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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioijjfiollocjij 



From the 
Treasures 
of 

Arabic 
Morphology 



NOTE : Treasures of Arabic morphology has been 
published by Zam zam Publishers of Pakistan. 
Unfortunately the quality of the print is poor and the 
publishers have retyped the contents pages with 
typing errors. If anyone is prepared to publish the 
book in a quality format, kindly contact the author at 
alinaam@alinaam.org.za . All comments and criticisms 
are welcome. Post your comments to the above email 
address. 



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Title 


From the Treasures of Arabic 
Morphology 


Author 


Moulana Ebrahlm Muhammad 


First Edition 


Safar 1427 A.H. 
March 2006 


Published by 


Academy for Islamic Research 

Madrasah In'amiyyah 

P.O. Box 39 

Camperdown 

3720 

South Africa 


Tel +27 031 785 1519 


Fax 


+27 031 785 1091 


email al_inaam@yahoo.com 



Copyright © 2006 Madrasah In'amiyyah 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in 
a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, 
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior 
permission of Madrasah In'amiyyah, except in the case of brief 
quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. 

Typeset on Times New Roman 12 and Traditional Arabic 18 by 
Academy for Islamic Research, Madrasah In'amiyyah, Camperdown, 
KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. 



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Contents 



Introduction 


10 


Some Useful Terms 


11 


Arabic Terms 


12 


The Types of Words 


14 


Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 


15 


Positive and Negative 


15 


Active and Passive 


15 


The Second Category of Verbs 


16 


Exercise 1 


17 


Types of Nouns 


18 


The Scales of Verbs 




Exercise 2 


22 


The Categories of Triliteral Verbs 


23 


Exercise 3 


25 


The Perfect Active (<~ijjii ^W) 


26 


Exercise 4 


28 


The Perfect Passive (J*ii ^Ui) 


29 


Exercise 5 


33 


The Imperfect (^jUii) 


35 


Exercise 6 


38 


The Imperfect Passive (J yyk\ ^jUdi) 


39 


Exercise 7 


40 


The (wu J_,^) 


41 


Exercise 8 


44 


The (uju ^ij^) 


45 


Exercise 9 


49 


The (fM) and ( j y ) of Emphasis 


50 


Exercise 10 


55 


The Imperative (jJ) 


56 


Exercise 1 1 


61 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa zzA/io'iljfzollocjij 



The Prohibition (^Ji) 


61 


Exercise 12 


65 


The Derived Nouns (lisili *u-Vi) 


66 


The Active Participle (JpUJi ^t) 


66 


Exercise 13 


68 


The Passive Participle (J y£\ ^i) 


69 


Exercise 14 


70 


The Elative (J^i 


71 


Exercise 15 


73 


The (h^ w) 


74 


The Noun of the Instrument (ifti ^i) 


76 


Exercise 16 


78 


The Adverb (d> >Ji 


79 


Exercise 17 


81 


The Intensive Adjective 


82 


Exercise 18 


84 


The Categories (^\ y \) of Verbs 


85 


TheC^f) of(v*^) 


85 


The First (^u) 


85 


The Second (s^) 


86 


The Third 


86 


The Fourth (^) 


87 


The Fifth (^) 


88 


The Sixth (^u) 


88 


Exercise 19 


90 


The (^0 of(v 


91 


Construction of the Derived Nouns 


95 


The Abbreviated Paradigm of each (<_jI*) 


97 


(JUil ^b) 


97 



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Exercise 20 


99 




99 


Exercise 21 


101 




101 


Exercise 22 


103 


(JUiJI i_jLl) 


103 


Exercise 23 


105 


(JUdl <_jLi) 


105 


Exercise 24 


110 


(J^l <_jLl) 


110 


Exercise 25 


112 




112 


Exercise 26 


114 




114 


Exercise 27 


117 




117 


Exercise 28 


119 




119 


Exercise 29 


121 


f IM .it , jtA 


121 


Exercise 30 


123 


(Jl>il 4^) 


123 


Exercise 3 1 


125 


Four Root-Letter Verbs 


126 


Exercise 32 


129 


Xhe Derived Forms of Four Root-Letter 


130 


Verbs 




QLX ^) 


