their math tutor series offers an ex- 
cellent example of this technique 

Addition Tutor I is written for the 
young child who is just beginning to 
learn the concept of addition. A large 
red number then an equal number of 
red dots march across the screen 
complete with background sound. The 
red number is joined by a blue number 
with blue dots. The child counts the 
total number of dots and enters an 
answer. If correct, the screen flashes 
and "good" appears. If the answer is 

84/Commander July 1983 



incorrect the computer prints "no" 
and gives the correct answer. The 
computer then flashes each dot in- 
dividually so that the child can count 
along with the computer. After ten pro- 
blems a score is given. There is no 
time limit involved. 

The second level which could be us- 
ed for drill presents vertical addition 
without the dots. 

Addition Tutor I is designed around 
sound education principles. The large 
numerals make visual discrimination 
for a young child easy. The dots allow 
the child to see the mathematical 
operation being performed. The sim- 
ple format is free of distractions that 
would confuse learning the basic 
concept. 

I would recommend this program for 
young children first learning basic ad- 
dition or for older children who are hav- 
ing trouble with basic addition facts. D 




Subtraction Tutor II 

COMM* DATA Computer House 

VIC-5K Cassette 

$16.95 

Another program in the 
COMM* DATA series is Subtraction 
Tutor II. This program teaches two digit 
subtraction with regrouping. 

Like Addition Tutor I there is a visual 
display of the numerals. The screen is 
divided into halves with the problem 
on one side and blocks very similar to 
Cunisart rods on the other side. When 



the subtrahend appears it is visually 
subtracted from the rods and then the 
student can count the number of tens 
and ones remaining. 

If the correct difference is entered, 
"you did it" flashes on the screen. If 
an incorrect answer is entered "no" 
appears until the correct difference is 
entered. If the error was made in 
regrouping the computer patiently 
prints "remember you borrowed one 
ten." This one feature is worth the 
price of the tape. If you have ever tried 
teaching subtraction with regrouping 
and became frustrated when the 
students could not understand that 
they borrowed one ten, then you will 
really appreciate this program. The 
computer will demonstrate to the child 
visually and then remind the student 
that he borrowed one ten time after 
time without ever once raising its voice 
or losing its patience. 

Subtraction Tutor II also randomly 
mixes simple subtraction and regroup- 
ing so that the student has to make a 
decision whether regrouping is need- 
ed. There is a second level without 
visual aids to be used for drill after the 
principles of the first level have been 
mastered. A summary is given after 
ten problems reporting the number 
right and wrong. 

This program would be very useful 
for the introduction of regrouping or re- 
medial work with students who haven't 
mastered the concept of regrouping in 
subtraction. □ 



Speed/Bingo Math 

Commodore 
Commodore 64 
Cartridge 
$29.95 

Speed/Bingo Math is a cartridge 
containing two games for drilling basic 
arithmetic facts. 

The Speed Math game presents an 
equation and the player must enter the 
correct response within 10 seconds. If 
an incorrect response or no response 
is entered the correct response flashes 
on the screen. At the completion of 
thirty problems a score is given. The 
game offers five categories: addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, division and 



a mixture of all the operations. 

Bingo Math is a one or two player 
game. Two bingo cards are displayed 
with a math equation at the bottom of 
the screen. The player has a choice of 
using the keyboard or joystick to move 
the flashing cursor to the correct 
number within five seconds. Five cor- 
rect responses in a row wins the game. 

Both of these games give drill prac- 
tice for the basic facts. Because of the 
time limit involved and the manipula- 
tive dexterity needed for the bingo 
game I would not recommend this 
cartridge for below fourth grade. 
Fourth graders and beyond would en- 
joy the challenge of the games and the 
fast action involved. The Bingo Math 
is unusual in that it allows for two peo- 
ple to play and introduces competition 
as an added motivation. □ 



Kids and the VIC 

Edward H. Carlson 

DATAMOST 

$19.95 

There's an old cliche about not 
judging a book by its cover. In this 
case don't judge the book by its title. 
I am excited about Kids and the VIC. 
I wish that this book had been around 
three years ago when we first got a 
computer at our house. At that time I 
had no knowledge of the computer 
and after reading the first chapter of 
the user's manual I decided that I real- 
ly didn't understand or care if the bits 
were byteing the RAMs or was it the 
ROMs? Therefore, I ignored the elec- 
tronic marvel completely until my four 
year old son taught me how to turn it 
on and load a disk. At that point I 
reasoned either I would have to start 
making friends with the computer or 
all of my parental input would be a syn- 
tax error. 

Someone at Datamount must have 
heard my frantic cries. Consider the 
following questions. Do you: 

A. Find manuals with technical infor- 
mation confusing? 

B. Need to have information repeat- 
ed with different applications in several 
ways? 

C. Know very little about VIC BASIC 
or have a spouse who is scared of the 



computer? 

D. Have or know a child fourth 
grade or above who might be in- 
terested in computers? 

If you circled one or more of the 
above, then check out Kids and the 
VIC. 

The author, Edward H. Carlson, 
rates Kids and the VIC for ages 10-14, 
but I would rate the book for ten years 
through adult. 

The book is designed in a straight- 
forward way. Each of the thirty-three 
lessons starts with notes to the instruc- 
tor which summarize the lesson. Next, 
the lesson is followed by an assign- 
ment with possible answers to the 
assignment in the back of the book. 
Each lesson usually presents one or 
two concepts. The concept is stated 
then followed by a program utilizing 
the concept. There are also very clever 
cartoons that clarify the concepts. 

The programs in the lessons are 
short and enable a person who doesn't 
have great typing skills to succeed in 



learning to program. There is enough 
variety to keep a preteen or teenager 
enthused with subjects which are in- 
teresting to them. For example, in- 
stead of drawing a square for the 
graphic introduction, the student 
draws a "cool, classy car." Both col- 
or and sound are introduced early in 
the book and each lesson reviews and 
builds upon previous lessons. 

In reviewing Kids and the VIC, I 
found it relatively free of errors and 
very easy to understand. The only er- 
rors were due to the printer not ac- 
curately printing VIC graphics. 

After completing this book a novice 
will have the background to pursue 
more technical books or write simple 
programs in basic and perhaps he will 
be motivated to go on to more difficult 
projects. Kids and the VIC would be 
a very pleasant introduction to com- 
puters for preteens or beyond and 
would really get them off to the right 
start in the fascinating world of 
computers. □ 




FIVE POWERFUL SOFTWARE 
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS 

Plus Zhe Exciting flew Book 

INSIDE THE COMMODORE 64" 



THE BOOK 

A complete clear explanation of machine 
language, Assembly language, Commodore 64 
architecture, graphics, Joystick and sound effect 
programming. Detailed step-by-step guide to the 
use of the development tools. How to combine 
BASIC and machine language, make auto-start 
cartridges, Interface with the Internal ROM- 
based programs of BASIC and the Kernal. 
Sample programs fully explained. 



THE TOOLS 

Assembler/Edltor/Loader/Decoder/Monltor 
Full-featured Assembler allows use of labels, 
comments and arithmetic expressions to create 
machine language programs. Create, save, 
modify Assembly language programs with the 
Editor. Load and link machine language modules 
with the Loader. Decode machine language back 
Into assembly language for study or Input to the 
Editor. Single-step program execution with the 
Monitor. Combines Assembler/Editor for maxi- 
mum ease of use. 



ALL FOR $54.95 PLUS $2.00 POSTAGE AND HANDLING Add $5.00 for disk version. 
Send check, M.O., VISA/MC ((2.00 S.C.) or specify C.O.D. (add $3.00) to: 




P.O. Box 207, Cannon Falls, MN 55009 
507-263-4821 

Commodore 64 rM Is a registered TM of 
Commodore Business Machines Inc. 



Circle No 17 



Commander July 1983/85 




MAINTENANCE 



-What are 
Your Options' 



by Tony Lamartina 
Pittsburgh, P/ 








Whether you've already been down 
the road to obtaining repair service or 
not, sooner or later, your computer or 
peripheral (disk drive, cassette drive or 
printer/plotter) is going to need repair. 
In this three part series, we'll look at 
warranty service, non-warranty service 
and maintenance agreements. We'll 
also look at several preventive main- 
tenance steps, you as the user, can 
perform to save money and increase 
the amount of time your equipment 
spends at home or the office and out 
of the repair shops. 

The industry standard warranty is 90 
days from the date of receipt for parts 

and labor. There may be variations 
from manufacturer to manufacturer, 

but the base warranty is fairly stan- 
dard, 90 days. 

Commodore follows this 90 day 
standard. For instance, on the 4000 
PET, 8000 CBM and 9000 series com- 
puters and peripherals, the industry 
standard 90 day parts and labor war- 
ranty is in effect. This is also true of the 

VIC-20, MDL 64 and new P and B 
series computers. 

If your computer or peripheral re- 
quires service within 90 days from date 

of purchase, you should return the 
defective unit to the dealer from whom 

it was purchased for repair. The dealer 
will repair or replace at his option, the 
defective components or subassem- 
blies required to return the unit to 
operating condition. 

If you are a VIC 20 or Model 64 
86/Commander July 1983 



owner, you may return your unit for 
repair to any of the merchandising 
outlets that sell the 20 or 64. Be 
prepared for a long wait, however. 
Unless any of these stores have an 
agreement with a local repair service, 
they will have to mail your unit back 
to Commodore for repair. You could 
be in for a wait of several weeks, 
unless the store you return it to is the 
store where it was purchased. In this 
case, they may replace your defective 
unit with a brand new unit. 

While these mass market chains 
have low prices, they have very little 

post sale support to offer. They are 
able to offer low prices because they 
do not have authorized repair person- 
nel on staff. They merely return your 
unit to Commodore for repair for you. 
This is not to say that none of these 
chain outlets offer service. Some may 
have contracted this service to a local 

authorized Commodore center or 
have some other faster service ar- 
rangement. You may want to ask be- 
fore leaving your computer with them 
for repair. 

Another option for warranty service 
is to check the yellow pages for any 

authorized Commodore dealer in your 
area. Give them a call, ask if they do 
their own service and whether they 
would be willing to do warranty service 
even though the unit was bought 
somewhere else. Most dealers, and 
this is why dealer prices may be higher 
than the discount chains, offer full post 
sale support. They maintain a staff of 



dedicated sales and service person- 
nel. A local dealer may be interested 
in doing another outlet's warranty serv- 
ice because Commodore, in the in- 
terest of you, the end user, has set up 
a dealer plan that offers the dealer a 
labor rebate for any warranty work 
done and sold by other than that 
dealer. Be prepared, however, to pro- 
duce a packing slip, sales receipt or 
some other proof of warranty. 

You could also return the unit direct- 
ly to Commodore for service in Santa 
Clara, California or King of Prussia, 
Pennsylvania or any of the service 
facilities throughout the U.S. 

One note of caution here. If you 
send your equipment in for repair via 
UPS or the postal system, over pack 
them. A safe method of shipment 
would, of course, be in their original 
cartons with the original packing 
materials. Yes, these boxes take up 
space at home or the office, but should 
you ever need to send your computer 
or drive in for repair, you'll be glad you 
saved them. If you happen to send a 
9000 series hard disc drive in for ser- 
vice, for instance, you would be re- 
quired to send it in its original carton 
or run the risk of voiding the warranty. 
At the very least, Commodore will not 
honor any warranty repairs due to 
damage in transit. So, save those 
boxes! 

If you hand carry your unit into the 
local repair facility, no problem, though 
it's still a good idea whenever you 
move your equipment, to transport 



them in the original packing cartons. 
This measure almost assures you that 
your equipment will arrive at its 
destination in good condition. Even if 
you're just taking your computer or 
drive down the street or across town, 
a little safety measure now, could save 
you a big repair bill later. 

Well, that about covers warranty ser- 
vice. If you own a 4000, 8000, or 9000 
series computer or peripheral, your 
dealers or any authorized servicing 
dealer can do the warranty repairs on 
your equipment. If you own a VIC 20 
or Mdl. 64, again, any authorized ser- 
vicing dealer can make the repairs, or 
if bought from a retail chain, they can 
obtain service for you, or give you a 
no charge replacement. For the safe 
transit of your equipment, always 
return them in their original cartons, 
and always, before leaving your com- 
puter or pheripheral for repair, ask 
questions. Is the service done here? 
Do they send your unit out for repair? 
Is your repair shop an authorized 
Commodore repair facility? How long 



will it be before I get my computer 
back? Remember, they work for you! 

One last thought; whenever you 
return your equipment for repair, take 
all the cables, power cords, modula- 
tors, etc. in also. The problem may be 
power supply related, or cable related 
and not the actual computer or 
peripheral. The more information you 
can supply the servicing agent, the 
quicker the repair will be, and the 
quicker you'll get your unit back. If you 
return just the computer, for instance, 
and the computer operates normally 
under test, most often, the computer 
will be allowed to "burn-in" on the 
bench (operate continuously) over a 
long period of time to see if the pro- 
blem might be heat related. This prac- 
tice is a waste of time if the problem 
is caused by the cable that goes be- 
tween the computer and the drive! 

Next month we'll look at non- 
warranty repairs and the options you 
have available to you.D 



NEW FOR YOUR VIC 20 



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NOW YOU CAN HAVE 
35K OF RAM + IEEE 488 

ON ONE CARTRIDGE! 

3K RAM CARTRIDGE ONLY $39" 

All boards are fully socketed for future expansion. 

Add memory in 8K increments simply by inserting up to 

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lo fully populated. Dealer inquiries invited. 

WAy£ Computers Inc. — $M& 

P.O. Box 3883, Federal Way. Washington 98003 

Add $2.00 Postage/Washington Residents Add Sales Tax 
No CODs Please Phone No. (206) 839- WAVE 

Circle No. 63 



I COMMODORE 64 I 
CIR-KIT BHOINEBRIHO 
AHHQUHCHS 



VIC 20 - SUPER EXPANDER BOARD (VM-1Q4) tf/QUICKSET 

. Four Independently Svitchable Expansion Slots 

. Quickset (Reset) Switch 

. Power Fuse Protected 

. User Power Supply Connection 

. Gold Plated PCE Edge Connectors 

. Highest Quality Materials 



COMMODORE 


64 - 

ie Fe 
Buff 

ROM 


SUPER 


EXPANDER 


BOARD (64K- 


-104) v/QUICKSET 


- All Tl 
. Fully 

PET/CBM - 


atures Of The Above VIC 20 Board 

Plus 
ered - A Necessary Requirement For Correct 

Operation From This Port 

EMULATOR (PKB-1) w/BATTERY BACKUP 



Allows 4K Of Write Protected RAM 

Plugs Into Any ROM Socket Above Screen Memory 

Standard With Battery Backup 

Compatible With Any Large Keyboard Machine 

Use A3 A Software Development Tool 

Use To Load ROM Images At Conflicting Addresses, 

e.g.: BasicAid, Micromon, Sort Routines, Etc 
.. For a special limited time will include a Basic 
Relocator listing which will allow you to convert 
& execute basic programs stored in the PMB-1 . 



-AVAILABLE IN THREE ECONOMICAL FORMS- 



1 . Fully Built & Tested 

2. Kit Form (All Parts Incld) 

3. PCB Only (No Parts) 

Send Check or Money Order to: 



VM-104 
$59-95 
$49-95 
$29-95 



64K-104 PMB-1 

SG9-95 $79-95 

$59-95 $69-95 

529-95 $29-95 



CIR-KIT KNGIHEERING 
10136 E. 96Tfl STREET 
INDIAHAPOLIS, IH 46256 



Include $2.00 Shipping & Handling 
Indiana Residents Add 5£ Sales Tax 
Allow 20 Days For Personal Checks 

FOTURE PRODUCTS AVAILABLE SOOH - 

Direct TAPE to TAPE Cassette COPY MODULE 

£PH0i'i Programmer 

External Keyboard for Business, Games, Progra 




C-64 TI99/4ATIMEX VIC 20 ATARI 



CHILD 

DEVELOPMENT 

SERIES 

(for the 3.5K VIC and 
16K ATARI) 

ADD/SUB— $16.95 

Displays single or multiple 

digits with or w/o pictures, 

borrows, carries, scoring, 

and audio/video feedback. 

NUMER-BECi— $16.95 

Number recognition, object 

counting, object grouping, 

and number/size/shape 

discrimination. 



( * A * 

A A A A 


7] 
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AAA 


\a A A A 


*J 



::4 



Circle No 66 



BECi is composed of professionals dedicated to 

providing non-trivial educational materials for the home 

computer. In addition to our own software, we carry a full 

line of evaluated hardware and software. Send $2 

(refundable) for our catalog. 



Send check or money order to: 
BOSTON EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING, INC. 

78 Dartmouth Street, Boston. MA 02116 
(617) 536-5116 "MA res. add 5% tax 

See Us At THE EAST COAST COMPUTER FAIR 



Circle No. 3 



Commander July 1983/87 



]JL Revive 
& That Old 
"Commodore PET" 
Computer 

by Robert E. Mergy 
Santa Teresa, NM 



IB4 


"Sh 


.fflVElA 




.^Sti 




fei&Sl 


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iJfl ftfr . iff 






fe.-.Aswafer''!:' 




. .' W' '•■ ■■■' i 


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j^y^'j^y^v ^1 




;.'v,r^ *■■■ : 



There are a lot of old PETs out there, 
some are in use every day, some are 
in closets, and some are stuck back 
in a corner. Some of these PETs work 
and some don't. Some of their owners 
say, 'Til get back to that one of these 
days." With the economy the way it is 
today the computer can be your best 
friend and it can save you lots of 
money. With the computer programs 
that are available today you can use 
your computer to do your bookkeep- 
ing, balance your checkbook, 
speculate on the market or whatever 
turns you on. The point is— that old 
computer is not finished yet. It just 
needs to be revitalized and we will try 
to show you how to achieve that end. 
We can make the old PET run like new 
and at a cost that is less than 10% of 
a new one. The major cost is the 
ROMs from Commodore at $75.00 for 
the set. 

