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-^S8S^>>^>'ttA|K^r#»gyai3 VOL. 1 ISSUES 4/5 






Monthly Joi 



iputer Users 



Mine Field 

Ravings of a Madman 
Bits & Pieces 
New Products 



• Game Reviews 

• VIC 20: Assembly 
Language Programing 




74470"12426 



04 



amn 




UMI games. . .for the fun of VIC" 



Beware! The red planet's skies sre being overrun by a 
squad of interplanetary outlaws led by the deadly 
Spiders of Mars. As the Space Fly, yourjob is to destroy 
them. Be careful! One touch by the Spiders, the 
hideous Bats of Saturn, the Dragon- 
flies of Pluto, or the terrifying Lunar 
Sand Hornets will drop you from the 
sky. Every wave of the marauders is 
more difficult than the last to evade 
and destroy. 

You can enjoy thrilling entertainment 
for hours with any of the many top- 
notch arcade-quality games from 




United Microware Industries, available on either 
cassettes or UMI's own durable cartridges, depending 
on your selection. Write for a catalog, or see the UMI 
dealer nearest you . . . and play UMI games today, for 
the fun of VIC™! 



United Microware Industries, Inc. 
3503-C Temple Avenue 
Pomona, CA 91768 (714) 594-1351 




VIC is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines. Inc 






c[M*DflTfl SOFTWARE 



GUIDES YOU AND YOUR 
VIC 2(T DOWN ROADS OF 
ADVENTURE WITH: 



Maelstrom* 
Escape MCP* 
Gator Chase* 
Astro Command 
Caves of Annod 
Capture the Beast 
Whirlwind Rescue* 
Street Maze 
The Market 
Chivalry 



THROUGH TRAILS OF 
CREATIVITY WITH: 

• Sketch and Paint 





Quality software also available 
for Pet and Commodore 64 computers 



ALONG THE PATH TO 
KNOWLEDGE WITH: 

• Wordspot 

• Math Tutor Series 

• Alphabet Tutor 

• Conversion 

• Gotcha Math 

• English Invaders 

• Math Invaders Series 

ASK FOR COMM*DATA 

COMPUTER HOUSE SOFTWARE 

AT YOUR LOCAL DEALER. 

Or Send for FREE Catalog: 

COMM*DATA COMPUTER HOUSE 

320 Summit Avenue 

Milford, Michigan 48042 

(313) 685-0113 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome. 






VIC 20 is a Registered Trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 
*High Res Full Machine Code Arcade Style Games. 



visa 



FORTHEVIC-20 C 



THE COMPUTER REVOLUTION IS COMING! 
BE READY WITH A MASTERY OF THE COMPUTER KEYBOARD! 

IN THE AGE OF THE COMPUTER, EVERYONE FROM THE SCHOOL CHILD TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD SHOULD 
BE AT HOME AT THE COMPUTER KEYBOARD. THESE PROGRAMS PROVIDE EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO MASTER THE 
KEYBOARD AND GAIN THE COMPETITIVE EDGE THIS BRINGS IN THE COMPUTER AGE. 

* Rated THE BEST educational program for the VEC-20 by Creative Computing Magazine 

•TYPING TUTOR PLUS WORD INVADERS — $21.98 

(2 programs on one cassette tape for the unexpanded VIC-20) 

Typing Tutor plus Word Invaders makes learning the keyboard easy and fun! Typing Tutor teaches the keyboard in easy 
steps. Word Invaders makes typing practice an entertaining game. Highly praised by customers: "Typing Tutor is great", 
"Fantastic", "Excellent", "High Quality", "A source of great learning and joy for our children." 

Customer comment says it all . . . 

". . . and it was everything you advertised it would be. In three weeks, my 13 year old son, who had never typed before, was 
typing 35 w.p.m. I had improved my typing speed 15 w.p.m. and my husband was able to keep up with his college typing 
class by practicing at home." 



FOR THE COMMODORE 64 c 



SPRITE DESIGNER by Dr. Lee T. Hill — $16.95 

Save hours of work when designing sprites. Helps you create multiple sprites, copy and alter them to create views from 
different perspectives automatically for 3-D or animated effects. Options include: copy any of the previous sprites, reflec- 
tion, rotation, translation, shearing, reverse image, merge & intersect. Saves sprite data for merge into your program. 

SHIPPING AND HANDLING $1.00 PER ORDER. CALIFORNIA RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX. 
VISA AND MASTERCARD ORDERS MUST INCLUDE FULL NAME AS SHOWN ON CARD, CARD NUMBER, AND EXPIRATION DATE. 

FREE CATALOG SENT WITH ORDER AND ON REQUEST 



po box 9403 ACADEIilV 

SAN RAFAEL, CA 94912 SOF WARE 



(415)499-0850 



Programmers. Write to our New Program Manager concerning any exceptional VIC-20 or C64 game or other program you have developed. 



Call for Clubs and Newsletters Directory 

To be included in the first edition of the Commander Clubs and 
Newsletters Directory, your club or publication must supply the 
following information: 

1 . name of organization or publication 

2. mailing address 

3. contact person and telephone number 

4. name of newsletter or publication 

5. special interests 

Send your information to Clubs and Newsletters Directory, 
Commander, P.O. Box 98827, Tacoma, Washington 98498. 



Commander— The Monthly Journal for Commodore Computer Users is published monthly by Micro Systems 
Specialties, P.O. Box 98143, Tacoma, WA 98498. Domestic Subscriptions, 12 issues, $22.00. Second Class 
Postage pending at Tacoma, WA 98404 and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to: 
Commander— The Monthly Journal for Commodore Computer Users, P.O. Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 
98498. Entire contents copyright © 1982 by Mirco Systems Specialties. All Rights Reserved. 



2/Commander March/April 1983 




Deluxe 

COMSTAR F/T 

PRINTER — $349.00 

The Comstar is an excellent addition to. any 
micro-computer system. (Interfaces are 
available for Apple, VIC-20, Commodore-64, 
Pet, Atari 400 and 800, and Hewlett Packard) At 
only $349. the Comstar gives you print quality 
and features found only on printers costing 
twice as much. Compare these features. 



• BIDIRECTIONAL PRINTING with a LOGIC 
SEEKING CARRIAGE CONTROL for higher 
through-put In actual text printing. 60 
characters per second. 

• PRINTING VERSATILITY: standard 96 ASCII 
character set plus block graphics and interna- 
tional scripts. An EPROM character generator 
Includes up to 224 characters. 

• INTERFACE FLEXIBILITY: Centronics Is 
standard. Options Include EIA RS232C, 20mA 
Current Loop. (Add $20.00 for RS232) 

• LONG LIFE PRINT HEAP: 100 million 
character life expectancy. 

• THREE SELECTABLE CHARACTER 
PITCHES: • 10, 12 or 16.5 characters per Inch. 
132 columns maximum. Double-width font also 
Is standard for each character pitch. 

• THREE SELECTABLE LINE SPACINQS: 6, 8 

or 12 lines per Inch. 

• PROGRAMMABLE LINE FEED: program- 
mable length from 1/144 to 255/144 Inches. 



• VERTICAL FORMAT CONTROL: program- 
mable form length up to 127 lines, useful for 
short or oversized preprinted forms. 

• FRICTION AND TRACTOR FEED: will accept 
single sheet paper. 

• 224 TOTAL CHARACTERS 

• USES STANDARD SIZE PAPER 



if you want more try — 

Premium Quality 

COMSTAR F/T SUPER-10" 

PRINTER — $449 

For $449.00 you get all of the features of the 
Comstar plus 10" carriage, 100 cps, 9 x 9 dot 
matrix with double strike capability for 18 x 18 
dotmatiix. High resolution bit Image (120 x 144 
dot matrix), underlining, backspacing, 2.3K 
buffer, left and right margin settings, true 
lower descenders, with super and subscripts, 
and prints standard, Italic, Block Graphics, 
special characters, plus 2K of user definable 
characters. For the ultimate In price per- 
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pack I 

WE HAVE THE LOWEST PRICES 

We sell to customers and you save the profit 
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willing to take a smaller margin to develop 
volume. WE LOVE OUR CUSTOMERS - OUR 
PRICES PROVE ITl 



COMSTAR F/T 
ABODE 



IMMEDIATE REPLACEMENT 
WARRANTY 

If your printer fails because of warranty defect 
within 180 days from the date of purchase you 
simply send your printer to us via United 
Parcel Service prepaid. We will "Immediately" 
send you a replacement printer at no charge 
via United Parcel Service prepaid. This warran- 
ty applies to all products we sell because WE 
LOVE OUR CUSTOMERSI 

15 DAY FREE TRIAL 

OTHER OPTIONS 

Extra Ribbons $ 5.95 

Roll Paper Holder 32.95 

Roll Paper 4.95 

5000 Labels 19.95 

1100 Sheets Fan Fold Paper 13.95 

Add $20.00 shipping, handling and Insurance. 
Illinois residents please add 6% tax. Add 
$40.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RICO, HAWAII, 
ALASKA orders. WE DO NOT EXPORT TO 
OTHER COUNTRIES. Enclose cashiers check, 
money order or personal check. Allow 14 days 
for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 
day express mall available) I Canada orders 
must be in U.S. dollars. 



ENTERPRIZES <™cto«yw«cd 

BOX 550, BARRINQTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phono 312/382-5244 to order 



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SUPER10" ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO 

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Commander March/April 1983/3 



Table of Contents 



STAFF 

Publisher 

THOMAS L. ROSENBAUM 

Editor 

ALICIA A. LINDEN 

Dealer/Distributor/Manager 
DEBBIE GABBARD 

Sales Manager 
TERILYN M. FLOYD 

Advertising/Article Manager 
LINDA L. LINDEN 

Typesetting 
GRANGE PRINTING 

Consultant 
EDWIN SUND 
GEORGE R. GAUKEL 
JOHN GABBARD 

Production Artists 
MIKE BRIGHENTI 
BRIAN D. THOMPSON 
JON WONG 

Printed By 
GRANGE PRINTING 

COMMANDER is published monthly by: 

MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES, P.O. Box 98827, 

Tacoma, Washington 98498 



Subscription Rates (U.S. Funds) 


Per Year 


U.S. 


$22.00 


Canadian, Mexican 


$26.00 


Surface Rates 


$37.00 


Air Mail 


$54.00 


For back issues, subscriptions, change of address or 


other information, write to: 




COMMANDER 




P.O. Box 98827 




Tacoma, Washington 98498 




(206)565-6816 





Copyright© 1983 by MICRO SYSTEMS SPECIALTIES 
All Rights Reserved 

ABOUT THE COVER: 

Our Cover by Randy "Tarkas" Hoar 
is a representational piece that places 
the VIC 20 in its rightful realm, a galaxy 
of capabilities. 

4/Commander March/April 1983 




New Products, page 44 



12 

14 
29 
37 

52 

59 



MINE FIELD 80 

by Howard Rotenberg 

FORMATTING AND 
ERROR CHECKING: 
A Time Saving Algorithm 
by Tony Lamartina 

MACHINE LANGUAGE I/O: 
Part One of Three 
by Howard Rotenberg 

SOLITAIRE FOUR 
by Edwin Sund 

RAVINGS OF A MADMAN 
by Tim Parker 

THE SKYLES SOURCE 

CONNECTION 

by Neil Omvedt 

WHY DIDN'T I THINK 

OF THAT? 

by Howard Rotenberg 



DEPARTMENTS 



5 


Editorial 


44 


New Products 


50 


News Releases 


54 


Product Reviews 


62 


Game Reviews 


42 


Bits & Pieces 


43 


Debugging and Fixes 


40 


Game Contest 


76 


User Clubs 


66 


Dealers 


75 


Distributors 


77 


Advertisers Index 



Editorial 



If rumors hold true, by the time this 
magazine hits the newsstands the 64 
will be on sale at your local K-Mart 
store, probably for less than $350.00. 
And once again Commodore will have 
earned lots of points with its dealers. 
Commodore seems to be following a 
policy of establishing a successful pro- 
duct in the marketplace with its dealers 
and then turning the mass merchan- 
disers loose to sell hundreds of 
thousands of computers. It worked 
well for the VIC-20 and will probably 
do the same for a $300 64; but how 
long will the dealers hang with it? 

The current pipeline has the new 
128K byte machines coming in to 
replace the 64 which is undergoing an 
early change of life— it is in transition 
from a low end business machine to 
a high end personal computer. A wise 
decision on Commodore's part as any 
'business' computers in todays market 



must have a 16 bit processor— an 8 bit 
machine will not easily find acceptance 
as a business machine, primarily 
because of the existence of IBM. 

The new 128K machines will be the 
mainstay Commodore business com- 
puters for the next couple of years. The 
really exciting news should come with 
the release of the Z8000 machine. I 
predict (hope) that the Z8000 machine 
will be a high end 64K personal com- 
puter eventually sold en masse at a 
discount price of $300. Coupled with 
a slick 64 type Video Display 
Generator, the CZ8000 would become 
a tough critter for any company to top. 
It could easily do the work of a small 
business computer and allow some of 
the finest entertainment and educa- 
tional software around since it will run 
5-10 times more efficiently than a Z80 
or 6502. We here at Commander are 
anxiously awaiting the release of the 



CZ8000 and are boning up on our 
Z8000 programming in the meantime. 
We just hope the dealers aren't so 
burned out that they refuse to take it. 
The inexpensive CZ8000 will become 
the dominant personal computer of 
the 1980s. 

What Happened to March? 

A note for the Baker Street crowd in 
our midst: the March issue of Com- 
mander has not been abducted. It has 
gone the way of the too rapidly expan- 
ding magazine. The March issue has 
been renamed March/April so that its 
time phasing on the newsstands will 
be proper. All subscriptions prior to 
March are automatically being extend- 
ed by one month and subscriptions 
scheduled to start in March will start 
in April. We apologize for any incoven- 
ience caused by this action. Thanks for 
your patience. 



m:j:,w»M d*i!?i 



Also SAVE on ... 
A COnPLETE line of COflflODORE Accessories 




SAVE 



VIC-1541 (Disk Dr ive >. . _ 399. 88 

VIC-1525 (Printer) 395.88 

VIC- 1538 ( Datisette > 74.95 

V 'C — 1688 (Node* ) 189.93 



359.88 

339.88 

69.95 

97.95 



Zrsl STOCK NOIaJ 



FULL FACTORY WARRANTY 
FOR OLJFt l_OW PRICEC 



Special Package Prices Available ■ 
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Call or Urite for a FREE catalog 

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ORDERS AND CASHIER'S CHECKS - FREE BHIPPI 

ALL COD'm REQUIRE 2SX DEPOSIT 

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(313) 295-2330 



'COMMODORE 64' REB. TRADEMARK CBM, INC. 



Commander March/April 1983/5 




by Howard Rotenberg 
Ontario, Canada 

Mine field is the first game that I had 
written for the PET 2001 back in 
August of 1980. The reason Mine Field 
80 came into existence was because 
of the lack of games available for the 
8032. When all the day's business was 
done and we wanted to relax with a 
game or two we usually had only 40 
column games. This problem was 
overcome by Chuan Chee of St. 
Catherines, Ontario, with a program 
called CBM 4032. This was published 
in the May 1981 issue of Compute on 
page 130. 

The program was excellent in that 
it took care of all the pokes to the 
screen by simulating a 40 column 
screen in the middle of our 12 inch 
screen. The only thing left to do on 
some games was to change the 
keyboard decoding for the business 
keyboard as this had been a major dif- 
ference from the older models. At this 
point I had better stop before I start 
discussing the keyboard decoding 
changes and lose sight of game that 
I started to write about. 

To briefly recap, Mine Field 80 is a 
revamped version of Mine Field that 
uses the whole 80 column screen for 
the playing field. It is a relatively 
straight forward game to play, 
although much harder to win than it 
may first appear. 

The game board consists of a rec- 
tangular fenced-in area that is an old 
abandoned mine field (HENCE THE 
NAME). Scattered about the field are 
pieces of gold that were left behind by 
the fleeing army years before. There 
are also a number of mines that are still 

6/Commander March/April 1983 



armed and ready to explode at the 
slightest touch. Your mission is to try 
to collect all the gold pieces within a 
certain time limit while avoiding the 
mines or the fence, that will also ex- 
plode if you happen to run into it. 



Variables Listed at 
Beginning of Programs 



"Resting" 
Option Available 



Your control is the numeric keypad 
that you will use to maneuver around 
the field. The starting position is the up- 
per left hand corner which also hap- 
pens to be the only way into the field. 
The time you have to collect the gold 
pieces is dependent on the number of 
mines you choose to risk. You have 9 
speeds to choose from although I must 
say if you want a chance to win the 
game you will probably have to use at 
least number 8 (THE SECOND 
FASTEST). I recommend a slower 
speed at first to get the hang of the 
game. The option to stand still and rest 
a second is available by pressing the 
number five key. This will give you time 
to think of the best way to continue 
your attack. I suppose that I should 
mention that when resting, a stray 
enemy aircraft is likely to bomb you if 
he passes by since there seem to be 
a few enemies who don't realize that 
the war is over. The time you may rest 
may vary from a split second to ten to 
fifteen seconds if you are lucky, 
however if you are familiar with the 
COMMODORE'S random number 
generator then I would suggest not 
pressing your luck. 



All the variables are listed at the 
beginning of the program listing so the 
program may be easily modified back 
to a 40 column or even 22 column pro- 
gram for the VIC. The only other 
changes will be the locations that I use 
to poke the playing field to the screen. 
All the movement is done by the good 
old programmable cursor so all the 
newcomers to the COMMODORE 
world may see how to move objects 
around the screen. This is one of the 
few features that seem to have remain- 
ed the same in all of COMMODORE'S 
computers (CHALK ONE UP FOR 
COMMODORE). I have also used 
CB-2 sound for various clicks and 
buzzes. All the routines in the program 
are documented by rem statements 
that may have to be removed to fit the 
program into a VIC with no memory 
expansion. There is also a small 
machine language subroutine poked 
into memory at 634 or $027a hex that 
will have to be changed or excluded 
if used on a VIC or 64. For a 40 col- 
umn Pet just change the 88 in the se- 
cond data statement to 84. For the 
COMMODORE 64 you must poke the 
routine with the same change just 
mentioned into a memory space that 
you have free. I can not suggest a pro- 
per spot for the routine if relocated but 
then again this is supposed to be a 
biased article for us minority 80 col- 
umn users. 

Good luck in your daring endeavors 
and remember that tempting number 
five key, because RESTING can be 
very DANGEROUS.D 






N 


- speed 


T: 


= DIRECTION 


Tl 


= TIME FOR GAME 


1 


= RND HO. FOR SUE 


wi 


= GRMES WON 


a 


= TIME GRME STARTED 



IS R . 

20 REM* * 

30 REM* MINE FIELD 89 * 

40 REM* 

50 REM* HOWARD ROTENBERG * 

60 REM* TnpriHTn riHTAPIi" * 

70 REM* 

80 REM* S = SCORE G = HIGH SCORE * 

30 REM* REG = WR I TEC 15) SND = SHIFT RATE <A6) 

100 REM* T = NUMBER OF MINES PIT = FREQUENCY 

110 REM* M = SPEED EQUATION 

126 REM* H = PEEK AT SCREEN 

130 REM* Z = GETS DIRECTION 

140 REM* V = RND NO. FOR SUE 

150 REM* W = VARIABLE FOR WIN 

160 REM* T2 = TEMP FOR TIME 

170 REM* 

180 REM************************************************************* 

199 REM 

200 REM******************************** 
210 REM* GIVE INSTRUCTIONS AND * 
220 REM* BEGINING OF GAME * 
230 REM******************************** 
240 PR I NT " IT : CLR : GOSUE i 880 : GOSUE 1 6 1 6 
250 REM 

260 REM******************************** 

270 REM* INPUT FROM USER * 

280 REM* FOR SETUP * 

230 REM******************************** 

300 REM 

3 1 S=0 •" W=0 : SND=59467 : REG=5946S P I T-534S4 

320 PR I NT "IT: INPUT "HOW MANV MINES? MINIMUM=SO SSIMII" ; T 

330 IFT-CfcwTHENPRINT'-n" :GOTO320 

340 PR I NT" IT 

350 PR I NT " HOW FAST 1 -9 " : GETN$ : N=VfiL < H$ ) 

360 I FN<1 ORN>9THENPRI NT " m" : GGTQ350 

370 PR I NT " IT : M=H*50 : E=6 : H=32847 : T 1 =T+ ( T* . 2 > 

380 PRINTTflEaOV'VOU HAVE M T1 "SECONDS TO GET AS MANV GOLD PIECES 

AS POSSIBLE" 
390 FOR 1= 1 TO3000 : NEXT : PR I NT " IT 
400 REM 

4 1 REM***************************:***** 
420 REM* SET UP BOARD * 

430 REM******************************** 
440 REM 

450 GOSUE 1210 
460 A=TI 

470 FORJ=1TO500-M : NEXT 
480 IFS=WTHENFRINT":XOHGRATIJLATIONS VOU GOT THEM ALL" Wl=Wi + i 

GOTO 1490 
490 IFTI-A>T1*60THEN1450 
500 REM 

5 1 R REM****************************** 
520 REM* GET DIRECTION AND * 
530 REM* MOVE MAN * 

540 REM****************************** 
550 REM 
560 GETZ*:Z=VflL<Z$):IFZ=0THEN Z=E 



Commander March/April 1983/7 



570 ONZGOTO820.. 626.. 360.. ££Q.. 970, 538.. 739.. 780, 743 

533 IF Z=6 THEN B=S 

590 H=H+1: IFPEEK(H;'= 86THEN1880 

603 I FPEEK ■:: H > =90THEHGOSUE 1 370 

6 1 PR I NT " II " ; : GOTO470 

620 IF Z=2 THEN B=2 

630 H=H+80:IFPEEK<H>= 86THEH1888 

640 I FPEEK <:.' H ) =98THENG0SUB 1 376 

650 PR I NT" II iOM"; :OOTO470 

G6Q IF Z=4THEN E=4 

670 H=H- 1 : I FPEEK < H > = 86THEN 1 333 

63G I FPEEK ■:.' H> =93THENG0SUB 1 370 

693 PR I NT "II III*": ■ GOTO470 

700 IFZ=8THENB=8 

7 1 H=H-S9 : I FPEEK < H > = S6THEN 1 930 

72S I FPEEK < H ) =93THENG8SUB 1 370 

733 PR I NT 'III in§"; :G0T047S 

740 IFZ=9THENB=9 

750 H=H-79 : I FPEEK ( H > =86THEN 1 380 

760 I FPEEK ( H > =90THENGOSUE 1 378 

773 PRINT"1S 7*".; -3310470 

733 IFZ=7THENB=7 

790 H=H-31 : IFPEEK>::H>=S6THEN1080 

300 I FPEEK «:." H ) =90THENGOSU£ 1 373 

310 PRINT "II llHi"; :GOT047@ 

820 IFZ=1THENB=1 

830 H=H+79 : I FPEEK < H > =86THEN 1 380 

840 I FPEEK < h > =90THENGOSUE 1 373 

850 PRINT "II IIDfe"; : G0T0479 

860 IFZ=3THENE=3 

870 H=H+81 = I FPEEK '::H>=86THEN 1383 

380 I FPEEK < H ) =90THENGOSUE 1 378 

893 PRIHT"ll Mt"; ■GOTO470 

900 REM 

9 1 REM****************************** 

920 REM* 2 RANDOM NUMBERS TO BLOW * 

933 REM* YOU UP IF TOO LONG * 



940 REM* 



ON 



r i 



•'E 



* 






950 REM******************************* 

36Q REM 

970 IFZ=5THENB=5 

988 L=INT<10*RHDC1>> 

998 V= I NT ( 1 0*RNB ( 1 > > : IFL=VTHEH 1 488 

1000 GOTO470 

1010 REM 

1 020 REM******************************* 

1033 REM* SUBROUTINE TO BLOW UP * 

1040 REM* IF MINE IS HIT * 

i058 REM* AND PLAV AGAIN? * 

i860 REM******************************* 

1070 REM 

1 880 TZ-T I - A : FORX= 1 T03S = P0KE594SS , 1 94 '■ P0KE59468 , 1 2 : SVS634 

: NEXT = PR I NT "IT' 
1093 PRINTTAB<12>"V0U COLLECTED "S" COINS BEFORE VOU WERE 

BLOWN TO #$£#•" 
1108 PRINTTABC12>"WMUHF0RTUNflTflLV VOU LOST THEM ALL DURING 

THE EXPLOSIONMH" 



8/Commander March/April 1983 



110 

120 

130 
148 
150 
160 
170 
180 
130 
. 200 
.210 

.220 
. 230 

240 
1250 
.260 
L270 

280 
.230 

300 

310 
320 
30 
340 
350 

360 

370 

380 
.390 

.400 

.410 
.420 
.430 
.440 
. 450 
. 460 
.470 
. 480 
. 430 
.500 
510 

320 

.530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 
590 

. 600 

.610 
1620 



PRINTTflB< 12) "VOL! HRD"INTC <T1*60~<T2) )/6«) "SECONDS LEFTS!" 

: N=2000 

FOR J=l TON: NEXT: POKE 158,0: INPUT "CARE JO TRV VOUR LUCK flORIH 

Villi" .; m 

I FLEFT* ( fl* , 1 ) O " N " THEN31 6 
PR I NT " [JTHflNKS FOR PLflV I KG " 
PRINTCHR*<14>=END 
REM 

REM******************************* 
REM* SET UP BOARD * 
REM******************************* 
REM 
PRIHTTflEai) "THERE WILL BE fl BRIEF PAUSE AFTER THE BOARD IS 

SET UP" 
FORJ=1TO2000:NEXT 

PR I NT " IT ■ FOR J= 1 TOT : D= I NT < 1 840*RHB < 1 ) ) : P0KE32848+D , 86 : NEXT 
FORJ= 1 TOT/ 1.3: D= I NT < 1 840*RHD ( 1 ) ) : P0KE32848+D , 99 : NEXT 
F0RJ=32767T032847 : POKE J, 86 ; NEXT 

FORJ=32847TO34808STEP80 : POKE J, 86 ; NEXT 

FORJ=32848TO34887STEP80 : POKE J. 86 : NEXT : P0KE32848, 32 

F0RJ=34688T034767 : POKE J, 86 : NEXT : PR I NT" H" 

F0RJ=32768T034767 : I FPEEK < J ) =96THENW=W+1 

NEXT J : RETURN 

REM 

REH**#*#**##*##########**###*###** 

REM* SUB FOR SOUND ON GETTING * 

REM* GOLD PIECE * 

REM******************************* 

REM 

POKESND ,16: POKEREG ,15: FOR J=255TO250STEF - 1 : POKEP I T , J ■ NEXT : 

POKESND, O 
POKEREG , 8 : S=S+ 1 : RETURN 
REM 

REM******************************* 
REM* GIVE SCORE AND * 
REM* PLflV AGAIN? * 

REM******************************* 
REM 

IFS>GTHENG=S 

PRINT"IT :pRIHTTflE'::23)"S0RRV TIME IS UP!! VOU GOT"S"COINS" 
PRIMTTAB<23)"*Jt'0UR HIGHEST SCORE IS"G"COINS : ? 
PR I NTTflB C 23 ) " MVOU HAVE WON " .; W 1 " GAMES " 
FORJ=1TO20B0:HEXT 

PR I NT : POKE 1 58 , : 1 NPUT " PL A V fiGfl I N Villi" ; A$ : PR I NT = GOTO 1 1 30 
REM 

REM******************************* 
REM* HIT EV BOMBER ON 5 * 

REM* PLflV AGAIN? * 

REM******************************* 
REM 

POKESND, 16 : POKEREG, 51 :F0RJ=0T0255 : POKEPIT, J = NEXT : POKESND, 
PR I NT " IT' : FOR J= 1 TO2OO0 = NEXT 
PR I NTT AB( 23) "VOU WERE HIT BV fl BOMBER !! Jfl" 
PR I NTTflB •:: 23) "RESTING CRN BE DANGEROUS.?]" GOTO 1 120 
I NPUT " DO VOU NEED I NSTRUCT I ONS Villi" .; fit- : I FLEFT* < fl* , 1 ) O " V " 

THENRETLiRH 
REM 

Commander March/April 1 983/9 



163@ 
1640 
1650 
1 &6Q 
1670 
1 680 

1690 

1700 

1710 
1720 
1 730 
1740 
1750 
1760 

1770 
1 730 

1 790 

1800 

1810 
1320 
1830 
1840 
1850 
1 860 
1870 
1 880 
1890 

1900 

1910 
1920 
1930 
1940 
1950 
1 960 
1970 
1980 
1990 

2000 

20 1 

2020 
2039 

2040 
2050 
2060 
2070 
2080 
2090 
2100 
2110 
2120 



REM******************************* 

REM* GAME INSTRUCTIONS * 
REM******************************* 



PR I NT "IT 

PRINT: PR I NT "YOUR MISSION IS TO MANEUVER THROUGH THE MINES X *- 

TO GET THE" 
PR I NT "GOLD PIECES * «- LEFT BEHIND BV THE FLEEING OPPONENT ARMY. " 
PR I NT " MWWi'OUR CONTROLS ARE = W" 
PRINT" 7 3 9 

PRINT" \!/ 

PRINT" 4-5-6 

PRINT" ,i\ 

PRINT" 1 2 3 

PR I NT" MI F YOU HIT fl MINE YOU BLOW UP! YOU CAN REST 

FOR fl .SSHORTS"; 
PRINT" TIME ON NUMBER 5 BUT" 
PR I NT "YOU MIGHT GET BOMBED IN fl SNEAK filR ATTACK BY A STRAY 

£^PMY " 
PRINT: PR I NT "THIS PROGRAM FEATURES CB-2 SOUND! 

HAVE FUN AND GOOD LUCK." 
PRINT: PR I NT "PRESS RETURN TO BEGIN" 
GETfl* : I Ffl*OCHR* < 1 3 ) THEN 1810 
RETURN 
REM 



REM* BEGIN I NG * 

REM****************************** 
REM 

PRINTCHR*< 142) H mmMmMM»n»nnm" ; 

FORA=l T020 : FORJ=1TO80 : NEXT J : PR I NTTAE < 34) "naill fr\9E SFBI EEfi-SD" 
:FORK=1TO80 

aiKSLBD". : HEXTfl 



HEXTK : PRINTTflB<34> "maiWSE 
PR I NTT AB < 5 1 ) " ftDdMMMB Y " 



PR I NTT AB < 44 ) " HOWARD ROTENBERG " 

PRINTTABc:47) "AUGUST 1980" 

GOSUB2O10: RETURN 

REM 

REM****************************** 

REM* CONVERT HEX ML. TO DECIMAL * 

REM* AND POKE INTO MEMORY * 

REM****************************** 

REM 

F0RJ=634T0656 

READ E* : BH*=LEFT* < B* , 1 ) : BL*=R I GHT* (. B$ , 1 ) 

POKE J, CflSC(BH*)-48+< CBH*>"9")#7) >*16+<fiSC<BL*>-48+ 

';s:bl*> :, 9")*7)):next j 

DATA A2 .. SO .. A8 , GO , 84 , 2 1 , 86 .. 22 , E 1,21 , 49 , 83 

DATR 9 1,21 , C8 , DO , F7 , E3 , EO , 88 , DO , F0 , 60 

RETURN 

REM 

REM ******************************** 

REM * WRITTEN AUGUST 1983 * 

REM * REVISED FOR 8032 JULY 1982 * 

REM 

REM 

READY. 



10/Commander March/April 1983 



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Formatting and Error Checking 
— A Time Saving Algorithm 



by Tony LaMartina 
Pittsburg, PA 



The attached demonstration pro- 
gram shows how to format columnar 
number formats so that the decimal 
points always align. There are several 
ways to accomplish this task. The in- 
itial program listing is a simple, easy 
to understand way to align the decimal 
points for columnar numbers rounded 
to two decimal places. Further en- 
hancement of the initial program 
demonstrates error trapping. 

Lines 1 and 30 inputs our data for 
mathematical manipulation. In this 
case, we're inputting A and B to be 
divided, with the result being C. 

Lines 20 and 40 take the string 
input and convert it to a numeric 
variable equal to the value of the string 
(A = VAL(A$). Our inputs are input as 
string variables to facilitate a program 
expansion discussed later. 

As you can see, A$ is input at col- 
umn 1 , line 1 . Input b$ is then position- 
ed at column 21 (spc20), line 1(" "). 

Line 50 rounds the result, to two 
decimal places via the DEFFNA state- 
ment, and line 60 does the 
mathematical computation. 

Now the fun begins! 

Line 70 converts our rounded result, 
(C), to a string representation. Line 80 
looks at the rightmost two characters 
of our C$ string and assigns them to 
string variable X$. 

Line 90 then looks arthe leftmost 
character of string X$ to see if it is a 
decimal point (remember in a string 
the decimal point is also considered a 
character), meaning our answer has 
only one decimal place due to PET 
BASIC automatically truncating trailing 
zsros (1 .55 + 55-3.1, not 3.1 0). If this 
condition is true then we add "0" to 
C$, again giving us an answer carried 
out to two decimal places. 

Line 100 operates similarly to line 
90. If our answer C is equal to the in- 

12/Commander March/April 1983 



teger of C (no decimal places, 
1 .5#1 .5 = 3 not 3.0 nor 3.00) then we 
add ".00" to C$, again giving us an 
answer carried out to two decimal 
places. 

The key to this little routine is line 
1 1 0. Since our answers (properly for- 
matted thru lines 70-100) need to be 
printed in a column with the decimal 
points aligned, we use SPC and LEN 
to our advantage here. 

When we print our answer, we 
space over 60 columns minus the 
length of our answer. This will align the 
last character of our answer, and since 
all our answers have been formatted 
to two decimal places the decimal 
points will automatically align too! This 
makes for ease of reading and is more 
aesthetically pleasing to the eye also. 

Line 120 brings us back to line 10 
for multiple entries and viewing of the 
formatted output column. 

Now, what about the program ex- 
pansion I spoke of? This expansion in- 
volves error checking to eliminate the 
unwanted"? REDO FROM START" 
that generates and ruins your format- 
ted display. Also we'll see how to avoid 
the "? DIVISION BY ZERO" error that 
may also occur. 

The addition of the following lines 
after each input will branch away from 
the error message "?REDO FROM 
START' ' prior to its display (This is why 
we input a string rather than a 
number.) 

12 k= len(a$) 

14 for j = Itok 

16 if asc(mid$[a$,j,l]) < 45 or asc) 

mid$[a$,j,l])>57 then 

j = k:goto1000 

18 next 

Repeat these same lines as lines 32, 
34, 36 and 38. Change the goto in line 
38 to 1050. 

Briefly, what these additional lines 



accomplish is this. We input a string of 
length K. If our string (or any single 
character of our string) has an ascii 
value of less than 45 or greater than 
57 then branch out to an error alert 
routine. Ascii values in this range allow 
for numeric entries, fractional numeric 
entries, and negative numeric entries. 
All non-numeric entries will cause an 
error branch. Branch to what? Well, 
let's give our operators an audible alert 
to an erroneous entry and a chance 
to try, try again! We'll use the follow- 
ing lines as an "error branch to" and 
an audible alert subroutine. First, we'll 
alert the operator to the error via the 
built in chime present in PET/CBM 
40/80 columns. (Those of you with the 
2001 series will need an amplifier 
hooked up to the CB2 output.) 

In the preceeding line 16 we used 
a goto 1 000 for an error branch so lets 
begin there. 

rem 999 rem error alert 
(never branch to a rem statement) 
1000 gosub 5000:rem audible alert 
1010 printchr$(22) 

1020 print "IT ":goto20 

For error checking line 30, our 
routine changes slightly. 
1050 gosub 5000:rem audible alert 
1060 printtab(1Q);chr$(22) 
1070 print "| ":goto30 

Line 1 000 directs us to gosub5000, 
so let's take a look at 5000 + then we'll 
return! 

5000 for i = 1 to3 

5010 poke 59467, 16:poke59464, 

50:poke59466,100 
5020 for t = 1to100:next t 
5030 poke59464,75:poke59466,175 
5040 for t = 1to100:next t 
5050 next i:poke59467;0:poke 

59464, 0:poke59466,0 
5060 print " 
5070 return 



Line 5000 sets up a 3X loop. Line 
5010 pokes location 59467 with a 
value of 1 6. This sets the shift register 
oscillator to a free-running condition 
with a squarewave output. All this 
means is it turns the music on! Poke 
59464 and 59466 sets the tone and 
timbre of our musical note output. 

Line 5020 gives a time delay, while 
line 5030 changes the tone and tim- 
bre and line 5040 gives us another 
time delay. 

Line 5050 sends us back to line 
5000 to do it all again. After 3 repeti- 
tions, line 5050 pokes all three poked 
locations to zero, turning off the music 
port and thus we return to line 1000 
going to line 1010. 

The values at locations 59464 and 
59466 can be any value from 2 thru 
254 inclusive. By varying these values 
and the amount of time delay, you can 
program your own alert or any musical 
ditty! (See CB2 Music Programming in 
the third edition of "PET PERSONAL 
COMPUTER GUIDE" by Osbornne, 
Strasma, and Strasma.) 

Line 5060 could be removed and 
placed at line 1005. This line merely 
positions the cursor for what is about 
to happen in line 1010. 

Using the CHR$ (22) command, 
erase line from cursor to end, we erase 
our erroneous entry. PET BASIC 
forces an automatic carriage return 
after any print command, therefore it 
is necessary to reposition our cursor 
up a line or two. We then goto line 20 
or 30 depending, and re-input at the 
same space and column position we 
started from! 

You can further error check by trap^ 
ping such errors as too long of a string 
input: 

55 if len(a$) 7 then 1000 

115 if len(b$) 7 then 1050 

or trapping a divide by zero error 

135 if B$="0" then 

c$ = ".00":goto200 
You will need an error erasure line for 
each error checking routine goto after 
input, as the goto changes in each 
case based on its associated input. 
The error erasure routine (lines 
1000-1020 and 1050-1070) could not 
be made into a subroutine as the 

Continued on page 34 



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Commander March/April 1983/13 






Machine Language I/O: 
Part One of Three 



by Howard N. Rotenberg 
Ontario, Canada 



This is an article that I wish 
somebody else had written a while 
back. It deals with what I feel is one 
of the most important aspects of 
machine language and the one least 
documented. I speak of machine 
language I/O that I am sure has 
plagued most of us at some time. 
There has really been very little help 
for those of us trying to figure out how 
to talk to other devices on the IEEE 
bus or even just use simple input 
routines. I spent many hours, WEEKS 
to be more exact of trial and error at- 
tempting to decipher other people's 
code to find out the mystery behind 
these routines. Finally after a lot of 
painstaking work and about as much 
frustration as anyone could take, the 
puzzle started to come together. This 
is the reason that I have decided to 
write this three part column on this 
subject. The columns are not for com- 
plete beginners but rather for those 
with a fair working knowledge of 
machine language. I do not claim that 
the way I will present the following 
material is optimized to the best possi- 
ble way but it does work and that is the 
important factor. 