130 


Exercise 33 


132 




132 


Exercise 34 


134 



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1 'XA 


Exercise 35 


136 


Other Derived Forms 


1 ~X1 

LJl 


Exercise 36 


1 AO 


The Seven Categories 


143 


Exercise 37 


146 


The Rules of ) 


147 


Rule 1 


147 


Rule 2 


147 


Rule 3 


148 


Rule 4 


148 


Rule 5 


150 


Rule 6 


151 


Rule 7 


152 


Rule 8 


153 


Rule 9 


154 


Rule 10 


156 


Exercise 38 


156 


The Orthography of the Hamzah 


157 


TVip P^rtirli cmc of ( ■ * *\ 
1 11C r dl dLllH Ills \JL yjj^~Q-*J 


158 


Exercise 39 


160 


Exercise 40 


161 


Exercise 41 


163 


Discussion of (oyJi 


163 


Uiscussion ot vc*^ jy~fr*) 


164 


Exercise 42 


165 


The Rules of (J^) 


166 


Rule 1 


166 


Rule 2 


167 


Rule 3 


168 


Rule 4 


169 


Rule 5 


170 


Rule 6 


171 



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Rule 7 


171 


Rule 8 


179 


Rule 9 


184 


Rule 10 


189 


Exercise 43 


193 


Rule 1 1 


193 


Rule 12 


194 


Rule 13 


195 


Rule 14 


196 


Rule 15 


199 


Rule 16 


199 


Rule 17 


202 


Rule 18 


203 


Rule 19 


204 


Rule 20 


205 


Rule 21 


206 


Rule 22 


207 


Rule 23 


208 


Rule 24 


209 


Rule 25 


210 


Rule 26 


212 


Exercise 44 


213 


The Paradigms of (Jit.) 


214 


Exercise 45 


220 


The Paradigms of (<J» yJ) 


221 


Exercise 46 


228 


i lie r di aui &iii ui vi^^ J 


229 


Exercise 47 


240 


1 11C I al aUlglllft Ul ^^(Asu j dliu y^SL^Juj 


241 


Exercise 48 


250 


Exercise 49 


260 


Exercise 50 


271 


Combination of ( Jr ~^) and (J^) 


272 


Exercise 5 1 


283 



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SJzom ids, [Uxs.ai.uxs.i. oj ' c^xaSna ^Mp^ljlzotocjij 



The Rules of (_ipU-) 


284 


Rule 1 


284 


Rule 2 


286 


Rule 3 


287 


Rule 4 


288 


Rule 5 


289 


Exercise 52 


290 


Exercise 53 


297 


A Combination of (^i*u~) , (jj^*) and (Js«) 


301 


Exercise 54 


303 


Special Meanings (oL<=u) of Each (^u) 


304 


The (ouu) of Cr-i ^) 


304 


The (oL^u) of (v > ^) 


304 


The (^u) of ^) 


305 


The (ol^u) of ( fj r ^) 


305 


The Derived Categories 


306 


The (ou^u) of (Juit i_jVj) 


306 


The (oL*=u) of (J-** ^) 


309 


The (oL^u) of (iipu. t_jLj) 


311 


The (ouu) of GM ^) 


312 


The (ouu) of (Juai ^) 


314 


The (^u=u) of (j!5U»j ^b) 


314 


The (^u,u) of (>aj ^i) 


315 


The (oi-^u) of (>u; v b) 


317 


The (oL^u) of (Ji*iM ^l) 


318 


The (oL^u) of (ju^j 


319 


The (oL^u) of (J*5U*i v^) 


320 


The (ouu) of (Ji>»i ^i) 


320 


The (oL^u) of (aiu v^) 


321 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa zzA/io'iljfzollocjij 



The (oL^u) of (Ji*i- ^u) 


321 




322 


The (oi^u) of (J5U»J ^u) 


322 


Application of the Special Meanings 


323 


Challenging Words 


325 


Appendix A - Morphology or Etymology? 


352 


Bibliography 


356 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Introduction 

Arabic Morphology — ^ * Lp) is a branch of Arabic 

Grammar dealing with word-forms and patterns. It is 
highly essential for the incumbent student of Arabic to 
learn this science in order to be proficient in the language. 
Acquiring an understanding of word patterns is of prime 
importance in learning the language. 

This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the 
important aspects of the subject. If a student has to study 
this book thoroughly, he would develop a very good 
foundation in this science and it would absolve him of the 
need to study any further books on the subject. 

