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In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful 

Alphabets 




Th e A Iph ab el A-j Jl^j V 1 



Alif, ' ? at the beginning of a word represents a short vow el sound (e7 3 i, 
or w) s a long i, or an sound. 

Alif madda, ^ is used when a sustained "a 1 sound occurs at the 
beginning of a word. 



The next character has two forms. The joined form, — i is used when 

the character is followed by another character. The full form. Sr 1 , is 
used when that character appears by itself or at the end of a word. 
Remember that Arabic is read from right to left. Arabic characters 
should be written form right to left as well. 

< i )2 { \ id diL i i ; 

Most Arabic characters both joined and full forms. Here are some 
more characters with both forms. 



Alif in the middle of a word represents a more sustained 'a' sound. 
Short vowels aren't represented by a letter when they appear inside a 
word. Alif is one of the few letters that joins with letters that precede 
it. It never joins with a letter that follows it. 



Some of the following characters have both full and joined forms. 

Others just have one form. The first letter, is pronounced as a j 
everywhere except in Eygpt where it is pronounced with a hard g. 



& 1 i* £ Si & 



and ^ have four forms. One form is used when the letter starts a 
word, one when joined with both the preceding and following 
character, another when at the end of a word and joined to the 
preceding character, and finally a form used when it isn't joined with 
another character. 











A * 1. i 




+ * * 
** 








. J" 


*• 

J* 


Am* 








* 


* 



s , like ^ and £\ has four forms . 

In middle of a word, wow can represent the long vowel u or the vowel 
combination on, ow, or w and at the end of a word, the long vow el u 
and sometimes on\ 

The joined form of ya,«j is another example of a tooth. Ya is 
pronounced as the consonant y at the beginning of a sentence, long L 
in the middle, and long i at the end. 



Nouns pha-tJ*$\ 



Arabic nouns are either masculine or feminine. Usually when 
referring to a male, a masculine noun is usually used and when 
referring to a female, a feminine noun is used. In most cases the 
feminine noun is formed by addins a special character, the ta 

marbuta 0 V to the end of the masculine noun. 





t emuwie 
Singular 


1 J .-~t fi f^-r lit 7-1 f~> 

l\luSCUllJi£ 

Singular 


teacher 






professor/teacher 






student 


AMU 

* 




friend 






colleague 






muslim 







thinker 






translator 






beginner 


%■ 




pxnpri 




4- 


envoy, reporter 






(someone sent on a 


mission) 






writer, author 







Sometimes the noun used to refer to a male and the noun used 
a female are completely different. 



woman Si j-at man cJ^J 



It's not just nouns referring to people that have gender. Inanimate 
objects (doors, houses, cars, etc.) is either masculine or feminine. 
Whether an inanimate noun is masculine or feminine is mostly 
arbitrary. A lot of inanimate nouns ends in ta marbuta. When this 
is the case you know it is feminine. 

table city 

Unfortunately, not all feminine nouns end in ta marbuta. 
Whenever you learn a new word, and that word is a noun, it's best 
if you learn it's gender too. Here are some masculine nouns.. 

book nose 

and here are some feminine nouns.. 



wind THJ desert fit j~\ 



mg. small 


1* ✓ 


uncle (mother's brother) 


J* 


mg. beautiful 




fg. small 




aunt (mother's sister) 




/g\ beautiful 




mg. big 




mg. truthful 




son 




fg- big 




brother 




daughter 




mg. intelligent 




mg. worshipper 




father 




uncle (father's brother) ^fi> 


fg. worshipper 




mother 




aunt (father's sister) 


IS 






sister 





1* Ox 



The son is beautiful J^y' 
The daughter is beautiM.^-L^r cJJl 
The father is pious. 
The mother is pious. ^JCp ^\}\ 
The uncle is big. ji-*^ 

1* x * Ox 

The aunt is big. *Jr$' 



$ XO. 



The brother is intelligent. ^J>$ ^iJl 
The sister is intelligent. C^-Ol 
The uncle is truthful. <JiC<? JUxJl 

x 

x J X 0^ 

The aunt is truthful. 42iCtf> 4J£Jl 

Ox 

& t x J" 0 » 

The son is small. 
The daughter is small. 



