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Glossary Of 
(Islamic Terms) 



English - Arabic 



By Anwer Mahmoud Zanaty 

Edited By TheVista 



iLOSSMf OF ISLMIIC ragK 

English- Arabic 

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Aimer Mahmoud Zanaty 



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glossary of islamic terms 



A 



'Abasa "He frowned" cw 6, 

. The blind man that is referred to in this surah is Abdullah ibn 
Umm Maktoum. Surah 80 of the Holy Qur'an. 



The Abbasid Caliphs (132-656 A.H./750-1259 A.D.) 

They assumed the Caliphate following the Umayyads. They trace 
their lineage to Al- v Abbas, the Prophet's uncle. After half a century 
of secret arrangements, the Abbasid Revolution began in Khurasan 
under the leadership of Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani, 130 A.H./748 
A.D. During their rule the Muslim empire reached its zenith in all 
aspects of life. Their first Caliph was Abu Al- N Abbas Al-Saffah. He 
was followed by Abu Ja far Al-Mansur who ended the revolutionary 
period, reaffirmed their rule and established Baghdad, the capital, 
which witnessed a scientific, cultural and literary renaissance that 
stretched throughout the Middle Centuries. Unfortunately, the state 
eventually began to decline and suffer from weakness and 
decentralization. Many petty states emerged such as the Tulunids, the 
Ikhshidids and the Fatimids. The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid 
Caliphate and Al-Musta sim, the last caliph, was killed by Hulegu. 



Abbey 

Abbot m* 1 J\ 



5 



Abdication 



s Abdul Muttalib ±& 

'Abdul Muttalib was the nickname of the grandfather of 
Muhammad S. 

Hashim bin Abd Manaf, the great-grandfather of Muhammad 
S was the chief of Makkah and also a caretaker of the Ka'bah. 
Through his trading caravans, he had brought prosperity to 
Makkah. He had made Makkah the trading capital of Arabia. 
During one of his business trips, caravan of Hashim bin Abd 
Manaf stopped at Yathrib (Madinah). There, he married Salma 
bint 'Amr of the local Najjar tribe. A few days after his 
marriage, Hashim bin Abd Manaf continued on his business 
trip. During that journey, he fell sick and died of his illness. 
His fellow travelers buried him in Ghaza. A few months after 
the death of Hashim bin Abd Manaf, his widow Salma gave 
birth to his son. That boy was named 'Amr bin Hashim, but 
everyone called him Shaybah (Old man) because he had a 
bunch of white hair at birth. Back in Makkah, Al Muttalib bin 
Abd Manaf, a younger brother of Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf 
assumed the responsibilities of the offices of the Ka'bah after 
him. By chance, Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf found out that his 
nephew, son of his elder brother Hashim bin Abd Manaf, was 
growing up in Yathrib (Madinah) with his mother and maternal 
uncles. Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf decided to return the 
wealth of Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf to his son Shaybah. 
Al Muttalib bin Abd Manaf traveled to Yathrib (Madinah) to 
bring his nephew back to Makkah. After initial hesitation 
Salma agreed to send her son to Makkah with his uncle Al 
Muttalib bin Abd Manaf. On their way to Makkah, Shaybah 
was riding ahead of Al Muttalib bin Abd Manaf. In those days, 
usually servants rode ahead of their masters. When people of 
Makkah saw Shaybah riding ahead of Al Muttalib, they 
mistook him as a servant of Al Muttalib. That is why they 



6 



called him 'Abdul Muttalib, which means the servant of Al 
Muttalib. This nickname became so popular that his real name 
'Amr bin Hashim or his nickname Shaybah, was completely 
forgotten. With time Abdul Muttalib became the chief of 
Makkah and the caretaker of the Ka'bah. He inherited the 
responsibility to provide drinking water to the pilgrims of the 
Ka'bah. Fetching water all day long from distant wells made 
him very tired. By chance he discovered the long-lost Zamzam 
well. Muhammad S was the son of 'Abdul Muttalib 's youngest 
son 'Abdullah. Muhammad S was born a few months after the 
death of his father. 'Abdul Muttalib loved his grandson 
Muhammad S very much. Abdul Muttalib died when 
Muhammad S was only eight year old. 



Abdullah / 'Abd Allah & Jj* 

After the advent of Islam, 'Abd Allah became one of the 
most popular names. It means slave of Allah. Rules of Arabic 
language grammar allow the two words to be combined 
together. After joining together, words 'Abd and Allah can be 
written as 'Abdullah or 'Abdallah. Arabs worshiped Allah in 
the days of ignorance also, but they took many partners with 
Him. They mistakenly considered Allah as the biggest of their 
many gods. The name 'Abd Allah was in use among Arabs 
before Islam also. Father of Muhammad S was also named 
'Abdullah. He had died a few months before Muhammad S 
was born. 'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib was the name of the 
father of Muhammad S. He was the youngest son of 'Abdul 
Muttalib. 'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib died a few months 
after his marriage with Aminah bint Wahb. Muhammad S was 
born a few months after the death of his father 'Abdullah bin 
'Abdul Muttalib 



Aberrance JX^all 



7 



Ability 
Abjuration 
Abjurer 



Ablution 9-3 — 

At the five daily prayer times prescribed by the Qur'an, 
ablutions are part of the ritual purification which must precede 
participation in contemplation and the act of prostration and 
prayer. . 



Abode u^l jUI 

A . of delusion jjj*^ 1 J* 

A . of joy jjj^ J* 

A . of peace f^>& J* 

A . of perdition J j^l jb 

A . of temptation <^V! 

A . that abideth JjSJl jb 

A . which remaineth 42*11 jb 

Abodes ( the two ) ( SjiVlj Uall ) j'jbll 

Abolish 

Abominable * 



Abrahah Al-Habashi ij&P^ 

Abrahah Al-Habashi : The commander who led a huge army 

supported by elephants in an attempt to destroy the Ka v bah 



Abrogating juJcti 
Absolute JUmII 
Absolvable >s 



8 



Abstinence 



Abstemious 



Abstention 



filial 



A£m Al-Qasim 




It is the Kunya of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace). It is prohibited to have the 
Kunya of the Holy Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace). See Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 205,book 73, Vol.8 Sahih 
Muslim, Kitab-ul Adab. 



Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) &\ j£i 



Also spelled Abi Bakr. He was one of the greatest companions 
of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace. His full name is Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The Holy Prophet, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him as-Siddiq 
because he always believed in him (may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace), without any reservation. He was the first of 
the four rightly guided Khalifaas (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen) 
from 11-13 AH. The other three, may Allah bless them, were 

1. Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with 
him, 

13-23 AH. 

2. Uthman ibn Affan , may Allah be pleased with 
him, 

24-36 AH. 

3. Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, 
36- 40 AH. 



Abu Lahab ^ jjI 



9 



Fiercest enemy of Islam and paternal uncle of the Prophet 
Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Surah 
1 1 1 of the Holy Qur'an. Known as Suratul Masad. 



Abundance 




Accepted 




Accepter 




Accountableness 


4 ll^j > u .all 


Accursed 





An ancient tribe that lived after the Prophet Nooh (Noah), 
peace be on him, in the village of Ahqaf in the Yemen. It was a 
very prosperous tribe, but was rebellious against Allah 
Subhana wa Ta'ala and their Prophet Houd, peace be on him. 
So Allah Ta'ala destroyed it with a fatal westerly windstorm 
(Ad-Dabour). See Holy Qur'an, Houd (ll):50-60. See 
Mursaleen . 



Adam (Peace be on him) <^ ^ 

The first man and a prophet. He was created neither in Paradise 
nor on Earth, but in the realm of Allah's mercy. From there he 
was sent to Jannah (Paradise), from where later he was sent 
down to Earth. He had many offspring, the most famous ones 
are Habil (Abel) and Qaabil (Cain). See Holy Qur'an, Al- 
Baqarah (2): 30-39, Al-Maida (5) 30-34. See Mursaleen . 



Adhan l>1&! 

Islamic way for calling Muslims to prayer. The Adhan that is 
announced today was formulized and formalized in 1 AH. See 
Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 583,book 3, Vol.1 Sahih Muslim, Kitab- 
ul Adab. 



10 



Admonishment 




Administrative 




Adoration 




Adorer 




Adult 




Adulterant 




Adulterer 


cA5« 


Adulteress 




Adulterine 




Adultery 


Ujl! 


Adverse 




Advocate 




Affability 




Affection 




Affidavit 




Affinity 




Affinity 




Afflatus 




Aforetime 





Afwu The Forgiver or Pardoner >^Ji*Jl 

Al-Afuwo": The Forgiver or Pardoner, in the sense of 
obliterating the memory of wrongdoings from one's mind. One 
of the ninety-nine attributes of Allah Ta' ala. See Maghfirah . 

Aged 

Aggression u i j-^ 



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Aggressiveness ajjIj^I 

Agnomen ^_>iii]t <jj£JI 

Agnosticism ^ 

Agony of death jL^VI 



AH After Hijra S^_^lt j*j 



After Hijra. Hijra means emigration. The Islamic calendar 
starts from the day the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, emigrated from Makkah to 
Madinah, in 622 A.D. 



Ahad J—ci 

1. One. 

2. The Incomparable. When referring to Allah 
Subhana wa Ta'la, this means: 

A. that He has no comparable in His Essence or in 
any of His Attributes. 

B. that there is no deity (worthy of worship) but 
Allah. 



Ahadeeth £« J 1-d 

Sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace. Singular: Hadith. 

Ahl al-nass w-al-ta y in O&^b t>i 

People of Divine ordinance and designation 

Ahlar-ra'y people of opinion </L^ J*' 

means people of opinion. It is refers to people that are 
consulted on Islamic matters. These people are highly learned 
in Islam. 



12 



Ahl al-Dimmah ( or Dhimmis ) J* i 

are the non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic state who have been 
subjugated under the Muslims and pay Jizyah tax in order to 
have tolerance of their rights to life, property and practice of 
their religion, etc. 



Ahlal-Kitab 'People of the Book,' <>i 

literally People of the Book,' refers to the followers of Divine 
Revelation before the advent of Mohammad. 



Ahlul Bait ' 'the People of the House ' '. J* i 

Literally means "the People of the House". A polite way of 
addressing the wife and the members of the household. 
Sometimes used to refer to the family of the Prophet 
Muhammad, may the blessing and peace of Allah be on him 
and on his family and on all his companions. The blessings 
here are addressed to the entire household. See Holy Qur' an, 
Houd(ll):73. 



Ahlul Kitab ' 'the People of the Scripture " J* i 

Literally means "the People of the Scripture". It refers to 
Yahoud (Jews), Nasara (Christians) and Saabe-een (Sabians). 
Those who believe in the Trinity and that Jesus is God and/or 
the Son of God are considered as Kuffar (unbelievers), even 
though they are Ahlul Kitab. 

See Maghdoub and Dhaleen . Holy Qur' an, Yusuf Ali, Al- 
Maida (5): 19, 75-76. Holy Qur' an, M. Pickthall, Al-Maida 
(5): 17, 72-73. 



13 



Ahlul Kitab wa sunnah uiM JaI 

Literally means "the People of the Book (the Holy Qur'an) and 
the sayings and traditions, (the Sunnah of Muhammad, may 
Alah bless him and grant him peace)". This refers to the people 
who strive to follow exactly the teachings of the Holy Qur'an 
and Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 
without any deviations. 



Ahmad 

Another name of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant 
him peace. Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him, prophesied his 
coming. See Muhammad , may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace. See Holy Qur' an, As-Saff(61):6. 



Ahqaf(Al) Name of a village in Yemen 

Name of a village in Yemen. Home of the people of Ad. See 
Ad . Surah 46 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Aid 



Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) kSutc- 

Daughter of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with 
him and her) and wife of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace. Call mother of the Faithful ( uml Mumineen ) 



Aimless JUial! 



14 



Ajal time of death J^i 

Appointed time. In Islamic terminology it refers to the 
(appointed) time of death. Allah Ta'ala says in the Holy Qur'an 
that He will not, (and therefore no-one else can), alter the time 
of someone's death. Muslims reject such statements as "the 
doctor saved his life", or "he would have lived longer in..". 
Such statements are made by those who do not believe in Allah 
or do not have the understanding of the necessity to believe in 
Allah, thus exposing themselves to Shirk (associating partners 
with Allah), by believing and saying that the power over life 
and death is within human capability. 

Ala (Al) The Most High a— d*SM 

"The Most High" See Surah 87 of the Holy Qur 'an. 



AL-ADL The Just J-»-fc» 

"The Just". Among the 99 Names of God in Islamic theology. 



Alaihi Salaam Peace be upon him ^LJI 

Peace be upon him. This is said whenever the name of a Malak 
(an angel), a nabi (a prophet) or a rasool (a messenger) of Allah 
is mentioned, except for the name or title of the Holy Prophet 
Muhammad (Sallallahu 'alaihe wa sallam). See Sallallahu 
'alaihe wa sallam . See Mursaleen. 



Al-Andalus qA&S 

Now the Arabic name for Spain. The word was derived from 
"Vandalusie", or the country of the Vandals. The Arabs settled 
in Al-Andalus for seven centuries where they commissioned 
architectural masterpieces making Al-Andalus one of the most 
beautiful architectural regions in the Islamic world. 



15 



Al-Asma al-Husna L£ l^l\ ? Uutft 

Al-Asma «/-Husna, literally meaning the 'most excellent names' 
used of God, express His greatness and paramountcy, holiness, 
purity, and the perfection and absoluteness of all His attributes 



Al-Aus u-jSM 

Al-Aus : A tribe in Medina, later a section of the Ansar 



al-Husayn O^aJI 

The son of Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Fatima, he was assassinated 
in 680 AD in Kerbala and is venerated by the Shiites 

Al- K Uzza dsj— fcM 

Al-^Uzza : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic 
period 

Al-hamudu lillah Praise be to Allah & 

Praise be to Allah. Should be said on all occasions and 
especially after sneezing. Abu Huraira related that the Prophet 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: 
'When any one of you sneezes, then he should say "Al-hamdu 
lillah", and his brother or friend (who listens) should respond 
by saying "Yarhamuka Allah", (Allah have mercy upon you); 



al-hawa. l$j — ^ 

Personal temptations. 



Ali ibn Abi Talib, May Allah be pleased with him 

One of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The last of the four 
rightly guided Khalifs (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen), may Allah 



16 



bless with him, he ruled from 36AH to 40AH. He was 
martyred whilst praying in the Masjid (mosque). See Khalifa. 



Al-Khazraj 

Al-Khazraj : A tribe in Medina, later a section of the Ansar 



ALLAH God M 

The Name of the Creator of the Universe and all that it 
contains. Derives from the word "Ilah" which means "the One 
deserving all worship", the One to Whom all hearts submit in 
love, fear, reverence, desire, trust and sincerity, and to Whom 
all limbs submit in all forms of worship such as prayers, 
supplications, sacrifices, invocations, etc. 

1 - Allah has decreed that His Holy Name is "Allah" and has 

ordained that all His creation call upon Him by the name 
of "Allah". In the original Bible and Taurat (in the 
Hebrew text), the name "Allah" is used. 

2 - In Islam the name "God" is not used for the fear of 

misunderstanding. To the Christians it will give them a 
mental image of a human being (the Prophet Jesus, son 
of Mary, peace be on him), to some Hindus it creates a 
mental picture of an animal (a cow). To the Zoroastrians 
it creates a picture of a fire, Allah, there is none but He, 
King of the Universe, the Creator and Originator of all 
that there is. He has no beginning nor end. He was not 
begotten nor did He beget. He is not like any thing. 

Allah ta'ala Allah the Exalted J^M 



Al-Llat cm 

Al-Lat : An idol worshipped by the Thaqif in the Pre-Islamic 
period 



17 



Allegation 
Allegiance 



Za'ama 



Alliance 



Allies 



Allurement 



Allowed 



Ally 

Almighty 



77*<> Almoravids (448-541 A.H./1056-1146 A.D.) 



77*e Almoravids (448-541 A.H./1056-1146 A.D.) : The 
Almoravids were Berber descendants of the Limtunah, a tribe 
of Sinhajah. They founded an Islamic state in Morocco and 
ruled Andalusia and Tunisia. They were known for their 
covered faces and were called Al-Murabitin for living in 
secluded places for practicing acts of worship. Yusuf bin 
Tashfin was the most famous among their Sultans. He founded 
Marrakesh and made it the capital of his state. He defeated the 
Franks and put an end to the rule of Muluk Al-Tawa'if (the 
Kings of the Petty States). He left to v Ali, his son, a strong and 
vast state, but it was eventually destroyed by Almohads. 



The Almohads (515-667 AH./l 121-1269 A.D.) Oj^j*!! 
The Almohads (515-667 A.H. , '1121-1269 A.D.) : A Shiite state in 
Morocco founded by Al-Mahdi bin Tumart after the fall of the 
Almoravid state. The Almohads ruled Morocco and extended 
their influence over Andalusia. Their state collapsed in 
Andalusia after the Battle of Al- V Aqab, (609 A.H./1212 A.D.) 



Almsgiving zakat SUiijJ! 



18 



Almsgiving (zakat in Arabic) is one of the Five Pillars of 
Islam, almsgiving constitutes one of the main means by which 
Islam strives for an economically just society. It is an 
obligatory "poor tax"— reckoned at somewhere between two 
and ten percent of income and holdings—which can be given 
directly to the poor or to a distribution official. The money is 
used for hospitals, schools, helping indigent debtors and 
freeing slaves, as well as poor support. From the perspective of 
the giver, "zakat" (as it is known in Arabic) purifies the giver 
and the remainder of his "wealth." It is also envisioned as a 
loan to Allah, who will repay it double. 



Almsgiving 




Alter ego 




Ambassador 




Ambigus 




Amen 




Amender 





Amin C&A 

Other Commonly Used Spellings: AAMIN, AAMEEN, 
AMEEN means custodian or guardian. Someone who is loyal 
or faithful. 



Amirul Mumineen Commander of the Faithful 

Commander of the Faithful. Title of the leader of the Islamic 
nation after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace. The first four commanders of 



19 



the faithful of the new Islamic nation were called al-Khulafaa 
al-Rashideen, "the rightly-guided Khulafaas" (see Khalifa . 
They were given this title because they carried out their duties 
perfectly according to the Holy Qur'an and the practices and 
teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace. 



Ammunition ij& 



Amnah bint Wahb ^ 3 ^ ^ 

Aminah bint Wahb was the mother of Muhammad S, the 
Messenger of Allah. She was the daughter of Wahb bin 'Abd 
Manaf bin Zuhrah. Aminah bint Wahb was married to 
'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib, the youngest son of 'Abdul 
Muttalib. Her husband Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib died 
during one of his trading trips and was buried in Yathrib 
(Madinah), where he had stopped for treatment with the 
maternal uncles of his father. He was buried there. Muhammad 
S, the Messenger of Allah, was born a few months after the 
death of his father. When the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad 
S was six year old, his mother Aminah bint Wahb took him to 
the grave of his father 'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib in 
Yathrib (Madinah). Aminah bint Wahb fell sick at Abwa, 
when they were returning from Yathrib (Madinah). She died 
and was buried at Abwa, a township between Makkah and 
Yathrib (Madinah). The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S 
was brought back to his grandfather 'Abdul Muttalib in 
Makkah, by Umm Ayman, a maidservant of his father. 

Amnesty j*- 
Anathematization L^A\ 

Ancestor ( jI^VI t> ) i-iL>l! 
Ancestral L JLA\ 
Anchorite ^ jtt dJill 



20 



Animator 




Animism 




Annalist 




Annals 




Announcement 




Announcer 


jjj-all 


Annunciation 




Ansar J— 


t>aji 


Literally means "helpers". 




The inhabitants of Madinah, the Aus and the Khazraj 


tribes, who embraced Islam and supported the 


Muslim emigrants against the pagan Quraishi and 


other tribes who made war on the Prophet 


Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 


peace. 




Helpers of the Prophet Isa (the Prophet Jesus, son of 


Mary), peace be on him. See Holy Qur'an, As-Saff 


(61): 14. Singular: Ansari. 


Antichrist 




Antique 




Apologue 


Ail jil! 


Apophthegm 


jjSLlI J jail 


Apostacy 




Apostasy Movement 




Apostasy Movement : Some tribes took advantage of the 


turmoil among the Muslims following the Prophet's death and 


declared their apostasy. 




Apostate 





21 



Apostle 
Apostleship 
Apostheosis 
Approver ( the ) 
Approving 
Appurtenance 

aqiqah 

the ceremony of shaving a baby's head and giving it a formal 
name. This ritual is a celebration of the birth of the child, and 
the giving of a name that welcomes it into the Muslim 
community. It usually takes place within seven days of the 
birth. 



Arab genealogy Ansaboul arab shj*^ 

Arab genealogy : Arabs used to pride themselves on their noble 
birth and pure lineage. The Prophet's ancestry can be traced 
back to the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him). 



Arabicization of the Diwans Ca^s^ 

Arabicization of the Diwans : 700 Caliph v Abdul-Malik bin 
Marwan orders the arabicization of the Diwans (state 
ministries), which were following the Persian order (81 A.H.) 



Arafat 

A pilgrimage site, ahout 25km east of Makkah al-Mukaramah. 
Standing on 'Arafat on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and staying there 
from mid-day to sunset is the essence of the Hajj (the 
Pilgrimage). 



A 1 ■*! ^ \ \ 



Arbitrariness 



22 



Arbitrary 




Arbitration 




Arbitrator 




Arch 




Archives 




'Areem 


dam 



May be translated as dams or embankments. The Areme (dam) 
that is referred to in Surah 34:16 is the Maarib Dam whose 
traces still exist in Yemen. 



Argue 




Arguer 




Argumentation 


cM ^ 


Armament 




Armature 


t J^\ 


Arm 




Arrant 




Arrogance 




Arrogant 




Arrow 




Arsenal 




Aruspex 





'Asr (A/) Afternoon j fcj^l 

"Afternoon". The third compulsory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It 
can be prayed at any time between mid-afternoon and a little 
before sunset. Surah 103 of the Holy Qur'an. 
Ascendance SjUmll - 



23 



Ascendancy - Sj^JI 

Ascension f^-^ cs^^ - J j*^ 1 

Ascent ^j^ 1 
Ascents 

Ascertainment (jSa^ll 

Ascetic fc^^Jl - ^O 11 

Asceticism <^«" 



ascetic Batul Jj — ^ 

means ascetic. It is ascribed to Fatimah (the Prophets daughter) 
and the Virgin Mary. 



Ashabul Aika v 1 ^^ 

Dwellers of the wood. Another name for the Midianites. See 
Madyan . See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hijr (15):78, Al-Shu'ara 
(26):176-191. 



Ashab Al-Maimana companions of the Right 41*^1 <_jU*ua! 

Literally means "companions of the Right", the righteous 
people. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah Ta'ala will sort out 
the good and the evil. They will be divided into three groups: 

1. Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are 
nearest to Allah Ta'ala. 

2. Ashab al-Maimana - the righteous people, those 
who are destined to enter Jannah (Paradise). 

3. Ashab al-Mash'ama - literally means "companions 
of the Left"; these people will be the inheritors of 
the Nar (Hellfire). 

For full explanations of: Muqarraboon, see Surah Al-Waqi'ah 
(56): 11-26; Ashab al-Maimana, see Surah 56:27-40. Ashab al- 
Mash 'ama, see Surah Al-Waqi'ah (56):41-56. 



Ashab Al-Mash 'ama Companions of the Left <_jUo^j 



24 



Literally means "Companions of the Left", the evil-doers. 
These people will he the companions of the Nar (Hellfire) on 
the Day of Resurrection. For full explanation: See Ashab al- 
Maimana . See Holy Qur'an, Al-Wa qi'a (56):41-56. 



Ashraful Mursaleen O^j^ 1 uij^i 

The most honoured of all the prophets. One of the titles of the 
Holy Prophet Muhammad , may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace. 



Asharatul mubashshirun (Al) O^f*^ S v >*£*ll 

the ten people that were given the glad tidings of assurance of 
entering Paradise. They were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, 
Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, Talhah 
ibn Ubaydullah, az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Sa'd ibn Abi 
Waqqas, Sa'id ibn Zayd 



Asiya (Oj^j* U«l 

The wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh). She is one of the four greatest 
created females, the other three being: 

1. Mariam (Mary), may Allah be pleased with her, 
the mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on 
him. 

2. Khadija ,may Allah be pleased with her, the first 
wife of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless 
him and grant him peace. 

3. Fatima, may Allah be please with her, the 
daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace. 



Asma wa Sifaat (Tawheed Al) cM*al\j * U^Sn 

Unity of Names and Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. To believe that: 



25 



1. None can qualify or name Allah except as He or 
the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace, named or qualified Him. 

2. None can be named or qualified with the Names 
of the Attributes that belong only to Allah 
Subhana wa Ta'ala. For example, none may be 
called Al-Muhyee" (the Giver of Life) except for 
Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself. 

3. We must believe in all the Ayat and Ahadeeth 
(Sahih) regarding the Attributes of Allah without 
altering their meaning in any way whatsoever. 



Asmaul Husna (Al) <j*^\ f U^V! 

The ninety-nine Beautiful Names (Attributes) of Allah Ta'ala. 
It is haram to add to or delete from the list of Attributes of 
Allah. It is also haram to give such attributes to anyone else. 
For the full list of al-Asmaul Husna, see Asmaul Husna Al- 
asmaul Husna(List). 



Assalamu Alaikum Peace be on you 

"Peace be on you". Greeting of the Muslims. The response to 
this greeting is "Wa Alaikum Assalam wa Rahmatul-lahi wa 
Barakatuh", And on you be the Peace and Mercy of Allah and 
His Blessings. 



Assassins 




Assembler 




Assent 




Assignation 




Associate 




Associates 




Astrologist 




Astrology 


^ \'\\\ Ar. 


Astronomer 




Astronomy 





26 



Atabic TheAtabegs &&H S 

The Atabegs : Atabeg was a Turkish title used by the Seljuks for 
members of the court ministers and leaders. Some of the Atabegs 
managed to take control of the state leading to the emergence of 
the petty states in the 12th century A.D. in Iran and Syria. They 
ruled for a long period of time, most remarkable among them 
were the Atabegs of Azerbaijan and Iran. 



Atheist 

Athheistic ^UWI 
Atone s-"^ CP j^j 

Attack Hujoom ( Onslaught ) fj** 



Attacker 


ff\\ g «\\ 


/\iiiiuue 




Attributes 




Attributes of prefection 




Attributes of majesty 




Attributes of beauty 


J aaJl t " llj I S~\ 


Attributes of essence 




Attributes ( of god ) 




Attrition 




Augur 




Authority 




Autocracy 




Autocrat 




Autonomy 


^WIJ^Lo^l -. 


Avarice 





27 



Avaricous J^M 1 

Avenge J% 

Avenger p&LJI 
Awakener ( the ) 
Award 

Aware ( the ) j^ 1 



Ayah (pi. ayat) <M 

Ayah means a sign (or 'token') which directs one to something 
important. In the Quran the word has been used in four 
different senses: (1) sign or indication; (2) the phenomena of 
the universe (called ayat of God for the reality to which the 
phenomena point is hidden behind the veil of appearances); (3) 
miracles performed by the Prophets; and (4) individual units 
(i.e. verses) of the Book of God. 



Ayoub, Peace be upon him . f^^l <^ vjj! 

Job. A prophet of Islam. He was renowned for his patience, 
hence the idiom "Sabr Ayoub" (the patience of Job), which 
means complete patience and constancy. See Mursaleen . 



'Aziz The Almighty J — eS>J! 

1. "Al-'Aziz". The Almighty. One of the ninety-nine 
attributes of Allah Ta'ala. See Holy Qur'an, Al- 
Hajj' (22):40. See Asmaul Husna LIST????. 

2. Title of Egyptian noblemen during the time of the 
Pharaohs. Zulaikha was the wife of the 'Aziz who 
tried, but failed, to tempt the Prophet Yusuf 
(Joseph), peace be on him, into seduction. See 
Holy Qur' an, Yusuf(12):23 - 24. 



28 



B 

Ba'ath 

In Islamic terminology this means the resurrection of the 
Muslims and the Kuffar (unbelievers). The Ba'ath of the Kuffar 
(unbelievers) and the subsequent stages leading to the Nar 
(Hellfire) is in five stages: 

1. The Kuffar will be raised with all their senses 
being active, i.e. they will be able to feel, see, 
hear, smell and taste. 

2. On their way to the place ofjudgement they will 
still have their senses active. 

3. They will be judged with all their senses intact. 

4. On their way to Nar (Hellfire) they will lose all 
their senses. 

5. When put into the Nar (Hellfire), they will regain 
all their senses so as to feel Allah Ta'ala's wrath. 



Bab Al-Raiyan cMjft 

The name of one of the gates of Heavens (Jannah) through 
which the people who often observe fasting will enter on the 
Day of Judgement. 



Backbiting ^yill 
Backslider <jj-^ - ^ 



Badiyyah desert a-^jUl 
a desert or semi-arid environment. 



29 



Badr — 

Site of the first great battle between the early Muslims and the 
pagans of the Quraish in 2 AH. Badr is located about 150km 
south of al-Madinah al-Munawarah. The Muslim army 
consisted of 313 men and the Quraish had a total of 1,000 
soldiers,archers and horsemen. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Anfal 
(8):5-19,42-48, Aali lmran (3): 13. 



Bad omen s jjUI 

Bail *lli£ll 
Bairam c^-^' 



Baitul Ma 'amur (Al) House of Allah 

House of Allah over the Seventh Heaven where the Malaikah 
(angels) pray. 



Baitul Mai An Islamic treasury JUI1 ^ 

An Islamic treasury intended for the benefit of the Masakeen 
(needy Muslims) and not for the leaders or the wealthy. 

Balance u'j^ 1 
Balance of power ^j^ 1 uj'j 311 

Band 4jL^*il <^L^aJI 



Bani Nadheer A Jewish tribe jj^I <^ 

A Jewish tribe who lived about three miles south of Madinah 
during the time of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant 
him peace. Four months afier their treachery at the time of the 
Battle of Uhud, when they planned to betray the Muslims and 
kill the Messemger of Allah, the Prophet Muhammad, may 



30 



Allah bless him and grant him peace, expelled most of them to 
Syria and the rest to Khaibar. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hashr 
(45):26. 

Bani Quraiadha A Jewish tribe ^jJ* 

A Jewish tribe from Madinah. Along with the Quraish tribe of 
Makkah, they plotted to destroy the Prophet Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace, by attacking the Mu4ims 
from within Madinah at the Battle of the Ditch, but when they 
lost they asked to have their fate judged by Sa'd ibn Mu' az (the 
chief of the Aus 'the Ansar' tribe) because he used to be their 
ally. Sa'd judged them according to their own law, the Taurat 
(Torah), and ordered that every male be killed, all their women 
be sold as captives and all their belongings be divided amongst 
the Muhajirs (Deut. 20:13-14,16). See Holy Qur' an, Al-Ahzab 
(33):26-27. 

