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$2.95 

U.S. FUNDS 



MAY 1983 VOL 1 ISSUE 6 




The Monthly Journal for Commodore Computer Users 




elecommander 



'eek and Poke 



Tired of chasing your 

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Drelbs for the Commodore 64", and Astro 
Patrol. Squeeze and Harrier for the VIO20" 
Cartridge versions available soon. 

Other titles available for the Atari 400 800 
computers. 



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^ ^ THE PHARAOH'S CURSE 

v^ : // A fortune — yours for the tak- 

<i/ ing. But can you avoid the 

ghost of Rama and the eviJ 
mummy? Are you nimble 
• ■ ',^yy enough to leap the chasms 

\0tf and avoid the booby traps 

standing between you and 
freedom? 



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SURVIVOR 

The first muki -player coop- 
erative space adventure. 
Alone or with your hand- 
picked crew (1 to 4 players) 
you must out -maneuver the 
Xenogryph fleet and destroy 
their space fortresses. Can 
you train yourself and or your 
crew to survive? 



SHAMUS 

The odor tells you the Shad- 
ow/ s there — in one of four 
levels of 32 rooms, each bris- 
tling with danger. You know 
it won't be a high school 
prom, but there's no turning 
back. Shamus — the sleuth 
adventure classic. 













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id ing $2 for 
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FT. APOCALYPSE 

r mission — fly your heli- 
copter to capture fuel and 
weapons from the Kraal than 
ds of Inner Earth, free the 
slaved masses and destroy 
■jie fortress itself. Will you 
triumph or be crushed by its 
fiendish defenses? Encounter 
Fort Apocalypse! 



PROTECTOR II 
You are the last hope! The 
Fraxullan Slimehordes are 
attacking your cities and 
carrying off their citizens. 
Can you get your people to 
safety as volcanoes erupt and 
enemy forces conspire to 
thwart your every effort? 




V 



cnfnm*DJ=iTfl SOFTWARE 






GUIDES YOU AND YOUR 
VIC 20* DOWN ROADS OF 
ADVENTURE WITH: 



Maelstrom* 
Escape MCP* 
Gator Chase* 
Astro Command 
Caves of Annod 
Capture the Beast 
Whirlwind Rescue* 
Street Maze 
The Market 
Chivalry 



THROUGH TRAILS OF 
CREATIVITY WITH: 

• Sketch and Paint 




12345 ♦! 

\9x9=81 8 




ALONG THE PATH TO 
KNOWLEDGE WITH: 






Quality software also available 
for Pet and Commodore 64 computers 



Wordspot 

Math Tutor Series 

Alphabet Tutor 

Conversion 

Gotcha Math 

English Invaders 

Math Invaders Series 



ASK FOR COMM*DATA 

COMPUTER HOUSE SOFTWARE 

AT YOUR LOCAL DEALER. 

Or Send for FREE Catalog: 

COMM*DATA COMPUTER HOUSE 

320 Summit Avenue 

Milford, Michigan 48042 

(313) 685-0113 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome. 



VIC 20 is a Registered Trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 
*High Res Full Machine Code Arcade Style Games. 



V7SA 



Circle No. 7 




TYPING TUTOR 
WORD INVADERS 



I 




JOIN THE 
COMPUTER 
REVOLUTION 
WITH A MASTERY 
OF THE KEYBOARD! 
In the age of the computer, everyone 
from the school child to the Chairman of 
the Board should be at home at the 
computer keyboard. Soon there will be 
a computer terminal on every desk and 
in every home. Learn how to use it right 
...and have some fun at the same time ! 

Rated THE BEST educational program for the VIC 20™ 
by Creative Computing Magazine 

TYPING TUTOR PLUS WORD INVADERS -$21.95 

(2 programs on one cassette tape for the unexpanded VIC 20 m ) 

Typing Tutor plus Word Invaders makes learning the keyboard easy and fun! 
Typing Tutor teaches the keyboard in easy steps. Word Invaders makes typing 
practice an entertaining game. Highly praised by customers: 

"Typing Tutor is great!", "Fantastic", "Excellent", High quality", "A source of 
great joy and learning for our children", "Even my little sister likes it", "Word 
Invaders is sensational!" 

Customer comment says it all . . . 

"... and it was everything you advertised it would be. In three weeks, my 13 year 
old son, who had never typed before,was typing 35 w.p.m. I had improved my 
typing speed 15 w.p.m. and my husband was able to keep up with his college 
typing class by practicing at home. " 




SPECIAL 
VERSION OF 
TYPING TUTOR 
PLUS WORD INVADERS 
NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE 
COMMODORE 64™...$21. 95 (Tape) 

AH of the features of the VIC 20™ Version and more 





sprite ir-aa. 

DESIGNER ] 

by Dr. Lee T.Hill | T. ... 

$16.95(Tape)$21.95(Pisfc) LssaJ 

Create and then transform sprites automatically. We 
have the other sprite making programs, but this is the 
one we use to make sprites. The automatic transfor- 
mations are great! 

^^^ Shipping and handling $1.00 per 
^B5r order. California residents add 6% 
^^^M sales tax. VISA and Mastercard 
orders must include full name as shown on card, card 
number, and expiration date. Free catalog sent with 
order and on request. 

ACADEIil? 

SOFW^RE 

P.O. Box 9403, San Rafael, C A 9491 2 (41 5) 499-0850 



Programmers: Write to our New Program Manager concerning any exceptional VIC 20TM or Commodore 64TM game or other program you have developed. 



Circle No. 2 



Call for Clubs and Newsletters Directory 

To be included in the first edition of the Commander Clubs and 
Newsletters Directory, your club or publication must supply the 
following information: 

1 . name of organization or publication 

2. mailing address 

3. contact person and telephone number 

4. name of newsletter or publication 

5. special interests 

Send your information to Clubs and Newsletters Directory, 
Commander, P.O. Box 98827, Tacoma, Washington 98498. 



Commander— The Monthly Journal for Commodore Computer Users is published monthly by Micro Systems 
Specialties, P.O. Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 98498. Domestic Subscriptions, 12 issues, $22.00. Second Class 
Postage pending at Tacoma, WA 98143 and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to: 
Commander— The Monthly Journal for Commodore Computer Users; P.O. Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 
98498. Entire contents copyright © 1982 by Micro Systems Specialties. All Rights Reserved. 



2/Commander May 1983 



VIC 20™ and 
Commodore 64™ 
expansion products 
from Micro Systems 
Development. 



A The Interbus Series. Three interfaces for the VIC 20 and 
Commodore 64: one for IEEE 488, one for RS 232 and one 
for Parallel. 

The VIE and QE are IEEE 488 interfaces for the ViC 20. 
When plugged into the expansion port, the cartridge is 
"transparent," that is, the user can still attach other peripherals 
without any interference. Devices such as 4040, 8050, 2031, 2032, 
4022 and 8023 can be controlled. The IEEE software can be called 
by using the 'SYS' command, even in the middle of a 
BASIC program. 

The V232 and C232 are serial interface cartridges which 
allow connection of various input/output devices such as printers, 
modems, plotters, etc. to VIC 20 or Commodore 64 computers. 
Features include: positive and negative voltage swings to meet full 
EIA standards, straps and jumpers to allow reconfiguration to meet 
pinouts for any RS232 device, and software selectable reconfigura- 
tion such as baud rate, parity, and duplex mode. 

The VPI and CP! are parallel interfaces for the VIC 20 and 
Commodore 64. These interfaces provide direct BASIC use of the 
parallel printer bus and give "invisible" access to the bus. The 
VPI can be used only on the VIC 20 and uses the expansion port. 
The CPI will work with both the VIC 20 and Commodore 64 and 
does not use the expansion port. The CPI also has switches for set- 
ting insertion or deletion of line feed* conversion of Commodore 
A$3! into standard ASCII or visa versa, addresses printer to device 
4, 5, 6 or 7, and allows normally unprintable Commodore characters 
so be printed in a recognizable form. 

B Expandoport Series. Expandoport 3 and Expandoport 6 are 
three- and six-slot expansion boards for the VIC 20. Each slot on 
the Expandoport 6 has a switch for controlling power to that con- 
nector. The switch allows the use of cartridges which respond to the 
same memory space. The Expandoport 6 also has a fuse and reset 
switch. The fuse prevents excessive current drain from the VIC 20 
and protects it from 'shorts". The reset switch allows the user to 
'Restart' the VIC 20 without turning power off. This feature allows 
RAM, which is located in the ROM expansion area, to be protected 
during 'Restart'. 

Expandoport 4 is a four port expansion board for the 
Commodore 64. It has the same features as the Expandoport 6 and 
even allows for the use of varying width cartridges. 

C Terminal Pak Series. The VTE 40 Terminal Emulator 
(VTE 40) is a hardware and software package which converts trie 
VIC 20 into a 40-column communications terminal. The VTE 40 
cartridge is complete. Various set-up parameters such as baud rate, 
parity duplex, and bits per character can be selected through a 
'menu* format. VTE 40 features are: 40 x 25 text display user 
definable communication specs, smooth or normal scroll, print infor- 
mation to printer or disk, generation of control codes, selective 
omission of data, continuous status line, 

The CTE/VTE Terminal Emulator (CTE/VTE) is a software 
program which converts the VIC 20 or Commodore 64 into a ter- 
minal. The user can 'software select' the baud rate compatible with 
the modem used Full upper and lower case characters are supported 

D Audio Link. An audio cassette adapter interface for the 
VIC 20. Features include: use of regular cassette recorders, conver- 
sion of VIC 20 digital data to audio and visa versa, normal and 
inverted cassette signal, remote on/off control and control of 
external devices. 

E VRAM. These memory expansion modules are designed to 
provide additional user programming space for the VIC 20 system. 
VRAM plugs into the memory expansion port and requires no 
additional power or modification to the VIC 20 system. The units are 
packaged as 3K, 8K, 16K and 24K modules. Strapping is provided 
for mapping 8K blocks of memory into the various available 
memory blocks. 

VIC 2QTM and commodore &4™ CAM™ and PET™ are westered trademarks ul Commodore 
Business Machines. 

E*pandopoTl. Audio Link, Interim Temiirfcal Pak, VRAM and Monitor4ink ire mpywrfted by Micro 
Systems Devetopmenl. Inc 




Interbus Series, 



B Expandoport Series. 




C Terminal Pak Series. 



D Audio Link. 


















3K RAM 


*«. 




[r^r' 






■ r '^w*\i 


U**- 




[ -*" *\- - 


-.+ vv 




k. x J 




S^^ jM 


E VRAM. 



Call toll free 
for nearest dealer 

1-800-527-5285 

Lifetime warranty 
available upon 

return of Product 
warranty card 




MICRO SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT, INC. 

Ill OS SHADY TRAIL • SUITE 1CW • DALLAS, TEXAS 7SES3 



Table of Contents 



STAFF 

Publisher 

THOMAS L. ROSENBAUM 

Editor 

ALICIA A. LINDEN 

Dealer/Distributor/Manager 
DEBBIE GABBARD 

Sales Manager 
TERILYN M. FLOYD 

Advertising/Article Manager 
LINDA L. LINDEN 

Typesetting 
GRANGE PRINTING 

Consultant 
EDWIN SUND 
GEORGE R. GAUKEL 
JOHN GABBARD 

Production Artists 
MIKE BRIGHENTI 
BRIAN D. THOMPSON 
JON WONG 

Printed By 
GRANGE PRINTING 

COMMANDER is published monthly by: 

MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES, PO Box 98827, 

Tacoma, Washington 98498 



Subscription Rates (U.S. Funds) 


Per Year 


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For back issues, subscriptions, 


change of 


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other information, write to: 






COMMANDER 






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Tacoma, Washington 98498 






(206) 584-6757 






BACK ISSUES— 






2 months old-$4.50 







Copyright© 1983 by MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES 
All Rights Reserved 



COVER BY: 

Randy "Tarkas" Hoar 

4/Commander May 1983 



6 

10 
14 
15 
37 

20 
59 
40 

43 

44 
54 

56 
58 



TELECOMMANDER 
by Donald L. Stoner 

LOGIC GATES: A Light Technical View: 
by Howard Rotenberg 

UNIVERSAL ROLL PAPER HOLDER 
by Louis F. Sander 

LIVING WITH QUICK BROWN FOX 
by Colin Thompson 

PACKING ARRAYS INTO RELATIVE FILES 
by Paul Donato 

AN INTRODUCTION TO ASSEMBLY Language 
Programming on the VIC-20: Part V: Branches and 
Comparisons 
by Eric Giguere 

PEEK and POKE— A Users Instruction Sheet 
by George Gaukel 

ARRAY ASSIGNMENT SORT 
by David Steffes & 
Art Dudley 

BUILD YOUR OWN COMPUTER TABLE 
by Spike Bickel 

FORMATTING AND ERROR CHECKING 
By Tony Lamartina 

QUANDRA ROM: A Product Review 
By Howard Rotenberg 

PEDISK II FLOPPY DISK SYSTEM: 
A Product Review 
by Louis F. Sander 

IN MY OPINION 
by Fred Dart 



DEPARTMENTS 



75 


New Products 


61 


News Releases 


52 


Product Reviews 


50 


Game Reviews 


71 


Bits & Pieces 


46 


Game Contest 


89 


Users Clubs 


82 


Dealers 


88 


Distributors 


90 


Advertisers Index 



AARDVARK - THE ADVENTURE PLACE 
TRS-80 COLOR COMMODORE 24 VIC-20 SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99 



WE CARRY MORE THAN ADVENTURES!! 

MAXI-PROS WORD PROCESSING ftf^ 

The easiest to use word processor that I 
know of. Has all the features of a major word 
processor {right and left margin justification, 
page numbering, global and line editing, single, 
double, triple spacing, text centering, etc.) at 
a very cheap price because we wrote it in 
BASIC. Includes 40 page manual and learning 
guide. Easily modified to handle almost any 
printer combination. Available on disk or tape 
for VIC20, COMMODORE64, and TRS-80 
COLOR computer. Requires 13k RAM on 
Vic, 16k EXTENDED on TRS-80 COLOR. ^ 
$19.95 on tape $24.95 on disk. ^ 

GENERAL LEDGER - Complete bookkeep- 
ing for a small business. Disk required. For 
Vic20 (13k), Commodore64, TRS^80 COLOR 
(16k EXTENDED). $69.95 (Send $1.00 for 
manual before ordering.) 




LABYRINTH - 16K EXTENDED COLOR 
BASIC — With amazing 3D graphics, you fight 
your way through a maze facing real time 
monsters. The graphics are real enough to 
cause claustrophobia. 

Similar game for Timex/Sinclair 16k - hunting 
treasure instead of monsters $14.95. 




ADVENTURE WRITING/DEATHSHIP by 
Rodger Olsen — This is a data sheet showing 
how we do it. It is about 14 pages of detailed 
instructions how to write your own adven- 
tures. It contains the entire text of Deathship. 
Data sheet - $3.95. NOTE: Owners of TI99, 
TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Vic 20 computers 
can also get Deathship on tape for an addi- 
tional $5.00. 

Dealers— We have the best deal going for you. 
Good discounts, exchange programs, and fac- 
tory support. Send for Dealer Information. 
Authors — Aardvark pays the highest commis- 
sions in the industry and gives programs the 
widest possible advertising coverage. Send a 
Self Addressed Stamped Envelope for our 
Authors Information Package. 



ADVENTURES - Adventures are a unique 
form of computer game. They let you spend 
30 to 70 hours exploring and conquering a 
world you have never seen before. There is 
little or no luck in Adventuring. The rewards 
are for creative thinking, courage, and wise 
gambling - not fast reflexes. 

In Adventuring, the computer speaks and 
listens to plain English. No prior knowledge 
of computers, special controls, or games is re- 
quired so everyone enjoys them — even people 
who do not like computers. 

Except for Quest, itself unique among Ad- 
venture games. Adventures are non-graphic. 
Adventures are more li ke a novel than a comic 
book or arcade game. It is like reading a par- 
ticular exciting book where you are the main 
character. 

All of the Adventures in this ad are in Basic. 
They are full featured, fully plotted adventures 
that will take a minimum of thirty hours (in 
several sittings) to play. 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, TRS- 
80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires extended 
BASIC. Now available for TI99. 



TREK ADVENTURE by Bob Retelle - This 
one takes place aboard a familiar starship and 
is a must for trekkies. The problem is a famil- 
iar one — The ship is in a "decaying orbit" 
(the Captain never could learn to park!) and 
the engines are out (You would think that in 
all those years, they would have learned to 
build some that didn't die once a week). Your 
options are to start the engine, save the ship, 
get off the ship, or die. Good Luck. 

Authors note to players — I wrote this one 
with a concordance in hand. It is very accurate 
— and a lot of fun. It was nice to wander 
around the ship instead of watching it on T.V. 

DERELICT by Rodger Olsen and Bob Ander- 
son - For Wealth and- Glory, you have to ran- 
sack a thousand year old space ship. You'll 
have to learn to speak their language and 
operate the machinery they left behind. The 
hardest problem of all is tojive through it. 

Authors note to players — This adventure 
is the new winner in the "Toughest Adventure 
at Aardvark Sweepstakes". Our most difficult 
problem in writing the adventure was to keep 
it logical and realistic. There are no irrational 
traps and sudden senseless deaths in Derelict. 
This ship was designed to be perfectly safe for 
its' builders. It just happens to be deadly to 
alien invaders like you. 

Dungeons of Death — Just for the 16k TRS- 
80 COLOR, this is the first D&D type game 
good enough to qualify at Aardvark. This is 
serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 players to go 
on a Dragon Hunting, Monster Killing, Dun- 
geon Exploring Quest. Played on an on-screen 
map, you get a choice of race and character 
(Human, Dwarf, Soldier, Wizard, etc.), a 
chance to grow from game to game, and a 15 
page manual. At the normal price for an Ad- 
venture ($14.95 tape, $19.95 disk), this is a 
giveaway. 



PYRAMID by Rodger Olsen - This is one of 
our toughest Adventures. Average time 
through the Pyramid is 50 to 70 hours. The 
old boys who built this Pyramid did not mean 
for it to be ransacked by people like you. 

Authors note to players — This is a very 
entertaining and very tough adventure. I left 
clues everywhere but came up with some in- 
genous problems. This one has captivated 
people so much that I get calls daily from as 
far away as New Zealand and France from 
bleary eyed people who are stuck in the 
Pyramid and desperate for more clues. 

MARS by Rodger Olsen - Your ship crashed- 
on the Red Planet and you have to get home. 
You will have to explore a Martian city, repair 
your ship and deal with possibly hostile aliens 
to get home again. 

Authors note to players — This is highly 
recommended as a first adventure. It is in no 
way simple— playingtime normally runs from 
30 to 50 hours — but it is constructed in a 
more "open" manner to let you try out ad- 
venturing and get used to the game before 
you hit the really tough problems. 




QUEST by Bob Retelle and Rodger Olsen - 

THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM ALL THE 
OTHER GAMES OF ADVENTURE!!!! It is 
played on a computer generated map of 
Alesia. You lead a small band of adventurers 
on a mission to conquer the Citadel of Moor- 
lock. You have to build an army and then arm 
and feed them by combat, bargaining, explora- 
tion of ruins and temples, and outright ban- 
ditry. The game takes 2 to 5 hours to play 
and is different each time. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice visual effects and sound. Not 
available on OSI. This is the most popular 
game we have ever published, 

32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $24.95. 
Adds a second level with dungeons and 
more Questing. 

PRICE AND AVAILABILITY: 

All adventures are $14.95 on tape. Disk 
versions are available on VIC/COMMODORE 
and TRS-80 Color for $2.00 additional. $2.00 
shipping charge on each order. 



Please specify system on all orders 
ALSO FROM AARDVARK — This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 

AARDVARK 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 / (313) 669-3110 
Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 
TRS-80 COLOR TIMEX/SINCLAIR COMMODORE 64 

$2.00 shipping on each order 

Circle No. 1 Commander May 1983/5 




asm s 



aaoHji 



Telecommander 



by Donald L. Starrer 
Mercer Island, WA 



After the novelty wears off and 
you've typed in the simple programs 
in the user guide, what do you do with 
your new computer? You can (and 
should) study the commands and 
learn how they relate to the programs 
you've entered. In a very short time, 
you'll acquire a very respectable 
knowledge of BASIC and how it 
operates. 

However, if you are a typical new 
VIC or C-64 owner, "byte boredom" 
takes over at some point. Few 
newcomers realize it, but the acquisi- 
tion of a computer can unlock the door 
to an exciting new world. I am not 
referring to programming or playing 
computer games. 

Rather, the "new frontier" is 
telecommunications. In other words, 
connecting your computer, by means 
of the telephone network, to another 
computer. You can interact with tens 
of thousands of others just like 
yourself. The craze is sweeping the 
country just like CB did a few years 
ago (in fact, there are some remark- 
able similarities). You can communi- 
cate with another "good buddy," clear 
across the country simply by making 
a local telephone call. There are also 
free dial-up bulletin boards and inex- 
pensive national data bases (collec- 
tions of information) at the other end 
of your telephone wire. More about 
these later. 

My command of the English langu- 
age is simply inadequate to convey the 
thrill of computer-to-computer com- 
munications. While I consider myself 
a jaded computerist, I still get a "kick" 
out of keyboarding and trading pro- 
grams with someone thousands of 
miles away. If you have any doubt 
about whether computer telecom- 
munications is for you, locate someone 
who is already "telecommunicating" 
and ask for a demonstration. I have yet 

6/Commander May 1983 



to find anyone who doesn't like to 
show off his communications setup. 
Check with your user group or local 
computer store. They will refer you to 
someone who will be glad to get you 
"hooked." 

How Does Computer 

Telecommunications Work? 

To explore this exciting new world, 
you will require two items. The first is 
called a modem. This device is used 
to interface your computer to the 
telephone line. The word is a contrac- 
tion of the terms modulator and 
demodulator. 

The purpose of the modem is to 
slow down and convert the data bits 
racing around inside your computer to 
a form that can be sent over the 
telephone line. This is accomplished 
by converting the ones and zeros into 
standardized tone pairs, similar to 
what you hear when you press the 
keys on your telephone. 

The telephone spectrum (300 to 
3000 cycles) is divided up into two 
sections in order to keep your tones 
separated from those of the computer 
you are talking to. One pair has a fre- 
quency of 2225 cycles (a one) and 
2025 cycles (a zero). A second pair is 
established at 1 270 cycles (a one) and 
1070 cycles (a zero). Thus, you send 
one pair of tones, while the computer 
you are "talking" to sends the op- 
posite pair. The electronic circuitry to 
convert the ones and zeros to tones is 
called the modulator. If you haven't al- 
ready guessed, the circuit to convert 
the incoming tones back into ones and 
zeros is called the demodulator. The 
box which combines both these cir- 
cuits is called a modulator-demodula- 
tor or modem. 

There are two principal types of 
modems presently in use. The older 
type is called an acoustic coupler. As 



the name implies, the incoming and 
outgoing tones are coupled into the 
telephone line acoustically. This is 
done by placing the telephone hand- 
set into little rubber cups. Below the 
cups (inside the black box) is another 
microphone and earphone very similar 
to the ones inside your telephone. 
While they are now obsolete, acoustic 
couplers were quite popular. They do 
not connect to the telephone line and, 
therefore, did not require approval of 
the Federal Communication Commis- 
sion. 

Because they use acoustics, these 
modems are extremely noisy. You can 
always hear the whistles and in a quiet 
room, the noise is very distracting. Fur- 
ther, they pick up noise (such as a 
clacking typewriter) which produces 
"garbage" in the transmission. 

The shortcomings of the acoustic 
coupler were overcome with a more 
modern type called a direct connect 
modem. This device couples to the 
telephone line electronically and does 
not depend on sound waves. Direct 
connect modems are far more sen- 
sitive and reliable than the acoustic 
type. Fortunately either type uses the 
same tone frequencies as those just 
discussed. Thus, if you have a direct 
connect modem, you can still com- 
municate with someone using a "whis- 
tle box." As long as both modems are 
Bell 103 (or 113) specification compati- 
ble, they can communicate with each 
other. 

There is another technical detail that 
you should be familiar with. If you are 
telecommunicating with a friend, you 
must use the proper tone pairs. For ex- 
ample, if you both send on the high 
band pair, the signals will "butt heads" 
and no communications will result. 
One modem must send the 1 270/1 070 
pair and receive the 2225/2025 pair. 
A modem sending and receiving these 



pairs is said to be in the "originate 
mode." The other modem must send 
the 2225/2025 pair, while receiving the 
1 270/1 070 pair and is therefore in the 
"answer" mode. The terms have 
nothing to do with who originates or 
answers the telephone call. The data 
bases you call will usually be in the 
answer mode. Most of the time you will 
leave your modem in the originate 
mode. 

Incidentally, I should point out that 
when one is able to transmit and 
receive data at the same time, he is 
considered to be operating in the full 
duplex mode. There are some univer- 
sities and colleges that utilize the half 
duplex mode (only one way at a time). 
While these are rapidly being replac- 
ed, the modem user must be aware of 
what type of system he or she is "talk- 
ing" to. 

Another term that you may have 
heard of is called the baud rate, or you 
may have seen advertisements 
describing 300 baud modems. All Bell 
103/113 modems operate at 300 
baud. While the definition of the term 
baud is somewhat complex for the 
beginner, it is sufficient to say that it is 
approximately equal to a transmission 
speed of 30 characters per second. 
Obviously you cannot type this fast. 
However, if you were to transfer pro- 
grams from say a disk file, this is how 
fast the characters would transfer 
over the telephone line. Most good 
readers can follow a 300 baud 
transmission without slowing it down 
or pausing the transmission. 
What Do I Need For 

Telecommunications? 
The Commodore Modem— Ob 

viously you will need a modem. 
Presently, the Commodore modem 
provides the best price performance 
ratio for your money. For approximate- 
ly the cost of 2-3 game cartridges, you 
can purchase the Commodore 
modem. Their little brown box lacks 
the "bells and whistles" that are found 
on other modems and it could use a 
bit more sensitivity. However, at a dis- 
counted price of approximately $89, 
it is a real bargain. The folks with more 
"pricey" computers pay two to six 
times as much for a modem. Personal- 



ly, I feel that $89 is a small price to pay 
for the key that opens the door to the 
exciting new world of telecommunica- 
tions. 

Software —Earlier, I mentioned that 
you will need two items in order to con- 
nect your computer to the telephone 
network. The second item you will re- 
quire is, of course, the software to 
make the modem function properly. 
You can pay anywhere from $1 0.00 to 
$150.00 or more for communications 
software. However, to permit you to 
keep your communications below 
$100, I've included a "dumb" terminal 
program along with this month's col- 
umn. The term "dumb" means that 
you can only communicate from your 
keyboard to another computer. There 
is no provision for transferring files or 
programs. This type of software is call- 
ed a "smart" terminal program. 
How Do I Get On-Line? 

Making The Connection- 
Interfacing your computer to the 
telephone network is called going "on- 
line." Connecting the modem to your 
VIC or C-64 is extremely simple. The 



device plugs into the user port card 
edge connector at the left rear corner 
of your computer. The interface to the 
telephone line is made by unplugging 
the cord from the handset. The pro- 
cedure is to dial the computer with 
which you wish to communicate. 
When you hear their high pitch whis- 
tle, unplug the cord from the handset 
and plug the free end into the modem. 
At this point the little red light should 
illuminate, indicating you are receiving 
the carrier from the other computer. 
Generally, you will want to be in the 
"originate" mode, since the majority 
of computers you "call up" are in the 
answer mode. 

Adapters— A word of caution is in 
order. If you are in the General 
Telephone system, or are serviced by 
one of the independents, you may 
have a problem using the Commodore 
modem. Many telephone handsets 
have the cords "hardwired" and they 
are not removable. If this is the case 
in your home, you will need to pur- 
chase an adapter that allows you to in- 
terface the modem directly with the 
telephone line. 



SAVE MONEY ON YOUR VIC20 & C64 
ELIMINATE THE VIC/C64 RECORDER 

The VIK DUBBER is an 

interface which allows you 
to connect any standard cas- 
sette recorder to the VIC-20 
or C64 The VIK DUBBER 
contains circuitry which fil- 
ters and enhances the data 
coming in from the cassette, 
providing the most optimum 
load possible. The VIK DUB- 
V BER also allows you to 
connect two cassette re- 
corders together to allow 
you to make backup cop- 
ies of any VIC-20 or C-64 program. No battery required. 
$34.95 postpaid. Add $2.50 for shipping outside the US, 
Canada, or Mexico. VISA or MASTERCARD welcome. 

FOR CHARGE OR C.O.D. ORDERS 




1-800-227-3000 TOLL FREE 
1-800-792-0990 IN CALIFORNIA 
ASK FOR OPERATOR 225 



For check order, additional information or service, call or write: 

BYTESIZE MICRO TECHNOLOGY 

PO BOX 21123- DEPT. A- SEATTLE, WA 98111 

(206) 236-BYTE 

DEALER INQUIRIES WANTED 

Circle No. 4 






Commander May 1983/7 






By the way, if you would like to use 
another type of modem, you can buy 
an adapter for this too. You may want 
a more elegant modem than the Com- 
modore device or, better yet, may be 
able to "scrounge" one from a friend 
or pick up a bargain acoustic type at 
a computer "flea market." Bytesize 
Micro Tech (Box 21123, Seattle, WA 
98111, telephone (206) 236-BYTE) 
makes an adapter that plugs into the 
user port and interfaces with most 
modems. The adapter provides the 
necessary level shifting and polarity 
changes to make most modems com- 
patible with the VIC or C-64. It also 
supports the autodial-autoanswer 
functions of the MicroConnection 
modem made by The MicroPeripheral 
Corp. of Redmond, Wa. 
The Dumb Terminal 

In order to make your Commodore 
work properly in conjunction with the 
modem, you will require software or, 
as it is commonly called, a terminal 
program. The listing in Figure 1 is 
about as simple as the program can 
be made. You should be able to enter 
it on your keyboard and save it on 
cassette in approximately 5-1 
minutes. 

Line 10 opens the communications 
channel to the modem. The 38 sets the 
baud rate at 300, while the 224 selects 
a seven bit word, even parity and one 
stop bit. The 14 in line 20 switches to 
upper/lower case and the 147 dears 
the screen and homes the cursor. To 
keep the program simple, I did not op- 
timize the screen color. If you would 
like to experiment, you can add a 
POKE 36879,137 on this line. Try 
other numbers instead of the 137 for 
different arrangements. 

The GOSUB in line 40 branches off 
to the. input/output buffer setup routine 
between lines 1000 and 1060. Com- 
modore does not use the standard 
ASCII computer code and it is 
necessary to establish translation 
tables to convert Commodore to ASCII 
(output) and ASCII to Commodore (in- 
put). Line 1045 is rather important and 
you should understand its significance. 
The CONTROL key on the VIC-20 
does not permit sending control 
characters as one might expect. These 



characters are very important when 
communicating with various data 
bases. Line 1045 redefines function 
keys F1 through F4 to transmit Con- 
trol C (03), S (19), Q (17) and P (16). 
Next month, when we discuss one of 
the popular information services, you'll 
see why these keys are so important. 
Yqu can add additional control 
characters for the F5-F8 keys. For ex- 
ample, if you wanted to make the F5 
key send a bell character (Control G), 
you would simply add 0°/o(1 37) = 07. 

Once the tables are established, the 
screen again clears and prints the 
ready indication. The terminal portion 
of the program is contained between 
lines 210 and 320. Line 210 checks 
the modem to see if there is an incom- 
ing character. If none is found, the pro- 
gram branches to 300 and checks the 
keyboard to see if you want to send 
a character. If none is found, the pro- 
gram bounces back to 210. If a 
modem character is found, it is printed 
by line 220. If a keyboard character is 
found, it is printed by line 310. 

Note that the CHR$(1 87) in lines 200 
and 220 determine the cursor 
character. This number can be chang- 
ed if you would prefer a different type 
of cursor. By the way, the program will 
leave a cursor marker each time a line 
feed is received. 

I've used more than my allocated 
space this month and it's time to shut 
down the word processor. Next 
month, we'll take a guided tour 
through CompuServe Information Ser- 
vice, one of the nation's largest infor- 
mation utilities. □ 

to 

DPEN2»2f3»CHR*(38)!CIIR 
*< 224 ) 

6 

CO 

< 

o 

CM 



PRINTCHR*< 14 >»CHR*< 147) 
30 PRINT"LQ'ADING 
DATA" 

40 G0GUB1000 
200 

PRINTCHR*< 147 ) + CHR*< 13 
H" READY TO GO ON 
LINE" :PRINTCHR*( 187 » 
210 

GET*2 9 A* : IFA$ = " " THEN30 


220 

PRINTCHR$( 157)JCHR*( 1% 
( ASC< A* )))JCHR$( 187 )it 
IFIX( ASC( A* ) >=34THENP0 
KE212.0 
230 G0TO210 
300 

GETA*tIFA*= ,,,, THEN210 
310 
PRINT#2»CHR$(0%( ASC< A* 

320 G0TO210 

1000 

DIMIX(255)f0%(255) 

1020 

FORZ=32T064:OX( Z )=ZtNE 

xt:o%( i3)=i3jqz< 20)=o: 

0%( 160)^32 

1030 

FQRZ=65T090:Y=Z+32:OZ< 

z)=y:next:forz=91to?5: 

0%(Z)=ZtNEXT 

1040 

F0RZ*193T0218JY=Z-128: 

ox(z )=y:next 

1045 

0Z< 133)=03:0%( 134>--19l 

0%( 135>=17:0%( 136)= 16 

1050 

forz=oto255:y=o%< z ) : if 
yo0theni%(y)=z 



1060 NEXTJRETURN 



o 
> 



M\tl\ • DISKOMATE 



(Write for Price) 
A must lor 2040/4040 disk owners Write protect indicators 
switches, power indicator anrj error beeper, 

• "Real World" SOFTWARE .m ■ S251 

Word Processor. Mailing List. Catalog. Ham Radio Frequency Counter 

r -"OLD" 8K PETs 

| • 21 14- TO- 6550 RAM ADAPTER ,si2-s2 5) 

Replace 6550 RAMs with low cost 2 114s. Hundreds Sold! | 

• 4K MEMORY EXPANSION isie-seai 

Low cost memory expansion using 21 14s tor bigger programs | 

OPTIMIZED DATA SYSTEMS ^L 

Dept.O- P.O. Box 595 - Placentia. CA 92670 [7^; 

DISK O-MATE trademark Optimized Data Systems ■■ PETCBM trademark Commodore 



I 




o 

CO 



o 

CM 



o 
> 

Circle No. 31 



8/Commander May 1983 



I 



"■"■■tQflPU 5Ef\J5Ei:.'" 



CS1 



Quick Brown Fox 

The Word Processor of this decade! 



$55.00 



COMMODORE SOFTWARE 
VIC- 1211 A VIC-20 Super Expander $55.00 

Everything Commodore could pack into one cartridge - 3K RAM memory expansion, 
high resolution graphics plotting, color, paint and sbund commands. Graphic, text, 
multicolor and music modes. 1024x1024 dot screen plotting. All commands may be 
typed as new BA^lC commands or accessed by hitting one of the VlC's special 
(unction keys Includes tutorial instruction book. Excellent (oral) programming leyels. 

VIC-1212 Programmer's Aid Cartridge $45.99 

More than 20 new BASIC commands help new and experienced programmers 
renumber, trace and edit BASIC programs. Trace any program line-by-line as it 
executes, pa.use 10 edit. Special KEY command lets programmers redefine function 
keys as BASIC commands, subroutines or new commands. 

V1C-1213 VICMON Machine Language Monitor $48 99 

Helps machine code programmers write fast, efficient 6502 assembly language 
programs. Includes one line assembler/disassembler. 



GAMES FOR YOUR VIC-20® 

CSN Snackman - Better lhan Packman $16.95 

CC500 Intruder-Scrambler - in your bomber, invade the 17.95 

defending scramble system, dodging rockets, to blow up enemy posts, etc 

CS1 Flags Of Nations - A game that challenges players 10.95 

to identify flags ofvanous widely-known nations of the world. 

CS2 Flags of Nations - Second Edition - a field of 1Q.95 

34 flags of lesser known nations of the world 

CS3 Cities and States - A game that draws a map ol 1Q.95 

a state or states and asks players to name key cities m those stales 

CS4 Cities Of the World - Deals with important 10.95 

cities of nations throughout the world 

CSS Mountains and Rivers - Draws large geographical 10.95 

area maps You identify major mountain ranges, rivers & bodies ot water. 

CF1 Galactic Blitz 22 95 

CF3 Sidewinder 2595 

CS3 Centlpod 17.95 

CV108 Bomber 8.95 

Hangman 8.95 

NEW GAMES FOR YOUR C-64 

Tank Arcade (AISO for VIC-20) - Pre-determme how many hits $13.95 
it will take to wtpe out your opponent. Then, on with the battle! Battlefield changes 
Roadracer - Choose the type of track & a time or lap race. Use 13.95 

steady control at speeds of 50 to 200 miles per hour Hit the wall & lose valuable time 
Shootout at the OK Galaxy (Also for VIC-20) - 30 alien 19.95 

warships have entered your warzone. Shields up? Energy level OK? Defend yourself. 
Galaxy - Have you ever wanted to conquer the universe" 5 Send 19.95 

your galactic fleets out to explore, solar system by solar system From 1 to 20 players 
Bomber Attack - Ground to air warfare You're in command 14.95 

of a supersonic bomber over enemy terrain Drop all 25 bombs on key locations 
Midway Campaign - Your computer controls a huge force of 19.95 

Japanese ships trying to conquer Midway Island Your only advantage is surprise 
Dnieper River Line - A fictionalized engagement between Russian 25.00 

& German forces in 1943 Soviet forces, controlled by the computer, seek to overrun 
your line and capture sufficient objectives to attain victory Four levels of difficulty 
TanktlCS - Armored combat on the Eastern front of WWII You 24.50 

start outnumbered 2 to 1 but you choose your tank types before the battle. 
Guns Of Fort Defiance - You are the commander of a 19lh artillery 20.00 
piece in a besieged fort Choose type of ammo Set the cannon's elevation, deflection'. 

Computer Baseball Strategy - you. the manager of the 15.95 

home team, test you skill against a wily and unpredictableopponent.yourcompuier. 
Lords Of Karma - Like an intriguing puzzle' Decipher secrets 20.00 

while exploring a mythical, magical city & countryside Avoid the lurking monsters! 

North Atlantic Convoy Raider - it s the Bismarck convoy 19 .95 

raid of 1941' The computer controls the British ships Will you change hislory?- 
Planet Miners - Compete against others and the computer to 19.95 

stake valuable mining claims throughout the solar system in the year 2050. 
Conflict 2500 - In 2500 AD. earth is threatened by attacking 19.95 

aliens with an infinite tt of attack strategies with which to tease the defending player. 
Nukewar - Nuclear confrontation between two hypothetical 19.95 

countries. Defend your country with espionage, bombers, missiles, submarines, etc. 
Computer Acquire - New Second Edition 1 The object is 10 20.00 

become the wealthiest person in this "business" game - hotel acquisitions & mergers. 
Andromeda Conquest - Vast scale space strategy game of 19.95 

galactic colonizing and conquest Strange life forms & alien technologies - exciting 1 
Telengard - Microcomputer Dungeon Adventure game. Time 25.00 

fantasy and role-playing. 50 levels of ever-more complex mazes to explore & survive! 

MORE — MORE — MORE 

Shipping & Handling Charges: 

First two (2) items - $2.00 per item. 

Three {3) or more items - $1.00 per item. 

For orders over. $100 total, surface shipping will be paid by 

CompuSense. Blue Label or special handling will be paid by 

the customer. 
Additional $2.00 COD. fee on all C.O.D. orders. 
MasterCard and Visa accepted. Give card number and expiration 

date on order form. 
Allow three (3) weeks for personal checks. 

TO ORDER: 
P.O. Box 18765 
Wichita. KS 67218 
(316)263-1095 



WRITE 

FOR 

FREE 

CATALOG 



91 



C-64 


Compute 


$399.00 


VIC-20® 


Personal Computer 


147.00 


VIC-1515 


Printer 


334.95 


VIC- 1530 


Datasette 


67.50 


VIC-1541 


Disk Drive 


347.00 


VIC-1010 


Expansion Module 


139.95 


VIC-1311 


Joystick 


995 


VIC-1312 


Game Paddles 


19.95 




Telephone Modem 


99.95 


VIC-1210 


VIC 3K Memory Expander Cartridge 


34.95 


Plugs directly 


mo the VIC'S expansion port. Expands to 8K RAM totaf. 




VIC-1110 


VIC 8K Memory Expander Cartridge 


52.50 


8K RAM expansion cartridge plugs directly into the VIC 




CM101 


VIC 16K Memory Expander Cartridge 


99.95 


CM102 


24K Memory Expander Cartridge 


11995 


VIC-1011A 


RS232C Terminal Interlace 


39.95 



Provides interface between the VIC-20 and RS232 telecommunications mod'ems 
Connects to VlC's user port. 

PETSPEED - Basic Compiler for Commodore 140.00 
Compile any Pet Basic program. The only optimizing compiler. Programs compiled 

with Petspeed run up to 40 times faster. Peispeed code is uniisiabie and compiled 
programs cannot be tampered with No security device required for compiled pro- 
grams Available NOW for the Commodore 64 

Star Gemini 10 Printer 350.00 

Star Gemini 15 Printer 450.00 

SND Monitor 347.00 

1$K Memory Expander 50 .00 

CARDCO 

CARDBOARD 6 $87 50 

An expansion interface for the VIC-20 Allows expansion to 40K or accepts up to six 

games May be daisy chained for more versatility 

CARDBOARD 3 35.95 

Economy expansion interface for the VIC-20 

CARD "?" CARD/PRINT 76.00 

Universal Centronics Parallel Printer Interface for the VIC-20 or CBM-64. Use an 
Epson MX-80 or OKIDATA or TANDY or just about any other. 

CARDETTE 30 95 

Use any standard cassette player/recorder with your VIC-20 or CBM-64 

LIGHT PEN 29.95 

A light pen with six good programs 10 use with your VIC-20 or CBM-64 
All CARDCO Products have a lifetime warranty 

HOME & BUSINESS PROGRAMS For VIC-20 & C-64 

CW-107A Home Calculation Program Pack $48.95 

CPV-31 Data Files - your storage is unlimited 14.95 

CPV-96 Household Finance Package - to keep records of an 30.95 

your household expenses 

CPV-208 Bar-Chart - display your numerical data 8.95 

CH Turtle Graphics - learn programming 34.95 

CH VIC Forth - is a powerful language for BASIC programming 49.95 

CH HES MON - is a 6502 machine language monitor with 34.95 

a mini-assembler 

CH HES Writer - time-saving word processing iool 34.95 

CH Encoder - keep your personal records away from prying eyes 34.95 

CT-21 Statistics Sadistics - statistical analysis 14.95 

CT-121 Total Time Manager 2.0 - creates personal r 15.95 

business schedules 

CT-124 Totl Label - a mailing list and label program 13.95 

CT-125 Totl Text BASIC ~ 15.95 

CT-126 Research Assistant - keep track of reference data 17.50 

CT-140 Totl Text Enhanced 29.95 

CM- 152 GrafiX Designer - design graphic characters 12.95 

CQ-5 Minimon - allows you to program, load. save, or execute 13.95 
machine language programs 

CT-3 Order Tracker 15.95 

CT-4 Business Inventory - to maintain record of inventory 15.95 

CS Home Inventory - lists your home belongings 17.95 

CS Check Minder - (V-20 & 64) 1 4.95 

keep your checkbook the right way 

General Ledger- a complete general ledger 19.95 

HES Writer - word processor 3995 
Turtle Graphics II - utilizes the full graphics of your 64 49.95 



CS 

CHC-504 

CHC-503 

CHC-502 

CHP-102 

CFC 

CPV-327 



HESMON - machine language monitor w/mim-assembler 34.95 



Prices subject to change. 

VIC-20* is a registered trademark of Commodore CPV-296 

Circle No. 9 



6502 Professional Development System 29.95 

Data Files - a management program 27.95 

HESCOM - transfers data and programs bidirection- 40.95 

ally between viCs at three times the speed of a disk drive 

CPV-328 HESCOUNf - monitors program execution 19.95 

CH V HESPLOT - Hi-res graphics subroutines 1 2.95 

CTV-367 Conversions - figures, volume, length, weight, area 7.95 

and velocity to all possible configurations 

CC The Mail - your complete mail program Cassette 24.95 

Disk 29 95 

CPV-220 Client Tickler 1 6 95 

CPV-221 Club Lister 13 95 

CPV-224 Depredator 9.95 

CPV-236 Investment Analyst - keep track of .nvestments 12.95 

and investment opportunities 

CPV-251 Present Value 10.95 

CPV-269 Super Broker 12 95 

CPV-270 Syndlcator - calculates whether to buy or sell 13.95 

CPV-274 Ticker Tape - maintains investments profile 14.95 

CPV-276 Un-Word Processor- screen editor 16.95 

CPV-286 Phone Directory - never lose a phone number again 9.95 

CS-1 1 1 Checkbook - home 'utility" program 14.95 

CPV-294 Calendar My Appointments - prima calendar 14 .95 

for every month in any year 

The Budgeter - place your personal finances in order 12.95 



J 



Logic Gates: 

A Light Technical View 



by Howard Rotenberg 
Ontario, Canada 



Most of us, at some time have used 
the logical operators AND, OR and 
NOT in our programming. To use 
these operators we of course must 
know what function it is that they per- 
form. This is an obvious deduction; 
however, many people who use these 
operators have no idea what the actual 
technical aspect of them is. It is 
because of this that I have decided to 
write this article. It will deal lightly with 
logic gates to give the non-technical 
programmer more of an insight into 
what actually occurs within any circuit 
when these operations take place. 

The three logic gates (as I will now 
refer to them) that I have chosen to 
deal with are the AND, OR and NOT 
gates, as stated earlier. The role of 
logic gates is somewhat similar to that 
of the role of bricks, concrete and 
wood to the building of a house. In 
both cases these can be considered 
the fundamental building blocks of a 
complete system. We may implement 
a complete computer system using 
only these three building blocks. This, 
however, is not feasible, but it remains 
a reality. I will not get into semiconduc- 
tor theory, however we will touch upon 
a bit of the electronics behind these 
gates. First, we will just deal with the 
mechanical aspects of them. 

The OR Gate— Let us consider 
turning on a car's dome light. We all 
know that this may be done by two 
methods. The first way is to open the 
front door and the second is by actual- 
ly turning on the switch on the instru- 
ment panel. In this case there are two 
switches involved. If we look at Figure 
#1 we can see a simple circuit diagram 
which shows this operation. We can 
see that there are two switches that are 
connected in parallel to a lamp. If we 
close switch A or we close switch B the 
lamp will be supplied power and turn 

1 0/Commander May 1983 



on. The key here is of course the 
choice of switch A OR B. This setup 
of parallel switches is referred to as an 
OR gate. Along with the OR circuit I 
have shown a few other small dia- 
grams. The one I will start with is prob- 
ably the most familiar to you. This is the 
truth table. I have represented a clos- 
ed switch with a T for true and an open 
switch with an F for false. By examin- 
ing the truth table we can see that the 
lamp will be on if either switch A (OR) 
switch B is closed. The only condition 
that will not actuate the lamp is #1 
where both switches are open or false. 

This is a representation of a two in- 
put OR state, however we are certain- 
ly not confined to any particular num- 
ber of inputs. The use of switches has 
been used to easily show the opera- 
tion of the gate. Shortly I will show the 
electronic way of doing this, that is 
used in today's modern electronic 
circuits. 

The other two small diagrams above 
the truth table are the accepted ways 
to show this particular gate. It would 
be highly impractical to draw the other 
diagrams for every gate you wanted 
to show. The first diagram is the in- 
dustry standard that you would see on 
most schematics. The Institute of Elec- 
trical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 
approved the symbol shown beside 
the more familiar one. You probably 
recognize the term IEEE on the dia- 
gram that is the short form for the 
above mentioned institute. 