The first half of this article will pre- 
sent an all purpose machine language 
input routine. The second half will dive 
into opening files to a disk drive, 
reading and printing them to the 
screen. Part Two will deal with open- 
ing a device for both input and output. 
This will be. demonstrated by a small 
terminal program for the IEEE modem. 
The program is straightforward and its 
logic may be applied to any device. 
The third and last part of the column 
will tie everything together. The 
knowledge and routines gained from 
the first two columns will be put to full 
use in a full blown terminal program. 
The program will show how to use the 
14/Commander March/April 1983 



input routine, disk routine and the ter- 
minal routine to allow the following: 

1) Open files for input or output from 
our input routine. 

2) Check for any disk errors. 

2) Talk to another computer in either 
ascii or petascii via a modem. 

4) Utilize the IEEE routines for using 
the bus. 

5) Send or receive files via a 
modem. 

6) Most importantly be able to do all 
the above simultaneously. 

I have specified the routines that are 
Rom dependent by giving the 
upgrade Rom addresses in the con- 
stant table at the beginning of each 
program. The program was, however, 
written using BASIC 4 Rom locations. 
If one felt really ambitious he could 
disassemble the Rom routines and use 
them so his programs would be com- 
pletely Rom independent. Some pro- 
prietary software is done this way to 
lessen the maintanence needed after 
release. I will show how some of these 
Rom calls could be implemented to 
make them machine independent. 
With all this in mind we can now dive 
into the first routine and slowly work 
our way to complete control over our 
computer. The first two routines will be 
discussed with much more detail than 
the following ones in the next column 
since they will be based upon these 
routines. 

The first routine is an input routine 
that should work on all COMMODORE 
computers with the change of the load 
address and our temporary buffer that 
I chose to call BUF1 . It uses the ker- 
nal routines WRITE $FFD2 and 
GETCHR $FFE4. These are the same 
on all of COMMODORE'S computers. 
The constants are all labeled and 
should be self-explanatory. I chose the 
number 10 for the limit of input 



characters although you may wish to 
change this or not limit it at all. 

Since we are going to store our in- 
put characters into a temporary buffer 
it is important to make sure that all your 
text will fit without overwriting anything 
else. 

As we start to examine the routine 
the first task I perform is to clear the 
buffer area that I will be using. In this 
case I fill the ten positions with spaces. 
We enter the input routine by printing 
a half cursor to the screen designed 
out of the character CHR$(185). Our 
first character will be printed where our 
mock cursor is sitting because we 
backspace over it. The Y register is us- 
ed as an index or counter for our in- 
put string. We must save this before 
going to the keyboard for a character 
since the routine JSR GETCHR uses 
it and we will lose our count. After we 
have our character we must store it so 
we may restore our counter at which 
point we go back for our entered 
character. At this point we do a few 
checks on the character we have 
entered. If it is a delete then we must 
go to the second part of the routine to 
do this. We will discuss how it works 
when we get there. If it is a quote, we 
don't allow its entry and go back for 
another character (JUST FOR FUN 
REMARK OUT THE CHECK FOR 
THE QUOTE AND SEE WHAT HAP- 
PENS). A carriage return denotes the 
end of our input and exits the routine. 
Assuming that all the above checks fell 
through then we have our character 
and store it in our buffer for later use. 
Our index counter Y is incremented at 
this time. If the maximum number of 
characters that were designated at the 
beginning of the program are met then 
we procede to a wait routine. This will 
allow us to change our input or let us 
leave by entering a carriage return. 
The routine also stores the index and 
entered character in the same way as 
before. 

This now leaves us at the end of the 
routine that will delete a character for 
us. The first thing we check is to see 
if there are any characters to delete. 
This is accomplished by comparing 
the index register Y to zero to see if any 
characters were entered prior to the 
calling of this routine. If this is the case 



then we return to our main input 
routine. Having determined that there 
is indeed at least one or more charac- 
ters to delete, the following steps 
occur: 

1) The position of our invisible cur- 
sor is placed over the character to be 
deleted. 

2) We overwrite the character to be 
deleted and our mock cursor with a 
space. 

3) We position our invisible cursor 
back to the place our deletion took 
place. 

4) We decrement our character 
count by one even though the 
character is still in the buffer. 

5) We go back to our input routine 
which will print the new mock cursor 
and continue. 

This is all there is to it. We have 
created an input routine that may be 
used in any way we please. Does it 
seem as confusing as you thought it 
might have been or does it seem to 
make sense after looking at it for 
awhile? I have put the characters into 
a buffer for the following reason. At a 
later time I intend to transfer them to 
another buffer. This will be the address 
of a file name that I will use to open 
on the disk, however let's not rush in- 
to that yet. 

We have just seen a routine that fills 
a buffer with X number of characters. 
Well, let me see them, you may be 
thinking. At this time you may access 
them from BASIC to validate the input. 
Here are two ways to accomplish this. 

FOR J = 634 TO 643: PRINT 

CHR$(PEEK(J));: NEXT 

This assumes you used the entire 
ten characters and will display all of 
them. You may change the count to 
utilize your input. This next example 
will take what is in the input buffer and 
assign it to A$. Be sure that your buf- 
fer does not exceed 255 characters 
and note that there is no semicolon 
after CHR$(PEEK(J)). 

FOR J = 634 TO 643: 
A$ = A$ + CHR$(PEEK(J)): NEXT: 
PRINT A$ 

If you wanted to, you could use a 
large chunk of memory for your buf- 
fer and then store it to disk for later 
use, or print it as it sits. Is anyone game 
for writing a word processor? 



This takes us to the second half of 
part one of this column. The program 
we will be looking at now is for open- 
ing a disk file for reading. Unlike open- 
ing a file in BASIC there are a lot of fac- 
tors that we must take care of. These 
are things that are done for us by the 
BASIC interpreter that are user invisi- 
ble. The key addresses that we must 
use are listed and explained here 
before I go into the actual internal 
workings of the program. I have used 
variable names that I hope will help the 
program to be partly self documen- 
tary. I have only listed the addresses 
that we must set that BASIC would 
otherwise take care of. See program 1 . 

As I mentioned earlier all of the 
above JSR routines could be dis- 
assembled and used or rewritten to 
make the program Rom independent. 
A good example of this may be shown 
using the routine PRMSG. It is fairly 
simple to implement. By examining its 
contents in Rom we can see that it 
uses the Floating point accumulator 
#1, so we shall do the same. The 



routine assumes that the accumulator 
holds the low byte of the pointer to our 
message and the Y register holds the 
high byte. With this knowledge we will 
now write our own Rom independent 
routine to print out a string of 
characters. Both routines I would like 
to add assume a zero byte to denote 
the end of our text. See program 2. 

That is our routine that is no longer 
O.S. dependent. The same can be 
done with all open, close and other 
statements, however the coding is 
much longer. 

Returning to our program we will 
start by opening the command chan- 
nel. Our code is equivalent to OPEN 
1 5,8, 1 5. As you can see from the pro- 
gram we must first store the file 
number in FNUM (I will use my cons- 
tant names for clarification). We then 
proceed to store the device and 
secondary address in their respective 
places. Since this is the command 
channel we will set the file length to 
zero along with the status. When all 
this is done we JSR to the open state- 



Program 1 


FNUM = $D2 




FILE NUMBER 


FNLEN = $D1 




FILE LENGTH 


FNPTR = $DA 




FILE NAME POINTER 


OPEN = $F563 




OPEN FILE 


OPENI = $7AF 




OPEN FOR INPUT 


DISKDS = $FFBD 




GET DISK DS$ 


CLOSE = $F2E2 




CLOSE FILE 


CLEAR = $F2A6 




CLEAR CHANNEL 


GETCHR = $FFE4 




GET 1 CHARACTER 


WRITE = $FFD2 




WRITE 1 CHARACTER 


DEV = $D4 




DEVICE NUMBER 


SECADR = $D3 




SECONDARY ADDRESS 


PRMSG = $BB1D 




PRINT A MESSAGE 


Program 2 


Setup: WRITE = $FFD2 


PRINT A CHARACTER 


PTR = $5F 


,USED FOR POINTER 


LDX # < MSG 


GET THE LOW BYTE OF OUR TEXT 


LDY # > MSG 


GET THE HIGH BYTE 


JSR PRMSG 


GOTO OUR NEW SUBROUTINE 


Routine: PRMSG STX PTR 


STORE THE LOW BYTE OF OUR TEXT 


STY PTR + 1 


STORE THE HIGH BYTE 


LDY#0 


INITIALIZE INDEX 


CONT LDA (PTR), Y 


GET A CHARACTER 


BEQ FINISH 


IF ZERO THEN WE ARE FINISHED 


JSR WRITE 


PRINT A CHARACTER 


INY 


BUMP INDEX 


JMP CONT 


BACK FOR ANOTHER CHARACTER 


FINISH RTS 


BACK TO CALLING ROUTINE 


MSG .BYTE THIS IS A 


ROUTINE TO PRINT TEXT',0 



Commander March/April 1983/15 



ment and our command file is open. 
As you can see from this, we must do 
most of the work ourselves since we 
don't have BASIC to fall back on. 

Next we need to get the length of 
the file name that is held in the bytes 
following the label file. The file name 
in this case is hardcoded into our pro- 
gram for demonstration purposes on- 
ly, although there are many applica- 
tions that may need to do just this. Us- 
ing the X register we cycle through the 
name and then save its length (HELD 
IN X) into a memory location called 
TEMP for retrieval at a later time. We 
will now proceed to open our file. We 
start out the same way as we opened 
our command file, storing our new in- 
formation needed for a proper open. 
At this time we need some additional 
information, mainly the address of our 
file name. We store the low and high 
bytes of this address at FNPTR and 
FNPTR+1 respectively. Once again 
we set the status to zero and then JSR 
to a routine to check the disk status. 
Like BASIC we will want to know if our 
open was good. At this point I would 
just like to remind you of a comment 
I made earlier about using a buffer for 
our input routine. In this example, as 
I mentioned before, the file name was 
hardcoded in but consider this. We put 
the low and high bytes of our file name 
into the file pointer, although we could 
have passed it the address of our buf- 
fer. If we would have entered a file 
name into the buffer, with just a little 
more work (NOT MUCH) we would 
have had the flexibility to enter our file 
name through our input routine. I trust 
that you are following the logic that I 
am applying or at least have you think- 
ing about the possibilities that await us. 
This will be done in part THREE of this 
column when I tie all the loose ends 
together and utilize everything we 
have done up until then. 

This puts us back to the error routine 
we were about to JSR to. In BASIC 4 
upon entering this routine we JSR to 
a routine called DISKDS that will give 
us the proper set up for DS$. The ad- 
dress SOD contains the length of the 
disk status message and $0E contains 
the pointer to the place in memory that 
the message actually resides. For 
simplicity's sake, once again I have 

16/Comnnander March/April 1983 



chosen to put out a hardcoded disk er- 
ror message instead of the actual 
message contained in DS$. There is 
a strange occurence of the channels 
being closed when this message is ac- 
cessed. This then results in a file not 
open error. Although it should be 
straightforward to print the error 
message there are a few catches that 
I have not ironed out yet. Any help 
from those readers that may know the 
way around this would certainly be ap- 
preciated. Back to business, we check 
to see if there is an error by compar- 
ing the error number to the number 
two. Zero and one are acceptable 
since they are no error or scratched 
file. If there is no error we return to the 
calling routine or else we print out our 
error message and set a flag that I 
chose to call DISKER. At this point we 
also return to the calling routine. 

This now has us to the point where 
the file is opened for input and the er- 
ror flag is checked. If there is an error, 
signaled by the flag set to one we 
abort and proceed to close the files. 
Assuming there is no error we then 
read the file (IN THIS CASE OUR 
SOURCE FILE) using a short and sim- 
ple routine. 

We use the two kernal routines 
CETCHR and WRITE to display the file 
to the screen. We check the status 
after every character just as we would 
in BASIC to catch the end of the file. 
As the end of the file is reached we 
branch to FINISH where we will close 
all files. You will notice a definite dif- 
ference in the speed that the file is read 
and displayed as opposed to that of 
BASIC. 

To close we must do two things, 1) 
clear the channels being used and 2) 
close the files, of course. You will 
notice that I used the X register to clear 
the channels and the accumulator to 
close them. This is very important and 
should be done this way for a proper 
closing of files from machine langu- 
age. The last statement is RTS which 
will take us back to BASIC or whatever 
routine we may have used to call this 
one. 

It took all of that to do what we could 
have done in these few lines of BASIC. 
10 OPEN 8,8,8,"OPENFILE. 
SRC.S.R" 



20 IF DX^2 THEN PRINT DS$:END 

30 GET#8,A$ 

40 PRINT A$; 

50 IF ST <> 64 GOTO 30 

60 CLOSE 8 

I have cheated a little by using the 
BASIC 4 way of detecting errors in- 
stead of opening the error channel 
and reading it although I have not us- 
ed DOPEN or DLOSE statements. 

If we must do all of that work in 
machine language just to implement 
these few lines of BASIC that could 
even be condensed into three lines, IS 
IT WORTH IT? If you are just going to 
read a file as we did the obvious 
answer is no, however there are a lot 
more things that we will want to do. 
These things could not possibly be 
done with the present speed of BASIC. 
Just try to do more than one or two 
things using I/O with BASIC simultan- 
eously and the reason for our need for 
machine language will become bla- 
tantly obvious. 

I believe we have covered a lot of 
ground and some time for it to sink in 
(NO PUN INTENDED) would be most 
appropriate. In PART TWO of this arti- 
cle we will get involved with two small 
terminal programs that will best show 
a device that is used for input and out- 
put. The first program will be the most 
straightforward in that it will allow two 
COMMODORE computers to con- 
verse with their full character set. The 
second will translate to ascii 
(AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR 
INFORMATION EXCHANGE) in which 
we will have to do a little translation on 
both input and output. I use a terminal 
program only because I feel it is a sim- 
ple but meaningful way to com- 
municate the ideas I will present. The 
added ability to use the examples I use 
is also important. If there are any ques- 
tions, I will be more than happy to 
answer them, however I would prefer 
them to wait until all THREE parts are 
presented. This will allow time to ex- 
periment with your own programs in 
which you will probably find that the 
answers to your questions are at your 
own finger tips. In closing I would just 
like to mention that all the program 
listings that are included with this arti- 
cle were assembled using COM- 
MODORES assembler.D 



LINE# 


LOG 


CUD! 


rl 


90001 


0000 






90002 


0Q00 






00003 


00801 






00004 


0000 






90005 


0000 






00006 


0000 






00007 


01000 






30008 


01000 






00009 


00001 






00010 


0000 






0001 1 


00100 






00012 


0000 






09013 


0090 






00014 


0000 






000 j 5 


01000 






00016 


0000 






9001/ 


0000 






00918 


0800 






|7i t~i [!■'■} 1 C\ 


00100 






90020 


0886 






00021 


0000 






00022 


0-800 






00023 


0800 






30024 


0000 






000-25 


0080 






50026 


0080 






90027 


1088 






9S023 


1008 






00023 


1088 






00030 


1880 


80 


88 


00031 


1802 


H3 


28 


00032 


1 884 


99 


7A 82 


90033 


1887 






30034 


1 868 


C8 


8ft 


00035 


180R 


D0 


F8 


00036 


1 80C 






00037 


180C 






00038 


180C 






00039 


168C 


AS 


88 


00040 


100E 


A9 


B9 


00041 


1010 


28 


B2 FF 


010042 


1013 


A3 


3D 


30043 


1815 


28 


B2 FF 


00044 


1018 


38 




00045 


1819 


48 




00046 


ieifi 


28 


E4 FF 


06647 


101D 


oi=; 


8fi 


60048 


ieiF 






010043 


1828 


no 




00056 


1821 


R5 


8R 


0.0051 


1823 


F8 


E9 


60052 


1825 


P3 


14 


010653 


1 iT-0~7 

± r _'uL I 


F8 


2Fi 


00054 


1029 


09 


8D 


00055 


182E 


F8 


■-icr 



LINE 






; PUT "60: INPUT. SRC 




.; +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 


; + 


IMP 


UT ROUTINE + 


.■" + 


SAMPLE ML. INPUT ROUTINE. + 


; + 


MAV BE USED 


OH ALL COMMODORE + 


; + 


COMPUTERS W 


ITH THE CHANGE OF + 


■L 


i HE LOAD F 


ND BUF1 ADDRESS + 


..; -r 


TO SUIT THE 


INDIVIDUAL MODELS. + 


; f 


By HOWA 


RD ROTENEERG + 


; h- 


TORONTO ONTARIO + 


.; +•+++■+■ 


+• -i- +++■+• +-I-++++ 


+ + + + T- + + + ++ + + + + + + + + + + 


WRITE 


= $FFD2 ,F 


■RIHT A CHARACTER 


GETCHR 


= *FFE4 , C 
CONSTANTS 


iET A CHARACTER 


LflSTCH 


= *0fl 


/TEMP STORAGE FOR 
CHARACTERS 


MRNCHR 


= *8fl 


: LIMIT OF TEN FOR INPUT 


.bur 1 


= $827A 


; BUFFER TO STORE INPUT 
STRING 


BACK 


= *3D 


.; BACKSPACE 


DEL 


= *14 


.: DELETE 


SPACE 


■■= $28 


; SPACE 


f;p 


= *9D 


.CARRIAGE RETURN 




* = $1888 


: LOAD ADDRESS 


•■' 


CLEAR OUR S 


TORAGE BUFFER 




LBV #9 


,SET INDEX 




LDfl #SPflCE 


;CHR TO CLEAR BUFFER 


CLR 


STA BUF1,V 






INV 


J INCREMENT INDEX 




CPV #18 


,;ALL POSITIONS CLEARED 




BNE CLR 


;IF NOT LOOP BACK 




INPUT ROUT I 


NE 




LBV #8 




PCURS 


LDfl #185 


.: PRINT CURSOR 




JSR WRITE 


; CHARACTER 




LDR ttBRCK 


;PUT CURSOR BACK 




JSR WRITE 


J OVER IT 




TVA 


; TRANSFER INDEX 




PHA 


J STORE IT 




JSR GETCHR 


.: GET A CHARACTER 




STA LflSTCH 


; STORE IT 




PLA 


;GET INDEX 




TflV 


.; RESTORE V INDEX 




LDfl LflSTCH 


,GET SAVED CHARACTER 




BEQ PCURS 


;IF NOTHING LOOP BACK 




CMP #BEL 


;IS IT THE DELETE KEV 




BEQ DELETE 


; IF SO GOTO DELETE ROUTINE 




CMP #CR 


; IS IT A CARRAIGE RETURN 




BEQ FINISH 


.: IF SO THEN EXIT 



Commander March/April 1983/17 



LINE* 


_oc 


CODE 




LINE 








00956 


102D 


C9 22 






CMP 


#'" 


J A QUOTE 


0005? 


102F 


F0 BB 






BEQ 


PCURS 


.;DOHT fiLLOW 


00058 


1031 


99 7fi 


02 




STA 


BUF1,V 


.STORE THE CHfiRfiCTER 


00059 


1 034 


20 D2 


FF 




Ti-.P: 

•J or:. 


WRITE 


iRHli PRINT TO THE SCREEN 


60060 


1037 


C 8 






INV 




; INCREMENT BUFFER INDEX 


90061 


1038 


C0 0fi 






CPY 


#MAXCHR 


.ifiLL CHARACTERS DONE 


00062 


1 03fi 


FO 03 






BEQ 


WRIT 


.;VES SO WAIT FOR DEL OR CR 


90063 


1S3C 


4C 0E 


10 




JMP 


PCURS 


;NO? GO BACK FOR ANOTHER 


00064 


103F 


Ci;~; 




WAIT 


TVfi 




.; TRANSFER INDEX 


00065 


1040 


48 






PHfi 




, SAVE IT 


00066 


1041 


20 E4 


FF 




JSR 


GETCHR 


J GET A CHARACTER 


00067 


1044 


85 0fi 






STfi 


LfiSTCH 


.: STORE IT 


00068 


1046 


68 






FLA 




; RESTORE INDEX 


00069 


1047 


AS 






TfiV 




;IN V REGISTER 


00070 


1048 


fi5 0fi 






Lllfl 


LfiSTCH 


;GET THE LAST CHfiRfiCTER 


00071 


104fl 


C9 14 






CMF 


#DEL 


:IS IT A DELETE 


00072 


194C 


F0 05 






BEQ 


DELETE 


, VES SO BACK TO DELETE 
ROUTINE 


00073 


104E 


C9 0D 






CMP 


#CR 


, IS IT A CARRIAGE RETURN 


00074 


1 050 


D0 EH 






Tit ir- 


WAIT 


, NO SO GO BACK FOR ANOTHER 
CfiR 


00075 


1052 


60 




FINIS 


:H RTS 






00076 


1053 






■ 








00077 


1053 






\ 


DELETE 


00078 


1053 






.; 








QQ079 


1053 


C0 00 




DELETE 


#80 


;ANV CHARACTERS TO DELETE 


00080 


1 055 


F0 B7 






EhQ 


PCURS 


;NO BRANCH BACK 


0008 1 


1857 


A9 9D 






Liifi 


#BACK 


.; GET BACKSPACE 


00082 


1 059 


20 D2 


FF 




JSR 


WRITE 


;fiHD POSITION CURSOR BACK 


90083 


105C 


fi9 20 






LBN 


ttSPfiCE 


.;GET SPACE AND 


00084 


105E 


20 D2 


FF 




JSR 


WRITE 


..PRINT TWICE TO DELETE 


00085 


1061 


20 B2 


PP 




TC;V 


WRITE 


.; CHARACTER AND CURSOR 


00086 


1 064 


fi9 9D 






Lli'fi 


#BACK 


.: GET BACKSPACE 


00087 


1 &G6 


20 D2 


FF 




JSR 


WRITE 


..POSITION BACK 


00088 


1069 


20 D2 


FF 




TC'p 


WRITE 


,0VER DELETED CHfiRfiCTER 


00089 


1 Pifc.r: 












..DECREMENT BUFFER INDEX 


00090 


10611 


4C 0E 


18 




JMP 


PCURS 


:BfiCK FOR ANOTHER 


'3B'39i 


1070 








. end 


CHARACTER 


ERRur 


~<S = 00600 












SVMEi 


X TABLE 












SVMBi 


JL value 












EfiCK 


009D 


EU 


Fl 


027fi 


CLR 


1804 CR 800D 


DEL 




0014 


DE 


^ETE 


1953 


FINISH 


1052 GETCHR FFE4 


LfiS" 


rcH 


000R 


MA 


»:chr 


000 Fl 


PCURS 


100E SPACE 0020 


Wfll" 


r 


103F 


wr 


ITE 


FFD2 






END i 


if ass 


:EMBLV 










Continued on page 20 



18/Commander March/April 1983 




Vanilla Pilot? 

Yes, Vanilla Pilot! 



What is Vanilla Pilot? 



Vanilla Pilot is a full- featured pilot 
language interpreter including TURTLE 
GRAPHICS for the PET or CBM 4000, 
80C0, 9000 and CBM-64 series computers. 

At last! A Pilot interpreter for the 
Commodore computers. This Pilot in- 
cludes some powerful extensions to 
the screen editor of the computer. 
Things like FIND /CHANGE, TRACE 
and DUMP enhance the programming 
environment. 



The TURTLE has a very powerful set 
of graphics commands. You can set the 
Turtle's DIRECTION and turn him LEFT 
or RIGHT. The pen he carries can be 
set to any of the 16 colors in the CBM- 
64. He can DRAW or ERASE a Line. 

What else? Vanilla Pilot is all this and 
much, much more. In fact, we can't 
tell you about all of the features of 
the language in this small ad. So 
rush down to your local Commodore 
computer dealer and ask him to show 
you Vanilla Pilot in action. Be sure 
to take the $2.00 discount coupon. 

Hurry, you have only a short time to 
redeem your coupon. So use it now! 



r-"-i 



Tamarack Software 
Darby, MT. 59829 



s 

■ 



t/> 




VANILLA 



Retailer: Send the redeemed coupons to 
Tamarack Software, Dnrby . MT 59829. We will 
pay 52. plus 5.35 handling for the redemption 
of these coupons. If requested, invoices show- 
ing sufficient purchase of Vnnilln Pilot must be 
submitted. Coupons submitted lo us more than 
30 days after the expiration d,ito will not be 
hono red . 

ttzptiVB April 15, 1983. 



Commander March/April 1983/19 



CROSS F 


lEFERENCE 


I B ■ B 8 


. PRGE 


1 










Continued from page 18 
















ERCK 


$003D 


21 


42 


31 


8 b 








BUF1 


*@27fl 


20 


Oci 


CTr-i 

-JO 










CLK 


$1004 


.-*, .-*, 


OCs 












CR 


f990H 


24 


54 


I 'I 1 










DEL 


$0014 


■*■/ ,- |i 


52 


71 










DELETE 


$1053 


53 


— n.— , 


73 










FINISH 


$1052 


^F, 


75 












GETCHR 


$FFE4 


14 


46 


£6 










LHSTCH 


$990 H 


IS 


47 


59 


t»r' 


70 






MflXCHR 


$fi0f1fi 


19 


SI 












PCURS 


$100E 


40 


51 


57 


63 


36 


99 




SPACE 


$0020 


.—j .*-, 


31 


O -Z ' 










NflIT 


$103F 


£2 


64 


—I J 










WRITE 


$FFD2 


13 


41 


43 


59 




34 35 


O ( o o 



COMPUTERMAT • BOX 1664M 

LAKE HAVASU CITY, ARIZONA 86403 



NEW COMMODORE 64 SOFTWARE — FREE CATALOG 

(602) 855-3357 write for free catalog of vie software 



WARNING - BUYERS OF THESE GAMES HAVE BEEN KNOWN TO BECOME ADDICTS 



AUEN INVASION — Arcade style excitement for your VIC. Look out here 
they come. Aliens are descending from the sky. Move your laser into position 
and defend the earth. The attacks are unending — can you survive or will 
Vader rule the gaJaxy. Many extras on this one. 20 levels of play. 
CATTLE-ROUNDUP — The cows are loose in the maze. You have 2 
minutes to get each cow back into the conral. You can push, coax and call the 
cows. Some cows are not very smart and some are very stubborn. You will 
have to help them. Be careful that you don't leave the corral gate open. Color 
graphics and sound. Eight levels of play and a time limit. 
HEAD ON — Your car moves forward around the race track. You can move 
up, down, right and left. Try to score points by running over the dots on the 
track. Watch out for the crusher — if you crash you lose a car. Four cars and 
bonus levels. Full color graphics and sound. Fast action and very addicting. 9 
levels of ptay. 

SNAKEOUT — Blocks appear on the screen at random. You move up, 
down, right and left and try to move your snake over the blocks. Each block 
that you get raises your score. Keep building your score but watch out 
because the escape routes keep getting smaller. Time limit, color graphics 
ana 1 sound. 3 games on this cassette. Snakeout — 2 player Snakeout and 
Trapper. 9 Levels of Play. 

TARGET COMMAND — Move your laser into position and get ready for 
some quick action. Different types of missiles are dropping. How many can 
you shoot down. They all travel at different speeds and different levels. You 
must be fast on the trigger to get them all. Time limit, bonus points and very 
addicting. Color graphics and sound. Arcade style fun. 10 levels. 



RUNS IN STANDARD V1C-20 



| TARGET 

COMMAND 

Color ByOiffDud,* 

|^> , . JOYSTICK 

| Graphics OR 

Sound KEYBOARD I 



sp 



SA/M 



J^v ' * 



SOFTWARE FROM 

COMPUTERMAT 

WILL TURN YOUR 
VIC-PET-CBM INTO A 



$12.95 Each 



HOME ARCADE! 

ADD $1.00 FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING WE WELCOME YOUR PERSONAL CHECK 



20/Commander March/April 1983 



LINEtt 


LOG 


CO] 


:ie 




■ r j. 
Li:'' 


E 






00301 


3090 






;PU 


T"@ 


0-GPENFILE.E 


AC" 




00002 


3000 






, T++++ 


+ ■+■ + + -}- -J-H- +++H- + ++++4-^ + + -s-i--s-H- + -i- + -i--i- + H-+ 




00003 


0000 






.' T 






iN DISK FOR INPUT + 




00004 


0000 






; ■*■ 




FRON ML> c 


AMPLE PRGRRM #2 + 




90005 


0088 






i -f- 




.b¥ HOWARD ROTENiCRG + 




0000b 


0880 






,i "t*" 




TORC 


JNTO ONiflRIO + 




00037 


8088 






; ++ 


H-i-T- 


-|_ .X. _f. 4. -j- 4- ->;- -j- -j- -j- ~j- 4 


•++++++++++++++++++++ 




0000S 


01088 






; 










00009 


0880 






FNU 


hi 


z: -±:]jo 


.: HOLDS FILE NUMBER 




30010 


3800 






\Z\X\ lLI 

i i J !_ U. 1 1 


— * n 1 


.: HOLDS FILE NAME LENGTH 




30011 


0080 






FNF 


TR 


- $DR 


.AILE NAME POINTER 




U0012 


0083 






,— , r— , r— 


N 


-- $:-oS3 


,0PEN FILE 2.0 = $F524 




00013 


3880 






nor 


HI 


= 5:-7hF 


, OPEN FOR INPUT 2.G = $F778 




30014 


8888 






DIS 


KB 3 


= frrEIi 


;GET DS$ DISK STATUS 




e~; iT-j C-\ 1 ^ 


0008 






CLO 


3E 


= *F2E2 


.CLOSE !-ILh 2.0 = $F2AE 




03016 


0880 






L-L.L 


m 


= $F2A6 


.. CLfcAR CHANNEL 2.8 = $F284? 




33017 


3880 






UET 


CHR 


= *f_FE4 


;GEi A CHARACTER 




000 3 3 


3888 






i.;p T 


I C 


= V~ i~ jJii.' 


.: WR I TE CHARACTER 




00013 


0888 






"TChi 




= $634 


J TEMP STORAGE FOR FILE LENGTH 




00320 


8800 






DEV 




= *D4 


; DEVICE NUMBER 




30321 


3880 






^' c L- 


RDR 


= $D3 


.: SECONDARV ADDRESS 




98022 


0083 






C TC 

■-•in 


JUS 


= *3b 


J STATUS ST 




3 00,? 3 


3880 






BIS 


<ER 


= *3F 


.N-LAG FOR DISK ERROR 




90024 


0880 






PRM 


3G 


- TBB1D 


: PRINT MESSAGE, 2.0 = £CA1C 




30025 


8808 
















988 ?b 


3803 










* = $101:10 


, LOAD ADDRESS 




30027 


1388 
















30028 


I860 










OPEN COMMA)- 


JD CHANNEL 




09024 


1088 






_i 










83030 


I860 


R3 


QF 






LDA #$@F 


r- ; — r r- Ti r* in \r t -iTiC~ 




30031 


1882 


Q cr 


D2 






3TA FNUM 


;AND STORE IT 




03332 




H9 


0ft 






LlJFf #3 


;GET DEVICE NUMBER 




330133 


1 ckiu 


~ :I= : 


D4 






SIR DEV 


1 ! il 1 jj ■-.' i L"!-.l_ J. i 




30334 


J. "Jll'L' 


AS 


0F 






LDH #$OF 


:GET SECONDARV 




33335 


188H 


09 


SO 






ORA #$60 


, ADDRESS 




0003S 


1 80C 


C' ~| 








SIR SElABR 


,AND STORE IT 




30337 


188E 


fl9 


00 






LDH #0 


;SET THE FILE 




33033 


1818 


Oc; 


Di 






SIR FNLSN 


; LENGTH TO 3 




30033 


i y 1 2 


O^. 


36 






3TR STATUS 


;AND STATUS TO O 




33040 


1014 


26 


£- t '~\ 


p" 1-. 




JSR OPEN 


; OPEN CHANNEL 




30041 


1817 
















3O042 


i =^1 ~? 
i'Ji i 










3ET FILE NAM 


E LENGTH 




00343 


1617 
















30044 


i Si 7 


R2 


80 






;_DX #0 


;SET INDEX 




30045 


iSiy 


ED 


3D 


10 GET 


LEH 


LDH FILt,K 


;GET CHARACTER IN NAME 




30046 


101C 


i-0 


03 






BtQ GOT IT 


;IF LAST CHARACTER THEN GET Ob 


i 


fffiC-idy 


101E 


r-i". 
CO 








i i'ii"i 


.: INCREMENT COUNTER FOR NEXT CH 


R 


30843 


10ih 


D0 


F3 






BNE GETLEN 


.: BRANCH ALWRV-'S FOR NENT CHR 




010049 


1021 






.; 










00050 


1021 






.i 




GET FILE NF 


ME AND OPEN 




30051 


i QO 1 






i 










33352 


1 it-jO-; 


SE 


34 


06 Cut 


1 i 


STX TEMP 


, SAVE FILE LENGTH 




00053 


1824 


fly 


08 






LDH #3 


;GET FILE NUMBER 




30054 


1826 


per 


D2 






STfl FNUM 


; STORE FILE NUMBER 




33355 


1 328 


S5 








STF! DEV 


.: STORE DEV 





Commander March/April 1983/21 



LINE# 


LUC 


JUDE 




LINE 






U0056 


102R 


89 


60 




ORfl 


#$6Q 


■ :""l l"l l"*l 


00057 


1 82C 


35 


1)3 




STfl 


SECflliR 


.: STORE SECONDARY ADDRESS 


00 65 8 


192E 


flD 


34 


86 


LDF! 


TEMP 


, GET FILE LENGTH 


00059 


1031 


85 


ni 




STfl 


FNLEN 


; STORE IT 


00068 


1033 


R9 


8D 




LHR 


#<:file 


;GET LOW EVTE 


60061 


1935 


35 


Dfl 




STfl 


FNPTR 


; STORE AT FILENAME POINTER 


00062 


1837 


R9 


10 




LDA 


#>FILE 


:GET HIGH EVTE 


00863 


1839 


r!j 


DE 




STfl 


FNPlRi-1 


:AND STORE IT 


00064 


183E 


A3 


00 




LUH 


#0 




00065 


183D 


i-iET 


96 




3TR 


STATUS 


.iSET STATUS TO S 


80066 


183F 


20 


63 


F5 


JSR 


OPEN 


.iOPEN FILE 


08867 


1842 


-' £"i 


f" -J 


10 


J3R 


ERRCHK 


..CHECK FOR DISK ERROR 


88063 


184b 


P2 


88 




\-l3X 


#8 


;3ET FILE NUMBER 


&3QE3 


1847 


20 


RF 


t" f" 


t -n 
■J -" n;. 


OPEN I 


,OPEN DEVICE FOR INPUT 


80870 


.'!. 84H 


A5 


3F 




LDA 


DISKER 


.: CHECK ERROR FLAG 


80071 


184C 


C3 


01 




CMP 


#1 


, IF SET THEN 


09072 


104E 


F8 


'—••-.■ 




BEQ 


FINISH 


,CLOSE FILES AND GET OUT 


80073 


1858 














80874 


1.858 








.; REfiD AND B 


ISPLAV FILE 


00075 


1 650 








, 






00076 


1050 




E4 


FF 


BISPLV JSR 


Ut i L-HR 


, GET A CHARACTER 


00077 


1053 




H2 


FF 


t .—. r-. 

. ! r-. ir 


i-TR I TE 


; WRITE A CHARACTER 


00873 


1856 


}-.i£. 


96 




Ll'M 


•P.TRJl 19, 


;GET ST 


0087:5 


1 858 


00 


02 




SHE 


FINISH 


;IF SET THEN CLOSE FILES 


80838 


1 85R 


F9 


F4 




"R I-- jTi 


DISPLV 


;EflCK FOR ANOTHER CHARACTER 


88831 


185C 














08882 
00083 
80084 


105C 








.« 


JLOSE FIL 


ES AND RETURN TO BASIC 


ifiPif: 


R2 


88 




r xr-iiorl :_JJa 


it '"' 


,GET FILE NUMBER 


88085 


185E 


20 


fib 


F2 


JSR 


CLEAR 


: CLEAR CHANNEL 


30086 


l '-' w J. 


f\9 


k1 H 




LDfl 


#3 


;GET FILE NUMBER 


88037 


1 363 


28 


f ,-* 


CO 


rep 


c; n-3F 


- ~- : ncr c T | c 


00883 


1966 


R2 


3F 






#15 


'; GET "FILE "NUMBER 


08089 


1968 


28 


fib 


C" ■"!* 


T :,"■ p 


CLEAR 


.: CLEAR CHANNEL 


00090 


1S6B 


fi9 


!"1F 




i_ jJ '"1 


#15 


.;GET_FILE NUMBER 


08891 


i 96Ii 


■~' & 


E2 


F2 


T C* Q 


CLOSE 


.' L-'LUoE r ILh 


88892 


-.070 


n i~- 






i TfLJ 


#0 


; RESET DISK ERROR 


80093 


1872 




3F 




■-• ! n 


DISKER 


;T0 ZERO 


30094 


1974 


6 






RTS 




:BACK TO BASIC 


£if]\y\Q^~: 


j 0~'Fi 








..* 






00096 


1 075 








y« T : 


:-K ERROR 


ROUTINE 


88097 


1075 








i 






80093 


1 075 


28 


ED 


•— r- 

rr 


ERRCRK JSR 


DISKBS 


:GET BB$ 


00099 


i J/i/ 1 "-'! 


R0 


00 




LEV 


#0 


,GET FIRST CHARATER 


08100 


197R 


0-' i. 


et 




LUH 


;:$0E>,v 


:AH.D COMPARE IT 


£i jTh 1 j".j "* 


1 87C 


C9 


■Ji't^i 




CMP 


#$32 


.: IF GREATER THAN 2 


00102 


187E 


piT-i 


81 




.D J _- C* 


PERROR 


; THEN ERROR OCC-'i (RED 


08103 


1 880 


60 






C r T C' 




.: RETURN TO CALLER 


001 84 


1081 


R9 


R6 




PERROR LDA 


#CPRTERF 


■ .: GET LOW BVTE OF ERROR MSG 


HRjfiS 


1S83 


R8 


1 ="i 




1 T; '.. ; 


#>PRTSRF 


:GET HIGH BVTE 


88186 


1885 


28 


iff 


BE 


JSR 


PRM3G 


;RKlNi ERROR MSG 


80107 


i C> O O 


Ft 2 


■7-; i 




LDX 


#1 


."■c.'T kir imico era;:, ir; or: 


83188 


188H 


86 


■~-c 




S.'TK 


DISKER 


;flHD STORE IT 


08189 


103C 


68 






iTT- ~T C' 




.; BACK TO CALLbR 


88110 


l€0,. : 








■ 







22/Commander March/April 1983 






LINE# LOt 


I: COBh 






LINE 






09111 If 


:isn 






, 




TABLES 




09112 108D 






; 








80113 103D 30 


3A 




FILE 


EVTE - ■■ OPENF I LE . SRC , S , R \ . 





