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To do, 

act (of doing) 


>| 


0 




He did. 


(108) 






Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^i Ji» 


Past Tense 




Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He does. 
He will do. 


* 0 

{J- 


He did. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




- 


You two do/ will do. OUii* 


They two did. Ii3 










They do. 
They will do. 


S * 0 


They all did. 








near future: 

j^Cai + I,, 




1] - 


You do. 
You will do. 


* 0 


You did. 




? f 


+ Ji 






or- 


You two do /will do. OUiis 


You two did. 






distant future: 




^- 


You all do. 
You all will do. 


s J> 0 


You all did. 






Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) tS - 
(witti verb) ^J - 


Ido. 
1 will do. 


* OS 


Idid. 




of 






tf- 


We do. 
We will do. 


* 0 


We did. 























Don'tdo! ^jj^flf *^ 


DO! Jj£t 


Singular 


Don't (you two) do! Uiii ^ 


Do (you two)! vLil 


Dual 


Don't (you all) do! 


Do (you all)! ^^1*3^ 


Plural 



Passive participle <Sy±* 


Active participle Jpli ^ 


The one who is affected. ^Ju* 


Doer. 


Singular 


The two who are affected. jll y&j> lOlijiii 






Dual 


All those who are affected. CJ^J*** 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



It is being done. 



Passive Voice 



1 



Feminine fc t 
Gender 



She did. 



(108) 





Attached 


Imperfec 


Tense £_ jC^i Jii 


Past Ten 


e ^i^Jii 


Detached 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 


U- 


She does. 
She will do. 


J> 0 


She did. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 




a- 


You two do/ wi 


do. OUiiJ 










>- 


They do. 
They will do. 


0 0 

'KOI 


They all did. 


0 S 


> 




near future: 




ii- 


You do. 


0 


You did. 






near past:: 

+ °M 








You will do. 
















ur- 


You two do /will do. <^U*» 


You two did. 


Oil 




distant future: 






You all do. 
You all will do. 


0 0 


You all did. 






Past 




(with noun) t£— 
(with verb) ^i - 


Ido. 
1 will do. 


* *< 


Idid. 




uf 






IJ- 


We do. 
We will do. 


> 0 


We did. 










-r*' 

















Negative ^ 


Imperative ^-i 










Don't do! 




Do! . x ; 


Singular 










Dual 








Don't (you all) do! 


0 0 X 


0 0 

Do (you all)! 


Plural 










Passive participle J j«A« p—l 


Active parti 


iple JMi r 






The one who is affected. 




Doer. <Upl3 


Singular 


The two who are affected. jlsi j*ej> i 








Dual 


All those who are affected. 


Oil j£i* 


Doers. w ' w 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



(it) is being done. 



Passive Voice 



2 



to open; to 
give victory 



He opened. (29) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense £jC^i Ji» 


Past Tense 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He opens. , o 
He will open. -* ♦ 

c - 


He opened. ^ ^» 

c 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 


You two open/ will 

open. - 


They two opened. 










*-* 


They open. ' . 0 
They will open. J 


They all opened. j *-^>-J) 


*-* 

r 


near future: 

j^Cai + Is 

distant future: 




2 - 


You open. . ° 
You will open. 


You opened. 




near past:: 

+ Ji 


ur- 


You two open/ will 

open. u 


You two opened. 






^- 


You all open. ' . 0 
You all will open. ^ 


You all opened. ^ X^uZ^ 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) t£ 
(with verb) 


0 < 

lopen. > ^.f 
1 will open. 


.opened. ^Jyg 






U- 


0 

We open. f ^ 
We will open. 


We opened. Ll~\JL^ 













Negative ^ 


Imperative yl 


Don't open! 


2^ Si 


Open! 


0 


Singular 


Don't (you two) open! bd&H 


Open (you two)! 


Dual 


Don't (you all) open! 




Open (you all)! 




Plural 





Passive participle <Sy±* 


Active participle Jpli ^ 


that which is opened 




Opener 




Singular 








Dual 


those which are opened 




Openers. 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



it, he) is being opened 



Passive Voice 





to make; to 
place; to setup 


iUi (Verbal noun) 




He made. 


J*^ (346) 






Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^i Jii 


Past Tense ^U ji» 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He makes. 
He will make. 


* 


He made. 


J* 


"V* 


Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




U» - 


You two do/ will £>Qis>u 


They two made. 


Ui 








They make. 
They will make. 




They all made. 








near future: 

j^Cai + I,, 




2} - 


You make. 
You will make. 




You made. 






+ Ji 






us*- 


You two do /will ^dikj- 
make. 


You two made. i^i&J. 






distant future: 




^- 


You all make. 
You all will make. 




You all made. 






continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


1 make. 
1 will make. 




1 made. 












We make. 
We will make. 




We made. 




























Negative J- 




Imperative ^-1 







Don't (you all) make! 



ijLjsj Si 



Singular 





Passive participle Jij*^- ^-1 


Active participle Jpli p—l 


That which is made 




Maker. 




Singular 






Dual 


Those which are made 




Makers. 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



(it, he) is being r 



Passive Voice 



:o help; to 
deliver 



• (Verbal noun) 



He helped, yfij (92) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii 


Past Tense ^lijii 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He helps. 
He will help. 


J> J> os 


He helped. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two do/ will 
help. 




They two helped. 










r»-* 


They help. 
They will help. 


> > OS 


They all helped. 




*-* 

r 




near future: 

+ If 




- 


You help. 




You helped. 


c 




near past: 

+ ^ 








You will help. 












ur- 


You two do / will 
help. 




You two helped. 








distant future: 




^- 


You all help. 
You all will help. 




You all helped. 


0 Jb s s 

fir" 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


1 help. 
1 will help. 


J> J> of 


I helped. Cjy^gj 








U- 


We help. 
We will help. 


J> J> OS 


We helped. 










-r*' 








■ 







Don't help! jn^SJJ 


Help! j^flJi 


Singular 


1 Don't (you two) help! 0^'^ 


Help (you two)! 


Dual 


Don't (you all) help! ^Jj * 


Help (you all)! 'Jj*A>' 


Plural 



Passive participle J yJ* ^\ 


Active participle JpU p—l 




* as 

One who is helped. ■ /*> ' a 


One who helps. 




Singular 






Dual 


Those who are helped j-JJ C ''^JJJ 


Those who help 




Plural 





* s ofi 








|(it, he) is being helped 




(it, he) is helped 







jIlU. (Verbal noun) f 1 , , 

remember r$ j i He remembered, 'jfb ( i 63) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^i J°j 


Past Tense ^Uji* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He remembers. ji ^ 

ju 

He will remember. V ♦* 


He remembered. / 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua- 


You two do/ will Ol'i'l' 
remember. , - 


They two /-/-j 
remembered. 


Ua 






J> 0 

They remember. ♦ > ♦ ^ 
They will remember. 


They all , ^£^1 
remembered. / J ^ 


r 


near future: 
distant future: 




i] - 


J> 0 

You remember. > ^ . ^ 
You will remember. 


You remembered. ^ . " 




near past: 

+ Ji 


US*- 


You two do /will ii\'k°js 
remember. , ~ 


You two £1/1/2 
remembered. 


U2? 




^- 


. -* 0 

You all remember. ♦ > ^ ♦ «J 

n a A Jj 

You all will 
remember. 


You all f ^» - < <^'» 
remembered. <^ ^ 




Past 

continuous: 






(with noun) J> — 
(with verb) ^J - 


1 remember. J> ^ ♦ f 
1 will remember. 


1 remembered. "~ . 0 ^ 1 
UP J 








IJ- 


^ 0 

We remember. > ♦ ^ 
We will remember. 


We remembered. (J^£*^ 




-r 11 









Negative ^ j Imperative yS 



Don't remember! ^ *^ 


tat 

Remember! 


Singular 


Don't (you two) \'k'ish 
remember! ~ 


Remember (you i'<°jt 
two)! -r 


Dual 


ji * 0 x 

Don't (you all) 
remember! 


Remember (you 1 ? *2 £1 
all)! 


Plural 



Passive participle ^\ 


Active participle JpU p—l 


2 0 

One who is remembered J^S^JLo 


One who remembers ^S^i 


Singular 






Dual 


Those who are remembered ^jjjjS'JLa cL^JjjS'JLa 


Those who remember t(l)jjS'li 


Plural 



(it, he) is being 




(it, he) is ' V 




remembered 


remembered _J~ ~ 





6 



to worship; to 



0.5 LP 



5 O ^ He worshipped. (143) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii 


Past Tense ^lijii 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 


He worships. ^ ^ 

JLju 

He will worship. * ** 


He worshipped. ^ ^ 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two do/ will 

worship. r • " 


They two ij£ 
worshipped. 






— 


They worship. ♦ t .to s 
They will worship. ~* * ** 


They all , / ^ 
worshipped. / dj^^ 
-S ♦ 


*-* 

r 


near future: 
distant future: 




- 


You worship. t to / 

JLju 

You will worship. 


You worshipped. {^JL*& 




near past: 

+ ^ 


or- 


You two do /will a|V1? 
worship. u • 


Youtwo 






^- 


You all worship. . t to / 
You all will worship. * 


You all worshipped. ^ ?*Lx& 




Past 

continuous: 




(with verb) 


1 worship. t to f 
1 will worship. 


1 worshipped. {^JLa& 






IJ- 


We worship. > >o ^ 
We will worship. 