Banner ^ - eijtii 

Baqi A cemetery at Madinah 

A cemetery at Madinah. Many of the S ahabiyeen 
(companions)of the Prophet Muhammad are buried there, may 
the blessing and peace of Allah be on him and his family and 
his companions and all who follow him and them. 



The Banning Tahreem (Al) fiP^I 

"The Banning". Surah 66 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Baragaining 

Barbarian c^^ 1 

Barbarians s j^j^I - 
Barbarism 



31 



Barefooted friars 



Barbarous 



Barter 



Baron 



Baroness 



Barrier 




Bartering 



Barzakh 



Literally means partition or barrier. In Islamic terminology it 
usually means the life in the grave, because the life in the wave 
is the interspace between the life on earth and the life in the 
Hereafter. Life in the Barzakh is real, but very different from 
life as we know it. Its exact nature is known only to Allah 
Ta'ala. It is during our life in the Barzakh that we will be asked 
about Allah, our faith and the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace. We will also be shown 
the Jannah and the Nar (Paradise and Hellfire) and which of 
these two places we wifl occupy after we are judged 



"In the Name of Allah". 

1 . This statement is usually made by every Muslim 
who is about to embark on anything that is Halal 
(lawful), however trivial that act or deed may 
seem. 

2. First verse of Suratul Fatiha. 



Base 



Basmalah 



32 



3. To be recited before the beginning of every Surah 
except for Suratul Tautah (Surah 9 of the Holy 
Qur' an). 



Bawdy 



Bayina (Al) The Clear Proof ^ 

"The Clear Proof,'. Surah 98 of the Holy Qur~ an. 



The Beast Dabaah <M J 

1 . The Beast. The beast that will come out of the 
earth and will speak to man. His appearance will 
be one of the major signs of the coming of the 
Last Day. 

2. In general, every living creature that moves on this 
earth. See Holy Qur'an, an-Nami (27):82-83. 



Bedlam cP±* J-*^l 

Behaviour ^ jl^ 

Being free 

Being glorius J^M 

belief 'Aqeeda SjjSc 



Plural : 'Aqaaid. Literally means belief. In Islamic terminology, 
it means articles of faith. There are six articles of faith: 
Belief in Allah. We believe: 
He is the Lord and Creator of all that 
there is. 

He is the True God and all other deities 
are false. 

He is One, and has no associates (sons or 
otherwise). 



33 



He alone has the knowledge of the 

Unseen and of the Hour. 
In His Names and Attributes . 
He never came down to earth in any shape 

or form. 

He is Everlasting, He did not beget nor 
was He begotten, and He is not like 
anything. 

His Mala'ikah (angels). We believe: 

They are His honoured servants. 

They act only by His command. 

They are made out of light ( Nur ). 

They obey all of Allah's commands. 

All angels are good and incapable of 
wrong doing. (We do not believe in 
the notion of a "fallen angel".) 

They may be seen by some men only by 
Allah's consent. 

His Revealed Books. We believe: 

He has sent down books with every 
messenger. 

The original books of Allah that were 
sent to the Prophets Abraham, Moses, 
David and Jesus no longer exist in 
their original form. We believe only 
in the original Taurat (Torah), Zaboor 
(Psalms) and Ingeel (Gospel). 

The Holy Qur'an that was revealed to the 
Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad, 
may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, is the only perfect book of 
Allah that is free from corruption and 
is a true source of light for all 
mankind. 

His Rusull (Messengers). We believe: 



34 



The Messengers of Allah Ta'ala include 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him 
and grant him peace, Abraham, Noah, 
Jesus, Moses, peace be on them all. 

All messengers are human beings. 

Muhammad's message encompasses and 
abrogates all the messages of all the 
other messengers, since Muhammad, 
may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, is the last Messenger and the 
Holy Qur'an is the Last Message 
from Allah before the end of the 
world. 

Belief in the Day of Judgement. We 
believe: 

In the Final Day, which is the Day of 
Judgement. 

There will be no intercessors except by 
Allah's leave. 

Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace, will be given 
permission to intercede on behalf of 
all those who believed in Allah and 
the Last Day and who submitted their 
will to Him, that is, those who are 
"Muslims" (Muslim = One who 
submits his or her will to Almighty 
Allah). 

Heaven is for the believers and Hell is 

for the rejecters. 
Our book of deeds will be given to us in 

our right or left hand (to the believers 

and unbelievers respectively). 
Belief in Fate and the Divine Decree. 

We believe: 



35 



In fate, whether good or bad, which 
Allah has measured and ordained for 
all His creatures. 

His decree cannot be changed except by 
His leave. 

Allah has granted man the free will to 
choose between good and evil. Thus, 
there is no excuse for wrong action in 
the sight of Allah Ta'ala. 
All that is to happen until the Day of 
Judgement is already written down 
on the Lauh al-Mahfudh. 
O Allah! Let me not die except in Islam, and raise me on the 
Day of Judgement only as a Muslim. Ameen! 



Believer 




Believers 




Benediction 




Benefaction 




Benefactor 




Beneficent 


' Ji» 


Beniganant 




Bequest 




Bestiality 




Bestower 




Bias 




Bier 




Bigotry 





36 



Bilal JV-^ 

The first Mu'adin of Islam a companion of the Prophet 
Muhammad pbuh, a former Abyssinian slave (may Allah be 
pleased with him). 



Bishop 



Bi'thah the beginning of the Prophet's mission 

the beginning of the Prophet's mission, his call to Prophethood 
in 610 C.E.. 

Bitter Agag ( Salty water) (rUi 



Blackguard 

Blackleg 

Blackmail 

Black stone 

Blasphemer 

Blasphemy 

Bleeding 



Blessings Barakah <£jj 



Blood relative Dhawi al-Arhaam f^jVI lsj^ 



Bloody 
Blowing 
Bondsman 
Bondswoman 



37 



Booty 



Bounteous 



Breanch of promise 

Bribery 

Brigade 



Breanch of trust 




Buccaneer 




Bukhari 



Imam Bu kha ri is known so because he was from Bu khar a. He 
was a great scholar of Islam and is known for his great work of 
scientifically authenticating and compiling Ahadith (Sayings of 
Muhammad S). He traveled great distances to find and meet 
the narrators of Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). He 
memorized all the Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) he heard 
from the narrators. He researched the backgrounds of the entire 
chain of narrators of Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). He 
evolved a scientific system of verification of the Ahadith 
(Sayings of Muhammad S). He had memorized more than 
200,000 Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). His scrutiny of 
the Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) was so stringent that 
only approximately 1% of those Ahadith (Sayings of 
Muhammad S) made to his compilation. The compilation of 
Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) by Imam Bu kha ri is 
considered to be the most authentic one and is known as Sahih 
Bu khar i 



Bumpkin ^J^U) 



Buraq 



38 



An animal larger than a donkey and smaller than a horse on 
which the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace, went on the Mi' raj. See Mi'raj . 



Bureau of Taxes £0-6^ 



Buruj (Al) The Zodiacal Signs £x*-t)l 

"The Zodiacal Signs". Surah 85 of the Holy Qur' an. This refers 
to the constellations in the heavens themselves, not to the 
astrologers' 9star signst. 



Burying baby girls alive «sfj 

Burying baby girls alive : One of the customs of Arabs in the 
Pre-Islamic period 



Byzantines uj^ JgM fjj^ 



39 



c 



Cadi 



Cabal 




Caeser 



Cain 



Caliph 



khalifah 



The title of khalifah or 'Caliph' (literally, 'he who follows'or 
'successor') was first assumed by the four immediate successors 
to the Prophet Muhammad as temporal leaders of the emerging 
Muslim community (known as the Orthodox caliphs). The 
rulers of subsequent early Islamic dynasties were also 
considered caliphs, with the 'Abbasid caliphate in Iraq lasting 
until 1258/658 H. At the same time, the Fatimid dynasty in 
Egypt made rival claims to the caliphate from 909 to 1171 
(296-567 H), while in Spain at Cordoba the Umayyad dynasty 
also claimed the caliphate from 775 to 1236 (159-633 H). After 
1258, the caliphs excercised increasingly diminished authority, 
and political power passed to the secular heads of state. See the 
article "Khalifa" by D. Sourdel and others in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 
4, pp. 937-953. 



Caliphate S — JfcUJI 

The rule or institution of the caliph. 



Calumniate 
Calumniator 




Calumny - - 

Campaign <^ 



40 



Campaigner 




Canaan 




Canard 




Candid 




Candidate 




Capacious 




Capacity 


oj^a - AiUa 


Capital 




Captivation 




Captive 




Captivity Babylonian 




Cardinal 




Carrion 




Caste 




Castration 




Casuist 


^1 


Casuistry 




Catapult 




Cataract 




Catastrophy 




Catechism 


Jic jl! 


Catholic 




Catholicism 





The Cattle An 'aam (Al) 

"The Cattle". Surah 6 of the Holy Qur' an. 



41 



Causing <_M 
Cavalcade 

Cavalier l^j^ 1 

Cavalry jluijill 

Cave L_a^£]l 



77*e Ctfve ofHira ' — C J 1 ^ 

The Cave of Hira' : Muhammad (peace be upon him) had a 
calm nature and a natural tendency to meditation . He used to 
seclude himself in the Cave of Hira' to practice self-purification 
and ponder over the creation around him. 



The Cave of Thaur jj— & 

The Cave of Thaur : It is the cave in which the Prophet (peace 
be upon him) and his companion Abu Bakr stopped to take 
shelter from the polytheists during the Hijrah journey from 
Mecca to Medina. 



Certainly 






Chamberlain 






Chambermaid 


2 a \. 




Champion 






Chancel 






Charitable 




- jA^a 


Charity 


^ - , 




Charlatan 


JM> - 


j J,T-Ul.rt]l 


Chary 


^jja kill 




Chaste 


i a tac-. 




Chastity 


4±xl\ - 




Chauvinism 






Chauvinist 







42 



Chief 

Chief judge 

Chosen of god 

Christian 

Chronicle 

Chronicler 

Circumambulating 

Circumcision 

Citadel 

Citizen 



"The City" of Makkah. Surah 90 of the Holy Qur' an. 

City state ^ 

Civil ^1 

Civil war ajIa^I ^j^l 

Civilization ajjAaII . Sjl^J! 

Civilized ^Ja^lJl j.l«Ia31 

Clairvoyance ^Jjill 

Clan s jji^JI 



77*e Ctas A/*z«fc (AO vlJ-C^i 

"The Clans". A famous battle between the early Muslims and 
the rejectors, in which the Muslims, under the direction of 
Salman al-Farisi, dug a trench around the city of al-Madinah 
al-Munawarah to thwart the advance of the unbelievers in 5 
AH. The battle is also known as the Battle of the Khandaq 
(Battle of the Trench). See Holy Qur' an, An-Nur (24):55, Al- 
Ahzab (33):9-20. Surah 33 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Class socity C 5^ a 
Cleavage jjULfcV! 
The Cleaving Al-infitar jUai&l 



43 



"The Cleaving". See Surah 82 of the Holy Qur~ an. 



Clerk ljASII 
Cloister 

Closet Sjj^aUl 



The clot of blood 'Alaq J-tM 

"The clot of blood". Also called Surat Iqraa. Ayat (verses) 1-5 
of this surah were the first five verses revealed to Muhammad, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They were revealed 
to him through the Holy Spirit, the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), 
peace be on him, in the Ghar Hiraa (Cave of Hiraa) in Jabal an- 
Nur. See Surah 96 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Coalition 




Code 




Codex 




Codification 




Coercion 




Coffin 




Cogitation 




Cognition 




Cognomen 


2 : \<\\ _ ( . mill 


Cohesion 




Cohort 




Coin 




Collectedness 


2 >><,„ti 


Collecting mosque 




Colloquy 




Colonial 




Colonist 




Colonization 




Colonnade 




Colony 





44 







Jljjll 


W Ill L/CllCll 1 I 




JJUull 


V^UlllUlllClLUJll 






rnmmfinrl 

W 1 1 1 1 1 1 ell 1 CI 






Commander 






Commanding Soul 






Commandment 






Commando 






Commemoration 







Commentary Tafsir 

A commentary. There are several reliable Tafsirs on the 
meanings of the Ayaat of the Qur'an, including those of Ibn 
Kathir, Jalalayn and Al-Cortubi. 



Commission 




Commitment 




Committee 


2 a ^\\ _ 2 \ \\ _ 2 \^\\\ 


Commonweal 




Commonwealth 


t ■ 1T kill - JJ^A^JI 


Communicating 




Communion 




Community 




Commutation 




Compact 




Companion Sahabi 




Companion, particularly any companion of the Holy Prophet 


Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Plural: 


Sahabiyeen. 




Companion 




Companions 





45 



Companion Of The Cave 
Companion Of Elephant 
Compassion 
Competition 
Complacence 



Jjill 



Compilation of the Holy Qur'an <$J& £-f> 

Compilation of the Holy Qur'an : 653 Caliph v Uthman orders 
the standardization of Qur'anic recitation according to that of 
the Quraish. He sends copies of the standard Mushaf to 
provinces of the Muslim empire (32 A.H.) 



Complaint 

Complaisant 

Compromise 

Compulsion 

Compulsory 

Compunction 

Comulation 

Conation 

Concession 

Conciliation 

Conclave 

Concord 

Concububine 

Condemnation 

Condisciple 

Conditions 

Condonation 



46 



Confederacy 

Confederates Al-Ahzab 

Conference 

Confession 

Confessionist 

Confessors 

Confidence 

Confident 

Confiscation 

Conflict 

Confrontation 

Confutation 

Congealed Blood 

Congregation 

Congregational Prayers 

Congress 

Connexion 

Conquer 

Conquest 



a jCllLj ail 



- jftJaJ 



77*e Conquest of Mecca S-jiu 

The Conquest of Mecca : Muslims conquered Mecca in 
A.H./630 A.D. 



Conscience 
Consensus Of Opinion 



c5l jll £W» 



47 



Consensus Omnium 




Consent 






Consequence 






Conservatory 






Consols 


.la. jA\ jAill 


Conspicuous 






Conspiracy 






Constancy 






Constant 






Consternation 


JjAjll - 




Constituent 




Constitution 






Consultation 






Contemplation 


jSiall 




Contemplative Science 






Content 






Contention 






Contest 




- J.^ti 


Continence 




- Aixll 


Continuance 






Contradictory 


4 iJaSljla 


Contravention 




Contract 






Contraction 






Contradiction 


jllalt - 





48 



Contradistinct 




- j^ll 


Contrast 




- 


Contribution 






Contrivance 






Controversial 




- ,,1*11 


Controversy 




- J^J 


Contumacious 


AnJl - 




Contumacy 


Juml\ - 




conundrum 


....tut _ 


jJkjll - jilll 


convenance 


^*JI - 




Convenant 






Convenience 






Convent 




- Ji^ 


Convention 


jMttl - 




Convergings 






Converser 






Converser of god 






Convert 






Convict 


Jt^! - 




Conviction 




- 


Conviction of truth 






Convincing 






Convocation 




Convulsion 




Co-operation 







49 



Copartner 




Copiousness 


SjljM 


- oj!i£31 - _><3ja3l 


Copt 






Coptic 






Copyist 


£lou3l 


- 


Cororation 


3Jii31 




Correctitude 




<VI - aj^3I 


Corroboration 




_jj_j*j3l - 5_i_j£i3i 


Corruption 




o _y*jjj3l - ^Loii3l <-_aj_^aJi3l 


Corsair 






Cortege 


<jLUl - 


3j.oU3t 


Cosmos 






Cot 


Ajla j) i all 




Council 






Councilor 






Counsel 






Counselor 


<^ j^ll _ 




Countenancer 




- aj>^i 


Counter the 


^ i .T. all 




Countermand 




, uaii3l _ ?uau3l 




<^UJi3! 


I 


Courageous 




i 


Court 






"The coursers". 


Adiat (Al ) 





50 



"The coursers". "Coursers" refer to war horses when they 
charge, stamp their hooves, breathe heavily and snort in the 
course of the confusion of battle. Surah 100 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Courteous 




Courtesy 




Courtyard 




Covered 


JhA\ 


Covering 




Coy 




Crackbrain 




Cradle 




Creation 




Creator 


J1UJI 


Creatures 




Credence 


- (jLyVI — JjAi aSlI 


Credendum 




Creditable 


^J^- LB iftlj — "'n U 


Credulous 




Creed 




Crescentade 




Crier 




Crime 




Criminal 




Crisis 




Cross 





51 



Crowd 




Crown 


JJSVI - 7T^\ 


Crown prince 




Crucifixion 




Cruel 


^isii - ^tyt 


Cruelty 




Crusade 


4 t \ \\ , -^U t 


Crusaders 


H^lj -«*^ 


Culmination 


S « )HI 9- all 


Cult 




Cult ancestor 




Culture 




Curate 




Curmudgeon 


m la ul y La u 


Custodian 




Custody 




Custom 




Customs 




Czar 




Czarina 


•A^j , ^ all 



52 



D 



Dahr (Ad) The Time j — 

"The Time". Another name for Suratul Insan. Surah 76 of the 
Holy Qur'an. Ad-Dahr indicates the space/time continuum. 

Dajjal(Ad) Anti-Christ Jt — 

Anti-Christ. Also known as Maseeh ad-Dajjal. See Ahadeeth 
regarding "the Final Hour" in both Sahih books. Sahih Bukhari, 
Hadith 649, 650, Vol.4. Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Fitan wa 
Isharat as-Say'ah. 

Dark ages 3 «m«n jj^adi 

Darkness Dhulumaat ^1— ^ 

Darkness. In the sense of lurking danger. See Holy Qur' an, Al- 
An'aam (6):63. This is where the word Dhulm (injustice) is 
derived, for injustice in whatever form is an evil darkness. 

Dash 
Dawn 



Dawood , (Peace be upon him) fiLul\ 

David. A prophet of Islam. The prophet to whom the Zabour 
was revealed, and who fought Jalut (Goliath) and killed him. 
See Holy Qur'an, Saad (38): 17-26. See Mursaleen. 

Daybreak 

Day of assembly ? ji 

Day of eternity ?ji 

Day of exodus £ jj^ 1 ?ji 

Day of gathering ?ji 



53 



Day of judgment 
Day of meeting 
Day of resurrection 
Day of sacrifice 
Day of threatening 
Daybreak 
Deadly 
Dearth 
Death 
Debating 
Debauching 
Debenture 
Deceitless 



Alt j]l ^ajj 

jail! - Jlill 
hSL al l _ 



Deception Ghayy ^ 

Deception. Name of a pit in Hellfire. 



Deception 

Declaration 

Declaration of war 

Deeds 

Default 

Defeat 

Defenes 

Defiance 

Defrauding 



54 



Deign 






Delegate 




- (J^J^J 


Delegating 




- (J^JJ^ 


Deliverance 


lS^I - 




Deluge 






Demanding 






Dementia 


<A^JI - 




Democratism 




Demolishment 




- ft^l 


Demon 






Demonstration 






Denomination 




Denominationalism 






Denotation 






Denying 






Deposed 






Depravation 




- jL*aVI 


Deprecate 






Deprecating 






Deputation 






Deputy 


- 




Deputies 






Derangement 


Wilt - 




Deray 






Derision 







55 



Descendant 






Descendants 






Desecration 




1 _ (j in Will 


Desideration 




Designation 






Desire 


Sj^jilt - 




Desolateness 


jUall - U >ll 


Desolation 


jUall - 


u >it 


Despair 


jaj^l - 




Dispatch 


jit - 




Desperation 


Jaj^l - 




Despoiling 


_ 




Despoilment 




- t 1^ ill - L 


Despondent 


JajlSl! - 




Despot 


(JUill - 




Despotism 






Destination 






Destinism 


jjSlI - 




Destiny 






Destroyer 






Destruction 






Detention 




- *3lcV! 


Deterioration 


C>J1 - 




Determinism 






Detestation 




Loll 



56 



Devastation ^lp^ 1 - j^-^ 1 

Development - jjkill 

Deviance lJIj^I 

Deviation JX-^I - jjjll - ^-iljaJVI 

Devil jLki^l 

Devoutness - p j^ 1 - csj^ 1 



Dhimmi A non-Muslim is— f^J 1 

A non-Muslim living under the protection of Islamic rule. 

Dhul-Kifl J-j-iat jJ 



Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) was a Rasul (Messenger) of Allah 
(God). He is mentioned at several places in the Holy Qur-an 
(21:85-86; 38:48). Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) was a Rasul 
(Messenger) sent to the Israelites. He commanded them to 
wage a war against the mischievous people, but they refused it 
for the fear of death. Allah (God) punished them with death by 
a plague and huge blasts. No one amongst them remained alive 
to even bury the dead. Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) was praying to 
Allah (God) in seclusion for giving Hidayah (Guidance) to his 
people. When he came out, he saw the putrefied bodies of his 
followers. Although his people disobeyed him, he was deeply 
aggrieved by their fate. He made Du'a (Supplication) to Allah 
(God) to give their lives back to them. Allah (God) listened to 
his request and brought the followers of Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) 
back to life (The Holy Qur-an 2:280). Muslims believe in 
Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) and all other Rusul (Messengers) of 
Allah (God). 



57 



Dhulm injustice ^—tPa 

Usually wrongly spelled as Zulm. It means injustice, harm, 
wrongdoing or transgression either against oneself or someone 
else. 

1 . Against oneself. Doing deeds or saying words 
which will bring the displeasure of Allah Ta'ala. 
These deeds may be physical or spiritual that will 
ultimately harm the soul. 

2. Against others. In any form whatsoever, whether 
they he physical or mental. See Holy Qur'an, Al- 
Baqara (2)35. Its opposite is Nur, light. See Nur. 



Dhu 7 Qarnain 

One of the greatest rulers of ancient history. He was a true 
believer in Allah Ta'ala. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Kahf(18):83. 



ialectic 


lM 


Dictator 




Dictatorship 




Differing 




Diffidence 




Diffident 




Dignity 




Dilapidation 




Dilatation 




Diluvium 




Director 




Dirham A silver coin 




Dirt 




Disabused 





58 



Disaffirmation 




- (j«nV<ll 


UibcLgL CCII1CI1L 




jalUll - l_s! 


Disaster 






Disbelief 






Disceptation 












Discipline 




1 U.;\l 


Discomfited 






Discomposure 






L-'iscoru oiiicjaatj 






Discreation 






Discrimination 






LJlO^UiycLlHJll 






Disfiguration 






Dishonest 


,jJLa_ll 




Dishonesty 






Disloyalty 






Dismissal 


u _ J >* J, 




Disobedience 


J i <ax 11 










111 C fM tf^Mll c 

l.-'lapiLClJ US 


jUJI . 




Disposition 




Dispositional 






Dispute 






Dissemble 






Dissimulator 






Dissocial 






Dissolute 







59 



Dissuasion 




Distingction 




Distinguished 




Distrust 




Disturbance 


UaJl - l — 11 jn>.o 21 ' 


Disunionism 




Ditch 




Divided 




Dividing 




UL V llldllUIl 




Divine 


.|VI 


Divine assistance 




Divine justice 




Divine names 




Divine omnipotence 




Divine providence 




Divine right 


KM •• 11 


Divine saying 




Divinity 




Divorcement 





Diya Blood money o— tS-J 

Blood money, paid as compensation for killing, wounding, etc. 
Plural: Diyaat. 

Doctrine SaiSc 
Dogmatism ki±jk*l\ 
Doleful ^1 



60 



Dolt 








J-JUIIlCaUciy 








J^UIIilllcLIlCC 




Dominant 




Domination 




Dominion 




LJ\J\JLLLo\JL<Xy 




Doubt 




Doxy 




Dread 




Drive 





Dw/?« (Ad) Forenoon <> a ^ 

"Forenoon": The mid-morning hours. Surah 93 of the Holy 
Qur'an. 



Dukhan The Smoke 

"The Smoke". Surah 44 of the Holy Qur'an. One of the signs of 
the proximity of the Last Day. 

Duties ^Wb 

Dwelling - pli^l 

Dwelling of peace jl^ 

Dynasty J^h^ - 



61 



E 



(The) Earthquake Zalzalah * — JjJj 

"The Earthquake". One of the names of the Yaum al-Qiama. 
See Surah 99 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Eagar 






Eagerness 


jl^VI - 




Eblis 






Edict 






Efface 






Effacement 


yijVI ■ 




Effect 




- J$&\ 


Effection 




- jJjSjll 


Efficiency 




- AjliSlI 


Egging 




- »l >VI 



£*Y/ « festivity ^-e^ 1 

The word 'Eid is an Arabic name to mean a festivity, a 
celebration, a recurring happiness, and a feast. In Islam, there 
are two major 'Eids namely the feast of Ramadhan ('Eld Al- 
Fitr) and the Feast of Sacrifice ('Eid Al-Adhha). The first 'Eid 
is celebrated by Muslims after fasting the month of Ramadhan 
as a matter of thanks and gratitude to Almighty Allah. It takes 
place on the first day of Shawwal, the tenth month of the lunar 
calendar. The second 'Eid is the Feast of Sacrifice and it is to 
be celebrated for the memory of prophet Ibrahim trying to 
sacrifice his son Isma'il (Ishmael). This 'Eid lasts four days 
between the tenth and the thirteenth day of Zul-Hijjah, the 
twelfth month of the lunar calendar. 



62 



Eid Al-Adha cr^' *P 

A four-day festival that completes the rites of pilgrimage and 
takes place on the 10th- 13th of Dhul Hijjah(the 10th is the day 
of Nahr and 1 1th- 13th are the days of Tashriq). Literally means 
"the feast of the sacrifice". This feast commemorates the 
Prophet Ibrahim's obedience to Allah by being prepared to 
sacrifice his only son Ismael, peace be on both of them. See 
Holy Qur' an, As-Saffaat (37)~100-103. 



EidAl-Fitr >-W«^ 

Three-day festival marking the end of Ramadan. It takes place 
on the 1st of Shawal, the 10th month of the Islamic calendar. 



Amr Bill Ma ' roof Enjoining the good 

Enjoining the good. The full version is "Amr bill Ma'roofwa 
nahi 'anil Munkar", (enjoining the good and forbidding the 
evil). 



Ejaculation 




- W 


Elect 






Elegy 






Elementalism 






Elevation 






Elite 


.U! - 




Eloquence 


4aU^s11 - 




Embassador 


<a . all 




Embattle 






Ember 






Emblem 


>jJI - 





63 



Emblement 


fcU« 


Embrace 


(jtixj 


Emendator 




Emergent-year 




Emigrant 




Emigration 




Emissary 




Emission 


- tiilxtiVI - £ jjiil £ 


Emperor 




Empery 


2U...U 


Empire 


AjjjLIj^VI 


Empress 




Emptiness 


£4 jill - 


Emulation 




Enactment 




Enchanting 


2 tS^jl) _ , nil _ 2 '\"a\\ 


Encouragement 


£JL* utill 


Encroachment 




Endemic 




Ending 





Endowment Waqf 

Endowment. A charitable trust in the Name of Allah, usually in 
perpetuity, and usually for the purposes of establishing the 
Deen of Islam, teaching useful knowledge, feeding the poor or 
treating the sick. 



64 



Endowment 




Enduring 




Enfolded 




Enforcement 


- ,1 jSV! 


Enfranchisement 




Enhancement 




Enricher 




Enslavement 




Enthr ailment 




Enthusiasm 




Enticement 




Entreatment 




Entreaty 




Entrenchment 




Enucleator 




Envious 




Envoy 




Envy 




Enwraped 




Epilogue 




Equality 




Equitable 


knUI - < t.nUI - 


Equitation 


4^ JJfllt 


Equity 




Equivalent 


^1 



65 



Era 








Eraser 








Erasing 








Erect 


^ - 






Eremite 




- ^Atjlt 




Eristic 








Erantry 








Eroneously 








Eroneousnes 








Error 






Esop 








Esoteric 








Esperance 


*Ujt - 






Espionage 


a i ^ ^^jl^ si 






Esponsal 








Esprit 








Esse 








Essential 








Established 








Establishment 








Esteem 




- J^UVI - 




Estovers 








Estrangement 








Eternal 






Eternity (Infinit) 


Abd ^> 







66 



Ethics cP^Vl 

Etiology <^ 
Evaluation jjjSSII 
Evanescent JjtjM - 

Evangelization j^A^I 



Eve Hawwa flj* 

Eve, wife of Adam, peace be on them. She bore many children. 
Every time she gave birth, they were twins, one male and one 
female. Each twin married the twin of the other. The two most 
famous of her offspring were Habil (Abel) and Qaabil (Cain). 



Event 






Everlasting 






Evidence 






Evident 






Evil 






Evolution 






Exact 






Exacting > 






Exaction 






Exaltation 






Exalted 






Exalter 






Excaudate 




JLVI 



67 



Exclamation 




- *hjll 


Exculpation 




Excuse 






Execution 






Executor 






Exegesis 






Exegeste 




^).mi.<i]l 


Exemption 


S»l jJI - 




Exertion 






Exile 






Exilement 




- ^ 


Existence 




w - 


Exorbitance 


^1 


- JJ^I 


Exorcism 




Expanding 




Expansion 




- J^l 


Expatriation 




- *^VI 


Expedition 






Expending 






Expensive 






Experiment 






Expiable 






Expiation 







68 



Explaining 








Exploit 






Exploitation 




-VI - 




Exponent 


j-LJI - 




Expositiopn 


cteM - 






Expostulation 






jlisVI 


Expounder 








Expugnance 








Expugner 








Expurgation 








Extension 








Extinction 








Extravagance 








Extravagant 








Extrusion 








Eyewitnes 









69 



F 



Fa 




Fable 




Facilitation 




Facility 




Facing 




Faction 




Factor 




Faculty 




acultie 


2 \\\ _ a^jijk-all 


Fad 




Fade 





War booty gained without fighting. 



Failure u' - J^l 

Fairy u 1 ^ 1 - o^ 1 

Fairyism ^jj^I 



Trust, faith and acceptance. Having faith and believing in: 
Allah Ta'ala. To affirm with the tongue, believe in the 
heart and confirm through action the following: 
His Existence. 
His Lordship. 
His Worship. 



70 



His Names and Attributes. 
Belief in His angels. 
Belief in His revealed Books. 
Belief in His messengers, without making any 

distinction between them. 
Belief in the Hour and the Judgement and the Fire 

and the Garden. 
Belief in the Divine decrees of Allah Ta'ala, both the 

good and the evil. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara 

(2):285. See Mursaleen . 



Faithful 

Faithful the uj^j^ 1 

Faithful spirit u**VI cjj^ 1 

Faithfulness u-^iVI -*A-V! 

Fajr (Al) The Dawn j— gi« 

"The Dawn". The time of the first obligatory Salat (Prayer). It 
can be prayed at any time between the first light of dawn and 
just before sunrise. Also called Subh (morning). Surah 89 of the 
Holy Qur'an. 



Falaah Success £t — ^ 

Success. Real success lies in "enjoining what is right and 
forbidding what is evil..." (Surah Aali Imran (3): 104). One of 
the sentences that is said during the Adhan and Iqama, "Haya 
'alal Falaah" (Come to Success). Other derivations: Muflih = 
the person who is successful, the person whose deeds and 
actions have gained Allah Ta'ala's pleasure. See Holy Qur'an, 
Surah Al-Baqara (2): 1-5. See Aflaha: He has succeeded. 