00113 H 


39F OO 














S0114 10H0 2 A 


2H 




PRT 


BVTE '*#* BISK ERROR #**'. 





00114 10B2 00 














00115 10E3 








■ 


END 




ERRORS = 


00000 














SYMBOL TABLE 














SVMEOL V 


iLUE 














CLEAR 


F2A6 


CLC 


SE 




F2E- 


BE'/ S0D4 DISKDS 


FFBH 


DISKER 


O03F 


MS 


PL 


i i 

T 


1050 


ERRCHK 1075 FILE 


10SB 


FINISH 


105C 


FNLEN 




00D1 


FNPTR 80BH FHUM 


08 B2 


GETCHR 


FFE4 


GET 


LE 


H 


1919 


GOT IT 1821 OPEN 


F563 


OPEN I 


F7RF 


PERROR 


1081 


PRMSG BE IB PRTERR 


10A0 


SECHBR 


00D3 


STATU 


-' 


0096 


TEMP 0634 WRITE 


FFB2 


END OF R: 


5SEMBLV 














CROSS REFERENCE. 





PAGE 


1 






CLEAR 


$F2A6 


IS 




35 


39 






CLOSE 


$F2E2 


15 




37 


91 






DEV 


*60D4 


20 






55 






DISKI'S 


tFFBD 


14 




93 








IHSKER 


*603F 


*"*i "*"i 
i^_*-» 




70 


93 


108 




DISPLV 


$1050 


76 




30 








ERRCHK 


$1075 


Cm- 




98 








FILE 


*138D 


45 




60 




113 




FINISH 


$105C 


~?o 




79 


34 






FNLEH 


$00D1 


10 




38 


59 






FHPTR 


^eerifl 


11 




61 


63 






FHUM 


*00D2 


9 




31 


54 






GETCHR 


$FFE4 


17 




76 








GETLEN 


$1019 


45 




48 








GOT IT 


$1021 


46 




52 








OPEN 


$F563 


12 




40 


66 






OPEN I 


$F7flF 


13 




69 








PERROR 


$1031 


192 




104 








PRMSG 


$EB1D 


24 




106 








PRTERR 


$10R0 


104 




105 


114 






SECfiHR 


$00113 


21 




36 


57 






STATUS 


$BQ9€ 


22 




39 


65 


78 




TEMP 


$0634 


19 




52 


53 






WRITE 


$FFD2 


18 




77 









Commander March/April 1983/23 



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DEVELOPMENT KIT 



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be studied to figure out how they did it. The programs created with the decoder can be customized with the EDITOR 
AND INCORPORATED INTO YOUR OWN NEW GAME PROGRAM. The ASSEMBLER turns your programs 
created with the Decoder and the Editor back into machine language and puts them out to tape or disk so the LOADER 
can load them into the computer's memory to be tested and RUN. The MONITOR assists you in debugging your new 
game program by allowing you to run it a step at a time and making modifications if you need to. The INSTRUCTION 
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During the last three months we've 
learned a lot— all about what assembly 
language is, about monitors and 
assemblers, and about the 6502's 
registers and addressing modes. By 
now you must be itching to start some 
actual programming, and so I'm here 
to relieve that itch. This month we do 
some real, albeit elementary, program- 
ming in assembly language, all the 
while learning how to load and store 
registers. I'll be providing some ex- 
amples along with the text, and these 
can be typed in using a monitor (which 
one you get doesn't matter). Along 
with the examples will also be some 
suggested changes for the PET/CBM 
and the Commodore 64, just so that 
those of you with either machine won't 
feel left out, OK? If everybody is ready; 
then we can start. 
Loading the Registers 

When we say that we are loading 
a register, what we are doing is plac- 
ing a value from to 255 in that 
register. It's sort of like assigning a 
value to a variable in BASIC, only a bit 
more complex. We have to specify the 
register we want, and the way the 
value to be loaded is to be found (the 
addressing mode). Thus the opcode 
(short for operation code— a fancy 
name for instruction or command) 
for loading a register is as follows: 

LDn (data) 
where n is the register you are referr- 
ing to and (data) is the addressing 
mode you want. The registers used by 
this statement can be either the Ac- 
cumulator, the X-register, or the Y- 
register, indicated in the instruction by 
using A,X or Y (respectively) in the 
place of n. Consequently, the 
instruction 

LDA (data) 
will load the accumulator with the 
specified data, while 

LDX (data) 
will load the X-register. This also ap- 
plies to LDY, which will load the Y- 
register. Generally any instruction that 
ends with A, X or Y affects the ac- 
cumulator, X-register, or Y-register, 
respectively. 
Specifying the 
Addressing Mode 

It is of little use to know how to code 
an instruction if you can't use it. To be 



An Introduction to Assembly Language 

Programming on the VIC-20— 
Part IV: Loading and Storing Registers 

by Eric Giguere 
Alberta, Canada 



able to do so, you have to specify the 
addressing mode. If you recall from 
last month's column, the addressing 
mode tells the microprocessor how it 
is supposed to find the data it needs 
to perform its operation. You can tell 
the chip to load the accumulator, but 
it has to know what or where to load 
it with or from. Because there is a large 
number of addressing modes that can 
be used, how the computer loads a 
register depends on how you specify 
an addressing mode. If you wanted to 
load the accumulator with the byte 
found at $00, you would code: 

LDA $00 
which tells the microprocessor to place 
the value it finds in byte $00 into the 
accumulator. It is analogous to saying 

A = PEEK(0) 
in BASIC, which would give the 
variable A the value of location # Of 
course, you can use other addressing 
modes with the instruction. For exam- 
ple, the following loads the X-register 
with $20 hex (32 decimal): 

LDX #$20 
The pound sign preceding the hex 
number is a signal to the chip that the 
value following is to be stored straight 
into the register, and to not be inter- 
preted as an address to load data 
from. This is known as immediate 
mode because it uses the byte im- 
mediately following the instruction. 

If you are hand assembling your 
assembly language code (that is, you 
aren't using an assembler), you have 
to manually translate the opcodes in- 
to the proper numbers which you can 
then enter into the computer using a 
monitor. Unless you've got every code 
memorized, you'll need some sort of 
reference manual to help you, as each 
addressing mode of each opcode has 
a different value, and it gets pretty 
hairy after a while if you try and 
remember them all. So I suggest that 
you get yourself some kind of 



reference guide that lists all the op- 
codes and their respective values. 
One such book is the VIC-20 Program- 
mer's Reference Guide, which has a 
section on assembly language and a 
table listing all the opcodes and their 
hexadecimal equivalents. Thus, using 
such a guide, you can take the 
following: 

LDA #$08 

STA $00 

RTS 
and change it to 

A9 08 (values given in hex) 

85 00 

60 
and then enter it into the computer us- 
ing the monitor .M function. It may 
sound like a lot of work, and it is. For- 
tunately, if you have the VICMON 
Machine Language Cartridge, you 
can use the .A command to type in 
your code in mnemonic form, and it 
will automatically decode it for you and 
place the appropriate bytes directly in- 
to memory, which saves you the trou- 
ble of converting them manually. But 
because most VIC owners don't have 
VICMON or an assembler, I am 
presenting all examples in monitor 
form, all decoded and ready to type 
in. You won't have to worry about 
translating the opcodes into their cor- 
rect forms. 

Examples of Loading 
the Registers 

Following is a simple assembly 
language routine, followed itself by the 
proper bytes you need to type in. First 
load and enter your monitor (using the 
instructions that came with it). Then 
type in 

.Mj033CjeT342 
which will display on the screen the 
values contained in the bytes from 
$033C to $0342, like this: 
.:033C 00 00 00 00 00 
.:0341 00 00 00 00 00 
Don't worry if the numbers aren't the 

Commander March/April 1983/25 






same. Simply move the cursor over to 
the first J3T after .:033C and type in the 
five numbers that follow the mnemonic 
listing, and hit RETURN. The cursor 
will then be on the first Rafter .:0341, 
and you will then type in the following 
two bytes and hit RETURN. (The rest 
of the line can be ignored.) Voila! 
You've just entered your first assembly 
language program, and are now 
ready to test it. 

LDA nm 

LDX mw 

LDY#$00T 

BRK 
A9 00 A2 00 A0 
00 00 

First, though, we've got to make 
sure the program is in fact still there. 
Type in .M J033C J0342 and hit 
RETURN. The following should 
appear: 

.:033C A9 00 A2 00 A0 

.:0341 00 00 xx xx xx (xx signifies 
the byte can be ignored) 
If it doesn't, then repeat the process 
of entering in the numbers, and then 
test to see if they are in fact there once 
more. 

Now that everything is ready, we 
can try our program. First, type in .R 
and hit RETURN. This is the Register 
display command, which causes the 
present values of the registers to be 
displayed on the screen. The ones we 
are concerned with are AC (ac- 
cumulator), XR (X-register) and YR (Y- 
register). Note their values (the bytes 
displayed directly underneath the ab- 
breviations), and then key in 

.Gj033C (RETURN) 
Presto! The computer returns and 
redisplays the registers, which should 
look like this: 

B* 
PC SR AC XR YR SP 

.;0342 xx 00 00 00 xx 
(again, xx is to be ignored). As you can 
see, you have changed the values for 
the accumulator and the X- and Y- 
registers. They are now JX. And 
although this doesn't prove very 
much, it does show you how the LDn 
command does in fact change the 
values in the registers. Now let's go 
through each step of the program, to 
see exactly what it does: 

LDA #$00— This loads the ac- 

26/Commander March/April 1983 



cumulator with zero ($00) 

LDX #$00— This loads the X-register 
with zero 

LDY #$00— This loads the Y-register 
with zero 

BRK— This is a special instruction to 
tell the computer to BReaK off from 
what it is doing and return to monitor. 

As you can see, all we really did was 
load the three registers with zero and 
then stopped by using the BRK in- 
struction. We could have just as easi- 
ly loaded different values, such as $3F 
or $8C, but I just wanted to use a 
number with no particular significance 
to demonstrate what I was getting at. 



Storing Registers 

So far, all we can do is load the 
three registers, and not much else. But 
what if we could store the values in the 
registers in memory? Couldn't it just 
work like a POKE from BASIC? Yes, 
it could and does. The command to 
store a register is: 

STn (data) 
where once more n is the register 
desired and (data) is the memory 
location it is to be stored in. The 
opcode 

STA $00 
would store the present value of the 
accumulator into the address $00, just 
as if you had said POKE#,A from 
BASIC, where A equals a value from 
to 255. This is a very useful com- 
mand, then, because you can now 
load a register with a specific value 
and then store it where you want. Con- 
sider the following short program: 

LDA #$01 

STA $1E00 

BRK 
First it will load the accumulator with 
a value of one, and then it will proceed 
to store it at location $1E0K which is 
the start of screen memory on the VIC. 
It's as if you had said 

A=1:POKE7680,A 
from BASIC, and does the exact same 
thing, only hundreds of times faster. 
Here is the monitor listing: 

033C A9 01 8D 00 1E 

0341 00 xx xx xx xx (for VIC) 

033C A9 01 8D 00 04 
0341 00 xx xx xx xx 

(for Commodore 64) 



.:033C A9 01 8D 00 80 

.:0341 00 xx xx xx xx(for PET/CBM) 

Once again, type .M J3G3C J3Q41 
(RETURN) and then cursor over to the 
first byte displayed after .J333C. Then 
proceed to type in the bytes as shown 
for each machine and hit RETURN 
when you are at the end of the line 
(those with the Commodore 64 and 
PET/CBM have a monitor which pro- 
bably displays more than five bytes 
per line, in which case you can type 
in the sixth byte in the monitor listings 
directly after the fifth, and then hit 
RETURN. It amounts to the same 
thing.) The program is now in memory. 
The different listings are required for 
each machine because screen 
memory starts at a different location— 
$1 E00 for the VIC, $0400 for the Com- 
modore 64, and $8000 for the 
PET/CBM. Note that when typed in, 
the addresses after the STA instruction 
($8D) are entered in reverse— as 00 
1E instead of 1E 00. This is because 
the low part (least significant) byte (in 
this case 9SS) must precede the high 
part (most significant) of the address, 
in this case 1E. This is required 
whenever you store an address in 
memory, and should be remembered. 
The VICMON assembler does this 
automatically, as will any assembler. 
If forgotten, though, it can lead to 
trouble! 

When you have finished entering the 
program, you can then execute it us- 
ing the .G (goto) command. Type: 

.G^33C (RETURN) 
This will start the computer to execute 
the program it finds at 033C, which is 
our little program. Quick as a flash, our 
code is executed and command 
returned to the monitor when the BRK 
instruction encountered. The result? 
An 'A' should have appeared in the 
top left-hand corner of the screen, and 
the registers displayed. If there isn't an 
'A', then perhaps the screen scrolled 
and the 'A' was wisked away to Never- 
never Land. Cursor back up to the .G 
command again and hit RETURN. The 
'A' should appear. If not, then perhaps 
you typed something wrong, and you 
should check to see if that is the pro- 
blem. If you still can't figure out what's 
wrong, then drop me a line and 111 try 
and locate your problem. 



More Useful Things To Do 

As you have seen, STn can act just 
like a POKE. The thing is, this can be 
used for a variety of applications. You 
can set memory locations to whatever 
you want, and thus can control certain 
aspects of the computer, such as the 
screen color, top of memory, etc. You 
can use the instruction to store a value 
for later retrieval by your program (us- 
ing the LDn command). Most machine 
and assembly language programs use 
LDn and STn in some form or another 
if it wants to do someting noticeable. 
In fact, I've yet to see a program that 
doesn't use one of these. 

A Cute Program 

Before leaving, I'm presenting the 
VIC owners with a small machine 
language program, with the monitor 
and assembly listings. It doesn't do 
that much, but it does show what LDn 
and STn can be used for. Try and 
figure what it does before executing it. 

033c a9 08 8d Of 90 
0341 a9 08 8d 00 1e 
0346 a9 09 8d 01 1e 
034b a9 20 8d 02 1e 
0350 a9 14 8d 03 1e 
0355 a9 08 8d 04 1e 
035a a9 05 8d 05 1e 
035f a9 12 8d 06 1e 
0364 a9 05 8d 07 1e 
0369 a9 21 8d 08 1e 
036e 00 xx xx xx xx 

Ida #$08 Ida #$05 

sta $900f sta $1e05 

Ida #$08 Ida #$12 

sta $1e00 sta $1e06 

Ida #$09 Ida #$05 

sta$1e01 sta$1e07 

Ida #$20 Ida #$21 

sta $1e02 sta $1e08 

Ida #$14 brk 
sta $1e03 
Ida #$08 
sta $1e04 

(Use .GJ033C to activate.) 

Next Month . . . 

Next month we continue our ex- 
ploration of assembly language by 
talking about branches and com- 
parisons. So, until next month, keep 
on assemblinglu 



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v/lnsert-Delete letters, sentences 
v/Form letters-User defined data 
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^Centering-Justifi cation-Tabs 
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v/Automatic Page Numbering 
^Double columns-set margin, line size 
^Printer graphics-send hex codes 
v/Set up to support most printers 
v/Disk file concatenation 
^Program update support provided 

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up a new world of applications for your 
Commodore system." — Robert W.Baker 
-MICROCOMPUTING 

v 7 record to disk/transmit from disk 
v 7 output to Commodore/ASCII printer 
• XON/XOFF control capability 
y/ translates files ASCII/BASIC/W-PRO 
v 7 system status line-clock with alarm 
v 7 user table allows encoded data 
v 7 user access to routines-telemetry 

The most sophisticated terminal package 
available. Gives you all the features need- 
ed now and for the future. Available - 
Commodore 40XX, 8032 with 4040, 8050, 
PEDISK II 

Available from cgrs MICROTECH, 
P.O. Box 102, Langhorne, PA 19047 
215-757-0284 

$129.00 DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



with Intelligent Terminal 
Communications Package 



COMPACK 



Commander March/April 1983/27 



TYPE-SHARE TYPESETTING 

EDUCATIONAL SPECIALISTS 

SILICON OFFICE SPECIALISTS 



ONE STOP CENTER 
for 



*oo* 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

MAINTENANCE CENTER 

FOR COMMODORE EQUIPMENT 



£t commodore 



VIC-VILLE ™ SOFTWARE 

division of Data Equipment Supply Corporation 



BOSS (c) by Kavan Software 



Exclusive distributors of 
Kavan Software 



(glgESAlllIl^l 


roi 


Jfclil 


tJEIa ei Via 


A\ 


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C bt^b 






51 






hT^H m^ 






31 MT ■ 






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ATI 


iWSri^3 


SL 


era 


|m|B |L ID IE |F |G|H| 




0-02. 15 



S1H 
2800 



- 00 - 00 



The Definitive Chess Game 
for the VIC-20 

* 10 Levels of Play 
it Beats Sargon II 

* Two Clocks 

it Wide range of opening moves 

* En passant, queening, castling 

it Change screen and board colors 

* Cassette 

it Requires 8K minimum expansion 

* 100% machine language 

$39.95 




BONZO (c) by Kavan 



HOPPER 



PIT (c) by Kavan 



Commodore 64 YAHTZEE 




One of trie most popular games in 
Europe. You control BONZO as he climbs 
the ladders and picks up the'point blocks. 
Watch out for the alien guards. 100% 
machine language, cassette based 
Joystick or keyboard, minimum 8k ex- 
pansion. $20.00 



Avoid the cars, dragsters, buildings, logs 
and other obstacles to bring the frog 
safely home. Machine language for fast 
and smooth arcade action. Joystick, stan- 
dard VIC. $20.00 



BONZO strikes again as he takes money 
bags out of the pit. Avoid the alien ram by 
standing under the shields. Every succes- 
sfully removed bag of money reinforces 
your sheilds. 100% machine language, 
cassette based. Joystick or keyboard, 
standard VIC. $18.00 



Commodore 64 version of the famous 
dice game. 10 player capacity. Watch 
dice roll across the screen. Automatic 
tabulation of score and bonuses. Sprite 
graphics and sound. Cassette based. 

$20.00 



Night Crawler $25.00 

by InttfMtlng Software 

Shoot down centipedes, spiders, mushrooms and all 
kinds of bugs before they get you. Machine language 
arcade action on standard VIC with joystick. 

The Black Caatla $20.00 

Adventure, travel the countryside, fight demons, buy 
goods, storm the castle. Requires 3k or more expan- 
sion. 

A Maze log $12.00 

Travel through the maze. Game of skill and tense ac- 
tion. Standard VIC. 

Gobbler $11.00 

Sounds easy? You have 25 seconds to get him and 
the time gets shorter at each higher level. Standard 
VIC. 

Hang U $12.00 

Traditional Hangman plays against the VIC'S 250 
wo/d dictionary or another person. Standard VlC. 

Coggle $11.00 

Computerized version of Boggle. Standard VIC. 

Gold Brick $14.00 

Many levels of play, sound, and color. 

Complete descriptive catalog $2.00 



3-D Labyrinth $14.00 

Escape from the labyrinth. Shown in 3-D perspective 

view with randomly generated mazes. Standard VIC. 
Air Strlka $11.00 

Fly the new super bomber V-20 on a mission. Stan- 
dard VIC. 
Attack on Silo III $12.00 

You are the commander of Silo III. Defend your 

country. Standard VIC. 
Baaaball Stralagy $12.00 

The excitement of baseball as a video strategic 

game Standard Vic. 
Vic Pokar $14.00 

Play poker against the VIC. Hi-res graphics and 

sound. Standard VIC. 
Froggar by (c) Kavan $14.00 

Eat the flies and avoid the car. Standard VIC. 
Spaca Phraalu $25.00 

by Intaraatlng Softwara 

Pilot the spaceship "Infinity" and fight the "Space 

Phreeks". 15 different attack patterns, 33 levels. 

Machine language, arcade quality. Standard VlC, 

joystick. 

Dealers Welcome - Authors Wanted I 



Mailing List $25.00 

Keep mailing list, print reports, labels. 8k expansion 

or 16k expansion required. 
Aatro-Mlnara $17.00 

Hi-res graphics and sound space game. Requires 3k 

or 8k expansion. 
Parlor Attack $14.00 

Enemy tanks are attacking and you must destroy 

them. Hi-res graphics. Standard VIC. 
Padaatrian Polo $14.00 

Drive your car thru the streets. Based upon Death 

Race. Standard VlC. 
Yahtzaa $12.00 

Solitaire version of this famous dice game. Standard 

VlC. 
Commodora 64 Softwara Available Now II 

64 Monopoly from AP Software 

64 Mailing List from VIC-VILLE" Software 

64 Flnartca from VIC-VILLE" Software 

64 Tlma Managar 2.0 from TOTL Software 

Look for more 64 Software from VIC-VILLE 1 " & get on our 
mailing list for all 64 updates and users' group. 

Add $3.00 for shipping & handling 



Network your CBM, VIC and COMMODORE 64 with the PET SWITCH and VIC SWITCH from DATATRONICS. 

Distributors for Datatronic AB 



(714) 
778-5455 



Data Equipment Supply Corp. (213) 

8315 Firestone Blvd., Downey, CA 90241 923-9361 



28/Commander March/April 1983 



Solitaire Four 



by Edwin Sund 
Tacoma, WA 



Solitaire Four, is a version of that all 
time favorite single-player card game. 
This implementation will run on the Pet, 
64 and Vic (with changes) and uses no 
fancy short-cut or time saving coding 
techniques. My intent in writing this 
game was to get my wife interested in 
my computer and maybe even into 
writing her own programs. Some peo- 
ple do not enjoy shoot-em-up type 
games which made up the majority of 
games available 5 years ago and my 
wife falls directly into this category. 
With that in mind and knowing that she 
likes solitaire, the first step to ease her 
onto my computer was to give her a 
program she could both relate to and 
enjoy. The second step, (I hoped), was 
to show her how a complex program 
could be written using simple basic in- 
structions. As it turns out, in the last 5 
years of playing Solitaire on the com- 
puter, step one was a big success 
because she plays it all the time, step 
two was a dismal failure because she 
didn't care how it worked. 

The program listing provided uses 
some standard conventions for prin- 
ting graphic characters on a non- 
graphics printer. The symbols [ ] mean 
that a cursor control key, function key 
or graphics key will be represented 
within the brackets. In addition to cur- 
sor control keys this program contains 
8 different graphic keys which are the 
four cursor characters and right, left, 
top and bottom bar characters. I have 
represented them in the listing as 
[COMDR T] to designate holding the 
commodore logo key down and typ- 
ing the T character, or [shift P] to 
designate holding the shift down and 
typing a P. There is nothing fancy 
about this program as it is neither effi- 
cient nor structured. The inefficiency 
part was intentional as it allows inex- 
perienced people to understand the 



program easier. 

Following is a brief explanation of 
the rules for Solitaire Four and a 
description of the variables and their 
use. I have also included the modifica- 
tions to allow VIC-20 users, (no, I didn't 
forget you VIC people), to use 
this program. Enjoy the program and 
if you don't want to key the program 
in, send $6 or a self addressed 
stamped mailer and cassette plus $1 
to: 

Solitiare game 

c/o Ed Sund 

7101 Topaz Dr. SW. 

Tacoma, Washington 98498 

Rules for Solitaire Four 

Layout: 

1 . Shuffle a deck of 52 cards. 

2. Deal out 1 1 cards face down and 
turn the top one face up. This is the 
replacement pile. 

3. Deal out 4 cards in a row face up 
next to the replacement pile. This is the 
playing stacks. 

4. Deal out 1 more card face up above 
one of the play stacks. This is the win 
row. 

5. Place the remaining 36 cards face 
down as a draw pile. 

Object 

To build four stacks of cards of the 
same suit in ascending sequence. 
Score is kept by deducting 52 points 
for each game and adding 5 points for 
each card added to a win stack. 

The play 

Cards are taken 3 at a time and turn- 
ed face up in a pile. The top card of 
the draw pile may be placed on any 
play stack in descending sequence 
alternating colors. The top replace- 
ment stack card may also be used in 
the same manner. A complete play 
stack may be played on another play 



stack the resulting hole being replac- 
ed from the replacement stack (if emp- 
ty from the top of draw pile). The top 
card from any stack or pile may be 
placed on a win stack of the same suit 
in ascending order. Note: The first 
card of all win stacks are the same 
number as the card dealt in step 4 of 
layout. 

Computer Play 

To play a card enter the denomina- 
tion (A,2-9, T, J, Q or K) followed by 
a suit designation (use keys with card 
symbols) and the computer will figure 
out where to put it for you. If the move 
was invalid it will flash "INV" where it 
said "MOVE" and you must try again. 
To turn over the next 3 on the draw pile 
enter "N". If you just saw a move after 
you hit the "N" then enter "B" and it 
will go back to the last draw card for 
you (caution: it only goes back 1 set 
of three) and you can then make your 
play. To restart the game enter "E" 
and it will automatically deduct 52 
points from your score and start over. 

Modifications for the Vic-20 

Lines 690-930 display the cards on the 
screen. These lines must be modified 
to change a 40 column display to a 22 
column display. The modified code is 
as follows: 



* Caution • 

It is difficult to tell the difference 
between O's and zeroes in the 
Solitaire Four listing. A simple 
guide to use is: No variable 
names will contain the letter O; 
no Basic commands (GOTO, 
FOR, etc.) will contain a zero. 
No numbers will contain the 
letter O. 



Commander March/April 1983/29 



Modifications for the VIC-20 

810 IFA>10THENA=10 

820 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: I FA=2TH£N840 

8 30FORX=3TOA:PRINT:PRINT:NEXTX 

840IFC=0THEN940 

850CC$=MID$ (C$,3,1) :IFCC$=" [CLCJB] "ORCC$=" [SPADE] "THEN900 

860PRINTTAB( (B*4)-4) " [SHIFT 0] [COMDR T] [COMDR T] [SHIFT P] " ; 

870PRINT" [DOWN] [4 LEFT] [COMDR G] "MID$ (C$ ,2 , 2) ; "COMDR M] " ; 

880 PRINT" [DOWN] [4 LEFT] [SHIFT L] [COMDR @] [COMDR <°] [SHIFT @] " 

890 RETURN 

900 PRINTTAB( (B*4)-4) " [RVS] [DOWN] [4 LEFT] "; 

910 PRINTMID$ (C$,2,2) " 

920PRINT" [DOWN] [4 LEFT] [OFF]"; 

930 RETURN 

940 IFA=2THENPRINTTAB( (B*4)-4) " [UP]" 

950 PRINTTAB( (B*4)-4) " [DOWN] " ; 

960 PRINT" [DOWN] [4 LEFT] "; 

1800 IFDR(10)=1THENB=1:A=10:C=D(I) :GOSUB680 

1810 PRINT" [HOME] [22 DOWN] [RVS]SCORE " ; SC+ ( (W1+W2+W3 

+W4)*5) ;" [0 FF] " ; 

280 PRINT" [HOME] MOVE [15 RIGHT] " ;Ul$ ; 

Variable useage: 

Arrays 

D(52) = DRAW PILE 

T(52) = CARD IS TAKEN IF = 

Rl(13) = PLAY STACK ROW 1 

R2(13) = PLAY STACK ROW 2 

R3(13) = PLAY STACK ROW 3 

R4(13) = PLAY STACK ROW 4 

Wl(13) = WIN STACK ROW 1 

W2(13) = WIN STACK ROW 2 

W3(13) = WIN STACK ROW 3 

W4(13) = WIN STACK ROW 4 

P(ll) = REPLACEMENT STACK 

UR(10) = WHICH ROW(S) TO REDRAW 

OTHER VARIABLES 

SC = SCORE 

U = SUIT VALUE OF FIRST CARD ON WIN STACK 

FM = WHICH STACK CARD(S) ARE BEING TAKEN FROM 

Tl = WHICH STACK CARD(S) ARE GOING TO 

ER = INDICATES THAT THIS CARD CAN'T BE MOVED 



Solitaire Four 

10 I=RND(-TI) :DIMDR(10) 

20 DIMD(52),T(S2).P(11),R1(13),R2(13),R3 
(13),R4(13),W1(13),W2(13),¥3(13),W4C13) 

30 SC=SC-57 : PRINT" £ CLEAR] " : FORI= 1 T052 

40 T(I)=0:NEXT:F0RI=1T052 

50 C=INT(RND(1+TI)*53) :IFC=0G0T050 

60 IFT(C)=1G0T050 

70 T(C)=1 :D(I)=C:NEXT 

80 F0RI=1T011 :P(I)=D(I) : T(D( I) ) =0 : NEXTI : J=1 1 



30/Commander March/April 1983 



90 R1 (1 )=D(12) :T(D(12))=0:R1=1 :W1=1 



100 
1 10 
120 

150 
HO 



160 
170 
180 

190 
200 
210 
220 



240 

250 
260 
270 



R2(1)=D(13) 
R3(1)=D(H) 

R4(1)=D(15 
¥1 (1 )=D(16 



W2=0 
W3=0 
W4=0 



:DR(9 



T(D(13))=0:R2=1 

T(D(14))=0:R3=1 

T(D(15))=0:R4=1 
T(D(16))=0:U=D(16) 

DR(1 ) = 1 :DR(2) = 1 :DR(3) = 1 :DR(4) = 1 
)=1 :DR(5)=1 
150 IPU>13THENU=U-13:G0T0150 

U1$=STR$(U) 

IPU=10THENU1$="T" 

IPU=1 1THENU1$="J" 

IFU=12THENU1$="Q" 

IFU=13THENU1$="K" 

IFU=1THENU1$="A M 

T=0:P0RI=17T052:IPT(D(I))=1THENT=T+1 
: L= I : IPT=3THENT=0 : LS=LN : LN=I : G0T027O 

230 NEXTI : IPTO0THENI=L: T=4 : G0T027O 
P0RI=1 7T052 : IPT( I) O0THEN220 

NEXTI: 1=0 

GOT0220 

DR(10) = 1 :G0SUB1710 
280 PRINT"[H0ME]M0VE?[25 RIGHT]" ;U1$ 
290 GETE$:IPE$=""G0T029O 

IPE$="N"ANDLL=1THENLL=0:G0T0220 

IPE$="N"G0T0640 

IPE$="B M THENI=LS:G0T0270 

IPE$="E"THEN660 

IPE$ = " T" THENE=1 : G0T041 

IPE$="J"THENE=11 :G0T0410 

IPE$="Q"THENE=1 2 :G0T041 

IPE$="K"THENE=13:G0T0410 

IPE$="A M THENE=1 :G0T041O 

IPE$ = M D"THENP0RZZ=1 T01 0:DR( ZZ) = 1 : 

PRINT" [ CLEAR] " : G0SUB1 710: G0T0280 

E=VAL(E$) :IPE=OTHEN290 

PRINT" [HOME] [ DOWN] "E$ ; 

GETE$:IPE$=""G0T0420 



300 

310 
320 

330 

340 
350 
360 
370 

380 
390 
TZZ 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
480 

450 
460 

470 

480 

490 

500 



510 

520 



:NEX 



IPE$="S"THENE$=" 
IPE$="Z"THENE$=" 

IFE$="X"THENE$=" 



'HEART]" :S=0:G0T0480 

;DIAM0ND]":S=13:G0T0 

CLUB]":S=26:G0T0480 



IPE$=" A"THENE$="[ SPADE] ":S=39:G0T048 

G0T0420 

PRINT" [ HOME] [ DOWN] [ RIGHT] "E$ 
S=S+E : G0SUB980 : IPER= 1 THEN280 
G0SUB1 250 : IPER=1 THENG0SUB1 080 : G0T028 



DR(T1 )=1 :IPT1>4THEN570 

IPPM=1THENP0RZ=1T0R1 :XX=R1 (Z):G0SUB1 
590:NEXTZ:R1=0:DR(1)=1 

530 IPPM=2THENP0RZ=1T0R2:XX=R2(Z) :G0SUB1 
590:NEXTZ:R2=0:DR(2)=1 
540 IPPM=3THENP0RZ=1T0R3:XX=R3(Z) :G0SUB1 

590:NEXTZ:R3=0:DR(3)=1 

550 IPPM=4THENP0RZ= 1 T0R4 : XX=R4 ( Z ) : G0SUB1 

590:NEXTZ:R4=0:DR(4)=1 



QfflUMi 



22-B MILLER STREET, BELFAST, MAINE 04915 
(207)338-1410 

Software & Accessories for the VIC-20 



-CARDCO — 



CARDADAPTER: Play Atari VCS Games on your Vic . . 

CARDBOARD/6: 6 Slot Expansion 

CARDPRINT: Parallel Printer Interlace for Vic or 64 
CARDRITER: bght Pen with 6 good programs. Vic or 64 . 



-MICROSYSTEMS- 



3K RAM EXPANSION 

8K RAM EXPANSION 

16K RAM EXPANSION 

3 SLOT EXPANSION BOARD 

VIC IEE-488 INTERFACE: Use CBM Pnnlers. Disk Dnves 



$76.99 
$84.99 
$67.99 
$33.99 



$29.99 

$44.99 
$84.99 
$28.99 

$75.99 



VIC RS 232 INTERFACE: Use Modems and Serial Pnnters . . $42.99 



GEMINMObySTAR 

A FULL-FEATURED DOT MATRIX PRINTER AT AN AF- 
FORDABLE PRICE. 100 CPS; 9-wire User Replaceable 
Print Head; Friction & Tractor Feed; Dot Addressable 
Graphics; NormaJ, Italic and ProportionaJ Characters; 2.3K 
buffer; - 10, 12, 17, 5, 6, 8.5, CPI; Super/Sub Scripts; 
Standard Typewriter Ribbon; Up to 10"-wide Paper. 
$399.99 plus $10.00 Shipping and Handing. 



GRID RUNNER: Avoid Droids Weapons and Annihilate them . $33.99 

PROTECTOR: Transport Citizens to Safety in New City $36.99 

SHAMUS: Search Rooms for the Shedow - Avoid Droids . . . $33.99 

QUEEN'S BEDROOM: Look for Royal Treasure - Avoid Guards $33.99 

ROBOT PANIC: Battle your way through the Cosmos . . . $33.99 

PIRATES PERIL: Adventure - Sensational Sound & Animation . $33.99 

SKIER: Down Hill Skiing - Mil Rags. Avoid Trees. 3 Levels . . $14.99 

MAZE OF MIKOR: Steal Warlocks Gold - Evade Demon .... $14.99 

VICTREK: Great Sound & Graphics $14.99 

TORG: Destroy the Suicide Attackers . $14.99 

RAID ON ISRAM: Fry across Desert - Destroy Fuel. Rockets . $16.99 

TURTLE GRAPHICS: Easy to Learn Computer Language . . . $33.99 

VIC FORTH: Interactive Threaded Interpreted Language . . $49.99 

HES MON: Mach Language Monrtor- Assembler . . $33.99 

HES WRITER: Surprisingly Complete Word Processing Can $33.99 



SPIDERS OF MARS: Destroy Spiders. Bats. Dragon Flies . . $39.99 

METEOR RUN: Avoid Meteors and Enemy Torpedos $39.99 

OUTWORLD: Protect your Outerspace Community $39.99 

CLOUDBURST: Protect Earth from Acid Rain & Cloud Hoppers . $3239 

SATELLITES & METEORS: Watch out for the Black Hole .. $39.99 

AMOK: Cass. Like Berserk only Better $19.99 

BUT: Cart. 3K RAM plus Programming Aids $59.99 



-CREATIVE SOFTWARE 



APPLE PANIC: Set Traps lor Deadly Apples Before (hey get you . $37 J9 
ASTRO BUTZ:Like Defender - Creatrve Computing Rates this #1 . $3739 
BLACK HOLE: Avoid Space Debris & Gravity of Black Hole . $37.99 
CHOPUFTEft: Fight off Jets, Tanks. Sams to Rescue Hostages . $3739 

SERPENTINE: Battle of the Serpents $37.99 

HOUSEHOLD FINANCE: 2 Tapes - 4 Programs $28.99 

LOAN ANALYZER: Loan Calculations - Amortization Table . . $12.99 



SKYLIGHT SOFTWARE 

GAME TAPE #1 - Canon Duel - Breakout - Runaround - Stockcar 

Space Scout GAME TAPE #2 -Target Petol -Space Duel -B29 

-Tar* -Roadbook GAMETAPE#3 -SubHunt -Stockade 

-Indy 500- UFO -Jungte Driver #1,#2,#30NLY$9.99EACH 

VC GAME LIBRARY - ALL 1 5 GAMES ON ONE TAPE . . $25.00 

VM - Vic Intormaton Management - 10 Commands .... $12.99 



— MISCELLANEOUS — 



ROAD TOAD: Cass. - Like Frogger 

MUJPEDE: Cass - Like Centipede 

RIVER RESCUE: Rescue 3 Explorers lost in Jungle 

MUSIC COMPOSER: Enter plus Edit Score - Save and Load . 

GALACTIC BLITZ: Cass. - 15 Different Patterns 

SIDEWINDER: Cass. - 8K Exp. Required 

SWARM: Cass. - The fastest you've seen 

SKY PILOT: Fry WW1 Plane against choice of German Planes . 

DUNGEONS OF KAL: Adventure - Cass 

BASEBALL: Cass. - Manage any Team in History 

FOOTBALL: Cass. - Req. 8K Exp. - All '81 NFL Teams .... 
GALACTIC CONQUEST: Req. 8K Exp. - Strategy Game - 1 to 6 
TOTL TEXT Z5: Cass. - Advanced Word Processor - Req. 8K Exp. 

TOTL LABEL: Cass. - Mailing List 

RESEARCH ASSSTANT: Cass-Notekeepfig for Term Papers, etc. 

ACCOUNTANT: 2 Tapes - G.J. - B.S. - Inc. Statement 

ACCOUNT REOPAY-. 2 Tapes 

BUSINESS WVENTORY: Tape 

QUICK BROWN FOX; Professional Word Processing Cart 



$1239 
$1239 
$33.99 
$2439 
$1939 
$24.99 
$24.99 
$10.49 
$10.49 
$10.49 
$1239 
$13.99 
$2939 
$1839 
$2439 
$2439 
$1839 
$1839 
$5539 



ADOJPXFORSHIPP.f, 4HAfP"N 



Utow»cC<rt i 



PfllCESRFFLfC-' ■ 
CA&nrJSCOA' " 



VISA' 



] 



Commander March/April 1983/31 



■■■■■tMlPU SEniSEi:/ 

"CARD/?" 
(CARD/PRINT) 



UNIVERSAL CENTRONICS 
PARALLEL PRINTER 
INTERFACE FOR THE VIC-20& 
Now you can use your VIC-20^ with 
an EPSON MX-80 printer, or an OKI- 
DATA printer, or a TANDY printer, or 
just about anybody's printer. And you 
don't have to give up the use of your 
user port (MODEM), or change to° 
special printer commands, or load any 
special software driver programs to do j 
it. 