0 



Pronouns 



Pronouns jjLajJail 



you (singular 
m.) 



you (singular 

f) 



she 



he 



There is an Arabic 'to be' verb however it is rarely used. If you 
wanted to say 1, He is a teacher 1 ' for example, you simply would 
state the subject pronoun and the noun- literally 1, He teacher". 



He a teacher. m jIILujI 
Muslim (feminine)., A^<A±jia Ul 

' ^ is the masculine form of this/that' and 6 ^ is the feminine 
form 



4* __r l ^ 

r/iu (masculine) is a friend. . (jjji-a 1 
TAw (feminine) is a (female) colleague. t <l^aj a i& 
JAii (feminine) is a table. jUa a i& 



Relative Pronoun 


Demonstrative Pronoun 


Num- 
ber 


Gen- 
der 


(The one) 
who 




That 


dAJa 


This 




sr. 




(The two) 
who 




Those 
(two) 


dUi 


These 
(two) 




dl 




(Those) 
who 




Those 
(more 
than two) 


dUljl 


These 
(more 
than two) 




pi 




(The one) t 
who 


That 


dU? 


This 




sr. 




(The two) 
who 




Those 
(two) 


dLtf 


These 
(two) 




dl. 




(Those) 
who 




Those 
(more 
than two) 


dUJjf 


These 
(more 
than two) 




pL 





Examples 
on pronouns 


Possessive 
Pronouns 


Personal 
Pronouns 


No. 


Gen- 
der 


Per- 
son 


his t j / 
book ^ 


his t 


he y& 


sr. 


mg. 


3rd 
person 


their \' 
house 


their . - ^ 

(of 

twol 

I- V V V. ' J 


! hey a 

two 


dl. 


their ■ * * , 

belief r*^' 


1 * 0 J 
their 


they ^j* 


pi 


her ^ 
mother 


her 


she ^& 


sr. 


fg. 


their , - •* 
house 


their ^ 
(of 

two\ 

i vv \j ) 


; hey a 

two 


dl 


their * ' ^ 
house <j p r^ 


their jjb 


they ^ 


pi 


your Mi'lsT 

book ^ - 


your *J 


you oJl 


sr. 


mg. 


2"" 
person 


house 


y 7 or 

(of 

two] 

l VV / 


you UjjI 
two 


dl. 


your p * 
me- r^J^J 
sscneer 


J 

you ^ 


you all 


pi. 


your ^£ 
house 


your *) 


you cJ\ 


sr. 


fg- 


book 1 - 


(of 

two ^ 

L VV ^ 


you UjoI 
two 


dl. 


your £ 
house u t> - 


your 


you all 


pi. 


book - 
gave me - . ' 


my l£ 

** 

J 


1 uf 


sr. 


mg. 
fg- 


1st 
person 


book 


our lj 


we j>6 


dl, 
pi. 


mg., 
fg- 



Ht 1 1^1 ;i Muslim 




V on nrp n ^rhol^ir 




1 1111 '1 Kpl 1 pvpt" 
1 til 11 Cl UC1 1C v Cl . 




^lia i'c ri oHtPAl 1 Q 
o 11C 1 o 1 l£;ll ICvJLLck 




your tongue 




for him 


'J 


mv cnn 

Illy o^lll 


** ^ ^ 


tAWflfH^l lYiP- 
LtJ W cl 1 Llo 11 It 




I helped him 
from you 




towards them 
(females) 
for us 




towards us 


** 


verily you (males) 


a 


towards them 
(males) 
irom you 


r-' 


your hearing 
verily we 




ai ir 1 attI 

UUl LU1U 




111V ll Al KP 
1 1 1 \ HLHlot 




\;ai 1 r T ArH 
\ UU1 1 U 




Fat* t Hp in 

HJ1 L11C111 




our messenger 


i _ - 


my relatives 


1 1 1 



The Definite Article 



The Definite Article L-Ljajjl Sl^l 



In English we have definite nouns which are usually preceded by 
"the" (i.e. the student, the tables) as well as indefinite nouns (i.e. a 
student tables). Arabic also has definite and indefinite nouns. The 
arabic definite article joins with the word that it precedes. 

the Jl 
the book ^_il!&Jl 

Nouns preceded by the definite article are definite as well as the 
names of cities, countries, regions, and people. Nouns without an 
article are usually indefinite. 

a book » 



How to pronounce the definite article depends on the letter that 
comes after it. In the case of the word below, it is pronounced as 
it is mitten- "al". 



the moon 5 M 



moon ja-S 



The letters that follow this pattern are know as moon letters( 



When - 11 is attached to words that besin with certain letters, the / 
isn't pronounced at all. Instead the first letter of the word is either 
pronounced twice or stressed. This is the case in the example 
below. 