The AND Gate— The second gate 
that I will discuss is the AND gate. 
Once again I will show a mechanical 
representation of this gate. The use of 
T for closed swtich and an F for an 
open one remains constant. If we con- 
sider a condition that we want two swit- 
ches to be pressed for operation, 



Figure #2 shows this. Once again we 
see two switches connected to a lamp 
and a power source. The big dif- 
ference this time is that the switches 
are connected in series. In order for 
the lamp to be turned on both switch 
A (AND) B must be closed. If we once 
again look at the truth table for the 
AND gate we can see that the lamp 
will be on only if both switches are 
pressed. If only one switch is closed 
the circuit is still open and the lamp will 
not be turned on. 

The logic symbols that represent the 
AND gate are shown along with the 
mechanical circuit. These two symbols 
show a two input AND gate and may 
be expanded also to any number of 
inputs to accomodate the users 
requirements. 

The NOT Gate— The NOT gate 
(Figure #3) is very often referred to as 
an inverter. This is because the output 
of a NOT gate is the opposite of the 
input. That is to say, if the input is high 
(TRUE) then the output is false. I have 
shown a circuit that contains what is 
called a normally closed switch. This 
means that when the switch is NOT 
pressed there is electrical contact and 
the circuit is closed. We can further in- 
terpret the circuit as follows. The lamp 
will be on if the switch is NOT press- 
ed. The opposite is true when the 
switch is pressed. This will break the 
electrical circuit and turn the lamp off. 
We can state this one more way. The 
NOT gate will complement the input. 
The truth table provided shows the two 
possible conditions for our circuit. With 
the input false, the output is true and 
with a true input our output is false. 

The logic symbols are once again 
shown. This gate is restricted to one 
input and one output for normal use. 

Electronic Gates— While the three 
mechanical circuits I have shown may 



certainly have their useful applications, 
they are highly impractical for any 
complex electronic design. Can you 
imagine building a computer with 
mechanical switches? The speeds and 
reliability demanded from today's 
computers or other electronic devices 
would certainly call for electronic logic 
circuits. The most basic ideas of elec- 
tronic gates may be realized by the 
use of diodes. To go one step further 
we should consider the diode as 
nothing else but an electronic switch. 
Without going into semiconductor 
theory, I would like to show how the 
diode is used for this method and why 
it works. 

We will be referring to Figure #4 and 
Figure #5 for the following description. 
A diode is a semiconductor device that 
will pass current only one way. This is 
when it is forward biased or anode 
positive with respect to the cathode to 
put it another way. When this condi- 
tion is met the diode acts like a closed 
switch. The other situation we may 
have is when the diode is reverse bias- 
ed or anode negative with respect to 
the cathode. When this is the case the 
diode acts like an open switch. The 
diode cannot pass current unless it is 
forward biased so it is an ideal switch. 
There is a very big difference however, 
since our diode switch is no longer 
physically opened or closed, It is now 
done by electrically applying a forward 
or reverse bias. This brings us a very 
large improvement in the switch's 
operating speed since the input sig- 
nals are no longer mechanical, but 
electrical. Figure #4 shows a diode 
that is forward biased. The voltages 
needed to do this are indicated. The 
diode as shown will act like the clos- 
ed switch. In Figure #5 the reversed 
biased diode is shown along with its 
mechanical representation. As you 
can see it will now act like an open 
switch. More practically, transistors are 
used in a small silicon substrate chip 
that is put into a small package. Most 
integrated circuits are a combination 
of diodes, resistors, transistors and 
other components fabricated onto a 
single chip. We will stay with the diode 
for most of our purpose since it is the 
least complicated of the two devices. 

A Two Input Diode OR Gate— If 



we look at Figure #6 we see a two 
input diode OR gate along with its cor- 
responding truth table. We will assume 
that our two inputs A and B may be 
either or +5 volts and nothing else. 
If we apply + 5 volts to either A or B, 
this will forward bias that diode and 
current will be able to flow in the cir- 
cuit. This in turn will cause a voltage 
drop across the resistor R. It doesn't 
matter which diode the voltage is ap- 
plied to since either will cause a 
voltage drop across the resistor. If both 
inputs are volts there will be no 
voltage drop across the resistor. This 
circuit is operationally exactly the same 
as the two parallel switches in Figure 
#1 . I have now started to use H and 
L for the voltage levels in the truth 
tables since they will not always be + 5 
volts. 

We may add as many diodes to the 
circuit as we want, depending on our 
needs. We can summarize our exam- 
ple by saying that a two input OR gate 
will produce a high output when one 
input OR the other input OR both are 
high. 

A Two Input And Gate— As before 
we will use two diodes and the same 
rules for their biasing stand. I would 
just like to mention that to put the in- 
put at volts we must ground it. Leav- 
ing it open (or floating) does not satisfy 
a low input. 

We will refer to Figure #7 for this next 
part. If we put both inputs at a volt 
potential (ground them) then the 
diodes will be forward biased. This, as 
we said before, means that they will 
conduct or act like two closed switches 
between the output and ground. This 
will put the output at nearly our ground 
potential which will be low. This is 
shown by the truth table. If we follow 
the truth table down, we see that for 
the second and third case only one 
diode is forward biased. This will still 
place the output at ground potential 
still giving us a low at the output. In the 
last case only we find that neither 
diodes is forward biased, turned on or 
if you want to think of their switch 
counterparts, closed. Since the output 
is not shorted, but rather connected to 
the power supply, the circuit will now 
produce a high output. 

Once again we may add as many 



diodes to the circuit as we want. In 
summarizing this two input AND gate 
we may say that a 2 input AND gate 
will only produce a high output when 
BOTH inputs are high. 

A NOT Gate— We finally come to 
the last basic gate shown in Figure #8. 
This is the NOT gate that will be 
demonstrated by the use of a tran- 
sistor. The function is to complement 
the input, i.e. When the input is low the 
output is high and when the input is 
high the output is low. Since I have us- 
ed a transistor it will be a little more dif- 
ficult to follow but you may think of the 
transistor as two diodes back to back. 
If we apply volts to the input, there 
will be no base current or no collector 
current. This means that the transistor 
will act like an open switch. This in turn 
means it has no effect on the output 
which we have connected to five volts, 
therefore it will remain at five volts or 
high. The other case we may look at 
is when we apply + 5 volts to the in- 
put. This will forward bias the transistor 
and the output will be connected to 
ground through the collector-emitter 
circuit. This will now act as a closed 
switch leaving the output at ground 
level or low. In actuality there will be 
a very small voltage drop across the 
base emitter junction (.6 volts), 
however this is not relevant to our 
example. 

To summarize the NOT gate we 
may say that the inverter will produce 
a high output when the input is low 
and a low output when the input is 
high. 

Summary— I believe that a little 
knowledge of what goes on inside the 
computer or logic gates may be useful 
to a non-technical user. If nothing else 
I hope it will bring the user a little closer 
to what is actually happening in there. 
At best I hope it will open some doors 
that may inspire you to look into a little 
bit of hardware and who knows, 
maybe even put together or design 
some little peripheral for your com- 
puter. Although it seems unreal, the 
fact remains that with just nearly the 
three logic gates a complete system 
may be implemented. The rest is all up 
to you.D 

Commander May 1983/11 



Figure 1 



Power 
Source 



The OR Circuit 



Industry 
Standard 




Switch Closed = T 
Switch Open = F 



B 







LAMP 
On = T 
Off = R 



IEEE 
Standard 




B 



21 



A 


B 


OUTPUT 


F 


F 


F 


F 


T 


T 


T 


F 


T 


T 


T 


T 



Figure 2 



Power 
Source 



*/. 



The AND Circuit 
5< 




o 



LAMP 



B 



& 



A 


B 


OUTPUT 


F 


F 


F 


F 


T 


F 


T 


F 


F 


T 


T 


T 



Figure 3 



Power 
Source 



The NOT Circuit A 

J ^NORMALLY CLOSED 



■*-[> *-[TJ 







A OUTPUT 



F 
T 



LAMP 



T 
F 



Figure 4 



DIODE 



I w* 

+ I Andoe Cathodex-N. |_AMP 

~r \j) is ° n 



Forward 
Biased 



Same 



Closed 
Switch 



Figure 5 



-r 



DIODE 



9 is 



LAMP 
off 



Reverse 
Biased 



Same 



Open 
Switch 



Figure 6 
A 



INPUT 



B 



i- 



2 Input OR Gate 

-o OUTPUT 



A 


B 


OUTPUT 


L 


L 


L 


L 


H 


H 


H 


L 


H 


H 


H 


H 



Figure 7 



INPUT 



B 



* 



+ 5V 



i- 



2 Input AND Gate 



-o OUTPUT 



A 


B 


OUTPUT 


L 


L 


L 


L 


H 


L 


H 


L 


L 


H 


H 


H 



Figure 8 



INPUT 
o +*/< 



+ 5V 



COLLECTOR 




EMITTER 



INPUT 


OUTPUT 


L 


H 


H 


L 



Universal 
Roll Paper Holder 



by Louis F. Sander 
Pittsburgh, PA 




Most printers which take 8Y2" x 1 1 " 
sheets will also work with rod paper of 
the sort that is widely available for 
Teletypes and other machines. In 
many applications, the roll paper's low 
cost makes it a better alternative than 
fanfold or individual sheets. But the 
add-on adapters to hold the roll and 
feed it to the printer are often costly, 
and many dealers don't stock them. 
When they are installed, changing 
back and forth between rolls and other 
types of paper can be a troublesome 
chore. This article describes an 



using a hand drill can build it in less 
than an hour, and the materials should 
cost less than $8.00 at any store with 
a housewares department. 

The picture shows the finished roll 
holder. The two rollers are nothing 
more than standard kitchen rolling 
pins. The ones I used are made by 
Ekco, and have a steel center rod with 
nylon sleeve bearings; they turn easi- 
ly and smoothly, with no bumps or 
vibrations. To construct the roll holder, 
just make two of the end 



*■ — 1%— H* 



2V4 



1V,e 



-5V2- 



/ 



1V2 



'/ 



]/ 



& 



Material: 2x2 Construction Lumber 

Drill Holes "A" to give tight friction fit with roller rods. 

Dimensions are for 1 7 / a diameter rollers. 



elegant and inexpensive home-built 
roll paper holder which works perfectly 
with my Epson MX-80FT and IBM Sel- 
ectric printers, and which should work 
just as well with many other machines. 
One day a friend offered me a 
dozen rolls of printer paper in different 
widths, just when I needed to buy 
another ream of paper for my Selec- 
tric. My natural cheapness, and a 
reluctance to look a gift horse in the 
mouth, combined to inspire the design 
of the universal roll paper holder 
described here. Anyone capable of 

14/Commander May 1983 



pieces shown in the drawing, pull the 
handles off the rolling pins, and tap the 
center rods into the holes in the end 
pieces, leaving 1/16" clearance bet- 
ween the rollers and the ends. Pulling 
off the handles takes only a minimum 
of force and twisting, snce they are 
held in place by a friction fit. If you 
want a finely finished appearance, as 
I did, use a hacksaw to shorten the 
steel rods so they don't protrude from 
the end pieces. 

The end pieces are made from 
scraps of standard 2x2 construction 



lumber. If you are not comfortable 
sawing wood, ask the man at your 
lumberyard to cut the pieces to length 
for you, and he should oblige. If he 
doesn't, take your business elsewhere. 
If your rolling pins have a different 
diameter than mine, you may have to 
alter the dimensions of the end pieces 
accordingly. Just be sure the rollers 
clear the table and the top surface of 
the end pieces, so your paper will be 
able to turn freely. 

That's all there is to the construction 
of the roll holder, and there's not much 
more to its use. Just set the holder in 
the proper place behind your printer, 
lay the paper on it, and feed the end 
into the printer. If the holder is parallel 
to your platen, nothing should bind up 
or get out of line. Changing rolls could 
not be simpler, and the holder can 
handle rolls of any width or diameter— 
am currently using a very large roll that 
was intended for an obsolete copy 
machine. 

The inertia of a heavy roll of paper 
may cause an occasional line feed 
problem, as it did with my Selectric— 
the line feed mechanism just wasn't 
designed to pull a ten-pound roll, even 
if it is supported on a low-friction 
holder. I overcome that problem by 
manually unwinding several feet of 
paper and letting it drape off the desk 
behind the roll holder. Every five 
pages of printing I have to repeat the 
process, but that is by no means a 
burdensome chore. 

All in all, this holder has been a 
perfect solution to my need for roll 
paper capability, and I hope it will be 
the same for yours. 

At the very least, it will be a nice new 
piece of furniture for your computer 
room, built without glue, screws, or 
nails, and handcrafted entirely by 
you.D 



Mill 




with Quick 
Brown 
Fox 



by Colin F. Thompson 
Santa Monica, CA 



Business software for a game 
machine? A contradiction in terms? 
Yes, for some other brands of com- 
puters. Not so for the VIC. The VIC is 
a powerful computer, whether you use 
it for games or business. You don't 
have a business, you say? Think of 
your home like it's a small business. 
You have bills to pay, letters to write, 
taxes to file, and a budget to figure. 
That's exactly the kind of work the 
computer is best at. You can use 
business software in your home to 
manage your money and paperwork. 
Many high quality, low cost business 
programs are released each month. I'll 
be reviewing the best of them, and tell- 
ing you, in plain English, how they 
work, how I use them in my office and 
what I like and dislike about them. 

Business software can be divided 
into four general catagories: Word Pro- 
cessing, Money Management, 
Spreadsheets, and Data Base Man- 
agement. Your VIC can do all these 
functions and more. This month we will 
look into word processing and see 
what life is like, Living With a Quick 
Brown Fox. 

QUICK BROWN FOX (QBF) was 
originally developed three years ago 
for the Ohio Scientific microcomputer. 
While residing there, it was de- 
bugged, groomed, and perfected. The 
OS and VIC have one thing in com- 
mon: a 6502 microprocessor chip is 
the heart of each. This allowed the OS 
version to be modified for use in the 
VIC and C-64. So you see, QBF is a 
mature piece of software. That maturity 



first attracted me to QBF. I hoped it 
would be bug free. It nearly is. 

After opening the sturdy cardboard 
shipping container, I was delighted to 
see a professionally produced instruc- 
tion manual. This is the best looking, 
most comprehensive manual I have 
seen for VIC software. As an ex-Apple 
user, I learned to expect manuals like 
this with the $300 software packages 
I used. I like the size. It's a full 8V2X1 1 
inches, in a three ring binder. I wish 
all manuals were this size. The binder 
comes in a heavy cardboard housing, 
similar to housings for fine books. In- 
side is a sealed envelope, containing 
QBF, which tells you to read the 
manual before breaking the seal. If, 
after reading the manual you find QBF 
is not what you want, you may return 
it for a full refund. This excellent policy 
is one I would like to see other com- 
panies offer. QBF comes as a car- 
tridge, which plugs into the expansion 
port on the right rear of the VIC. I didn't 
plug it in right away. I read the 
manuals first, and then try it. I've had 
too many adventures doing it the other 
way around. 

By the Book 

The manual is divided into two parts. 
The pocket notes are six pages long, 
outlining the difference between the 
VIC and C-64 versions. They also ex- 
plain the "File Clerk" functions. The 
File Clark is the part of QBF that talks 
to the disk drive and Datasette, allow- 
ing you to easily save your Text Files. 
Text Files are a clever way to describe 



the documents you write on QBF. Text 
Files can be letters, forms, manuscripts 
or any kind of document that you gen- 
erate. The rest of the manual runs 50 
pages and is written in the style of a 
tutorial. It assumes you have no prior 
knowledge of either the VIC or word 
processing. Accompanying the man- 
ual is a cassette tape with training files 
for you to practice on. After reading 
the pocket notes, I began the tutorial 
on page one. 

Firing It Up 

Though QBF needs no extra 
memory, it can use up to 1 6K of RAM 
memory, if you have it. Mega-memory 
buffs will find that QBF resides in block 
3 ($6000 to $7FFF). What that means, 
in English, is that a 24K RAM card 
can't be used. Guess who has a 24K 
card. Right. For serious business use, 
I recommend adding an 8K or 16K 
card. Since I like having as much 
memory as possible, I plugged in my 
4K RAM card, made by OEM, Inc., 
and fired it up. It's very easy to get run- 
ning. You pull the Fox's tail by typing 
SYS 24576 and hitting return. The pro- 
gram uses only 1024 bytes of your 
precious memory. QBF then asks how 
many columns are displayed on your 
screen. Like most of you, my screen 
has 22 columns across. If you have 
added a Video Pack, expanding your 
screen to 40 or 80 columns, QBF will 
handle that nicely. The screen turns 
black, and in white letters, the Fox 
greets you. 

The main menu displays a list of 1 2 

Commander May 1983/15 



options. Each option is activated by a 
single keystroke. As I worked my way 
through the tutorial, 1 found myself 
chuckling. This was the word pro- 
cessor I had been looking for. I rarely 
get excited when trying out new pro- 
grams. This one out-performed my ex- 
pectations. I have used many word 
processors on my VIC, and found they 
ranged from awful to acceptable. 
From the start, I knew QBF was light 
years better than others I'd tried. Why? 
Three reasons come to mind: Speed, 
speed, and more speed. QBF doesn't 
keep me waiting when I ask it to per- 
form. It doesn't get in the way of 
writing. Since I was already familiar 
with word processing, I had no pro- 
blems learning its powerful features. 
For those of you new to word process- 
ing, the manual will step you through 
the learning process quite rapidly. I 
say this with some certainly because 
I gave the manual to my secretary, 
Dawna, and turned her loose on the 
VIC. She immediately found an error 
that I missed on page four of the 
manual. On that page, wherever it 
says Left-Arrow, it means Cursor Left. 
The left arrow located at the top left of 
your keyboard has a completely dif- 
ferent function under QBF. It is used 
as the Escape Key. Pressing this Key 
allows the user to change functions or 
change his mind. It's very handy. After 
this minor snag, she progressed 
quickly. 

Letters from the Editor 

Besides speed, the most noticeable 
difference between QBF and other 
word processors I've used is the 
editor. The editor is the part of the pro- 
gram that looks at the keystrokes you 
enter and then acts on them. It's like 
a referee. The editor checks to make 
sure you type in legal commands, or 
valid data, and then causes the rest of 
the program to act on the commands 
or store the data. Most editors come 
in one of two flavors: line editors and 
full screen editors. The VIC has a full 
screen editor built in. When you are 
writing a program, the cursor can be 
moved to any position on the screen 
to make changes. That is a full screen 
editor. If you could make changes only 
on the line that cursor resides, you 

16/Commander May 1983 



would have a line editor. There are ad- 
vantages to both types. Editing on 
QBF requires placing the cursor over 
the character you want to change and 
hitting one key. (I for Insert, R for 
Replace, D for Delete, etc). Besides 
having line editor, QBF also has Global 
Editor. It allows you to search 
and replace any word or letter in the 
text. After you read the manual, and 
learn the commands, you will realize 
that the editors are the most powerful 
features of QBF. There is an advan- 
tage to expanding your screen past 
the 22 column standard. C-64 users 
will find they have nearly 40 characters 
they can edit without leaving the editor, 
VIC users have about half that. I tried 
a VIC running a Data-20 80 column 
board with QBF at COMDEX last year. 
Those extra 58 columns are helpful in 
many respects. The biggest advan- 
tage of having 80 columns is in the 
View mode. QBF allows you to view 
your document on the screen, format- 
ted as if it was being printed on the 
printer. With 80 columns, you get a 
clear picture of how your text will look 
on paper. If you take your word pro- 
cessing seriously, you should consider 
an 80 column board. 

Earning Its Keep 

The first useful document I produc- 
ed on QBF was a list of the control 
codes that make my trusty NEC 
8023A printer turn on its bells and 
whistles. I suggest you do the same 
thing when you get QBF running. It 
saved my sanity. QBF works with any 
printer, and doesn't care which chan- 
nel the printer is attached to. You can 
easily insert printer control codes into 
the body of your text. If you use QBF 
and an NEC 8023A printer on your 
system, I'll send you that control code 
list. Just send a SASE and mark 
"NEC" on the envelope. I believe I've 
mentioned how fast QBF is. That light- 
ning speed continues when printing. 
It drives my 100 cps printer flat out. 

OK. So it's a great word processor. 
But what does it DO? It saves a lot of 
time, that's what. A typical business let- 
ter requires me to write it out in 
longhand, have Dawna type a rough 
draft and then I correct it. With QBF, 
I type the letter directly into the com- 



puter, make all the changes it needs 
and print it on the printer. Dawna only 
sees the finished letter exactly as I 
want it. She never has to decypher my 
handwriting, and only types the letter 
once, not 2 or 3 times. On a letter 
quality printer, she could print the let- 
ter directly onto letterhead and retire 
the Selectric. Personal letterwriting also 
benefits. I find myself writing many 
more letters to my friends, simply 
because it's so easy. 

Each month our office sends out 
hundreds of form letters. When a 
reader marks a magazine "bingo 
card," asking for information about our 
products, we send him a form letter 
telling him how wonderful our wigits 
are, and direct him to the nearest retail 
dealer. Our dealers love the sales 
leads and our sales rise, just because 
we use QBF. I'm a Tech Rep in a high- 
tech industry. One of my jobs is to 
write training manuals. These manuals 
have an average lifetime of three 
months. Fast moving technology re- 
quires them to be frequently updated. 
QBF is making that dreaded job a 
breeze. 

I promised to tell you what I like and 
dislike about QBF. The dislike list is 
mercifully short. When Viewing my 
document on a 22 column screen, 
QBF sometimes forgets that I have 
only 23 lines on the screen and flashes 
up all 66 lines. I tend to use the printer 
instead of View mode to see how the 
document looks. The 80 column VIC 
Viewed perfectly. My biggest gripe is 
about the manual's index. There isn't 
one. 

Entering the Fox's Lair 

Curious as to why this well done 
manual lacked an index, I called Ed 
Moran, National Marketing Manager 
of QBF. He quickly assured me that an 
index is being prepared and the 
miscues on page four are being rec- 
tified. The manual is going through a 
minor revision and will soon be 
indexed. 

"What about that Viewing pro- 
blem?", I asked. 

"What Viewing problem?", he 
replied. 

It seems I'm the first one to com- 
plain. He promised his Tech Support 



people would look into it. I'll let you 
know what they find. 

The Fox works on the C-64 much as 
it does on the VIC. There are three ad- 
vantages using the C-64 version. After 
loading the program, the C-64 has 
nearly 38K of working storage. The 40 
column screen is a little easier to edit, 
and the File Clerk allows disk copying. 
The Copy feature is one I wish the VIC 
version had. Both versions work with 
disk or tape, and can send files to 
another QBF/VIC via modem. At $65, 
I heartily recommend it. 

Next month we examine the chicken 
that laid the golden egg as we raid the 
TOTL Software henhouse. Oh yes, 
there is one thing I do with Quick 
Brown Fox . . . Write this column. D 

Companies mentioned: Quick 
Brown Fox, 548 Broadway, New York, 
NY 10012, (212)925-8290; OEM, Inc., 
2729 South US 1, Suite 12, Fort 
Pierce, FL 33450, (305) 465-9363; 
Data 20 Corporation, 2031 1 Moulton 
Parkway, Suite B1 0, Luguna Hills, CA 
92652, (714) 770-2366. D 





Printer Codes for Quick Brown Fox & NEC 8023A 

Dot Printer 

#nQ27N 10 cpi Pica. . , , ABCDEFghijkl12345 

#nQ27E 12 cpi Elite ABCDEFghijkl 12345 

#nQ27Q 17 cpi Condensed ABCDEFghijkl12345 

#n027P Proportional ABCDEFghijkIl2345 

#n027! Enhanced ABCDEFghijkl12345 

#n<227 ;J Enhanced off ABCDEFghijkM 2345 

#n014 Enlarged ABCDEFghijkM 2345 

#n015 Enlarged off ABCDEFghijkM 2345 

#n«27X Underline ABCDEFghijkM 2345 

#n<Z£7Y Underline off ABCDEFghijkM 2345 

#nG£7A 6 Lines per Inch 

#n(227B 8 Lines per Inch 



Printing Sizes 
Ch/Line 



Ch/lnch 



Remarks 



.136... .17 Condensed 

. 68.... &5 Condensed Enlarged 

. 80. ...10 Pica 

. 40.... 5 .Elite Enlarged 

. 96.. ..12 Elite 

. 48.... 6 Elite, Enlarged, Proportional 

Microworld Electronix ASCII Convenor MW802 

Set all switches OFF for use with Quick Brown Fox. 



STCP 

Standard Terminal Communications Package 

•PFO'IOD OOA CP<D1>02 BELL = 12 30 00 10 14 36 

Don 'I sette (or non-standard Communications Protocol! 
Access Micro Net. Source. Bulletin Boards, Local Main- 
frame, etc. 

• Complete Package - Includes RS232 Inter- 
lace Board and software (does not include 
modem) 

• Communicates in Industry Standard ASCII 

• Upload/Download to/from Disk 

• Automatic File Translation 

• Can be controlled from keyboard or user sup- 
plied basic or machine language program 

Specify: 3.0 or 4 ROMS or 8032 Commodore Computer 
4040 or 8050 or PEDISK II Disk 

Price: $129.95 



h 



ATARI AND PET 
EPROM PROGRAMMER 

Programs 2716 and 2532 .r^ 

EPROMs. Includes hardware ! 
and software. PET = $75.00 - 
ATARI {includes sophisticated 
machine language monitor} = 
$119.95 




Prowrner Printer - Excellent dot matrix print Parallel = W89 00 
Serial = $600 00 IEEE = $589 00 



VIC RABBIT CARTRIDGE 



"High-Speed 

Cassette 

Load and Save!" 




$39.95 

(includes Cartridge 

and Manual) 



Expansion Connector 



"Don't waste your Life away waiting to LOAD and SAVE 

programs on tassete Deck." 

Load or Save 8K in approximately 30 seconds! Try 

it — your Un-Rabbitized VIC takes almost 3 minutes. 

It's not only Fast but VERY RELIABLE. 

Almost as fast as VIC Disk Drive! Don't be foolish — 

Why buy the disk when you can get the VIC Rabbit 

for much, much less! 

Easy to install -it just plugs in. 

Expansion Connector on rear. 

Works with or without Expansion Memory. 

Works with VIC Cassette Deck. 

12 Commands provide other neat features. 

Also Available for 2001 , 4001 . and 8032 




TRAP 65 

TRAP 65 is a hardware device that 

plugs into your 6502's socket. Prevents 

execution of ummplememed opcodes 

and provides capability to extend the 

machines' instruction set. 

ForPET/APPLE/SYM. 

Reduced from $149 95 to $69.95 



DC Hayes Sman Modem = S235 00 
DC Hayes Micro Modem ll = $289 00 



Rana Disk Drive - 375 
4 Drive Controller - 114 



More than just an Assembler/Editor! 



It's a 

Professionally 

Designed 

Software 

Development 

System 



A 



/\ 






MAE 

for 

PET 

APPLE 

^ATARI 



Blast off with the software used on the space 
shuttle project! 

■ Designed to improve Programmer Producirvity. 

• Similar syntax and commands - No need to retearn peculiar 
syntaxes and commands when you go from PET to APPLE 
10 ATARI 

• Coresident Assembler/Editor - No need to load the Editor then the 
Assembler then the Editor, etc 

• Also includes Wtord Prxessor. Relocating Loader, and much 
more 

• Options. EPROM Programmer, unimptemenied opcode circuitry 

• STILL NOT CONVINCED: Send lor tree spec sheel! 



5% INCH SOFT 
SECTORED DISKETTES 

Highest quality. We use them on 
our PETs, APPLEs, ATARIs, and other 
computers. $22.50/10 or $44.50/20 




EPROMS 2716 = $6 50 2532 = $12 50 

Over 40 Commodore Programs by Baker (on 40*0) = $25 00 



3239 Linda Dr. 
Winston-Salem, N.C. 27106 
(919)924-2889 (919)748-8446 
Send for free catalog! 



MMQSTVfvrOra 



Circle No )A 



Commander May 1983/17 



Commodore 64 

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 



MASS STORAGE: 



High Performance FLOPPY DISK 
PEDISK directly transfers data to computer memory. This and the 
250000 bps transfer rate means performance up to 1 times faster than 
q ogrjoi hijs disk 

Model C340-2 Dual 3'. . . $995.00 ModelC877-1 Singled. . . $1095.00 
Model C540-2 Dual 5'... $895.00 Model C877-2 Dual 8' ...$1695.00 

80 COLUMN VIDEO: 

Screenmaker so column video board $159.95 

Give the 64 a screen full of characters. Screenmaker gives a complete 
set of characters (80X24) in a 2K Video RAM. Software to link the system 
is included. 

WORD PROCESSING: 

CO PY-WR ITE R Professional Word Processor $1 45.00 

The next logical step in the evolution of Word Processors. Copy-Writer 
has the features found in the best and more. Double columns, shorthand, 
the works! 

COMMUNICATIONS: 

COM PAC K Intelligent Terminal Package $1 29.95 

A complete communications control center- record/read to/from disk- 
convert files ASCII, BASIC, BINARY, MAE - print incoming data. Complete 
with software, port board and cable. 

LANGUAGES: 

fuIIFORTH+ enhanced fig Forth for Commodore 64... $100.00 
Strings, floating point, editor, conditional assembler, interpreter, and 
more are included in fullFORTH +. Target Compiler is also available for 
$50.00 

KMMM PASCAL forCommodore64byWilserve.... $85.00 
One of the newest HL languages, KM MM PASCAL is a true compiler that 
generates machine code from PASCAL source. . . FAST! Editor, Compiler, 
Translator included. 

UTILITIES: 

Copymaker single disk backup routine $30.00 

Copymaker allows a 1 541 owner to quickly backup an entire floppy disk 
on ON ED RIVE! Simple swap prompting and full use of memory make this 
easy to use and essential for any disk owner. 

MAE Macro Assembler Editor from EHS $ 99.95 

MAE has become the standard of the 6502 industry by providing the 
power and ease of use needed by the best assembly programmers. MAE 
is a complete development system including a word processor and lots 
of source goodies. 

M ICRO T ECH is your complete 64 center. Dealer inquiries invited. 



Q 



cgrs i 



MICROT 



H) 



P.O. BOX 102 

LANGH0RNE,PA 19047 
215-757-0284 



Packing 



The Commodore relative file format 
is somewhat easy to use; that is, if 
you're working with strings. Storing 
numeric data can become somewhat 
cumbersome since they must be con- 
verted to strings beforehand then con- 
catenated with commas as delimiters. 
Reading the record fields back to 
numeric data can become even more 
of a headache as the strings must be 
separated properly and converted to 
real numbers. When the size of the 
records exceeds 80 characters it 
becomes even more painful to read 
them from the file. Here is a small 
machine language routine which will 
help overcome most of these 
problems. 

Basically what this routine will do is 
either write or read a single dimension 
array of numbers to or from a pre- 
viously opened relative file. The num- 
bers are basically written to the file in 
floating point format. Since each num- 
ber requires only 5 bytes we can write 
up to 50 numbers on a single record 
with a maximum length of 254. When 
a record is read from the file it transfers 
directly to the memory assigned to the 
designated array so no further manip- 
ulations are required. 

Care must be taken however that 
the record length is long enough to 
hold the array. With a record size of 
254 a dimensioned array of 49 is max- 
imum allowed. 

NOTE: This program is designed to 
work with BASIC 4.0 only. 

Another limitation is that the entire 
array must be read or written at once. 
Trying to write a smaller array where 
a larger array was previously written 
will cause all of the old data to be lost 
so one should take care to read and 
write the same size array to a given file. 
Reading only the lower portion of an 



18/Commander May 1983 



Circle No. 6 



Arrays Into Relative 

by Paul Donato 


Files 


Sudburg, Ontario, Canada 








array, however, should present no 




READY. 


problems. 
The basic program shown pokes 




5 REM POKE MACHINE CODE INTO FIRST CASSETTE BUFFER 


the machine language routine into the 




10 F0RI=634T0745:READX:P0KEI,X:NEXTI 


first cassette buffer at 027a. Line 100 




20 DATA32,245, 190,32, 152, 189, 165,68, 133,0, 165 


dimensions a and b to their maximum 




30 DATA69, 133, 1,56, 165,68,233, 1, 133,68, 165,69 


permitted size for a file of recordsize 




40 DATA233, 0,133, 69, 160, 0,177, 68, 133, 2, 24, 42, 42 


254. It is important that the numbers 




50 DATA101, 2, 133, 2, 32, 245, 190, 32, 152, 189, 32, 45 


are dimensioned correctly or the pro- 




60 DATA201 , 165, 18, 240, 3, 76, 0, 191 , 165, 17, 133, 210 


gram will fail. Line 110 creates 50 ran- 




70 DATA170, 96, 32, 122, 2, 32, 201, 255, 160, 0,177, 0,32 


dom numbers in the array A(49) and 




80 DATA210, 255, 196, 2, 240,4, 200, 76, 192, 2, 32, 204, 255 


line 120 opens a relative file called 




90 DATA96, 32, 122,2,32,198,255,160,0,32,228,255,145 


'TFLE' which is set up with records of 


1 


95 DATAO, 196, 2, 240, 4, 200, 76, 217, 2, 32, 204, 255, 96 


254 bytes. Line 130 writes the array 


97 REM 


a(49) to record #1 of the file. Line 140 




98 REM NOW CHECK THE PROGRAM 


writes that same record into the array 




99 REM 


b(49). Line 150 prints out both arrays 




100 DIMA(49),B<49) 


to see if they are equal. 




110 F0RI=0TQ49:A(I)=RND(0):NEXTI 


The syntax of the machine language 




120 D0PEN#1,"TFLE",D0,L254 


call is SYS696,A(0),1. The first mem- 




130 REC0RD#1,1:SYS696,A<0),1 


ber of the array we wish to transfer 




140 REC0RD#1,1:SYS721^B(0),1 


must appear after the first comma. It 




150 F0RI=0T049:PRINTA<I),B(I):NEXTI 


must always have a zero in the brac- 




160 DCL0SE#1 


kets. The 1 following the next comma 




READY. 


is the logical file number that is open 






and that we wish to transfer to. This 




C* 


can be any valid value. The read por- 




PC IRQ SR AC XR YR SP 


tion syntax is identical but is called at 




. ; B780 724D 3A 9E 35 34 FA 


location 721. 








You will find that any limitations in us- 






: 027A 20 F5 BE 20 98 BD A5 44 


ing this routine are more than offset by 






: 0282 85 00 A5 45 85 01 38 A5 


the speed at which the transfers will 






: 028A 44 E9 01 85 44 A5 45 E9 


occur. □ 






: 0292 00 85 45 AO 00 Bl 44 85 










: 029A 02 18 2A 2A 65 02 85 02 










: 02A2 20 F5 BE 20 98 BD 20 2D 










: 02AA C9 A5 12 FO 03 4C 00 BF 










: 02B2 A5 11 85 D2 AA 60 20 7A 


j^H m m\ ^HlM Wk ^B^^flpS 








: 02BA 02 20 C9 FF AO 00 Bl 00 










: 02C2 20 D2 FF C4 02 FO 04 C8 


EHUhI ^r 


;^gT) 






: 02CA 4C CO 02 20 CC FF 60 20 


llnplJB |jp"^w 






: 02D2 7A 02 20 C6 FF AO 00 20 










: 02DA E4 FF 91 00 C4 02 FO 04 










: 02E2 C8 4C D9 02 20 CC FF 60 










: 02EA FF 00 FF 00 FF 00 FF 00 










W*«Mill 





Commander May 1983/19 



An Introduction to Assembly Language 
Programming on the VIC-20 



Part V— Branches and Comparisons 

by Eric Giguere 
Peace River, Alberta, Canada 



Last month I introduced you to the 
concept of loading and storing the 
6502's registers. Let's review these 
concepts. LDA, LDX and LDY are the 
instructions that tell the computer to 
load a value into the accumulator, X- 
register, and Y-register, respectively. 
The opposites of these are STA, STX 
and STY, which will store the values of 
the registers into memory. Along with 
each of these instructions there must 
be either a value of an address, so that 
the computer knows where to get 
(load) or put (store) the specified 
register. This is the addressing mode 
discussed in Part III. (See Example 1) 



when programming from monitor, as 
the computer could jump to the wrong 
address if you store it in high-byte, low- 
byte format. Of course, those of you 
with an assembler (like my EDIT/ASM) 
or at least a one-line assembler/ 
disassembler (like the VIC-MON cart- 
ridge) don't have to worry about this, 
as it is done automatically. 

Comparisons: The IF of 
Assembly Language 

Now that we can load values into the 
registers, it'd be nice to be able to do 
something with it other than storing it. 
This is where the comparison instruc- 
tions of the 6502 come in. There are 



LDA #$01 —loads the accumulator with the value $01 

STA $E2— stores it in memory location $E2 

LDX $7F— loads the X-register from location $7F 

STX $8000— stores it at $8000(32768) 

LDY SIEBF.X— loads the Y-register with the value it finds at location 

($1EBF + value of X-reg.) 
STY $00— stores it at location $00 




On their own, these commands can- 
not do very-much, except change the 
values of some locations, as was ex- 
plained last month. But this month we'll 
learn about branches and compari- 
sons, and how we can use them for 
practical things. 
Addresses 

Before going on with this month's 
topic, I want to make a comment about 
the way memory addresses are stored 
in memory, because it confuses peo- 
ple. The 6502 chip (and 6510) stores 
addresses in reverse order from 
which they're read. This means that 
the address $1E2F will be stored in 
two bytes of memory as 2F 1 E, instead 
of 1E 2F. This is often referred to as 
low-byte, high-byte format, as the 
lower (rightmost) byte— in this case 
$2F— is stored before the higher byte 
($1E). This should be remembered 



three of them: one for each register. 
CMP is used for the accumulator, 
while CPX and CPY are used for the 
X- and Y-registers (CMP is the most 
powerful— it has the most addressing 
modes). What these instructions do is 
compare the value of the specified 
register against that of a memory loca- 
tion. It sets some flags in the status 
register against that of a memory loca- 
tion. It sets some flags in the status 
register (explained below) according 
to the results of the comparison, while 
leaving the register itself intact, which 
means that you don't have to reload 
the value into the register. (See Exam- 
ple 2 for comparison sample.) 



This example will load the accumu- 
lator from $3F and then compare it to 
the value $0D. The space is left for a 
branch statement, which we'll discuss 
later. We could have made the exam- 
ple different by using LDX. ..CPX or 
LDY... CPY. It would have had the 
same effect, but would use the X- or 
Y-register instead. As it is written, the 
CMP will set or clear some flags de- 
pending on whether or not certain con- 
ditions are present. These flags are 
then used by an appropriate branch 
statement, for which I left a space. The 
LDA $F6 is there for no particular 
reason other than to show that the pro- 
gram continues if the branch is not 
taken. So basically, the compare in- 
struction acts like the IF in BASIC. It 
checks to see if a branch (like THEN 
GOTO) can take place or not. 

The Status Register 

In Part III I mentioned that the 6502 
also had another register, called the 
status register, that was useful in 
making comparisons. This register 
(abbr. P— for Processor Status 
Register) is really nothing but a single 
byte wired to use its bits as flags (in- 
dicators). Figure 1 gives a represen- 
tation of the status register and what 
each bit represents. 

The status register reflects the "con- 
dition" of the last operation perform- 
ed by the microprocessor, if it was 
capable of changing the P register. If 
there was a carry, the C flag (bit 0) is 
set. If the last operation resulted in a 
zero, the Z flag (bit 1) is set— otherwise 
it is reset to 0. Going through the rest: 
the I flag enables or disables inter- 



LDA $3F— load accumulator from location $3F 
CMP #$0D— compare to the value SOD (13) 

—space for branch statement 

LDA $F6— continue with program 



20/Commander May 1983 



rupts; the D flag indicates the decimal 
mode; the B flag that a break (BRK) 
instruction was executed; the V flag 
that there was an overflow; and the S 
flag that the byte is negative or 
positive. Only the S, V, Z and C flags 
are used by branch instructions; the 
rest represent conditions. Don't con- 
cern yourself with what each flag is 
used for— it will all be explained in due 
time. All you have to understand is the 
idea behind the status register. 
Branches: Powerful 
THEN Statements 

Now that we can set flags in the 
status register, we need to use them 
somehow. This is where branches 
come in. A branch is an instruction to 
the microprocessor to jump forward or 
backward a specified number of bytes 
if a certain condition in the status 
register is met. That condition 
depends on the branch instruction 
itself, of which there are eight. (See Ex- 
ample 3 for listing.) 



BCC- 
BCS- 
BEQ- 
BNE- 
BMI- 
BPL- 
BVC- 
BVS- 



-branch on carry clear 
-branch on carry set 
-branch if equal (Z flag = 1) 
-branch if not equal (Z flag~0) 
branch if negative (minus) 
-branch if positive (plus) 
-branch on overflow dear 
-branch on overflow set 



As you can see, each branch has an 
opposite, such as BCC and BCS. An 
instruction like BNE $03 would cause 
the chip to jump three bytes ahead if 
the last comparison was between two 
unequal (not equal) values. We could 
use the opposite if we wished— it 
would then be BEQ $03— but this 
would cause the chip to jump three 
ahead only if the last values compared 
were equivalent. Thus you can pro- 
gram branches for any number of 
possible situations. 

Signed Numbers 

As I mentioned, a branch instruction 
allows you to either jump backwards 
or forwards. Alas, the range is not 
unlimited, and must be able to fit in- 
side on byte. (Each branch takes two 
bytes— one for the instruction itself, 
and the other for the value to jump). 
So we could assume that the most it 
could jump was 255, or $FF— right? (A 



byte only holds up to 255). This would 
normally (isn't there anything normal?!) 
be right, except for one small problem: 
there is no way to tell if you want to go 
backward or forward. So some smart 
person came up with the idea of using 
one bit of the value to jump as a flag 
to indicate this. The leftmost bit (bit 7) 
was chosen to do so. This means that 
the range of a branch instruction is 
limited to + 1 27 to - 1 28. This should 
be kept in mind, otherwise your 
system could crash. 

Right now you're probably wonder- 
ing how we can represent negative 
values in binary so that the computer 
could understand what we mean. Lets 
examine a byte: 

bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
1111111 

Bit 7 is our positive/negative flag, 
and since it is zero, we will exclude it 
from our calculations. Thus the byte 
represents the number 127 decimal 
(2 6 + 2 5 + 2 4 + 2 3 + 2? + 2 1 + 2° = 1 2 7) . 
This is the limit of our positive numbers 
since adding one would clear bits to 
6 and set bit 7, which would mean the 
byte is negative. In any case, the 
numbers to 127 (0 is considered 
positive in assembly language) take up 
the first 128 possible combinations in 
a byte. Since a byte can hold from 
to 255, there are still another 128 posi- 
tions left unfilled (0 to 255 = 256 posi- 
tions, minus 128=128). These are 
negative values since they all have the 
high bit (bit 7) on, and thus also repre- 
sent a value of 128 or greater (ignor- 
ing the sign). Following the pattern of 
positive numbers, you'd probably 
expect 

10 
to represent - (negative zero) since 
the sign bit is the only one on. In fact, 
that's quite wrong. The value 
10000000 binary represents -128, 
not -0. How did we get this? You 
simply take the negative number and 
add it to 256. Doing this with - 128, 
we show it as: 
256 

+ ( - 1 28) add neg. value 

128 resultant ($80 hex) 

The resultant is $80, or %1 0000000. 
The number - 20 could then be calcu- 
lated as: 



256 




+ (- 20) 




226 ($E2) 




In binary this would be: 




1110 0010 




Similarily, - 1 would be: 




256 




+ (- 1) 




255 ($FF) 




or 




11111111 




The whole range of signed 


numbers 


goes something like this: 




+ 127 o/o01 111111 


$7F 


+ 126 o/o0 1111110 


$7E 



+ 


1 


%00000001 


$01 







%00000000 


$00 


- 


1 


%1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


$FF 



-127 %1 0000001 $81 

-128 %1 0000000 $80 

I realize that this may be confusing, 

but it is probably the easiest way to 

represent signed numbers in one byte. 

It's Relative 

One nice thing about branches is 
that they are relative, which means it 
will execute properly no matter where 
it's put in memory (some instructions 
must always be changed). For exam- 
ple, if you put a BEQ.$0F at location 
$033C (the cassete buffer), and then 
moved it to $03FC, it would still cause 
the chip to jump 15 ($0F) ahead, re- 
gardless of its present position. It's all 
relative to the chip's present position, 
which is why branches are also called 
"relative branches." 
Using Branches with 
Assemblers 

Using branches on an assembler is 
a lot easier than with a monitor. All you 
have to do is specify the target label 
of the line you wish to go to, and the 
branch will be automatically calculated 
if within the correct range. The same 
sort of thing is done with the VICMON 
cartridge. You specify the target ad- 
dress (such as BNE $1201), and if it's 
within the proper range (-128 to 
+ 127), it will automatically place the 



Commander May 1983/21 



proper value into memory. When you 
disassemble it, it will also give you the 
address, just so that you don't have to 
figure out that BNE SAD means to 
jump back 83 bytes. I just wanted to 
make this clear so that you don't get 
confused. 
Branch if Equal . . . 

The first branch we'll look at is BEQ, 
meaning branch if equal. Upon receiv- 
ing this instruction, the chip checks to 
see if the Z flag in the status register 
is set. If it is, it branches; otherwise it 
continues with the next instruction. An 
example of this would be: 

START LDA #$03 
CMP #$FF 
BEQ SKIP 
LDX #$2D 

SKIP LDY $FD 

The accumulator will be loaded with 
$03 and then compared to $FF (255). 
Since they are not equal, the Z flag is 
set to 0, and the BEQ test fails, and it 
executes the LDX #$2D. Naturally, this 
is bad coding, since the accumulator 
will never contain $FF, but I just 
wanted to give you a demonstration of 
using the branch after a compare. 
Setting the Z Flag 

The Z flag is probably the one set 
most often. Loading or affecting the 
contents of a register in any way what- 
soever will either set or clear the Z flag, 
depending if the new contents of the 
register equals zero or not. Thus if you 
do a LDA #$00, the Z flag will be set, 
since the register now holds a value 
of zero. A compare also sets the Z flag 
if both items being compared are 
equal— otherwise it is cleared to zero. 
So testing for a zero value does not 
necessarily need a compare, since a 
BEQ statement would work just as well 
without it. 
Branch if Not Equal . . . 

The opposite of BEQ is BNE, branch 
if not equal, and this is usually the 
more common of the two since it is 
used in loops, explained below. BNE 
tests to see if the Z flag is cleared (0), 
and if it is, causes the chip to branch 
to the specified address. An example 
would be: 

LDA $3B 

CMP #$EB 

BNE CONTINUE 



CONTINUE LDA#$FF 

If the value in $3B does not equal 

$EB, then it will branch to the code 
with the label CONTINUE. Otherwise 
it will continue with the code after the 
branch. 

Loops 

Loops in assembly language are not 
very hard to program, and can be very 
handy. The following is an example of 
a loop: 

LDY#$FF 

LOOP1 DEY 

BNE LOOP1 

Here you are introduced to a new 
instruction. DEY decreases the present 
value in the Y-register by one. A similar 
statement is DEX, which operates on 
the X-register. And the opposites of 
these statements are INY and INX, 
which increase the appropriate regis- 
ter by one. They come in very handy 
for loops. In the example, the Y- 
register is first loaded with $FF, and 
then decreased by one with the DEY 
instruction. A test is then made to see 
if Y does not equal zero. Since Y only 
equals $FE (254), the test is positive 
(the Z flag is clear) and the computer 
backtracks to LOOP1, where it en- 
counters the DEY statement again and 
repeats the process of checking to see 
if the register is not equal to zero. Final- 
ly, after 254 loops, the Y-register 
equals zero, and the test fails. The 
computer continues on with its work, 
after having been delayed a few milli- 
seconds. 

The following is another example of 
a loop. It uses the X-register instead of 
the Y, and uses INX statements along 
with BNE: 

LDX #$00 

LOOP2 INX 

BNE LOOP 2 

Looking at this, you're probably 
thinking that the computer will be 
caught in an endless loop, since X will 
never equal zero, and so be able to 
leave the loop by failing the BNE test. 
Normally, this would be correct, but 
not here. A byte can be compared to 
a score counter in a game: if it gets 
past a certain number, the whole 



counter rolls over back to zero, as 
such: 

11111111 (255) 

_+ 1 ( 1) 

100000000 (256) 

As you can see, the new number is 
%1 00000000. But since this is a 9-bit 
number and the registers can only 
hold 8 bits (a byte), the extra digit (1) 
is ignored, and thus the register now 
holds %00000000, or zero. If we apply 
this to our example, we can see that 
once we get to $FF and increment 
that, we'll get $00, after which the BNE 
fails and the computer goes about 
executing whatever follows this simple 
loop. It isn't that hard to understand, 
is it? 
Next Month... 

