English - Arabic
By Anwer Mahmoud Zanaty
Edited By TheVista
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glossary of islamic terms
'Abasa "He frowned" cw 6,
. The blind man that is referred to in this surah is Abdullah ibn
Umm Maktoum. Surah 80 of the Holy Qur'an.
The Abbasid Caliphs (132-656 A.H./750-1259 A.D.)
They assumed the Caliphate following the Umayyads. They trace
their lineage to Al- v Abbas, the Prophet's uncle. After half a century
of secret arrangements, the Abbasid Revolution began in Khurasan
under the leadership of Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani, 130 A.H./748
A.D. During their rule the Muslim empire reached its zenith in all
aspects of life. Their first Caliph was Abu Al- N Abbas Al-Saffah. He
was followed by Abu Ja far Al-Mansur who ended the revolutionary
period, reaffirmed their rule and established Baghdad, the capital,
which witnessed a scientific, cultural and literary renaissance that
stretched throughout the Middle Centuries. Unfortunately, the state
eventually began to decline and suffer from weakness and
decentralization. Many petty states emerged such as the Tulunids, the
Ikhshidids and the Fatimids. The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid
Caliphate and Al-Musta sim, the last caliph, was killed by Hulegu.
Abbot m* 1 J\
s Abdul Muttalib ±&
'Abdul Muttalib was the nickname of the grandfather of
Hashim bin Abd Manaf, the great-grandfather of Muhammad
S was the chief of Makkah and also a caretaker of the Ka'bah.
Through his trading caravans, he had brought prosperity to
Makkah. He had made Makkah the trading capital of Arabia.
During one of his business trips, caravan of Hashim bin Abd
Manaf stopped at Yathrib (Madinah). There, he married Salma
bint 'Amr of the local Najjar tribe. A few days after his
marriage, Hashim bin Abd Manaf continued on his business
trip. During that journey, he fell sick and died of his illness.
His fellow travelers buried him in Ghaza. A few months after
the death of Hashim bin Abd Manaf, his widow Salma gave
birth to his son. That boy was named 'Amr bin Hashim, but
everyone called him Shaybah (Old man) because he had a
bunch of white hair at birth. Back in Makkah, Al Muttalib bin
Abd Manaf, a younger brother of Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf
assumed the responsibilities of the offices of the Ka'bah after
him. By chance, Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf found out that his
nephew, son of his elder brother Hashim bin Abd Manaf, was
growing up in Yathrib (Madinah) with his mother and maternal
uncles. Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf decided to return the
wealth of Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf to his son Shaybah.
Al Muttalib bin Abd Manaf traveled to Yathrib (Madinah) to
bring his nephew back to Makkah. After initial hesitation
Salma agreed to send her son to Makkah with his uncle Al
Muttalib bin Abd Manaf. On their way to Makkah, Shaybah
was riding ahead of Al Muttalib bin Abd Manaf. In those days,
usually servants rode ahead of their masters. When people of
Makkah saw Shaybah riding ahead of Al Muttalib, they
mistook him as a servant of Al Muttalib. That is why they
called him 'Abdul Muttalib, which means the servant of Al
Muttalib. This nickname became so popular that his real name
'Amr bin Hashim or his nickname Shaybah, was completely
forgotten. With time Abdul Muttalib became the chief of
Makkah and the caretaker of the Ka'bah. He inherited the
responsibility to provide drinking water to the pilgrims of the
Ka'bah. Fetching water all day long from distant wells made
him very tired. By chance he discovered the long-lost Zamzam
well. Muhammad S was the son of 'Abdul Muttalib 's youngest
son 'Abdullah. Muhammad S was born a few months after the
death of his father. 'Abdul Muttalib loved his grandson
Muhammad S very much. Abdul Muttalib died when
Muhammad S was only eight year old.
Abdullah / 'Abd Allah & Jj*
After the advent of Islam, 'Abd Allah became one of the
most popular names. It means slave of Allah. Rules of Arabic
language grammar allow the two words to be combined
together. After joining together, words 'Abd and Allah can be
written as 'Abdullah or 'Abdallah. Arabs worshiped Allah in
the days of ignorance also, but they took many partners with
Him. They mistakenly considered Allah as the biggest of their
many gods. The name 'Abd Allah was in use among Arabs
before Islam also. Father of Muhammad S was also named
'Abdullah. He had died a few months before Muhammad S
was born. 'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib was the name of the
father of Muhammad S. He was the youngest son of 'Abdul
Muttalib. 'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib died a few months
after his marriage with Aminah bint Wahb. Muhammad S was
born a few months after the death of his father 'Abdullah bin
Ablution 9-3 —
At the five daily prayer times prescribed by the Qur'an,
ablutions are part of the ritual purification which must precede
participation in contemplation and the act of prostration and
Abode u^l jUI
A . of delusion jjj*^ 1 J*
A . of joy jjj^ J*
A . of peace f^>& J*
A . of perdition J j^l jb
A . of temptation <^V!
A . that abideth JjSJl jb
A . which remaineth 42*11 jb
Abodes ( the two ) ( SjiVlj Uall ) j'jbll
Abrahah Al-Habashi ij&P^
Abrahah Al-Habashi : The commander who led a huge army
supported by elephants in an attempt to destroy the Ka v bah
It is the Kunya of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (may Allah
bless him and grant him peace). It is prohibited to have the
Kunya of the Holy Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him
peace). See Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 205,book 73, Vol.8 Sahih
Muslim, Kitab-ul Adab.
Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) &\ j£i
Also spelled Abi Bakr. He was one of the greatest companions
of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace. His full name is Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The Holy Prophet,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him as-Siddiq
because he always believed in him (may Allah bless him and
grant him peace), without any reservation. He was the first of
the four rightly guided Khalifaas (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen)
from 11-13 AH. The other three, may Allah bless them, were
1. Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with
2. Uthman ibn Affan , may Allah be pleased with
3. Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him,
36- 40 AH.
Abu Lahab ^ jjI
Fiercest enemy of Islam and paternal uncle of the Prophet
Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Surah
1 1 1 of the Holy Qur'an. Known as Suratul Masad.
4 ll^j > u .all
An ancient tribe that lived after the Prophet Nooh (Noah),
peace be on him, in the village of Ahqaf in the Yemen. It was a
very prosperous tribe, but was rebellious against Allah
Subhana wa Ta'ala and their Prophet Houd, peace be on him.
So Allah Ta'ala destroyed it with a fatal westerly windstorm
(Ad-Dabour). See Holy Qur'an, Houd (ll):50-60. See
Adam (Peace be on him) <^ ^
The first man and a prophet. He was created neither in Paradise
nor on Earth, but in the realm of Allah's mercy. From there he
was sent to Jannah (Paradise), from where later he was sent
down to Earth. He had many offspring, the most famous ones
are Habil (Abel) and Qaabil (Cain). See Holy Qur'an, Al-
Baqarah (2): 30-39, Al-Maida (5) 30-34. See Mursaleen .
Islamic way for calling Muslims to prayer. The Adhan that is
announced today was formulized and formalized in 1 AH. See
Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 583,book 3, Vol.1 Sahih Muslim, Kitab-
Afwu The Forgiver or Pardoner >^Ji*Jl
Al-Afuwo": The Forgiver or Pardoner, in the sense of
obliterating the memory of wrongdoings from one's mind. One
of the ninety-nine attributes of Allah Ta' ala. See Maghfirah .
Aggression u i j-^
Agnomen ^_>iii]t <jj£JI
Agony of death jL^VI
AH After Hijra S^_^lt j*j
After Hijra. Hijra means emigration. The Islamic calendar
starts from the day the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, emigrated from Makkah to
Madinah, in 622 A.D.
2. The Incomparable. When referring to Allah
Subhana wa Ta'la, this means:
A. that He has no comparable in His Essence or in
any of His Attributes.
B. that there is no deity (worthy of worship) but
Ahadeeth £« J 1-d
Sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace. Singular: Hadith.
Ahl al-nass w-al-ta y in O&^b t>i
People of Divine ordinance and designation
Ahlar-ra'y people of opinion </L^ J*'
means people of opinion. It is refers to people that are
consulted on Islamic matters. These people are highly learned
Ahl al-Dimmah ( or Dhimmis ) J* i
are the non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic state who have been
subjugated under the Muslims and pay Jizyah tax in order to
have tolerance of their rights to life, property and practice of
their religion, etc.
Ahlal-Kitab 'People of the Book,' <>i
literally People of the Book,' refers to the followers of Divine
Revelation before the advent of Mohammad.
Ahlul Bait ' 'the People of the House ' '. J* i
Literally means "the People of the House". A polite way of
addressing the wife and the members of the household.
Sometimes used to refer to the family of the Prophet
Muhammad, may the blessing and peace of Allah be on him
and on his family and on all his companions. The blessings
here are addressed to the entire household. See Holy Qur' an,
Ahlul Kitab ' 'the People of the Scripture " J* i
Literally means "the People of the Scripture". It refers to
Yahoud (Jews), Nasara (Christians) and Saabe-een (Sabians).
Those who believe in the Trinity and that Jesus is God and/or
the Son of God are considered as Kuffar (unbelievers), even
though they are Ahlul Kitab.
See Maghdoub and Dhaleen . Holy Qur' an, Yusuf Ali, Al-
Maida (5): 19, 75-76. Holy Qur' an, M. Pickthall, Al-Maida
(5): 17, 72-73.
Ahlul Kitab wa sunnah uiM JaI
Literally means "the People of the Book (the Holy Qur'an) and
the sayings and traditions, (the Sunnah of Muhammad, may
Alah bless him and grant him peace)". This refers to the people
who strive to follow exactly the teachings of the Holy Qur'an
and Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,
without any deviations.
Another name of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant
him peace. Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him, prophesied his
coming. See Muhammad , may Allah bless him and grant him
peace. See Holy Qur' an, As-Saff(61):6.
Ahqaf(Al) Name of a village in Yemen
Name of a village in Yemen. Home of the people of Ad. See
Ad . Surah 46 of the Holy Qur' an.
Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) kSutc-
Daughter of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with
him and her) and wife of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace. Call mother of the Faithful ( uml Mumineen )
Ajal time of death J^i
Appointed time. In Islamic terminology it refers to the
(appointed) time of death. Allah Ta'ala says in the Holy Qur'an
that He will not, (and therefore no-one else can), alter the time
of someone's death. Muslims reject such statements as "the
doctor saved his life", or "he would have lived longer in..".
Such statements are made by those who do not believe in Allah
or do not have the understanding of the necessity to believe in
Allah, thus exposing themselves to Shirk (associating partners
with Allah), by believing and saying that the power over life
and death is within human capability.
Ala (Al) The Most High a— d*SM
"The Most High" See Surah 87 of the Holy Qur 'an.
AL-ADL The Just J-»-fc»
"The Just". Among the 99 Names of God in Islamic theology.
Alaihi Salaam Peace be upon him ^LJI
Peace be upon him. This is said whenever the name of a Malak
(an angel), a nabi (a prophet) or a rasool (a messenger) of Allah
is mentioned, except for the name or title of the Holy Prophet
Muhammad (Sallallahu 'alaihe wa sallam). See Sallallahu
'alaihe wa sallam . See Mursaleen.
Now the Arabic name for Spain. The word was derived from
"Vandalusie", or the country of the Vandals. The Arabs settled
in Al-Andalus for seven centuries where they commissioned
architectural masterpieces making Al-Andalus one of the most
beautiful architectural regions in the Islamic world.
Al-Asma al-Husna L£ l^l\ ? Uutft
Al-Asma «/-Husna, literally meaning the 'most excellent names'
used of God, express His greatness and paramountcy, holiness,
purity, and the perfection and absoluteness of all His attributes
Al-Aus : A tribe in Medina, later a section of the Ansar
The son of Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Fatima, he was assassinated
in 680 AD in Kerbala and is venerated by the Shiites
Al- K Uzza dsj— fcM
Al-^Uzza : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic
Al-hamudu lillah Praise be to Allah &
Praise be to Allah. Should be said on all occasions and
especially after sneezing. Abu Huraira related that the Prophet
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said:
'When any one of you sneezes, then he should say "Al-hamdu
lillah", and his brother or friend (who listens) should respond
by saying "Yarhamuka Allah", (Allah have mercy upon you);
al-hawa. l$j — ^
Ali ibn Abi Talib, May Allah be pleased with him
One of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The last of the four
rightly guided Khalifs (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen), may Allah
bless with him, he ruled from 36AH to 40AH. He was
martyred whilst praying in the Masjid (mosque). See Khalifa.
Al-Khazraj : A tribe in Medina, later a section of the Ansar
ALLAH God M
The Name of the Creator of the Universe and all that it
contains. Derives from the word "Ilah" which means "the One
deserving all worship", the One to Whom all hearts submit in
love, fear, reverence, desire, trust and sincerity, and to Whom
all limbs submit in all forms of worship such as prayers,
supplications, sacrifices, invocations, etc.
1 - Allah has decreed that His Holy Name is "Allah" and has
ordained that all His creation call upon Him by the name
of "Allah". In the original Bible and Taurat (in the
Hebrew text), the name "Allah" is used.
2 - In Islam the name "God" is not used for the fear of
misunderstanding. To the Christians it will give them a
mental image of a human being (the Prophet Jesus, son
of Mary, peace be on him), to some Hindus it creates a
mental picture of an animal (a cow). To the Zoroastrians
it creates a picture of a fire, Allah, there is none but He,
King of the Universe, the Creator and Originator of all
that there is. He has no beginning nor end. He was not
begotten nor did He beget. He is not like any thing.
Allah ta'ala Allah the Exalted J^M
Al-Lat : An idol worshipped by the Thaqif in the Pre-Islamic
77*<> Almoravids (448-541 A.H./1056-1146 A.D.)
77*e Almoravids (448-541 A.H./1056-1146 A.D.) : The
Almoravids were Berber descendants of the Limtunah, a tribe
of Sinhajah. They founded an Islamic state in Morocco and
ruled Andalusia and Tunisia. They were known for their
covered faces and were called Al-Murabitin for living in
secluded places for practicing acts of worship. Yusuf bin
Tashfin was the most famous among their Sultans. He founded
Marrakesh and made it the capital of his state. He defeated the
Franks and put an end to the rule of Muluk Al-Tawa'if (the
Kings of the Petty States). He left to v Ali, his son, a strong and
vast state, but it was eventually destroyed by Almohads.
The Almohads (515-667 AH./l 121-1269 A.D.) Oj^j*!!
The Almohads (515-667 A.H. , '1121-1269 A.D.) : A Shiite state in
Morocco founded by Al-Mahdi bin Tumart after the fall of the
Almoravid state. The Almohads ruled Morocco and extended
their influence over Andalusia. Their state collapsed in
Andalusia after the Battle of Al- V Aqab, (609 A.H./1212 A.D.)
Almsgiving zakat SUiijJ!
Almsgiving (zakat in Arabic) is one of the Five Pillars of
Islam, almsgiving constitutes one of the main means by which
Islam strives for an economically just society. It is an
obligatory "poor tax"— reckoned at somewhere between two
and ten percent of income and holdings—which can be given
directly to the poor or to a distribution official. The money is
used for hospitals, schools, helping indigent debtors and
freeing slaves, as well as poor support. From the perspective of
the giver, "zakat" (as it is known in Arabic) purifies the giver
and the remainder of his "wealth." It is also envisioned as a
loan to Allah, who will repay it double.
Other Commonly Used Spellings: AAMIN, AAMEEN,
AMEEN means custodian or guardian. Someone who is loyal
Amirul Mumineen Commander of the Faithful
Commander of the Faithful. Title of the leader of the Islamic
nation after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace. The first four commanders of
the faithful of the new Islamic nation were called al-Khulafaa
al-Rashideen, "the rightly-guided Khulafaas" (see Khalifa .
They were given this title because they carried out their duties
perfectly according to the Holy Qur'an and the practices and
teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace.
Amnah bint Wahb ^ 3 ^ ^
Aminah bint Wahb was the mother of Muhammad S, the
Messenger of Allah. She was the daughter of Wahb bin 'Abd
Manaf bin Zuhrah. Aminah bint Wahb was married to
'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib, the youngest son of 'Abdul
Muttalib. Her husband Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib died
during one of his trading trips and was buried in Yathrib
(Madinah), where he had stopped for treatment with the
maternal uncles of his father. He was buried there. Muhammad
S, the Messenger of Allah, was born a few months after the
death of his father. When the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S was six year old, his mother Aminah bint Wahb took him to
the grave of his father 'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Muttalib in
Yathrib (Madinah). Aminah bint Wahb fell sick at Abwa,
when they were returning from Yathrib (Madinah). She died
and was buried at Abwa, a township between Makkah and
Yathrib (Madinah). The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S
was brought back to his grandfather 'Abdul Muttalib in
Makkah, by Umm Ayman, a maidservant of his father.
Ancestor ( jI^VI t> ) i-iL>l!
Ancestral L JLA\
Anchorite ^ jtt dJill
Literally means "helpers".
The inhabitants of Madinah, the Aus and the Khazraj
tribes, who embraced Islam and supported the
Muslim emigrants against the pagan Quraishi and
other tribes who made war on the Prophet
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
Helpers of the Prophet Isa (the Prophet Jesus, son of
Mary), peace be on him. See Holy Qur'an, As-Saff
(61): 14. Singular: Ansari.
jjSLlI J jail
Apostasy Movement : Some tribes took advantage of the
turmoil among the Muslims following the Prophet's death and
declared their apostasy.
Approver ( the )
the ceremony of shaving a baby's head and giving it a formal
name. This ritual is a celebration of the birth of the child, and
the giving of a name that welcomes it into the Muslim
community. It usually takes place within seven days of the
Arab genealogy Ansaboul arab shj*^
Arab genealogy : Arabs used to pride themselves on their noble
birth and pure lineage. The Prophet's ancestry can be traced
back to the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him).
Arabicization of the Diwans Ca^s^
Arabicization of the Diwans : 700 Caliph v Abdul-Malik bin
Marwan orders the arabicization of the Diwans (state
ministries), which were following the Persian order (81 A.H.)
A pilgrimage site, ahout 25km east of Makkah al-Mukaramah.
Standing on 'Arafat on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and staying there
from mid-day to sunset is the essence of the Hajj (the
A 1 ■*! ^ \ \
May be translated as dams or embankments. The Areme (dam)
that is referred to in Surah 34:16 is the Maarib Dam whose
traces still exist in Yemen.
'Asr (A/) Afternoon j fcj^l
"Afternoon". The third compulsory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It
can be prayed at any time between mid-afternoon and a little
before sunset. Surah 103 of the Holy Qur'an.
Ascendance SjUmll -
Ascendancy - Sj^JI
Ascension f^-^ cs^^ - J j*^ 1
Ascent ^j^ 1
Ascetic fc^^Jl - ^O 11
ascetic Batul Jj — ^
means ascetic. It is ascribed to Fatimah (the Prophets daughter)
and the Virgin Mary.
Ashabul Aika v 1 ^^
Dwellers of the wood. Another name for the Midianites. See
Madyan . See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hijr (15):78, Al-Shu'ara
Ashab Al-Maimana companions of the Right 41*^1 <_jU*ua!
Literally means "companions of the Right", the righteous
people. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah Ta'ala will sort out
the good and the evil. They will be divided into three groups:
1. Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are
nearest to Allah Ta'ala.
2. Ashab al-Maimana - the righteous people, those
who are destined to enter Jannah (Paradise).
3. Ashab al-Mash'ama - literally means "companions
of the Left"; these people will be the inheritors of
the Nar (Hellfire).
For full explanations of: Muqarraboon, see Surah Al-Waqi'ah
(56): 11-26; Ashab al-Maimana, see Surah 56:27-40. Ashab al-
Mash 'ama, see Surah Al-Waqi'ah (56):41-56.
Ashab Al-Mash 'ama Companions of the Left <_jUo^j
Literally means "Companions of the Left", the evil-doers.
These people will he the companions of the Nar (Hellfire) on
the Day of Resurrection. For full explanation: See Ashab al-
Maimana . See Holy Qur'an, Al-Wa qi'a (56):41-56.
Ashraful Mursaleen O^j^ 1 uij^i
The most honoured of all the prophets. One of the titles of the
Holy Prophet Muhammad , may Allah bless him and grant him
Asharatul mubashshirun (Al) O^f*^ S v >*£*ll
the ten people that were given the glad tidings of assurance of
entering Paradise. They were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali,
Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, Talhah
ibn Ubaydullah, az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Sa'd ibn Abi
Waqqas, Sa'id ibn Zayd
Asiya (Oj^j* U«l
The wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh). She is one of the four greatest
created females, the other three being:
1. Mariam (Mary), may Allah be pleased with her,
the mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on
2. Khadija ,may Allah be pleased with her, the first
wife of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless
him and grant him peace.
3. Fatima, may Allah be please with her, the
daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace.
Asma wa Sifaat (Tawheed Al) cM*al\j * U^Sn
Unity of Names and Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. To believe that:
1. None can qualify or name Allah except as He or
the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, named or qualified Him.
2. None can be named or qualified with the Names
of the Attributes that belong only to Allah
Subhana wa Ta'ala. For example, none may be
called Al-Muhyee" (the Giver of Life) except for
Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself.
3. We must believe in all the Ayat and Ahadeeth
(Sahih) regarding the Attributes of Allah without
altering their meaning in any way whatsoever.
Asmaul Husna (Al) <j*^\ f U^V!
The ninety-nine Beautiful Names (Attributes) of Allah Ta'ala.
It is haram to add to or delete from the list of Attributes of
Allah. It is also haram to give such attributes to anyone else.
For the full list of al-Asmaul Husna, see Asmaul Husna Al-
Assalamu Alaikum Peace be on you
"Peace be on you". Greeting of the Muslims. The response to
this greeting is "Wa Alaikum Assalam wa Rahmatul-lahi wa
Barakatuh", And on you be the Peace and Mercy of Allah and
^ \'\\\ Ar.
Atabic TheAtabegs &&H S
The Atabegs : Atabeg was a Turkish title used by the Seljuks for
members of the court ministers and leaders. Some of the Atabegs
managed to take control of the state leading to the emergence of
the petty states in the 12th century A.D. in Iran and Syria. They
ruled for a long period of time, most remarkable among them
were the Atabegs of Azerbaijan and Iran.
Atone s-"^ CP j^j
Attack Hujoom ( Onslaught ) fj**
ff\\ g «\\
Attributes of prefection
Attributes of majesty
Attributes of beauty
J aaJl t " llj I S~\
Attributes of essence
Attributes ( of god )
Avaricous J^M 1
Awakener ( the )
Aware ( the ) j^ 1
Ayah (pi. ayat) <M
Ayah means a sign (or 'token') which directs one to something
important. In the Quran the word has been used in four
different senses: (1) sign or indication; (2) the phenomena of
the universe (called ayat of God for the reality to which the
phenomena point is hidden behind the veil of appearances); (3)
miracles performed by the Prophets; and (4) individual units
(i.e. verses) of the Book of God.
Ayoub, Peace be upon him . f^^l <^ vjj!
Job. A prophet of Islam. He was renowned for his patience,
hence the idiom "Sabr Ayoub" (the patience of Job), which
means complete patience and constancy. See Mursaleen .
'Aziz The Almighty J — eS>J!
1. "Al-'Aziz". The Almighty. One of the ninety-nine
attributes of Allah Ta'ala. See Holy Qur'an, Al-
Hajj' (22):40. See Asmaul Husna LIST????.