71 



Falaq (Al) The Daybreak J 1 ^ 1 

"The Daybreak" Surah 113 of the Holy Qur'an. 



False 


- 




Falsehearted 






Falshod 






Falsity 






Fame 







The family of 'Imran Aali Imran Jl 

. 'Imran was the father of Mariam, the mother of the 
Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on them. 



Fanal SjLlJI 
Fanaticism 

Fancy ^Ij-ijll - pcjJI - o^l 

Faqeeh <i& 

An Islamic scholar who can give an authoritative legal opinion 
or judgement. 

Fard Ain o^jfi 

An action which is obligatory on every Muslim. 



Fard Al-Kifaya Collective duty J 

Collective duty. A duty on all the community; but if it is 
fulfilled by a part of that community then the rest are not 
obliged to fulfill it. 



Fare j^Vl 
Farewell 



72 



Faridha A duty S-tpajjfl 

A duty enjoined on all Muslims. Plural: Fara'idh. 



Farsakh League C-tHj* 

League; about three miles. 



Faruq Jjjil! 

This was the name given to Umar ibn Al-Khattab. It means 
'One who distinguishes the truth from falsehood'. 



Fascination jauJI isill 

Fash 



Fasting Seeaam f^-tr^ 

Fasting, from food and drink - and from sexual intercourse if 
you are married during daylight, from the first light of dawn 
until sunset. Also spelled as Saum. Fasting in the month of 
Ramadan is one of the Arkan (five pillars) of Islam. Allah Ta' 
ala has made it obligatory on every Muslim whether man or 
woman, with the exception of: 

1 . A person who is ill. 

2. A person on ajourney of 16 Farsakhs (48 miles) or 
more. 

3. A woman who is menstruating or who has just 
given birth. Once these situations no longer apply, 
the missed days must be compensated. The very 
young are exempted.The aged should fast, but if 
they find it difficult then they too are exempted 
and may feed poor people instead. See Holy 
Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): 184-185, 187. 



73 



Fatalism 

Fatality eLiSl! 
Fate ^Ljaall - 

Fated 



Fath (Al) The Victory c-^ 1 

"The Victory". Surah 48 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Fatiha The Opening Chapter **2till 

"The Opening Chapter". Another name for Suratul-Hamd. 
Surah 1 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Fat'han Muheena Manifest Victory 

"Manifest Victory". The manifest victory that is referred to 
here is the peace treaty of Hudaibiyah. It was one of the 
greatest victories which the newly-born Islamic Ummah 
(nation) gained. On face value it seemed like a great setback 
for the Muslims, but in fact it was, by the will of Allah Ta'ala, 
one of the main means by which the Muslims consolidated and 
grew. See Holy Qur'an, Surah Al-Fath (48). 



Fatima May Allah be pleased with her 

Daughter of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless 
him and grant him peace. She is one of the four greatest 
women ever created by Allah Ta'ala. The other three are: 

1. Mariam (Mary), Mother of Prophet Isa (Jesus), 
peace be on him. 

2. Asiya, the wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh). 

3. Khadija ,may Allah be pleased with her, the first 
wife of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessing 
of Allah be on him and on all his wives and 
family. 



74 



The Fatimids (909-11 71 A.D.) 

The Fatimids are traced back to v Ali bin Abi Talib and his 
wife, Fatimah. This state was established by v Ubaidullah Al- 
Mahdi in Tunisia. It witnessed 14 caliphs, and reached its 
utmost expansion during the era of Al-Mu v izz, who annexed 
North Africa to his state and sent Jauhar Al-Siqilli, his 
commander-in-chief, to occupy Egypt. Jauhar established Cairo 
which later became the state capital to which Al-Mu v izz moved 
and extended his influence over Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. 
The last caliph was Al- v Adid whose ministry was led by Salah 
Al-Din Al-Ayyubi, who eventually precipitated the fall of the 
Fatimid state. The most notable architectural and cultural 
achievements were the establishment of Cairo and the 
construction of Al-Azhar Mosque. 



Fatir (Al) The Creator j— faUll 

"The Creator". Also another name for al-Malaikah. Surah 35 of 
the Holy Qur'an. 



Fatwa A legal verdict S jSa 

A legal verdict given on a religious basis, the sources on which 
a fatwa is based are the Holy Qur'an, Sahih Bukhari and 
Muslim, and all other authenticated Ahadeeth. 



Fault 




Favonian 




Favor 


- 


Favorite 




Fawn 




Fawner 




Fay 





75 



Feal 




Fealty 




Fear 




Feast 




Feast of sacrifice 




Feast 


.lull 


Federacy 




Federal 


c^U2VI 


Fellow 




Felon 




Female infanticide 


CjLlII ±\j 


Festival 




Fetters Chains 




Feud 




Feudalism 


AjelLaVI 


Feudalist 




Fiction 




Fidelity 




Fiducial 





Fidya l—$M 

Compensation for missing or wrongly practising necessary acts 
of worship. Fidya usually takes the form of donating money or 
foodstuffs or sacrificing an animal. Contrast with Kaffara 
(making amends). See Kaffara. 



Filiation ^ 



76 



Finder the 
Fines 



M 1 



Fiqh d-^jjil! 

Islamic Law. 



Fir'aun Pharaoh 

Pharaoh. Tide of the Ancient Egyptian rulers, particularly the 
one who rejected the Prophet Musa (Moses), peace he on him, 
and tried to have him killed. They were famous for their cruelty 
and disbelief. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):49, Ta Ha 
(20):9-80, Al-Qasas(28):l-42, Al-Fajr(89): 10-14. 



Firdaus Paradise 

The middle and the highest part of the Jannah (Paradise). 
Fitna 

This has various meanings, depending on its context in the 
sentence: 

1. Oppression or tumult, as in Surah Al-Baqara 
(2):]93. 

2. Trial or punishment, as in Surah Al-Maida (5):74. 

3. Trial or temptation, as in Surah Al-Anfal (8): 28. 

4. It can also mean causing discord between 
Muslims, or sedition. 



Firm u£^l 



Fitrah »j Mi l 

The fitrah is the natural disposition of every human being, 
which is to believe in Allah alone without any partners. The 
Messenger (saw) said, "Each one of you is born on the fitrah; it 
is your parents who make you Jews, Christians and fire 
worshippers." 



77 



Every person is born Muslim, believing in God. However, 
when a person starts to follow his desires and false deities, his 
fitrah will become polluted. 



Five foundation of islam 




Fixation 








Flame 






jail 


Fling 








Flirt 




J>M 




Flock 




t_ljjal]l 




Fog 








Foible 








Folk 






2L.U1I 


Folkway 








Followed 








Foolery 








Folhardy 




JJ^JI - 




Foppish 








Forbearer 








Forbiddance 








Forbidden 








Force 




SjSlI - 




Forced 




cSj^ 1 - 




Forcefulness 








Forcible 








Forcing 








Foredoom 








Forefather 






Foreknowledge 








Forestaller 









78 



Forewarner j 

Forewarner : One who warns sinful people against the 
imminent punishment of Allah 



Forfeiture 






Forgery 






Forgive 






Forgiveness 






Forgiver 






Forgiving 






Formal 






Formidable 






Fornicator 




- \ - ti 


Fornication 


Ujll 


- Jj^t 


Forray 


l iLJI _ 




Fort 


Jabjll 




Fortification 






Fortresses 






Fortunetelling 






Fosterage 






Foundation 


(JJjjalliill 




Foundling 






framer 






Frank 






Franks 






Frantic 






Fraternity 


s jiVi 





79 



Fraternization SI £!>*i! 

Fraternization : The Prophet (peace be upon him) established 
brotherly ties between the Muhajirun and the Ansar 



Fraud 




• 11 


Freak 






Frebooty 


1 • «li 


Cjiulll 


Freedom 






Fremescence 






Frenzy 






Frightened 






Frustration 


.Lbs. VI 


- JMi 


Fugitation 






Fundamentalism 







Furqaan (Al) The Criterion — db^ 1 

"The Criterion". Another name of the Holy Qur'an. Surah 25 of 
the Holy Qur'an. 



Fury 



Fussilat (Al) 

"They are expounded." Another name for Ha Mim and As- 
Sajda. Surah 41 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Gabriel 



G 



80 



Gaby 


2Jaill 


Gage 


2_nAj]l 


Gain 




Gainsaying 




Galen 




Gallant 




Game 




Gang 




Garrison 




Gayness 




Geneology 


Nasab m*^ 


It means lineage 


or geneology. 


Generality 




Generation 


a- 


Generosity 




Generous the 




Gens 




Gentility 




Gentle 




Genuflect 




Genuflection 


2ji£ jll 


Ghazi 





Ghazwa A holy battle S jj £ 

A holy battle for the cause of Allah the Almighty in which the 
Prophet Muhammad himself, may Allah bless him and grant 
him peace, took part. Nural: al-Maghazi or Ghazawat. 



81 



Gheeba 

Talking evil about someone in his or her absence. Backbiting. 
See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hujurat (49): 12. 



Gideon 






Gift 




- -^1 


Gif 






Gimp 


Sj2all - 




Given 


L_l jA jA\ 




Giver 




- J^l\ 


Glaring 




- jALtJt 


Glorification 


- 




Glorious 






Glory 






Glory be to him 






Glossarist 




- CJ u]i 


Glow 






Gluttonousness 




■ ^ 


Gnathonic 


(jSliall - 


jaIaJI 


Gnome 


jjjLalt Jjill - 2 aiaJl 


Gnosis 






God 






God willing 


jib 




Godfearing 






Godhead 


aja jIVI 




Godship 


4jA jIVI 




Godward 




Gog and magog 




Goliath 


t — 1 J^-?- 





82 



Samaritan 






Gospel 






Goth 






Gothic 






Gourd tree 






Govern 






Governable 






Government 


1 U,„\l 




Governor 






Grace 






Grace of god 






Gracious the 


i aiLllI 




Gradation 






Graith 


"a jjiill - ^jJat jll 


- U^ 1 


Grand 






Grandeur 






Grant 






Grasp 






Gratuity 


jl^t *l> - - 


Grave 






Grave sins 






Graveyard 






Great 






Greatness 






Great sin 






Greed 






Greek fire 






Greeks 






Greeting 







83 



Greetings the 






Grievance 






Grieving 


2 .wall 




Grim 






Grossness 






Grotto 


S jliJl 




Grouch 






Grounding 




f-ti 


Grove 






Grudge 






Grumble 






Guard 






Guarded 






Guardian the 






Guardianship 


aA^ jll 


- AjL^JI 


Guerdon 


plJaJI - 




Guidance the 


ti^l - 




Guide 




- 


Guidance 






Guile 


- 




Guilelessness 




- . ti 


Guilt 


L_ljj> 




Guiltless 




- *LSJ^ 


Guilty 






Guiltiness 


fSVI - 




Gushness 







84 



Habit 



H 



Hadith tradition 

A saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace. Plural: Ahadeeth. 



Hadith-Qudsi 

A saying of Allah Ta'ala narrated by the Holy Prophet 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that is 
not part of the Holy Qur'an. 



Hadj ^ 
Hadji 

Hafiz d J 531 M ^ 

Hafsa , May Allah be pleased with her M <Uaia. 

Daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with 
him, and wife of Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of 
Allah be on him and his family and his companions. 



Hagar j^U 



Hajar Al-aswad (Al) 'Black Stone' J>-Vl j^i! 

The 'Black Stone', a stone which some say fell from heaven, set 
into one corner of the Ka'aba in Makka by the Prophet Ibrahim 
(Abraham), peace be upon him, which the pilgrims, in 
imitation of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace, kiss, so unifying all the Muslims throughout 
the ages in one place. 
Hajj (Al) The Pilgrimage 



85 



"The Pilgrimage", which commences on the 8th of Dhu'l- 
Hijjah. There are three types of Hajj: 

1. Hajjat-Tamata'a (interrupted). Umra followed by 
Hajj, but taking off the Ihram in between these 
two stages. 

2. Hajj al-Qiran (combined). Umra then Hajj without 
taking off the Ihram. 

3. Hajj al-Ifrad (single). Hajj without Umra. A 
pilgrimage to Makkah in the twelfth month of the 
Islamic calendar is also known as Hajj al-Ifrad. 
The performance of Hajj consists of ten steps: 

1 . Put on the Ihram at the appointed 
station, then recite the Talbiyah. 
Recitation is done aloud by men and 
quietly by women. Depending on 
what type of Hajj you are doing, 
perform the necessary rites at the 
Ka'aba on arrival in Makkah. 
SeeTalbiya. 

2. Go to Mina (on the 8th of the month). 
Pray the Duhr, 'Asr, Maghreb, Isha 
and Fajr prayers at their proper times, 
but shortening the four Rak'at to two, 
as if doing travelling prayers. 

3. When the sun rises (on the 9th of the 
month), go to 'Arafat and combine 
the Duhr and Asr Salat. 

4. After the sun sets, go to al- 
Muzdallifa, reciting the Talbiyah. 
Combine the Maghreb and the 'Isha 
Salat. After the Fajr prayer, raise your 
hands and do Du'a. (After midnight, 
women and the weak may proceed to 
Mina if they wish.) 



86 



5. In Muzdallifa (or Mina), pick up 
small stones (either 49 or 70) to 
throw at the Jamra (stone pillars) of 
'Aqaba. 

6. Go to Mina (on the 10th of the 
month); 

■ Throw seven stones, one 
stone at a time, at the 
largest of the three 
Jamras (the stone pillars 
that represent Shaitan). 

■ Sacrifice your animal. 
You must eat some of its 
meat, but give the bulk 
of it to the poor and 
hungry. (Do this step 
only if it is required of 
you. It is not required for 
Hajj al-Ifrad. If you are 
doing either of the other 
two types of Hajj, but 
cannot afford an animal, 
then fast three days after 
you first put on Ihram 
and seven days after you 
have returned home.) 

■ Shave your head. 
Women only need to cut 
off a lock of hair. The 
rules of Ihram are now 
lifted, except for sexual 
intercourse with one's 
spouse. 

7. Go to Makkah and do Tawaf al-Ifada. 
Go to the hills of Safa and Marwa 

87 



and do Sa'i. Now the rules of Ihram 
are completely lifted. 

8. Return to Mina and stay there for the 
remainder of the 10th and on the 
11th, 12th and the 13th. (You may, if 
you wish, leave Mina after Asr on the 
12th or after Asr on the 13th. You 
must leave Mina before the sun sets.) 

9. Each day, stone each of the three 
Jamras (the stone pillars) with seven 
pebbles. 

10. If you wish to return home, you must 
do the Tawaf al-Wida'. No-one is 
excused, except for menstruating 
women or women in the period of 
discharge after childbirth. See Tawaf 
al-Wida. See Surah 22 of the Holy 
Qur'an. Performing the Hajj if you 
are able is one of the Arkan of Isla 



88 



Hajj-al-wida ' The last farewell Hajj gbjll ^ 

The last farewell Hajj of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace, before his death. During that Hajj, 
Muhammad gave an immortal Khutba called "Khutbatul 
Wida". This sermon is still remembered word for word, for it 
confirmed that the Deen of Islam had been completed, 
transmitted and established by the Messenger of Allah, may the 
blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his 
companions and all who follow him in what they are able, with 
sincerity, until the Last Day. 



Hakeem m^ 3 ^ - 

Hakim ^\ 



Halqah S — ^ 

A group of students involved in the study of Islam. 



Hanbali J+*> 

One of the main schools of thought in Islam, founded by 
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d. 855 A.C.), a famous scholar of fiqh. 

Hanging 



Hanifi 

One of the main schools of thought in Islam, founded by Abu 
Hanifah (d. 767 a.c), a famous scholar of fiqh. 



Haman cM* 

Minister of Fir'aun (Pharaoh) who tried to have all the newborn 
babies killed at the time when the Prophet Musa (Moses), 
peace be on him, was born. 



Hannah, May Allah be pleased with her Ua> 



89 



Grandmother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus, Son of Mary), peace be 
on them, and wife of 'Imran, may Allah be pleased with him. 
Since the Prophet isa had maternal grandparents, how can the 
Christians claim him to be Allah? Since Allah is the Creator of 
all that there is, and was not created, do the Christians claim 
that Allah has a family tree? (Since they acknowledge the 
immaculate conception and the virgin birth, why do they trace 
the lineage of Jesus through Joseph the carpenter? See 
Matthew 1:6-16, Luke 3:23-31,) Glory be to Allah, the Most 
High. Cursed are those who ascribe partners to Him. The 
punishment of Hellfire awaits those who do not desist from this 
blasphemy. 



Happening £jM 'Ojj^ 31 



Haram fb^l 

1. Any act or deed which is prohibited by Allah and 
will incur His wrath and punishment. See Ahkam. 

2. Sanctuary or boundary of any Masjid (mosque), 
but usually used with regard to the sanctuaries of 
the Masjid al-Ha ram in Makkah and Masjid al- 
Rasool, may Allah give him light and peace in his 
grave, in Madinah. This is why they are referred to 
as "AI-Haramain al-Shariffain", the two Holy 
Sanctuaries. 



Haramain al sharifain (AL) O^j^ 1 Cti*j*& 

"The two Holy Sanctuaries". The sanctuary of the Ka'ba at 
Makkah and the sanctuary of al-Masjid al-Rasool, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, in Madinah. 



Harbinger jj^I j^l 



90 



Haroon, peace be upon him f5L»ll aJc ojjU 

Aaron. A prophet of Islam. He was the brother of the Prophet 
Musa (Moses), peace be on them. See Holy Qur' an, Ta Ha 
(20);29-36, 90-94. 



Harsh ^ M\ 

Haruspex 



Harut and marut 

Two angels who, by the permission of Allah Ta'ala, taught 
magic to the people of Babylon. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara 
(2): 102. 



Hasad Jealousy 

Jealousy. Hasad is forbidden in Islam, except for two specific 
reasons: 

1. Being jealous of a person for memorizing the 
Holy Qur'an by heart. 

2. Being jealous of a wealthy person for expending 
his wealth in the path of Allah Ta'ala. 



Hashr (Al) The Exile WbJl 

1. "The Exile". Surah 59 of the Holy Qur'an. 

2. Another name for the Day of Judgement, Yaumal- 
Hashr, "Day of the Gathering". 



Hateful t>jj£A\ . 0 ± J k±A\ . ajj^II 

Hate »jSll 



Hawazin OJ 1 ^ 6 

A Quraishi tribe. An Arabian tribe that always gave trouble to 
the new-born Islamic nation before their conversion to Islam. 

Hazard ojLLLaII . AijU^l 



91 



Headship 




Headstrong 




Hradstrongness 




Hearer 




Hearsay 




Heartburning 




Heatben 




Heathenishness 




Heathenism 





Heaven Samaa fbuJ! 

Heaven. In the sense of 'sky'. "Sab'a Samawat" - Seven 
Heavens. Plural: Samawat. 



Heaven 




Heavely 




heavenly decrees 




Hebrew 




Hector 




Hegemony 




Hegira 




Heir 




Heir apparent 


J J 


Heirdom 




Hell 




Helotry 




Help 




Helpers 





92 



Helpful 
Heracles 
Herald 
Herdsaman 



JajA 



(The) Hereafter Akhira 

(After-Life, Hereafter, Next World), the term embraces the 
following ideas. 

That the present order of existence will some day come to an 
end 

That when that happens,God will bring another order into 
being in which He will resurrect all human beings, gather them 
together and examine their conduct, and reward them with 
justice and mercy. 

That those who are reckoned good will be sent to Paradise 
whereas the evil-doers will be consigned to Hell. 
That the real measure of success or failure of a person is not 
the extent of his prosperity in the present life, but his success in 
the Next. 



Heresiarchy 

Heritage 

Hermit 

Hermitage 

Hero 

Heterodoxy 
Highbred 



Hijab 



veil 



93 



Any kind of veil - it could be a curtain, a facial veil, etc. The 
facial Hijab is divided into two types: 

1. Niqab = full facial covering. 

2. Khimar = partial facial covering, i.e. it covers the 
face, but leaves the eyes exposed. It is said that the 
Universe is what veils the Creator from the 
creation. If you find the veil awe-inspiring, how 
much more awe-ins piring is the One behind the 
veil! 



Hijaz J 1 ^ 1 

The region along the western seaboard of Arabia, in which 
Makka, Medina, Jeddah and Ta'if are situated. 



Hijr (Al) 

"Al-Hijr". Name of a rocky place and its people. Surah 15 of 
the Holy Qur'an. 



Hijra Migration Sja^JI 

Migration in the path of Allah. 



Hijri (Sj** 

Name of the Islamic lunar calendar. It took its name from the 
early Muslims who migrated from Makkah to Madinah, and 
commences from the date of the Prophet Muhammad's Hijra, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which he made with 
Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, in 
622 AC. The months of the Islamic calendar are: 



1 - Muharram 
3 - Rabi'i al-Awal. 
5 - Jumada al-Awal. 
7 - Rajab 
9 - Ramadan 
11-Dhul Qi'da. 

The Hijri Calendar 



2 - Safar 

4 - Rabi'i al-Akhira. 
6 - Jumada al-Akhira. 
8 - Sha'ban. 
10 - Shawal 
12-Dhul Hijjah 



94 



637 The Hijri Calendar : 637 The reign of Caliph v Umar bin 
Al-Khattab witnesses the beginning of dating the Muslim era 
from the first day of the lunar year in which the Hijrah took 
place (16 A.H.) 



Hira *L>* 

A famous cave in the Jabal an-Nur in Makkah where 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, first 
received the Divine Message through the Holy Spirit, the 
Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him. 



Hizb Party vi-C 

Party. Allah Ta'ala divides all the parties into two groups: 
"Hizb Allah" (the Party of Allah ) and "Hizbal-Shaitan" (the 
Party of Satan). It is irrelevant to Allah how one labels one's 
party, whether it be "Democratic Party", "Labour 
Party "/'Communist Party" or whatever. All that matters is 
whether or not it follows the path of Allah Ta'ala. 



Hisba <U-»aJ! 

. Office of accounting or public inspection. See muhtasib. 



Historian 

History 

Hitch 

Hoard 

Hold 

Holies 

Holocaust 

Holy 

Holy city 



95 



Homage 

Homilist ^ ^ 

Homily <^ ^ - 

Honest jjL-all - y^VI 

Honesty ^Vl - Jja^I 

Honor lJ^I 
Honourableness 



Hooriyah A female virgin S — ^ jj* 

A female virgin created by Allah Ta'ala, but not a descendant 
of Adam, peace be on him. She is created in Jannah 
(Paradise)and is the perfect companion of man in the Akhira 
(Hereafter). Her beauty is insurpassable and unimaginable. She 
has intensely black irises and the whites of her eyes are pure 
white. Also spelled as Houriah. Plural: Hooriyat. 



Horror ^ J 1 
Horse o»J& 

Horsemanship ^jj^ 1 
Hospitality fljSV! <iL^I 

Hostel u^t 

Hostile ls±\** 



Houd, peace be upon him ^L»ll jja 

A prophet sent to the Tribe of Ad. See Mursaleen. See 'Ad. 
Surah 1 1 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Hubal 



96 



Hubal : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic period 



Hudaibiya (Al) ^y^l 

A famous plain ten miles from Makkah on the way to Jeddah. 
Site of the peace pact between the Muslims and the pagan 
Quraish in the year 6AH. This treaty paved the way for the 
spread of Islam. Surat al-Fath (Surah 48 of the Holy Qur'an) 
cmmemorates this victorious event. Allah Ta'ala called it 
"Fathan Mubeena" (a Manifest Victory). See Holy Qur'an, Al- 
Fath (48): 1-4. 



Huge Jj^ 1 - ' ^ 



Hujjaj Pilgrims £l— ^ 

Pilgrims. Persons who have been on pilgrimage to Makkah 
during the Hajj season in the month of Dhul Hijjah. Singular: 
Haj = a male pilgrim, Hajah = a female pilgrim. 

Hujurat (Al) The Apartments ^l>-^l 

"The Apartments". Surah 49 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Human - ^L^Vl 

Humanism ^L^VI 



Humaza (Al) The Scandalmonger ftt^l o>fl! 

"The Scandalmonger". Surah 104 of the Holy Qur'n. 



Humility £^ y 



Hunain dp* 



97 



Valley on the road from Makkah to Taif. Site of a famous 
battle that took place immediately after the conquest of 
Makkah in 8AH, between the Muslim army consisting of about 
10,000-2,000 men and the combined forces of the Hawazin and 
Thaqeef which amounted to 4,000 men. After a surprise attack 
and a near defeat, the Muslims managed to completely crush 
the enemy. See Holy Qur' an, At-Taubah ( 9): 24-25. 

Hungriness £jaJI 
Hurt ci^l 



Hutama 

The seventh and deepest level of the Nar (Hellfire). This is 
where the religious hypocrites will spend eternity. The worst of 
Allah's creation are the Munafiqeen (hypocrites), whether they 
be mankind or Jinn, because they 'accept' Allah and His 
Messenger with their tongues, but deny this 'acceptance' by 
their actions. See Jahanam. 



Hypocrites oj^U* 11 



98 



I 

Iblis o*&i 

The Jinn who disobeyed Allah Ta'ala and was expelled from 
His mercy. It was Iblis who tempted Adam and his wife 
Hawwa (Eve), peace be on them, to approach the forbidden 
tree. He is also known as Shaitan (Satan). See Shaitan . See 
Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2):30-39. 



Ibrahim, peace be upon him fSLwII ^jaIjj! 

"Abraham". He was a messenger, as well as one of the greatest 
prophets of Islam. He was the father of two other great 
prophets, Ismail and Ishaq (Ishmael and Isaac respectively). All 
the prophets who came after him were descended from him, 
peace be on them. See Mursaleen . See Holy Qur' an, Al- 
Baqara (2): 130, 135. Surah 19 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Iconoclasm 




Idealism 




Idol 




Idols 




Idols. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):219 



Idol-worship ^Lu^V! s^Uc 

Idolatry 

Idolatry was widespread in the Arabian Peninsula, including 
Mecca, in the Pre-Islamic era. 



Idris, peace be upon him <j*u J l 

Enoch. A prophet of Islam and a man of truth and wisdom. See 
Holy Qur'an, Maryam (19):56-57, Al-Anbiya (21):85. See 
Mursaleen 



Ifrad (Hajj al) Single Hajj -alj-tii 



99 



"Single Hajj". Performing Hajj without doing Umra. See Hajj 5^ 



1 . The state in which one is prohibited from doing 
certain things which are lawful at other times. 
Umra and Hajj are performed in such a state. 

2. When one assumes such a state one must state 
mentally and orally that he or she is assuming 
such a state for the purpose of Umra or Hajj. Then 
one must recite the Talbiya. See Talbiya 

3. Dress: 

o Men. It consists of two pieces of 
unstitched cloth: 

(i) Rida - worn around the upper part 
of the body. 

(ii) Izar - worn below the waist. 

o Women. Any full length dress which 
covers the entire body except for the 
hands and face, and is inconspicuous, 
i.e. it does not attract attention in any 
way whatsoever (tight, colourful, 
etc.). 

4. Behaviour: Both men and women are not 
permitted to trim their hair or nails, wear perfume, 
harm or kill any living thing, including insects, or 
damage any plant or tree. They should avoid 
argument and loss of temper. Sexual intercourse 
between spouses is also not permitted. 



Ihsan cjU-aI 



Ignoramus 
Ignorantly 



Ihram 




100 



Highest level of obedience in worship, i.e. to be aware of and 
sincere to Allah Ta'ala and to be eager to do all good deeds. It 
is to worship Allah as if you see Him, knowing that, although 
you do not see Him, Allah sees you. 
Ijmaa: Consensus of opinion £j— f*) 
Consensus of opinion. Usually defined as the unanimous 
agreement of the mujtahidoon of any period following the 
demise of the Prophet Muhammad on any matter. As such, it is 
described as collective ijtihaad. 



Ijtihaad: ^ — ^ 

Literally, striving and self-exertion; independent reasoning; 
analytical thought. Ijtihaad may involve the interpretation of 
the source materials, inference of rules from them, or giving a 
legal verdict or decision on any issue on which there is no 
specific guidance in the Qur'an and the Sunnah. 



Ikhlas The Complete Faith o^-C 1 

1. "The Complete Faith". Surah 1 12 of the Holy Qur' 
an. 

2. Sincerity of the heart in worship and purity of 
intention. For any worship to be accepted by Allah 
it must be entirely for His sake, and not for other- 
than-Him. 



Illegal ^ 

Illicit JJ^\ - fljaJ! 



Ilyas, peace be upon him <^ o^i 

Elijah. A prophet of Islam. See Holy Qur'an, Al-An'am (6): 85, 
As-Saffat (37): 123-132. See Mursaleen . 



Imam ^Vl 



101 



Imaret 




Imitation 




Immaculately 




Immanity 




Immarescible 




Immigration 




Immolation 




Immolator 




Immoral 




Immortal 




Impartial 




Impartialness 




Impeccable 


^ ^ \ \ *^ L ^ ^ 


Impeccably 




Impendence 




Impenitence 




Imperator 




Imperiousness 




Imperturabability 




Impiety 




Impignoration 




Impious 




Imploration 




Imposture 




Imprecation 





102 



Improving u*-^ 
Improvement j^*aaJI 
Impure 

Imsaak <&***\ 

Start of the fasting time. Imsaak begins when the first light of 
dawn becomes visible, at Fajr when the Adhan is called. 



Infallibility 






l llCll Lvl CLL'iw 






Tnfittpntinn 


j^joilt oliiJl 


Tnattpntivp 








. jl ^ A\ l_j j 


Inchastity 


Ujll (jjoiJI 








TnHpnpTirlpTit 

lllLiCUCllUCllL 






Indepravate 






Indevote 






Indevotion 






Indidiation 


fSVI - 




Indigence 


aM\ . 




Indigent 




Indirection 






Indisciplinable 






Indocile 






Indocility 


yl J i aaa SI - 





103 



Inerrant 
Inevitable day 

Infendation sl£ilt - JiJI -*U~1I - 



104 



Inference -labial 



Inference. Deducing a somewhat hidden meaning from a given 
text. The process of extracting laws. 



Inferior 






Infidel 


JS1\ - 




Infidelity 




. ^UIVI - jaSlI 


Infidels 




Influential 




jj^aII 


Information 


Lili 




Ingenuousness 


*Lttl g l oil 


- (J.v^lll 


Ingratitude 


(JjtoJI 




Inguilty 






Inherently 


2a>l,„ll . 




Inheritance 


4_iA jaII 


. Aiiljjil 


Inhibition 


^J 2 ^ 1 ■ 




Innitency 


jU^VI - 


^Loill 


Innocence 


<i.UxJl 


S»l jJI 



innovation £A? 