The revitalization of your old PET re- 
quires a little bit of work and a little bit 
of knowledge. We will do our best in 
this article to give you the knowledge 
required to make this modification to 
your computer. You can purchase a 
PC board and instructions on how to 
install it from Better Solutions or you 
can wire wrap your own board. 
However, wire wrapping is a bit of a 
job and will take you a few hours. 
There are 148 pins to be connected 
and 120 of these pins will require 2 
connections each. 

I have owned a 2001 series PET for 
about three years. I have the large key 
board 32K model plus a dual disk 
drive and printer. In the three years 
that I have owned my PET I have 
never had one problem with it. Some 
88/Commander July 1983 



of my friends have had a problem or 
two, mostly because they were fooling 
around inside the machine without any 
knowledge of what they were doing. 
There are some very simple rules to 
follow that will, for the most part, keep 
you out of trouble: 

1 . Always unplug your machine 
before you open it up. 

2. Be certain that you understand 
the instructions before you start. 

3. Check and double check your 
work. 

4. Have a friend check your work. 
It is hard to find your own mistakes. 

5. Make sure that you have the pro- 
per tools to do the job. 

6. Always use an ohm meter to 
verify your connections and no shorts 
exist. 

7. A good solder joint will have a 
shine when you finish. 

A number of months ago I purchas- 
ed an old PET at a very reasonable 
price because it did not work. I took 
it home and checked it out only to find 
that one of the ROMs was bad. I ran 
down to my friendly Commodore's 
dealer to purchase the ROM, but there 
are no ROMs available for the old 
PETs. To make matters even worse 
they told me that I would have to wait 
six months. It seems that Commodore 
only makes them to order and only a 
couple of times a year. Well, now 
what? Do I order a ROM from Com- 
modore or do I toss the computer out? 
No, not that. Well that required a bit of 
thought; you just cannot rush into a 
decision like that. After a few days of 
thought and a good look at a set of 
schematics that I have for the old PET, 



I decided to convert the machine from 
a 28 pin style ROM to the 24 pin style 
ROM that is used in today's machine. 
It just so happens that I had on the 
shelf a set of ROM s that had come out 
of my PET when I upgraded it to the 
new BASIC 4.0. This called for a wire 
wrap job so first I drew myself a 
schematic of the modification. It took 
a few hours to do the job (148 pins) 
and when I was finished and had 
checked out the board I installed it in 
the old PET, turned it on and waited, 
"it works! it works!". My son and 
daughter were just as happy, but for 
different reasons. I had told them that 
they could have it when I fixed it. 

This story may sound as though it 
is a trival job to convert an exisiting 
machine to emulate another machine 
and it is if you know what to do and 
how to do it. I will try to show you and 
explain to you the what-to-do and how- 
to-do of upgrading your old PET to the 
new ROM's 4.0 BASIC. This will put 
your PET in a condition that will make 
it possible for you to continue to 
upgrade as new versions of PET 
BASIC becomes available. "Old PETs 
Never Die. 



Get acquainted: If you know your 
way around the inside of your machine 
then jump over this part and go on to 
getting started. Let us start by getting 
acquainted with the insides of your 
PET and at the same time understand 
some of the basics of the hardware. 
Oh no! It's back to school again. Yes, 
I know, I don't much care for it either, 
but if something should go wrong with 
your computer how are you going to 



D.E.S.-SOFT ™ 

a division of 
DES-Data Equipment Supply Corp. 



LASER COMMAND by Bob Burnett 




HOPPER by Thomas Kim 



2SO 



I I I I i I I i I i i I I 



i i i i i i i i T-m 



You are the commander of a squadron 
of laser ships. It is your duty to defend 
the cities of Earth against the alien 
onslaught. Spectacular graphics and 
machine code for super fast arcade 
fun. VIC-20 and cassette, joystick. 
$20.00 



v*ti 



SHIFTY (c)by Kavan 

Watch the maze change 
, as you pass thru the 
revolving doors. This is 
I a really cute one. 
Machine language. VIC- 
20 w/8K expander, cas- 
» sette. Joystick and 
keyboard. 
S20.00 



1 1 1 1 ii ^saoxa 



One of the most popular games in Europe. You 
control BONZO as he climbs the ladders and 
picks up point blocks. Watch out for the alien 
guards. Excellent graphics & sound. 100% 
machine code. VIC-20 w/8K expander, cassette. 
Joystick or keyboard. 
$20.00 



Rated a Five Star game by Creative 
Computing. Avoid the cars, buildings, 
logs and other obstacles to bring the 
frog home. Machine language. VIC-20, 
cassette and joystick. 
$20.00 



SPACE TRADER 

by Doug Caruthers 

Search for the lost 
planet of Alantia. 1 to 4 
players. Text adventure. 
VIC-20 w/16K expander 
and cassette. 
$39.95 




Many exciting titles to choose from. 
New Software for the CBM B500/700 series available now !! 



PAL 20 



$10.00 




95 pages of aids, worksheets & logs 
Something for every VIC-20 programmer 
Coming soon for the Commodore 64 



NEW for the VIC-20 & 64 

electronic ab VIC-20 products 

VIC FORTH $59.95 

This is a highly capable language that operates from cartridge. It is based on 
Fig-Forth. Disk and cassette compatible. Vic Forth will work with any memory 
expansion. 3K of RAM is included in this cartridge. 

VIC GRAPH $49.95 

The intention of this program is to serve as a mathematical and pedagogic aid 
for studying complicated equations and functions by their graphs. Plots 
graphics in high resolution within an x-axis range defined by you. You can also 
"blow up" parts of a graph in detail by a specified range. 

VIC STAT $49.95 

Vic Stat is a cartridge which will simplify your work with statistics and graphic 
displays. It will add approximately 15 commands to BASIC. For example, bar 
chart, horizontal or vertical, plotting with 2024 points, printout of screen. 
Statistical commands for calculations of, for example, mean value, standard 
deviation, variance, etc. 

VIC REL $59.95 

The purpose of this cartridge is to simplify control of, for example, burglar 
alarms, garage doors, door locks, heating elements, lamps, radios, remote 
controllers, valves, pumps, telephones, accumulators, irrigation systems, 
electrical tools, stop watches, ventilators, humidifiers, etc., etc. This cartridge 
contains 6 relay outputs and 2 inputs of type optocoupler. For the VIC-20 and 
Commodore 64. 



SEE YOUR LOCAL DEALER TO SEE OUR FINE PRODUCTS 

Dealer inquiries invited Software Distribution Available Programs wanted 



(714) 
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VIC-20'*, COMMODORE™, COMMODORE 64"*, and CBM™ are trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 



Circle No. 13 




fix it? No, don't send it to me. I have 
all I can handle. 

Open up your machine and take a 
look, isn't that a mess? No not really, 
but it is a bit complex when you look 
at it. The facts are that the printed cir- 
cuit board you are looking at is no 
more than a piece of epoxy glass with 
some flat copper wires glued on it and 
a bunch of little black boxes soldered 
to them. Heck, that ain't nothing. There 
is a mess under the hood of your car 
that is much worse and you work on 
it. Now take a look at Fig. 1 , this is a 
drawing that represents the PC board 
in your computer. Study the drawing 
and try to associate the two. The PC 
board is numbered across the front 
edge right to left as is the drawing. It 
is also lettered along the left side back 
to front as is the drawing. This is a 
matrix that we will use to locate the dif- 
ferent IC's. You will also notice that 
there are wires plugged into your 



machine at different locations, these 
too are identified with a letter and a 
number (ie., J1, J2, J3, etc.). Take 
your time and try to form a good men- 
tal picture as to how the machine is 
assembled. This will help you to put it 
back together later. If you do not feel 
sure you have it, then take a little more 
time. I'll wait. At this point I must make 
an assumption and that is that you do 
understand the basics of Bits & Bytes, 
basic electronic theory and some 
basic electronic skills. Now get Fig. 2, 
this is a schematic of the decoding that 
is used in your machine. Try to locate 
and identify the IC's shown. We are 
now ready to take a look at Fig. 3, this 
is the same schematic but with my 
modifications. The CPU is located at 
F3, this is the 6502. The CPU has 16 
address lines (A0-A15) and 8 data 
lines (D0-D7). Addressing is a function 
of the two different states of a line (high 
or low, on or off) which will give us 2 



to the 16th power (65535) locations. 
The decoding scheme used is the 4K 
bytes per block. This scheme uses the 
top 4 address lines to select the block 
that you are going to address. The 
lower 1 2 address lines select the block 
that you are going to address. The 
lower 12 address lines select the in- 
dividual byte that we want. Think of it 
as a room with 4 file cabinets each 
having 4 drawers all lined up in a row. 
Each drawer has 4000 file folders and 
in to each one we can put one byte. 
To decode our computers memory we 
put a 16 bit address on the address 
bus; the top four tells us which drawer 
to go to and the lower 12 tells us into 
which file folder to look. The read/write 
line tells us to get (read) or to put (write) 
something from the file folder. The 
data bus is our hand, it is what gets 
the contents of a file folder or puts in- 
to the file folder its contents. The IC that 
does this decoding is a 741 54 located 



Figure 1 

PC BOARD LA\ 


'C 


)UT 


J1 
J2 
J5 


— 
> 

I — 


IEEE 488 PORT J4 - 
PARALLEL USER PORT J5 - 
2nd CASSETTE PORT J6 ■ 


- MEMORY EXPANSION 

- KEYBOARD PORT 

- 1st CASSETTE PORT 








CO 

~3 


J7 — SCREEN PORT 








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at G2. Located at G4 is a 74LS21 
which is a 4 input AND gate that is us- 
ed to select internal/external memory. 
The only internal memory blocks us- 
ed by PET are 0, 1 , 8, C, D, E and F. 
The balance is expected to be exter- 
nal memory to the computer selected 



via the memory expansion port J4. 
The top four address lines go to the 
74154 decoder and the output of this 
chip is decoded by the 74LS21 for in- 
ternal/external memory via the buffer 
ICs at G5 and G6 (74LS244). 
The basic interpreter resides in 



ROM (read only memory) and is 
located at H1 thru H7. These ROM 
chips are of a variety that is no longer 
available. They are 2K bytes by 8 bits 
(16K bits each) and are in a 28 pin 
package. Basic 4.0 is available only in 
4K bytes by 8 bits (32K bits each) and 



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are in a 24 pin package. This 4K ROM 
chip will work just fine in our machine, 
but we will have to make a translator 
board to achieve the proper pin-to-pin 
connections. This board will need five 
24 pin sockets (one for each of the 4.0 
ROM set) and one 28 pin connector 
to be used to pick up each of the ad- 
dress lines (A0-A11), the data lines 
(D0-D7) plus power and ground. The 
block select lines will need to be picked 
up at the output of the 741 54 decoder. 
The block select lines used to decode 
4.0BASIC are B, C, D, E and F (pins 
13, 14, 15, 16 and 17). 

Getting started: Take a felt tip laun- 
dry marker and put a mark on one 
side of each connector and then put 
a corresponding mark on the PC 
board beside the mark that you just 
put on the connector. This will help you 
to reconnect the wires later. Now 
disconnect the wires, remove the three 
screws that retains the PC board, and 
with a pair of needle nose pliers 
depress the catch on the plastic re- 
tainers and at the same time lift up 
gently on the PC board. Remove the 
PC board from the computer and lay 
it on a towel on a flat surface. That was 
easy. Now look at the PC board and 



position it with the numbers to the front 
and the letters to the left. Now refer to 
Fig. 2, locate the following IC's F3, G2, 
G4, G5 and E5. These are the IC's that 
decide if the memory location is on the 
PC board or off the PC board (via 
memory expansion port J4). Now turn 
to Fig. 3, notice that pin #4 of G4 has 
been separated from pin #5 and con- 
nected to pin #13 of G2. Turn the PC 
board over and lay it flat on the table 
with the heat sinks hanging over the 
side of the table. Now relocate the G4 
IC pin #4 & #5, notice that there is a 
connection between them. Take an ex- 
acto knife and cut this connection 
away. Take a small solid wire and 
solder one end to pin #4 of G4 and the 
other end solder to pin #1 3 of G2. Now 
then from pin #13 of G2 follow the cop- 
per trace to the memory expansion 
port pin #25 of J4. Make a small cut 
in this copper trace close to the port 
J4 separating the trace about 1/16". 
This is to protect your machine from 
bus contention by having more than 
one device addressing the same loca- 
tion. This could save you some repairs. 



Construction: We are now ready to 
construct our ROM board. Turn to Fig. 



5, this is a layout of the ROM board. 
This will take some time as there are 
148 pins to be connected and most re- 
quire two connections. Turn to Fig. 4, 
this is a schematic drawing of the cir- 
cuit. Be sure that you follow this draw- 
ing to the letter. Now that you have 
finished the WW board proceed to in- 
stall it in your computer by removing 
the ROM IC's at locations H1 thru H7. 
Note the location of pin #1 of these 
IC's. Now install your new ROM set 4.0 
BASIC into your WW board. Be sure 
that you follow the layout in Fig. 5. 

The next task is a bit tricky but you 
can do it. You have come this far and 
you are not going to quit now. Take an 
eraser apd scrub pins 1 3 thru 1 7 of G2 
including the solder and the PC board, 
make them clean and bright. An ink 
eraser works best. Take the 5 pin male 
molex header and glue it to the top of 
G2 with the pins hanging over the side 
of the IC and touching G2's pins 13, 
14, 15, 16 and 17. Now using a 25 
watt soldering iron solder the molex 
pins to the IC pins. Just be careful not 
to over heat the IC. Turn to Fig. 6, this 
is a circuit that you should build and 
put on your bench as you will need it 
to check for wiring errors. When the 
test probes are put together it will buzz. 




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Commander July 1983/93 







You can also use an ohm meter. You 
are now ready to plug in your handy 
work and go for it. Install your board 
and turn on your machine. You should 
have the 4.0 BASIC sign on message. 
A printed circuit version of the above 
is offered as a kit from Better Solutions, 
PO Box 581, Santa Teresa, NM 
88008, for $49.95 plus $1 .50 shipping. 
This kit comes with very good.installa- 
tion instructions. The ROMs containing 
4.0 BASIC are available from Com- 
modore Business Machines Inc. or 
one of their dealers for about $75.00 
for the set (5 ROM's). 



Check List: 

1. Separate pins 4 & 5 of IC G4. 

2. Solder jumper wire from pin 4 of 
IC G4 to pin 13 of IC G2. 

3. Cut trace that goes to memory ex- 
pansion port J4. 

4. Molex plug soldered to IC G2 
pins 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. 

5. Double check that you do not 
have any solder bridges. 

6. Check that you do have continui- 
ty from IC G2 pin 1 3 to pin 20 of ROM 

7. Check that you do have continui- 
ty from IC G2 pin 14 to pin 20 of ROM 
C. 

8. Check that you do have continui- 
ty from IC G2 pin 1 5 to pin 20 of ROM 
D. 

9. Check that you do have continui- 
ty from IC G2 pin 16 to pin 20 of ROM 
E. 

10. Check that you do have con- 
tinuity from IC G2 pin 17 to pin 20 of 
ROM F. 

11. Inspect your work again to be 
sure that you do not have any shorts. 

1 2. Do all of your solder joints have 
a shine on them? If not, please re-do. 

13. Do you have all of the cables 
properly installed in their correct 
positions? 

14. Do you have the ROM chips 
properly installed? Pin #1 in proper 
location. 

15. With an ohm meter read from 
pin 24 to pin 12 of any of the ROMs, 
you should get a reading of about 20 
ohms. If you get a very low reading, 
then look for a short. If you get a very 
high reading, then look for an open.D 

94/Commander July 1983 




LEAVE RIBBON CABLE TO MOLEX PLUG 2 1/2" FROM BOARD. SLOT THE BOARD 
AND RUN RIBBON CABLE THRU AND UNDER THE BOARD. BRING EACH SELECT 
LINE THRU A HOLE ALONG SIDE OF THE SOCKET THEN BACK THRU THE BOARD 
TO PIN 20. THIS KEEPS THE WIRE DRESSED CLOSE TO THE BOARD. 
HOLD THE SIZE AND SPACING SHOWN TO PREVENT INTERFEANANCE WITH 
OTHER COMPONENTS AND TO ALLOW FOR FUTURE MODIFICATIONS. 



Figure 6 



SPEAKER 



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— j-.vmnr — i— 



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Circle No 60 




Auto-Clock 



by Colin F. Thompson 
Santa Monica, CA 



One way to gauge the maturity of a 
computer system is to count the 
number of exotic peripherals made for 
it. The VIC and C-64 have just taken 
a giant step toward maturity with the 
release of their first clock card. 

Clock card? As the name implies, it 
keeps time. But, you say, the VIC/64 
has a built in clock. Why buy another? 
Good question. For those of you un- 
familiar with clock cards, a description 
is in order. 

The primary function of any clock 
card is to keep accurate time and 
make that time available to the 
operating system. Most clock cards 
allow the user access to a time/date/ 
calendar and alarm on comparison. 
Secondary functions may include 
modem control or print buffering. 
Auto-Clock 

The Auto-Clock (AC), made by Pro- 
gressive Peripherals & Software has 
taken the concept a step further. The 
card allows the programmer access to 
time/date/calendar and alarm func- 
tions from a menu, or from a BASIC 
or machine language program. An un- 
usual (unique?) function is 2K of on- 
board CMOS RAM powered by a lith- 
ium battery. User programs may be 
loaded from and saved to this 2K 
block. Finally, the card can switch on 
and off any electrical device(s) using 
up to 300 watts of power. 

AC is a cartridge which plugs into 
the VIC's expansion port. Construction 
of the card looks first rate. The pins are 
gold plated and the compact layout is 
uncluttered. 

AC occupies Block 5 starting at 
SAfflfflffl. When you turn on the power 
to the VIC, the Auto-Clock menu 
comes to the screen instead of the 
usual power-up message. The menu 
options are Set Time, Set Alarm and 
Exit. The Set Time option asks you to 
key in the time, date, month and year. 

96/Commander July 1983 



AC will remember this data even after 
the VIC is turned off because the card 
is battery powered. The time is up- 
dated by a National Semiconductor 
MM58167A Microprocessor Real 
Time Clock chip. This clock chip is the 
heart of the AC. 