2. Title of Egyptian noblemen during the time of the
Pharaohs. Zulaikha was the wife of the 'Aziz who
tried, but failed, to tempt the Prophet Yusuf
(Joseph), peace be on him, into seduction. See
Holy Qur' an, Yusuf(12):23 - 24.
In Islamic terminology this means the resurrection of the
Muslims and the Kuffar (unbelievers). The Ba'ath of the Kuffar
(unbelievers) and the subsequent stages leading to the Nar
(Hellfire) is in five stages:
1. The Kuffar will be raised with all their senses
being active, i.e. they will be able to feel, see,
hear, smell and taste.
2. On their way to the place ofjudgement they will
still have their senses active.
3. They will be judged with all their senses intact.
4. On their way to Nar (Hellfire) they will lose all
5. When put into the Nar (Hellfire), they will regain
all their senses so as to feel Allah Ta'ala's wrath.
Bab Al-Raiyan cMjft
The name of one of the gates of Heavens (Jannah) through
which the people who often observe fasting will enter on the
Day of Judgement.
Backslider <jj-^ - ^
Badiyyah desert a-^jUl
a desert or semi-arid environment.
Site of the first great battle between the early Muslims and the
pagans of the Quraish in 2 AH. Badr is located about 150km
south of al-Madinah al-Munawarah. The Muslim army
consisted of 313 men and the Quraish had a total of 1,000
soldiers,archers and horsemen. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Anfal
(8):5-19,42-48, Aali lmran (3): 13.
Bad omen s jjUI
Baitul Ma 'amur (Al) House of Allah
House of Allah over the Seventh Heaven where the Malaikah
Baitul Mai An Islamic treasury JUI1 ^
An Islamic treasury intended for the benefit of the Masakeen
(needy Muslims) and not for the leaders or the wealthy.
Balance u'j^ 1
Balance of power ^j^ 1 uj'j 311
Band 4jL^*il <^L^aJI
Bani Nadheer A Jewish tribe jj^I <^
A Jewish tribe who lived about three miles south of Madinah
during the time of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant
him peace. Four months afier their treachery at the time of the
Battle of Uhud, when they planned to betray the Muslims and
kill the Messemger of Allah, the Prophet Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace, expelled most of them to
Syria and the rest to Khaibar. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hashr
Bani Quraiadha A Jewish tribe ^jJ*
A Jewish tribe from Madinah. Along with the Quraish tribe of
Makkah, they plotted to destroy the Prophet Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace, by attacking the Mu4ims
from within Madinah at the Battle of the Ditch, but when they
lost they asked to have their fate judged by Sa'd ibn Mu' az (the
chief of the Aus 'the Ansar' tribe) because he used to be their
ally. Sa'd judged them according to their own law, the Taurat
(Torah), and ordered that every male be killed, all their women
be sold as captives and all their belongings be divided amongst
the Muhajirs (Deut. 20:13-14,16). See Holy Qur' an, Al-Ahzab
Banner ^ - eijtii
Baqi A cemetery at Madinah
A cemetery at Madinah. Many of the S ahabiyeen
(companions)of the Prophet Muhammad are buried there, may
the blessing and peace of Allah be on him and his family and
his companions and all who follow him and them.
The Banning Tahreem (Al) fiP^I
"The Banning". Surah 66 of the Holy Qur' an.
Barbarian c^^ 1
Barbarians s j^j^I -
Literally means partition or barrier. In Islamic terminology it
usually means the life in the grave, because the life in the wave
is the interspace between the life on earth and the life in the
Hereafter. Life in the Barzakh is real, but very different from
life as we know it. Its exact nature is known only to Allah
Ta'ala. It is during our life in the Barzakh that we will be asked
about Allah, our faith and the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace. We will also be shown
the Jannah and the Nar (Paradise and Hellfire) and which of
these two places we wifl occupy after we are judged
"In the Name of Allah".
1 . This statement is usually made by every Muslim
who is about to embark on anything that is Halal
(lawful), however trivial that act or deed may
2. First verse of Suratul Fatiha.
3. To be recited before the beginning of every Surah
except for Suratul Tautah (Surah 9 of the Holy
Bayina (Al) The Clear Proof ^
"The Clear Proof,'. Surah 98 of the Holy Qur~ an.
The Beast Dabaah <M J
1 . The Beast. The beast that will come out of the
earth and will speak to man. His appearance will
be one of the major signs of the coming of the
2. In general, every living creature that moves on this
earth. See Holy Qur'an, an-Nami (27):82-83.
Bedlam cP±* J-*^l
Behaviour ^ jl^
Being glorius J^M
belief 'Aqeeda SjjSc
Plural : 'Aqaaid. Literally means belief. In Islamic terminology,
it means articles of faith. There are six articles of faith:
Belief in Allah. We believe:
He is the Lord and Creator of all that
He is the True God and all other deities
He is One, and has no associates (sons or
He alone has the knowledge of the
Unseen and of the Hour.
In His Names and Attributes .
He never came down to earth in any shape
He is Everlasting, He did not beget nor
was He begotten, and He is not like
His Mala'ikah (angels). We believe:
They are His honoured servants.
They act only by His command.
They are made out of light ( Nur ).
They obey all of Allah's commands.
All angels are good and incapable of
wrong doing. (We do not believe in
the notion of a "fallen angel".)
They may be seen by some men only by
His Revealed Books. We believe:
He has sent down books with every
The original books of Allah that were
sent to the Prophets Abraham, Moses,
David and Jesus no longer exist in
their original form. We believe only
in the original Taurat (Torah), Zaboor
(Psalms) and Ingeel (Gospel).
The Holy Qur'an that was revealed to the
Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad,
may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, is the only perfect book of
Allah that is free from corruption and
is a true source of light for all
His Rusull (Messengers). We believe:
The Messengers of Allah Ta'ala include
Muhammad, may Allah bless him
and grant him peace, Abraham, Noah,
Jesus, Moses, peace be on them all.
All messengers are human beings.
Muhammad's message encompasses and
abrogates all the messages of all the
other messengers, since Muhammad,
may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, is the last Messenger and the
Holy Qur'an is the Last Message
from Allah before the end of the
Belief in the Day of Judgement. We
In the Final Day, which is the Day of
There will be no intercessors except by
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, will be given
permission to intercede on behalf of
all those who believed in Allah and
the Last Day and who submitted their
will to Him, that is, those who are
"Muslims" (Muslim = One who
submits his or her will to Almighty
Heaven is for the believers and Hell is
for the rejecters.
Our book of deeds will be given to us in
our right or left hand (to the believers
and unbelievers respectively).
Belief in Fate and the Divine Decree.
In fate, whether good or bad, which
Allah has measured and ordained for
all His creatures.
His decree cannot be changed except by
Allah has granted man the free will to
choose between good and evil. Thus,
there is no excuse for wrong action in
the sight of Allah Ta'ala.
All that is to happen until the Day of
Judgement is already written down
on the Lauh al-Mahfudh.
O Allah! Let me not die except in Islam, and raise me on the
Day of Judgement only as a Muslim. Ameen!
The first Mu'adin of Islam a companion of the Prophet
Muhammad pbuh, a former Abyssinian slave (may Allah be
pleased with him).
Bi'thah the beginning of the Prophet's mission
the beginning of the Prophet's mission, his call to Prophethood
in 610 C.E..
Bitter Agag ( Salty water) (rUi
Blessings Barakah <£jj
Blood relative Dhawi al-Arhaam f^jVI lsj^
Breanch of promise
Breanch of trust
Imam Bu kha ri is known so because he was from Bu khar a. He
was a great scholar of Islam and is known for his great work of
scientifically authenticating and compiling Ahadith (Sayings of
Muhammad S). He traveled great distances to find and meet
the narrators of Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). He
memorized all the Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) he heard
from the narrators. He researched the backgrounds of the entire
chain of narrators of Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). He
evolved a scientific system of verification of the Ahadith
(Sayings of Muhammad S). He had memorized more than
200,000 Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). His scrutiny of
the Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) was so stringent that
only approximately 1% of those Ahadith (Sayings of
Muhammad S) made to his compilation. The compilation of
Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) by Imam Bu kha ri is
considered to be the most authentic one and is known as Sahih
Bu khar i
An animal larger than a donkey and smaller than a horse on
which the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, went on the Mi' raj. See Mi'raj .
Bureau of Taxes £0-6^
Buruj (Al) The Zodiacal Signs £x*-t)l
"The Zodiacal Signs". Surah 85 of the Holy Qur' an. This refers
to the constellations in the heavens themselves, not to the
astrologers' 9star signst.
Burying baby girls alive «sfj
Burying baby girls alive : One of the customs of Arabs in the
Byzantines uj^ JgM fjj^
The title of khalifah or 'Caliph' (literally, 'he who follows'or
'successor') was first assumed by the four immediate successors
to the Prophet Muhammad as temporal leaders of the emerging
Muslim community (known as the Orthodox caliphs). The
rulers of subsequent early Islamic dynasties were also
considered caliphs, with the 'Abbasid caliphate in Iraq lasting
until 1258/658 H. At the same time, the Fatimid dynasty in
Egypt made rival claims to the caliphate from 909 to 1171
(296-567 H), while in Spain at Cordoba the Umayyad dynasty
also claimed the caliphate from 775 to 1236 (159-633 H). After
1258, the caliphs excercised increasingly diminished authority,
and political power passed to the secular heads of state. See the
article "Khalifa" by D. Sourdel and others in EI (2nd ed.), vol.
4, pp. 937-953.
Caliphate S — JfcUJI
The rule or institution of the caliph.
Calumny - -
oj^a - AiUa
The Cattle An 'aam (Al)
"The Cattle". Surah 6 of the Holy Qur' an.
Cavalier l^j^ 1
77*e Ctfve ofHira ' — C J 1 ^
The Cave of Hira' : Muhammad (peace be upon him) had a
calm nature and a natural tendency to meditation . He used to
seclude himself in the Cave of Hira' to practice self-purification
and ponder over the creation around him.
The Cave of Thaur jj— &
The Cave of Thaur : It is the cave in which the Prophet (peace
be upon him) and his companion Abu Bakr stopped to take
shelter from the polytheists during the Hijrah journey from
Mecca to Medina.
2 a \.
^ - ,
i a tac-.
Chosen of god
"The City" of Makkah. Surah 90 of the Holy Qur' an.
City state ^
Civil war ajIa^I ^j^l
Civilization ajjAaII . Sjl^J!
Civilized ^Ja^lJl j.l«Ia31
Clan s jji^JI
77*e Ctas A/*z«fc (AO vlJ-C^i
"The Clans". A famous battle between the early Muslims and
the rejectors, in which the Muslims, under the direction of
Salman al-Farisi, dug a trench around the city of al-Madinah
al-Munawarah to thwart the advance of the unbelievers in 5
AH. The battle is also known as the Battle of the Khandaq
(Battle of the Trench). See Holy Qur' an, An-Nur (24):55, Al-
Ahzab (33):9-20. Surah 33 of the Holy Qur'an.
Class socity C 5^ a
The Cleaving Al-infitar jUai&l
"The Cleaving". See Surah 82 of the Holy Qur~ an.
The clot of blood 'Alaq J-tM
"The clot of blood". Also called Surat Iqraa. Ayat (verses) 1-5
of this surah were the first five verses revealed to Muhammad,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They were revealed
to him through the Holy Spirit, the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel),
peace be on him, in the Ghar Hiraa (Cave of Hiraa) in Jabal an-
Nur. See Surah 96 of the Holy Qur' an.
2 : \<\\ _ ( . mill
W Ill L/CllCll 1 I
W 1 1 1 1 1 1 ell 1 CI
A commentary. There are several reliable Tafsirs on the
meanings of the Ayaat of the Qur'an, including those of Ibn
Kathir, Jalalayn and Al-Cortubi.
2 a ^\\ _ 2 \ \\ _ 2 \^\\\
t ■ 1T kill - JJ^A^JI
Companion, particularly any companion of the Holy Prophet
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Plural:
Companion Of The Cave
Companion Of Elephant
Compilation of the Holy Qur'an <$J& £-f>
Compilation of the Holy Qur'an : 653 Caliph v Uthman orders
the standardization of Qur'anic recitation according to that of
the Quraish. He sends copies of the standard Mushaf to
provinces of the Muslim empire (32 A.H.)
a jCllLj ail
77*e Conquest of Mecca S-jiu
The Conquest of Mecca : Muslims conquered Mecca in
Consensus Of Opinion
c5l jll £W»
.la. jA\ jAill
jJkjll - jilll
Converser of god
Conviction of truth
- oj!i£31 - _><3ja3l
<VI - aj^3I
_jj_j*j3l - 5_i_j£i3i
o _y*jjj3l - ^Loii3l <-_aj_^aJi3l
Ajla j) i all
<^ j^ll _
^ i .T. all
, uaii3l _ ?uau3l
Adiat (Al )
"The coursers". "Coursers" refer to war horses when they
charge, stamp their hooves, breathe heavily and snort in the
course of the confusion of battle. Surah 100 of the Holy Qur'an.
- (jLyVI — JjAi aSlI
^J^- LB iftlj — "'n U
JJSVI - 7T^\
^isii - ^tyt
4 t \ \\ , -^U t
S « )HI 9- all
m la ul y La u
•A^j , ^ all
Dahr (Ad) The Time j —
"The Time". Another name for Suratul Insan. Surah 76 of the
Holy Qur'an. Ad-Dahr indicates the space/time continuum.
Dajjal(Ad) Anti-Christ Jt —
Anti-Christ. Also known as Maseeh ad-Dajjal. See Ahadeeth
regarding "the Final Hour" in both Sahih books. Sahih Bukhari,
Hadith 649, 650, Vol.4. Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Fitan wa
Dark ages 3 «m«n jj^adi
Darkness Dhulumaat ^1— ^
Darkness. In the sense of lurking danger. See Holy Qur' an, Al-
An'aam (6):63. This is where the word Dhulm (injustice) is
derived, for injustice in whatever form is an evil darkness.
Dawood , (Peace be upon him) fiLul\
David. A prophet of Islam. The prophet to whom the Zabour
was revealed, and who fought Jalut (Goliath) and killed him.
See Holy Qur'an, Saad (38): 17-26. See Mursaleen.
Day of assembly ? ji
Day of eternity ?ji
Day of exodus £ jj^ 1 ?ji
Day of gathering ?ji
Day of judgment
Day of meeting
Day of resurrection
Day of sacrifice
Day of threatening
Alt j]l ^ajj
jail! - Jlill
hSL al l _
Deception Ghayy ^
Deception. Name of a pit in Hellfire.
Declaration of war
1 _ (j in Will
jUall - U >ll
- t 1^ ill - L
Devastation ^lp^ 1 - j^-^ 1
Development - jjkill
Deviation JX-^I - jjjll - ^-iljaJVI
Devoutness - p j^ 1 - csj^ 1
Dhimmi A non-Muslim is— f^J 1
A non-Muslim living under the protection of Islamic rule.
Dhul-Kifl J-j-iat jJ
Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) was a Rasul (Messenger) of Allah
(God). He is mentioned at several places in the Holy Qur-an
(21:85-86; 38:48). Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) was a Rasul
(Messenger) sent to the Israelites. He commanded them to
wage a war against the mischievous people, but they refused it
for the fear of death. Allah (God) punished them with death by
a plague and huge blasts. No one amongst them remained alive
to even bury the dead. Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) was praying to
Allah (God) in seclusion for giving Hidayah (Guidance) to his
people. When he came out, he saw the putrefied bodies of his
followers. Although his people disobeyed him, he was deeply
aggrieved by their fate. He made Du'a (Supplication) to Allah
(God) to give their lives back to them. Allah (God) listened to
his request and brought the followers of Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel)
back to life (The Holy Qur-an 2:280). Muslims believe in
Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) and all other Rusul (Messengers) of
Dhulm injustice ^—tPa
Usually wrongly spelled as Zulm. It means injustice, harm,
wrongdoing or transgression either against oneself or someone
1 . Against oneself. Doing deeds or saying words
which will bring the displeasure of Allah Ta'ala.
These deeds may be physical or spiritual that will
ultimately harm the soul.
2. Against others. In any form whatsoever, whether
they he physical or mental. See Holy Qur'an, Al-
Baqara (2)35. Its opposite is Nur, light. See Nur.
Dhu 7 Qarnain
One of the greatest rulers of ancient history. He was a true
believer in Allah Ta'ala. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Kahf(18):83.
Dirham A silver coin
jalUll - l_s!
u _ J >* J,
J i <ax 11
111 C fM tf^Mll c
UaJl - l — 11 jn>.o 21 '
UL V llldllUIl
KM •• 11
Diya Blood money o— tS-J
Blood money, paid as compensation for killing, wounding, etc.
Dw/?« (Ad) Forenoon <> a ^
"Forenoon": The mid-morning hours. Surah 93 of the Holy
Dukhan The Smoke
"The Smoke". Surah 44 of the Holy Qur'an. One of the signs of
the proximity of the Last Day.
Dwelling - pli^l
Dwelling of peace jl^
Dynasty J^h^ -
(The) Earthquake Zalzalah * — JjJj
"The Earthquake". One of the names of the Yaum al-Qiama.
See Surah 99 of the Holy Qur'an.
- »l >VI
£*Y/ « festivity ^-e^ 1
The word 'Eid is an Arabic name to mean a festivity, a
celebration, a recurring happiness, and a feast. In Islam, there
are two major 'Eids namely the feast of Ramadhan ('Eld Al-
Fitr) and the Feast of Sacrifice ('Eid Al-Adhha). The first 'Eid
is celebrated by Muslims after fasting the month of Ramadhan
as a matter of thanks and gratitude to Almighty Allah. It takes
place on the first day of Shawwal, the tenth month of the lunar
calendar. The second 'Eid is the Feast of Sacrifice and it is to
be celebrated for the memory of prophet Ibrahim trying to
sacrifice his son Isma'il (Ishmael). This 'Eid lasts four days
between the tenth and the thirteenth day of Zul-Hijjah, the
twelfth month of the lunar calendar.
Eid Al-Adha cr^' *P
A four-day festival that completes the rites of pilgrimage and
takes place on the 10th- 13th of Dhul Hijjah(the 10th is the day
of Nahr and 1 1th- 13th are the days of Tashriq). Literally means
"the feast of the sacrifice". This feast commemorates the
Prophet Ibrahim's obedience to Allah by being prepared to
sacrifice his only son Ismael, peace be on both of them. See
Holy Qur' an, As-Saffaat (37)~100-103.
Three-day festival marking the end of Ramadan. It takes place
on the 1st of Shawal, the 10th month of the Islamic calendar.
Amr Bill Ma ' roof Enjoining the good
Enjoining the good. The full version is "Amr bill Ma'roofwa
nahi 'anil Munkar", (enjoining the good and forbidding the
<a . all
- tiilxtiVI - £ jjiil £
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2 tS^jl) _ , nil _ 2 '\"a\\
Endowment. A charitable trust in the Name of Allah, usually in
perpetuity, and usually for the purposes of establishing the
Deen of Islam, teaching useful knowledge, feeding the poor or
treating the sick.
- ,1 jSV!
knUI - < t.nUI -
a i ^ ^^jl^ si
- J^UVI -
Evanescent JjtjM -
Eve Hawwa flj*
Eve, wife of Adam, peace be on them. She bore many children.
Every time she gave birth, they were twins, one male and one
female. Each twin married the twin of the other. The two most
famous of her offspring were Habil (Abel) and Qaabil (Cain).
S»l jJI -
2 \\\ _ a^jijk-all
War booty gained without fighting.
Failure u' - J^l
Fairy u 1 ^ 1 - o^ 1
Trust, faith and acceptance. Having faith and believing in:
Allah Ta'ala. To affirm with the tongue, believe in the
heart and confirm through action the following:
His Names and Attributes.
Belief in His angels.
Belief in His revealed Books.
Belief in His messengers, without making any
distinction between them.
Belief in the Hour and the Judgement and the Fire
and the Garden.
Belief in the Divine decrees of Allah Ta'ala, both the
good and the evil. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara
(2):285. See Mursaleen .
Faithful the uj^j^ 1
Faithful spirit u**VI cjj^ 1
Faithfulness u-^iVI -*A-V!
Fajr (Al) The Dawn j— gi«
"The Dawn". The time of the first obligatory Salat (Prayer). It
can be prayed at any time between the first light of dawn and
just before sunrise. Also called Subh (morning). Surah 89 of the
Falaah Success £t — ^
Success. Real success lies in "enjoining what is right and
forbidding what is evil..." (Surah Aali Imran (3): 104). One of
the sentences that is said during the Adhan and Iqama, "Haya
'alal Falaah" (Come to Success). Other derivations: Muflih =
the person who is successful, the person whose deeds and
actions have gained Allah Ta'ala's pleasure. See Holy Qur'an,
Surah Al-Baqara (2): 1-5. See Aflaha: He has succeeded.
Falaq (Al) The Daybreak J 1 ^ 1
"The Daybreak" Surah 113 of the Holy Qur'an.
The family of 'Imran Aali Imran Jl
. 'Imran was the father of Mariam, the mother of the
Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on them.
Fancy ^Ij-ijll - pcjJI - o^l
An Islamic scholar who can give an authoritative legal opinion
Fard Ain o^jfi
An action which is obligatory on every Muslim.
Fard Al-Kifaya Collective duty J
Collective duty. A duty on all the community; but if it is
fulfilled by a part of that community then the rest are not
obliged to fulfill it.
Faridha A duty S-tpajjfl
A duty enjoined on all Muslims. Plural: Fara'idh.
Farsakh League C-tHj*
League; about three miles.
This was the name given to Umar ibn Al-Khattab. It means
'One who distinguishes the truth from falsehood'.
Fascination jauJI isill
Fasting Seeaam f^-tr^
Fasting, from food and drink - and from sexual intercourse if
you are married during daylight, from the first light of dawn
until sunset. Also spelled as Saum. Fasting in the month of
Ramadan is one of the Arkan (five pillars) of Islam. Allah Ta'
ala has made it obligatory on every Muslim whether man or
woman, with the exception of:
1 . A person who is ill.
2. A person on ajourney of 16 Farsakhs (48 miles) or
3. A woman who is menstruating or who has just
given birth. Once these situations no longer apply,
the missed days must be compensated. The very
young are exempted.The aged should fast, but if
they find it difficult then they too are exempted
and may feed poor people instead. See Holy
Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): 184-185, 187.
Fate ^Ljaall -
Fath (Al) The Victory c-^ 1
"The Victory". Surah 48 of the Holy Qur'an.
Fatiha The Opening Chapter **2till
"The Opening Chapter". Another name for Suratul-Hamd.
Surah 1 of the Holy Qur'an.
Fat'han Muheena Manifest Victory
"Manifest Victory". The manifest victory that is referred to
here is the peace treaty of Hudaibiyah. It was one of the
greatest victories which the newly-born Islamic Ummah
(nation) gained. On face value it seemed like a great setback
for the Muslims, but in fact it was, by the will of Allah Ta'ala,
one of the main means by which the Muslims consolidated and
grew. See Holy Qur'an, Surah Al-Fath (48).
Fatima May Allah be pleased with her
Daughter of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless
him and grant him peace. She is one of the four greatest
women ever created by Allah Ta'ala. The other three are:
1. Mariam (Mary), Mother of Prophet Isa (Jesus),
peace be on him.
2. Asiya, the wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh).
3. Khadija ,may Allah be pleased with her, the first
wife of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessing
of Allah be on him and on all his wives and
The Fatimids (909-11 71 A.D.)