I'm running out of room here, so I'll 
leave the rest of my explanation about 
loops until next month, at which time 
I'll include some practical examples, 
including a routine to scroll the screen 
to the left. If you have any problems 
in the meantime, feel free to contact 
me at Box 901 , Peace River, Alberta, 
Canada TOH 2X0 

(P.S.—A note to the VIC owners who 
typed in that lengthy monitor listing last 
month— if you did it right, you should 
have put the words "HI THERE!" at 
the top corner of the screen. I realize 
that it was quite a tedious and useless 
task to type all that in, so next month 
I'm also presenting a routine to print 
any message to the screen using the 
loops.) 

Figure 1: 

Bit Position 

7 6 5 4 3 2 10 

B D I Z C 



S V 



sign status 

overflow flag 

break flag 

decimal mode flag 

nterrupt enable/disable 
Z: zero flag 
C: carry status 
(bit 5 is unused) 



I: i 




22/Commander May 1983 




Vanilla Pilot? 

Yes, Vanilla Pilot! 



What is Vanilla Pilot? 



Vanilla Pilot is a full-featured pilot 
language interpreter including TURTLE 
GRAPHICS for the PET or CBM 4000, 
80C0, 9000 and CBM-64 series computers 

At last! A Pilot interpreter for the 
Commodore computers. This Pilot in- 
cludes some powerful extensions to 
the screen editor of the computer. 
Things like FIND /CHANGE, TRACE 
and DUMP enhance the programming 
environment. 



The TURTLE has a very powerful set 
of graphics commands. You can set the 
Turtle's DIRECTION and turn him LEFT 
or RIGHT. The pen he carries can be 
set to any of the 16 colors in the CBM- 
64. He can DRAW or ERASE a Line. 

What else? Vanilla Pilot is all this and 
much, much more. In fact, we can't 
tell you about all of the features of 
the language in this small ad. So 
rush down to your local Commodore 
computer dealer and ask him to show 
you Vanilla Pilot in action. Be sure 
to take the $2.00 discount coupon. 

Hurry, you have only a short time to 
redeem your coupon. So use it now! 



Tamarack Software 
Darby, MT. 59829 




8 



<A 



VANILLA 



Retailer: Send the redeemed coupons to 
Tamarack Software, Darby, MT 59829. We will 
pay 52. plus $.35 handling for the redemption 
of these coupons. If requested, invoices show- 
ing sufficient purchase of Vanilla Pilot must be 
submitted. Coupons submitted to us more than 
30 days after the expiration dntc will not be 
honored. 

April 15. 1W3. 



Circle No. 42 
Commander May 1983/23 



Peek & Poke 

A USR Instruction Sheet 



by George Gaukel 
Tacoma, WA 



This program provides a set of USR 
instructions to allow direct BASIC ac- 
cess to the SID and VIC chips and for 
some graphic functions. The program 
is stored in the RAM area of 49152 
($C000) to ($CED1). 

The program is self-initializing and 
once run, a machine language version 
may be saved using a monitor. If a 
machine language version is loaded, 
you need to initialize the program as 
in lines 130 and 140 of the listing. This 
sets the USR vector to $C100. 

Note that USR(O) only initializes the 
program's internal tables and pointers. 
USR(1) will execute the mapping se- 
quence. USR(1) stores the current VIC 
map and installs the preset map. This 
allows toggling between two VIC 
maps, as USR(2) returns to the map 
that USR(1) stored. If USR(1) is exe- 
cuted twice in a row then the current 
and previous maps will be the same 
and you will be locked into the preset 
map until a new USR(O) and USR(1) 
are executed. 

The RESTORE key will not allow for 
a proper recovery to the BASIC map, 
as it does not clear the BMM, ECM 
and MCM bits. I usually add the follow- 
ing line to a program: 

60000 A = USR(0),O,1,4: 

A = USR(1): A = USR(17): 

A = USR(19): A = USR(21) 
If I crash, I CLR-HOME and enter 
GOTO60000. This is easier than trying, 
to enter all of the above without a video 
display. 

All numbers passed to the USR pro- 
gram must be positive and in the 
range of Q-65535 (decimals wiW be 
truncated) or there will be an illegal 
quantity error. If the expected number 
of variables is not present, there will 
be a syntax error. In the instruction list 
I have indicated byte and flag types. 
All this means is that the high byte is 

24/ComnnancJer May 1983 



100 


REM ' 


USER. DATA' 


110 


FOR AD»49152T052946«READ DA 


120 


POKE 


AD, DA I NEXT AD 


130 


POKE783,0 l P0KE786, 193 


140 


A«USR<0>, 0,1,4 i A»USR(1) 


150 


END 




160 


DATA 


36, 193, 33, 194, 9B, 194 


170 


DATA 


132, 194, 154, 194, 177, 194 


180 


DATA 


209, 194, 227, 194, 239, 194 


190 


DATA 


38, 195, 56, 195, 144, 204 


200 


DATA 


144, 204, 144, 204, 144, 204 


210 


DATA 


144, 204, 87, 195, 96, 195 


220 


DATA 


105, 195, 114, 195, 123, 195 


230 


DATA 


132, 195, 141, 195, 150, 195 


240 


DATA 


159, 195, 168, 195, 177, 193 


230 


DATA 


186, 195, 195, 195, 220, 195 


260 


DATA 


48, 198, 144, 204, 227, 195 


270 


DATA 


235, 195, 243, 195, 62, 196 


280 


DATA 


80, 196, 101, 196, 122, 196 


290 


DATA 


140, 196, 165, 196, 224, 196 


300 


DATA 


238, 196, 244, 196, 250, 196 


310 


DATA 


2, 197, 10, 197, 18, 197 


320 


DATA 


26, 197, 34, 197, 42, 197 


330 


DATA 


39, 197, 67, 197, 144, 204 


340 


DATA 


144, 204, 144, 204, 144, 204 


330 


DATA 


75, 197, 97, 197, 123, 197 


360 


DATA 


156, 197, 175, 197, 194, 197 


370 


DATA 


213, 197, 191, 19B, 195, 198 


380 


DATA 


213, 199, 217, 199, 254, 200 


390 


DATA 


2, 201, 39, 201, 69, 201 


400 


DATA 


116, 201, 144, 204, 144, 204 


410 


DATA 


144, 204, 144, 204, 144, 204 


420 


DATA 


144, 204, 144, 204, 144, 204 


430 


DATA 


144, 204, 144, 204, 144, 204 


440 


DATA 


144, 204, 144, 204, 144, 204 


490 


DATA 


144, 204, 144, 204, 144, 204 


460 


DATA 


IBS, 201, 246, 201, 253, 201 


470 


DATA 


27, 202, 56, 202, 87, 202 


480 


DATA 


116, 202, 183, 202, 210, 202 


490 


DATA 


21, 203, 40, 203, 59, 203 


500 


DATA 


85, 203, 117, 203, 131, 203 


310 


DATA 


137, 203, 144, 204, 144, 204 


520 


DATA 


144, 204, 143, 203, 151, 203 


530 


DATA 


159, 203, 167, 203, 207, 203 


540 


DATA 


214, 203, 221, 203, 228, 203 


550 


DATA 


14, 204, 18, 204, 52, 204 



cleared. Where byte values are less 
than the range of 0-255 are indicated, 
I have masked for the value. When 
values are returned they will be double 
byte, signed or unsigned as -appro- 
priate. 

For those with a relocating monitor, 
the first page ($C000-$C0FF) of the 
program is an internal word table in 
the range of $COO0-$CFFF. The code 
starts at $C1 000 and is continuous to 
the absolute tables which start with 
$FF, which should abort most reloca- 
tors. 

The X-Y and line plotting will allow 
for positive wrap-around. X-Y may be 
any value in the range of 0-65535 and 
the routines will rescale the values. 

The SID routines maintain an image 
of the write only latches. This allows for 
simplified commands such as voice on 
or off. 

The USR program is not designed 
to replace the awareness of how the 
chips operate. It is designed to provide 
programmer access to the chips using 
a systematic format and allow limited 
time (for most of us) to be better spent 
in program applications, rather than 
trying to do something in BASIC which 
should be done in machine language. 

With a 4K limit I have included only 
those commands I find most useful. 
There are many things that can be 
done to the bit map, using standard 
library calls, such as character rotation 
and simplified scrolling in both axes. 
Send in a wish list, and if there is 
enough interest I will publish a supple- 
ment. 

The example programs should be 
self-explanatory. □ 

USR Command List 

,B To 255 BYTE 
,DB TO 65535 DOUBLE BYTE 
,FL = FLAG OFF/CLR 
,FL FLAG ON/SET 
A = USR(32),B 
A = USR(9),DG 
A = USR(90),B,FL,FL,FL 
SYNTAX: 
A = USR(0),0,1,4 
B = USR(1) 
B = USR(BB(6))) 
X = USR(90),1, 0,0,0 



560 DATA 56, 204, 60, 204, 64, 204 
570 DATA 147, 204, 28, 207, 28, 207 
580 DATA 35, 207, 42, 207, 32, 247 
590 DATA 183, 201, 0, 208, 27, 141 
600 DATA 10, 207, 152, 201, 123, 176 
610 DATA 19, 10, 170, 173, 247, 192 
620 DATA 72, 173, 246, 192, 72, 189 
630 DATA 1, 192, 72, 189, 0, 192 
640 DATA 72, 96, 76, 73, 188, 32 
650 DATA 62, 206, 173, 188, 206, 41 
660 DATA 3, 141, 20, 207, 173, 190 
670 DATA 206, 41, 15, 141, 18, 207 
680 DATA 173, 192, 206, 41, 14, 141 
690 DATA 16, 207, 169, 8, 141, 
700 DATA 207, 169, 0, 141, 1, 207 
710 DATA 169, 64, 141, 2, 207, 169 
720 DATA 1, 141, 3, 207, 169, 
730 DATA 141, 4, 207, 169, 4, 141 
740 DATA 5, 207, 174, 20, 207, 189 
750 DATA 172, 206, 141, 249, 206, 141 
760 DATA 7, 207, 141, B, 207, 169 
770 DATA 0, 141, 6, 207, 141, 248 
780 DATA 206, 169, 8, 45, 16, 207 
790 DATA 240, 9, 24, 169, 32, 109 
800 DATA 7, 207, 141, 7, 207, 162 
810 DATA 62, 160, 253, 32, 39, 203 
820 DATA 162, 0, 165, 253, 157, 1B9 
830 DATA 207, 232, 165, 254, 157, 189 
840 DATA 207, 232, 134, 2, 162, 253 
850 DATA 160, 74, 32, 175, 205, 166 
B60 DATA 2, 224, 31, 144, 229, 173 
870 DATA 18, 207, 10, 170, 189, 189 
880 DATA 207, 141, 252, 206, 1B9, 190 
890 DATA 207, 141, 253, 206, 173, 16 
900 DATA 207, 10, 170, 189, 189, 207 
910 DATA 141, 250, 206, 189, 190, 207 
920 DATA 141, 251, 206, 162. 76, 160 
930 DATA 253, 32, 39, 205, 162, 
940 DATA 165, 253, 157, 55, 207, 232 
950 DATA 165, 254, 157, 55, 207, 232 
960 DATA 134, 2, 162, 253, 160, 72 
970 DATA 32, 175, 205, 166, 2, 224 
980 DATA 51, 144, 229, 162, O, 134 
990 DATA 253, 134, 254, 165, 253, 157 
1000 DATA 107, 207, 232, 165. 254, 157 
1010 DATA 107, 207, 232, 134, 2, 160 
1020 DATA 70, 162, 253, 32, 175, 205 
1030 DATA 166, 2, 224, 81, 144, 229 
1040 DATA 24, 169, 248, 109, 252, 206 
1050 DATA 141, 254, 206, 169, 3, 109 
1060 DATA 253, 206, 141, 255, 206, 96 
1070 DATA 173, 136, 2, 141, 22, 207 
1080 DATA 173, 24, 208, 141, 24, 207 
1090 DATA 173, 0, 221, 141, 26, 207 
1100 DATA 173, 253, 206, 141, 136, 2 
1110 DATA 173, 18, 207, 32, 241, 204 
1120 DATA 13, 16, 207, 141, 24, 208 



Commander May 1983/25 



A = USR(Z),A,B,C 

B = USR(X%) 

B = USR(X(Y)) 
USRO PRESET/VIC GENERATE 
MAPS 

,B,B,B 

BANK 0-3; VIDEO MEMORY 0-1 5; 
VIDEO BASE 0-14 STEP2 
USR1 GO VIC PRESET SETUP 
USR2 RETURN PREVIOUS SETUP 
USR3 PRESET BIT MAP 

,B 

SET THE 8000 BYTES TO B 

USR4 PRESET COLOR RAM 

,B 

SET ALL COLOR NIBBLES 
TO VALUE 0-15 
USR5 PRESET POINTER RAM 

,B,B 

HI NIBBLE 0-15; LO NIBBLE 0-15 
USR6 SET BGC REGISTERS 

,B,B 

BACKGROUND REG 0-3; 
COLOR 0-15 
USR7 SET BORDER COLOR 

,B 

COLOR 0-15 

USR8 COPY CHAR ROM OR 1 
,B,B 
CHARACTER ROM 0-1; 

STORAGE POINTER 0-14 

STEP 2 

USR9 CHANGE END BASIC MEM 

,DB 

0-65535 
USR10 CHANGE START BASIC 
MEM 

,DB 

0-65535 
USR16 SET BMM BIT 
USR17 CLEAR BMM BIT 
USR18 SET ECM BIT 
USR19 CLEAR ECM BIT 
USR20 SET MCM BIT 
USR21 CLEAR MCM BIT 
USR22 SET 38/40 COL BIT 
USR23 CLEAR 38/40 COL BIT 
USR24 SET DIN BIT 
USR25 CLEAR DIN BIT 
USR26 SET 24/25 ROW 
USR27 CLEAR 24/25 ROW 

USR28 SCROLL Y 

,B 
SCROLL 0-7 

26/Commander May 1983 




208, 9, 

96, 173, 

141, 17, 

208, 9, 

96, 173, 22, 208, 41, 239 

141, 22, 208, 96, 173, 22 

208, 9, 8, 141, 22, 208 

96, 173, 22, 208, 41, 24 



D.E.S.-SOFT 



TM 



a division of 



DES-Data Equipment Supply Corp. 



LASER COMMAND by Bob Burnett 



HOPPER by Thomas Kim 




You are the commander of a squadron 
of laser ships. It is your duty to defend 
the cities of Earth against the alien 
onslaught. Spectacular graphics and 
machine code for super fast arcade 
fun. VIC-20 and cassette, joystick. 
$20.00 



SHIFTY (c)by Kavan 

Watch the maze change 
, as you pass thru the 
revolving doors. This is 
» a really cute one. 
Machine language. VIC- 
20 w/8K expander, cas- 
i sette. Joystick and 
keyboard. 
$20.00 



One of the most popular games in Europe. You 
control BONZO as he climbs the ladders and 
picks up point blocks. Watch out for the alien 
guards. Excellent graphics & sound. 100% 
machine code. VIC-20 w/8K expander, cassette. 
Joystick or keyboard. 
$20.00 



Rated a Five Star game by Creative 
Computing. Avoid the cars, buildings, 
logs and other obstacles to bring the 
frog home. Machine language. VIC-20, 
cassette and joystick. 
$20.00 



SPACE TRADER 

by Doug Caruthers 



Search for the lost 
planet of Alantia. 1 to 4 
players. Text adventure. 
VIC-20 w/16K expander 
and cassette. 
$39.95 




Many exciting titles to choose from. 
New Software for the CBM B500/700 series available now 11 



pal 20 ™ 



$10.00 




95 pages of aids, worksheets & logs 
Something for every VIC-20 programmer 
Coming soon for the Commodore 64 



NEW for the VIC-20 & 64 

electronic ab VIC-20 products 

VIC FORTH $59.95 

This is a highly capable language that operates from cartridge. It is based on 
Fig-Forth. Disk and cassette compatible. Vic Forth will work with any memory 
expansion. 3K of RAM is included in this cartridge. 

VIC GRAPH $49.95 

The intention of this program is to serve as a mathematical and pedagogic aid 
for studying complicated equations and functions by their graphs. Plots 
graphics in high resolution within an x-axis range defined by you. You can also 
"blow up" parts of a graph in detail by a specified range. 

VIC STAT $49.95 

Vic Stat is a cartridge which will simplify your work with statistics ana graphic 
displays. It will add approximately 15 commands to BASIC. For example, bar 
chart, horizontal or vertical, plotting with 2024 points, printout of screen. 
Statistical commands for calculations of, for example, mean value, standard 
deviation, variance, etc. 

VIC REL $59.95 

The purpose of this cartridge is to simplify control of, for example, burglar 
alarms, garage doors, door locks, heating elements, lamps, radios, remote 
controllers, valves, pumps, telephones, accumulators, irrigation systems, 
electrical tools, stop watches, ventilators, humidifiers, etc., etc. This cartridge 
contains 6 relay outputs and 2 inputs of type optocoupler. For the VIC-20 and 
Commodore 64. 



SEE YOUR LOCAL DEALER TO SEE OUR FINE PRODUCTS 

Dealer inquiries invited Software Distribution Available Programs wanted 



(714) 
778-5455 



Data Equipment Supply Corp. 
8315 Firestone Blvd., Downey, CA 90241 



(213) 
923-9361 



VIC-20™, COMMODORE™, COMMODORE 64™, and CBM™ are trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 

Circle No. 13 



USR29 SCROLL X 

,B 

SCROLL 0-7 
USR30 COPY SPRITE TO BIT MAP 

,B,B.B 

X 0-39; Y 0-24; SPRITE MAP 0-255 
USR32 SPRITE ON 

,B 

SPRITE 0-7 
USR33 SPRITE OFF 

,B 

SPRITE 0-7 
USR34 MOVE SPRITE 

,DB,B,B 

X POSITION; Y POSITION; 
SPRITE 0-7 

USR35 SET SPRITE COLOR 
,B,B 
SPRITE 0-7; COLOR 0-15 

USR36 SET SPRITE MCM BIT 

,B 

SPRITE 0-7 
USR37 CLR SPRITE MCM BIT 

,B 

SPRITE 0-7 

USR38 SET SPRITE MULTICOLOR 
REGS 

,B,B 

REGISTER 0-1; COLOR 0-15 
USR39 CHANGE SPRITE MAP 

,B,B 

SPRITE 0-7; MAP 0-255 

USR40 COPY SPRITE MAP TO MAP 

,B,B 

MAP 0-255; MAP 0-255 
USR41 KILL & HOME SPRITES 

USR42 READ BACKGROUND 
COLLISION REGISTER 

USR43 READ SPRITE COLLISION 
REGISTER 

USR44 SPRITE HORZ ON 
,B 
SPRITE 0-7 

USR45 SPRITE HORZ OFF 

,B 

SPRITE 0-7 
USR46 SPRITE VERT ON 

,B 

SPRITE 0-7 

USR46 SPRITE VERT OFF 

,B 

SPRITE 0-7 
USR48 SPRITE/BACKGROUND 
SET 
28/Commander May 1983 




USR49 SPRITE/BACKGROUND 

CLR 

USR50 MOVE CURSOR 

,B,B 

X 0-39; Y 0-24 
USR51 RETURN CURSOR X POS 
USR52 RETURN CURSOR Y POS 
USR57 SET COLOR NIBBLE 

,B,B,B 

X 0-39; Y 0-24; COLOR 0-15 
USR58 SET VIDEO PTR NIBS 

,B,B,B,B 

X 0-39; YO-24; COLOR 0-15; 
LO COLOR 0-15 

USR59 SET B7&6 VIDEO PTR 

,B,B.B 

X 0-39; Y 0-24; BIT PAIR 0-3 
USR60 UNSIGNED EOR RETURN 

,DB,DB 0-65535 
USR61 UNSIGNED AND RETURN 

,DB,DB 0-65535 
USR62 UNSIGNED OR RETURN 

,DB,DB 0-65535 
USR63 COPY CHAR BLOCK 
TO BIT MAP 

,B,B,B,B 

X 0-39; Y 0-24; STORAGE PTR 

0-14 
STEP2; CHAR INDEX 0-255 
USR64 SET X Y HIRES 

,DB,DB 

X 0-65535; Y 0-65535 
USR65 CLR X Y HIRES 

,DB,DB 

X 0-65535; Y 0-65535 
USR66 SET LINE 

,DB,DB,DB,DB 

XI 0-65535; Y1 0-65535; 
X2 0-65535; Y2 0-65535 

USR67 CLR LINE 

,DB,DB,DB,DB 

X1 0-65535; Y1 0-65535; 
X2 0-65535; Y2 0-65535 
USR68 PLOT LINE - SET 

,DB,DB 

X2 0-65535; Y2 0-65535 
USR69 PLOT LINE - CLR 

,DB,DB 

X2 0-65535; Y 0-65535 

USR70 SET POINT 

,DB,DB,B 

X 0-65535; Y 0-65535; 
BIT PAIR 0-3 
USR71 LINE - POINTS 

,DB,DB,DB,DB,B 



2270 
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DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



76, 25, 205, 173, 30, 208 
76, 25, 205, 32, 47, 206 
160, 29, 76, 86, 196, 32 
47, 206, 160, 29, 76, 107 
196, 32, 47, 206, 160, 23 
76, 86, 196, 32, 47, 206 
160, 23, 76, 107, 196, 32 
47, 206, 160, 27, 76, 86 
196, 32, 47, 206, 160, 27 
76, 107, 196, 32, 53, 206 
174, 190, 206, 172, 188, 3 
24, 32, 240, 255, 32, 36 
234, 96, 56, 32, 240, 255 
152, 76, 25, 205, 56, 32 
240, 255, 138, 76, 25, 2" 
!, 62, 206, 32, 243, 20! 



206 



190 
45 
32 



251, 164, 211, 177, 209 
63, 5, 251, 145, 209, 32 
254, 205, 96, 32, 113, 206 
173, 188, 206, 77, 190, 206 
168, 173, 189, 206, 77, 191 
206, 76, 28, 205, 32, 113 
206, 173, 188, 206, 45, l a " 
206, 168, 173, 189, 206, * 
191, 206, 76, 28, 205, 3^ 
113, 206, 173, 188, 206, 
190, 206, 168, 173, 189, 
13, 191, 206, 76, 28, 205 
32, 71, 206, 32, 17, 198 
162, 6, 160, 3, 32, 87 
205, 173, 192, 206, 41, 14 
10, 170, 24, 189, 189, 207 
109, 194, 206, 133, 251, 189 
190, 207, 109, 195, 206, 133 

252, 162, 24, 160, 253, 32 
39, 205, 169, 8, 133, 20 
32, 200, 204, 160, 0, 32 
37, 206, 76, 228, 204, 162 
2, 160, 3, 32, 87, 205 
162, 4, 160, 3, 32, 87 
205, 162, 2, 160, 36, 32 
63, 205, 162, 4, 160, 38 
32, 63, 205, 32, 222, 198 
96, 32, 62, 206, 32, 17 
198, 162, 6, 160, 6, 32 
87, 205, 24, 173, 1B9, 207 
109, 192, 206, 141, 192, 206 



Commander May 1983/29 



X1 0-65535; Y1 0-65535; 

X2 0-65535; Y2 0-65535; 

BIT PAIR 0-3 
USR72 PLOT LINE - POINTS 

,DB,DB,B 

X2 0-65535; Y2 0-65535; 
BIT PAIR 0-3 
USR90 SET VOICE;BIT,RING, 
SYNC 

,B,FL,FL,FL 

VOICE 0-3; FLAG; FLAG; FLAG 
USR91 SET VOICE:AD 

,B,B,B 

VOICE 0-3; A 0-15; D 0-15 
USR92 SET VOICE:SR 

,B,B,B 

VOICE 0-3; S0-15; R 0-15 

USR93 VOICErFREQUENCY 

,B,DB 

VOICE 0-3; FREQUENCY 0-65535 
USR94 SET VOICE: PULSE WIDTH 

,B,DB 

VOICE 0-3; FREQUENCY 0-4096? 
USR95 SET SID CUTOFF FREQ 

,B,DB 

VOICE 0-3; FREQUENCY 0-4096? 
USR96 SET SID:FILTER INPUTS 

,B,B,B,B 

FLAGS:EXT,VOICE1 ,VOICE2, 
VOICE3 
USR97 SET SID:FILTER Q 

,B 

FILTER Q 0-15 
USR98 SET SID:FILTER MODES 

,B,B,B,B 

FLAGS:CUTV3,HI-PASS ON, 
BAND-PASS ON,LO-PASS ON 
USR99 VOICE GATE ON 
USR100 VOICE GATE OFF 
USR101 SET SID:VOLUMN 

,B 

VOLUMN 0-15 

USR102 SET VOICE:WAVEFORM 

,B 

WAVE FORM 0-3 
USR103 CLR SID & PSEUDO REGS 
USR104 RETURN OCS3 RND 
USR105 RETURN OSC3 
WAVEFORM 

**ALL THE REST ARE RETURNS 
USR109 XBUTTON PORT2 
PADDLE 

USR110 YBUTTON PORT2 
PADDLE 

30/Commander May 1983 



2840 
2050 
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DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



133, 253, 173, 190, 207, 109 

193, 206, 141, 193, 206, 133 

254, 32, 97, 198, 32, 149 

198, 32, 97, 198, 32, 149 

198, 32, 200, 204, 162, 

160, 0, 177, 253, 145, 251 

232, 224, 21, 208, 3, 76 

228, 204, 142, 194, 206, 238 

224, 206, 208, 3, 238, 225 

206, 32, 222, 198, 24, 165 

253. 105. 3' 1^. *?53. 1A5 



32, 222, 198, 24, 165 

253, 105, 3, 133, 253, 165 

254, 105, 0, 133, 254, 174 
194, 206, 76, 102, 198, 162 
4, 160, 38, 32, 63, 205 

24, 173, 222, 206, 105, 8 
141, 222, 206, 173, 223, : 

222, 



ZO < *■■*-*■* XUO, iV3. B 

222, 206, 173, 223, 206 
wy, 0, 141, 223, 206, 32 
222, 198, 238, 192, 206, 208 
3, 238, 193, 206, 162, 6 
160, 253, 32, 39, 205, 96 
169, 255, 208, 2, 169, 
141, 12, 207, 169, O, 141 
14, 207, 162, 36, 32, 246 
204, 162, 38, 32, 246, 204 
32, 222, 198, 76, 129, 199 
173, 224, 206, 41, 7, 141 



3, 32, 97, 205, 173, 217 

206, 240, 19, 56, 173, 216 

206, 233, 25, 141, 216, 206 

173, 217, 206, 233, 0, 141 

217, 206, 208, 237, 173, 216 

206, 201, 25, 176, 230, 173 

215, 206, 240, 19, 56, 173 
214, 206, 233, 40, 141, 214 
206, 173, 215, 206, 233, 
141, 215, 206, 208, 237, 173 
214, 206, 201, 40, 176, 230 
173, 214, 206, 10, 170, 173 

216, 206, 10, 168, 24, 185 

55. ?n7. 1*?5. Irt7. ^Ct7^ 133 



lo2, 251, -iii, 1/3, ^U3, j 

22, 162, 251, 32, 52, 20! 

96, 174, 218, 206, 160, ( 

173, 14, 207, 208, 37, 173 

12, 207, 240, 16, 32, 200 
204, 177, 251, 72, 32, 228 

204, 104, 29, 140, 206, 145 



TURN YOUR 

COMPUTER INTO A 

FULL-BLOODED WORD 

PROCESSOR. 




VIC 2CT and Commodore 64™ users, 
something very clever is lying in wait for 
you. It's called Quick Brown Fox.™ 

Quite simply Quick Brown Fox is the 
quickest, easiest to learn, user-friendliest — 
and most versatile — word processing 
software running. 
Take a look at some of these crafty features. You 
get full editing, even on standard displays. (The Fox supports most 
80-column boards too.) You get automatic reformatting of edited 
text, not the tedious paragraph-by-paragraph runaround. There's more. 
You get single-key operation, text moving, boilerplating, tab and 
margin settings, right justification, proportional spacing. You get in- 
telligent software that uses less computer memory. (That's how come 
it even works with an off-the-shelf VIC 20.) You also get compatibility 
with a wide range of printers — plus plenty more. 
And you get it all for only $65. Doesn't that make you want to trot 
through your texts with a Quick Brown Fox? 

QUICK BROWN FOX " 

Call or write for more details: 

548 Broadway New York, NY 10012 (212) 925-8290 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



If Circle No. 9 

"■-CDiUPU SENSEC 

CARDBOARD 6 
$87.95 

An expansion interface for the VIC-20. 
Allows expansion to 40 K or accepts up 
to six games. May be daisy chained for 
more versatility. 

CARDBOARD 3 
$39.95 

Economy expansion interface for 
the VIC-20 

CARD"?" CARD/PRINT 
$79.95 

Universal Centronics Parallel Printer 
Interface for the VIC-20 or CBM-64. 
Use an Epson MX-80 or OKIDATA or 
TANDY or just about any other. 

CARDETTE 
$39.95 

Use any standard cassette player/re- 
corder with your ViC-20 or CBM-64 

LIGHT PEN 
$29.95 

A light pen with six good programs to 
use with your VIC-20 or CBM-64 

Prices subject to change. 
TO ORDER; P. O. BOX 18765 

WICHITA, KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 
Personal Checks Accepted (Allow 3 Weeks) 
or C.O.D. (Add $2) Handling Charges 52,00 



.1" 



Intelligent Software For 
Commodore Computers 

Copycalc is an affordable electronic 
spread-sheet which turns your video screen 
Into a window on a matrix of numbers. Cur- 
sor around the matrix, enter numbers; the 
totals reflect the changes. You can save the 
matrix to disk or tape, or print it or your 
printer. For $20 [$15 with another program), 
this program might justify the cost of your 
computer. Requires 6k RAM; smaller version 
available for a standard VIC. 

Word Processor Plus was not designed 
to be an expensive toy; it was designed 
solely to facilitate correspondence, for a 
wide range of personal and business uses, 
quickly and easily, with a minimum of train- 
ing and frustration on the part of its user, 
and at the least possible cost, both in hard- 
ware and software. The most thoroughly 
tested, useable word processor available 
at anywhere near the price, $25; 10k RAM, 
printer req'd.; RS-232C version available for 
VIC and 64. 

Also available: Baseball Manager, a 
sports-documentation program; and Inven- 
tory, a perpetual inventory control program 
for a small retail business (various reports, 
multiple vendors); $30 each; 10k RAM 
req'd., printer suggested. 

All programs will load and run on any 
Commodore computer; all support tape, 
disk, and printer. 

Prices include documentation and ship- 
ping; Calif, residents add 6%. Please 
specify hardware configuration when 
ordering. Sorry, no games available. 
Willam Bobbins, Box 3745, San Rafael, CA 94912 
Circle No. 20 



3410 


DATA 


251, 


96, 32, 200, 204, 177 


3420 


DATA 


251, 


72, 32, 228, 204, 104 


3430 


DATA 


61, 


148, 206, 145. 251, 96 


3440 


DATA 


32, 


200, 204, 177, 251, 133 


3430 


DATA 


253, 


32, 226, 204, 165, 253 


3460 


DATA 


61, 


156, 206, 133, 253, 173 


3470 


DATA 


212, 


206, 41, 3, 168, 189 


3480 


DATA 


156, 


206, 73, 255, 57, 164 


3490 


DATA 


206, 


5, 253, 160, 0, 145 


3500 


DATA 


251, 


96, 169, 255, 208, 2 


3510 


DATA 


169, 


0, 141, 12, 207, 169 


3S20 


DATA 


0, 141, 14, 207, 162, 54 


3530 


DATA 


32, 


246, 204, 162, 56, 32 


3540 


DATA 


246, 


204, 162, 58, 32, 246 


3550 


DATA 


204, 


162, 60, 32, 246, 204 


3560 


DATA 


162, 


58, 160, 54, 169, 50 


3570 


DATA 


32, 


133, 205, 162, 50, 32 


3580 


DATA 


191, 


205, 162, 60, 160, 56 


3590 


DATA 


169, 


52, 32, 133, 205, 162 


3600 


DATA 


52, 


32, 191, 205, 162, 58 


3610 


DATA 


160, 


54, 32, 215, 205, 141 


3620 


DATA 


230, 


206, 162, 60, 160, 56 
215, 205, 141, 232, 206 


3630 


DATA 


32, 


3640 


DATA 


169, 


0, 141, 234, 206, 141 


3650 


DATA 


235, 


206, 141, 203, 206, 141 


3660 


DATA 


205, 


206, 169, 1, 141, 202 


3670 


DATA 


206, 


141, 204, 206, 173, 14 


3680 


DATA 


207, 


240, 3, 141, 202, 206 


3690 


DATA 


162, 


54, 160, 36, 32, 63 


3700 


DATA 


205, 


162, 56, 160, 38, 32 


3710 


DATA 


63, 


205, 162, 50, 160, 52 


3720 


DATA 


32, 


215, 205, 48, 58, 32 


3730 


DATA 


216, 


198, 162, 36, 160, 58 


3740 


DATA 


32, 


215, 205, 208, 1, 96 


3750 


DATA 


32, 


209, 200, 162, 48, 160 


3760 


DATA 


52, 


169, 48, 32, 107, 205 


3770 


DATA 


162, 


50, 160, 48, 169, 42 


3780 


DATA 


32, 


133, 205, 162, 48, 160 


3790 


DATA 


42, 


32, 215, 205, 48, 213 


3800 


DATA 


32, 


232, 200, 162, 48, 160 


3810 


DATA 


50, 


169, 48, 32, 133, 205 


3820 


DATA 


76, 


93, 200, 32, 216, 198 


3830 


DATA 


162, 


38, 160, 60, 32, 215 


3840 


DATA 


205, 


208, 1, 96, 32, 232 


3850 


DATA 


200, 


162, 48, 160, 50, 169 


3860 


DATA 


48, 


32, 107, 205, 162, 52 


3870 


DATA 


160, 


48, 169, 42, 32, 133 


3880 


DATA 


205, 


162, 48, 160, 42, 32 


3890 


DATA 


215, 


205, 48, 213, 32, 209 


3900 


DATA 


200, 


162, 48, 160, 52, 169 


3910 


DATA 


48, 


32, 133, 205, 76, 151 


3920 


DATA 


200, 


162, 36, 160, 16, 173 


3930 


DATA 


230, 


206, 240, 13, 48, 6 


3940 


DATA 


169, 


36, 32, 107, 205, 96 


3950 


DATA 


169, 


36, 32, 133, 205, 96 


3960 


DATA 


162, 


38, 160, 18, 173, 232 


3970 


DATA 


206, 


240, 13, 48, 6, 169 



32/Commander May 1983 



USR111 XBUTTON PORT1 

PADDLE 

USR112 YBUTTON PORT1 

PADDLE 

USR113 XPADDLE PORT2 

USR114 YPADDLE PORT2 

USR1 15 XPADDLE PORT1 

USR1 16 YPADDLE PORT1 

USR117 BUTTON PORT2 JOY 

USR118 BUTTON PORT1 JOY 

USR119 PORT1 X(-1 1) 

USR120 PORT1 Y(-1 1) 

USR121 PORT2X(-1 1) 

USR122 PORT2 Y(-1 1) 



*UNUSED NUMBERS 

USR11 

USR12 

USR13 

USR14 

USR15 

USR31 

USR53 

USR54 

USR55 

USR56 

USR73 

USR74 

USR75 

USR76 

USR77 

USR78 

USR79 

USR80 

USR81 

USR82 

USR83 

USR84 

USR85 

USR86 

USR87 

USR88 

USR89 

USR106 

USR107 

USR108 

* RESERVED INTERNAL TABLE 

*USR123 

*USR124 

*USR125 

*USR126 

*USR127 

/ / 




Commander May 1983/33 



Circle No. 5 



PUT SOME MUSCLE 
IN YOUR 

VIC 20 
16K RAM 
EXPANSION 

$69.90 

8K RAM 
EXPANSION 

$47.70 

•DIRECT FROM 
MANUFACTURER 

•HIGHEST QUALITY 

•LOW PRICE 

•90 DAY WARRANTY 

HM CENTURY® 
■micro 

7881 La Riviera Dr. Suite 131 
Sacramento, CA 95826 

Add $2 for shipping & handling 

(California Residents add 6% sales tax) 

DEALER INQUIRES WELCOME 



"■■"CQ/DPU SENSEi : i 

CARDBOARD 3 

An Economy Expansion Interface 
(Motherboard) 

For the VIC-20® Personal 
Computer 

The CARDBOARD/3" is an expansion inter- 
face designed to allow the user to access more 
than one of the plug-in-type memory or utility 
cartridges now available. It will accept up to 3 
RAM or ROM cartridges at once. For example: 

• 16k RAM t 16k RAM * 3k RAM 

• 16k RAM * 8k RAM + Super Expander 

• 16k RAM + 8k RAM + Vic-Mon 

• 16k RAM + 3k RAM ♦ Programmer's Aid 

• High quality T,R.W. gold plated connectors 

• This board is fused 

• 90 day free replacement warranty covering 
everything except the fuse 

$39.95 
CARDBOARD 6 

An Expansion Interface for VIC-20® 

• Allows memory expansion up to 40K 

• Accepts up to six games 

• includes a system reset button 

• All slots are switch selectable 

• Daisy chain several units for even more 
versatihty $ 87< g 5 

TO ORDER: 
P. O. BOX 18765 
WICHITA, KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 






Personal checks accepted 

(Allow 3 weeks) or 

C.O.D. (Add $2) 

Handling charge $2.00 

VIC-20'" is a registered trademark of Commodore 




4550 
4560 
4570 
45S0 
4590 
4600 
4610 
4620 
4630 
4640 
4650 
4660 
4670 
4680 
4690 
4700 
4710 
4720 
4730 
4740 
4750 
4760 
4770 
47B0 
4790 
4800 
4810 
4820 
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4840 
4850 
4860 
4870 
4880 
4890 
4900 
4910 
4920 
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4960 
4970 
4980 
4990 
5000 
5010 
5020 
5030 
5040 
5050 
5060 
5070 
5080 
5090 
5100 
5110 



DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



>, 251, 141, 23, 212, 141 
Jl, 207, 76, 25, 205, 32 
71, 206, 169, 0, 133, 251 
173, 188, 206, 240, 6, 165 
251, 9, 128, 133, 251, 173 
190, 206, 240, 6, 165, 251 



32, 

160 



206, 41, 3, 170, 189, 168 
206, 133, 253, 160, 4, 177 
20, 41, 15, 37, 253, 145 
20, 145, 251, 76, 25, 205 
162, 24, 169, 0, 157, 
212, 157. 28. 207. 202. 1 
247, 

25, 205, 
25, 205, 



34/Commander May 1983 



Circle No. 



Circle No. 27 



5120 
5130 
5140 
5150 
5160 
5170 
5180 
5190 
5200 
5210 
5220 
5230 
5240 
5250 
5260 
5270 
5280 
5290 
5300 
5310 
5320 
5330 
5340 
5350 
5360 
5370 
5380 
5390 
5400 
5410 
5420 
5430 
5440 
5450 
5460 
5470 
5480 
5490 
5500 
5510 
5520 
5530 
5540 
5550 
5560 
5570 
5580 
5590 
5600 
5610 
5620 
5630 
5640 
5650 
5660 
5670 
5680 



DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



165 



220, 104, 141, 0, 220, 160 
127, 234, 136, 16, 252, 189 
25, 212, 133, 252, 165, 251 
141, 2, 220, 88, 165, 252 
76, 25, 205, 162, 0, 7' 
2, 162, 1, 120, 189, : 
220, 133, 251, 169, 
2. 220. 234. 189. O. : 



252 

240 

2 



240, 17, 32, 1_ 
169, 12, 37, 252, 240, 33 
169, 8, 37, 252, 240, 17 
208, 20, 32, 115, 204, 169 
3, 37, 252, 240, 16, 169 
2, 37, 252, 240, 5, 136 
152, 108, 5, 0, 152, 200 
76, 28, 205, 152, 76, 28 
305, 160, O, 120, 189, 2 
J20, 133, 251, 169, 0, 157 
2. 220. 234. 189. O. C>?0 






3, 133, 254, 160, 0, 165 
254, 240, 14, 173, 188, 206 
145, 251, 200, 208, 251, 23< 

252, 198, 254, 208, 245, 16! 

253, 240, 10, 173, 188, 20^ 
145, 251, 200, 198, 253, 2< 
249. 96- 173. 8. 207. 48 



230 
65 
06 




FOR 
PET® VIC® AND 
COMMODORE 64 



READING 
VOCABULARY 
LANGUAGE 
SPELLING 
TEACHER AIDS 



MATH 

METRICS 

ALGEBRA 

PHYSICS 

CHEMISTRY 



SCIENCE 
HEALTH 
COMPUTER LIT. 
SOCIAL STUDIES 
MUSIC 



PET & VIC are registered 
trademarks ol Commodore Business Machines 



LJ Please send me FREE information about your 
D PET, □ VIC. and □ Commodore 64 programs 

Name 




COMMODORE 64 
OWNERS ONLY 

• SHARE • LEARN • ENJOY • 

• Monthly Newsletter 

• Public Domain Software 

• Reports of Recent 64 Articles 

• Local Chapter Meetings 

• Product Discounts • Service Advice 
• Bi-Monthly Magazine • Advice on Training 

• Annual Convention 

• Member Bulletin Board 

Send Name, address, 
phone no. and annual dues ($25) to: 

The Commodore 64 Users Group 

Suite 100, Corporate West 

4200 Commerce Court 

Lisle, Illinois 60532 

Or Call: 

(312) 369-6525 (Weekdays 
9:00am— 5:00pm— Central Time) 

MASTERCARD OR VISA ACCEPTED 
"An Independent not-for-profit organization". 



Circle No. 8 



Commander May 1983/35 




DON'T 
BLAME 
THE 
SOFTWARE! 

Power Line Spikes and Hash often cause 
memory loss or erratic operation. Often 
floppies, printer & processor interact! 

OUR patented ISOLATORS eliminate 
equipment interaction AND curb damag- 
ing Power Line Spikes, Surges and Hash. 

Filtered 3-prong sockets and integral 

Spike Suppression. 125 VAC, 15 Amp, 

1875 W Total - 1 KW per socket. 

ISO-1 ISOLATOR. 3 Filtered Sockets; 
1000 Amp 8/20 usee Spike Sup- 
pressor $76.95 

ISO-4 ISOLATOR. 6 Filtered Sockets; 
1000 Amp 8/20 usee Spike Sup- 
pressor $128.95 

ISO-3 SUPER-ISOLATOR. 3 DUAL fil- 
tered Sockets; 2000 Amp 8/20 usee 
Spike Suppressor $115.95 

ISO-7 SUPER-ISOLATOR. 5 DUAL fil- 
tered Sockets; 2000 Amp 8/20 usee 
Spike Suppresor $186.95 

Master-Charge, Visa, American Express 

TOLL FREE ORDER DESK 1800-225-4876 

(except AK. HI, MA, PR & Canada) 1 



Electronic Specialists, Inc. 

171 South Mam Street. Natick. MA 01760 
Technical & Non 800: 1-617-655-1532 



Circle No. 15 



Circle No. 32 



C64 FORTH 

for the 

Commodore 64 



Fig. -Forth implementation including: 

• Full feature screen editor and assembler 

• Forth 79 Standard Commands with 
extensions 

• High resolution, 16 color character and 
sprite graphics 

• Full I/O allowing IEEE cartridge and Basic 
data file compabiliry 

• Three voice tone and music synthesizer 

• Detailed manual with examples ^nd 
BASIC-FORTH conversions 

• Trace feature for Debugging 

$99.95 - Disk Version 

(Works with 1540 or 1541 Disk) 

or Cassette Version 

(Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore) 

PERFORMANCE 
MICRO PRODUCTS 

770 Dcdham Street, S-2 

Canton, MA 02021 

(617)828-1209 



5690 
5700 
5710 
5720 
5730 
5740 
5750 
5760 
5770 
5780 
5790 
5800 
58 1 
5820 
5830 
5840 
5850 
5860 
5870 
5880 
5890 
5900 
5910 
5920 
5930 
5940 
5950 
5960 
5970 
5980 
5990 
6000 
6010 
6020 
6030 
6040 
6050 
6060 
6070 
6080 
6090 
6100 
6110 
6120 
6130 
6140 
6150 
6160 
6170 
6180 
6190 
6200 
6210 
6220 
6230 
6240 
6250 



DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



134, 2, 32, 253, 174, 32 
138, 173, 32, 247, 183, 166 
2, 157, 187, 206, 152, 157 
186, 206, 169, 255, 141, 10 
207, 96, 32, 246, 204, 169 
0, 157, 187, 206, 96, 168 
169, 0, 133, 98, 132, 99 
162, 144, 56, 32, 73, 188 
96, 189, 186, 206, 153, 




206 
187 
133 



, 96, 160, 0, 56 
253, 186, 206, 157, 186 
152, 253, 187, 206, 157 
io/, 206, 96, 169, 0, 32 
133, 205, 173, 187, 206, 48 
15, 240, 2, 16, 5, 173 
186, 206, 240, 3, 169, 1 
96, 169, 0, 96, 169, 255 
96, 56, 32, 240, 255, 142 
206, 206, 140, 207, 206, 96 
174, 206, 206, 172, 207, 206 
24, 32, 240, 255, 32, 36 
234, 96, 160, 0, 165, 21 

!5, 177, 251, 145, 253 
?08. 249. 230. 252. 



230 
65 



96 

96 

32 

206 

96 



36/Commander May 1983 



), 240, 9, 177, 251, 145 

S3, 200, 198, 20, 208, 247 

>, 162, 2, 32, 16, 205 

>, 32, 47, 206, 162, 4 

>, 16, 205, 96, 32, S3 

>, 162, 6, 32, 16, r 

32, 62, 206, 162, 



S3 
205 
8 



Circle No. 9 



6260 


DATA 


32, 16, 205, 96, 32, 47 


6270 


DATA 


206, 162, 4, 32, 246, 204 


6260 


DATA 


96, 32, 107, 206, 162, 4 


6290 


DATA 


32, 16, 205, 96, 32, 89 


6300 


DATA 


206, 162, 6, 32, 16, 205 


6310 


DATA 


96, 162, 2, 32, 246, 204 


6320 


DATA 


96, 32, 107, 206, 162, 4 


6330 


DATA 


32, 246, 204, 96, 255, 255 


6340 


DATA 


1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 


6350 


DATA 


64, 128, 254, 253, 251, 247 


6360 


DATA 


239, 223, 191, 127, 128, 64 


6370 


DATA 


32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1 


6380 


DATA 


127, 191, 223, 239, 247, 251 


6390 


DATA 


253, 254, 63, 63, 207, 207 


6400 


DATA 


243, 243, 252, 252, 0, 85 


6410 


DATA 


170, 255, 16, 32, 64, 128 


6420 


DATA 


0, 64, 128, 192, 0, 212 


6430 


DATA 


0, 212, 7, 212, 14, 212 


6440 


DATA 


67, 79, SO, 89, 82, 73 


6450 


DATA 


71, 72, 84, 32, 49, 57 


6460 


DATA 


56, 50, 32, 71, 46, 82 


6470 


DATA 


46, 71, 65, 85, 75, 69 


6460 


DATA 


76, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170 



PSYCOM SOFTWARE INTERNATIONAL 
BUILDS ADULT SOFTHARE FOR THE 
CWIODORE (A JEXAS INSTRUMENTS 
(WD OTHER PERSONAL COMPUTERS. 
INDIVIDUAL ORDERS ARE ACCEPTED 
BY TELEPHONE USING YOUR VISA 
OR fttSTER CARD OR SHIPPED COD. 

CALL (513) -474-2188 
YOU MAY ALSO ORDER USING THE 
CONVENIENT FORM INCLUDED SELOH. 
distributor inquiries invited 

* i 

Xname X 

* * 
Xstreet X 

* * 
Xcity * 

* * 

Xstate zip X 

I * 

Xchg.card exp date 3f 

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*card# X 

Xplease rush me I ) copies of i 
*the PERSONALITY WALYZER today X 

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 



Personality 
Analyzer 




Analyze yourself, your spouse, your date, 
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Find out who you will get along with, 
who will work well with you, who will 
be fun to be with. 