We worshipped. {j^j^fi 




-/ -A 




<^ ^ . K-V 





0, ^0 -J 

Don'tworship! JLjU 


0,0 ' 

Worship! 


Singular 


Don't (you two) worship! li^J Si 


Worship (you |^.( 
two)! 


Dual 


Don't (you all) worship! V ♦ 


Worship (you lj*X*Pl 


Plural 



Passive participle J ^.1 


Active participle JpU p—l 




,0 ^ 

One who is worshipped ^ J.JtP 


One who worships JUlp 


Singular 




j£bl* iOlijtP 


Dual 


Those who are worshipped tL)ji_^W 


Those who worship ^jjjjlp clJjJjIP 


Plural 



(it, he) is being worshipped 



(it, he) is 
worshipped 



'X* 





j'jI^ (Verbal noun) 
to disbelieve; to „ , 
be ungrateful 


ii^ 


He disbelieved. 


(461) 






Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^i Ji» 


Past Tense ji» 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 


He disbelieves. 
He will disbelieve. 


_(i 0 


He disbelieved / he 
was ungrateful. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




lii- 


You two do/will 




Thev two 




tl» 








They disbelieve. 
They will disbelieve. 




They all disbelieved. 








near future: 

+ If 


1] - 


You disbelieve. 




You disbelieved. 






near past: 

+ ^ 






You will disbelieve. 












You two do /will jrisj 
disbelieve. ^ 


You two 
disbelieved. 








distant future: 


$~ 


You all disbelieve. 

You all will 
disbelieve. 




You all disbelieved. 






Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) t£ — 
(with verb) 


1 disbelieve. 
1 will disbelieve. 




1 disbelieved. 


'-SAC* 


of 






U- 


We disbelieve. 
We will disbelieve. 




We disbelieved. 























Negative ^ 


Imperative ^-1 


Don't disbelieve! 


J" o J" 

Disbelieve! 


Singular 


^isbelfevel^ 0 ' ^ ^ 


Disbelieve (you r^o 
two)! 


Dual 


Don't (you all) disbelieve! \jjAfi>J 


Disbelieve (you ^ ^ 


Plural 





Passive part 


iple Jj^i- ^ 


Active participle Jpli «— ) 




Disbeliever 


Singular 




Dual 




Disbelievers. jij*^ tOj^tT 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



it, he) is being disbelieved 



(it, he) is 
disbelieved 



Passive Voice 



8 





j i %. a (Verbal noun} 

to strike 






He hit. t 


•Sr? (58) 






Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijli 


Past Tense 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 


He hits. 
He will hit. 




He hit. 




jjt, 


Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 







You two do/ will hit. &*J&i 


They two hit. 












They hit. 
They will hit. 




They all hit. 




r* 




near future: 

+ If 




"i\ 

-J — 


You hit. 


* as 


You hit. 




< ~> i 


near past: 

+ ^ 








You will hit. 












or- 


You two do /will hit Oljjjai 


You two hit. 






distant future: 




^- 


You all hit. 
You all will hit. 




You all hit. 


o Jos S 




continuous: 




(with noun) t£ — 
(with verb) 


Ihit. 
1 will hit. 


> o f 


Ihit. 


J> OS S 








IJ- 


We hit. 
We will hit. 


> 0 S 


We hit 










_f>-i 




•C - 









Negative ^ 


Imperative yi 


Don't hit! Lj^I^aJ *^ 


Hit! 


0 °. i 


Singular 


Don't (you two) hit! U>J Si 


Hit (you two)! U>» 


Dual 


Don't (you all) hit! ^J*^ * 


Hit (you all)! 


1 


Plural 



Passive participle Jj*i- ^.1 


Active participle JMi p-l 




one who is hit 




One who hits. C^JW? 


Singular 






Dual 


those who are hit. 




Those who hit. •. f t-. 


Plural 



Passive Voice 





2 SO f 




s }■ 




| (it, he) is being hit 




(it, he) is hit 















Passive Voice 



He wronged, treated -^ u- 

unjustly, < 266 ) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^i Jii 


Past Tense ^^Ji* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He wrongs. ^ . ? , 
He will wrong. \ ** 


He wronged. ^ 

r 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 


You two do/ will DUL' 


They two wronged. UJJi 










*-* 


X 0 

They wrong. « ^ 1 x 
They will wrong. ~" 


They all wronged. j 


*-* 

r 


near future: 

+ If 

distant future: 




1] - 


0 

You wrong. -* 1 ^ 
A-UflJ 

You will wrong. \ 


You wronged. 




near past: 

+ Ji 


ur- 


You two do / will liUki 
wrong. 


You two wronged. l«i<u£ 






^- 


X 0 

You all wrong. # ^ i *^ x 
You all will wrong. 


You all wronged. pJjoJjJp 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


1 will wrong. \ 


lwr0nged - ClQlIP> 






U- 


0 

We wrong. 1 (♦ 
We will wrong. \ 


We wronged. {jLoJjj? 













Negative ^ 


Imperative yi 


Don'twrong! ^ lt^T *^ 


Wrong! ^ 


Singular 


Don't (you two) wrong! UiL ; *l! 


Wrong (you 




Dual 


Don't (you all) wrong! J 1 * 


Wrong (you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle Jij*^- ^-1 


Active participle Jpli p—l 


one who is wronged 1 a 


one who wrongs ^JU? 


Singular 






Dual 


(>a alii* cO 4* ailfli 

those who are wronged v 


those who wrong Ui^^ tOj^JU? 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



(it, he) is being wronged 



(it, he) is wronged 



Passive Voice 



10 



jlu^ (Verbal noun) 

to hear ? a" heard. £W (100) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii 


Past Tense ^lijii 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He hear. ^ ^ 0 ^ 
He will hear. ** 


He heard. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two hear/ will ililU 
hear. uw*~j 


They two heard. ' 










They hear. , ^ ^ o ^ 
They will hear. ~" 


They all heard. 




r 




near future: 




i] - 


You hear. f / o s 
You will hear. 


You heard. 


SO/ 




near past:: 

^ + °M 




















ur- 


You two hear/ will oUiLi 
hear. 


You two heard. Uaul, 






distant future: 




^- 


You all hear. # ^ x o x 
You all will hear. 


You all heard. 


o Jo S 


H s 


Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


1 hear. } / o f 
1 will hear. 


1 heard. 


J> 0 s 

^_** ^ t 








U- 


We hear. > ^ o 
We will hear. 


We heard. 










-r*' 






■ .V 







Negative J. 


Imperative J 


Don't hear! V^° L11 J *^ 


Hear! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) hear! 


Hear (you two)! UZ-I 


Dual 


Don't (you all) hear! *^ 


Hear (you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J ^.l 


Active participle JpU p—l 




one who is heard ^ ^^**wO 


one who hears 


Singular 






Dual 


those who are heard (J^^"*** 0 C 0 J-O-nu* 


thosewhohear jj\Jtau»» cl)j*WU«» 


Plural 



















s being heard. 




is heard. 







11 



iUi (Verbal noun) 



He knew. 



(•^ (518) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense £jC^i Ji» 


Past Tense ^-^-J^ 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 


He know. 
He will know. 




He knew. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 


You two know/ will 




They two knew. 












They know. 
They will know. 




They all knew. 




*-* 

r 




near future: 

j^Cai + ^ 


- 


You know. 


'ft 


You knew. 




cJf 


near past:: 

+ Ji 






You will know. 












*- 


You two know /will ^tllis 


You two knew. LizLle 






distant future: 


^" 


You all know. 
You all will know. 




You all knew. 


o Jo 1 S 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


1 know. 
1 will know. 




1 knew. 










tf- 


We know. 
We will know. 




We knew. 


CM 










VJ...J 











Negative ^ 


Imperative yi 


Don't know! ^ *^ 


Know! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) know! ^ 


Know (you two)! 


Dual 


Don't (you all) know! * 


Know (you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle Jij*^- 


Active participle Jpli p—l 


Thatwhich is known 


Person of knowledge ^J\^ 


Singular 






Dual 


those which are known <-&jAj^* 


People of knowledge ^jugJlp J^JlP 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



(it) is being known. 



Passive Voice 



12 



He did. ( 318 ) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^ij^ 


Past Tense ^Ji* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He does. 
He will do. 




He did. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two do/ will do. 




They two did. 










They do. 
They will do. 




They all did. 




*-* 

r 




near future: 

j^Cai + ^ 




i] - 


You do. 




You did. 






near past:: 

^ + OS 








You will do. 














ur- 


You two do /will do. 




You two did. UzLe 






distant future: 




^- 


You all do. 
You all will do. 


" ^ 0 


You all did. 






Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


Ido. 
1 will do. 












U- 


We do. 
We will do. 




We did. 


id** 








-p-*' 













Negative J> 


Imperative yS 


Don'tdo! J^- 4 ^ ^ 


DO! J^pl 


Singular 


1 Don't (you two) do! H^iH 


Do (you two)! 


Dual 


Don't (you all) do! ^^U*> 


Do (you all)! ^^U^ 


Plural 



Passive participle J yJ* ^\ 


Active participle JpU p—l 






worker; 
doer 


y* 


Singular 




Dual 




workers; doers 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



13 



jX^. (Verbal noun) 

to go astray; to 
err; to waste 



J J 



He went astray. (113) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^i Ji» 


Past Tense 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He goes astray. ^ 
He will go astray. W ** 


He went astray. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 




They went astray. 