The Fatimids are traced back to v Ali bin Abi Talib and his
wife, Fatimah. This state was established by v Ubaidullah Al-
Mahdi in Tunisia. It witnessed 14 caliphs, and reached its
utmost expansion during the era of Al-Mu v izz, who annexed
North Africa to his state and sent Jauhar Al-Siqilli, his
commander-in-chief, to occupy Egypt. Jauhar established Cairo
which later became the state capital to which Al-Mu v izz moved
and extended his influence over Syria, Lebanon and Palestine.
The last caliph was Al- v Adid whose ministry was led by Salah
Al-Din Al-Ayyubi, who eventually precipitated the fall of the
Fatimid state. The most notable architectural and cultural
achievements were the establishment of Cairo and the
construction of Al-Azhar Mosque.
Fatir (Al) The Creator j— faUll
"The Creator". Also another name for al-Malaikah. Surah 35 of
the Holy Qur'an.
Fatwa A legal verdict S jSa
A legal verdict given on a religious basis, the sources on which
a fatwa is based are the Holy Qur'an, Sahih Bukhari and
Muslim, and all other authenticated Ahadeeth.
Feast of sacrifice
Compensation for missing or wrongly practising necessary acts
of worship. Fidya usually takes the form of donating money or
foodstuffs or sacrificing an animal. Contrast with Kaffara
(making amends). See Kaffara.
Pharaoh. Tide of the Ancient Egyptian rulers, particularly the
one who rejected the Prophet Musa (Moses), peace he on him,
and tried to have him killed. They were famous for their cruelty
and disbelief. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):49, Ta Ha
(20):9-80, Al-Qasas(28):l-42, Al-Fajr(89): 10-14.
The middle and the highest part of the Jannah (Paradise).
This has various meanings, depending on its context in the
1. Oppression or tumult, as in Surah Al-Baqara
2. Trial or punishment, as in Surah Al-Maida (5):74.
3. Trial or temptation, as in Surah Al-Anfal (8): 28.
4. It can also mean causing discord between
Muslims, or sedition.
Fitrah »j Mi l
The fitrah is the natural disposition of every human being,
which is to believe in Allah alone without any partners. The
Messenger (saw) said, "Each one of you is born on the fitrah; it
is your parents who make you Jews, Christians and fire
Every person is born Muslim, believing in God. However,
when a person starts to follow his desires and false deities, his
fitrah will become polluted.
Five foundation of islam
cSj^ 1 -
Forewarner : One who warns sinful people against the
imminent punishment of Allah
- \ - ti
l iLJI _
Fraternization SI £!>*i!
Fraternization : The Prophet (peace be upon him) established
brotherly ties between the Muhajirun and the Ansar
1 • «li
Furqaan (Al) The Criterion — db^ 1
"The Criterion". Another name of the Holy Qur'an. Surah 25 of
the Holy Qur'an.
"They are expounded." Another name for Ha Mim and As-
Sajda. Surah 41 of the Holy Qur'an.
It means lineage
Ghazwa A holy battle S jj £
A holy battle for the cause of Allah the Almighty in which the
Prophet Muhammad himself, may Allah bless him and grant
him peace, took part. Nural: al-Maghazi or Ghazawat.
Talking evil about someone in his or her absence. Backbiting.
See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hujurat (49): 12.
L_l jA jA\
Glory be to him
- CJ u]i
jjjLalt Jjill - 2 aiaJl
Gog and magog
t — 1 J^-?-
Grace of god
"a jjiill - ^jJat jll
- U^ 1
jl^t *l> - -
- . ti
A saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace. Plural: Ahadeeth.
A saying of Allah Ta'ala narrated by the Holy Prophet
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that is
not part of the Holy Qur'an.
Hafiz d J 531 M ^
Hafsa , May Allah be pleased with her M <Uaia.
Daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with
him, and wife of Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of
Allah be on him and his family and his companions.
Hajar Al-aswad (Al) 'Black Stone' J>-Vl j^i!
The 'Black Stone', a stone which some say fell from heaven, set
into one corner of the Ka'aba in Makka by the Prophet Ibrahim
(Abraham), peace be upon him, which the pilgrims, in
imitation of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, kiss, so unifying all the Muslims throughout
the ages in one place.
Hajj (Al) The Pilgrimage
"The Pilgrimage", which commences on the 8th of Dhu'l-
Hijjah. There are three types of Hajj:
1. Hajjat-Tamata'a (interrupted). Umra followed by
Hajj, but taking off the Ihram in between these
2. Hajj al-Qiran (combined). Umra then Hajj without
taking off the Ihram.
3. Hajj al-Ifrad (single). Hajj without Umra. A
pilgrimage to Makkah in the twelfth month of the
Islamic calendar is also known as Hajj al-Ifrad.
The performance of Hajj consists of ten steps:
1 . Put on the Ihram at the appointed
station, then recite the Talbiyah.
Recitation is done aloud by men and
quietly by women. Depending on
what type of Hajj you are doing,
perform the necessary rites at the
Ka'aba on arrival in Makkah.
2. Go to Mina (on the 8th of the month).
Pray the Duhr, 'Asr, Maghreb, Isha
and Fajr prayers at their proper times,
but shortening the four Rak'at to two,
as if doing travelling prayers.
3. When the sun rises (on the 9th of the
month), go to 'Arafat and combine
the Duhr and Asr Salat.
4. After the sun sets, go to al-
Muzdallifa, reciting the Talbiyah.
Combine the Maghreb and the 'Isha
Salat. After the Fajr prayer, raise your
hands and do Du'a. (After midnight,
women and the weak may proceed to
Mina if they wish.)
5. In Muzdallifa (or Mina), pick up
small stones (either 49 or 70) to
throw at the Jamra (stone pillars) of
6. Go to Mina (on the 10th of the
■ Throw seven stones, one
stone at a time, at the
largest of the three
Jamras (the stone pillars
that represent Shaitan).
■ Sacrifice your animal.
You must eat some of its
meat, but give the bulk
of it to the poor and
hungry. (Do this step
only if it is required of
you. It is not required for
Hajj al-Ifrad. If you are
doing either of the other
two types of Hajj, but
cannot afford an animal,
then fast three days after
you first put on Ihram
and seven days after you
have returned home.)
■ Shave your head.
Women only need to cut
off a lock of hair. The
rules of Ihram are now
lifted, except for sexual
intercourse with one's
7. Go to Makkah and do Tawaf al-Ifada.
Go to the hills of Safa and Marwa
and do Sa'i. Now the rules of Ihram
are completely lifted.
8. Return to Mina and stay there for the
remainder of the 10th and on the
11th, 12th and the 13th. (You may, if
you wish, leave Mina after Asr on the
12th or after Asr on the 13th. You
must leave Mina before the sun sets.)
9. Each day, stone each of the three
Jamras (the stone pillars) with seven
10. If you wish to return home, you must
do the Tawaf al-Wida'. No-one is
excused, except for menstruating
women or women in the period of
discharge after childbirth. See Tawaf
al-Wida. See Surah 22 of the Holy
Qur'an. Performing the Hajj if you
are able is one of the Arkan of Isla
Hajj-al-wida ' The last farewell Hajj gbjll ^
The last farewell Hajj of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, before his death. During that Hajj,
Muhammad gave an immortal Khutba called "Khutbatul
Wida". This sermon is still remembered word for word, for it
confirmed that the Deen of Islam had been completed,
transmitted and established by the Messenger of Allah, may the
blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his
companions and all who follow him in what they are able, with
sincerity, until the Last Day.
Hakeem m^ 3 ^ -
Halqah S — ^
A group of students involved in the study of Islam.
One of the main schools of thought in Islam, founded by
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d. 855 A.C.), a famous scholar of fiqh.
One of the main schools of thought in Islam, founded by Abu
Hanifah (d. 767 a.c), a famous scholar of fiqh.
Minister of Fir'aun (Pharaoh) who tried to have all the newborn
babies killed at the time when the Prophet Musa (Moses),
peace be on him, was born.
Hannah, May Allah be pleased with her Ua>
Grandmother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus, Son of Mary), peace be
on them, and wife of 'Imran, may Allah be pleased with him.
Since the Prophet isa had maternal grandparents, how can the
Christians claim him to be Allah? Since Allah is the Creator of
all that there is, and was not created, do the Christians claim
that Allah has a family tree? (Since they acknowledge the
immaculate conception and the virgin birth, why do they trace
the lineage of Jesus through Joseph the carpenter? See
Matthew 1:6-16, Luke 3:23-31,) Glory be to Allah, the Most
High. Cursed are those who ascribe partners to Him. The
punishment of Hellfire awaits those who do not desist from this
Happening £jM 'Ojj^ 31
1. Any act or deed which is prohibited by Allah and
will incur His wrath and punishment. See Ahkam.
2. Sanctuary or boundary of any Masjid (mosque),
but usually used with regard to the sanctuaries of
the Masjid al-Ha ram in Makkah and Masjid al-
Rasool, may Allah give him light and peace in his
grave, in Madinah. This is why they are referred to
as "AI-Haramain al-Shariffain", the two Holy
Haramain al sharifain (AL) O^j^ 1 Cti*j*&
"The two Holy Sanctuaries". The sanctuary of the Ka'ba at
Makkah and the sanctuary of al-Masjid al-Rasool, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, in Madinah.
Harbinger jj^I j^l
Haroon, peace be upon him f5L»ll aJc ojjU
Aaron. A prophet of Islam. He was the brother of the Prophet
Musa (Moses), peace be on them. See Holy Qur' an, Ta Ha
Harsh ^ M\
Harut and marut
Two angels who, by the permission of Allah Ta'ala, taught
magic to the people of Babylon. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara
Jealousy. Hasad is forbidden in Islam, except for two specific
1. Being jealous of a person for memorizing the
Holy Qur'an by heart.
2. Being jealous of a wealthy person for expending
his wealth in the path of Allah Ta'ala.
Hashr (Al) The Exile WbJl
1. "The Exile". Surah 59 of the Holy Qur'an.
2. Another name for the Day of Judgement, Yaumal-
Hashr, "Day of the Gathering".
Hateful t>jj£A\ . 0 ± J k±A\ . ajj^II
Hawazin OJ 1 ^ 6
A Quraishi tribe. An Arabian tribe that always gave trouble to
the new-born Islamic nation before their conversion to Islam.
Hazard ojLLLaII . AijU^l
Heaven Samaa fbuJ!
Heaven. In the sense of 'sky'. "Sab'a Samawat" - Seven
Heavens. Plural: Samawat.
(The) Hereafter Akhira
(After-Life, Hereafter, Next World), the term embraces the
That the present order of existence will some day come to an
That when that happens,God will bring another order into
being in which He will resurrect all human beings, gather them
together and examine their conduct, and reward them with
justice and mercy.
That those who are reckoned good will be sent to Paradise
whereas the evil-doers will be consigned to Hell.
That the real measure of success or failure of a person is not
the extent of his prosperity in the present life, but his success in
Any kind of veil - it could be a curtain, a facial veil, etc. The
facial Hijab is divided into two types:
1. Niqab = full facial covering.
2. Khimar = partial facial covering, i.e. it covers the
face, but leaves the eyes exposed. It is said that the
Universe is what veils the Creator from the
creation. If you find the veil awe-inspiring, how
much more awe-ins piring is the One behind the
Hijaz J 1 ^ 1
The region along the western seaboard of Arabia, in which
Makka, Medina, Jeddah and Ta'if are situated.
"Al-Hijr". Name of a rocky place and its people. Surah 15 of
the Holy Qur'an.
Hijra Migration Sja^JI
Migration in the path of Allah.
Name of the Islamic lunar calendar. It took its name from the
early Muslims who migrated from Makkah to Madinah, and
commences from the date of the Prophet Muhammad's Hijra,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which he made with
Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, in
622 AC. The months of the Islamic calendar are:
1 - Muharram
3 - Rabi'i al-Awal.
5 - Jumada al-Awal.
7 - Rajab
9 - Ramadan
The Hijri Calendar
2 - Safar
4 - Rabi'i al-Akhira.
6 - Jumada al-Akhira.
8 - Sha'ban.
10 - Shawal
637 The Hijri Calendar : 637 The reign of Caliph v Umar bin
Al-Khattab witnesses the beginning of dating the Muslim era
from the first day of the lunar year in which the Hijrah took
place (16 A.H.)
A famous cave in the Jabal an-Nur in Makkah where
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, first
received the Divine Message through the Holy Spirit, the
Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him.
Hizb Party vi-C
Party. Allah Ta'ala divides all the parties into two groups:
"Hizb Allah" (the Party of Allah ) and "Hizbal-Shaitan" (the
Party of Satan). It is irrelevant to Allah how one labels one's
party, whether it be "Democratic Party", "Labour
Party "/'Communist Party" or whatever. All that matters is
whether or not it follows the path of Allah Ta'ala.
. Office of accounting or public inspection. See muhtasib.
Homilist ^ ^
Homily <^ ^ -
Honest jjL-all - y^VI
Honesty ^Vl - Jja^I
Hooriyah A female virgin S — ^ jj*
A female virgin created by Allah Ta'ala, but not a descendant
of Adam, peace be on him. She is created in Jannah
(Paradise)and is the perfect companion of man in the Akhira
(Hereafter). Her beauty is insurpassable and unimaginable. She
has intensely black irises and the whites of her eyes are pure
white. Also spelled as Houriah. Plural: Hooriyat.
Horror ^ J 1
Horsemanship ^jj^ 1
Hospitality fljSV! <iL^I
Houd, peace be upon him ^L»ll jja
A prophet sent to the Tribe of Ad. See Mursaleen. See 'Ad.
Surah 1 1 of the Holy Qur' an.
Hubal : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic period
Hudaibiya (Al) ^y^l
A famous plain ten miles from Makkah on the way to Jeddah.
Site of the peace pact between the Muslims and the pagan
Quraish in the year 6AH. This treaty paved the way for the
spread of Islam. Surat al-Fath (Surah 48 of the Holy Qur'an)
cmmemorates this victorious event. Allah Ta'ala called it
"Fathan Mubeena" (a Manifest Victory). See Holy Qur'an, Al-
Fath (48): 1-4.
Huge Jj^ 1 - ' ^
Hujjaj Pilgrims £l— ^
Pilgrims. Persons who have been on pilgrimage to Makkah
during the Hajj season in the month of Dhul Hijjah. Singular:
Haj = a male pilgrim, Hajah = a female pilgrim.
Hujurat (Al) The Apartments ^l>-^l
"The Apartments". Surah 49 of the Holy Qur'an.
Human - ^L^Vl
Humaza (Al) The Scandalmonger ftt^l o>fl!
"The Scandalmonger". Surah 104 of the Holy Qur'n.
Humility £^ y
Valley on the road from Makkah to Taif. Site of a famous
battle that took place immediately after the conquest of
Makkah in 8AH, between the Muslim army consisting of about
10,000-2,000 men and the combined forces of the Hawazin and
Thaqeef which amounted to 4,000 men. After a surprise attack
and a near defeat, the Muslims managed to completely crush
the enemy. See Holy Qur' an, At-Taubah ( 9): 24-25.
The seventh and deepest level of the Nar (Hellfire). This is
where the religious hypocrites will spend eternity. The worst of
Allah's creation are the Munafiqeen (hypocrites), whether they
be mankind or Jinn, because they 'accept' Allah and His
Messenger with their tongues, but deny this 'acceptance' by
their actions. See Jahanam.
Hypocrites oj^U* 11
The Jinn who disobeyed Allah Ta'ala and was expelled from
His mercy. It was Iblis who tempted Adam and his wife
Hawwa (Eve), peace be on them, to approach the forbidden
tree. He is also known as Shaitan (Satan). See Shaitan . See
Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2):30-39.
Ibrahim, peace be upon him fSLwII ^jaIjj!
"Abraham". He was a messenger, as well as one of the greatest
prophets of Islam. He was the father of two other great
prophets, Ismail and Ishaq (Ishmael and Isaac respectively). All
the prophets who came after him were descended from him,
peace be on them. See Mursaleen . See Holy Qur' an, Al-
Baqara (2): 130, 135. Surah 19 of the Holy Qur'an.
Idols. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):219
Idol-worship ^Lu^V! s^Uc
Idolatry was widespread in the Arabian Peninsula, including
Mecca, in the Pre-Islamic era.
Idris, peace be upon him <j*u J l
Enoch. A prophet of Islam and a man of truth and wisdom. See
Holy Qur'an, Maryam (19):56-57, Al-Anbiya (21):85. See
Ifrad (Hajj al) Single Hajj -alj-tii
"Single Hajj". Performing Hajj without doing Umra. See Hajj 5^
1 . The state in which one is prohibited from doing
certain things which are lawful at other times.
Umra and Hajj are performed in such a state.
2. When one assumes such a state one must state
mentally and orally that he or she is assuming
such a state for the purpose of Umra or Hajj. Then
one must recite the Talbiya. See Talbiya
o Men. It consists of two pieces of
(i) Rida - worn around the upper part
of the body.
(ii) Izar - worn below the waist.
o Women. Any full length dress which
covers the entire body except for the
hands and face, and is inconspicuous,
i.e. it does not attract attention in any
way whatsoever (tight, colourful,
4. Behaviour: Both men and women are not
permitted to trim their hair or nails, wear perfume,
harm or kill any living thing, including insects, or
damage any plant or tree. They should avoid
argument and loss of temper. Sexual intercourse
between spouses is also not permitted.
Highest level of obedience in worship, i.e. to be aware of and
sincere to Allah Ta'ala and to be eager to do all good deeds. It
is to worship Allah as if you see Him, knowing that, although
you do not see Him, Allah sees you.
Ijmaa: Consensus of opinion £j— f*)
Consensus of opinion. Usually defined as the unanimous
agreement of the mujtahidoon of any period following the
demise of the Prophet Muhammad on any matter. As such, it is
described as collective ijtihaad.
Ijtihaad: ^ — ^
Literally, striving and self-exertion; independent reasoning;
analytical thought. Ijtihaad may involve the interpretation of
the source materials, inference of rules from them, or giving a
legal verdict or decision on any issue on which there is no
specific guidance in the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
Ikhlas The Complete Faith o^-C 1
1. "The Complete Faith". Surah 1 12 of the Holy Qur'
2. Sincerity of the heart in worship and purity of
intention. For any worship to be accepted by Allah
it must be entirely for His sake, and not for other-
Illicit JJ^\ - fljaJ!
Ilyas, peace be upon him <^ o^i
Elijah. A prophet of Islam. See Holy Qur'an, Al-An'am (6): 85,
As-Saffat (37): 123-132. See Mursaleen .
^ ^ \ \ *^ L ^ ^
Start of the fasting time. Imsaak begins when the first light of
dawn becomes visible, at Fajr when the Adhan is called.
l llCll Lvl CLL'iw
. jl ^ A\ l_j j
yl J i aaa SI -
Infendation sl£ilt - JiJI -*U~1I -
Inference. Deducing a somewhat hidden meaning from a given
text. The process of extracting laws.
. ^UIVI - jaSlI
*Lttl g l oil
^J 2 ^ 1 ■
The term bid'ah linguistically means 'innovation'. It is any
saying or action which has been falsely attributed to the
Messenger Muhammad (saw) and his Companions (ra). Bid'ah
is one of the negations of Islam, and those who knowingly
innovate any matter in the Deen will be prevented from having
intercession from the Messenger of Allah (saw). Those who
regularly commit bid'ah are known as Ahl ul-Bid'ah (the people
of bid'ah), and this term can be applied to many deviant sects
nowadays, such as the Sufis.
Insha Allah If Allah wills M *U2ul
"If Allah wills". It is forbidden to say "I will do such and such
tomorrow," without saying afterwards, "Insha Allah".
Inshiqaq (Al) Rending Asunder Jtl&V!
"Rending Asunder". Surah 84 of the Holy Qur'an.
Inshirah (Al) The Expanding ^Ij^jVI
"The Expanding". Surah 94 of the Holy Qur'an.
s-Lau^l - jjjjjjuiuJ!
(Jj^all - ^ 1 • a* 1
J1335VI - ^1^31
Interpretation. Especially interpretation of the Holy Qur'an
Intreat J^jjj - £
Intrepidity a11uJ1\ . J^A\
Investigation - 0 ^**\ \ - tfjaJI
Invisible t_>j^^ll . jjlouJI
Invisible world 4-^1 ^
Invocation £ - J^jjVI
The call which announces to the congregation that the
obligatory prayer is just about to begin. The statements are the
same as the Adhan, but in a shortened form, such that if a
statement is repeated four times during the Adhan, then it is
repeated twice during the Iqama.
Performing the Salat in a perfect manner. This is understood by
most Muslims as having only one meaning, but it has two:
1 . Performing the prayer in exactly the same manner
as the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him
and grant him peace, used to pray, see Sahih
Bukhari, Hadith 737, boook 12, Vol.1.
2. Establishing the prayer Every person in a Muslim
society who is seven years old or more must pray -
women in their houses and men in the Masajid
(mosques). Every head, be he head of the family
or chief of the town, will be held responsible for
the missed Fard prayers of those under him, as
well as his own.
Capital city of the ancient people of 'Ad in the Yemen. It was
famous for its lofty pillars. Some scholars say Iram was a hero
of the people of 'Ad who built a lofty statue of him. See Holy
Qur'an, AL-Fajr (89):6-8.
Irresistance c^J 1 - u^^ 1 - f^^ 1
Isa, peace be upon him Lf u^
One of the greatest prophets and messengers of Islam. He is
also known as Isa ibn Mariam (Jesus, Son of Mary) and Isa al-
Maseeh (Jesus the Messiah, Jesus Christ). The Jews and the
Christians have both blasphemed against the Prophet Isa, peace
be on him. The Jews reject him completely, whilst the
Christians have elevated him to the level of Allah and/or Son
of Allah. The concept of such divinity is rejected in the Bible
by the Prophet Isa himself(in pans of the Bible which have not
yet been altered)
1. According to 1 Timothy 2:5, "There is One God,
and one mediator between God and men, the
'MAN' Christ Jesus." Notice the words" man" and
"mediator". Are the Christians trying to say that
Allah is the mediator and that the Bible is wrong?
Do they not realize that Allah is so supreme in
glory that He does not mediate? Ask the
Christians how else they can explain this verse.
Warn them that Allah's wrath will be on those
who know-ingly hide or avoid the Divine Truth.
2. According to Matthew 24:36, Jesus, peace be on
him, has no knowledge of the time of the Hour.
Are the Christian strying to say that Allah lacks
3. According to Matthew 14:23, Jesus, peace be on
him, went into the hills to pray. Are the Christians
trying to say that Allah needs to pray, and if so,
then to whom?
4. "But in vain do they worship me, teaching for
doctrines commandments of men." Matthew 15:9.
Isa himself confirmed the prophecy of Isaiah that
the people would worship him in vain and believe
in doctrines made by men. The truth is that Jesus,
peace be on him, spoke the truth, but it is the
Christians who, in his name, have invented lies
against him. Allah is One. He did not beget nor
was He begotten. See Mursaleen .
Is ha ft
Night. The fifth and last Fard Salat (Prayer). Its time starts
about one and a half hours after sunset, when the redness has
disappeared from the night sky and the stars have appeared,
and ends a litle before dawn.
Ishaq, peace be upon him fiLul\
Isaac. A prophet of Islam. He was the second son of the
Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on him. He was thirteen
years younger than his brother, the Prophet Ismael (Ishmael),
peace be on him. Mary, mother of Jesus, peace be on them, was
descended from Ishaq. See Holy Qur' an, Al-An'am (6): 84, As-
Saffat (37): 112-1 13. See Mursaleen .
Islam <tf t)tf\
• Literally means "submission to the will of Allah".