The alarm is set from a similar menu. 
The alarm can be set to go off at any 
time in the future. It compares the real 
time to the scheduled alarm time and 
when the two match, the word ring is 
flashed on the screen and an audible 
buzzer sounds five times. While the 
alarm is going off, all current program 



device to be controlled can be any 
electrical device using 1 10VAC or low 
voltage (10V). These devices may 
draw up to 300 watts. If the load ex- 
ceeds 300 watts or the load is induc- 
tive, (large motors, fans, etc.) a relay 
should be used. 

The user's manual gives detailed in- 
structions for the wiring and soldering 
needed to do this. It's not difficult. If 
you know which end of a hot solder- 
ing iron to hold onto, you can do it. 
When completed, you will have a 
power cord leading to the AC, and an 
extension cord coming out of AC. The 



JJUUJJJMLiiUUJ 




operations are suspended. After the 
five buzzes sound, your program con- 
tinues without knowing it had been in- 
terrupted. The alarm can also trigger 
many other functions we will cover 
later. 
Power Switching 

To function as a real-time controller, 
AC must be able to send signals to a 
remote device. It does this by switch- 
ing the power line to the device. The 



devices to be switched can then be 
plugged into the extension cord. (See 
figure 1) 

Plug the VIC's power supply into the 
extension cord and you are ready to 
test the connections. The first thing you 
will notice is the VIC's power switch 
does not work. To manually turn on the 
VIC, push in the On Switch mounted 
on AC. The VIC will power up and 
AC'S menu will come on the screen. 



Now that the wiring has been done, 
let's see what Auto-Clock will do under 
program control. 

The Sky's the Limit 

From your own BASIC program you 
can call 16 different subroutines built 
into the AC's ROM. The machine lan- 
guage programmer has another 19 
routines available. (See the Table of 
Contents.) These routines will provide 
any clock data, alarm data or access 
to the 2K RAM block. A SYS com- 
mand will call any of the routines for 
your use. I've built one subroutine into 
many of my programs. It displays the 
time on the screen. I can display the 
time in any color and in any place on 
the screen, even while writing a pro- 
gram. The time is updated once a se- 
cond, and doesn't interfere with my 
program. 

Blue Sky 

My favorite feature is the 2K block 
of RAM. I treat it like a 2K ramdisk. You 
can save BASIC or M/L programs and 
load them back to main memory with 
a SYS call. If a program is stored in the 
2K block, it will be loaded and run 
when power is applied, or the com- 
puter is reset. This is done automatic- 
ally, unless you hold the Return Key 
down during power-up. My pet peeve 
with the VIC is the screen color. Blue 
on white is the pits. My eyes prefer 
yellow on black. AC will solve this little 
problem easily. My 2K block usually 
holds a short M/L wedge called Key- 
Beep which sounds a short beep 
when any key is struck. I've added 
some BASIC code to KeyBeep which 
pokes the screen black and prints the 
following on the screen (in yellow): 

LOAD"TOTLLABEL",8 

LOAD"PRACTICALC'\8 

SYS24576: REM QBF 

SYS64802: REM RESET 

28159 BYTES FREE 

READY 

On power-up the KeyBeep loads to 
the cassette buffer, the screen turns 
black and three of my most used pro- 
grams are on the screen, waiting to be 
called. Any M/L routine that can be put 
in the cassette buffer could also be 
stored in and called from the 2K block. 



series of programs called from the 
disk, at any time. To accomplish this 
feat, you write a master program and 
store it in the 2K memory. This master 
has the names of all the programs that 
will be called in from disk. Each call- 
ed program calls the next program. By 
using the dynamic keyboard techni- 
que, each program can be loaded 
and run, in any order you wish. You 
can use any other clock feature with 
this chain. The procedure is simple 
and completely explained in the 
manual. The entire BASIC master is 
listed there. 

Program chaining, under clock con- 
trol, makes AC a very powerful con- 
troller. I know of one person in the 
Midwest using AC to control the irriga- 



tion of fields. Your imagination is the 
only limit to the AC. 
Manual Labor 

I was impressed with the accuracy 
and thorough documentation found in 
the user's manual. Every subroutine is 
explained with a few lines of BASIC 
code, showing exactly how to use it. 
The M/L routines are accompanied by 
assembly code to show the proper 
usage. A complete memory map, 
table of contents, and a science fiction 
short story round out the manual. 

Steve Luedders and Steve Spring 
have done a masterful job of design- 
ing the Auto-Clock. When I asked 
them if this is a precursor to the fabled 
"battery powered RAM card" they just 
smiled. I can't wait to see THATID 




Chain Gang 

Auto-Clock will 



allow you to chain a 



Table of Contents for Auto-Clock 

A Scenario 3 

Wiring and Installation 5 

BASIC programming section: 

ALRMDISP— display the alarm setting 6 

ALRMSET— menu driven alarm set routine 6 

INTERRUPT— alarm and time display functions 6 

LEAPYEAR— determine if year was a leapyear 7 

LOAD-from CMOS RAM to BASIC program area 8 

MENU— main menu and time/alarm set 8 

MONTHLEN— number of days in the month 8 

READCLK— read a clock chip register 8 

SAVE-the VIC memory to CMOS RAM 9 

SETJIFFY-set the VIC-20 jiffy clock 9 

SETREL— set alarm relative to now or alarm 9 

TIMEDISP— display the current time 10 

TIMESET— menu driven time set routine 10 

TURNOFF— turns of the computer 10 

WHATDAY— determines day of the week 11 

WRITECLK— write to a clock chip register 11 

Chaining Programs the Auto-Clock Way 12 

MACHINE LANGUAGE Programming section: 

ALARMDISP— display the alarm setting 14 

ALARMSET— menu driven alarm set routine 14 

BCDTOASC— convert BCD to ASCII 14 

BCDTODEC— convert BCD to decimal 14 

DECTOBCD— convert decimal to BCD 14 

INTERRUPT— alarm and time display funcitons 14 

LEAPYEAR— determine if year was a leapyear 15 

LOAD— from CMOS RAM to BASIC program area 16 

MENU— main menu and time/alarm set 16 

MONTHLEN— number of days in the month 16 

READCLK— read a clock chip register 16 

SAVE— the VIC memory in CMOS RAM 16 

SETJIFFY-set the VIC-20 jiffy clock 16 

SETREL— set alarm relative to now or alarm 17 

TIMEDISP— display the current time 17 

TIMESET— menu driven time set routine 17 

TURNOFF— turns off the computer 17 

WHATDAY— determines day of the week 17 

WRITECLK— write to a clock chip register 17 

The Clock Chip 18 

Memory Map 20 

Subroutine Summary 20 



Commander July 1983/97 



VIC-20 - CBM 64 

EXPANDER BDHRD5 




4 Slot for the 64. Toggle switches and 
reset switch. 



P/N C64 



$ 69.95 



PTI offers the finest selection 
of expander boards available 
for the VIC-20 and CBM 64. 
The design features, quality 
construction, and competitive 
prices make any of them an 
exceptional value. New pro- 
ducts are being added monthly, 
so write for complete catalog. 





6 Slot for the VIC. Toggle switches 
and reset switch. 

P/N V36 s 79.95 



Slot for the VIC. No switches, reset, or 

fuse 

P/N V13 s 49.95 





4 Slot for the VIC. Toggle switches and 
reset switch. 

P/N V24 



3 Slot for the Vic. Slide switches, no 
reset switch. 



s 69.95 P/N V23 



s 59.95 



PRECISION TECHNOLOGY, INC. 
COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION 
P.O. BOX 15454 
I SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84115 



See your dealer, or place 
your order direct 

VISA-M/C-CHECK-COD 



C64-FORTH 

for the Commodore 64 

FORTH SOFTWARE FOR THE COMMODORE 64 

C64-FORTH (TM) for the Commodore 64 - $99.95 

• Fig Forth-79 implementation with extensions 

• Full feature screen editor and macro assembler 

• Trace feature for easy debugging 

• 320x200, 2 color bit mapped graphics 

• 16 color sprite and character graphics 

• Compatible with VIC peripherals including disks, data set, modem, 
printer and cartridges 

• Extensive 144 page manual with examples and application screens 

• "SAVETURNKEY" normaJly allows application program distribution 
without licensing or royalties 

C64-XTEND (TM) FORTH Extension forC64-FORTH - $59.95 
(Requires original C64-FORTH copy) 

• Fully compatible floating point package including arithmetic, 
relational, logical and transcendental functions 

• Floating point range of lE+38 to 2E-39 

• String extensions including LEFTS, RIGHTS, and MIDS 

• BCD functions for 10 digit numbers including multiply, divide, and 
percentage. BCD numbers may by used for DOLLAR. CENTS 
calculations without the round-off error inherent in BASIC real 
numbers. 

• Special words are provided for inputting and outputting 
DOLLAR.CENTS values 

• Detailed manual with examples and applications screens 

(Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore) 

TO ORDER - Specify disk or cassette version 

- Check, money order, bank card, COD's add $1.50 

- Add $4.00 postage and handling in USA and Canada 

- Mass. orders add 5% sales tax 

- Foreign orders add 20% shipping and handling 

- Dealer inquiries welcome 

PERFORMANCE MICRO PRODUCTS 



770 Dedh am Street. S-2 

Canton, MA 02021 

(617)828-1209 



Circle No 32 



Circle No 33 




TYPING TUTOR 
WORD INVADERS 



I 




JOIN THE 

COMPUTER 

REVOLUTION 

WITH A MASTERY 

OF THE KEYBOARD! 

In the age of the computer, everyone 
from the school child to the Chairman of 
the Board should be at home at the 
computer keyboard. Soon there will be 
a computer terminal on every desk and 
in every home. Learn how to use it right 
. ..and have some fun at the same time ! 

Rated THE BEST educational program for the VIC 20™ 
by Creative Computing Magazine 

TYPING TUTOR PLUS WORD INVADERS -$21 .95 

(2 programs on one cassette tape for the unexpanded VIC 20™) 

Typing Tutor plus Word Invaders makes learning the keyboard easy and fun! 
Typing Tutor teaches the keyboard in easy steps. Word Invaders makes typing 
practice an entertaining game. Highly praised by customers: 

"Typing Tutor is great !", "Fantastic", "Excellent", High quality", "A source of 
great joy and learning for our children", "Even. my little sister likes it". "Word 
Invaders is sensational! " 

Customer comment says it all . . . 

"... and it was everything you advertised it would be. In three weeks, my 13 year 
old son, who had never typed before, was typing 35 w.p.m. I had improved my 
typing speed 15 w.p.m. and my husband was able to keep up with his college 
typing class by practicing at home. " 




SPECIAL 
VERSION OF 
TYPING TUTOR 
PLUS WORD INVADERS 
NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE 
COM MO DO RE64™...$21. 95 (Tape) 

All of the features of the VIC 20™ Version and more 





SPRITE 
DESIGNER 

by Dr. Lee T. Hill 

$1 6.95(Tape) $21 .95fD/sJrJ 



Create and then transform sprites automatically. We 
have theother spritemaking programs, but this is the 
one we use to make sprites. The automatic transfor- 
mations are great! 

^^^_ Shipping and handling $1.00 per 

i order. California residents add 6% ^^ 
■■■■ sales tax. VISA and Mastercard i mmr 
orders must include full name as shown on card, card 
number, and expiration date. Free catalog sent with 
order and on request. 

ACADEmV 

SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 9403, San Rafael, C A 9491 2 (41 5) 4990850 



Programmers: Write to our New Program Manager concerning any exceptional VIC 20TM or Commodore 64TM game or other program you have developed. 



Circle No. 2 



AARDVARK - THE ADVENTURE PLACE 
TRS-80 COLOR COMMODORE 24 VIC-20 SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99 



WE CARRY MORE THAN ADVENTURES!! 

MAXI-PROS WORD PROCESSING ^^ 

The easiest to use word processor that I 
know of. Has all the features of a major word 
processor (right and left margin justification, 
page numbering, global and line editing, single, 
double, triple spacing, text centering, etc.) at 
a very cheap price because we wrote it in 
BASIC. Includes 40 page manual and learning 
guide. Easily modified to handle almost any 
printer combination. Available on disk or tape 
for VIC20, COMMODORE64, and TRS-80 
COLOR computer. Requires 13k RAM on 
Vic, 16k EXTENDED on TRS-80 COLOR. ^ 
$19.95 on tape $24.95 on disk. ^* 

GENERAL LEDGER - Complete bookkeep- 
ing for a small business. Disk required. For 
Vic20 (13k), Commodore64, TRS-80 COLOR 
(16k EXTENDED). $69.95 (Send $1.00 for 
manual before ordering.) 




LABYRINTH - 16K EXTENDED COLOR 
BASIC — With amazing 3D graphics, you fight 
your way through a maze facing real time 
monsters. The graphics are real enough to 
cause claustrophobia. 

Similar game for Timex/Sinclair 16k - hunting 
treasure instead of monsters $14.95. 




ADVENTURE WRITING /DEATHSH IP by 
Rodger Olsen — This is a data sheet showing 
how we do it. It is about 14 pages of detailed 
instructions how to write your own adven- 
tures. It contains the entire text of Deathship. 
Data sheet - $3.95. NOTE: Owners of TI99, 
TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Vic 20 computers 
can also get Deathship on tape for an addi- 
tional $5.00. 

Dealers— We have the best deal going for you. 
Good discounts, exchange programs, and fac- 
tory support. Send for Dealer Information. 
Authors — Aardvark pays the highest commis- 
sions in the industry and gives programs the 
widest possible advertising coverage. Send a 
Self Addressed Stamped Envelope for our 
Authors Information Package. 



ADVENTURES — Adventures are a unique 
form of computer game. They let you spend 
30 to 70 hours exploring and conquering a 
world you have never seen before. There is 
little or no luck in Adventuring. The rewards 
are for creative thinking, courage, and wise 
gambling — not fast reflexes. 

In Adventuring, the computer speaks and 
listens to plain English. No prior knowledge 
of computers, special controls, or games is re- 
quired so everyone enjoys them — even people 
who do not like computers. 

Except for Quest, itself unique among Ad- 
venture games, Adventures are non-graphic. 
Adventures are more like a novel than a comic 
book or arcade game. It is like reading a par- 
ticular exciting book where you are the main 
character. 

All of the Adventures in this ad are in Basic. 
They are full featured, fully plotted adventures 
that will take a minimum of thirty hours (in 
several sittings) to play. 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, TRS- 
80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires extended 
BASIC. Now available for TI99. 

TREK ADVENTURE by Bob Retelle - This 
one takes place aboard a familiar starship and 
is a must for trekkies. The problem is a famil- 
iar one — The ship is in a "decaying orbit" 
(the Captain never could learn to park!) and 
the engines are out (You would think that in 
all those years, they would have learned to 
build some that didn't die once a week). Your 
options are to start the engine, save the ship, 
get off the ship, or die. Good Luck. 

Authors note to players — I wrote this one 
with a concordance in hand. It is very accurate 
— and a lot of fun. It was nice to wander 
around the ship instead of watching it on T.V. 

DERELICT by Rodger Olsen and Bob Ander- 
son — For Wealth and- Glory, you have to ran- 
sack a thousand year old space ship. You'll 
have to learn to speak their language and 
operate the machinery they left behind. The 
hardest problem of all is tojive through it. 

Authors note to players — This adventure 
is the new winner in the "Toughest Adventure 
at Aardvark Sweepstakes". Our most difficult 
problem in writing the adventure was to keep 
it logical and realistic. There are no irrational 
traps and sudden senseless deaths in Derelict. 
This ship was designed to be perfectly safe for 
its' builders. It just happens to be deadly to 
alien invaders like you. 

Dungeons of Death - Just for the 16k TRS- 
80 COLOR, this is the first D&D type game 
good enough to qualify at Aardvark. This is 
serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 players to go 
on a Dragon Hunting, Monster Killing, Dun- 
geon Exploring Quest. Played on an on-screen 
map, you get a choice of race and character 
(Human, Dwarf, Soldier, Wizard, etc.), a 
chance to grow from game to game, and a 15 
page manual. At the normal price for an Ad- 
venture ($14.95 tape, $19.95 disk), this is a 
giveaway. 



PYRAMID by Rodger Olsen - This is one of 
our toughest Adventures. Average time 
through the Pyramid is 50 to 70 hours. The 
old boys who built this Pyramid did not mean 
for it to be ransacked by people like you. 

Authors note to players — This is a very 
entertaining and very tough adventure. I left 
clues everywhere but came up with some in- 
genous problems. This one has captivated 
people so much that I get calls daily from as 
far away as New Zealand and France from 
bleary eyed people who are stuck in the 
Pyramid and desperate for more clues. 

MARS by Rodger Olsen — Your ship crashed- 
on the Red Planet and you have to get home, 
You will have to explore a Martian city, repair 
your ship and deal with possibly hostile aliens 
to get home again. 

Authors note to players — This is highly 
recommended as a first adventure. It is in no 
way simple — playing time normally runs from 
30 to 50 hours — but it is constructed in a 
more "open" manner to let you try out ad- 
venturing and get used to the game before 
you hit the really tough problems. 




QUEST by Bob Retelle and Rodger Olsen - 

THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM ALL THE 
OTHER GAMES OF ADVENTURE!!!! It is 
played on a computer generated map of 
Alesia. You lead a small band of adventurers 
on a mission to conquer the Citadel of Moor- 
lock. You have to build an army and then arm 
and feed them by combat, bargaining, explora- 
tion of ruins and temples, and outright ban- 
ditry. The game takes 2 to 5 hours to play 
and is different each time. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice visual effects and sound. Not 
available on OSI. This is the most popular 
game we have ever published. 

32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $24.95. 
Adds a second level with dungeons and 
more Questing. 

PRICE AND AVAILABILITY: 

All adventures are $14.95 on tape. Disk 
versions are available on VIC/COMMODORE 
and TRS-80 Color for $2.00 additional. $2.00 
shipping charge on each order. 



Please specify system on all orders 
ALSO FROM AARDVARK — This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 



AARDVARK 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 / (313) 669-31 10 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 
TRS-80 COLOR TIMEX/SINCLAIR COMMODORE 64 




«l 



$2.00 shipping on each order 

Circle No, 1 



VIC-20 

Commander July 1983/99 



1^ 



Peek & Poke 

On the Buss 



by George R. Gaukel 



This article will mainly apply to those 
people who have the MSD Model CIE 
Transparent Interface for the C64. I 
have included two listings of the same 
program. One is in BASIC and the 
other is an assembler listing, as some 
assemblers will not run properly until 
the IEEE primitive vectors and traps 
are installed. 