The term bid'ah linguistically means 'innovation'. It is any 
saying or action which has been falsely attributed to the 
Messenger Muhammad (saw) and his Companions (ra). Bid'ah 
is one of the negations of Islam, and those who knowingly 
innovate any matter in the Deen will be prevented from having 
intercession from the Messenger of Allah (saw). Those who 
regularly commit bid'ah are known as Ahl ul-Bid'ah (the people 



105 



of bid'ah), and this term can be applied to many deviant sects 
nowadays, such as the Sufis. 



Input 



Insha Allah If Allah wills M *U2ul 

"If Allah wills". It is forbidden to say "I will do such and such 
tomorrow," without saying afterwards, "Insha Allah". 



Inshiqaq (Al) Rending Asunder Jtl&V! 

"Rending Asunder". Surah 84 of the Holy Qur'an. 

Inshirah (Al) The Expanding ^Ij^jVI 

"The Expanding". Surah 94 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Insight 
Inspiration 
Instinct 
Institution 
Insubmission 
Insurgence 
Insurrections 
Intent 

Intention Niyyah 
Interdict 
Internecion 

Interpretation Taweel 



s-Lau^l - jjjjjjuiuJ! 

(Jj^all - ^ 1 • a* 1 

J1335VI - ^1^31 



106 



Interpretation. Especially interpretation of the Holy Qur'an 

Intreat J^jjj - £ 

Intrepidity a11uJ1\ . J^A\ 

Invasion jjp 

Inveiglement JjL^I 

Investigation - 0 ^**\ \ - tfjaJI 

Invisible t_>j^^ll . jjlouJI 

Invisible world 4-^1 ^ 

Invocation £ - J^jjVI 

Iqama <^Sli\ 

The call which announces to the congregation that the 
obligatory prayer is just about to begin. The statements are the 
same as the Adhan, but in a shortened form, such that if a 
statement is repeated four times during the Adhan, then it is 
repeated twice during the Iqama. 

Iqamat as-salat 

Performing the Salat in a perfect manner. This is understood by 
most Muslims as having only one meaning, but it has two: 

1 . Performing the prayer in exactly the same manner 
as the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him 
and grant him peace, used to pray, see Sahih 
Bukhari, Hadith 737, boook 12, Vol.1. 

2. Establishing the prayer Every person in a Muslim 
society who is seven years old or more must pray - 
women in their houses and men in the Masajid 
(mosques). Every head, be he head of the family 
or chief of the town, will be held responsible for 
the missed Fard prayers of those under him, as 
well as his own. 



Iram fjl 



107 



Capital city of the ancient people of 'Ad in the Yemen. It was 
famous for its lofty pillars. Some scholars say Iram was a hero 
of the people of 'Ad who built a lofty statue of him. See Holy 
Qur'an, AL-Fajr (89):6-8. 



Irresistance c^J 1 - u^^ 1 - f^^ 1 



Isa, peace be upon him Lf u^ 

One of the greatest prophets and messengers of Islam. He is 
also known as Isa ibn Mariam (Jesus, Son of Mary) and Isa al- 
Maseeh (Jesus the Messiah, Jesus Christ). The Jews and the 
Christians have both blasphemed against the Prophet Isa, peace 
be on him. The Jews reject him completely, whilst the 
Christians have elevated him to the level of Allah and/or Son 
of Allah. The concept of such divinity is rejected in the Bible 
by the Prophet Isa himself(in pans of the Bible which have not 
yet been altered) 

1. According to 1 Timothy 2:5, "There is One God, 
and one mediator between God and men, the 
'MAN' Christ Jesus." Notice the words" man" and 
"mediator". Are the Christians trying to say that 
Allah is the mediator and that the Bible is wrong? 
Do they not realize that Allah is so supreme in 
glory that He does not mediate? Ask the 
Christians how else they can explain this verse. 
Warn them that Allah's wrath will be on those 
who know-ingly hide or avoid the Divine Truth. 

2. According to Matthew 24:36, Jesus, peace be on 
him, has no knowledge of the time of the Hour. 
Are the Christian strying to say that Allah lacks 
knowledge? 

3. According to Matthew 14:23, Jesus, peace be on 
him, went into the hills to pray. Are the Christians 
trying to say that Allah needs to pray, and if so, 
then to whom? 

4. "But in vain do they worship me, teaching for 
doctrines commandments of men." Matthew 15:9. 
Isa himself confirmed the prophecy of Isaiah that 



108 



the people would worship him in vain and believe 
in doctrines made by men. The truth is that Jesus, 
peace be on him, spoke the truth, but it is the 
Christians who, in his name, have invented lies 
against him. Allah is One. He did not beget nor 
was He begotten. See Mursaleen . 



Is ha ft 

Night. The fifth and last Fard Salat (Prayer). Its time starts 
about one and a half hours after sunset, when the redness has 
disappeared from the night sky and the stars have appeared, 
and ends a litle before dawn. 



Ishaq, peace be upon him fiLul\ 

Isaac. A prophet of Islam. He was the second son of the 
Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on him. He was thirteen 
years younger than his brother, the Prophet Ismael (Ishmael), 
peace be on him. Mary, mother of Jesus, peace be on them, was 
descended from Ishaq. See Holy Qur' an, Al-An'am (6): 84, As- 
Saffat (37): 112-1 13. See Mursaleen . 



Islam <tf t)tf\ 

• Literally means "submission to the will of Allah". 
It is for this reason that Allah Himself names His 
life transaction "al-Islam" and describes all the 
followers of this way of life, in every age, as 
"Muslims". 

• The life transaction of Allah has five pillars, all of 
which must be strictly adhered to in word, deed 
and sincere belief. The five pillars of Islam are as 
follows: 

1. Shahadatain. Bearing witness. All 
Muslims must believe in and utter the 
Shahadatain. 

■ First Shahada : Ash- 
hadu an la illaha ilia 
l'lah. (I bear witness that 
there is no deity worthy 



109 



of worship except 
Allah.) 

■ Second Shahada: Ash- 
hadu anna Muhammadar 
Rasoolullah. (I bear 
witness that Muhammad 
is the Messenger of 
Allah.) 

2. Salat. Prayers. To do all the five 
compulsory daily prayers regularly in 
the exact manner as was practised by 
the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace. 

3. Seeaam. Fasting. Also spelled as 
Saum. To fast in the month of 
Ramadan. 

4. Zakat. Wealth tax. To pay 2.5% of 
one's yearly savings above a certain 
amount to the poor and needy 
Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on 
all Muslims who have saved (at least) 
the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold 
at the time when the annual Zakat 
payment is due. Zakat is also due on 
other things such as silver, animals, 
crops, etc. For a full explanation on 
Zakat refer to the relevant books 
written on the subject. 

5. Hajj. Pilgrimage. To perform the 
pilgrimage to the Holy City of 
Makkah at least once in one's lifetime 
(if one is able to afford it). See Holy 
Qur' an,Al-Maida (5):3. 

Islamic religious law ^UaX^I 



Ismael, peace be upon him ^L»li ^ Jj&Lu-I 

Ishmael. A prophet of Islam. The first son of the Prophet 
Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on him, thirteen years older than 



110 



his brother, the Prophet Ishaq (Isaac), peace be on him. It was 
through the lineage of Ismael that the Prophet Muhammad, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was born. He helped 
his father Ibrahim to raise the foundations of the Holy Ka'ba, 
the holiest Masjid (mosque) in Islam. See Holy Qur'an, Al- 
Baqara (2): 125-129, Maryam (19):54-55. See Mursaleen . 
Isnaad 

Chain of narrators of a hadeeth. 



Isra (Al) f lj (j-VI 

"The Night Journey". Another name for Bani Israel. Surah 17 
of the Holy Qur'an. 

Isolate J>^> 
Isolation ^Jf 
Izar jljVI 
A cloth worn (by men) below the waist. 



Ill 



J 



Jab 4isJall Sji.jll 



Jabriyah 

Jabriyah : A sect which denies man's freedom of choice and 
believes that all his actions are predetermined 



Jack [s^. 
Jacob £LA\ <Ac ^J**-?, 



Jahanam fm> 

Most commonly understood to mean Hell. In fact, it is one of 
the levels of Hell. There are seven levels of Hellfire: 

1 . Jaheem - the shallowest level of Hell. It is 
reserved for those who believed in Allah and His 
Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, but who ignored His commands. 

2. Jahanam - a deeper level where the idol- 
worshippers are to be sent on the Day of 
Judgement. 

3. Sa'ir - is reserved for the worshippers of fire. 

4. Saqar - this is where those who did not believe in 
Allah will be sent on the Day of Judgement. 

5. Ladha - will be the home of the Jews. 

6. Hawiyah - will be the abode of the Christians. 

7. Hutama - the deepest level of Hellfire. This is 
where the religious hypocrites will spend eternity. 
The worst of Allah's creation are the Munafiqeen 
(Hypocrites), whether they be mankind or Jinn, for 
they outwardly appear to accept, but inwardly 
reject, Allah and His Messenger. 



112 



Jaheem fj^ l 

The shallowest level of the Nar. It is reserved for those who 
believed in Allah and His Messenger Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, but who ignored His 
commands. See Jahanam. 



Jahliyah Ignorance The Pre-Islamic Era AJaUJI 

Ignorance. This involves relying on what is other than the truth. 
This is why the age prior to the advent of Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace, is called Jahiliyah. Many 
people believed, for example, in Allah, but tried to attain His 
pleasure through worshipping another medium such as a stone, 
fire, man, wood, animal, etc., rather than following His 
guidance which had been revealed to the earlier messengers. 
The age of Jahiliyah 'ended' when the Final Revelation, the 
Holy Qur'an, was revealed to mankind and the Jinn. However, 
it still exists wherever this Last Message from God has not 
reached. Any deviation from the True Path is no longer 
considered as Jahiliyah, but as Kufr, for the truth has been 
distinguished from falsehood. 



Jamra tj** 

White hot coal. The term used to describe the three pillars built 
of stone at Mina. Plural: Jimar. 



Jamrat al 'aqaba 

One of the three stone pillars at Mina. One of the rites of Hajj 
is to throw pebbles at these stone pillars, which represent 
Shaitan (Satan). Plural: Jimar. 



113 



Jannah Paradise ^> 

Also spelled as Janna. Paradise. A created abode in the 
Hereafter for those who believe in the Unity of Allah and in all 
His Prophets and Messengers, and who follow their way of life. 
See Mursaleen. Jannah has eight gates around it and each of 
these eight gates has eleven doors. The names of the eight gates 
are: 

1. Bab al-Iman. 

2. Babal-Jihad. 

3. Bab al-Kadhemean al-Gaidh. 

4. Bab ar-Raiyan. 

5. Bab ar-Radiyeen. 

6. Bab as-Sadaqa. 

7. Bab at-Taubah. 

8. Babas-Salat. 

Jannah has not been guaranteed to any human being or Jinn 
(with the exception of the messengers of Allah) before their 
deaths, other than the following ten men: 

1. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. 

2. Umar ibn al-Khattab. 

3. Uthman ibn Affan. 

4. Ali ibn Abi Talib. 

5. Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqas. 

6. Abu Ubaida Amer ibn al-Jarrah. 

7. Al-Zubair ibn al-Awam. 

8. Talha ibn Ubaidu'llah. 

9. Abdar-Rahman ibn 'Auf. 
lO.Sa'isibn Zaid. 

May Allah be pleased with all of them. 



Jathiyah (Al) The Crouching 

"The Crouching". Surah 45 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Jehad 



114 



The Jews of Medina ^ 

The Jews of Medina : Upon arriving at Medina, the Messenger 
of Allah made a covenant with the Jews. They were conferred 
liberty to practice their religion and their title to their wealth. 



Jibreel, peace be upon him £LA\ Aalc Jjjja 

The Angel Gabriel. Also called Rooh al-Qudus, "The Holy 
Spirit". His duty was to reveal the Word of Allah Ta'ala to His 
Anbiaa (Prophets). He is now sent to help the very religious 
against the temptations of Shaitan (Satan) at the time of death. 
His epithet is Roohul Amin (The Spirit of Truth) (Ash-Shu'ara 
(26): 193). The AI-Amin is Muhammad, may Allah bless him 
and grant him peace. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):97-98, 
At-Takwir (81): 19-21. See Mursaleen 



Jinn (Al) 

"The Jinn". A race of created beings that are made out of 
smokeless fire. They are like the Ins (human race) in many 
ways: 

1. They are born, have children and die. They also 
have friends and family. 

2. There are Muslims and Kuffar amongst them. 

3. They eat food, but their food consists mainly of 
bones and stool. 

They differ from us in many ways too: 

1. Their lifespan is much longer than ours. 

2. They can see us and sometimes are able to dwell 
within us. 

3. They need no form of transport. 

4. They need no housing. The Muslims amongst 
them like to live in the Masajid and pray, but the 
unbelievers tend to live in the bathrooms of non- 
religious Ins (human beings). The best way to 
make sure that they do not intermix with us (i.e. 
enter our bodies or houses or eat food with us) is 



115 



to remember Allah constantly and to read the Holy 
Qur'an as much as possible. Surah 72 of the Holy 
Qur'an. 

Jizya tax & tfj^ 1 

A tax imposed on non-Muslims who are under Muslim rule. 

Job fSLJi Ajk ^jjjI 

Joseph ^LA\ aJc ca^jj 

Judaism ^Pjfc^ 
Judge ^lil! 
Judgeship 

Judgment ^Ljaill 
Judiye iS*3=^ 

Place where the Ark of the Prophet Nooh (Noah), peace be on 
him, came to rest. Jabal (Mount) Judiye is in the Turkish 
district of Bothan, which is situated near the frontiers of 
Turkey, Syria and Iraq. See Holy Qur'an, Houd (]J):44. 

Junub 4"* 

Junub - a person having Janaba - means to be in a state of 
ceremonial impurity or defilement. A male becomes junub on 
having sexual intercourse or simply on the emission of semen 
in sleep or otherwise. A female also becomes junub as a result 
of sexual intercourse as well as when she is menstruating or 
having postnatal bleeding. These are the general causes of 
janaba, which is also referred to in the books of jurisprudence 
as hadath akbar. A full bath is required for a junub to receive 
purification or tahara, without which a man or woman is not 
allowed to touch or read the Qur'an, enter the mosque or offer 
the prayers. In the absence of water, however, one is allowed to 
resort to tayammum. Tayammum substitutes for both a full 
bath (ghusl) and ablution (wudu). 
Jurist £ - 
Justice J^all - <J^t 



116 



K 



Ka'aba <f^\ 

The cube-shaped stone building whose foundations were built 
by the angels and completed by Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) 
and his son, the Prophet Ismael, peace be on them, in Makkah. 
It was rebuilt with the help of the Prophet Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is the focal point 
towards which all Muslims face when praying. 



Kabin 
Kadi 



Kafir Unbeliever j — <-^* 

Unbeliever. Someone who covers up the truth and rejects Allah 
and His messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them 
peace. There are many different ways in which a person 
becomes a disbeliever in Allah. For full explanation see Kufr. 
Plural: Kuffar. 

Unbeliever. Someone who covers up the truth and rejects Allah 
and His messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them 
peace. There are many different ways in which a person 
becomes a disbeliever in Allah. For full explanation see Kufr. 
Plural: Kuffar. 



Kafila 




Kaid 




Kain 




Kaiser 




Kauser 




Kawthar (Al) 


The fount of Kawthar 



117 



1. "The fount of Kawthar". A sacred fount in Jannah 
(paradise). It is the source of all the four rivers of 
Paradise, and feeds the Hawd of the Prophet 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace. Surah 108 of the Holy Qur'an. 

2. The Hawd which is filled by Al-Kawthar is at the 
end of the Siratul Mustaqeem. It is a gift from 
Allah to the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him 
and grant him peace. It is to quench the thirst of 
the true believers. 



Keblat M 

Ken ^1 j^l - Ai 



Khadija may Allah be pleased with her *M (j^j 

First wife of the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant 
him peace, and one of the four greatest females created, the 
other three being; 

1. Mariam (Mary), Mother of the Prophet isa (Jesus), 
peace be on them. 

2. Asiya, the wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh). 

3. Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, may Allah bless 
them and grant them peace. 



Khaibar 

A famous town north of Madinah. It was the place where a 
great battle took place between the Muslims and the Jews in 
10 AH. The Muslim victory at Khaibar destroyed Jewish 
influence in the Arabian peninsular for many centuries, until 
the introduction of the modern Jewish banking system 
throughout the world. See Holy Qur' an, Al-A hzab (33):27. 



Khaleel 



118 



Highest form of friendshp. The love that is mixed with one's 
own soul. The Prophet Muhammad and the Prophet Ibrahim, 
may Allah bless them and grant them peace, were 
'Khaleelu'llah', the intimate friends of Allah. They loved people 
for Allah, but their greatest love was only Allah Subhana wa 
Ta'ala Himself. 



Khalideen l^^C 

To abide for ever. The good will abide in the Jannab (Paradise) 
and the evil will abide in the Nar (Hellfire) forever. 
"Khalideena feeha abada". (They will abide in there for ever.) 
The word "Aba da" also means "for ever". Allah Ta'ala uses 
"Abada" to emphasize "for ever", reminding us that eternity is 
endless. 



Khalifa 

Derives from the word Khalafa, 
Yakhlufu = come after. 

Khulafa = the ones who succeed others, in the sense of 
standing in as a representative for someone else. 
Thus Khalifa = viceregent, the representative of Allah. Khalifa 
has two main meanings: 

1. General: It refers to mankind, particularly the 
believers. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): 30. 
Every Muslim is a Khalifa and should carry the 
banner of Islam high and strive to establish the 
Deen of Islam until Allah's Word is uppermost on 
the earth.) 

2. Specific: A Muslim ruler. There were four Al- 
Khulafaa ar-Rashideen, "the rightly-guided 
Khulafaa": 

o AbuBakras-Siddiq- 11-13AH. 
o Umar ibn al-Khattab - 13-23 AH. 
o Uthman ibn 'Affan - 24-36AH. 



119 



o Ah ibn Abi Talib- 36-40 AH. 
May Allah be pleased with them. Plural: Khulafaa. 



Khandaq (Al) The Ditch JJtfJt 

"The Ditch". A famous battle between the early Muslims and 
the pagans in which the Muslims built a Khandaq (trench) on 
the unprotected side of the city of Al-Madinah al-Munawarah 
to prevent the advance of the Makkan unbelievers in 5AH. The 
enemy were halted by this unexpected tactic, and then driven 
away by awful weather, mutual distrust and low morale, 
without any major engagement having taken place. It was also 
called Ghazwatul-Ahzab (Battle of the Clans), because the 
Makkan idol- worshippers were assisted by the Jewish Tribes 
ofBanu Nadhir, Banu Chatfan and Banu Asad. See Holy 
Qur'an, An-Nur (24):55, Al-Ahzab (33):9-20. 



Kharaj £b— £11 

Tax imposed on the revenue from land taken from non- 
muslims to ensure their equal rights under Islamic law. 



Khatib orator 

orator, speaker. 



Khawarij 

The people who dissented from Islam and created a false belief 
which was not part of the HolyQur'an or the teachings of the 
Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace. Singular: Kharij. 



Khazen OJ^ 

. Finance manager. 



Khimar veil 



120 



A type of Hijab (veil) which covers the face, but leaves the 
eyes exposed, as opposed to the Niqab, which covers the entire 
face, including the eyes. 



khitan : ljI — ^ 

the ritual circumcision of every Muslim male child. 



Khosoof Lunar eclipse ti^uiJI 

Lunar eclipse. There is a special Eclipse Salat (prayer) which 
lasts as long as the eclipse itself. 



Kiblah 






Kind 






Kindhearteredness 




'■A aa 11 


Kindless 






Kindly 




L_a jJaxJl 


King 






Kingdom 


<4U 




Kinship 






Kismet 




- A a i aflll 



Book. There are three types of Kutub (books): 

1. The Book of records or deeds. On the Day 
of judgement, everyone from both man and Jinn 
will receive their book, in their right or left hand, 
according to the preponderance of their good or 
bad deeds and thus will either enter Paradise or be 
cast into Hellfire. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Qamar 
(54):52-53. 



121 



2. AI-Kitab, The Book (or Revelation). Refers 
especially to the Holy Qur'an, but also refers to the 
original revelations revealed to the earlier 
messenpgers of Allah, may the blessings and 
peace of Allah be on them. See Qur'an. 

3. Ordinary books, i.e. books written by people, all 
of which are subject of human error and cannot be 
compared to the Qur'an. The Qur'an is the 
uncreated word of Allah Ta'ala. 



Kneel 

Kneeling *jSL?JI 

Knight <-W^I - <j»Jft 

Knowing <-« 

Knowledge ^ j*^ 

Koran fjj^ 



Kufee 

A style of angular writing often used for early hand-written 
copies of the Holy Qur'an. 



Kufr 

Disbelief in Allah's Commands, including the refusal to accept 
whatever the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace, taught. There are two levels of Kufr: 
1. Kufr al-Akbar (major disbelief) 

. Major Kufr is subdivided into five categones; 
o Kufr al-Taktheeb: Denying the divine 
truth. 



122 



o Kufr Abaa wa Stakbara ma'al- 
Tasdeeq:Refusing to bow to Allah 
due to pride, even though 
acknowledging the divine truth. 

o Kufr ash-Shakk wa Dhann: Doubting 
any or all of the six articles of faith 
(see 'Aqaaid), even if not completely 
denying them. 

o Kufr al-Iraad: Knowingly turning 
away from the divine truth. 

o Kufr al-Nifaq: Disbelief through 
hypocrisy. 
2. Kufr al-Asghar (minor disbelief) 

. Being unappreciative of what Allah Ta'ala has 
provided. 



Kunya 

A respectful and affectionate way of calling People as "Abu" or 
"Umm" (Abu = father of, Umm = mother of) followed by the 
name of the eldest son; if there is no male offspring then the 
"Abu" or"Umm" is followed by the name of the eldest 
daughter. It is prohibited to have the same Kunya as the 
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, e.g. It is not permitted to call someone Abu Qasim". 
Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 205, Vol.8. Sahih Muslim, Kitabul-A 
dab. 



Kusuf Solar eclipse 

Solar eclipse. There is a special Eclipse Salat (prayer) which 
lasts as long as the eclipse itself. 



123 



Hypocrite Zindeeq J^J 

Hypocrite or unbeliever. Anyone who does not believe in Allah 
and who rejects His Messengers, may Allah bless them and 
grant them peace. 



124 



L 



La ilaha ilia 'llah &\ V! Al\ V 

There is no deity except Allah. This sentence is called Al- 
Kalimatul Tayibah. 



Lailatul-Qadr' Night of Power' jM AAA 

The 'Night of Power', concealed in one of the odd nights in the 
last ten days of Ramadan; the night on which the Qur'an was 
first revealed by Jibreel to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, and which the Qur'an itself 
describes as "better than a thousand months" (Holy Qur' an, Al- 
Qadr (97): 3). 



Lance 




Lapidate 




Lapidation 




Lapse 




Largess 




Last the 




Last day 




Lasting 





Lateef(Al) OJail! 

"Al-Lateef". The Subtle One Who is All-Pervading. One of the 
ninety-nine Attributes of Allah. The exact meaning of this 
word is very difficult to fully understand. It includes all of the 
following meanings (and more that we are not aware of): 



125 



1 . So fine that He is imperceptible to the human 
sight. 

2. So pure that He is unimaginable to the human 
mind. 

3. So kind that He is beyond human comprehension. 

4. So gracious that He is beyond human grasp. 

5. So near that He is closer to us than our jugular 
veins. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hajj (22):63, Ash- 
Shura(42):19. 



Laudable the 




Laudableness 




Law 




Layer 




Leadership 




League 




Leal 




Lealty 




Legacy 




Legal 




Legend 




Legitimate 




Legitimists 




Lewdness 




Lewdness. A major sin. 




Liberation 




Link 





Literally Taabioon 



126 



Literally, followers. The generation of Muslims immediately 
after the Companions (.Sahaabah). 



Local custom which is Recognizably' good. In the absence of 
anything to the contrary, derivation of the law from the 
common and approved mores of a people. 



Loot, Peace be upon him ^L«ll JajJ 

Lot. A prophet of Islam. Nephew of the Prophet Ibrahim 
(Abraham), peace be on them. The Prophet Loot's wife was 
destroyed, along with the people whom he called to worship 
Allah, for their wickedness. They were the first people to 
practise homosexuality and lesbianism. See Holy Qur'an, Houd 
(11):81, Ash-Shu'ara (26): 160-175. 



Loss 




- SjLoiiJI 


Loyal 






Loyalty 






Luminous 







Lunar calendar ( <$jH^ ) cs j*^ 1 

In their religious duties, Muslims depend on solar and lunar 
calendars. The latter is shorter than the solar by twelve days. 
Fasting the month of Ramadhan, celebrating the two major 
feasts ('Eid Al-Fitr and 'Eid Al-Adhha), performing the 
pilgrimage to Makkah, and other religious activities depend 
upon the lunar months. The names of the lunar months are: 
Muharram, Safar, Rabi' Al-Awwal, Rabi' Al-Akhar, Jumadal 
ulla, Jumada Al-Akhirah, Rajab, Sha'ban, Ramadhan, 
Shawwal, Zul-Qa'adah, and Zul-Hijjah. The timing of the daily 
prayers depends on the solar system. 



127 



Luqman C$ 

"Luqman". Name of a wise sage of ancient Arabia. Some say 
he was a prophet. He has the title of Mu'ammar (the long lived 
one). Surah 31 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Lure ^1 >il - *l >V! - *1 joV! 

Luxurious - 

Luxury ^jj^l 
Luxary 



128 



M 



Ma 'arij (Al) £b fc^l 

"The Ways of Ascent". Surah 70 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Ma 'arif ^jl 

A spiritual realisation of Allah Ta'ala. Gnosis. It is to directly 
witness the Light of the Names and Attributes of Allah 
manifested in the heart. 



Ma 'shar Assemblies j — tn*^ 1 

Assemblies. Whether they be assemblies of mankind or of the 
Jinn or both. 



Mabrur jjj — ^ 

A Hajj that is accepted by Allah because of its perfection in 
both inward intention and outward observance of the traditions 
of Rasoolu'llah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 



Madhhab: way of going 

(plural: madhaahib). Literally, way of going. School of 
thought. 



Madyan 

People of the Prophet Shu'aib, peace be on him. They were 
destroyed by an earthquake for rejecting Shu'aib and the 
warnings from Allah Ta' ala he had brought with him. See Holy 
Qur'an, Al-A'raf(7):85-93, Houd (l]):84-95. 



Maghdoub Cursed 1>^» 

"Cursed" by Allah Ta'ala. Surah Al-Fariha (1):7, 
"...Maghdoubee 'alaihim..." (those that have been cursed) refers 
to the Jews. Allah Ta' ala has cursed them for continually 



129 



breaking their covenants. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2 ):83 - 
86, 93,100, Al-Ma' idah (5): 13-14, 73. 



Maghfirah Forgiveness &j — i-axaJ! 

Forgiveness. In the Holy Qur'an Allah Ta'ala uses three 
different words to mean "forgive": 

1. 'Afa. Forgave, in the sense of obliterating the 
memory of wrondoing from one's mind. 

2. Safaha. Forgave, in the sense of overlooking, 
ignoring or turning away from misdeeds. 

3. Maghflra. Comes from one of the ninety-nine 
Attributes of Allah Ta'ala, "Al-Ghafur", which 
means to forgive again and again. 



Maghreb Sunset ^ 

Sunset. The fourth compulsory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It 
consists of three Raq'as. It can be prayed at any time between 
just after sunset and before the stars appear in the sky. 



Magic 
Magician 

Magnanimity » jiill - <jpU.VI ? j£ 

Magnificence <-D^ - ^ 

Magnificent J^?> - ^ - 



Mahr j 

Dowry given by a husband to his bride on marriage. 
Maiden 



Manifest Zaahir j &Uai! 



130 



Manifest, apparent, obvious. A word or phrase is described as 
zaahir when it has a clear meaning. It may still however be 
open to interpretation. 



Maiser Gambling 

Gambling. Literally means getting something too easily. 
Maiser has been prohibited by Allah Ta'ala in the strongest 
terms possible : "Ijtanibou" - "Leave it!". It is a higher level of 
prohibition than forbidding it because it is Haram. Hararn = a 
direct prohibition ordered by Allah Ta'ala. Ijtanibou = a degree 
more serious than Ha ram. It is not only Haram, but also a 
direct command not to approach or be near it for any reason 
whatsoever. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ba qara (2):2 19, A/-Ma' idah 
(5):93. 



Majeed The Most Glorious J— 

"Al-Majeed". The Most Glorious. One of the ninety-nine 
Attributes ofAllah. For a full list of the Asmaul Husna of Allah 
Ta'ala. 



Majesty - 



Majoos Fire worshippers o*j-qa1\ 

Fire worshippers. These people lived mainly in Persia and the 
Eastern Arabian Peninsula in the pre-Islamic period of 
ignorance. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Haft (22): 17. 



Majority 
Major sins 



Makr j 4*11 



131 



Has two meanings: 

1 . Plotting or planning with evil intent. 

2. Planning for a good purpose: 

"Wa Makaru wa Makara Allah wa'llahu Khairul 
Makereen" (Surah Aali 'Imran (3):54). "They 
planned and Allah planned and Allah is the best of 
planners". 

Makaru = they plotted. Makara = He planned. 

Makkar = plotter. 

Makereen= plotters. 

See Holy Qur' an, Aali 'Imran (3):54. 



Malaikah Angels * — 

• "Angels". Another name for Suratul Fatir. Surah 
35 of the Holy Qur' an. 

• A race of created beings that are made out of light. 
Their sole purpose in creation is to worship and 
glorify Allah and to perform their duties exactly as 
described. They are incapable of disobedience. 
They do not eat, or sleep, or procreate. Their exact 
number is unknown. Amongst the well-known 
ones are the following: 

1. The angel Jibreel (Gabriel) - the 
angel whose duty is to communicate 
between Allah Ta'ala and the 
prophets and to whomever Allah 
wills; e.g. he was commanded to 
communicate with Mariam 
(Mary,Mother of the Prophet Jesus), 
Jesus and Muhammad, may Allah 
bless them and grant them peace. 

2. The angel Mikaeel (Michael) - the 
angel of provisions. 



132 



3. The angel of Death - takes the souls 
of people when they die. Many 
Muslims mistakenly call him lirael. 
The name "I irael" is neither 
mentioned in the Holy Book of Allah, 
the Holy Qurtan, nor by Muhammad, 
may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, in any of the Ahadeeth. The 
name "Izrael" is mentioned in the 
Taurat and therefore has been 
'borrowed' from the Jews. Beware of 
such innovations. Copying the Jews 
or any other unbelievers, and then 
saying "This is from Allah", is Kufn 

4. The angel Israfeel - the angel who 
will blow the horn to bring the 
universe to its end. 

5. The angel Ridwan - keeper of Jannah 
(Paradise). 

6. The angel Maalik - keeper of Nar 
(Hellfire). 

7. The angels Munkar and Nakeer - the 
two angels who are assigned to 
question the souls of the dead in their 
graves about their fa ith. 

Peace be on all of them. Singular: Malak. 