It is for this reason that Allah Himself names His
life transaction "al-Islam" and describes all the
followers of this way of life, in every age, as
• The life transaction of Allah has five pillars, all of
which must be strictly adhered to in word, deed
and sincere belief. The five pillars of Islam are as
1. Shahadatain. Bearing witness. All
Muslims must believe in and utter the
■ First Shahada : Ash-
hadu an la illaha ilia
l'lah. (I bear witness that
there is no deity worthy
of worship except
■ Second Shahada: Ash-
hadu anna Muhammadar
Rasoolullah. (I bear
witness that Muhammad
is the Messenger of
2. Salat. Prayers. To do all the five
compulsory daily prayers regularly in
the exact manner as was practised by
the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace.
3. Seeaam. Fasting. Also spelled as
Saum. To fast in the month of
4. Zakat. Wealth tax. To pay 2.5% of
one's yearly savings above a certain
amount to the poor and needy
Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on
all Muslims who have saved (at least)
the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold
at the time when the annual Zakat
payment is due. Zakat is also due on
other things such as silver, animals,
crops, etc. For a full explanation on
Zakat refer to the relevant books
written on the subject.
5. Hajj. Pilgrimage. To perform the
pilgrimage to the Holy City of
Makkah at least once in one's lifetime
(if one is able to afford it). See Holy
Qur' an,Al-Maida (5):3.
Islamic religious law ^UaX^I
Ismael, peace be upon him ^L»li ^ Jj&Lu-I
Ishmael. A prophet of Islam. The first son of the Prophet
Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on him, thirteen years older than
his brother, the Prophet Ishaq (Isaac), peace be on him. It was
through the lineage of Ismael that the Prophet Muhammad,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was born. He helped
his father Ibrahim to raise the foundations of the Holy Ka'ba,
the holiest Masjid (mosque) in Islam. See Holy Qur'an, Al-
Baqara (2): 125-129, Maryam (19):54-55. See Mursaleen .
Chain of narrators of a hadeeth.
Isra (Al) f lj (j-VI
"The Night Journey". Another name for Bani Israel. Surah 17
of the Holy Qur'an.
A cloth worn (by men) below the waist.
Jab 4isJall Sji.jll
Jabriyah : A sect which denies man's freedom of choice and
believes that all his actions are predetermined
Jacob £LA\ <Ac ^J**-?,
Most commonly understood to mean Hell. In fact, it is one of
the levels of Hell. There are seven levels of Hellfire:
1 . Jaheem - the shallowest level of Hell. It is
reserved for those who believed in Allah and His
Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, but who ignored His commands.
2. Jahanam - a deeper level where the idol-
worshippers are to be sent on the Day of
3. Sa'ir - is reserved for the worshippers of fire.
4. Saqar - this is where those who did not believe in
Allah will be sent on the Day of Judgement.
5. Ladha - will be the home of the Jews.
6. Hawiyah - will be the abode of the Christians.
7. Hutama - the deepest level of Hellfire. This is
where the religious hypocrites will spend eternity.
The worst of Allah's creation are the Munafiqeen
(Hypocrites), whether they be mankind or Jinn, for
they outwardly appear to accept, but inwardly
reject, Allah and His Messenger.
Jaheem fj^ l
The shallowest level of the Nar. It is reserved for those who
believed in Allah and His Messenger Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, but who ignored His
commands. See Jahanam.
Jahliyah Ignorance The Pre-Islamic Era AJaUJI
Ignorance. This involves relying on what is other than the truth.
This is why the age prior to the advent of Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace, is called Jahiliyah. Many
people believed, for example, in Allah, but tried to attain His
pleasure through worshipping another medium such as a stone,
fire, man, wood, animal, etc., rather than following His
guidance which had been revealed to the earlier messengers.
The age of Jahiliyah 'ended' when the Final Revelation, the
Holy Qur'an, was revealed to mankind and the Jinn. However,
it still exists wherever this Last Message from God has not
reached. Any deviation from the True Path is no longer
considered as Jahiliyah, but as Kufr, for the truth has been
distinguished from falsehood.
White hot coal. The term used to describe the three pillars built
of stone at Mina. Plural: Jimar.
Jamrat al 'aqaba
One of the three stone pillars at Mina. One of the rites of Hajj
is to throw pebbles at these stone pillars, which represent
Shaitan (Satan). Plural: Jimar.
Jannah Paradise ^>
Also spelled as Janna. Paradise. A created abode in the
Hereafter for those who believe in the Unity of Allah and in all
His Prophets and Messengers, and who follow their way of life.
See Mursaleen. Jannah has eight gates around it and each of
these eight gates has eleven doors. The names of the eight gates
1. Bab al-Iman.
3. Bab al-Kadhemean al-Gaidh.
4. Bab ar-Raiyan.
5. Bab ar-Radiyeen.
6. Bab as-Sadaqa.
7. Bab at-Taubah.
Jannah has not been guaranteed to any human being or Jinn
(with the exception of the messengers of Allah) before their
deaths, other than the following ten men:
1. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq.
2. Umar ibn al-Khattab.
3. Uthman ibn Affan.
4. Ali ibn Abi Talib.
5. Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqas.
6. Abu Ubaida Amer ibn al-Jarrah.
7. Al-Zubair ibn al-Awam.
8. Talha ibn Ubaidu'llah.
9. Abdar-Rahman ibn 'Auf.
May Allah be pleased with all of them.
Jathiyah (Al) The Crouching
"The Crouching". Surah 45 of the Holy Qur' an.
The Jews of Medina ^
The Jews of Medina : Upon arriving at Medina, the Messenger
of Allah made a covenant with the Jews. They were conferred
liberty to practice their religion and their title to their wealth.
Jibreel, peace be upon him £LA\ Aalc Jjjja
The Angel Gabriel. Also called Rooh al-Qudus, "The Holy
Spirit". His duty was to reveal the Word of Allah Ta'ala to His
Anbiaa (Prophets). He is now sent to help the very religious
against the temptations of Shaitan (Satan) at the time of death.
His epithet is Roohul Amin (The Spirit of Truth) (Ash-Shu'ara
(26): 193). The AI-Amin is Muhammad, may Allah bless him
and grant him peace. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):97-98,
At-Takwir (81): 19-21. See Mursaleen
"The Jinn". A race of created beings that are made out of
smokeless fire. They are like the Ins (human race) in many
1. They are born, have children and die. They also
have friends and family.
2. There are Muslims and Kuffar amongst them.
3. They eat food, but their food consists mainly of
bones and stool.
They differ from us in many ways too:
1. Their lifespan is much longer than ours.
2. They can see us and sometimes are able to dwell
3. They need no form of transport.
4. They need no housing. The Muslims amongst
them like to live in the Masajid and pray, but the
unbelievers tend to live in the bathrooms of non-
religious Ins (human beings). The best way to
make sure that they do not intermix with us (i.e.
enter our bodies or houses or eat food with us) is
to remember Allah constantly and to read the Holy
Qur'an as much as possible. Surah 72 of the Holy
Jizya tax & tfj^ 1
A tax imposed on non-Muslims who are under Muslim rule.
Job fSLJi Ajk ^jjjI
Joseph ^LA\ aJc ca^jj
Place where the Ark of the Prophet Nooh (Noah), peace be on
him, came to rest. Jabal (Mount) Judiye is in the Turkish
district of Bothan, which is situated near the frontiers of
Turkey, Syria and Iraq. See Holy Qur'an, Houd (]J):44.
Junub - a person having Janaba - means to be in a state of
ceremonial impurity or defilement. A male becomes junub on
having sexual intercourse or simply on the emission of semen
in sleep or otherwise. A female also becomes junub as a result
of sexual intercourse as well as when she is menstruating or
having postnatal bleeding. These are the general causes of
janaba, which is also referred to in the books of jurisprudence
as hadath akbar. A full bath is required for a junub to receive
purification or tahara, without which a man or woman is not
allowed to touch or read the Qur'an, enter the mosque or offer
the prayers. In the absence of water, however, one is allowed to
resort to tayammum. Tayammum substitutes for both a full
bath (ghusl) and ablution (wudu).
Jurist £ -
Justice J^all - <J^t
The cube-shaped stone building whose foundations were built
by the angels and completed by Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham)
and his son, the Prophet Ismael, peace be on them, in Makkah.
It was rebuilt with the help of the Prophet Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is the focal point
towards which all Muslims face when praying.
Kafir Unbeliever j — <-^*
Unbeliever. Someone who covers up the truth and rejects Allah
and His messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them
peace. There are many different ways in which a person
becomes a disbeliever in Allah. For full explanation see Kufr.
Unbeliever. Someone who covers up the truth and rejects Allah
and His messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them
peace. There are many different ways in which a person
becomes a disbeliever in Allah. For full explanation see Kufr.
The fount of Kawthar
1. "The fount of Kawthar". A sacred fount in Jannah
(paradise). It is the source of all the four rivers of
Paradise, and feeds the Hawd of the Prophet
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace. Surah 108 of the Holy Qur'an.
2. The Hawd which is filled by Al-Kawthar is at the
end of the Siratul Mustaqeem. It is a gift from
Allah to the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him
and grant him peace. It is to quench the thirst of
the true believers.
Ken ^1 j^l - Ai
Khadija may Allah be pleased with her *M (j^j
First wife of the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant
him peace, and one of the four greatest females created, the
other three being;
1. Mariam (Mary), Mother of the Prophet isa (Jesus),
peace be on them.
2. Asiya, the wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh).
3. Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, may Allah bless
them and grant them peace.
A famous town north of Madinah. It was the place where a
great battle took place between the Muslims and the Jews in
10 AH. The Muslim victory at Khaibar destroyed Jewish
influence in the Arabian peninsular for many centuries, until
the introduction of the modern Jewish banking system
throughout the world. See Holy Qur' an, Al-A hzab (33):27.
Highest form of friendshp. The love that is mixed with one's
own soul. The Prophet Muhammad and the Prophet Ibrahim,
may Allah bless them and grant them peace, were
'Khaleelu'llah', the intimate friends of Allah. They loved people
for Allah, but their greatest love was only Allah Subhana wa
To abide for ever. The good will abide in the Jannab (Paradise)
and the evil will abide in the Nar (Hellfire) forever.
"Khalideena feeha abada". (They will abide in there for ever.)
The word "Aba da" also means "for ever". Allah Ta'ala uses
"Abada" to emphasize "for ever", reminding us that eternity is
Derives from the word Khalafa,
Yakhlufu = come after.
Khulafa = the ones who succeed others, in the sense of
standing in as a representative for someone else.
Thus Khalifa = viceregent, the representative of Allah. Khalifa
has two main meanings:
1. General: It refers to mankind, particularly the
believers. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): 30.
Every Muslim is a Khalifa and should carry the
banner of Islam high and strive to establish the
Deen of Islam until Allah's Word is uppermost on
2. Specific: A Muslim ruler. There were four Al-
Khulafaa ar-Rashideen, "the rightly-guided
o AbuBakras-Siddiq- 11-13AH.
o Umar ibn al-Khattab - 13-23 AH.
o Uthman ibn 'Affan - 24-36AH.
o Ah ibn Abi Talib- 36-40 AH.
May Allah be pleased with them. Plural: Khulafaa.
Khandaq (Al) The Ditch JJtfJt
"The Ditch". A famous battle between the early Muslims and
the pagans in which the Muslims built a Khandaq (trench) on
the unprotected side of the city of Al-Madinah al-Munawarah
to prevent the advance of the Makkan unbelievers in 5AH. The
enemy were halted by this unexpected tactic, and then driven
away by awful weather, mutual distrust and low morale,
without any major engagement having taken place. It was also
called Ghazwatul-Ahzab (Battle of the Clans), because the
Makkan idol- worshippers were assisted by the Jewish Tribes
ofBanu Nadhir, Banu Chatfan and Banu Asad. See Holy
Qur'an, An-Nur (24):55, Al-Ahzab (33):9-20.
Kharaj £b— £11
Tax imposed on the revenue from land taken from non-
muslims to ensure their equal rights under Islamic law.
The people who dissented from Islam and created a false belief
which was not part of the HolyQur'an or the teachings of the
Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace. Singular: Kharij.
. Finance manager.
A type of Hijab (veil) which covers the face, but leaves the
eyes exposed, as opposed to the Niqab, which covers the entire
face, including the eyes.
khitan : ljI — ^
the ritual circumcision of every Muslim male child.
Khosoof Lunar eclipse ti^uiJI
Lunar eclipse. There is a special Eclipse Salat (prayer) which
lasts as long as the eclipse itself.
'■A aa 11
- A a i aflll
Book. There are three types of Kutub (books):
1. The Book of records or deeds. On the Day
of judgement, everyone from both man and Jinn
will receive their book, in their right or left hand,
according to the preponderance of their good or
bad deeds and thus will either enter Paradise or be
cast into Hellfire. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Qamar
2. AI-Kitab, The Book (or Revelation). Refers
especially to the Holy Qur'an, but also refers to the
original revelations revealed to the earlier
messenpgers of Allah, may the blessings and
peace of Allah be on them. See Qur'an.
3. Ordinary books, i.e. books written by people, all
of which are subject of human error and cannot be
compared to the Qur'an. The Qur'an is the
uncreated word of Allah Ta'ala.
Knight <-W^I - <j»Jft
Knowledge ^ j*^
A style of angular writing often used for early hand-written
copies of the Holy Qur'an.
Disbelief in Allah's Commands, including the refusal to accept
whatever the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, taught. There are two levels of Kufr:
1. Kufr al-Akbar (major disbelief)
. Major Kufr is subdivided into five categones;
o Kufr al-Taktheeb: Denying the divine
o Kufr Abaa wa Stakbara ma'al-
Tasdeeq:Refusing to bow to Allah
due to pride, even though
acknowledging the divine truth.
o Kufr ash-Shakk wa Dhann: Doubting
any or all of the six articles of faith
(see 'Aqaaid), even if not completely
o Kufr al-Iraad: Knowingly turning
away from the divine truth.
o Kufr al-Nifaq: Disbelief through
2. Kufr al-Asghar (minor disbelief)
. Being unappreciative of what Allah Ta'ala has
A respectful and affectionate way of calling People as "Abu" or
"Umm" (Abu = father of, Umm = mother of) followed by the
name of the eldest son; if there is no male offspring then the
"Abu" or"Umm" is followed by the name of the eldest
daughter. It is prohibited to have the same Kunya as the
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, e.g. It is not permitted to call someone Abu Qasim".
Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 205, Vol.8. Sahih Muslim, Kitabul-A
Kusuf Solar eclipse
Solar eclipse. There is a special Eclipse Salat (prayer) which
lasts as long as the eclipse itself.
Hypocrite Zindeeq J^J
Hypocrite or unbeliever. Anyone who does not believe in Allah
and who rejects His Messengers, may Allah bless them and
grant them peace.
La ilaha ilia 'llah &\ V! Al\ V
There is no deity except Allah. This sentence is called Al-
Lailatul-Qadr' Night of Power' jM AAA
The 'Night of Power', concealed in one of the odd nights in the
last ten days of Ramadan; the night on which the Qur'an was
first revealed by Jibreel to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, and which the Qur'an itself
describes as "better than a thousand months" (Holy Qur' an, Al-
Qadr (97): 3).
"Al-Lateef". The Subtle One Who is All-Pervading. One of the
ninety-nine Attributes of Allah. The exact meaning of this
word is very difficult to fully understand. It includes all of the
following meanings (and more that we are not aware of):
1 . So fine that He is imperceptible to the human
2. So pure that He is unimaginable to the human
3. So kind that He is beyond human comprehension.
4. So gracious that He is beyond human grasp.
5. So near that He is closer to us than our jugular
veins. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hajj (22):63, Ash-
Lewdness. A major sin.
Literally, followers. The generation of Muslims immediately
after the Companions (.Sahaabah).
Local custom which is Recognizably' good. In the absence of
anything to the contrary, derivation of the law from the
common and approved mores of a people.
Loot, Peace be upon him ^L«ll JajJ
Lot. A prophet of Islam. Nephew of the Prophet Ibrahim
(Abraham), peace be on them. The Prophet Loot's wife was
destroyed, along with the people whom he called to worship
Allah, for their wickedness. They were the first people to
practise homosexuality and lesbianism. See Holy Qur'an, Houd
(11):81, Ash-Shu'ara (26): 160-175.
Lunar calendar ( <$jH^ ) cs j*^ 1
In their religious duties, Muslims depend on solar and lunar
calendars. The latter is shorter than the solar by twelve days.
Fasting the month of Ramadhan, celebrating the two major
feasts ('Eid Al-Fitr and 'Eid Al-Adhha), performing the
pilgrimage to Makkah, and other religious activities depend
upon the lunar months. The names of the lunar months are:
Muharram, Safar, Rabi' Al-Awwal, Rabi' Al-Akhar, Jumadal
ulla, Jumada Al-Akhirah, Rajab, Sha'ban, Ramadhan,
Shawwal, Zul-Qa'adah, and Zul-Hijjah. The timing of the daily
prayers depends on the solar system.
"Luqman". Name of a wise sage of ancient Arabia. Some say
he was a prophet. He has the title of Mu'ammar (the long lived
one). Surah 31 of the Holy Qur'an.
Lure ^1 >il - *l >V! - *1 joV!
Ma 'arij (Al) £b fc^l
"The Ways of Ascent". Surah 70 of the Holy Qur' an.
Ma 'arif ^jl
A spiritual realisation of Allah Ta'ala. Gnosis. It is to directly
witness the Light of the Names and Attributes of Allah
manifested in the heart.
Ma 'shar Assemblies j — tn*^ 1
Assemblies. Whether they be assemblies of mankind or of the
Jinn or both.
Mabrur jjj — ^
A Hajj that is accepted by Allah because of its perfection in
both inward intention and outward observance of the traditions
of Rasoolu'llah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
Madhhab: way of going
(plural: madhaahib). Literally, way of going. School of
People of the Prophet Shu'aib, peace be on him. They were
destroyed by an earthquake for rejecting Shu'aib and the
warnings from Allah Ta' ala he had brought with him. See Holy
Qur'an, Al-A'raf(7):85-93, Houd (l]):84-95.
Maghdoub Cursed 1>^»
"Cursed" by Allah Ta'ala. Surah Al-Fariha (1):7,
"...Maghdoubee 'alaihim..." (those that have been cursed) refers
to the Jews. Allah Ta' ala has cursed them for continually
breaking their covenants. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2 ):83 -
86, 93,100, Al-Ma' idah (5): 13-14, 73.
Maghfirah Forgiveness &j — i-axaJ!
Forgiveness. In the Holy Qur'an Allah Ta'ala uses three
different words to mean "forgive":
1. 'Afa. Forgave, in the sense of obliterating the
memory of wrondoing from one's mind.
2. Safaha. Forgave, in the sense of overlooking,
ignoring or turning away from misdeeds.
3. Maghflra. Comes from one of the ninety-nine
Attributes of Allah Ta'ala, "Al-Ghafur", which
means to forgive again and again.
Maghreb Sunset ^
Sunset. The fourth compulsory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It
consists of three Raq'as. It can be prayed at any time between
just after sunset and before the stars appear in the sky.
Magnanimity » jiill - <jpU.VI ? j£
Magnificence <-D^ - ^
Magnificent J^?> - ^ -
Dowry given by a husband to his bride on marriage.
Manifest Zaahir j &Uai!
Manifest, apparent, obvious. A word or phrase is described as
zaahir when it has a clear meaning. It may still however be
open to interpretation.
Gambling. Literally means getting something too easily.
Maiser has been prohibited by Allah Ta'ala in the strongest
terms possible : "Ijtanibou" - "Leave it!". It is a higher level of
prohibition than forbidding it because it is Haram. Hararn = a
direct prohibition ordered by Allah Ta'ala. Ijtanibou = a degree
more serious than Ha ram. It is not only Haram, but also a
direct command not to approach or be near it for any reason
whatsoever. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ba qara (2):2 19, A/-Ma' idah
Majeed The Most Glorious J—
"Al-Majeed". The Most Glorious. One of the ninety-nine
Attributes ofAllah. For a full list of the Asmaul Husna of Allah
Majoos Fire worshippers o*j-qa1\
Fire worshippers. These people lived mainly in Persia and the
Eastern Arabian Peninsula in the pre-Islamic period of
ignorance. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Haft (22): 17.
Makr j 4*11
Has two meanings:
1 . Plotting or planning with evil intent.
2. Planning for a good purpose:
"Wa Makaru wa Makara Allah wa'llahu Khairul
Makereen" (Surah Aali 'Imran (3):54). "They
planned and Allah planned and Allah is the best of
Makaru = they plotted. Makara = He planned.
Makkar = plotter.
See Holy Qur' an, Aali 'Imran (3):54.
Malaikah Angels * —
• "Angels". Another name for Suratul Fatir. Surah
35 of the Holy Qur' an.
• A race of created beings that are made out of light.
Their sole purpose in creation is to worship and
glorify Allah and to perform their duties exactly as
described. They are incapable of disobedience.
They do not eat, or sleep, or procreate. Their exact
number is unknown. Amongst the well-known
ones are the following:
1. The angel Jibreel (Gabriel) - the
angel whose duty is to communicate
between Allah Ta'ala and the
prophets and to whomever Allah
wills; e.g. he was commanded to
communicate with Mariam
(Mary,Mother of the Prophet Jesus),
Jesus and Muhammad, may Allah
bless them and grant them peace.
2. The angel Mikaeel (Michael) - the
angel of provisions.
3. The angel of Death - takes the souls
of people when they die. Many
Muslims mistakenly call him lirael.
The name "I irael" is neither
mentioned in the Holy Book of Allah,
the Holy Qurtan, nor by Muhammad,
may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, in any of the Ahadeeth. The
name "Izrael" is mentioned in the
Taurat and therefore has been
'borrowed' from the Jews. Beware of
such innovations. Copying the Jews
or any other unbelievers, and then
saying "This is from Allah", is Kufn
4. The angel Israfeel - the angel who
will blow the horn to bring the
universe to its end.
5. The angel Ridwan - keeper of Jannah
6. The angel Maalik - keeper of Nar
7. The angels Munkar and Nakeer - the
two angels who are assigned to
question the souls of the dead in their
graves about their fa ith.
Peace be on all of them. Singular: Malak.
Malignity ^ - -^j*
The Mamluk State (1250-151 7 A.D.) dJU^l 4S 3 j
The Mamluk State (1250-1517 A.D.) : The Mamluks were
originally Turkish, Circassian and Mongol slaves recruited by
the Ayyubids. They rose to power in Egypt and constituted the
two ruling-classes: the Naval Mamluks and the Mamluks of the
Tower. The Mamluk Sultans extended their influence over
Syria and some parts of Asia Minor. They confronted the
Crusaders and Mongols. After the fall of their state at the hands
of the Ottomans, their chiefs represented a source of trouble
and disturbance until Muhammad v Ali eliminated them at the
Massacre of the Citadel (1811 A.D.) Although their era was
famous for its political anarchy, they left behind important
architectural monuments including mosques, schools, and
hospices, particularly in Cairo.
Manah su *
Manah : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic
Manasik General sacrifice
General sacrifice in the path of Allah Ta'ala. All deeds and
actions during the Hajj are regarded as Manasik, for they are
indeed regarded as sacrifices in the path of Allah.