• Outputs standard ASCII codes to | 
the printer. 

• Plugs in the VIC-20* printer serial 
i/o port. 

• Understands all standard VIC-20® 
print commands. 

• No modification to your VIC -20* 

• No special programs required. 

• Includes all necessary cables to 
hook up a standard printer using 
Centronics parallel input. 

• MADE IN THE U.S.A. 
The CARD/ 7, is a product of CARDCO. Inc 

$79.95 

TO ORDER 
P. O. 80X 18765 
WICHITA. KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 

Personal checks accepted ( >fc * < v ' / C * J ) 

(Allow 3 weeks) or ^V—X^y] 

COD (Add $2 00) 

Handling charges S2 00 

VlC-20" is a recnstered irarie.-nark of Commodore 



PAT. #4.259,705 




DON'T 
BLAME 
THE 
SOFTWARE 

Power Line Spikes and Hash often cauc^ 
memory loss or erratic operation. Often 
floppies, printer & processor interact! 

OUR patented ISOLATORS eliminate 
equipment interaction AND curb damag- 
ing Power Line Spikes, Surges and Hash. 

Filtered 3-prong sockets and integral 

Spike Suppression. 125 VAC, 15 Amp, 

1875 W Total - 1 KW per socket. 

ISO-1 ISOLATOR. 3 Filtered Sockets; 
1000 Amp 8/20 usee Spike Sup- 
pressor $76.95 

ISO-4 ISOLATOR. 6 Filtered Sockets; 
1000 Amp 8/20 usee Spike Sup- 
pressor $128.95 

ISO-3 SUPER-ISOLATOR. 3 DUAL fil- 
tered Sockets; 2000 Amp 8/20 usee 
Spike Suppressor $115.95 

ISO-7 SUPER-ISOLATOR. 5 DUAL fil- 
tered Sockets; 2000 Amp 8/20 usee 
Spike Suppresor $186.95 

Master-Charge, Visa, American Express 

TOLL FREE ORDER DESK 1-800-225-4876 
(except AK, HI, MA, PR & Canada) 



Electronic Specialists, Inc. 

171 South Main Street. Natick. MA 01760 
Technical & Non-800: 1-617-655-1532 



560 G0T0610 

570 IFPM=1 THENXX=R1 (R1 ) 

0:DR(1 )=1 

580 IFFM=2THENXX=R2(R2) 

0:DR(2)=1 

590 IFFM=3THENXX=R3(R3) 

0:DR(3)=1 

600 IFFM=4THENXX=R4(R4) 

0:DR(4)=1 

610 IFFM=5THENXX=P(J) 

(9) = 1 

620 IFFM=6THENXX=D(I) : T( D( I ) ) =0 : G-0SUB1 59 

0:DR(10)=1 

630 G0T01 1 10 

IFT=4THEN220 

G0T0230 

SC=SC+((W1+W2+W3+W4)*5) :G0T030 

REM SCREEN DISPLAY ROUTINE 

REM PRINTS ONE CARD 

IFC<14THENC$="[ HEART]" 



R1=R1-1 :G0SUB159 
R2=R2-1 -.G0SUB159 
R3=R3-1 :G0SUB1 59 
R4=R4-1 :G0SUB159 



:J=J-1 :G0SUB1590:DR 



640 
650 
660 

670 
680 
690 
700 
710 
720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 
780 
790 
795 
800 
810 
820 
830 
840 
850 



IFC>13ANDC<27THENC$=" [DIAMOND]" 
IFO26ANDC<40THENC$ = " [ CLUB] " 
IFC>39THENC$=" [ SPADE] " 
IP0 1 3THENC=C-1 3 : G0T0730 
IFC=13THENC$=" K"+C$:G0T0795 



J"- 



IFC=1 THENCS 
IFC=12THENC$=" 
IFC=1 1THENC$=" 
IFC=10THENC$=" 
C$=STR$(C)+C$ 
PRINT" [HOME]"; 
IFA=1THEN840 
IFA>1 1THENA=1 1 
PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 



A"+C$:GOT0795 

Q"+C$:G0T0795 

C$:GOT0795 

C$:G0T0795 



IFA=2THEN840 



F0RX=3T0A : PRINT : PRINT :NEXTX 

IFC=0THEN940 

CC$ = MID$( C$,3,1 ) : IFCC$ = "[CLUB]"0RCC$ 
="[ SPADE] "THEN900 
860 PRINTTAB((B*6)-6)"[SHIFT 0][C0MDR Y] 
[C0MDR Y][C0MDRY][ SHIFT P] " ; 



870 PRINT" 
C$,2,2);" 
880 PRINT" 



D0WN][5 LEFT][C0MDR G]" ;MID$( 

C0MDR M] 11 ; 

DOWN] [5 LEFT] [SHIFT L][C0MDR 
P][C0MDR P][C0MDR P][SHIFT @]" 
890 RETURN 
900 PRINTTAB((B*6)-6)"[RVS] 

LEFT][RVS] "; 
910 PRIMTMID$(C$,2,2) ;" " ; 
920 PRINT" [DOWN] [5 LEFT][RVS] 
930 RETURN 
940 IFA=2THENPRINTTAB((B*6)-6)" 



[DOWN] [5 



[OFF]" 
[UP] 



950 PRINTTAB((B*6)-6)"[DOWN] 
960 PRINT" [DOWN] [5 LEFT] " 
970 RETURN 

980 IFR1 (1 )=STHENFM=1 :G0T01 100 
990 IFR2(1 )=STHENFM=2:G0T01100 



32/Commander March/April 1983 



1000 IFR3 )=STHENPM=3:G0T01 100 
1010 IFR4J1 )=STHENFM=4:G0T01 100 
1020 IFR1 (R1 )=STHENFM=1 :G0T01 100 

1030 IPR2(R2)=STHENPM=2:G0T01 100 

1 040 IPR3 ( R3 ) =STHENPM=3 : G0T01 1 00 

1050 IPR4(R4)=STHENPM=4:G0T01 100 

1060 IPP( J)=STHENFM=5:G0T01 100 

1070 IFD(I) = STHENFM=6:G0T01 100 

1080 PRINT" [HOME] INV!" 

1090 ER=1 :F0RZZ=1 T01 000 :NEXTZZ: RETURN 

1 100 ER=0: RETURN 

1110 IFJ=0THEN1 160 

1 120 IFR1=0THENR1=R1+1 

:DR(9)=1 :DR(1 )=1 

1130 IFR2=0THENR2=R2+1 

:DR(9)=1 :DR(2)=1 

1140 IFR3=OTHENR3=R3+1 

:DR(9)=1 :DR(3)=1 

1 1 50 IFR4=0THENR4=R4+1 
:DR(9)=1 :DR(4)=1 

1 160 IFJ=0ANDR1=0ANDT(D(I)) = 1THENR1=1 
(1 )=D(I) :T(D(I))=0:PM=6 
170 IPJ=0ANDR2=0ANDT(D(I))=1THENR2=1 :R2 



:R1 (R1 )=P(J) 
:R2(R2)^(J) 
:R3(R3)=P(J) 

;R4(R4)=P(J) 



J=J-1 



J = J-1 



J=J-1 



J=J-1 



R1 



ilM7? f Sffi 



TCd(TT)-0:PM=6 

IFJ=0ANDR3= 
D(I):T(D(I)): 



1 )=D 

1180 IFJ=0ANDR3vOANDT(D(l))=1THENR3=1 
(1)=D(I) :T(D(I))=0:PM=6 

1 1 90 IPJ=0ANDR4=0ANDT(D( I) ) = 1 THENR4=1 

(1 )=D(I) :T(D(I))=0:PM=6 

1200 IPPMO6THEN1240 

1210 DR(10)=1 : 1=1-1 :IPT(D(I))=1THENLS=I 

LN=LS:G0T0124O 

1 220 IPK17THENG0SUB1 680:G0T01 240 

G0T01 210 
G0SUB171O:G0T027O 

x=s 

IPPM=1 ANDR1>1ANDR1 (1 )=STHEN1380 



R3 

R4 



IPPM=2ANDR2> 1 ANDR2 ( 1 ) =STHEN1 380 
IPPM=3 ANDR3> 1 ANDR3 ( 1 ) =STHEN1 380 
IPFM=4ANDR4> 1 ANDR4( 1 ) =STHEN1 380 
IFX>1 3THENX=X-1 3 :G0T01 300 
IPX=UANDW2=0THENT1 =6 : ER=0 : RETURN 
IPX=UANDW3=0THENT1 =7 : ER=0 : RETURN 
IPX=UAND¥4=0THENT1 =8 : ER=0 : RETURN 
Y=W1 (W1 ) :G0SUB1530:IPER=0THENT1=5:R 



1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 
1290 
1300 
1310 
1320 

1330 

1340 

ETURN 

1350 IFW2>0THENY=W2(W2) : G0SUB1 530 : IFER=0 

THENT1 =6: RETURN 

1360 IPW3>0THENY=W3(W3) :G0SUB1 530: IPER=0 

THENT1 =7: RETURN 

1370 IFW4>0THENY=W4(W4) :G0SUB1 530: IPER=0 

THENT1 =8: RETURN 

1380 Y=R1 (R1 ) :G0SUB143O:IPER=OTHENT1=1 :R 

ETURN 

1390 Y=R2(R2) :G0SUB1 430: IFER=0THENT1 =2 :R 

ETURN 

1 400 Y=R3 ( R3 ) : G0SUB1 430 : IPER=0THENT1 =3 : R 

ETURN 




FOR 
PET®, VIC® AND 
COMMODORE 64 



READING 
VOCABULARY 
LANGUAGE 
SPELLING 
TEACHER AIDS 



MATH 

METRICS 

ALGEBRA 

PHYSICS 

CHEMISTRY 



SCIENCE 
HEALTH 
COMPUTER LIT. 
SOCIAL STUDIES 
MUSIC 



PET 4 VIC are registered 
trademarks ot Commodore Business Machines 



LJ Please send me FREE information about your 
□ PET. □ VIC. and Q Commodore 64 programs 

Name 

Address 

City 




Intelligent Software For 
Commodore Computers 

Copycalc is an affordable electronic 
spread-sheet which turns your video screen 
into a window on a matrix of numbers. Cur- 
sor around the matrix, enter numbers; the 
totals reflect the changes. You can save the 
matrix to disk or tape, or print it or your 
printer. For S20 [S 15 with another program), 
this program might justify the cost of your 
computer. Requires 6k RAM; smaller version 
available for a standard VIC. 

Word Processor Plus was not designed 
to be an expensive toy; it was designed 
solely to facilitate correspondence, for a 
wide range of personal and business uses, 
quickly and easily, with a minimum of train- 
ing and frustration on the part of its user, 
and at the least possible cost, both in hard- 
ware and software. The most thoroughly 
tested, useable word processor available 
at anywhere near the price, $25; 10k RAM, 
printer req'd.; RS-232C version available for 
VIC and 64. 

Also available: Baseball Manager, a 
sports-documentation program; and Inven- 
tory, a perpetual inventory control program 
for a small retail business (various reports, 
multiple vendors); $30 each; 10k RAM 
req'd., printer suggested. 

All programs will load and run on any 
Commodore computer; all support tape, 
disk, and printer. 

Prices include documentation and ship- 
ping; Calif, residents add 6%. Please 
specify hardware configuration when 
ordering. Sorry, no games available. 
Wlllam Robblns, Box 3745. San Rafael, CA 94912 



Commander March/April 1983/33 



= XX: RETURN 
= XX: RETURN 
-XX .-RETURN 

=XX: RETURN 
=XX: RETURN 



1410 Y=R4(R4) :G0SUB1430:IPER=0THENT1=4:R 

33 TURN 

1420 G0T01510 

1430 X=S 

1440 IFX<27ANDY<27THEN1510 

1450 IEX>26ANDY>26THEN1510 

1460 IPX>13THENX=X-13:GOT01460 

1 470 IPY>1 3TI-IENY=Y-1 3 :G0T01 470 

1480 IFX=1.3ANDY=1THEN1520 

1490 IFX=13THEN1510 

1500 IPX=Y-1THEN1520 

1510 ER=1 : RETURN 

1520 ER=0: RETURN 

1530 X=S 

1540 IPXO14ANDXO27ANDXO40ANDX=Y+1THEN 

ER=0: RETURN 

1 550 IPX>1 3THENX=X-1 3=Y=Y-1 3 :G0T01 550 

1560 IPYO13THEN1580 

1570 IFX=1THENER=0: RETURN 

1580 ER=1 : RETURN 

1590 IPT1=1THENR1=R1+1 :R1 (R1 )=XX: RETURN 

1600 IFT1=2THENR2=R2+1 : R2(R2) =XX: RETURN 

1610 IFT1=3THENR3=R3+1 :R3(R3, 

1620 IFT1=4THMR4=R4+1 :R4(R4' 
1630 IPT1=5THENW1=W1+1 :W1 (W1 ' 

1640 IPT1=6THENW2=V/2+1 :W2(W2' 

1650 IPT1=7THENU3=W3+1 :W3(W3! 

1660 IFT1=8THENW4=W4+1 :W4 (W4) =XX: RETURN 

1680 T=0:LS=0:PORI=17T052:IPT(D(I))=OTHE 

NNEXTI:I=LS: RETURN 

1690 T = T+1 :LS=I:IFT=3THENLS=I .-RETURN 

1700 NEXTI: I=LS: RETURN 

1710 IFDR(1 )=1THENB=2:P0RZZ=1T0R1 :A=ZZ+1 

:C=R1 (ZZ) :G0SUB690:NEXTZZ 

1720 IFDR(2)=1 THENB=3:P0RZZ=1T0R2:A=ZZ+1 

:C=R2(ZZ) :GOSUB690:NEXTZZ 

1 730 IPDR( 3) =1 THENB=4 : F0RZZ=1 T0R3 : A=ZZ+1 

:C=R3(ZZ) :G0SUB690:NEXTZZ 

1740 IFDR(4)=1THENB=5:FORZZ=1TOR4:A=ZZ+1 

:C=R4(ZZ) :G0SUB690:NEXTZZ 

1750 IEDR(5)=1 THENB=2:A=1 :C=W1 (W1 ) :G0SUB 690 

1760 IFDR(6)=1THENB=3:A=1 :C=V/2(W2) :G0SUB690 

1770 IFDR(7)=1 THENB=4:A=1 :C=W3(W3) :G0SUB690 

1780 IFDR(8)=1 THENB=5:A=1 :C=W4(W4) :G0SUB690 

1790 IFDR(9)=1THENB=1 :A=2:C=P(j) :G0SUB690 

1800 IFDR(10)=1THENB=1 :A=1 1 :C=D(I) :G0SUB690 

1810 PRINT"[H0ME]"TAB(34)SC+( (W1+W2+W3+W4)*5) 

1820 IPDR(1 )=1 ANDRK10THENB=2:P0RZZ=R1+1 

T01 1 :C=0:A=ZZ+1 :G0SUB690 : NEXTZZ 

1 830 IPDR( 2) =1 ANDR2<1 0THENB=3 : F0RZZ=R2+1 

T01 1 :C=0:A=ZZ+1 :GOSUB690 : NEXTZZ 

1840 IPDR(3)=1ANDR3<10THENB=4:F0RZZ=R3+1 

T01 1 :C=0:A=ZZ+1 :G0SUB690 : NEXTZZ 

1850 IPDR(4)=1ANDR4<10THENB=5:F0RZZ=R4+1 
T01 1 :C=0:A=ZZ+1 :G0SUB690: NEXTZZ 

1860 P0RZZ=1 T010:DR(ZZ)=0:NEXTZZ 

1870 RETURN 



Formatting & Error Checking 

Continued from page 13 

return would bring you back to the 
subsequent line from which you came. 
We need to re-input, thus lines 10 and 
30 are our target lines and only a goto, 
not a gosub will work here. Also you 
will notice on the complete demonstra- 
tion program that A$ and B$ input 
have 3 shifted spaces and 3 left cur- 
sors for further input protection, thus, 
if just return is pressed without an en- 
try, the program will branch to the er- 
ror alert routine. 

To remove the input prompt (?) after 
input, you could poke a 96 value to the 
screen location occupied by the 
prompt. The 96 value is a blank thus 
removing the prompt character. No 
prompt to clutter our display. 

You could dress up this program by 
putting in column headings and 
tabular borders, as well as change the 
formula to fit your needs. 

So, in summary, we've learned to 
format and align decimal numeric 
data, how to error check for correct 
numeric entry, and how to erase er- 
roneous entries and give the operator 
another chance. All with a few short 
routines and a couple of tricks from our 
bag of programming magic! □ 




34/Commander March/April 1983 



Introducing The V * i i^0f M r^ 

FIHAHCIALW^'Hl 

l.-QfcJ * 



Diskette Programs for 16K PET/CBM 




Financial Programs 



The Wizard helps you quickly calculate 12 major types 
of Financial Transactions with ease and accuracy. 

Created for businesses and individuals, this DISK 
PACKAGE has 9 programs plus instructions. The Wizard 
delivers answers on the screen or printer 



H TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE • TAYLORMADE 



Expanded offering of Educational Software 
for the COMMODORE 64 

• Touch Typing Tutor (TTT64) diskette $24.95 

cassette $19 95 

Ideal for typing students or computer users Learn to type with all 
fingers on your computer's keyboard by following the keyboard and 
finger placement pictured on your TV screen. 19 lessons fully de- 
scribed in 12-page manual. Select PRACTICE and type computer 
generated pseudo words for your rate and list of errors. Select TEXT 
and practice English words for timed test of any duration 



CASCADE COMPUTERWARE 

V Box 2354 • Everett. WA 98203 



(206) 355-6121 

Dealer inquiries invited 



for the VIC-20 

• Touch Typing Tutor 3.0 (TTT5K) cassette $19.95 

Has same features as TTT64 above. Will run on basic VIC Four 
separate programs. Enhanced version now provides practice typing 
English words Includes 12-page manual Selected by Denver Public 
Schools to train 700 elementary students in keyboard skills 

• Fun Fractions (FF + 8K) diskette $24.95 

cassette $19 95 
The fun way to learn addition, subtraction multiplication, and divi- 
sion of fractions for grades 4-9 with sound, color, and graphics. 
Watch VIC show you all the intermediate steps on the screen black- 
board Then take a turn and see if you can answer before the 
parachute jumper crashes. Three levels of difficulty. Help is given 
for incorrect answers, learn your score Requires 8K (or more) 
memory expansion. Includes 16-page manual 

Foreign orders payable U.S. dollars plus $3.00 shipping/handling 

TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE 



! 



P.O. Box 5574 

Lincoln, NE 68505 

(402) 464-9051 



war 



Cr:rmodore 6^ and ViC-20 are trademarks of GbnnfUHffifl Business Machines Inc 



TAYLORMADE SOFTWARE • TAYLORMADE > 



STCP 

Standard Terminal Communications Package 

■PFO' IOD OOA CP<D1>D2 BELL - 12 30 00 10 14 36 

Don'! settle for non-standard Communications Protocol' 
Access Micro Net. Source. Bulletin Boards. Local Main- 
frame, etc 

• Complete Package - Includes RS232 inter- 
face Board and software (does not include 
modem) 

• Communicates in Industry Standard ASCII 

• upload/Download to/from Disk 

• Automatic File Translation 

• Can be controlled from keyboard or user sup 
plied basic or machine language program 

Specify: 3.0 or 4.0 ROMS or 8032 Commodore Computer 
4040 or 8050 or PEDISK II Disk 

Price: $129.95 



h 



ATARI AND PET 
EPROM PROGRAMMER 

Programs 2716 and 2532 
EPROMs. Includes hardware 
and software. PET = $75.00- 
ATARI (includes sophisticated 
machine language monitor) = 
$119.95 




Prownter Printer - Excellent dot matrix print Parallel : 
Serial = $600 00 IEEE = S589 00 



$489 00 



VIC RABBIT CARTRIDGE 



"High-Speed 

Cassette 

Load and Save!" 



/> 







$39.95 

(includes Cartridge 
and Manual) 



Expansion Connector 



"Don't waste your Life away waiting to LOAD and SAVE 

programs on Cassete Oeck." 

Load or Save 8K in approximately 30 seconds! Try 

it - your Un-Rabbitized VIC takes almost 3 minutes. 

It's not only Fast but VERY RELIABLE. 

Almost as fast. as VIC Disk Drive! Don't be foolish - 

Why buy the disk when you can get the VIC Rabbit 

for much, much less! 

Easy to install -it just plugs in. 

Expansion Connector on rear. 

Works with or without Expansion Memory. 

Works with VIC Cassette Deck. 

12 Commands provide other neat features. 

Also Available for 2001 , 4001 . and 8032 



TRAP 65 

TRAP 65 is a hardware device that 

plugs into your 6502s socket. Prevents 

execution of unimplemented opcodes 

and provides capability to extend the 

machines' instruction set 

ForPET/APPLE/SYM. 

Reduced from $149.95 to $69 95 



DC Hayes Smart Modem = S235 00 
DC Hayes Micro Modem n = $289 00 



Rana Disk Drive - 375 
4 Drive Controller - 114 



More than just an Assembler/Editor! 




MAE 



for 

PET 

APPLE 

JflARI 



Its a 

Professionally 

Designed 

Software 

Development 

system _ -mtmcG 

Blast off with the software used on the space 
shuttle project! 

• Oes^ned (o improve Programmer Productivity 

• Similar syntax and commands - No rteed to refeam peculiar 
syntaxes and commands when you go from P£T to APPLE 
10 ATARI 

■ Coresident Assembler/Editor - No need to load the Editor men the 
Assembler men me Editor, etc 

• Abo includes Word Processor. Relocating Loader, and much 
more 

• Options EPROM Programmer, unimptemenied opcode circuitry 
- STILL NOT CONVINCEO Send tor free spec sheet 1 



5% INCH SOFT 
SECTORED DISKETTES 

Highest quality. We use them on 
our PETs, APPLEs, ATARIs, and other 
computers. $22.50/10 or $44.50/20 

EPROMS 2716 = 56 50 2532 = Si? 50 

Over 4C Commodore Programs by Bake* (on 4040) = 525 00 




3239 Linda Dr. 
Winston-Salem, N.C. 27106 
(919)924-2889 (919)748-8446 
Send for free catalog! 




Commander March/April 1983/35 



AARDVARK - THE ADVENTURE PLACE 
TRS-80 COLOR COMMODORE 24 VIC-20 SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99 



WE CARRY MORE THAN ADVENTURESII 

MAXI-PROS WORD PROCESSING t^ 

The easiest to use word processor that I 
know of. Has all the features of a major word 
processor (right and left margin justification, 
page numbering, global and line editing, single, 
double, triple spacing, text centering, etc.) at 
a very cheap price because we wrote it in 
BASIC. Includes 40 page manual and learning 
guide. Easily modified to handle almost any 
printer combination. Available on disk or tape 
for VIC20, COMMODORE64, and TRS-80 
COLOR computer. Requires 13k RAM on 
Vic, 16k EXTENDED on TRS-80 COLOR. 
$19.95 on tape $24.95 on disk. ^ 1 

GENERAL LEDGER - Complete bookkeep- 
ing for a small business. Disk required. For 
Vic20 (13k), Commodore64, TRS-80 COLOR 
(16k EXTENDED). $69.95 (Send $1.00 for 
manual before ordering.) 



;«* 



:•!§» 




LABYRINTH - 16K EXTENDED COLOR 
BASIC — With amazing 3D graphics, you fight 
your way through a maze facing real time 
monsters. The graphics are real enough to 
cause claustrophobia. 

Similar game for Timex/Sinclair 16k - hunting 
treasure instead of monsters $14.95. 




ADVENTURE WRITING/DEATHSHIP by 
Rodger Olsen — This is a data sheet showing 
how we do it. It is about 14 pages of detailed 
instructions how to write your own adven- 
tures. It contains the entire text of Deathship. 
Data sheet - $3.95. NOTE: Owners of TI99, 
TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Vic 20 computers 
can also get Deathship on tape for an addi- 
tional $5.00. 

Dealers— We have the best deal going for you. 
Good discounts, exchange programs, and fac- 
tory support. Send for Dealer Information. 
Authors — Aardvark pays the highest commis- 
sions in the industry and gives programs the 
widest possible advertising coverage. Send a 
Self Addressed Stamped Envelope for our 
Authors Information Package. 



ADVENTURES - Adventures are a unique 
form of computer game. They let you spend 
30 to 70 hours exploring and conquering a 
world you have never seen before. There is 
little or no luck in Adventuring. The rewards 
are for creative thinking, courage, and wise 
gambling — not fast reflexes. 

In Adventuring, the computer speaks and 
listens to plain English. No prior knowledge 
of computers, special controls, or games is re- 
quired so everyone enjoys them— even people 
who do not like computers. 

Except for Quest, itself unique among Ad- 
venture games, Adventures are non-graphic. 
Adventures are more like a novel than a comic 
book or arcade game. It is like reading a par- 
ticular exciting book where you are the main 
character. 

All of the Adventures in this ad are in Basic. 
They are full featured, fully plotted adventures 
that will take a minimum of thirty hours (in 
several sittings) to play. 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, TRS- 
80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires extended 
BASIC. Now available for TI99. 



PYRAMID by Rodger Olsen - This is one of 
our toughest Adventures. Average time 
through the Pyramid is 50 to 70 hours. The 
old boys who built this Pyramid did not mean 
for it to be ransacked by people like you. 

Authors note to players — This is a very 
entertaining and very tough adventure: I left 
clues everywhere but came up with some in- 
genous problems. This one has captivated 
people so much that I get calls daily from as 
far away as New Zealand and France from 
bleary eyed people who are stuck in the 
Pyramid and desperate for more clues. 

MARS by Rodger Olsen - Your ship crashed- 
on the Red Planet and you have to get home. 
You will have to explore a Martian city, repair 
your ship and deal with possibly hostile aliens 
to get home again. 

Authors note to players — This is highly 
recommended as a first adventure. It is in no 
way simple — playing time normally runs from 
30 to 50 hours — but it is constructed in a 
more "open" manner to let you try out ad- 
venturing and get used to the game before 
you hit the really tough problems. 



TREK ADVENTURE by Bob Retelle - This 
one takes place aboard a familiar starship and 
is a must for trekkies. The problem is a famil- 
iar one — The ship is in a "decaying orbit" 
(the Captain never could learn to park!) and 
the engines are out (You would think that in 
all those years, they would have learned to 
build some that didn't die once a week). Your 
options are to start the engine, save the ship, 
get off the ship, or die. Good Luck. 

Authors note to players — I wrote this one 
with a concordance in hand. It is very accurate 
— and a lot of fun. It was nice to wander 
around the ship instead of watching it on T.V. 

DERELICT by Rodger Olsen and Bob Ander- 
son — For Wealth and Glory, you have to ran- 
sack a thousand year old space ship. You'll 
have to learn to speak their language and 
operate the machinery they left behind. The 
hardest problem of all is tojive through it. 

Authors note to players - This adventure 
is the new winner in the "Toughest Adventure 
at Aardvark Sweepstakes". Our most difficult 
problem in writing the adventure was to keep 
it logical and realistic. There are no irrational 
traps and sudden senseless deaths in Derelict. 
This ship was designed to be perfectly safe for 
its' builders. It just happens to be deadly to 
alien invaders like you. 

Dungeons of Death - Just for the 16k TRS- 
80 COLOR, this is the first D&D type game 
good enough to qualify at Aardvark. This is 
serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 players to go 
on a Dragon Hunting, Monster Killing, Dun- 
geon Exploring Quest. Played on an on-screen 
map, you get a choice of race and character 
(Human, Dwarf, Soldier, Wizard, etc.), a 
chance to grow from game to game, and a 15 
page manual. At the normal price for an Ad- 
venture ($14.95 tape, $19.95 disk), this is a 
giveaway. 




QUEST by Bob Retelle and Rodger Olsen - 

THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM ALL THE 
OTHER GAMES OF ADVENTURE!!!! It is 
played on a computer generated map of 
Alesia. You lead a small band of adventurers 
on a mission to conquer the Citadel of Moor- 
lock. You have to build an army and then arm 
and feed them by combat, bargaining, explora- 
tion of ruins and temples, and outright ban- 
ditry. The game takes 2 to 5 hours to play 
and is different each time. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice visual effects and sound. Not 
available on OSI. This is the most popular 
game we have ever published. 

32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $24.95. 
Adds a second level with dungeons and 
more Questing. 

PRICE AND AVAILABILITY: 

All adventures are $14.95 on tape. Disk 
versions are available on VIC/COMMODORE 
and TRS-80 Color for $2.00 additional. $2.00 
shipping charge on each order. 



Please specify system on all orders 
ALSO FROM AARDVARK - This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 

AARDVARK 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 / (313) 669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 
TRS-80 COLOR TIMEX/SINCLAIR COMMODORE 64 VIC-20 

$2.00 shipping on each order 

36/Commander March/April 1983 





by Tim Parker 
Ontario, Canada 



When last I wandered into my local 
computer store, I was somewhat 
astonished to find that they had doubl- 
ed the number of computer maga- 
zines they stocked. I had been under 
the impression that they already had 
the widest selection around, but the 
new titles made a somewhat discon- 
certing display, spread over three 
browsers! 



Computer 
Magazines 
Proliferate 



Few computerists can be unaware 
of the large number of magazines 
spawned in the past few years as this 
field has grown. (Exactly the same 
thing happened in video: when Sony 
released its first Beta recorder, there 
were no magazines devoted to the 
field: now there are well over ten. The 
same thing appears to be happening 
to video games.) It used to be that 
there were (in the old days) only a few 
magazines. Creative Computing was 
one of the first aimed at the starting 
computerist. For the higher level user, 
Byte was available. Other than that, 
there were the professional journals, 
but most were unavailable to the 
layman. Then, as the Apple gained 



popularity, the field expanded. When 
the Atari and VICs were introduced, 
the field underwent a population 
explosion. 

Now, there is nothing wrong with the 
number of different magazines avail- 
able. It is definitely to the user's ad- 
vantage. The major complaint I hear 
is that most newcomers to the field are 
unsure which magazines to buy, and 
which will be wasted money. The 
answer to that question is not easy to 
give. It depends on where your interest 
lies. 

There are now specialist magazines 
available for most of the big com- 
puters. Commander is devoted to the 
Commodore series, and at the mo- 
ment leads the pack in that respect. 
(The previous holder to that fades in 
comparison.) Apple user s have 
several magazines including Nibble 
and Softalk, while IBM users have 
PC. Then there are the "general" 
magazines, that either cover several 
types of systems, or have definite 
editorial slants. For example, for 
business users, Interface Age is aim- 
ed at the software most likely to be en- 
countered in that field. Others such as 
Byte are for the most experienced 
user, although aimed at all systems. 
Magazines devoted to operating 
systems are readily accessable. CP/M 
(the most popular operating system) is 
supported by two fairly large circula- 



tion magazines: Microsystems and 
Lifelines. The beginning computerist 
is not ignored, either. The field has ex- 
panded as the publishers realized that 
there were many computer owners out 
there that didn't have the technical 
background previously assumed. 



Which to Buy? 



The major difficulty lies in trying to 
find a few good magazines that suit 
you, and deliver the content you re- 
quire without wasting your hard earn- 
ed dollars. Obviously, the magazine(s) 
devoted to your specific machine 
should be included on your reading 
list. A few general magazines couldn't 
hurt either. For those who are software 
oriented, there are several of the big 
circulation monthlies that fit the bill. 
Hardware magazines are somewhat 
scarcer, but do exist. So try a few dif- 
ferent ones, and judge each on its con- 
tent, and whether it appeals to you. 
Then stay with them. That way, you'll 
stay informed of most of the 
breakthroughs and developments. 
This habit does tend to eat up the 
money that can be used on software, 
but some magazines will give more 
useful information than a shoot-em-up 
can offer! (As an owner of four different 
systems, from small to large, the 
reading begins to get exorbitant: over 
ten magazines a month just for the 

Commander March/April 1983/37 



hobby!) 

Do not be put off by the size of some 
of the magazines. While Byte has a 
width that quickly fills shelves, a large 
chunk of that is advertising. On the 
other hand, a magazine such as this 
erudite publication has far more con- 
tent than adverts. And the information 
is usable by the majority of readers! 
What more could anyone ask for? (No 
one will ever accuse me of being 
biased!) 



Exchangeable 
Software 



An interesting development came to 
my attention several months ago for 
the VIC-20. A few hardware oriented 
friends of mine had put together a 
breadboard that would play Atari VCS 
games on the VIC. The next month I 
saw two separate advertisements for 
the same purpose. This will probably 
be welcome to most VIC-20 owners, 
primarily because of the number of 
games now playable on the VIC. The 
quality of the Atari VCS games does 
not approach the limits of the VIC, with 
block characters in most games, but 
there are so many that have become 
classics that the option to play them is 
now available for less than a hundred 
bucks. 

Developments like this, though, are 
illustrating a point I tried to make in my 
first column (was it really that long 
ago?) for Commander. At that time, I 
tried to point out that the VIC-20 is not 
simply a toy, but a real honest-to- 
goodness computer (albeit somewhat 
smaller than others). Now, as eighty 
column boards, modem packages, 
expanded memory boards, emulation 
modules, PROM (programmable 
Read Only Memory) burners, and 
many other hardware features 
become available, the VIC progresses 
from the 5K machine first found in a 
cardboard box. When added on to, 
the VIC can be transformed into a tru- 
ly powerful computer. (One fellow I 
know has a VIC-20 emulating a 
Televideo terminal, at a fraction of the 
cost!) While graphics of the VIC-20 
chip are not as powerful as the sprites 
in the VIC-64, they are more than ade- 
quate for the majority of purposes. 



Sound (again the VIC-64 has an edge 
here) is better than any other com- 
parable personal computer on the 
market. 

The important point is revealed by 
two words on the last line of the 
previous paragraph: personal com- 
puter. Used to be, only the Apple, Atari 
and IBM were considered personals. 
The VIC was great at games, but 5K? 
By a technique known as paging or 
block selecting, the 6502 processor in 
the VIC-20 can handle far more than 
64K of memory (the theoretical limit for 
a 8 bit machine.) 

To repeat something from my earlier 
column, consider the following: buy an 
Apple II Plus, with two disk drives, con- 
troller card, eighty column card, 
modem card, printer card, and joystick 
adapter. Compare the cost to a VIC-20 
with two disk drives, eighty column 
card, modem plugin, and joystick. 
Then pay your money for the best buy. 
Ever wonder why the VIC-20 sold so 
many units? Now you know. 

A quick addendum to the remarks 
on games made in the January Com- 
mander. Many new games have ap- 
peared over the last three months. It 
is virtually impossible to keep track of 
the different companies, let alone their 
titles! Several of the games that I have 
seen were astonishing, to understate 
the issue. The accomplishments of the 
programmers are remarkable. 
However, there were (inevitably) a few 
duds. (Again, check the game before 
buying if possible.) 

One very encouraging note was that 
one major software house that sells 
some superb games for the Apple II 
has released VIC-20 versions. 
Although I have not had the opportuni- 
ty to preview the VIC editions, if they 
are anything like the Apple versions 
they are sure to become favorites. I 
hope more companies follow this 
trend. (Thanks, Creative Software.) 



Back-up Copies 



A few letters I have received have 
asked about backing up copies of 
some of the better games. Although it 
is not possible to completely protect a 
game on the VIC, some publishers 



have developed some rather in- 
teresting tricks to avoid unlicensed 
duplication. (These techniques are not 
infallible, but I am bound by ethics to 
not disclose the secrets.) Most of the 
games are written in machine 
language, and that is a major stumbl- 
ing block for many people. Machine 
language programs cannot be SAVEd 
the same way a normal BASIC pro- 
gram is: the computer has to be told 
where the program belongs in 
memory. This is the reason for most 
failures at backing up games. 

The logic in backing up programs 
cannot be faulted. It is nice to have a 
reserve copy of all software in case an 
(heaven forbid) accident happens to 
the original. (Most professional pro- 
grammers back everything up as a 
matter of course.) I do not believe any 
purchaser should be prevented from 
protecting his investment, either. Un- 
fortunately, the software companies do 
not agree with me. I have to leave it 
up to your own ingenuity to solve your 
problem. (It's not that hard, really!) 

Several software releases for the 
VIC-20 deserve mention. Although a 
word processing package for the '20 
has been available almost since day 
one, they are finally getting to the point 
where they are of some versatility. 
Advertisements in several of the 
magazines last month touted a 
package that seems to fit the bill. 
Released by UMI, who have been 
mentioned here before, it is called 
"Wordcraft 20." Although I have not 
run it (I have a large CP/M machine for 
my word processing), the preliminary 
reports I have heard have been 
encouraging. 

A package called "Quick Brown 
Fox" from Quick Brown Fox (who 
else?) offers expandability in word pro- 
cessing. As column expansion cards, 
printers, disks and memory are add- 
ed, the program easily adapts to them. 

Yet another word processor that is 
getting some good comments is 
"Rapidwriter Plus" from Rapidwriter. 
Unfortunately, I have few details about 
the package, so I have to restrict my 
comments to a mention en passant. 

Speaking of en passant (tricky, eh?), 
a new chess program from Kavan 
Software (distributed by Data Equip-* 



38/Commander March/April 1983 



merit Supply Corp.) called "Boss" is 
supposedly able to beat Sargon II con- 
sistently. It offers ten levels of play, two 
chess clocks, moves such as en pas- 
sant, and allows rearranging of the 
board virtually at will. Written com- 
pletely in machine code, it ran at a 
good speed. "Boss" requires at least 
an 8K expansion. (Chess players here 
is the rationalization for the memory 
board you've been looking at.) 

Finally, a surprise to me. Back when 
floppy disks and disk drives were 
rather esoteric pieces of equipment for 
most home computers, a company 
called Exatron developed a "Stringy 
Floppy". A stringy floppy is a cartridge 
of looped tape about the size of a 
business card. It runs many times 
faster than a cassette; typically at 7200 
baud. Each cartridge handles around 
64K of memory, and is available for 
the cost of a standard cassette. This 
was very popular several years ago 
with machines such as the Radio 
Shack computers, and now is 
available for the VICs (20 and 64). If 
a disk drive is out of reach of your 
budget, this is definitely a product to 
be looked at in some detail. 

In closing this month, I would like to 
extend my thanks to all the people 
who took time to write and comment 
on these miscellaneous ramblings. 
They always start with no preconceiv- 
ed plan, and usually end up showing 
that rather well! Nevertheless, the 
response has been somewhat 
astonishing. Nary a nasty word was ut- 
tered! If this keeps up, I'll be spending 
all my life at the keyboard. Tis a con- 
summation devoutly to be wished. □ 




VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



WALLBANGER - Blast your way through the dodge'm, blast'm, 
and attack modes. If you destroy the bouncing balls before they destroy 
you, the walls close in for the next round. WALLBANGER is written in 
machine language, has great sound, and encourages complex strategies. 