The Arabic names of morphologic terms have been 
adopted instead of the Urdu forms commonly found in the 
text books of Islamic seminaries. Thus I have used the 

term (A^dSCjl j^p) instead of (2 — «iS" — p). Similarly, instead 
of writing (c — S" y>~), the correct Arabic form of (2 — S" y-) 
has been used while the term — s^ul) is used instead of 

— ^l*) which is incorrect. This will enable the student to 

learn the correct Arabic terms from the initial stages of his 
learning. 

Included also is a collection of rules of word-changes 
which affect many Arabic verbs and nouns. The rules have 
been clearly explained with examples and a step by step 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioijjfiollocjij 



method as to how a word is changed from its original form 
to its present one. 

It is hoped that this book will be beneficial for the students 
of Arabic Grammar and Morphology and simplify the path 
to understanding the intricacies of the language. Amln. 

For a detailed discussion on the name of this subject, 
whether it is called Morphology or Etymology, refer to 
Appendix A at the end of this book. 

Some Useful Terms 

Conjugation: A paradigm, class, or table of verb forms in 
such inflected languages as Latin and French, where 
elements are distinguished from each other by patterns of 
inflection relating to tense, person, number. 1 

Declension: A term used to describe the case system of 
nouns and other words. 2 

Inflection: The variation or change of form that words 
undergo to mark distinctions of case, gender, number, 
tense, person, mood, voice, comparison. 3 

Linguistics and Philology: The study of language. 

Paradigm: pronounced (pa-ra-dime), in grammar, a set of 
all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (write, writes, 
wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model 
for all other words of the same type. 4 



1 The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 256, 1992. 

2 Ibid, p. 281. 

3 Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1160. 

4 The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 747, 1992. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Arabic Terms 

The following are some of the Arabic terms used 
frequently in this book. It would be advisable to learn 
them thoroughly as they are frequently used throughout 
the book. 



Term 


Meaning 




A diacritical point — denoting the sound 
of 'a'. 




A diacritical point - — denoting the sound 
of 'u'. 




A diacritical point - — denoting the sound 
off. 




A diacritical point - — that serves the 

purpose of joining two letters in 
pronunciation 




A letter having a fathah, e.g. (< — ^) 




A letter having a dammah, e.g. 




A letter having a kasrah, e.g. (ii) 




A letter having a sukun or jazm, e.g. 


*> 


The three diacritical points, fathah 
dammah and kasrah are each called a 
harakah 




A letter having a harakah, e.g. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 





The first root letter of a word, also referred 
to as consonant or radical, e.g. the of 

(^) 




The second root letter of a word, e.g. the 
(o) of (^S) 


<UiiOl •'if 


The third root letter of a word, e.g. the (^) 
of (jbsJ) 




Word-form denoting the number, gender 
and mood of the verb 




is the plural of (<-r>^>) which refers 

to a category of verbs belonging to one 
class. The first verb of the perfect tense 

(^^slll) and the imperfect tense (^jUall), 

are used to indicate the diacritical points of 
the alphabets of the verbs. 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Types of Words 



Term 


Meaning 


Example 




word 






noun 




ja 


verb 




3> 


particle - it is dependent on either 
an U — -»\) or (J — «i) in conveying its 
meaning 





With regards to meaning and tense, a verb is of three 
types: 



Term 


Meaning 


Example 




Indicates the occurrence of 
an action in the past tense. It 
is referred to as the perfect 
tense in English. 


J_^i - He 
did. 




Indicates the occurrence of 
an action in the present or 
future tense. It is referred to 
as the imperfect tense in 
English. 


J*Jl> - He is 

doing or he 
will do. 




a command 


J— ill - You 
do. 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 



Term 


Meaning 


Example 




Intransitive - does 
not require an object 


^ - He is 

walking. 




Transitive - requires 
an object 


— J! £sJu - He is 
opening the door. 



Positive and Negative 



Term 


Meaning 


Example 




positive 


Jiij - He is doing. 




negative 


J*ij ^ - He is not doing. 