Mansookh Abrogated £j o^*
Abrogated. The abrogation of certain commands usually came
with increased belief or a change in situation. Only Allah
Ta'ala has the power to abrogate verses of the Holy Qur'an. An
example of an abrogated statement is: "...wa in too bdu ma fee
anfooseekum aw too khfoohu youhasibkumbihi Allah... "(Al-
Baqara (2):284), "...whether you show what is in your mind or
conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it...". When the
Muslims heard this Ayah they went to Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, and said: "O Rasoolullah, we
can control ourselves, but how can we control the outbursts in
our hearts?" (i.e. sudden thoughts that Shaitan puts within us).
The Prophet Muhammad said: "Do you intend to say, 'Same'na
wa asaina' (We hear and we disobey), as did both the People of
the Book (i.e. the Jews and the Christians)? Say, 'Same'na wa
ata'na!'." So they said, 'Same'na wa ata'na (We hear and we
obey) . On hearing their reply Allah Ta'ala abrogated this verse,
by revealing the 286th verse of Surah al-Bqara. "La
youkalifu'llahu nafsan lila wus'aha...", "Allah does not burden a
soul beyond its scope...". The aim of the 284th verse of Surah
al-Baqara was to test the followers of Muhammad, may the
blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them, as to whether
or not they would say the same as the Jews and the Christians
who used to say, "Same 'na wa 'asaina" (We hear and we
Maqam Ibrahim The station of Ibrahim f^L«t
The station of Ibrahim. The place where the Prophet Ibrahim,
peace be on him, stood in prayer, and which marks the place of
prayer following Tawaf of the Ka'aba. This place today is
marked by a stone in which there are two large sunken
footprints, said to have been made by the Prophet Ibrahim
when he stood on the stone while he and his son Ismael were
building the Ka'aba.
Mariam, peace be upon her ^L«ll
"Mary". The Virgin Mary. Daughter of 'Imran and Hannah and
mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him. She is the
first of the four greatest females created, the other three being:
1. Asiya, the wife of Firlaun (Pharaoh).
2. Khadija, the first wife of Muhammad.
3. Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, may the
blessings and peace of Allah be on him and all his
wives and family.
Surah 19 of the Holy Qur'an.
Martyr in the cause of Allah Ta'ala. There have been many
Shuhadaa in Islamic history, amongst whom are the following:
1. Hamza, martyred at the Battle of Uhud in 4AH.
2. Umar, stabbed in Madinah on 27/ 12/23 AH.
3. Uthman, axed at his home on 17/12/35AH.
4. Ali, stabbed while in Sajda on 17/9/40AH.
5. Hussein, martyred at the Battle of Karbulah (Iraq)
on 9/1/61 AH.
Whoever is killed in the way of Allah goes straight to the
Garden, may Allah be pleased with all of them. See Holy
Qur'an,An-Nisaa (4): 117-120. Plural: Shuhadaa
One of the two angels that were sent by Allah as a trial to
mankind by way of allowing Harut and Marut to teach them
magic. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): 102.
A small hill in Makkah close to the holiest Masjid in Islam, Al-
Masjid al-Haram. See Sa'i Safa and Marwa.
Masad (Al) Palm Fibre
"Palm Fibre". Another name for Surah Abl Lahab. This Surah
condemned Abi Lahab and his wife to Hellfire (many years
before their deaths) for their Kufr, especi~ly their violent
opposition to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him
and grant him peace. Surah 1]] of the Holy Qur'an.
Maskeen visibly in need
visibly in need, but also those who seem in no need of help, but
who in reality are very poor. Singular: Miskeen.
Masjid Mosque *****
Mosque. A place of worship for Muslims. A place where the
five daily compulsory prayers are regularly done, except for the
Jum'a prayers (the Friday noon prayer and Friday Khutba). The
Masjid Jame' is the place where all the five compulsory Salat
(Prayers) and the Jurn'a prayers are regularly done. The Masjid
Jame' is usually larger than a Masjid. Plural: Masaj Id.
Masjid al-aqsa (Al) 'Furthest Mosque' cj^ft
The 'Furthest Mosque' built by the early Muslims in Jerusalem,
on or near where the Temple of Solomon once stood. See
Masjid al-haram (Al) f LpJI a*** a 1\
The Grand Masjid in Makkah. The Ka'ba (the Qiblalt of the
Muslims) is situated within it.
Masjid an-nabawi (Al) (j j^l lao ^ t
Another name for the Masjid ar-Rasool in Al-Madinah. It is the
second greatest Masjid in Islam, the first being the Masjid al-
Haram in Al-Makkah al-Mukaramah, and the third being the
Masjid al-Aqsa in AI-Quds (Jerusalem).
Mediation - <JaL-j
Medieval cs^j jy-^-
Medina Al-Munawwarah • J^ 1 *4**«
Medina Al-Munawwarah [Illuminated] : Previously known as
Meditation - lUj
Mendacity jjjM - «^VI
Merciful ^ j
Messenger of Allah Jj^j
Mi'raj £b ^
The Night Journey of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, from Makka to Jerusalem and
then through the realms of the seven Heavens, beyond the limit
of forms, the Sidrat al-Muntaha, to within a bow-span's length
or nearer to the Presence of Allah. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Isra
(17): 1. See Bukhari, Hadith 345, Book 8, Vol.1 ,and 227,book
Mihraab Prayer niche snb
Prayer niche of a Masjid (mosque), in front of which the Imam
stands when leading the congregational prayers.
Steps on which the Imam stands to deliver the Khutba on the
day of the Jum'a.
A place five miles from Makkah and approximately ten miles
from Arafat. An essential place to visit during the Hajj. See
Minaret * J±*
Miracle : A miracle is an event that appears inexplicable by the
laws of nature, so held to be supernatural in origin or an act of
Mohammad, peace be upon him <^
The Final Messenger of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to Ins wal
Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Born in Makkah in 570AC. At the
age of 40 he was called upon to become the mightiest of all
messengers. He died in Madinah at the age of 63 after
gloriously completing his transmission of the Divine Message.
He was the bringer of the greatest miracle of all time, the Holy
Qur'an. It is through him that Allah Ta'ala has enlightened
mankind and the Jinn until the Day of Judgement. He is the
Best of Creation, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on
him and his family and his companions and all who follow him
and them in what they are able, with sincerity, until the Last
Day. To those Jews and Christians who reject the Holy Prophet
Muhammad, let it be known that Muhammad is actually
mentioned by name in the Old Testament in the original
Hebrew Song of Solomon, Ch.5, v. 16. But for some misguided
reason they have chosen to adulterate it by changing it from
"Muhammadim" (in the Hebrew) to "altogether lovely" in the
English. (Mummad + im is a term of respect in Hebrew.)
Similarly, Muhammad is actually mentioned by name in the
New Testament in John 14.16,26,15.26 and 16.13. The Greek
word "Periqleitos" (Paraclete), which is the equivalent of the
Aramaic word "Mhamda", means precisely what "Ahmad"
means in Arabic, "the most praiseworthy", and "Ahmad" is one
of the Prophet Muhammad's names, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace. But for some misguided reason they have
chosen to adulterate it by changing it from "Mhamda" (in the
Aramaic) to "Comforter" or "Counsellor" in the English. Many
other references to Muhammad which existed in the original
Torah and Ingeel have been removed altogether. Allah Ta'ala's
wrath awaits those who knowingly alter or hide His words.
Allah Ta'ala has given Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, the following names;
1. Muhammad: The one who praises and is praised.
2. Ahmad: The most praiseworthy.
3. AI-Mahi: The effacer (of Kufr).
4. AI.Aqib: The last.
5. Mustafa: The chosen.
6. AI-Amin: The trustwonhy.
Surah 47 of the Holy Qur' an. For a chronological list of the
main events in the Prophet Muhammad's life, may Allah bless
him and grant him peace.
A Chronological Guide
1. Prophet's birth
In the spring
is the agreed
day. 1st year of
days after the
event of the
to 22nd April,
570 AD, 1st
known to be 12
The date is a
lean to the 9th
Rabi I, as
falls on that
are 10 and 13
Rabi I. Some
suggested 8. But
the majority of
At the age of 4
2-3 days after
birth, he was
Thaubia, a slave
girl of Abu
spent at the
desert home of
3. Death of Prophet's
At the age of 6
4. Death of his
At the age of 8
years 2 months
5. First journey to
Syria with Hazrat
At the age of 12
years 2 months
The episode of
Bahira, the Monk,
is connected with
6. Participation in the
battle of Fajjar 1st
At the age of 15
7. Participation in the
battle of Fajjar
later, no date
8. Participation in
Hilful Fazul, a
At the age of
9. Second journey to
Syria as a trader.
At the age of 23
10. Marriage with
At the age of 25
years 2 months.
11. Unseen secrets
the age of 33.
At the age of
Arbitrated in the
fixing the black
stone which was
At the age of 40
years 1 1 days, 9
to 12 February,
14. Fajr and Asr
Prayers , prescribed 2
9 Rabi I, on the
15. Beginning of
revelation of the
18 Ramaza 1st
Friday, at night
Sura 'Alaq was
16. Beginning of
About 40 people
17. First public
At the end of
3rd year of
18. First wave of
Propaganda and mild
3rd to 5th year
Quraish went to
19. Second wave of
5th to 7th year
20. Migration to
Rajab, 5th year
21. Hazrat Hamza
and Hazrat Umar
3 days after
internment at Shi'b
Abi Talib with the
family of Hashim.
7th year of
23. End of internment
End of 9th year
24. Year of sorrow.
Death of Hazrat Abu
Talib and Hazrat
10th year of
25. Visit to Taif
Jumada II, 10th
26. Ascension (Miraj)
10th year of
27. Daily prayers five
times a day
10th year of
28. Beginning of
Islam in Medina.
Zul hijja, 10th
29. Deputation of
Medina. Six people
Zul hijja, 12th
30. First pledge of
Aqaba with 12
Zul hijja, 12th
31. Second pledge of
Aqaba with 75
Zul hijjar, 13th
(a) From Mecca to
the cave of Thaur
was 53 years.
(b) Departure from
IstRabi I, 13th
(c) Arrival at Quba.
8th Rabi I, 14th
(d) Entry into
14th year of
33. Foundation of
Rabi I, 1 H.
34. Addition of
Rabi II, 1 H.
First quarter, 1
36. Establishment of
Islamic State and
agreement of Medina.
Middle of 1 H.
37. Defence system
Middle of 1 H.
38. Marriage with
Shawwal, 1 H.
Married in Mecca
39. Islam of two elite,
Abdullah ibn Salam,
formerly Jew and
Abu Qais Sarha bin
Abi Anas, former
40. Jihad ordered.
12 Safar 2 H., 1
year 2 months
and 10 days after
41. First military
Safar 2 H.
42. Pacts with outside
clans Bani Damra,
People of Bowat and
Safar to Jumada
II, 2 H.
43. Robbery of Kurz
bin Jabir Fahri.
Rabi I, 2 H.
44. Nakhla episode,
first frontier clash of
End of Raj ab, 2
killed and two
and brought to
the action and
made amends for
45. Salman Farsi
46. Beginning of
47. Zakat prescribed.
48. Change of Qibla.
15th Shaban, 2
49. Ramazan fast
1st Ramazan, 2
prayer of Eid-ul Fitr,
1st Shawwal, 2
51. Battle ofBadr.
First regular battle:
Start from Medina.
8 Ramazan, 2
17 Ramazan, 2
Victorious entry into
20 Ramazan, 2
52. Marriage of
Hazrat Ali and Hazrat
After the battle
ofBadr, 2 H.
53. Siege of Banu
Ziq'ada, 2 H.
marriage with Hazrat
Hafsa, daughter of
55. Marriage of
Hazrat Usman with
Kulsum, daughter of
56. First order of
prohibition of wine.
57. End of Ka'ab bin
58. Birth of Hazrat
15 Ramazan, 3
59. Battle ofUhud,
Start from Medina.
5 Shawwal, 3
H. after Friday
6 Shawwal, 3
Pursuit of Abu
Sufian's army up
7 Shawwal, 3
60. First order of
prohibition of usury.
battle of Uhud.
61. Injunctions about
battle of Uhud.
62. Detailed laws of
battle of Uhud.
63. Injunctions about
marriage, rights of
wives, prohibition of
Zainab, daughter of
End of 3 H.
65. Episode of Raji'.
Murder of 10
Safar, 4 H.
66. Ghazwa Banu
Rabi I, 4 H.
67. Death of Hazrat
Zainab, daughter of
Rabi I, 4 H.
68. Order of Hijab
1 Ziq'ada, 4 H.
69. Final order of
prohibition of wine.
70. Second Ghazwa
Ziq'ada, 4 H.
Abu Sufian did
not turn up in
keeping with his
71. Ghazwa Dumatul
Rabi I, 5 H.
72. Ghazwa Banu Al-
3 Shaban, 5H.
73. Injunctions for
On the way to
marriage with Hazrat
Shaban, 5 H.
75. Episode of Ifk.
Shaban, 5 H.
76. Enforcement of
Penal Laws against
77. Ghazwa Ahzab.
Ziq'ada, 5 H.
78. Arrival of Daus
deputation to Medina.
79. Punishment of
Zul hijja, 5 H.
Zainab, daughter of
8 1 . Islam of
Thamama bin Usal,
chief of Najd.
82. Treaty of
Ziq'ada, 6 H.
83. Return to Medina
Zul hijja, 6 H.
84. Islam of Khalid
bin Walid and Amr
Zul hijja, 6 H.
85. Beginning of
letters to rulers.
86. Ghazwa Khyber.
Muharram, 7 H.
87. Prophet's marriage
with Hazrat Safia.
88. Return of
89. Establishment of
camp at Saiful Bahr.
y tju.il £i iiiv^ii w nu
were oppressed in
Mecca but could
not be allowed to
say at Medina
90. Raid by Saif-ul-
Bahr on Quraish
Safar, 7 H.
91. Postponed Umra
Ziq'ada, 7 H.
marriage and divorce
93. Marriage of the
Prophet with Hazrat
Maimuna at Mecca
94. Islam of Jibila
95 Ghazwa Mutah.
Jumada I, 8 H.
96. Violation of
Hudaibiya pact by
Rajab, 8 H
97. Ghazwa of the
conquest of Mecca,
start from Medina.
10 Ramazan, 8
Victorious entry into
20 Ramazan, 8
Expedition of Hazrat
demolish the temple
of Uzza at
25 Ramazan, 8
1 Expedition of Amr
ibn-ul Aas to
demolish the temple
Ramazan, 8 H
Expedition of Sa'ad
demolish temple of
Ramazan, 8 H
Stay in Mecca
Up to 9
Shawwal, 8 H
Siege of Taif
Ziq'ada, 8 H.
about 18 or 20
Distribution of booty
at Ji'rana, and
Ziq'ada, 8 H.
98. Final order of
prohibition of usury
On the occasion
of the victory of
all demands of
the amounts of
99. Arrival of Suda
deputation at Medina.
100. Death of Hazrat
Zainab, daughter of
101. Organization of
Muharram, 9 H.
102. Ghazwa of
Tabuk. Start of the
Rajab, 9 H.
103. Order about
At the time of
104. Zerar Mosque
set on fire.
On return from
105. Islam of
Ukaidir, chief of
106. Apology by
Ka'ab ibn Zuhair and
his acceptance of
came to Medina:
Deputation of Azra.
Safar, 9 H.
Deputation of Baliy.
Rabi I, 9 H.
Shaban, 9 H.
Deputation of Thaqif .
108. Haj prescribed.
9 Zul hijja, 9 H.
First Haj under
Hazrat Abu Bakr.
109. Proclamation of
annulment of pacts of
10 Rabi II, 10
110. Deputation of
Shaban, 10 H.
Deputation of Naisan.
Ramazan, 10 H.
Deputation of Bani
Haris bin Ka'ab
Shawwal, 10 H.
Ramazan, 10 H.
111. Twenty days'
retirement of the
Prophet in the last
Ramazan, 10 H.
112. Musailima the
with the Prophet
113. The Last Haj:
start from Medina.
26 Ziq'ada, 10 H.
Stay at Zulhailifa.
Putting on Ihram
Sunday at the
time of Zuhr
Arrival and stay at
Night of Sunday
4 Zul hijja, 10 H.
Start from Zittowa to
5 Zul hijja, after
Entry into sacred
5 Zul hijja, 10
H. at noon
Stay outside Mecca.
up to 8 Zul
hijja, 10 H.
Start for Mina.
8 Zul hijja, 10
Start from Mina to
9 Zul hijja, 10
H. Friday after
9 Zul hijja, 10
Stop at Arafah.
9 Zul hijja, 10
H. after Zuhr
Start from Arafah to
9 Zul hijja, 10
H. after sunset,
10 Zul hijja, 10
Haram to Mina
10 Zul hijja, 10
Throwing of pebbles.
10 Zul hijja, 10
H. after sunrise
Address at Mina.
10 Zul hijja, 10
Start from Mina to
10 Zul hijja, 10
Return from Mina to
10 Zul hijja, 10
Second address at
11 Zul hijja, 10
Start from Mina to
13 Zul hijja, 10
Return from Mecca.
13th and 14th
Zul hijja, 10 H.
1 14. Deputation of
115. Order for Start
26 Safar, 11 H.
of Usama's Army.
ordered by the
116. Beginning of the
End of Safar, 11
117. Period of
disease. Stay in
7 days up to the
time of passing
118. Last congrgational
prayer at the mosque
and last address.
5 days before
19. Passing away.
12RabiI, 11 H.
120. Burial in Hazrat I I Night between 13
Ayesha's room. and 14
Rabi I, 1 1 H.
Mould Taqwim f-tfj* 2
Mould, shape, form, etc. Allah Ta'ala created man in the best of
forms, but then abased him to the lowest of the low. See Holy
Qur 'an, At-Teen (95):4-5.
Mubashirat Glad tidings d\j- t yaA
Glad tidings. Good dreams.
Mubiqat destructive sins £A— tfrj*
Major, destructive sins.
Mudathir (Al) The Cloaked One jWl
"The Cloaked One". Surat 74 of the Holy Qur' an.
mufti : an interpreter ^-t^L>
an interpreter or implementer of shari'ah or Islamic law
(essentially an Islamic lawyer). The Council of Muftis gathers
together to debate changes to Islamic laws in the face of
modern advances, such as organ donation.
Muhaddith A scholar of Ahadeeth
A scholar of Ahadeeth (sayings and traditions of the Holy
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace). Plural: Muhaditheen.
Muhajir immigrant j —
A Muslim who emigrated from Makkah to Madinah during the
time of the great repression of the Muslims by the pagan
Quraish up until the conquest of Makkah in 8AH by the
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace. Plural: Muhajireen.
Plural of Muhajir. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hashr (59):8-9, Al-
Munafiqun (63): 7. See Muhajir.
Qur'anic verses which have a clear-cut meaning.
muhtasib. uu^J l
The officer in charge of the hisba, whose duty, among other
things, is to ensure the proper conduct of people in their public
mujtahid. J — <^
Atheist. A complete disbeliever in Allah Ta'ala and the Last
Day. Derives from Ilhad (atheism). Ilhad literally means
deviation. For a full explanation: See Ilhad. Plural: Mulhidoon
Mulk (Al) The Sovereignty
"The Sovereignty", of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 67 of the Holy
Munafiq A hypocrite J-tiLLdl
A hypocrite, more dangerous and worse than a kafir
Munafiqeen Hypocrites o^ati*!!
Hypocrites. They are the worst of created beings, for they
pretend to, but do not believe in Allah and the Last Day. Allah
has cursed them (At-Tawbah (9): 67-69) and on the Day of
Judgement they will occupy the lowest depth of the Nar
(Hellfire), called "Hutama". Also spelled as Munafiqoon.
1. Name of one of the two angels who will question
us in our graves. See Munkar wa Nakir.
2. Something that is disapproved of in Islam.
3. Something that is denied when it is said or pointed
4. Something that is refused when offered.
Munkar wa Nakir, peace be upon them j&j
The two angels who will question the souls of the dead in their
graves shortly after burial about their faith, asking, "Who is
your Lord? Who is your Prophet? What is your Book? What
was your Deen?" See Malaikah.
Literally means "those who have been brought near". These are
the most exalted, the most loved by Allah Ta'ala. On the Day of
Resurrection, Allah Ta'ala will sort out the good and the evil
into three groups:
1. Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are the
nearest to Allah Ta' ala. Also described as the
Sabiqoon, meaning 'those who outstrip the rest'.
2. Ashab al-Maimana - literally means "the
Companions of the Right". These are the righteous
people, those who are destined to enter the Jannah
3. Ashab al-Mashama - literally means "the
Companions of the Left". These people will be the
inheritors of the Nar (Hellfire).
For full explanation on;
Muqarraboon - see Al- Wa qi'ah (56): 1 1-26.
Ashab al-Maimana - see Al- Wa qi'ah (56):27-40.
Ashab al-Mashama - see Al- Wa qi'ah (56):4!-56.
Deferrers. Those who defer judgment of the sinner to God and
the Day of Judgment.
Mursalat (Al) The Emissaries
"The Emissaries". Surah 77 of the Holy Qur' an.
Mursaleen O^j^ 1
Literally means "those who are sent". It refers to the prophets
and messengers sent by Allah Ta'ala. Allah sent many prophets
and messengers to preach the message of Tawheed to Ins wal
Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Their exact number is not
Ahadeeth. Here is a complete list of the prophets and
messengers of Allah who are mentioned in the Book of Allah
Ta'ala, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on all of them:
For example :
l.Adam 950-1000 ?? The first human
Preached to 'Ad.
Preached to Thamud
6. Ibhrahim (NI)
Preached to Madyan
Father of Yahyah.
John the Baptist
25. Muhammad( M)
The Final Messenger
(M)= a messenger as well as a
prophet of Allah Ta'ala; i.e. one
who came with a new message, a revelation that confirmed the
earlier revelations, but which contained new elements
appropriate for its time.
Murtad Apostate J — ^o*
Apostate. Plural: Murtadeen.
People who become apostates, i.e. people who become
unbelievers after having believed.
Back To list ]
Musa, peace be upon him ^L«ll
Moses. One of the greatest prophets and messengers of
Islam. See Mursaleen.
Mushrikeen Idol-worshippers O^j^
Idol- worshippers. People who associate partners with Allah
Ta'ala, such as the Christians, who have raised the Prophet Isa
(Jesus, Son of Mary), peace be on them, to the level of Allah.
Allah Ta'ala may forgive any sin which man or Jinn may
commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. Singular: Mushrik.
(AL)Mustafa The Select
AL-Mustafa [The Select] : One of the names of the Holy
Prophet (peace be upon him) because he was chosen by Allah
to be His Messenger to all mankind.
Mutashaabihaat: Allegorical cA^AJoa
Allegorical. Refers to verses (aayaat) of the Qur'an which are
expressed in a figurative manner in contradistinction to aayaat
muhkamaat or verses which are clear in and by themselves.
Mutiny ^ J
Muzzammil (AL) The Enshrouded One J*>^
"The Enshrouded One". Surah 73 of the Holy Qur'an.
Myth s jjkJ
Nahl (Al) The Bee tM
"The Bee". Surah 16 of the Holy Qur'an.
Najm(Al) The Star ^
"The Star". Surah 53 of the Holy Qur'an.
1. A private talk between Allah the Almighty and
one of His slaves on the Day of Resurrection. See
Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 621, Book 43, Vol.3.
2. A secretive talk amongst the Kuffar plotting
against the Holy Prophet Muhammad and his
followers, may the blessings and peace of Allah be
on him and them. See Surah al-Mujadalah (5 8): 8.
Naskh Abrogation ^
Abrogation of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by
others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an: "None of Our
revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We
substitute something better or similar" (2: 106).
Naasikh active participle
(active participle). Refers to the passage which abrogates or
supersedes the part which is abrogated. The abrogated passage
is called mansookh (passive participle).