\Lz> 










They go astray. . i s 
They will go astray. ** 


They all went 
astray. 




r 




near future: 

j^Cai + Is 




- 


J5 

You go astray. , ^ 
You will go astray. w 


You went astray 






near past:: 

+ Ji 






*- 


You two do / will go asi y,; 
astray. , , 


You two went Cjlhs 
astray. 






distant future: 




^" 


You all go astray. # i / 

You all will go U ^X^OJ 
astray. ^ 


You all wentastray 






Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) i£ 
(with verb) 


3 

1 go astray. < f 
1 will go astray. w 


1 went astray. 










tf- 


We go astray. , ^ 
We will go astray. w 


We wentastray. 
















■ v • 







Negative ^ 


Imperative ^ 


Don't go astray! , VsT *^ 


Go astray! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) go }Laj 


Go astray (you 

two)! , , 


Dual 


Don't (you all) go astray! * 


go astray (you 
all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J ^-1 


Active participle Jpli p—l 




one who goes astray 


Singular 




Dual 




* i 
Those who go astray. ^jJUjP 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



14 



to think; to 
believe 



(Verbal noun) 



0 J? 



He thought. *j. 

He believed. ^ < 68 ) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii 


Past Tense ^ 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 


He thinks. S f y 
He will think. C « 


He thought. ^ 
He believed <" f. 

Lr 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two do/ will 

think. 7 ' 


They thought. & 










*-* — 


They think. . ^ 

0 aJaj 

They will think. ** 


They all thought. . 

1 Aib 


*-* 

r 


near future: 

j^Cai + ^ 

distant future: 




1] - 


You think. & / 
You will think. ^ 


You thought 




near past:: 

^ + °M 


ur- 


YOU tWO dO /Will 


You two thought. 






^- 


You all think. # ^t* ^ 
You all will think. 


You all thought 0 




Past 

continuous: 






(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


1 think. * t« f 
1 will think. W 




of 






U- 


We think. * (. f 
We will think. ^ 


We thought. 




-r*' 




<^ ^ . -> ^ V 





Negative J. 


Imperative ^-1 


Don't think! ^te>? *^ 


Think! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) think! 


Think (you two)! 


tiil 


Dual 


Don't (you all) think! 4 


think (you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J p—l 


Active participle JpU p—l 






one who thinks /believes 


oik 


Singular 






Dual 




Those who think/ 
believe. 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



15 



He found. (107) 



Negative J. 


Imperative yi 


Don'tfind! JL^U 


Find! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) find! 


Find (you two)! &«r 


Dual 


Don't (you all) find! ^J«A^SJ *^ 


Find (you all)! 




Plural 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jUkijii 


Past Tense ^Ji* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 




He finds. 




He found. 






Starting verb in a 


verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


o — 


He will find. 










verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






They find. 
They will find. 




They all found 


J 1 s s 






near future: 

^Uki + 1,, 




li - 


You find. 
You will find. 




You found. 


£> o s s 




near past:: 

+ Ji 






ur- 




You two found 








distant future: 






You all find. 
You all will find. 




You all found. 


o Jo s S 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) tS - 
(with verb) 


1 find. 
1 will find. 




1 found. 


/ O S S 


of 








We find. 
We will find. 


W 


We found. 










-> -ja 

















Passive participle Jj*i- ^-1 


Active participle Jpli p—l 


that which is found 




Finder <-^Hj 


Singular 




Dual 


those which are found 




Finders. Ji*^J ^J^Hj 


Plural 



(it, he) is being found. 



Passive Voice 



16 



jliUi (Verbal noun) 

to promise „ „ 5 ^ J P rom i se d- "^J (124) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jUaijis 


Past Tense Jis 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He promises. ji ^ 
He will promise. ** 


He promised. / / / 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two promise/ 
will promise. , • 


They two promised. '-^J 










a-* — 


They promise. . 2 / 
They will promise. ** 


They all promised. / "/ A ^ 


*-* 

r 


near future: 

+ ;> 

distant future: 




1] - 


You promise. ^ ✓ 
You will promise. ^ 


You promised. . "/ ^ ^ 




near past:: 

^ + Its 


or- 


You too promise/ j ( ^= 


You two promised. 






^- 


You all promise. „ £ / 
You all will promise. 


1 

You all promised. / 


H s 


Past 

continuous: 






(with verb) 


1 promise. ^ f 
1 will promise. 


.promised. &Ji£>J 








IJ- 


We promise. f ^ 
We will promise. ^ 


We promised. {j^jfi^ 




-r*' 











Negative J> 


Imperative yS 


Don't promise! 




Promise! 


Lip 


Singular 


Don't (you two) promise! 




Promise (you 
two)! 


tap 


Dual 


Don't (you all) promise! 


\ jJ*6 V 


Promise (you 
all)! 


. .* 
l jap 


Plural 



Passive participle J yJ* ^\ 


Active participle JpU p—l 




the one who is promised 




one who gives Promise *Xplj 


Singular 






Dual 


those who are promised 






Plural 





(it, he) is being promised j£> 








Passive Voice 


(it, he) is promised 





17 



j'x^ (Verbal noun) 



to say 



J J (i 



He said. JlS (1719) 





Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jUsi J*s 


Past Tense J*s 


Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He says. ^ 
J 

He will say. w -/ ♦* 


He said. ^ t ~ 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




U 4 - 


You two do/ will say. 


They two said. V^" 








I ney ssy. ^ * s 
They will say. ~S ~S " 


They all said. | djlj} 


r 


near future: 
distant future: 




2} - 


* -* 
You say. t 

J 

You will say. 


0 s 

You said. ^V. 




near past:: 

+ Ji 


*- 


You two do /will O^jii 


You two said. Uiii 






^" 


You all say. # * «*x 
You all will say. 


You all said. 0 „IX 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


J jlf 

1 will say. 








tf- 


We say. » Mi - 
J J* 

We will say. 


0 

We said. til^ 














Negative ^ 


Imperative J 





Don't (you two) say! 11^*11 



)say! 1 j) jflj ^ 



J* 



Say (you two)! H_>3 



Singular 



Passive participle Jj*i- ^-1 


Active participle JpU p—l 




the one who says; 
speaker 




Singular 




Dual 




those who say 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



(it) is being said 



Passive Voice 



18 



j'x^ (Verbal noun) f 1 „ „ 

to be . „ ' J j *J He was/is. JlS' (1361) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii 


Past Tense 




Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 


(he) is ^ ^ 
(He) will be V - 


(He) was /is 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two are/ will be OUjSo 


(They two) were 












(They) are . 2 ^ / 
(They) will be 


(They) were 




r 




near future: 

j^Cai + ^ 




i] - 


(You) are * 
(You) will be 


(You ) were 






near past: 

^ + °M 




















ur- 


You two are /will be dtijSs 


(You two) were. 


Oil 




distant future: 




^- 


(You all) are # £ ^ / 
)You all) will be 


(You all) were. 






Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) 
(with verb) 


(1) will be. 


(I)was. 




of 








(We) are. ^ £^ 
(We) will be. 


(We) were. 












'^^^l o t cj t J 











Negative j. 


Imperative yS 


Don't be! 0^ *^ 




Singular 


Don't(youtwo)be! VpH 


Be (you two)! ^ 


Dual 


Don't (you all) be! JT JT * 


Be (you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J yJ* ^\ 


Active participle JpU p—l 






the one which becomes.. ^jjlS* 


Singular 




Dual 




those who become.. ^jUjlS' cO jZJ^ 


Plural 



t she will be t they (fg.) were :j5f t she was 

be! (fg, pi) c be! (fg) :jf 



place : jL^i 



19 



He increased, ilj (51) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense £jC^i Jii 


Past Tense ^Uji* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


he increases } y 
He will increase 


He increased ^ ^ 

J 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




U 4 - 


You two increase/ jllbjj 


They two increased <5/j 


Ua 










They increase # ^ x 
They will increase ~* 


They increased . 

IjJlj 


r 


near future: 

j^Cai + ^ 

distant future: 




2} - 


You increase ^ ^ 

Jb 

You will increase **-^ 


You increased ^ <? 


cJf 


near past:: 

+ °M 


US*- 


You two increase/ Ollbi 
will increase , -/ 


You two increased. i*»J 








You all increase # £ / 
You increase 


You all increased. 0 ^3 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun t£ — 
(with verb 


1 increase > f 

Jo \\ 

1 will increase. 


1 increased. J 0 






tf- 


We increase. > ^ 
We will increase. 


We increased. . so 













Negative J. 


Imperative yi 


Don't increase! °$ \} 


Increase! 


h 


Singular 


Don't (you two) increase! ^ _? U 


Increase (you 
two)! 




Dual 


Don't (you all) increase! IjJU Jj \J 


Increase (you 




Plural 



Passive participle Jj*i- ^-.l 


Active participle Jpli p—l 


increment, more »Xj J^a 


extra Jjlj 


Singular 








Dual 




extras iOjJjIj 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



20 



jliUi (Verbal noun) 





to call; to 
pray 




j ^ i He called / prayed. 


(197) 






Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^ij^ 


Past Tense l _ sr ^»U jJa 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


< 

4 — 

\ 


He calls. 
He will call. 


jPJb 


He called 
/invocated/ prayed. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two call/ will 
call. 




They two called. 












They call. 
They will call. 


' > o ^ 

0 jPJb 


They all called. 








near future: 

j^Cai + I? 




2} - 


You call. 




You called. 




„ 


near past:: 








You will call. 












ur- 


You two call/ will 
call. 