Malice - 
Malignity ^ - -^j* 



The Mamluk State (1250-151 7 A.D.) dJU^l 4S 3 j 

The Mamluk State (1250-1517 A.D.) : The Mamluks were 
originally Turkish, Circassian and Mongol slaves recruited by 
the Ayyubids. They rose to power in Egypt and constituted the 



133 



two ruling-classes: the Naval Mamluks and the Mamluks of the 
Tower. The Mamluk Sultans extended their influence over 
Syria and some parts of Asia Minor. They confronted the 
Crusaders and Mongols. After the fall of their state at the hands 
of the Ottomans, their chiefs represented a source of trouble 
and disturbance until Muhammad v Ali eliminated them at the 
Massacre of the Citadel (1811 A.D.) Although their era was 
famous for its political anarchy, they left behind important 
architectural monuments including mosques, schools, and 
hospices, particularly in Cairo. 

Manah su * 

Manah : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic 
period 



Manasik General sacrifice 

General sacrifice in the path of Allah Ta'ala. All deeds and 
actions during the Hajj are regarded as Manasik, for they are 
indeed regarded as sacrifices in the path of Allah. 



Manifestly 
Mankind 



Mansookh Abrogated £j o^* 

Abrogated. The abrogation of certain commands usually came 
with increased belief or a change in situation. Only Allah 
Ta'ala has the power to abrogate verses of the Holy Qur'an. An 
example of an abrogated statement is: "...wa in too bdu ma fee 
anfooseekum aw too khfoohu youhasibkumbihi Allah... "(Al- 
Baqara (2):284), "...whether you show what is in your mind or 
conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it...". When the 
Muslims heard this Ayah they went to Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, and said: "O Rasoolullah, we 
can control ourselves, but how can we control the outbursts in 



134 



our hearts?" (i.e. sudden thoughts that Shaitan puts within us). 
The Prophet Muhammad said: "Do you intend to say, 'Same'na 
wa asaina' (We hear and we disobey), as did both the People of 
the Book (i.e. the Jews and the Christians)? Say, 'Same'na wa 
ata'na!'." So they said, 'Same'na wa ata'na (We hear and we 
obey) . On hearing their reply Allah Ta'ala abrogated this verse, 
by revealing the 286th verse of Surah al-Bqara. "La 
youkalifu'llahu nafsan lila wus'aha...", "Allah does not burden a 
soul beyond its scope...". The aim of the 284th verse of Surah 
al-Baqara was to test the followers of Muhammad, may the 
blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them, as to whether 
or not they would say the same as the Jews and the Christians 
who used to say, "Same 'na wa 'asaina" (We hear and we 
disobey) 



Maqam Ibrahim The station of Ibrahim f^L«t 

The station of Ibrahim. The place where the Prophet Ibrahim, 
peace be on him, stood in prayer, and which marks the place of 
prayer following Tawaf of the Ka'aba. This place today is 
marked by a stone in which there are two large sunken 
footprints, said to have been made by the Prophet Ibrahim 
when he stood on the stone while he and his son Ismael were 
building the Ka'aba. 



Mariam, peace be upon her ^L«ll 

"Mary". The Virgin Mary. Daughter of 'Imran and Hannah and 
mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him. She is the 
first of the four greatest females created, the other three being: 

1. Asiya, the wife of Firlaun (Pharaoh). 

2. Khadija, the first wife of Muhammad. 

3. Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, may the 
blessings and peace of Allah be on him and all his 
wives and family. 

Surah 19 of the Holy Qur'an. 



135 



Martyr Shaheed 

Martyr in the cause of Allah Ta'ala. There have been many 
Shuhadaa in Islamic history, amongst whom are the following: 

1. Hamza, martyred at the Battle of Uhud in 4AH. 

2. Umar, stabbed in Madinah on 27/ 12/23 AH. 

3. Uthman, axed at his home on 17/12/35AH. 

4. Ali, stabbed while in Sajda on 17/9/40AH. 

5. Hussein, martyred at the Battle of Karbulah (Iraq) 
on 9/1/61 AH. 

Whoever is killed in the way of Allah goes straight to the 
Garden, may Allah be pleased with all of them. See Holy 
Qur'an,An-Nisaa (4): 117-120. Plural: Shuhadaa 



Marut 

One of the two angels that were sent by Allah as a trial to 
mankind by way of allowing Harut and Marut to teach them 
magic. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): 102. 



Marwa &jja1! 

A small hill in Makkah close to the holiest Masjid in Islam, Al- 
Masjid al-Haram. See Sa'i Safa and Marwa. 



Masad (Al) Palm Fibre 

"Palm Fibre". Another name for Surah Abl Lahab. This Surah 
condemned Abi Lahab and his wife to Hellfire (many years 
before their deaths) for their Kufr, especi~ly their violent 
opposition to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him 
and grant him peace. Surah 1]] of the Holy Qur'an. 



Maskeen visibly in need 

visibly in need, but also those who seem in no need of help, but 
who in reality are very poor. Singular: Miskeen. 



136 



Masjid Mosque ***** 

Mosque. A place of worship for Muslims. A place where the 
five daily compulsory prayers are regularly done, except for the 
Jum'a prayers (the Friday noon prayer and Friday Khutba). The 
Masjid Jame' is the place where all the five compulsory Salat 
(Prayers) and the Jurn'a prayers are regularly done. The Masjid 
Jame' is usually larger than a Masjid. Plural: Masaj Id. 

Masjid al-aqsa (Al) 'Furthest Mosque' cj^ft 

The 'Furthest Mosque' built by the early Muslims in Jerusalem, 
on or near where the Temple of Solomon once stood. See 
Baitul-Maqdis. 



Masjid al-haram (Al) f LpJI a*** a 1\ 

The Grand Masjid in Makkah. The Ka'ba (the Qiblalt of the 
Muslims) is situated within it. 



Masjid an-nabawi (Al) (j j^l lao ^ t 

Another name for the Masjid ar-Rasool in Al-Madinah. It is the 
second greatest Masjid in Islam, the first being the Masjid al- 
Haram in Al-Makkah al-Mukaramah, and the third being the 
Masjid al-Aqsa in AI-Quds (Jerusalem). 

Mediation - <JaL-j 

Medieval cs^j jy-^- 

Medina Al-Munawwarah • J^ 1 *4**« 

Medina Al-Munawwarah [Illuminated] : Previously known as 
Yathrib 



Meditation - lUj 

Menace ^f-j 



137 



Mendacity jjjM - «^VI 

Merciful ^ j 
Mercy - 

Messenger Jj^j 
Messenger of Allah Jj^j 



Mi'raj £b ^ 



The Night Journey of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, from Makka to Jerusalem and 
then through the realms of the seven Heavens, beyond the limit 
of forms, the Sidrat al-Muntaha, to within a bow-span's length 
or nearer to the Presence of Allah. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Isra 
(17): 1. See Bukhari, Hadith 345, Book 8, Vol.1 ,and 227,book 
58 Vol.5. 



Migration s 



Mihraab Prayer niche snb 

Prayer niche of a Masjid (mosque), in front of which the Imam 
stands when leading the congregational prayers. 



Militant 



Mimbar pulbit 

Steps on which the Imam stands to deliver the Khutba on the 
day of the Jum'a. 



Mina ^* 

A place five miles from Makkah and approximately ten miles 
from Arafat. An essential place to visit during the Hajj. See 
Hajj. 

Minaret * J±* 

Minority *jBV! 



138 



Miracles 

Miracle : A miracle is an event that appears inexplicable by the 
laws of nature, so held to be supernatural in origin or an act of 
Allah. 



Misbelief 






Miscreant 






Miser 






Misery 


- 


Li 


Misrule 


L-lljJajual - 




Mission 


aAjojj! - 




Mistrust 


- liLui 




Mob 


die. jC- 




Moderation 


JIJ3&VI 




Modesty 


Sjl^L _ 


4 ir. 



Mohammad, peace be upon him <^ 

The Final Messenger of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to Ins wal 
Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Born in Makkah in 570AC. At the 
age of 40 he was called upon to become the mightiest of all 
messengers. He died in Madinah at the age of 63 after 
gloriously completing his transmission of the Divine Message. 
He was the bringer of the greatest miracle of all time, the Holy 
Qur'an. It is through him that Allah Ta'ala has enlightened 
mankind and the Jinn until the Day of Judgement. He is the 
Best of Creation, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on 
him and his family and his companions and all who follow him 
and them in what they are able, with sincerity, until the Last 
Day. To those Jews and Christians who reject the Holy Prophet 



139 



Muhammad, let it be known that Muhammad is actually 
mentioned by name in the Old Testament in the original 
Hebrew Song of Solomon, Ch.5, v. 16. But for some misguided 
reason they have chosen to adulterate it by changing it from 
"Muhammadim" (in the Hebrew) to "altogether lovely" in the 
English. (Mummad + im is a term of respect in Hebrew.) 
Similarly, Muhammad is actually mentioned by name in the 
New Testament in John 14.16,26,15.26 and 16.13. The Greek 
word "Periqleitos" (Paraclete), which is the equivalent of the 
Aramaic word "Mhamda", means precisely what "Ahmad" 
means in Arabic, "the most praiseworthy", and "Ahmad" is one 
of the Prophet Muhammad's names, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace. But for some misguided reason they have 
chosen to adulterate it by changing it from "Mhamda" (in the 
Aramaic) to "Comforter" or "Counsellor" in the English. Many 
other references to Muhammad which existed in the original 
Torah and Ingeel have been removed altogether. Allah Ta'ala's 
wrath awaits those who knowingly alter or hide His words. 
Allah Ta'ala has given Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace, the following names; 

1. Muhammad: The one who praises and is praised. 

2. Ahmad: The most praiseworthy. 

3. AI-Mahi: The effacer (of Kufr). 

4. AI.Aqib: The last. 

5. Mustafa: The chosen. 

6. AI-Amin: The trustwonhy. 

Surah 47 of the Holy Qur' an. For a chronological list of the 
main events in the Prophet Muhammad's life, may Allah bless 
him and grant him peace. 



A Chronological Guide 



140 



1. Prophet's birth 




In the spring 
season Monday 
is the agreed 
day. 1st year of 
Am-ul-Feel. 50 
days after the 
event of the 
elephant, 
corresponding 
to 22nd April, 
570 AD, 1st 
Jaith 628 
Bikrami before 
sunrise, 
popularly 
known to be 12 
Rabi I. 




The date is a 
matter of 
controbersy, but 
most researchers 
lean to the 9th 
Rabi I, as 
Monday also 
falls on that 
date. Other 
dates suggest 
are 10 and 13 
Rabi I. Some 
have also 
suggested 8. But 
the majority of 
scholars' view 
favours 9. 


2. Nursing 




At the age of 4 
months. 




2-3 days after 
birth, he was 
suckled by 
Thaubia, a slave 
girl of Abu 
Lahab. 
Permanent 
nursing period 
spent at the 
desert home of 
Halima S'adia 


3. Death of Prophet's 
mother. 




At the age of 6 
years. 






4. Death of his 
grandfather. 




At the age of 8 
years 2 months 
10 days. 







141 



5. First journey to 
Syria with Hazrat 
Abu Talib. 




At the age of 12 
years 2 months 




The episode of 
Bahira, the Monk, 
is connected with 
this journey. 


6. Participation in the 
battle of Fajjar 1st 
time. 




At the age of 15 
or thereabout. 






7. Participation in the 
battle of Fajjar 
second time. 




Some time 
later, no date 
given. 






8. Participation in 
Hilful Fazul, a 
reformist movement. 




At the age of 
16. 






9. Second journey to 
Syria as a trader. 




At the age of 23 
or 24 






10. Marriage with 
Hazrat Khadija. 




At the age of 25 
years 2 months. 






11. Unseen secrets 
reveal themselves. 




Seven years 
before 

Prophethood at 
the age of 33. 






12. Arbitration. 




At the age of 
35. 




Arbitrated in the 
dispute about 
fixing the black 
stone which was 
amicably 
settled. 


13. Prophethood. 




At the age of 40 
years 1 1 days, 9 
Rabi I, 

corresponding 







142 







to 12 February, 
610 AD, 
Monday 






14. Fajr and Asr 
Prayers , prescribed 2 
Rakats each. 




9 Rabi I, on the 
day of 

Prophethood. 






15. Beginning of 
revelation of the 
Qur'an 




18 Ramaza 1st 
year of 
Prophethood 
Friday, at night 




Sura 'Alaq was 
revealed 


16. Beginning of 
secrect preaching 




House of 
Arquam 
Makhzoomi 
was made 
centre of 
movement. 




About 40 people 
accepted Islam 
during this 
period. 


17. First public 
announcement of 
Prophethood. 




At the end of 
3rd year of 
Prophethood. 






18. First wave of 
opposition, Ridicule 
Propaganda and mild 
oppression. 




3rd to 5th year 
of Prophethood. 




During this 
period, 

deputations of 
Quraish went to 
pressurise Abu 
Talib and 
confabulations 
for opposition. 


19. Second wave of 
intense opposition, 
Oppression. 




5th to 7th year 
of Prophethood. 






20. Migration to 




Rajab, 5th year 







143 



Abyssinia. 




of Prophethood. 






21. Hazrat Hamza 
and Hazrat Umar 
embrace Islam. 








Hazrat Umar 
accepted Islam 
3 days after 
Hazrat Hamza. 


22. Prophet's 
internment at Shi'b 
Abi Talib with the 
family of Hashim. 




1st Muharram, 
7th year of 
Prophethood. 






23. End of internment 
and boycott. 




End of 9th year 
of Prophethood. 






24. Year of sorrow. 
Death of Hazrat Abu 
Talib and Hazrat 
Khadija 




10th year of 
Prophethood. 






25. Visit to Taif 




Jumada II, 10th 
year of 
Prophethood. 






26. Ascension (Miraj) 




27ths Rajab, 
10th year of 
Prophethood, 
Monday 






27. Daily prayers five 
times a day 
prescribed. 




27th Rajab, 
10th year of 
Prophethood, 
Monday. 






28. Beginning of 
Islam in Medina. 




Zul hijja, 10th 
year of 







144 







Prophethood 






29. Deputation of 
Medina. Six people 
accept Islam. 




Zul hijja, 12th 
year of 
Prophethood. 






30. First pledge of 
Aqaba with 12 
persons. 




Zul hijja, 12th 
year of 
Prophethood. 






31. Second pledge of 
Aqaba with 75 
persons. 




Zul hijjar, 13th 
year of 
Prophethood. 






32. Migration: 

(a) From Mecca to 
the cave of Thaur 




Safar27, 13th 
year of 
Prophethood, 
Prophet's age 
was 53 years. 






(b) Departure from 
Thaur 




IstRabi I, 13th 
year of 
Prophethood, 
Monday, 16th 
September, 622 
A.D. 






(c) Arrival at Quba. 




8th Rabi I, 14th 
year of 
Prophethood 
Monday 23rd 
September, 622 






(d) Entry into 
Medina. 




14th year of 

Prophethood, 

Friday 






33. Foundation of 




Rabi I, 1 H. 







145 



Masjid-i-Nabavi laid. 










34. Addition of 
obligatory prayers 




Rabi II, 1 H. 






35. Brotherhood 
between Migrants 
and Ansars 




First quarter, 1 
H. 






36. Establishment of 
Islamic State and 
constitutional 
agreement of Medina. 




Middle of 1 H. 






37. Defence system 
introduced. 




Middle of 1 H. 




Patrol parties 
start. 


38. Marriage with 
Hazrat Ayesha. 




Shawwal, 1 H. 




Married in Mecca 
before migration 
but 

consummation at 
Medina after 
migration. 


39. Islam of two elite, 
Abdullah ibn Salam, 
formerly Jew and 
Abu Qais Sarha bin 
Abi Anas, former 
Christian monk. 










40. Jihad ordered. 




12 Safar 2 H., 1 
year 2 months 
and 10 days after 
migration. 






41. First military 
action Ghazwa 
Waddan. 




Safar 2 H. 







146 



42. Pacts with outside 
clans Bani Damra, 
People of Bowat and 
Banu Madlaj. 




Safar to Jumada 
II, 2 H. 






43. Robbery of Kurz 
bin Jabir Fahri. 




Rabi I, 2 H. 






44. Nakhla episode, 
first frontier clash of 
Islamic party. 




End of Raj ab, 2 
H. 




One non-Muslim 
killed and two 
taken prisoners 
and brought to 
Medina. The 
Prophet resented 
the action and 
made amends for 
it. 


45. Salman Farsi 
accepts Islam. 




2 H. 






46. Beginning of 
Azan 




2H. 






47. Zakat prescribed. 




2H. 






48. Change of Qibla. 




15th Shaban, 2 
H. Monday 






49. Ramazan fast 
prescribed. 




1st Ramazan, 2 
H. Wednesday. 






50. Congregational 
prayer of Eid-ul Fitr, 
Fitra ordered. 




1st Shawwal, 2 
H. 






51. Battle ofBadr. 
First regular battle: 
Start from Medina. 




8 Ramazan, 2 
H. Wednesday 







147 



Battle. 




17 Ramazan, 2 
H. 






Victorious entry into 
Medina. 




20 Ramazan, 2 
H. 






52. Marriage of 
Hazrat Ali and Hazrat 
Fatima. 




After the battle 
ofBadr, 2 H. 






53. Siege of Banu 
Qainuqa'. 




Middle of 
Shawwal to 
beginning of 
Ziq'ada, 2 H. 






54. Prophet's 
marriage with Hazrat 
Hafsa, daughter of 
Hazrat Umar. 




3H. 






55. Marriage of 
Hazrat Usman with 
Hazrat Umme 
Kulsum, daughter of 
the Prophet. 




3 H. 






56. First order of 
prohibition of wine. 




3H. 






57. End of Ka'ab bin 
Ashraf. 




3H. 






58. Birth of Hazrat 
Hassan. 




15 Ramazan, 3 
H. 






59. Battle ofUhud, 
Start from Medina. 




5 Shawwal, 3 
H. after Friday 
prayer. 







148 



Battle. 




6 Shawwal, 3 
H. Saturday. 






Pursuit of Abu 
Sufian's army up 
to Hamra-ul-Asad. 




7 Shawwal, 3 
H. Sunday. 






60. First order of 
prohibition of usury. 




Soon after 
battle of Uhud. 






61. Injunctions about 
orphans. 




Soon after 
battle of Uhud. 






62. Detailed laws of 
inheritance issued. 




Soon after 
battle of Uhud. 






63. Injunctions about 
marriage, rights of 
wives, prohibition of 
marriage with 
idolaters. 




3 H. 






64. Prophet's 
marriage with 
Ummul Masakin 
Zainab, daughter of 
Khozaima. 




End of 3 H. 






65. Episode of Raji'. 
Murder of 10 
members of 
missionary 
deputation. 




Safar, 4 H. 






66. Ghazwa Banu 
Nodair. 




Rabi I, 4 H. 






67. Death of Hazrat 
Zainab, daughter of 




Rabi I, 4 H. 







149 



Khozaima. 










68. Order of Hijab 




1 Ziq'ada, 4 H. 
Friday. 






69. Final order of 
prohibition of wine. 




4H. 






70. Second Ghazwa 
of Badr. 




Ziq'ada, 4 H. 




Abu Sufian did 
not turn up in 
keeping with his 
own challenge. 


71. Ghazwa Dumatul 
Jandal 




Rabi I, 5 H. 






72. Ghazwa Banu Al- 
Mustalaq 




3 Shaban, 5H. 






73. Injunctions for 
Tayammum. 




On the way to 
Ghazwa Banu 
Mustalaq. 






74. Prophet's 
marriage with Hazrat 
Jowairia. 




Shaban, 5 H. 






75. Episode of Ifk. 




Shaban, 5 H. 






76. Enforcement of 
Penal Laws against 
fornication, slander 
etc. 




5H. 






77. Ghazwa Ahzab. 




Shawwal or 
Ziq'ada, 5 H. 






78. Arrival of Daus 
deputation to Medina. 




5H. 







150 



79. Punishment of 
Banu Quraiza. 




Zul hijja, 5 H. 






80. Prophet's 
marriage with 
Zainab, daughter of 
Jahsh. 




5H. 






8 1 . Islam of 
Thamama bin Usal, 
chief of Najd. 




6H. 






82. Treaty of 
Hudaibiya. 




Ziq'ada, 6 H. 






83. Return to Medina 
from Hudaibiya. 




Zul hijja, 6 H. 






84. Islam of Khalid 
bin Walid and Amr 
ibn-ul Aas. 




Zul hijja, 6 H. 






85. Beginning of 
international call- 
letters to rulers. 




1st Muharram, 
6H. 

Wednesday. 






86. Ghazwa Khyber. 




Muharram, 7 H. 






87. Prophet's marriage 
with Hazrat Safia. 




Murharram, 7 
H. 






88. Return of 
Abyssinian migrants. 




7H. 






89. Establishment of 
independent Muslim 
camp at Saiful Bahr. 




7H. 




By Muslim 

y tju.il £i iiiv^ii w nu 

were oppressed in 
Mecca but could 
not be allowed to 
say at Medina 



151 











according to 

Hudaibiya 

Treaty. 


90. Raid by Saif-ul- 
Bahr on Quraish 
Caravan. 




Safar, 7 H. 






91. Postponed Umra 
performed 




Ziq'ada, 7 H. 






92. Detailed 
injunctions about 
marriage and divorce 




7H. 






93. Marriage of the 
Prophet with Hazrat 
Maimuna at Mecca 




7H. 






94. Islam of Jibila 
Ghassani. 




7H. 






95 Ghazwa Mutah. 




Jumada I, 8 H. 






96. Violation of 
Hudaibiya pact by 
non-Muslims 




Rajab, 8 H 






97. Ghazwa of the 
conquest of Mecca, 
start from Medina. 




10 Ramazan, 8 
H. Wednesday. 






Victorious entry into 
Mecca 




20 Ramazan, 8 
H. 






Expedition of Hazrat 
Khalid to 

demolish the temple 
of Uzza at 
Nakhla. 




Most probably 
25 Ramazan, 8 
H. 







152 



1 Expedition of Amr 
ibn-ul Aas to 
demolish the temple 
of Swa'a. 




Ramazan, 8 H 






Expedition of Sa'ad 
Ashhali to 
demolish temple of 
Manat. 




Ramazan, 8 H 






Stay in Mecca 




Up to 9 
Shawwal 






Ghazwa Hunain. 




Shawwal, 8 H 






Siege of Taif 




End of 
Shawwal to 
beginning of 
Ziq'ada, 8 H. 
about 18 or 20 
days. 






Distribution of booty 
at Ji'rana, and 
Umra 




Ziq'ada, 8 H. 






98. Final order of 
prohibition of usury 




8H. 




On the occasion 
of the victory of 
Mecca. 
Annulment of 
all demands of 
the amounts of 
interest. 


99. Arrival of Suda 
deputation at Medina. 




8H. 







153 



100. Death of Hazrat 
Zainab, daughter of 
the Prophet. 




8H. 






101. Organization of 
Zaka. 




Beginning of 
Muharram, 9 H. 






102. Ghazwa of 
Tabuk. Start of the 
Poor Contingent. 




Rajab, 9 H. 






103. Order about 
Jizia. 




At the time of 
Tabuk. 






104. Zerar Mosque 
set on fire. 




On return from 
tabuk. 






105. Islam of 
Ukaidir, chief of 
Dumatul Jandal. 




9H. 






106. Apology by 
Ka'ab ibn Zuhair and 
his acceptance of 
Islam. 




9H. 






107. Some 
deputations which 
came to Medina: 










Deputation of Azra. 




Safar, 9 H. 






Deputation of Baliy. 




Rabi I, 9 H. 






Deputation of 
Khaulan. 




Shaban, 9 H. 






Deputation of Thaqif . 




9H. 






108. Haj prescribed. 




9 Zul hijja, 9 H. 







154 



First Haj under 
Hazrat Abu Bakr. 










109. Proclamation of 
annulment of pacts of 
unlimited period. 




10 Rabi II, 10 
H. 






110. Deputation of 
Maharib. 




10 H. 






Deputation of 
Mahamid. 




10 H. 






Deputation of 
Khaulan. 




Shaban, 10 H. 






Deputation of Naisan. 




Ramazan, 10 H. 






Deputation of Bani 
Haris bin Ka'ab 




Shawwal, 10 H. 






Deputation of 
Salaman. 




Ramazan, 10 H. 






111. Twenty days' 
retirement of the 
Prophet in the last 
Ramazan. 




Ramazan, 10 H. 






112. Musailima the 
liar's correspondence 
with the Prophet 




10 H. 






113. The Last Haj: 
start from Medina. 




26 Ziq'ada, 10 H. 
Saturday 
between Zuhr 
and Asr. 






Stay at Zulhailifa. 


Night between 
Saturday and 







155 







Sunday. 






Putting on Ihram 




Sunday at the 
time of Zuhr 
prayers 






Arrival and stay at 
Zittowa. 




Night of Sunday 
4 Zul hijja, 10 H. 






Start from Zittowa to 
Mecca 




5 Zul hijja, after 
early morning 
prayer. 






Entry into sacred 
Mosque. 




5 Zul hijja, 10 
H. at noon 






Stay outside Mecca. 




up to 8 Zul 
hijja, 10 H. 






Start for Mina. 




8 Zul hijja, 10 
H. Thursday 
noon 






Start from Mina to 
Arafah 




9 Zul hijja, 10 
H. Friday after 
sunrise. 






Haj Address. 




9 Zul hijja, 10 
H. Friday 
afternoon. 






Stop at Arafah. 




9 Zul hijja, 10 
H. after Zuhr 
and Asr 
prayers. 






Start from Arafah to 
Muzdalifa. 




9 Zul hijja, 10 
H. after sunset, 
Friday. 







156 



From Muzdalifa 
to 

Masha'ar-i-Haram 




10 Zul hijja, 10 
H. Saturday 
after morning 
prayer. 






From Masha'ar-i- 
Haram to Mina 




10 Zul hijja, 10 
H. before 
sunrise 






Throwing of pebbles. 




10 Zul hijja, 10 
H. after sunrise 
till noon. 






Address at Mina. 




10 Zul hijja, 10 
H. noon. 






Sacrifice performed. 




After address. 






Start from Mina to 
Mecca. 




10 Zul hijja, 10 
H. 






Return from Mina to 
Mecca. 




10 Zul hijja, 10 
H. evening. 






Second address at 
Mina. 




11 Zul hijja, 10 
H. 






Start from Mina to 
Mahsab or 
Abtah. 




13 Zul hijja, 10 
H. Tuesday. 






Return from Mecca. 




Night between 
13th and 14th 
Zul hijja, 10 H. 






1 14. Deputation of 
Nakh'a 




Middle ol 
Muharram, 11 
H. 






115. Order for Start 




26 Safar, 11 H. 




Last military 



157 



of Usama's Army. 



expedition 
ordered by the 
Prophet. 



116. Beginning of the 
Prophet's fatal 
disease. 



End of Safar, 11 
H. 



117. Period of 
seriousness of 
disease. Stay in 
Hazrat Ayesha's 
room. 



7 days up to the 
time of passing 
away. 



118. Last congrgational 
prayer at the mosque 
and last address. 



n 



5 days before 
passing away, 
Thursday, Zuhr 
prayer. 



19. Passing away. 



12RabiI, 11 H. 

Monday, 

forenoon. 



120. Burial in Hazrat I I Night between 13 
Ayesha's room. and 14 

Rabi I, 1 1 H. 

Tuesday. 



Monarchism 

Monarchy 

Monastery 

Monk 

Monopolist 



- 



158 



Monopoly 
Monotheism 



Moot 



Motive 



Morale 



Motivation 



Mould Taqwim f-tfj* 2 

Mould, shape, form, etc. Allah Ta'ala created man in the best of 
forms, but then abased him to the lowest of the low. See Holy 
Qur 'an, At-Teen (95):4-5. 



Mubashirat Glad tidings d\j- t yaA 

Glad tidings. Good dreams. 

Mubiqat destructive sins £A— tfrj* 
Major, destructive sins. 



Mudathir (Al) The Cloaked One jWl 

"The Cloaked One". Surat 74 of the Holy Qur' an. 



mufti : an interpreter ^-t^L> 

an interpreter or implementer of shari'ah or Islamic law 
(essentially an Islamic lawyer). The Council of Muftis gathers 
together to debate changes to Islamic laws in the face of 
modern advances, such as organ donation. 



Muhaddith A scholar of Ahadeeth 



Mouted 



159 



A scholar of Ahadeeth (sayings and traditions of the Holy 
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace). Plural: Muhaditheen. 



Muhajir immigrant j — 

A Muslim who emigrated from Makkah to Madinah during the 
time of the great repression of the Muslims by the pagan 
Quraish up until the conquest of Makkah in 8AH by the 
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace. Plural: Muhajireen. 



Muhajireen OiJ 

Plural of Muhajir. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hashr (59):8-9, Al- 
Munafiqun (63): 7. See Muhajir. 



Muhkam 

Qur'anic verses which have a clear-cut meaning. 



muhtasib. uu^J l 

The officer in charge of the hisba, whose duty, among other 
things, is to ensure the proper conduct of people in their public 
activities. 

mujtahid. J — <^ 

Religiously learned. 



Mulhid Atheist 

Atheist. A complete disbeliever in Allah Ta'ala and the Last 
Day. Derives from Ilhad (atheism). Ilhad literally means 
deviation. For a full explanation: See Ilhad. Plural: Mulhidoon 
or Muihideen. 



Mulk (Al) The Sovereignty 



160 



"The Sovereignty", of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 67 of the Holy 
Qur'an. 



Munafiq A hypocrite J-tiLLdl 

A hypocrite, more dangerous and worse than a kafir 



Munafiqeen Hypocrites o^ati*!! 

Hypocrites. They are the worst of created beings, for they 
pretend to, but do not believe in Allah and the Last Day. Allah 
has cursed them (At-Tawbah (9): 67-69) and on the Day of 
Judgement they will occupy the lowest depth of the Nar 
(Hellfire), called "Hutama". Also spelled as Munafiqoon. 
Singular: Munafiq. 



Munkar j 

1. Name of one of the two angels who will question 
us in our graves. See Munkar wa Nakir. 

2. Something that is disapproved of in Islam. 

3. Something that is denied when it is said or pointed 
out. 

4. Something that is refused when offered. 



Munkar wa Nakir, peace be upon them j&j 

The two angels who will question the souls of the dead in their 
graves shortly after burial about their faith, asking, "Who is 
your Lord? Who is your Prophet? What is your Book? What 
was your Deen?" See Malaikah. 



Muqarraboon <lWJ**M 

Literally means "those who have been brought near". These are 
the most exalted, the most loved by Allah Ta'ala. On the Day of 



161 



Resurrection, Allah Ta'ala will sort out the good and the evil 
into three groups: 

1. Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are the 
nearest to Allah Ta' ala. Also described as the 
Sabiqoon, meaning 'those who outstrip the rest'. 

2. Ashab al-Maimana - literally means "the 
Companions of the Right". These are the righteous 
people, those who are destined to enter the Jannah 
(Paradise). 