Notice the symbol that resembles a slanted \v that is appears 
immediately after the first letter. This is a called a shadda. 
Whenever two identical consonants appear right next to each 
other, only one consonant is mitten, and the shadda is written 
after it. indicating that it is doubled. Remember that short vowels 
that come within a sentence are never written. 

The letters that follow this pattern are know as sun letters ( 





sun -jujclui 




the sun 

c. r e t im^ -J i L" r e 




■SUM 


l^J — 


w 


the man 




man 






the fire 




fire 




J 


the magic 




magic 


IjU" 


w 


the weather 




weather 




J 




J ill 


night 




u 


the dene (fruit) 




date (fruit) 


WO— 1 

J 


















hen 




- 






sold 






f/ie giraffe 




giraffe 




J 


the picture 




picture 




id 


If IE J f 




1 ^5 




w 



the picture 


S 1 n y 


picture 




0*° 


the fi A 0¥ 




■J { W S 




w 


the mud 


/Jail 


mud 






f/ie back 




hack 


J^ 3 





Of the 28 consonants in the Arabic alphabet, one half are sun- 
letters and one half are moon-letters. The remaining consonants 
are all moon letters. 

On the previous page we saw ' ^ and 6 ^ being used as a 

pronoun. Whenever a definite article appears between it and a 
noun, lift and »i* act as adjectives as opposed to pronouns. 

This friend. j (j^ALa \\ I JiA 
This (female) colleague. ^AIlgjJI d^A 

If that is the case, is there anyway to say something like "this is 

the friend"? Yes there is. You have to place known as a 
pronoun of separation, between the subject and noun? 

This - is the girl. ^SUiil L Jb e Afc 



Adjectives i— \\ 

Adjectives have both masculine and feminine forms. The singular 
feminine adjective is just like the masculine adjective but with the 
ta marbuta to the end. 



rich 


** 




poor 






good 






bad 







age jjjj*/ j*z> 
young AjLjj l_jLjj 
old * jjax- 

*f/-i/.s same adjective is used both both for men and women. 
Arabic adjectives always follow the noun they modify. 



a rich man j^jt LJ^ j 
a good student bJu^. AaiUa 



^■V^ is the Arabic word equivalent to 'very' and comes after 
adjectives. 



(a) very rich man \ ^^.J 

When an adjective modifies a definite noun, the definite article 
placed in front of the adjective. 

the girl the pretty 4 \\ Stji]| 
nationalities <JU mnt 



America A£j pal American Aj£j >al Js-Sj >al 
Syria Ajjjjuj Syrian Ajjjjuj ^jjjjj 
Britain <jjliaj u British ^Lullaj >j J_jQaj >j 



ta/r/j 4*\ / 4ji!iLjj healthy AjiAui ^Aui 

sickness ^ajpo jjcfc 4uJaj^pa 

happiness SjLxjuj happy? Sijxjuj l n 

sadness UJ^ U^J^ 

hunger ^Jfr hungry- AjLc / AjljI^ / 
fA/re/ ^jTiha thirsty? + ~ ~ 



beauty lS^ 4 ^ beautiful A Li<aa lS^ 4 ^- 

ugly A^jJ ^ 

attractive Ajjli / AjI"^ (jSLa / 

thin AL jA / Asj^j Jj jA / ' * a j^* 

skinny AipJ / AL jA JjpJ / Jj JA 



Look at the following phrases and their translations: 



a true Muslim 
a small book 
a big mosque 



a pious person £JUp Jj>-j 

a trustworthy uncle 



a beautiful house 



These phrases are said to be composed of 2 0*0 (adjective) and <^yey> (the noun of tli 

adjective). To translate these into Arabic, just reverse the order of the words (Muslim am 

then true 3^ — and put tanveen ( ) on each of them. The tanvcen could be or or 
depending upon the context in which this phrase is used. 