The Negus : King
; of Abyssinia who received the Muslims who
had immigrated to his country from Mecca and protected them
Hypocrisy. One of the greatest sins in the sight of Allah Ta'ala.
The punishment for Nifaq is the lowest pit of an-Nar (Hellfire),
the Hutama. See Jahanam.
Nooh, peace be upon him f^^l <^
"Noah". A messenger as well as aprophet. Surah 71 of the Holy
Qur'an. See Mursaleen.
Noon Duhr j
Noon. The second obligatory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It can
he prayed at any time between noon and mid-afternoon
A general sacrifice in the path of Allah. All the deeds and
actions of Hajj are regarded as Nusuk, for they are indeed
regarded as sacrifices in the path of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.
The revelation of the Holy Qur'an. The revelation of the Holy
Qur'an was revealed in three stages:
1. It was first written on the Lauh al-Mahfudh, i.e. on
the guarded tablet in the Seventh Heaven.
2. On the Lailatul Qadr Allah Ta' ala sent the entire
Qur' an down to the Baitul 'Izza in the First
3. During the month of Ramadan Allah Ta'ala
ordered the Holy Spirit, the Angel Jibreel
(Gabriel), peace be on him, to start to reveal the
Qur'an to the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace, but not all at
once. The entire revelation of the Holy Qur'an
took twenty-three years.
O Allah A I la hum ma ffrUl
"O Allah". This is said when invoking Allah Ta'ala. For
example, "Allah humma atina fid dunya hasana wa fil akhirati
hasana wa qin a 'ad hab an-nar". "OAllah, give us the good of
this world and the good of the Hereafter and preserve us from
Obedience to Allah and performing good deeds. Interpretation.
Especially interpretation of the Holy Qur'an
_ 3 1 *«--
Literally means "orders". In Islam, orders are subdivided into
six distinct categories:
1. Compulsory, (Fard) = severe punishment if
disobeyed. This takes two forms:
1. Fard 'ain = compulsory on every
person, e.g. Salat.
2. Fard kifaya = compulsory on at least
one person in the community, e.g.
2. Necessary but not compulsory (Wajib), e.g. Salat al-
3. Recommended but not compulsory (Mustahab),
e.g. Sunnah prayers, Sadaqa.
4. Legal and allowed (Halal), e.g. eating good
5. Disapproved of, but not forbidden (Makrouh),
e.g. smoking tobacco.
6. Forbidden (Muharram, Haram), e.g. Zina
(fornication and adultery).
Oversight ch^ -
Overtly > -
£?>J* - ^>
Patience and perseverance. Allah Ta'ala has promised
"Falaah" (success) in this world and in the Hereafter to those
Muslims who have Sabr, especially during times of hardship.
See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Jmran (3): 200.
Ijj iaxJ - AjIc j
These letters are abbreviations for the words Peace Be Upon
Him which are the meaning of the Arabic expression " 'Alaihis
Salam", which is an expression that is said when the name of a
prophet is mentioned. This expression is widely used by
English speaking Muslims. It is to be noticed here that this
expression does not give the full meaning of "Salla Allahu
Alaihi Wa Sallam". Therefore it is recommended that people
do not use (p.b.u.h.) after the name of prophet Muhammad
(s.a.w.); they should use "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam"
instead, or they may use the abbreviated form of (s.a..w) in
f ,u .
SjUt - t
Pillars. This refers to the indispensable pillars of Islam. There
are five Arkan of Islam:
1. Shahadatain, bearing witness. All Muslims must
believe in and utter the Shahadatain.
o The First Shahada is: Ashhadu an la
illaha illal'lah. (I bear witness that
there is no deity worthy of worship
o The Second Shahada: Ashhadu anna
Muhammadar Rasoolullah. (I bear
witness that Muhammad is the
Messenger of Allah.) Singular:
Shahada = bearing witness. Dual:
Shahadatain = bearing witness.
2. Salat, prayers. To perform all the five compulsory
daily Salat (prayers) regularly in the exact manner
as was practised by the Holy Prophet Muhammad,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
3. Seeaam, fasting. Also spelled as Saum. To fast in
the month of Ramadan.
4. Zakat, wealth dues. To pay 2.5% of one's yearly
savings o the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat
is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at
least) the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold at the
fime when the annual Zakat payment is due. Zakat
is also due on other things such as silver, animals,
crops, etc. For full explanation on Zakat refer to
the relevant books written on the subject.
5. Hajj, pilgrimage. To perform the pilgrimage to the
Holy City of Makkah at least once in one's
lifetime (if one is able to afford it).
Pious - £jj -
Piousness cij^ 1
Pirate j 5
Pitiless SSLSII ^
Pity ' LLc. _ <aa*S
Placable ^Jjiat .
Plague - oj&U*
Platonic lsj^ -
Plaudit ^a* - pUii
Plea j^c- - -
Pledge - ^ - ^uaj
Plenty - Sjaj
Plurality ^J&t - ***s«3
Pollute - <3^
Polytheism V^ 1 ^ - ^b^ 1
Polytheists u^^^ 1
Poor Fa^r/r ji&
A poor person. In Islam poverty may take two forms :
1 . Wordly : A person who does not have the
financial means to help himself.
2. In the Akhira(Hereafter): A person who has failed
to gain the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala by way of
disobedience, thus earning a place in the Nar
jl£j - 4_slg-/»
The Possessors of Constancy Awlo alazm ^ ^
jAjla - jjla
jjt _ jaa
jAiLa - JJAS - (_5 j3
- f.Lii - Aa^.
I ) i * i / 1 1 \ ivi i n ' i n t
rl cpal allUIl
- - plt^l
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Primordial - LS L*>\
Prince j^ 1
Principles of Islamic law Usulul Fiqh ^1 Jj^l
Principles of Islamic law, drawn from the original fundamental
JJ - Jj> -
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(Jj-a - ^l^xioil
Ajji - (Jjbiij
Proof Daleel 6^
(plural: adillah). Proof, indication, evidence. Every ruling or
judgment needs to be substantiated by the appropriate daleel in
the first instance from the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
Propaganda - Sjcill j&
Prophecy 3^ - os^
Prophet. There have been many prophets since the world was
first created. Their exact number is not mentioned either in the
Holy Qur'an or in any of the authenticated Ahadith (sayings
and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace). Only twenty-five of them are
actually named in the Holy Qur'an, may the blessings and
peace of Allah be on all of them. See Mursaleen for the
complete list. Plural: Anbiyaa.
SlfrA - <_S-V
Protectors Awliyaa f^ji
Protectors, friends, supporters, helpers. Comes from the same
root word as Maula. Singular: Walee.
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Purification. Tahara is accomplished in a variety of ways, e.g.:
1. Souls. In order for the soul to be pure one must
submit one's whole self to Allah Ta'ala, i.e.
become a Muslim.
2. Bodies. They are purified through Tayammum,
Wudu or Ghusl, depending on the circumstances.
For a full explanation: See Tayammum, Wudu and
3. Clothing. Three things indicate that clothes may
be impure and need washing:
o If they smell.
o If they are wet and the cause of the
wetness is either unknown or known
to be impure or dirty.
o If they are stained.
Puritan <j3-^ -
Purity sj-^ 3 ^
Qabr Grave j&
Grave.Life in the Qabr(the grave)is known as the
"Barzakh",the interspace, because it comes between in this
world and life in the next world. The Qabr is known by six
1. Bait al-Ghurba (House of the Stranger).
2. Bait al-Wahda (House of Solitude).
3. Bait al-Turab (House of Dust).
4. Bait al-Door (House of Worms).
5. Bait al-Fitna (House of Trail).
6. Bait al-Dhulma (House of Darkness).
The grave is experienced as a place of peace and light and
spaceby the Ruh of the Mumin who sees his or her place in the
Garden in the morning and in the evening; and is experienced
as a place of torment and darkness and no space by the Ruh of
the Kafir who sees his or her place in the Fire in the
morningand in the evening. After death there is a period of
waiting in the grave for the Ruh until the Last Day arrives,
when every one who has ever live will be brought back to life
and gathered together, their action will be weight in the Mizan
(the Balance), and every one will either go to the Garden or the
Fire, for ever.
Qada wa Qadar Decree and Destiny j&S j f-Lbill
Decree and Destiny. Qada means what Allah has ordained for
all the world. Qada can not be changed, for the decree of
Allahis final. Qadar is the individual fate, or destiny if each one
of all His creature. It also can not be changed but may be
altered by Allah under special circumstances, for "Allah has
power over all thing" (Holy Qur'an, Al-Ma'idah (5): 19.)
It means judge.
"A beautiful loan" (to Allah Ta'ala). Spending in the cause of
Allah Ta'ala is described by Allah Ta'ala Himself as "a
beautiful loan" because it entails self-denial for the sake of
Allah Ta'ala. It is for this reason that Allah has promised a rich
reward for those who expend their wealth in His Path. See
Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2):245, Al-Hadid (57): 11, 18.
1. One who performs Hajj al-Qiran. See Hajj.
2. An independent soul that resides inside a person.
It is normally a friendly companion who helps the
individual, but sometimes gets jealous and causes
problems. A male Qareen resides in a male person
and a female Qareen in a female,
Korah. A wealthy Kafir who led a rebellion (of 250 men)
against the Prophets Musa (Moses) and Haroon (Aaron), peace
be on them. As a punishment Allah Ta'ala caused the earth to
open and swallow them up along with all that they possessed.
See Holy Qur'an, Al- Qasas (28):76-82, Al-Ankabut (29):39.
Qiama (Al) The Resurrection <a\J&\
"The Resurrection". Surah 75 of the Holy Qur' an.
Direction in which all Muslims face when praying. Initially the
Qiblah was towards al-Quds (Jerusalem), then Allah Subhana
wa Ta'ala ordered the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, to face al-Ka'ba in Makkah al-
Mukarramah. Everyone has a direction in life, but only the
Muslims have this Qiblah. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara
(2): 142-145, 149-150.
Qisaas Law L yz\*a&\
Law of equal retaliation when punishing a person for injuries
intentionally inflicted on someone else. See Al-Baqarah(2:178-
179). Also Qisas, Qesas
Qiyas measuring qA&\
Literally Qiyas means measuring or ascertaining the length,
weight or quality of something. Qiyas also means comparison
to establish equality or similarity between two things. A fourth
element of Sharia not found in the Quran, Sunnah, or given in
the Ijma, qiyas are new cases or case law that may have been
previously decided by a higher judge. The Sharia judge can use
legal precedent to decide new case law and its application.
Quail i '«» > >■ - u*j
Quarrel ^je- -
A place on the outskirts of Al-Madina. The Prophet saw
established a mosque there, which bears the same name. A visit
to that mosque on Saturday forenoon and offering a two Rak'at
prayer is regarded as a performance of 'Umra in reward
according to the Prophet's saying.
The "Recitation". The Holy Qur'an. Also called AI-
Furqaan,"The Discrimination (between truth and falsehood)".
The Final Revelation of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to Ins wal-
Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself
decreed that it is He who will preserve the Holy Qur'an from
any deletion or addition or alteration until the Day of
Resurrection. It is generally understood that it is a book meant
for the Muslims alone. In fact, it is a book for all mankind and
jinn to follow up to the Day of Judgement, but it has been
accepted only by those who have submitted their will (the
Muslims) to Allah the Almighty. The people whom the Qur'an
is intended to benefit are described in Suratul-Baqara (2):1-
5. They are the successful ones. The Holy Qur'an was revealed
to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, through the Angel Jibreel (the Angel Gabriel), peace be
upon him, during a period of twenty-three years. The Holy
Qur'an is the greatest of the Last Messenger's miracles, since he
could neither read nor write and had never received any formal
education. The Holy Qur'an is the uncreated word of Allah.
The Holy Qur'an contains 114 Suwar, composed of 6,616 Ayat,
77,934 words and 323,671 letters.
Surah Index :
• 1 . The Opening
. 2. The Cow
• 3. The Family Of 'Imran, The House Of 'Imran
• 4. Women
• 5. The Table, The Table Spread
• 6. Cattle, Livestock
. 7. The Heights
. 8. Spoils Of War, Booty
• 9. Repentance, Dispensation
. 10. Jonah
. 11. Hud
• 12. Joseph
• 13. The Thunder
• 14. Abraham
. 15. Al-hijr, Stoneland, Rock City
. 16. The Bee
• 17. Isra', The Night Journey, Children Of Israel
. 18. The Cave
. 19. Mary
. 20. Ta-ha
. 21. The Prophets
. 22. The Pilgrimage
. 23. The Believers
. 24. Light
. 25. The Criterion, The Standard
. 26. The Poets
. 27. The Ant, The Ants
. 28. The Story, Stories
. 29. The Spider
• 30. The Romans, The Byzantines
• 31. Luqman
• 32. The Prostration, Worship, Adoration
• 33. The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined
. 34. Saba, Sheba
• 35. The Angels, Orignator
• 36. Ya-sin
• 37. Those Who Set The Ranks, Drawn Up In
. 38. Sad, (the Letter) Sad ( S )
• 39. The Troops, Throngs
. 40. The Believer, The Forgiver (god)
• 41. (signs) Spelled Out, Ha-mim
• 42. Councel, Consultation
• 43. Ornaments Of Gold, Luxury
. 44. Smoke
• 45. Crouching
• 46. The Wind-curved Sandhills, The Dunes
• 47. Muhammad
• 48. Victory, Conquest
• 49. The Private Apartments, The Inner
. 50. Qaf, (the Letter), ( Q )
• 51. The Winnowing Winds
. 52. The Mount
. 53. The Star
. 54. The Moon
• 55. The Beneficent, The Mercy Giving
. 56. The Event, The Inevitable
. 57. Iron
. 58. She That Disputeth, The Pleading Woman
• 59. Exile, Banishment
• 60. She That Is To Be Examined, Examining Her
• 61. The Ranks, Battle Array
• 62. The Congregation, Friday
• 63. The Hypocrites
• 64. Mutual Disillusion, Haggling
• 65. Divorce
• 66. Banning, Prohibition
• 67. The Sovereignty, Control
. 68. The Pen, (the Letter) N
. 69. The Reality
• 70. The Ascending Stairways, Staircases Upward,
. 71. Noah
• 72. The Jinn, Sprites
• 73. The Enshrouded One, Bundled Up
. 74. The Cloaked One, The Man Wearing A Cloak
• 75. The Rising Of The Dead, Resurrection
• 76. Time, Man, (every) Man, This (day-and-)age
• 77. The Emissaries, Winds Sent Forth
• 78. The Tidings, The Announcement
• 79. Those Who Drag Forth, Soul-snatchers
• 80. He Frowned!
• 81. The Overthrowing, Extinguished! Wrapping
• 82. The Cleaving, Bursting Apart
• 83. Defrauding, The Cheats, Cheating
• 84. The Sundering, Splitting Open
• 85. The Mansions Of The Stars, Constellations
• 86. The Morning Star, The Nightcomer
. 87. The Most High, Glory To Your Lord In The
• 88. The Overwhelming, The Pall
. 89. The Dawn, Daybreak
. 90. The City, This Countryside
. 91. The Sun
. 92. The Night
• 93. The Morning Hours, Morning Bright!
• 94. Solace, Consolation, Relief
• 95. The Fig, The Figtree
. 96. The Clot, Read!
• 97. Power, Fate
• 98. The Clear Proof, Evidence
• 99. The Earthquake
. 100. The Courser, The Chargers
. 101. The Calamity, The Stunning Blow, The
• 102. Rivalry In World Increase, Competition
• 103. The Declining Day, Eventide, The Epoch
• 104. The Traducer, The Gossipmonger
. 105. The Elephant
• 106. Winter, Quraysh
• 107. Small Kindnesses, Almsgiving, Have You
• 108. Abundance, Plenty
• 109. The Disbelievers, Atheists
• 110. Succour, Divine Support
• 111. Palm Fibre, The Flame
• 112. The Unity, Sincerity, Oneness Of God
• 113. The Daybreak, Dawn
. 114. Mankind
One of the greatest tribes in pre-Islamic Arabia. The Holy
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, belonged to this tribe. At first they were an avowed
enemy to the Prophet, but the vast majority accepted Islam
after the conquest of Makkah in 8AH by Muhammad and
10,000 of his companions, may the blesssings and peace of
Allah be on him and them. Surah 106 of the Holy Qur' an. See
Holy Qur'an, Al-Qamar (54):43-46,51.
Literally means "sacrifice". In Islam it refers to the sacrificing
of animals solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala on the day of
eid ul-ad'haa and the two days following it.
Ra'd(Ar) The Thunder
"The Thunder". Surah 13 of the Holy Qur' an.
Rabble ^ ^ g> J>
Race <^ J^>1 c>
Racism a^j^c aJ^L
Rahaman (Ar) Most Gracious 0**jM
"Ar-hahman". Most Gracious, Merciful. One of the ninety-nine
Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 55 of the Holy Qur' an. This
Surah is referred to as "The Bride of the Holy Qur an
Raheem (Ar) Most Merciful
"Ar-Raheem". Most Merciful. One of the ninety-nine
Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. . It is said that the Attribute of Ar-
Raheern consists of the mercy of Allah that is only experienced
by the Muslims, whereas the Attribute of Ar-Rahman consists
of the mercy of Allah that is experienced by the whole creation.
For example, all creatures are fed until they die, but only the
Muslims experience the reward of breaking the fast at the end
of each day of Ramadan, and the reward of meeting their Lord
in the next world.
Rajm (Ar) Stoning f*Jh
Stoning. In Islamic law the Hadd punishment for whoever is
married and commits adultery is to be stoned to death.
Rak'a * —
A unit of the Salat (Prayer), a complete series of standing,
bowing, two prostrations and sittings. Plural: Rak'at.
Ramadan O t u^ J
The ninth month of the Islamic clendar. It is a very important
month in the Islamic world.
1 . It is the month of fasting, during which all adult
Muslims who are in good health fast from the first
light of dawn until sunset each day. During the
first third of the fast you taste Allah's mercy;
during the second third you taste Allah's
forgiveness; and during the last third you taste
freedom from the Fire. See Holy Qur' an, Al-
Baqara (2): 185.
2. It is the month in which the revelation of the Holy
Qur' an to our Holy Prophet Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace, commenced.
3. The Lailatul Qadr (see (Qadr, Lailatul) occurs in
4. The famous Battle of Badr was fought and won in
5. The Conquest of Makka by Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace, took place in
Rancour ^Sa. - Jc.
Ransom ^ - ^
Rasool Messenger Jj — tnj
Messenger. A prophet of Allah Ta' ala who came with a pure
revelation from Allah to mankind and the Jinn. For a complete
list of the messengers and prophets referred to in the Qur' an:
See Mursallen. Plural: Rusull. See Rusull.
Rasoolu 'llah Messenger of Allah &\ J>-j
Messenger of Allah. Throughout the history of the world Allah
has sent messengers with a Book to explain Tawheed to man
and Jinn, and to show them how to live at peace. The Muslims
accept and believe in all the messengers, including the prophets
Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Dawood
(David), Isa (Jesus), peace be upon them all, and especially
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See
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religion Deen 0^1
1. Deen Usually translated as 'religion', but in fact
meaning 'life-transaction', the transaction being
between Allah and each of his created beings. The
life-transaction, or religion, of Allah Ta'ala is
universal. It is the way of Islam (submisson of will
to Allah Ta'ala). He sent the same message to
Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses),
Isa (Jesus) and all the other prophets, peace be on
all of them, but mankind, through ignorance or
intentional misguidance by others, has altered the
religion of Allah again and again. Allah Ta'ala
sent the Holy Qur'an as the final revelation and
guidance for mankind and the Jinn who will all be
judged on the Day of Resurrection.
2. Also indicates the judgement itself, i.e. "Yaum al-
Deen" (Judgement Day).
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Righteousness and awe of Birr wa Taqwa js j^l j j^l
Righteousness and awe of the Creator which -nspire a person
to be on guard against wrong action and eager for ac don which
are pleasing to Allah.
The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (11-40 A.H.) Oj^IjII
The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (11-40 A.H.) : The Rightly-
Guided Caliphs are the first four Caliphs who succeeded the
Prophet (peace be upon him). The Rightly-Guided Caliphs are
the outstanding members of the Community and its symbols,
leaders of the Call and its guards. They preserved the unity of
the Muslim community and managed the affairs of the Islamic
state. They are: Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, v Umar bin Al-Khattab,
v Uthman bin v Affan and v Ali bin Abi Talib.
Risk SjLLl* ^ajU^
Rituals jj 1 ^ o-j^ 3
Rizq Provision Jjj
rizq. Provisions that God destines for a person, in such forms
as additional income, food, clothing, or a natural resource such
as water. See fatahna.
Provision. Sustenance. Derives from the word "AI-Razaq" The
Provider or Sustainer, one of the ninety-nine Attributes of
Allah Ta' ala.
Rooh Spirit £jj
Spirit. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Hijr (15):29, Al-isra (17):85-86,
Al-Mujadilah (58):22, Al-Ma' arif (70):4, An-Naba' (78):38,
Al- Qadr (97) :4.
Rooh AL Qudus The Holy Spirit o*M £jj
The Holy Spirit. Another name for the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel),
peace be on him. His duty was to communicate between Mlah
and His prophets. Alah Ta'ala strengthened the Prophet Isa
(Jesus), peace be on him, with the Holy Spirit (Al-Baqara
(2):87, 253). This is one of the reasons why the Nasara
(Christians) believe that the Prophet Jesus was divine. If Jesus
was Allah, then why did he need strengthening? They also
believed that the Holy Spirit was divine. If the Holy Spirit was
Allah, then how was He sent and by whom? Who has the
power to command Allah to go anywhere? Do they not know
that Allah is "Al-Wahid", "The Unique"? Glory be to Allah,
the Most High. Surely they disbelieve who say that Allah has
Ruh-ul-Lah &\ £jj
According to the early religious scholars from among the
companions of the Prophet saw and their students and the
Mujtahidun, there is a rule to distinguish between the two
nouns in the genitive construction.
(A) When one of the two nouns is Allah, and the other is
a person of a thing, e.g.,
(i) Allah's House (Bait-ul-Lah ),
(ii) Allah's Messenger;
(iii) Allah's slave (Abdullah );
(iv) Allah's spirit (Ruh-ul- Lah ) etc.
The rule of the above words is that the second noun, e.g.,
House, Messenger, slave, spirit, etc. is created by Allah
and is honourable in His Sight and similarly Allah's
spirit may be understood as the spirit of Allah, in fact, it
is a soul created by Allah, i.e. Jesus, and it was His
Word: "Be!", - and he was created (like the creation of
(B) But when one of the two is Allah and the second is
neither a person nor a thing, then it is not a created thing
but is a quality of Allah, e.g.,
(i) Allah's Knowledge ('Ilmullah );
(ii) Allah's Life (Hayatullah ); (iii) Allah's
Statement (Kalamullah );
(iv) Allah's Self (Dhatullah )etc.
Rude £*j - Jaa
Divine words, usually from the Holy Qur' an, used as a
recitafion to cure an illness or a disease.
Rule au.„ _ s^cli - -<-«•
Ruler JaLAa .
Runagate J-^ -
afa and Marwa
Two small hills in Makkah, in Al-Haram as-Shareef (The
Grand Masjid) to the east. It is an essential part of an Umra and
the Hajj to walk seven times between the two places,
quickening one's step briefly between two points between
them. This is called Sa'i. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):
Safety . <>l
Sage J&e- -
Healthy and sound with no defects. Authentic, as regards
Ahadeeth, such as Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.