CASS/5 K/ VIC 20 

ALL 40/80 COLUMN PETS & CBMS (Includes Shipping/Handling) $1 9.95 

[CALIF RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX) 

CHICKEN CHASE - Help your hapless hen avoid hungry 
chicken hawks, sneaky coyotes, and fiendish zompys. If your chicken gets 
into trouble, "hyper-hen" to a new spot on the maze. If your chicken 
travels the entire maze, you advance to the next level where the action is 
faster and the predators more numerous. Hi-res graphics, great sounds, 
and machine language help make CHICKEN CHASE a hilarious fun-filled 
game for the whole family. 

CAS5/5K/VIC-20 (Includes Shipping/Handling) SI 9.95 

(CALIF. RES ADD 6% SALES TAX] 

ROADTOAD - Hop your toad across 5 lanes of traffic, avoid 
deadly snakes, and dodge the dreaded toad-eaters. Cross a raging river 
full of logs, turtles, alligators, and park your toad in the safety of a harbor. 
Each time you park 5 toads, you enter a tougher level where the action is 
faster and the toad-eaters are more numerous. ROADTOAD is written in 
machine language and uses high resolution graphics. The sound effects are 
excellent and you can use a joystick or the keyboard to control your toad. 

CASS/5K/VIC 20 (Includes Shipping/Handling) $19.95 

[CALIF. RES. ADD 6% SALES TAX) 

WnteFor NIBBLES & BITS ' ' NC - Wr,e For 

FREE P.O. BOX 2044 FREE 

Catalog ORCUTT, CA 93455 Catalog 



VIC 20/PET/CBM OWNERS 



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For the yea 

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Commander March/April 1983/39 



Game-CONTEST 




The Game Contest is a continuing feature of Com- 
mander magazine aimed at providing entertainment for 
and promoting competition among our readers. United 
Microware Industries has graciously provided us with 
February's Game Contest. 

DEADLINE FOR ENTRIES: JUNE 1, 1983 

Video Vermin may be purchased from United Micro- 
ware Industries or any one of its fine dealers. 
3503-C Temple Ave. 
Pomona, California 
1-714-594-1351 

40/Commander March/April 1983 



Terms for Game Contest 

First prize will be awarded to the 
person with the highest score. The 
winning entry must contain a photo- 
graph of the highest score of the 
game. A Video Vermin package front 
and proof of purchase slip. 

Entries must be mailed to Com- 
mander, Video Vermin Contest, PO 
Box 98827, Tacoma, WA 98498. All 
entries must be mailed, as postmarks 
are required to determine the earliest 
winning entry. In the event of a tie, 
duplicate prizes will be awarded. 
Employees of United Microware In- 
dustries and their families may not par- 
ticipate. First prize will be $250, se- 
cond prize $100, third prize $50. 

The contest will run until a first prize 
is awarded. United Microware Indus- 
tries will notify Commander Magazine 
of the winner(s) and provide copy and 
photographs for a follow-up story. 

Video Vermin 

Your once-peaceful garden is being 
invaded by a hoard of hungry Vermin. 
Shoot 1hem and their fallen bodies 
sprout a barricade of mushrooms to 
conceal more swarming raiders. Snails 
oil path on which the Vermin slither er- 
ratically toward you. Dropping but- 
terflies leave a trail of mushrooms in 
their wake, and pouncing spiders, 
ants, beetles, and fleas infest the area. 
One vigilant gardener strikes first. If 
he's destroyed by the fatal touch of the 
invaders, two more defenders lie in 
wait to take his place. If the third 
gardener succumbs, and you have 
10,000 points, another gardener will 
emerge to help save the garden from 
devastation. 

I thought it was going to be a 

peaceful afternoon, just me and my 

Continued on page 61 




®41N\ANDER 





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Innovative ways to use your computer equipment— from self-improvement 
to home security • Valuable tricks and practical advice on how to get 
the most from your investment in the high tech field of computers • In 
depth and unbiased analyses of the latest in educational software. 

Fascinating glimpses into the wonders of the computer future • Profiles of 
the industry's most creative people • Provocative discussions on the im- 
pact computers will have on you and your family. 

Critical comparisons of the Commodore Computers • Exactly how your 
computer equipment works • What those computer "buzz words" mean 
and expensive "special features" do • Useful trouble-shooting & 
maintenance advice. 

An expanded directory of the latest programs on ROM-PAK, tape and disc 

• New product previews of the latest and best equipment on the market 

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<^4 All siihrnniinrn; hpum with the rnrrpnt ksnp Pl(-2<e> allnw jj-fi WEPks (nr first mm/ . 




Editor's Note: Our new Bits and Pieces 
department will spotlight questions put 
forth by our readers and feature the 
answers provided by other readers or 
one of Commander's technical 
experts. 

Dear Sir or Madam: 

We do our monthly reports on a 
CBM 8032. We have use of a TRS-80 
DMP100 printer, but don't know how 
to make them compatible. Please help 
us out. 

Several companies have suggested 
hardware/interfaces, but none of them 
are sure the equipment will work, since 
they have not actually tried the 
CBM8032-TRS80 DMP100 together. 

What can you suggest? Do your 
readers have the answer? We 
ourselves are initial subscribers. 

Thank you. 

R. Ellis 
Mem Investment Club 

Dear Sirs: 

I would like to address two topics in 
your premier (Dec, 1982) issue. 

On page 32, a note about Zenith 
and VIC's is made. I have a 64 which 
has enormous white flashes on the 
screen whenever the computer is run- 
ning. Therefore, I tried the hint but it 
had no effect on the white flashes. (It 
did affect the program in storage.) Do 
you know if the flashes can be cured? 
I should add that when I wrote above 
"whenever the computer is running," 
I was referring to transmission, not 
power. Thus if the 64 is waiting, in 
42/Commander March/April 1983 



READY, or from an INPUT statement, 
there are no flashes of white, and 
when the 64 is not in use, there are no 
flashes, and none when LOADing or 
SAVEing. Does the POKE3654,133 
change for the 64? I did do the poke 
over the first line where it says 3891 1 
bytes free. 

My second comment has to do with 
the program "Blocks." It scrolls when 
the lefthand (Lh) player uses the bot- 
tom right hand corner. This causes a 
wipeout on the righthand (Rh) player 
if there is a block of his with a block 
below it. I have spent some time look- 
ing at the logic of the program and 
ZP = 1 in line 350 is supposed to pre- 
vent scrolling; see lines 590 and 900. 
Only the Rh player scrolls for me, the 
Lh player does not. I have tried various 
fixes but none work. One problem is 
understanding the use of ZR and ZL. 
Anyway, if you could look into this also, 
I'd appreciate it. 

Sincerely yours, 
Vincent J. Mooney, Jr. 

Am I the only VIC-20, RS-232 printer 
user? It seems that way when it comes 
to getting information or buying soft- 
ware. When you do find anything on 
the RS-232 interface, it's on the 
modem only. It's time we stood up and 
be counted. Let's have a RS-232 in- 
formation exchange on printers and 
disks. Write to me and let me know any 
of your experiences with the RS-232 
interface. If there are enough, maybe 
we can start our own users group. 



The reason I ended up with this pro- 
blem is as follows. This guy I work with, 
had a rebuilt Data Products DP-50 
daisy wheel printer for sale. Only 
$250.00 but little did I know what was 
ahead. I bought a Quantum Data 
Model 1 800 printer. Which is a RS-232 
interface connected to the users port. 
Hey, this is great, now all I have to do 
is power up, and we are in business. 
WRONG! My first problem, it didn't line 
feed. Everything printed on the same 
line. After many failures and much 
research, I found the answer. I had to 
use openl 28,2 or greater. That was in 
May of 1982. Only you who have ex- 
perienced this will know that wasn't the 
only problem. For you beginners 
here's a couple hints. 

To list a program, use 

OPEN128,2,0,CHR$(6):CMD128: 
LIST 

Explanation: You must use greater 
than 1 27 for line feed, in this case 1 28. 
The 2 is the users port device. The 
CHR$(6) prints in 300 baud. 

To convert to standard ASCII 
subroutine 
1000 REM Standard ASCII 

subroutine 
1010 X = LEN(P$):IFX<1THEN 

1060 
1020 FOR l=1TOX:X$=LEFT$ 

(P$,I-1):SS$ = MID$(P$,I,1):Z$ = 

RIGHT$(P$,X-I) 
1030 Y = ASC(SS$):IFY>64 

ANDY<9 1THENSS$ = CHR$ 

(Y + 32):GOTO1050 



1040 IFY>192ANDY<219THEN 

SS$ = CHR$(Y-128) 
1050 P$ = X$ + SS$ + Z$;NEXT 
1060 RETURN 

Boy, would I like to have a way to 
change some of the Vic printer pro- 
grams to print on my printer. 

Write to me Daryl E. Williams c/o 
DEW-RITE ENTERPRISES, P.O. Box 
1932, Santa Ana, Ca. 92702. □ 



If you do not have software to merge 
two programs, the following procedure 
makes it a simple matter to merge a 
subroutine with a program you are 
writing. The only condition is the 
subroutine is limited to the number of 
statements that will fit on the screen. 

If you are using a Commodore 64 
and tape use the following procedure. 

1. Load the subroutine into the 
computer. 

2. Position the tape just before a 
copy of the program you are writing. 

3. Hold down shift and press "CLR 
HOME". 

4. Then type "LIST" and press 
"RETURN". 



5. Move the cursor over the R in 
RETURN. 

6. Type "LOAD" and press 
"SPACE" twice. 

7. Press "RETURN" and proceed 
with loading. 

8. Once your program is loaded 
press "HOME". 

9. Then press "RETURN" once on 
each subroutine statement. 

You are now ready to list the merg- 
ed programs. 

With a disk the procedure is essen- 
tially the same except in place of typ- 
ing "LOAD" in step (6) above type 
"LOAD" "name of prg",8". With tape 
you will be able to use a subroutine 
with a maximum of 14 lines and with 
disk the limit is 19 lines. A larger 
subroutine could be handled in two or 
three parts. □ 




Debugging & Fixes 
of Programs 

Commander has dedicated this col- 
umn exclusively to the Debugging and 
Fixes of Programs. We want to keep 
our readers informed of any changes 
or mistakes in programs we publish. 
This column is designed for that pur- 
pose only. If you as a reader find any 
bugs, please let us know. —Editor 
Volume 1, Issue 2 
—Parity Check— 

The [\+] in line 920 of the 
SOUNDER program January 1983) 
means enter the plus sign while 
holding down the Commodore shift 
key. Sorry for any confusion. GRG 

Fixes 

Why Didn't I Think of That? 

Page 16, first paragraph: 50 octal 
converts to 40 decimal. 

Page 20, bottom, line 02$\ WHILE 
l<1i? 

Page 21, top, line 05fi\ UNTIL 

1*10 
Page 21, third paragraph: A$ (6:2) 

would be IS □ 



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New Products 



Commodore Introduces 
$300 Color Monitor 

(7 Jan. 83— Valley Forge, PA) 
Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 
(NYSE.CBBU) has introduced a low- 
priced color monitor especially design- 
ed for its line of home, school and 
business computers. 

The announcement was made by 
Robert H. Lane, Commodore's presi- 
dent in charge of North American 
operations. 

Lane said the new 13-inch 
monitor— designated the "CBM 
1701"— retails for $299.95 and was 
especially designed for use with the 
COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20 per- 
sonal computers. The monitor accepts 
a standard 75 ohm composite video 
signal or a "Commodore" video signal 
with separate provisions for luminance 
and chrominance signal input as well 
as audio input. 

The monitor was developed in con- 
junction with a major television 
manufacturer, he said, and includes 
special circuitry which greatly 
enhances the picture resolution. Com- 
modore has applied for a patent on the 
design. 

"From a marketing viewpoint, we're 
in the business of responding to our 
customers' needs," he said. "For a 
long time, our customers have been 
complaining about the high price and 
low quality of color monitors. Many 
computensts have to keep connecting 
and disconnecting their computer 
from their family TV set every time they 
use it. Those people need a dedicated 

44/Commander March/April 1983 



monitor, but it has to be affordable." 
"From a purely business standpoint, 
we've diversified into color monitors 
because a color monitor is a key com- 
ponent in any color computer system, 
and in 1983 most computer retailers 
will begin to sell computers like stereo 
component systems, We want our 
retailers and their customers to be able 
to buy their full system from 
Commodore." 

Commodore expects first delivery of 
the new monitor by March 1, 1983. 
Commodore Business Machines, 
Inc. is the world's leading manufac- 
turer of color computers. The com- 
pany developed the first self-contained 
desktop computer (the PET) in 1977, 
the first color computer priced under 
$300 (the VIC-20) in 1 980, and the first 
64K color computer priced under 
$600 (the COMMODORE 64) in 1 982. 
As a vertically-integrated computer 
manufacturer, Commodore designs 
and produces its own semiconductor 
devices— including the 6502 
microprocessor, developed by Com- 
modore's MOS Technology 
subsidiary. □ 

Color Printer/Plotter 
from Commodore 

(7 Jan. 83— Valley Forge, PA) 
Commodore Business Machines, Inc.. 
(NYSE:CBU) today unveiled a new 
printer/plotter priced at $1 99.95 retail. 

The announcement was made Jan- 
uary 7 at the Consumer Electronics 
Show in Las Vegas by Robert H. Lane, 
Commodore's president of North 
American operations. 



The accessory uses 4 1 /2 inch roll 
paper and prints in four colors— or 
combinations of colors— to achieve 
multi-colored graphs, charts and other 
types of illustrations which are enhanc- 
ed by the use of color. High resolution 
illustrations are achieved by the 
printer/plotter's ability to "step" 480 
dots horizontally and up to 999 steps 
vertically. 

Four separate ball point ink pens 
provide a clean, high quality color im- 
age and the 5 inch wide carriage ac- 
commodates standard roll paper. 

"The printer/plotter complements 
and rounds out our existing line of low- 
priced computer printers," Lane said. 
"A healthy segment of our market 
wants color printing and plotting 
capabilities, and this new printer/plot- 
ter meets that need." 

The device is easily programmed 
from BASIC and requires no special 
modification to use. Business or 
educational statistics can be 
generated on a Commodore com- 
puter such as the VIC-20 or COM- 
MODORE 64 and displayed graphical- 
ly, in color. 

The printer/plotter is designated the 
CBM 1520 Printer/Plotter. First units 
are scheduled for delivery during 
January 1983.D 

Commodore Adds 
Computer Desk to Its 
Product Line 

(7 Jan. 83— Valley Forge, PA) Com- 
modore Business Machines, Inc. to- 
day announced the addition of a low 
priced computer desk to its line of 



Computer products marketed through 
authorized Commodore dealers. 

Designed specifically for computers 
and their peripherals, the desk has a 
ventilated compartment for a disk- 
drive, a handy shelf for storing disks 
and other accessories; as well as 
special slots to conceal equipment 
cables. The sturdy, steel-framed desk 
stands at a comfortable height for typ- 
ing on a computer keyboard. 

The desk top (26" x 48" x 1 %" 
thick), is made of durable easy-care 
Arbonte and is T-molded with round- 
ed corners. The steel legs have ad- 
justable leveling glides. 

The suggested retail price for the 
Commodore Computer desk is 
$279.00. 

Commodore Business Machines, 
Inc., is a wholly owned subsidary of 
Commodore International, Ltd. 
(NYSE:CBU), a fully-integrated 
manufacturer of advanced microcom- 
puter systems, consumer electronics 
products, semiconductors and office 
equipment. Commodore's Computer 
Systems Division markets the Com- 
modore MAX Machine™, VIC 20™, 
Commodore 64™, PET R , CBM™ and 
SuperPET™ systems and software to 
major accounts and stores. □ 

CX6401B 

Commodore 64/VIC-20 
Parallel Printer Interface 

ECX COMPUTER COMPANY an- 
nounces its new Model CX-6401B 
printer interface for the Commodore 
54 and VIC-20 computers. The 
CX6401 B interface allows these com- 
puters to use ANY type of standard 
commercially available parallel inter- 
face type printer. This new interface is 
fully compatible with the popular 
WORDPRO 3 + wordprocessing pro- 
gram. In addition CX6401B also has 
all of the features of the original 
CX6401 model. 

The CX6401 B interface connects to 
the SERIAL PORT/BUS on the com- 
puter, NOT the user port, allowing the 
user port to remain open for use by a 
MODEM or other RS-232C peripheral 
device. 

Some of the key features of the 
CX-6401B are: 



'Compatible with WORDPRO 3 + 
wordprocessing program. 

* Eliminates hand shaking problem 
of RS-232C cartridge. 

*Mode switch to correct ASCII 

problem. 
*No expensive RS-232C cable 

necessary. 

* Lower cost than RS-232C type 
hook-up. 

* Allows use of lower cost parallel 
type printers. 

*No external power required. 
'Allows use of multiple printers. 

* Unused user port lines available for 
external usage. 

The CX-6401 B comes standard with 
a 3 ft serial bus cable and connector 
for direct connection to the Com- 
modore 64 or VIC-20 and a 1 ft parallel 
cable for connection to the printer. 
Suggested Retail Price: $89.95 
For more information contact: 
ECX Computer Company, 2678 
North Main St., Walnut Creek, Ca. 
94526. (415) 944-9277. □ 

CX6405 

Commodore 64/VIC-20 

Epson MX Series Printer 

Interface 

ECX COMPUTER COMPANY an- 
nounces its new Model CX6405 EP- 
SON printer interface board. The 
CX6405 allows the new Commodore 
64 and VIC-20 computers to connect 
directly to any model of the EPSON 
MX series of printers, including the 
new high speed FX-80 F/T. The 
CX6405 installs internally within the 
EPSON MX series printers. This new 
interface is fully compatible with the 
popular WORDPRO 3+ wordprocess- 
ing program. 

The CX6405 interface connects to 
the SERIAL PORT/BUS on the com- 
puter, NOT the user port, allowing the 
user port to remain open for use by a 
MODEM or other RS-232C peripheral 
device. 

Some of the key features of the 
CX6405 are: 

'Compatible with WORDPRO 3 + 
wordprocessing program. 

'Eliminates hand shaking problem 
of RS-232C cartridge. 

"Mode switch to correct ASCII 



problem. 

*No expensive RS-232C cable 
necessary. 

'Lower cost than RS-232C type 
hook-up. 

'Allows use of multiple printers. 

'No external power required. 

The CX6405 comes standard with a 
3 ft serial bus cable and connector for 
director connection to the Commodore 
64 or VIC-20. 

Suggested Retail Price: $79.95 

For more information contact: 

ECX Computer Company, 2678 
North Mam St., Walnut Creek, Ca. 
94526. (415) 944-9277. □ 

Verbatim Offers 
Free Exercise Guide 
for Workers in 
Automated Offices 

A new exercise guide, dubbed 
'Tone Up at the Terminals." has been 
developed by VERBATIM CORPORA- 
TION to help operators of automated 
office equipment alleviate job stress 
and muscular strain. 

Endorsed by the California Gover- 
nor's Council on Wellness and 
Physical Fitness, the 12-page booklet 
is being published in response to the 
findings of a recent nationwide survey 
by Verbatim, which polled office 
workers attitudes to new technology in 
the workplace. The study by the 
Sunnyvale-based manufacturer of 
magnetic data storage media showed 
that over 68 percent of respondents 
had health concerns about the extend- 
ed use of word and date processing 
machines. Specifically, 63 percent said 
they experienced eyestrain and 36 
percent cited backstrain. In addition, 
nearly eight in 10 wanted regular rest 
breaks and better lighting. 

According to Malcolm B. Northrup, 
president and chief executive officer of 
Verbatim, "there is little evidence to 
suggest that machines themselves are 
the culprits. Rather, elements in the 
working environment, work pressures 
and the amount of time spent at the 
machines have some bearing on the 
physiological strain felt by many office 
workers." 

Northrup believes that regular exer- 
cise breaks will do much to help com- 

Commander March/April 1983/45 



puter and word processing operators 
overcome the symptoms of 
technological stress while increasing 
concentration and performance levels. 

His company commissioned Los 
Angeles-based exercise physiologist 
Denise Katnich to design and 
demonstrate the 20 exercises featured 
in Tone Up at the Terminals. They can 
be done at an automated work station 
in a matter of minutes and require no 
special skills or athletic abilities. 

"Studies have show that exercise 
improves the ability to relax," notes 
Katnich. "During a hectic day muscles 
store up tension which can lead to 
back pain, stiffneck or headaches. In- 
creased circulation through exercise 
can reduce or eliminate nervous 
fatigue as well as improve memory 
and cognition." 

Katnich begins the Tone Up at the 
Terminals routine with four warm ups 
that include "wobbling" the neck, 
reaching with the arms, deep 
breathing, and tensing the muscles. 
Then she instructs how to stretch and 
relax every part of the body, beginning 
with the neck and continuing 
through the shoulders, arms, pectoral 
muscles, the quadriceps, back, trunk 
and knees. Even the fingers and wrists 
get attention. Appropriately, the last 
exercise is a self hug, which Katnich 
says, "relieves tension from shoulders 
and upper back." 

The exercise booklet has been 
reviewed and approved by the Califor- 
nia Governor's Council on Wellness 
and Physical Fitness. "The impact of 
new technology on the health of office 
workers is a major concern of the 
council and Verbatim is to be com- 
mended for addressing some of the 
problems associated with the changes 
in today's office environment," says 
executive director Theodora Wiiner. 

Free copies are available on request 
from Verbatim Corporation, Attention: 
Tone Up at the Terminals, 323 Soquel 
Way, Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 

Prowriter 

The PROWRITER is a new dot 
matrix printer offering professional 
quality printing. The PROWRITER, 
which is the newest member of the C. 

46/Commander March/April 1983 



Itoh family, includes 120 cps bidirec- 
tional printing, logic seeking and pro- 
portional spacing combined with ex- 
cellent resolution. Graphics capability 
is built-in and includes shape and high 
resolution features. The PROWRITER 
has 1K buffer in parallel and 2K buf- 
fer in serial, incremental printing abili- 
ty, 7x9 dot matrix, and offers cor- 
respondence quality print in eight 
character sizes. The PROWRITER of- 
fers built-in tractor feed and friction 
feed that will accept single-sheet feed. 
Its paper cut-off is less than one inch 
from the print line. Vertical and 
horizontal tabbing is automatic and 
due to the use of a stepper motor, the 
PROWRITER is very quiet. 

Manual functions include Select, 
Line Feed, Top of Form and Power- 
On, combined with Paper Empty, and 
Cover Open Switches. PROWRITER is 
available in either parallel or serial 
(RS-232-C) interface. The serial version 
actually includes both the parallel and 
serial interfaces. The PROWRITER 
also includes X-On/X-Off, Ready/Busy, 
ETX/ACK, and Current Loop pro- 
tocols. Suggested retail for the parallel 
model is $595 and $745 for the serial 
version. 

The PROWRITER is also available in 
wide carriage. The PROWRITER 2 is 
the same as the PROWRITER, but of- 
fers a 1 5" carriage and up to 23 1 col- 
umns in compressed print. Suggested 
retail for both models of PROWRITER 
2 is $995. Both serial and parallel 
PROWRITERS come with a one year 
limited warranty on parts and labor, 
and are supported by Nationwide 
Authorized Leading Edge Service 
Centers. 

For more information, contact 
Leading Edge Products, 225 Turnpike 
Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021. 
Toll-free 1-800-6833— in Massachu- 
setts, call collect (617) 828-81 50. rj 



One Stop Shopping 
for Printers 

Finally, one family of printers that 
covers every business, data or word 
processing application. All from C. Itoh 
and distributed exclusively by Leading 
Edge Products, the fastest growing 



distributor of microcomputer 
peripherals in the U.S. 

The PROWRITER is a new dot 
matrix printer offering correspondence 
quality copy at 120 CPS. 




The PROWRITER 2 is the same as 
the PROWRITER but has a fifteen inch 
carriage. Both are available with 
parallel or parallel and serial interfaces. 

The STARWRITER is a 40 CPS let- 
ter quality daisy wheel printer. It 
features a low profile design only six 
inches high. 

The PRINTMASTER does 
everything that the STARWRITER will 
do except it does it at 55 CPS and is 
also only six inches high. 

Both the STARWRITER and the 
PRINTMASTER are available in stan- 
dard parallel or serial RS232-C inter- 
faces with extensive built-in word pro- 
cessing functions that allow easy 
adaptability for all data and word pro- 
cessing applications. 

Leading Edge has ten warehouses 
strategically located across the U.S. 
and has over 250 employees. 

For further information contact 
Leading Edge Products at 
1 -800-343-6833 or write to 225 TURN- 
PIKE STREET, CANTON, MA 02021. 
In Massachusetts, call collect (617) 
828-8150.1 , 



Ram Expansion 
Cartridges 




CENTURY MICRO announces the 
release of their 8K and 16K ram ex- 
pansion cartridges for the VIC-20 



home computer. These cartridges are 
enclosed in quality plastic cases and 
use CMOS static ram chips for low 
power consumption. 

The ram expansion cartridges are 
available at these prices: 8K retails for 
$47.70 and and 16K for $69.90. 

CENTURY MICRO, 7881 La Riviera 
Drive, Suite 131, Sacramento, CA 
95826. (916) 386-0711. Quantity dis- 
counts available for clubs. 



Commodore Introduces 
HHC-4 Handheld 
Computer 

(7 Jan. 83-Valley Forge, PA) 
Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 
has announced the introduction of a 
handheld computer/calculator which 
can be used as a portable computer 
and full-function calculator, or con- 
nected to a TV for full screen 
computing. 

The new handheld computer- 
called the "COMMODORE HHC-4"— 
was unveiled at the Consumer Elec- 
tronics Show January 6-9 in Las 
Vegas. 

Robert H. Lane, Commodore's 
president for North American opera- 
tions, said the handheld computer will 
expand Commodore's product line to 
encompass an area where "significant 
future growth is anticipated." 

"With the home computer revolution 
well underway, the time is right for a 
consumer-oriented handheld com- 
puter which combines the power of a 
programmable calculator with the ver- 
satility of a true computer." 

The Commodore HHC-4 forms the 
nucleus of a portable computer system 
which is easy-to-use and compact 
enough to carry in a briefcase. 

Memory starts at 4,000 characters 
of memory (4K RAM) and is easily ex- 
panded to 16,000 characters (16K 
RAM) with the addition of a plug-in 
memory expansion cartridge. The 
computer contains a powerful 20K 
ROM operating system which sup- 
ports the built-in BASIC computing 
language as well as special calculator 
functions. 

The HHC-4 can be operated as a 
calculator with the flick of a switch. In 



addition, all numeric functions and 
variables contained in BASIC can be 
utilized . . . and it's easy to make prin- 
touts of calculations as well as BASIC 
programs. 

The compact computer uses the 
world standard QWERTY style key- 
board, with a separate calculator 
keypad. One-stroke BASIC functions 
make the HHC-4 especially easy to 
program. 

Information may be viewed on a 
built-in 24 character liquid crystal 
display, or— with the addition of a TV 
interface— on a standard television or 
monitor. 

A combination mini-printer and 
peripheral interface provides fast (24 
characters-per-second), silent printing, 
with an option to connect larger dot- 
matrix printers. 

An RS-232 Interface connects the 
HHC-4 to other Commodore personal 
computers, to provide a portable ex- 
tension of more powerful information 
processing and retrieval systems. 

The computer is powered by 3 AA 
batteries with a rated life of 300 hours 
of operation. □ 



Commodore Introduces 
First Speech 
Technology Product 

(7 Jan. 83— Dallas, TX) Commodore 
has announced a sophisticated new 
voice synthesizer for the Commodore 
64 home computer. This is the first 
voice I/O product to be developed at 
the company's Speech Technology 
Division in Dallas, Texas. 

The low-cost speech add-on is 
capable of generating a wide variety 
of voices— including female and 
children's voices— for games and 
learning cartridges, and will be usable 
from the Commodore BASIC pro- 
gramming language. 

The voice peripheral has three 
modes of operation: two of which are 
immediately available with the basic 
module, and a third with the purchase 
of optional cartridges. 

The Commodore voice module can 
be used as soon as it is inserted into 
the cartridge port of the Commodore 
64. When the Commodore 64 is 
powered up with the voice module, the 




Commander March/April 1983/47 



user may create speech through sim- 
ple BASIC commands, such as: 
Say "A", "B", "C", or 
10 SAY "ENTER YOUR NAME" 
20 INPUT B$ 
30 SAY "THANK YOU" 

This short program instructs the 
computer to speak the name typed in 
from the keyboard. 

Besides the capabilities added to 
the BASIC language, the module 
features a built-in learning activity call- 
ed "A Bee C's"™, an instructional 
program that uses speech to teach the 
alphabet to pre-schoolers. 

The most exciting feature of the 
voice module, however, is its capability 
to integrate voice into games and lear- 
ning cartridges. Commodore is now 
developing cartridges that will offer the 
widest variety of exciting games and 
instructional material for home use. 
The voice synthesizer's ability to ac- 
cept different vocabularies and dif- 
ferent "characters'" voices means 
Commodore computer owners will be 
able to choose the type of voice (male, 
female, child's, cartoon character, etc.) 
used with various programs. 

This flexibility is achieved through a 
special technique which allows speech 
to be generated while the computer's 
microprocessor is performing other 
functions such as graphics/cartoon 
animation. 

For example, the technique allows 
the computer to put an animated face 
on the screen simultaneously while 
speech is being generated. 

Pricing for the speech synthesizer 
has not been announced but the pro- 
duct is expected to retail for under 
$100, with delivery scheduled for 
Spring 1983.D 

Gortek & Microchips 
Teach Children How 
to Program 

(7 Jan. 83— Valley Forge, PA) 
Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 
(NYSE:CBU) today unveiled 
"GORTEK"— a new robot-like 
character who will be helping children 
learn to program in a unique series of 
books and cassette tapes, the first of 
which is entitled: GORTEK AND THE 
MICROCHIPS™. 
48/Commander March/April 1983 



This delightful and unique concept 
in teaching young people to program 
combines a space adventure story 
with lessons in BASIC programming. 
Gortek comes in two versions, for the 
Commodore VIC-20 and COMMO- 
DORE 64 color computers. 

The first lesson is designed for 
children under age 1 4, and consists of 
2 cassette tapes containing 1 2 educa- 
tional programs and a colorful glossy 
instruction book which reads like a 
comic book while teaching the fun- 
damentals of BASIC. The book in- 
cludes imaginative full color illustra- 
tions, large easy-to-read type, and is 
written so it may be read by older 
children ... or used by younger 
children with parental assistance. The 
unique combination of computer les- 
sons and storybook format makes 
Gortek a fun experience for adults as 
well as children. 

As the story goes, the planet Syntax 
is being invaded by the fearsome 
Zitrons. Gortek is working furiously to 
teach the microchips to program the 
computer to repel attack. The 
"Microchips Training Manual" teaches 
the child how to help stop the Zitrons 
(by learning how to program the 
computer!). 

Those who complete the lessons 
and successfully repel the Zitrons earn 
the right to wear the Gortek badge 
which comes in the package. 

This innovative approach to com- 
puter education was developed by 
three British school teachers who 
wanted to make programming fun to 
learn. The result is a pioneering 
achievement in the field of computer 
education. 

Commodore introduced the new 
"Gortek" product line at the Consu- 
mer Electronics Show in Las Vegas 
January 7. Gortek is scheduled to be- 
gin delivery to stores by February 1 .□ 



Commodore DIGI-DRUNL 
for the Commodore 64 
& VIC-20 Computers 

(7 Jan. —Las Vegas)— Imagine an 
electronic drumset controlled by com- 
puter, with volume control and sound 
generated through a TV set, monitor 



or stereo system ... but priced as low 
as a video game cartridge! 

Commodore has introduced a low- 
priced three-pad electronic drumset 
called DIGI-DRUM(tm) which attaches 
to the COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20 
personal computers. 

The new peripheral plugs into the 
computer's expansion port and comes 
complete with special software which 
lets the user simulate a snare drum, 
bass drum and "high hat" cymbal, 
with startling realism. 

The combination of computer and 
DIGI-DRUM(tm) visually displays 3 
animated drums on a television 
screen, which "perform" with each 
drumstroke. The three drums can be 
combined in an infinite variety to pro- 
duce high quality rhythm effects 
suitable for entertainment, learning or 
sound effects. 

DIGI-DRUMmers can use their 
VIC-20 or COMMODORE 64 com- 
puter to create and save drum routines 
and play them back through their 
stereo system or television speaker. 

First delivery of DIGI-DRUM(tm) is 
scheduled for Spring/Summer 1983. 

New VIC-20 Software 
Looks Like 
"Paperback Books" 

(7 Jan. 83— Valley Forge, PA) 
Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 
(NYSE:CBU) has introduced a series 
of software products for the best- 
selling VIC-20 computer which 
resembles paperback books in theme, 
packaging and content. 

The products were introduced at the 
Consumer Electronics Show January 
7 in Las Vegas. 

The first five titles in this series in- 
clude: "Know Your Personality," 
"Know Your I.Q.", "Know Your Child's 
I.Q.", "Robert Carrier's Menu Plan- 
ner" and "Quizmaster." All programs 
include a booklet and computer tape 
cassette(s) and were developed for 
Commodore by recognized experts in 
their field." 

"We all want to know more about 
ourselves," said Michael S. Tomczyk, 
Commodore's product marketing 
manager. "Many people don't know 



their I.Q. or their child's I.Q. but they'd 
like to find out without having to track 
down a university testing center or pay 
a large fee for a test. A computer is a 
wonderful interactive way to take an 
t.Q. test ... or any other test, for that 
matter." 

But giving tests is fun and helpful, 
too, so we developed a neat program 
called "Quizmaster" which lets you 
design your own test. This one is not 
only useful for giving tests in a 
classroom, but it's great at parties and 
for trivia contests." 
Bookstore 'Fair Game' 
for Computers 

"Any topic you can find in a 
bookstore is fair game to be converted 
into a computer program. In 1983, 
software will look more like paperback 
books. It will feature topics that play off 
of fads, novelties, educational in- 
terests, self-improvement needs and 
all the other themes that make paper- 
back books popular." 

"We're already selling 'computer 
novels/" Tomczyk said. For example, 
we at Commodore have seen a 
tremendous interest in our half-dozen 
Scott Adams Adventure Games- 
interactive novels which lead the 
reader through a computer controlled 
adventure where all decisions are 
made by the reader. Computer 
owners are looking to their computers 
for more products like this that 'go 
beyond' the one dimensional pages of 
a book. The popularity of our Scott 
Adams adventure games is only one 
symptom of this trend. 
Word Processing, Data Base 
& Spreadsheet for the VIC 

Commodore's new software for the 
VIC-20 also includes "serious" soft- 
ware which can be used with expand- 
ed memory to file and store large 
amounts of information on disk or tape: 

^SIMPLICALC, an electronic 
spreadsheet. 

— VICFILE, a data base manage- 
ment program. 

— VICWRITER, a high-quality word 
processor. 

"Because the VIC is an introductory 
computer for many people, we wanted 
to make sure that our 'serious' pro- 
grams maintain the 'friendliness' that 
has become the trademark of that 



computer, so these new programs are 
accompanied by easy-to-read instruc- 
tion guides aimed at the beginning 
computerist." 

He added that several hundred 
thousand VIC-owners who originally 
bought their VIC-20 I s to learn com- 
puting or for entertainment, have since 
become what Tomczyk calls "a new 
breed of hobbyist." 

"A few years ago," he said, "com- 
puter hobbyists were electrical 
engineers who learned how to pro- 
gram in machine code. Most of them 
were called 'nerds'. Today's hobbyists 
are more like the people who bought 
chemistry sets in the 1950's . . . now 
I doubt whether anyone who owned 
a chemistry set in 1950 ever thought 
he could use it to develop a cure for 
cancer but I'll bet there are quite a few 
people working on cancer cures right 
now who used to own chemistry sets." 

' ' Maybe a teenager who's just lear- 
ning how to type, or a colorful senior 
citizen writing her memoirs, will take 
the VICWRITER and write a great 
book, a book that might not be writ- 
ten if it had to be written in longhand 
or if the 500-page manuscript had to 
be retyped or rewritten a dozen times. 
Computers make those kinds of ac- 
tivities easy, by speeding up the pro- 
cess of creation and discovery. That's 
the kind of end result we're striving for 
in our new software . . . creation and 
discovery." 

The Commodore VIC-20 personal 
computer is the best-selling computer 
in the United States. The computer, 
which now retails for under $200, was 
originally introduced in 1981 as the 
first color computer priced under 
$300. The VIC-20 has become known 
as the most "user friendly" computer 
for first-time computer owners, and is 
also the least expensive computer 
system to expand in terms of memory 
and peripherals. U 

Three New Low 
Cost Systems 

(6 Jan. 83— New York, NY)— Mr. 
Irving Gould, Chairman of the Board 
of Commodore International Limited, 
in conjunction with Commodore's 
planned announcements at The Con- 



sumer Electronics Show which begins 
today in Las Vegas, Nevada, an- 
nounced the following plans by 
Commodore. 

According to Mr. Gould, "Com- 
modore will introduce several new 
microcomputer systems, a number of 
new microcomputer peripheral 
devices, and several new software 
packages." 

Mr. Gould went on to note that 
"among the microcomputer systems 
to be introduced are three portable 
systems, each of which has 64K bytes, 
or 64,000 characters, of built-in user 
RAM, or random access memory. In 
addition, all three systems have built- 
in 5-inch television display monitors, 
two of which are in color, as well as 
one or two built-in floppy disk drives 
which provide, respectively, 170K 
bytes or 340K bytes of additional mass 
storage capacity. All three microcom- 
puter systems will have compatibility 
with the COMMODORE 64 personal 
computer as to software and 
peripherals. 

'The price of these machines," add- 
ed Mr. Gould, "like all Commodore 
microcomputers, will be substantially 
below any comparable product now 
on the market. Each system, depen- 
ding upon its configuration, is ex- 
pected to retail from $995 for a system 
with a built-in 5-inch monochrome 
display monitor and single disk drive 
to $1,495 for a system with a built-in 
5-inch color display monitor and dual 
disk drives. Initial shipments are ex- 
pected to commence in approximate- 
ly 90-120 days." 