Measure compatibility, career potential, 
behavior tendencies, values, etc. 

I":: ::"" PSYCOM 

s \! SOFTWARE 
INTERNATIONAL 

2118 Forest Lake Drive 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45244 USA 

$24.95 
2.50 disk (additional) 

Circle No. 35 



■■■ 

■■■■■ ■■■■■ 
■■•■■ ■■■■■ 



"■-tQflPu SE(\6ei:.« 

"CARD/?" 
(CARD/PRINT) 



UNIVERSAL CENTRONICS 
PARALLEL PRINTER 
INTERFACE FOR THE VIC-20® 
Now you can use your VIC-20® with 
an EPSON MX-80 printer, or an OKI- 
DATA printer, or a TANDY printer, or ' 
just about anybody's printer. And you , 
don't have to give up the use of your i 
user port (MODEM), or change to 
Special printer commands, or load any < 
special software driver programs to do 
it. 

• Outputs standard ASCII codes to [ 
the printer. 

• Plugs in the VIC-20® printer serial 
i/o port. ! 

• Understands all standard VIC-20® i 
print commands. 

• No modification to your VIC-20®. 
f No special programs required. 

• Includes all necessary cables to 
hook up a standard printer using 
Centronics parallel input. 

• MADE IN THE U.S.A. 

The ■CARD' 7 " is a product ol CARDCO. Inc. 

$79.95 

TO ORDER: 
P. 0. BOX 18765 
WICHITA. KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 



Personal checks accepted [Mo ft wCowjl 

(Allow 3 weeks) or N-^L^J 

C.O.D (Add $2.00) 
Handling charges $2.00 
VIC-20* is a registered trademark of Commodore 



PET JOYSTICK 
INTERFACE 

• Now a ny PET® or C BM ® 
can use joysticks and game 
paddles. 

• Accepts popular Atari®- 
and App|e®-style 
joysticks/paddles. 

• Sample software provided. 

• Only $69.95! 

Send check, money order, 
VISA/MC (please include exp. 
date) or specify C.O.D. 

J SYSTEMS CORP. 

1 Edmund Place 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48103 
313-662-4714 



Circle No. 21 



Commander May 1983/37 



100 REM 'XDEMLQ' 

110 A»USR<0),2,0»8 

120 A«USR<1) sA»USR<16> 

130 A»USR<3>,0 

140 A«USR<5),1,0 

150 A=USR(7),0 

160 A=USR(20) 

170 A*U8R(6),0,0 

173 i 

180 P»160 s Q=64 

190 XP=144iXR*l. 5*3. 14159265 

200 YP«=56iYR=1iZP»64 

210 XF»XR/XPiYF»YP/YRiZF«XR/ZP 

220 FOR ZI«-Q TO Q-l 

230 ZT»ZI*XP/ZPiZZ»ZI 

240 XL-INT <. 5+SQR ( XP^-ZT^ > ) 

250 FOR XI— XL TO XL STEP2 

260 XT=SQR(XI A 2+ZT A 2)*XFiXX«XI 

270 YY=<SIN(XT)+.4*SIN(3*XT) )*YF 

280 Xl=INT(<XX+ZZ+P)/2> 

290 Y1«INTU99-<YY~ZZ+100>) 

300 A=USR(70),X1,Y1, 1 

310 IF Y1=199THEN330 

320 A*USR(71),X1, (Yl+1) , XI, 199,0 

330 NEXTXI 

340 NEXTZI 

350 GET I N* l I F I N*» " " THEN3S0 

360 A=USR(2)iA-USR(17) I A-USR (21) i A=USR <6> , 0, 6i A=USR(7) , 14 

370 s 

380 END 

390 REM RUN TIME ABOUT 1 1 30 

400 REM BIT MAPPING - POINT PAIRS 

410 REM RESIDES UNDER BASIC ROM 

420 REM SAME AS XDEMHI ONLY HALF 

430 REM THE HORIZONTAL RESOLUTION 







rW7J7,M»Md«?1 



Also SAVE on ... 
A COMPLETE line of COdHODORE Accessories 



FULL FACTORY WARRANTY 





List 
Price 

VIC-1541 (Disk Drive) 399.ee 

V1C-1S25 (Printer) 395. Be 

VIC -IS18 < Data set re > 74.95 



vic-ieee (nodei). . . . 



. 169.95 



339. ee 
339. ee 

64.95 

97.ee 



IN STOCK NOW ! 
C^L_L_ FOR OLJF* LOW F="F* I CE 



(313) 295-2330 



Special Package Prices Available ! 

••• 
Uide Selection of 64 SOFTUARE ! 

••• 
Ue SERVICE ALL COIfflOIORE Computers 



Call or Urite for a FREE catalog 
LIBERTY CDfTlPUTER DISTRIBUTORS 

P.O. BOX 1786 313-295-2330 
DEARBORN, MICHIGAN 48121 


SAVE yith LIBERTY your FULL SERVICE Computer Center 

Send for Catalog and Information about FREE SOFTWARE for the 64 ! 

NAME 


ADDRESS 


CITY LIBERTY COMPUTER DISTRIBUTORS 


MONEY ORDERS AND CASHIER'S CHECKS - FREE SHIPPING 

ALL COD's REQUIRE 25% DEPOSIT 

PERSONAL CHECKS ALLOW 2-4 WEEKS 

CANADIAN ORDERS ADD 5X 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 


RTflTF Z1P DEARBORN, MI 4B121 


(31,5) 295-2330 
'COMMODORE 64' REG. TRADEMARK CBM, INC. 



Circle No. 23 



38/Commander May 1983 



Listing 1 


Listing 2 


100 REM 'XDEMHI* 


100 


REM 'XGTS' 


110 A=USR<0) ,2,0,8 


110 


A-USR (9) ,32767 i CLR 


120 A-USR(l) i A-USR (16) 


120 


A-USR <0>, 2, 2, 8 


130 A-USR (3>,0 


130 


A-USR (8), 0,0 


140 A-USR (5), 1,0 


140 


A«USR<l>sA-USR(16> 


150 A-USR (7), 


150 


A-USR(3),0 


160 A-USR ( 19 > I A-USR (21) 


160 


A-USR (5) ,1,0 


170 t 


170 


A-USR (66) , 10, 10, 189, 189 


180 P-160sQ=100 


180 


A-USR < 68), 309, 10 


190 XP-144iXR-l. 5*3. 14159265 


190 


A-USR (68), 10, 10 


200 YP«»56sYR«liZP»64 


200 


A-USR (35), 0,1 


210 XF»XR/XPiYF»YP/YRiZF»XR/ZP 


210 


A=USR<32>,0 


220 FOR ZI— Q TO Q-l 


220 


A-USR (34), 180,100,0 


230 IF ZK-ZP OR ZI>ZP THEN 350 


230 


FORI-0 T0255»FORJ-OT0550iNEXT 


240 ZT»ZI*XP/ZPiZZ»ZI 


240 


A-USR (30), 20, 12, I 


250 XL=INT(.5+BQR(XP A 2-ZT' S 2)) 


250 


A-USR (39), 0,1 


260 FOR XI —XL TO XL 


260 


A-USR (63), 3, 23,0, IjNEXT 


270 XT»SQR<XK-2+ZT' s -2>*XFiXX»XI 


270 


GETIN*j IFIN*«""THEN150 


280 YY-(BIN(XT)+.4*SIN(3*XT))*YF 


280 


A-USR (2)1 A-USR (17) 


290 Xl-XX+ZZ+P 


290 


A-USR (41) 


300 Yl-YY-ZZ+Q 


300 


t 


310 A-USR (64 >, X 1, 199-Y1 


310 


REM SHOWS CHARS TO MAP 


320 IF Y1-0THENTHEN340 


320 


REM AND SPRITES TO MAP 


330 A-USR <67) , XI , 199- ( Yl-1 > , XI , 199 


330 


REM THE REAL SPRITE IS 


340 NEXTXI 


340 


REM THE TOP ONE 


350 NEXTZI 


350 


REM SPRITE MAPS ARE NOT 


360 GETIN*«IFIN*-' M, THEN360 


360 


REM ALWAYS SAME AS SPRITE 


370 A-USR (2) « A»USR (17) » A-USR <7> , 14 


370 


REM SEES CHAR ROM 


380 r 


380 


REM AND USR SEES ALL RAM 


390 END 






400 REM RUN TIME ABOUT 3i00 






410 REM BIT MAP - PIXELS 






420 REM RESIDES UNDER BASIC ROM 






430 REM A DESIGN SEEN VERY OFTEN 






Listing 3 100 REM ' XGT4' 






110 A-USR (9), 32767 t CL 


R 




120 A-USR (0), 2, 0,8 






130 A-USR <l)i A-USR (16) 






140 A-USR (66), 0,0, 0,0 






150 A-USR <3>, INT <RND<1> 


*255 


> 


160 A-USR(5),INT(RND(1) 


♦ 16) 


, INT(RND(1)*16) 


170 A-USR (7), INT (RND(l) 


416) 




180 F0RJJ-0T020 






190 A-USR (69), INT (RNDU 


)*32< 


»),INT(RND(1)*200) 


200 A=USR(68),INT(RND<1 


>*32< 


0>,INT(RND(1)*200) 


210 NEXT 






220 A-USR <8>, 8,0 






230 A-USR (8), 12,1 






240 FORI-OTOlOOOiNEXT 






250 GET I N* 1 1 F I N*» " " THEN 


140 




260 A-USR <2>iA-U8R< 17) 






270 i 






280 REM SOME RANDOM LIN 


ES 




290 REM ON RANDOM BACKGROUND 


300 REM AND COPY CHAR R 


OM 




310 REM TO MAP FOR TEST 







Commander May 1983/39 



Array Assignment Sort 



by David Steffes and Art Dudley 
Bremerton, WA 



cooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooe 

c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
o 
o 
o 
c 
c 
o 

c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 



Most efficient sorting routines are 
lengthy and too complex for a begin- 
ner to understand. The listed program 
is just the opposite. It is short and sim- 
ple almost beyond belief with an add- 
ed advantage of being relatively fast. 
Before this article goes any further, we 
want to mention that this is not a 
miracle sort. It does have limitations, 
but its simplicity warrants its mention. 

The structure of the program is bas- 
ed on using two one-dimensional 
arrays. The first array is used for the 
sort procedure and the second for 
keeping track of duplicate numbers. 
The sort in actuality is nothing more 
than a FOR-NEXT loop used to set up 
an array; however, when values are 
assigned, they must correspond to 
their array element's subscript (i.e. 
A(5) = 5, A(1) = 1 , A(1 0) = 1 0...). To list 
the values in order involves nothing 
more than displaying the contents of 
the array using a separate FOR-NEXT 
loop. 

To best explain this sort program, an 
example will be used. For simplicity's 
sake, say we input a 4 (variable N) for 
the amount of numbers to be sorted 
with a 5 (variable Z) as the highest 
number. Array "A" may look like this: 
Unsorted Numbers 

A(1) = 5 

A(2) = 1 

A(3) = 5 

A(4) = 2 

Note: Remember the numbers are 
generated at random. 

Lines 90 to 130 will set up two ar- 
rays like so: 

B(1)=1 C(1) = 

B(2) = 2 C(2) = 

B(3) = 0* C(3) = 

B(4) = 0* C(4) = 

B(5) = 5 C(5) = 1 



(Meaning we have one duplicate 
number. This is accomplished in line 
110.) 

*Line 160 will prevent the zeros 
from being printed. 

Lines 150 to 180 will then print out 
the contents of the array. Now since 
C(5) = 1 , the program will print out the 
contents of B(5) one extra time. This 
is accomplished in line 170. 

You may have already noticed the 
shortcomings of this program. The two 
we noticed are as follows: 

1 . Variable Z is used to dimension 
both arrays "B" and "C"; therefore, 
the largest number one can use is 
based on memory size. For example: 
A 1 000 as the largest number will set 
up an array of 1001 elements. If there 
are 4 bytes per element, this will take 
up 4004 bytes of memory for each ar- 
ray or a total of 8008 for both. 

2. Since the program will print out 
only numbers greater than zero, un- 
sorted values cannot contain a zero. 



There is no need for array "A" in 
practical situations. Also array "C" is 
used to keep track of duplicate 
numbers. So if there are no duplicate 
numbers, array "C" can be deleted. 
These two techniques should save a 
considerable amount of memory. 

Since time is an important aspect of 
any sort, we have constructed the 
below table listing sort times in relation 
to the amount of numbers to be sorted 
and the largest value. The total sort 
time includes not only the time it takes 
to sort but also the time necessary to 
display the sorted numbers. The actual 
time devoted to sorting is but a small 
fraction of the total time. 

Program Runs Performed 
on the Commodore VIC-20 

As a final note, even though this pro- 
gram does have its shortcomings, we 
believe this sort can be a useful tool 
in some applications as well as in dis- 
playing another function of an array to 
beginners. 



Program Details 



Line 10 



Input the amount of numbers to be sorted (variable 
N). 

Input the largest number to be sorted (variable Z), 
Dimensions the three arrays. Array "A" uses the 
subscript N, and arrays "B" and "C" use subscript 
Z. Note: Array "A" is not used in the sorting process 
but instead as storage for the random numbers. 
Sets up array "A" with random numbers. 

Sort routine: 
Line 110 keeps a count of duplicate numbers. 
Line 120 assigns a value to its proper array element. 
Lines 150 to 180 A simple FOR-NEXT loop that prints out the array in 
the order of its subscripts. 
Line 170 displays duplicate numbers. 



Line 20 
Line 50 



Line 60 to 70 
Lines 90 to 130 



QOQOQQQOOQQOQQOQQQQQQQQQQQQOQQQQQQQOQC 



40/Commander May 1983 



300000'OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCOOOO 



tr 

o 

CO 



CO 
0) 

E 



o 

E 

< 



Largest Number to be Sorted 





50 


100 


200 


400 


50 


2 sec. 


4 sec. 


9 sec. 


1 7 sec. 


100 


3 sec. 


5 sec. 


9 sec. 


1 8 sec. 


200 


4 sec. 


6 sec. 


1 sec. 


1 8 sec. 


300 


5 sec. 


7 sec. 


1 1 sec. 


19 sec. 



5 REM S|Br****fiRRfl¥ ASSIGNMENT 


SORT****** 










13 INPUT "NUMBER OF ITEMS TO BE SORTED" >H 










20 INPUT 1 ' LARGEST VALUE TO BE 


SORTED" > Z 










46 REM ^.DIMENSION AN ASSIGN 


RANDOM VALUES 


TO 




Tt'** 




50 DIM A<H>,B<Z>>C<Z> 












60 FOR J-i TO N 












?0 R< J >*IHT< RND<1)*Z) : PRINTA(J) 












88 NEXT J 












S3 REH**BEGXN SORT:?:* 












38 FOR J-l TO N 












108 X=fl<J> 












119 IFX=B<X>THEN 000=000+1 = 


REM**'TALLY OF 


DUPL . 


120 B<J43N< 












1 30 NEXT J : PR I NT ■ PR I NT 












140 REM«*PRIST OUT SORTED NUMBERS** 










150 FOR J- J TO Z 












169 IF B<J>>0TM£N PRINT £<J>, 












1?0 IF e<J»0THEN P*C< J > ■■ FOR 


G=l TO F' PRINT 


j>* ■ 


NEXT 


Q 


isa next j 












139 END 













)QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQO 



Commander May 1983/41 



Circle No. 43 



TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE • TAYLORMADE 



Expanded offering of Educational Software 
for the COMMODORE 64 

• Touch Typing Tutor (TTT64) diskette $24.95 

cassette $19.95 

Ideal for typing students or computer users. Learn to type with all 
fingers on your computer's keyboard by following the keyboard and 
finger placement pictured on your TV screen. 19 lessons fully de- 
scribed in 12-page manual. Select PRACTICE and type computer 
generated pseudo words for your rate and list of errors. Select TEXT 
and practice English words for limed test of any duration. 

for the VIC-20 

• Touch Typing Tutor 3.0 (TTT5K) cassette $19 95 

Has same features as TTT64 above. Will run on basic VIC. Four 
separate programs. Enhanced version now provides practice typing 
English words. Includes 12-page manual. Selected by Denver Public 
Schools to train 700 elementary students in keyboard skills. 

• Fun Fractions (FF+8K) diskette $24 95 

cassette $19.95 
The fun way to learn addition, subtraction, multiplication, and divi- 
sion of fractions for grades 4-9 with sound, color, and graphics. 
Watch VIC show you all the intermediate steps on the screen black- 
board. Then take a turn and see if you can answer before the 
parachute lumper crashes. Three levels of difficulty. Help is given 
for incorrect answers: learn your score. Requires 8K (or more) 
memory expansion. Includes 16-page manual. 

Foreign orders payable US dollars plus $3.00 shipping/handling 

TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 5574 HUH 

Lincoln, NE 68505 "^ 

(402) 464-9051 

Commodore &d and VIC-20 are trademarks ol Commodore Business Machines. Inc. 



Circle No. 44 



TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE • TAYLORMADE £ 



COMMODORE 64- 

ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE 

General Ledger $ 129.95 

Detail G/L Income Stmt. • Bal. Sheet Journals • Budget 
Variance Stmt. • Trial Bal. Cash Flaw Analysis • 300 
Chart of Accounts • 700 J /E . 

Payroll System $ 129.95 

Emp. Time Card Lists • Work. Comp. Rept. Ck. Register 

• W-2 Forms • Payroll Cks. •941 Reports Employee Wage 
Analysis • Pre-Pymt. Register Emp. Info. Labels • 300 
Emp, YTD • Hourly Employees (50). 

Accounts Payable $ 129.95 

Purchases Journal • Vendor Report • Prepayment Reg. 

• Open Invoices (300) • Cash Register Projection 

Accounts Receivable $ 129.95 

Cus. Sales History • Cust. List (300) • Sales Journals* 
Inv. Income Pro|. • Cust. Stmts. • Lobels • Open Inv. (300) 

Client Accounting $ 229.95 

Everything a bookkeeping service needs to keep books for 
a typical small business client. Includes all features on 

G/L, plus the ability to produce disbursements registers, 

941-B Forms and W-2 Forms. 

Eoch of the modules includes all logic to allow it to post to 
the G/L. All interface logic for these systems is included in 
this software. This is a simple disk system. It will operate 
on a Commodore 64, using a 1541 disk drive. 



ORDER FROM 

TEXAS TECHNICAL SERVICES, INC. 

3115 W. Loop, S., Suite 26 . Houston, Tex. 77027 

PH: (713) 965-9977 



Dealer Inquiries Welcome 
VISA & Master Card Accepted 



Si a /COMPUTERS 






BRINGS YOU THESE NEW ITEMS! 



5 1 / 4 " FLOPPY DISCS, Boxes of 10, Guaranteed 
5 yrs. 12MM Passes. . . SS, SD $20.30/SS,DD 
S23.10/DS DP $27.30 

C-10 Blank Cassette Tapes, Case of 50, 
screw- pac Commercial Grade. , . $25,00 

The TAPEWORM™ the Amazing Cassette 
Recorder interface for all COMMODORE™ 
Products. . . $24.95 

COMPUTER FURNITURE, All styles and sizes 



Ask for our catalog 



S w COMPUTERS 



SPEECH SYNTHESIZER • by METAVOX™ for 
Vic-20™ and COMMODORE™ 64. . . $168.00 

BACK ISSUES • COMPUTE! Magazine • 5 Issue 
minimum, $2.50 per issue, specify month 

A/V Interface for COMMODORE™ 64. . . $19.95 

VISA, MASTERCHARGE, No COD's 

Prices exclude delivery cost (aiiow 30 days delivery) 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

1125 N.E. 82nd 

Portland, OR 97220, (503) 257-9464 



42/Commander May 1983 



Circle No. 40 



Build Your Own Computer Table 



by Spike Btckei 
Chicago, IL 



After spending about three months 
puzzling over which personal com- 
puter to buy, I decided on a Com- 
modore 64. My only problem was a 
place to put it in my apartment. My 
desk was not deep enough to hold 
both the computer and the monitor in 
a position that I could see the monitor 
while typing on the keys. 

I then made the rounds of furniture 
stores to locate a table. Either they 
were too shallow or too high, I wanted 
a table of typing height so my hands 
would not be level with my chest. I 
finally found a table made of plywood 
with an oak veneer for $160. 1 couldn't 
see paying that much since I planned 
to paint it. I decided to build my own. 
The cost? $29 plus paint, which I 
already had. 

The materials I needed were: 
1-4x8x 3 /4 particle board cut as in dia- 
gram; 4-3V2 corner irons; 31-1V4 flat 
head wood screws; 1 pint primer- 
sealer; 1 quart paint. 

The tools I used were a jigsaw, drill 
(for starter holes and counter sinking), 
and a screw driver. 

Procedure: 

1 . Have the lumber yard make the 
cuts in the sheet of board. Make sure 
they cut them in order numerically. 

2. Cut the notches in pieces 1 and 2. 

3. Attach piece 1 to 2 then 1 to 3. 
1 sits on top of 2 and 3. 

4. Attach 4 to the back of the table 
so the top edge is 1 2 inches from the 
floor. 

5. Attach 5 to 6 then this to 1 
2. This makes a monitor stand. 

6. Attach 7 to the bottom of 1 
front of 4. Use 8 as a spacer. 

7. Lay 8 between 7 and 3. Rest the 
back on 4. Level and attach to 7, 3 
and 4. 

8. Prime and paint. 

I am not a carpenter, but was able 



and 



and 



to assemble this in about two hours and is perfect for me (and I hope for 
with the help of a friend. It is sturdy, you, too). Now, if only the postman 
large enough to hold a future printer, would bring my computer. □ 



TAHLE TOP 

#1 
24 x 60 




6 x 14 

EXTENSION *! 



LEFT SIDE 
#2 
24 x 26 1/4 




o 
<*> 

H 
SO 



R STAND #6 
5 1/4 x 14 




LEFT SHELF 

#8 
18 x 18 5/4 



CENTER 

BRACE 

#7 

18 x 26 1/4 



Commander May 1983/43 



Formatting and Error Checking- 
A Time Saving Algorithm 



by Tony La Martina 
Pittsburg, PA 



Due to an error in our March/April 
issue the program was deleted. We 
apologize for the inconvenience. 

The Editor 




REflDV. 










5 PRINTS 










10 INPUT 1 ' u ; 


m 








20 R=VRL<Rf;- 










38 PR I NTS PCv 


28 >' 


ir ■ : 


IHFUT" 


" ;B* 


4© B=VflL<BS> 










58 DEFFHR<C> 


= INT'::C*100+.5>, 


■'100 


68 C=A. % e 










78 C$=STP:SKFNRO: 


: ;> ;> 






80 x$=RIGHT* 


cot. 


'7-' > 






98 IF LEFT*< 


<$ ,1 


S ti 


" THEN 


C$=C*+"0" 


180 IF C=INT 


< c > 


THEN 


c*=*c*+ " . ee " 


118 PRIHTSPC 


<68- 


■LEN< 


«)''"J 


'C* 


128 GOTO 18 










138 END 










RERDV- 











^ERDV. 










5 REM FORMATTING DEMO N/ERROR CHECKING, 


AUDIBLE 


RLERT 




7 REM RND INVALID ENTRY ERR 


SURE 








19 PRINT ,, 3" 










20 INPUT" IMH";fl£ 










30 K=LEN'::R$;:- 










40 FOR J=1TDK 










58 IF RSCa'1ID£CR*^i::0<45 


OR flSC<MID$< 


m„3,i>: 


J>57 THEN J=K 


: GOTO 1008 


55 IF LEH-Cfl*»7 THEN 1080 










6© NEXT 










78 fi«VRL<H*> 










S0 PRIHTSPC<2^>^^^lH=tJT^ 


mr;B* 








9Q K=LENCB$> 










100 FDR J=1TDK 










110 IF ft©Ci«I0*<B^>J^l>^<4S 


OR RSCaiID$<B£,J,i: 


0>57 THEN J= 


K: GOTO 1858 


115 IF LEH<B*»7 THEN1Q58 










120 NEXT 










138 B=VRL<B*> 










135 IF 6*="&" THEN C*=" .00" 


:GOTO200 








1 48 DEFFNfl < C > = I NT < C* 1 00+ . 5 > 


/1 08 








iS0 C=fi/B 











44/Commander May 1983 



160 C* ^ST R * < F NfK C > > 

170 X£=RIGHT$<C:£ r 2> 

186 IF LEFT*<K*^t>»- ,i i« THEN C^=C*+ ,, G" 

190 IF C*INT<C> THEN C*=C*+" . 00" 

£80 PRINTSPC<6B-LEH<C*>>"3"C* 

210 G0T02S 

999 REM INVRLID ENTRV ERASURE 

1000 GGSUB5000:REM RUDIBLE RLERT 
1010 PRINTCHR*<:22> 

1020 PR I NT" 33" ' :GOTQ20 
1050 GOSUBS000:REM RUDIBLE RLERT 
1 06© PR I HTTRB < 1 B > ; CHR* < 22 > 
1 070 PR I NT " U" : GOTO?© 
4399 REM RUDIBLE RLERT SUBROUTINE 
5000 FOR 1=1 TG3 

5010 P0KE59467..1S sP0KE59464,5@:P0KE59466, 106 
5820 FOR T=1TO100:NEKT T 
5030 P0KE59464 „ 75 : PGKE59466 , 1 75 
5040 FOR T=l TO 100s NEXT T 

5050 NEXT I :POKE59467,0:POKE59464,0:FOKE59466 |P 
5060 PRIHT"3r 
5O70 RETURN 
REflOV. 



COMMODORE USERS 

Join the largest, active Commodore 
users group in North America and get — 

— Access to club library of over 
3000 free programs. 

— Informative club newsletter. 

— The latest information about the 
PET®, CBM™, VIC 20™, Super- 
PET™ and Commodore 64™. 

Send $20.00 ($30.00 overseas) for 
Associate Membership to: 

Toronto Pet Users Group 

Department "D" 

1912A Avenue Road, Suite 1 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5M 4A1 



■■"'CQiflPu SEniSEiii 



QUICK BROWN FOX $60.95 

The #1 word processor! 

GENERAL LEDGER $19.95 

(VIC-20) 

CHECK MINDER 

vie 20 $19.95 c 64 $24.95 

HOME INVENTORY $19.95 

(VIC-20) 

CENTIPOD $27.95 

Like Centiped. only better! 

FROGEE $27.95 

The exciting arcade game of Frogger. 

MOTOR MOUSE $29.95 

What a cheese'ee game! 

CRIBBAGE 
vic-20 $14.95 c 64 $1 7.95 

This is the game of Cribbage 

STAR TREK 
vic-20 $12.95 c 64 $17.95 

Excellent adventure game 1 

MASTER MIND 
vie 20 $12.95 c 64 $19.95 

Makes you think 

ROACH MOTEL $9.95 

Kill the bugs! 

YAHTZEE 1.1 $12.95 
YAHTZEE2.1 $14.95 

TO ORDER: 
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(316) 263-1095 



Personal checks accepted fwr^nicad) 

(Allow 3 weeks) or \S*~-X—S\ 

C.O.D (Add S2.00) 

indling charges $2.00 

IC-20 1 ' is a registered trademark of Commodore 



Circle No. 45 



Circle I 



Commander May 1983/45 



Game-CONTEST 




The Game Contest is a continuing feature of Com- 
mander magazine aimed at providing entertainment for 
and promoting competition among our readers. United 
Microware Industries has graciously provided us with 
February's Game Contest. 

DEADLINE FOR ENTRIES: 
JULY 1, 1983 



Trashman may be purchased from Creative Software 
or any one of its fine dealers: 

230 East Caribbean Drive 
Sunnyvale, CA 
1-408-745-1655 

46/Commander May 1983 



Terms for 
Game Contest 

First prize will be awarded to the 
person with the highest score. The 
winning entry must contain a photo- 
graph of the highest score of the 
game, a Creative Software package 
front and proof of purchase slip. 

Entries must be mailed to Com- 
mander, Creative Software Contest, 
PO Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 98498. 
All entries must be mailed, as 
postmarks are required to determine 
the earliest winning entry. In the event 
of a tie, duplicate prizes will be award- 
ed. Employees of Creative Software 
and their families may not participate. 
First prize will be $250, second prize 
$100, third prize $50. 

The contest will run until a first prize 
is awarded. Creative Software will 
notify Commander Magazine of the 
winner(s). 



Winners of 
Escape MCP are: 

1st Prize: 
Karen Dantes, Milford, Ml 

2nd Prize: 
Eric Pefley, Seattle, WA 

3rd Prize: 
Kelly Shackleford, 
Tacoma, WA 

Final tune was "Stars & 
Stripes Forever." 



©VINSANDER 



- — g- JS '*^ w 






^ 





Oh/k COMMANDER will do all this 



GUIDE 

INSTRUCT 

ENTERTAIN 

SIMPLIFY 

INFORM 

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Innovative ways to use your computer equipment— from self-improvement 
to home security • Valuable tricks and practical advice on how to get the most from 
your investment in the high tech field of computers • In depth and unbiased analyses 
of the latest in educational software. 

Fascinating glimpses into the wonders of the computer future • Profiles of 
the industry's most creative people • Provocative discussions on the impact com- 
puters will have on you and your family. 

Critical comparisons of the Commodore Computers • Exactly how your 
computer equipment works • What those computer "buzz words" mean and ex- 
pensive "special features" do • Useful trouble-shooting & maintenance advice. 

An expanded directory of the latest programs on ROM-PAK, tape and disc 

• New product previews of the latest and best equipment on the market • Exciting 
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COMMANDER 

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on the most informative 
magazine dedicated to the 
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HAVE YOU GOT WHAT 
IT TAKES TO BE A 



©MNSANDER 



Commander May 1983/47 



GAME PROGRAM 
DEVELOPMENT KIT 



A 




U 



for the 



VIC - 20 and COMMODORE - 64 



Registered trademarks of Commodore Busness Machines, Inc. 



SIX TOOLS TO HELP YOU WRITE YOUR OWN 
FAST ACTION ARCADE-STYLE GAMES 



DECODER — Decodes programs written in machine language (like game cartridges, utility cartridges, and even the 
computer's own internal operating programs). Produces a program in an English-like language (Assembler) which can 
be studied to figure out how they did it. The programs created with the decoder can be customized with the EDITOR 
AND INCORPORATED INTO YOUR OWN NEW GAME PROGRAM. The ASSEMBLER turns your programs 
created with the Decoder and the Editor back into machine language and puts them out to tape or disk so the LOADER 
can load them into the computer's memory to be tested and RUN. The MONITOR assists you in debugging your new 
game program by allowing you to run it a step at a time and making modifications if you need to. The INSTRUCTION 
GUIDE is written so thai even a beginner can learn the skills needed to become a pro!!! 

DESIGNED TO RUN ON ALL VIC-20's 

$49.95 plus $2.00 p&h buys the kit that could make you rich. Why wait? 



Send check, M.O, T VISA/MC {S2.00 s.c\, please include e> 



date), or specify COD (add S3 .00) to: 




P.O. Box 207, Cannon Falls, MN 55009 
507-263-4821 



Circle No. 17 



Win A FREE 
Commodore 64™ Computer 

Can You Beat 
PARATROOPER? 

10 Prize Winners 

A New Commodore 64 will be awarded to the person with the highest score. The winning entry 
must contain a photograph of the highest score of the game. 

PARATROOPER »!*<**» 

REALISTIC SMOOTH ACTION AND TRUE HI-RES GRAPHICS 




1st Prize 

CBM64 

2nd Prize 

Disk Drive 

3rd Prize 

$200 worth of Software 

4th - 10th Prize 

$100 worth of Software 



JOYSTICK 

OR 
KEYBOARD 



PARATROOPER a High Resolution game that doesn't let you make any mistakes. You 
are in command. Helicopters fill the sky, (and we mean fill the sky!), dropping 
paratroopers. Your mission is to keep 3 paratroopers from hitting the ground on eitheT 
side of your gun. But that's just the beginning. You score by hitting the helicopters or the 
paratroopers, but if you miss a shot it subtracts from your score. Therefore, you must 
make every shot count to make a high score! IT HAS FOUR FAST ACTION LEVELS 
TO CHALLENGE THE BEST PLAYER. The High Resolution graphics helicoptors are 
fantastic. They look exactly like helicopters! The paratroopers are super realistic. Their 
chutes open and then they drift down to earth. If this weren't^nough the sounds are 
fantastic. There are helicopter blades whirring and you can hear the howitzer pumping 
shells. This game really show off the sound and graphic capabilities of you VIC. 
PARATROOPER IS OUR #1 SELLING ARCADE GAME, you've got to see this game to 
believe it. $19.95 



Order your copy today or see your dealer. 
Will you get the top score? 



RULES 



1. All entries must be mailed, as postmarks are required to determine the earliest winning entry. In the I 
event of a tie the postmark will determine the winner. 

2. Deadline (or entries is July 31. 1983. 

3. Proof of purchase must be provided. Return your entry with package front and proof of purchase slip | 
and photo. 

4. ENTRIES MUST BE MAILED TO: PARATROOPER CONTEST, P.O. Box 388. Lake Havasu | 
City. AZ 86403 

5. Game contest void where prohibited. 

6. Contest begins April 2, 1983. All entries must be postmarked by July 31. 1983.Contest ends July 31. 
1983. 

7. Winners will be notified by mail. Public notice of winners will be printed in this and other computer I 
magazines. 

8. Only one entry per person please — all duplicates will be discarded. 

9. There wilt be 10 winners lor a 1st. 2nd & 3rd pTize. Prizes (or 4th • 10th will be for software. 
10. Contesi is limited to U.S.A.. Properties and Canada only. 



ComputerMat . P.O. Box 1664T . Lake Havasu City, Arizona 86403 



Circle No 12 



Game Reviews 



Trashman 

by Robert L. Foster 
Salt Lake City, UT 
Creative Software 
230 East Caribbean Drive 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408) 745-1655 




Now I know this will sound a bit 
strange, but Creative Software has 
developed a fun and exciting com- 
puter game called Trashman. With a 
name like that, I was curious to say the 
least! 

It turned out to be a fun game for all 
ages, easy to play, but difficult to 
describe. There are various skill levels 
which makes it adaptable for younger 
children. 

As the "trashman' , you are allowed 
three garbage trucks, but only one at 
a time. When the game starts you are 
in your yellow truck ready to go. You 
must maneuver your truck across the 
screen picking up dots of litter, while 
you are being pursued by four "evil" 
flies. Spaced at intervals are six trash 
cans. If an evil fly touches you before 
you reach a trash can you get "cann- 
ed; 1 if you'll pardon the pun! 

However, if you reach a trash can, 
you can turn on your pursuers and 
gobble them up! Your truck has two 
arms with which it picks up the trash. 
While you and the flies battle each 
other, little worms in the center of the 

50/Commander May 1983 



screen regenerate into flies, which will 
come in pursuit. 

At the beginning, when you first turn 
on the game, the "William Tell Over- 
ture" starts off the game. When all 
three of your trucks lose their battle 
against the evil flies, you will hear a 
mournful "taps" being played. 

Despite the bizarre name, this game 
is fast moving, requires skill, and will 
provide many hours of family fun, 
especially for younger members. We 
let some younger relatives, girls and 
boys, ages 7 through 12, play the 
game and they were thoroughly en- 
tranced by this unusual video game 
and had no difficulty with it at all.D 

Skibbereen 

by Robert L. Foster 
Salt Lake City, UT 
United Microware Industries 

3503-C Temple Avenue 

Pomona, CA 91768 

(714) 594-1351 

For a change of pace, let's go to old 
Ireland, land of rainbows, pots of gold, 
and leprechauns. As the old Irish tale 
goes "At the end of the rainbow, there 
a pot o' gold will be!' so also with this 
new game developed by Joanne Lee 
for United Microware Industries. 

The object is to break through the 
rainbows and get to the pot full of gold. 
While trying to get to the treasure, 
snakes appear in front of the two rain- 
bows and try to eat the ball which you 
are using to break through. 

The fascination of this game lies in 
its unusual sound. A series of Irish jigs 
play during the entire game. A bit 
distracting at first, you come to realize 
that the music is what makes the game 
lively and fun. 

Skibbereen has nine skill levels, 
each progressively more difficult. 



When a rainbow has been complete- 
ly destroyed, a leprechaun does a live- 
ly jig and the pace of the game in- 
creases a full skill level. 

This game has about the best sound 
of any available for the VIC. The 
graphics are good also. The rainbows 
are quite colorful, the pots of gold glit- 
ter like the real thing, and the snakes 
slither like snakes. 

Skibbereen rates very well in sound 
quality, and the graphics are good. 
The skill levels are well defined so that 
almost all could play and enjoy this 
game. Even if you don't play the game 
and just listen to the lilting Irish music, 
you'll enjoy it very much.D 

Astroblitz 

by Robert L. Foster 
Salt Lake City, UT 
Creative Software 

230 East Caribbean Drive 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

(408) 745-1655 

Earth is being taken over by hostile 
aliens! You are the only one who can 
stop them. Their spaceships patrol the 
sky, red and green lights flashing from 
their windows. Bullets from the alien 
craft plaster the sky trying to find and 
destroy your cruiser as you fire back, 
dodging left and right, up and down. 
You must stay alert so you do not run 
into an occasional enemy bomb. 




WARNING: Keep your distance when 
shooting at the bombs. The debris 
from the explosions shower the sky and 
a stray piece of shrapnel may just find 
your ship. While shooting at the aliens, 
dodging their bullets and bombs, alien 
guntowers riddle the sky hoping to find 
you. If you think the action is fast and 
furious, wait until the aliens unleash 
their guppies! That's right, guppies! 
But don't let the name fool you. These 
guppies are flying, fish-like creatures 
that become relentless assassins from 
which there is no escape. They will 
pursue you until you are destroyed or 
you destroy them. Oddly enough, 
these deadly creatures carry the 
lowest points possible! 

Since aliens have captured most of 
the cities, they have put deadly force 
fields or charges around them. 
Touching these force fields means 
death. 

While cruising through space 
fighting these deadly perils, you have 
the aid of a radar scanner which per- 
mits you to see UFO's, guntowers, 
guppies, cities and buildings before 
reaching them. There are brackets like 
gunsights allowing you to zero in on 
enemy targets. 

Astroblitz is a suspenseful, fast mov- 
ing game. Perhaps those with heart 
conditions should leave it alone. But 
for you other space adventurers, this is 
the game for you. You will thrill to this 
action packed game. 

Tom Griner who developed the 
game for Creative Software, has nearly 
outdone himself this time. The color, 
sound, and detailed features are ab- 
solutely excellent. To some, the game 
may seem a bit difficult to master, but 
anyone over twelve who has fast 
reflexes and a little free time can 
thoroughly enjoy Astroblitz. A good 
game pays off! You get to put your in- 
itials up on the built-up "top ten" 
scoreboard. 

At the start of the game, you receive 
five ships. This doesn't seem near 
enough firepower to save the earth. 
But after scoring 2200 on the score- 
board, the screen turns brilliant green, 
and you get a new squadron; after five 
thousand points you get another new 
ship to join your attack force. 

Take it from an Astroblitz addict; this 



new game will provide many hours of 
fun and excitement on your VIC.Lj 



Choplifter 

by Robert L. Foster 
Salt Lake City, UT 
Creative Software 
230 East Caribbean Drive 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408) 745-1655 

The enemy has taken sixty-four of 
your citizens hostage! Your mission: 




Fly your chopper into enemy territory 
and rescue the captives. This is a most 
dangerous assignment. The enemy 
has tanks, planes and satellites bent 
on knocking your chopper out of the 
air or destroying it on the ground. 
While you are in the air you are able 
to defend yourself and can destroy 
tanks, planes, and satellites. However, 
once you have landed and are loading 
the hostages enemy tanks can destroy 
you, your chopper and the people you 
are trying to rescue! You can carry on- 
ly sixteen hostages per trip. 

The hostages are in separate 
buildings, sixteen hostages in each 
building. If an enemy plane bombs a 
building the hostages are free to 
run— but enemy tanks are all about 
waiting for them! You must demon- 
strate your skill as a chopper pilot to 
stay alive, gather the captives and get 
back to your base! If you escape with 
the first load you must return to rescue 
the others. You must do this three 
more times until all sixty-four have 
been rescued or otherwise accounted 
for. In the event you get shot down, 
you have two more choppers waiting 
to go. So you actually have three 
choppers to help get the job done. 



Enemy planes become more 
numerous as the game intensifies. 
They will try to bomb you on the 
ground and even while you are in the 
air trying to get back to your base. 
Enemy satellites also try to destroy you 
by chasing you. 

Because of the superb sound and 
tremendous graphics you actually feel 
like you are on a combat mission. Your 
chopper sounds exactly like a real 
chopper. It responds to the joystick ex- 
actly as a real helicopter would. The 
hostages scurry about, the enemy 
tanks and planes are very real. 

This excellent game was created by 
Tom Griner for Creative Software and 
has arcade quality features. The only 
minor disadvantage is that the game 
isn't overly difficult to master. Perhaps 
that isn't a disadvantage! Choplifter is 
always a fun and exciting game even 
when you've mastered it. The entire 
family can enjoy many hours of ex- 
citing fun with the new Choplifter 
game.^ 




Commander May 1983/51 



Product Reviews 



Spritemaster 64™ 
Program Description 

The SPRITEMASTER 64™ anima- 
tion program is designed as a sprite 
generator and editor for use by pro- 
grammers or as a fun and creative 
playmate for children or adults. 

Sprites are moveable object blocks 
which, through the power of the new 
Commodore 64 computer, can be 
made to imitate almost any moving 
object. 

SPRITEMASTER™ helps you build 
your sprite, then copy and modify it to 
produce a sequence of pictures which 
represent the object in motion. The 
ANIMATE command will then put 
each picture on the screen in rapid 
succession to create the animation. 
This is similar to what takes place in a 
movie projector where still 
photographs, each a slightly different 
picture, are rapidly projected one after 
another onto the screen to produce a 
"motion picture." 

SPRITEMASTER™ lets you modify 
your sprite picture sequence to pro- 
duce colors, shapes and sizes which 
give the best effect. In addition, you 
may change the speed of animation 
(the rate at which the still frames are 
displayed) or the speed of travel (the 
vertical or horizontal movement across 
the screen). 

Once you have created your animat- 
ed figure, you can save the informa- 
tion to tape or disk for retrieval at a later 
time. You may want to refine several 
figures for use in a game program. 

Although SPRITEMASTER™ is not 
a game program, it is a program to 
create game objects. For example, it 
cannot display a pitcher throwing a 
baseball to a catcher. It can, however, 
be used to create the pitcher as a 
separate sprite, including the throwing 

52/Commander May 1983 



motion, then the baseball as another 
sprite, and then the catcher as the final 
sprite. Each object is created separate- 
ly and then transferred to other pro- 
grams for interaction and movement 
as desired. The programmer's 
reference section provides guidance 
on how to manipulate sprites in your 
own programs. 

As a learning companion for 
children, SPRITEMASTER™ helps 
teach artistry and creativity. Children 
can experience the excitement of first 
visualizing the still picture sequence in- 
volved in motion and then seeing their 
creations spring to life on the screen. 

Access Software Inc., 925 East 900 
South, Salt Lake City, (800) 532- 

1134.D- Circle No. 74 

Current Product Review 
8000 Series & 
Commodore-64 

Legal Plus 

This is an enhanced version of Legal 
Time Accounting with TRUST and RE- 
TAINER tracking. LTA has sold more 
than 800 copies. CALENDAR/80 can 
be integrated. 
CALENDAR/80 

A Calendar/Scheduling module for 
legal, medical and dental packages. 
This module is also available as a 
stand alone product. 
MAS 

More than 400 sold. Designed for 
the small medical office. 
DAS 

An open item, treatment plan 
oriented dental accounting system for 
the small dental office. More than 1 50 
sold. 
ULTRA 

WordCraft ULTRA, the supreme 
word processing package. 
EXECUTIVE 

Combines THE MANAGER with 



ULTRA in one interactive package. 
CMAR 

A machine code file handling pro- 
gram for sophisticated programmers. 
Comp-U-Cost 

The most comprehensive job 
costing program available. 
INSTA-WRITER 

A simple to use CARTRIDGE bas- 
ed word processing package for the 
COMMODORE-64. 
ULTRA CALC 

New for the 8096 series and the 
soon to be released 500 and 700 
series computers is WordCraft 
ULTRA CALC. 

Built into ULTRA is a full function 
calculator with MEMORY, CONS- 
TANT, PERCENTAGES, MIXED 
CALCULATIONS and to 9 
DECIMAL PLACES. 

All calculations are performed on the 
4th line and then transferred 
anywhere in text. Horizontal and ver- 
tical calculations are simple two key 
functions. 

SPREADSHEET work can now be 
accomplished after a 10 minute train- 
ing period. 
DISPLAY BRACKETS LAST OP 

[ ] [ ] [ ] 

MEMORY CONSTANT 

[ ] [ ] [ ] 

Invoices, purchase orders, sales 
orders and other business forms can 
all be done easily and automatically, 
Fill File Selection 

Also included in ULTRA CALC is 
field selectable sort and wild card 
search features. 

Much of the DATA BASE work that 
people need to perform is served by 
this kind of capability. 

By building TEMPLATES, the user 
can establish ARGUMENTS that are 
equal to, greater than, less than, not 
equal to, less than or equal to, greater 



than or equal to or within a specified 
range. 

This is an extremely powerful 
capability and adds a dimension not 
approached by any competitive word 
processing package on any micro 
system. 
MORE... 

A KEYWORD SECURITY system for 
"secret" documents, cursor move- 
ment between pages, filling form alien 
files, disk directory print out, communi- 
cations for different modems and sup- 
port for parallel printers are also 
included. 
HYDRA 

HYDRA is a true Local Area Net- 
work (LAN) system for the Com- 
modore 8000 series. Up to 128 com- 
puters (autonomous nodes) may 
operate within the network. The basic 
configuration for each computer is a 
printed circuit card, a twisted pair 
cable and resident ROM microcode. 

HYDRA allows any network site to 
access disk units or printers at other 
sites. Any number of disk units may be 
accessed by each computer on the 
network. A multi-user DOS (MUDOS) 
supplied with each HYDRA allows 
each disk unit to handle 50 relative files 
simultaneously. 

System speed is 250K baud (30,000 
characters per second) at a maximum 
distance of 3000 feet. Smaller network 
configurations allow for longer 
distances. 

Typical uses are education, 
resource sharing, electronic mail and 
multi-user applications development. 
SYSTEM 96 

SYSTEM 96 is a language system 
for the 8096. It allows programs of up 
to 80K-bytes to be run and supports 
an enhanced version of BASIC 4.0. 

It operates in a dual mode in that 
BASIC code can either be interpreted 
or compiled (DTL-BASIC compiler). By 
using powerful OVERLAYS, programs 
up to two and half times larger than 
before can be run. 
64K Board 

Available in March from Cimarron is 
a compact and versatile 64K add on 
board for the 8032. It is 100% com- 
patible, very small and cool running 
and includes provision for up to 4 
ROMS or EPROMS on the board itself. 



DTL Compiler 

This is a two pass compiler that is 
currently available for the 8000 series 
and soon to be released for the 500, 
700 and Commodore-64 series 
computers. 

It is fully compatible with BASIC pro- 
grams including machine code 
routine. The compilers run smaller and 
faster than their competitors. 

Approximately 55 times faster than 
interpreted code. 

INSTA SERIES 

Following INSTA-WRITER are five 
additional Commodore-64 car- 
tridge/disk based products for release 
over the next three months. 

All are professionally packaged with 
point of sale exciters such as posters 
and placards. 

The MAIN LINE PUNCH of these 
products are "INSTANT" operation 
and ease of use. The products will 
carry the same message and indentity 
throughout, whether a graphing 
package, a spreadsheet package or 
personal finance. 

All will stress personal productivi- 
ty as their hallmark. 



WordCraft 64 

Due for April release is WordCraft 64 
featuring all the capabilities of the 80 
column version. 
META MUSIC 

Just finished and released to Com- 
modore is META MUSIC I. This pro- 
gram fully exploits the features of Com- 
modore's SID chip in the 64. 

With META MUSIC I, the operator 
can score, orchestrate, compose, pro- 
gram custom sounds and single/multi- 
part record. 