Sahih Bukhari j j^M 1
A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Bukhari.
A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Muslim.
Literally means forgetting. If one adds to or subtracts from
what is required during the Salat (Prayer), out of forgetfulness
or lack of attention, then one must perform two extra
prostrations at the end of the Salat. This is called Sajda Sahu.
Saint cA? -
Sake 4_A^ - -
Sakina Calm <1£*>1\
Calm, peaceful tranquillity, perfect calmness, serenity, due to
the Presence of Allah being made clear and apparent. See Holy
Qur'an, At-Taubah (9):26, 40, Al-Fath (48):4, 18, 26.
Salaf Forebears tiLJI
Forebears, predecessors, ancestors.
Al Salaf al Saalih ulL-1!
the righteous forebears - refers to the early generations of
Muslims including the Sahaabah and the Taabfoon.
Literally, "the early years". Salafi is used generally to describe
the early generations of the Muslims, particularly the
companions of the Messenger of Allah and those who followed
them, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and
them. In the present age the term is sometimes used to describe
a Muslim who closely follows the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet
Muhammad and As-Salafiyeen as-Saliheen, the righteous
companions of Muhammad.
Salat *V —
• Prayers. There are five daily obligatory prayers in
Islam,consisting of fixed sets of standings,
bowings, prostrations and sittings in worship to
Allah. These are called Rak 'at. The number of
Rak'at in each prayer and their timings are:
1. Fajr - dawn - two Rak'at.
2. Duhr - noon - four Rak'at.
3. 'Asr - afternoon - four Rak' at.
4. Maghreb - sunset - three Rak'at.
5. Isha - late evening - four Rak'at.
These five Salat are one of the Arkan of islam. See
Arkan.lt is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu when
doing the Salat. For voluntary Salat: See Nafilah.
• One of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See
Salatud_duha c^ aSI s ^
A Nafl Salat that is prayed after sunrise and before noon.
Salatul Janaza Funeral prayer • JUaJI i^La
Funeral prayer. It is permitted to do Salatul Janaza only over
the dead bodies of Muslims. This prayer is done in the standing
position only, and usually immediately before the burial. It
contains four Takbirs:
1 . After the first Takbir - read Suratul Fatiha.
2. After the second Takbir - recite any Dua'a for the
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace,but it is preferred to do the
Tashahhud (see Tashahhud)and the Salat al-
Ibrahimiya: "Allahumma salle 'ala Muhammad wa
'ala alec Muhammad kama salaira Ibrahim wa 'ala
alee Ibrahim; fill 'alameen innaka hameedun
majeed. Allahumma barak 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala
alee Muhammad kama barak ta ibrahim wa 'ala
alec Ibrahim; fill 'alameen innaka hamidun
majeed." ("O Allah, bless Muhammad and the
family of Muhammad, as You blessed Ibrahim
and the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely
You are Praiseworthy,Glorious. O Allah, give
Muhammad blessing and the family of
Muhammad, as You gave Ibrahim blessing and
the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You
are Praiseworthy , Glorious.")
3. After the third Takbir - pray for the deceased
person, his or her relatives and the Muslim people
4. After the fourth Takbir - this marks the end of the
Salat.Face your right shoulder and say "Assalamu
'alaikum wa rahmarullah" ( "Peace be on you and
the Mercy of Allah").
Salatul Shuruq Jjj^l S!>Ua
A Nafl Salat of two or four Rak'at that is prayed a short while
Salatul Tasbih ^uU-^l
A special Nafl Salat of four Rak'at. This Salat involves praising
Allah Ta'ala by including "Subhanallah, wal hamdulilah, wa la
il laha illallah, wallahu akbar" ("Glory to Allah, and Praise to
Allah, and there is no god except Allah and Allah is Greatest")
seventy-five times in each Rak'a.
salat id- J urn 'ah : 4aa*1\ i^La
Although most Muslims pray on their own wherever they
happen to be at the time, there is an opportunity on Fridays to
come together as a community to pray together. Traditionally,
the midday prayer on Friday is said at the mosque, where the
imam or a guest will read passages from the Qur'an and may
give a lesson - much as Muhammad may have done thousands
of years ago. The congregation is arranged in lines (women and
men have separate areas for prayer), and the synchronisation of
movement and chanting by hundreds of Muslims is a powerful
sight. Although attendance is obligatory for men (although not
for women), a man who is sick is excused.
Saleh, peace be upon him ^L»ll <£c ^JU^a
A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Thamud who
lived in the north-western part of the Arabian Peninsula. They
were destroyed for rejecting him. The remains of their stone
dwellings still exist today. See Holy Qur'an, AI-Araf(7):73-79,
At-Tawbah (11):61 -68, Ash-Shu'ara (26): 141 -159,An-Naml
Righteous and goodly person, someone who is in the right
place at the right time. It may also mean healthy and sound in
body and soul.
Salsabil A fountain in Jannah <J#"*k-
A fountain in Jannah. Literally means "seek the way". See
Holy Qur'an, Al-insan (76)18.
Salutation - £L*
Salavation sUj -
Does not have an exact meaning in English. The closest word
or words that indicate the meaning are:
1. "Absolute" and "Eternal" and "Everlasting".
2. The One to Whom all created beings turn to for all
their needs, and Who is not dependent on anything
or anyone for any need.
3. The Most Perfect in His Attributes.One of the
ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. For a
Saqifah A shelter with a roof AM^1\
A shelter with a roof. The companions of the Prophet met in a
Saqifah in Madinah to pledge their loyalty to Abu Bakr after
the death of the Prophet.
One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah. It means Absolute,
Eternal, and Everlasting. It refers to the One to Whom all
created beings turn to for all their needs, and Who is not
dependent on anything or anyone for any need. The Most
Perfect in His Attributes.
Sariya A small army
A small army sent by the prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless
him and grant him peace, for a Jihad in which he did not
personally take part.
jt Lj uS\
Fasting (sawm in Arabic) is one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
All healthy and sane Moslems are expected to fast (to abstain
from food, drink, smoking and other bodily pleasures) during
the daylight hours throughout the entire month of Ramadan.
This means that they rise before dawn to eat breakfast and then
eat a large meal after dusk. While they fast during the day,
Moslems are expected to reflect on themselves and their
standing before Allah, and ask for forgiveness for their sins.
The evening meal, by contrast, is often a time of enjoyment
and the gathering of friends and relatives.
Sceptic - <^j*
Schism - $*&\
Scowl f-s-^ -
Scribes of the revelation
Scribes of the revelation : Scribes of the revelation were those
who shouldered the task of writing down the revelation.
— ^ —
The Seat of Allah Al-kursi
The Seat of Allah, al-Hayyu al-Qayoum. The size of His Seat
extends over all the heavens and earth. Even though it is such a
huge creation, it is still much smaller than the 'Arsh (the
Throne) of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 2:255 is called Ayatul Kursi.
See Surah al-Baqara (2):255. See also 'Arsh.
SeCt c_lAA« - <ajUa
Seductive . JL^a
Self-denial ^1 J&l
The Seljuk State Al^LA\ aJjj
The Seljuk State : These were the descendants of Turkman
whose grandfather was Seljuk. They had so many offsprings
who ruled Iran, Asia Minor, Iraq and Syria from the 1 1th to the
13th centuries A.D. They put an end to the Buyids and were
finally brought to an end by Genghis Khan and his successors.
Seniority aA±J\ - A^jal
Sensual cP 1 ^
Serenity - ^ jj
Shafaa 'a Intercession A^IL&I
Intercession. On the Day of Judgement Allah Ta'ala, through
His Grace and Mercy, will permit the Prophet Muhammad may
Allah bless him and grant him peace, to intercede on behalf of
the Muslim Ummah. Three other groups may also be given
leave to intercede:
1. The Anbiyaa - the prophets.
2. The Ulamaa - the people of knowledge from
amongst the Muslims.
3. The Shuhadaa - the martyrs who died in the cause
of Allah Ta'ala.
Shahada witness &j! — ^
• To witness, in this world. See Shahadatain.
• To bear witness, on the Day of Judgement. There
will be four witnesses on Yaum al-Hisab (the Day
1 . The Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, and
the Muslim Ummah against all the
other Ummahs (communities and
2. The earth and the day and the night
will be given the power to speak and
3. Everyone's limbs will bear witness
for or against theirowners.
4. One's deeds.
Singular of Shahadatain.
Shahawat Desires cj|>-<Li
Desires and passions.
Shahid ± —
It means a witness or martyr.
[Other Commonly Used Spellings: SHEIKH]
The word Shaikh is a title or a nickname for an elderly person
or a religious leader in a community. This title is also given to
a wise person. The meaning of the word Shaikh has been
distorted, misused, and abused by some mass media to reflect
the wrong meanings.
Opposite of Tawheed. To associate anyone or anything with
Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. Shirk is idol- worship. Idol- worship
means attributing form to Allah, encasing Him in an object, a
concept, a ritual or a myth - when Allah has no form, is not like
anything and cannot be conceived of or perceived. Allah the
Most Merciful is prepared to forgive any sin a man or Jinn may
commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. There are three
types of Shirk:
1. Shirk al-Akbar (major Shirk). This is divided into
o Shirk ad-Du'a : invoking or
supplicating to a false deity besides
Allah Ta'ala, i.e. invocation or
supplication by either invoking other
than Allah or invoking Him through a
created being or thing, such as a
prophet, an angel, a saint, or even a
o Shirk al-Niyyah wa Iraada wal Qasd :
having the intention and
determination to deliberately do any
type of act of worship to a deity other
than Allah Ta'ala.
o Shirk at-Ta'a: obeying any created
being against the command of Allah
Ta'ala. Beware of such Shirk! It is
very easy to commit.
o Shirk al-Muhabbah: loving a created
being or an object more than Allah
2. Shirk al-Asghar (minor Shirk):
o Shirk ar-Rea': carrying out a religious
act for worldly gains and not for the
pleasure of Allah, e.g. giving Zakat
for the sake of fame or praise.
o Shirk at-Tasmee': swearing by other
than Allah, and accordingly relying
on other than Allah, or attaching
more importance to other than Allah.
3. Shirk al-Khafy (hidden Shirk) :heing dissatisfied
with what Allah has ordained for a panicular
person. Hidden Shirk is to inwardly worship
anything or anyone other than Allah, or to
inwardly associate something or someone as a
partner with Him, especially one's self.
Shaitan Satan 0 1 —
Satan. An evil Jinn who prompts mankind and Jinn to rebel
against Allah. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil that He
has created . Plural: Shayateen. See Iblis. See Holy Qur'an, An-
Nisaa (4): 117-120.
Shari'a * — fcu^l
Islamic law as ordained by Allah Ta'ala. Literally it means 'a
road'. The Shari'a is the legal and social modality of a people
based on the revelation of their prophet. The last Shari'a in
history is that of Islam. It abrogates all previous Shari'as. It is
being the last, therefore the easiest to follow, for it is applicable
to the whole human race wherever they are.
Shu 'aib, peace be upon him ^LJi 4^
A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Madyan
(Midian), but they rejected him, so Allah Ta'ala destroyed them
with an earthquake. See Mursaleen. See Holy Qur'an,Al-
A'raf(7):85-93, Houd (ll):84-95.
Persons who die Fee Sabeeli'IIah (in the path of Allah). Allah
has designated eight things for the Shuhadaa alone:
1 . They are the first to be forgiven.
2. They are the first to see their place in Jannah
3. They are exempted from Adhabul-Qabr (trials and
tribulations in the grave).
4. They will be exempted from fear on the Day of
5. They will be crowned with the "Taj al-Waqar"
(literally means "the crown of respect") on that
6. They will each be married to seventy-two
7. They will each be given permission to intercede
on behalf of seventy-two of their relatives.
8. The sweetness of Iman will physically glow from
Shivering ^ j
Shura (Ash) The Consultation cijj^l
"The Consultation". Surah 42 of the Holy Qur'an.
Sidrat aljduntaha ^p^S S j^-
"The lote-tree of the furthest limit." A tree over the Seventh
Heaven near Paradise, the place where form ends and beyond
which no created being may pass. See Holy Qur'an, An-Najm
Siraat (As) Jal>^l!
Literally means "road". It is the bridge over the Nar (Hellfire)
which must be crossed to enter the Garden on the Day of
Judgement. It is described in Ahadeeth as being narrower than
the blade of a sword, thinner than a hair and as having hooks
over it to snatch wrongdoers and throw them into
Jahanam.Some will cross the Siraat into the Garden like
lightning or like the wind, some with ease, some with
difficulty, some with great difficulty and some will fall into the
waiting Fire below. See Holy Qur' an, Mariam (19):71.
Sirah (As) oj^l
[Other Commonly Used Spellings: SEERAH] The writings of
the companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.) about him, his
personality, his life story, and his ways of handling different
situations is called Sirah. The famous collections of the Sirah
are At-Tabari, Ibn Ishaq, and Ibn Hisham. The Sirah is a source
of reference that Muslims rely on in their daily life situations
A piece of branch or root of a tree called al-Arak used as a
A false accusation.
(jjiill ol •>! La -
^ - U>
The specific reason Asbab An-Nazul Jj j^l c_A^
The specific reason and circumstances for the revelation of
various verses of the Holy Qur'an. For example: Surat at-
Taubah, Ayat 79-80 (the story of Abu Aqeel). In 9 AH the
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, asked for contributions to finance his Tabuk expedition.
Being very poor, but still yearning to contribute, Abu Aqeel
decided to offer his services, which lasted from dusk till dawn.
He received only two handfuls of barley in payment. He took
the entire payment and presented it to Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace. A group of Munafiqeen
(hypocrites) saw this and started to deride Abu Aqeel by
saying, "Look at Abu Aqeel, does he think that Allah is in
need of such a pathetic donation?" Allah Ta'ala became so
angry with them that He immediately sent down the Holy Spirit
Jibreel (The Angel Gabriel), peace be on him, to reveal Surah
9: 79-80 to Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace.
Spendthrift Bukhl <J^?
Spendthrift. Allah Ta'ala has forbidden mankind to be either
misers or over-generous to a fault. See Holy Qur'an, Suwar :
Al-Isra (17):26-29, Al-Furqan (25):67.
(The) spider 'Ankaboot (Al) ta j»yVwH
"The spider" The spider who made its web over the Ghar Thaur
(Cave of Thaur) where the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr, may Allah be
pleased with him, hid from the Quraish on his way to Madinah.
Surah 29 of the Holy Qur' an.
Splendour Jjjjj -
The Spoils of War
Anfaal (Al) JUiftl
"The Spoils of War". Surah 8 of the Holy Qur'an.
lc jJa - 1 jLiikl
<^ijjoi - <a^)3
^joi - <Ji*j
Glory be to Allah *M c^ 3 ^
Glory be to Allah. Far removed is He from anything imperfect
Him and far removed is He from anything
unsuitable ascribed to Him!
Subhanahu wa Ta 'ala AJUow
"May He be Glorified and Exalted." One of the many ways of
glorifying Allah the Almighty. It means "Glory be to Allah on
High. Far removed is He from any imperfection". The
shortened form of this glorification is "Allah Ta'ala".
i\wuni - j^i
Sulaiman, peace be uon him fiLul\ jU iui
Solomon. A prophet of Islam and a wise king. He was the son
of the Prophet (and King) Dawood (David), peace be on both
of them. He ruled the north-western Arabian Peninsula for
about forty years. Allah Ta'ala gifted him with many
powers,which included having power over the winds, being
able to converse with the birds and ants and other animals, and
having power over the evil Jinn. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Anbiya
(21): 79-82, An-Naml (27): 15-44, Saba (34): 12-14, Saad
Sunnah traditions 41^1
All the traditions and practices of Muhammad, may Allah bless
him and grant him peace, that are recorded not only in such
books as Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, but also in living
people to whom these traditions and practices have been
transmitted, from person to person, from then until
now. Although the Sunnah has come to refer almost exclusively
to the practice of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him
and grant him peace, it also comprises the customs of the first
generation of Muslims in Madina. They learned their Islam
directly from the Prophet, not from books, and transmitted
what they had learned to the next generation. Thus they have
become models whom all Muslims should follow. The Sunnah
is a complete behaviourial science that has been systematically
kept outside the learning framework of this society. It cannot
be learned from books, although books can be helpful. It can
only be learned from real Muslims who are true teachers.
Surah Sjj — ^
A chapter of the Holy Qur'an. Literally means "a form". There
are 1 14 Suwar in the Holy Qur'an. Plural: Suwar.
Supplication J^jj -
Supplication: Invoking Allah for whatever one desires.
Surrender <»!>LAJ - ^A^l
Sway - 2 ^Lx
Swear - ^1
Swearing ^ . jxaj
Taaghout (pi. Tawaagheet) ^j&Uall
The Sharee'ah definition of Taaghout is: "Anyone (or anything)
that is worshipped, obeyed or followed other than Allah". In
other words, Taaghout is a false deity (god).
If someone worships a person, and that person accepts to be
worshipped then he is Taaghout. Likewise, if a person makes
legislation he too is Taaghout, as only Allah has the right to
Taaghout can be a ruler (who does not rule by Islam), police
(who do not enforce Islam), a stone, constitution, animal,
scholar (who does not judge by the Sharee'ah), celebrity etc.
Whoever follows or worships the Taaghout, he will become
A famous town 400 miles north of Madinah al-Munawarah
close to Shaam. In 9AH the Messenger of Allah, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, hearing that the Byzantines
were gathering a large army to march against the Muslims, led
a large expedition to Tabuk, on what was to be his last
campaign, only to find that the Byzantine army had withdrawn
back into its own territory.
Tadabour Meditation and consideration
Taghabunn (At) Mutual Loss O^*^ 1
"Mutual Loss". Another name for the Final Houn Surah 64 of
the Holy Qur'an.
: The word Taghut covers a wide range meanings: It means
anything worshipped other than the Real God (Allah), i.e. all
the false deities. It may be Satan, devils, idols, stones, sun,
stars, angels, human beings e.g. Jesus, Messengers of Allah,
who were falsely worshipped and taken as Taghuts. Likewise
saints, graves, rulers, leaders, etc., are falsely worshipped, and
Recitation of the Holy Qur'an in a very slow manner. This
method is used only when one is learning or teaching Taj weed.
A city fifty miles east of Makkah, where the Prophet
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to
preach after being rejected, beaten and nearly killed by the
pagan Quraish of Makkah in the second year before Hijra.
There too he suffered beatings and humiliation. On his return
journey to Makkah, Allah Ta'ala revealed to him that although
the people of Taif had rejected him, the Jinn had accepted him.
It was then that Surarul Jinn (Surah 72) was revealed to him.
Recitation of the Holy Qur'an with precise articulation and
Takathur (Al): jSUSSM
"The Race for Worldly Gains". Surah 102 of the Holy Qur' an.
Takweer (At) The Overthrowing J^J*^
"The Overthrowing". Surah 81 of the Holy Qur'an.
The call that the pilgrims make to their Lord on the Hajj,
saying: "Labbaik, labbaik, Allahumma labbaik." ("I am totally
at Your service, I am totally at Your service, O Allah I am
totally at Your service.")
"La shareeka laka labbaik." ("You have no partner, I am totally
at Your service.")
"Innal hamda wa n'imata laka wal mulk." ("Truly, the praise
and the blessing are Yours, and the dominion.")
"La shareeka lak." ("You have no partners.")
Tale Sjj^ 1
Talut £»jlt — fa
King Saul. He led his army against the army of Jalut (Goliath).
See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):247-249.
Taqwa Fear of Allah isj — ^
Fear of Allah, being careful, knowing your place in the
cosmos. Its proof is the experience of awe, of Allah, which
inspires a person to be on guard against wrong action and eager
for actions pleasing to Allah. Fearing Allah as He should be
feared is one of the major signs of being a faithful Muslim.
Piety and restraint (through Taqwa) in times of hardship are
signs of having achieved the essence and spirit of Islam, and
thus Allah's blessing. See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Imran (3): 102-
103,AS-Hashr (59): 18-19.
Tariq(Al) The Night Visitant JjL-kl!
"The Night Visitant". Surah 86 of the Holy Qur'an.
Measured recitation of the Holy Qur'an taking extreme care
with regard to the rules of slow reading, pausing and stopping
at every indicated point.
Reciting the following silently while one is in Qu'ud (i.e. the
sitting position) during Salat: "Attahiyatu lillahe wa salawatu
tayibat. Assalamu 'alaika ya aiuhan nabiu wa rahmatullahe wa
barakatuhu. Wa assalamu 'alaina wa 'ala 'ibadillahe saleheen.
Ashadu an la illaha illal lah. Wa ashadu anna Muhammadar
rasoolu' llah." ("Greetings are for Allah and all prayers and all
good. Peace be on you 0 Prophet and the Mercy of Allah and
His blessing. Peace be on us and on the right-acting slaves of
Allah. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah, and I
bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of , recitation of
the Tashahhud is followed by recitation of Salat al-Ibrahimiya.
Name of a fountain in Jannah (Paradise) whose drink is
superior to the purest of wines. Its nectar will only be drunk by
those near est to Allah Ta'ala. Literally means "rich and
elevated". See Holy Qur' an, Al-Mutafifeen (83):27-28.
Returning to correct action after error, turning away
from wrong action to Allah and asking His
Forgiveness, turning to face Allah whereas before
one turned one's back.
Name of one of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise).
"Repentance". Another name for Al-Baraah. Surah 9
of the Holy Qur' an.
: It has three aspects; A, B and C:
(A) Oneness of the Lordship of Allah; Tauhid-ar-Rububiyya:
To believe that there is only one Lord for all the
universe, its Creator, Organizer, Planner, Sustainer, and
the Giver of Security, etc., and that is Allah.
(B) Oneness of the worship of Allah; Tauhid-al-Uluhiyya:
To believe that none has the right to be worshipped [e.g.
praying, invoking, asking for help (from the unseen),
swearing, slaughtering sacrifices, giving charity, fasting,
pilgrimage, etc.], but Allah.
(C) Oneness of the Names and the Qualities of Allah;
Tauhid-al-Asmd was-Sifat: cti*al\j *Lu-SM jlp-jj
To believe that : (i) we must not name or qualify Allah except
with what He or His Messenger saw has named or qualified
Him; (ii) none can be named or qualified with the Names or
Qualifications of Allah; e.g. Al-Karim; (iii) we must confirm
Allah's all qualifications which Allah has stated in His Book
(the Qur'an) or mentioned through His Messenger (Muhammad
saw ) without changing them or ignoring them completely or
twisting the meanings or giving resemblance to any of the
created things; e.g. Allah is present over His Throne as
mentioned in the Qur'an. (V. 20 : 5): "The Most Beneficent (i.e.
Allah) Istawa (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne" over the
seventh heaven; and He only comes down over the first
(nearest) heaven (to us) during the day of Arafat (Hajj, i.e. 9th
Dhul-Hijja) and also during the last third part of the night, as
mentioned by the Prophet saw , but He is with us by His
Knowledge only, not by His Personal Self (Bi-Dhatihi), "There
is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-
Seer." (The Qur'an, V. 42:11).
This holy Verse confirms the quality of hearing and the quality
of sight for Allah without resemblance to others; and likewise
He also said:
"To one whom I have created with Both My Hands," (V.
38:75); and He also said:
"The Hand of Allah is over their hands.": (V. 48:10, The
Qur'an). This confirms two Hands for Allah, but there is no
similarity for them.
This is the Faith of all true believers, and was the Faith of all
the Prophets of Allah from Noah, Abraham, Moses and Christ
till the last of the Prophets, Muhammad saw . It is not like as
some people think that Allah is present every-where, here,
there and even inside the breasts of men.