The rules are similar to those of ~ '^y 5 (subject and predicate) except that in case of 
7: 77? e onfer o/7fe won/v is reversed; and 

2: If the first word is attached with J 1 , (hen the second will also have J 1 attached to it. 
For e.g., using the same phrases given above, we will have: 



the true Muslim 
the small book 
the big mosque 



the pious person 
the trustworthy uncle 
the beautiful house 



J a a,- 



9 ^rf* v > 

And remember, as in case of J*" 5 - _ \Jm (subject and predicate), if the first word is feminine, 

the second should also be feminine. Further, if the first word is dual or plural, the second should 
also be dual or plural in number, i.e, the two words should agree in sender and number with 
respect to each other. For example: 



the true Muslim 
man 
the true 
Muslim men 



** $ S 5 " a a 



the true Muslim 

woman 

the true 

Muslim 

women 



The house is big. 

The slave is 
pious. 

The Muslim is 
truthful. 
The path is 
straight. 
The uncle is 
pious. 

The aunt is pious 



the big house 
the pious slave 

the truthful 
Muslim 

the straight path 
the pious uncle 
the pious aunt 



J S - 

-* 



yon j^ii 




In Arabic, there are two types of noun and adjective plural forms: 
sound (regular) plurals, and broken (irregular) plurals. Masculine 
sound plural nouns end in jj and feminine sound plural nouns 
end in 



teachers 
beginners 
muslims 
thinkers 
translators 



Usually feminine inanimate nouns that end in ia marbuia take the 
feminine sound plural. 



words 



, 1 A< word 2 A< 



tables CjV.J^ ta ^ e AJjUa 

There are some important exceptions to this rule though. 

cities city j* u \ ^ 

There are also some masculine nouns, usually borrowed words, 
that rake the feminine sound plural. 

televisions cIAjjjj££j television Jjj^ joft 

telephones ^ 1 ^jofr telephone ^jjiij 
The masculine sound plural is never used with inanimate nouns 



Adjectives 

Adjectives that modify masculine nouns end in jj, and adjectivi 
that modify feminine nouns end in 



hpHlitiflil 

IS C- L-f , L-t t Lf Lt- I- 






T-1 .r -1 ! 1H 


1 1 j 1*1*1 


** * 


tired 


l **: 

*■ 




bad 


t iLuluj 




sad 







Irregular Plurals 

Lots of irregular adjectives. 

big CA jU£ 



4 




Irregular Plurals 

Arabic has lots of irregular plurals- known as broken plurals. The 
plural form is expressed by changing the stem of the singular 
form. 

men (J^J man O^J 

women bJ^J woman £l 

For people nouns that have both masculine and feminine forms, 
often the feminine plural is regular and the masculine plural 
irregular. 

students (f.) diUOa &tude f\ 

f / . > professors/ 
piojessois, ^^2^1 teachers ftJuLual 
teachers if.) , , 

experts if.) dil^n^ experts (m.) f-l^j^ 

friends (f.) dsLsji-a friends (m.) pLaiual 
colleagues «* ^ * colleagues \\ * 



Following are the plural subject pronouns. 

we LP^ 

you (plural m j stun 

you (plural f.) jjijl 
they (plural m.) 

rftg; (plural f) -jA 

TTjey tfpe teachers (f.). CjLaLug ^jA 

77rey are teachers (m.). u ^ybu* 

is also used for dual 'we 1 , is the both the masculine 

and the feminine form of these. 

These are friends(feminine). qj,^^-> $-Vj^ 

These are friends(masculine). f-Vj& 



t A 1 J? I 

Aaraab forms ^ 


Plural 


r\ 1 

Dual 


O * i 

Singular 


Gender 




with Dhamma ( - ); 


. 3 i 3 £ 
^f^^ 




V* 1 3 1 


mg. 




when used as subject 


<* 






./<t>* 


3 £ J *> 


withFatha ( - ); 




3, .3 J« 

,-' 


5? 1 3 J! 


mg. 




when used as object 








fg- 


9 AO , 


with Kasra ( - ); 




3 ^ i 3 | 




mg. 