EDIT mode will include keyboard 
notation, step sequencing, auto tem- 
po generation and 3 pseudo voices for 
special effects and pitch blending and 
sweeping. The user may score in 
muscial notation with run time options 
including voices, passages, tempo, 
and measures. Video scanning will 
also be available. 

PLAY mode will assemble all of the 
above options operationally. 

For more imformation about these 
and other Cimarron products, please 
contact us direct or drop us a line: 
CIMARRON, 666 Baker Street, Suite 
319, Costa Mesa, CA 92626, (714) 

641 -11 56 □ Circle No. 75 



VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



WALLBANGER - Blast your way through the dodgem, blast'm, 
and attack modes. If you destroy the bouncing balls before they destroy 
you, the walls close in for the next round. WALLBANGER is written in 
machine language, has great sound, and encourages complex strategies. 

CA8S/5K/VIC 20 

ALL 40/80 COLUMN PETS & CBMS (Includes Shipping/Handling) $1 9.95 

(CALIF. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX] 

CHICKEN CHASE - Help your hapless hen avoid hungry 
chicken hawks, sneaky coyotes, and fiendish zompys. If your chicken gets 
into trouble, "hyper-hen" to a new spot on the maze. If your chicken 
travels the entire maze, you advance to the next level where the action is 
faster and the predators more numerous. Hi-res graphics, great sounds, 
and machine language help make CHICKEN CHASE a hilarious fun-filled 
game for the whole family. 

CASS/5K/VIC-20 (Includes Shipping/Handling) 819.95 

[CALIF. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX] 

ROADTOAD - Hop your toad across 5 lanes of traffic, avoid 
deadly snakes, and dodge the dreaded toad-eaters. Cross a raging river 
full of logs, turtles, alligators, and park your toad in the safety of a harbor. 
Each time you park 5 toads, you enter a tougher level where the action is 
faster and the toad-eaters are more numerous. ROADTOAD is written in 
machine language and uses high resolution graphics. The sound effects are 
excellent and you can use a joystick or the keyboard to control your toad. 

CASS/5K/VIC 20 (Includes Shipping/Handling) $19.95 

[CALIF. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX] 

wnfceFor NIBBLES S, BITS, INC. WriteFor 

FREE P.O. BOX 2044 free 

Catalog ORCUTT, CA 93455 Catalog 



VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



Circle No. 30 



Commander May 1983/53 




About two years ago I found myself 
in an awkward position that many 
other people have also experienced. 
I had three Roms that all resided at the 
same address. This is really no pro- 
blem since swapping the Roms was 
not at all a hard task. The problem 
arises because the pins on the Rom 
and the actual socket started to take 
a beating after a number of insertions. 
I found that if the pins were not break- 
ing off then some of the contacts on 
the COMMODORE motherboard were 
not making proper electrical connec- 
tion. One thing led to another until I 
decided to get A QUADRA ROM and 
solve the problem once and for all. 

Multiple ROMs Reside 
at the Same Address 

The QUADRA ROM is a small board 
for the COMMODORE computer that 
allows four Roms to reside at the same 
address. It is manufactured by a com- 
pany called MICROM in TORONTO. 
This is very handy since now I could 
have all my Roms present in the com- 
puter at the same time and choose the 
one I needed at the time. This seem- 
ed all fine and dandy until my collec- 
tion of roms grew to six. I was very 
happy to know that the QUADRA 
ROM could be stacked therefore 
allowing seven Roms to reside at the 
same address. I placed the second 
QUADRA ROM into the first socket of 
the first one I had installed. Now I 
could select the second board just as 
if it were a Rom and then select the 
Rom I wanted to use on board number 
two. There was no need for any buf- 
fering since the seven Roms will not 
draw enough current to warrant it. The 

54/Commander May 1983 



QUADRA ROM is flexible in that it will 
allow both 2k (271 6's) and 4k (2532's) 
to be used whereas some other similar 
products will not. A friend of mine is 
using his QUADRA ROM so that he 
may use more than one character 
generator in his 8032. 

Choice of Switches Available 

Installation of the board is extreme- 
ly simple although well documented 
nevertheless and I am sure that 
anyone could install one without any 
trouble. (IF YOU ARE REALLY SQUIR- 
MISH I AM SURE YOUR DEALER 
WOULD INSTALL IT.) It sits on a com- 
ponent platform that plugs into the 
Rom socket that you wish to use it for. 
The platform has small but sturdy in- 
sertion pins so your main socket will 
not be damaged by the device. The 
board itself consists of four empty 
sockets, one dip switch, an integrated 
circuit, three resistors and the compo- 
nent platform with a standoff. The 
Roms may even be switched in and 
out without powering down your com- 
puter which in itself is a big time saver. 
An exception to the last statement is 
a rom that uses the IRQ unless you 
choose to reset it yourself before swit- 
ching the Rom out. It has been com- 
pletely reliable for me and many 
friends that I know are using it. 

I mentioned dip switch because the 
board that I have uses an internal 
switch for the selection of the Roms. 
The board is also available with an ex- 
ternal switch for the people who don't 
like to peek under the cover of their 
computers. A lot of business men 
choose the external switch over the in- 
ternal. The integrated circuit is being 



used to decode a binary number from 

to 3 for the selection of the Roms. 
Since the decoder really doesn't care 
how it gets it's information you could 
very easily hook up two wires to your 
parallel port and select the Rom you 
want via software. I choose not to do 
this since I am not sure what some of 
the Roms are doing for the software. 

1 would hate to find out that after spen- 
ding an hour or so with any given pro- 
gram that the Rom toggles the control 
line and switches in another Rom. If 
you are using your own software then 
this could not inadvertently happen. 

When we get to the bottom line I 
guess the price is the real seller of this 
device. It lists for $39.95 which is a 
bargain any way you look at it. Other 
similar devices on the market have 
sold for as much as $1 06. There have 
been a few that also sold for approx- 
imately the same price but only allow- 
ed two Roms or only allowed you to 
use 2k chips. It seems that most of 
these have slowly disappeared but the 
QUADRA ROM lives on. 

I believe that the QUADRA ROM 
was only available in Canada before 
but some good resources have told 
me that it has just been picked up by 
a new marketing company and will be 
available in the States very shortly. I 
would keep my eyes open for the 
future ads, especially in magazines 
such as this one since it seems an ob- 
vious place that a company would 
want to advertise a product for COM- 
MODORE use. 

In summary I highly recommend this 
well built device for any one who uses 
software utilizing Roms and for just 
S39.95-THE PRICE IS RIGHT.D 



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PEDISK II FLOPPY DISK SYSTEM: 

A Product Review 



by Louis F. Sander 
Pittsburgh, PA 



The PEDISK II is an inexpensive and 
expandable disk drive system for 
Commodore PET/CBM computers. If 
you're thinking about a disk drive for 
one of those machines, you ought to 
look into PEDISK II. 

Unlike the Commodore drives, 
which use the IEEE port, the PEDISK 
II plugs into a ROM socket inside the 
PET/CBM. To install the PEDISK II, you 
remove one of the Commodore ROMs 
and plug it into the PEDISK II controller 
board (Figure 1). The board then plugs 
into the vacant ROM socket, and a 
cable connecting the drive or drives 
plugs into it. Four additional connec- 
tions inside the PET are made by high- 
quality clip connectors. The PEDISK 
manual gives clear, step-by-step in- 
structions for fitting everything 
together, and none of the steps are dif- 
ficult at all. The controller board also 
contains a ROM of its own, which must 
be matched to the ROMs and memory 
size of the host machine. 

Either 5W or 8" drives can be us- 
ed with the controller board, and it is 
a simple matter to expand from one to 
three drives on a system. All you do 
is get the proper cable and plug in the 
extra drives. The PEDISK system is 
also available for SYM and AIM com- 
puters, and disks made on one type 
of computer can be easily read on any 
of the others. If you have 8" drives, a 
standard IBM format is used, allowing 
you to exchange disks with many 
other machines. 

The DOS, or Disk Operating 
System, provided with the PEDISK is 
designed for simplicity and speed. It 
has all the most useful features, with 
few frills, so if your ambition is to ex- 
plore and work with the DOS itself, 
your task is a relatively easy one. 
Reading and writing information to the 
PEDISK are considerably faster than 

56/Commander May 1983 




FIGURE 1— PEDISK II Controller Board 



the same operations with Commodore 
drives. For those who want to use data 
files, the PEDISK supports both the se- 
quential arid the relative varieties. 

To activate the disk, you do a sim- 
ple SYS 59904 from your keyboard, 
which is rewarded by a short welcome 
message. At this point you have eight 
BASIC commands available to you, for 
performing the most commonly need- 
ed functions. ISAVE saves a program 
to disk. !LOAD loads it, and !RUN 
loads and runs it. ILIST gives a direc- 
tory of all programs on the disk, while 
other similar commands are used for 
file handling. 

The !SYS command moves the 
system into the so-called "PDOS 
Mode," in which you have more direct 
control over what is going on, at the 
machine language level. In PDOS 
mode, single keystrokes can be used 
to save or load machine language pro- 
grams, to examine memory or disk 
sectors/etc. Using this mode, I have 
worked out several disk utilities that 



were rewarding to write and helpful to 
use. 

Like most manuals for computer 
hardware, the one with the PEDISK is 
somewhat difficult to fathom at first. 
The functions of some commands and 
operations are not immediately ob- 
vious, and the first-time user is likely to 
spend some time scratching his head. 
But with effort comes understanding- 
most of the mystery soon disappears, 
and the manual quickly becomes a 
useful guide to working with the 
system. There is a very useful PEDISK 
Newsletter, published several times 
each year, which gives further hints, 
programs, and instructions. 

Other documentation, available at 
nominal cost, is a Programming 
Manual, essential for machine lan- 
guage dabblers, and DOS Source 
Listings, handy for those who really 
want to become expert. 

Lots of software is available in 
PEDISK II format, including the famous 
MAE 6502 assembler, VISICALC, 




FIGURE 2— PEDISK II Controller board Installed in PET Logic Board 



word processors, various utilities, etc. 
There is also an informal user group 
whose activities include software 
swapping. But if you plan to swap soft- 
ware with Commodore disk owners, 
you won't be able to do it by swapping 
disks, since Commodore and PEDISK 
formats are incompatible. I get around 
that problem by swapping on cassette 
tapes, which has been quite satisfac- 
tory for my purposes. 

In summary, the PEDISK II is a very 
nice way to move beyond the cassette 
stage, especially if you want to save 
money on a multi-drive system, or if 
you want to learn about disk operating 
systems in an easy and straightfor- 
ward way. Its only real shortcoming is 
its incompatibility with Commodore 
diskettes, but for me, at least, that is 
more than outweighed by its advan- 
tages. I'm glad I bought my PEDISK. 

The PEDISK II is available in several 
configurations from dealers or from 
Microtech, P.O. Box 102, Langhorne, 
PA 19047.D 




FIGURE 3— PEDISK II with 8" Disk Drive 



Commander May 1983/57 



f— ——— —— ———— i 



! •■•■•■! 



mmm 



Parachute Landing 



byK.T. Adkins 
ML Sinai, NY 



Parachute Landing is a very easy 
game to play, but can become rather 
frustrating. It is a game well suited to 
the screen size of a VIC-20 and can 
certainly be modified for use on other 
computers. It was created using an 
unexpanded VIC-20. 

The theme of the game may be 
simply stated. As the character * the 
player lands in the middle of a forest, 
presumably by parachute. He must 
then find his way out of the forest 
without stepping on one of the 1 5 ran- 
domly placed land mines. Points are 
scored for the most steps taken to 
leave the forest without getting blown 
up. 

The version shown here is intended 
for keyboard control. When RUN, the 
title appears followed by instructions 
for the player. The construction of the 
program is as follows: 

As one can see from the PRINTed 
version accompanying this article, 
lines 4 to 1 9 will display the title follow- 
ed by the instructions. 

Lines 99 to 140 fill the screen with 
green spades used to simulate trees. 

Lines 1 50 to 1 80 determine the ran- 
dom location of the 1 5 land mines. Of 
course, more or less land mines could 
be used. 

Lines 190 to 290 determine one of 
four random locations in the center 
area of the forest where the parachute 
lands. This may be modified if the 
reader would prefer to have the para- 
chute land anywhere in the forest. 

Lines 300 to 360 display the moves 
made by the player, adding 100 points 
to the score each time a successful 
move is made without hitting a land 
mine. As noted earlier, if the player 
escapes from the forest by a longer 
route, the scores achieved will be 
higher. However, taking a longer route 
mmmmmmmmmmmmmmimummM 



increases ones chances of hitting a 
land mine, in which case, all score 
points are lost. 

Lines 400 to 420 allow the player to 
choose another game. 

Lines 500 to 509 check to see if a 
move resulted in hitting a land mine. 

Lines 510 to 520 check to see if a 
move resulted in a successful escape 
from the forest. 

Lines 600 to 613 display the escape 
message together with the current 
score and the high score. 

Lines 700 to 705 create the explo- 
sion which results from hitting a land 
mine. 



Lines 706 to 710 display the appro- 
priate message resulting from the ex- 
plosion mentioned above. 

The program is by no means com- 
plex nor is it difficult to understand. It 
is presented primarily for the begin- 
ning programmer as an illustration of 
what can be accomplished by some- 
one who has had a VIC-20 for only 
three months. As one can see, only a 
small amount of color and sound are 
used, but additional color and sound 
can easily be added. Try, for example, 
replacing line 10 with the instructions 
GOSUB 1 000 and then adding the fol- 
lowing lines to the program: 



1C00 


T = 36876: V- 


36878 






1010 


P0KS 


V,15 










1020 


READ 


Pi IF ?: 


= 1 TE 


POKE 


1030 


READ 


R 










1040 


POKE 


T,P: P0R 


u = 


1 TC 


R; 


NEXT 


1050 


POKE 


T,0: FOR 


N = 


1 TO 


20 J 


NEXT 


1060 


GOTO 


1020 










1070 


DATA 


215,250, 


215, 


,250, 


225, 


250 


1080 


DATA 


228,250, 


231, 


,500, 


231, 


125 


1090 


DATA 


231,125,232, 


,250, 


219, 


250 


1100 


DATA 


219,250, 


228, 


,500, 


1 





1 


Z=g : X*t 


5:S=42:CL*144=HS«0 








&lH$<i3>>ftR'<£53 






4 


PRINT": 


2 SK#$$$$$$#^$$''' 






w 


PRINT" 


* #" 








PRINT" 


$ PRRRCHUTE *" 






? 


PRINT" 


* LRNBING *" 






8 


PRINT" 


$ #« 






9 


PRINT" 
BV TOM 


vmrnmrnmrn'' •■ print : pf 

ASK INS" 


:INT' 


1 


18 


( FORZZ- 


=ITO4S80 : NEXTZZ 






11 


PRINT' 


3 PS THE CHRRRCTER #, 








VOU PRRRCHUTE INTO THEMIDDLE OF R 


FOR 


EST. ,! 


IS 


PRINT" 


VOU MUST FIND VOUR WRY 


OUT 


OF 




THE FOREST." 







58/Comnnancier May 1983 





J 
I 




13 PRINT : PRINT" WHEN THE BOARD IS COMPLETE, VOU MflV HIT flNV KEY"; 


1 


14 PRINT ,: TO BEGIN THE GAME." 




1 


ID PRINTS PRINT" TO MOVE THE ft, USE THE FOLLOWING KEYS:" 


i 
i 


i 


:I.S PRINT: PRINT" ¥MJP" 


i 


I 


17 PRINT 1 ' G=LEFT H^RIOHT" 




I 


IS PRINT" B^DOWN " 




I 


19 PRINT: PRINT" BE CAREFUL ! THERE ARE 15 LAND MINES." 


: 


i 


2S P0RKK» 1 TO 11 @09 ' NEKTKK 


1 


i 


99 PRIHT l, n" =PRINT ,, H ,, CHR*a47>; 




I 
i 


100 F0RI=iTC23 




110 F0RJ*1T022 


i 


1 1 5 I F I =23ANDJ^£2THENPR I NTCHR* < 1 57 > CHR* a 48 ) $ 


j 


12S PRINT CHR*C97>; 


i 

i 


i 


138 NEXT J 


| 


i 


149 NEXT I 


i 


i 
i 


ISO F0RM»lfO13 


i 
i 


i 
i 


166 W=INTCRHDa>#16) :p*INT<RND<l )#16> 


I 


1 


170 R<M>**|!fln.<rt>«F 


i 




186 NEKTM 


i 


1 


193 GETS*- IFE*=" "THEN130 


i 


i 


200 P= 1 1 : W* 1 1 • T« I NT i RND < 1 )*4> + 1 






2 1 ONTGOTO220 , 238 , 240, 250 






228 H«*l*l :G0TO269 


1 




230 W-W-i:OQTO2€0 


l 

i 







THE CCI 4C/8C VIDEO CARTRIDGES 

Quantum Data, Inc. produces two 40/80 Video Cartridges for the Commodore VIC-20 computer. The 
Video Cartridge which does not contain memory, and the Video Combo Cartridge which contains 1 6K 
RAM composed of eight 6116 CMOS memory chips. 

The 40/80 Video Cartridge or the 40/80 Video Combo Cartridge is the means to upgrade the 
VIC-20 computer to a 40 * 24 or an 80 * 24 character display. This provides a wealth of new uses 
for the VIC-20 and with the appropriate software you can now accomplish quality word processing 
and various business functions that previously were difficult to achieve with only the VIC's standard 
22 character video display. Both Cartridges feature a screen printing routine and a terminal 
emulator routine which are written in BASIC so that you can add these capabilities to your 
programs. 

Qther Cartridges can be plugged into the memory expansion port of the VIC-20 or an expansion 
chassis. The 40 character mode may be easily viewed on most standard T.V. sets but a monitor is 
required for the 80 column mode to provide the necessary additional resolution. 

VIDCO CARTRIDGE $1 59.95 

VIDCO COMBO CARTRIDGE $259.95 

Call (714) 553-1945 to place your order today! 

r^^^\ flsk for other VIC-20 hardware and software peripherals! 

QUANTUM DATA, INC. 

14252 Culver Drive, Suite A, Box 285, Irvine, CA 92714 

Items in stock ready for immediate delivery. 

Visa or Mastercard accepted. Above prices retail in U.S. dollars. Shipping and handling not included, 

VIC-20 is o trademark of Commodore Business Machines 




Circle No. 36 



Commander May 1983/59 



!■■■■■ ■■—« ■ ■ ■ ■ —— ————■■■•■■■■—— — — ■■■■■»■ " 



248 P=>p+1 JGOT026Q 

250 P«F-1 

260 I f¥m 1 1 RNDW= 1 3THENX=7934 : V-38654 : POKEV t CL 

270 I FP~ 11 mVEH* 1 9THENX-7932 : V=3S652 > POKEV , CL 

2SS I FP=- 1 2RNDW" 1 1 THENX«7955 : V=33675 • POKEV , CL 

290 I FP« 1 (SRMBia* 1 1 THENK*79 1 1 : V----3S63 1 : POKEV , CL 

300 GETC* = I FP**» " " THEH390 

305 POKE36873 > 1 5 : P0KE36876 .. 220 ■ P0KE36876 > 8 

318 2=2+100 

320 I FC$= " V " TWEHV-V-22 : POKEV , CL : X=X-22 = POKE!*: 

330 I mm " G !1 TH£NV=V- 1 ' POKEV , CL : X*H~ 1 '■ POKEX , 8 

340 I FC*~ " B " THENV*V+22 :'POKE V .. CL : X--X+22 : POKEX 

350 IFC4-=="H"THEHV=V+1 = POKEV, CL ■ X*ft+1. : POKEX.. S 

360 GOTO300 

400 FR I NT" WANT TO TRV" 

481 PRINT"FiGRIN CV OR K)"J 

402 IMPUTES 

410 IFE*="V"THEN99 

420 END 

500 F0RL=1T015 

50 1 I FF=flfl < L > RH - JDW=R <. L '> THEH700 
503 NEXTL 

5 1 I FP^0ORW==0QRP=23ORW"22THEN600 

526 131370300 

f, i™i C"l P P T H T " T5I ' ' 

6 1 9 PR I NT " VOU ' VE ESCAPED ! " = PR I NT : PR I NT 



POKEX, 3 
POKEX, S 
POKEX, 8 
POKEX, S 



.. S'-pwP-l :GOTO500 
*W*i4~i :GOTO500 
,3-P~P+l:GOTO500 
■ W=W+ 1 : GOTO50O 



•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•M 



MMMMtMHMMMMMMMM. 



CONNECT ANY MODEM TO 

YOUR VIC-20 OR C-64 

The MODEM INTERFACE 

allows you to connect virtually 
any standard acoustical or 



direct connect modem to 
your VIC-20 or C-64. Works 
with the Microconnection, DC Hayes or CAT, Compatible 
with autodial/autoanswer modems. No soldering, just 
plug it in. Comes with a BASIC autodial terminal 
program. $2 1 .95 Postpaid. Add $ 1 .75 extra for shipping 
outside the U.S., Canada, or Mexico. VISA or MASTER- 
CARD welcome. 

FOR charge; or cod. orders 




1800-227-3000 TOLL FREE 
1-800-792-0990 IN CALIFORNIA 
ASK FOR OPERATOR 225 



For check order, additional information or service, call or write: 

BYTESIZE MICRO TECHNOLOGY 

PO BOX 21123 - DEPT. A- SEATTLE, WA 98111 

(206) 236-BYTE 

DEALER INQUIRIES WANTED 



611 IFZ>HSTHENHS*Z 

612 PRINT"V0UR SCORE 
IS"Z 

613 PRINT "HIGH SCORE 
IS"HS 

6 1 4 Z ™* 9 : G T 4 9 
70S P0k:EV~-23,23 : 

P0KEV~22,23 : 

POKEV-21,23 
781 POKEV-23; 23 : 

POKEV-22,23- 

POKEV-21,23 
702 POKEV- 1, 23 ' POKEV 

^1,2S'P0KEV+21..28| 
733 POKEV .> 23 : P0KEV+ 

22,23 : F0KEV+23.28 

705 GOSUESO0 

706 PRINT" 38" 
713 FRI-NT"VQU'VE 

BEEN EL0WM RWflV" : 

Z~ : : GOTO400 
900 P0KE36877, 220 
310 FORO15TO0STEP-1 
923 P0KE3637S.0 
930 FOROO*1TO300 
940 NEXT 00 

950 NEXT0 

960 P0KE36377., 
970 FOKE36378^0 
980 RETURN 



i 



MMMIMMi 



60/Commander May 1983 



News Releases 



The Mail List 

The most powerful mailing list pro- 
gram available for the VIC-20 and 
Commodore 64 has just been releas- 
ed. Galactic Software presents The 
Mail List! This program has numerous 
capabilities, and it is menu-driven to 
allow for easy use of all this 
capabilities. To name just a few of its 
features: it allows for both sorting and 
searching on any of the 10 fields; its 
multiple printing capabilities allow the 
user to print single labels, multiple 
labels, labels for the whole list, prin- 
touts of the whole list and much more; 
it also allows for printing of business 
or personal mailing labels; and all 
these printing capabilities can be done 
on almost any printer. To top all that, 
this program performs all these ac- 
tivities very quickly. The Mail List is 
available from Galactic Software in 
both a cassette and a diskette version, 
both at an economically low price. 

For more information, call (408) 
247-4434 or write: GALACTIC SOFT- 
WARE, PO Box 10516, San Jose, CA 

951 57. □ Circle No. 49 



Payroll System— New 
from GAAP Software 

This is a comprehensive payroll 
system designed exclusively for the 
Commodore 64. This system main- 
tains an employee master file, 
generates reports for management 
and tax purposes, calculates and 
prints computerized payroll checks 
with full deduction detail. It's design- 
ed and developed by professional ac- 
countants. Dealer demo diskette avail- 
able. 

• Gross wages calculated by regular, 
overtime, double time, holiday, vaca- 
tion, sick hours, other pay taxable, 



other pay non-taxable, and tem- 
porary rate. 

• 7 fixed voluntary deductions and 3 
miscellaneous. 

• 4 digit employee number. 

• 100 employees per disk. (1541) (500 
to 1000, 8050-8250 respectively.) 

• 7 different pay and deductions 
frequencies. 

• Departmental recapping of all 
deduction and expenses. 

• All routines menu driven. 

• YTD and QTC 941 reporting. 

• Password projected master files. 

• Federal and State tax tables. (User 
maintainable) 

• Check reconciliation. 

• Void/Manual check entry. 
Contact GAAP Software, PO Box 

1343, Waukesha, Wl 53187 or call 

(414) 544-5249. □ Circle No. 50 

CCI Mini-Retailer 64™ 

CCI will make this same package 
available for retailers with fewer tran- 
sactions and limited number of inven- 
tory items. This software will run on 
one or more of the 1 541 disk drive at 
about 1 000 inventory items per 1 541 . 
This configuration does not require an 
IEEE-488 adapter. This will provide 
small businesses and home/business 
operations with a TOTAL SYSTEM 
COST UNDER $3,000 including cash 
drawer. Available in mid-1983. 

Clockwork Computers,. 8704 Brad- 
gate Road, Alexandria, VA 22308, 
(703) 780-6010. Marketing: 4612 Holly 
Ridge Road, Rockville, MD 20853, 
(301) 924-5509 or (301) 924-41 57. □ 

Circle No. 51 

CCI Bottom Liner™ 

Written for 64/1541 

This package is intended to aid indi- 
viduals, families and businesses to ac- 



count for a variety of INCOME; such 
as straight sales, installment sales, real 
estate capital gains, dividends, in- 
terest, reimbursements by employer, 
and reimbursements by health insurer 
and EXPENSES; such as stock pur- 
chases, contributions, utilities, medical, 
dental, unreimbursed business expen- 
ses, entertainment, interest, travel, 
parts, supplies, mailing/postage, labor, 
materials, automobile, rent, and tax 
dedUctable life insurance. Summary 
totals from this system can go directly 
to provide profit and loss, net work, 
and data can go directly to the IRS 
forms. Suggested list price is $98.75. 
Now accepting orders for mid-1983 
delivery. 

Clockwork Computers, 8704 Brad- 
gate Road, Alexandria, VA 22308, 
(703) 780-6010. Marketing: 4612 Holly 
Ridge Road, Rockville, MD 20853, 
(301) 924-5509 or (301) 924-41 57. □ 

Circle No. 52 

Avalon Hill Fires 3 More 
Inter-Ballistic Missiles 

Avalon Hill has expanded its line of 
IBM P.C.® computer software to 
eleven titles with the release of three 
new explosive programs. From the 
company known as "The Thinking 
Man's Gamerriaker," these new 
microcomputer games promise to fire- 
up your New Year's Sales. 
For Armchair Quarterbacks 

Avalon Hill has announcced the ad- 
dition of COMPUTER FOOTBALL 
STRATEGY to its line of IBM P.C.® 
software. A challenging game of pro- 
fessional football that pits your skills 
against the computer, or a live oppo- 
nent. You can be either the offensive 
or defensive play caller in this all-skill 
strategy game. FOOTBALL STRAT- 
EGY is a computerized adaption of 

Commander May 1983/61 



Avalon Hill's popular board game of 
the same name. 

Nearly sixteen years ago before 
Avalon Hill became the exclusive 
game maker for "Sports Illustrated," 
the magazine had this to say; "An 
honest-to-Pete challenge to the man 
who knows he would have been a 
great pro quarterback if only he had 
had the chance." 

FOOTBALL STRATEGY is ready to 
run on the IBM P.C.® with 48K 
memory. The price of the diskette is 
$21.00. 

Combat in Vietnam 

VC is the name of the game, based 
on the controversial war in Vietnam. 
You have been in 'Nam for 90 endless 
days. You are ready for a massive 
search and destroy mission. Under 
your command, is the air-mobile and 
heavily armed 1 /509th Air Cavalry and 
the 9/1 5th Field Artillery. As advisor to 
the Army of the Republic of Vietnam 
can you defeat the enemy, that can 
hide amongst the people, and where 
the politics of terrorism and friendship 
can turn the people you want to save, 
against you? 

VC is ready to run on diskette for the 
IBM P.C.® computer with 48K 
memory. The price is $25.00. 

Future War 

B-1 NUCLEAR BOMBER rounds 
out this New Year's bash. The IBM 
P.C.® version places you in the 
cockpit of a Supersonic Bomber, on a 
mission over the Soviet Union. You 
swallow hard, as your eyes scan the 
sky for another Russian MIG. You must 
fly the plane to the target city, bomb 
it, and return home. Your only chance 
to get through the stiff Russian 
defenses, is to rely on the superior 
technology of your ECM (electronic 
counter measures) and self-defense 
missiles. 

B-1 NUCLEAR BOMBER is ready to 
run on diskette for the IBM P.C.® 
computer with 48K memory. The price 
of the diskette is $21.00. 

You are the target, with these 3 new 
IBM P.C. games from Avalon Hill. 
MIDWAY CAMPAIGN, COMPUTER 
STOCKS AND BONDS, DRAW 
POKER, VOYAGER, GALAXY and 

62/Commander May 1983 



ANDROMEDA CONQUESTS round 
out the line of AH's IBM P.C. compa- 
tible software, so arm yourself and en- 
joy the explosion. 

The Avalon Hill Game Company, 
4517 Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 

21214, (301) 254-5300. □ Circle No. 53 



VIC-20® 

Commodore 64® to 
Parallel Printer Interface 

The SPI board provides the VIC-20/ 
Commodore 64 with direct BASIC use 
of the parallel bus. When pugged into 
the VIC-20/Commodore 64, the card 
gives "invisible" access to this bus. 

The SPI has several features and 
flexibilities: 

A. The SPI requires no driver soft- 
ware on the VIC-20 or Commodore- 
64, making it compatible with virtually 
every program written for use with the 
1515 or 1525 printers. 

B. The SPI will, if desired, auto- 
matically send a line feed with each 
carriage return printed. This satisfies 
the requirements of some printers that 
do not have automatic line feed. This 
mode can be selected with either soft- 
ware OR hardware control. 

C. The SPI will, if desired, automat- 
ically convert "Commodore ASCII" 
into standard ASCII. Most parallel in- 
terface printers today use standard 
ASCII, making this feature very desir- 
able. This mode can also be selected 
with either software OR hardware 
control. 

D. The SPI will, if desired, automat- 
ically suppress its software selected 
conversion, via a hardware selection 
(a switch). 

E. The SPI'will, if desired, automat- 
ically suppress line feeds that are sent 
after a carraige return. Some printers 
recognize line feeds and some soft- 
ware sends a line feed with every car- 
riage return. This feature helps to pre- 
vent the double spacing that this may 
cause. 

F. The SPI connects directly to the 
VIC-20 OR Commodore 64, works di- 
rectly through the serial port using the 
serial pori driver software (already built 



into the computer), and is completely 
interchangable between the two com- 
puters. 

G. The SPI can be any of 4 device 
numbers (4,5,6 or 7) on the serial bus. 
This allows the SPI to be used with 
another printer or another SPI at the 
same time. 

'Commodore 64' and 'VIC-20' are 
trademarks of Commodore Business 
Machines, Inc. MICRO SYSTEMS 
DEVELOPMENT, INC., 11 105 Shady 
Trail, Suite 104, Dallas, TX 75229, 

(214) 241 -3743. □ Circle No. 54 



Synapse Software 
Moves to New Facilities 

Synapse SOFTWARE, leading 
designers of home computer software, 
have moved to new facilities. Due to 
skyrocketing sales, the quadrupling of 
their line with 32 new programs, and 
increases in sales and marketing staff, 
Synapse has relocated in 30,000 feet 
of combined office, production and 
warehouse space in Richmond, CA. 

A relatively young company in the 
computer software category, Synapse 
accumulated early successes with 
such game programs as Chicken, 
Shamus, and Protector II. They rapid- 
ly garnered a position as a leading 
third party supplier of programs for 
Atari 400 and 800. Now, having 
amassed one of the largest stables of 
program designers in the industry, 
Synapse is poised to launch 32 
dramatic new game, educational and 
utility programs, for all of the leading 
hardware systems (VIC 20, TI99/4A, 
Commodore 64, IBM-PC, Apple II, 
and the Radio Shack Color Computer). 
The slated new releases are to include 
Pharoah's Curse (a multi-screen Egyp- 
tian adventure), Fort Apocalypse, 
Necromancer (the game that allows 
your computer to cast spells) and 
Shamus; Case II (the long awaited se- 
quel to the graphic adventure classic). 
New utilities will include Trend 
Manager, advanced renditions of 
FileManager+ and numerous home 
management and business packages. 

Contact: Synapse, 5221 Central 
Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804, (415) 

527-7751 .□ Circle No. 55 



MSD Disk Drive 

The MSD Disk Drive is a Commo- 
dore compatible disk drive designed 
to interface to the various Commodore 
computers such as the PET, VIC-20, 
and the C64. The disk drive is compat- 
ible to the model 4040, 2031, 1540, 
and 1541 disk drives and recognizes 
programs generated on any of these 
disk drives. The capacities disk drive 
recognizes the full instruction set of the 
Commodore drives. In addition to this 
compatibility the MSD Disk Drive offers 
more RAM area within the disk unit, 
both a serial and an IEEE bus inter- 
face, and more importantly, a software 
reconfigurable operating system cap- 
able of handling disk formats other 
than the Commodore format. The fol- 
lowing technical specifications apply to 
the MSD Disk Drive: 
Physical dimensions: 

Height: 4.5" 

Width: 6.0" 

Depth: 12.0" 
Disk Parameters: 

5.25 inch single-sided, double den- 
sity diskette media 

Number of tracks— 35 

Number of sectros per track— 1 7 to 
21 (variable) 

Sector size— 256 bytes 

Number of sectors per disk— 683 
Capacities: 

User sectors per disk— 667 

Disk capacity— 174,848 

Data capacity— 168,656 

Relative data capacity— 167,132 

Program capacity— 168,656 

Directory capacity— 144 
Filenames 
Electrical interface: 

Power requirements: 
Input voltage— 120 volts + /- 10% 
Frequency— 50 or 60 Hertz 
Power— 30 watts 
Computer interface: 

Commodore type SERIAL bus or 

Commodore type IEEE bus 
System features: 

16K ROM based operating system 

16K RAM area 

651 1Q Microprocessor 

Power on self test diagnostics 

External AC receptacle 

Reconfigurable operating system for 



other disk formats 

PET, VIC-20, and C64 are trade- 
marks of Commodore Business Ma- 
chines, Inc. 

Micro Systems Development, Inc. 
1 1 105 Shady Trail, Suite 104, Dallas, 
TX 75229, (214) 241 -3743. □ 

Circle No. 56 



ASERT® Overview 
Aid for Search and 
Retrieval of Test 

ASERT® is an operator oriented, 
virtually crashproof information Man- 
agement System that operates on the 
Commodore computer. The format for 
the record area of most commercial 
Data Managers consists of a number 
of FIELDS into which the required 
data is placed. The ASERT® program 
has gone beyond this limitation to in- 
clude an area of Free Text for 
unusual, confidential, or other data, 
which cannot be categorized. 

ASERT® also contains a section 
which allows for the creation of up to 



180 Searchwords. This section per- 
mits the user to create Search Cri- 
teria, that is; to locate Records which 
"Must Have", "Must not Have" or 
"Might Have" a particular combina- 
tion of characteristics that satisfy 
specific needs. In other words, all 
Searchwords as well as the Variable 
Functions are user determined. 

ASERT® allows you to print 
Labels for identification or mailings. 
User Defined Reports is another fea- 
ture of the ASERT® program. These 
reports can be printed on the basis of 
Entry Order, Sort Order, Success 
Lists, or any sub-set of these. 

ASERT® creates a Sequential 
File which can be accessed by Word- 
Processing and Accounting pro- 
grams. 

ASERT® has Statistical capabil 
ities. A report of totals, based on the 
Searchwords held by all your 
records or on records in your Suc- 
cess Lists, can be created. 
ASERT® gives the number of 
records that are coded with each of 
the Searchwords, the number of 



** * *** * ** * ** *****» * * ****************** *****) 

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POWERBYTE SOFTWARE TM 

Presents 

APPLICATION SOFTWARE 
Business and Home 

for the 

• Commodore 64 
•Vic20andTRS80CC 

65 Applications Available including: 

THE EDITOR - Advanced Word Processor $34.95 

with Powerful Editing Features (64 & 8K Vic 20) 

THE ACCOUNTANT - General Ledger, Income $29.95 

Statement & Balance Sheet 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE- Create $21.95 

Journal for Current Accounts &, Record of Paid Accts. 



BUSINESS INVENTORY 


$19.95 


AT HOME INVENTORY 


$12.95 


ORDER TRACKER 


$19.95 


CHECKBOOK BOOKY 


$12.95 


MY PROFIT MARGtN 


$16.95 


THE STOCK TICKER 


$16.95 


BILLING SOLVER 


$19.95 


TAPE 




CASH FLOW MODEL 


$16.95 


UTILITY BILL SAVER 


$12.95 


THE CLIENT TICKLER 


$19.95 


THE BAR CHART 


$8.95 


INCOME &EXPENSER 


$15.95 


MOTHER'S RECIPES 


$12.95 


BUSINESS 


$16.95 


THE MAILMAN 


$12.95 


APPOINTMENTS 




GRADE MY KIDS 


$15.95 



AND MANY, MANY MORE!! 



FOR CASSETTE OR DISC ($10.00 Extra - 64 & Vic 20) 

•FREE CATALOG 

WITH INTRODUCTORY SPECIALS 

POWERBYTE SOFTWARE 



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2CHIPLEY RUN 

WEST BERLIN, NJ 08091 

(609) 346-3063 



******** ** a * ** ** **a»*» ***» *»*o*» * * * a ** * * tf 



Oce No 4 7 



Commander May 1983/63 



records that are not, as well as a 
Percentage Ratio is readily available 
through ASERT® . 

ASERT® has Sort Routines. This 
option will organize your entire file ac- 
cording to any of the thirty (30) Record 
Fields. You can Sort your file alpha- 
betically or numerically (e.g. by name, 
payroll number, zip code, etc.). 

Alt Important Instructions are 
displayed on the screen in what is 
known as a Menu Format. When 
Critical decisions are to be made, 
Fail-Safe commands minimize the risk 
of losing data. 

ASERT® is sold with "Demo" 
records which allow the user to experi- 
ment with the system before setting up 
his Office File and Record Format. 

Specifications 

Hardware Requirements— COM 

MODORE 8032, 8050 or 4040 Disk 
Drive. A full range of printer options. 
Plus COMMODORE 64. 

Language— Compiled Basic 4.0 
with Machine Code Sort Routines. 

Number of Search Words— 180 

Type of File Structure— Informa- 
tion Storage/Retrieval Method. 

Sort— Any 30 Record Fields. 

Search— Logical 'And', Logical 
'Not,' Logical 'Or'— In any combina- 
tion. 

For more information write or call 
Geneva Technologies Corp., ^Com- 
merce Drive, Cranford, NJ 07016, 

(201) 276-11 44. □ Circle No. 57 



older Commodore computers for over 
2 years. If you are tired of the long wait 
to LOAD and SAVE programs from 
cassette, then you need the VIC 
Rabbit. 

Since the Rabbit is an extension of 
the operating system, the normal. VIC 
LOAD, SAVE and VERIFY commands 
can still be used. Think of Rabbit as 
providing an additional recording 
mode— thus you have two LOAD com- 
mands (Commodores and Rabbits) 
and two SAVE commands. 

The VIC Rabbit also contains a con- 
nector on one end so that you can 
simultaneously use expansion mem- 
ory or another cartridge. 

The VIC Rabbit software is contain- 
ed in a ROM on the cartridge. 1 2 Rab- 
bit commands provide not only high- 
speed LOAD/SAVE but other useful 



functions. The Rabbit commands are 
as follows: 

12 Rabbit Commands 

SS— Save with short leader 

SL— Save with long leader 

L —Load a program 

V —Verify a program 

E —Load and then run 

T —RAM Memory Test 

D —Convert decimal # to hex # 

H —Convert hex # to decimal # 

Z —Toggle character set 

K —Kill the Rabbit 

* —Go to monitor 

G —Go to Machine Language 
Program 

Example: L "STAR TREK", 2 or T 
1,400,1FFF 

VIC Rabbit and Comprehensive 
Manual— $39.95. □ circle no. 58 




VIC ROM Add-On 

The VIC Rabbit is a cartridge which 
plugs into the back of the VIC-20 Com- 
puter. No tools are required since it just 
plugs in. The VIC Rabbit contains soft- 
ware which provides for high-speed 
LOAD and SAVE on the VIC cassette 
deck, for example, the VIC cassette 
takes 2 minutes, 40 seconds to 
LOAD/SAVE an 8,000 byte program 
and the VIC disk drive takes about 22 
seconds VIC Rabbit requires just 
32 seconds! Incredible isn't it- 
Cassette almost as fast as the disk and 
at only $39.95. The Rabbit is very reli- 
able and has been available for the 

64/Commander May 1983 



Protect Software with MODEL ISO-1 1 



Severe AC Power Line Spikes, 
Surges and Hash are prevalent in 
many Microprocessor installations. 
Program execution is plagued with 
unexplained crashes, memory loss or 
other glitches. Disks, printer and pro- 
cessor often interact, aggravating the 
problem. 

ELECTRONIC SPECIALISTS re- 
cently announced MODEL ISO-1 1 is 
designed to protect software from 
these severe electrical problems. 
Complementing the popular SUPER- 
ISOLATOR line, the MODEL ISO-1 1 
features two individually dual-Pi filtered 



AC socket banks (6 sockets total). 
Heavy-duty spike/surge suppression is 
incorporated in the design. Equipment 
interactions are eliminated, disruptive 
or damaging line spikes and hash are 
controlled, and programs operate 
more smoothly. 

The MODEL ISO-1 1 SUPER-ISOLA- 
TOR controls power line Spikes and 
Hash while providing ultra-smooth pro- 
gram operation. $1 I5.95. 

Contact: ELECTRONIC SPECIAL- 
ISTS, INC., 171 South Main Street, PO 
Box 389, Natick, MA 01760, (617) 

655 1 532. □ Circle No. 59 



J Systems Corp. 

J Systems Corp. announces the im- 
mediate availability of its new PET 
Joystick Interface. This versatile inter- 
face card adds joystick/paddle 
capabilities to all PET/CBM computers. 
Device enables the PET to accept in- 
puts directly from 2 Apple joysticks/4 
Apple game paddles or 2 Atari 
joysticks. Interface is complete and 
ready to plus into the user port. All 
modes of operation are software- 
selectable. The device features short 
access time (less than 1 milliseconds/ 
joystick) and high resolution digitiza- 
tion (greater than 8 bits). This makes 
the interface ideal, hot only for 
joysticks/paddles, but also, for connec- 
ting any four resistive sensors to the 
PET/CBM. Fast machine language in- 
put routines, callable from a BASIC 
program, are included. 

The price of the PET Joystick Inter- 
face is $69.95. This price includes the 
card, power supply, documentation 
and sample software. VISA and 



MASTERCARD are welcome. The de- 
vice can be ordered directly from: J 
Systems Corp. , 1 Edmund Place, Ann 
Arbor, Ml 48103, (313) 662-471 4. □ 

Circle No. 60 



The Master 
Memory Map ™ 

Commodore 64— $14.95 
VIC-20— $9.95 

People have come to expect quali- 
ty products from Educational Software, 
Inc. April marks the release of the 
popular reference book, The Master 
Memory Map™, for the Commodore 
64™ and the VIC 20™. 

The book is a guide, for both begin- 
ners and experts, to most memory 
locations in the computer and their 
functions. By simply altering the con- 
tents of the locations with PEEK and 
POKE statements, you can get some 
very amazing and creative effects with 
your computer. 



Written in a friendly and concise 
manner, the 300 page Master Memory 
Map covers a rainbow of subjects. The 
memory locations are grouped into 
several sections including: How to 
PEEK and POKE, Paddles and 
Joysticks, Color Locations, Single and 
Multiple Sound Registers, Graphics 
Registers, Sprites, Character Graphics 
REgisters and a host of others. There 
is also a section on how to make 
sounds and sprites. The manual is 
loaded with illustrations and plenty of 
examples written in BASIC and ex- 
plained in "Earthling Language" not 
computerese. 

In addition, Educational Software will 
be putting out a series of Tricky 
Tutorials™ for the Commodore 64. 
These lessons offer complete manuals 
along with many samples that are 
already typed in and running. 
Scheduled for release are: The Basics 
of Animation, High Resolution 
Graphics, a Sprite Tutorial, and 
Character Graphics. □ circle no 61 



iTToeffi®! 




Quit Playing Games . . . 

Disk Based Software to Make Your 
Computer Get Down to Business 

Disk Data Manager— Create and manage your own data 

base. Allows you to create, add, change, delete, search, 

sort, print, etc. Up to 1200 records on a single disk. 

VIC 20. . . 59.95 CBM 64 . . .79.95 

Payroll System— Full featured, complete payroll sys- 
tem. Even prints checks. 

VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

Mailing List— Up to 1200 records on a single disk. 

Presorts by Zip Code. Prints on stock up to four 
labels wide. 

VIC 20. . . 44.95 CBM 64 . . .54.95 

Inventory Package— Maintains quantity on hand, cost, 
sales price, reorder point, etc. Generates suggested 
reorder, sales report, and sales analysis. 

VIC 20. . . 79.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

General Ledger— Up to 75 accounts! Generates Balance 
Sheet, Income Statement, Update Report, etc. 
VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

Checkbook Manager— Up to 25 expense categories. 

Tracks all outstanding checks until they are paid. 

VIC 20. . . 49.95 CBM 64 . . .49.95 

CONTACT US FOR ALL YOUR 
DISK BASED SOFTWARE NEEDS 

Call for specifics on Hardware Configurations. 

Send Self-Addressed Stamped Envelope for 

Catalogue of Games and other Applications 

DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 



WW 



2905 Ports O'Call Court 
Piano, Texas 75075 

(214) 867-1333 

VISA and MASTERCARD Accepted 



VIC-20 „„ CBM 64 

EXPANDER BDHRD5 




4 Slot for the 64. Toggle switches and 
reset switch. 



P/N C64 



$ 69.95 




6 Slot for the VIC. Toggle switches 
and reset switch. 

P/N V36 *79.95 




PTI offers the finest selection 
of expander boards available 
for the VIC-20 and CBM 64. 
The design features, quality 
construction, and competitive 
prices make any of them an 
exceptional value. New pro- 
ducts are being added monthly, 
so write for complete catalog. 




Slot for the VIC. No switches, reset, or 

fuse. 

P/N V13 $ 49.95 




4 Slot for the VIC. Toggle switches and 
reset switch. 

P/N V24 $ 69.95 



PRECISION TECHNOLOGY. IN 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION 
P.O. BOX 15454 
I SALT LAKE CITY. UTAH 84115 



3 Slot for the Vic. Slide switches, no 
reset switch. 

P/N V23 $ 59.95 

See your dealer, or place 
your order direct 

VISA-M/C-CHECK-COD 



Circle No. 28 



Circle No. 33 



Commander May 1983/65 



93-15-83 



VIC 28 PRODUCT SUPPLIERS 



PAGE 1 



TELEPHONE 



KEY: SORT 

1 KEY LISTING 

2 KEY LISTING 

D: ALP 888 438 9676 

D: AWS 809 638 1688 

D: ICS 881 373 2981 

D: SOE 213 679 9461 

D: SOF 888 828 7258 

Hi ARF 318 988 2478 

H: BUS 413 567 8584 

H: CAI 517 687 7343 

H: CEN 

H: DIG 583 295 5898 

H: DYN 214 542 6812 

H: DYT 813 384 1539 

H: ECX 415 944 9277 

H: EXA 888 538 8559 

H: FER 317 297 8842 

Hi GLO 

H: INT 714 641 8181 

H: HIC 

H: HIS 383 475 8883 

H: QXF 

H: PAR 415 651 3168 

H: PER 312 961 2347 

H: PRE 881 487 6266 

H: Rffl 

H: RVR 

Hi SL (SEND 5ASE) 

H: SUN 

H: VIP 

H«: HI 

HS: APR 

HS: CAR 

HS: CGH 

HS: COS 

HS: CON 

HS! DAT 

HS: DES 

HS: ELC 

HS: HYP 

HS: tCT 

HS: HIC 

HS: OEM 

HS: OPT 

HS: PRO 

0: ALI 

0: tW 

0: CAR 

0: CIE 

0: COH 

0: CRE 

0: HAC 

OiMAD 

0: HIC 

0:NAT 

0: WA 

0: PHP 

66/Commander May 1983 



313 846 6666 

714 527 8264 
214 484 7836 
885 484 3684 
316 685 9536 
689 795 9480 
617 961 5780 
602 249 0611 
714 770 2366 
213 923 9361 
714 623 8314 

583 232 1712 
383 934 1973 
385 465 9363 

383 936 4487 

213 575 8614 

714 757 4849 
880 848 7548 

619 452 5151 
688 255 5552 
488 374 4364 



ill R. 