These three aspects of Tauhid are included in the meanings of
La ilaha ill Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but
It is also essential to follow Allah's Messenger Muhammad saw
: Wajtib Al-Itteba' and it is a part of Tauhid-al-Uluhiyya. This
is included in the meaning: "I testify that Muhammad saw is
the Messenger of Allah" and this means, "None has the right to
be followed after Allah's Book (the Qur'an), but Allah's
Messenger saw ". [See the Qur'an (V. 59:7) and (V. 3:31)].
The circling of the Holy Ka'aba. Tawaf is done in sets of seven
circuits, after each of which it is necessary to pray two
Rak'at,preferably at or near the Maqaam al-Ibrahim. See Tawaf
Tawheed (Al) Monotheism The Divine Unity 4^J^
The Divine Unity, Unity in its most profound sense. Allah is
One in His Essence and His Attributes and His Acts. The
whole universe and what it contains is One unified event which
in itself has no lasting reality. Allah is the Real, AI-Haqq.
Although Allah is indivisible and beyond conception, Tawheed
can be viewed from four distinct perspectives:
1. Tawheed al-Rububiyah : Unity of Lordship. To
perceive that there is only one Lord, the Master
and Creator of the Universe, Who oversees and
orders it in every moment, and that He is Allah
Subhana wa Ta'ala.
2. Tawheed al-Uluhiyah : Unity of Worship. To
realise that none has the right to be worshipped
but Allah "Wahdahu la shareeka'lah" ("Alone
3. Tawheed al-Asma wa Sifaat : Unity of Names and
Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. To comprehend that:
o None can qualify or name Allah
except as He or Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace,
have named or qualified Him.
o None can be named or qualified with
the Names or the Attributes that
belong only to Allah Subhana wa
Ta'ala. For example, none maybe
called "AI-Muhyee" ("the Giver of
Life") except Allah Subhana wa
o We must accept all the Ayat and
Ahadeeth (Sahih)regarding the
Attributes of Allah without altering
their meaning in any way whatsoever.
For a full list of the Attributes of
4. Tawheed al-Itabaa : Unity in following the
Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace. To believe in and recite the
words "Ashadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah"
("I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger
of Allah") and to follow the way of the Holy
Prophet Muhammad, as much as one is able, in
life and worship. It is only by following the way
of Islam that the true nature of Tawhid becomes
Another name for Suratul Ikhlas.
The revelation received by Moses, the Law of Moses often
used to designate all the books of the Old Testament.
Tax ^j^ 3
Tayammum literally means 'to intend to do a thing'. As an
Islamic legal term, it refers to wiping one's hands and face with
clean earth as a substitution for ablution when water cannot be
- 4i jU^a
Successors to the people of 'Ad. They lived in north-western
Arabia between what is now known as Madinah and Syria.
Their prophet was Saleh (peace be on him). Allah Ta'ala
destroyed them with an earthquake. See Holy Qur' an, Al-A'raf
(7):73-79, Hud (ll):61-68, Ash'Shu'araa (26): 141-159, An-
Naml (27):45-53, Az-Zariyat (51):43-45,A1-Qamar(54):23-31.
Thrall lSj - SPj^
Thralldom - aj^jjc
Threat ^ j - ^
The Throne of Allah 'Arsh lhj^ 1
The Throne of Allah. The 'Arsh is the immense starless heaven
that encompasses the visible Universe, which is referred to as
the Kursi. Sayyidina Ali, may Allah he pleased with him, said
that the relationship of the Kursi to the 'Arsh is like that of a
small ring lying in the middle of a vast desert. This is why
Arsh is correctly translated as 'Throne' and Kursi as 'Seat or
'Foot-stool', although sometimes those who are unaware of the
existence and nature of the Arsh translate Kursi as 'Throne'.
Thunder ^» j
Tilawat ^IjV— &
This word has a variety of meanings, depending on the context:
Studying the Qur'an in order to understand it in the
way it should be understood. See Al-Baqara
Meditating and reflecting on the Qur'an's meanings in
order to enrich one's life and knowledge.
Reading and reciting the Qur'an by oneself.
Reading and reciting and conveying its meanings to
Approaching and acting on the Qur'an in such a way
that it becomes part of one's inner self, thus
helping one to attain perfect prayer and to avoid
any form of evil or shameful deeds and to be an
upright person in the sight of Allah Ta'ala. See
Holy Qur'an, Al -'Ankaboot(29):45.
Toor The Mount j>-k
"The Mount". Toori Sineen is the original name for Mount
Sinai, on which the Prophet Musa (Moses) received the
revelation of the Torah from Allah. Surah 52 of the Holy Qur'
' ■ LjjjJU
Asabiyyah tirbal loyalty 4# * a*l\
It means tirbal loyalty, nationalism.
Tribe » - ^-W*
Tribe of Israel Bani Israeel JjhI>-I <Jj
"Tribe of Israel". The descendants of the twelve sons of
Yacoub, who was also called Israeel, the son of Ishaq, who
was, the son of the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be on them all.
Another name for Suratul al-Isra. Surah 1 7of the Holy Qur' an.
Tribute ^Lp- - Ssj^
Trifles Abateel J^J
Triumph jja -
The Truthful As-Siddiq
"The Truthful". This title was given to Abu Bakr, may Allah be
pleased with him, by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace. When the Prophet Muhammad,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related his
experience of al-Isra (his night journey to the Masjid al-Aqsa in
Jerusalem) wal Mi'raj (and his ascension through the seven
heavens) to Abu Bakr , may Allah he pleased with him, he
immediately and without any reservation replied "Sadaqt" :
"You have spoken the truth". From that time on, Abu Bakr,
may Allah be pleased with him, came to be known as Abu
The Honest : An attribute of the Prophet (peace be upon him)
Trusty <jA^> - jjJ
Tyrant - ^Ua - ajc.IL
Uhud (J») **\
A mountain just outside Madina, much loved by the Prophet
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at the
foot of which the Muslims fought their second major battle
against the pagan Qur'aish of Makka in 3AH. The Qur'aish
army of 3,000 men, under the leadership of Abu Sufyan,
attacked the Muslim army of about 700-1,000 men. The battle
went well at first, but the Muslims nearly lost the battle for two
reasons. Firstly, some fifty archers disobeyed the Prophet
Muhammad and left their posts, leaving the Muslims open to
an attack from their rear; and secondly, there was treachery on
the part of some 300 Munafiqeen (hypocrites) led by Abdallah
ibn Ubai, who deserted the Muslims during the battle. Many
great companions, and in panicular the uncle of the Prophet,
Hamza, 'the lion of Allah', were killed in this battle. See Bani
Nadheer. See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Imran (3): 121-128, 140- 180.
Ulil Amr Jji
Muslims who are in charge or in authonty, or who are leaders.
The Muslims are ordered to obey all their commands as long as
they do not contradict the commandments of Allah Ta'ala and
the teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless
him and grant him peace. See Holy Qur' an, An-Nisaa (4):59.
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, May Allah be pleased with him
Umar ibn al-Khattab. The second of the four "Al-Khulafaa ar-
Rashideen", the Rightly-Guided Khalifas, the other three being:
1. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq.
2. Uthman ibn 'Affan.
3. Ali ibn Abi Talib.
May Allah be pleased with all of them. Umar was renowned
for his justness and strength, and for his refusal to compromise
the teachings of Islam in any way. He was the Khalifaa from
13 AH to 23 AH. He asked Allah for martyrdom in the way of
Allah in Madina, and his request was answered. Umar died
after be ing stabbed in the stomach while doing the dawn
prayer in the Mosque of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace.
An unlettered person. This term is used in the Qur'an to
describe the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him
and grant him peace, who could neither read nor write and who
never received any formal education. To the unbeliever here is
food for thought: how could an illiterate man have brought
such a completely perfect book (the Holy Qur'an), perfect in its
meaning, message, grammar and overall content, if it were not
with divine help? No other book exists on earth that has such
perfect content and structure. A challenge to all unbelievers!
Mankind and Jinn! Assemble together and try to produce just
one Surah (chapter) like it. You will never be able to do it,
even if you were to try until the Day of Resurrection you will
not succeed! No created being has ever been or ever will be
able to meet this challenge, for the Holy Qur'an is truly the
Book of Allah. Plural: Ummiyeen. See Khatam Anbiyaa.
The Umayyad Caliphs (40-132 A.H./661-750 A.D.)
The Umayyad Caliphs (40-132 A.H./66 1-750 A.D.) : The
Muslim Umayyad Caliphs belong to the Banu Umayyah of the
Quraish. The first among them was Mu v awiah bin Abi Sufyan
and the last was Marwan II. Damascus was their capital. After
being overcome by the Abbasids, they moved to Andalusia and
ruled in Cordoba from 138-422 A.H./756-1031 A.D. Their first
ruler in Andalusia was v Abdul-Rahman Al-Dakhil. Their rule
was brought to an end at the hands of Muluk Al-Tawa'if (Kings
of Petty States).
Community or Nation. The body of the Muslims as one distinct
and integrated community. The Unimah of Muhammad, may
Allah bless him and grant him peace, refers to every Ins wal
Jinn (mankind and Jinn) born after the final message was
revealed through the Holy Prophet Muhammad who have
embraced Islam. The Ummah ofMuhammad, may the blessings
and peace of Allah be on him and all his community (those
who have lived in the past, those who are alive now and those
who will live in the future), can be subdivided into two groups:
1 . Ummat ad-Da'wa - the nation that was called upon
to believe in Allah Ta'ala and the Last Day.
2. Ummat al-Isteajaba - the nation that responded to
the call of Muhammad. Another name for this
Ummah is "Al- Ummah al-Islamiah" ("the Islamic
Nation"). Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala commanded
the Ummat al-Isteajaba to hold together and not to
disagree. Unfonunately , this decree has been
ignored, and in fulfilment of the Last Messenger's
prophecy, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, there are now 73 different groups of
Muslims, only one of whom possesses and
protects the original teachings of Islam as brought
and embodied by him.
Ummiyeen Unlettered persons
Unlettered persons. Singular: Umm-me.
Umra *j — ^
• A pilgrimage to Makkah, but not during the Hajj
period. It is also called "the Lesser Pilgrimage".
Umra consists of four steps:
1. Put on the Ihram at the appointed
Miqat station. Then proceed to
Makka reciting the Talbiyah (aloud
for men and quietly for women). See
Ihram, Miqat. Talbiyah.
2. Do Tawaf of the Ka'aba seven times.
During the Tawaf one may do any
Du'a (and in any language) to Allah
Ta'ala if one wishes. But remember to
point the palm of the right hand and
say "Allahu Akbar" at the start of
each circuit. Each circuit starts and
ends at the Hajar al-Aswad (the Black
Stone). See Tawaf, Du'a.
3. Go to Safa and start the Sa'i to
Marwa. The Sa'i consists of walking
between Safa and Marwa seven times
(each direction is considered as one
time). Men must jog between two
4. Shave or trim the hair after the
completion of the Sa'i. It is then
permissible to change out of Ihram.
• Synonym for Ruqba. See Ruqba.
Unfair Jh> - <=^>
1 . 'Ilmul Ghaib : Knowledge of the Unseen. No
human has 'Ilmul Ghaib. Only Allah Ta' ala has
total command of that knowledge.
2. Bil Ghaib : In the unseen. All Muslims believe in
the Unseen, i.e. all that is revealed to us by Allah
Ta'ala in the Holy Qur'an and by the Holy Prophet
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, about the Malaika (angels) and the life in
the Akhira (Hereafter) in all its aspects, even
though they are invisible to our eyes. See Holy
Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):3.
Usage i—ijc - Ajlaj - dAc - JlAxioi!
Uthman Ibn 'Affan, may Allah be pleased with him
One of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He was the third of
the four Rightly-Guided Khalifaas (Al-Khulafaa ar-
Rashideen). He ruled from 24AH to 36AH. He was martyred at
his home by the supporters of Abdallah ibn Sabaa, the
infamous Jew who pretended he had become a Muslim in order
to cause discord between Uthman and the Muslim Ummah by
creating a new and false sect within Islam. See Khalifaa.
- <p jjii - ajc
-AcLajoi - Sel^a.
^UaiVI £ jl>ll
verdict Hukm ^ L$j&
The closest equivalent in the English language is "verdict". It
usually applies to a judgement on legal issues, especially with
regard to religious matters.
Verse Ayah V
A verse of the Holy Qur'an. Literally means "a sign". Plural:
_ i air.
Visible isb* -
Vitiation t_£t>l - J^al
Vizier is the Anglicized form of the Arabic word wazir, a
minister, usually chief minister, to a Caliph or Muslim ruler or
sultan. On occasion a vizier was in effect the governor.
iS^ J - (J J^A^ - ls^j^
Other Commonly Used Spellings: WAKEEL A person who is
an authorized repesentative or proxy. Also can mean lawyer in
Walee A guardian cs— -Jlj
A guardian, aperson who has responsibility for another person;
used particularly for the person who 'gives' a woman in
marriage. Also someone who is a 'friend' of Allah, one of the
Sabiqoon and Muqarraboon. Singular of Awliyaa. See
Wasaya Wills and testaments
Wills and testaments. Bequests. Allah Ta'ala commands us to
make a bequest of our goods to our parents and next of kin. See
Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): 180. The exact manner of
distribution of one's goods is complicated and therefore should
be studied very carefully before writing out one's will.
Basically one can bequeath up to one-third of one's property to
whomever one wishes, but the remaining two-thirds must be
divided between one's surviving relatives in fixed shares, as
delineated by the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Singular: Wasaya.
Washm Tattoo mark fAj
Tattoo mark. It is forbidden for a Muslim to have a tattoo on
his or her body. Wasm = tattoo.
A ii ui a - a^\j)\
A Salat which has an odd number of Rak'at: two Rak'at,
followed by one Rak'a. This Salat is prayed last thing at night
before one goes to sleep, or else delayed and prayed at the end
of the Tahajjud Salat by those who rise in the night, seeking the
pleasure and the face of Allah Ta'ala.
Ibadah *d — ljc-
Acts of worship and adoration in utmost submission and
obedience and with utmost love to Allah Ta'ala. In other words,
a term that indicates all that pleases Allah, including sayings
and actions of the heart or limbs. Love, fear, reverence, desire
(hope), trust and sincerity are some forms of worship from
within the heart. Prayers, attending to someone's needs,
invocation, supplication and sacrifices are some forms of
worship of the limbs. Ibadah is to worship Allah as He wishes
to be worshipped. See Arkan .
Wudu 9-3 — t£j
Ritual washing with water alone to be pure for the prayer. The
way to do Wudu is:
1. Wash hands thrice*.
2. Wash mouth thrice*.
3. Wash nostrils thrice*.
4. Wash face thrice*.
5. Wash right forearm thrice*.
6. Wash left forearm thrice*.
7. Wipe scalp and nape of neck and then ears
once,(or twice or thrice).
8. Wash right foot thrice*.
9. Wash left foot thrice*.
*Once or twice is also allowed. See Holy Qur'an, An-Nisa
(4):43, Al-Ma'idah (5):7. You must already be in Ghusl for
Wudu to be effective. You should ensure that your private parts
and underclothes are clean before doing Wudu. Once you have
done Wudu you remain in Wudu until it is broken by:
1. Any of the conditions which make it necessary to
have a Ghusl. See Ghusl.
2. Emission of impurities from the private parts:
urine, faeces, wind, prostatic fluid, or other
3. Loss of consciousness by whatever means: usually
by sleep or fainting.
4. Physical contact between man and woman where
sexual pleasure is either intended or experienced.
5. Touching your penis with the inside of your hand
6. Leaving Islam.
It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu (or alternatively to
do Tayammum under certain circumstances) to do the Salat
(Prayer) and to hold a copy of the Qur'an. See Tayammum .
Wusta 0-a*it ) J^J^
Middle. Salatul Wusta refers to the middle prayer, which is the
Asr prayer (the third of the five compulsory daily prayers), for
those whose day begins at dawn. However, some say it refers
to the Fajr prayer. This is because the Muslims follow a lunar
calendar: the first day of a new lunar month is only determined
when the new moon is sighted shortly after sunset. Therefore
the Muslim day begins at Maghreb, and the first prayer of that
new day is Maghreb, which makes the third (middle) prayer
Yacoub, Peace be upon him ^L«ll A ^
Jacob. A prophet of Islam. He was also known as Israel. His
twelve sons each became head of their own tribe and these
were known as the twelve tribes of Israel. Jacob was the son of
Ishaaq, who was the son of Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on
them. See Mursaleen.
Yahoud The Jews J j — <*
The Jews. This term is correctly used to describe the three
tribes of Israel - the tribes of Judah, Levi and Benjamin - who
after the twelve tribes had escaped from Egypt with Moses,
peace be on him, and settled in the Holy Land, separated from
the other tribes of Israel (who were known as the Israelites) and
became known as the Judahites. The term 'Judahite' was
shortened to 'Judean', which was then eventually shortened to
'Jew'. The Judahite Jews re-wrote and altered the Torah several
times and formulated the Talmud (incorporating the Mishnah,
the Jerusalem Gemara, the Babylonian Gemara and the
Midrash), and their religion became known as Judaism.
'Yahoud' is the Arabic equivalent of 'Judahite'. It is clear,
therefore, that the term 'Yahoud' can only really be correctly
used to describe the Middle Eastern and Sephardhic Jews; and
can only be very loosely applied to the Ashkenazim Jews who
are descended from the turkic Russian tribe of the Khazars who
embraced Judaism in the seventh century, but who were not
originally descended from any of the twelve tribes of Israel. It
is for this reason that some commentators identify the
Ashkenazim Jews with 'Jewj wa Majewj', Gog and Magog,
(since they are 'Jews', but not Judahite Jews), about whom it is
prophesied in Ezekiel 38-39 that they will come from their
place in the far north (Russia), helped by many nations, and
attack the land of Israel, and that eventually there will be a
mightly battle in which they will all be destroyed.
Yahya, Peace be upon him f5L«II <^aj
John the Baptist. A prophet of Islam. Son of the Prophet
Zakaria and Al-Yasaabat (Elizabeth), and the maternal cousin
of Mariam (Mary), Mother of Isa (Jesus), peace be on all of
them. He was therefore a cousin of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), Son
of Mariam (Mary). He was sent by Allah Ta'ala to prepare the
way for the Prophet Isa. The Prophet Yahya was imprisoned,
then later beheaded by Herod in order to prove his infatuation
for a dancing girl (his niece). It is unfortunate that the Nasara
(Christians) choose to call him John, because the name Yahya
has a special place in history. He was the first man ever to be
called Yahya. See Holy Qur'an, Aali'Imran (3):39,A1-An'am
(6):85, Maryam (19): 12-15, Al-Anbiya (21):90-91.
A place in Shaam. Site of a famous battle.
Yaum al-jaza *L>?^
Literally means the Day of Payment. Another name for the Day
of Judgement, when mankind and Jinn will be paid what is due
to them, either by being sent to Jannah (Paradise) or to Nar
Yaum-al-qiama <UbiS! ^jj
Literally means the Day of Standing. This is the day when we
will be raised from our graves and will stand while waiting to
be judged by Allah Ta'ala. This day has many names,
1. Al-Qari'a (Day of Clamour).
2. At-Taama al-Kubra (The Complete Covering). For
a complete list of the names and description of the
Yaqeen Certainty Cxh
Certainty. Faith in general is based on the Yaqeen of the
believer. It has three stages:
1 . Ilm al- Yaqeen - knowledge of certainty.
2. Ayn al- Yaqeen - source of certainty.
3. Haqq al- Yaqeen - truth of certainty.
The Raja of Mahmudabad defined them thus in this metaphor:
1 . You are told there is a fire in the forest.
2. You reach the fire in the forest and see it for
3. You are the fire in the forest.
See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hijr (15):99
Orphans. Singular: Yateem. See Yateem.
Yateem Orphan ^
Orphan. It is a major sin to harm, abuse or cheat orphans in any
way whatsoever. Allah Ta'ala will give a great reward to
anyone who takes care of orphans. Plural: Yatama. See Holy
Qur'an, Al-Baqara(2) : 220, An-Nisa(4) : 2,6, 1 0, 1 27, Al-Isra
Yathrib : The old name of Medina
Yunus, , Peace be upon him o^jt
"Jonah" or "Jonas". A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the city
of Nineveh (on the left bank of the Tigris, opposite the city of
Mosul, in Iraq, to preach against their wickedness and call
them to the worship of Allah. The people of Nineveh at first
rejected him, but when he pronounced the curse of Allah upon
them, repented their sins. However, he still left the city in
anger, forgetting that Allah is full of mercy, as well as
forgiveness. As a punishment, Allah Ta'ala caused a whale to
swallow him up for a limited time. In the darkness of the
whale's stomach, in the darkness of the ocean, in the darkness
of the night, Yunus turned to his Lord and asked for His
forgiveness. The whale spewed him up on the beach and, after
recovering from his ordeal, Yunus returned to the city whose
inhabitants all became his followers. He then came to be
known as Dhu'l-Noon (man of the whale). See Holy Qur'an,
As-Saffa at(37): 139-149. Surah 10 of the Holy Qur'an. See
Yusuf, , Peace be upon him fihA\ uL-jj
"Joseph". A prophet of Islam. One of the sons of Yacoub
(Jacob), peace be on them. Surah 12 of the Holy Qur'an.
Zaboor jj — 40^
Holy Book revealed to the Prophet Dawood (David), peace be
Zaid tii ± J
Zaid ibn Haritha was one of the first people to accept Islam. He
was a freedman of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless
him and grant him peace, who treated him like his own son. In
the eighth year before Hijra, the Prophet Muhammad, may the
peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, gave to Zaid in
marriage his own cousin Zainab bint Jahsh. The marriage
ended in divorce. It was Allah Ta'ala's will that the Holy
Prophet himself should marry her. The Prophet Muhammad's
marriage to her, in 5AH, made it clear that an adopted son is
not to be legally regarded as a natural son as regards re-
marriage and inheritance. If Zaid had been the Prophet's natural
son, then the Prophet would not have been allowed to marry
Zainab, since a man is not permitted to marry the ex-wife of his
natural son. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ahzab (33):37-38.
Zainab (Bint Jahsh) ^ SrHU
Wife of Zaid ibn Haritha. She later married the Holy Prophet,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. For further
information See Zaid ibn Haritha. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ahzab
(33):28, 37-38, 50.
Zakariah, Peace be on him f^^l <^ l±A3
The Prophet Zacchariah. A prophet of Islam. He looked after
Maryam, the mother of Jesus, in the Temple of Solomon, when
she was a child. He was the father of the Prophet Yahya, peace
be on them all.
Zallah A major error J j
A major error, e.g. unintentional backbiting. Generally
speaking, a person seeks Allah's forgiveness immediately after
realizing that he or she has committed a Zallah.
An extremely bitter and thorny tree that grows at the bottom of
Hellfire. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Isra (17):60, As-Saffat (37):62-
66, Ad-Dukhan (44):43-46, Al-Waqi'ah (56):52.
Hypocrite or unbeliever. Anyone who does not believe in Allah
and who rejects His Messengers, may Allah bless them and
grant them peace
Zion uj^ 3
Zionism V> jj^JI
Giving false evidence. The act of committing perjury.
Zukhruff (Al) The Gold Ornaments
"The Gold Ornaments". Surah 43 of the Holy Qur'an.
Zummar (Al) The Troops
"The Troops". Surah 39 of the Holy Qur'an.