when the noun is 
used with preposition 




o s i 




fg- 



hypocrite 




believer 


* 0 J 


disbeliever 




patient 




helper 




worshipper 




scholar 




one who struggles 




one who 
remembers 




pious 




killer 




truthful 




protector 




one who prostrates 




prophet 







Preposition 




The Preposition >r 






Prepositions 


Examples of Prepositions / usage 




i 

in J 


in a house 






from 


We read from the Qur'aru 


** 




on J* 


on a mountain 


>^ 




like ^3 


like a man 






about 


I heard J^l*JJl ^3 3 j£ Caw 






about Prayer in the Masjid 






with L-J 


I enetered with security 






J V'J ^ 


for people 






towards ^ ' 


towards a citv 






until 


until the dav-break 






by (of oath) j 


By Allah 







Questions 



Yes/no questions are formed by placing <J^ at the beginning of a 
statement. 



Are you a student? 

Yes 
No 



Are you (feminine) a writer/author 

(feminine)? 



Is he a teacher? ?iULjjl (Ja 

i J* 









3 ^ 


When 




Who 




Where 




What 




Why 


fiU 

** 


Which (masculine) 




How much, How many 




Which (feminine) 


V 


Is? Am? Are'? Do? 


fc Ji 


How 




Have? 









Possession 



In Arabic, possession is indicated by appending a suffix to a noun. 
This suffix reflects the gender and plurality of the possessor or 
possessors. 



our 


u 


my 





my book 


. ,17s 


a book 


* 


my books 




books 




my money 




money'* 




our school 




a school 




our schools 




schools 





money is always plural 



Your (masculine) and your (feminine) are spelled the same but 
pronounced differently. 



Yo u r (plu ral m as cu I in e) ^ 


Your (masculine) 


2) 


Your (plural feminine) jjS 


Your (feminine) 


4 



Your (masculine) desk iAv^a desk * # u£ a 

7cw (masculine) desks desks dj'^c 

7o z/r (jfe/w in in e> jTm ver ^Sj J j j CLi J j j 

Your (feminine) flowers ^Ljjj flowers ^iljjjj 

7cw (masculine plural) paper j j paper < — iS j j 

7tw (masculine plural) papers ^S\jJ\ papers -jl jjl 

Towr (feminine plural) child /j^iiia cMd ijiia 

(feminine plural) children /jSJliial children (Jlllal 

The possessive pronoun (its) does not exist in Arabic, it is 
referred ro as (his) or (her) depending whether the noun is 
masculine or feminine. The their forms are never used with 
inanimates. 



Their 
(masculine & 
feminine) 




Their 
(masculine) 


1 




6 t4_ 




Their 
(feminine) 






<^ 



His office A-l&a office <■ t a 

His offices offices i , ^ a 

Her skirt I^jjjju skirt CIjjjjj 

Her skirts Ufc ujUu sfoVfo ujUu 

Their (masculine) ship ship Cujfitn 

Their (masculine) ships M *^«" s/h)?s ^j^ 1 

TTtezV (feminine) gift £j&"}^ gift ^iQft 

Their (feminine) gifts /jALjl^A gz/fa Lil^A 
Thehimasculine & feminine) ] K , , 

Their (masculine & feminine) \ \ L i -."I 

Sometimes the suffix changes when the possessor is a dual noun. 
These dual forms though are mostly avoided in Arabic. Whenever 
a possessive suffix is added the noun becomes definite. 



The Possessive Case or Genitive j 



Look at the following phrases and their translations: 



the creation of Allah 

the nation of Hud 

the command of the 
Qur'an 



the house of Allah 



the call of the prophet 



the creation of Allah * 



Notes: 

L To convey the meanings of "of," we place Dhammah or pesh ( - ) on the first word and 
double kasra ( - ) on the second word. 

2. As usual, if the second word has j' attached with it, then instead of double kasra 

( - ), we will have single kasra ( - ) on the second word. 

3, The first noun J— ^ in the sentence jJ£" is called ^Lb». The second noun ^ 
called *Jt ^3L^* ( which should always be a proper noun. 



is 



4. In Arabic the construction of and Vi automatically takes care of the " "s " 
or "of (Allah's creation OR the creation of Allah) as shown in the above examples. 