H: - HARDWARE MANUFACTURERS 

S: = SOFTWARE WRITERS 

ALPHA ET CETERA, LTD. 

AUS 

ICS MICRO WHOLESALE 

SQFTSEL 

SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION SERVICES 

ARFON MICROELECTRONICS, U.S. 

BUSINESS COHP. SYS. OF NEW ENG 

CAI INSTRUMENTS 

CENTURY MICRO 

DIGITAL INTERFACE SYSTEMS 

DYNAMIC TECHNOLOGIES 

DYTEK 

ECX COMPUTER CO. 

EXATRCN 

FERRIS ASSOCIATES 

GLOUSTER COMPUTER BUS CO. 

INTEGRATED CONTROLS 

HICRO-STAR 

MISSING LINK PRODUCTS 

OXFORD COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

PARSEC RESEARCH 

PERSONAL PERIPHERAL PRODUCTS 

PRECISION TECHNOLOGY 

RAM/RBC SYSTEMS 

RVR SYSTEMS 

SLAGH SYSTEM SERVICES 

SUNSHINE PERIPHERALS 

VIP ENTERPRISE 

MICRO-SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT 

tfROPOS TECHNOLOGY 

CARDCO 

COMPUTER MARKETING SERVICES 

COMPUTER SOFTWARE ASSOCIATES 

COMPUTER WORKS 

DATA 28 CORP. 

DATA EQUIPMENT SUPPLIES 

ELCOMP PUBLISHING 

HYPERTECH 

METARESEARCH, INC. 

MICRO WORLD ELECTRONS 

O.E.M. INC. 

OPTIMIZED DATA SYSTEMS 

PROGRESSIVE PERIPHERALS fc SFTW 

THE ALIEN GROUP 

ANVIL CASES 

CARRY CQMP 

COMPUTER INFO EXCHANGE 

COMPUTER CASE COMPANY 

CREATIVE COMPUTING CATALOG 

MACRO DYNAMICS 

MADISON COMPUTER 

MICRO MITTENS 

NATIONM. VIC-28USERS GROUP 

NATIONAL VIC ASSOCIATION 

PM PRODUCTS 



STREET MDRESS 

P: = PERIODICALS 

D: = WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTORS 

BOX 231 

7566 MAIN STREET 

BOX 1243 

8295 SOUTH LA CIENEGA 

1288 MAIN STREET 

111 RENA DRIVE 

BOX 2285 

152 E. SAGINAW ROAD 

7881 LA RIVIERA DR. SUITE 131 

BOX 8715 

BOX 351 

BOX 241 

2678 NORTH MAIN STREET 

181 COMHERCIAL ST. 

BOX 68421 

6 BROOKS ROAD 

1248-L LOGAN AVENUE 

5633 EMIGRATION CANYON 

BOX 6468 

KENSINGTON RD. WOODSTOCK 

DRAWER 1766-P 

BOX 3423 

2970 SOUTH RICHARD ST. 

BOX 351 

BOX 265 

BOX 53 

1229 EAST 28TH STREET 

919 N. CtfffiRIA ST. 

11185 SHADY TRAIL SUITE 183 

350 N. LANTANA SUITE 821 

3135 BAYBERRY 

300 N. MARLTON PIKE SUITE 26 

50 TEED DRIVE 

2028 WEST CAMELBACK 

20311 MOULTON PARHttY STE. B18 

8315 FIRESTONE BLVD. 

53 RED ROCK LANE 

1828 NE 142ND ST. PENTHOUSE 7 

1190 SE WOODWARD 

3330 S. WADSWORTH BLVD. 9C-195 

2729 SO. US I 1 SUITE 12 

80X595 

6340 H. MISSISSIPPI Wi. 

27 M. 23RD ST. 

4128 TEMPLE CITY BLW. 

24687 ARIC MAY 

BOX 158 

5650 INDIttl MOUND COURT 

39 E. HANOVER AVE,DEPT HA1X 

8950 VILLA LA JOLLA DR. 11200 

1825H0NR0E 

BOX 10246 

BOX 34575 

9 CRABAPPLE LANE 

4455 TORRIWCE BLW). 1177 



CITY / STATE / ZIP 
0: = OTHER 

H: = MAIL ORDER HOUSES 
SHELBY, NC 28158 
SYKESVILLE, MD 21784 
PROMO, UT 84683 
INGLEWOOD, CA 98381 
BUFFM.O, NY 14289 
LAFAYETTE, LA 78583 
SPRINGFIELD, MA 81191 
SttlFORD, HI 48643 
SACRATCNTO, CA 95826 
PORTLAND, OR 97287 
ALLEN, TX 75882 
PINELLAS PARK, FL 33565 
WALNUT CREEK, CA 94526 
SUNNYVALE, CA 94886 
INDItttiPOLIS, IN 46268 
GLOUSTER, HA 91938 
COSTA MESA, CA 92626 
SALT LAKE CITY, UT 84188 
COLORADO SPRINGS, CO 88934 
OXFORD 0X7 1JR ENGLAND 
FREMONT, CA 94538 
AURORA, IL 68585 
SALT LAKE CITY, UT 84115 
MALDEN, MA 82148 
DENITT, NY 13214 
DEARBORN, MI 48121 
BROOKLYN, NY 11218 
ANAHEIH, CA 92881 
DALLAS, TX 75229 
CAtttRILLO, CA 93818 
WICHITA, KS 67226 
CHERRY HILL, NJ 88882 
RWDOLPH, MA 82368 
PHOENIX, AZ 85815 
LAGUNA HILLS, CA 92652 
DOWNEY, CA 98241 
POMONA, CA 91766 
MIAMI, FL 33181 
PORTLAND, OR 97292 
LAKEMOOD, CO 88227 
FORT PIERCE, FL 33459 
PLACENTIA, CA 92670 
LAKENOOD, CO 88226 
NEW YORK, NY 18818 
ROSEMEAD, CA 91778 
ELKHART, IN 46517 
SAN LUIS REY, CA 92868 
COLUMBUS, OH 43213 
HORRIS PLAINS, NJ 87950 
LA JOLLA, CA 92937 
MADISON, WI 53711 
SAN JOSE, CA 95157 
OMAHA, NE 68134 
NANUET, NY 199S4 
TORRANCE, CA 99583 



ENTER THE GALACTIC EXPERIENCE 

WITH 




We wouldn't settle for second best, so why should you? In this day, too many people are compromising quality for price. We feel 
that we have the alternative. Announcing THE MAILING LISTS, the most powerful programs of their kind. 

By being completely menu-driven, these programs are friendly and very easy to use. With each record containing name, address, 
city, state, zip code, telephone number, and several comments, you not only have a complete mailing list but also a small data base 
manager. With capabilities reaching into alphabetizing upon entry, sorting and searching on all fields, printing labels and printing 
complete records, you start to feel the Galactic Experience. 

Currently there are four versions to cover anybodies needs. 



These are: 



The mailing list 
The mailing list 
The mailing list 
The mailing list 



VIC-20* 
VIC-20* 
64 
64 

To order, send check or money order to: 

Galactic Software 

P.O. Box 10516 
San Jose, CA 95157 

or phone (408) 247-4434 for COD 

or 

see your local dealer 
dealer inquiries invited 



tape $25.95 
Disk $27.95 
tape $27.95 
Disk $29.95 



*VIC-20 and 64 are trade marks of Commodore Business Machines. 



CirC'C No 18 



93- 


15-83 


VIC 28 PRODUCT SUPPLIERS 


PAGE 2 


KEY: SORT 


TELEPHONE 


NAME 


STREET ADDRESS 


CITY / STATE / ZIP 


0: SEX 


885 498 6984 


VIC 28 SOFTWARE EXCWWGE 


763 S. BOXTHORN 


NEWBURY PARK, CA 91328 


0: SOF 


615 457 5868 


SOFTWARE TO 60 


RT. 3 BOX 389 A 52 


CLINTON, TN 37716 


Os TES 


213 247 6486 


TORREY ENGBERG SMITH CO. 


BOX 1875 


GLENDALE, CA 91289 


0: TOR 




TORONTO PET USERS CLUB 


381 LAURENCE AVE. WEST 


TORONTO, ONT CAN M5M 1B9 


P: COA 


888 426 1838 


C0K1ANDER 


P.O. BOX 98827 


TACOMA, HA 98498 


P: COG 


888 334 8868 


THE COMMODORE GAZETTE 


BOX 5486 


GREENSBORO, NC 27483 


Pj COO 


215 687 9758 


COmODORE-HICROCOMP. MAGAZINE 


487 DEVON PARK DRIVE 


WAYNE, PA 19887 


P: FOX 


713 473 6723 


FOXFIRE SYSTEMS, INC. 


3811 NEWTON 


PASADENA, TX 77583 


P: JOU 


214 482 6679 


JOURNAL 28 


BOX 1149 


MAN ALSTYNE, TX 75895 


P: LOA 


913 762 4738 


LOAD 28 MAGAZINE 


558 GRANT AVE. 


JUNCTION CITY, KS 66441 


P: HID 


217 864 5328 


HIDNITE SOFTWARE GAZETTE 


635 MAPLE 


HT. ZION, IL 62549 


P: PRO 


919 489 2198 


PROGRAMMER'S INSTITUTE 


BOX 3191 


CHAPEL HILL, NC 27514 


P: STR 




STRICTLY COMMODORE 


47 COACMOOD PLACE N.H. 


CALGARY, ALTA CAN T3H 1E1 


P: VIC 


VICKIE 


JOHN ROSENGARTEN 


3822 NORTH BELL AVENUE 


CHICAGO, IL 68618 


PS: BY 


VIC-NIC NEWS 


THE BYTE HOUSE 


BOX 981 


SALEM, NH 83879 


H: AA8 (CAT $1) 313 669 3118 


AARDVARK-88 


2352 S. COMMERCE 


WALLED LAKE, HI 48888 


M: ABC 


215 822 7727 


AB COMPUTERS 


252 BETHLEHEM PIKE 


COLHAR, RA 18915 


H: ALL 




ALLEGIANCE ENTERPRISES 


868 96TH AVE. N.E. 


BLAINE, MM 55434 


M: AME 




AMERICAN PERIPHERALS 


122 BANGOR STREET 


LINDENHURST, NY 11757 


H: Qtt 


484 981 5939 


CHART 


BOX 77286 


ATLANTA, GA 38357 


H: COE 


313 528 1554 


COMPUTER EXPRESS 


BOX 569 


TROY, HI 48899 


H: COM 




COMPUTER HAIL ORDER 


EAST (888) 233-8958 


WEST (888) 648-3311 


M: COO 


888 634 6766 


COMPUTER OUTLET 


1895 EAST TWAIN 


LAS VEGAS, NV 89189 


M: COS 




COMPUTER SPECIALTIES 


1253 BROADWAY 


ELCAJON, CA 92821 


Ms COT 


888 558 8883 


COMSTAR 


BOX 1738 


GOLETA, CA 93116 


H: COU 


316 684 4668 


COHPU SENSE 


812 S. LIGHINER 


WICHITA, KS 67218 


Hi CON 


516 621 1362 


COMPUNAY, INC. 


24 LUMBER ROAD 


ROSLYN, NY 11576 


M: CPH (CAT. $1.25) 


CPH 


BOX 19137 


CHARLOTTE, NC 28219 


H: DIS 


414 231 1696 


DISCOUNT SOFTWARE HOUSE 


B0X93 


WINNEBAGO, WI 54985 


H: EAS 


919 924 2889 


EASTERN HOUSE 


3239 LINDA DRIVE 


WINSTON SALEM, NC 27186 


H: Eft? 




EAV SOFTWARE 


17 HARBLE AVENUE 


PLEASANTVILLE, NY 18578 


M: EKT 


415 489 1532 


EKTYPE OFFICE SYSTEMS 


1655 HHIPPLE ROAD 


HAYNARD, CA 94544 


H: EHB 


212 961 9886 


EMBASSY COMPUTER PRODUCTS 


BOX 88 


LITTLE NECK, NY 11363 


H: HAI 


888 645 9187 


HARRISON CMPUTER CENTER 


2263 BROADHOLLOH ROAD 


E. FARHINGDALE, NY 11735 


H: WAR 


888 221 8927 


HARMONY VIDEO tc ELECTRONICS 


2357 CONEY ISLAND AVE. 


BROOKLYN, NY 11223 


H: JHC 




JHC 


1825 INDUSTRIAL DRIVE 


BENSONVILLE, IL 68186-1297 


M: LYC 


888 233 8768 


LYCO COMPUTER 


BOX 18 


CO»W STATION, PA 17728 


M:MAI 


888 752 1341 


MAIL CHIP 


9434 CHESAPEAKE DRIVE 


SM DIEGO, CA 92123 


H: MAR 


918 664 4128 


MARCO POLO CO. 


4681 S. 83RD E. AWE. 


TULSA, OK 74145 


H: HIH 


888 841 8868 


MICRO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, INC. 


2883 THOHASVILLE ROAD 


CAIRO, GA 31728 


H: HIS 




HICR0SI6NAL PUBLICATIONS 


BOX 22 


HILLWOOD, NY 18546 


H: HIH 


281 838 9827 


HICRO-WARE DISTRIBUTORS 


BOX 113 


POHPTON PLAINS, NJ 87444 


H: HOO 




HOOSEWARE, INC. 


BOX 17868 


IRVINE, CA 92713 


H: HTG 


888 343 8854 


HTG TECWICW. SALES 


281 NEEDHAH STREET 


NEWTON, MA 82164 


H: OLY 


888 421 8845 


OLYMPIC SALES 


216 SOUTH OXFORD AVENUE 


LOS ANGELES, CA 98884 


H: OPT 


916 621 1898 


QPTQMAfl CONSUMER PRODUCTS 


BOX 1838 


PLACERVILLE, GA 95667 


Hi PER 


315 478 6888 


PERSONAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS 


BOX 1873 


SYRACUSE, NY 13281 


H: PR (SEND SASE) 682 886 1585 


PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 


9822 EAST STELLA ROAD 


TUCSON, AZ 85738 


H: PR6 


381 488 7719 


PROGRAMS INTERNATIONAL 


MORAVIA CENTER INDUSTRIAL PARK 


BALTIMORE, MD 21286 


H: PRI 


888 343 1878 


P.R.I.C.E. 


67 TEED DRIVE 


RANDOLPH, MA 82368 


H: PRO 


312 382 5244 


PROTECTO ENTERPRIZES 


BOX 558 


BARRINGTON, IL 68818 


H: PRS 


888 424 2738 


THE PROGRAM STORE 


4288 WISCONSIN AVE. NW 


WASHINGTON DC 28816 


H: PYR 


689 386 9363 


PYRAMID COMPUTERHARE 


278 WttREN STREET 


EDGEWATER PARK, NJ 88818 


H: QUE 


888 232 2224 


QUEUE OAT. Ill 


5 OWEL HILL DRIVE 


FAIRFIELD, CT 86483 


H: RDE 




RDE SERVICES, GAMES DEFT. 


3588 WARRINGH4H 


WATERFORD, MI 48895 


H: ROC 


383 371 2438 


ROCKY MOUNTAIN MICRO, INC. 


18898 E. 47TH 


DENVER, CO 88239 


H: SAV 


888 241 2682 


SAVE 


1782 MARRIETTA BLVD. N.W. 


ATLANTA, GA 38318 



68/Commander May 1983 



83-15 


-83 


VIC 28 PRODUCT SUPPLIERS 


PAGE 3 


KEY: SORT 


TELEPHONE 


NAME 


STREET ADDRESS 


CITY / STATE / ZIP 


H: SJB 




SJB DISTRIBUTORS 


18528 PLANO ROAD SUITE 286 


DALLAS, TX 75238 


H: SOF 


888 828 2838 


THE SOFTWARE CONNECTION 


5133 VISTA DEL ORO 


FAIR OAKS, CA 95628 


H: SOU 


214 484 7836 


SOUTrtCST MICRO SYSTEMS 


2554 SOUTHWELL 


DALLAS, TX 75229 


H: SUN 




SUNRISE ELECTRONICS 


7857 LOHPOC COURT 


CITRUS HEIGHTS, CA 95618 


H: SMC 


583 25? 9464 


SH COMPUTERS 


1125 N.E. 82ND 


PORTLAND, OR 97228 


H: TEL 


888 255 2888 


TaE SOR, INC. 


BOX 3456 


TROY, MI 48884 


H: TIS 




TOTAL INFORMATION SERVICES 


BOX 921 


LOS ALAMOS, ffl 87544 


Hs UST 


419 224 8816 


U.S. TECWOLOGIES 


BOX 7735 


SAN DIEGO, CA 92187 


Hi wor 




HORLD ELECTRONICS 


17? 27TH STREET 


BROOKLYN, NY 11232 


H: ZEP 


215 387 5266 


2EPHER MICROS 


323 S. 43RD ST. SUITE C 


PHILADELPHIA, PA 19184 


9 ■ Owv 


583 35? 9889 


36 COMPANY 


RT. 3, BOX 28A 


GASTON, OR 97119 


S: ABA 


616 241 5518 


ABACUS SOFTWARE 


BOX 7211 


GRAND RAPIDS, HI 94518 


S: ACA 




ACADEMY SOFTWARE 


BOX 9483 


SAN RAFAEL, CA 94912 


S: ART 




ARTWORX SOFTWARE COMPANY 


158 N. MAIN ST. 


FAIRPORT, NY 14458 


S: AVA 


381 254 5388 


AVALON HILL GAMES 


4517 HARTFORD ROAD 


BALTIMORE, MD 21214 


S: BEC (CAT. 


$2) 617 536 5116 


BOSTON EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING 


78 DARTMOUTH ST. 


BOSTON, HA 82116 


S: BEH 


488 438 5649 


BEHAVIORAL ENGINEERING 


238 HT. HERMON RD. 1287 


SCOTTS VALLEY, CA 95866 


S: BRI 


415 455 9139 


BRILEY SOFTWARE 


BOX 2913 


LIVERMORE, CA 94558-8291 


S: BRO 


415 456 6424 


BRQDERBUND SOFTWARE 


1938 FOURTH STREET 


SAN RAFAEL, CA 94981 


S: CAC 




CACTUS COMPUTING 


BOX 261 


BOUSE, AZ 85325 


S: COO 


885 683 1585 


THE CODE WORKS 


60X558 


GOLETA, CA 93116 


s: com 


313 685 8113 


COHfflfDATA COMPUTER HOUSE 


P.O. BOX 325 


MILFORO, MI 48842 


S: COMP 


682 855 3357 


COMPUTERHAT 


BOX 1664 


LAKE HAMASU CITY, AZ 86483 


S: COS 


714 861 1265 


COSMIC COMPUTERS UNLIHITED 


228 N. PROSPECTOR'S ROAD 


DIAMOND BAR, CA 91765 


S: CRE 


415 948 9595 


CREATIVE SOFTWARE 


281 SAN ANTONIO CIRCLE «278 


MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94848 


S: DOU 


482 334 7878 


DOUBLE E ELECTRONICS 


288 NORTH 115TH STREET 


OMAHA, NE 68154 


S: DTC 




DTC SOFTWARE 


BOX 916 


JANESVILLE, NI 53547 


S: EAR 




tfiKSHNnKt 


BOX 38839 


EUGENE, OR 97483 


S: EDU 




EDUFUN/HILLIKEN 


1188 RESEARCH BLVD. 


ST. LOUIS, HO 63132 


S: EPY 




EPYX / AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 


1843 KIEL COURT 


SUNNYVALE, CA 94886 


S: FOX 


488 988 6666 


FOX VIDEO GAMES, INC. 


4781 PATRICK HENRY DR. BLDG 9 


SANTA CLARA, CA 95858 


S: FRE 




FRENCH fc SILK SNOOTHNARE 


BOX 287 


CANNON FALLS, HN 55889 


S: FSH 




FREDERICK SCHEPER 


8347 DOCK ROAD 


PASADENA, MD 21122 


S: GLA 




MARTIN GLASSER 


1218 BIRCH CIRCLE 


EGLINAFB, FL 32542 


S: GPM 




GP MICROSYSTEMS 


72-31 67TH PLACE 


GLENOALE, NY 11385 


S: GRU (SEND STAHP FOR CAT.) 


R. GRUSKIEMIC2 


417 SUSQUEHANNA AVENUE 


WYOMING, PA 18644 


S: HAL 




J. HALLIDAY 


382 DOGWOOD CIRCLE 


LAFAYETTE, GA 38728 


S: HAR 




HARLI SOFTWARE 


1748 GARDEN BRIAR COURT RR«2 


THUNDAR BAY0NTCANP7C4V1 


S: HES 




HUMAN ENGINEERED SOFTWARE 


71 PARK LAIC 


BRISBANE, CA 94885 


S: INT 


213 328 9422 


INTERESTING SOFTWARE 


21181 SO. HARVARD BLVD. 


TORRANCE, CA 98581 


S: ISA 




ISA SOFTWARE 


14114 DALLAS PARttttY SUITE 538 


DALLAS, TX 75248 


S; K8S 




K8 SOFTWARE 


BOX 248 C 


CANTON, CT 86819 


S: KER 




KERR SOFTWARE 


1398 S. NEKTON 


DEKvCR, CO 88219 


S: LEO 


614 846 1823 


HARRY F. LEONARD 


5556 CHERRYWOOD ROAD 


COLUMBUS, OH 43229 


S: LIG 


415 327 3288 


LIGHTNING SOFTWARE 


BOX 11725 


PALO ALTO, CA 94386 


S: LIT 


414 273 5468 


LITTLE WIZARD DISTRIBUTING 


1211 LAMBETH RD. SUITE 4 


WAUKESHA, WI 53186 


Si LOG 


885 68? 8285 


LOGOS SOFTWARE 


3192 LAUREL CANYON ROAD 


SANTA BARBARA, CA 93815 


S: LUN 


488 378 7793 


LUNA SOFTWARE 


BOX 26922 


VH JOSE, CA 95159-6922 


S: MAC 




MAGIC CARPET 


BOX 35115 


PHOENIX, AZ 85869 


s:han 


587 345 7848 


HANTRCNICS SOFTWARE DESIGN 


368 PIERCE PLAZA 


NO. HANKATO, HN 56881 


S:HAR 




HAR! AH COMPUTING 


BOX 513 


COLUMBIA, MD 65287 


S: HER 


213 316 8945 


MERLIN ENTERPRISES 


BOX 2876 


TORRANCE, CA 98589 


S: NIDI 




MICRO-DIGITAL 


752 JOHN GLOW BLVD. 


WEBSTER, NY 14588 


S: HID 




HIGHEST MICRO ASSOCIATES 


BOX 6148 


KANSAS CITY, MO 64118 


S: HIED 


612 926 2292 


MICRO-ED, INC. 


BOX 24156 


HINNEAPOLIS, HN 55424 


S: HIGR 


815 965 2464 


HICROGRAMS 


BOX 2146 


LOVES PARK, IL 61138 


Ss HIIN 




MICRO INFORMATION SYSTEMS 


BOX 73 


WAYNE, NJ 87478 

Commander May 1983/69 





83-15 


-83 


VIC 28 PRODUCT SUPPLIERS 


PAGE 4 


KEY: SORT 


TELEPHONE 


K1AMT 


STREET ADDRESS 


CITY / STATE / ZIP 


S: 


MIMA 




MICRO-MANIA 


BOX 4110 


ELKHART, IN 44514 


S 


iHIPH 


212 444 8146 


HICROPHYS PROGRAMS 


2048 FORD STREET 


BROOKLYN, NY 11229 


Si 


HI SI 




MICROSIGNAL 


980 EHBARCADERO DEL MAR UNIT A 


l GOLETA, CA 93117 


S: 


MISP 


214 847 1333 


MICROSPEC LTD. 


2905 PORTS O'CALL COURT 


PLANO, TX 75075 


Si 


MIS 


488 338 9544 


MIS 


250 FEW ROCK WAY 


BOULDER CREEK, CA 95864 


Si 


MOR 




L. HORRIS 


2461 WENGERT 024 


LAS VEGAS, NV 89184 


S: 


MWS 




MW SOFTWARE 


BOX 124 


URBANA, IL 41881 


Si 


NEL 


412 738 1888 


NELSON SOFTNARE 


2232 ODGEN COURT 


ST. PAUL, MN 55119 


S: 


NEN 


484 929 7347 


NEW HORIZONS GROUP 


13-119 CHARLES ST. 


N. VANCOUVER, BCCANV7H 1S1 


S 


: NIB 




NIBBLES + BITS, INC. 


BOX 2044 


ORCUTT, CA 93455 


S: 


NOR 


218 834 3480 


NORTHLAND ACCOUNTING, INC. 


404 SECOND AVE. 


TWO HARBORS, MN 55414 


S: 


NUF 


503 878 2113 


NUFEKOP 


BOX 154 


SHADY COVE, OR 97539 


S: 


PAR 


219 885 0411 


PARR PROGRAMING 


2444 TYLER STREET 


GARY, IN 44487 


Si 


PMS 


412 433 0891 


PM SOFTWARE 


4400 ARDEN VIEW COURT 


ST. PAUL, HN 55112 


S: 


PRA 




PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF CAL. 


P.O. BOX 255748 


SACRAMENTO, CA 95825 


S: 


PRKSEND SASE) 482 884 1505 


PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTNARE 


9822 EAST STELLA ROAD 


TUCSON, AZ 85738 


S: 


PRO 


301 344 0016 


PROFESSIONS MICRO SERVICE 


180 WEST 22ND STREET 


BALTIMORE, MD 21218 


S: 


PRS 




P.R. SOFTWARE 


BOX 149 


S. SAN FMNSISCO, CA 94880 


S: 


pie 


513 498 5438 


PUBLIC DOMAIN 


5025 SO. RANGELINE ROAD 


WEST MILTON, OH 45383 


S: 


QBF 


212 925 8290 


QUICK BROW FOX 


548 BROADWAY SUITE 4F 


NEW YORK, NY 10012 


S 


GUM 


714 338 2145 


QUKAX / GRN LABORATORIES 


BOX 17810 


ROCHESTER, NY 14417 


S 


: RAK 




RAK ELECTRONICS 


BOX 1585 


ORANGE PARK, FL 32073 


S 


. RAN 


904 837 7201 


RANDOM ACCESS COMPUTERS 


BOX 1453 


BENNING, FL 32541 


S 


RAP 


413 549 3744 


RAPIDWRITER 


91 LONG HILL ROAD 


LEVERETT, MA 01054 


S 


RAR 




RAR-TECH 


BOX 741 


ROCHESTER, MI 48843 


S 


: RAY 


408 338 9848 


RAYMAC SOFTNARE GROUP 


495 BANO ROAD 


BOULDER CREEK, CA 95084 


S 


: SCE 




SCIENTIFIC fc EDUCATIONAL SFTN. 


BOX 54 


DAYTON, OH 45420 


S 


: SCH 


212 585 3000 


SCHOLASTIC, INC. 


730 BROADWAY 


NEW YORK, NY 10003 


S 


SCI 




SCIENTIFIC SOFTNARE 


525 LOHNES DRIVE 


FA1R80RN, OH 45324 


S 


: SIE 


209 483 4858 


SIERRA ON-LINE, INC. 


SIERRA ON-LINE BUILDING 


COARSEGOLD, CA 93414 


S 


SIR 


914 344 1195 


SIRIUS SOFTNARE 


10344 ROCKINGHAM DR. 


SACRAMENTO, CA 95827 


S 


: SKL 




SKYLI6HT SOFTNARE 


22 MILLER STREET 


BELFAST, ME 84915 


s 


. SKY 


415 945 1735 


SKYLES ELECTRIC NORKS 


231E SOUTH WHISMAN ROAD 


MOUNTAIN VIEN, CA 94041 


s 


: SMI 


408 738 1751 


D. SMITH fc CO. 


1144 ANDOVER DR. 


SUNNYVALE, CA 94087 


s 


: S04 




SOFT 4 YOU 


BOX 3259 


RESTON, VA 22898 


s 


: SOF 




SOFTNARE CITY 


BOX 313 


CLOSTER, NJ 07424 


S' 


SOS 




SOFT-SELL 


BOX 1224 


LAFAYETTE, GA 38728 


s 


: SUB 




SUBURBAN ELECTRONICS 


4224 TRANSIT ROAD 


DEPEW, NY 14043 


s 


SUS ' 


312 394 5145 


SUSIE SOFTNARE 


BOX 388 


PROSPECT HEIGHTS, IL 40070 


s 


SYN 


414 221 8888 


SYNTAX SOFTNARE, INC. 


33 ELMHURST AVE. SUITE 502 


WILLOHDALE ONT CAN MZN 468 


s 


i TAY 


482 444 9851 


TAYLORMADE SOFTNARE 


8853 EAST AVON AVENUE 


LINCOLN, NE 48505 


s 


:TEA 




TEACHWARE 


3277-B ROSNELL RD. SUITE 450 


ATLANTA, GA 38305 


s- 


TEL (CATi.58) 414 263 8864 


TELEGAMES SOFTNARE 


HAMPTON, BOX 152 


ONTARIO, CANADA LOB 1J0 


s, 


THO 


888 524 7843 X291 


THORN EMI VIDEO 


1370 AVENUE OF THE AMERICAS 


NEW YORK, NY 10819 


s 


i TOT 


415 943 7877 


TOTL SOFTWARE 


BOX 4742 


WALNUT CREEK, CA 94594 


s 


i TRO 


213 471 8440 


TRONIX PUBLISHING 


701 WEST MANCHESTER BLVD. 


INGLENOOD, CA 90301 


s 


: TSA 


409 344 3043 


TSASA 


2 CHIPLEY RUN 


WEST BERLIN, NJ 08091 


s 


: UHI 


714 594 1351 


UNITED MICRONARE INDUSTRIES 


3503-C TEMPLE AVE. 


POMONA, CA 91748 


s- 


i VIC 


215 574 5425 


VICTORY SOFTWARE 


2027-* SJ RUSSELL CIRCLE 


ELKINS PARK, PA 19117 


s 


: vid 


408 243 9858 


VIDEO WIZARDS, INC. 


292 CHARCOT AVENUE 


SAN JOSE, CA 95131 


s 


: VOY 


415 343 8955 


VOYAGER SOFTNARE 


BOX 1124 


BURLINGAME, CA 94810 


s 


:HES 




WESTERN NEW ENGLAND SOFTWARE 


BOX 31 


WILBRAHAM, MA 81095 


s 


: NIL 




WILLIAM R068INS 


BOX 3745 


SAN RAFAEL, CA 94912 


s 


: NUN 


583 899 7549 


WUNDERWARE 


BOX 1287 


JACKSONVILLE, OR 97538 


s 


: ZIH 


213 217 0877 


ZIHAG 


14408 S. BROADWAY 


GARDENA, CA 98248 



70/Commander May 1983 




Big Programs 

in your VIC/PET/64 

Ron Gunn's article, "Big Programs 
In Your VIC/PET/64," is the most easily 
understood description I have seen on 
program overlays. An additional 
technique makes overlays even easier. 

As Ron noted, string variables that 
are assigned within one program seg- 
ment must be assigned anew when 
another segment is loaded. This is 
because the variable's pointer is point- 
ing to the area of the program where 



the variable was assigned. When 
another segment is loaded, the pointer 
will still be looking for the string at the 
original address. The string will now be 
garbage, because the new program 
segment has other material in that 
area. 

The following routines demonstrate 
a solution to this. Now the variables 
won't have to be assigned in later 
segments of the program. 



1 0B DIM A$(3) 

110Z$ = "AARDVARK": A$((3) = Z$ 
120 Z$ = "BABOON": A$(1) = Z$ 
130 Z$ = "CAMEL": A$(2) = Z$ 
140 Z$ = "DEER": A$(3) = Z$ 

or 

100 DATA AARDVARK, BABOON, CAMEL, 

110 DIM A$(3) 

120 FOR K = 0TO3 

130 READ Z$: A$(K) = Z$ 

140 NEXT 



DEER 



In each of these routines, the pointer 
for Z$ still points to the area where the 
latest Z$ was assigned. However, the 
A$(x) = Z$ operation cannot assume 
that Z$ will always be the same. So, 
A$(x) is stored in string memory and 
pointers for A$(x) point to those 



locations— beyond the text area of any 
new program segment. (Remember, 
Ron said that the first program seg- 
ment must be longer than any other.) 
Terrell D. Abendroth 
114 Parker Court 
Fort Bragg, NC 28307 



Editors: 

Reference: Article Bytes, Bits & 
Binary in Feb. 83 issue. Location: 
top of 3rd column, p. 50. 

Reference is made to Hex number 
1B15. 

The Decimal Counterpart (457) of 
the above number seemed low. Using 
my Tl Programmer Calculator, I ar- 
rived at a 6933 value. 

I believe the following notations con- 
firm this: 

16 3 16 2 16 1 16° 
1 B 1 5 

4096 + 2816 +16 +5 = 6933 
I'm certain you received many com- 
ments about this. 

Respectfully, 

Lou Ferrara 

Camp Hill, PA 17011 

RE: Debugging & Fixes of Pro- 
grams, "Gobble," Feb. 83 issue. 

Typographical error in line 1 00, 
should read: 100 if JO AND 
PEEK(L+1) <> 160 THEN POKE 
L,32:L = L+1:GOSUB6fla POKEL,81 

Omission and typographical error in 
line 901 0, should read: 901 POKE DD, 
127:PEEK(P2)AND128: J0= -(P = (Z) 

I altered subroutine as follows: 8025 
PRINT"{CLR}{HOME} SCORED'; 
PT;"{HOME}"; SPC(12)" HI = ";HS 

Changed 8030 to read: 8030 
PRINT"{HOME}{3 DOWN} {2 
RIGHT} ANOTHER GAME?" 

Make it more informative and chal- 
lenging. 

H.H. Blakney 

406-1535 Nelson Street 

Vancouver, BC V6G IM2 

Commander May 1983/71 



(Question???) 

I have over 100 programs for the 
Commodore PET 2001 (all 2.0 basic). 
The first two programs that I converted 
manually took several hours each. 
With your short "Petsim" program (pg. 
49 in the January issue of COM- 
MANDER) I am able to run all of them 
that don't have Peeks and Pokes into 
places other than the screen. 

This brings me to my question. 
When I load programs that have Peeks 
and Pokes into other locations using 
the "Petsim" program, I get one of the 
following with different numbers for dif- 
ferent programs. 

SYNTEX ERROR IN 17192 
or 

SNYTEX ERROR IN 4499 

It seems like it is a different number 
for each program. The programs do 
not have these statement numbers. 
Thus my question is what are these 
numbers and how do I trace them to 
the statement number that is causing 
the problem? 

I have tried a PET emulator program 
and it did not help at all. 

Any help you can offer will be appre- 
ciated. Contact: John E. Hand, 405 
Fairhaven Dr., Hurst, TX 76053. 1 ] 

Subwar 64 ™ 
Loading Hints 

When loading either diskette or 
cassette always load and run "SETUP 
64" before other sections are loaded 
and run Do not attempt to load 

"SUBCOM64," but use the selections 
described in your owners manual." | 

Cassette 

for Subwar 64™ 

Some problems were experienced 
with loading cassette tapes onto the 
64. We found the new Commodore 
cassette drive is more critical to tape 
alignment. Datasette alignment can be 
checked in accordance with Com- 
modore's cassette head azimuth and 
gain adjustment and Commodore test 
tape (part no. 320142). In any event, 
CCI will immediately replace the 
cassette at no charge if it will not load 
properly. Just let us know, and please 

72/Commander May 1983 



return the deficient tapes. If the user 
contacts us we replace directly to the 
user, with notification to the dealer. 

We are confident that we have cor- 
rected any previous problems and 
cassettes marked version 2 or greater 
should load correctly. 

Clockwork Computers, 8704 Brad- 
gate Road, Alexandria, VA 22308, 
(703) 780-6010. Marketing: 4612 Holly 
Ridge Road, Rockville, MD 20853, 
(301) 924-5509 or (301) 924-4157. D 



Laws of Computer 
Programming 

• Any given program, when run- 
ning, is obsolete. 

• If a program is useful, it will have 
to be changed. 

Clockwork Computers, 8704 Brad- 
gate Road, Alexandria, VA 22308, 
(703) 708-601 0.D 



Screen Clean-up 
for the VIC-20 
and the C-64 

On screen clean-up for the VIC-20 
and Commodore 64. Find a large fer- 
rite loop (toroid), about 1" to IV2" in 
diameter. Loop the cable from your 
modulator three or more times through 
the ferrite. This will help reduce, inter- 
ference from your computer to the TV. 
If the ferntes are hard to find, check 
Radio Shack for part #273-1571 (25 
assorted ferrites for $1.98). 

Please don't get the wrong idea. 
Commodore machines are the best 
around, bar none! If you are new at 
using your computer, start out with 
software for YOUR system. Try to learn 
something from each program by 
changing things a little bit. Then try 
converting some simple programs 
from another system. Some of the best 
practice comes from entering a pro- 
gram from a non-Commodore pro- 
gram listing. Remember, your com- 
puter will aid you in learning at your 
own speed. There is no one pushing 
you except yourself. Enjoy! □ 



Converting Programs 
Between PET, VIC-20 
and Commodore 64 

© Public Domain 

On PET to VIC-20, VIC-20 to PET, 
PET to 64, VIC-20 to 64 and back 
again! What fun! There is no one ruie- 
of-thumb to use. Anyone trying to con- 
vert programs between the various 
machines had better know each unit 
inside out. PET basic programs will 
LOAD in a VIC-20 and Commodore 
64, but that doesn't mean the program 
will RUN. 

One of the major problems for 
VIC-20 owners trying to use PET or 64 
basic programs is screen width, 23 
columns vs. 40 columns. PRINT 
statements will "look funny" and some 
POKEs may bomb VIC's basic. Even 
VIC isn't compatible with itself! With its 
"floating" screen a program written 
with POKEs to the screen for a 3.5K 
system may not work with extra 
memory because the VIC screen will 
move from 1024 ($0400 hex) in a 
"bare" VIC to 4096 ($1000 hex) on an 
expanded VIC. Color memory also 
moves. 

Commodore 64 users can use many 
of PET or CBM programs so long as 
simple basic is used. Screen PEEKs 
and POKEs are fairly easy to convert. 
PET's screen memory starts at 32768 
($8000 hex) and end at 33767 ($83E7 
hex). 64's screen starts at 1024 ($0400 
hex) and ends at 2023 ($83E7 hex). 
All you have to do is find all the basic 
statements using numbers between 
these ranges and subtract 31744 in 
each case. Then add color, sound, 
sprites and figure out what all those 
other PEEKs & POKEs are supposed 
to do. Easy, right? 

PET owners trying to use 64 pro- 
grams will, after finding the program, 
see what at first glance may seem to 
be many misplaced basic "words." 
This is the result of PET's basic trying 
to make sense of 64's basic tokens. 
The result is a fairly messed up 
program. □ 




Back-up Copies 

© Public Domain 

Cassette fun. When making a 
backup copy of programs from tape 
or loading a program for the first time, 
make sure the program is loaded cor- 
rectly. This can be done by typing: 
PRINT ST followed by pressing the 
RETURN key directly on the screen 
without any line numbers. A number 
value will be printed. This number 
divided by two will tell you how many 
load errors your machine corrected 
during the loading of the program. A 
value of zero (0) means that the pro- 
gram in memory is a perfect copy of 
what is on the tape. A value of less 
than 32 means that the program was 
loaded, but corrections were made. If 
there are more than 32 errors, you will 
see: LOAD ERROR? :printed on the 
screen. When this happens, all you 
can do is rewind the tape and try 
LOADing again. The reserved van- 
able: ST :is used in all LOAD, SAVE, 
READ and WRITE operations to tape, 
disk or other peripherals. So by 
PRINTING ST we can see if an error 
happened during the operation. This 
works with ALL Commodore 
machines. Place the cassette, or disk 
for that matter, as far from the TV or 
monitor as possible! Many load error 
problems are caused by placement of 
the cassette. Also, get and use a tape 
head demagnetizer. Clean the tape 
heads regularly. Some tape load prob- 
lems can be solved by gently bend- 
ing the little felt spring pad out, not 
much or the spring will pop out and 
ruin the tape. The extra pressure 
created will help. When you do get a 
good load, make a copy, quick! It may 
not work again. Buy and use some 
kind of tape, or disk, storage box. 
Dust, fingerprints, pop, hair and small 
children can help to destroy your pro- 
grams. Protect them. Also, avoid 
power transformers, flourescent 
lamps, speakers, TV sets, screwdrivers 
or anything that even looks magnetic! 
Tapes and disks suffering from 
amnesia are useless. □ 




Join the 




I Micro-Ed 




educational 
software 

Send for free catalogs 

Specify: Pet • VIC 

• Commodore 64 

telephone 

us at 

612-926-2292 

Micro-Ed Inc. 
P.O. Box 24156 
Minneapolis, MN 55424 



Circle No 26 



Commander May 1983/73 



Sorcerer's 
ftDprentice 



Byftdam 
Bellin 




§49.95 



Plus $2.00 Shipping 



TOTAL GRAPHICS 
FOR COMMODORE 64 



• 16 COLORS 

• HIGH RESOLUTION 

• AUTO FILLS 

• MEMORY MOVE 

• MICROVIEW 



• AUTO LINES 

• RECTANGLES 

• TRIANGLES 

• CIRCLES 

• ELLIPSES 



EVENT HORIZON SOFTXA/ARE 

P.O. box 1327 New York, NY I0028 2I2 535-0697 
Dealer inquiries invited 



Circle No 16 




New Products 



A.C. IN 
SOFTWARE 
SWITCHABLE 




40-PIN 

TIMING 

CONTROLLER 



mmmimmiiim 



' MACHINE 

LANGUAGE 

MENU-OP, IVEN 

SOFTWARE 



Auto Clock 

Retail Price: $129.00 
Compatable With: VIC-20 
Manufacturer: 

Progressive Peripherals & 
Software 

6340 W. Mississippi Ave. 

Lakewood, CO 80226 
Contact: Steve Spring 

(303) 934-1973 

The manufacturer describes AUTO 
CLOCK (AC) as a Realtime Intelligent 
Controller. AC is a plug-in cartridge 
which has many functions. The device 
is powered by an onboard lithium bat- 
tery, allowing it to operate independent 
of the VIC. It is menu driven and 
comes with a 20 page user manual 
which gives programming examples 
for each function. There is even a 3 
page section devoted to machine 
language applications. The user may 
load a program of up to 2K in length 
into AC. After presetting the timing 
functions, the program can be down- 
loaded and run. (Including calling 
other programs.) 19 subroutines may 



be called by the user program, in- 
cluding all time/date/calendar and 
alarm functions. AC can switch up to 
300 watts of power under program 
control. It can even turn the VIC on 
and off. The date and time may be 
displayed anywhere on the screen, 
even while writing a program. The pro- 
duct is purported to be easy to use by 
VIC novices. 

The warranty period is 90 days 
covering parts and labor. Dealer in- 
quiries are invited. □ arcie no 62 

Luna Mailing List 

Retail Price: $37.95 
Compatible With: C-64 
Manufacturer: 

Luna Software 

Box 26922 

San Jose, CA 95159-6922 
Contact: Lou Ryan, (408) 378-7793 

LUNA SOFTWARE has announced 
a menu driven, full-featured mailing 
label program for the C-64. Two of its 
most powerful features are the ability 
to alphabetize all records, and sort on 



any record in the data base. Other 
useful features include the ability to 
search on any criteria, print labels one 
or two wide, change colors on the 
screen, and add data into any of four 
comment fields. The user may print 
multiple copies of the same label. Up 
to 663 labels may be stored on each 
disk by using an advanced random 
access-like file structure. Data disks 
may be backed up on tape. A VIC-20 
version is scheduled for release soon. 
Luna Mailing List comes on diskette 
with an extensive manual, and sup- 
ports most printers. 

Watch for a review of this product in 
an upcoming Commander. □ c,r C i e N .63 

Discover "Moondust" 
on Retail Shelves 

Creative Software is pleased to an- 
nounce the release of "Moondust", by 
Jaron Lanier. This new Science-Fan- 
tasy game will be available for the 
Commodore 64 on May 1. VIC-20 
owners can play "Moondust" after 
June 1. 

Authored by imaginative music and 
software composer, Jaron Lanier, 
"Moondust" takes game-playing to 
new heights with its fusion of hypnotic 
color graphics and mesmerizing com- 
puter-generated music. These aesthet- 
ic elements are incorporated into a 
challenging game theme: the player 
must drag trails of multi-colored moon- 
dust (dropped by the friendly space- 
walker) through the heart of glowing 
concentric circles. 

Creative Software, dedicated to 
publishing a full-line of consumer soft- 
ware programs, is in its 5th year on the 

Commander May 1983/75 



Peninsula. Contact Kari Curtis at 230 
East Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 
94086, (408) 745-1 655. □ o«*t* 6 < 

Powerbyte Software 
Releases Home and 
Business Hardware 

Powerbyte Software is pleased to 
announce the release of its business 
and home application hardware for the 
Commodore 64, VIC-20 and TRS 80 
color computer. 

Over 60 applications are available 
for each computer ranging in price 
from $8.95 to $34.95 for cassette ver- 
sions. Disc versions are also available. 
Programs titles include in part: The Ac- 
countant, Accounts Receivable/Pay- 
able, Business Inventory, The Order 
Tracker, The Bidder-My Profit Margin, 
Business Calendar, The Billing Solver, 
The Client Tickler, Vicky Calc, The Bar 
Chart, Taxman-Income and Expenser, 
New Worth Statement, The Stock 
Ticker Tape, The Mailman, Check- 
book Booky, Home Budget, The Club 
Lister, Medical Records, Supper Shop- 
per, Dear Diary, Mother's Recipes, 
Track My Weight, Jogger's Logger, 
Grade My Kids, Nuismatic Phanatic, 
Lightning Sort, Golf Scorecard, Math 
a Magician and many, many more. 

Also available is "The Editor"— an 
advanced word processor for the 
Commodore 64 and 8K VIC-20. 

A free catalog with description of 
software is now available by writing to 
Powerbyte Software, 2 Chipley Run, 
West Berlin, New Jersey 08091, or 
calling 609-346-3063. Dealer inquires 
are encouraged. □ am** e& 

Creative Software to 
Release Four New Titles 

Creative Software, the largest inde- 
pendent publisher of VIC-20 software 
in the U.S., is pleased to announce the 
release of four new titles. In keeping 
with its commitment to provide a full- 
line of software for entry-level com- 
puters, the four new programs expand 
the home application, home education 
and game categories: 
gories: 

RAT HOTEL— game cartridge for 
the VIC-20. You are the rat. And 
Waldo, the maintenance man at the 

76/Commander May 1983 



Holen Paradisio doesn't like rats. Start 
on the top floor of the hotel and scurry 
to safety through the boiler room floor. 
Waldo will chase you on his atomic 
elevator. Sound confusing? Try figur- 
ing it out if you're a rat! 

PIPES— home education cartridge 
for the VIC-20. Learning can be fun 
and PIPES is your proof. Try connect- 
ing all of the houses in Gilroy to the 
mam water supply. Be frugal though, 
you only have so much pipe to use 
and so much money to spend. Sound 
easy? Only in your "pipe" dreams! 

HOME OFFICE— home application 
cassette for the VIC-20. A word pro- 
cessor and data base on a beginner's 
budget! This economical software 
package will help you get organized 
by introducing you to the powerful ap- 
plications of personal computing. 

SPILLS & FILLS— home education 
cartridge for the VIC-20. How much is 
too much? How much is too little? Drill 
your perspective and ration skills by fill- 
ing up and spilling out an accurate 
amount of liquid. Brilliant colors and 
bubbling sound effects make this, 
learning experience a truly entertain- 
ing one. 