3. Ashab al-Mashama - literally means "the 
Companions of the Left". These people will be the 
inheritors of the Nar (Hellfire). 

For full explanation on; 
Muqarraboon - see Al- Wa qi'ah (56): 1 1-26. 
Ashab al-Maimana - see Al- Wa qi'ah (56):27-40. 
Ashab al-Mashama - see Al- Wa qi'ah (56):4!-56. 



Murji'ah: Deferrers 

Deferrers. Those who defer judgment of the sinner to God and 
the Day of Judgment. 



Mursalat (Al) The Emissaries 

"The Emissaries". Surah 77 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Mursaleen O^j^ 1 

Literally means "those who are sent". It refers to the prophets 
and messengers sent by Allah Ta'ala. Allah sent many prophets 
and messengers to preach the message of Tawheed to Ins wal 
Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Their exact number is not 
Ahadeeth. Here is a complete list of the prophets and 
messengers of Allah who are mentioned in the Book of Allah 
Ta'ala, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on all of them: 
For example : 

l.Adam 950-1000 ?? The first human 



162 



2. Idris 


83 


?? 


Enoch 


3. Nooh(M) 


950 


3900 2900BC 


Noah 


4. Houd 


150 


2500 2200BC 


Preached to 'Ad. 


5. Saleh 


58 


2000 1900BC 


Preached to Thamud 


6. Ibhrahim (NI) 


175 


1861 1786BC 


Abraham 


7. Loot 


175 


1861 1786BC 


Lot 


8. Ismael 


120orl43 


1781 1638BC 


Shmael 


9. Ishaq 


178orl80 


1761 1681BC 


Isaac 


lO.Yacoub 


147 


1700 1653BC 


Jacob 


ll.Yusuf 


110 


1610 1500BC 


Joseph 


H.Shuaib 


? 


1600 1500BC 


Preached to Madyan 


13.Ayoub 


92 


1600 1500BC 


Job 


14.Dhu'l-Kifel 


75 


1600 1500BC 


Ezekiel. 


15.Musa(M) 


120 


1436 1316BC 


Moses 


16.Haroon 


122 


1439 1317BC 


Aaron. 


U.Dawood (NI) 


70 


1043 937BC 


David 


18.Sulaiman 


53 


985 932BC 


Solomon 


19.1lyas 


? 


9 BCca 


Elijah. 


20.Al-Yas' 


? 


9 BCCa 


Elisha 


21. Yunus 


? 


8 BCCa. 


Jonas 


22.Zakariah 


120 


100BC 20AC 


Father of Yahyah. 


23. Yahya 


30 


1BC 30AC 


John the Baptist 


24.Isa(M) 


33 


1 33AC 


Jesus 


25. Muhammad( M) 


63 


571 632AC 


The Final Messenger 


(M)= a messenger as well as a 


prophet of Allah Ta'ala; i.e. one 



who came with a new message, a revelation that confirmed the 
earlier revelations, but which contained new elements 
appropriate for its time. 



Murtad Apostate J — ^o* 

Apostate. Plural: Murtadeen. 



163 



Murtaddeen Cx&j* 

People who become apostates, i.e. people who become 
unbelievers after having believed. 
Back To list ] 



Musa, peace be upon him ^L«ll 

Moses. One of the greatest prophets and messengers of 
Islam. See Mursaleen. 

Mushrikeen Idol-worshippers O^j^ 

Idol- worshippers. People who associate partners with Allah 
Ta'ala, such as the Christians, who have raised the Prophet Isa 
(Jesus, Son of Mary), peace be on them, to the level of Allah. 
Allah Ta'ala may forgive any sin which man or Jinn may 
commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. Singular: Mushrik. 
See Shirk. 



(AL)Mustafa The Select 

AL-Mustafa [The Select] : One of the names of the Holy 
Prophet (peace be upon him) because he was chosen by Allah 
to be His Messenger to all mankind. 



Mutashaabihaat: Allegorical cA^AJoa 

Allegorical. Refers to verses (aayaat) of the Qur'an which are 
expressed in a figurative manner in contradistinction to aayaat 
muhkamaat or verses which are clear in and by themselves. 



Mutiny ^ J 

Muzzammil (AL) The Enshrouded One J*>^ 

"The Enshrouded One". Surah 73 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Mystic 



164 



Mysticism cJ^^i 
Myth s jjkJ 



165 



N 



Nahl (Al) The Bee tM 

"The Bee". Surah 16 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Najm(Al) The Star ^ 

"The Star". Surah 53 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Najwa 

1. A private talk between Allah the Almighty and 
one of His slaves on the Day of Resurrection. See 
Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 621, Book 43, Vol.3. 

2. A secretive talk amongst the Kuffar plotting 
against the Holy Prophet Muhammad and his 
followers, may the blessings and peace of Allah be 
on him and them. See Surah al-Mujadalah (5 8): 8. 



Naskh Abrogation ^ 

Abrogation of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by 
others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an: "None of Our 
revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We 
substitute something better or similar" (2: 106). 



Naasikh active participle 

(active participle). Refers to the passage which abrogates or 
supersedes the part which is abrogated. The abrogated passage 
is called mansookh (passive participle). 



Nation - 
Negativism ^nLo, 



166 



The Negus 




The Negus : King 


; of Abyssinia who received the Muslims who 


had immigrated to his country from Mecca and protected them 


Neighbour 




Neighbourhood 




Neuter 




Nifaq Hypocrisy 


Hypocrisy. One of the greatest sins in the sight of Allah Ta'ala. 


The punishment for Nifaq is the lowest pit of an-Nar (Hellfire), 


the Hutama. See Jahanam. 


Niggard 




Nobility 




Noble 




Nomad 




Nomadism 


el j^j 



Nooh, peace be upon him f^^l <^ 

"Noah". A messenger as well as aprophet. Surah 71 of the Holy 
Qur'an. See Mursaleen. 



Noon Duhr j 

Noon. The second obligatory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It can 
he prayed at any time between noon and mid-afternoon 



167 



Nun 



Nusuk 



A general sacrifice in the path of Allah. All the deeds and 
actions of Hajj are regarded as Nusuk, for they are indeed 
regarded as sacrifices in the path of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. 
Plural: Manasik. 



The revelation of the Holy Qur'an. The revelation of the Holy 
Qur'an was revealed in three stages: 

1. It was first written on the Lauh al-Mahfudh, i.e. on 
the guarded tablet in the Seventh Heaven. 

2. On the Lailatul Qadr Allah Ta' ala sent the entire 
Qur' an down to the Baitul 'Izza in the First 
Heaven. 

3. During the month of Ramadan Allah Ta'ala 
ordered the Holy Spirit, the Angel Jibreel 
(Gabriel), peace be on him, to start to reveal the 
Qur'an to the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace, but not all at 
once. The entire revelation of the Holy Qur'an 
took twenty-three years. 



Nuzool 



168 



o 



O Allah A I la hum ma ffrUl 

"O Allah". This is said when invoking Allah Ta'ala. For 
example, "Allah humma atina fid dunya hasana wa fil akhirati 
hasana wa qin a 'ad hab an-nar". "OAllah, give us the good of 
this world and the good of the Hereafter and preserve us from 
the Hellfire." 



Obdurate ^ 



Ta'a Obedience 

Obedience to Allah and performing good deeds. Interpretation. 
Especially interpretation of the Holy Qur'an 



Obeisance 






Occupation 






Olden 






Omnipotent 






Omniscient 


& 




Onset 




- Sjlc 


Opinionated 


■ 


_ 3 1 *«-- 


Oppression 






Optimism 






Orator 







169 



orders Ahkam 

Literally means "orders". In Islam, orders are subdivided into 
six distinct categories: 

1. Compulsory, (Fard) = severe punishment if 
disobeyed. This takes two forms: 

1. Fard 'ain = compulsory on every 
person, e.g. Salat. 

2. Fard kifaya = compulsory on at least 
one person in the community, e.g. 
Salat al-Janaza. 

2. Necessary but not compulsory (Wajib), e.g. Salat al- 
Juma'. 

3. Recommended but not compulsory (Mustahab), 
e.g. Sunnah prayers, Sadaqa. 

4. Legal and allowed (Halal), e.g. eating good 
food,marriage. 

5. Disapproved of, but not forbidden (Makrouh), 
e.g. smoking tobacco. 

6. Forbidden (Muharram, Haram), e.g. Zina 
(fornication and adultery). 



Orderliness 






Organization 






Orient 






Orientalism 




.VI 


Orientalist 






Origin 






Original sin 






Ornament 






Orphan 






Orthodox 


qjA*jI jll 


Ostracize 







170 



Outlay 

Oversight ch^ - 

Overtly > - 



171 



p 



Pacification 




Pact 




Pagan 




Paganism 




Painful 


£?>J* - ^> 


Palace 




Panegyric 




Panic 




Papacy 




Papal 




Paradise 




Paragon 




Pardon 




Parity 


Si jLoL* 


Parsimonious 




Parsimony 




Participant 




Party 




Pass 








Passive obedience 




Passive resistance 




Paternal 




Path 





172 



Patience Sabr 

Patience and perseverance. Allah Ta'ala has promised 
"Falaah" (success) in this world and in the Hereafter to those 
Muslims who have Sabr, especially during times of hardship. 
See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Jmran (3): 200. 



Patrimony 




Patriot 




Patronage 


Ijj iaxJ - AjIc j 


Paucity 




Pavilion 





P.B.U.H fiLJlA^e 

These letters are abbreviations for the words Peace Be Upon 
Him which are the meaning of the Arabic expression " 'Alaihis 
Salam", which is an expression that is said when the name of a 
prophet is mentioned. This expression is widely used by 
English speaking Muslims. It is to be noticed here that this 
expression does not give the full meaning of "Salla Allahu 
Alaihi Wa Sallam". Therefore it is recommended that people 
do not use (p.b.u.h.) after the name of prophet Muhammad 
(s.a.w.); they should use "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam" 
instead, or they may use the abbreviated form of (s.a..w) in 
writing. 



Peace 






Penalty 






Penance 






Penitence 






Penitent 


f ,u . 





173 



Perfidy 




- 


Period 






Perjury 




JJJ OfcW 


Permissible 


j** - 




Permission 




SjUt - t 


Perpetuate 




- ^1 


Perpetuity 




- p.lL 


Perplexity 




- 


Persecution 






Perspicacious 




Persuasion 






Pert 






Pertinacity 




- jUc 


Pertinent 






Oerverse 


^'«*- 




Perversity 






Pervert 


JL^ - 




Pest 






Phantom 






Pharisaism 




- *Wj 


Phenomena 






Phenomenon 






Philanthropy 






Philosophy 






Piety 





174 



Pig 

Pilgrim 

Pilgrimage 

Pillage 



Pillars Arkan 



Pillars. This refers to the indispensable pillars of Islam. There 
are five Arkan of Islam: 

1. Shahadatain, bearing witness. All Muslims must 
believe in and utter the Shahadatain. 

o The First Shahada is: Ashhadu an la 

illaha illal'lah. (I bear witness that 

there is no deity worthy of worship 

except Allah.) 
o The Second Shahada: Ashhadu anna 

Muhammadar Rasoolullah. (I bear 

witness that Muhammad is the 

Messenger of Allah.) Singular: 

Shahada = bearing witness. Dual: 

Shahadatain = bearing witness. 

2. Salat, prayers. To perform all the five compulsory 
daily Salat (prayers) regularly in the exact manner 
as was practised by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 

3. Seeaam, fasting. Also spelled as Saum. To fast in 
the month of Ramadan. 

4. Zakat, wealth dues. To pay 2.5% of one's yearly 
savings o the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat 
is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at 
least) the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold at the 
fime when the annual Zakat payment is due. Zakat 
is also due on other things such as silver, animals, 



175 



crops, etc. For full explanation on Zakat refer to 
the relevant books written on the subject. 
5. Hajj, pilgrimage. To perform the pilgrimage to the 
Holy City of Makkah at least once in one's 
lifetime (if one is able to afford it). 



Pimp <^_fcp 

Pious - £jj - 

Piousness cij^ 1 

Pirate j 5 

Pitiless SSLSII ^ 

Pity ' LLc. _ <aa*S 

Placable ^Jjiat . 
Plague - oj&U* 

Platonic lsj^ - 

Plaudit ^a* - pUii 

Plea j^c- - - 
Pledge - ^ - ^uaj 

Plenty - Sjaj 

Plurality ^J&t - ***s«3 

Poetry j*^ 
Politeness - 

Politics ^UxJI 
Pollute - <3^ 

Polytheism V^ 1 ^ - ^b^ 1 

Polytheists u^^^ 1 



Poor Fa^r/r ji& 



A poor person. In Islam poverty may take two forms : 



176 



1 . Wordly : A person who does not have the 
financial means to help himself. 

2. In the Akhira(Hereafter): A person who has failed 
to gain the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala by way of 
disobedience, thus earning a place in the Nar 
(Hellfire). 



Poor dues 




Populace 




Population 




Pork 




Portend 




Portico 




Portliness 


jl£j - 4_slg-/» 


The Possessors of Constancy Awlo alazm ^ ^ 


Position 




Postponement 




Possession 




Potency 




Potent 


jAjla - jjla 


Potentate 




Pout 




Poverty 


jjt _ jaa 


Powerful 


jAiLa - JJAS - (_5 j3 


Praise 


- f.Lii - Aa^. 


Praiseworthy 




Prayer 





177 





jjoixa - 








Precaution 






Precipice 


A ail 

aye, _ 




Precipitance 




- jjA 


Preclusion 


V^i _ 




Precursor 


Js-" 




Predestination 






Predict 


Oil 




Prediction 






Predisposition 






Predominance 


4_l]c- - 




I ) i * i / 1 1 \ ivi i n ' i n t 
-T ICUUllllllcUH 






Pre-eminence 










Prejudice 






rl cpal allUIl 






Prepossessed 






Prescribed 






Prescript 






Prestation 






Pretence 




- - plt^l 


Pretext 


<]& - '- 




Prevalence 


U.„-; _ 




Prevention 




- Aj^a - ^La 


Previous 






Priest 






Priestess 







178 



Priesthood <->jj$£ 
Primitive <J>^ 
Primordial - LS L*>\ 

Prince j^ 1 

Principle ^ 



Principles of Islamic law Usulul Fiqh ^1 Jj^l 

Principles of Islamic law, drawn from the original fundamental 
primary sources. 



Princedom 


SjU 




Princess 






Principal 






Principality 


4jJalLa SjLal 




Pristine 


JJ - Jj> - 




Privation 






Privilege 


<5* - jMf' 




Privy council 






Proclamation 






Proclivity 


(Jj-a - ^l^xioil 




Prodigal 






Prodigality 






Profanation 






Progeny 


Ajji - (Jjbiij 




Prohibition 






Promiscuity 






Promise 







179 



Proof Daleel 6^ 

(plural: adillah). Proof, indication, evidence. Every ruling or 
judgment needs to be substantiated by the appropriate daleel in 
the first instance from the Qur'an and the Sunnah. 
Propaganda - Sjcill j& 

Propensity - 
Property 4j£L» 
Prophecy 3^ - os^ 



Prophet Nabi 

Prophet. There have been many prophets since the world was 
first created. Their exact number is not mentioned either in the 
Holy Qur'an or in any of the authenticated Ahadith (sayings 
and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace). Only twenty-five of them are 
actually named in the Holy Qur'an, may the blessings and 
peace of Allah be on all of them. See Mursaleen for the 
complete list. Plural: Anbiyaa. 



Prophethood 




Propitiation 




Proposition 




Proselyte 


SlfrA - <_S-V 


Prosperity 




Prosperous 




Prostitution 




Prostrating 




Protection 





Protectors Awliyaa f^ji 

Protectors, friends, supporters, helpers. Comes from the same 
root word as Maula. Singular: Walee. 



180 



Protest 






Protestation 






Proud 


jj^a - 




Province 


2jJaLLa - 


■ f^ 1 


Provocation 




. s J3I 


Proxy 


J^JJ - 




Prudence 


2 1L3 _ 




Prudent fear 


2_iii]| 




Psalm 




- jjO^ 


Psalter 






Publicity 


C. ojjJi _ 




Publicly 


1 jW 




Pulpit 






Pumpkin 






Punishment 




- i—ilac 


Pure 






Purification 






Purify 






Purity 






Purification 


Tahara 


Sj! 



Purification. Tahara is accomplished in a variety of ways, e.g.: 

1. Souls. In order for the soul to be pure one must 
submit one's whole self to Allah Ta'ala, i.e. 
become a Muslim. 

2. Bodies. They are purified through Tayammum, 
Wudu or Ghusl, depending on the circumstances. 
For a full explanation: See Tayammum, Wudu and 
Ghusl. 

3. Clothing. Three things indicate that clothes may 
be impure and need washing: 

o If they smell. 



181 



o If they are wet and the cause of the 
wetness is either unknown or known 
to be impure or dirty. 

o If they are stained. 



Puritan <j3-^ - 

Purity sj-^ 3 ^ 



182 



Q 



Qabr Grave j& 

Grave.Life in the Qabr(the grave)is known as the 
"Barzakh",the interspace, because it comes between in this 
world and life in the next world. The Qabr is known by six 
names: 

1. Bait al-Ghurba (House of the Stranger). 

2. Bait al-Wahda (House of Solitude). 

3. Bait al-Turab (House of Dust). 

4. Bait al-Door (House of Worms). 

5. Bait al-Fitna (House of Trail). 

6. Bait al-Dhulma (House of Darkness). 

The grave is experienced as a place of peace and light and 
spaceby the Ruh of the Mumin who sees his or her place in the 
Garden in the morning and in the evening; and is experienced 
as a place of torment and darkness and no space by the Ruh of 
the Kafir who sees his or her place in the Fire in the 
morningand in the evening. After death there is a period of 
waiting in the grave for the Ruh until the Last Day arrives, 
when every one who has ever live will be brought back to life 
and gathered together, their action will be weight in the Mizan 
(the Balance), and every one will either go to the Garden or the 
Fire, for ever. 



Qada wa Qadar Decree and Destiny j&S j f-Lbill 

Decree and Destiny. Qada means what Allah has ordained for 
all the world. Qada can not be changed, for the decree of 
Allahis final. Qadar is the individual fate, or destiny if each one 
of all His creature. It also can not be changed but may be 
altered by Allah under special circumstances, for "Allah has 
power over all thing" (Holy Qur'an, Al-Ma'idah (5): 19.) 



183 



Qadi judge 

It means judge. 



Qardan Hasana 

"A beautiful loan" (to Allah Ta'ala). Spending in the cause of 
Allah Ta'ala is described by Allah Ta'ala Himself as "a 
beautiful loan" because it entails self-denial for the sake of 
Allah Ta'ala. It is for this reason that Allah has promised a rich 
reward for those who expend their wealth in His Path. See 
Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2):245, Al-Hadid (57): 11, 18. 



Qareen 

1. One who performs Hajj al-Qiran. See Hajj. 

2. An independent soul that resides inside a person. 
It is normally a friendly companion who helps the 
individual, but sometimes gets jealous and causes 
problems. A male Qareen resides in a male person 
and a female Qareen in a female, 

3. Companion 



Qaroon 

Korah. A wealthy Kafir who led a rebellion (of 250 men) 
against the Prophets Musa (Moses) and Haroon (Aaron), peace 
be on them. As a punishment Allah Ta'ala caused the earth to 
open and swallow them up along with all that they possessed. 
See Holy Qur'an, Al- Qasas (28):76-82, Al-Ankabut (29):39. 



Qiama (Al) The Resurrection <a\J&\ 

"The Resurrection". Surah 75 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Qibla 



184 



Direction in which all Muslims face when praying. Initially the 
Qiblah was towards al-Quds (Jerusalem), then Allah Subhana 
wa Ta'ala ordered the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, to face al-Ka'ba in Makkah al- 
Mukarramah. Everyone has a direction in life, but only the 
Muslims have this Qiblah. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara 
(2): 142-145, 149-150. 



Qisaas Law L yz\*a&\ 

Law of equal retaliation when punishing a person for injuries 
intentionally inflicted on someone else. See Al-Baqarah(2:178- 
179). Also Qisas, Qesas 



Qiyas measuring qA&\ 

Literally Qiyas means measuring or ascertaining the length, 
weight or quality of something. Qiyas also means comparison 
to establish equality or similarity between two things. A fourth 
element of Sharia not found in the Quran, Sunnah, or given in 
the Ijma, qiyas are new cases or case law that may have been 
previously decided by a higher judge. The Sharia judge can use 
legal precedent to decide new case law and its application. 



Quack JW-i 

Quail i '«» > >■ - u*j 

Quarrel ^je- - 



Qubd' ft— 



A place on the outskirts of Al-Madina. The Prophet saw 
established a mosque there, which bears the same name. A visit 
to that mosque on Saturday forenoon and offering a two Rak'at 
prayer is regarded as a performance of 'Umra in reward 
according to the Prophet's saying. 
Queen 



185 



Quest 
Quiescence 




Qur'an 



The "Recitation". The Holy Qur'an. Also called AI- 
Furqaan,"The Discrimination (between truth and falsehood)". 
The Final Revelation of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to Ins wal- 
Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself 
decreed that it is He who will preserve the Holy Qur'an from 
any deletion or addition or alteration until the Day of 
Resurrection. It is generally understood that it is a book meant 
for the Muslims alone. In fact, it is a book for all mankind and 
jinn to follow up to the Day of Judgement, but it has been 
accepted only by those who have submitted their will (the 
Muslims) to Allah the Almighty. The people whom the Qur'an 
is intended to benefit are described in Suratul-Baqara (2):1- 
5. They are the successful ones. The Holy Qur'an was revealed 
to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, through the Angel Jibreel (the Angel Gabriel), peace be 
upon him, during a period of twenty-three years. The Holy 
Qur'an is the greatest of the Last Messenger's miracles, since he 
could neither read nor write and had never received any formal 
education. The Holy Qur'an is the uncreated word of Allah. 
The Holy Qur'an contains 114 Suwar, composed of 6,616 Ayat, 
77,934 words and 323,671 letters. 
Surah Index : 

• 1 . The Opening 
. 2. The Cow 

• 3. The Family Of 'Imran, The House Of 'Imran 

• 4. Women 

• 5. The Table, The Table Spread 

• 6. Cattle, Livestock 
. 7. The Heights 



186 



. 8. Spoils Of War, Booty 

• 9. Repentance, Dispensation 
. 10. Jonah 

. 11. Hud 

• 12. Joseph 

• 13. The Thunder 

• 14. Abraham 

. 15. Al-hijr, Stoneland, Rock City 

. 16. The Bee 

• 17. Isra', The Night Journey, Children Of Israel 
. 18. The Cave 

. 19. Mary 

. 20. Ta-ha 

. 21. The Prophets 

. 22. The Pilgrimage 

. 23. The Believers 

. 24. Light 

. 25. The Criterion, The Standard 

. 26. The Poets 

. 27. The Ant, The Ants 

. 28. The Story, Stories 

. 29. The Spider 

• 30. The Romans, The Byzantines 

• 31. Luqman 

• 32. The Prostration, Worship, Adoration 

• 33. The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined 
Forces 

. 34. Saba, Sheba 

• 35. The Angels, Orignator 

• 36. Ya-sin 

• 37. Those Who Set The Ranks, Drawn Up In 
Ranks 



187 



. 38. Sad, (the Letter) Sad ( S ) 

• 39. The Troops, Throngs 

. 40. The Believer, The Forgiver (god) 

• 41. (signs) Spelled Out, Ha-mim 

• 42. Councel, Consultation 

• 43. Ornaments Of Gold, Luxury 
. 44. Smoke 

• 45. Crouching 

• 46. The Wind-curved Sandhills, The Dunes 

• 47. Muhammad 

• 48. Victory, Conquest 

• 49. The Private Apartments, The Inner 
Apartments 

. 50. Qaf, (the Letter), ( Q ) 

• 51. The Winnowing Winds 
. 52. The Mount 

. 53. The Star 

. 54. The Moon 

• 55. The Beneficent, The Mercy Giving 
. 56. The Event, The Inevitable 

. 57. Iron 

. 58. She That Disputeth, The Pleading Woman 

• 59. Exile, Banishment 

• 60. She That Is To Be Examined, Examining Her 

• 61. The Ranks, Battle Array 

• 62. The Congregation, Friday 

• 63. The Hypocrites 

• 64. Mutual Disillusion, Haggling 

• 65. Divorce 

• 66. Banning, Prohibition 

• 67. The Sovereignty, Control 
. 68. The Pen, (the Letter) N 



188 



. 69. The Reality 

• 70. The Ascending Stairways, Staircases Upward, 
Sckeptic 

. 71. Noah 

• 72. The Jinn, Sprites 

• 73. The Enshrouded One, Bundled Up 

. 74. The Cloaked One, The Man Wearing A Cloak 

• 75. The Rising Of The Dead, Resurrection 

• 76. Time, Man, (every) Man, This (day-and-)age 

• 77. The Emissaries, Winds Sent Forth 

• 78. The Tidings, The Announcement 

• 79. Those Who Drag Forth, Soul-snatchers 

• 80. He Frowned! 

• 81. The Overthrowing, Extinguished! Wrapping 
Things Up 

• 82. The Cleaving, Bursting Apart 

• 83. Defrauding, The Cheats, Cheating 

• 84. The Sundering, Splitting Open 

• 85. The Mansions Of The Stars, Constellations 

• 86. The Morning Star, The Nightcomer 

. 87. The Most High, Glory To Your Lord In The 
Highest 

• 88. The Overwhelming, The Pall 
. 89. The Dawn, Daybreak 

. 90. The City, This Countryside 

. 91. The Sun 

. 92. The Night 

• 93. The Morning Hours, Morning Bright! 

• 94. Solace, Consolation, Relief 

• 95. The Fig, The Figtree 
. 96. The Clot, Read! 

• 97. Power, Fate 



189 



• 98. The Clear Proof, Evidence 

• 99. The Earthquake 

. 100. The Courser, The Chargers 

. 101. The Calamity, The Stunning Blow, The 
Disaster 

• 102. Rivalry In World Increase, Competition 

• 103. The Declining Day, Eventide, The Epoch 

• 104. The Traducer, The Gossipmonger 
. 105. The Elephant 

• 106. Winter, Quraysh 

• 107. Small Kindnesses, Almsgiving, Have You 
Seen? 

• 108. Abundance, Plenty 

• 109. The Disbelievers, Atheists 

• 110. Succour, Divine Support 

• 111. Palm Fibre, The Flame 

• 112. The Unity, Sincerity, Oneness Of God 

• 113. The Daybreak, Dawn 
. 114. Mankind 

Quraish c&J* 

One of the greatest tribes in pre-Islamic Arabia. The Holy 
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, belonged to this tribe. At first they were an avowed 
enemy to the Prophet, but the vast majority accepted Islam 
after the conquest of Makkah in 8AH by Muhammad and 
10,000 of his companions, may the blesssings and peace of 
Allah be on him and them. Surah 106 of the Holy Qur' an. See 
Holy Qur'an, Al-Qamar (54):43-46,51. 



Qurbaan: OWJ* 

Literally means "sacrifice". In Islam it refers to the sacrificing 
of animals solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala on the day of 
eid ul-ad'haa and the two days following it. 



190 



R 



Ra'd(Ar) The Thunder 

"The Thunder". Surah 13 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Rabbi 
Rabbinical 

Rabble ^ ^ g> J> 

Race <^ J^>1 c> 

Racism a^j^c aJ^L 



Rahaman (Ar) Most Gracious 0**jM 

"Ar-hahman". Most Gracious, Merciful. One of the ninety-nine 
Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 55 of the Holy Qur' an. This 
Surah is referred to as "The Bride of the Holy Qur an 



Raheem (Ar) Most Merciful 

"Ar-Raheem". Most Merciful. One of the ninety-nine 
Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. . It is said that the Attribute of Ar- 
Raheern consists of the mercy of Allah that is only experienced 
by the Muslims, whereas the Attribute of Ar-Rahman consists 
of the mercy of Allah that is experienced by the whole creation. 
For example, all creatures are fed until they die, but only the 
Muslims experience the reward of breaking the fast at the end 
of each day of Ramadan, and the reward of meeting their Lord 
in the next world. 



Rajm (Ar) Stoning f*Jh 

Stoning. In Islamic law the Hadd punishment for whoever is 
married and commits adultery is to be stoned to death. 



191 



Rak'a * — 

A unit of the Salat (Prayer), a complete series of standing, 
bowing, two prostrations and sittings. Plural: Rak'at. 



Ramadan O t u^ J 

The ninth month of the Islamic clendar. It is a very important 
month in the Islamic world. 

1 . It is the month of fasting, during which all adult 
Muslims who are in good health fast from the first 
light of dawn until sunset each day. During the 
first third of the fast you taste Allah's mercy; 
during the second third you taste Allah's 
forgiveness; and during the last third you taste 
freedom from the Fire. See Holy Qur' an, Al- 
Baqara (2): 185. 

2. It is the month in which the revelation of the Holy 
Qur' an to our Holy Prophet Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace, commenced. 

3. The Lailatul Qadr (see (Qadr, Lailatul) occurs in 
this month. 

4. The famous Battle of Badr was fought and won in 
this month. 

5. The Conquest of Makka by Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace, took place in 
this month. 



Rancour ^Sa. - Jc. 

Random y^- 
Ransom ^ - ^ 



Rasool Messenger Jj — tnj 

Messenger. A prophet of Allah Ta' ala who came with a pure 
revelation from Allah to mankind and the Jinn. For a complete 



192 



list of the messengers and prophets referred to in the Qur' an: 
See Mursallen. Plural: Rusull. See Rusull. 
Rasoolu 'llah Messenger of Allah &\ J>-j 

Messenger of Allah. Throughout the history of the world Allah 
has sent messengers with a Book to explain Tawheed to man 
and Jinn, and to show them how to live at peace. The Muslims 
accept and believe in all the messengers, including the prophets 
Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Dawood 
(David), Isa (Jesus), peace be upon them all, and especially 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See 
Mursallen. 



Ratification 








Rationality 








Rattle death 


A\ 2 






Readiness 








Realm 








Reasoning 






- Jasu 


Rebel 








Rebellious 








Rebellion 


SjjS - 






Recitation 


piiii - 






Recluse 




- J J*** 




Reclusion 




- a! jc 




Recognition 






- Jjj5 


Recoil 




- *J 




Reconciliation 






- 3* j 


Recondite 


J± - 




Reconnoiter 


^ Wj.nl 






Recorded 


(J ui ti - 







193 



Recourse 


f 1 ^-xW 




Recrute 






Redemption 


- 1 




Redoubtable 


■ 


- 


Reformation 


1 . \) \ i 




Reformer 






rvcllalll 






Refuge 






Refutation 






Regal 






rvegeneraie 






Region 






Registration 






Regress 






Regression 


ja^aj _ 




W ^ rr 1 1 1 nr 

rvcg Ulal 






Regularity 


^ .I 


A \ * * »1 a -1 u» * 

— *\-lJ CJU3 — al B 1 


O i"»ti 1 1 1 'i 1 ! nn 
I\.Cg UlcUlUIl 






Reign 




< ^ 


Reinforcement 




A \ ^l ^ ^1 


Relationship 




*j SSI _ 


Reliable 






Reliance 






Relics 




■ LA* - J3I 



religion Deen 0^1 

1. Deen Usually translated as 'religion', but in fact 
meaning 'life-transaction', the transaction being 



194 



between Allah and each of his created beings. The 
life-transaction, or religion, of Allah Ta'ala is 
universal. It is the way of Islam (submisson of will 
to Allah Ta'ala). He sent the same message to 
Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), 
Isa (Jesus) and all the other prophets, peace be on 
all of them, but mankind, through ignorance or 
intentional misguidance by others, has altered the 
religion of Allah again and again. Allah Ta'ala 
sent the Holy Qur'an as the final revelation and 
guidance for mankind and the Jinn who will all be 
judged on the Day of Resurrection. 
2. Also indicates the judgement itself, i.e. "Yaum al- 
Deen" (Judgement Day). 