This program will allow the running 
of applications that use the SERIAL 
primitives in the KERNAL jump table. 
The program, as written, makes 
several important assumptions: 

(1) That the RAM under the KERNAL 
ROM is used by the application. 

(2) That the Vectors starting at $031 4. 
which point to IN/OUT functions, are 
not changed by the application. 

(3) That the MSD coding at $9C00 to 
$9FFF is not used by the application. 

To install the serial compatible 
primitives, the program does three 
things: 

(1) Copies the BASIC and KERNAL 
ROMs to RAM. The coding we want 
to change is in the KERNAL ROM. In 
order to get the KERNAL into RAM, 
the BASIC also has to be copied. 

(2) Alters the MSD coding so the 
TALK and LISTEN calls match the 
SERIAL syntax. 

(3) Re-writes the vectors in the KER- 
NAL jump table and installs vector 
traps for several non-standard KER- 
NAL calls. 

I have run the following software, 
with little or no modification, on the 
IEEE buss: 

TOTL: TOTL TEXT2.6 with 
CHICKSPEED (A Text Processor). 

Eastern House Software: MAE 
(Macro Assembler, Editor, Simpified 
Text Processor and other Utilities). 

Commodore: The Commodore 64 
Macro Assembler Development 
System. 

The people at MSD say they are in 
the process of revising their coding to 
be more compatible with the serial 

100/Commander July 1983 









1 


Program 1 






MSE> - E>#=»T"« 


i 








100 


REM ' 


MSD 


.DATA 


. 








110 


FOR AD=8192T08466«READ DA 




120 


POKE 


AD,DAsNEXT 








130 


SYS8192 i 


NEW 










140 


t 














150 


DATA 


32, 


190. 


, 223, 


, 169. 


, 0, 


, 133 


160 


DATA 


251 


, 168 


, 169 


, 224 


, 133 


, 252 


170 


DATA 


177. 


251. 


, 145. 


, 251. 


. 230 . 


251 


180 


DATA 


208 


, 248 


, 230 


, 252 


, 208 


, 244 


190 


DATA 


169. 


0. 


, 133. 


, 251. 


■ 169, 


160 


200 


DATA 


133 


, 252 


, 177 


, 251 


, 145 


, 251 


210 


DATA 


230, 


251. 


, 208. 


, 248. 


, 230, 


, 252 


220 


DATA 


165 


1 £~\j£- 


. 201 


, 192 


, 208 


, 240 


230 


DATA 


162, 


5. 


, 189. 


, 214. 


, 32, 


, 157 


240 


DATA 


147 


, 255 


, 202 


16 


, 247 


, 162 


250 


DATA 


17, 


189. 


, 220. 


, 32. 


157. 


, 165 


260 


DATA 


255 


, 202 


16 


, 247 


, 162 


, 35 


270 


DATA 


160, 


23. 


, 185, 


, 250. 


, 32, 


133 


280 


DATA 


253 


, 136 


, 185 


, 250 


, 32 


, 133 


290 


DATA 


252, 


136, 


, 132. 


, 251. 


, 160, 


2 


300 


DATA 


189 


, 214 


, 32 


, 145 


, 252. 


, 202 


310 


DATA 


136, 


16, 


247, 


164, 


251, 


16 


320 


DATA 


227 


, 169 


t o 


, 133 


, 148, 


, 169 


330 


DATA 


?! 


141, 


, 135, 


156, 


141, 


138 


340 


DATA 


156 


, 169 


, 234 


, 141. 


, 166 


, 156 


350 


DATA 


141, 


167, 


156, 


, 162. 


192, 


160 


360 


DATA 


159 


, 142 


, 234. 


, 157. 


, 140 


, 235 


370 


DATA 


157, 


, 142, 


194. 


158, 


140, 


195 


380 


DATA 


158 


, 142 


, 109 


, 159. 


, 140 


, 110 


390 


DATA 


159. 


162, 


197, 


160, 


159, 


142 


400 


DATA 


96 


, 159 


, 140, 


, 97. 


, 159. 


, 162 


410 


DATA 


10. 


189. 


■ 204. 


32, 


157, 


192 


420 


DATA 


159, 


, 202 


. 16 


, 247. 


, 169. 


, 148 


430 


DATA 


141, 


69. 


156, 


141, 


145, 


, 156 


440 


DATA 


141 


, 159 


. 156, 


. 141, 


. 29, 


, 157 


450 


DATA 


141, 


33. 


, 157, 


169. 


149. 


141 


460 


DATA 


169 


, 156 


, 141 


, 193. 


, 156. 


, 141 


470 


DATA 


247, 


156, 


, 141, 


42, 


157, 


165 


480 


DATA 


1, 


, 41. 


, 253 


, 133. 


1. 


, 96 


490 


DATA 


165, 


186. 


76, 


138, 


156, 


165 


500 


DATA 


186, 


, 76. 


. 135 


, 156 


, 76. 


, 246 


510 


DATA 


156, 


76. 


237, 


156, 


76, 


58 


520 


DATA 


157 


, 76, 


, 28 


, 157 


, 76 


, 45 


530 


DATA 


157, 


76, 


51, 


157, 


76, 


138 


540 


DATA 


156 


, 76 


, 135 


, 156 


76 


, 221 



primitives. They also have available in- 
formation on relocating their code. 

Not all SERIAL applications will 
operate with this fix. Some software 
writers believe that everyone is using 
a serial disk and the KERNAL RAM is 
free for their use. BUYER BEWARE!!! 
Make sure you can get your money 
back if the package is not KERNAL 
standard for alternate interfaces. Some 
packages may specifically be design- 
ed for the various interfaces. Check 
with the software producer for com- 
patible versions. The point is that a well 
designed serial package which uses 
only the standard jump table and 
allows the drive number to be entered 
with the file name, (Dn:Filename) will 
usually operate just fine with alternate 
disk system installed. 

Another problem that may pop up 
is where the application uses the 
BASIC RAM. This should not cause 
any problems, unless the application 
clears the LORAM bit without check- 
ing to see if the HIRAM bit is cleared. 
The result of this little bungle is the loss 
of all the ports and latches. Also as 
wearisome is the application that 
resets HIRAM while clearing the 
LORAM bit. 

The market place will determine the 
final outcome of the RAM under KER- 
NAL ROM range wars. It is under- 
standable that the software producer 
will try to use all the available RAM to 
increase the effectiveness and speed 
of his application. However, if speed 
is a prime consideration, the com- 
patibility to the IEEE-488 interfaces 
could be a strong selling point. Also, 
there is the fact that Commodore in- 
stalled the standard jump table to ac- 
comodate ROM revisions, alternate 
IN/OUT configurations. They have also 
stated that this table will be pro- 
pagated into future computers for soft- 
ware compatibility. 

In summary, there are some pitfalls 
to be aware of if you buy a NON- 
BASIC application to be used with the 
488 buss. In this article I have 
demonstrated how easy it is to patch 
a well designed serial program to a 
488 interface, which was not design- 
ed to run low-level applications, and 
still get usable results. Some applica- 
tions will just be impossible to patch. □ 









550 DATA 157, 76, 189, 158, 76, 180 




560 DATA 156, 76, 251, 156, 185, 237 




570 DATA 199, 237, 19, 238, 221, 237 




580 DATA 239, 237, 254, 237, 12, 237 




590 DATA 9, 237, 213, 243, 66, 246 




600 DATA 54, 237, 190, 237, 234 








Program 2 




0010 


• LS 




0020 


i 'MSD. FIX. ASM' 




0030 






0040 


; COPYRIQHT 1983 G.R.GAUKEL 




0050 


5 PATCHES IN IEEE PRIMITIVES 




0060 


; FOR THE MSD INC. MODEL CIE 




0070 


; IEEE TRANSPARENT INTERFACE 




0080 






0090 


.BA *2000 




0100 


.OC 




0110 


.CE 




0120 






0130 






0140 


;DATA REGISTER 




0150 


R6510 ,DE *01 




0160 


! OUTPUT FLAG C64 




0170 


KC3P0 .DE *94 




0180 


; OUTPUT CHAR C64 




0190 


KSOUR .DE *95 




0200 


5 CURRENT DEV# 




0210 


FA .DE *BA 




0220 


5 OUTPUT FLAG MSD 




0230 


EC3P0 .DE *FB 




0240 


5 OUTPUT CHAR MSD 




0250 


ESOUR .DE *FC 




0260 






0270 






0280 


5 KERNAL JUMPS 




0290 






0300 


KSECND .DE #FF93 




0310 


KTKSA .DE *FF96 




0320 






0330 


KACPTR .DE *FFA5 




0340 


KCIOUT .DE *FFA8 




0350 


KUNTLK .DE *FFAB 




0360 


KUNLSN .DE *FFAE 




0370 


KLISTN .DE *FFB1 




0380 


KTALK .DE *FFB4 




0390 






0400 






0410 


! KERNAL SERIAL INTERNALS 




0420 






0430 


SSECND .DE *EDB9 




0440 


STKSA .DE *EDC7 




0450 






0460 


SACPTR .DE *EE13 




0470 


SCI OUT .DE *EDDD Continued on page 


107 



Commander July 1983/101 



VIC 20 



40-80 COLUMN BOARD 

only $ 99 00 



Now you can get 40 or 80 Columns on your T.V. or monitor at one time! No more 
running out of line space for programming and making columns. Just plug in this 
board and you immediately convert your VIC-20 computer to 40 or 80 columns! 
PLUS, you get a Word Processor, Mail Merge program, Electronic Spreadsheet (like 
VISICALC) and Terminal Emulator! These PLUS programs require only 8K RAM 
memory and comes in an attractive plastic case with instructions. List$149 Sale$99 



•COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER — "80 COLUMN BOARD" LIST $275 SALE $179 

\S£m fm shxuMj 0L*u* %€emu) 



•15 DAY FREE TRIAL 
We have the lowest VIC-20 prices 
We have over 500 programs 
Visa - Mastercharge - C.O.D. 
We love our customers! 



EIMTERPRIZES (weloveourcustomers) 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phons 312/382-5244 to ordsr 




MAKE YOUR VIC-20 
COMPUTER TALK 

when you plug in our 



ONLY 

$79 00 



VOICE SYNTHESIZER 

You can program an unlimited number of words and sentences and even adjust volume and pitch. 
You can make: • Adventure games that talk • Real sound action games 

This voice synthesizer is VOTRAX based and has features equivalent to other models costing over 
$370.00. To make programming even easier, our unique voice editor will help you create words and 
sentences with easy to read, easy to use symbols. The data from the voice editor can then be easily 
transferred to your own programs to make customized talkies. 

* FREE — Your choice of $19.95 4" Speaker and Cabinet or $14.95 Voice Editor 

"15 DAY FREE TRIAL" 

• We have the lowest VIC-20 prices 

' v ehaV M°7 50 K° pro9T ron ENTERPRIZES (--«««-> 

• Visa — Mastercharge — C.O.D. „^^ „ - * . _ 

„, . % " , BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 

• We love our customers! Phone 312/382-5244 to order 



102/Commancler July 1983 




by Tim Parker 
Ontario, Canada 



There has recently been quite a bit 
of activity on the VIC-20 front. Many 
new (and some quite interesting) bits 
of hardware and software have crop- 
ped up. Employing these can make 
the VIC-20 into a powerful machine. 

At least two companies (including 
Commodore) have introduced cases 
for the VIC that have the VIC-20 or 
VIC-64 slip into a molded steel or plas- 
tic enclosure with expansion slots built 
into the rear compartments. Holes are 
cut for the side mounted ports and 
on/off switches. After playing with two 
versions, I can definitely say that they 
simplify the clutter problem most com- 
puter owners have. The VIC-20 sits in 
the case with its memory and a few util- 
ity ROMs mounted on the expansion 
board, and the monitor I use (color, or 
course) sits on top. All in all, it looks 
like an Apple with monitor on the case. 
However, it will never be confused as 
such. 

A while ago I mentioned a few new 
hardware expansion options that allow 
Atari VCS games to be played on the 
VIC. After conducting extensive and 
intensive research (I dedicated my fir- 
ing thumb to the cause of science) I 
can report they work quite well. As 
noted in the previous column, they do 



not task the VIC's capabilities at all, 
and some of the graphics look 
downright ridiculous as block figures 
when compared to VIC versions, there 
are some games that are still not 
available in VIC cartridge form. Also, 
as many of the video games for the 
Atari VCS get more sophisticated, the 
games become more of a pleasure to 
play. As these gadgets cost less than 
one hundred bucks, they seem to be 
an easy way to get into video games 
in a major way. 

After visiting my local Commodore 
dealer, I was somewhat astonished to 
see the staggering array of new 
games available for the VIC-20. The 
shelves that used to house only Com- 
modore, UMI and a couple of other 
company products now has blossom- 
ed to overstocking with almost every 
type of game conceivable. Although 
I don't play games that much these 
days, I felt it was my duty as a cor- 
respondent with Commander to give 
a few the old workout. Although the 
majority were only mediocre (i.e. a 
variation on a previously published 
theme), there were a few suprisingly 
good entries. I will be reviewing some 
of these in future columns for this 
erudite journal. There were also a few 
atrocities. These will not be reviewed, 
as the best things about them was the 
cover art. 



Diversion time again: it is very dif- 
ficult to get a magazine of any type, 
computer or otherwise, to publish total- 
ly negative reviews. Although most 
reviewers come across turkeys now 
and again, and although we feel that 
the buying public should be made 
aware of some of the wastes of money, 
it does not look good to have a review 
in a magazine that decimates a pro- 
duct. As a rule, most reviewers, if they 
don't like the item in question, will try 
and find something good to say, sim- 
ply so the review is at least partially op- 
timistic. No such luck with some up- 
coming reviews! I have taken it upon 
myself to compile a list of "Turkeys" 
for the VIC-20 that should never have 
seen the dealer's shelf. That will be up- 
coming some year. End of diversion. 

Of all the games examined of late, 
at least sixty percent are "shoot-em- 
ups." This perennial type of game also 
seems to have the shortest attention 
span for most people (unless, of 
course, the game is very good, or an 
obsession sets in . . . usually the latter). 
The treatments are getting more clever 
and more varied, but it all comes down 
to the same thing: hit the fire button as 
many times as you possibly can 
without killing the thumb, finger, or 
foot. (Sideline: one game I play fre- 
quently uses the space bar for firing 
and supports the full repeat feature, 
Commander July 1983/103 



RAMAX 

r\Kit \/ b y apropos 

The UN L Y MEMORY your VIC-20® will need 



FEATURES 



A full 27k bytes of RAM 
(added to VICs 5k 
equals 32k.) 
Fully switchable in sections: 
BLK 1 switches 8k 

(Adr. 81 92 to 16383) 
BLK 2 switches 8k 

(Adr. 16384 to 24575) 
BLK 3 switches 8k 

(Adr. 24576 to 32767) 
BLK 5 allows/disallows your 
8k ROM (games) 
(Adr. 40960 to 491 52) 
RAM switches 3k (Adr. 1 024 to 4095) 
• May be used with Super Expander® 
games or ANY other VIC-20 
compatible cartridge. 
Built in RESET switch. 
Fuse protected. 
Totally self-contained. 

2 duplicate extension connectors for any device 
normally plugged into the expansion port. 
(BLK 5 is switched to connectors) 

• Very low power usage. (.150 amp max.) 

• High reliability gold plated connectors. 

• 6 month parts and labor warranty. 

• Factory service. - Extended service always available. 

THIS SUPERB PLUG-IN GIVES YOUR VIC-20 
REAL POWER AND EXPANDABILITY 

FOR ONLY $149100 Shipping included 

1 DAY SATISFACTION OR YOUR MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 

Already own an 8k Expander? The new 19k RAMAX 
JR.™ allows you to use your 8k Expander as BLK 3 to 
get the full compliment of memory. Complete instruc- 
tions included. Only $129, Includes shipping. 

WE SERVICE WHAT WE SELL 

TO ORDER: 

Send Check or Money Order For the Total 

Calif, residents add 6% tax. 

Phone orders: CALL (805) 482-3604 24 HRS. 

For credit card orders, include all information on card. 

or contact your local dealer. 

Foreign orders, add $15.00. 

All items shipped from stock. 
DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 







SOFTWARE 



DR. FLOYD 



Psychoanalysis by computer? — well, not quite, but Dr. Floyd will 
carry on a conversation with you using psychoanalytic techniques 
giving the appearance of artificial intelligence. Requires 16k RAM 
or more. 
$14.95 shipping included. 

WORD PLAY 

"WORDPLAY" is a collection of programs which allow the user to 
make original stories, write a form of Japanese poetry, play the fun 
game of Animal (children love this one), and create jargon. A 
bonus secret message (cypher) program is also included. In a 
word, "WORDPLAY" is a bargain. 
Requires 16k RAM or more. 
$1 4.95 shipping included. 

TYPE FOR YOUR LIFE 

With more challenge than an arcade game, learn to type up to 75+ 
words/min. (User selectable, but no FOOLING AROUND allowed). 
TEXT IS WIDELY VARIED SINCE IT COMES FROM THE 
PROGRAM TAPE. Action color graphics with sound fix your eyes 
to the screen (away from your fingers - clever!) Your man rows 
your boat up stream as fast as you can type. Maintain speed and 
destroy the Sea Monster; slow down and he will get you. Runs on 
the unexpanded VIC. 
$14.95 shipping included. 

All software is on high quality cassettes 
and is replacement guaranteed. 

VIC-20 & SUPER EXPANDER are registered 
trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 



■APROPOS TECHNOLOGY, 



350 N. Lantana Ave., Suite 821 
Camarillo, CA93010 



while the joystick fire button doesn't 
repeat. For maximum score, my hands 
work the joystick to move my image on 
the screen, and my foot holds down 
the space bar for automatic repeat fire. 
It's crude, yes. It may even be 
unhygenic. The scores I get are 
terrific!) 