The terms (^-~~*) and (^^>) are also used. 
Active and Passive 



Term 


Meaning 


Example 




active tense - the doer 
of the action is known 


J*ij - He is doing. 




passive tense - the doer 
of the action is not 
known 


J*ij - It is being 
done. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxviea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Second Category of Verbs 

With regard to the root letters (2-1*3^1 l3 j of a verb, they 
are of two types: 



Term 


Meaning 


Example 




3 root letters or 
triliteral 






4 root letters or 
quadriliteral 





Each of these two types is further divided into two categories: 

(1) (j jA) - the (^^lll) consists of root letters only, without 
any extra letters. 

(2) (aJ - the (^^lll) has root letters plus extra letters. 



This results in the following four categories: 



Term 


Meaning 


Example 




3 root letters only 






3 root letters plus extra 
letters 






4 root letters only 






4 root letters plus extra 
letters 





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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 1 

(1) Determine whether the following verbs have 3 root- 
letters or 4 root-letters. 

(a) J^ 

(b) C >S 

(c) 

(d) >j 

(e) >Ii 



(2) What do the following terms mean: 



Term 


Meaning 































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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Types of Nouns 

(1) There are three types of nouns - (s-LH): 
[a] , [b] jx^* and [c] J^Ur . 

(2) The (j^ — ^2j> - verbal noun) is a word that indicates the 

occurrence of an action and is free of tense e.g. (j — ^aiit) - 
to assist. 

(3) The (J£ — ^») is a word derived from a verb e.g. (j — vfU) - 
helper is derived from (j-^J). 

(4) The — «Ur) is neither a (jJ — nor a (js — ^) e.g. 
(J^j) - man - 

(5) The (jJ y2») and the (js ^) also fall under the 

categories of ( lS j%"), — (-Sj — 4) and — i ^ — j like 

the (J *^). The categories mentioned under the verb like 

(^px^a) etc. also apply to an (^'). 

(6) The noun with regard to its letters can either 

have three root letters (triliteral), four root letters 
(quadriliteral) or five root letters (quinquiliteral). It is 
therefore of six types: 

[1] 0^ Jrt) e.g. - a man 

[2] (v Jjj-a e.g. (j^) - a donkey 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



[3] 0 A ls^ j) e -g- ^-/j**) ~ scorpion 
[4] («ui -ky ^bj) e.g. Cftie°J>) - paper 
[5] l^^) e-g- (J*-'j£*) - quince 
[6] (aJ Jjj^. ^*-l>-) e.g. (o^JkIp) - a 
spider 

(7) The scholars of morphology generally deal with the 
(J — **) because most of the changes (<^^ij — v^J) occur in a 

(J — *i) while few changes occur in an U — *>\) and none occur 

in a (tJ j>-). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Scales of Verbs 

The Arabic verb is constructed from a root which usually 
consists of three letters called consonants or radicals. 
These consonants form a kind of skeleton which 
constitutes the verb-stem to which prefixes and suffixes 
may be added. 

Arabic verbs are mostly triliteral, that is, they are 
constructed of three root letters. The simplest form of the 
verb is the third person masculine singular of the perfect 

tense — ^li! J — j — » 4 jLp £s — » J — m most 

dictionaries, all the words derived from a triliteral root are 
entered under the third person masculine singular form of 
the verb. 

In Arabic, there are two main tenses, the perfect or past 
tense — ^Lu), denoting actions completed at the time to 

which reference is made; and the imperfect — v^ail), for 

incompleted actions, referring to the present or future 
tenses. The present and future tenses are thus expressed by 

the imperfect form (^jl — <^U). The imperative (j — oH) may 

be considered a modification of the imperfect. 

To indicate patterns or type-forms of verbs, the 
grammarians use the three letters of the verb (J — **), where 

the (<-i) represents the first radical of the verb, the (£) 

represents the second radical of the verb and the (J) 
represents the third radical of the verb. This is the scale 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioijjfiollocjij 

( 01 j — *a) or standard by which the root letters of a verb are 
determined. Accordingly, the word (4- — is on the scale 

of (Jii), (s sC) is on the scale of (J — *jsj) and — 1S1) 

is on the scale of (J**f). 

The letter that corresponds to the (<-3) of the (Olj — ^») is 
called the 0 — liS^Jl g.\ — s), that which corresponds to the (£) is 
called the 0 — HSvJl — p) while the letter corresponding to 
the (J) is called the (,CKil 

Example: the word (s-^") is on the scale of (J*^): 




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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

Exercise 2 

(1) Determine the scales of the following verbs and what 
each letter represents. The first one has been done for you. 