5. The construction of — and VI wiUa^ automatically implies specific person or 

thing. Therefore, 'the' is always added in English translation of this phrase. 



grance 




day 




words 


rebellion 




judgement 




way, system 


the people 




to establish 


Ml 


messenger Jj***j 


house 




the prayer 




doubt 


hereafter 




to obey 


^- 


human being JU*Jl 


food 




parents 


city j 


B 

remembrance ^ 


sinner 


(Hi 1 


earth 


c^J 1 


the most j-^j 
beneficent 



the establishment of 
prayer 

the obedience to 
parents 

the earth of Allah 



the rebellion of the 
people 

the house of the 

hereafter 

the food of the 

sinner 

the house of Hamicl 



J 3^ 



the words of Allah 

the book of Allah 

the way of the 

messenger 

the doubt of the 

human being 

the remembrance of 

the most Beneficent. 

the grace of Allah 

the day of judgement 



4»i fUS* 

3 

HO 

4 * 3 . 



Subject , Verb J*b , and Object Jj*& 

In general, in an Arabic sentence, the verb comes first, followed by the subject and the object. A 
Double Dhammah or tanveen ( - ) is placed on the subject and double fathah ( - ) is placed on 
the object. Look at the following examples; 



Hameed read the Qur'an. 
Iqbal wrote a book. 



b'lsf jdl LiT 



In the first sentence, read is the verb, Hameed is the subject, and the Qur'an is the object. In the 
second one, wrote is the verb, Iqbal is the subject, and a book is the object. 



read 




made 




created 




wrote 


* 


separated 




collected 




cheated 




water 




wealth, means 





Allah made Muhammad 
(pbuh) a messenger, 
Allah created the people. 

Allah revealed the book. 

The Satan cheacter the 
man. 

We parted the sea. 



Note: When a word is attached with J 1 then one of two fathah ( - ) , kasrah ( - ) or dhammah ( 
) in a tanveen ( - - or - ) are dropped For example, as shown in the above sentences, 
J jLJ? has double dhammah, whereas JLk^Lii has one dhammah since J I is attached with JImI^ 
. Similarly, tlj^-j has double fathah, whereas j**Ji has only one fathah. 



Past Tense 
Th e Pa st Tense & J*$ 

iff U 



Past Tense 




Possessive 
rrunouiis 


Personal 
r ronuuns 


iVo. 


Gen- 
der 


Per- 
son 


lit U1U 




t 

o 




sr. 






they two 
did 










mg. 




they all 
did 




i f 




/>/. 




3rd 


she did 




La 




sr. 




person 


they two 
did 










fg- 




they all ^ 
did cr« 






pi. 






you did 




✓ 




sr. 






you two 
did 




Co" 




dl. 


mg. 




you all 
did 






pi 

1 


pi. 






you did 








sr. 




person 


you two 
did 




> 




dl. 


fg- 




you all 
did 








pi. 






I did 




+* 




sr. 


mg. 
fg- 


1st 


We did 




u 


j> 5 ^ 


pi. 


mo 

fg- 


person 



Gender: mg.: Masculine gender; 
Number: sr,\ Singular; di.,\ Dual; 



fg. : Feminine gender 
pi: Plural (n) 



he did 




he went 


he wrote 


Us 


he killed 


he read 


\J 

■J 


he made 


lie IlcipcU 




lit OpCllcU 


he hit, 




he entered 


gave example 




he drank 


he demanded 


Lit 







he found 


air j 




he refused 






he joined 




-ft 


he created 




J** 


he sent 






he provided rizq 





mg. di they opened 
nig. pi you did 
nig. pi they did 
mg./fg. di you two did 
nig. di they two did 
nig. vou did 
fg. she did 
fg. pi they did 
nig. pi you went 



0*3 

3 $0 * * 



*3 X 



mg./fg. di you two helped Ui^ 



mg, />/, they wrote 



3 S 



mg. you helped i 

mg./fg. di you two opened 



/// 



g, p/. you demanded 



mg. di they two w rote 

mg. pi they demanded 

mg. you went 

mg./fg. di they two 

demanded 
mg. pi you wrote 



OS" 

j * 



3 ^3 



mg. you demanded 

/g <f/. they two helped u^^j 

mg./fg. di von two went U^yfci 



/;/g p/. you helped 
/g you wrote 
mg. he w rote 
/;/g pi you opened 



3 ^3 



3 ^3 



fg. dl. they two hit 
mg. pi. they went 



mg, you opened C^x^3 
mg./fg. di you two w ; rote 



mg. pi they opened 
mg. you demanded 
mg. di they two w ent 



mg, pi they hit 



Active and Passive Voices J jj^ j 

You already know that J*3 means (he) did. To make passive voice of this, you have to write it 
as J*3 which means (it) is done. Further examples are given below. 