A growing percentage of games are 
the thinking types, though, which 
always signifies that the computer it is 
intended for has gone beyond the 
video game genre. That can only be 
to the attraction of the VIC-20. A few 
are chess programs, and the 
backgammon, checkers, go, reversal, 
etc. types. These as I have stated 
before in this column are good for the 
thinking types who like to spend two 
hours playing chess. (One of them 
plays an excellent game: a review 
should follow in a month or two.) The 
change is that there are those games 
that are neither shoot-em-ups or chess 
genre. Games that require strategy 
other than placing the ship in the right 
position to blast the creepy bugs, and 
still require reflexes and ability. Most 



are modeled on existing video games 
in the arcades, and some are done 
with surprising integrity. What it all 
comes down to in the final assessment 
is that there is now a computer game 
for everyone. (By the way, adventure- 
type games have multiplied too, but I 
have the feeling that after playing a 
couple, they all are the same! And on 
top of that, I really detest the silly 
games that require totally illogical ac- 
tions to accomplish a goal, such as 
tossing rocks into a barrel while stand- 
ing on your head in order to open a 
door. They may amuse some: to me 
they are a waste of time.) 

Also proliferating are the more 
serious sides of programming. Word 
processors have been showing up in 
increasing numbers, and a large 
number of companies offer packages 
that handle spreadsheets, accounting 
procedures, maintenance schedules, 
mailing lists, etc. Useful stuff for 
business and home alike. There is also 
the expanding number of packages 
for specific purposes such as in- 
surance schedules, or tax aids. 



Teaching or educational software 
has likewise increased. PILOT and 
other languages have been increasing 
in number, and all will help the 
newcomer and youngster to the com- 
puter field. The more people who can 
understand computers and not feel 
oppressed by them, the better. In an 
increasingly computerized world, it is 
useful to have a knowledge of what is 
going on. That wraps up the 
philosophy class. Time for a drink. □ 



f& 











/£^>u A At A 




#ife 


>^cd^ Yyyy 













Write For FREE Catalog 



NEW 



Write For FREE Catalog 



H VIC SOFTWARE CBM 64 B 



Great VIC Software 



COMMODORE 64 SOFTWARE 






PARATROOPER a High Resolution game that doesn't let you make any 
L mistakes. You are in your command. Helicopters fill the sky, (and we mean fill 
[ the sky!), dropping paratroopers. Your mission is to keep 3 paratroopers from 
| hitting the ground on either side of your gun. But that's just the beginning. You 
I score by hitting the helicopters or the paratroopers, but if you miss a shot it 
[subtracts from your score. Therefore, you must make every shot count to 
I make a high score! IT HAS FOUR FAST ACTION LEVELS TO CHALLENGE 
I THE BEST PLAYER. The High Resolution graphics helicoptors are fantastic. 
I They look exactly like helicopters! The paratroopers are super realistic. Their 
I chutes open and then they drift down to earth. If this weren't enough the 
I sounds are fantastic. There are helicopter blades whirring and you can hear the 
I howitzer pumping shells. This game really show off the sound and graphic 
[capabilities of your VIC. PARATROOPER IS OUR #1 SELLING ARCADE 
I GAME, you've got to see this game to believe it. $19.95 

SPACE PAK Can you survive? 3 space games with the sights and sounds of 
I an arcade. The excitement builds as the action is unending. lBlast away at 
[everything in sight. The alien attacks will stop at nothing to destroy you. 
I Prepare for battle, there is no escape, only you can help. Can you survive? Hi- 
I Res, color, graphics and sound. Joystick or keyboard. 3 Games — Rocket 
I Race, Fence-A-Tron and Raiders. $19.95 

COSMIC CRUZER Hot action and 3 challenging scenarios. Move your 
I cruzer into the tunnel - fire missiles and drop bombs. Hit the fuel dumps to get 
I more fuel. Move as quick as you dare to hit the surface-to-air missiles. If you are 
I good enough you will make it to the asteroidz field and then try to destroy the 
| base. No one has destroyed the base yet. Will you be the first. $19.95 

VIC ALL STARS We took the best selling VIC programs and put them in a 
I package to save you $35. If purchased seperately it would cost you $85. You get 
I Paratrooper, Target Command, Head On, Cattle Round-up, Snake 
I Out, Trapper, Double Snake Out and Artillery. All eight games for $49.95. 
I Hurry because at this price they won't last long. Limited quantity. 8 
I Games. $49.95 



Let the COMPUTERMAT 
turn your 64 into a home arcade! 

COLOR . GRAPHICS . SOUND 
ON CASSETTE 

(Disk Versions Available — Add $5.°°) 
ARCADE PAK - $24. 95 EDUCATION PAK - $24. 95 | 
3 Programs 4 Programs 

Head On Geography Match 

Alien Invasion Math Adventure 

Target Command Ruler & Micro 



TREASURE PAK - $14. 95 
3 Programs 

Adventure 
Caves of Silver 
Shuttle Voyage 



GAME PAK - $14. 95 
3 Programs 

Dragon Chase 
Deflect 
Flip It 



Joystick and Keyboard versions included. 



COMPUTERMAT 

Box 1664 • Dept. M • Lake Havasu City, Az. 86403 
(602)855-3357 Circle No 12 



Commander July 1983/105 



CREATIVE SOFTWARE 

- the # 1 * independent VIC-20 full-line software 

publisher in the U.S. - is proud to announce 

4 new Game Cartridges & 5 Home Applications 

for the COMMODORE 64: 



(ARE 



A GAME ON CARTRIDGE FOR THE COMMODORE M" 




Joystick controller required. 



I SOFTWARE 



PRESENTS 



/1STROBUTZ 



A GAME ON CARTRIDGE FOR THE COMMODORE 64 " 




Joystick controller required. 




<db 



Joystick controller required. 



TiASMMAIN 

A GAME ON CARTRIDGE FOR THE COMMODORE 64 '" 




Joystick controller required. 



THIS GAME IS ALSO AVAILABLE FOR THE VIC-20. THIS GAME IS ALSO AVAILABLE FOR THE VIC-20. 




CREATIVE 
SOFTWARE 

A Division of ASCI. Inc. 
230 East Caribbean Drive 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 



*Based on survey of distributors and retailers. 

Copyrisht 1983 by Creative Software. All rights reserved. 

"VIC-20/' "COMMODORE" and "COMMODORE 64" 
are trademarks of COMMODORE ELECTRONICS, LfD. 




A HOME APPUCAflON PROGRAM 





#$ijO] 


mt\ 



These Home Appli- 
cation Programs 
are also available 
for the VIC-20. 



Circle No. 44 



PEEK AND POKE 


—continued from page 101 




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0780 


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JSR 57278 










0810 


5 COPY ROMS 


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continued on page 110 



COMMODORE 64 
OWNERS ONLY 

• SHARE • LEARN • ENJOY • 

• Monthly Newsletter 

• Public Domain Software 

• Reports of Recent 64 Articles 

• Local Chapter Meetings 

• Product Discounts 

• Service Advice 

• Bi-Monthly Magazine 

• Advice on Training 

• Annual Convention 

• Member Bulletin Board 

Send Name, address, 

phone no. and annual 

dues ($25) to: 

The Commodore 64 Users Group 

Suite 100, Corporate West 

4200 Commerce Court 

Lisle, Illinois 60532 

Or Call: 

(312) 369-6525 (Weekdays 
9:00am — 5:00pm — Central Time) 

MASTERCARD OR VISA ACCEPTED 
"An Independent not-for-profit organization". 

Ode No 8 



Intelligent Software For 
Commodore Computers 

Copycalc is an affordable electronic 
spread-sheet which turns your video screen 
into a window on a matrix of numbers. Cur- 
sor around the matrix, enter numbers; the 
totals reflect the changes. You can save the 
matrix to disk or tape, or print it or your 
printer. For $20 ($15 with another program), 
this program might justify the cost of your 
computer. Requires 6k RAM; smaller version 
available for a standard VIC. 

Word Processor Plus was not designed 
to be an expensive toy; it was designed 
solely to facilitate correspondence, for a 
wide range of personal and business uses, 
quickly and easily, with a minimum of train- 
ing and frustration on the part of its user, 
and at the least possible cost, both in hard- 
ware and software. The most thoroughly 
tested, useable word processor available 
at anywhere near the price, $25; 10k RAM, 
printer req'd.; RS-232C version available for 
VIC and 64. 

Also available: Baseball Manager, a 
sports-documentation program; and Inven- 
tory, a perpetual inventory control program 
for a small retail business (various reports, 
multiple vendors); $30 each; 10k RAM 
req'd., printer suggested. 

All programs will load and run on any 
Commodore computer; all support tape, 
disk, and printer. 

Prices include documentation and ship- 
ping; Calif, residents add 6%. Please 
specify hardware configuration when 
ordering. Sorry, no games available. 
Wlllam Robblns. Box 3745, San Rafael. CA 94912 



Circle No. 21 



Commander July 1983/107 



Game- CONTEST 




The Game Contest is a continuing feature of 
Commander Magazine aimed at providing enter- 
tainment for and promoting competition among our 
readers. MICRODIGITAL has graciously provided 
us with this Game Contest 

DEADLINE FOR ENTRIES 
SEPTEMBER 1, 1983 

GRIDDER may be purchased from 

MICRODIGITAL 

752 John Glenn Blvd. 

Webster, NY 14580 

1-716-872-0518 inside New York 

1-800-833-7384 toll free outside of New York 



Terms for 
Game Contest 

First prize will be awarded to the 
person with the highest score. The 
winning entry must contain a photo- 
graph of the highest score of the game 
along with a GRIDDER package front 
and proof of purchase. 

Entries must be mailed to Com- 
mander, GRIDDER Contest, PO Box 
98827, Tacoma, WA 98498. All entries 
must be mailed, as postmarks are re- 
quired to determine the earliest win- 
ning entry. In the event of a tie, dupli- 
cate prizes will be awarded. Employ- 
ees of MICRODIGITAL and their 
families may not participate. First prize 
will be $500, second prize $200, third 
prize $100 in merchandise. 

The contest will run until September 
31. MICRODIGITAL will notify Com- 
mander Magazine of the winner(s) and 
provide copy and photographs for a 
follow-up story. 




1 08/Commander July 1983 




©VINSANDER 





Only COMMANDER will do all this 



GUIDE 



INSTRUCT 



ENTERTAIN 



SIMPLIFY 



INFORM 



Reports that give you hands-on, user oriented information on the entire range of 
Commodore Computers • More comparison charts, diagrams, instructional illustra- 
tions, and how-to photos than any other publication in the field • Articles written 
by the top working experts in the field. 

Innovative ways to use your computer equipment— from self-improvement 
to home security • Valuable tricks and practical advice on how to get the most from 
your investment in the high tech field of computers • In depth and unbiased analyses 
of the latest in educational software. 

Fascinating glimpses into the wonders of the computer future • Profiles of 
the industry's most creative people • Provocative discussions on the impact com- 
puters will have on you and your family. 

Critical comparisons of the Commodore Computers • Exactly how your 
computer equipment works • What those computer ''buzz words'' mean and ex- 
pensive "special features" do • Useful trouble-shooting & maintenance advice. 

An expanded directory of the latest programs on ROM-PAK, tape and disc 

• New product previews of the latest and best equipment on the market • Exciting 
technologies in development for tomorrow • Important applications of computers 
for health, education, business, and the public good • New directions in computers 

• Much More . . . 

Subscribe now and take advantage of our Limited Offer of $4 off the one year subscriptions 




—Subscription Orders Only- 
Toll Free Number: 1-800-426-1830 
(except WA, HI, AK) 

COMMANDER 

PO BOX 98827 
TACOMA, WASHINGTON 98498 

(206) 584-6757 

□ 1 YR. $22 □ 2 YR. $40 

D 3 YR. $58 

(Prices do not include $4 discount) 

Prices in U.S. Funds 

Washington residents please add 7.8% sales tax 

Allow 5-6 weeks for delivery. 



DON'T MISS OUT 

on the most informative 
magazine dedicated to the 
COMMODORE COMPUTERS 

HAVE YOU GOT WHAT 
IT TAKES TO BE A 



©VINSANDER 



Commander July 1983/109 



WOW! PAPERCLIP 

Word Processing Software 

TM 

More user functions than Wordstar TM 
More user friendly than Select 
Costs 60% less, too! Raving reviews in 
the April issues of "Personal Computer" 
and "Commander" magazines. Price is 
$125.00 - introductory offer sale for 30 
days only. Then $149.95. We support what 
we sell! 

PAPERCLIP software plus a Commadore 
'64 computer gives you the most powerful 
W/P system anywhere for under $1,000. 
Quantity price discounts available. 

Also for Kids of All Ages 

TM 

CHRIS - ED - GAMES 

Wholesome "brain" food for those who 
believe THERE is MORE to LIFE than just: 
war, shoot, kill, smash, squash and 
general brain garbage. Follow the monthly 
series of Christopher & Angela as they go 
through life! Adventure, education and 
laughter will be experienced as you try to 
keep Chris and Angela out of trouble! Your 
reward will be great fun and a prize from 
us if you solve the puzzles in each story- 
game! Documented Source Code included 
so you can learn to program. $30.00 each, 
2 for $25.00 each or 3 for $20.00 each. 

Send to: T.N.T., 5448 E. Gettysburg, 
Fresno, Calif. 93727 - Phone (209) 268-4555 



PET JOYSTICK 
INTERFACE 

• Now any PET® or CBM® 
can use joysticks and game 
paddles. 

• Accepts popular Atari®- 
and Apple®-style 
joysticks/paddles. 

• Sample software provided. 

• Only $69,951 

Send check, money order, 
VISA/MC (please include exp. 
date) or specify C.O.D. 

J SYSTEMS CORP. 

1 Edmund Place 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48103 
313-662-4714 



Circle No. 21 



PEEK AND POKE— 


continued from 


page 107 












1030 


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110/Commander July 1983 











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S FIX USD LISTEN S< 
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p LISTEN PATCH 




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STA *9CA9 continued on 


page 112 



BASIC ELECTRONIC 

BUSINESS SYSTEMS, 

INC. 

COMMODORE COMPUTERS 

NEW MODELS 

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

B-500(128k) $795 

P-500 (1 28k) color $703 

C-64 Computer $375 

8032 Business $1125 

COMMODORE DISK DRIVES 

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

1541 (vic/c64) 170k.... $329 

1 530 DATASETTE $ 63 

8050 1mg CALL 

8250 2mg CALL 

9090 7.5 mg $1800 

COMMODORE COLOR 14" 
MONITOR WITH SODND 

1701 $259 

COMMODORE PRINTERS 

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

6400 Quality $1825 

8023p 1 50cps $570 

1526 $339 

TO ORDER CALL 
(713)530-2515 

M.C. or Visa add 3% 
FO.B. Houston, Tx 

BEB SYSTEMS, INC. 

11430 Bissonnet, C-7 
Houston, Tx. 77099 

Call about BEB's software 

club. Membership 1/2 off 

during sale 

64 SOFTWARE COMMODORE 

WORDPRO 3+ $74.95 

BUSICALC $54.95 

SMALL DUSINESS SYSTEM 

A/R, A/P, G/L or Payroll 

for C64 $99 ea 

DEALERS INQUIRIES 
INVITED 

Large selection of Vic and 
Atari Software 

VIC-20 w/game $139 

Commander July 1983/1 1 1 



PUT SOME MUSCLE 
IN YOUR 

VIC-20 

16K RAM 
EXPANSION 

$69.90 

8K RAM 
EXPANSION 

$47.70 

•DIRECT FROM 
MANUFACTURER 

•HIGHEST QUALITY 

•LOW PRICE 

•90 DAY WARRANTY 

III! CEfiTURy c 



MICRO 



7881 La Riviera Dr. Suite 131 
Sacramento, CA 95826 

Add $2 tor shipping & handling 

(California Residents add 6% sales tax) 

DEALER INQUIRES WELCOME 



"■""•C02DPU SENSEi : / 



QUICK BROWN FOX $55.00 

The si word processor! 

GENERAL LEDGER $19.95 

(VIC-20) 

CHECK MINDER 

viC-20 $14.95 c-64 $24.95 

HOME INVENTORY $17.95 

(VIC-20) 

CENTIPOD $27.95 

Like Centiped. only better! 

FROGEE $27.95 

The exciting arcade game of Frogger. 

MOTOR MOUSE $29.95 

What a cheeseee game! 

CRIBBAGE 
viC-20 $14.95 c-64 $17.95 

This is the game of Chbbage. 

STAR TREK 

vic-20 $1 2.95 c-64 $1 7.95 

Excellent adventure game! 

MASTER MIND 
vic-20 $1 2.95 c-64 $19.95 

Makes you think. 

ROACH MOTEL $9.95 

Kill the bugs! 