Mr. Gould also noted that "as a 
result of the extraordinary demand for 
the $595 COMMODORE 64 personal 
computer, the company is expanding 
its channels of distribution for this 
revolutionary personal computer to in- 
clude several of the largest mass mer- 
chandisers in the world, and is 
simultaneously beginning initial 
shipments of its new P500 series 
microcomputer, to be named the 
COMMODORE 128, to its regular 
computer dealer network. The COM- 
MODORE 128 which has 128K bytes, 
or 128,000 characters of built-in user 
memory, will have a suggested retail 
selling price of $795." □ 

Commander March/April 1983/49 



News Releases 



First Full Year 
Warranty Offered by 
Leading Edge Products 

For the first time in the history of the 
microcomputer industry, a full year 
warranty on computer printers is be- 
ing offered to end users. Making the 
offer on all C. Itoh printers is Leading 
Edge Products of Canton, Massachu- 
setts, who are the exclusive U.S. 
marketers and distributors of the C. 
Itoh line of printers. 

This is the only full year warranty of- 
fered in the U.S. on printers and it 
covers the entire C. Itoh line, including 
the Starwriter, Prowriter, Prowriter 2 
and Printmaster. The warranty can be 
applied to all parts and service re- 
quired resulting from defects in 
manufacturing. 

Because the industry standard for 
printer warranties is 90 days, the ex- 
tended warranty is regarded as an ap- 
propriate reflection of the quality and 
reliability of the C. Itoh machines ac- 
cording to Leading Edge® . 

"This revolutionary, one year war- 
ranty represents a real savings to end 
users," said Bill Sellers, Vice President 
of Market Research at Leading Edge 
Products. "This is one item that will not 
have to be covered by service 
agreements that typically costs $90 or 
more per year." 

"More than that, however," Sellers 
continued, "It is our statement to the 
consumer about the reliability of this 
product. It says that we know the C. 
Itoh line of printers is the highest quali- 
ty product available in the market 
today." 

C. Itoh printers are widely used in 
home, education and small business 
settings as well as in industrial fields. 
They are currently available in more 
than 8,000 computer retail outlets 

50/Commander March/April 1983 



nationwide. 

Founded in 1980 as a distributor 
and marketer of state-of-the-art com- 
puter peripherals, Leading Edge cur- 
rently employs more than 250 people. 

Leading Edge markets and distri- 
butes its proprietary product, Elephant 
Memory Systems® , as well as a full 
line of microcomputer peripheral 
products. 

For further information on the war- 
ranty and other products offered by 
Leading Edge, call 1-800-343-6833, or 
in Massachusetts, call collect 
(617) 828-8150 or write to Leading 
Edge Products, 225 Turnpike Street, 
Canton, MA 02021. □ 

The Market 

Commodore expects that many 
students and others now using por- 
table calculators will begin using hand- 
held computers at an increasing rate. 
Owners of larger computer systems 
like the Commodore 64 will also want 
to acquire a handheld computer as a 
portable extension of their larger com- 
puter system. 

When asked about the market for 
handheld computers, Commodore 
marketing personnel responded by 
asking the rhetorical question: "Why 
buy a programmable calculator when 
you can buy a handheld computer for 
about the same price?" 

Commodore Business machines, 
Inc. (NYSE:CBU) is a vertically- 
integrated manufacturer of computer 
products and accessories, semicon- 
ductor devices, office furniture and 
watch components. The company was 
founded in 1958. Commodore in- 
troduced the first self-contained 
desktop computer (the PET) in 1977. 
Commodore's MOS Technology sub- 
sidiary designs and manufactures 
semiconductor devices, and is the 



developer of the 6502 microprocessor 
which is used in many other com- 
puters besides Commodore. □ 



Leading Edge 



Elephants never forget— neither do 
Elephant Memory Systems® disket- 
tes, exclusively marketed by Leading 
Edge Products, Inc. These heavy du- 
ty, reinforced hub ring disks are cer- 
tified 1 00°/o error free, and are design- 
ed to handle over twelve million 
passes on a single track. Tested to 
meet or beat ANSI and industry stan- 
dards, EMS diskettes are offered in 
thirty-two formats to ensure com- 
patibility with all the leading makes of 
computers. Retailers are provided a 
compact counter display and an 
Elephant Trunk™ diskette storage is 
available for end users. Priced for 
volume sales, EMS diskettes are the 
fastest growing brand in the country 
and include the Leading Edge 
problem-free warranty. □ 




Starwriter F-10 and 
Printmaster F-10 

The STARWRITER F-10 and the 
PRINTMASTER F-10 are the answer 
for every letter quality printing need. 

The Starwriter F-10 is the 40 cps 
model which includes such features 
as: tow profile design (6" high) to fit 
easily into your system, industry- 
standard ribbon cartridges and print 
wheels, standard Centronics 8 bit 
parallel or RS-232-C interfaces (in- 
cluding ETX/ACK, X-On/X-Off pro- 
tocols) and built-in IEEE 488 interface 
at no extra charge, extensive built-in 
word processing functions that allow 
easy adaptability, optional 2K buffer, 




low noise operation, and standard fric- 
tion feed with optional bidirectional 
tractor feed available. The Printmaster 
F-10 is the 44 cps model that includes 
all the same features as the Starwriter 
F-10, plus: faster print speed and car- 
riage return time, acceptance of data 
transmission up to 9600 baud, 
capability to use a dual color ribbon, 
and original plus four copies. 

Both the Starwriter F-10 and the 
Printmaster F-10 are covered by a one 
year parts and labor warranty and are 
supported by Nationwide Authorized 
Leading Edge Service Centers. 

For more information, contact 
Leading Edge Products, 225 Turnpike 
Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021. 
Toll-free 1-800-6833— in Massachu- 
setts, call collect (617) 828-81 50. □ 




Commodore 

Board 

Upgrade 

A single board upgrade that will 
convert the Commodore CBM 8032 
microcomputer into a SuperPET is 
now available from Commodore 
Business Machines, Inc. 

With the SuperPET board, the 
upgraded machine will feature a 
RS232 interface, 64K additional 
RAM in 8K RAM chips, standard 
6502 microprocessor as well as a 
pseudo 16 bit 6809 based proces- 
sor. Six languages are also 
provided. 

The upgrade board sells for $795 
and is available at authorized 
Commodore dealers. For infor- 
mation contact Commodore Busi- 
ness Machines, Inc., Computer 
Systems Division, The Meadows, 
487 Devon Park Dr., Wayne, PA 
19807. 



"■•"taflpu 5Ef\j$Ei:.«' 



QUICK BROWN FOX $60.95 

The W\ word processor! 

GENERAL LEDGER $19.95 

(VIC-20) 

CHECK MINDER 

vic-20 $19.95 c-64 $24.95 

HOME INVENTORY $19.95 

(VIC-20) 

CENTIPOD $27.95 

Like Centiped, only belter! 

FROGEE $27.95 

The exciting arcade game of Frogger. 

MOTOR MOUSE $29.95 

What a cheeseee game! 

CRIBBAGE 
vic-20 $14.95 c-64 $17.95 

This is the game ol Cribbage 

STAR TREK 

vic-20 $12.95 c-64 $17.95 

Excellent adventure game! 

MASTER MIND 
vic-20 $12.95 c-64 $19.95 

Makes you think. 

ROACH MOTEL $9.95 
Kill the bugs! 

YAHTZEE1.1 $12.95 
YAHTZEE2.1 $14.95 

TO ORDER 
P O. BOX 18765 
WICHITA. KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 



Personal checks accepted 
{Allow 3 weeks) or 
CO.D. (Add S2.00) 
Handling charges $2.00 
VIC-20" is a registered trademark of Commodore 



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THE EDITOR - Advanced Word Processor $34.95 

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THE ACCOUNTANT - General Ledger, Income $29.95 

Statement & Balance Sheet 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE- Create $21.95 

Journal for Current Accounts & Record of Paid Accts. 



BUSINESS INVENTORY 


$19.95 


AT HOME INVENTORY 


$12.95 


ORDER TRACKER 


$19.95 


CHECKBOOK BOOKY 


$12.95 


MY PROFIT MARGIN 


$16.95 


THE STOCK TICKER 


$16.95 


BILLING SOLVER 


$19.95 


TAPE 




CASH FLOW MODEL 


$16.95 


UTILITY BILL SAVER 


$12.95 


THE CLIENT TICKLER 


$19.95 


THE BAR CHART 


$8.95 


INCOME & EXPENSER 


$15.95 


MOTHER'S RECIPES 


$12.95 


BUSINESS 


$16.95 


THE MAILMAN 


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APPOINTMENTS 




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Commander March/April 1983/51 



The Skyles Source Connection 



by Neil Omvedt 
Roseville, MN 



In order to telecommunicate, one 
needs a modem and software for 
uploading and downloading data. 
One course of modems and software 
for the Commodore CBM and PET 
series is Skyles Electric Works. Skyles 
sells the Cat and D-Cat modems with 
interfacing for CMB/PET computers. 
The Cat modem is an acoustic modem 
(you place the phone in the modem) 
while the D-Cat which costs $25 more 
is a direct connect modem. The list 
cost of the D-Cat with the communica- 
tions program and a membership in 
the Source (normally $100) is $350. 

The modems interface to the PET 
user port rather than to the IEEE port 
and are provided programs on 
cassette to provide communications 
potential. 

The programs loaded onto my com- 
puter with some difficulty. Since I was 
experiencing difficulty loading the pro- 
grams I called the Skyles Electric 
works over the weekend and re- 
quested copies of the programs and 
was told they would be sent on disk. 
This was never done but I finally did 
manage to load the programs to my 
diskettes the following week. To run 
the programs is a little bit tedious. First 
there is apparently a machine 
language program to load and run. 
Then you have to make a poke to 
memory and type a new command. 
Then the second program must be 
loaded and run. 

The second program is the control 
program. It first comes up with a series 
of prompts to set the baud rate 
(300,1200,600 or 110), select half or 
full duplex mode, select PET/ASCII 
character conversion, disable PET 
graphics, and trap the clear screen 
character. Once all the options have 
been set (there are defaults to the most 
common option), the menu for the pro- 

52/Commander March/April 1983 



gram is shown. The menu options in- 
clude sending from disk to modem, in- 
put from modem to disk, input from 
modem to printer, communicate in- 
teractively (the terminal option), list disk 
directory, view a disk file, print a disk 
file, and a help command that explains 
the other options. The most common 
choice would be to communicate in- 
teractively in which case the program 
operates the PET like a terminal. 
Another useful option is to send input 
to a disk file in case you wish to print 
it (which can then be done offline us- 
ing the print disk file command). 

There is documentation provided for 
the system, but it is rather skimpy. The 
first page explains how to hook the 
system up to the computer and the 
phone. The documentation then con- 
tinues on to explain how to use the 
software and the modem. There is also 
a listing of the modem program, but 
not the initial setup program. 

As I stated the whole package in- 
cludes the Source an information util- 
ity. Charges for the Source are nor- 
mally $1 00 to connect and a minimum 
of $10 a month. The Source is an in- 
formation utility which provides elec- 
tronic mail, text editing, information on 
the stock market, government, news, 
sports, travel arrangements, games, 
and telecomputing in various lan- 
guages. At the time I first signed on to 
the Source the service was very spor- 
adic and there were a lot of problems. 
Also, the Commodore computer 
doesn't have a control key so it was 
sometimes hard to break out of various 
services. Since then the Source has 
switched to its own computers and 
things have improved somewhat since 
most functions require a stop key to 
break out of. 

The Source has two methods of use. 
One is through direct commands while 



l 1 



the other is through a series of menus. 
The menus are the easiest to use since 
there is a long series of commands to 
learn. 

Charges for the Source are based 
on connect time to the system. Regular 
time costs $18.00 an hour with even- 
ings, weekends and holidays billed at 
$5.75 an hour (and an even cheaper 
rate for midnight to 7 am). Also billed 
is the cost of maintaining files on the 
Source. Certain Source services such 
as the Media General stock analysis 
program are billed at higher rates. 
These are referred to as Source Plus 
services. There is $1 .00 minimum file 
charge and a $10.00 minimum total 
charge each month. □ 

"■•<Q2UPU sehisec " 

CARDBOARD 6 
$87.95 

An expansion interface for the VIC-20. 
Allows expansion to 40 K or accepts up 
to six games. May be daisy chained for 
more versatility. 

CARDBOARD 3 
$39.95 

Economy expansion interface for 
the VIC-20 

CARD "?" CARD/PRINT 
$79.95 

Universal Centronics Parallel Printer 
Interface for the VIC-20 or CBM-64. 
Use an Epson MX-80 or OKIDATA or 
TANDY or just about any other. 

CARDETTE 
$39.95 

Use any standard cassette player/re- 
corder with your VIC-20 or CBM-64 

LIGHT PEN 
$29.95 

A light pen with six good programs to 
use with your VIC-20 or CBM-64 

Prices subject to change. 
TO ORDER: P. O. BOX 18765 

WICHITA, KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 
Personal Checks Accepted (Allow 3 Weeks) 
or C O.D (Add $2) Handling Charges $2 00 



UMI Software is Making 
Tfome" Work Fun 



Wbrdcraf k 20 Werm B 



BUTI 



UMI gives you sophisticated word 
processing software complete in 
one package! Wordcraft 20©, with 
a tutorial tape, contains 8K RAM, a 
unique automatic mail list feature, 
and everything else you'll need to 
create picture-perfect documents. 
This fully featured system lets you 
change a character, a word, an entire 
block of text; and sends encoded 
electronic mail. With 4-direction 
scrolling, you see it before you print; 
and it's compatible with any printer. 
With Wordcraft 20©, you'll never be 
at a loss for words again. 



A sophisticated communications pro- 
gram that links you and your VIC™ to 
the world of information, VITERM B is 
compatible with virtually any modem. 
Your access to information banks and 
services o\^r the telephone system is 
astonishing. At your fingertips, you'll 
have UPI news and features, informa- 
tion encyclopedias, discount buying 
services, the stock market and educa- 
tional programs. And, VITERM B 
accesses CompuServe, THE SOURCE, 
and other similar computer services. 
You'll be able to send and receive 
personal electronic mail, set up per- 
sonal finance programs, make travel 
reservations — all at electronic speed. 
Ihe world is yours at the touch of a 
key with UMI's VITERM B. 



Improve your BASIC program with 
UMI's BUTI treatment. Adding 17 new 
commands to the BASIC language in 
your computer, BUTI formats the VIC™ 
to imitate 8K, 3K, or minimum mem- 
ory configurations. BASIC program 
errors will stop program execution, 
list and mark the line of BASIC where 
the error occurred. Other features are 
single-step execution, renumbering, 
block search & replace, block line 
delete, tape append, and BASIC 
variable dump. 

Simple . . . quick . . . and on command, 
"mat's the BUTI treatment for your VIC™. 




VICEPS^ Connects Epson MX100 or MX80 to your VIC20™ • Prints 
high-resolution graphics and character sets using Epson 
Graftrax • Does formatted BASIC program listings 



VI-CALC — 10 memory registers and 4 stacked data • Registers al- 
ways visible • Math function results visible at a single keystroke 



VI-DATA — Powerful data base program on cassette or disk • User- 
defined screen format • Print screen format • Format print 
output • Alphanumeric sort 



VI-CHECK — Manages checkbook • Lists accounts • Makes de- 
posits • Keeps balance current • Lists transactions • Catches 
duplicate entries • Features calculator mode 



FORTH 20 

Structure of PASCAL or COMAL: 

• Speed of machine code — 10 times faster than BASIC • Inter- 
active; both a compiler and an interpreter • Transportable — 
based on FORTH 79-Standard • A language you tailortoyour 
application by adding new commands • Comes complete 
with an extensive instuction manual and examples. 



oi umi 



Inc. 



United Microware Industries, 
3503-C Temple Avenue 
Pomona, CA 91768 (714) 594-1351 

VIC & VJC20 are trademarks of Commodore. Inc. Wordcraft 20 is 
copyrighted by P.L. Dowson. CompuServe is a registered 
trademark of H f? Block. THE SOURCE is a registered trademark 
of Source Telecomputing Corporation. 



Product Reviews 



C64-IEEE 
Transparent Interface 

Manufacturer: 
MSC, Inc. 

11105 Shadytrail, Suite 104 
Dallas, TX 75299 

! have been using the interface be- 
tween the C64 and a Commodore 
2040 disk drive (REV 2A ROMS) for 
several months. I have found the unit 
easy to use and reliable. 

The interface almost lives up to its 
name when used with the C64 Basic. 
The logo, which it prints every time it 
is activated, is not transparent and will 
trash a menu or display. Once we 
know this happens, it is very easy to 
work around. The interface traps all 
Basic commands going to device 
number four and higher. It has also 
worked very well with an EPSON 
MX-80 printer that is on the Buss. 

At the machine language level the 
interface becomes so transparent it 
almost disappears. The manual did 
not provide any call addresses for the 
488 primitives such as TALK and UN- 
TALK, nor were they at their expected 
places in the KERNAL JUMP TABLE. 
This means high-level languages or 
machine language programs that do 
use the serial primitives will be incom- 
patible with the interface. Also, at the 
machine language level, there is a 
large block of code in the $A000 area 
which needs to be reserved if the in- 
terface is going to be used. For me, 
it would have been much nicer to have 
this at the top of the SC000 area. 

The machine language programmer 
can work around the above minor 
defects by generating custom jump 
tables and relocating the code (most 
of the larger monitors have 
disassemblers and relocators for this 
purpose or a symbolic disassembler 

54/Commander March/April 1983 



can be used). 

The interface plugs into the cartridge 
expansion port of the C64. A cartridge 
can then be plugged into the interface, 
so there is no loss of expansion 
capability. A standard PET-488 cable 
(not supplied) then connects the inter- 
face to the buss. Once you get the 
heavy 488 cable and expansion hook- 
ed up, the C64 will need a good solid 
surface to call home. This is not a con- 
figuration you can hold in your lap. 

If you already have 488 drives or 
your application requires the faster 
disk speeds, then the MSD interface 
should be given serious consideration. 
For about $160 (interface and cost of 
cable purchased locally) the C64 was 
on the 488 Buss.D 

The C64 Programmer's 
Reference Guide 

Commodore Business 

Machines, Inc. and 

Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc. 
Price: $19.95 
Pages: 486 

This book is much more than the 
name implies. In addition to program- 
ming reference material, it contains a 
large amount of technical data on the 
primary chips and has a large fold-out 
schematic at the back of the book. 

There are some pleasant surprises 
such as the color combination table on 
page 152 and the extensive definitions 
for the standard KERNAL JUMP 
TABLE. 

The subject index at the back of the 
book is very useful for quick reference, 
and has been more than adequate in 
most cases (NMI is noticeably absent). 

On page 25 the book continues the 
myth that using low line numbers will 
conserve memory. The line numbers 
are stored as double-byte unsigned in- 
tegers, so there will be no conserva- 



tion by renumbering the program after 
it is entered as they recommend. 
Memory conservation can occur DUR- 
ING the editing process as smaller line 
numbers take less space on the 40/80 
column editing screen. 

Overall, the guide is pertinent, 
useful, readable and usable. If you 
plan on doing more than minimal 
Basic/machine language programm- 
ing, then the guide will be a necessity 
and a good investment. □ 

C64-Link: Review 

Manufacturer: 
Richvale Telecommunications 
10610 Bayview Avenue 
Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada 
L4C 3N8 (416) 884-4165 

Price: $185 (Canadian) plus $10 
P&H Optional connectors: 

VL-3: Parallel Printer/User Port: 
$60 

VL-4: RS232 Modem/User Port: $60 

It is difficult to assess which feature 
of this device may appeal most to the 
Commodore-64 owner. Be assured 
that even one benefit could make this 
product a "must" for any serious user. 
But, first of all, let's start at the 
beginning— what is it? 

Description 

The C64— LINK is a hardware 
device about three inches square and 
% inch thick. It plugs directly into the 
expansion port, or cartridge port of the 
C64. The rear of the plug has a 
PET/CBM edge connector, which has 
been configured as an IEEE488 port. 
Inside the cartridge is a ROM with 4K 
or machine language code (more on 
its contents later). 

Functions 

Depending on your particular equip- 
ment configuration, you may find 






some of these more noteworthy than 
others: 

1. The ROM provides all fifteen 
Commodore Basic 4.0 standard disk/ 
file handling instructions, plus the disk 
status variables (DS and DS$). These 
are implemented with full compatibili- 
ty to Commodore's existing scheme. 
Therefore, it is quite likely that pro- 
grams written in Basic for the 
4016/4032/8032 which rely on disk 
commands, will be compatible in their 
file handling. 

Please note that the additional Basic 
4.0 commands do not mean that Com- 
modore Basic 4.0 has been provided: 
garbage collection and the string 
variable storage remains the same as 
with Upgrade ROM. 

Any user with a disk drive will benefit 
tremendously from the added instruc- 
tions: you do a catalog or check disk 
status without losing the program in 
memory. 

2. The ROM and the edge connec- 
tor combine to provide the IEEE488 
port necessary to interconnect the C64 
to all PET/CBM parallel devices: 
203 1 /4040 8050/8250 and hard disk 
drives plus Commodore IEEE printers 
(2022/4022 et. al.). On power-up the 
system defaults to this IEEE connec- 
tor. Holding down the COMMODORE 
key on power-up, shifts the default op- 
tion to the "SERIAL" devices (1541 
disk or 1525 printer) instead. 

To me, this is the big plus for the 
C64-LINK. With two CBM systems 
already, I couldn't justify the invest- 
ment for a (painfully-slow) serial disk 
drive. Dumping to tape to load into the 
C64, and then reSAVEing the modified 
version back in to the CBM system is 
too horrible to consider. I'm not being 
elitist— just can't bear to see a fully- 
paid-for disk drive sitting idly by while 
a tape spins away. 

If you already have a CBM type 
printer and/or disk drive and at least 
a PET to IEEE cable to connect to the 
back of the C64, you will use this too. 

3. The connection of a "Centronics- 
standard" parallel printer is done with 
the optional VL-3 cable. Printers such 
as the Epson MX80, C. Itoh Starwriter 
or NEC become usable. In fact, com- 
binations of the PARALLEL printer 
may be intermixed with either SERIAL 



or IEEE disk devices, to allow max- 
imum flexibility of operation. Activation 
of this device is done with the 
"PARALLEL" command. It may be 
altered with "IEEE" or "SERIAL" at 
any time to reconfigure the ports, with 
no loss of information. The user port 
connects the C64 to the printer. 

4. For those with a standard RS232 
modem, the VL-4 adapter is required 
(optional extra). The user port is again 
employed, and the "MODEM" com- 
mand allows the C64 to act as terminal 
to a bulletin board system or another 
modem-equipped computer. Escape 
and Break are supported by the 
modem software. 

5. Also within the ROM is a machine 
language monitor, which 1 allows 
display and modification of memory or 
registers, load and save of memory, 
execution of ML programs, and exit to 
Basic. This is Jim Butterfield's 
TINYMON FOR VIC, adapted for the 
C64 (no credit acknowledged). The 
"MONITOR" command calls this 
routine. Even a budding machine 
language programmer will find this an 
essential feature. 

6. The ability to share a disk drive 
and/or printer amongst eight or more 
C64's is provided. All computers are 
connected through IEEE to IEEE 
cables, with one machine connected 
to the shared drive/printer. This net- 
working feature should prove very at- 
tractive to educational users, and may 
justify the purchases for this purpose 
alone. Remarkably few restrictions 
apply when this is in effect: only one 
person may catalog at a time, and 
each user must use unique secondary 
addresses when multiple users are 
reading or writing files simultaneously. 
Comments 

A typeset 46-page manual is includ- 
ed in the package. It is very com- 
prehensive and quite readable, giving 
detailed instructions and diagrams on 
correctly connecting the system to the 
C64. 

A brief description and example is 
given for each of the added disk com- 
mands. A cross-reference to four 
publications for thorough discussion of 
the commands is provided. The table 
on Page 18 which identifies the source 
manuals is (oddly) separate from the 



section which refers to them. 

Details on using the monitor, 
modem, and chain features are also 
included. The addition of a table of 
memory usage is a very useful, and 
often-neglected, benefit. Too few pro- 
grammers identify key locations, which 
become important if other programs 
get connected to the system and sud- 
denly don't work! 

Inside the package is a cassette 
tape with two programs on it. Each has 
a purpose, and may well be required 
in certain cases: 

When you turn the C64 on, you will 
notice that only 30719 bytes are 
available to Basic. What happened to 
the missing 8K? It turns out that the 4K 
of code actually consumes this 8K 
block of memory. If you're not in 
danger of 'OUT OF MEMORY' with 
your program, leave everything alone. 

The first little program will shift the 
ML code to a (possibly) vacant 4K of 
memory starting at address $C000 
(49152 in decimal). You then get back 
your missing 8K for those big pro- 
grams! You still have the disk com- 
mands at your disposal. 

There are occasions where neither 
of the two locations will be acceptable 
for the program you are using. (The 
sprite demc with CLYDE and the 
Christmas demo are two examples 
I've found). The second ML program 
on the tape covers this condition. The 
program moves Basic into RAM and 
inserts IEEE routines in place of 
SERIAL into Basic. You surrender the 
Basic 4.0 disk commands and the ML 
monitor, but recover all the RAM nor- 
mally consumed by the C64-L1NK. 
Since I do consider the IEEE access 
essential, this is a valuable addition to 
the package. 

The manual describes these pro- 
grams as well, and also tells you how 
to shut off the C64-LINK entirely. This 
is given as a direct statement (one line, 
with seven instructions). I would 
recommend that you type this in as a 
program and save it on disk. This will 
eliminate the certainty(?) of a typo 
when you come to use it. Of course 
you would lose whatever is in memory 
this way. You judge for yourself, 
though I haven't had any reason to 
disconnect the C64-LINK so far. 

Commander March/April 1983/55 



Recommendations 

My copy of C64-LINK is a review 
copy, borrowed from Peter Smith of 
Richvale Communications. He will not 
be getting this one back. As program 
librarian for the 3200-plus members of 
the Toronto Pet User's Group, this 
device is essential for me. The 
capability for quick review, modifica- 
tion and cataloging the flood of public- 
domain software is provided by the 
C64-LINK. 

The unit works as advertised, and I 
believe it can represent excellent value 
for a wide range of C64 users. The 
IEEE connection and Basic 4.0 com- 
mands are my main reasons for 
needing it. The networking, parallel 
printer and modem interface may be 
more important to you. 
Postscript 

This review was originally to 
describe the V-LINK cartridge for the 
VIC-20. It is a functionally similar 
device, but is now being redesigned 
by Richvale to work totally through the 
expansion port rather than partly 
through the user port. The unit I have 
is of the earlier design, and consists of 
a standard cartridge, which added 
RAM (3K, 8K and 16K versions 
available). The ROM with the added 
code is fitted inside the cartridge. Con- 
nection to IEEE, parallel printer or 
modem is effected with an (extra cost) 
adapter(s) plugging into the user port. 
Hence, no IEEE disk can be combin- 
ed with a parallel printer simultaneous- 
ly. No networking provision is built-in. 
There are two bugs in the code: 
catalog with no disk connected hangs 
the system instead of giving an error 
message, and some of the Basic 4.0 
statements don't work properly after 
IF/THEN. (Both of these were cor- 
rected in the C64 version). I'd suggest 
waiting until the new version is 
available. As of this writing, I do not 
know the release date for this one.D 

Paperclip Word 
Processor: Review 

by David A. Hook 
Ontario, Canada 

Author: Steven Douglas 
Available from: 

56/Commander March/April 1983 



Batteries Included 

71 McCaul Street 

TORONTO, Ontario, CANADA 

M5T 2X1 

(416) 596-1405 
Price: $150 Canadian (advertised 

at $125 U.S.) 
Description 

PaperClip is a new word processor 
program for PET/CBM Basic 4.0 com- 
puters. The same program functions 
with both 40- and 80-column com- 
puters. Text may be saved to both 
tape and disk, though serious users of 
a word processor will undoubtedly 
have disk storage available. The at- 
traction of tape storage will not be lost 
in a school environment where limited 
disk availability is common. The pro- 
gram is supplied on disk: both 8050 
and 4040 disk formats are available. 
Additionally there is a ROM with active 
code: this is to be inserted into the 
$A000 socket inside the computer. 

A version has just been released for 
the Commodore-64. The author 
recently indicated that a separate 
SuperPet version is nearing comple- 
tion. This one will use the 64K of bank- 
switched memory to give a huge text 
area. 
Features 

A review cannot give the full extent 
of the features that this program pro- 
vides. It would require 99 pages (as 
per the instruction manual) to cover the 
ground adequately. I have worked 
with all the WordPro versions to 4 + , 
and PaperClip has so much more in- 
cluded. To cite an example: I made 
notes on just the added functions and 
how they are handled. It took five full 
handwritten pages! 

Please excuse the lack of objectivi- 
ty in this review. It is difficult to find any 
shortcomings worthy of mentioning. 
The enthusiasm I feel for PaperClip is 
heightened by the most outstanding 
feature of all: its PRICE! To offer such 
a program at a price comparable to 
Word Pro 4+ would be quite 
reasonable. To provide this at one- 
third the price is astonishing. 

In order to mention even the basics, 
I'm going to presume the reader has 
a fairly good idea what a word pro- 
cessor is and does. I also must 
presume a good knowledge of how 



the WordPro series functions. Most 
readers will have had some such ex- 
perience, and the behaviour of 
PaperClip is very, very similar to the 
user. So here we go: 

1 . WordPro compatibility— Don't feel 
like you have to junk all those files that 
you have written in WordPro 3 or 4 for- 
mat. They load properly into PaperClip 
and you may immediately edit them to 
your heart's content. More important 
is the fact that the syntax of all the 
embedded format commands is iden- 
tical to WordPro. (All except the "ma", 
margin release, command anyway. It 
requires a " + " or "-" offset value). 
This common syntax means that you 
can probably output them without a 
single change to the text. This was a 
huge relief for me on two counts: I 
wouldn't have to keep switching back 
to WordPro to use the old text files, 
and I had a lot fewer new things to 
absorb. 

2. Horizontal scrolling— Even if you 
have a 40-column machine, you can 
set a text width of 80-columns (or up 
to 126-columns). The text will scroll 
horizontally as it nears the edge of the 
screen. You can now do a video out- 
put (to the screen) watching all the for- 
mat commands in effect. This preview 
feature shows the same output that the 
printer would use: inserting paging, 
line-spacing, margins, headers and 
footers, centering and highlighting any 
underlined or enhanced text. This 
video output mode is also available in 
WordPro 4 versions. With a 40-column 
machine, no WordPro feature includes 
this handy mode— lots of paper gets 
chewed up with the trial-and-error 
method. With PaperClip on a 
40-column you only see the left-most 
40-columns, but it is still a terrific paper 
saver. The horizontal scrolling and 
resetting of text width makes it so 
much easier to enter many columns of 
numbers. Have you ever tried setting 
80-columns worth of tabs on a 
40-column computer? The tabs wrap- 
around and make for very confusing 
entry. Even with an 80-column 
machine, resetting the width for a wide 
printer gives the same benefits of non- 
overlapping tabs. 

3. Disk Directory— One of my 
greatest annoyances with WordPro 



has been the risk of losing an even- 
ing's work when asking for a disk 
directory. I usually was careful to do 
this in extra-text. Both my wife and I 
have lost hours with this goof (I know 
that WordPro Plus versions give you 
a confirming second chance, but one 
does get a little too hasty even with this 
warning). Hallelujah, you don't lose 
your text file when you do a directory 
in PaperClip. The directory is 
displayed on the screen, but not 
stored in memory. This still permits you 
to "read the screen" at the cursor 
position to eliminate the drudgery of 
typing in file names for loads or disk 
commands. On this latter point, you 
are allowed full cursor editing of this 
phrase, not just the delete key of 
WordPro. 

4. Text Phrases— PaperClip offers a 
much more comprehensive ability to 
define blocks of text. Both PaperClip 
and WordPro allow definition of a 
"range" of text, which may be mov- 
ed, copied or deleted. This range must 
consist of full lines, i.e. no starting part 
way through a line (at a logical 
sentence start or end). WordPro can 
define words or sentences, but only for 
deletion purposes. PaperClip allows 
the phrases and sentences to be mov- 
ed or copied elsewhere in text. This 
range definition is much more conve- 
nient. It even includes a single-key 
"find the end of the sentence for me" 
feature. 

5. Find/Search and Replace— A 
wild-card character (the backslash) will 
match any character in the text string. 
This may be used in both the find and 
the replace modes. Both leading and 
trailing spaces are significant in the 
search string too. This makes it easier 
to find words such as "the" without 
getting "there" as well. You may do 
up to five simultaneous search-and- 
replaces of different strings with both 
local and global modes. There is also 
the option of a query before replace- 
ment, which is a great relief for the 
careless who goofed in defining the 
strings (Yes, I've been guilty and paid 
the price of manual restoration with 
WordPro). A notable absence in 
PaperClip is the lack of the "absolute" 
feature of WordPro. PaperClip treats 
"The" and "the" as entirely different 



strings. 

6. Printer Support— Other word pro- 
cessors must limit the number of 
printers they support because of the 
wide variation in their special com- 
mands to activate special print modes. 
PaperClip has a completely different 
approach: a separate "printer file" is 
defined. When you are ready to print 
your text, the program asks if you wish 
to load a special printer file. There are 
twenty such printer files on the pro- 
gram disk. All the common printers 
have been represented. (A printer set- 
up program is included on the disk so 
you may provide for all the special 
codes of your, printer). It was quite a 
surprise to see my friction-feed 2023 
printer doing underline and overstrik- 
ing after all these years. Similarly 
2022/4022s can do superscripts and 
subscripts, and Epson Type Ills will do 
italics too. As the manual states, "this 
routine allows the user to use the best 
features which their printer has to of- 
fer." For both the video and the printer 
output, the count of the number of 
words in the text is displayed on the 
top line. 

7. Text Load/Save— Two modes are 
supported: the regular Program files 
which are only usable with disk 
storage, and a Sequential file which 
can go to tape or disk. 

As mentioned previously, the Pro- 
gram files are WordPro compatible. 
PaperClip has chosen to store both the 
horizontal text width and the tab stops 
as the first few characters in the file. 
Having to re-establish tabs has been 
a bit of an annoyance with WordPro. 
Storing of the line lengths makes files 
more transportable between 40- and 
80-column machines, but has hazard 
as well: redefinition of line width re- 
quires clearing of the text from 
memory. (Save it before changing 
width). The files saved with this com- 
mand will now not format correctly 
when loaded by WordPro. The manual 
does not tell you how to "fix" this: if 
you do a "global file copy" you get 
prompted asking if the tabs and width 
should be stored too. A negative 
response will save a file that is 
backwards compatible for WordPro. 

The Sequential file mode is required 
for tape saves and loads. A convenient 



Verify command is included, mainly for 
tape users to get some assurance that 
the tape save was a good one. Its se- 
cond purpose is to allow the common 
trick of using Verify to cue up the tape 
to the end of the last "saved" file. The 
format of the characters saved is dif- 
ferent from the Program mode. The 
files are in PET ASCII, rather than PET 
screen code. The ASCII format is a 
more standard code for interaction 
with other programs (data-base or 
mailing lists) that expect the data in this 
format. These files are also used for 
storage/recovery of variable blocks of 
information for form letters, in the same 
way that the extra-text area is used in 
WordPro. When changing line lengths 
(see above), you can use this mode to 
temporarily store the file, since it 
doesn't keep the width or the tab in- 
formation in the file. 

While the program loads, it is 
displayed to the screen, unlike Word- 
Pro which requires you to scroll 
through the text to see what you've 
got. When saving a file the program 
updates the line number indicator to 
show that something is happening. 
You may save a specific line range as 
well as the whole text file, and can ap- 
pend to the current file in memory, 
without erasing all the current file. A 
very handy feature is the ability to 
move a chunk of text from one file to 
another when you are running out of 
space in the present one. This techni- 
que is particularly well described in the 
manual. 

8. Column Manipulation— A big plus 
to PaperClip for this addition. A colum- 
nar area can be framed with the cur- 
sor keys, and manipulated in a wide 
variety of ways. You can add, delete, 
move, insert and copy columns in the 
matrix almost at will. A table of infor- 
mation can be massaged to give just 
the right presentation to the date. You 
may do column or row addition, using 
exact decimal arithmetic and a defin- 
ed degree and decimal precision, in- 
cluding rounding. Thjs seems like the 
place to mention a unique system of 
numeric tabs that does not get mixed 
up when entering columns of 
numbers. On a given line, there may 
be some non-printing characters that 
would make it very difficult to keep the 

Commander March/April 1983/57 



columns correctly aligned. The 
numeric tabs in PaperClip work by 
considering the "printable" characters 
when deciding where to put the 
decimal point (on the screen). Don't 
worry, it will all work out OK in the end, 
despite the nonsense that appears on 
the screen. In Numeric Mode, paren- 
theses, dollar signs and minus or plus 
signs may be part of the numbers 
entered. 

9. Sorting— When the table is just 
right, why not do an alphanumeric sort 
on it? That's right, multi-field sorting in 
your word processor. Up to 16 fields 
may be permitted, with your choice of 
field delimiter and whether leading 
spaces are significant. You may sort 
in ascending or descending order, us- 
ing your choice of hierarchy for the 
sub-sort. A mailing list file could be 
loaded in and sorted by postal code 
or whatever you choose. This feature 
is very impressive and usually found 
only on the big, stand-alone word pro- 
cessors (until now!). 

10. Table of Contents— Put a special 
format command in text for each 



heading of significance and PaperClip 
will write a sequential file with the titles 
and the page numbers where they ap- 
pear. This can make the production of 
a table of contents page quite 
painless: just reload the file PaperClip 
produced, add some formatting com- 
mands to this and there is your table 
of contents page. I could have used 
this a couple of times already. 

1 1 . Arbiter Interface— The program 
interacts with Batteries Included 
peripheral-sharing system. This may 
be toggled on and off, even if the Ar- 
biter system software is installed. Other 
wordprocessors may have to be 
reworked to be compatible with some 
of these systems. 
Summary 

The manual is 1 12 pages long and 
has a reasonably friendly style. There 
is an Addenda file on the program disk 
which describes some features added 
since it went to press. A WordPro user 
can probably get through it on his 
own, but the description of the so- 
called standard features is rather brief. 
Thankfully, there is plenty of informa- 



tion on the how-tos and whys for the 
novel features. I believe that the pro- 
gram's author wrote the current 
edition— not usually the best choice. I 
would rate it as better-than-average. 
There are three appendices: control 
functions, formatting directives and er- 
ror messages. 

There is one omission in the 
package that is of great benefit to 
WordPro users: the quick reference 
guide which can be left on the deck 
of.the PET/CBM. All of the control func- 
tions and embedded format com- 
mands are organized for convenient 
reference. Because of the multitude of 
PaperClip features this should be a 
priority item. 

Because of the similarity to WordPro 
commands, PaperClip was quite easy 
to adapt to. The different Control se- 
quences were kind of a mixed- 
blessing— I had to "unlearn" Word- 
Pro's before the PaperClip ones 
became more familiar. (Many of these 
Control sequences are the same as 
with WordPro). 