I 4- _-J 

mg. pi you created 




a 1^ 1 J 

mg. pi. you were created 


1 j Mi i 

mg. he killed 


1 "a 


mg. he was killed 


Mg. pi they demanded 




i 'it 

mg. pi. they were demanded 'j-rfk 


mg. he sent 




i ^ 1 
/;/g + he was sent 


I sent 




I was sent 


we provided 


0 .-- .-- 

L ^ 


a J> 

we were provided uSJj 


mg. pi they provided 




they were provided IjSjj 



Present Tense and Future Tense 
The Present (and Future) Tense P )L&* £ 



Present Tense 




Possessive 
Pronouns 


Personal 
Pronouns 




Gen- 
der 


Pet- 
sot i 


he does 


J** 


t 

0 


- ji 


sr. 






they do* 

V 








<//. 


mg. 




they do 


_y ** 


\ 


\ 


/,/. 




3rd 


she does. 




u 




sr. 




person 


they do* 








dl. 


fg. 




thev do* - 




J* 


pi. 






you do 




ii 




sr. 






you do 








dl 


mg. 




you do 


J? s 






pi. 




2 nd 


you do 




ii 




sr. 




person 


you do 








dl 


fg- 




you do 








pi 






I do 








sr. 


mg. 
fg. 


1st 


We do 








dL, 

eL 


mg., 
fg- 


person 



IMPORTANT NOTE : ^j^ 2 -* actually is the Imperfect Tense and refers to an action which 
is incomplete at the time to which reference is being made* It refers to the present tense in 
general* It becomes Future tense by addition of the prefix j* or the particle ^>j^ before the 

v^jUa-A forms* 



ftlg. til. tnev IW 0 Gl 111 K 




/A- you niaKe 




mg. he collects 


,« 3 


you two drink 




I know 




fg. dl. they two drink 




I open 


* 

_ .-a 


nig. at. you tw o maKe 




fg. sr. you collect 


J! ^ 3 ^ 


/g, dl. they two make 


•til' ' « 


nig. pi. they thank 




p/ + we worship 


$■ ^3 ,- 
* 


mg. pi. they disbelieve 




mg. pi. they recite 




I worship 


JLPl 


mg. pi. you recite 




mg. you know 




mg. they don't know 


■V 


w r e don't hear 


1 ' 3 fit 


I don't disbelieve 







And they will not grieve. 


%S 3 ^ 3 $ t 

1 




They hear the words of Allah, 






I do not worhsip what you worship. 






We do not worship except Allah. 






They believe in Allah and His 
messenger. 


I ^ ^ j « ^3 £ ,S 


Active and Passive Voices Jji^ j ^jj** 


As you have seen earlier, is made passive by writing J*3 for verbs in past tense. However, 


in case of present tense, is made passive by writing it as J*At , i.e., first letter will have 


dhammah / pesh ( - ) and the third letter will have fathah ( - ). The remaining letters will have 




he drinks ^j^H he is made , given to drink^j-S^ 




they (all mg) help Ojj^j they (all, mg) are helped Ojj^j 




you (mg) ask Ju*J you (mg) are asked Ju*J 



thev understand 




they cut 


j 


they (women) are 
asked 




they will not 
asked 




thev do not fear 




they 




(it) is opened. 




they are killed 




thev do not cut 




you understand 


\ « 


you are provided. 


(J 43 \ J 


you are helped 




you are provided. 




you are helped 


W J7^ 



mg. pi you created 

mg. he killed 

Mg. /?/. they demanded 

mg. he sent 

I sent 

we provided 

mg. pi. they provided 



mg. p/. you were created 
mg. he was killed 
mg.pl. they were demanded * j-it 
/wg. he was sent 
I was sent 
we were provided 



B ^ 



L3 



/wg. p/. they were provided I jS )j 



Imperative and negative Imperative 
Imperative and Negative Imperative ^ j ^ 



You can order only to the person in front of you (2 person). Therefore, the imperative and 
negative forms for only the 2" person are provided below. 