You two called. 








distant future: 




^- 


You all call. 
You all will call. 


> o / 


You all called. 




H S 


Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


1 call. 
1 will call. 




1 called. 










U- 


We call. 
We will call. 




We called. 
























-r*' 

















Negative J 




Imperative ^ 










Don't call! 




Call! 




Singular 








Don't (you two) call 




Call (you two)! IjMl 


Dual 








Don't (you all) call! 




Call (you all)! 




Plural 










Passive participle J yd* 




Active participle 








One who is called 




Caller 


Singular 






Dual 


those who are called 




Callers. 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



(it, he) is being called 



Passive Voice 



21 



to guide; to direct , , 



He guided. c^^A (153) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense £jC^i Jii 


Past Tense ^U ji» 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He guides. 0 , 
He will guide. ♦» \J- 


He guided. ^ ^ 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 


You two guide/ will OUo^j 


They two guided. {A* 


Ua 










They guide. ^ 2 0 s 
They will guide. v 


They all guided. / " '/ A 


r 


near future: 

j^Cai + I,, 

distant future: 




- 


You guide. 0 ^ 
You will guide. * 


You guided. £J^£ 


cJf 


near past:: 

+ °M 


US*- 


You two guide/ will 

guide. -r^ 


You two guided. 






^- 


You all guide. # ^ 0 x 
You all will guide. w 


You all guided. ^JjJUb 




Past 

continuous: 




(with verb) 


1 will guide. 




of 




tf- 


We guide. 0 s 
We will guide. v 


We guided. 













Negative J. 


Imperative yl 


Don't guide! 




Guide! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) guide! 




Guide (you 


UiaI 


Dual 


Don't (you all) guide! 




Guide (you all)! 


\/JJb\ 


Plural 





Passive participle 


Active participle Jpli p—l 


One who is guided 




One who guides iui 


Singular 






Dual 


those who are guided 


* . - . i . , 


Those who guide ^iufe tL)jiw& 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



(it, he) is being guided 



(it, he) is guided ^JUfe 



Passive Voice 



22 



(Verbal noun) 

»5Z , y 



He was afraid. 



(48) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii 


Past Tense 




Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He fears. ^ 0 , 
He will fear. ** 


He was afraid. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two fear/ will OCikj 


They two were r^>. 
afraid. ^ 








r»-* _ 


They fear. . o o ^ 
They will fear. ^ 


They all were afraid. 




r 




near future: 

j^Cai + I? 




i] - 


You fear. o ^ 
You will fear. W 


You were afraid. 




cJf 


near past:: 

+ Ji 




















ur- 


You two fear/ will OCiJ*i 
fear. * - 


You two were 
afraid. 








distant future: 




^- 


You all fear. # o o s 
You all will fear. 


You all were afraid. 


of*'. 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


Ifear. y * 0 t 
1 will fear. W 


1 was afraid. 










U- 


We fear. o / 
We will fear. W 


We were afraid. 
























-p-*' 















Negative ^ 


Imperative yS 


Don't fear! 




Fear! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) fear! 




Fear (you two)! W^ -1 


Dual 


Don't (you all) fear! 




Fear (you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J ^\ 


Active participle JMi p-l 






One who fears ^j^l^*" 


Singular 






Dual 




Those who fear ^ju&tf"" tO 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



23 



jf\ He ordered. y>\ (232) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^i Jii 


Past Tense ^Uji* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He orders. > > °^ 
He will order. V ** 


He ordered. ^ ^ £ 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 


You two order/ will jrjjfc 


They two ordered. ^ 


Ua 




*-* 


^ 0 

They order. # ^ ^ f / 

They will order. ** 


They all ordered. / ' f 


*-* 

r 


near future: 

j^Cai + I,, 

distant future: 




- 


You order. ^ > f x 
You will order. 


You ordered. . 0 




near past:: 

+ JLi 


US*- 


You two order/ will £>rj»{i 


You two ordered. 






^- 


s 0 

You all order. » ^ ^ fx 

You all will order. ~U 


You all ordered. 0 J° '( 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) c£ 
(with verb) 


1 order J* ^ ^ 
1 will order. 


J> OS* 

I ordered. ♦» . / 






tf- 


We order. > > 1 x 
We will order. 


We ordered. 








<5 ^ O**^ 





Negative ^ 


Imperative ^-1 


Don't order! yOU 2 


Order! 


0 * 


Singular 


Don't (you two) order! lyfc Si 


Order (you two)! 




Dual 


Don't (you all) order! ^Jj*^* ^ 


Order (you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J yJ* 


Active participle Jpli p—l 


One who is ordered i AALO 


One who orders jfi\ 


Singular 






Dual 


Those who are ordered (j^JJ"*^ 0 CUJJJ«3W 


Those who order (jij" 0 ' tcJjj^' 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



(it, he) is being ordered 



J*Jt 



Passive Voice 



24 



jliUi (Verbal noun) 



He saw. j (269) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii 


Past Tense 




Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He sees. ^ ^ 
He will see. V** 


He saw. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two see/ will /jit'r 
see. 


They two saw. 












They see. , o / / 
They will see. ~* 


They all saw. 


j'j 


V 




near future: 




i] - 


You see. ^ ^ 
^ J 

You will see. 


You saw. 


°f' 

J 


cJf 


near past:: 


















ur- 


You two see/ will aits 
see. w --r 


You two saw. 








distant future: 




^- 


You all see. . o s s 
You all will see. 


You all saw. 




H S 


Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb) 


Isee. s\ 
1 will see. 


1 saw. 


J Of/ 








U- 


We see. ^ ^ 
We will see. 


We saw. 






















-r*' 















Negative ^ 


Imperative ^-i 


Don't see! 




See! 


J 


Singular 


Don't (you two) see! t# Si 


See (you two)! £ 


Dual 


Don't (you all) see! 


0>^ 


See (you all)! 


03 


Plural 



Passive participle Jj*i- ^.1 


Active participle JpU p—l 




One who is seen 




One who sees 




Singular 






Dual 


those who are seen 




Those who see 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



25 



v (Verbal noun) 



He came. , il 



He brought V J" 



(263) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jUaijis 


Past Tense J«i 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


o — 

\ 


He comes. 

He will come. ** 


He came. ^/ 

lt' 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 






You two come/ will Arjh 
come. 


They two came. 0 












They come. 'I 
They will come. ** 


They all came. 1 ° ?f 


r* 


near future: 

+ lr 

distant future: 




2] _ 


You come. 
You will come. Sr 


You came. ^ 


? i 


near past:: 


ur- 


You two come/ will 

come. u * 


You two came. 


Oil 




^- 


You all come. ^ 

0 Ju 

You all will come. 


You all came. " /"^f 




Past 

continuous: 






(with noun) 


1 come. -r- 
1 will come. ^ 


icame. ^ 


of 






U- 


We come. %s 
We will come. >r 


We came. tj^ff 




-r*' 











Don'tcome! Olj 


Come! 


cis 


Singular 






Don't (you two) come! 


Comejyou U=Jj 


Dual 






Don't (you all) come! * 


Come (you all)! 




Plural 






Passive participle J ^-l 




Active participle 






one who is to come ^ 


one who comes 




Singular 






Dual 


those who are to come C 0 


those who come 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



26 



i will, 
d wish 



jj^L* (Verbal noun) 



He wished. 



(277) 



Negative J. 


Imperative yl 


Don't wish! U*J *^ 


wish! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) wish! 


wish (you two)! (t& 


Dual 


Don't (you all) wish! ^J£^J *^ 


wish (you all)! 




Plural 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^i Jii 


Past Tense ,^»Uji» 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


a 

He wishes. y y 
He will wish. ** 


He wished /wanted s 
/willed. / 'i 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




U 4 - 




They two wished. 


Ua 




*-* 


/ J! 

They wish. . . s t s 
They will wish. 


They all wished. / / 'A 


*-* 

r 


near future: 

j^Cai + I,, 

distant future: 




2 - 


You wish. "* . s. s 
You will wish. 


o 

You wished. £ & 


cJf 


near past:: 

+ Ji 


us*- 


You two wish/ will 


You two wished. 


UsSf 




^- 


You all wish. ^ i'* ' 
You all will wish. 


You all wished. J* A 


•Jlf 


Past 

continuous: 




(with verb) ^J - 


1 wish. ^ f 
1 will wish. 


1 wished. ** c t» 






tf- 


We wish. "* . ^ s 
We will wish. 


<? 

We wished. jiti* 4 













Passive participle J ^-1 


Active participle Jpli p—l 






One who wishes. 




Singular 






Dual 




Those who 
Wish. 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



27 



'■* (Verbal noun) 



Passive Voice 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jUkijii 


Past Tense ^> S>* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


o — 

\ 




J** 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING orPLU 




1 - 1 OU*ij 












i Jlk 


r* 


near future: 
distant future: 


near past:: 

+ Ji 


li - 


u 




• i 




or- 


OU*iJ 






Past 

continuous: 




0 jJbtfj 










(with noun) *S 








IJ- 

















Negative ^ 


Imperative yi 






Singular 






Dual 






Plural 



Passive participle J ^-1 


Active participle J*U p—l 


[ma a 




Singular 






Dual 






Plural 



Passive Voice 



28 



Feminine fc t 
Gender 





Attached 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^Ji* Past Tense ^CJ^ Pronount 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 


U- 






> 


Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 




*r 




oil 












0* 


near future: 
distant future: 


ii- 






cJf 


near past:: 

+ Ai 


ur- 






oil 






♦Jliii 




y( 


Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) 
(with verb) ^i - 


'0 




Lff 




IJ- 








-r*' 













Singular 






Dual 




0^ 


Plural 



Passive participle Jj*i- ^-1 


Active participle Jeli 






Singular 






Dual 






Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



29 



He taught, jjp- 



(42) 

VT-2 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xense ^jC^ ^ 


Past Tense ^ 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 


He teaches. f ^ > 
He will teach. ( ♦» 


He taught. 




y> 


Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




ll* - 


You two teach/ will jilii,' 
teach. 