Continued on page 72 




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58/Commander March/April 1983 



Why Didn't I Think of That? 



by Howard Rotenberg 
Toronto, Canada 



Editor's Note: Due to an error in 
February's issue, the listing for "Why 
Didn't I Think of That?" is being 
reprinted in this issue, it is not our prac- 
tice to continually reprint articles and 
we appreciate your understanding. 

Have you ever been using a routine 
for a long time assuming that it was 
common knowledge? I have met a lot 
of people using useful routines that I 
wished that I had in my little bag of 
tricks. The funny thing about them is 
that they are usually so simple the 
question arises, Why didn't I think of 
that? These were the exact words that 
a friend of mine used the other day 
that inspired me to pass on these few 
routines. NOTE: Usually he is the one 
to figure them out first. 

The routine that he spoke about is 
the one I will present first. This small 
routine may be used in a program to 
see if the printer is turned on before 
trying to print text. (See program 1) 

I have used the word "home" to 
represent the home key on the key- 
board. As you see, the routine is sim- 
ple and may be easily put into any pro- 
gram. The crucial lines are 15 and 20. 
After the printer is opened, we do a 
simple print#4. Line 20 checks the 
status at this point and it should be 
zero if the printer is on. If it is not, it 
looks back and tries again. The pro- 
gram loops until the printer is finally 
turned on in which case you are gra- 
ciously thanked. You may, of course 
put in any type of error detection you 
wish (ie: flashing messages), however, 
I chose to keep it simple for the exam- 
ple. One strange occurence was that 
we tried the routine with the IEEE cable 
disconnected expecting to see a 
DEVICE NOT PRESENT error, how- 
ever, we did not. This one I will let you 
figure out. 

A short but useful routine to read se- 



quential files follows. I have used a 
small machine language routine to 
read the file and will explain exactly 
what it does and its BASIC equivalent. 

10 FOR J = TO 22 

20 READ A 

30 POKE 634 + J,A 

40 NEXT J 

50 INPUT "FILENAME";F$ 

■ 60 DOPEN#1,(F$) 

70 SYS 634 

80 DCLOSE 

90 GOTO 50 

95 DATA 162, 1, 32, 198, 255, 32, 
228, 255, 32 

97 DATA 210, 255, 166, 150, 208, 
2, 240, 244 
99 DATA 162, 1, 32, 166, 242, 96 

Line 70 jumps to the machine lan- 
guage routine loaded by the first four 
lines. The BASIC equivalent to this line 
is: 

70 GET#1,A$: PRINT A$;: IF 
STO 64 GOTO 70 

The main reason for using the ma- 
chine language is of course the speed 
at which it will read and display the in- 
formation. You may easily substitute 
the BASIC line 70 to see the difference 
yourself. Since the routine is just load- 
ed as data statements that don't mean 
too much to a lot of users, program 2 
will show exactly what the routine is. 

The two JSR instructions ($FFC6 
and $F2A6) are ROM dependent for 
BASIC 4. The other routines are Ker- 
nal routines that may be used on all 
Commodore computers. To find the 
proper routines for the VIC 20 or the 
Commodore 64, you may just look in 
any memory map. I have the maps but 
without the computers to test it on I 
would rather not print the addresses 
in case of error. 

Another routine I have found many 
opportunities to use is one that takes 



Tl$ and converts it into a regular every- 
day 1 2 hour clock. It even displays AM 
or PM. It's not that I am opposed to 
the 24 hour military clock but unless 
you are in the service or a hospital 
(hospitals like to use the 24 hour 
clock), the more familiar 12 hour clock 
seems more friendly. (See program 3) 

I have included a return statement, 
in line 70 since this routine lends itself 
to be called as a subroutine. I have 
found that displaying the time in the 
more common way adds less confu- 
sion to an end user of one of my pro- 
grams. 

I imagine I could go on for a long 
time sharing these small routines as I 
am sure we all could. Rather than 
doing that I would like to end off with 
just a few very small but extremely 
useful ones that I find very handy. 

The version of MICROSOFT BASIC 
that comes on the Commodore com- 
puters lacks an extremely useful logi- 
cal operation. They have included the 
AND, OR and NOT function (even 
though the NOT function is NOT what 
you would expect it to be), however, 
unless you get into machine code you 
do not have an exclusive or function. 
The truth table for this function is as 
follows: 

0:0 = 

0:1 = 1 

1:0 = 1 

1:1 = 

To EOR or as some languages pre- 
sent it (XOR) the variable A with B the 
following may be done: ((A) AND (NOT 
(B))) OR ((B) AND (NOT(A))) 

Next we will round off the number 
(N) to (D) decimal plages: 

10 INPUT D 

20 INPUT N 

30 N = INT(N* 10! D + .5)/10!D 

40 PRINT N 

I have used an exclamation mark in- 

Commander March/April 1983/59 



stead of the exponent or up arrow sign 
in line ten, since my method of writing 
this text does not include that char- 
acter. If you use the routine, please 
use the proper key as I can guarantee 
you that the exclamation mark will not 
work. 

In an earlier example I used a basic 
loader to poke a small machine sub- 
routine into memory. These numbers, 
however, had to be converted to deci- 
mal first so here are two one liners to 
do conversions for us. First we submit 
the routine where our hex number is 
in the variable L$, and is returned in 
L as a decimal number. (See program 

4) 
Now we submit the variable L to this 



decimal to hex routine. (See program 

5) 
The two conversion routines may be 

put into one line, however, I decided 

for the sake of clarity to display them 

as two. 

Lastly, if you do not want to convert 

a hex number to decimal but prefer to 

list it in data statements as hex and still 

poke it into memory, then the final 

routine is for you. (See program 6) 

The data statements contained the 
same sequential file reading routine 
that I used earlier. 
Conclusion 

We over the years seem to acquire 
a number of subroutines that we like 
to use in our programs. Some of 



course are much more difficult than 
others, however, even if we don't fully 
understand them, with the proper in- 
structions, we may all benefit from 
them. There is a limit on the number 
of ways that one can implement the 
same function using any one given 
premise. I am sure that there are a lot 
of routines out there being used every 
day that do the same as the few I have 
shown. I hope mine will be of use to 
some of the readers and if so, please 
let us in on your tricks that you assume 
that everyone else already knows. If 
you do, I am sure that just like that 
friend and myself, a l6t more people 
out there will benefit greatly while say- 
ing: "Why didn't I think of that?" 













Program 1 


; CV\ + * 


% T£ 


'""': s •* i- 


WHIT 


FOR PRINTER *** 


!.U OPEN 


4 , 4 










L5 PR I HI 


#4 










c.kJ- ir -~ ! i 


■•__■' 


t? T rttil 


PR IN" 


- ii 


■'HOME- TURN OH PRINTER 11 : GOTO 15 


._ PRINT 


"THflNKVOU 1 








40 REM * 


■+* T 


T if- nrr" 

nr. p.toi 


" OF " 


r HE 


PROGRAM *## 
Program 2 




'¥■ - 


i L'^r' H 






■ S T R R T OF i : 1 L ( 6 3 4 D E C I M A L > 




i_Di : - : 


#$01 






-GET THE FILE HUMEER 




J b r- 


$FFC6 






- -:c. i \ nc i -Ar u i JJll v i l-c 


GE1 Ch 


J S R 


SFFE4 






.■GET fl OHRRFiCTER 




■-■ O f r - 


4 : »~ FUc- 






.= NR I TE ONE CHARACTER 




..... -L' l'~ 


$36 






•GET THE STATUS VALUE <ST) 




JL' i J ill, 


CLOSE 






.IF HOT ZERO THEN GOTO END OF ROUTINE 




BEG 


GETCh 






, GO BACK FOR ANOTHER CHARACTER 


CLOSE 


LL;- 


#$0i 






;GET THE FILE NUMBER AGAIN 






*F2A6 






; CLEAR THE CHANNEL 




RTS 








.■BACK TO BASIC 




a Ll !"'■ 


ii 









60/Commander March/April 1983 



Program 3 

L0 INPUT "TIME";!!* 
28 OI*-'' ,f 

3.8 I FVHL ( LEFT* < T I * , 2 ) ) >= 1 2HNBVHL 
( M I B$ < T I * , 5 , 2 ) ) >= 1 G0T039 

40 LK*^ 1 ' AM, M ■IFVflL<LEFT*<TI*,2>X=9THEN0I* : 
MIB*<TI*,2, 1 > : G0T0G8 

5Q OI*=MIB*<TI*, 1,2) 

60 01 £=01*+" : n +MID$(TI*,3,2)+LK$ 

7U PRIHT"THE TIME IS "01^ RETURN 

S3 I FVHL < LEFT* ( T I $ , 2 ) ) = 1 2THEN0 1 *=LEFT* < T I $ , 
•LK*= !i PN. " -GOTO60 

90 0I$=STR$(VflL<LEFTtai$.2>>-12> ■LK*^" FM. 
; GOT068 

Program 4 

10 L=0 : FORJ=iTO4 : LK=fiSCCL*> :LE=LK-48+ 

28 L*=MIE*<L*,2) :L=16*L+LK : NEXT-PRIHTL 

Program 5 

1 y L=L/4896 : FOR J= 1 T04 = L*,=L ' L$=CHR$ 

(4S+l";-(l;-;>9)*7> 



20 PRINTL*; :L=16#<L«LX> -HBi 



Program 6 

10 FOR J = 634 TO £56 

20 READ H*-r'1*=LEFT$(H$,l>:L*-RIGHT$<H*,l) 

30 POKE J , ( flSC ■■:.' M* ') -43+ ( ( M*> " 9 u ) *7 > ) # 1 6+flSC 
<L$)-4S+(<L*> u 9 n >*7>) 

40 NEXT J 

58 DflTfl R2,0i,20,G6,FF,28,E4,FF,20,D2,FF 
60 DflTfl Fib, 96, D9, 02, F@, F4,fl2, 01, 26, fl6,F2.. 68 



Video Vermin 

Continued from page 40 

Vic. I turned my set on, and started to 
play Video Vermin, the Centipede type 
arcade game by UMI. Before I realiz- 
ed it I found myself in the midst of a 
large infestation of snails, butterflies, 
beetles, fleas and ants. I was trying 
diligently to kill them but to my dismay 
they just sprouted into mushrooms. It 
seemed as though my garden would 
never flourish. 

Video Vermin is a fast paced intense 
arcade game. Your garden is being at- 
tacked by vermin, and as you shoot 
them they sprout into mushrooms 
which rain down on your garden. You 
begin the game with three gardners 
and with each 10,000 points you are 
awarded an extra man. The highest 
score is saved from game to game, 
and as you improve your aim the skill 
level increases automatically, so it's a 
constant battle to keep ahead. 

Video Vermin is a fantastic Cen- 
tipede type arcade game sold by UMI, 
with the highest arcade quality 
features. The sound is superb and the 
graphics are so excellent that I found 
myself reaching for the bug spray 
more than once. 

I recommend Video Vermin to 
anyone who loves fast action, great 
sound and realistic graphics. All you'll 
need to play this great game is a 
VIC-20, one joystick, a fast hand, and 
a cool head! 

Debbie Gabbard 




Commander March/April 1983/61 






Game Reviews 



Annihilator 

Victory Software 

2027-A S.J. Russell Circle 

Elkins Park, PA 19117 
Format: Cassette, joystick required 
Price: $9.95 
System: VIC-20 
Language: machine 
Age Level: 12 and up 

Annihilator is a defender-type space 
game. It is a fast moving game where 
you defend your planet against in- 
vading aliens. You have three defen- 
ding ships and for every 1 0,000 points 
you score you get an additional ship. 
Occassionally a fuel depot will appear 
on the bottom of the screen. Docking 
with it will earn you 500 points. 
Shooting an asteroid is worth 1000 
points. The aliens come from all direc- 
tions and surround you. One of my 
sons scored 35,000 points, but his 
reflexes are quicker than those of a 
fast-draw contestant at a gun show! 
Quick reflexes increase your score. 
This is a no-win game, but you can 
better your score each game. 

Rating: Very good action game. □ 

Adventure Pack 1 

Consists of three games: 

Moon Base Alpha 

Big Bad Wolf 

Computer Adventure 
Victory Software 

2027-A S.J. Russell Circle 

Elkins Park, PA 19117 
Format: Cassette, keyboard 
Price: $14.95 
System: VIC-20 

Summary; There are three games as 
listed above. However, we could 
not get Computer Adventure to 
function so cannot report on it. 

62/Commander March/April 1983 



Age Level: At least high school age 
Type of Game: Word games, no 
graphics □ 

Big Bad Wolf 

There is a feeling of impending 
crisis. A big, bad wolf is coming 
toward your house. He is only 590 
yards away. He is coming to gobble 
you up! And he is getting closer. You 
must command the computer as it 
asks you, "what do you want me to 
do 9 " You'd better come up with some 
fast, accurate ideas to thwart the wolf's 
plan or you'll end up as wolf bait! As 
he comes closer to your front door and 
the computer continues to ask "what 
do you want me to do" your mind 
must race for solutions. Your trusty 
VIC-20 computer will save you if you 
will just tell it what to do! By the time 
you finally conquer the wolf, if you do, 
you will have lived out a very fun and 
exciting hour. □ 

Moon Base Alpha 

A comet is racing toward your base, 
a station in outer space. You must 
destroy this comet before it destroys 
you. But that's easier said than done! 
You have a missile which can obliter- 
ate the comet— that is if all systems at 
your base are "go." But you find your 
missile control computer isn't on line, 
there is a dangerous virus in the lab 
which threatens to destroy you. The 
comet increases its speed as it ap- 
proaches your base. You must very 
quickly overcome your numerous pro- 
blems and launch your defensive mis- 
sile or the comet will wipe out your 
base. An impending sense of urgency 
makes Moon Base Alpha a fascinating 
and captivating new computer game. 

Rating: Very good— both games. □ 



Grave Robbers 

Victory Software 

2027-A S.J. Russell Circle 

Elkins Park, PA 19117 
Format: Cassette, keyboard 
Price: $14.95 
System: VIC-20 
Summary: First graphic adventure 

for VIC-20 
Age Level: At least high school age 
Solving Time: 6 to 8 hours 

Beware of the Dangers 
in the Cemetery! 

It might not seem too difficult or 
scary working your way through a 
cemetery; yet there are obstacles to 
overcome. Wait until you meet the 
vicious dog— and try to get past him! 
If and when you get by him, breathing 
a sigh of relief, you are confronted by 
an unmoveable tombstone which you 
must get by— or over— or under! 
When and if you succeed you feel you 
are well on your way to obtaining the 
treasure. But whoa. Not so fast. You 
come to a tomb where the treasure 
supposedly is hidden and you must 
search four different levels to find it. By 
this time, you are so engrossed you 
wonder where the time has gone! Pret- 
ty soon, if you're lucky and smart and 
use the right commands, you will end 
up finding the treasure. 

Our family found this a very fun and 
exciting new game. However, we were 
slowed down when we tried to use too 
much deductive reasoning to solve the 
puzzle. You must look for the obvious! 
Once we discovered this secret it 
became much easier. 

In this unusual game you play the 
role of a character in an unknown envi- 
ronment. Through the computer you 
control the character and try to solve 



the mystery with plain English 
statements like "open the gate," or 
"get the key." The computer con- 
siders the first word the verb and the 
last word the noun. It also only looks 
at the first two letters of each word. 
Therefore, "op ga" means the same 
as "open the gate." 
Rating: Very good. □ 

Kongo Kong 

Victory Software 

2027-A S.J. Russell Circle 

Elkins Park, PA 19117 
Format: Cassette, use joystick or 

keyboard 
Price: $19.95 
System: VIC-20 
Language: Partial machine 
Age Level: 12 and up 

The object of Kongo Kong is to 
climb ladders, avoid barrels being roll- 
ed down by a crazy ape, and rescue 
a fair damsel. This game is similar to 
Donkey Kong, the arcade game, but 
is only one level. 

This is a fun and fast paced game. 
At the top of the screen is a damsel 
waiting to be rescued. You are at the 
bottom of the screen and must ad- 
vance five levels up a series of ladders 
while a crazy ape near the damsel rolls 
barrels down toward you. You must 
avoid being smashed by a barrel. For 
each barrel you jump over you receive 
a score. You get three tries to reach 
the damsel. 

Rating: Fair to good. □ 



Two Winners from UMI 




by Tim Parker 
Ontario, Canada 



United Microware Industries, one of 
the first companies to offer cartridge 
games for the VIC-20, has racked up 
a surprising number of successes. 
Two of their more popular games are 
"Spiders of Mars" and "Amok." 

Spiders of Mars is an arcade game 
which allows the player to control a fast 
moving "Martian Space Fly." The fly 
is moved about the VIC-20 screen by 
means of either keyboard or joystick 
(the latter is definitely preferable), and 
its mission in life is to destroy various 
types of nasties that wander its way. 
To help do this, an unlimited supply of 
"laser death darts" is available. These 
will be emitted from the fly as fast as 
you can hit the fire button (or space 
bar). 

The nasties come in several forms. 
Martian Spiders descend from the top 
of the screen suspended at the end of 
a web's thread. If a spider succeeds 
in reaching the bottom of the screen, 
it sits there and occasionally slings a 
thread vertically. If the fly wanders into 
the thread, or is hit by it, the fly loses 
its life. The spider can be destroyed 
when it is descending by hitting either 
the spider itself or its thread. The 
spider then falls to its doom. If it makes 
it to the ground, however, it cannot be 
destroyed. The vertical threads it 
shoots upwards can be eliminated by 
a hit from the darts, but a fresh thread 



rapidly follows. 

Saturnian Bats are (not surprisingly) 
bats that follow the hapless fly around, 
homing in on it. A bat's touch is lethal. 
They are destroyed by a direct hit with 
a dart. 

Plutonian Dragonflies are danger- 
ous little critters. They drop smart 
bombs that head unerringly towards 
the hapless fly. The dragonflies are kill- 
ed by darts, but the bombs are not. 
They do, however, have a limited life- 
time, and wink out after several 
seconds. 

Jovian Hornets round out the cast. 
These are the deadliest of the bunch. 
They shoot very rapid darts at the fly, 
which are almost always unerringly ac- 
curate. Most players do not have time 
to dodge these darts. 

The game begins with two each 
hornets, dragonflies and bats on the 
first level, and a random number of 
spiders dropping at intervals. The 
screen wraps around, with a land- 
scape several times the screen's width 
presented, similar to "Defender." As 
the levels are cleared, and the player 
progresses, the number of enemies in- 
creases, as does their point value. 

Bonus flies are awarded at intervals. 

Graphically, the game is very well 
designed. Authored by Peter Fokos, 
who has other excellent games, it 



o 

CO 



o 

CM 

■ 

o 
> 







utvJ* • DISKOMATE ,« 

■ A >»..«* fnr '"iflACM Af\Af\ Hick AuinArc VA/r 



Write for Price) 
A must for 2040/4040 disk owners. Write protect indicators 
switches, power indicator and error beeper 

• Real World" SOFTWARE ..,7 . ***, 

Word Processor Mailing Lis! Catalog. Ham Radio. Frequency Counter 

(--"OLD" 8K PETs 1 

| • 21 14- TO- 6550 RAM ADAPTER isia-sasj 

Replace 6550 RAMs wuh low cost 21 Ms. Hundreds Sold' 

1 ... #4K MEMORY EXPANSION .sie-s«. 

Low cost memory expansion using 21 14s (or bigger piograms 

OPTIMIZED DATA SYSTEMS 

Dept.O P.O. Box 595 - Placentia. CA 92670 

DISKOMATE traOvmarM Optimitad Data System* ■ PET CBM trademark Commoooi 




o 

CO 



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CM 

O 



Commander March/April 1983/63 



taxes the V1C-20's limits. The anima- 
tion is superbly done, with smooth 
scrolling of the game's participants. 
The fly beats its wings rapidly, and the 
spider waggles its legs in a manner 
that rivals arcade games. The colors 
are bold, and if a suitable source is 
provided, they give a stunning display 
of color. 

The sound is adequate, although 
somewhat elemental. An opening 
music piece (Bach's Tocatta and 
Fugue in D Minor) begins to weary 
after a few playings, and the sound of 
the fly firing darts is reminiscent of first 
generation arcade games. The sound 
could certainly be improved to take full 
advantage of the VIC's capabilities, 
but this is not a serious deficiency. 

The game plays very well, and is' 
addictive. Once the tricks of the game 
are mastered (check the directions 
each of the critters flies in, and clob- 
bers the hornets) the levels rapidly 
mount up. Equipped with 256 skill 
levels, the game will tax even the best 
joystick pilot. (I take UMI's word for 



256 levels: I've only managed 20 odd!) 

The function keys on the right of the 
VIC-20 are used to control the game's 
difficulty, and allows resetting of the 
game. The game can also be paused 
and restarted by pushing the "P" key: 
a very handy feature for when the 
phone rings, or the fire button thumb 
gets sore. 

In summary, this game is a winner, 
and is sure to be one of the most 
popular games in a library. It comes 
packaged in a cartridge that plugs in 
the back of the VIC, and has complete 
instruction sheets that tell all there is to 
know. Definitely recommended! 

Amok is a game by Roger Merritt 
that resembles the arcade game Ber- 
serk. A hapless human is placed in an 
'endless maze of rooms inhabited by 
robots bent on destruction. The walls 
are also deadly to the player. 

The game is controlled by joystick 
or keyboard. Points are awarded for 
each robot destroyed. (They come in 
four colors, each with a different point 
value.) One extra man is available, and 



bonus points are awarded for clearing 
several levels. 

In play, this game is not quite as well 
designed as Spiders of Mars. The ani- 
mation is jerky, and the sound is very 
rudimentary. This, however, is direct- 
ly due to the game being written in 
BASIC instead of machine language. 
As a BASIC program, it does rather 
well and plays at a satisfactory speed. 

A little variety would go a long way 
in improving Amok, as would more 
elaborate sound and graphics. As it 
stands, Amok will still be popular. The 
Berserk theme has appeared in sev- 
eral incarnations for the VIC, and this 
is one of the front contenders. On play- 
testing, however, most people seem to 
tire after a few games. But this is in- 
dicative of the subject, not UMI's 
version. 

Amok is available on both cassette 
tape and cartridge to simplify loading 
The game will appeal most to the 
younger crowd: older audiences will 
look for something with more sophisti- 
cation. □ 



urn 




Quit Playing Games . . . 

Disk Based Software to Make Your 
Computer Get Down to Business 

Disk Data Manager— Create and manage your own data 

base. Allows you- to create, add, change, delete, search, 

sort, print, etc. Up to 1200 records on a single disk. 

VIC 20. . . 59.95 CBM 64 . . .79.95 

Payroll System— Full featured, complete payroll sys- 
tem. Even prints checks. 

VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

Mailing List— Up to 1200 records on a single disk. 
Presorts by Zip Code. Prints on stock up to four 
labels wide. 

VIC 20 . . . 44.95 CBM 64 . . . 54.95 

Inventory Package— Maintains quantity on nand, cost, 
sales price, reorder point, etc. Generates suggested 
reorder, sales report, and sales analysis. 

VIC 20. . . 79.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

General Ledger— Up to 75 accounts! Generates Balance 
Sheet, Income Statement, Update Report, etc. 
VIC 20. . . 89.95 CBM 64 . . . 99.95 

Checkbook Manager— UP to 25 expense categories. 

Tracks all outstanding checks until they are paid. 

VIC 20. . . 49.95 CBM 64 . . .49.95 

CONTACT US FOR ALL YOUR 
DISK BASED SOFTWARE NEEDS 

Call for specifics on Hardware Configurations. 

Send Self-Addressed Stamped Envelope for 

Catalogue of Games and other Applications 

DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 



ra 



2905 Ports O'Call Court 
Piano, Texas 75075 

(214) 867-1333 

VISA and MASTERCARD Accepted 



(MQttwCod) 



VIC-20 .. CBM 64 

EXPANDER BDHRD5 




4 Slot for Ihe 64. Toggle switches and 
reset switch. 

P/N C64 *69.95 




6 Slot for the VIC. Toggle switches 
and reset switch. 



P/N V36 



*79.95 




PTI offers the finest selection 
of expander boards available 
for the VIC-20 and CBM 64. 
The design features, quality 
construction, and competitive 
prices make any of them an 
exceptional value. New pro- 
ducts are being added monthly, 
so write for complete catalog. 




Slot for the VIC No switches, reset, or 
fuse. 

P/N V13 J 49.95 




4 Slot lor the VIC. Toggle switches and 
reset switch. 

P/N V24 *69.95 



PRECISION TECHNOLOGY. INC. 
COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION 



P.O BOX 154 
SALT LAKE CITY Ul 



3 Slot for the Vic. Slide switches, no 
reset switch. 

P/N V23 *59.95 

See your dealer, or place 
your order direct 

VISA-M/C-CHECK-COD 



64/Commander March/April 1983 



■■■■■■tiwipu SEniSEi:/ 



VIC-20® 

VIC-20® Personal Computer $16995 

VIC-1515 Printer 334.95 

VIC-1530 Datasette 67.50 

VIC-1541 Disk Drive 375.00 

VIO1010 Expansion Module 139.95 

VIC-1311 Joystick 9.95 

VIC-1312 Game Paddles 1995 

VIC-1600 Telephone Modem 99.95 

VIC-1210 VIC 3K Memory Expander Cartridge 34.95 

Plugs directly into the VIC'S expansion port. Expands to 8K RAM total. 

VIC-1 1 10 VIC 8K Memory Expander Cartridge 52 50 

8K RAM expansion cartridge plugs directly into the VIC 

CM101 VIC 16K Memory Expander Cartridge 99 95 

CM102 24K Memory Expander Cartridge 119.95 

VIC-101 1 A RS232C Terminal Interface 39.95 

Provides interlace between the VIC-20 and RS232 telecommunications modems 
Connects to ViC's user port. 

PETSPEED - Basic Compiler lor Commodore 130.00 

Compile any Pel Basic program The only optimizing compiler. Programs compiled 
with Peispeed run up to 40 times faster. Petspeed code is uniistable and compiled 
program's cannot be tampered with. No security device required for compiled pro- 
grams. Available NOW for the Commodore 64 

Star Gemini 10 Printer Call for price 

Star Gemini 15 Printer Call for price 

SMD Monitor Call for price 



CARDBOARD 6 $87 95 

An expansion interface for the VIC-20. Allows expansion to 40K or accepts up to six 

games. May be daisy chained for more versatility. 

CARDBOARD 3 $39 95 

Economy expansion interface for the VIC-20. 

CARD "?" CARD/PRINT $79.95 

Universal Centronics Parallel Printer Interface for the VIC-20 or CBM-64 Use an 
Epson MX-80 or OKIDATA or TANDY or just about any other. 

CARDETTE $39 95 

Use any standard cassette player/recorder with your VIC-20 or CBM-64 

LIGHT PEN $29 95 

A light pen with six good programs to use with your VIC-20 or CBM-64 



HOME & BUSINESS PROGRAMS For VIC-20 & C-64 

CW-107A Home Calculation Program Pack $48.95 

CPV-31 Data Files - your storage is unlimited 14.95 

CPV-96 Household Finance Package - to keep records of an 30.95 

your household expenses 

CPV-208 Bar-Chart - display your numerical data 895 

CH Turtle Graphics - learn programming 34.95 

CH VIC Forth - is a powerful language for BASIC programming 49.95 

CH HES MON - is a 6502 machine language monitor with 34.95 

a mini-assembler 

CH HES Writer - lime-saving word processing tool 34.95 

CH Encoder - keep your personal records away from prying eyes 34.95 

CT-21 Statistics Sadistfcs - statistical analysis 14.95 

CT-121 Total Time Manager 2.0 - creates personal or 15.95 
business schedules 

Totl Label - a mailing list and label program 13.95 

Totl Text BASIC 15 95 

Research Assistant - keep track of reference data 1 7.50 

Totl Text Enhanced 29.95 

Graflx Designer - design graphic characters 1 2.95 

Minimon - allows you to program, load. save, or execute 13.95 
machine language programs 

Order Tracker 15.95 

Business Inventory - to maintain record of inventory 15.95 

Home Inventory - lists your home belongings 1 7.95 

Check Minder - (V-20 & 64) 14.95 

keep your checkbook the right way 

General Ledger - a complete general ledger 19.95 

HES Writer - word processor 39.95 
Turtle Graphics II - utilizes the full graphics of your 64 49.95 



CT-124 
CT-125 
CT-126 
CT-140 
CM-152 
CQ-5 



CS 

CHC-504 

CHC-503 

CHC-502 

CHP-102 

CFC 

CPV-327 



HESMON - machine language monitor w/mmi-assemblec 34.95 



6502 Professional Development System 29.95 

Data Files - a management program 27.95 

HESCOM - transfers data and programs bidirection- 40.95 

ally between VlCs at three times the speed of a disk drive 

CPV-328 HESCOUNT - monitors program execution 1995 

CHV HESpLOT - Hi-res graphics subroutines 12.95 

CPV-367 Conversions - figures, volume, length, weight, area. 7.95 

and velocity to all possible configurations 

CC The Mall - your complete mail program Cassette 24.95 

Disk 29.95 

CPV-220 Client Tickler 16.95 

CPV-221 Club Lister 13.95 

CPV-224 Depredator 9.95 

CPV-236 Investment Analyst - keep track of investments 1 2.95 

and investment opportunities 

CPV-251 Present Value 10.95 

CPV-269 Super Broker 12.95 

CPV-270 Syndicates - calculates whether to buy or sell 13.95 

CPV-274 Ticker Tape - maintains investments profile 14.95 

CPV-276 Un-Word Processor - screen editor 16.95 

CPV-286 Phone Directory - never lose a phone number again 9.95 

CS-111 Checkbook - home "utility" program 14.95 

CPV-294 Calendar My Appointments - print a calendar 14.95 

for every month m any year. 

CPV-296 The Budgeter - place your personal finances in order 1 2.95 



CS1 



QUICK BROWN FOX 

The Word Processor of this decade! 



$60.50 



VIC-1211A 



COMMODORE SOFTWARE 
VIC-20 Super Expander 



$57.99 



Everything Commodore could pack into one cartridge - 3f< RAM memory expansion, 
high resolution graphics plotting, color, paint and sound commands. Graphic, text, 
multicolor and music modes 1024x1024 dot screen plotting AH commands may be 
typed as new BASIC commands or accessed by hitting one of the VIC's special 
function keys. Includes tutorial instruction book Excellent for air programming levels. 

VIC-1212 Programmer's Aid Cartridge $45.99 

More than 20 new BASIC commands help new and experienced programmers 
renumber, trace and edit BASIC programs Trace any program line-by-lme as it 
executes, pause to edit. Special KEY command lets programmers redefine function 
keys as BASIC commands, subroutines or new commands. 

VIC-1213 VICMON Machine Language Monitor $48 99 

Helps machine code programmers write fast, efficient 6502 assembly language 
programs, includes one line assembler/disassembler 



NEW GAMES FOR YOUR VIC-20® 

CC58 AstroblitZ - This game is challenging, even to a 

VIC-MASTER! Navigate yourshfp carefully toavoid being hit byenemy fire. 
CC60 Terraguard - Speed and careful skill will enable you to 

once again destroy the aliens. Too slow? You're destroyed by their beam 
CC98 Serpentine - This game will test your patience & 

skill. Object - to survive long enough to lay eggs and raise your young. 
CC500 Intruder-Scrambler - In your bomber, invade the 

defending scramble system, dodging rockets, to blow up enemy posts, etc 
CC101 Chopitf ter - Rescue the American hostages & return 

rhem safely to the U S You will encounter tanks, jets and (tiller satellites. 
CC102 Black Hole - Your mission is, simply, to survive 1 Your 

ship must not be hit by space objects or sucked into the Black Hole! 
CC104 Apple Panic - Speed is required! Destroy the 
apple monsters by digging holes in the brick floors for them to fall mio 
CC65 Video Mania - Introducing your enemies: EVIL EYE. 

WALWOKER, KILLERBOX. Your only defense - throw your alien zapper 1 
CS1 Flags Of Nations - A game that challenges players 

to identify flags ofvanous widely-known nations of the world. 

CS2 Flags of Nations - Second Edition - a field of 

34 flags of lesser known nations of the world. 

CS3 Cities and States - A game that draws a map of 

a state or states and asks players to name key cities in those states. 

CS4 Cities Of the World - Deals with important 

cities of nations throughout the world 

CS5 Mountains and Rivers - Draws large geographical 

area maps. You identify major mountain ranges, rivers & bodies of water 



NEW GAMES FOR YOUR C-64 

Tank Arcade (AISO for VIC-20) - Pre-deiermme how many hits $13.95 
it will take to wipe out your opponent. Then, on with the battle' Battlefield changes. 
Roadracer - Choose the type of track & a time or lap race. Use 1 3.95 

steady control at speeds of 50 to 200 miles per hour. Hit the wall & lose valuable time 

Shootout at the OK Galaxy (Also for VIC-20) - 30 alien 19.95 

warships have entered your war zone. Shields up? Energy level OK? Defend yourself. 
Galaxy - Have you ever wanted to conquer the universe? Send 19.95 

your galactic fleets out to explore, solarsystem by solarsystem From 1 to 20 players. 
Bomber Attack - Ground to air warfare. You're in command 14.95 

of a supersonic bomber over enemy terrain. Drop all 25 bombs on key locations. 
Midway Campaign - Your computer controls a huge force of 19.95 

Japanese ships trying to conquer Midway Island. Your only advantage is surprise. 
Dnieper River Line - A fictionalized engagement between Russian 25.00 

& German forces in 1943. Soviet forces, controlled by the computer, seek to overrun 
your line and capture sufficient objectives to attain victory Four levels of difficulty. 
TanktiCS - Armored combat on the Eastern front of WWII. You 24.50 

start outnumbered 2 to 1 but you choose your tank types before the battle. 
Guns Of Fort Defiance - You are the commander of a 19th artillery 20.00 
piece in a besieged fort Choose type of ammo. Set the cannon's elevation, deflection. 
Computer Baseball Strategy - you. the manager of the 1 5. 95 

home team, test you skill against a wily and unpredictable opponent, your computer. 
Lords Of Karma - Like an intriguing puzzle! Decipher secrets 20.00 

while exploring a mythical, magical city &. countryside. Avoid the lurking monsters' 

North Atlantic Convoy Raider - its the Bismarck convoy 19.95 

raid of 194V The computer controls the British ships Will you change history? 
Planet Miners - Compete against others and the computer to 19.95 

stake valuable mining claims throughout the solar system in the year 2050. 
Conflict 2500 - In 2500 AD. earth is threatened by attacking 19.95 

aliens with an infinite * of attack strategies with which to tease the defending player. 
Nukewar - Nuclear confrontation between two hypothetical 1995 

countries. Defend your country with espionage, bombers, missiles, submarines, etc 
Computer Acquire - New Second Edition! The object is to 20.00 

become the wealthiest person in this "business" game -hotel acquisitions & mergers 
Andromeda Conquest - vast scale space strategy game of 19.95 

galactic colonizing and conquest. Strange life forms & alien tecnnologies - exciting 1 
Telengard - Microcomputer Dungeon Adventure game. Time 25.00 

fantasy and role-playing. 50 levels of ever-more complex mazes to explore & survive! 

MORE — MORE — MORE 



TO ORDER: 
P. O. Box 18765 
Wichita, KS 67218 
(316)263-1095 



Prices subject to change. 



WRITE 

FOR 

FREE 

CATALOG 



Personal checks accepted (Allow 3 weeks) 

or C.O.D. (Add $2) Handling charges $2.00 

VlC-20* is a registered trademark of Commodore 



Commander Dealers 



Given here, in zip code order, is a 
partial list of the Charter Dealers who 
will be carrying the COMMANDER. 
We will provide updates for this list in 
following issues as a service to provide 
our readers with a local source at 
which they will find information, hard- 
ware, or software for their Commodore 
Computers. 

U.S.A. 

Puerto Rico 

The Micro Computer Store 
1408 Avenue Jesus T. Pinero 
Rio Piedras, PR 00921 
(809) 781-0350 
Manager-Owner: Julio C. Martinez 

Massachuttes 

Northshore News Co. 
150 Blossom Street 
Lynn, MA 01902 
Manager-Owner: Tom Mulken, Jr. 

Computech Ltd. 
214 Derby Street 
Salem, MA 01970 
(617) 741-1724 
Manager-Owner: Tim Bush 

Omicron Corporation 
1416 Providence Highway 
Norwood, MA 02062 
(617) 769-6867 
Manager-Owner: Steve Gavrilles 

Rhode Island 

International Computer Services 
165 Oyerville Avenue 
Johnston, Rl 02919 
(401) 273-1001 
Manager-Owner: Steve Lablanc 

New Hampshire 

Compu-Craft, Inc. 
17 Dunbar Street 
Keene, NH 03431 
(603) 357-3901 

Manager-Owner: Richard Bishop 
66/Commander March/April 1983 



Echo Consulting Services 
PO Box 1199 " 
Conway, NH 03818 
(603) 447-5455 
Manager-Owner: George Epotien 

Maine 

Maine Micro Systems, Inc. 
55 Center Street 
Auburn, ME 04210 
(207) 786-0696 
Manager: Nancy Lecompte 

Vermont 

Computeam 

205 Dorset Street 

S. Burlington, VT 05401 

(802) 862-2802 

Manager-Owner: Mark Robinson 

Market Place 
1 Main Street 
Winoski, VT 05404 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Connecticut 

Multi-Business Computers Inc. 
28 Malborough Street 
Portland, CT 06480 
(203) 342-2747 
Manager-Owner: Bob Stasko 

New Jersey 

Micro Computer Services 
61 Mountain Blvd. 
Warren, NJ 07060 
(201) 561-3111 
Manager-Owner: Jerry Prevete 

Computer Workshop 
1200 Haddenfield Road 
Cherry Hill, NJ 07013 
(609) 665-4404 
Manager-Owner: Charles Kolbe 

Computerability, Inc. 