(a) M 

The (0) is the (Jui&l the (^) is the (2 — u^_p), the 
(J) is the (Ul&l fV). 

(b) (^1-1) 
(c) 

(d) 

(e) (J*W) 

(f) (£0 
(g) 

(h) 

(i) (Jt-) 

0) 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c^xaSna t^A/lozfiliofogy 



The Categories of Triliteral Verbs 

(1) The first and third letters of a simple triliteral verb in 
the active tense is always vowelled with a fathah (2 — >*zi). 

The second letter or radical may be vowelled by a (2 — >^i), 

or (a j — The active perfect tense ( ^ — ^Lll J — 

t-^jj — of triliteral verbs (-ij — £ ^ — "%") is used on three 
scales: 

[a] J*i e.g. (^s») 

[b] J*i e.g. (^-) 

[c] Jii e.g. CfiO 

(2) The conjugation of the (J — *i) and (J — *i) forms is similar 
to the conjugation of (J**). 

(3) The imperfect tense (^jj — ** «^») of (J — *i) is 

sometimes (J — e.g. (g£ — k ^ — '*) and sometimes (J — 
e.g. (j — j — *aj) and sometimes (J — *jL) e.g. ( s-Jj — ^ 

(4) The conjugation of the (J — and (J — is similar to 
the conjugation of (J*^). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioijjfiollocjij 



(5) The 0~^jj — ** ^j^ 2 -*) of (J — *i) is sometimes (J — e.g. 

>) and sometimes (J*A>) e.g. ^~). 

(6) The Mj^^* ^jL^) of (J—ii) is only (J— iij) e.g. 

(7) The (J y-^) of all three scales is (J*i). 

(8) The (J j&Z jU^>) of all three scales is (ji>). 

(9) Based on the above-mentioned facts, there are six 
categories (<-^jj)) of y~ ( _ S J "*^ J ") which are as follows: 

O ^») (2) 

^) (3) 

(4) 

(#5 £0 (5) 

(10) There is no rule to specify which verb belongs to 

which category (>_->t — >)• It is based on (£j — f ) - as heard 

from the Arabs. One can also ascertain which 
category a verb belongs to from a dictionary. There are 
however certain guidelines which are as follows: 

[a] If the verb belongs to the category of ( ^ > 



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£tX — ij) the second or third letter will be from the ( ^jj — >- 
3Jil^~y e.g. (Jtl~j J^), ((^-o- 5 ^ ^ J>r )- 

[b] If the perfect ^lil J is of the form 

(J — the imperfect — ja±\ J — is generally from the 
category of (^-*— *d ^°-^)- 

[c] If the perfect — J*£jl) is of the form (J — 

the imperfect .Ml J is generally from the 

category of (f ? J?). 

Exercise 3 

To which category (^>\ — >) does each of the following verb 
belong: 

(1) (i^r lij 

(2) (1^ *1> £ ) 

(3) j^i) 

(4) (sJUaj CJ^) 

(5) (<3j4 I3>) 



5 The (■5*2L>- t-ij^) are the following six letters: 



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The Perfect Active Tense (<-^jj*ii i^^) 



(1) There are 14 word-forms — of the perfect tense 



(2) The Arab Grammarians usually begin the Perfect ( J — 



(3) Unlike English, Arabic also has a dual form for the 
second and third persons. As for the first person, the plural 
form is used for both the dual and plural. 

(4) Hereunder follow the paradigms of the perfect tense. 
Note that the first three froms are for the masculine while 
the second three are for the feminine of the third person. 
The following six forms are for the second person, the first 
three being for the masculine and the second three for the 
feminine. The final two forms are for the first person. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



AA-^flii (Word-form) 


Verb 














c-JLp C-JJ^» JL>-t J 
























j^>\s>~ cUj^ -b^tj 





















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Exercise 4 

Conjugate the following verbs in the perfect tense ( ^ — 
l3j in table form : 

(a) CUp) 

(b) (£*4i 

(c) 64' jS) 

(d) (d^ d^o 

(e) (J^lb Jio) 

(f) (LiC Lis") 

(g) jU*) 

(h) (j^j jnu) 

(i) (JL^JfJ J^r) 

0) (j4 J^> 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Perfect Passive (J <^*»U1) 

The (J j ^ — <M) is constructed from the ( ^ — M 

t-^jj — in all triliteral verbs ( -ij — £ ^ — If we take the 

first verb, namely the third person singular form, (J — a 

(5^ — js) is rendered to the first letter, a (o j — is rendered 
to the second letter while the third letter remains in its 
original condition. The result is (J — No matter what the 

(2 — S" j>-) of the second letter in the active tense is, in the 

passive tense it will always be Examples: 



Active - 0-£j j**) 


Passive - (J 















Note that the intransitive verbs can be used in the passive tense if 
they are used with a particle (<-» _?-), e.g. 