They two taught. 




Hi 








They teach. , } \s } 
They will teach. ^ ** 


They all taught 




r* 






li - 


You teach. * i / £ 
You will teach. \ 


You taught. 


as 








llT - You two teach / will je*L" 


You two taught. 










You all teach. . * ■ ^ Ji 
0 $*-U? 

You all will teach. 


You all taught. 


s a 








(with noun) t£— 
(with verb) 


1 teach. * , ^ f 
1 will teach. \ 


1 taught. 










IJ- 


We teach. J> • ^ J> 
We will teach. \ 


We taught. 


as 








-r"' 















Negative ^ 




Imperative jJ 








Don't teach! 


'Jan 


Teach! 


H 


Singular 






Don't (you two) teach 




Teach (you Qi- 
two)! 


Dual 






Don't (you all) teach 




Teach (you 
all)! 




Plural 








Passive participle ^-1 




Active participle JMi ,—1 




The one who is taught. **JUCd 


Teacher. 




Singular 


The two who are taught. 




Teachers (two). 




Dual 


All those who are taught 




Teachers. 




Plural 



Passive Voice 



(He) is being taught. 



Passive Voice 



30 



act (of accusing ^ < Verbal " ou "> He accused (him, it) (19S) 

sb of falsehood) of falsehood. • VT _ 2 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xcnsc ^ 


Past Tpti«p -A'a ili 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 


He accuses sb of *jt s 

falsehood. * \C* 
He will accuse sb of 
falsehood. 


He accused (him, it) £f ^ 
offalsehood. ^ ^ 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 




They two accused (.'/$■' 
sb offalsehood. • 








They accuse sbof «• J* ^ . 
falsehood ♦» < c 

They will accuse sb Jf* *» 
of falsehood. 


They all accused sb J? ' 
offalsehood / / 






You accuse sbof . ^ ^ . 

falsehood. fjj^J 
You will accuse sb ♦ 
offalsehood. 


You accused sbof & ' 
falsehood. Z^jjg' 








You two accused sb 
offalsehood. 


Oil 




You all accuse sbof «• J* ^ . 

falsehood. ♦» ajJVj 
You all will accuse ^JTi"^^ 
sbof falsehood. 


You all accused sb . & ' 
offalsehood. i 




(with noun) t£ — 
(with verb) l J— 


1 accuse sbof ^ ^ ^ £ 
falsehood. J^^j \ 
1 will accuse sbof . 
falsehood. 


1 accused sb of ^ ' 
falsehood. t 




IJ- 


We accuse sbof . ^ 
falsehood. . if • 
We will accuse sbof *»*^' 
falsehood. 


We accused sbof & ' 
falsehood. £jf 






-r*' 













Negative ^ 


Imperative jJ 


Don't accuse sbof 
falsehood! 




Accuse sbof 
falsehood! 




Singular 






Dual 


Don't (you all) accuse 
sb offalsehood! 




Accuse sbof 
falsehood 
(you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J ^1 


Active participle JpU 


The one who is accused of 
falsehood. 




The one who accuses 
sb offalsehood. 




Singular 






Dual 


Those who are accused of 
falsehood. 




Those who accuse sb 
offalsehood. 




Plural 



(He) is being accused of 
falsehood 



(He) is accused of 
falsehood 



•or 



31 



jliUi (Verbal noun) 



J j d 



He sent down. Jjj (79) 

VT-2 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xcnsc 9 .J^s 


Ptist Xcnsc 




Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 


He sends down. ^ ^ 

J UJ 

He will send down. -J ** 


He sent down. 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 


You .two send down/ 


They two sent 
down. 










^ as — 


They send down. ^ ^.3 

U 4) LJ 

They will send ^ V« 
down. 


They all sent down. 










li - 


You send down. » £ 
You will send down. ^ 


You sent down. 




? f 






^- 


You all send down. ' »2 ^ 

You all will send O^J^iJ 
down. 






pi 


Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) t£— 
(with verb) 


1 send down. 

JjJl 

1 will send down. 


1 sent down. 












We send down. it 
We will send down. 


We sentdown. 












^ i . ; ,| 













Negative ^ 


Imperative jJ 


Don'tsend down! 




Send down! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) send 
down! 




Send down 
(you two)! 




Dual 


Don't (you all) send 




Send down 
(you all)! 


1$ 


Plural 


down! 









Passive participle J ^ 


Active participle JpU 


That which is sentdown 




The one who sends l^lii 
down U 


Singular 






Dual 


Those which are sentdown 




Those who send down ^j\J J^a cl)^) 


Plural 



(sb, st) is being sentdown 



32 



(Verbal noun) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ? jC^» jJj 


Past Tense LS -^ , ^ a 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 






y, 


Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 




Ua - 














1 1 *1 1 1 




li - 








near future: 


near past:: 


l_J&> + If 
distant future: 




y?f^ + ^ 








• iff 
r \ 


Past 


(with noun) tS - 
(with verb) 


JP13I 


cJeli 


of 


continuous: 






















Negative J. 


Imperative yS 







Passive Voice 



Passive participle J yJw ^\ 


Active participle Jpli p—l 






Singular 






Dual 






Plural 



Jpj3 > 



Passive Voice 



33 



Feminine . ?- > 
Gender ^ 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijli 


Past Tense ^ ^ 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 


U- 


J*li" 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 




Ua- 






Ua 












ii- 






cJf 


near future: 
distant future: 


near past:: 

^ + °M 


| US'- j OUpUb 




Ui ! f 


^- 






* '?f 


Past 


(with noun) tS - 
(with verb) 


J. ^ 

Jplil 






continuous: 






IJ- 


Jpli' 




>■ 0 ^ 











Passive Voice 



Negative J. 


Imperative yS 






Singular 






Dual 






Plural 



Passive participle J yd, 


Active participle J*U ^1 






Singular 






Dual 






Plural 



Passive Voice 



34 



He strove. 



(31) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xcnsc jJti 


P&st Xcnsc t^^-* J-*^ 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 


He strives. ^ x ^ 
He will strive. ** 


He strove. ^ ^ ^ 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ui - 


You two strive/ will o&a&j 


They two strove. /Jilf 












They strive. , > ^ ^ 
They will strive. ~* ^ ** 


They all strove. fjjj^^. 




near future: 
distant future: 




- 


You strive. .* . s I 
You will strive. 

s 


You strove. 




near past:: 

^ + oi 


or- 


You two strive/ will ja^J You two strove &3? 




^- 


You all strive. , > « ^ -* 
You all will strive. 


Youallstrov, jffitg. 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) cS - 
(with verb) 


1 strive. ^ . s f 
1 will strive. 


Istrave - <Malf 






IJ- 


We strive. ^ , ^ -* 
We will strive. 


We strove. 




-r*' 









Negative ^ 


Imperative ^-1 


Dont strive! Llal^j ^ 


Strive! 




Singular 


)ont (you two) strive! (jus^J Si 


Strive (you 
two)! 




Dual 


Don't (you all) strive! IjJjfcWJtJ 2 


Strive (you 
all)! 


1 jlal^- 


Plural 



Passive participle J yuu 


Active participle JpU p—l 






One who strives 


Singular 






Dual 




Those who strive jjjj&l^ tcJjAAl^ 


Plural 







35 



■■k (Verbal noun) 



He called out. i£$ti (44) 

VT-3 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xcnsc ^ .j*^ 


Past Tpnsp -A'* 1U 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He calls out. x j* 
He will call out. ♦* 


He called out. , ^ 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ui- 


You two call out/ will /il'jUj 
call out. 


They two called out. fejf 










-» 

^~ 


They call out. . * 
They will call out. ** 


They all called out. / a a 1 *~ 




near future: 

+ If 

distant future: 




li - 


You call out. . ^ 
You will call out. ♦♦ 


You called out. ^^j^jf 




near past:: 

+ Ji 


or- 






^- 


You all call out. 1 . ^ 

OpbJ 

You all will call out. 


You all called out. ^Jj$\j 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) tS - 
(with verb) ^J - 


1 call out. . 
1 will call out. ♦• 


leaned out. ^jj/ 


of 






We call out. . si 
We will call out. ♦• 


We called out. Llj3lf 













Negative ^ 


Imperative ^-1 


Don't call out! 




Call out! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) call out! 


b>Us Si 


Call out (you 
two)! 




Dual 


Don't (you all) call out! 




Call out (you 
all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J p—l 


Active participle Jc-li ^-1 




One who calls out 


Singular 












Dual 




Those who call out Jd^^ 4 tcJjilw 


Plural 



lie is being called out. 










Jj4^ 




He is called out. 