Religious 


is^ J* 


Religiousness 




Remission 




Remonstrance 




Remorseful 


JJ a i all (j^. 


Renegade 


(_3jL» ja 


Renunciate 




Renunciation 




Reentance 




Repentant 




Repose 




Reprehension 


t '" ;''■»'' ^ jl 


Representative 




Repression 




Reprobation 




Reproof 





195 



Reputation 






Rescission 






Reservation 






Resignation 






Resolution 




- f> 


Respect 






Respite 


11 , A 




Responsibility 






Restorative 






Restrictions 




1 * 
l - Jajjjoi 


Resurrect 




- i " '■» j 


Resurrection 


' '»«" 




Retaliation 


Ur.l 




Reticent 


fJ^ - 


1-K 


Retinue 




A -.11 . 


Retire 


1 \ 


- .A^ 


Retirement 




Jljjcl 


Retreat 


S 1 




Retribution 




1 • _ 


Retrogression 


jijjji - 


■ ^J^J 


Revealed 






Revelation 




1 ti 

- - cs^J 


Revenge 


J b " f 




Reverence 




la 


Revolt 


• 1 . 




Revolution 






Reward 






Rhetorician 







196 



Right i>> 
Righteous - 

Righteousness and awe of Birr wa Taqwa js j^l j j^l 

Righteousness and awe of the Creator which -nspire a person 
to be on guard against wrong action and eager for ac don which 
are pleasing to Allah. 



The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (11-40 A.H.) Oj^IjII 

The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (11-40 A.H.) : The Rightly- 
Guided Caliphs are the first four Caliphs who succeeded the 
Prophet (peace be upon him). The Rightly-Guided Caliphs are 
the outstanding members of the Community and its symbols, 
leaders of the Call and its guards. They preserved the unity of 
the Muslim community and managed the affairs of the Islamic 
state. They are: Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, v Umar bin Al-Khattab, 
v Uthman bin v Affan and v Ali bin Abi Talib. 

Rigid f 

Risk SjLLl* ^ajU^ 

Rite Sjj*^ 

Rituals jj 1 ^ o-j^ 3 



Rizq Provision Jjj 

rizq. Provisions that God destines for a person, in such forms 
as additional income, food, clothing, or a natural resource such 
as water. See fatahna. 

Provision. Sustenance. Derives from the word "AI-Razaq" The 
Provider or Sustainer, one of the ninety-nine Attributes of 
Allah Ta' ala. 



Rooh Spirit £jj 



197 



Spirit. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Hijr (15):29, Al-isra (17):85-86, 
Al-Mujadilah (58):22, Al-Ma' arif (70):4, An-Naba' (78):38, 
Al- Qadr (97) :4. 

Rooh AL Qudus The Holy Spirit o*M £jj 

The Holy Spirit. Another name for the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), 
peace be on him. His duty was to communicate between Mlah 
and His prophets. Alah Ta'ala strengthened the Prophet Isa 
(Jesus), peace be on him, with the Holy Spirit (Al-Baqara 
(2):87, 253). This is one of the reasons why the Nasara 
(Christians) believe that the Prophet Jesus was divine. If Jesus 
was Allah, then why did he need strengthening? They also 
believed that the Holy Spirit was divine. If the Holy Spirit was 
Allah, then how was He sent and by whom? Who has the 
power to command Allah to go anywhere? Do they not know 
that Allah is "Al-Wahid", "The Unique"? Glory be to Allah, 
the Most High. Surely they disbelieve who say that Allah has 
associates. 



Ruh-ul-Lah &\ £jj 

According to the early religious scholars from among the 
companions of the Prophet saw and their students and the 
Mujtahidun, there is a rule to distinguish between the two 
nouns in the genitive construction. 

(A) When one of the two nouns is Allah, and the other is 

a person of a thing, e.g., 

(i) Allah's House (Bait-ul-Lah ), 

(ii) Allah's Messenger; 

(iii) Allah's slave (Abdullah ); 

(iv) Allah's spirit (Ruh-ul- Lah ) etc. 

The rule of the above words is that the second noun, e.g., 
House, Messenger, slave, spirit, etc. is created by Allah 
and is honourable in His Sight and similarly Allah's 
spirit may be understood as the spirit of Allah, in fact, it 



198 



is a soul created by Allah, i.e. Jesus, and it was His 
Word: "Be!", - and he was created (like the creation of 
Adam). 

(B) But when one of the two is Allah and the second is 
neither a person nor a thing, then it is not a created thing 
but is a quality of Allah, e.g., 

(i) Allah's Knowledge ('Ilmullah ); 

(ii) Allah's Life (Hayatullah ); (iii) Allah's 
Statement (Kalamullah ); 

(iv) Allah's Self (Dhatullah )etc. 



Root - 
Royal 

Rude £*j - Jaa 



Ruqya 

Divine words, usually from the Holy Qur' an, used as a 
recitafion to cure an illness or a disease. 



Rule au.„ _ s^cli - -<-«• 

Ruler JaLAa . 

Runagate J-^ - 



199 



s 



Sacerdotal 



Sabian 



Sacred 




Sacredness 



Sacrifice 



Sadness 



^ - 



afa and Marwa 



Two small hills in Makkah, in Al-Haram as-Shareef (The 
Grand Masjid) to the east. It is an essential part of an Umra and 
the Hajj to walk seven times between the two places, 
quickening one's step briefly between two points between 
them. This is called Sa'i. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): 

Safety . <>l 

Sage J&e- - 



Sahih 

Healthy and sound with no defects. Authentic, as regards 
Ahadeeth, such as Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. 



Sahih Bukhari j j^M 1 

A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Bukhari. 



Sahih Muslim 

A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Muslim. 



200 



Sahu M-^ 

Literally means forgetting. If one adds to or subtracts from 
what is required during the Salat (Prayer), out of forgetfulness 
or lack of attention, then one must perform two extra 
prostrations at the end of the Salat. This is called Sajda Sahu. 



Saint cA? - 

Sake 4_A^ - - 



Sakina Calm <1£*>1\ 

Calm, peaceful tranquillity, perfect calmness, serenity, due to 
the Presence of Allah being made clear and apparent. See Holy 
Qur'an, At-Taubah (9):26, 40, Al-Fath (48):4, 18, 26. 

Salaf Forebears tiLJI 

Forebears, predecessors, ancestors. 



Al Salaf al Saalih ulL-1! 

the righteous forebears - refers to the early generations of 
Muslims including the Sahaabah and the Taabfoon. 



Salafi 

Literally, "the early years". Salafi is used generally to describe 
the early generations of the Muslims, particularly the 
companions of the Messenger of Allah and those who followed 
them, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and 
them. In the present age the term is sometimes used to describe 
a Muslim who closely follows the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet 
Muhammad and As-Salafiyeen as-Saliheen, the righteous 
companions of Muhammad. 



201 



Salat *V — 

• Prayers. There are five daily obligatory prayers in 
Islam,consisting of fixed sets of standings, 
bowings, prostrations and sittings in worship to 
Allah. These are called Rak 'at. The number of 
Rak'at in each prayer and their timings are: 

1. Fajr - dawn - two Rak'at. 

2. Duhr - noon - four Rak'at. 

3. 'Asr - afternoon - four Rak' at. 

4. Maghreb - sunset - three Rak'at. 

5. Isha - late evening - four Rak'at. 

These five Salat are one of the Arkan of islam. See 
Arkan.lt is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu when 
doing the Salat. For voluntary Salat: See Nafilah. 

• One of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See 
Jannah. 



Salatud_duha c^ aSI s ^ 

A Nafl Salat that is prayed after sunrise and before noon. 



Salatul Janaza Funeral prayer • JUaJI i^La 

Funeral prayer. It is permitted to do Salatul Janaza only over 
the dead bodies of Muslims. This prayer is done in the standing 
position only, and usually immediately before the burial. It 
contains four Takbirs: 

1 . After the first Takbir - read Suratul Fatiha. 

2. After the second Takbir - recite any Dua'a for the 
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace,but it is preferred to do the 
Tashahhud (see Tashahhud)and the Salat al- 
Ibrahimiya: "Allahumma salle 'ala Muhammad wa 
'ala alec Muhammad kama salaira Ibrahim wa 'ala 
alee Ibrahim; fill 'alameen innaka hameedun 



202 



majeed. Allahumma barak 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala 
alee Muhammad kama barak ta ibrahim wa 'ala 
alec Ibrahim; fill 'alameen innaka hamidun 
majeed." ("O Allah, bless Muhammad and the 
family of Muhammad, as You blessed Ibrahim 
and the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely 
You are Praiseworthy,Glorious. O Allah, give 
Muhammad blessing and the family of 
Muhammad, as You gave Ibrahim blessing and 
the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You 
are Praiseworthy , Glorious.") 

3. After the third Takbir - pray for the deceased 
person, his or her relatives and the Muslim people 
in general. 

4. After the fourth Takbir - this marks the end of the 
Salat.Face your right shoulder and say "Assalamu 
'alaikum wa rahmarullah" ( "Peace be on you and 
the Mercy of Allah"). 



Salatul Shuruq Jjj^l S!>Ua 

A Nafl Salat of two or four Rak'at that is prayed a short while 
after sunrise. 



Salatul Tasbih ^uU-^l 

A special Nafl Salat of four Rak'at. This Salat involves praising 
Allah Ta'ala by including "Subhanallah, wal hamdulilah, wa la 
il laha illallah, wallahu akbar" ("Glory to Allah, and Praise to 
Allah, and there is no god except Allah and Allah is Greatest") 
seventy-five times in each Rak'a. 



salat id- J urn 'ah : 4aa*1\ i^La 

Although most Muslims pray on their own wherever they 
happen to be at the time, there is an opportunity on Fridays to 
come together as a community to pray together. Traditionally, 



203 



the midday prayer on Friday is said at the mosque, where the 
imam or a guest will read passages from the Qur'an and may 
give a lesson - much as Muhammad may have done thousands 
of years ago. The congregation is arranged in lines (women and 
men have separate areas for prayer), and the synchronisation of 
movement and chanting by hundreds of Muslims is a powerful 
sight. Although attendance is obligatory for men (although not 
for women), a man who is sick is excused. 



Saleh, peace be upon him ^L»ll <£c ^JU^a 

A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Thamud who 
lived in the north-western part of the Arabian Peninsula. They 
were destroyed for rejecting him. The remains of their stone 
dwellings still exist today. See Holy Qur'an, AI-Araf(7):73-79, 
At-Tawbah (11):61 -68, Ash-Shu'ara (26): 141 -159,An-Naml 
(27):45-53. 



Salih cll- 
Righteous and goodly person, someone who is in the right 
place at the right time. It may also mean healthy and sound in 
body and soul. 



Salsabil A fountain in Jannah <J#"*k- 

A fountain in Jannah. Literally means "seek the way". See 
Holy Qur'an, Al-insan (76)18. 



Salutation - £L* 

Salavation sUj - 



Samad (As) 

Does not have an exact meaning in English. The closest word 
or words that indicate the meaning are: 

1. "Absolute" and "Eternal" and "Everlasting". 



204 



2. The One to Whom all created beings turn to for all 
their needs, and Who is not dependent on anything 
or anyone for any need. 

3. The Most Perfect in His Attributes.One of the 
ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. For a 
complete list. 



Sanctification 


- 




Sanctimonious 




- cJ^j 


Sanctity 






Sanctuary 






Sapience 






Sapient 







Saqifah A shelter with a roof AM^1\ 

A shelter with a roof. The companions of the Prophet met in a 
Saqifah in Madinah to pledge their loyalty to Abu Bakr after 
the death of the Prophet. 



Samad (as) 

One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah. It means Absolute, 
Eternal, and Everlasting. It refers to the One to Whom all 
created beings turn to for all their needs, and Who is not 
dependent on anything or anyone for any need. The Most 
Perfect in His Attributes. 



Sariya A small army 

A small army sent by the prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless 
him and grant him peace, for a Jihad in which he did not 
personally take part. 



205 



Satan 



jt Lj uS\ 



Savage 

Savagery 

Saviour 




Sawm 



Fasting 



Fasting (sawm in Arabic) is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. 
All healthy and sane Moslems are expected to fast (to abstain 
from food, drink, smoking and other bodily pleasures) during 
the daylight hours throughout the entire month of Ramadan. 
This means that they rise before dawn to eat breakfast and then 
eat a large meal after dusk. While they fast during the day, 
Moslems are expected to reflect on themselves and their 
standing before Allah, and ask for forgiveness for their sins. 
The evening meal, by contrast, is often a time of enjoyment 
and the gathering of friends and relatives. 

Sceptic - <^j* 

Scepter uW^j^ 

Schism - $*&\ 

Scowl f-s-^ - 



Scribes of the revelation 

Scribes of the revelation : Scribes of the revelation were those 
who shouldered the task of writing down the revelation. 



Screech 



Scruple 

Sculptor 

Secular 



— ^ — 



Seclusion 



206 



The Seat of Allah Al-kursi 

The Seat of Allah, al-Hayyu al-Qayoum. The size of His Seat 
extends over all the heavens and earth. Even though it is such a 
huge creation, it is still much smaller than the 'Arsh (the 
Throne) of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 2:255 is called Ayatul Kursi. 
See Surah al-Baqara (2):255. See also 'Arsh. 



Seconder - 

SeCt c_lAA« - <ajUa 

Sedan 

Sedateness ^-y^ 



Sedition u 
Seditious 

Seductive . JL^a 

Self ^ 
Self-denial ^1 J&l 



The Seljuk State Al^LA\ aJjj 

The Seljuk State : These were the descendants of Turkman 
whose grandfather was Seljuk. They had so many offsprings 
who ruled Iran, Asia Minor, Iraq and Syria from the 1 1th to the 
13th centuries A.D. They put an end to the Buyids and were 
finally brought to an end by Genghis Khan and his successors. 



Seniority aA±J\ - A^jal 

Sensual cP 1 ^ 

Sensuality M 

Serenity - ^ jj 

Serdom -SPj^ 

Settler ^jl** 



207 



Shafaa 'a Intercession A^IL&I 

Intercession. On the Day of Judgement Allah Ta'ala, through 
His Grace and Mercy, will permit the Prophet Muhammad may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace, to intercede on behalf of 
the Muslim Ummah. Three other groups may also be given 
leave to intercede: 

1. The Anbiyaa - the prophets. 

2. The Ulamaa - the people of knowledge from 
amongst the Muslims. 

3. The Shuhadaa - the martyrs who died in the cause 
of Allah Ta'ala. 



Shahada witness &j! — ^ 

• To witness, in this world. See Shahadatain. 

• To bear witness, on the Day of Judgement. There 
will be four witnesses on Yaum al-Hisab (the Day 
of Reckoning): 

1 . The Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, and 
the Muslim Ummah against all the 
other Ummahs (communities and 
nations). 

2. The earth and the day and the night 
will be given the power to speak and 
bear witness. 

3. Everyone's limbs will bear witness 
for or against theirowners. 

4. One's deeds. 
Singular of Shahadatain. 



Shahawat Desires cj|>-<Li 

Desires and passions. 



Shahid ± — 



208 



It means a witness or martyr. 
Shaikh 

[Other Commonly Used Spellings: SHEIKH] 
The word Shaikh is a title or a nickname for an elderly person 
or a religious leader in a community. This title is also given to 
a wise person. The meaning of the word Shaikh has been 
distorted, misused, and abused by some mass media to reflect 
the wrong meanings. 



Shirk &jM 

Opposite of Tawheed. To associate anyone or anything with 
Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. Shirk is idol- worship. Idol- worship 
means attributing form to Allah, encasing Him in an object, a 
concept, a ritual or a myth - when Allah has no form, is not like 
anything and cannot be conceived of or perceived. Allah the 
Most Merciful is prepared to forgive any sin a man or Jinn may 
commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. There are three 
types of Shirk: 

1. Shirk al-Akbar (major Shirk). This is divided into 
four categories: 

o Shirk ad-Du'a : invoking or 

supplicating to a false deity besides 
Allah Ta'ala, i.e. invocation or 
supplication by either invoking other 
than Allah or invoking Him through a 
created being or thing, such as a 
prophet, an angel, a saint, or even a 
bank manager, 
o Shirk al-Niyyah wa Iraada wal Qasd : 
having the intention and 
determination to deliberately do any 
type of act of worship to a deity other 
than Allah Ta'ala. 



209 



o Shirk at-Ta'a: obeying any created 
being against the command of Allah 
Ta'ala. Beware of such Shirk! It is 
very easy to commit. 

o Shirk al-Muhabbah: loving a created 
being or an object more than Allah 
Ta'ala. 

2. Shirk al-Asghar (minor Shirk): 

o Shirk ar-Rea': carrying out a religious 
act for worldly gains and not for the 
pleasure of Allah, e.g. giving Zakat 
for the sake of fame or praise. 

o Shirk at-Tasmee': swearing by other 
than Allah, and accordingly relying 
on other than Allah, or attaching 
more importance to other than Allah. 

3. Shirk al-Khafy (hidden Shirk) :heing dissatisfied 
with what Allah has ordained for a panicular 
person. Hidden Shirk is to inwardly worship 
anything or anyone other than Allah, or to 
inwardly associate something or someone as a 
partner with Him, especially one's self. 



Shaitan Satan 0 1 — 

Satan. An evil Jinn who prompts mankind and Jinn to rebel 
against Allah. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil that He 
has created . Plural: Shayateen. See Iblis. See Holy Qur'an, An- 
Nisaa (4): 117-120. 



Shari'a * — fcu^l 

Islamic law as ordained by Allah Ta'ala. Literally it means 'a 
road'. The Shari'a is the legal and social modality of a people 
based on the revelation of their prophet. The last Shari'a in 
history is that of Islam. It abrogates all previous Shari'as. It is 



210 



being the last, therefore the easiest to follow, for it is applicable 
to the whole human race wherever they are. 



Shu 'aib, peace be upon him ^LJi 4^ 

A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Madyan 
(Midian), but they rejected him, so Allah Ta'ala destroyed them 
with an earthquake. See Mursaleen. See Holy Qur'an,Al- 
A'raf(7):85-93, Houd (ll):84-95. 



Shuhadaa flA-<LiJ! 

Persons who die Fee Sabeeli'IIah (in the path of Allah). Allah 
has designated eight things for the Shuhadaa alone: 

1 . They are the first to be forgiven. 

2. They are the first to see their place in Jannah 
(Paradise) 

3. They are exempted from Adhabul-Qabr (trials and 
tribulations in the grave). 

4. They will be exempted from fear on the Day of 
Resurrection. 

5. They will be crowned with the "Taj al-Waqar" 
(literally means "the crown of respect") on that 
Day. 

6. They will each be married to seventy-two 
"Houri'een"(see Hooriah). 

7. They will each be given permission to intercede 
on behalf of seventy-two of their relatives. 

8. The sweetness of Iman will physically glow from 
within them. 



Shelter lsJ^ 
Shivering ^ j 



211 



Shura (Ash) The Consultation cijj^l 

"The Consultation". Surah 42 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Sidrat aljduntaha ^p^S S j^- 

"The lote-tree of the furthest limit." A tree over the Seventh 
Heaven near Paradise, the place where form ends and beyond 
which no created being may pass. See Holy Qur'an, An-Najm 
(53):14-18. 



Sincerity o^^-l 

Sinful ^1 

Sinless jW 
Sins 



Siraat (As) Jal>^l! 

Literally means "road". It is the bridge over the Nar (Hellfire) 
which must be crossed to enter the Garden on the Day of 
Judgement. It is described in Ahadeeth as being narrower than 
the blade of a sword, thinner than a hair and as having hooks 
over it to snatch wrongdoers and throw them into 
Jahanam.Some will cross the Siraat into the Garden like 
lightning or like the wind, some with ease, some with 
difficulty, some with great difficulty and some will fall into the 
waiting Fire below. See Holy Qur' an, Mariam (19):71. 



Sirah (As) oj^l 

[Other Commonly Used Spellings: SEERAH] The writings of 
the companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.) about him, his 
personality, his life story, and his ways of handling different 
situations is called Sirah. The famous collections of the Sirah 
are At-Tabari, Ibn Ishaq, and Ibn Hisham. The Sirah is a source 



212 



of reference that Muslims rely on in their daily life situations 
and problems. 



Siwak ^!>-» 

A piece of branch or root of a tree called al-Arak used as a 
toothbrush. 



slander 

A false accusation. 

Slaughter 

Slave 

Slaver 

Slavery 

Slave-trade 

Slyness 

Sociability 

Social 

Society 

Sodomite 

Soldier 

Solemn 

Solemnity 

Solidarity 

Soliloquy 

Slogan 

Solomon 

Solven 

Sonship 

Soothsayer 

Sorcerer 



Buhtan Cfite 

calumny, slander. 

jj - 

(jjiill ol •>! La - 
i_al^)C. - 



213 



Sorceress 




Sorcery 




Sordid 




Sorrow 


^ - U> 


Sorcery 




Sot 




Souls 




Sovereignty 





The specific reason Asbab An-Nazul Jj j^l c_A^ 

The specific reason and circumstances for the revelation of 
various verses of the Holy Qur'an. For example: Surat at- 
Taubah, Ayat 79-80 (the story of Abu Aqeel). In 9 AH the 
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, asked for contributions to finance his Tabuk expedition. 
Being very poor, but still yearning to contribute, Abu Aqeel 
decided to offer his services, which lasted from dusk till dawn. 
He received only two handfuls of barley in payment. He took 
the entire payment and presented it to Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace. A group of Munafiqeen 
(hypocrites) saw this and started to deride Abu Aqeel by 
saying, "Look at Abu Aqeel, does he think that Allah is in 
need of such a pathetic donation?" Allah Ta'ala became so 
angry with them that He immediately sent down the Holy Spirit 
Jibreel (The Angel Gabriel), peace be on him, to reveal Surah 
9: 79-80 to Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace. 



Spell 



Spendthrift Bukhl <J^? 

Spendthrift. Allah Ta'ala has forbidden mankind to be either 
misers or over-generous to a fault. See Holy Qur'an, Suwar : 
Al-Isra (17):26-29, Al-Furqan (25):67. 



214 



(The) spider 'Ankaboot (Al) ta j»yVwH 

"The spider" The spider who made its web over the Ghar Thaur 
(Cave of Thaur) where the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr, may Allah be 
pleased with him, hid from the Quraish on his way to Madinah. 
Surah 29 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Spiritualism 




Spleen 




Splendid >^ 




Splendour Jjjjj - 


The Spoils of War 


Anfaal (Al) JUiftl 


"The Spoils of War". Surah 8 of the Holy Qur'an. 


Spoliation 




Spontaneously 


lc jJa - 1 jLiikl 


Squad 


<^ijjoi - <a^)3 


Stateliness 


- <g_sl 


Statuary 




Status 




Statute 




Steadfast 




Steady 




Stickler 




Stinginess 


^joi - <Ji*j 


Stingy 




Stoop 




Straightness 





215 



Strait 




Strayed 




Stress 




Stricken 




Stubborn 




Suavity 




Subdue 




Subhan Allah 


Glory be to Allah *M c^ 3 ^ 


Glory be to Allah. Far removed is He from anything imperfect 


associated with 


Him and far removed is He from anything 


unsuitable ascribed to Him! 


Subhanahu wa Ta 'ala AJUow 


"May He be Glorified and Exalted." One of the many ways of 


glorifying Allah the Almighty. It means "Glory be to Allah on 


High. Far removed is He from any imperfection". The 


shortened form of this glorification is "Allah Ta'ala". 


Subjection 




Subjectivity 




Subjugate 


i\wuni - j^i 


Sublimity 




Suborder 




Subordinates 




Subsequence 




Success 




Successor 




Sufferance 





Sulaiman, peace be uon him fiLul\ jU iui 



216 



Solomon. A prophet of Islam and a wise king. He was the son 
of the Prophet (and King) Dawood (David), peace be on both 
of them. He ruled the north-western Arabian Peninsula for 
about forty years. Allah Ta'ala gifted him with many 
powers,which included having power over the winds, being 
able to converse with the birds and ants and other animals, and 
having power over the evil Jinn. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Anbiya 
(21): 79-82, An-Naml (27): 15-44, Saba (34): 12-14, Saad 
(38):30-40.See Mursaleen. 
Sunnah traditions 41^1 

All the traditions and practices of Muhammad, may Allah bless 
him and grant him peace, that are recorded not only in such 
books as Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, but also in living 
people to whom these traditions and practices have been 
transmitted, from person to person, from then until 
now. Although the Sunnah has come to refer almost exclusively 
to the practice of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him 
and grant him peace, it also comprises the customs of the first 
generation of Muslims in Madina. They learned their Islam 
directly from the Prophet, not from books, and transmitted 
what they had learned to the next generation. Thus they have 
become models whom all Muslims should follow. The Sunnah 
is a complete behaviourial science that has been systematically 
kept outside the learning framework of this society. It cannot 
be learned from books, although books can be helpful. It can 
only be learned from real Muslims who are true teachers. 
Plural: Sunnan. 



Surah Sjj — ^ 

A chapter of the Holy Qur'an. Literally means "a form". There 
are 1 14 Suwar in the Holy Qur'an. Plural: Suwar. 

Superstition 



217 



Supplication J^jj - 

Supplication: Invoking Allah for whatever one desires. 
Support 

Surrender <»!>LAJ - ^A^l 

Sustenance <jjj^ 

Suzerainty SjU^ 

Sway - 2 ^Lx 

Swear - ^1 

Swearing ^ . jxaj 

Sword - 



Sowrdman 

Sylph ^jjj^ 

Symmetry cM-" 
Synagogue 



218 



T 



Taaghout (pi. Tawaagheet) ^j&Uall 

The Sharee'ah definition of Taaghout is: "Anyone (or anything) 

that is worshipped, obeyed or followed other than Allah". In 

other words, Taaghout is a false deity (god). 

If someone worships a person, and that person accepts to be 

worshipped then he is Taaghout. Likewise, if a person makes 

legislation he too is Taaghout, as only Allah has the right to 

legislate. 

Taaghout can be a ruler (who does not rule by Islam), police 
(who do not enforce Islam), a stone, constitution, animal, 
scholar (who does not judge by the Sharee'ah), celebrity etc. 
Whoever follows or worships the Taaghout, he will become 
one himself. 



Taboo - 



Tabuk 

A famous town 400 miles north of Madinah al-Munawarah 
close to Shaam. In 9AH the Messenger of Allah, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, hearing that the Byzantines 
were gathering a large army to march against the Muslims, led 
a large expedition to Tabuk, on what was to be his last 
campaign, only to find that the Byzantine army had withdrawn 
back into its own territory. 

Tadabour Meditation and consideration 



Taghabunn (At) Mutual Loss O^*^ 1 

"Mutual Loss". Another name for the Final Houn Surah 64 of 
the Holy Qur'an. 



219 



Taghut ^j&Ua 

: The word Taghut covers a wide range meanings: It means 
anything worshipped other than the Real God (Allah), i.e. all 
the false deities. It may be Satan, devils, idols, stones, sun, 
stars, angels, human beings e.g. Jesus, Messengers of Allah, 
who were falsely worshipped and taken as Taghuts. Likewise 
saints, graves, rulers, leaders, etc., are falsely worshipped, and 
wrongly followed. 



Tahqiq <jfc£^ 

Recitation of the Holy Qur'an in a very slow manner. This 
method is used only when one is learning or teaching Taj weed. 



Taif ^Uai! 

A city fifty miles east of Makkah, where the Prophet 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to 
preach after being rejected, beaten and nearly killed by the 
pagan Quraish of Makkah in the second year before Hijra. 
There too he suffered beatings and humiliation. On his return 
journey to Makkah, Allah Ta'ala revealed to him that although 
the people of Taif had rejected him, the Jinn had accepted him. 
It was then that Surarul Jinn (Surah 72) was revealed to him. 



Tajweed 

Recitation of the Holy Qur'an with precise articulation and 
exact intonation. 



Takathur (Al): jSUSSM 

"The Race for Worldly Gains". Surah 102 of the Holy Qur' an. 



Takweer (At) The Overthrowing J^J*^ 

"The Overthrowing". Surah 81 of the Holy Qur'an. 



220 



Talbiya 

The call that the pilgrims make to their Lord on the Hajj, 
saying: "Labbaik, labbaik, Allahumma labbaik." ("I am totally 
at Your service, I am totally at Your service, O Allah I am 
totally at Your service.") 

"La shareeka laka labbaik." ("You have no partner, I am totally 
at Your service.") 

"Innal hamda wa n'imata laka wal mulk." ("Truly, the praise 
and the blessing are Yours, and the dominion.") 
"La shareeka lak." ("You have no partners.") 



Tale Sjj^ 1 
Talisman 



Talut £»jlt — fa 

King Saul. He led his army against the army of Jalut (Goliath). 
See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):247-249. 



Tamper 



Taqwa Fear of Allah isj — ^ 

Fear of Allah, being careful, knowing your place in the 
cosmos. Its proof is the experience of awe, of Allah, which 
inspires a person to be on guard against wrong action and eager 
for actions pleasing to Allah. Fearing Allah as He should be 
feared is one of the major signs of being a faithful Muslim. 
Piety and restraint (through Taqwa) in times of hardship are 
signs of having achieved the essence and spirit of Islam, and 
thus Allah's blessing. See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Imran (3): 102- 
103,AS-Hashr (59): 18-19. 



221 



Tariq(Al) The Night Visitant JjL-kl! 

"The Night Visitant". Surah 86 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Tarteel Jjjjj 

Measured recitation of the Holy Qur'an taking extreme care 
with regard to the rules of slow reading, pausing and stopping 
at every indicated point. 



Tashahhud 

Reciting the following silently while one is in Qu'ud (i.e. the 
sitting position) during Salat: "Attahiyatu lillahe wa salawatu 
tayibat. Assalamu 'alaika ya aiuhan nabiu wa rahmatullahe wa 
barakatuhu. Wa assalamu 'alaina wa 'ala 'ibadillahe saleheen. 
Ashadu an la illaha illal lah. Wa ashadu anna Muhammadar 
rasoolu' llah." ("Greetings are for Allah and all prayers and all 
good. Peace be on you 0 Prophet and the Mercy of Allah and 
His blessing. Peace be on us and on the right-acting slaves of 
Allah. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah, and I 
bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of , recitation of 
the Tashahhud is followed by recitation of Salat al-Ibrahimiya. 
See Salatul-Janaza. 