Contact: Kari Curtis at 230 East 
Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 
94086, (408) 745-1 655. □ c*» nc se 

Business Software for 
Commodore Computer 

Legal Plus 

Cimarron's LEGAL PLUS software 
package for the Commodore 8000 
series computers is specifically design- 
ed to help manage the in-house opera- 
tion of the law firm by reporting and 
storing information on the daily ac- 
tivities of the legal staff. 

LEGAL PLUS automatically stores 
data from as many as ten lawyers, 
1050 clients, and 1,100 matters on 
every disk. Information in these Client, 
Matter and Log files is processed to 
produce reports on both the firm's and 
the individual attorney's activities. By- 
product reports, including activity 
analyses, aging report, charges and 
payments journal, and client and mat- 
ter listings provide detailed manage- 
ment information without additional 
effort. 



LEGAL PLUS also features pre- 
billing review of account status, and 
statements can be printed individual- 
ly or en toto. Revisions and adjust- 
ments are completed quickly and easi- 
ly, so information is always accurate 
and up-to-date. 

• No programming knowledge 
required. 

• Automatic "prompts" guide the user 
through each entry. 

• 144 different statement formats. A 
statement can be printed according 
to the precise specifications of the 
attorney. 

• Seven fee code options. 

• 36 activity code options. 

• Trust and Retainer Fund accounting. 

Wordcraft Ultra 

Wordcraft ULTRA gives you all the 
text creation and editing power you 
need for reports, memos, proposals 
and correspondence. Revisions, for- 
matting and printing can all be done 
quickly and easily with high-quality, 
professional results. 

• Page layouts of up to 1 1 7 characters 
and 98 lines in length. 

• Screen display of finished document 
format. 

• Normal tab, decimal tab and inden- 
tation features included. 

• Automatic centering and right- 
justified, ragged left margins. 

• Automatic header, footer and page 
numbering. 

• Character, word, and paragraph 
deletion and insertion. 

• Block movement of text from any- 
where in line. 

• Horizontal scrolling. 

• Merges data files with standard 
forms. 

• Half-line movement for subscripts 
and superscripts. 

• Character string search and replace. 

• Automatic underlining and embold- 
ening. 

• Proportional spacing capabilities. 

• As many as eight users on a single 
disk drive without additional 
hardware. 

• "Goto" page feature. 

The Executive Suite 

Cimarron's powerful information 
management system, THE EXECU- 
TIVE SUITE, offers the business exe- 



Circle No 10 



Circle No 3 



BASIC COMPILER 

AND ASSEMBLER 

FOR ATARI® 
& COMMODORE 64 



THE BASM BASIC COMPILER AND ASSEMBLER FOR 
ATARI/COMMODORE 64 produces programs thai run up to 
130 times faster than Atari/Commodore BASIC. Uses the 
syntax of BASIC with ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE data typesand 
addressing modes. Has the efficiency of ASSEMBLY, but cuts 
program development time by 2 to 3 times. Produces highly 
efficient ROMable binary files. Programming features IF- 
ELSE-ENDIF; WHILE-ENDWHILE; DEF-ENDDEF Utility 
libraries; graphics; disc access; debugging aid Editor in- 
cluded. Block-structured capability. Eases the transition from 
BASIC to ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE programming. Eliminate 
the tedium of calculating the logistics of ASSEMBLY Syntax. 
In-line standard 6502 ASSEMBLER. The next step in the 
evolution of the small computer BASIC language. 

Available soon for APPLE II® 
Dealer inquiries invited. 

BASM requires 32K, disk. Price $99.95 plus $2.00 for shipping 
(add $1 .50 for C.O.D.). In Calif, add 6'/?% tax. Specif., Atari or 
Commodore. Send check or money order to: 

COMPUTER ALLIANCE 

21 115 Devonshire St.. fll32D.Chatsworth.CA91311 7(213)368-4089 



VIC-20 ATARI 



CHILD 

DEVELOPMENT 

SERIES 

(for the 3.5K VIC and 
16K ATARI) 

ALPHA-BECi — $16.95 

Twenty-six screens with let- 
ters/pictures/labels 'built' 
on the screen 

NUMER-BECi — $16.95 

Number recognition, object 

counting, object grouping, 

and number/size/shape 

discrimination. 



BECi is composed of professionals dedicated to 

providing non-trivial educational materials for the home 

computer. In addition to our own software, we carry a full 

line of evaluated hardware and software. Send $2 

(refundable) for our catalog. 



Send check or money order to: 
BOSTON EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING, INC. 

78 Dartmouth Street, Boston, MA 02116 
(617) 536-5116 *MA res. add 5% tax 




-*^?^^ 



-L WANNA KNOW A SECRET? 

joT 

WORD PROCESSING Full capability wore* processing. Wdrd-oriented-noi a 
line editor, Meou^nver*, For VIC: T< <T 2.0 $25,00 

More powerful versions include footnotes, headings, footing, keyboard input, special 
printer control and more. For VIC + 16K or 24K: TOIL TEXT 2.5 $35.00 

For C-64; TDTL TEXT m $40,00 
MAILING L 1ST arid LABELS Easy editing, automatically sorted, optimal non- 
printing data lme(s), browse artf select functions, Menu-Driven. 

For VIC or 64- TQILLAEEL 2.0- $20,00 
KEYWORD CROSS REFEBBNCI Students and auihors fceep track of 
reference notes and bibliographies. Quick reference by keyword. Requires printer 

For VIC: RESEARCH AS; T 2.0 $30,00 

For C-64: RESEARCH ASSISTANT 2 $ 3S 90 
TIME MANAGEMENT Keep track of activities by date (and Hrrve) Screen inquiry 
by date, person, project S8 different fe^ar chart formats available 

For VIC: TGTL TIME MANAGER 2.1 $30,00 
For CS4: TOTL TIME MANAGER 2.6 $3&.0G 
BUSl "NTING Accounts receivable and psyabie.lnventory and 

exper invoices, statements, reports. Disk only, 

For VIC and C-04: Inquire for price, 



ANNOUNCING THE 

ONE MEGABYTE 

Wm& DISKETTE 




TOTL Software for 

VIC 20* and COMMODORE 64* 

the best deal in town! 

All programs work with disk and/or tape; adaptable lor 40 or 80 column 
formats and most printers. VIC programs require minimum 8K expansion 



A Revolutionary New 
Concept in User Support 
—A soft-sectored novelty 
pillow no serious computer 
user should be without. 
S25.00 including full 
documentation! 

Mail Orders: Send check or 
money order (Calif, residents 
add 6% sales tax) to: 

TOTL 

software inc. 

^^^1555 Third Ave., Walnut Creek, CA 94596 
j^) Call (415) 943-7877 



(Be sure to specify machine when ordering) 



'VIC 20 and COMMODORE 64 are trademarks of Commodore Business Machines. 



Circle No, 46 



Commander May 1983/77 



cutive unlimited assistance in the solu- 
tion of important business problems 
and decisions. 

THE EXECUTIVE SUITE combines 
two important programs for the Com- 
modore 8000 series computers: The 
Manager and Wordcraft ULTRA. The 
Manager is a very powerful Data Base 
Management system for inventory 
control, job costing, basic accounting, 
budgeting, forecasting, statistics, per- 
sonnel management, administrative 
management and a host of other pro- 
jects via user-defined files. Data may 
be recalled by any criteria, full reports 
may be generated and no program- 
ming experience is required to utilize 
the full potential of The Manager. 

Dental Accounting System 

The DENTAL ACCOUNTING 
SYSTEM (DAS) for the Commodore 
8000 series computers offers the 
small-to-medium dental office or clinic 
an in-house automated systems ap- 
proach to handling receivables, invoic- 
ing, aging and revenue analysis ac- 
cording to standardized procedures. 

Additionally, DAS can provide valu- 
able assistance to the practice by pro- 
ducing a series of lists and reports 
ranging from treatment plans in pro- 
gress to morbidity indices. 

• Unlimited number of patients. 

• Open item entry invoicing system 
manages multiple-visit recordkeep- 
ing. 

• Displays and/or prints treatment 
plans. 

• Recall lists by patient and data. 

• Aged receivables reports by guaran- 
tor and carrier. 

• Prints industry-standard insurance 
forms and SuperBills. 

Also available are Job Costing, 
Medical Accounting, Time Scheduling 
and Mail List Management. □ 

Circle No. 67 

Multi-User Arcade 
Software from Synapse 

The first and only genuine multi-user 
arcade space adventure is about to hit 
the market. 

SURVIVOR, from Synapse Software 
pits as many as 4 players against 
enemy space fortresses simultaneous- 
ly. Aside from hi-res graphics, and 
rapid arcade action, SURVIVOR offers 

78/Commander May 1983 



the unique advantage of allowing each 
player to perform separate, individual 
functions: Navigator, Propulsion 
Engineer, Fore Gunner and Aft Gun- 
ner. Players work in concert to defeat 
attacking fleets, dodge meteors and 
weave through the corridors of several 
fortresses, knocking out gun 
emplacements. SURVIVOR can be 
played by 1 , 2, or 3 players as well. 

True Multi-user action is just one of 
the innovations from Synapse as they 
launch 32 new home computer pro- 
grams in early 1983. 

SURVIVOR demo discs, sample 
boxes and free P.O. P. materials are 
available. Contact: Synapse, 5221 
Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 
94804, (415) 527-7751. □ orcieNota 




Ciipstrip™ II 

Model CSC-15-6 
Transient Voltage 
Protected Strip 

DYMARC is pleased to announce 
another new product, the CLIP- 
STRIP™ II. 

The CLIPSTRIP™ is the best selling 
product in the DYMARC line and has 
set standards for both quality and per- 
formance and we've just made the 
CLIPSTRIP™ even better by adding 
UL listed common mode rejection. 
Transient voltage protection for both 
common and normal mode is neces- 
sary for certain devices and in "hos- 
tile' ' environment where transients are 
causing equipment damage as spikes 
enter on the ground terminal. 

The CLIPSTRIP™ II is the natural 
extension of the CLIPSTRIP™ which 
has provided the power protection de- 
manded in today's electronic systems. 

The CLIPSTRIP™ II provides 
necessary protection as the sensitivity 
(voltage break down) of integrated 
systems electronics has decreased to 
less than 8 volts. The lowering of the 



sensitivity increases the noise immun- 
ity particularly in the LSI type elec- 
tronics where the sensitivity is the milli- 
volt range. This sensitivity is more 
severe in the common mode. 

The CLIPSTRIP™ II provides both 
command and normal mode protec- 
tion. Common mode protection is re- 
quired in today's electronics such as 
switching power supplies. Switching 
power supplies, which are built into 
most of today's computers, demand to 
be current fed. As the frequency of the 
current is increased there is an in- 
crease in the impedance in the safety- 
ground path generating common 
mode voltage. 

In fact, fast edges caused by light- 
ning, load switching, SCR controls, etc. 
is converted into common mode tran- 
sients. In many situations these conver- 
sions do not cause a problem but since 
today's computer electronics are 
typically referenced to ground these 
systems demand common mode pro- 
tection the CLIPSTRIP™ II provides. 

The physical specifications for the 
CLIPSTRIP™ II are the same as for 
the CLIPSTRIP™ with the exception 
being the operational LED indicator 
which is green instead of red. 

Dymarc Industries, Inc., 21 Gover- 
nor's Court, Baltimore, Maryland 
21207. (301) 298-9626, (800) 

638-9098. □ Circle No 69 

BPI's Business 
Accounting System 

BPi Systems announces a simple 
and easy to use business accounting 
system. With BPI, the small business 
computer user spends more time mak- 
ing profitable business decisions and 
less time worrying about computer 
operations. 

First time computer users don't 
need prior computer experience or 
any computer knowledge to operate 
BPI's Business Accounting System. 
Even though the BPI system is 
sophisticated and comprehensive, it's 
easy to learn. That's because the 
owner's manuals are written in clear, 
ordinary business and accounting 
language. 

The BPI system in a practical, no- 
nonsense program. It was designed 



by business and accounting profes- 
sionals for use in many kinds of 
business. It operates quickly and easily 
so you have rapid access to your ac- 
counting records. The result for you is 
a decrease in clerical/operator time 
and faster, more profitable responses 
to everyday business questions. 

For maximum flexibility, the BPI 
Business Accounting System is actual- 
ly composed of five individual systems: 
General Ledger, Accounts Receiv- 
able, Inventory Control, Payroll and 
Job Cost. These systems function in- 
dependently and are available sepa- 
rately or they can interface with one 
another as one comprehensive ac- 
counting system. This given the user 
immediate capabilities in specific areas 
such as Accounts Receivable, General 
Ledger or Inventory Control. And, it 
provides for the addition of other 
systems when you need them. So 
whether your need is in just one ac- 
counting area or for a complete, in- 
tegrated accounting system, BPI is 
ready, right now. And, with BPI con- 
tinually improving and expanding its 
systems, you're assured the proper 
service and support to keep your ac- 
counting system well ahead of the 
demands upon it. 

The Systems— The BPI Business 
Accounting System is designed 
around five independent but interfac- 
ing systems. Each of these systems 
usually can be installed and in opera- 
tion in the same day. 

General Ledger— This basic book- 
keeping system will: 

• Standardize data input. 

• Post ledgers, prepare financial 
statements (including the Balance 
Sheet and the Profit and Loss State- 
ment), and close the books. 

• Print detailed ledgers for accounts 
receivable and accounts payable as 
well as for the general ledger. 

• Keep monthly, quarterly and year- 
to-date payroll earnings records for 
every employee. 

• Alert the operator to data entry 
errors. 

• Make back-up disks for safe- 
keeping. 

Accounts Receivable— This 

system offers you the important choice 



of either "balance forward" or "open 
item" account detailing. And, it will: 

• Detail each item on the accounts 
receivable ledger with amounts and 
dates. 

• Print an alphabetical listing of all 
accounts, cross-indexed to their ac- 
count numbers. 

• Analyze the account activitiy for 
one account or more, at any time. 

• Automatically produce an Aged 
Trial Balance for early account collec- 
tion and business planning. 

• Customize your statements with 
your company name, address logo, 
etc.; and provide one statement line 
for customized payment terms; two 
others for your message or advertis- 
ing. 

• Handle an unlimited number of 
accounts on multiple disks. 

• Interface with the General Ledger 
and Inventory Control Systems. 

Inventory Control— BPI's Inven- 
tory Control System allows you to 
know your exact inventory at any 
moment. It will: 

• Cost your inventory by the FIFO, 
LIFO or AVERage methods. 

• Create inventory records which 
detail vendor/product information and 
adjust inventory averages or declines 
automatically. 

• Write P.O.'s., receive merchan- 
dise into inventory, prepare price 
labels and handle sales using regular 
and discounted pricing. 

• Track low balance items in inven- 
tory and automatically write P.O.'s to 
prevent shortages. 

• Safeguard you from entering dup- 
licate or incorrect orders. 

• Record vendor invoices and debit 
or credit the appropriate ledger ac- 
count for each item. 

• Enter and prepare sales invoices 
and debit the appropriate depart- 
ment's Cost of Sales account. 

• Interface with Accounts Receiv- 
able and General Ledger. 

Payroll— This time-saving system 
handles payrolls with a mix of salaried, 
hourly, and commissioned employees. 
Its tax tables include federal, state (all 
50 states), city (all U.S.) and District of 
Columbia tax rates. This system is de- 
signed to make payroll processing fast 
and easy. It allows you to: 



• Automatically compute and print 
payroll checks for window envelope 
mailing. 

• Choose from three options for 
hourly computations and four options 
for commission computations. 

• Assign multiple gross wage 
amounts. 

• Choose from six customized pay- 
roll deductions with seven options 
each. 

• Compute net pay automatically in 
seconds per employee. 

• Charge salaries, commissions, 
and hourly wages to departments. 

• Interface with Job Cost and 
General Ledger. 

Job Cost— This job costing system 
works well for businesses that require 
individual job costing. It lets the user: 

• Calculate extensions and footings 
automatically. 

• Print a completed estimate for 
review. 

• Avoid most errors and omissions 
with its user prompts. 

• Automatically charge costs to ap- 
propriate jobs. 

• Provide automatic retainage. 

• Enter labor costs automatically. 

• Report income on the Completed 
Job basis or the Percentage of Com- 
pletion basis. 

• Prepare projected profit/loss 
reports for an unlimited number of dif- 
ferent jobs. 

• Interface with Payroll and General 
Ledger. 

BPI Systems, Inc., 3423 Guadalupe, 
Austin, TX 78705. (512) 454-2801. □ 

Circle No. 70 

Micro Systems 
Development, Inc. 

Now you can advance your VIC-20 
and your COMMODORE 64 to the 
higher levels of personal computing. 

All of these devices are actually in- 
terfaced to the VIC simultaneously 
through the use of various MSD per- 
ipheral devices! 

1. Cassette Player (Either the VIC 
Datasette or standard cassette player). 

2. RS-232 Acoustic Modem 

3. COMMODORE 8050 Dual Disk 
Drive. 

4. COMMODORE 4040 Dual Disk 
Drive. 

Commander May 1983/79 



5. COMMODORE 2031 Single Disk 
Drive. 

6. Letter Quality Printer, IEEE-488 
Interface. 

7; High Speed Dot Matrix Printer, 
RS-232 Interface. 

8. Color Monitor. 

These and many more exciting ap- 
plications await the computer user 
through the use of our peripheral 
devices . . . whether your requirement 
is exciting games, personal comput- 
ing, education, business, or software 
development, we have the peripheral 
devices for you.D 

Commodore 64 IEEE 
Interface Cartridge 

The CIE Cartridge (IEEE-488 to 
COMMODORE 64) unit provides the 
COMMODORE 64 user with normal 
CBM/PET control over the IEEE-488 
bus. When plugged into the COM- 
MODORE 64 expansion port, the card 
is "transparent" to the expansion con- 
nector. This means the user can plug 
other peripherals into the "64" without 
interference. There are approximate- 
ly i K bytes of interface software on the 
board. When the interface is called it 
maps itself into a protected area at the 
top of the COMMODORE 64 
memory. □ 

VMC/CMC Monitor Cable 

This cable assembly allows the 
VIC-20 and/or the COMMODORE 64 
to interface with a monitor instead of 
a TV The VCM/CMC provides separ- 
ate Video and Audio Output. This 
enables the sound output to go directly 
into a stereo system for unmatched 
audio quality. The VMC/CMC is great 
for music programs and applications 
where a TV is not desired (business, 
education, etc.). Our CMC allows the 
COMMODORE 64 user to have high 
quality resolution on black and white 
monitors. □ 

VAC Audio 
Cassette Interface 

Plugs directly into the VIC cassette 
port and provides input/output and 
remote control of a standard audio 
cassette recorder. Save and load pro- 

80/Commander May 1983 



grams using your own cassette unit. 
The VAC works with all existing VIC 
cassette programs ... no modification 
to recorder required. All the VIC cas- 
sette commands are maintained. □ 

VT40 Terminal Emulator 

This is a convenient cartridge which 
allows the VIC-20 to display 40 col- 
umns of characters when used in con- 
junction with the RS-232 port. The 
VT40 is a complete cartridge that re- 
quires no additional memory. Just 
plug the cartridge in, turn on the 
power, and the VIC-20 becomes a ter- 
minal! By connecting the VIC-20 to a 
modem, the VIC-20 becomes a 40 col- 
umn 'dumb' terminal capable of com- 
municating with various bulletin 
boards and computer networks across 
the country. The VT40 can even be us- 
ed to 'talk' to other computers! Various 
setup parameters such as baud rate, 
parity, duplex, and number of bits per 
character can be modified through a 
'menu' format. 

Micro Systems Development, Inc., 
1 1 1 05 Shady Trail, Ste. 1 04, Dallas, TX 

75229. □ Circle No. 71 

VIC-WRITER 

VIC-WRITER is a powerful but inex- 
pensive general purpose Word Pro- 
cessor. 

Why word processors? 

Word processors allow the user to 
quickly and easily create letters, 
memos, notes, reports, term papers, 
manuals, poetry and any other written 
information, using the memory of the 
computer as a pencil and paper. The 
computer's terminal acts as a window 
through which the user views the infor- 
mation as it is entered. The outstand- 
ing advantage of using VIC-WRITER 
is that acts not only as a pencil and 
paper but as a perfect eraser and 
automatic typewriter. 

VIC-WRITER allows the user to 
quickly and easily make any number 
of alterations to the text. VIC-WRITER 
has more functions than any other 
known microcomputer word pro- 
cessor. With VIC-WRITER assisting in 
the entry of text, providing a 10 page 
memory and performing an enormous 
number of editing/composing func- 



tions, the preparation of writing data 
is far faster and outstandingly more 

accurate than if it were prepared by 
hand. 

It can by used to read, write and 
create sequential text files for any pur- 
pose; writing letters, creating data files, 
assembling programs as text, and any 
other application where text manipula- 
tion is needed. 

Any existing sequential files can be 
read from disk or cassette by VIC- 
WRITER. VIC-WRITER alllows the user 
to record or retrieve text using the VIC 
ASCII or standard ASCII character set, 
thus eliminating conversion problems 
if peripherals cannot handle the VIC or 
CBM ASCII. 

VIC-WRITER's text buffer will auto- 
matically set itself to the maximum size 
allowed by the memory of the com- 
puter (the text buffer is the area in 
memory where the VIC-WRITER stores 
the test currently being edited). With 
the standard version of the VIC- 
WRITER, there 10680 bytes avail- 
able in the text buffer. 

VIC-WRITER is designed for easy 
use and tailored for personal com- 
puters. The screen is like a window on- 
to the text file which can be moved up 
or down to allow any part of the text 
to be viewed and edited. Unformatted 
text is entered at the keyboard, and 
allowed to wrap around the screen 
continuously as far as desired. The 
user need only enter a RETURN 
where each printed paragraph is to 
end. 

Formatting is automatically done on 
printout as specified by the user. Line 
length, margin width, size of indent, 
optional right juStificaton and other 
parameters can be specified, and may 
be changed from one paragraph to 
the next. 

There are no distinct "modes" of 
operation, thus all editing functions 
can be called at all times with one or 
two keystrokes. The VIC-WRITER has 
as large a text buffer as the computer's 
memory will allow, and its reaction time 
is so fast that even excellent typists 
will not be able to get ahead of it. 

Skyles Electric Works, 231 E South 
Whisman Road, Mountain View, CA 

94041, (415) 965-1 735. □ Circle No. 72 



BUSICALC 
Now Available 

A Honey of an Electronic 
Spreadsheet 

Why electronic spreadsheet pro- 
grams? Electronic spreadsheet pro- 
grams allow the user to create a grid- 
sheet, spreadsheet, worksheet, or any 
other table of information, using the 
memory of the computer as pencil and 
paper. The computer display or ter- 
minal acts as a window through which 
the user views the information as it is 
entered. Textual information (such as 
headings), numerical values, and for- 
mulas can easily be entered into the 
spreadsheet. For use with Commo- 
dore 64, VIC-20, PET/CBM 40 col- 
umns, CBM 80 column/SuperPet. 
Your Computer Drone for 
Repetitive Calculations 

The outstanding advantage of using 
a computer is that it acts not only as 
a pencil and paper but as a perfect 
eraser and an automatic calculator. 
The user can quickly and easily make 
any number of alterations to the data 
within the table. The BUSICALC will 
evaluate any formula using the data 
that have been entered. Further, it re- 
tains the formulas and displays the 
resulting value. With BUSICALC con- 
trolling the entry of data, providing a 
comprehensive memory, and perfor- 
ming arithmetic, the preparation of a 
spreadsheet is faster and more ac- 
curate than if it were prepared by 
hand. 

Sting Removed from Prices 

BUSICALC 20— $49 for the VIC-20 
BUSICALC 64— $69 for the CBM 64 
BUSICALC 40— $79 40 column 

PET/CBM 
BUSICALC 80— $89 80 column 

CBMs and SuperPets 
BUSICALC available now from your 
local dealer. Call (800) 227-9998 for 
the name of your nearest dealer. (CA, 
Canada, AK and HI, please call (415) 
965-1735.) Skyles Electric Works, 
23 1G South Whisman Road, Mountain 
View, CA 94041. □ circle no 73 




22 B MILLERSTREET BELFAST. MAINE 04915 

(207)338-1410 

Software & Accessories for the VIC-20 



— CARDCO — 



CARDBOARD/6: 6 Slot Expansion . 

CARDPRINT: Parallel Printer Interlace lor Vic or 64 

CARDRITER: Light Pen with 6 good programs Vic or && . 
CARDADAPTER: Play Atari VCS Games on your Vic . 
CARDBOARD; 3S: slot exp. -fused- switched-reset button . 
CARDETTE/1 : Use standard cassette recorders on VlC . . 



AGGRESSOR: Space Battle - Nine Levels 

PROTECTOR: Transpol Citizens to Safety in New City 
SHAMUS: Search Rooms for the Shadow - Avoid Droids 
QUEEN'S BEDROOM: Lock for Roya' Treasure - Avoid Guards 
ROBOT PANIC: Battle your way through the Cosmos . 
PIRATES PERIL: Adventure Sensational Sound & Animation 
SKIER: Down Hi' Skiing - Hit Flags. Avoid Trees. 3 Levels 
MAZE OF M1KOR: Steal Warlocks Gold - Evade Demon . 

VICTREK: Great Sound & Graphics 

LASER BLITZ: Destroy Enemy Craft' with Flying Saucer . . . 

TORG: Destroy the Suicide Attackers . 

RAID ON ISRAM: Fly across Desen - Destroy Fuel. Rockets 
TURTLE GRAPHICS: Easy to Learn Computer Language 
VIC FORTH: Interactive Threaded Interpreted Language . 

HES MON: Mach Language Monitor - Assembler 

HES WRITER: Surprisingly Complete Word Processing Can 



$84.99 
$67.99 
$33.99 
S76.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 



$33.99 
$36.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 
$14.99 
$14.99 
$14.99 
$14.99 
$14.99 
$16.99 
$33.99 
$49.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 



— GEMINMObySTAR — 

A FULL-FEATURED DOT MATRIX PRINTER AT AN 
AFFORDABLE PRICE. 100 CPS. 9-wire User Replace- 
able Print Head; Friction & Tractor Feed: Dot Addressable 
Graphics; Normal, Italic and Proportional Characters; 2.3K 
Buffer: - 10, 12, 17, 5, 6, 8.5. CPI; Super Sub Scripts: 

^357.?yAJ09.9!Tp:uS$tO.QOShippi,Tg and Handling. 



— CREATIVE SOFTWARE - 



TERRAGUARD: Destroy the aliens before they land 

SPILLS & FILLS: Develop ratio and perspective skil's— fun . . 
PIPES: Hook ail homes to water with limited pipe & cash . 
VIDEOMANIA: Kii a : iens with zapper before they get you ... 
RAT HOTEL: Move from lop to bottom floors— watch Waldo . . 
APPLE PANIC: Set Traps kr Deadly Apples Before they get you 
ASTRO BUT7: Like Delender - Creative Computing Rates this $ 1 
BLACK HOLE: Avoid Space Deb'is & Gravity ol Black Hole . 
CHOPLIFTER: Fight off Jets. Tanks. Sams to Rescue Hostages 

SERPENTINE: Battle of the Serpents 

HOUSEHOLD FINANCE: 2 Tapes - 4 Programs 

LOAN ANALYZEFk^oan Calculations - Amortization Table . 



$33.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 
. $33.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 
$33.99 
$28.99 
$12.99 



— MISCELLANEOUS- 



QUICK BROWN FOX: Professional Word Processing Can .... 

TOTL TEXT 2.0: Cass - Basic Word Processor 

TOTL TEXT 2.5: Cass. - Advanced Word Processor - Req. 8K Exp. . 

TOTL LABEL: Cass. - Mailing List 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT: Cass.-NoiekeepmgfcK Terni Papers, etc. . 

ROAD TOAD: Cass. - Like Frogger 

MILLIPEDE: Cass. - Like Centipede 

ACCOUNTANT: 2 Tapes - GJ - B.S. - Inc. Statement 

ACCOUNT RECPAY: 2 Tapes 

BUSINESS INVENTORY: Tape 

RIVER RESCUE: Rescue 3 Explorers lost in Jungle 

MUSIC COMPOSER: Enter plus Edit Score - Save and Load . 

GALACTIC BLITZ: Cass - 15 Different Patterns 

SIDEWINDER: Cass. - 8K Exp. Required 

SWARM: Cass - The fastest you ve seen 

SKY PILOT: Fly wwi Plane against choice of German Planes 

DUNGEONS OF KAL: Adventure - Cass 

BASEBALL: Cass. - Manage any Team m History 

FOOTBALL: Cass. - Req. 8K Exp. - All 81 NFL Teams 
GALACTIC CONQUEST; Req. 8K Exp. - Strategy Game- 1 to 6 
MARTIAN RAIDER: Iniergaiactic ships in attack on Mars . 
SHARK TRAP: Snare the sharks with atomic net or die .... 
MULTI-SOUND SYNTHESISER : Compose your own kind ol music 



$55.99 
$19.99 
$29.99 
$16.99 
$24.99 
$12.99 
$\ZW 
£24.99 
$18.99 
$16.99 
$33.99 
$24.99 
$19.99 
$24.99 
$24.99 
$10.49 
$10.49 
$10.49 
$12.99 
$13.99 
$19.99 
$19.99 
$19.99 



— COMMODORE - 



VIC-20 COMPUTER 

^ COMPLETE WTTH UBRARY OF 25 PROGRAMS 

TZ VIC LIBRARY OF 1 5 GAMES 

Hi VlC INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (data-base) 

Q- PLUS 9 DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMS 

ONLY $1 99.99 plus 510 00 shipping & handling 



C/) 



^COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER 

y *^4^9^$409.39 plLisSlO.OOShippingandHandling 



S 48.99 



S 24.99 
S 24.99 



' ADD $10.00 FOR SHIPPINGS HANDLING 
EACH ITEM MARKED WITH " 

8K RAM EXPANDER $ 47.99 

16K RAM EXPANDER $ 77.99 

■COLOR PRINTER PLOTTER: Draws charts & graphs in 4 colors . $189.99 

DATASETTE: store user wntten or prerecorded programs S 66.99 

■VIC DISK DRIVE: Fast hi capacity storage-170K disk $339.99 

•VIC 1525 PRINTER: Tractor leed dot matnx p-nier-30 cps , $339.99 
VIC SUPER EXPANDER: 3K Ram + graphc, mu tJCOfO'. & music. $ 54.99 
VICPROGRAMMERSAID:20commandstoprogram easier ...$ 48.99 
VIC-MON: fast way to wnte machine 'anguage programs 
'VIC 14" MONITOR: give Vic it's own tube for best color 
VIC AVENGER: Like space mvaders-Action arcade carnage 
SUPERSLOT: cotorfu' slot machine-Works ke the rea : thing 
SUPER ALIEN: Can you captu r e the aliens before they get you . $ 24.99 
JUPITER LANDER: Piot :em-Excellen! g-aphics . $ 24.99 

DRAW POKER: Cassmo style poker in a cartridge ... S 24.99 

MIDNIGHT DRIVER: Ntghl driving simulaLon-Trnl's. Spills'' $ 24.99 
RADAR RAT RACE: challenging game of wit, strategy. &ret'exes. S 24.99 
MOLE ATTACK: Keep the motes underground where they belong $ 24.99 
PIRATE COVE ADVENTURE: Find Long John Silver's treasure . S 33.99 
MISSION IMPOSSIBLE ADV : Nuke reactor may be doomed . . S 33.99 
THE COUNT ADVENTURE: Love at first bUe-Dracula stnkes agamS 33.99 
VOODOO CASTLE ADV : You are Coon! Chnsii's onty hope ... $ 33.99 
SARGONII CHESS: rated best computer chess by the experts . S 33.99 
GORF: Midway's incredible arcade game-"* different games in 1 . $ 33.99 
OMEGA RACE: Ultimate space game-All features ol BallyMdway $ 33.99 
SEA WOLF: Sink ah enemy destroyers. Ireighlers. PT boats . $ 24.99 
CLOWNS: See the amazing clowns ]ump-Ba(ly r Midway classic j 24.99 

RECREATION SIX-PACK: Six games ontape $ 49.99 

HOME CALC SIX-PACK: Personal finance-word proc-cass ... $ 49.99 
MATH IMPROVE SIX-PACK: Help children improve math-cass . S 49.99 
PROGRAMMER'S REF GUIDE: Tips for all levels- Baste- Mach. $ 14.99 
INTRO TO BASIC PROGRAMMING: Mtonal book & tape. ... $21.99 
BASICPROGR -PART TWO: Contmuabon of above-book-tape. $ 21.99 



SKYLIGHT SOFTWARE 

f APE~# 1 - Canon Duel - Breakout - Runa'oond - Stockoar - Space 

TAPE 02 - Target Pistol - Space Due: - B29 - Tank - Roadbtoc* 

TAPE 03 - Sub Hunt - Blockade - Indy 500 - UFO - Jjngte Driver 

TAPES #1, 02, «ONLY$9.99 EACH 

VIC GAME UBRARY - ALL 1 5 GAMES ON ONE TAPE $25.00 
Vic Intormaton Management 10 Commands S12.99 



SPIDERS OF MARS: Destroy Spiders. Bats. Dragon Flies . . . $33.99 

METEOR RUN: Avoid Meteors and Enemy Torpedos . . . $33.99 

OUTWORLD: Protect your Ouierspace Community $33.99 

CLOUDBURST: Protect Eanh from Acid Ram & Cloud Hoppers . $24.99 

SATELLITES & METEORS: Watch out lor the Black Hole . . $33.99 

BUTI: Can. 3K RAM plus Programming Aids $59.99 

VI-DATA: Powerful data base-format screen & pnnt output . . . $25.99 



JOYSTICK: Bat handle-2 tire buttons-6 leaf switch assembly . S 24.99 

REDBALL JOYSTICK: Heavy duty version of above $ 29.99 

JOYSTICK DELUXE: Rugged heavy duty-arcade quality .... $ 33.99 
TRACKBALL: Phenolic ball- 360 deg. movement-Arcade qualify S 59.99 
12 FOOT EXTENSION: Extend cord of any Aian-rype controller . $ 7.49 

ADD $2.00 FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING 



MasterCard j 



PRICES REFLECT 

CASH DISCOUNT 

ADD 3% FOR ' 

CREDfT CARDS 



VISA* 



(Please include all Card Informaton) 
^^— 5-j lax lor Maine lesidenis _^h 



SEND $1.00 FOR COMPLETE LIST (Refunded on first order) 
OVER 200 ITEMS -SPECIFY VIC-20 OR COMMODORE 64 



Circle No. 38 



Commander May 1983/81 



Commander Dealers 



Given here, in zip code order, is a partial list of the Charter Dealers who will be carrying the COMMANDER. 
We will provide updates for this list in following issues as a service to provide our readers with a local source 
at which they will find information, hardware, or software for their Commodore Computers. 



U.S.A. 
Puerto Rico 

The Micro Computer Store 
1408 Avenue Jesus T. Pinero 
Rio Piedras. PR 00921 
(809) 781-0350 
Manager-Owner: Julio C. Martinez 

Massachuttes 

Tycom Associates 
68 Velma Avenue 
Pittsfield, MA 01201 
Manager-Owner: Dave Tyburski 

Northshore News Co. 
150 Blossom Street 
Lynn, MA 01902 
(617) 592-1300 
Manager-Owner: Tom Mulken, Jr. 

Computech Ltd 
214 Derby Street 
Salem, MA 01970 
(617) 741-1724 
Manager-Owner: Tim Bush 

Omicron Corporation 
1416 Providence Highway 
Norwood, MA 02062 
(617) 769-6867 
Manager-Owner: Steve Gavrilles 

Rhode Island 

International Computer Services 
165 Oyerville Avenue 
Johnston, Rl 02919 
(401) 273-1001 
Manager-Owner. Steve Lablanc 

New Hampshire 

Compu-Craft, Inc 
1 7 Dunbar Street 
Keene, NH 03431 
(603) 357-3901 
Manager-Owner. Richard Bishop 

Echo Consulting Services 
PO Box 1199 
Conway, NH 03818 
(603) 447-5455 
Manager-Owner. George Epotien 

Maine 

Maine Micro Systems, Inc. 
55 Center Street 
Auburn, ME 04210 
(207) 786-0696 
Manager: Nancy Lecompte 

Vermont 

Computeam 

205 Dorset Street 

South Burlington, VT 05401 

(802) 862-2802 

Manager-Owner: Mark Robinson 

Market Place 
1 Main Street 
Winoski, VT 05404 
Manager-Owner Bob Howe 

Connecticut 

Multi-Busmess Computers Inc 
28 Malborough Street 
Portland, CT 06480 
(203) 342-2747 
Manager-Owner- Bob Stasko 



New Jersey 

Micro Computer Services 
61 Mountain Blvd. 
Warren, NJ 07060 
(201) 561-3111 
Manager-Owner: Jerry Prevete 

Computer Workshop 
1200 Haddenfield Road 
Cherry Hill. NJ 07013 
(609) 665-4404 
Manager-Owner: Charles Kolbe 

NUBS Computer Center Inc 
6 Ames Avenue 
Rutherford, NJ 07070 
Manager-Owner- Robert Weigel 

Software City 

85 Godwin Avenue 

Midland Park, NJ 07432 

Manager-Owner. Arlene Destosito 

Computerability, Inc. 

441 Route 23 

Pomton Plains, NJ 07444 

(201) 835-0688 

Manager-Owner. Dennis Mull 

Wayne Computer Store 
1459 Route 23 
Wayne, NJ 07470 
(201) 628-7318 
Manager-Owner: Rick Delti 

Software City 

147 North Kinderkamack Road 

Montvale, NJ 07645 

(201) 391-0931 

Manager-Owner: CM Hatfield 

Computer Workshop 
1200 Haddenfield Road 
Cherry Hill, NJ 08034 
(609) 665-4404 
Manager-Owner: Chris Kolbe 

Electronic Service Assoc, Inc 
Route 541 North 
Medferd, NJ 08055 
(609)953-1200 
Manager-Owner: John Handfield 

Software-n-Such 
Warren Plaza, Route 130 
East Windsor, NJ 08520 
(609) 443-8984 
Manager-Owner: Paul Hammer 

BB/The Computer Store 
216 Scotch Road 
Trenton, NJ 08628 
(609)883-2050 
Manager-Owner. Barry Brown 

New York 

Computer Center 

31 East 31st 

New York, NY 10016 

(212) 889-8130 

Manager-Owner: Elliot Rabmowitz 

Leigh's Computer 
212 East 85th Street 
New York, NY 10028 
Manager-Owner. Leigh Goldstein 



CompTek 

90 John Street 

New York, NY 10038 

(212) 962-6131 

Manager-Owner: Frances Banks 

Computer Emporium 
37 North Street 
Middletown, NY 10940 
Manager-Owner: Kate Honders 

Compu-Tech 
511 Hempstead Avenue 
West Hepstead, NY 11552 
Manager-Owner. Jim Brewington 

Software Emporium 
151 Minola Avenue 
Rosyln Heights, NY 11577 
Manager-Owner: Sheldon Ostroy 

B.C. Communications, Inc. 
World Wide Electronics Dist. 
207 Depot Road 
Huntington Street. NY 11746 
(516) 549-8833 

Computer Headquarters 

1245 Middle Country Road 

Selden, NY 11784 

(516) 698-9373 

Manager-Owner- Dale Lack/Kathy Lyons 

Ray's Supply 
190 Route 9 
Cohoes, NY 12047 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Upstate Computer Shop 
1823 Western Avenue 
Albany, NY 12203 
(518) 456-3019 
Manager-Owner William J. Smith 

Ray's Supply 
350 Comila Street 
Pittsburgh. NY 12901 
Manager-Owner. Bob Howe 

Ray's Software 
106 East Main Street 
Mallone, NY 12953 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Future Distribution 
Trimex Bldg.— Route 1 1 
Mooers, NY 12958 
(514) 861-2831 
Manager-Owner: Phillippe Faure 

Ray's Software 
412 East Jenesee Street 
Fayetteville, NY 13066 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Durmac Cash Registers 

1628 Erie Blvd. East 

Syracuse, NY 13210 

(315)472-4531 

Manager-Owner: William McCarthy 

Upstate Computer Shop 
99 Commercial Drive 
Whitesboro, NY 13492 
(315) 768-8151 
Manager-Owner: Tony Violante 



Persona! Computers, Inc 
3251 Bailey Avenue 
Buffalo, NY '14215 

(716) 832-8800 
Manager-Owner- Frank C. Smeirciak 

Pennsylvania 

One Stop Computer Shope 
65 North 5th Street 
Lemoyne, PA 17043 

(717) 761-6754 
Manager-Owner- Joanne Wright 

Micro Age Computer Store 
1352 Tilghman Street 
Allentown, PA 18102 
(215) 434-4301 
Manager-Owner. Ed Eichenwald 

Maryland 

Professional Micro Service 

100 West 22nd Street 

Balto, MD 21218 

(301) 366-0010 

Manager-Owner- James A. Breen 

Tri-Slate Computers 

1504 South Salisbury Blvd. 

Salisbury, MD 21801 

(301) 742-2020 

Manager-Owner. Tom Weiland 

Virginia 

Virginia Micro Systems 
13646 Jeff Davis Highway 
Woodbridge, VA 22191 
(703) 491-6502 
Manager-Owner: Suart Mitchell 

Unidyne Corp 
536 Independance Blvd. 
Virginia Beach, VA 23462 
(804) 855-8037 
Manager-Owner- Vicki Knick 

CALPRO— The World of Computers 

3119 Waterlick Road 

Lynchburg, VA 24502 

(804) 237-3825 

Manager-Owner: Walter Leroy Ashley 



West Virginia 

Computer Associates, Inc. 
113 Hale Street 
Charleston, WV 25301 
(304) 344-8801 
Manager-Owner Jeff Knapp 

North Carolina 

The Program Center 

3400A West Wendover Avenue 

Greensboro, NC 27407 

(919) 855-8667 

Manager-Owner Rupert Fenequito 

Piedmont Microsystems Inc. 
Route 3. Box 150 H 
Frazier Professional Bldg 
Newton. NC 28658 
(704) 465-3600 
Manager-Owner: Lome Machael 



sisiSEii! 



82/Commander May 1983 



Circle No. 12 



Write For FREE Catalog 



NEW 



Write For FREE Catalog 



VIC software CBM 64 E3 



Great VIC Software 



COMMODORE 64 SOFTWARE 



PARATROOPER a High Resolution game that doesn't let you make any 
| mistakes. You are in your command. Helicopters fill the sky, (and we mean fill 
I the sky!), dropping paratroopers. Your mission is to keep 3 paratroopers from 
I hitting the ground on either side of your gun. But that's just the beginning. You 
I score by hitting the helicopters or the paratroopers, but if you miss a shot it 
(subtracts from your score. Therefore, you must make every shot count to 
make a high score! IT HAS FOUR FAST ACTION LEVELS TO CHALLENG E 
I THE BEST PLAYER. The High Resolution graphics helicoptors are fantastic. 
I They look exactly like helicopters! The paratroopers are super realistic. Their 
I chutes open and then they drift down to earth. If this weren't enough the 
I sounds are fantastic. There are helicopter blades whirring and you can hear the 
[howitzer pumping shells. This game really show off the sound and graphic 
[capabilities of your VIC. PARATROOPER IS OUR #1 SELLING ARCADE 
| GAME, you've got to see this game to believe it. $19.95 

SPACE PAK Can you survive? 3 space games with the sights and sounds of 
I an arcade. The excitement builds as the action is unending. Blast away at 
I everything in sight. The alien attacks will stop at nothing to destroy you. 
I Prepare for battle, there is no escape, only you can help. Can you survive? Hi- 
[Res, color, graphics and sound. Joystick or keyboard. 3 Games — Rocket 
I Race, Fence-A-Tron and Raiders. $19.95 

COSMIC CRUZER Hot action and 3 challenging scenarios. Move your 
I cruzer into the tunnel - fire missiles and drop bombs. Hit the fuel dumps to get 
I more fuel. Move as quick as you dare to hit the surface-to-air missiles. If you are 
I good enough you will make it to the asteroidz field and then try to destroy the 
| base. No one has destroyed the base yet. Will you be the first. $19.95 

VIC ALL STARS We took the best selling VIC programs and put them in a 
| package to save you $35. If purchased seperately it would cost you $85. You get 
I Paratrooper, Target Command, Head On, Cattle Round-up, Snake 
I Out, Trapper, Double Snake Out and Artillery. All eight games for $49.95. 
I Hurry because at this price they won't last long. Limited quantity. 8 
I Games. $49.95 



Let the COMPUTERMAT 
turn your 64 into a home arcade! 

COLOR . GRAPHICS . SOUND 
ON CASSETTE 

(Disk Versions Available — Add $5.°°) 
ARCADE PAK - $24.95 EDUCATION PAK - $24." I 
3 Programs 4 Programs 

Head On Geography Match 

Alien Invasion Math Adventure 

Target Command Ruler & Micro 



TREASURE PAK - $14 « 
3 Programs 

Adventure 
Caves of Silver 
Shuttle Voyage 



GAME PAK - $14. 95 
3 Programs 

Dragon Chase 
Deflect 
Flip It 



Joystick and Keyboard versions included. 



COMPUTERMAT 

Box 1664 • Dept. M • Lake Havasu City, Az. 86403 
(602) 855-3357 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS on the VIC and '64! 

"A versatile and exceedingly well-ddne package. 17 David M^lmbefg, MICRO 

"Simjjly the best & nicest VIC terminal software I have seen." 

Greg Yob, CREATIVE COMPUTING 

We created quite a flurry and earned rave reviews with 

Terminal-AQ, the unique software that transforms the , .„. 

VIC screen into a 40-cofumn smooth-scrolling display. ^ ' - 

And with features like a Receive Buffer and VIC MODEM 

printer dump, Terminal-40 sets a new standard for per 

sonal modem communications with networks such as 

CompuServe and Source. Our *64 Terminal does the 

same quality job for the '64, ^ 

And now there's evfln MpRE ! ! ! SuperTerm tor the 
VIC and '64 supports text storage to disk or tape 
and program UPLOAD/DOWNLOAD. SyperTerm, 
used with our Smart ASCII Interface, al$o 
supports popular parallel printers. 

Choose the one right for you. Call or write 
today for the "best", then ... 



For the VIC: 

Terminal-40 (req sk exp) $29.95 

SuperTerm (req 16K exp) Call 

For the Commodore 64: 

'64 Terminal $29.95 

SuperTerm Call 

(On cassette. Requires modem.) 




REACH OUT - 
and BYTE SOMEONE! 



S 



MIDWEST 
MICRO inc 



311 W. 72nd ST. • KANSAS CITY • MO • 64114 



ORDER DESK: (816)333-7200 

Send for a free brochure describing our 
other quality products. 



MAIL ORDER: Add $1.50 shipping and handling 
($3.50 for C.O.D.); VISA/Mastercard add 3% (card# 
and exp. date). Missouri residents include 4.6% 
sales tax. Foreign orders payable U.S.$, U.S. Bank 
ONLY; add $5 shp/hndlg. Dealer Inquiries invited. 



Circle No. 25 



Commander May 1983/83 




Dealers, continued 



Bob Wesl Computers 
54 West Main Street 
Brevard. NC 28712 
(704)883-2595 
Manager-Owner: Sylvia West 

Georgia 

Cardinal Computers 
903 North Gleenwood 
Dalton, GA 30720 
(404) 226-0502 

Inagrated System, Inc. 

3300 Buckeye Road NE. Suite 178 

(404) 458-0713 

Atlanta, GA 30341 

Florida 

COMPUTECH 
1415 Timberlane Road 
Tallahassee, FL 32312 
(904) 893-1743 
Manager-Owner: Dan Evans 

Random Access Computers 
296 Eglin Parkway 
Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548 
(904) 862-7763 
Manager-Owner Joanne Dodd 

Florida Book Store 
1614 West University Avenue 
Gainesville, FL 32604 
(904) 376-6066 

Skippers Inc. 