Passive Voice 



36 



« (Verbal noun) 



J 



Passive Voice 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jU*i Jii 


Past Tense jii 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 

1 








Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 














J OS 


r* 


u - 




O 


cJf 


near future: 
distant future: 


near past:: 

+ oi 


I US' - ou*L" 




uil 










pi 


Past 

continuous: 


(with noun) tS - 
(with verb) 






uf 






tf- 




0 OS 














Negative ^ 


Imperative y\ 












Singular 








Unit 


Dual 








Plural 




Passive participle J ^— 1 


Active participle J* 












Singular 










Dual 








Plural 



Passive Voice 



37 



Feminine 
Gender 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense j^iiijii Past Tense ^Jii Pronount 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 


U- 


f 0 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 






OUxii 












^ o o ^ 
f 


O OS 


* .» 




near future: 
distant future: 


ii- 




O OS 


cJf 


near past:: 

+ Ji 


ur- 






^- 




O OS 




Past 

continuous: 




(with verb) 


J*l 




of 




tf- 




s°s °£ 

LLil 














Negative ^ 


Imperative yi 





Passive Voice 



5Wf H 



Passive participle J yJ* p-J 


Active participle J»U 








Singular 




joints i jliUia 


Dual 






Plural 









Passive Voice 



38 



jj^. (Verbal noun) 



C 1 ^ 



i He brought out. ^yM^ 108 ) 

C J C W v VT-4 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jQa « Jjti 


Ptist Tense ^p^-* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 


He brings out. ^ 0 ^ 
He will bring out 


He brought out/ took ^ 
out. ^ ' °* f 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




- 


You two bring out/ OU- it? 


They two brought 
out. 












They bring out. . o, 
They will bring out. , " 


They all brought . > ^ <?. / 

out. ]j^J^] 




near future: 
distant future: 




2) - 


You bring out. > o > 
You will bring out. 


You brought out. f 




near past:: 

^ + oi 


ur- 


You two bring out/ 01*- £j You two brought L 'J'Jf 




^- 


You all bring out. , > o > 

You all will bring ^ 

out. ^ 


You all broughtout. 0 J" ' °* f 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) cS - 
(with verb) 


1 bring out. > of 
1 will bring out. ^^-^ 


1 broughtout. < t '*-j^>- / 






IJ- 


We bring out. t o * 
We will bring out. ^^-^ 


We brought out. Ll^-jJ^- f 




-r*' 











Negative J. 


Imperative yS 


Don't bring out! 




Bring out! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) bring out! 




Bring^out(you 




Dual 


Don't (you all) bring out! 




Bring out (you 
all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J yJu 


Active participle JpU p—l 




One who is broughtout 




One who brings out ^^£"t<0 


Singular 






Dual 


Those who are broughtout 




Those who bring out jkj> <.i)j??j>ij* 


Plural 



(it, he) is being broughtout ■* " °, * 



lis broughtout 



39 



ICai (Verbal noun) 



.J He submitted. (72) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xense ^ .j*^ 


Past Tptiep 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 


4 — 


He submits. ji . 0 ji 
He will submit. \ ** 


He submitted. ^ ' a / 
1 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




tii - 


You two submit/ will aCAU 
submit. OUA ~ J - 


They two submitted. l-^ 1 






-> 


They submit . > 10 i 
They will submit. 


Thev all submitted / ^ 1 0 f 




near future: 
distant future: 


i] - 


You submit. f io > 

- 1 . . . V 

You will submit. \ 


You submitted. {^JoJCytt f 




near past:: 

+ Ji 






or- 


You two submit/ will d ££J 


You two submitted. L^LCf Uil 


^- 


You all submit. . ^ io ^ 
You all will submit. 


You all submitted. 0 J / 0 f 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) t£ — 
(with verb) 


1 submit. > i o 
1 will submit. \ 


\ 


1 submitted. jj^JoJ^ittf 


of 






We submit. > io > 
We will submit. \ 


We submitted. j^^j^tf i 















Negative ^ 


Imperative ^-1 


Don't submit! ^_1_lv5 


Submit! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) submit! UHJ 1! 


Submit (you rX,f 
two)! 


Dual 


Don't (you all) submit! J- 1 ^ - 


Submit (you 
all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J yJ* p—l 


Active participle Jpli ^-1 




One who submits ^JLiit-u^ 


Singular 










Dual 




Those who submit juX**J* <.&yX**J* 


Plural 



40 



,j^> (Verbal noun) 

to associate 
partners 



He associated (120) 
Jtf 1 partners. -> yT 4 



Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xcnsc ^~ J^'^ * 


Ptist Xcnsc i _5^'-* 


Detached 
Pronouns 


4 — 


He associates 

partners (with)s. 0 ^ -> 

He will associate 
partners (with). ^ 


He associated ^ 
partners (with). < °* f 




- 


Y parTerf (witrif °^ ^ 


They two \f'\f 
associated partners. ^ 






They associate ^ o > 
partners (with). J ^ 

They will associate V ♦* 
partners (with). ^ 


They all associated , o, f 
partners (with). / aS , t 3 / 

Jr J*~ 




2 - 


You associate ^ . 0 ^ 
partners (with). £\ 

You will associate J 
partners (with). >- 


0 £ 

You associated ^ o. f 
partners (with). - S j*tX 4 1 


n 


^" 


You all associate ^ . 

nartnprs fwithl *» ** 

partners (witnj. ^ c~ jvj 
You all will... 


You all associated .0 „ / 
partners (with) # t 




(with noun) c£ 
(with verb) 


1 associate partners » ^ 

(wlth) - i3 

1 will associate V 
partners (with). ^ 


o / 
1 associated <?. / 
partners (with). { . S ^.tX 4 1 


of 


U- 


We associate ^ . 0 ^ 
partners (with). £ \ *► * 

We will associate V 
partners (with). 


° ? 
We associated . 'f*' f 
partners (with). [_{S ^.tZ* 1 




-r*' 









Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



near past:: 



Past 

continuous: 



Negative ^/ 


Imperative J 


Don't associate partners (with)! ^3 j**J *^ 


Associate partners M "s, \ 
(with)! Uj**)\ 


Singular 


Don't (you two) associate i<* >.j m 
partners (with)! -T^ 1 


Associate partners i<- \t 
(with) (you two)! -T 


Dual 


* of' 
Don't (you all) associate \ flS m*J *^ 
partners (with)! v 7 


* i 

Associate partners 1 42 tJtli 
(with) (you all)! ■> 


Plural 



Passive participle J 


Active participle JpU ^— 1 


One with whom st is associated 
with 




One who associates 
partners (with)s 




Singular 






Dual 


Those with whom st is 
associated with 




Those who associate 
partners (with) 




Plural 



I is being associated 
with partners 



sr. 



(He) is associated 
with partners *J I 



41 



jX^l* (Verbal noun) 

to send 

down j^jj 



J j d 



He sent down. 



Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^i Jii 


Past Tense Ji» 


Detached 
Pronouns 


4 — 


a 

He sends downs. . 0 _4 
He will send down. ** 


He sentdown. ' * ^ g £ 
JjJI 




Ua - 


They 2 send down. O^jjj 


They two sent i/'Jf 
down. s 




~ 


They send down. ^ » o> 

They will send **Jp» ^"T. 
down. ^ 


J / 

They all sentdown. / f'*fi 
jJJJ 


0 >■ 


li - 


You send down. » o> 

J r> 

You will send down. ^ 


0 £ 

You sentdown. ^» ^ * j 




^" 


You all send down. ^ ? of 
You all will... -> 


O s 

You all sent down. o J*s of 




(with verb) ^~ 


1 send down. » 
1 will send down. 


o y 

1 sentdown. t^*i 




U- 


We send down. t of 

J UJ 

We will send down. 


0 £ 

We sentdown. Llfjfj 




-r*' 




<5 ^ >\>^ 





Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



distant future: 





Negative J. 


Imperative ^-1 


Don'tsenddown! 




Send down! 


jjrf 


Singular 


Don't (you two) send 
down! 




Send down m jf 
(you two)! v 


Dual 


Don't (you all) send 
down! 




Send down 
(you all)! 


Ijj'jji 


Plural 



near past:: 



Past 

continuous: 



Passive participle J yJ» 



That which is sentdown J 


One who sends downs J ^jXfi 


Singular 






Dual 


Those which are sentdown jjJjla tcJjJjlo 


Those who send down jjjjlt ttJjJjl" 


Plural 



Active participle Jpli p—l 



(He) is being sentdown 



42 



jX^l* (Verbal noun) 

to send sb 

astra y j^i 



J J u> 



He sent sb astray. \^>\ (68) 

VT-4 



Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xcnsc a 


P&st Xcnsc ^^^-^^ 1-*^ 


Detached 
Pronouns 


4 — 


He sends sb astray. 

He will send sb /} * i"* 
astray. w ^ 


He sent sb astray. * ^ £ 




- 


You two^send sb 


They two sent sb \h.( 
astray. 




'r* - 


They send sb ' f ji 

astray - 0 JUgJ 

They will send sb V ♦* 
astray. 


They all sentsb , t f 
astray. / 


r* 


a - 


J5 

You send sb astray. , > 

You will send sb ' 
astray. ^ 


OS s 

You sentsb astray. ^ J^^pf 




^- 


astray - 0 JUtf 

You all will... 


""astral 5 ' ' 'll 0 . t 




(with noun) i£ 
(with verb) 


1 send sb astray. , f 
1 will send sb astray. ^ 


OS s 

1 sentsb astrav 1 1 °» 1 


of 




J5 

We send sb astray. . 

We will sends sb I^J 
astray. ^ 


OS s 

We sentsb astray. Lj{_{_fjp f 













Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



near past:: 



Past 

continuous: 



Don't send sb astray! «^ 


Send sb astray! ^JLljpt 


Don't (you two) send sb tLai N 
astray! 