(aj L-ai) - It was taken. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



C~ill J j^fcl ^lll J*iJl 



Word-form 


Verb 


singular masculine 3 rd person 


^ 


dual masculine 3 ld person 




plural masculine 3 rd person 


\°JJ 


singular feminine 3 rd person 




dual feminine 3 rd person 




plural feminine 3 rd person 




singular masculine 2 nd person 




dual masculine 2 nd person 




plural masculine 2 nd person 




singular feminine 2 nd person 




dual feminine 2 nd person 




plural feminine 2 nd person 




singular first person 




dual and plural first person 


lii 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



Verb 


Pronoun 


J** u 




Ll*3 La 




1 jixi La 




C-Jlr3 L» 




LUxi La 




Li 








LoJU*i La 


LaJol 


(1 jd*i L» 




O-Ui L» 


cJt 


LoJUjtS La 


Lo-ol 


^iiLa 




cJbti La 




llLU La 





The words (I — a) or (V) 

are used for the 
negative sense. To use 

01) with ( LS -^\i\), the 

condition is that the 

(V) must be repeated 

The column on the 
right indicates how the 

pronouns (jjL» — are 

used with the verbs. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Word-form 


Verb 














ttliJ! 








olJUJl 





































Note the Arabic terms used for the different word-forms in 
this table. 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Exercise 5 

(a) Translate the following sentences: 

jTyiJl s. J 

(b) What is the (4*^) of the following verbs: 
[1] jib a j^S" 2ju Cw,.Lg- SlJli Sis ^jf) 

[2] (ill- ji ^> 

[3] (obr ^ IjT^ ^) 
[4] (OlJJ! ji! bf) 
[5] Uj3 j^j) 



(i) 

(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(6) 
(7) 
(8) 
(9) 
(10) 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioijjfiollocjij 



[6] (o IjJ^i) 

[7] {^\~A ^SUp L^T) 

[8] (CJUli blj) 
[9] (°cis3 ^Ji tfl) 
[10] (^alijj If j) 

(c) Are the following verbs (uJjj*^) or (Jj^)? 

[2] (^ii) 
[3] 

[4] (oiT) 
[5] (IjJUaJ) 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Imperfect jUail) 

The Imperfect (^jL^it) is formed by adding prefixes and/or 
suffixes to the perfect tense. The prefixes can either be any of the 
letters The suffixes may either be ( ( jj), (ji) or just 

After adding the prefix, the first radical or letter of the verb has 
(0 jSw), e.g. the (t-^) of (J*^>) has a sukun. The second letter 
can have any of the three harakat, depending on which category 
the verb belongs to. 

In the indicative case (^i J\ the final vowel of the third 

radical is (4^i>) in the singular form of the verb, e.g. 

(Jiij), (J*ij"), (J*^) and (J*^>). For the subjunctive case ( 4JU- 

t»_~v^i), this (4^i>) is changed to e.g. (J*-*i), (J*^")> 

(Jiil) and (J*-^); while for the jussive case (f j^M ^b^), it is 

replaced by a (0 j>~*), e.g. (J*-^), (J*-^"), (J**b and (J*a>). The 
changes in the singular and dual forms will be discussed later. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



call ^jUii J*i)i 



Meaning 


Verb 


He is doing or he will do. 


J*i 


They (2 males) are doing or they will do. 


jlliij 


They (plural males) are doing or they will do. 




She is doing or she will do. 




They (2 females) are doing or they will do. 




They (plural females) are doing or they will do. 




You (1 male) are doing or you will do. 




You (2 males) are doing or you will do. 




You (plural males) are doing or you will do. 




You (1 female) are doing or you will do. 




You (2 females) are doing or you will do. 