217 SE 1st Avenue 

Ocalm, FL 32671 

(904) 732-3221 

Manager-Owner. David Lee Skipper 

Osceola Computer 

1300 Dakota Avenue 

Street Cloud, FL 32769 

(305) 892-1501 

Manager-Owner: Raymond Barrieau 

Sigma Systems of Orlando 
590 North Semoran Blvd 
Orlando, FL 32807 
(305) 273-2434 
Manager-Owner: Tom Clance 

Computer Specialties, Inc. 
701 East Lincoln Avenue 
PO Box 1718 
Melbourne. FL 32901 
(305) 725-6574 
Manager-Owner: Otis P. Lutz 

Micro Byte, Inc 
13710 SW 56 Street 
Miami. FL 33175 
(305) 385-2108 

Manager-Owner: Ed Silverman and 
Lyman Conover 

Focus Scientific 
224 North Federal Highway 
Fort Lauderdale. FL 33301 
(305) 462-1010 
Manager-Owner: M. Rienhardt 

The Software Connection 

5460 North Slate Road 7. Suite 108 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 33319 

Business Machines 

2821 Pinewood Avenue 

Wesl Palm Beach. FL 33407 

(305) 655-4730 

Manager-Owner: Robert Frazier, Jr. 

The Software and Computer Store 
1506 Gulf-to-Bay 
Clearwater, FL 33515 
(813) 442-8803 
Manager-Owner. Charles Kaut7 



Alabama 

Tricelin Corporation 
Route 1, Box 128 
Bankston, AL 35542 
(205) 689-4999 

Tennesee 

American Computer Co. 
1004-8th Avenue South 
Nashville, TN 37203 
Manager-Owner: Jane Maggard 

Metro Computer Ctr. 

416 West Main Street 

Chattanooga, TN 37402 

(615)875-6676 

Manager-Owner: Wayne F. Wilson 

Mississippi 

Sunrise'Persons Supplies 
901 South John Street 
Corinth, MS 38834 
(601) 287-4721 
Manager-Owner: Felex Gathings 

Kentucky 

All Business Computers 
Suite C-2317-Versailles Road 
Lexington, KY 40504 
(606) 253-2545 
Manager-Owner Bud Walden 

Stowehuewge Computer, Inc. 
2026-29th Street 
Ashland. KY 41101 
(606) 359-0545 

Ohio 

Office Mart, Inc. 
1151 East Main Street 
Lancaster. OH 43130 
(614) 687-1707 
Manager-Owner. Pat Blake 

Computers Plus of Ohio 
1346 West 4th Street 
Mansfield. OH 43351 
Manager-Owner. Tom Young 

Computers Plus of Ohio 
127 West Waindot Avenue 
Upper Sandusky, OH 43351 
Manager-Owner: Roger Schoenberger 

U-Compute 
Parker Steele Bldg 
429 Monroe 
Toledo. OH 43606 
Manager-Owner: Paul Doldner 

The Computer Store of Toledo. Inc 

18 Hillwyck Drive 

Toledo, OH 43615 

(419) 535-1541 

Manager-Owner: Al and Jackie Miller 

Computer Connection 
2851 Broadway 
Lorain, OH 44055 
Manager-Owner: Terry Rieger 

Mentor TV Inc 
7516 Mentor Avenue 
Menior, OH 44060 
Manager-Owner: William Tomkins 

Computer Site 
14763 Pearl Road 
Strongsville, OH 44136 
Manager-Owner: Bill Sero 

Computer Corner Inc. 
5104 Mayfield Road 
Lyndhurst, OH 44124 
(216) 423-5010 
Manager-Owner: Ross Black 

Computer Showcase 

5855 Youngston-Warren Road SE 

Niles. OH 44446 

(216) 652-2571 



Waltz Photo 
438 Sixth Street 
Canton, OH 44701 
(216) 455-9421 
Manager-Owner: Brad Zupp 

Wards Computers. Inc. 
868 Ohio Pike 
Cincinnati, OH 45245 
(513) 752-2882 
Manager-Owner: Carl Ward 

Computer Plus of Ohio 
123 East Main Cross Street 
Findlay, OH 45840 
Manager-Owner- Mike Deitelbach 

Indiana 

Allan's Jewelry & Loan Co. 
130 East 10th Street 
Anderson, IN 46016 
(317) 642-7978 
Manager. Jerry Rubenstein 

McCarels Computers 
1204 Meridian Plaza 
Anderson, IN 46016 
(317) 643-2662 

AVC Corporation 
2702 Applegate 
Indianapolis. IN 46203 
Manager-Owner- Brent Enderle 

Impair 
342 Bosart 

Indianapolis, IN 46201 
(317) 353-9947 
Manager-Owner- Fred Imhausen 

A Computer Store 

2140 North Mithoefor Road 

Indianpolis, IN 46229 

(317) 898-0331 

Manager-Owner: Skip Robbins 

Computer Plus 
1501 Johet Street 
Dyer, IN 46311 

Manager-Owner: Nancy L. Gray and 
Ronald Piercy 

Computer People 
900 Highway 212 
Michigan City, IN 46360 
(219) 879-8557 
Manager-Owner: Harry Hopkins 

General Micro Computers 
52303 Emmons Road 
South Bend, IN 46637 
Manager-Owner- Johr Levy 

Computer Corner 
6722 East State Blvd. 
Fort Wayne, IN 46815 
(219) 749-8338 
Manager-Owner: Tom Kulina 

Custom Software 

3197 South 3rd Place 

Terre Haute, IN 47802 

(812) 234-3242 

Manager-Owner: Vicki McEntaffer 

Michigan 

Micro Station Inc. 

24484 West 10 Mile Road 

Southfield, Ml 48034 

(313) 358-5820 

Manager-Owner: Jerry Goldberg 

Comm Data 
320 Summit 
Milford, Ml 48042 
(313) 685-0113 

RoseviHe Computer 
25929 Gratiot 
RoseviHe, Ml 48066 
(313) 772-0760 
Manager-Owner. Tom Potter 

Allen Park Computer Center 
7000 Roosevelt, Suite 109 



Allen Park, Ml 48101 
(313)383-8254 
Manager-Owner: Sam Noble 

Haney's Computer Center 
15270 Gratiot 
Detroit. Ml 48205 
(313) 839-1850 
Manager-Owner. Paul M. Paul 

Computer Mart 

915 South Don Highway 

Flint, Ml 48503 

(313) 234-0161 

Manager-Owner. Pal McCollem 

Computer Connection 
444 West Maumer Street 
Adrian, Ml 49221 
(517)265-7872 
Manager-Owner: Ron Gamling 

Newman AN Communications, Inc. 
400-32nd Street SE 
Grand Rapids, Ml 49508 
(616) 243-3300 

Computers and More 
2915 Breton SE 
Grand Rapids, Ml 49508 
(616) 243-3520 
Manager-Owner- Bill Slaughter 

Newman AN Communication 
400-82nd Street SE 
Grand Rapids, Ml 49508 
Manager-Owner- Nancey M Isler 

Computer Tutor 

502 East Front 

Traverse City. Ml 49684 

(616) 941-5320 

Manager-Owner. Caroline Garrick 

Iowa 

Micro Computer Applications 
111 East Church Street 
Marshalltown, IA 50158 
(515) 752-8845 
Manager-Owner: Harold Montover 

Gronert Computers, Ltd. 
4505 Forest Avenue 
Des Moines, IA 50311 
(515) 255-0618 
Manager-Owner: Frank Gronert 

Cosmos Computers 
1721 Grant Street 
Bettendort. IA 52722 
(319) 355-2641 
Manager-Owner. Paul Rung 

Wisconsin 

Starting Computers 
4020 North 128th 
Brookfield, Wl 53005 

Majic Business Systems 

3519 West Wanda Avenue 

Milwaukee, Wl 53221 

(414) 282-8072 

Manager-Owner: Dennis Woitekaitis 

Computerland of Madison 
6625 Odana Road 
Madison, Wl 53719 
(608) 833-8900 
Manager-Owner: James Sullivan 

South Dakota 

Computerland Rapid City 
738 Street John Street 
Rapid City, SD 57701 
(605) 348-5384 
Manager-Owner: John Mattson 

Illinois 

The Software Store, Inc. 
1767 Glenview Road 
Glenview, IL 60025 
(312)724-7730 

Manager-Owner: David Pokritis and 
Jeff Rayer 



84/Commander May 1983 



Digital World 

711 Army Trail Road 

Addison, IL 60101 

(312) 628-9222 

Manager-Owner- Sam Gunda 

B-A Computer Systems 
2 North Batavia Avenue 
Batavia, IL 60510 
(312) 879-2350 
Manager-Owner- Robert Appel 

Softwareland, Inc 
420 West 75th Street 
Downers Grove, IL 60516 
(312) 852-6340 
Manger-Owner. Maureen Quinn 

Rozel Industries, Inc. 
7360 North Lincoln Avenue 
Lincolnwood, IL 60646 
(312) 675-8960 

Manager-Owner- Fred Whitlock and 
Becky Kowalsky 

Fisher Scientific 

490'1 West Lemoyne Avenue 

Chicago, IL 60651 

(312) 378-7770 

Manager-Owner: A.C. Heidrich 

Kappet's Computer Store 
125 East Main 
Belleville, IL 62220 
(618) 277-2354 
Manager-Owner: Tom Kappel 

Data Plus, Inc. 
1706 Broadway 
Quincy, IL 62301 
(217) 222-65602 
Manager-Owner: James Moore 

Missouri 

Micro Age Computer 
11413 Olive Blvd. 
Street Louis, MO 63141 
(314) 567-7644 
Manager-Owner. Norm Fisher 

Common Wealth Computers 
5214 Blue Ridge Blvd. 
Kansas City, MO 64133 
(816)356-6502 
Manager-Owner: Dick York 

Kansas 

Computer Business Machines 
Officenter 357 South Lulu 
Wichita, KS 67211 
(316) 267-1150 
Manager-Owner: Mrs. R. Santoscoy 

Compusense 
1001 South Washington 
Witchata, KS 6721 1 
Manager-Owner: J. Kendrick 

Nebraska 

Hobby Town 

220 North 66th Street 

Lincoln. NE 68505 

Central Office Equipment 
2020 Central Avenue 
Kearney, NE 68847 
(308) 234-2515 
Manager-Owner: Byron Hanse 

Louisiana 

The Computer Center 
1 1 1 C Rena Drive 
Lafayette, LA 70503 
(318) 988-2478 
Manager-Owner: Robert Jones 

Texas 

Taylor Computer Systems 
949 Melbourne Road 
Hurst, Texas 76503 
(817) 284-5251 
Manager-Owner: Mike Taylor 

Computer Home 
431 East Avenue C 



San Angelo, TX 76903 
(915) 653-7488 
Manager-Owner: Brent DeMoville 

Texas Technical Services 
3115 West Loop South, #26 
Houston, TX 77027 
(713) 965-9977 
Manager-Owner: Phil Ray 

U.S. 

420 Plantation Drive 

Lake Jackson, TX 77566 

(713) 297-9016 

Manager-Owner: I.K. Kelly, Jr. 

The Computer Experience 

125 Southbndge 

San Antonio, Texas 78217 

(512) 340-2901 

Manger-Owner: Carolyn Roberts 

Valley Computer Systems, Inc 
1101 North Cage, Suite A1 
Pharr, TX 78577 

Software-N-Things 

2141 West Anderson Lane 

Austin, TX 78757 

(512) 451-4347 

Manager-Owner: John Krieg 

Professional Computer Associates 
5326 Cameron 
Austin, TX 78723 
(512)459-1220 
Manager-Owner: Steve Derosa 

Computerland of Amarillo 

2300 Bell Street 

Amarillo. TX 79106 

(806) 353-7482 

Manager-Owner: Mark Trowbridge 

Colorado 

Whole Life Distributors 
965 Washington Street #6 
Denver, CO 80203 
(303) 861-2825 
Manager-Owner: Tom Tarbart 

Zero Page. Inc. 

2380 Naegele Road 

Colorado Springs, CO 80904 

(303) 633-0211 

Manager-Owner: David C. Cooper 

Idaho 

Electronic Specialties, Inc. 
841 1 Fairview Avenue 
Boise, ID 83704 
(208) 376-5040 
Manager-Owner: Terry Romero 

Wyoming 

Computer Concepts 

3125 East Grand Avenue Street 

Laramie. WY 82070 

Utah 

Computer Plus 
1078 East Fort Union Blvd 
Midvale, UT 84047 
(801) 566-3902 

Manager-Owner- Steve Whitzelor and 
Allen Vincent 

Mnemonics Memory Systems 
(DBA Mnemonics Computer Store) 
141 East 200 South 
Salt Lake City, UT 84111 
(801) 266-7883 
Manager: Rick Giolas 

The Hi-Fi Shop 

2236 Washington Blvd. 

Ogden, Utah 84401 

(801) 621-5244 

Manager-Owner- Brent Richardson 

Central Utah Electronics Supply 

735 South State 

Provo, UT 84601 

(801) 373-7522 

Manager-Owner: George S. Moore 



Arizona 

Computer Super Store 
4001 East Thomas Road 
Phoenix, AZ 85108 
Manager-Owner: Richard Sarhan 

Personal Computer Place 
1840 West Southern Avenue 
Mesa, AZ 85202 
(602) 833-8949 
Manager-Owner: Roger Smith 

Computer Depot 

1201 Iron Springs Road 

Prescot, AZ 86301 

(602) 778-7473 

Manager-Owner: Brice Eldridge 

New Mexico 

Computer Super Store 
1660 Eubank NE 
Alberqurque, NM 87112 
Manager-Owner: Richard Saham 

Nevada 

PCS Computer 
3900 West Charleston, Ste R 
Las Vegas, NV 89102 
(702) 870-4138 
Manager-Owner: Mickey Cole 

Harry's Business Machines. Inc. 
323 West Street 
Reno, NV 89501 
(702) 322-4559 
Manager-Owner: Gordon Foote 

California 

Opamp Tech Books 
1033 North Sycamore 
Los Angeles, CA 90038 
(213) 464 : 4322 
Manager-Owner: Alicion 

Data Equipment Supply Corp. 
8315 Firestone Blvd. 
Downey, CA 90241 
(213) 923-9361 
Manager: Robert Johnson 

Computer Place 
23914 Crenshaw Blvd. 
Torrance, CA 90505 
(213) 325-4754 
Manager-Owner: Wen T. Huang 

Fyrst Byte 

10053 Whittwood Drive 

Whittier, CA 90603 

(213) 947-941 T 

Manager-Owner: Darrell Miller 

Game Room 
5675 Kanan Room 
Agora, CA 91301 
(213) 707-0142 
Manager-Owner: Jean Collier 

General Computer Store 
22323 Sherman Way Unit #7 
Canogca Park, CA 91303 
(213) 704-6600 
Manager-Owner: Anita Broadway 

HW Electronics 
19511 Business Center Drive 
North Ridge, CA 91324 
(213) 886-9200 
Manager-Owner: Ronda 

Levity Distributers 

6857 V2 Ben Avenue 

North Hollywood, CA 91605 

(213) 982-2514 

Manager-Owner- Melinda Plesha 

Data Systems West 

421 West Las Tunas Drive 

San Gabriel, CA 91776 

(213) 289-3791 

Owner: Frank J. Mogavero 

Consumer Computers 
8314 Parkway Drive 



La Mesa. CA 92041 
(714) 465-8888 
Manager: Steve Scott 

Calco Digital Equpiment Inc. 

1919 Aple Street 

Oceanside. CA 92054 

(714) 433-4119 

Vice President: Ronald N. Paperno 

20-64 Software Center 
9829 Mira-Mesa Blvd 
San Diego. CA 92131 
(619)695-0214 
Manager-Owner: Larry Skaggs 

Inland Electro Mart 
8624 California Avenue 
Riverside, CA 92504 
(714) 687-3776 
Manager-Owner-: Jack 

PEC 

1440 South State College. Suite 6F 

Anaheim. CA 92806 

Quality Computer Center 
801 South Victoria Street, #104 
Ventura, CA 93003 
(805) 642-1979 
Manager-Owner: David Stewart 

Jay-Kern Electronics 
1135 Columbus 
Bakersfield. CA 93305 
871-5800 
Manager-Owner: Don Taylor 

Micro Pacific Computer Center 
5148 North Palm 
Fresno, CA 93704 
(209) 229-0101 
Manager-Owner: Mike Remhold 

J. Snell & Co.. Inc. 

657 Mission Street 

San Francisco, CA 94105 

(415) 42,1-5898 

Manager-Owner: James Snell 

Staceys Bookstore 
219 University Avenue 
Palo Alto, C A 94301 

PC Computers 

10166 San Pablo Avenue 

El Cernto, CA 94503 

(415) 527-6044 

Manager-Owner:' Gary Guttebo 

Computer Ideas, Inc. 
1029 Tennessee Street 
Vallejo, CA 94590 
(707) 552-5076 
Manager-Owner: J. Gavin 

Fox Computer Co. 
2678 North Main Street 
Walnut Creek. CA 94596 
(415) 944-9277 
Manager-Owner: Stan Nielson 

Albany Typewriter & Computer 
923 San Pablo Avenue 
Albany, CA 94706 
(415) 526-1959 
Manager-Owner- Bill Tichy 

Idea Computers 
301 North Santa Cruz Avenue 
Los Cratos, CA 95030 
(408) 354-1210 
Manager-Owner: Tom Wolf 

The Computer Room 
230 Mt Herman Road 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
(408) 438-5001 
Manager-Owner- Gary Guttebo 

The Computer Center Stores 
930 Town & Country Village 
San Jose. CA 95128 
(408) 246-5710 
Manager-Owner. R. Reid, 
J. Barlow and N. Kinney 



5@ 



Commander May 1983/85 



Dealers, continued 



Inland Electro Mart 
8624 California Drive 
Riverside, CA 95204 
(714) 687-3776 
Manager-Owner: Jack 

Educational Connection 
1508 Coffee Road 
Modesto, CA 95355 
(209) 576-1611 

Software Plus 

6201 "C" Greenback Lane 

Citnes Heights, CA 95610 

(916) 726-4979 

Manager Owner: Carolyn Webster 

The Radio Place 
2964 Freeport Blvd. 
Sacramento, CA 95818 
(916) 441-7388 
Manager-Owner: Gary Stilwell 

Ray Morgan Co. 
554 Rio Lindo Avenue 
Chico, CA 95926 
(916) 343-6065 
Manager: Dave Wegner 

Computer Place 
1698 Market Street 
Redding, CA 96001 
(916) 221-1312 
Manager-Owner. John Fredricks 

Radio Mart 
1075 Cypress 
Redding, CA 96001 
(916) 241-3000 
Manager-Owner: John Cokeley 

Oregon 

SW Computers 
1125 NE 82nd 
Portland, OR 97220 
Manager-Owner. Jerry 

Edu-Tech 
1575 NW 9th 
Corvallis, OR 97330 
(503) 758-5577 
Manager-Owner: L. Clark and 
W. Brown 

Libra Book Inc. 
856 Olive Street 
Eugene, OR 97401 
Manager-Owner: Larry West 

Midland Cascade 
61 West 8th Avenue 
Eugene, OR 97401 
Manager-Owner: Ron Isaacs 

Ace-Tec 

Highway 101 South Sypress Center 

Bandon, OR 97411 

(503) 347-9322 

Manager-Owner: Ace Egnew 

Washington 

Compu-Play 

1320 South 324th, Suite A-3 
Federal Way, WA 98003 
(206) 839-4453 
Manager-Owner: Kevin Mitchell 

Electronic Supermart 
7040 South 180th Street 
Kent, WA 98032 
(206) 251-8484 
Manager-Owner: Richard Thorp 

Data Borne Computers 
641 SW 152nd 
Seattle, WA 98166 
Manager-Owner: Richard Kantak 

Programs Plus 

16874 Southcenter Parkway 

Seattle, WA 98188 

(206) 575-1375 

Manager-Owner: Nick Smith 



Conti Electronics Ltd. 

c/o Afcon 

140- 14th 

Blaine, WA 98230 

Manager-Owner: G.W. Harder 

Computer Corner 
1610 North Laventure 
Mt. Vernon. WA 98273 
(206)428-1840 
Manager-Owner: Kirk D. Shroyer 

Technique Data Systems Inc. 
3306 Hwy. 101 East 
Port Angeles, WA 98362 
Manager-Owner: Loren Larson 

Computer + 

2504 Jefferson Avenue 

Tacoma, WA 98402 

(206) 272-2329 

Manager-Owner: David Dodd 

Computer Town 
1215 Center 
Tacoma, WA 98409 
(206) 272-2271 

Nibles & Bytes 

4020 South Steel Street, Suite 105 

Tacoma, WA 98409 

(206) 475-5938 

Manager-Owner: John Clark 

Reed Graphics Inc. 
964 East 99th Street 
Tacoma, WA 98445 
Manager-Owner: Don Reed 

The Electronics Shop 
131 North Decator 
Olympia, WA 98502 
(206) 357-6304 
Manager-Owner: Frank and 
Tim Lmaham 

Bits, Bytes and Nibbles, Inc. 
209 Nonhtown Shopping Center 
Spokane, WA 99207 
(509) 487-1601 
Manager-Owner: Richard Shulman 

Alpha Computer Center 
1341 D. George Washington Way 
Richland, WA 99352 
Manager-Owner: John Freer 

Alaska 

BG Systems Co. 

204 East International 

Anchorage, AK 99502 

(907) 276-2986 

Manager-Owner: Robert DeLoach 

Micro Age Computer Store 
2440 Seward Highway 
Anchorage, AK 99503 
(907) 279-6688 
Manager-Owner: Jay Wisthoff 

Canada 

British Columbia 

Book Shoppe 

33-1 0th Avenue South 

Cranbrook, BC V1C 2M9 

(604)426-3415 

Manager-Owner: Tommy Wheeler 

Dynamic Computer Systems 
6-1960 Springfield Road 
Kelowna, BC V1Y 5V7 
(604) 860-7795 
Manager-Owner: Wayne Henrickson 

Sight & Sound Computer Center 
657 Central 

Prince George, BC V2M 1C6 
(604) 562-0356 
Manager-Owner: Jim Condon 

Vulcan Computer Systems 
20571 Fraser Highway 
Langley, BC V3A 4G4 
(604) 530-8572 
Manager-Owner: Gord Tremain 



Datum Electronics Ltd. 
11-3000 Lougheed Highway 
Port Coquitlam, BC V3B 1C5 
(604) 464-4424 
Manager-Owner: John Lim 

Minitronics Coquitlam Center 
1114-2929 Barnet Highway 
Coquitlam, BC V3B 3R5 
(604) 464-0633 
Manager-Owner: Ross Watson 

Village Computer Systems 
17704-56th Avenue, #8 
Surrey, BC V3S 1C7 
(604) 576-8112 
Manager-Owner: Ron Jasper 

Minitronics 
1440 Kingsway 
Vancouver, BC V5N 2R5 
(604) 872-3225 
Manager-Owner: Bud Lam-Lim 

Castle Data Systems Ltd. 
670 East Broadway 
Vancouver, BC V5T 1 X6 
(604) 872-2829 
Manager-Owner: Ken Poole 

Softcorner Developments 

683 East Broadway 

Vancouver, BC V5T 1X7 

(604) 872-6601 

Manager-Owner: Howard Schaefer 

Conti Electronics 
7204 Main Street 
Vancouver, BC V5X 3J4 
(604) 324-0505 
Manager-Owner- Greg Harder 

621 Reading Center 
621 West Pender 
Vancouver, BC V6B 1W7 
(604) 684-3814 
Manager-Owner: Wilson Yau 

Conti Computer Systems 
1216 West Broadway 
Vancouver, BC V6H 1G3 
(604) 734-0606 
Manager-Owner: Duncan Fraser 

Mall Book Bazaar 
850 Granville Street 
Vancouver, BC V6Z 1 K3 
(604) 687-2213 
Manager-Owner: Mike McCord 

Owens & Sons Cash Register 
2101 Government Street 
Victoria, BC V8T 4P2 
(604) 383-7134 

Manager-Owner: Robert Owen and 
Glen Gray 

Owens & Sons Cash Register 
245 Fraser Street 
Nanimo, BC V9R 5C2 
(604) 753-4178 
Manager-Owner: Wayne Wrigley 

Dynamic Computer Center 

31 05-31 st Avenue 

Vernon, BC 

(604) 860-7795 

Manager-Owner: Chris Chambers 

Minitronics Guildford Center 
Surrey, BC 
(604) 584-1033 

Quebec 

Systems Ormic Ltd. 
909 DeBourgone 
Ste-Foy, Quebec GTW 4S6 
(418)659-3858 

Systems Ormic Ltd. 

999 De Bouragogue 

Sinte Foy, Quebec G1W 4S6 

Manager-Owner: Yvon Labbee 

Systems Ormic Ltd. 
133 Ste-Germain 
Rimouski, Quebec G5L 4B6 




Systems Ormic Ltd 
1500 Norte Dame 
Trois-Rivteres, Quebec G9A 4X5 



Caleq, Inc. 

331 Sir Wilfred Laurier 

St. Lambert, Quebec J4R 2L1 

(514) 465-6055 

Manager-Owner: Marcel Bourcier 

Le Camelot 

1191 Place Phillips Square 

Montreal, Quebec H3B 3C9 

(514) 861-5019 

Manager-Owner: Francine Roseenthol 

Ontario 

Questar International, Inc 
7270 Woodbine Avenue 
Markam, Ontario L3R 4B9 
(416) 475-8044 

Electronics 2001 
5529 Yonge Street 
Willowdale, Ontario M2N 5C3 
(416) 223-8400 

Lichtman's News Agency 
34 Adelaide Street West 
Toronto, Ontario M5H 1P6 

House of Computers 
368 Eglinton Avenue West 
Toronto, Ontario M5N 1A2 
(416) 482-4336 

Arkon Electronics 
409 Queens Street West 
Toronto, Ontario M5V 2A5 
(416) 593-9653 
Manager-Owner: Paul Perrin 

Computer Circuit Ltd. 
733 Richmond Street 
London, Ontario N6A 3H2 
(519) 672-9370 
Manager-Owner: Wally Soloton 

Lichtman's News Agency 
Bayview Village Shopping Mall 

Lichtman's News Agency 
1430 Yonge Street 
Toronto, Ontario 

Alberta 

Soft Option 
Box 112, Station T 
Calgary, Alberta T2H 2G7 
Manager-Owner: David Evans 

Computer World 

4921 -49th Street 

Red Deer, Atlanta T4N 1V2 

(403) 347-4280 

Manager-Owner: David Todd 

Kelley Software Dist. Ltd. 
PO Box 11932 
Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3L1 
Manager-Owner: Tom Kelly 

T.J.B. Microsystems, Ltd. 
10991 -124th Street 
Edmonton, Alberta T5M 0H9 
(403) 451-6262 

Manager-Owner: John Atwood and 
Doug Poon 

T.J.B. Microsystems, Ltd. 
l0458-82nd Street 
Edmonton, Alberta 
(403)433-3161 
Manager-Owner: John Atwood 

Electro-T's 
8770-1 70th Street 
Edmonton, Alberta T5T 3J7 
(403) 487-0144 
Manager-Owner: Gerry Rush 

Dico Post #9 

103-9709 Franklin Avenue 
Fori McMurray, Alberta 
(403) 791-6664 
Manager-Owner: Pat Erler 



i 



dBBBBBBBRBBBBBBBBBBBBBl 

86/Commander May 1983 



VIC-20 & C64 

€xclusive needs. . . €xdusive source! 
Southwest Micro Systems Inc 



Hardware & Peripherals: 

VIC-20 Color Computer 1 $145.00 

Commodore 64 1 395.00 

Commodore B128 Computer 1 (128K) 895.00 
MSD Single Disk Drive 7 

[VIC 1541 Compatible) 395.00 
Star Gemini — 10 Printer 

w/cable interface 8 399.00 
Star Gemini — 15 Printer 

w/cable interface 8 575.00 

Amdex Color I Monitor w/cable 9 340.00 

CIE Cartridge (IEEE-488 for C64) 95.00 

VIE Cartridge (IEEE-488 for VIC-20) 75.00 

RS-232R Interface for VIC or C64 45.00 

SPI Parallel Interface for VIC or C64 65.00 

VPI VIC Parallel Interface 45.00 

VEX-3 Expander for VIC 29.95 

VEX-6 Expander for VIC 85.00 

4 Slot Expander for C64 75.00 

V3K Static RAM Expansion 35.00 

V8K Static RAM Expansion 45.00 

V16K Static RAM Expansion 85.00 

V24K Static RAM Expansion 115.00 

40/80 Col VIC Video Expander w/16K 10 175.00 

40/80 Col VIC Video Expander w/64K 10 350.00 

80 Col C64 Video Expander 10 149.00 

Z80 Video Pak for C64<° 250.00 

Light Pen for VIC or C64 25.00 

VAC Audio Cassette Interface 29.95 

VMC/CMC VIC 8c C64 Monitor Cables 15.00 

Joy Stick (Arcade Quality) 25.00 

Atari VCS 2600 Game Adapter 79.95 



C64 Software Products: 

EPYX-Temple of ApshaP 

EPYX-Upper Reaches of ApshaP 

EPYX-Curse of Ra 3 

EPYX-Sword of Fargoal 3 

EPYX-Crush, Crumble & Chomp 3 

Wordpro 3+ Wordprocessing 5 

Info Designs Soft Pack (G/L,A/R,A/P)' 

Data Base for C64 

Financial Spreadsheet for C64 

Super Sprite Cassette 35.00 

Ultra Mail 64 Cassette 20.00 

Personal Finance C64 

Tax Qwik/Personal Tax Program for C64 11 

Quick Brown Fox C64 12 



Disk 
Disk 
Disk 
Disk 
Disk 



Disk 
Disk 



39.95 
19.95 
19.95 
29.95 
29.95 
75.00 

475.00 
95.00 

135.00 
35.00 
25.00 
75.00 
75.00 
55.00 



VIC-20 Software Products: 

VTE/CTE Terminal Program for VIC 8c C64 

Cassette 
Diskette 
VT-40 VIC 40 Col Terminal Communicator 

Cartridge with Downloading 
VIC Super Expander 1 
VIC Programmers Aid Cartridge 1 
VIC Intro to Basic Part I 8c II 1 
Home Inventory 2 Cassette 12.00 
Household Finance 2 Cassette 25.00 
Logic Games 2 Cassette 

Action Games 2 Cassette 

City Bomber 8c Minefield 2 Cassette 



Disk 
Disk 



dge 
dge 
dge 
dge 
dge 
dge 
dge 
dge 
dge 
dge 



Black Hole Game 2 Cartr 

Trashman Game 2 Cartr 

Astroblitz Game 2 Cartr 

Choplifter Game 2 Cartr 

Serpentine Game 2 Cartr 

Apple Panic Game 2 Cartr 

Terraguard Game 2 Cartr 

Videomania Game 2 Cartr 

Spills 8c Fills 2 Cartr 

Pipes 2 Cartr 
EPYX-lnvasion of Orion 

(16K Extra) 3 Cassette 
EPYX-Datestones of Ryn 

(16K Extra) 3 Cassette 
EPYX-Rescue at Rigel 

(16K Extra) 3 
EPYX-Crush, Crumble 8c Chomp 

(16K Extra) 3 Cassette 

EPYX-Plattermania 3 Cartridge 

Heswriter for VIC-20 4 Cartridge 

HES-MON for VIC-20 4 Cartridge 

HES-Turtle Graphics 4 Cartridge 
VIC-20 Data Base 
Wordprocessing for VIC-20 
Quick Brown Fox VIC-20 12 



8.95 
12.95 

45.00 
49.95 
45.00 
45.00 
15.00 
30.00 
10.95 
15.00 
15.00 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 

24.95 

19.95 



Cassette 29.95 



29.95 
39.95 
39.95 
39.95 
39.95 
75.00 
49.95 
55.00 



Immediate delivery on all items. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



'Commodore Int. 

2 Creative Software 

3 EPYX Software 

"Human Engineered 
Software 



Professional Software 

6 lnfo Designs Software 

7 MSD Inc. 

8 Star Mlcronics, Inc. 



'Amdex Corp. 

10 Data 20 Corp. 
"Geneva Tech. Corp. 
12 Quick Brown Fox Inc 



Yes, Please send me: 



QTY 



MODEL# 



i 

1 1 TOTAL (In Texas, add 5% sales tax) 



NAME 



PRICE 



Your Name_ 
Address 

City 



.State. 



.Zip. 



payment method: Check L. Card-Exp. Date. 

Master Card # . . 

Visa # 



American Express #_ 
Signature 



d 



Southwest Micro Systems Inc.* 2554 Southwell 'Dallas, Texas 75229' [2141 484-7836 



ia 



Circle No. 87 



Distributors 



New Hampshire 

Verham News Corp. 

75 Main Street 

West Labnon, NH 03784 

Manager-Owner. Shelley Seward 

New York 

Hudson County News Company 
1305 Patterson Plank Road 
North Bergin, NJ 07047 
Manager-Owner: James Cohen 

Imperial News Co., Inc. 
255 Pinelawn Road 
Melville, NY 11747 
Manager-Owner: Irwin Salbe 

Morlock News Co., Inc. 
496 Duanesburg Road 
Schenectady, NY 12306 
Manager-Owner: Joe Hopfenspirger 

Manson News Dist., Inc. 
634 South Avenue 
Rochester, NY 14620 
Manager-Owner: Joseph T. Rapone 

Empire News of Jamestown 
Johns Place- 
Warren Jamestown Blvd. 
PO Box 2029 Station A 
Jamestown, NY 14701 
Manager-Owner: David H. Goeckel 

West Virginia 

Valley News Service 
1919 Garfield Avenue 
Parkersburg, WV 26101 
Manager-Owner: Dan Stephan. Jr. 

Georgia 

Family Reading Service 
1209 Toledo Drive 
Albany, GA 31705 
Manager-Owner: Tom Green 

Florida 

Sun News Co. 
3600-75th Terr North 
Pinellas Park, FL 33565 
Manager-Owner- Wendy Menne 

Indiana 

Elkhart City News & Bookstore 
519 South Main Street 
Elkhart, IN 46516 
Manager-Owner: George Forman 

Michigan 

Michiana News Service Inc. 
2232 South 11th Street 
Niles, Ml 49120 
Manager-Owner: Ted S. Majerek 



Ohio 

Brunner News Agency 
217 Flanders Avenue 
Lima, OH 45802 
Manager-Owner: Thomas and 
James Brunner 

Iowa 

Iowa Periodicals Inc. 
3301 SW McKinley 
Des Moines, IA 50305 

Wholesale Distr. Inc 
Highway 61 North 
Burlington, IA 52601 
Manager-Owner. John Sandell 

Wisconsin 

Northern Wisconsin News Co. 
Route 3, 4838 South John Paul Road 
Miton, Wl 53563 

Montana 

Northwest News 
101 South California 
Missoula, MT 59801 
Manager-Owner- Ken Grinsteiner 

Illinois 

Central Illinois Periodicals 
501 Kenyon 
Champaign, IL 61801 
Manager-Owner: Craig Tharp 

Austin Periodical 
Highway 37 North 
Johnston City, IL 62951 
Manager-Owner: Bob Austin 

Mississippi 

Cowley Distr. 
732 Heisinger Road 
Jefferson City, MS 65101 
Manager-Owner. John Cowley 

New Mexico 

Rio Grande News Co. 
2505 Commercial NE 
Albuquerque, NM 67101 
Manager-Owner: E.A. Shepard 

Kansas 

M.S. News Company 
901 East Morris 
Wichita, KS 67211 

Nebraska 

Nelson News 
4651 F Street 
Omaha, NE 68117 
Manager-Owner: W.H. Palmer 

Colorado 

Mountain States News Dist. 
208 Racquet Drive 
Fort Collins, CO 80522 
Manager-Owner: R.E. Carlson 



California 

Pomona Valley News Agency 
10736 Fremont 
Ontario, CA 91762 
Manager-Owner. Jay Bogg 

Peninsula News Company 
1944 Leslie Street 
San Mateo, CA 94403 
Manager-Owner: Jim Harter 

Milligan News Co. 
150 North Autumn Street 
San Jose, CA 95110 
Manager-Owner: Jack Gilhs 

Tower Books 
2538 Watt Avenue 
Sacramento, CA 95821 

North Area News 
2163 Fulton Avenue, #12 
Sacramento, CA 95825 
Manager-Owner: Tom Holey 

Oregon 

Fred Bay News Company 
3155 NW Yeon Avenue 
Portland, OR 97210 
Manager-Owner: Robert Bay 

Palmer Distributing, Inc. 
350 SW Wake Robin Avenue 
Corvalhs, OR 97333 
Manager-Owner: Richard L. Palmer 

Midland Cascade 
61 West 8th Avenue 
Eugene, OR 97401 
Manager-Owner: Ron Isaacs 

Washington 

Rainier News Inc. 
1122 Bost SW 
Everett, WA 98203 
Manager-Owner: Ken Swensen 

Lesnick News Co. 
2442 Mottman Road SW 
Tumwater, WA 98502 
Manager-Owner: Ken Heidal 




88/Commander May 1983 



User Clubs 



New Hampshire 

TBH VIC-NIC CLUB 
PO Box 981 
Salem, NH 03079 
Contact— J. Newman 
Publication— VIC-NIC NEWS 
Interests— VIC-20 Exclusively 

New York 

National VIC Association 
9 Crabapple Lane 
Nanuet, NY 10954 
Contact— Michael Klemert 
(914) 623-8929 

Kentucky 

The Commodore Connection 
1010 South Elm 
Henderson, KY 42420 
Contact— Jim Kemp 
(502) 827-8153 
Interests— VIC, CMB 64, PET 

Ohio 

Central Ohio PET User's Group 
107 South Westmoor Avenue 
Columbus, OH 43204 
Contact— Philip H. Lynch 
(614) 274-0304 
Interests— Support of all 
Commodore Products 

SW Ohio VIC Users Club 
659 Carthage Avenue 
Cincinnati, OH 45215 
Contact— Tom E. Harris 
761-7510 

Public Doman Inc. 
5025 So. Rangeline Road 
West Milton, OH 
Contact— Bill Munch 

Indiana 

The VIC Indy Club 
PO Box 11543 
Indianapolis, IN 46201 
Contact— Linda Kropzer 
^317) 878-3342 



Michigan 

Michigan's Commodore-64 

Users Club 
14342 Stephens 
Warren, Ml 48089 
Contact— Doug Schwartz 
(313) 776-5835 or 
Chuck Ciesliga 
(313) 773-6302 
Newsletter— Sprite 64 (published 

monthly) 

Interests— All uses of Commodore 

64 Computer 

South Dakota 

VIC-64 Users Club 
203 East Sioux Avenue 
Pierre, SD 57501 
Contact— Larry J. Lundeen 
(605) 224-4863 

Illinois 

The Fox Valley PET User's Club 

833 Willow Street 

Lake in the Hills, IL 60102 

Contact— Art Dekneef 

(312) 658-7321 

Chicagoland C-64 Users Club 
190 Oakwood Drive 
Woodale, IL 60191 
Contact— Russ Hurlbut 
(312)860-2015 

Texas 

Commodore (Houston) 

Users Group 
8738 Wildforest 
Houston, TX 77088 

California 

Commodore Interest Association 
c/o Computer Data 
14660 La Paz Drive 
Victorville, CA 92392 

Amateurs and Artesian 
PO Box 682 
Cobb, CA 95426 
Contact: B. Alexander KR6G 



Washington 

A.T.S. VIC-20 Computer Club 
7906 34th Avenue SW 
Seattle, WA 98126 
Contact— Ken Gazaway 
(206) 935-2697 
Publication— For VIC-20 only 
Central Washington Commodore 

User's CLub 
1222 South 1st Street 
Yakima, WA 98902 
Contact— Bob Wood or Tim McElroy 
Canada 

Winnipeg PET Users 
9-300 Ennis Killeo 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R2V 0H< 
Contact: Larry Nevfeld 



A Giant Step 

for the computerist 

THE PRDmQUEEn 

Opens up the world of modern elec- 
tronics. Now - a complete microde- 
velopment system in a cartridge using 
the Commodore VIC-20. You get 
HEXKIT 1 .0 for general purpose 8 bit 
microprocessor software develop- 
ment, a 4K ROM emulator for testing 
program in circuits under develop- 
ment plus an EPROM programmer 
for making hard copy of programs. 
All-in-one cartridge * 
with 100 page v 1 

tutorial manual. 



199 



00 



Gloucester Computer, Inc. 

1 Blackburn Center, 
Gloucester MA 01930 
Phone 617-283-7719 



is© 



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Circle No 19 



Commander May 1983/89 



Advertising Index 



1 Aardvark . . . . 5 

2 Academy Software 2 

3 Boston Educational Computing, Inc 77 

4 Bytesize Micro Tech 7, 60 

5 Century Micro 34 

6 CGRS MicroTech 18 

7 Comm Data Software 1 

8 Commodore 64 Users Group 35 

9 Compu-sense 9, 32, 34, 37, 44 

1 Computer Alliance 77 

1 1 Computer Marketing 55 

12 Computer Mat 49, 83 

1 3 Data Equipment 27 

1 4 Eastern House 17 

15 Electronic Specialties, Inc .36 

1 6 Event Horizon 74 

17 French Silk 48 

18 Galactic 67 

19 Gloucester . . ,89 

20 Intelligent Software .32 

21 J. Systems Corporation 37 

22 Leading Edge Back Cover 

23 Liberty Computer Distributers 38 

24 Luna Software 92 

25 Midwest Micro 83 

26 Micro^Ed 73 

27 Micrograms 35 

28 Micro Spec .65 

29 Micro Systems Development 3 

30 Nibbles & Bits, Inc . . . 53 

31 Optimized Data Systems , 8 

32 Performance Micro Products. .36 

33 Precision Technology 65 

34 Protecto 91 

35 Psycom Software 37 

36 Quantum Data , 59 

37 Quick Brown Fox 31 

38 Skylight , . .81 

39 Southwest Micro Systems, Inc , 87 

40 SW Computers 42 

41 Synapse Software . . . , Inside Front Cover 

42 Tamarack Software 23 

43 Taylormade , 42 

44 Texas Technical Services, Inc .42 

45 Toronto PET Users Group .45 

46 TOTL Software , 77 

47 Tsasa, Inc 63 

48 Victory Software Inside Back Cover 

90/Commander May 1983 




Deluxe 

COMSTAR F/T 

PRINTER - $349.00 

The Comstar Is an excellent addition to. any 
micro-computer system. (Interfaces are 
available for Apple, VIC-20, Commodore-64, 
Pet, Atari 400 and 800, and Hewlett Packard) At 
only $349. the Comstar gives you print quality 
and features found only on printers costing 
twice as much. Compare these features. 



• BI-DIRECTIONAL PRINTING with a LOGIC 
SEEKING CARRIAGE CONTROL for higher 
through-put in actual text printing. 80 
characters per second. 

• PRINTING VERSATILITY: standard 96 ASCII 
character set plus block graphics and interna- 
tional scripts. An EPROM character generator 
Includes up to 224 characters. 

• INTERFACE FLEXIBILITY: Centronics is 
standard. Options Include EIA RS232C, 20mA 
Current Loop. (Add $20.00 for RS232) 



• LONG LIFE PRINT HEAP: 

character life expectancy. 



100 million 



• THREE SELECTABLE CHARACTER 
PITCHES: • 10, 12 or 16.5 characters per Inch. 
132 columns maximum. Double-width font also 
Is standard for each character pitch. 

• THREE SELECTABLE LINE SPACINGS: 6, 8 

or 12 lines per Inch. 

• PROGRAMMABLE LINE FEED: program- 
mable length from 1/144 to 255/144 inches. 



• VERTICAL FORMAT CONTROL: program- 
mable form length up to 127 lines, useful for 
short or over-sized preprinted forms. 

• FRICTION AND TRACTOR FEED: will accept 
single sheet paper. 

• 224 TOTAL CHARACTERS 

• USES STANDARD SIZE PAPER 



if you want more try — 

Premium Quality 

COMSTAR F/T SUPER-10" 

PRINTER - $449 

For $449.00 you get all of the features of the 
Comstar plus 10" carriage, 100 cps, 9 x 9 dot 
matrix with double strike capability for 18 x 18 
dotmatrix. High resolution bit image (120 x 144 
dot matrix), underlining, backspacing, 2.3K 
buffer, left and right margin settings, true 
lower descenders, with super and subscripts, 
and prints standard, Italic, Block Graphics, 
special characters, plus 2K of^user definable 
characters. For the ultimate In price per- 
formance the Comstar F/T Super 10" leads the 
pack! 

WE HAVETHE LOWEST PRICES 

We sell to customers and you save the profit 
margin normally made. by computer stores, 
department stores and distributors, we are 
willing to take a smaller margin to develop 
volume. WE LOVE OUR CUSTOMERS — OUR 
PRICES PROVE ITI 



COMSTAR F/T 
ABCDI 



IMMEDIATE REPLACEMENT 
WARRANTY 

If your printer falls because of warranty defect 
within 180 days from the date of purchase you 
simply send your printer to us via United 
Parcel Service prepaid. We will "immediately" 
send you a replacement printer at no charge 
via United Parcel Service prepaid. This warran- 
ty applies to all products we sell because WE 
LOVE OUR CUSTOMERSl 

15 DAY FREE TRIAL 

OTHER OPTIONS 

ExtraRlbbons $ 5.95 

Roll Paper Holder 32.95 

Roll Paper 4.95 

5000 Labels 19.95 

1 100 Sheets Fan Fold Paper 13.95 

Add $20.00 shipping, handling and insurance. 
Illinois residents please add 6% tax. Add 
$40.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RICO, HAWAII, 
ALASKA orders. WE DO NOT EXPORT TO 
OTHER COUNTRIES. Enclose cashiers check, 
money order or personal check. Allow 14 days 
for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 
day express mail available!! Canada orders 
must be in U.S. dollars. 



ENTERPRIZES wcronwwwci) 

BOX 550, BARRINQTON, ILLINOIS 00010 
Phone 312/382-5244 to order 



FBHi O KLMNDPQRBTUVWXYZ at* c= cj 
ABCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQRSTUVWXYZabcdef9hiJklmnopqrstuvw>jy2l234567Q90 



-F«ai|-i± Jkl mn 



SUPER-10" 



Circle No. 34 



ABCDEFGH IJKLMNOI 
ABCDEFGHI JKUMNOPQRSTUVUXYZ 1 2: 



QRSTUVWXYZ 
14567690 

Commander May 1983/91 



SOFTWARE 



LUNA SOFTWARE is quickly becoming one of 
the largest manufacturers of software for the 
Commodore 64™ and Vic 20™ . The reason 
behind our growth is that we offer the consumer 
only the best in quality, service and price. 
We have now available for immediate delivery a 
diverse line of software — ranging from 
business programs to arcade style games, 
Call us today and shoot for the stars with LUNA. 



DISKETTES & CASSETTES FOR THE 
COMMODORE 64™ AND VIC 20" 













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ADVENTURE 

THE KEY 

IS 

YOUR COMPUTER 



555^s3Sv.,.«»* 

$19.95 




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FORGETS." 



MORE THAN JUST ANOTHER PRETTY FACE. 



Says who? Says ANSI. 

Specifically, subcommittee X3B8 of the American 
National Standards Institute (ANSI) says so. The fact 
is all Elephant™ floppies meet or exceed the specs 
required to meet or exceed all their standards. 

But just who is "subcommittee X3B8" to issue such 
pronouncements? 

They're a group of people representing a large, 
well-balanced cross section of disciplines— from 
academia, government agencies, and the computer 
industry. People from places like IBM, Hewlett-Packard, 
3M, Lawrence Livermore Labs, The U.S. Department 
of Defense, Honeywell and The Association of Com- 
puter Programmers and Analysts. In short, it's a bunch 
of high-caliber nitpickers whose mission, it seems, in 
order to make better disks for consumers, is also to 



make life miserable for everyone in the disk-making 
business. 

How? By gathering together periodically (often, 
one suspects, under the full moon) to concoct more 
and more rules to increase the quality of flexible 
disks. Their most recent rule book runs over 20 single- 
spaced pages— listing, and insisting upon— hundreds 
upon hundreds of standards a disk must meet in 
order to be blessed by ANSI. (And thereby be taken 
seriously by people who take disks seriously.) 

In fact, if you'd like a copy of this formidable docu- 
ment, for free, just let us know and we'll send you 
one. Because once you know what it takes to make 
an Elephant for ANSI . . . 

We think you'll want us to make some Elephants 
for you. 



ELEPHANT. HEAVY DUTY DISKS. 

For a free poster-size portrait of our powerful pachyderm, please write us. 

Distributed Exclusively by Leading Edge Products, Inc., 225 Turnpike Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021 

Call: toll-free 1-800-343-6833; or in Massachusetts call collect (617) 828-8150. Telex 951-624.