Send sb astray (you m^,; 
two)! 


Don't (you all) send sb ^ ^jL^jf *^ 


■* * 

Send sb astray (you \ \ 



Passive participle J yJ-- 


Active participle Jpli .—1 


One who is sent astray 




One who send sb 
astray 




Singular 






Dual 


Those who are sent astray 




Those who send sb 
astray 




Plural 



(He) is being sent astray 



(He)issentastray 



43 



'■» (Verbal noun) 



5 J J 



He wanted. iljf (139) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xcnsc * ^ 


Past Tense ^ 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He wants. ^ 
He will want. 


He wanted. - ~ z 

Jljl 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPtU. 




Ua- 


You two want/ will />iv : 
want. ° 


They two wanted. tiljl 










t 

^~ 


They want. , ^ ^ 
They will want. 


Jt ^ £ 

They all wanted / a / / 
/ J J/ J / 




near future: 




li - 


You want. t t 
You will want. 


You wanted. ■ J ^ / 




near past:: 

+ Ji 


distant 
future: 








^" 


You all want. f f 
You all will want. ~* 


You all wanted. " hL^ f 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) tS - 
(with verb) 


1 want. > * 
1 will want. 


J OS* 

1 wanted. ♦» . * / 








We want > / 
We will want. 


We wanted. Ij^jf 













Negative ^ 


Imperative ^ 


Don't want! 




Want! 


M 


Singular 


Don't (you two) want! 




Want (you 
two)! 




Dual 


Don't (you all) want! 




Want (you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J yJw p—l 


Active participle Jpli ^-1 


That which is wanted 




One who wants J^j 


Singular 






Dual 


Those who are wanted 




Those who want jA iiijJojA 


Plural 



(it, he) is being wanted 



.wanted Jjj| ^ 



44 



<j \ j He showed. i£ j 



\ (44) 



Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xcnsc ^jC^ jJti 


P&st Xcnsc t^^-* J-*^ 


Detached 
Pronouns 


4 — 


He shows. 

He will show. ♦» 


He showed. ^ / 




Ui - 


You two show/ will AirJ 


They two showed. (</ 






They show. . o > ^ 

y a j 

They will show. -W* 


They all showed. ° f 
JJ 


r* 


2i- 


You show. > 
You will show. ♦* ^ 


You showed. ^ f f 




^" 


You all show. # o ^ ^ 

Oj J 

You all will show. 


You all showed 0 Jos f 




(with noun) {£— 
(with verb) 


1 show. f 
1 will show. «♦ ~ 


1 showed °' f 




IJ- 


We show. > 
We will show. ~" 


We showed. f 




-r*' 









Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



near future: 



future: 



near past:: 

^ + OS 



Past 

continuous: 





Negative J. 


Imperative yS 


Don't show! 




Show! 


/ 


Singular 


Don't (you two) show! 




Show (you 
two)! 




Dual 


Don't (you all) show! 


\ 3 'JH 


Show (you 

ainr 




Plural 



Passive participle J yuu p-J 


Active participle JpU p—l 






o ^ * 

One who shows £, ^ 


Singular 


1 Jty 


Dual 




Those who show y$ cO^j** 


Plural 



-►I (it) is being shown 



45 



jlUi (Verbal noun) 



He believed. (782) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Xcnsc a 


P&st Xcnsc ^^^v 3 ^ J-*^ 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 


He believes. ;t 0 ji 
He will believe. ^ ^ 


He believed. . . ^ 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ui - 


You two believe/ will OtXi'Si' 


They two believed. 












They believe. . f o^f 
They will believe. , 






near future: 
distant future: 






You believe. t o„f 
You will believe. ^ 


You believed. °' T 




near past:: 

^ + °M 


ur- 






^- 


You all believe. , A o^f 
You all will believe. 


You all believed. 0 T 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) cS - 
(with verb) 


1 believe. > * 
1 will believe. w ~* 


1 believed. ^ flT 


of 




IJ- 


We believe. } 
We will believe. 


We believed. l^oT 




-r*' 









Negative J. 


Imperative ^-1 




Don't believe! ij^^ " 


Believe! \ 


Singular 


Don't (you two) believe! "St 


Believe (you n-T 
two)! 


Dual 


Don't (you all) believe! J/JT 


Believe (you 1 4i£ ' 
all)! V ^ 


Plural 



Passive participle J yj» p—l 


Active participle JpU 






One who believes 




Singular 






Dual 




Those who believe 




Plural 



46 



• (Verbal noun) 



He gave. (274) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jC^» ( J*i 


Past Tense 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He gives. 

He will give. , W 


He gave. 

J 7 


y, 


Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ui - 


You two give/ will /.tYs.' 
give. 


They two gave. £ jf 










^~ 


They give. ^ 

They will give. J? Jl> 


They all gave. . o 

Ijjl 




near future: 

distant 
future: 






You give. 

.« £ .« 

You will give. i^C$ ^ 


You gave. ' °i^T 




near past:: 

^ + °M 


*- 


You two give/ will Citfd You two gave. £j¥T 
give. w 






You all give. , 
You all will give. 


You all gave. <? -*°g~r 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) i£~ 
(with verb) 


1 give. 

1 will give. j^G^ ^ 


1 gave. "47" 


of 




U- 


We give. 

We will give. i^G? ^ 


We gave. [xxfT 




-r*' 











Negative j. 


Imperative ^-1 


Don't give! 




Give 


oi 




Give (you two)! 




Don't (you all) give! 


</jf Si 


Give (you all)! 







Passive participle J yJw p—l 


Active participle J*li p—l 


One who is gave 


so A 


One who gives 


Singular 






Dual 


Those who are gave 


OJJJA 


Those who give ^fi ^fi 


Plural 



(it, he) is being given 



(it) is given 



47 



(Verbal noun) 



fin 



Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii Past Tense ^l^Jii 



Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING, or PLU. 



imAj 



Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



(with noun) l£ _ 
(with verb) ^i - 



Passive Voice 



0 



Negative ^ 


Imperative ^-1 






Singular 






Dual 




1 jiiflj 


Plural 



learpast:: 



Past 
contit 



Passive participle J _j<u- — » 1 


Active participle Jpti ^1 






Singular 






Dual 






Plural 



Passive Voice 



48 



Feminine fc t 
Gender 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkij^ 


Past Tense Jli 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 


U- 








Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 




Ui- 












* > 


«■ 1 • 4 


/-if 
' . loci 


* > 




near future: 

+ If 




ii- 






cJf 


near past:: 

+ Ji 




















ur- 






us! 




distant future: 






• . 1 ♦ d " t 


* ~ / J" 


* *f 


Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) cS - 
(with verb) ^i - 
















Ld^f 


* 0 ^ 












Plane of Ji«j" 








Negative ^ 


Imperative yS 








Passive participle J yuu ^1 


Active participle JpU ^1 






Singular 






Dual 






Plural 



Passive Voice 



Passive Voice 



49 



to receive j-^ (Verbal noun) 
admonition; to t - ^ 

remember jTii 



He received * ^ 
admonition; he jS*Jj 
remembered. 



(51) 

VT-5 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkij^ 


Past Tense J** 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 


4 — 


He receives 
admonition. 




He received a / 
admonition. ' £^ i i» 

j5 Jj 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


He will receive 
admonition. 




Ui - 


You two .. 




They two received I'J'ji 
admonition. ~ 






^ 4s — 


They receive 
admonition. 




They all received . ^ 
admonition. / \ /**" 


<r 


They will receive 
admonition. 




You receive 
admonition. 




You received ^ 
admonition. . " /~ 




You will receive 
admonition. 




^" 


You all receive 
admonition. 




You all received . , ^ 






You all will receive 
admonition. 


(with noun) t£ — 
(with verb) 


1 receive 
admonition. 




1 received . 
admonition. «« . 


of 


1 will receive 
admonition. 


IJ- 


We receive 
admonition. 




We received ^ 
admonition. [j^j^^t\y 




We will receive 
admonition. 




V 









Don't receive 0 xx ' 
admonition! ^ JcHJ 2 


Receive admonition! ' J^j 


Don't receive admonition i'J'jLS N 
(you two)! 1 


Receive admonition \'< jLf 
(you two)! -r 


Don't receive admonition 1 («f M 
(you all)! 'Jj 3 **** i 


Receive admonition 1 «"* if 
(you all)! 1 J »AJ 



Passive participle J ^1 



Active participle JpU , 



one who receives 
admonition 



Singular 
Dual 



Plural 



..II Passi ' 



Passive Voice 



i to turn away; to J ^ (Verbal noun) ^ He turned away; took y & (79) 

takechar 9 e Jjj ^ Jj charge. VT 5 





£££ | ^perfect Tense 


| Pas. Tense ^Ji | 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 


He turn awayes. ?, ^ 
He will turn away. -J"** 


a 

He turned away. f " 
He took charge. 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ui - 




& 








33 

They turn away. ,« \' " 
1 JJj£> 

They will turn away. 


They all turned / / — 
away. I AJ 




ii - 


33 

You turn away. » ^ ss 
You will turn away. 


S3 

You turned away. ^^^^S 




near future: 

distant 
future: 


| ur- | # 




Oil 


near past:: 

^ + °Ss 

Past 

continuous: 




33 

You all turn away. . o \' " 

You all will turn JT J** 
away. 


You all turned away. 0 M °f'? 