YAHTZEE 1.1 $12.95 
YAHTZEE2.1 



$14.95 



TO ORDER: 
P. O. BOX 18765 
WICHITA, KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 

Personal checks accepted 
weeks) or 
$2.00) 
charges $2.00 




a registered trademark of Commodore 

Circle No. 9 



PEEK AND POKE— continued from page 1 1 1 


It/ 


20BC- 


8D 


CI 


9C 


2160 


STA 


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2190 
2200 
2210 


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2220 


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2230 














2240 


IEEE 




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2260 


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2270 


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2280 
2290 


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60 






2310 
2320 
2330 


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2340 


CODEP 


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2350 


LDA 


*FA 


20CE- 


4C 


8A 


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2360 


JMP 


ELISTN 


20D1- 


A5 


BA 




2370 


LDA 


*FA 


20D3- 


4C 


87 


9C 


2380 
2390 


JMP 


ETALK 










2400 


; *** 










2410 














2420 


TAB1 




20D6- 


4C 


F6 


9C 


2430 


JMP 


ESECND 


20D9- 


4C 


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9C 


2440 
2450 


JMP 
TAB2 


ETKSA 


20DC- 


4C 


3A 


9D 


2460 


JMP 


EACPTR 


20DF- 


4C 


1C 


9D 


2470 


JMP 


EC I OUT 


20E2- 


4C 


2D 


9D 


2480 


JMP 


EUNTLK 


20E5- 


4C 


33 


9D 


2490 


JMP 


EUNLSN 


20E8- 


4C 


8A 


9C 


2500 


JMP 


ELISTN 


20EB- 


4C 


87 


9C 


2510 

2520 


JMP 

TAB3 


ETALK 


20EE- 


4C 


DD 


9D 


2530 


JMP 


EOPEN 


20F1- 


4C 


BD 


9E 


2540 


JMP 


ECLDSE 


20F4- 


4C 


B4 


9C 


2550 


JMP 


EDCIDU 


20F7- 


4C 


FB 


9C 


2560 
2570 


JMP 
TAB4 


ECATTN 


20FA- 


B9 


ED 




2580 


. SE 


SSECND 


20FC- 


C7 


ED 




2590 


.SE 


STKSA 


20FE- 


13 


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2600 


.SE 


SACPTR 


2100- 


DD 


ED 




2610 


.SE 


SCI OUT 


2102- 


EF 


ED 




2620 


.SE 


SUNTLK 


2104- 


FE 


ED 




2630 


.SE 


SUNLSN 


2106- 


OC 


ED 




2640 


.SE 


SLISTN 


2108- 


09 


ED 




2650 


.SE 


STALK 


210A- 


D5 


F3 




2660 


.SE 


SOPEN 


210C- 


42 


F6 




2670 


.SE 


SCLOSE 


210E- 


36 


ED 




2680 


.SE 


SDCIOU 


2110- 


BE 


ED 




2690 


.SE 


8CATTN 


2112- 


EA 






2700 
2710 


TABS 


NOP 

EN 



1 1 2/Commander July 1983 






EXPAND YOUR 

VIC-20 

686% 



TM 




Our board is the only memory board your VIC 
will ever need! Check these features: 

• Assembled & Tested • Software Slot 

• Full 27K • Fully Guaranteed 

• More Expansion Per Dollar 

• Fully Assembled & Tested Board $149.95 

• Kit Only 129.95 

• Bare Board w/Documentation 50.00 
Send check or m/o to: D. C. Circuits 

c.o.d. add $1.50 7460 N - Hw y- "■ Suite 35 



CA Res. add 6% tax 



Circle No 72 



Anderson, CA 96007 



VIC* OWNERS 



VIK KONG- Barrels of fun. 6 Konglands, elevators, trapdoors. 
Machine code makes this an exciting game for everyone. -$14.95 
LAUNCH 2031 AD - Command your ship through an asteroid belt to reach 
the other side. Machine language makes this a fast game. -$14.85 
GRAND PRIX - Extensive use of hi-res graphics. Don't collide with the 
other cars or your gone!!. - $14.85 -100% Machine code 
CATERPILLAR - It's a battle between you and the spiders and caterpillars. 
100% Machine code adds to the excitment of this great game. - $14.85 
ALIEN HUNT - Try to break through the moving blocks to hit the ALIEN! 
-$12.95 

"After a Word Processor? Inquire about ours for the Vic-Pet-64! 

CANADIAN OR US FUNDS!! 

Send cheque or M.O., M.C., Visa to: 

TELEGAMES SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 152 

Hampton. Ontario. Canada LOB UO 

Wr,te For For Sh, P p,n 9 Add S1 00 'Trademark of 

Catalog .25 (416) 263-8064 Commodore 




It's Time for 
TOTL SOFTWARE! 

for the VIC 20™ and COMMODORE 64™ 

WORD PROCESSING AND MAILING LIST & LABEL 

now available with 4*WJj[¥4*Wr4&T%W^\ 



FAST PRINTING • LIGHTNING LOADS • SIMPLE COMMANDS 



TOTLTEXT 2.0 + CS VIC + 8K expansion $25.00 

TOTL.TEXT 2.5 + CS VIC + 16K expansion $35.00 

TOTLTEXT 2.6 + CS Commodore 64 $40.00 

TOTLLABEL 2.1 + CS VIC+16K expansion $20.00 

TOTLLABEL2.6 + CS Commodore 64 $20.00 

TOTL TIME MANAGER 2.1 VIC + 8K expansion $30.00 
TOTL TIME MANAGER 2.6 Commodore 64 $35.00 

time management, scheduling, reports 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 VIC + 8K expansion $30.00 
RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2.0 Commodore 64 $35.00 

key word cross-reference research tool 
TOTL.BUSINESS 3.0 VIC + 16K expansion $85.00 

TOTL.BUSINESS 3.6 Commodore 64 $95,00 

business programs require disk and are shipped on disk 
One Megabyte Fuzzy Diskette $25.00 

computer novelty pillow 



All programs work with 40/80 column (VIC) and 80 
column (64) adapters— compatible with tape or disk 
systems — shipped on cassette tape— available 
on disk $4.00 extra. 

Quality You Can Afford 

Available at your local dealer 
or by phone order 

r TC/TL 

software inc. 



1555 Third Ave., Walnut Creek, CA 94596 



Circle No 46 



r _£-s> <^£ T!£T Call (415) 943-7877 
Commodore 64 and VIC 20 are registered trademarks of Commodore Electronics, Ltd. 



Commander July 1983/113 



MICROCOMPUTERS AND 

EDUCA TION 



by Authur J. Dudley 
Bremerton, WA 



As Microcomputers become in- 
creasingly popular, more and more ar- 
cade games are flooding the market. 
Not until recently has the interest 
shifted towards the educational 
aspects. This is not to say that software 
publishers were unaware of the impor- 
tance of microcomputers in education, 
but instead felt there was a greater de- 
mand for games. I believe this em- 
phasis is beginning to shift. People are 
not buying microcomputers solely for 
their entertainment value, but for their 
practical value as well. The two major 
uses of microcomputers in the prac- 
tical sense are home management/ 
business applications and education. 

The microcomputer, coupled with 
good software, can be invaluable as 
an instructional device for teachers 
and parents. It has unlimited patience, 
is interesting, and never tires. Two big 
advantages microcomputers have 
over textbooks are their ability to 
animate and randomize. The first ad- 
vantage maintains the student's in- 
terest and reinforces learning; the se- 
cond provides him/her with an 
unlimited number of combinations. 
However, for microcomputers to be ef- 
fective, educational software 
packages must be carefully planned, 



well organized, and hold the child's in- 
terest. Many promising educational 
techniques and aids failed because 
they lacked these very qualities. 

If you are planning to buy or 
develop educational software 
packages, the below characteristics 
will be of interest to you. 

Subject Matter 

Subject matter, believe it or not, is 
the most important part of the 
package. Fantastic graphics, smooth 
animation, and marvelous sound ef- 
fects are worthless from an educa- 
tional viewpoint if the program lacks 
quality subject matter. The topic must 
be concise, accurate, and have suffi- 
cient detail and quantity so in fact the 
child has something to learn. Be wary 
of products with vague catalog 
descriptions. 

Organization 

Good educational packages will 
take the student through a process 
step by step— first explaining the sub- 
ject matter and then allowing the stu- 
dent to practice. Problem sets com- 
pleted by students should be 
evaluated and briefly analyzed by the 
student to advanced levels or again 



Vic-20 Programmers 



An Exciting 
Opportunity . 

Bfe 



We are seeking good quality, original programs and 
project write-ups for the unexpanded or the super- 
expanded Vic-20. We offer an attractive royalty - 
based remuneration package for the right material . 
Give us a shot. You may be pleasantly surprised . 
Write or send cassette and explicit documentation. 
The Bowley Publishing Croup 
P.O. Box 2312 ■ Darien CT 06820 



through present levels of difficulty. It is 
extremely important that students 
master a section before proceeding. 

Reinforcement 

Positive reinforcement is essential. 
Students should be praised and en- 
couraged throughout the course of the 
program. It is beneficial to use 
graphics and sound as rewards for 
correct answers. However, programs 
should not get carried away with this. 
Positive reinforcement should be 
geared to the student's age level. Also, 
programs that provide graphics and 
sound effects for wrong answers may 
unintentionally encourage students to 
answer incorrectly. 

Graphics/Sound 

Remember this is a supplement to 
enhance the student's interest and 
reinforce learning, not to totally 
dominate the program. If graphics and 
sound effects are to be used heavily, 
they must be directly related to the 
subject matter (i.e. using figures to 
teach children how to count, use of 
various shapes in geometry, use of 
sound to teach children musical notes, 
etc). Using graphics and sound ex- 
tensively as rewards or as non- 
essential elements of the program take 
up valuable memory space that can 
be a powerful part of any educational 
program if correctly used. 

Difficulty 

The topic must be geared to the pro- 
per age level. (This should be identifi- 
ed in catalog descriptions). As a further 
note, the student must be able to 
understand the operating instructions 
of the program. One does not design 
a program having a set of operating 
instructions comparable to VISICALC 
to teach four year-olds to count. Young 



1 14/Commander July 1983 



?^SSSSSS«^?SSSS«SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS^(» 






"■■"tojDPu seniSEi:/ 



C-64 

VIC-20® 

VIC-1515 

VIC-1530 

VIC-1541 

VIC-1010 

VIC-1311 

VIC-1312 



VIC-1210 



$399.00 

147.00 

334.95 

67.50 

347.00 

139.95 

9.95 

19.95 

99.95 

34.95 

total. 

52.50 

119.95 
39.95 

Provides interface between the VIC-20 and RS232 telecommunications 
modems. Connects to VIC'S user port. 

PETSPEED - Basic Compiler for Commodore 140.00 

Compile any Pet Basic program. The only optimizing compiler. Programs 
compiled with Petspeed run up to 40 times faster. Petspeed code is unlistable 
and compiled programs cannot be tampered with. No security device required 
for compiled programs. Available NOW for the Commodore 64. 

Star Gemini 10 Printer 360.00 

Star Gemini 15 Printer 450.00 

SND Monitor 347.00 



Compute 

Personal Computer 

Printer 

Datasette 

Disk Drive 

Expansion Module 

Joystick 

Game Paddles 

Telephone Modem 

VIC 3K Memory Expander Cart. 

Plugs directly into the VIC'S expansion port. Expands to 8K RAM 

VIC-1110 VIC 8K Memory Expander Cart 

8K RAM expansion cartridge plugs directly into the VIC. 

CM102 24K Memory Expander Cart. 

VI C- 1 01 1 A RS232C Terminal Interface 



CS1 QUICK BROWN FOX $55.00 

The Word Processor of this decade! For the VIC-20 and C-64. 



COMMODORE SOFTWARE 
VIC-121 1 A VIC-20 Super Expander $55.00 

Everything Commodore could pack into one cartridge - 3K RAM memory 
expansion, high resolution graphics plotting, color, paint and sound com- 
mands. Graphic, text, multicolor and music modes. 1024x1024 dot screen 
plotting. All commands may be typed as new BASIC commands or accessed 
by hitting one of the VlC's special function keys. Includes tutorial instruction 
book. Excellent for all programming levels. 

VIC-1212 Programmer's Aid Cartridge $45 99 

More than 20 new BASIC commands help new and experienced programmers 
renumber, trace and edit BASIC programs. Trace any program line-by-line as 
it executes, pause to edit. Special KEY command lets programmers redefine 
function keys as BASIC commands, subroutines or new commands. 

VIC-1213VICMON Machine Language Monitor $48.99 

Helps machine code programmers write fast, efficient 6502 assembly lan- 
guage programs. Includes one line assembler/disassembler. 

CARDCO 

Atari Adapter - play your 2600 games on the VIC-20 $79.95 

CARDBOARD 6 $87.50 

An expansion interface for the VIC- 20. Allows expansion to 40K or accepts up 
to six games. May be daisy-chained for more versatility. 

CARDBOARD 3 $35.95 

Economy expansion interface for the Vic-20. 

CARD T CARD/PRINT $76.00 

Universal Centronics Parallel Printer Interface for the VIC-20 or CBM-64. Use 
an Epson MX-80 or OKIDATA or TANDY or just about any other. 

CARDETTE $30.95 

Use any standard cassette player/recorder with your VIC-20 or CBM-64. 

LIGHT PEN $29.95 

A light pen with six good programs to use with your VIC-20 or CBM-64. 

16K Memory Expander $50.50 

All CARDCO Products have a lifetime warranty. 



BUSINESS USES FOR YOUR VIC-20® 



55 

CW-107A 
CPV-31 
CPV-96 

CPV-208 

CH 

CH 

CH 

CH 
CH 

CT-21 
CT-121 

CT-124 
CT-125 
CT-126 
CT-140 
CM-152 
CQ-5 

CS 
CS 
CS 



Accounts Payable & Receivable $29.95 

Home Calculation Program Pack 48.95 

Data Files - your storage is unlimited 14.95 

Household Finance Package - to 30.95 

keep records of all your household expenses 

Bar-Chart - display your numerical data 8.95 

Turtle Graphics - learn programming 34.95 

VIC Forth - a powerful language for 49.95 

BASIC programming 

HES MON - a 6502 machine language 34.95 

monitor with a mini-assembler 

HES Writer - time-saving word process tool 34.95 

Encoder - keep your personal records 34.95 

away from prying eyes 

Statistics SadlStlCS - statistical analysis 14.95 

Total Time Manager 2.0 - creates 15.95 

personal or business schedules 

Totl Label - a mailing list & label program 1 3.95 

Totl Text BASIC 15.95 

Research Assistant - keep track of data 17.50 

Totl Text Enhanced 29.95 

GraflX Designer - design graphic characters 1 2.95 

Minimon - allows you to program, load, 1 3.95 
save, or execute machine language programs 

Home Inventory - lists your belongings 17.95 
Check Minder - keep your checkbook right 14.95 

General Ledger - a complete ledger 19.95 



GAMES FOR YOUR VIC-20® 

Tank Wars $15.95 

Pinball 13.45 

Simon - tt gets tougher as you get better. 1 3.45 
Great for kids of all ages. 

Fuel Pirates 13.45 

Laser Blitz 15.95 

Tank Trap 15.95 

Concentration 1 3.45 

Dam Bomber - pilot the plane, avoid enemy 1 3.45 

ShamUS - search room after room for the 34.95 



CH-G203 
CH-G205 
CH-G206 

CH-G207 
CH-G209 
CH-G210 
CH-G211 
CH-G212 
CH-C307 



shadow-eluding androids: 2 levels of intense arcade action 



CH-C308 Protector 36.95 

CPU-79 Breakout 7.95 

CPU-85 Hangman - unbelievable graphics & sound 9.95 

CPU-87 Memory - VIC challenges your memory 9.95 

CPU-88 Match - hand & eye coordination 7.95 

CPU-89 MonkS - a devilish game of logic 7.95 

CPU-1 08 Bomber - you must decide who you want to fly 9.95 

for. then pick a target & your experience level 
CPU-1 09 Amok - the halls of Amok are populated by 20.95 

robots that obey one command - get the intruder! 
CPU-153 Tank VS. UFO - the tank is moving back & 9.95 

forth along the base; shoot the UFO before it shoots you 

CPU-1 94 Snakman - pacmanforthevic 14.95 

Defender On TH - you're the pilot of an experimental ship 1 7.95 
3-D Man - the popular arcade game, requires 3K 1 7.95 

Exterminator - a game full of bugs 20.95 



We have over 400 programs for your VIC-20 
and over 250 programs for your C-64! 



Shipping & Handling Charges: 

First two (2) items - $2.00 per item. 

Three (3) or more items - $1.00 per item. 

For orders over $100 total, surface shipping will be paid by 

CompuSense. Blue Label or special handling will be paid by 

the customer. 
Additional $2.00 C.O.D. fee on all C.O.D. orders. 
MasterCard and Visa accepted. Give card number and expiration 

date on order form. 
Allow three (3) weeks for personal checks. 

TO ORDER: MH 

P.O. Box 18765C 

Wichita. KS 67218 f§ j||| , 

(316)263-1095 



BE 



Write for 

FREE 
Catalog! 



Circle No 9 



Prices subject to change. 
VIC-20* is a registered trademark of Commodore | 



Commodore 64 

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 



MASS STORAGE: 



C 



Ptl^lSKII 



"^ Hie 

J for 



gh Performance FLOPPY DISK 
Commodore 64 



PEDISK directly transfers data to computer memory. This and the 
250000 bps transfer rate means performance up to 1 times faster than 
a serial bus disk. 

Model C340-2 Dual 3'. . . $995.00 ModelC877-1 Singled. . . $1095.00 
Model C540-2 Dual 5'. . . $895.00 Model C877-2 Dual 8' ... $1 695.00 

80 COLUMN VIDEO: 

Screenmaker so column video board $179.95 

Give the 64 a screen full of characters. Screenmaker gives a complete 
set of characters (80X24) in a 2K Video RAM. Software to link the system 
is included. 

WORD PROCESSING: 

COPY-WRITER Professional Word Processor $145.00 

The next logical step in the evolution of Word Processors. Copy-Writer 
has the features found in the best and more. Double columns, shorthand, 
the works! 

COMMUNICATIONS: 

CO M PAC K Intelligent Terminal Package $1 29.95 

A complete communications control center- record/read to/from disk - 
convert files ASCII, BASIC, BINARY, MAE - print incoming data. Complete 
with software, port board and cable. 

LANGUAGES: 

fullFORTHH" enhancedfigForthforCommodore64... $100.00 
Strings, floating point, editor, conditional assembler, interpreter, and 
more are included in fullFORTH +. Target Compiler is also available for 
$50.00 

KM MM PASCAL forCommodore64byWilserve.... $85.00 
One of the newest HL languages, KMMM PASCAL isatrue compilerthat 
generates machine code from PASCAL source. . . FAST! Editor, Compiler, 
Translator included. 

UTILITIES: 

Copymaker single disk backup routine $30.00 

Copymaker allows a 1541 owner to quickly backup an entire floppy disk 
on ON ED RIVE! Simple swap prompting and full use of memory make this 
easy to use and essential for any disk owner. 

MAE Macro Assembler Editor from EHS $ 99.95 

MAE has become the standard of the 6502 industry by providing the 
power and ease of use needed by the best assembly programmers. MAE 
is a complete development system including a word processor and lots 
of source goodies. 

MICROTECH is your complete 64 center. Dealer inquiries invited. 