441 Route 23 

Pomton Plains, NJ 07444 

(201) 835-0688 

Manager-Owner: Dennis Mull 



Wayne Computer Store 
1459 Route 23 
Wayne, NJ 07470 
(201) 628-7318 
Manager-Owner: Rick Delti 

Software City 

147 N. Kinderkamack Road 

Montvale, NJ 07645 

(201)391-0931 

Manager-Owner: CM. Hatfield 

Computer Workshop 
1200 Haddenfield Road 
Cherry Hill, NJ 08034 
(609) 665-4404 
Manager-Owner: Chris Kolbe 

Electronic Service Assoc, Inc. 
Route 541 N. 
Medferd, NJ 08055 
(609) 953-1200 
Manager-Owner: John Handfield 

Software-n-Such 
Warren Plaza, Route 130 
East Windsor, NJ 08520 
(609) 443-8984 
Manager-Owner: Paul Hammer 

BB/The Computer Store 
216 Scotch Road 
Trenton, NJ 08628 
(609)883-2050 
Manager-Owner: Barry Brown 

New York 

Computer Center 

31 East 31st 

New York, NY 10016 

Manager-Owner: Elliot Robinowigtz 

Leigh's Computer 
212 East 85th Street 
New York, NY 10028 
Manager-Owner: Leigh Goldstein 

CompTek 

90 John Street 

New York, NY 10038 

(212) 962-6131 

Manager-Owner: Frances Banks 



Computer Emporium 
37 North Street 
Middletown, NY 10940 
Manager-Owner: Kate Honders 

B.C. Communications, Inc. 
World Wide Electronics Dist. 
207 Depot Road 
Huntington Street, NY 11746 
(516) 549-8833 

Computer Headquarters 
1245 Middle Country Road 
Selden, NY 1 1 784 
(516) 698-9373 
Manager-Owner: James and 
Kathy Lyons 

Ray's Supply 
350 Cornila Street 
Pittsburgh, NY 12901 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Upstate Computer Shop 
1 823 Western Avenue 
Albany, NY 12203 
(518) 456-3019 
Manager-Owner: William J. Smith 

Ray's Supply 
190 Route 9 
Cohoes, NY 12047 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Ray's Software 
106 East Main Street 
Mallone, NY 12953 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Future Distribution 
Trimex Bldg.— Route 11 
Mooers, NY 12958 
(514) 861-2831 
Manager-Owner: Phillippe Faure 

Ray's Software 
412 East Jenesee Street 
Fayetteville, NY 13066 
Manager-Owner: Bob Howe 

Durmac Cash Registers 
1628 Erie Blvd. E. 



Syracuse, NY 13210 

(315)472-4531 

Manager-Owner: William McCarthy 

Upstate Computer Shop 

99 Commercial Drive 
Whitesboro, NY 13492 
Manager-Owner: Tony Violante 

Personal Computers, Inc. 
3251 Bailey Avenue 
Buffalo, NY 14215 

(716) 832-8800 
Manager-Owner: Frank C. Smeirciak 

Pennsylvania 

One Stop Computer Shope 
65 North 5th Street 
Lemoyne, PA 1 7043 

(717) 761-6754 
Manager-Owner: Joanne Wright 

Micro Age Computer Store 
1352 Tilghman Street 
Allentown, PA 18102 
(215) 434-4301 
Manager-Owner: Ed Eichenwald 

Maryland 

Professional Micro Service 

100 West 22nd Street 
Balto, MD 21218 
(301) 366-0010 
Manager-Owner: James A. Breen 

Tri-State Computers 

1504 South Salisbury Blvd. 

Salisbury, MD 21801 

(301) 742-2020 

Manager-Owner: Tom Weiland 

Virginia 

Virginai Micro Systems 
13646 Jeff Davis Highway 
Woodbridge, VA 22191 
(703)491-6502 
Manager-Owner: Suart Mitchell 

Unidyne Corp. 
536 Independance Blvd. 
Virginia Beach, VA 23462 
Manager-Owner: Vicki Knick 



CALPRO— The World of Computers 

3119 Waterlick Road 

Lynchburg, VA 24502 

(804) 237-3825 

Manager-Owner: Walter Leroy Ashley 

West Virginia 

Computer Associates, Inc. 
113 Hale Street 
Charleston, WV 25301 
(304) 344-8801 
Manager-Owner: Jeff Knapp 

North Carolina 

The Program Center 

3400A West Wendover Avenue 

Greensboro, NC 27407 

(919) 855-8667 

Manager-Owner: Rupert Fenequito 

Piedmont Microsystems Inc. 
Route 3, Box 150 H 
Frazier Professional Bldg. 
Newton, NC 28658 
(704) 465-3600 
Manager-Owner: Lome Machael 

Bob West Computers 
54 West Main Street 
Brevard, NC 28712 
(704)883-2595 
Manager-Owner: Sylvia West 

Georgia 

Cardinal Computers 
903 North Gleenwood 
Dalton, GA 30720 
(404) 226-0502 

I nag rated System, Inc. 

3300 Buckeye Road NE, Suite 178 

Atlanta, GA 30341 

Florida 

COMPUTECH 
1415 Timberlane Road 
Tallahassee, Fl_ 32312 
(904) 893-1743 
Manager-Owner: Dan Evans 

Commander March/April 1983/67 



Dealers, continued 



Random Access Computers 
296 Eglin Parkway 
Ft. Walton Beach, FL 32548 
(904) 862-7763 
Manager-Owner: Joanne Dodd 

Florida Book Store 
1614 West University Avenue 
Gainesville, FL 32604 
(904) 376-6066 

Skippers Inc. 

217 SE 1st Avenue 

Ocalm, FL 32671 

(904) 732-3221 

Manager-Owner: David Lee Skipper 

Osceola Computer 

1300 Dakota Avenue 

Street Cloud, FL 32769 

(305) 892-1501 

Manager-Owner: Raymond Barrieau 

Sigma Systems of Orlando 
590 North Semoran Blvd. 
Orlando, FL 32807 
(305) 273-2434 
Manager-Owner: Tom Clance 

Computer Specialties, Inc. 
701 East Lincoln Avenue, 
PO Box 1718 
Melbourne, FL 32901 
(305) 725-6574 
Manager-Owner: Otis P. Lutz 

Micro Byte, Inc 
13710 SW 56 Street 
Miami, FL 33175 
(305) 385-2108 

Manager-Owner: Ed Silverman and 
Lyman Conover 

Focus Scientific 
224 North Federal Highway 
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301 
(305) 462-1010 
Manager-Owner: M. Rienhardt 

The Software Connection 

5460 North State Road 7, Suite 108 

Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33319 

Business Machines 

2821 Pinewood Avenue 

West Palm Beach, FL 33407 

(305) 655-4730 

Manager-Owner: Robert Frazier, Jr. 

The Software and Computer Store 
1506 Gulf-to-Bay 

68/Commander March/April 1983 



Clearwater, FL 33515 
(813) 442-8803 
Manager-Owner: Charles Kautz 

Alabama 

Tricelin Corporation 
Route 1 , Box 1 28 
Bankston, AL 35542 
(205) 689-4999 

Tennesee 

American Computer Co. 
1004-8th Avenue South 
Nashville, TN 37203 
Manager-Owner: Jane Maggard 

Metro Computer Ctr. 

416 West Main Street 

Chattanooga, TN 37402 

(615) 875-6676 

Manager-Owner: Wayne F. Wilson 

Mississippi 

Sunrise Persons Supplies 
901 South John Street 
Corinth, MS 38834 
(601) 287-4721 
Manager-Owner: Felex Gathings 

Kentucky 

All Business Computers 
Suite C-2317 Versailles Road 
Lexington, KY 40504 
(606) 253-2545 
Manager-Owner: Bud Wilson 

Stowehuewge Computer, Inc. 
2026-29th Street 
Ashland, KY 41101 
(606) 359-0545 

Ohio 

Earthrise Micro Systems, Inc. 
562 West Central Avenue 
Delawar, Ohio 
(614) 363-1100 
Manager-Owner: John Kessler 

Office Mart, Inc. 
1151 East Main Street 
Lancaster, OH 43130 
(614)687-1707 
Manager-Owner: Pat Blake 

The Computer Store of Toledo, Inc. 

18 Hillwyck Drive 

Toledo, OH 43615 

(419) 535-1541 

Manager-Owner: Al and Jackie Miller 



Computer Corner Inc. 
5104 Mayfield Road 
Lyndhurst, OH 44124 
(216) 423-5010 
Manager-Owner: Ross Black 

Computer Showcase 

5855 Youngston-Warren Road SE 

Niles, OH 44446 

(216) 652-2571 

Waltz Photo 
438 Sixth Street 
Canton, OH 44701 
(216) 455-9421 
Manager-Owner: Brad Zupp 

Wards Computers, Inc. 
868 Ohio Pike 
Cincinnati, OH 45245 
(513) 752-2882 
Manager-Owner: Carl Ward 

Computer Plus 
1501 Cyoliet Street 
Dyer, IN 46311 
Manager-Owner: Nancy L. Grey 

Computer People 
900 Highway 212 
Michigan City, IN 46360 
(219) 879-8557 
Manager-Owner: Harry Hopkins 

Computer Corner 
6722 East State Blvd. 
Fort Wayne, IN 46815 
(219) 749-8338 
Manager-Owner: Tom Kutina 

Custom Software 
3197 South 3rd Place 
Terre Haute, IN 47802 
(812) 234-3242 
Manager-Owner: Vicki McEntaffer 

Indiana 

Allan's Jewelry & Loan Co. 
130 East 10th Street 
Anderson, IN 46016 
(317) 642-7978 
Manager: Jerry Rubenstein 

McCarels Computers 
1204 Meridian Plaza 
Anderson, IN 46016 
(317) 643-2662 

AVC Corporation 
2702 Applegate 
Indianapolis, IN 46203 
Manager-Owner: Brent Enderle 



Impair 
342 Bosart 

Indianapolis, IN 46201 
(317) 353-9947 
Manager-Owner: Fred Imhausen 

A Computer Store 

2140 North Mithoefor Road 

Indianpolis, IN 46229 

(317) 898-0331 

Manager-Owner: Skip Robbins 

Michigan 

Micro Station Inc. 

24484 West 10 Mile Road 

Southfield, Ml 48034 

(313) 358-5820 

Manager-Owner: Jerry Goldberg 

Comm Data 
320 Summit 
Milford, Ml 48042 
(313) 685-0113 

Roseville Computer 
25929 Gratiot 
Roseville, Ml 48066 
(313) 772-0760 
Manager-Owner: Tom Potter 

Allen Park Computer Center 
7000 Roosevelt, Suite 109 
Allen Park, Ml 48101 
(313) 383-8254 
Manager-Owner: Sam Noble 

Haney's Stereo, Inc. 
15270 Gratiot 
Detroit, Ml 48205 
(515) 752-8845 
Manager-Owner: Paul M. Paul 

Computer Mart 

915 South Dort Highway 

Flint, Ml 48503 

(313) 234-0161 

Manager-Owner: Pat McCollem 

Computer Connection 
444 West Maumer Street 
Adrian, Ml 49221 
(517) 265-7872 
Manager-Owner: Ron Gamling 

Newman A/V Communications, Inc. 
400-32nd Street SE 
Grand Rapids, Ml 49508 
(616) 243-3300 

Computers and More 

2915 Dretom 

Grand Rapids, Ml 49508 



Newman AN Communication 
400-82nd Street SE 
Grand Rapids, Ml 49508 
Manager-Owner: Nancey M. Isler 

Computer Tutor 

502 East Front 

Traverse City, Ml 49684 

(616) 941-5320 

Manager-Owner: Caroline Garrick 

Iowa 

Micro Computer Applications 
1 1 1 East Church Street 
Marshalltown, IA 50158 
(515) 752-8845 
Manager-Owner: Harold Montover 

Gronert Computers, Ltd 
4505 Forest Avenue 
Des Moines, IA 50311 
(515) 255-0618 
Manager-Owner: Frank Gronert 

Cosmos Computers 
1721 Grant Street 
Bettendort, Iowa 52722 
(319)355-2641 
Manager-Owner: Paul Rung 

Wisconsin 

Majic Business Systems 

3519 West Wanda Avenue 

Milw, Wl 53221 

(414) 282-8072 

Manager-Owner: Dennis Woitekaitis 

Computerland of Madison 
6625 Odana Road 
Madison, Wl 53719 
(608) 833-8900 
Manager-Owner: James Sullivan 

South Dakota 

Computerland Rapid City 
738 Street John Street 
Rapid City, SD 57701 
(605) 348-5384 
Manager-Owner: John Mattson 

Illinois 

The Software Store, Inc. 
1767 Glenview Road 
Glenview, IL 60025 
(312)724-7730 

Manager-Owner: David Pokritis and 
Jeff Rayer 



Digital World 

711 Army Trail Road 

Addison, IL 60101 

(312) 628-9222 

Manager-Owner: Sam Gunda 

B-A Computer Sys. 

2 North Batavia Avenue 

Batavia, IL 60510 

(312) 879-2350 

Manager-Owner: Robert Appel 

Softwareland, Inc. 
420 West 75th Street 
Downers Grove, IL 60516 
(312) 852-6340 
Manger-Owner: Maureen Quinn 

Rozel Industries, Inc. 
7360 North Lincoln Avenue 
Lincolnwood, IL 60646 
(312) 675-8960 

Manager-Owner: Fred Whitlock and 
Becky Kowalsky 

Fisher Scientific 

4901 West Lemoyne Avenue 

Chicago, IL 60651 

(312) 378-7770 

Manager-Owner: A.C. Heidrich 

Kappel's Computer Store 
125 East Main 
Belleville, IL 62220 
(618) 277-2354 
Manager-Owner: Tom Kappel 

Data Plus, Inc. 
1706 Broadway 
Quincy, IL 62301 
(217) 222-65602 
Manager-Owner: James Moore 

Missouri 

Micro Age Computer 
11413 Olive Blvd. 
Street Louis, MO 63141 
(314) 567-7644 
Manager-Owner: Norm Fisher 

Common Wealth Computers 
5214 Blue Ridge Blvd. 
Kansas City, MO 64133 
(816) 356-6502 
Manager-Owner: Dick York 

Kansas 

Compusense 
1001 South Washington 
Witchata, KS 67211 
Manager-Owner: J. Kendrick 

Commander March/April 1983/69 



Dealers, continued 



Computer Business Machines 
Officenter 357 South Lulu 
Wichita, KS 67211 
(316) 267-1150 
Manager-Owner: Mrs. R. Santoscoy 

Nebraska 

Hobby Town 

220 North 66th Street 

Lincoln, NE 68505 

Central Office Equipment 
2020 Central Avenue 
Kearey, NE 68847 
(308) 234-2515 
Manager-Owner: Byron Hanse 

Louisiana 

The Computer Center 
1 1 1 C Rena Drive 
Lafayette, LA 70503 
(318) 988-2478 
Manager-Owner: Robert Jones 

Texas 

Taylor Computer Systems 
949 Melbourne Road 
Hurst, Texas 76503 
(817) 284-5251 
Manager-Owner: Mike Taylor 

Computer Home 
431 East Avenue C 
San Angelo, TX 76903 
(915)653-7488 
Manager-Owner: Brent DeMoville 

Texas Technical Services 
3115 West Loop South, #26 
Houston, TX 77027 
(713) 965-9977 
Manager-Owner: Phil Ray 

U.S. 

420 Plantation Drive 

Lake Jackson, TX 77566 

Manager-Owner: I.K. Kelly, Jr. 

The Computer Experience 

125 Southbridge 

San Antonio, Texas 78217 

(512)340-2901 

Manger-Owner: Carolyn Roberts 

Valley Computer Systems, Inc. 
1101 North Cage, Suite A1 
Pharr, TX 78577 

Software-N-Things 
2141 West Anderson Lane 
Austin, TX 78757 
70/Commander March/April 1983 



(512) 451-4347 
Manager-Owner: John Krieg 

Professional Computer Associates 
5326 Cameron 
Austin, TX 78723 
(512) 459-1220 
Manager-Owner: Steve Derosa 

Computerland of Amarillo 

2300 Bell Street 

Amarillo, TX 79106 

(806) 353-7482 

Manager-Owner: Mark Trowbridge 

Colorado 

Whole Life Distributors 
965 Washington Street #6 
Denver, CO 80203 
(303) 861-2825 
Manager-Owner: Tom Tarbart 

Zero Page, Inc. 

2380 Naegele Road 

Colorado Springs, CO 80904 

(303) 633-0211 

Manager-Owner: David C. Cooper 

Idaho 

Electronic Specialties, Inc. 
8411 Fairview Avenue 
Boise, ID 83704 
(208) 376-5040 
Manager-Owner: Terry Romero 

Wyoming 

Computer Concepts 

3125 East Grand Avenue Street 

Laramie, WY 82070 

Utah 

Computer Plus 
1078 East Ft. Union Blvd. 
Midvale, UT 84047 
(801) 566-3902 

Manager-Owner: Steve Whitzelor 
and Allen Vincent 

Mnemonics Memory Systems 
(DBA Mnemonics Computer Store) 
141 East 200 South 
Salt Lake City, UT 84111 
(801) 266-7883 
Manager: Rick Giolas 

The Hi-Fi Shop 

2236 Washington Blvd. 

Ogden, Utah 84401 

(801) 621-5244 

Manager-Owner: Brent Richardson 



Central Utah Electronics Supply 
735 South State 
Provo, UT 84601 
Manager-Owner: George S. Moore 

Arizona 

Personal Computer Place 
1 840 West Southern Avenue 
Mesa, AZ 85202 
(602) 833-8949 
Manager-Owner: Roger Smith 

Computer Super Store 
4001 E. Thomas Road 
Phoenix, AZ 85018 
Manager-Owner: Richard Sarhan 

Computer Depot 

1201 Iron Springs Road 

Prescot, AZ 86301 

(602) 778-7473 

Manager-Owner: Brice Eldridge 

New Mexico 

Computer Super Store 
1660 Eubank NE 
Alberqurque, NM 87112 

Nevada 

PCS Computer 
3900 West Charleston, Ste R 
Las Vegas, NV 89102 
(702) 870-4138 
Manager-Owner: Mickey Cole 

Harry's Business Machines, Inc. 
323 West Street 
Reno, NV 89501 
(702) 322-4559 
Manager-Owner: Gordon Foote 

California 

Opamp Tech Books 
1033 North Sycamore 
Los Angeles, CA 90038 
(213) 464-4322 
Manager-Owner: Alicion 

Data Equipment Supply Corp. 

8315 Firestone Blvd. 

Downey, CA 90241 

(213) 923-9361 

Manager: Robert Johnson 

Computer Place 
23914 Crenshaw Blvd. 
Torrance, CA 90505 
(213) 325-4754 
Manager-Owner: Wen T. Huang 



Fyrst Byte 

10053 Whittwood Drive 

Whittier, CA 90603 

(213) 947-9411 

Manager-Owner: Darrell Miller 

Game Room 
5675 Kanan Room 
Agora, CA 91301 
(213) 707-0142 
Manager-Owner: Jean Collier 

General Computer Store 
22323 Sherman Way Unit #7 
Canogca Park, CA 91303 
(213) 704-6600 
Manager-Owner: Anita Broadway 

HW Electronics 
19511 Business Center Drive 
North Ridge, CA 91324 
(213) 886-9200 
Manager-Owner: Ronda 

Levity Distributers 

6857V2 Ben Avenue 

North Hollywood, CA 91605 

(213) 982-2514 

Manager-Owner: Melinda Plesha 

Data Systems West 

421 West Las Tunas Drive 

San Gabriel, CA 91776 

(213) 289-3791 

Owner: Frank J. Mogavero 

Consumer Computers 
8314 Parkway Drive 
La Mesa, CA 92041 
(714)465-8888 
Manager: Steve Scott 

Calco Digital Equpiment Inc. 

1919 Aple Street 

Oceanside, CA 92054 

(714)433-4119 

Vice President: Ronald N. Paperno 

20-64 Software Center 
9829 Mira-Mesa Blvd. 
San Diego, CA 92131 
(619) 695-0214 
Manager-Owner: Larry Skaggs 

Inland Electro Mart 
8624 California Avenue 
Riverside, CA 92504 
(714) 687-3776 
Manager-Owner: Jack 

Quality Computer Center 

801 South Victoria Street, #104 



Ventura, CA 93003 
(805) 642-1979 
Manager-Owner: David Stewart 

Jay-Kern Electronics 
1135 Columbus 
Bakersfield, CA 93305 
871-5800 
Manager-Owner: Don Taylor 

Micro Pacific Computer Center 
5148 North Palm 
Fresno, CA 93704 
(209) 229-0101 
Manager-Owner: Mike Reinhold 

J. Snell & Co., Inc. 

657 Mission Street 

San Francisco, CA 94105 

(415) 421-5898 

Manager-Owner: James Snell 

PC Computers 

10166 San Pablo Avenue 

El Cerrito, CA 94503 

(415) 527-6044 

Manager-Owner: Gary Guttebo 

Computer Ideas, Inc. 
1029 Tennessee Street 
Vallejo, CA 94590 
(707) 552-5076 
Manager-Owner: J. Gavin 

Fox Computer Co. 
2678 North Main Street 
Walnut Creek, CA 94596 
(415)944-9277 
Manager-Owner: Stan Nielson 

Albany Typewriter & Computer 
923 San Pablo Avenue 
Albany, CA 94706 
(415) 526-1959 
Manager-Owner: Bill Tichy 

Idea Computers 

301 North Santa Cruz Avenue 

Los Cratos, CA 95030 

(408)354-1210 

Manager-Owner: Tom Wolf 

The Computer Room 
230 Mt. Herman Road 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
(408) 438-5001 
Manager-Owner: Gary Guttebo 

The Computer Center Stores 
930 Town & Country Village 
San Jose, CA 95128 
(408) 246-5710 



Manager-Owner: R. Reid, 
J. Barlow, N. Kinney 

Inland Electro Mart 
8624 California Drive 
Riverside, CA 95204 
(714) 687-3776 
Manager-Owner: Jack 

Educational Connection 
1508 Coffee Road 
Modesto, CA 95355 
(209) 576-1611 

Software Plus 

6201 "C" Greenback Lane 

Citnes Heights, CA 95610 

(916) 726-4979 

Manager Owner: Carolyn Webster 

The Radio Place 
2964 Freeport Bl. 
Sacramento, CA 05818 
(916) 441-7388 
Manager-Owner: Gary Stilwell 

Ray Morgan Co. 
554 Rio Lindo Avenue 
Chico, CA 95926 
(916) 343-6065 
Manager: Dave Wegner 

Computer Place 
1698 Market Street 
Redding, CA 96001 
(916) 221-1312 
Manager-Owner: John Fredricks 

Radio Mart 
1075 Cypress 
Redding, CA 96001 
(916) 241-3000 
Manager-Owner: John Cokeley 

Oregon 

SW Computers 
1125 NE 82nd 
Portland, OR 97220 
Manager-Owner: Jerry 

Edu-Tech 

1575 NW 9th 

Corvallis, OR 97330 

(503) 758-5577 

Manager-Owner: L. Clark/W. Brown 

Ace-Tec 

Highway 101 South Sypress Center 

Bandon, OR 97411 

(503) 347-9322 

Manager-Owner: Ace Egnew 

Commander March/April 1983/71 



Dealers, continued 



Washington 

Compu-Play 

1320 South 324th, Suite A-3 
Federal Way, WA 98003 
(206) 839-4453 
Manager-Owner: Kevin Mitchell 

Electronic Supermart 
7040 South 180th Street 
Kent, WA 98032 
(206) 251-8484 
Manager-Owner: Richard Thorp 

Programs Plus 

16874 Southcenter Parkway 

Seattle, WA 98188 

(206) 575-1375 

Manager-Owner: Nick Smith 

Conti Electronics Ltd. 

c/o Afcon 

140-1 4th 

Blaine, WA 98230 

Manager-Owner: G.W. Harder 

Computer Corner 
1610 North Laventure 
Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 
(206) 428-1840 
Manager-Owner: Kirk D. Shroyer 

Computer + 

2504 Jefferson Avenue 

Tacoma, WA 98402 

(206) 272-2329 

Manager-Owner: David Dodd 

Computer Town 
1215 Center 
Tacoma, WA 98409 
(206) 272-2271 

Nibles & Bytes 

4020 South Steel Street, Suite 105 

Tacoma, WA 98409 

(206) 475-5938 

Manager-Owner: John Clark 

The Electronics Shop 
131 North Decator 
Olympia, WA 98502 
(206) 357-6304 
Manager-Owner: Frank and 
Tim Linaham 

Bits, Bytes and Nibbles, Inc. 
209 Northtown Shopping Center 
Spokane, WA 99207 
(509)487-1601 
Manager-Owner: Richard Shulman 

72/Commander March/April 1983 



Alaska 

BG Systems Co. 
204 East International 
Anchorage, AK 99502 
(907) 276-2986 
Manager-Owner: Robert DeLoach 

Micro Age Computer Store 
2440 Seward Highway 
Anchorage, AK 99503 
(907) 279-6688 
Manager-Owner: Jay Wisthoff 

CANADA 

British Columbia 

Book Shoppe 
33-1 0th Avenue South 
Cranbrook, BC V1C 2M9 
(604) 426-3415 
Manager-Owner: Tommy Wheeler 

Dynamic Computer Systems 
6-1960 Springfield Road 
Kelowna, BC V1Y 5V7 
(604) 860-7795 
Manager-Owner: Wayne Henrickson 

Sight & Sound Computer Center 
657 Central 

Prince George, BC V2M 1C6 
(604) 562-0356 
Manager-Owner: Jim Condon 

Quebec 

Systems Ormic Ltd. 
909 DeBourgone 
Ste-Foy, Quebec G1W 4S6 
(418) 659-3858 

Systems Ormic Ltd. 

999 De Bouragogue 

Sinte Foy, Quebec G1W 4S6 

Manager-Owner: Yvon Labbee 

Ontario 

Questar International, Inc. 
7270 Woodbine Avenue 
Markam, Ontario L3R 4B9 
(416) 475-8044 

Electronics 2001 
5529 Yonge Street 
Willowdale, Ontario M2N 5C3 
(416) 223-8400 

Lichtman's News Agency 
34 Adelaide Street West 
Toronto, Ontario M5H 1P6 

Alberta 

Soft Option 

Box 112, Station T 



Calgary, Alberta T2H 2G7 
Manager-Owner: David Evans 

Computer World 

4921 -49th Street 

Red Deer, Atlanta T4N 1V2 

(403) 347-4280 

Manager-Owner: David Todd 

Saskatchawan 

Micro Shack, Ltd. 

333 Park Street 

Regina, Saskatchawan S4P 5B2 

(306) 543-4079 

Manager-Owner: Dave Claypool 

Computer Time 

240-22 Street East 

Saskatoon, Saskatchawan S7K 0E8 

(306) 664-3456 

Manager-Owner: Paul and Russ 

Micro Shack, Ltd. 
607-45th Street West 
Saskatoon, Saskatchawan S7L 5W5 
(306) 244-6909 
Manager-Owner: Ray Real 

Nova Scotia 

Atlantic News 
5560 Morris Street West 
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1C2 
(902) 429-5468 
Manager-Owner: Pat Doherty 

Prince Edward Island 

Jeta Systems 

33 Belmont Street 

Box 2857 

Charlottetown, PEI C1A 8C4 

(902) 566-1059 



PaperClip Word Processor 

Continued from page 58 

As stated at the outset, this is a real 
winner. The price of word processing 
has become incredibly reasonable. Its 
usablity on any Basic 4.0 PET/CBM 
may potentially save you a bundle if 
you suddenly upgrade to a newer 
machine, or an 80-column one. 

My thanks to Alan Krofchick for pro- 
viding me with a review copy of the 
program. (Version 2.83 is the one I us- 
ed). Batteries Included plan to provide 
continuing support to customers, and 
encourages users to submit printer 
files for any other printers they use, so 
that they can include them on the 
disks. □ 





SfiOvfW 




Simplify your printer set-up with 

SMART ASCII $59.95 

At last! A simple, convenient, low-cost printer interface. 
It's ASCII: connects the VIC or '64 to your favorite parallel 
printer (Epson, Microline, Smith-Corona TP-1, etc.). 
It's SMART: translates unprintable cursor commands and 
control characters for more readable LISTings. 
Converts user port into parallel port with Centronics protocol, ad- 
dressable as Device 4 or 5. Three print modes: CBM ASCII (all 
CAPS for LISTing); true ASCII (UPPER/lower case for text); and 
TRANSLATE (prints (CLRL (RED), (RVS). etc.). For any size 
VIC or the *64. Complete with printer cable and instructions. 



UN-WORD PROCESSOR 2... $19.95 

The improved UN- WORD retains the practicality and 
economy of the original. Easy-to-use text entry and screen 
editing. Use with any size VIC (5K to 32K). Supports VIC 
printers, RS-232 printers, and now parallel printers* , too. 
Handy user Menu selects: single- or double-space, form 
feed, print width, number of copies. Supports printer control 
codes. With complete documentation. 

"Parallel printers require an interface. See SMART ASCII. 

BANNER/ HEADLINER $14.95 

Make GIANT banners on your printer. Prints large characters across 
the page or sideways down the paper roll. . .how about a 10-ft. 
long "Welcome Home!". VIC or RS-232 printers. 

VlC-20 is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines 



VIC-PICs. .IMPROVED! . .$19.95 

Now with hi-rez draw routine for your joystick PLUS hi- 
rez dump to VIC printer. Features 19 fascinating hi-rez 
digitized pictures. Capture your creativity, or ours, on 
paper. Amazing fun! 

GRAFIX DESIGNER $14.95 

Design your own graphic characters! Recall, erase, edit, copy, 
rotate . . . save to tape or disk for use in your own programs. Simple 
to use. Includes examples and demo routines. 

GRAFIX MENAGERIE $14.95 

Three-program set shows off VIC graphics potential for art, science, 
music, business- . .learn by seeing and doing. Contains BASIC 
plotting routines you may extract and use. 

TERMINAL-40 $29.95 

Join the world of telecommunications in style: 
40 -character lines and smooth scrolling text for easy 

reading! All software — no expensive hardware to buy. 4K 
(or larger) Receive Buffer with optional dump to VIC 
printer. Function key access to frequently-used modes. Fully 
programmable Baud, Duplex, Parity, Wordsize, Stopbit, and 
Linefeed; supports control characters. Requires VlC-20, 8K {or 
larger) memory expansion and suitable modem. With 24 p. manual 
and Bulletin Board directory. 



ORDER DESK 

Open 9 am - 4 pm 

(816) 254-9600 

VISA/Mastercard add 3% 
COD. add $3.50 



PO BOX 6148, KANSAS CITY, MO 64110 



MAIL ORDER: Add $1.25 shipping 

and handling. Send money order for fastest 
delivery. VISA/Mastercard send *and exp. 
date (3% added). Missouri residents include 
4.6% sales tax. Foreign orders payable U.S.$, 
U.S. Bank ONLY; add $5 shipping/ handling. 

All programs on 

high quality digital 

cassette tape. 

Write for free brochure. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



MIDWEST 

MICRO associates 



MXCM9 SOFTWARE FOR THE NEW 

^COMMODORE 6A- 

'64 TERMINAL ($29.95).Same impressive features as 
TERMINAL-40: smooth-scrolling, 40-character lines. VIC 
printer dump, etc. GIANT 24K Receive Buffer. No memory 
expansion required; requires '64 and modem. 

'64 GRAFIX SAMPLER ($19.95). Indulge in the 
graphics splendor of the '64. Interact with demos of techniques 
such as plotting of points, lines and 3-D objects; drawing in 
the hi-rez mode (joystick control); animating sprites; plus 
assorted graphics displays. Routines may be extracted for use in 
your own programs. 

'64 PANORAMA ($19.95). Explore picture graphics 
on the amazing '64! Nineteen fascinating digitized pictures PLUS 
hi-rez draw routine for your joystick AND hi-rez dump to 
VIC printer. Capture our pics or your creativity on paper. 

64 BANNER /HEADLINER ($19.95). Make 

GIANT banners and posters with your '64 and printer. Sup- 
ports VIC printers, RS-232 printers (requires interface), and 
parallel printers (requires Smart Ascii). 



H'luflliDPU SEI\l5Ei:i« 

CARDBOARD 3 

An Economy Expansion Interface 

(Motherboard) 

For the VIC-20® Personal 

Computer 

The CARDBOARD/3" is an expansion inter- 
face designed to allow the user lo access more 
than one of the plug-in-type memory or utility 
cartridges now available It will accept up to 3 
RAM or ROM cartridges at once. For example 

• 16k RAM * 16k RAM ♦ 3k RAM 

• 16k RAM * 8k RAM * Super Expander 

• 16k RAM - 8k RAM * Vic-Mon 

• 16k RAM * 3k RAM * Programmer's Aid 

• High quality T R.W. gold plated connectors 

• This board is fused 

• 90 day free replacement warranty covering 
everything except the fuse 

$39.95 
CARDBOARD 6 

An Expansion Interface for VIC-20® 

• Allows memory expansion up to 40K 

• Accepts up to six games 

• Includes a system reset button 

• All slots are switch selectable 

• Daisy chain several units for even more 
versatility $3795 

TO ORDER 
P. O BOX 18765 
WICHITA, KS 67218 
(316) 263-1095 



Personal checks accepted P"*^ 

{Allow 3 weeks) or l^==*= 

COD (Add $2) 
Handling charge $2.00 

VlC-20* is a registered trademark of Commodore 



PUT SOME MUSCLE 
IN YOUR 

VIC 20 

16K RAM 
EXPANSION 

$69.90 

8K RAM 
EXPANSION 

$47.70 

•DIRECT FROM 
MANUFACTURER 

•HIGHEST QUALITY 

•LOW PRICE 

•90 DAY WARRANTY 

HHCENTURV 
■micro 

7881 La Riviera Dr. Suite 131 
Sacramento, CA 95826 

Add $2 tor shipping & handling 

(California Residents add 6% sales ta 

DEALER INQUIRES WELCOME 




New Hampshire 

TBH VIC-NIC CLUB 
PO Box 981 
Salem, NH 03079 
Contact— J. Newman 
Publication-VIC-NIC NEWS 
Interests— VIC-20 Exclusively 

New York 

National VIC Association 
9 Crabapple Lane 
Nanuet, NY 10954 
Contact— Michael Kleinert 
(914)623-8929 

Kentucky 

The Commodore Connection 
1010 South Elm 
Henderson, KY 42420 
Contact— Jim Kemp (502) 827-8153 
Interests-VIC, CMB 64, PET 

Ohio 

Central Ohio PET User's Group 
107 South Westmoor Avenue 
Columbus, OH 43204 
Contact— Philip H. Lynch 
(614) 274-0304 

Interests— Support of all Commodore 
Products 

SW OHIO VIC USERS CLUB 
659 Carthage Avenue 
Cincinnati, OH 45215 
Contact— Tom E. Harris 761-7510 

Indiana 

The VIC Indy Club 
PO Box 11543 
Indianapolis, IN 46201 
Contact— Linda Kropzer 
(317) 878-3342 

Michigan 

Michigan's Commodore-64 Users Club 
14342 Stephens 
Warren, Ml 48089 

Contact— Doug Schwartz (313)776-5835 
Chuck Ciesliga (313)773-6302 
Newsletter— Sprite 64 (published 



monthly) 
Interests— All uses of the Commodore 
64 Computer 

South Dakota 

VIC/64 USERS CLUB 
203 East Sioux Avenue 
Pierre, SD 57501 
Contact— Larry J. Lundeen 
(605) 224-4863 

Illinois 

The Fox Valley PET User's Club 
833 Willow Street 
Lake in the Hills, IL 60102 
Contact— Art Dekneef (312) 658-7321 

Chicagoland C-64 Users Club 
190 Oakwood Drive 
Woodale, I L 60191 
Contact— Russ Hurlbut 
(312) 860-2015 

Texas 

Commodore (Houston) Users Group 
8738 Wildforest 
Houston, TX 77088 

Washington 

A.T.S. VIC-20 Computer Club 
7906-34th Avenue SW 
Seattle, WA 98126 
Contact— Ken Gazaway 
(206) 935-2697 
Publication— For VIC-20 only 

Central Washington Commodore 

Users Club 
1222 South 1st Street 
Yakima, WA 98902 
Contact— Bob Wood or Tim McElroy 



74/Commander March 1983 



Advertising Index 



Aardvark 36 

Academy Software 2 

Cascade Computerware 35 

Century Micro 76 

CGRS Micro Tech 27 

Comm Data Software 1 

Compu-sense 32, 51 , 52, 64, 76 

Computer Marketing 11 

Computer Mat 20 

Data Equipment 28 

Eastern House 35 

Electric Company 47 

Electronic Specialties, Inc 32 

French Silk 24 

Intelligent Software 33 

Leading Edge Back Cover 

Liberty Computer Distributers 5 

Luna Software 76 

Midwest Micro 74 

Micro-Ed 13 

Micrograms 33 

Micro Spec 64 

Nibbles & Bits, Inc 39 

Optimized Data Systems 63 

Precision Technology 64 

Protecto 3 

Saura 39 

Skylight 31 

SW Computers 43 

Tamarack Software 19 

Taylormade 35 

Totl Software 58 

Tsasa, Inc 51 

Victory Software Inside Back Cover 

United Microware Industries 47, Inside Front Cover 

Commander March 1983/75 




SOFTWARE 



LUNA SOFTWARE is quickly becoming one of 
the largest manufacturers of software for the 
Commodore 64™ and Vic 20™ . The reason 
behind our growth is that we offer the consumer 
only the best in quality, service and price. 
We have now available for immediate delivery a 
diverse line of software — ranging from 
business programs to arcade style games. 
Call us today and shoot for the stars with LUNA. 



DISKETTES & CASSETTES FOR THE 
CXDMMODORE 64" AND VIC 20" 






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MORE THAN JUST ANOTHER PRETTY FACE. 



Says who? Says ANSI. 

Specifically, subcommittee X3B8 of the American 
National Standards Institute (ANSI) says so. The fact 
is all Elephant™ floppies meet or exceed the specs 
required to meet or exceed all their standards. 

But just who is "subcommittee X3B8" to issue such 
pronouncements? 

They're a group of people representing a large, 
well-balanced cross section of disciplines— from 
academia, government agencies, and the computer 
industry. People from places like IBM, Hewlett-Packard, 
3M, Lawrence Livermore Labs, The U.S. Department 
of Defense, Honeywell and The Association of Com- 
puter Programmers and Analysts. In short, it's a bunch 
of high-caliber nitpickers whose mission, it seems, in 
order to make better disks for consumers, is also to 



make life miserable for everyone in the disk-making 
business. 

How? By gathering together periodically (often, 
one suspects, under the full moon) to concoct more 
and more rules to increase the quality of flexible 
disks. Their most recent rule book runs over 20 single- 
spaced pages— listing, and insisting upon— hundreds 
upon hundreds of standards a disk must meet in 
order to be blessed by ANSI. (And thereby be taken 
seriously by people who take disks seriously.) 

In fact, if you'd like a copy of this formidable docu- 
ment, for free, just let us know and we'll send you 
one. Because once you know what it takes to make 
an Elephant for ANSI . . . 

We think youll want us to make some Elephants 
for you. 



ELEPHANT. HEAVY DUTY DISKS. 

For a free poster-size portrait of our powerful pachyderm, please write us. 

Distributed Exclusively by Leading Edge Products, Inc., 225 Turnpike Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021 

Call: toll-free 1-800-343-6833; or in Massachusetts call collect (617) 828-8150. Telex 951-624.