(with noun) i£~ 
(with verb) 


S3 s 

1 turn away. \ y y i 
1 will turn away. 


* 

1 turned away. 






IJ- 


S3 

We turn away. \' 
We will turn away. 


a 

We turned away. t*°t' 7 

UJJJ 






-r*' 









Negative J. I Imperative yi 



Don'tturn away! i^f^S *^ 


Turn away! 


Don't (you two) turn if v 
away! * 


Turn away (you if-s 
two)! -T 


Don't (you all) turn away! *^ 


Turn away (you all)! 



Passive participle J j*A* p-J 


Active participle JpU ^-1 




One who turns away. 


Singular 






Dual 






Plural 













Passive Voice 


Passive Voice 



51 



^(Verbal noun) 





Attached 


Imperfect Tense jC^i Jii 


Past Tense ^Jii 


Detached 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 


^ 0 

(J- - « 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ua - 


OLbuij 


LUjl 








^ J> 0 


J o 




li - 


J> 0 


o o 




near future: 
distant future: 


near past:: 

^ + oi 


ur- 






us! 


° <- 

r 










Past 

continuous: 


(with noun) l£ _ 
(with verb) 






lit 






tf- 


0 


0 0 




-> -J** 













Singular 






Dual 






3 lural 



Passive participle Jj*i- ^1 


Active participle JpU 






Singular 






Dual 






Plural 



Passive Voice 



f W cwjjytt 



? Voice 



52 



Feminine a f 
Gender ^> 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii 


Past Tense ^Ji* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 


U- 


J> 0 






Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 






















near future: 
distant future: 




ii- 


0 






near past:: 

+ ^ 








Oil 




^- 


0 0 






Past 

continuous: 

^ jUii+ jls" 




(with noun) lS~ 
(with verb) 


* Si 


,s Ufa 


of 




U- 


> 0 


0 0 












Plane of Jial 



Passive Voice 





Negative ^ 


Imperative > 












Singular 








Dual 










Plural 






Passive participle J ^ «—l 


Active part'cip 


e JpU 










Singular 




Dual 




Oil 




Plural 



[ I *p| » K£ 



53 



jliUi (Verbal noun) 



He followed. £J 



1 (140) 

VT-8 





£££ | Imperfect Tense 


| Past Tense 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 

\ 


He takes up. ^ ^ 
He will follow. (^*"*" 


He followed. 


y> 


Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 




Ui - 


You two follow/ will ,-.ii i; 
follow. :~ 


They two followed. ^ 






^~ 


They follow. , 

. > 5!^ 

l_S Am 

They will follow. 


They all followed. t s 






near future: 

distant 
future: 




ii - 


You follow. 
You will follow. 


You followed. ' ° 




near past:: 

+ ai 


or- 


You two follow /will m; % You two followed. t'»'& rsf 
follow. ; || | 




^- 


You all follow. s 
* 

is "7 

You all will follow. W^WW 


You all followed. o Jo sg. 




Past 

continuous: 




(with noun) tS - 
(wittiverbl 


1 follow. ^ 
1 will follow. 


1 followed. J o sg. 


of 






We follow. 

We will follow. ^J-^ 


We followed. {^Jt^Si 




_> -> 









Don'tfollow! 0 ^ kt 


o a;. 

Follow! ^J) 


Don't (you two) follow! Ui; H 


Follow (you two)! ^ 


Don't (you all) follow! ~T ~~~ 


Follow (you all)! 'J*^' 



Passive participle Jj*i° ^ 


Active participle d=-ls ^1 












ohe who is followed 




one who follows 


Singular 






Dual 


those who are followed 




those who follow {jjt.fj» c 0 y^-fJ* 


Plural 



(He.it) is being followed "V, (He.it) is followed 



b 51 > 



Passive Voice 



54 



He found the (61) 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijii 


Past Tense J«» 


Detached 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


4 — 


He finds the path. 




He found the path. ^ ^o 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 

when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


He will find the 
path. 




Ua - 






They two found the i 
path. - 








They find the path. 




They all found the g g 








They will find the 
path. 


near future: 
distant future: 




i] - 


You find the path. 




You found the path. s os so . 




near past:: 

^ + °Ji 


You will find the 
path. 






You two found the ll^juti 1 Usl! 
path. - , ! ~~ 






You all find the 
path. 


\ > SO s 


You all found the . 




Past 

continuous: 


You all will find the 
path. 




(with noun) l£ 
(with verb} 


1 find the path. 




1 found the path. J os so . 


of 




1 will find the path. 


U- 


We find the path. 




We found the path. so so . 




We will find the 
path. 











Negative ^ 


Imperative yi 


Don't find the path! 




Find the path! 




Singular 


Don't (you two) find the 
I path! 




Find the path \'&\ 
(you two)! 


Dual 


Don't (you all) find the 
path! 




Find the path 
(you all)! 


\ jiaSbl 


Plural 



Passive participle Jj*i- p-J 


Active participle ^1 






so A 

one who finds the path ^£ ■ a 


Singular 






Dual 




those who find the path ^jwL^a ( UjJd^fi 


Plural 




55 



^(Verbal noun) 



Attached 


Imperfect Tense jC^i Ji» 


Past Tense Jli 


Detached 
Pronouns 


4 — 


^ 0 


JJui£L>1 


y> 


Ua - 










/ J< 0 

/ ^ A 1 • A" . 4 


Jl o 

1 a lmd« 1 




li - 


} 0 


o o 




ur- 






uaf 


1T- 
r 








(with noun) lS _ 
(with verb) ^i - 














0^' 



Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING. orPLU. 



distant future: 



Passive Voice 



Negative J- 







Singular 






Dual 




^ 0 

1 jJL*i£*>l 


3 lural 



Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING. or PLU. 



near past:: 



Past 

continuous: 



Passive participle Jj*i* ^1 


Active participle Jpli ^1 






Singular 






Dual 




° ^ "* ° 


Plural 



Passive Voice 



56 



Feminine a f 
Gender ^> 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense ^jCkijli 


Past Tense ^Ji* 


Detached 
Pronouns 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 


U- 


"* ° 0 


s o 




Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence, 
when the subject is 
SING. FEM. 
or BROKEN PLU. 












0 0 2 






near future: 
distant future: 


ii- 


0 

S 0 1 ♦ so s 


° ° 0 


cJf 


near past:: 

+ ^ 


ur- 










^- 


0 0 
si „sO s 


s ,° ° 




Past 

continuous: 

^ jUii+ jls" 




(with noun) (J~ 
(with verb) 




J "s" SO 


of 






> 0 


0 0 

LJLxjZ2^>I 















Passive Voice 





Negative ^ 


Imperative > 














Singular 










Dual 












Plural 








Passive participle J _^<i- «—l 


Active parh'cip 


e J^U ^- 








' 0 


Singular 




Dual 


' s" SO 


oik 






Plural 



. s , so )■ 



I Passive Voice 



57 



to ask for (Verbal noun) 

forgiveness - s 



He asked for «; ? ,*-\ 
forgiveness. JiXL*>> I ^ ' 

VT-10 





Attached 
Pronouns 


Imperfect Tense £jC^i Jii 


Past Tense ^^Ji* 


Detached 
Pronouns 


Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 


< 


He asks for 
forgivenss. 


* ,0 SO S 


He asked for 
forgiveness. 






when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 


1 


He will ask for 
forgivenss. 




s* 




Ua - 


You two ask /will 
ask for... 




They two asked for 
forgiveness. 




Ui 






They ask for 
forgiveness. 


. * ,0 SO S 


They all asked for 
forgiveness. 


, ■* ♦ ? " t 


0 > 






They will ask for 
forgiveness. 




r* 


near future: 




li - 


You ask forfor- 
giveness. 


> ♦ 0 SO S 


You asked for 
forgiveness. 


' 0 »°, '° , 








You will ask for 
forgiveness. 












You two ask /will 




You two asked for llfJ&L,! 
forgiveness. 


uil 


distant future: 






You all ask for 
forgiveness. 


. * ,0 SO S 


You all asked for 
forgiveness. 


o Jo ,0 SO . 


0 iff 




You will all ask for 
forgiveness. 






(with noun) (J~ 


1 ask for 
forgiveness. 


* ,0 SO \ 


1 asked for 
forgiveness. 


J O'OSO 






(with verb) 


1 will ask for 
forgiveness. 








U- 


We ask for for- 
giveness. 


f ,0 SO S 


We asked for 
forgiveness. 


. SO '.0 SO . 








We will ask for 
forgiveness. 



















Starting verb in a 
verbal sentence. 



when the subject is 
SING.orPLU. 



lear past:: 



Past 
contir 



Negative ^ 


Imperative yi 


Don't ask for 0 >0 ^ c 
forgiveness! jAXL 




Ask for 
forgiveness! 




Singular 






Dual 


Don'taskforforgiveness 1 * 1> 
(you all)! 'J J** 




Ask for 
forgiveness 
(you all)! 




Plural 



Passive participle J yd* 1 


Active participle Jt-li ^1 




. o si A 


one who asks for 
forgiveness 


.0^0 ^ 


Singular 


one who is asked for forgiveness jAXL*v^& 








Dual 


those who are asked for ... ,'\ /.iir'./n 
forgiveness cM-^" <.UJj£*Z~»* 


those who ask for 
forgiveness 




Plural 



(he) is being asked for 
Passive Voice II for 9 iveness 



> .0. 



(he) is asked for ' jjTj 
forgiveness J***** ' 



Passive Voice 



58