Negative 
Imperative 




Imperative 


> 


Poss, 
Prns. 


Pers. 
Prns, 


A-<>. 


Gen- 
der 


Per- 
son 


Don't 
do (it). 




Do (it). 








sr. 






Don't do 

(it). 




(you two) 
Do (it). 








dl 


mg. 




Don't 
do (it). 


.j 


(you all) 
Do (it). 




r 5 




pi. 




2 nd 


Don't do 
(it). 




Do (it). 




♦J 




sr. 




person 


Don't do 
(it). 




(you two) 
Do (it). 








dl 


fg- 




Don't do 
(it). 




(you all) 
Do (it). 


•ill 


0 s 


Cr^ 1 


pi 







Table of Verbs 
Conjugation table for the verb J*$ 











Poss, 
Prns. 


Pers, 
Prns. 




Gen- 
der 


Per- 
son 






J** 




< 




sr. 




















mg. 













r 


r 


pL 




3rd 








www 


La 

WW 




sr. 




person 






a 








dl 


J is' 








a a 


a s 


J* 




pi 










t a 




ii 




sr. 










--- a 


i *- *i *■* * 






dl 


mg. 














i 


pi. 




Z 






a 




ii 


oil 


sr. 




person 














dl 


fg- 








a a 

w 


-i / * 






pi 










> a s 

J» 


a 






sr. 


mg. 
fg- 


1st 






/ a 


a 




J 5 * 


dl 
pi. 


mg. 
fg- 


person 



Conjugation table for the verb 











Poss, 
Pms. 


Pers, 
Prns. 




Gen- 
der 


Per- 
son 








jit 


c 

0 


J* 


sr. 












wr 






rf/. 


mg. 
















p/. 




3rd 










U 




sr. 




person 
















fg- 
















p/. 








> 

w 


> > 


_> 


ii 


ci 


sr. 














J 

lit 




tf/. 


mg. 




ji 


J -J 














2*id 














ST. 




person 




u S 










dl 


fg- 
















pi 


















sr. 




1st 














dl. 
pL 




person 



Conjugation table for the verb Jli 











Poss. 
Prns. 


Pers. 
Prns. 


No. 


Gen- 
der 


Per- 
son 










< 




sr. 


















dl 


mg. 
















pi 




3rd 








cits 






sr. 




person 














dl 


fg- 












0* 


s .a 


pi 






o J * 


J* 






ii 




sr. 


















dl 


mg. 




^ ^ ^ 


\ J *s 

-J -J 






■ 




pi. 




2 nd 




J J 








<*• 


sr. 




person 










■ 

> 




dl. 


fg- 












a. 




pi 


















sr. 


mg. 

fa 


1st 














dl 
pi 


mg. 
fg- 


person 



Derived Forms of the Verb , j** 



Verbal 
Noun 


Passive 
participle 


Active 
participle 

JpUJI p 


Present (& 
future) Tense 


Past 
Tense 


S. 
No. 




* a j 




W 




.1 






£ ' .ft 






.2 






d* 


_ft 




.3 


JU3I 






^ _ft 




.4 












.5 




y ft 








.6 










.-" 


.7 




0 

j - ^ * ' 

ij- 


ft 




-- 0 


.8 






D 

IK J 






.9 












. 1 0 



Conjugation table for the verb J*3^ 







Poss. Prns. 


Pers. Prns. 




Gen- 

it it I* 


Per- 

V /) ft 


* = 


jif 


t 
0 




sr. 








^( 


UJfe 




dl 


mg. 








*-» 

\ 


\ 


pi. 












w 


sr. 




person 


.- 0 










fg- 




o s 


3 3 y 


J* 


C5 Ji 

J* 


p/. 










i) 




sr. 










> 




dl. 


mg. 




V y 




0 ^ 




pi. 




2*1(1 




0 0 y 






sr. 




person 










dl. 


fg- 








'Jr 


fiS As' 


pi 






J** 


a ft ^ 


** 




sr. 


mg. 
fg- 


1st 


Jl 0 

J** 


o ft * 


\S 




dl 
nl. 


mg. 

fg- 


person