Cm cgrs m^hh^h^h^hm^ 
MICROTECH] 



P.O.BOX 102 

LANGH0RNE,PA 19047 
215-757-0284 

Circle No 6 



children may need their parent's help 
at the beginning, but should be able 
to take over quickly. 

Now I grant you, I realize many 
good educational programs lack some 
of these qualities. The attributes of an 
educational program will vary from ap- 
plication to application. One should be 
aware of these attributes whether 
he/she is planning to develop or pur- 
chase educational software and deter- 
mine which ones apply. Two charac- 
teristics that apply in all cases are 
quality subject matter and good 
organization. 

The Commodore VIC 20 can give 
your children an added advantage in 
school. Its graphic capabilities and 
user friendliness will make learning fun 
and easy. Good educational software 
is available from many sources, and 
many of these software packages are 
reasonably priced. If you are planning 
to do your own programming, a good 
investment would be to purchase the 
Super Expander. This cartridge will 
add a new dimension to your VIC 20. 
Not only do you get an extra 3K of 
memory but also additional com- 
mands devoted to graphics and 
music. I plan to write a series of educa- 
tional programs and articles in this 
publication designed for the VIC 20, 
some of which will require the Super 
Expander cartridge. If you have any 
suggestions on what you would like to 
see, please send your correspond- 
ence to me at: 2408 Snyder Ave., 
Bremerton, WA 98312. 

I truly believe microcomputers and 
education go hand-in-hand, and that 
the Commodore 64 and VIC 20 are 
truly state-of-the-art in educational ap- 
plications as well as many others. 
There is no doubt that the computer 
is the key to the future. A future more 
interesting and rewarding than we can 
possibly imagine. □ 



i 



~> T"^» n n i— • n r— » n n r-» »~» r-» r 






116/Commander July 1983 




Given here, in zip code order, is a 
list of the Dealers who will be carrying 
the COMMANDER. We will provide 
updates for this list in following issues 
as a service to provide our readers 
with a local source at which they will 
find the COMMANDER Magazine. We 
sincerely appreciate the service pro- 
vided by the Dealers listed below. 

Our newest Dealers are on this 
page. Previously listed Dealers run 
consecutively on the following pages. 



New Jersey 

Bits, Bytes & Pieces 
190 Buckelew Avenue 
Jamesburg, NJ 08831 
Manager-Owner: Erik & Margie Roil 

New York 

Computer Shoppe 
283 Medford Avenue 
Patchogue, NY 11772 
(516) 758-6558 
Manager-Owner: Ann Smith 

Pennsylvania 

York News Agency 
1141 South Edgar Street 
York PA 1 7405 
Manager-Owner: Mark Lando 

Georgia 

Integrated Systems, Inc. 
3300 Buckeye Road, #178 
Atlanta, GA 30341 

Florida 

Computer Plus 

1471 Timberlahe Road, Suite 161 

Tallahassee, FL 32312 

(904) 893-7340 

Manager-Owner: Dan Evans 

Hillsboro News Co. 
2102 North Sterling 
Tampa, FL 33607 
Manager-Owner: MaryAnn Michel 

Computer Systems plus 
1721 SE 47th Terrace 
Cape Coral, FL 33904 
Manager-Owner: Don Montgomery 

Ohio 

Big Bytes 

1309 Boardman-Poland Road 

Poland, OH 44514 

(216) 758-0009 

Manager-Owner: Gary Lunger 



mSI^ISBSS&&I^^I^^I^ISB^ISEISISIBSa0^SBt 



Central News Co. 
2115 George Street 
Sandusky, OH 44870 
(419) 626-6962 
Manager-Owner: Jim Justice 

Computer Plus of Ohio 
123 East Main Cross Street 
Findlay, OH 45840 
(419) 423-6700 
Manager-Owner: Mike Deitelbach 

Michigan 

Videoasis 

2237 18 Mile Road 

Sterling Heights, Ml 48078 

(313) 979-5555 

Manager-Owner: Ian Swanwick 

Computers & More 
1878-28th Street SW 
Wyoming, Ml 49509 
Manager-Owner: Bill Slaughter 

Illinois 

Kroch's & Brentano's 

29 South Wabash Avenue 

Chicago, IL 60603 

(312) 332-7500 

Manager-Owner: Harlon Smith 

Chas Levy Circulation Company 

1200 North Branch Street 

Chicago, IL 60622 

(312) 440-4422 

Manager-Owner: Harvey Wassermar 

Cambridge Business Systems 
3345 North Halsted 
Chicago, IL 60657 
(312) 525-3900 
Manager-Owner: Larry Brault 

Videos To Go 
2517 West Reservoir 
Peoria, IL 61615 
(309)682-6510 
Manager-Owner: Patsy Wade 

Nebraska 

Computers & Components 
14207 Pacific 
Omaha, NE 61854 
(402)691-4238 
Manager-Owner: Tim Pearson 

Kansas 

Kansas Micro Computer 
1601 West 23rd 
Lawrence, KS 66044 
(913) 841-6348 
Manager-Owner: John Ellena 

Compu-sense 

1001 South Washington 

Wichita, KS 67211 

(316) 263-1095 

Manager-Owner: Skip Kendrick 



Go Sub Int'l 

501 East Pawnee, Suite 430 

Wichita, KS 67211 

(316) 265-9992 

Texas 

Rave Stores, Inc. 
3308 Towerwood 
Dallas, TX 75234 
(214) 484-9581 
Manager-Owner: Erroll Jacobson 

East Texas Periodicals 
7171 Grand Blvd. 
Houston, TX 77225 
Manager-Owner: Bill Melcher 

Colorado 

Denver News Company 
3601 East 46th Avenue 
Denver, CO 80216 
(303) 321-1111 
Manager-Owner: Jim Littlepage 

California 

Computer Barn 

319 Main Street, #2 

Salinas, CA 93901 

(408) 757-0788 

Manager-Owner: Natalie Vanderbelt 

Software Emporium 
4500 El Camino 
Los Altos, CA 94022 
(415) 941-8788 

Software Depo 

2652 Town Center Lane 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

(408) 730-9494 

Manager-Owner: Roger Spangler 

North Area News 
2500 Marconi Avenue 
Sacramento, CA 95821 

Integral Biomedical Eng. 
2947 Fulton Avenue 
Sacramento, CA 95821 
972-7577 
Manager-Owner: Mike Kouri 



Washington 

Acme TV & Computers 
1727 East Sprague 
Spokane, WA 99202 
(509) 535-1111 
Manager-Owner: Jim Hanley 

Computer Shop of Spokane 
12218 East Sprague 
Spokane, WA 99206 
(509) 928-9610 
Manager-Owner: Austin Hook 



CircJe No. 79 



Commander July 1983/117 



Dealers, continued 



U.S.A. 
Puerto Rico 

The Micro Computer Store 
1408 Avenue Jesus T. Pinero 
Rio Piedras, PR 00921 
(809) 781-0350 
Manager-Owner: Julio C. Martinez 

Massachusetts 

Tycom Associates 
68 Velma Avenue 
Pittsfield, MA 01201 
Manager-Owner: Dave Tyburski 

Northshore News Co. 
150 Blossom Street 
Lynn, MA 01902 
(617) 592-1300 
Manager-Owner: Tom Mulken, Jr. 

Computech Ltd. 
214 Derby Street 
Salem, MA 01970 
(617) 741-1724 
Manager-Owner: Tim Bush 

Omicron Corporation 
1416 Providence Highway 
Norwood, MA 02062 
(617) 769-6867 
Manager-Owner. Steve Gavrilles 

Rhode Island 

International Computer Services 
165 Dyerville Avenue 
Johnston, Rl 02919 
(401) 273-1001 
Manager-Owner. Steve Lablanc 



9a&9BE99aS9B( 



PSYCQM SQFTWRE IMTERMTIONAL 
BUILDS ADULT SOFTWRE FOR THE 
COWODORE 44,TE)ttS INSTRUMENTS 
Mb OTHER PERSOWL COMPUTERS. 
INDIVIDUAL ORDERS ARE ACCEPTED 
BY TELEPHONE USING YOUR VISA 
OR MSTER CARD OR SHIPPED COD. 

CALL (513) -474-2188 
YOU MY ALSO ORDER USING THE 
COWENIENT FORM INCLUDED BELOW, 
distributor inquiries invited 

x * 

Xname * 

I X 

Xstreet X 

X X 

Xc i ty X 

X X 

Xstate zip X 

X X 

Xchg.card exp date X 

X X 

Xcard# X 

Xplease rush me [ 1 copies of X 
Xthe PERSONALITY ttWLYZER today X 

Circle No 35 

1 1 8/Commander July 1983 



New Hampshire 

New England Periodical Service 
6th South St. 
Milford, NH 03055 
Manager/Owner: Jim No!en 

Compu-Craft, Inc. 
17 Dunbar Street 
Keene, NH 03431 
(603) 357-3901 
Manager-Owner: Richard Bishop 

Echo Consulting Services 
PO Box 1199 
Conway, NH 03818 
(603) 447-5455 
Manager-Owner: George Epotien 

Maine 

Maine Micro Systems, Inc. 
55 Center Street 
Auburn, ME 04210 
(207) 786-0696 
Manager: Nancy Lecompte 

Vermont 

Computeam 

205 Dorset Street 

South Burlington, VT 05401 

(802) 862-2802 

Manager-Owner: Mark Robinson 

Market Place 
1 Main Street 
Winoski, VT 05404 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Connecticut 

Multi-Business Computers Inc. 
28 Marlborough Street 
Portland, CT 06480 
(203) 342-2747 
Manager-Owner: Bob Stasko 



New Jersey 

Micro Computer Services 
61 Mountain Blvd. 
Warren, NJ 07060 
(201) 561-3111 
Manager-Owner: Jerry Prevete 

Computer Workshop 
1200 Haddenfield Road 
Cherry Hill, NJ 07013 
(609) 665-4404 
Manager-Owner: Charles Kolbe 

Software Land 
99 Broadway 
Elmwood. NJ 07407 
Manager/Owner: La Lit Modi 

NUBS Computer Center Inc. 
6 Ames Avenue 
Rutherford, NJ 07070 
Manager-Owner: Robert Wetgef 

Software City 

85 Godwin Avenue 

Midland Park, NJ 07432 

Manager-Owner: Arlene Destosito 

Computerability, Inc. 

441 Route 23 

Pompton Plains, NJ 07444 

(201) 835-0688 

Manager-Owner: Dennis Mull 

Wayne Computer Store 
1459 Route 23 
Wayne, NJ 07470 
(201) 628-7318 
Manager-Owner: Rick Delti 

Software City 

147 North Kmderkamack Road 

Montvafe, NJ 07645 

(201)391-0931 

Manager-Owner: CM. Hatfield 



Personality 
Analyzer 



Hi 




r^ 



Analyze yourself, your spouse, your date, 
relatives, co-workers and friends. 

Find out who you will get along with, 
who will work well with you, who will 
be fun to be with. 

Measure compatibility, career potential, 
behavior tendencies, values, etc. 



■ ■■• ■■■ ■ 



"■:: ::": PSYCOM 

=\i SOFTWARE 

!! INTERNATIONAL 



2118 Forest Lake Drive 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45244 USA 

$24.95 

2.50 disk (additional) 



Software City 
161 Cedar Ln 
Teaneck, NJ 07666 
Manager/Owner: George Barnes 

Computer Workshop 
1200 Haddenfield Road 
Cherry Hill, NJ 08034 
(609) 665-4404 
Manager-Owner: Chris Kolbe 

Software-n-Such 
Warren Plaza, Route 130 
East Windsor, NJ 08520 
(609) 443-8984 
Manager-Owner: Paul Hammer 

BB/The Computer Store 
216 Scotch Road 
Trenton, NJ 08628 
(609)883-2050 
Manager-Owner. Barry Brown 

New York 

Computer Center 

31 East 31st 

New York, NY 10016 

(212) 889-8130 

Manager-Owner: Elliot Rabinawitz 

Leigh's Computer 
212 East 85th Street 
New York, NY 10028 
Manager-Owner: Leigh Goldstein 

CompTek 

90 John Street 

New York, NY 10038 

(212) 962-6131 

Manager-Owner: Frances Banks 

Computer Store and More 
90 John St. 
New York, NY 10038 
Manager/Owner Francis Banks 

Computer Emporium 
37 North Street 
Middletown, NY 10940 
Manager-Owner: Kate Honders 

Compu-Tech 
511 Hempstead Avenue 
West Hempstead, NY 11552 
Manager-Owner: Jim Brewington 

Software Emporium 
151 Minola Avenue 
Rosyln Heights, NY 11577 
Manager-Owner: Sheldon Ostroy 

B.C. Communications, Inc. 
World Wide Electronics Dist. 
207 Depot Road 
Huntington Sta.. NY 11746 
(516) 549-8833 

Computer Headquarters 
1245 Middle Country Road 
Selden, NY 11784 
(516) 698-9373 
Manager-Owner: James and 

n - o Kath y Lyons 

Ray s Supply 

190 Route 9 

Cohoes, NY 12047 

Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Upstate Computer Shop 
1823 Western Avenue 
Albany, NY 12203 
(518) 456-3019 
Manager-Owner: William J. Smith 

Ray's Supply 
350 Cornila Street 
Pittsburgh, NY 12901 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 




Future Distribution 
Trimex Bldg.— Route 11 
Wooers, NY 12958 
(514) 861-2831 
Manager-Owner Phillippe Faure 

Ray's Software 
412 East Jenesee Street 
Fayetteville. NY 13066 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Durmac Cash Registers 

1628 Erie Blvd. East 

Syracuse. NY 13210 

(315) 472-4531 

Manager-Owner: William McCarthy 

Upstate Computer Shop 

99 Commercial Drive 
Whitesboro. NY 13492 
(315) 768-8151 
Manager-Owner: Tony Violante 

Personal Computers, Inc. 
3251 Bailey Avenue 
Buffalo, NY 14215 

(716) 832-8800 
Manager-Owner Frank C. Smeirciak 

Pennsylvania 

One Stop Computer Shop 
65 North 5th Street 
Lemoyne, PA 17043 

(717) 761-6754 
Manager-Owner: Joanne Wright 

Micro Age Computer Store 
1352 Tilghman Street 
Allentown, PA 18102 
(215) 434-4301 
Manager-Owner. Ed Eichenwald 

Maryland 

Professional Micro Service 

100 West 22nd Street 
Baltimore, MD 21218 
(301) 366-0010 
Manager-Owner. James A. Breen 

Tri-State Computers 

1504 South Salisbury Blvd. 

Salisbury, MD 21801 

(301) 742-2020 

Manager-Owner: Tom Wetland 

Virginia 

Virginia Micro Systems 
13646 Jeff Davis Highway 
Woodbridge, VA 22191 
(703) 491-6502 
Manager-Owner: Suart Mitchell 

Unidyne Corp. 
536 Independence Blvd. 
Virginia Beach, VA 23462 
(804) 855-8037 
Manager-Owner- Vicki Knick 

CALPRO— The World of Computers 

3119 Waterlick Road 

Lynchburg, VA 24502 

(804) 237-3825 

Manager-Owner Walter Leroy Ashley 

West Virginia 

Computer Associates, Inc. 
113 Hale Street 
Charleston, WV 25301 
(304) 344-8801 
Manager-Owner: Jeff Knapp 

Alabama 

Tricelin Corporation 
Route 1. Box 128 
Bankston, AL 35542 
(205) 689-4999 

Tennessee 

American Computer Co 
1004-8th Avenue South 
Nashville. TN 37203 
Manager-Owner. Jane Maggard 



I 



FOX 20: 



FOXMFff 

"Crafty Software from THE FOX" 



TM 



The magazine for *VIC 20 users. On Cassette. 

The all magnetic magazine with 5 or more original programs per month. Game - Educational - Utility 
programs at an average cost of 88* per program. FOXTALES - our video newsletter has Articles, Hints, 
Reviews and more. Delivered monthly to your door. Give your VIC 20 value and power with FOX 20. 

Texas Residents add 5% Sales Tax $53/yr. U.S. $63/yr. Cannsda A Overseas $6.50 Singles Back Issues 



Upryte3y ter 



For the Commodore 84 



The user affectionate sprite development program. Menu-driven, mono/ multicolor sprites, joystick/key- 
board, tape/disk, 1 0K w/FAST machine language routines. Over 60 commands: ROTATE (any angle 0-360), 
INVERT/OBVERT, SHIFT, SYMMETRY, AND/OR. REVERSE, REVIEW, MOVIE (animation). Create and edit 
up to 1 28 sprites per file. For programming efficiency and FUN) Includes the Game Maker - automatically 
prepares a base for game development 
FOXPACS *—.««. 0..S34 9S 

Selected program collections for the VIC 20 and Commodore 64 • Garnet, Adventures, Educational* Home 
Utilities, Programming Utilities, etc Each FOXPAC contains 4 programs on Individual cassettes. See 
catalog for descriptions 

$20. 

All orders pre-paid (U.S. funds). Author and Oealer inquiries invited. Send for our free catalog for more 
information on these and other fine products. 



Don't be outFOXed - Run with 

toxmwr 



i 



\TM 



P.O. Box 507 

Deer Park, Texas 77536 

(713)473-6723 




A Division of Foxfire Systems, Inc. 
•VIC 20 & Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commodore Business Machines. Inc. 



C-64/VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



vv ALL BANGER - Blast your way through the dodge'm, blast' m, 
and attack modes. If you destroy the bouncing balls before they destroy 
you, the walls close in for the next round. WALLBANGER is written in 
machine language, has great sound, and encourages complex strategies. 

CA8S/5K/VIC 20 

ALL 40/80 COLUMN PETS S.CBMS (Includes Shipping/Handling) 519.95 

[CALIF. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX] 

CHICKEIM CHASE - Help your hapless hen avoid hungry 
chicken hawks, sneaky coyotes, and fiendish zompys. If your chicken gets 
into trouble, "hyper-hen" to a new spot on the maze. If your chicken 
travels the entire maze, you advance to the next level where the action is 
faster and the predators more numerous. Hi-res graphics, great sounds, 
and machine language help make CHICKEN CHASE a hilarious fun-filled 
game for the whole family. 