Tasneem 

Name of a fountain in Jannah (Paradise) whose drink is 
superior to the purest of wines. Its nectar will only be drunk by 
those near est to Allah Ta'ala. Literally means "rich and 
elevated". See Holy Qur' an, Al-Mutafifeen (83):27-28. 



Taubah t>-^S& 

Returning to correct action after error, turning away 
from wrong action to Allah and asking His 
Forgiveness, turning to face Allah whereas before 
one turned one's back. 



222 



Name of one of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). 
See Jannah. 

"Repentance". Another name for Al-Baraah. Surah 9 
of the Holy Qur' an. 



Tauhid jSJ) 

: It has three aspects; A, B and C: 

(A) Oneness of the Lordship of Allah; Tauhid-ar-Rububiyya: 
To believe that there is only one Lord for all the 
universe, its Creator, Organizer, Planner, Sustainer, and 
the Giver of Security, etc., and that is Allah. 

(B) Oneness of the worship of Allah; Tauhid-al-Uluhiyya: 
To believe that none has the right to be worshipped [e.g. 
praying, invoking, asking for help (from the unseen), 
swearing, slaughtering sacrifices, giving charity, fasting, 
pilgrimage, etc.], but Allah. 

(C) Oneness of the Names and the Qualities of Allah; 



Tauhid-al-Asmd was-Sifat: cti*al\j *Lu-SM jlp-jj 

To believe that : (i) we must not name or qualify Allah except 
with what He or His Messenger saw has named or qualified 
Him; (ii) none can be named or qualified with the Names or 
Qualifications of Allah; e.g. Al-Karim; (iii) we must confirm 
Allah's all qualifications which Allah has stated in His Book 
(the Qur'an) or mentioned through His Messenger (Muhammad 
saw ) without changing them or ignoring them completely or 
twisting the meanings or giving resemblance to any of the 
created things; e.g. Allah is present over His Throne as 
mentioned in the Qur'an. (V. 20 : 5): "The Most Beneficent (i.e. 
Allah) Istawa (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne" over the 
seventh heaven; and He only comes down over the first 
(nearest) heaven (to us) during the day of Arafat (Hajj, i.e. 9th 
Dhul-Hijja) and also during the last third part of the night, as 



223 



mentioned by the Prophet saw , but He is with us by His 
Knowledge only, not by His Personal Self (Bi-Dhatihi), "There 
is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All- 
Seer." (The Qur'an, V. 42:11). 

This holy Verse confirms the quality of hearing and the quality 
of sight for Allah without resemblance to others; and likewise 
He also said: 

"To one whom I have created with Both My Hands," (V. 
38:75); and He also said: 

"The Hand of Allah is over their hands.": (V. 48:10, The 
Qur'an). This confirms two Hands for Allah, but there is no 
similarity for them. 

This is the Faith of all true believers, and was the Faith of all 
the Prophets of Allah from Noah, Abraham, Moses and Christ 
till the last of the Prophets, Muhammad saw . It is not like as 
some people think that Allah is present every-where, here, 
there and even inside the breasts of men. 

These three aspects of Tauhid are included in the meanings of 
La ilaha ill Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but 
Allah). 

It is also essential to follow Allah's Messenger Muhammad saw 
: Wajtib Al-Itteba' and it is a part of Tauhid-al-Uluhiyya. This 
is included in the meaning: "I testify that Muhammad saw is 
the Messenger of Allah" and this means, "None has the right to 
be followed after Allah's Book (the Qur'an), but Allah's 
Messenger saw ". [See the Qur'an (V. 59:7) and (V. 3:31)]. 



Tawaf cil^-Ja 

The circling of the Holy Ka'aba. Tawaf is done in sets of seven 
circuits, after each of which it is necessary to pray two 
Rak'at,preferably at or near the Maqaam al-Ibrahim. See Tawaf 
al-Ifada. 

Tawheed (Al) Monotheism The Divine Unity 4^J^ 



224 



The Divine Unity, Unity in its most profound sense. Allah is 
One in His Essence and His Attributes and His Acts. The 
whole universe and what it contains is One unified event which 
in itself has no lasting reality. Allah is the Real, AI-Haqq. 
Although Allah is indivisible and beyond conception, Tawheed 
can be viewed from four distinct perspectives: 

1. Tawheed al-Rububiyah : Unity of Lordship. To 
perceive that there is only one Lord, the Master 
and Creator of the Universe, Who oversees and 
orders it in every moment, and that He is Allah 
Subhana wa Ta'ala. 

2. Tawheed al-Uluhiyah : Unity of Worship. To 
realise that none has the right to be worshipped 
but Allah "Wahdahu la shareeka'lah" ("Alone 
without partner"). 

3. Tawheed al-Asma wa Sifaat : Unity of Names and 
Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. To comprehend that: 

o None can qualify or name Allah 
except as He or Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace, 
have named or qualified Him. 

o None can be named or qualified with 
the Names or the Attributes that 
belong only to Allah Subhana wa 
Ta'ala. For example, none maybe 
called "AI-Muhyee" ("the Giver of 
Life") except Allah Subhana wa 
Ta'ala Himself. 

o We must accept all the Ayat and 
Ahadeeth (Sahih)regarding the 
Attributes of Allah without altering 
their meaning in any way whatsoever. 
For a full list of the Attributes of 
Allah Ta'ala. 



225 



4. Tawheed al-Itabaa : Unity in following the 
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace. To believe in and recite the 
words "Ashadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah" 
("I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger 
of Allah") and to follow the way of the Holy 
Prophet Muhammad, as much as one is able, in 
life and worship. It is only by following the way 
of Islam that the true nature of Tawhid becomes 
apparent. 
Another name for Suratul Ikhlas. 



Tawrat: S!j>^! 

The revelation received by Moses, the Law of Moses often 
used to designate all the books of the Old Testament. 



Tax ^j^ 3 
Taxation c-ulj^l 



Tayammum 

Tayammum literally means 'to intend to do a thing'. As an 
Islamic legal term, it refers to wiping one's hands and face with 
clean earth as a substitution for ablution when water cannot be 
obtained 



Temerity 




- 4i jU^a 


Temper 






Temperance 






Temperate 






Temple 




- 


Temptation 







226 



Tendency 






Tenet 






Tension 






Territory 




- 4jJaLLa 


Terror 






Term 






Testament 






Testify 






Testimonial 






Testimony 







Thamud 

Successors to the people of 'Ad. They lived in north-western 
Arabia between what is now known as Madinah and Syria. 
Their prophet was Saleh (peace be on him). Allah Ta'ala 
destroyed them with an earthquake. See Holy Qur' an, Al-A'raf 
(7):73-79, Hud (ll):61-68, Ash'Shu'araa (26): 141-159, An- 
Naml (27):45-53, Az-Zariyat (51):43-45,A1-Qamar(54):23-31. 



Theism 
Theologians 

Theology ^ 

Theosophy lJ^^j 

Thicket ^> 

Thrall lSj - SPj^ 

Thralldom - aj^jjc 

Threat ^ j - ^ 



227 



The Throne of Allah 'Arsh lhj^ 1 

The Throne of Allah. The 'Arsh is the immense starless heaven 
that encompasses the visible Universe, which is referred to as 
the Kursi. Sayyidina Ali, may Allah he pleased with him, said 
that the relationship of the Kursi to the 'Arsh is like that of a 
small ring lying in the middle of a vast desert. This is why 
Arsh is correctly translated as 'Throne' and Kursi as 'Seat or 
'Foot-stool', although sometimes those who are unaware of the 
existence and nature of the Arsh translate Kursi as 'Throne'. 



Thunder ^» j 

Thunderbolt 
Tidiness 



Tilawat ^IjV— & 

This word has a variety of meanings, depending on the context: 
Studying the Qur'an in order to understand it in the 
way it should be understood. See Al-Baqara 
(2):121. 

Meditating and reflecting on the Qur'an's meanings in 

order to enrich one's life and knowledge. 
Reading and reciting the Qur'an by oneself. 
Reading and reciting and conveying its meanings to 

others. 

Approaching and acting on the Qur'an in such a way 
that it becomes part of one's inner self, thus 
helping one to attain perfect prayer and to avoid 
any form of evil or shameful deeds and to be an 
upright person in the sight of Allah Ta'ala. See 
Holy Qur'an, Al -'Ankaboot(29):45. 

Tolerance ^L^\ 
Tomb 



228 



Toor The Mount j>-k 

"The Mount". Toori Sineen is the original name for Mount 
Sinai, on which the Prophet Musa (Moses) received the 
revelation of the Torah from Allah. Surah 52 of the Holy Qur' 
an. 



Torture 


' ■ LjjjJU 




Traditional 


Jill! 




Traditions 






Tranquility 


* J.1A 




Treachrry 


- 




Treasury 


JUt c 




Treatment 






Treaty 







Asabiyyah tirbal loyalty 4# * a*l\ 

It means tirbal loyalty, nationalism. 



Tribe » - ^-W* 

Tribe of Israel Bani Israeel JjhI>-I <Jj 

"Tribe of Israel". The descendants of the twelve sons of 
Yacoub, who was also called Israeel, the son of Ishaq, who 
was, the son of the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be on them all. 
Another name for Suratul al-Isra. Surah 1 7of the Holy Qur' an. 

Tribute ^Lp- - Ssj^ 

Trifles Abateel J^J 
Triumph jja - 



229 



Truce 



Troth 



Hudnh 




Truth 

The Truthful As-Siddiq 



"The Truthful". This title was given to Abu Bakr, may Allah be 
pleased with him, by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace. When the Prophet Muhammad, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related his 
experience of al-Isra (his night journey to the Masjid al-Aqsa in 
Jerusalem) wal Mi'raj (and his ascension through the seven 
heavens) to Abu Bakr , may Allah he pleased with him, he 
immediately and without any reservation replied "Sadaqt" : 
"You have spoken the truth". From that time on, Abu Bakr, 
may Allah be pleased with him, came to be known as Abu 
Bakr as-Siddiq. 



The Truthfulness 

Trustworthy Ameen 

The Honest : An attribute of the Prophet (peace be upon him) 

Trusty <jA^> - jjJ 

Turban <*Uc. 

Tyrant - ^Ua - ajc.IL 



230 



231 



u 



Uhud (J») **\ 

A mountain just outside Madina, much loved by the Prophet 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at the 
foot of which the Muslims fought their second major battle 
against the pagan Qur'aish of Makka in 3AH. The Qur'aish 
army of 3,000 men, under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, 
attacked the Muslim army of about 700-1,000 men. The battle 
went well at first, but the Muslims nearly lost the battle for two 
reasons. Firstly, some fifty archers disobeyed the Prophet 
Muhammad and left their posts, leaving the Muslims open to 
an attack from their rear; and secondly, there was treachery on 
the part of some 300 Munafiqeen (hypocrites) led by Abdallah 
ibn Ubai, who deserted the Muslims during the battle. Many 
great companions, and in panicular the uncle of the Prophet, 
Hamza, 'the lion of Allah', were killed in this battle. See Bani 
Nadheer. See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Imran (3): 121-128, 140- 180. 



Ulil Amr Jji 

Muslims who are in charge or in authonty, or who are leaders. 
The Muslims are ordered to obey all their commands as long as 
they do not contradict the commandments of Allah Ta'ala and 
the teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless 
him and grant him peace. See Holy Qur' an, An-Nisaa (4):59. 

Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, May Allah be pleased with him 

Umar ibn al-Khattab. The second of the four "Al-Khulafaa ar- 
Rashideen", the Rightly-Guided Khalifas, the other three being: 

1. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. 

2. Uthman ibn 'Affan. 

3. Ali ibn Abi Talib. 



232 



May Allah be pleased with all of them. Umar was renowned 
for his justness and strength, and for his refusal to compromise 
the teachings of Islam in any way. He was the Khalifaa from 
13 AH to 23 AH. He asked Allah for martyrdom in the way of 
Allah in Madina, and his request was answered. Umar died 
after be ing stabbed in the stomach while doing the dawn 
prayer in the Mosque of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and 
grant him peace. 



Umm 'me 

An unlettered person. This term is used in the Qur'an to 
describe the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him 
and grant him peace, who could neither read nor write and who 
never received any formal education. To the unbeliever here is 
food for thought: how could an illiterate man have brought 
such a completely perfect book (the Holy Qur'an), perfect in its 
meaning, message, grammar and overall content, if it were not 
with divine help? No other book exists on earth that has such 
perfect content and structure. A challenge to all unbelievers! 
Mankind and Jinn! Assemble together and try to produce just 
one Surah (chapter) like it. You will never be able to do it, 
even if you were to try until the Day of Resurrection you will 
not succeed! No created being has ever been or ever will be 
able to meet this challenge, for the Holy Qur'an is truly the 
Book of Allah. Plural: Ummiyeen. See Khatam Anbiyaa. 

The Umayyad Caliphs (40-132 A.H./661-750 A.D.) 

The Umayyad Caliphs (40-132 A.H./66 1-750 A.D.) : The 
Muslim Umayyad Caliphs belong to the Banu Umayyah of the 
Quraish. The first among them was Mu v awiah bin Abi Sufyan 
and the last was Marwan II. Damascus was their capital. After 
being overcome by the Abbasids, they moved to Andalusia and 
ruled in Cordoba from 138-422 A.H./756-1031 A.D. Their first 
ruler in Andalusia was v Abdul-Rahman Al-Dakhil. Their rule 



233 



was brought to an end at the hands of Muluk Al-Tawa'if (Kings 
of Petty States). 



Ummah Nation 

Community or Nation. The body of the Muslims as one distinct 
and integrated community. The Unimah of Muhammad, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace, refers to every Ins wal 
Jinn (mankind and Jinn) born after the final message was 
revealed through the Holy Prophet Muhammad who have 
embraced Islam. The Ummah ofMuhammad, may the blessings 
and peace of Allah be on him and all his community (those 
who have lived in the past, those who are alive now and those 
who will live in the future), can be subdivided into two groups: 

1 . Ummat ad-Da'wa - the nation that was called upon 
to believe in Allah Ta'ala and the Last Day. 

2. Ummat al-Isteajaba - the nation that responded to 
the call of Muhammad. Another name for this 
Ummah is "Al- Ummah al-Islamiah" ("the Islamic 
Nation"). Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala commanded 
the Ummat al-Isteajaba to hold together and not to 
disagree. Unfonunately , this decree has been 
ignored, and in fulfilment of the Last Messenger's 
prophecy, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, there are now 73 different groups of 
Muslims, only one of whom possesses and 
protects the original teachings of Islam as brought 
and embodied by him. 



Ummiyeen Unlettered persons 

Unlettered persons. Singular: Umm-me. 



Umra *j — ^ 



234 



• A pilgrimage to Makkah, but not during the Hajj 
period. It is also called "the Lesser Pilgrimage". 
Umra consists of four steps: 

1. Put on the Ihram at the appointed 
Miqat station. Then proceed to 
Makka reciting the Talbiyah (aloud 
for men and quietly for women). See 
Ihram, Miqat. Talbiyah. 

2. Do Tawaf of the Ka'aba seven times. 
During the Tawaf one may do any 
Du'a (and in any language) to Allah 
Ta'ala if one wishes. But remember to 
point the palm of the right hand and 
say "Allahu Akbar" at the start of 
each circuit. Each circuit starts and 
ends at the Hajar al-Aswad (the Black 
Stone). See Tawaf, Du'a. 

3. Go to Safa and start the Sa'i to 
Marwa. The Sa'i consists of walking 
between Safa and Marwa seven times 
(each direction is considered as one 
time). Men must jog between two 
prescribed points. 

4. Shave or trim the hair after the 
completion of the Sa'i. It is then 
permissible to change out of Ihram. 

• Synonym for Ruqba. See Ruqba. 

Undisputed ^ 
Unerring <»j 



Unfair Jh> - <=^> 

Unified 

Unique ±>j$ 



235 



Unrest 



Universe 



Uulawful 



Unqualified 



Unread 



Unreserved 




The Unseen. 



1 . 'Ilmul Ghaib : Knowledge of the Unseen. No 
human has 'Ilmul Ghaib. Only Allah Ta' ala has 
total command of that knowledge. 

2. Bil Ghaib : In the unseen. All Muslims believe in 
the Unseen, i.e. all that is revealed to us by Allah 
Ta'ala in the Holy Qur'an and by the Holy Prophet 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, about the Malaika (angels) and the life in 
the Akhira (Hereafter) in all its aspects, even 
though they are invisible to our eyes. See Holy 
Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):3. 



Uprising ^Jalilil 
Urbanization 

Usage i—ijc - Ajlaj - dAc - JlAxioi! 

Usurer 

Usury WjM 



Uthman Ibn 'Affan, may Allah be pleased with him 




236 



One of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He was the third of 
the four Rightly-Guided Khalifaas (Al-Khulafaa ar- 
Rashideen). He ruled from 24AH to 36AH. He was martyred at 
his home by the supporters of Abdallah ibn Sabaa, the 
infamous Jew who pretended he had become a Muslim in order 
to cause discord between Uthman and the Muslim Ummah by 
creating a new and false sect within Islam. See Khalifaa. 



237 



V 



Vain 






Vanities Abated 


JiU 




Vainglory 






Valiant 






Valid 






Validity 




- <p jjii - ajc 


Valorous 






Valour 




-AcLajoi - Sel^a. 


Valuable 






Value 


- 




Variable 






Variance 


ujM ■ 




Vassal 


^UaiVI £ jl>ll 


Vault 




Venerable 




- 


Veneration 


r> - 




Vengeance 


- 




Venture 






Verbal 







238 



verdict Hukm ^ L$j& 

The closest equivalent in the English language is "verdict". It 
usually applies to a judgement on legal issues, especially with 
regard to religious matters. 

Verification <^f" 

Verity <j-^> 



Verse Ayah V 

A verse of the Holy Qur'an. Literally means "a sign". Plural: 
Ayat. 



Verve 








Vestal 




- iSj'^ 


- jAlL 


Vicar 








Victor 




- 




Victory 


Uil\ 


- j. 




Vindication 




- JiJV 




Violation 








Violators 






Violence 




_ i air. 




Virgin 




- 




Virtual 


JUi - 







239 



Vitue 

Visible isb* - 

Vitiation t_£t>l - J^al 



240 



Vizier jjjj 

Vizier is the Anglicized form of the Arabic word wazir, a 
minister, usually chief minister, to a Caliph or Muslim ruler or 
sultan. On occasion a vizier was in effect the governor. 



Vocation 




Volition 




Voluntary 


iS^ J - (J J^A^ - ls^j^ 


Volunteer 




Voracity 




Vortex 




Votary 





241 



w 



Wag 



Wakil JA? 

Other Commonly Used Spellings: WAKEEL A person who is 
an authorized repesentative or proxy. Also can mean lawyer in 
Urdu. 



Walee A guardian cs— -Jlj 

A guardian, aperson who has responsibility for another person; 
used particularly for the person who 'gives' a woman in 
marriage. Also someone who is a 'friend' of Allah, one of the 
Sabiqoon and Muqarraboon. Singular of Awliyaa. See 
Awliyaa. 



War 




Wariness 




Warning 




Warrantable 




Warrior 





Wasaya Wills and testaments 

Wills and testaments. Bequests. Allah Ta'ala commands us to 
make a bequest of our goods to our parents and next of kin. See 
Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): 180. The exact manner of 
distribution of one's goods is complicated and therefore should 
be studied very carefully before writing out one's will. 
Basically one can bequeath up to one-third of one's property to 
whomever one wishes, but the remaining two-thirds must be 
divided between one's surviving relatives in fixed shares, as 
delineated by the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Singular: Wasaya. 



242 



Washm Tattoo mark fAj 

Tattoo mark. It is forbidden for a Muslim to have a tattoo on 
his or her body. Wasm = tattoo. 



Wasteful 




Wayfarer 




Weal 




Welfare 




Whim 




Will 


A ii ui a - a^\j)\ 


Wisdom 




Wise 




Withdrawal 




Witness 




Witr j^j 

A Salat which has an odd number of Rak'at: two Rak'at, 
followed by one Rak'a. This Salat is prayed last thing at night 
before one goes to sleep, or else delayed and prayed at the end 
of the Tahajjud Salat by those who rise in the night, seeking the 
pleasure and the face of Allah Ta'ala. 


Wizard 




Worship 


Ibadah *d — ljc- 



Acts of worship and adoration in utmost submission and 
obedience and with utmost love to Allah Ta'ala. In other words, 
a term that indicates all that pleases Allah, including sayings 
and actions of the heart or limbs. Love, fear, reverence, desire 
(hope), trust and sincerity are some forms of worship from 



243 



within the heart. Prayers, attending to someone's needs, 
invocation, supplication and sacrifices are some forms of 
worship of the limbs. Ibadah is to worship Allah as He wishes 
to be worshipped. See Arkan . 



Worshipful 






Worshipper 






Worth 


- 




Worthiness 


Ua\ - 




Wound 






Wrathful 






Wreak 






Wrestle 






Wrongdoer 






Wrongful 







Wudu 9-3 — t£j 

Ritual washing with water alone to be pure for the prayer. The 
way to do Wudu is: 

1. Wash hands thrice*. 

2. Wash mouth thrice*. 

3. Wash nostrils thrice*. 

4. Wash face thrice*. 

5. Wash right forearm thrice*. 

6. Wash left forearm thrice*. 

7. Wipe scalp and nape of neck and then ears 
once,(or twice or thrice). 

8. Wash right foot thrice*. 

9. Wash left foot thrice*. 



244 



*Once or twice is also allowed. See Holy Qur'an, An-Nisa 
(4):43, Al-Ma'idah (5):7. You must already be in Ghusl for 
Wudu to be effective. You should ensure that your private parts 
and underclothes are clean before doing Wudu. Once you have 
done Wudu you remain in Wudu until it is broken by: 

1. Any of the conditions which make it necessary to 
have a Ghusl. See Ghusl. 

2. Emission of impurities from the private parts: 
urine, faeces, wind, prostatic fluid, or other 
discharge. 

3. Loss of consciousness by whatever means: usually 
by sleep or fainting. 

4. Physical contact between man and woman where 
sexual pleasure is either intended or experienced. 

5. Touching your penis with the inside of your hand 
or fingers. 

6. Leaving Islam. 

It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu (or alternatively to 
do Tayammum under certain circumstances) to do the Salat 
(Prayer) and to hold a copy of the Qur'an. See Tayammum . 



Wusta 0-a*it ) J^J^ 

Middle. Salatul Wusta refers to the middle prayer, which is the 
Asr prayer (the third of the five compulsory daily prayers), for 
those whose day begins at dawn. However, some say it refers 
to the Fajr prayer. This is because the Muslims follow a lunar 
calendar: the first day of a new lunar month is only determined 
when the new moon is sighted shortly after sunset. Therefore 
the Muslim day begins at Maghreb, and the first prayer of that 
new day is Maghreb, which makes the third (middle) prayer 
Fajr. 



245 



Y 



Yacoub, Peace be upon him ^L«ll A ^ 

Jacob. A prophet of Islam. He was also known as Israel. His 
twelve sons each became head of their own tribe and these 
were known as the twelve tribes of Israel. Jacob was the son of 
Ishaaq, who was the son of Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on 
them. See Mursaleen. 



Yahoud The Jews J j — <* 

The Jews. This term is correctly used to describe the three 
tribes of Israel - the tribes of Judah, Levi and Benjamin - who 
after the twelve tribes had escaped from Egypt with Moses, 
peace be on him, and settled in the Holy Land, separated from 
the other tribes of Israel (who were known as the Israelites) and 
became known as the Judahites. The term 'Judahite' was 
shortened to 'Judean', which was then eventually shortened to 
'Jew'. The Judahite Jews re-wrote and altered the Torah several 
times and formulated the Talmud (incorporating the Mishnah, 
the Jerusalem Gemara, the Babylonian Gemara and the 
Midrash), and their religion became known as Judaism. 
'Yahoud' is the Arabic equivalent of 'Judahite'. It is clear, 
therefore, that the term 'Yahoud' can only really be correctly 
used to describe the Middle Eastern and Sephardhic Jews; and 
can only be very loosely applied to the Ashkenazim Jews who 
are descended from the turkic Russian tribe of the Khazars who 
embraced Judaism in the seventh century, but who were not 
originally descended from any of the twelve tribes of Israel. It 
is for this reason that some commentators identify the 
Ashkenazim Jews with 'Jewj wa Majewj', Gog and Magog, 
(since they are 'Jews', but not Judahite Jews), about whom it is 
prophesied in Ezekiel 38-39 that they will come from their 
place in the far north (Russia), helped by many nations, and 



246 



attack the land of Israel, and that eventually there will be a 
mightly battle in which they will all be destroyed. 
Yahya, Peace be upon him f5L«II <^aj 

John the Baptist. A prophet of Islam. Son of the Prophet 
Zakaria and Al-Yasaabat (Elizabeth), and the maternal cousin 
of Mariam (Mary), Mother of Isa (Jesus), peace be on all of 
them. He was therefore a cousin of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), Son 
of Mariam (Mary). He was sent by Allah Ta'ala to prepare the 
way for the Prophet Isa. The Prophet Yahya was imprisoned, 
then later beheaded by Herod in order to prove his infatuation 
for a dancing girl (his niece). It is unfortunate that the Nasara 
(Christians) choose to call him John, because the name Yahya 
has a special place in history. He was the first man ever to be 
called Yahya. See Holy Qur'an, Aali'Imran (3):39,A1-An'am 
(6):85, Maryam (19): 12-15, Al-Anbiya (21):90-91. 



Yarmuk 4>*j^ 

A place in Shaam. Site of a famous battle. 



Yaum al-jaza *L>?^ 

Literally means the Day of Payment. Another name for the Day 
of Judgement, when mankind and Jinn will be paid what is due 
to them, either by being sent to Jannah (Paradise) or to Nar 
(Hellfire). 



Yaum-al-qiama <UbiS! ^jj 

Literally means the Day of Standing. This is the day when we 
will be raised from our graves and will stand while waiting to 
be judged by Allah Ta'ala. This day has many names, 
including: 

1. Al-Qari'a (Day of Clamour). 

2. At-Taama al-Kubra (The Complete Covering). For 
a complete list of the names and description of the 
Yaum al-Qiama. 



247 



Yaqeen Certainty Cxh 

Certainty. Faith in general is based on the Yaqeen of the 
believer. It has three stages: 

1 . Ilm al- Yaqeen - knowledge of certainty. 

2. Ayn al- Yaqeen - source of certainty. 

3. Haqq al- Yaqeen - truth of certainty. 

The Raja of Mahmudabad defined them thus in this metaphor: 

1 . You are told there is a fire in the forest. 

2. You reach the fire in the forest and see it for 
yourself. 

3. You are the fire in the forest. 
See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hijr (15):99 



Yatama Orphans 

Orphans. Singular: Yateem. See Yateem. 



Yateem Orphan ^ 

Orphan. It is a major sin to harm, abuse or cheat orphans in any 
way whatsoever. Allah Ta'ala will give a great reward to 
anyone who takes care of orphans. Plural: Yatama. See Holy 
Qur'an, Al-Baqara(2) : 220, An-Nisa(4) : 2,6, 1 0, 1 27, Al-Isra 

(17):34. 



Yathrib 

Yathrib : The old name of Medina 



Yunus, , Peace be upon him o^jt 
"Jonah" or "Jonas". A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the city 
of Nineveh (on the left bank of the Tigris, opposite the city of 
Mosul, in Iraq, to preach against their wickedness and call 
them to the worship of Allah. The people of Nineveh at first 
rejected him, but when he pronounced the curse of Allah upon 



248 



them, repented their sins. However, he still left the city in 
anger, forgetting that Allah is full of mercy, as well as 
forgiveness. As a punishment, Allah Ta'ala caused a whale to 
swallow him up for a limited time. In the darkness of the 
whale's stomach, in the darkness of the ocean, in the darkness 
of the night, Yunus turned to his Lord and asked for His 
forgiveness. The whale spewed him up on the beach and, after 
recovering from his ordeal, Yunus returned to the city whose 
inhabitants all became his followers. He then came to be 
known as Dhu'l-Noon (man of the whale). See Holy Qur'an, 
As-Saffa at(37): 139-149. Surah 10 of the Holy Qur'an. See 
Mursaleen. 



Yusuf, , Peace be upon him fihA\ uL-jj 

"Joseph". A prophet of Islam. One of the sons of Yacoub 
(Jacob), peace be on them. Surah 12 of the Holy Qur'an. 
See: Mursaleen. 



249 



z 



Zaboor jj — 40^ 

Holy Book revealed to the Prophet Dawood (David), peace be 
on him. 



Zaid tii ± J 

Zaid ibn Haritha was one of the first people to accept Islam. He 
was a freedman of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless 
him and grant him peace, who treated him like his own son. In 
the eighth year before Hijra, the Prophet Muhammad, may the 
peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, gave to Zaid in 
marriage his own cousin Zainab bint Jahsh. The marriage 
ended in divorce. It was Allah Ta'ala's will that the Holy 
Prophet himself should marry her. The Prophet Muhammad's 
marriage to her, in 5AH, made it clear that an adopted son is 
not to be legally regarded as a natural son as regards re- 
marriage and inheritance. If Zaid had been the Prophet's natural 
son, then the Prophet would not have been allowed to marry 
Zainab, since a man is not permitted to marry the ex-wife of his 
natural son. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ahzab (33):37-38. 



Zainab (Bint Jahsh) ^ SrHU 

Wife of Zaid ibn Haritha. She later married the Holy Prophet, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. For further 
information See Zaid ibn Haritha. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ahzab 
(33):28, 37-38, 50. 



Zakariah, Peace be on him f^^l <^ l±A3 

The Prophet Zacchariah. A prophet of Islam. He looked after 
Maryam, the mother of Jesus, in the Temple of Solomon, when 



250 



she was a child. He was the father of the Prophet Yahya, peace 
be on them all. 

Zallah A major error J j 

A major error, e.g. unintentional backbiting. Generally 
speaking, a person seeks Allah's forgiveness immediately after 
realizing that he or she has committed a Zallah. 



Zaqqum f>t$J 

An extremely bitter and thorny tree that grows at the bottom of 
Hellfire. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Isra (17):60, As-Saffat (37):62- 
66, Ad-Dukhan (44):43-46, Al-Waqi'ah (56):52. 



Zeal 

Zealous j^t 



Zindeeq <Jj^j 

Hypocrite or unbeliever. Anyone who does not believe in Allah 
and who rejects His Messengers, may Allah bless them and 
grant them peace 

Zion uj^ 3 
Zionism V> jj^JI 



Zoor jjj 

Giving false evidence. The act of committing perjury. 



Zukhruff (Al) The Gold Ornaments 

"The Gold Ornaments". Surah 43 of the Holy Qur'an. 



Zummar (Al) The Troops 

"The Troops". Surah 39 of the Holy Qur'an. 



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