C-84/CASS/5K/VIC 20 (Includes Shipping/Handling) S19.95 

W%f% r\ tf* [CALIF. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX) 

ROADTOAD - Hop your toad across 5 lanes of traffic, avoid 
deadly snakes, and dodge the dreaded toad-eaters. Cross a raging river 
full of logs, turtles, alligators, and park your toad in the safety of a harbor. 
Each time you park 5 toads, you enter a tougher level where the action is 
faster and the toad-eaters are more numerous. ROADTOAD is written in 
machine language and uses high resolution graphics. The sound effects are 
excellent and you can use a joystick or the keyboard to control your toad. 

C-64/CASS/5K/VIC 20 (Includes Shipping/Handling) S19.95 

[CALIF. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX] 

NIBBLES & BITS, INC. For 



Write For 

FREE 

Catalog 



P.O. BOX 2044 
ORCUTT, CA 93455 



FREE 
Catalog 



Circle No 30 



C-64/VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



Commander July 1983/119 



KSMDJlGflGjlE 

Dealers, continued 



Metro Computer Ctr. 

416 West Main Street 

Chattanooga, TN 37402 

(615) 875-6676 

Manager-Owner: Wayne F. Wilson 

Mississippi 

Sunrise Persons Supplies 
901 South John Street 
Corinth, MS 38834 
(601) 287-4721 
Manager-Owner. Felex Gathings 

Kentucky 

All Business Computers 
Suite C-2317 Versailles Road 
Lexington. KY 40504 
(606) 253-2545 
Manager-Owner Bud Walden 

Stonehenge Computer, Inc. 
2026-29th Street 
Ashland, KY 41101 
(606) 359-0545 

Ohio 

Office Mart. Inc. 
1151 East Main Street 
Lancaster, OH 43130 
(614) 687-1707 
Manager-Owner- Pat Blake 

Computers Plus of Ohio 
1346 West 4th Street 
Mansfield, OH 43351 
Manager-Owner: Tom Young 



Circle No 19 



E®®g®B®8®ga®®®B®BBaBSBaBEBig(Ha 



§151999$ 



Computers Plus of Ohio 
127 West Wiandot Avenue 
Upper Sandusky. OH 43351 
Manager-Owner. Roger Schoenberger 

U-Compute 
Parker Steele Bldg. 
429 Monroe 
Toledo, OH 43606 
Manager-Owner. Paul Doldner 

The Computer Store of Toledo, Inc 

18 Hillwyck Drive 

Toledo, OH 43615 

(419) 535-1541 

Manager-Owner: Al and Jackie Miller 

Computer Connection 
2851 Broadway 
Lorain, OH 44055 
Manager-Owner: Terry Rieger 

Mentor TV Inc. 
7516 Mentor Avenue 
Mentor, OH 44060 
Manager-Owner: William Tomkins 

Computer Site 
14763 Pearl Road 
Strongsville, OH 44136 
Manager-Owner: Bill Sero 

Computer Corner Inc. 
5104 Mayfield Road 
Lyndhurst, OH 44124 
(216) 423-5010 
Manager-Owner: Ross Black 

Computer Showcase 

5855 Youngston-Warren Road SE 

Niles, OH 44446 

(216) 652-2571 



A Giant Step 

for the computerist 

THE PROTQUEEn 

Opens up the world of modern elec- 
tronics. Now - a complete microde- 
velopment system in a cartridge using 
the Commodore VIC-20. You get 
HEXKIT 1 .0 for general purpose 8 bit 
microprocessor software develop- 
ment, a 4K ROM emulator for testing 
program in circuits under develop- 
ment plus an EPROM programmer 
for making hard copy of programs. 
All-in-one cartridge ajuhaa 
with 1 00 page *1 QQUU 

tutorial manual. I w w 

Gloucester Computer, Inc. 

1 Blackburn Center, 
Gloucester MA 01930 
Phone 617-283-7719 



fT*arna*J£fcwt 




Waltz Photo 
438 Sixth Street 
Canton, OH 44701 
(216) 455-9421 
Manager-Owner: Brad Zupp 

Central News Co. 
2115 George St 
Sandusky. OH 44870 
Manager/Owner: Jim Justice 

Wards Computers, Inc. 
868 Ohio Pike 
Cincinnati, OH 45245 
(513) 752-2882 
Manager-Owner: Carl Ward 

Computer Plus of Ohio 
123 East Main Cross Street 
Findlay. OH 45840 
Manager-Owner: Mike Deitelbach 

Indiana 

Allan's Jewelry & Loan Co. 
130 East 10th Street 
Anderson, IN 46016 
(317) 642-7978 
Manager. Jerry Rubenstein 

McCarels Computers 
1204 Meridian Plaza 
Anderson, IN 46016 
(317) 643-2662 

AVC Corporation 
2702 Applegate 
Indianapolis. IN 46203 
Manager-Owner: Brent Enderle 

Impair 
342 Bosart 

Indianapolis. IN 46201 
(317) 353-9947 
Manager-Owner: Fred Imhausen 

A Computer Store 
2140 North Mithoefor Road 
Indianapolis, IN 46229 
(317) 898-0331 
Manager-Owner: Skip Robbins 

Computer Plus 
1501 Joliet Street 
Dyer, IN 46311 

Manager-Owner: Nancy L. Gray and 
Ronald Piercy 

Computer People 
900 Highway 212 
Michigan City, IN 46360 
(219) 879-8557 
Manager-Owner: Harry Hopkins 

General Micro Computers 
52303 Emmons Road 
South Bend, IN 46637 
Manager-Owner: John Levy 

Computer Corner 
6722 East State Blvd. 
Fort Wayne, IN 46815 
(219) 749-8338 
Manager-Owner; Tom Kutina 

Custom Software 

3197 South 3rd Place 

Terre Haute, IN 47802 

(812) 234-3242 

Manager-Owner: Vicki McEntaffer 

North Carolina 

The Program Center 

3400A West Wendover Avenue 

Greensboro, NC 27407 

(919)855-8667 

Manager-Owner: Rupert Fenequito 

Piedmont Microsystems Inc 
Route 3, Box 150 H 
Frazier Professional Bldg. 
Newton, NC 28658 
(704) 465-3600 
Manager-Owner: Lome Michael 



Bob West Computers 
54 West Main Street 
Brevard, NC 28712 
(704)883-2595 
Manager-Owner: Sylvia West 

Georgia 

Cardinal Computers 
903 North Gleenwood 
Dalton, GA 30720 
(404) 226-0502 

Integrated Systems, Inc. 

3300 Buckeye Road NE. Suite 178 

Atlanta, GA 30341 

(404) 458-0713 

Florida 

COMPUTECH 
1415 Timberlane Road 
Tallahassee, FL 32312 
(904) 893-1743 
Manager-Owner: Dan Evans 

Random Access Computers 
296 Eglin Parkway 
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548 
(904) 862-7763 
Manager-Owner. Joanne Dodd 

Florida Book Store 
1614 West University Avenue 
Gainesville, FL 32604 
(904) 376-6066 

Skippers Inc. 

217 SE 1st Avenue 

Ocala, FL 32671 

(904) 732-3221 

Manager-Owner: David Lee Skipper 

Osceola Computer 

1300 Dakota Avenue 

St. Cloud, Fl 32769 

(305) 892-1501 

Manager-Owner: Raymond Barrieau 

Sigma Systems of Orlando 
590 North Semoran Blvd. 
Orlando. FL 32807 
(305) 273-2434 
Manager-Owner: Tom Clance 

Computer Specialties. Inc. 
701 East Lincoln Avenue 
PO Box 1718 
Melbourne, FL 32901 
(305) 725-6574 
Manager-Owner: Otis P. Lutz 

Software Centrum 
2305 Ponce De Leon Blvd 
Coral Gables. FL 33134 
Manager/Owner: Chris Perez 

Micro Byte, Inc 
13710 SW 56 Street 
Miami, FL 33175 
(305) 385-2108 

Manager-Owner. Ed Silverman and 
Lyman Conover 

Focus Scientific 
224 North Federal Highway 
Fort Lauderdale. FL 33301 
(305) 462-1010 
Manager-Owner: M. Reinhardt 

The Software Connection 

5460 North State Road 7, Suite 108 | 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 33319 

Business Machines 

2821 Pinewood Avenue 

West Palm Beach, FL 33407 

(305) 655-4730 

Manager-Owner: Robert Frazier, Jr. 

The Software and Computer Store 
1506 Gulf-to-Bay 
Clearwater. FL 33515 
(813) 442-8803 
Manager-Owner- Charles Kautz 



120/Commander July 1983 



User Clubs 



Massachusetts 

Masspet Commodore User Group 
P.O. Box 307 
East Taunton, MA 02718 
Contact— David A. Rogers 

New Hampshire 

TBH VIC-NIC CLUB 
PO Box 981 
Salem, NH 03079 
Contact— J. Newman 
Publication-VIC-NIC NEWS 
Interests— VIC-20 Exclusively 

New York 

National VIC Association 
9 Crabapple Lane 
Nanuet, NY 10954 
Contact— Michael Kleiner! 
(914)623-8929 

North Carolina 

Micro-Computer Users Club 
P.O. Box 17142 
Bethabara Station 
Winston-Salem, N.C. 27116 
Contact— Joel D. Brown 
Interests— VIC-20 & CBM 64 
Newsletter— The "VIC" Connection 

Florida 

Miami 2064 
12911 SW 49th Street 
Miami, FL 33175 
Contact— Jim Luftman 
(305) 226-1185 

Kentucky 

The Commodore Connection 
1010 South Elm 
Henderson, KY 42420 
Contact— Jim Kemp 
(502)827-8153 
Interests— VIC, CMB 64, PET 

Ohio 

Central Ohio PET User's Group 
107 South Westmoor Avenue 
Columbus, OH 43204 
Contact— Philip H. Lynch 
(614) 274-0304 
Interests— Support of all 
Commodore Products 

Commodore Youths of Ohio 

9729 Lawndell 

Navarre, Ohio 44662 

Contact— Todd Archinal 

(216) 767-3514 

Interests— Commodore Users under 20 

SW Ohio VIC Users Club 
659 Carthage Avenue 
Cincinnati, OH 45215 
Contact— Tom E. Harris 
761-7510 



Public Domain 
5025 South Rangelme Road 
West Milton, OH 
Contact: Bill Munch 
(613) 698-5638 

Indiana 

The VIC Indy Club 
PO Box 11543 
Indianapolis, IN 46201 
Contact— Linda Kropzer 
(317) 878-3342 

Michigan 

Michigan's Commodore-64 Users Club 

14342 Stephens 

Warren, Mi 48089 

Contact— Doug Schwartz 

(313) 776-5835 or 

Chuck Ciesliga 

(313) 773-6302 

Newsletter— Sprite 64 (monthly) 

Interests— All uses of Commodore 64 



South Dakota 

VIC-64 Users Club 
203 East Sioux Avenue 
Pierre, SD 57501 
Contact— Larry J. Lundeen 
(605) 224-4863 

Illinois 

The Fox Valley PET User's Club 

833 Willow Street 

Lake in the Hills, IL 60102 

Contact— Art Dekneef 

(312) 658-7321 

Chicagoland C-64 Users Club 
190 Oakwood Drive 
Woodale, IL 60191 
Contact— Russ Hurlbut 
(312) 860-2015 

Kansas 

Commodore Users Group of Wichita 
Route 1, Box 115 
Viola, Kansas 67149 



Texas 

Commodore (Houston) Users Group 
8738 Wildforest 
Houston, TX 77088 



California 

SFVCUG (San Fernando Valley 

Commodore Users Group) 
21208 Nashville 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 
Contact— Thomas Lynch (President) 
(213) 889-2211 X2015 Days 
(213) 7094736 Nights 
Newsletter— Monthly 
Interests— All Commodore Products 



Commodore Interest Association 
c/o Computer Data 
14660 La Paz Drive 
Victorville, CA 92392 

Amateurs and Artesian 
PO Box 682 
Cobb, CA 95426 
Contact: B. Alexander KR6G 



Washington 

Cyborg Gazette 

30023-1 18th Avenue SE 

Auburn, Washington 98002 

Contact— Ben Dunnmgton 

(206) 939-0582 

(206) 924-6992 

Newsletter— Commodore 64 Magazine 

Queen City Computer Club 
PO Box 19597 
Seattle, WA 98109 
Contact— Dr. Ted Cooper 
(206) 282-3271 



A.T.S. VIC-20 Computer Club 
7906-34th Avenue SW 
Seattle, WA 98126 
Contact— Ken Gazaway 
(206) 935-2697 
Publication— For VIC-20 only 

Whidbey Island 

Commodore Computer Club 
PO Box 1471 
Oak Harbor, WA 98277 
Contact— Michael Clark 
(206) 675-4815 
Donald Sims 
(206) 675-0301 
Newsletter: Chips "N Bits 



Central Washington Commodore 

User's Club 
1222 South 1st Street 
Yakima, WA 98902 
Contact— Bob Wood or 

Tim McElroy 

Commodore 64 Users 
West 1918 Boone Avenue 
Spokane, WA 99201 
Contact— Terry or Sara Voss 
(509) 327-7202 



Canada 

Winnipeg PET Users 

9-300 Enms Killeo 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R2V 0H9 

Contact: Larry Nevfeld 



Commander July 1983/121 



Circle No. Page No. 

1 Aardvark 99 

2 Academy Software 98 

37 Apropos Technology 104 

68 Basic Electronic Business 

Systems, Inc 111 

3 Boston Educational 

Computing, Inc 87 

69 Bowley Publishing Group 114 

39 Briley Software 35 

50 Bytes and Pieces 94 

5 Century Micro 112 

6 CGRS Micro Tech 116 

66 CiR-KIT Engineering 87 

43 Codeworks 54 

7 Comm*Data Software 1 , 62-63 

8 Commodore 64 Users Group 107 

9 Compu-sense 29, 33, 112, 115 

10 Computer Alliance .39 

1 1 Computer Marketing 79, 92 

12 Computer Mat 57, 105 

44 Creative Software 105, 106 

13 Data Equipment Supply Corp 89 

72 DC Circuits . ... 113 

49 Dungeoness Software 43 

1 4 Eastern House 54 

15 Electronic Specialties, Inc 37 

16 Event Horizon 123 

51 Fox Fire Systems 119 

17 French Silk 24, 85 

18 Galactic. 25 

19 Gloucester Computer, inc 120 

52 info-Designs 3 

70 Input Systems 42 

20 Intelligent Software 107 

53 Journal/20 44 

21 J. Systems Corporation 110 

22 Leading Edge Back Cover 



Circle No. Page No. 

23 Liberty Computer Distributers 81 

24 Luna Software 124 

26 Micro-Ed 31 

28 Micro Spec 74 

29 Micro Systems Development 45 

55 Microware Distributors 19 

25 Midwest Micro 2 

56 Mystic Software 35 

30 Nibbles & Bits, Inc 119 

31 Optimized Data Systems 43 

71 PACE 70 

57 Parr Programing 17 

32 Performance Micro Products 120 

33 Precision Technology, Inc 98 

58 Progressive Peripherals and 

Software 33 

34 Protecto 102 

35 Psycom Software 118 

47 Public Domain 29 

36 Quantum Data 22 

59 S.A.V.E 15, 41 

60 SJB Distributors 95 

38 Skylight Software . .39 

65 The Software Clearing House .37 

62 Southern Solutions 5 

64 Susie Software 24 

40 SW Computers 67 

41 Synapse Software Inside Front Cover 

61 Systems Management Associates 41 

42 Tamarack Software 83 

27 Telegames Software 113 

4 T-N-T 110 

45 Toronto PET Users Group 54 

46 TOTL Software 113 

67 Texas Technical Services 74 

48 Victory Software Inside Back Cover 

63 WAVE Computers, Inc 87 



122/Commander July 1983 



— 



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Dealer inquiries invited 



Circle No 16 




If you own a VIC 20 or 
Commodore '64 get 
ready to explore the 
potential of these fine 
machines with LUNA 
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We have broken free of 
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LUNA's full line of arcade 
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LUNA SOFTWARE, P. O. Box 26922, San Jose, CA 95159-6922 (408) 378-7793 

:le No 24 



Circle r 













ADVENTURE 

THE KEY 

IS 

YOUR COMPUTER 



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COMMANDER 

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OPINION POLL 



Opinions of our Readers help the staff of Commander 
make a better magazine. The more we at Commander 
know about who you are and what your interests are, the 
better we can serve your needs. That Is the reason for our 
new Reader's Opinion Poll. Please return this self- 
addressed post card to Commander. 



Sex: 



Male 



Female 



Age: Fj Under 14 15 17 

I 18 19 20-21 Z 25-29 

□ 30 34 Z 35-44 U 45 + 

Zip Code: 



Income: 

: Under $5000 

: $5000-59999 
12 $15,000 $14,999 
:.i $15,000-519 999 
D $20. 000- $24 999 
I . 25.000 + 

What Computer do you 
presently own? D VIC-20 

Z 64 PET J , PET/CBM 

Z SuperPET Z 128 Series 



How many hours per week do 
you spend with your computer in 
the following areas: 

Entertainment 

Business 

Educational 

Programming 

Hobby 

Please rate the following features 
from 1 (worst) to 10 (great). 

TeltTommander 

Compukids 

Living with 

Practical 
An Introduction lo 

Assembly Language on 

the VIC 20 




Um oniv nnc raid fm p*-rs 



JULY 1983 



VOL. 1, ISSUE 8 



Name 

(Please type or print) 

Company Name (if applicable) 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



1. What is your present computer system? A D VIC-20 B □ Commodore 64 C I PET D D PET/CBM 
E . SuperPET F □ 128 Series 

2. What do you expect to purchase in the next six months? A . More Memory B Z Printer Modem 
C Disk Drives D f. Business Software E '. Game Software F > Educational Software ") Utility 

Word Processing 

3. What is the primary use of your computer? A C Business B Li Education Home C Classroom 
D Games E I. Graphics F ~_~J Utility G Z Music H Electronics 

Circle the number(s) on the card that corresponds to the numbers next to the Advertisment, New Product, or 
News Release for which you would like more information. The Reader Service numbers also appear next to the 
Advertisers' names in the Advertisers Index. Mail the card and the literature you have requested will be mailed 
to you. free of charge, directly from the manufacturer. 

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