You (plural females) are doing or you will do. 




I am doing or will do. 




We are doing or we will do. 





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SJzom ids. ^3xs.aiuxs.i. oj ' c/fxalju 


d\l\oxjriholoc]ij 


















Jpl 










dull 






































oil*!- v 
























































jUbi ^ 




Dili- *y 












J* 










lP 3 











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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

Exercise 6 

(1) To which category >) do each of the following 

verbs belong: 

(a) (jk jU) 

( b) (,0^ ,Jfe) 

(c) (JL*j JLp) 

(d) (diU diL) 

(e) (jL >) 

(2) What is the of the following words: 





(i) 




(2) 




<3) 




(4) 




(5) 


J Jai Lfti\ 1!M ^ 


(6) 




(7) 




(8) 



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The Imperfect Passive Tense (J ^ jUail) 

The (J j — — v^ail) is constructed from the ( j\ — ^ 
<-t jj — in all triliteral verbs (jj — A ^ — If we take the 
first verb, namely the third person singular form, (J — a 
(L» — j>) is rendered to the first letter which is the ( 2 — «Mp 

jA\) - sign of the imperfect tense. A (2 >ds) is 

rendered to the (2 — <J5nJ1 ^ — p ) while the (2 — «iSCj1 
remains as it is. The result is (J — No matter what the 
(2 — f />-) of the (2 — <d£Jt — p) in the active tense is, in the 
passive tense, it will always be y**). Examples: 



Active - (Vj 


Passive - (J 















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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 7 

(a) Translate the following into English: 

j^ulo jL£ ilp jjslo *y ( 1 ) 

^li! (2) 
j^diUji^ijrj; ( 3) 

CjlklS! ^ ^CL*Jl JiL' (4) 

(b) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: 

[1] The door of the school is being opened. 

[2] He is being sent to Madinah. 

[3] The disbelievers will be defeated. 

[4] The car will be left on the road. 

[5] The book will be read today. 



(c) Conjugate the following verbs into the ( ^> 



(5) 


(4) 


(3) 


(2) 


(1) 


c>- 











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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



The J^") 

The ^Jj^) are: (01), (jJ), ([^T) and (<l)il). When they 

precede the (^jU^ J*i), they render (s-~^) to the following 
five words: 

t-Jlp £±A Jb-1 j t Jii^ (1) 
l_jLp dJj-a c JjtiJ (2) 

jTx. j t Jii? (3) 

Jb-1 j t Jiil (4) 

^ Cf < (5) 

The (<— *' j^V' ^ J^) °f me following seven words is deleted: 

l_JLp ^Jl* c oUiij (1) 
l_JLp ^TJL* t Dyiij (2) 
l-oLp cJj-« t jUiiJ (3) 
^-^U- ^S'ijs ( jlliiJ (4) 
j^s\s>- j~> X» l j jiiiJ (5) 
C-Jj-* -l^lj t (j^JJJ (6) 

ouiij (7) 

The following two words remain unchanged: 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



c^ilp dJj-« c (1) 

j-^U- dJj-« c (jl^ij (2) 

The word (jJ) changes the positive imperfect tense ( 
o-jia) to negative (<^*) with emphasis. 

The paradigms of (eij^) - the active tense and (Jj^St) - the 

passive tense - when used with the other particles, (01), {^f) and 

(jit) will be the same as was in the case of (jJ). 
Examples: 



\°j\jJu jf 


MiiJ jf 


J*4 0t 








\°j\j*Ju jit 


jit 


JiiJ jit 



Hereunder follow the paradigms of (^jU^ J*i) when used with 
the particle (<jJ). 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 8 

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using (<l)l): 

J^J(l) 

(2) 

^(4) 
U>'X (5) 

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using ((X): 

^i(l) 

(2) 
(3) 
din: (4) 

J^(5) 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



The ^jj^) 

The (21. jU- <~>3j>-) are (01), (jj), (lU), qA| fV) and ( ^ 

i^-^O- When they precede the (^jU^ J**), they render 
to the following five words: 

l_JLp ^SM. Jb-1 j t Jil' (1) 

c_JLe CJ j-* ^1 J t JiiJ (2) 

^Tx. ^1 j t J^i? (3) 
Jb-1 j t Jiil (4) 

^Kx. ^ t (5) 

The (v' ^ J^) °f me following seven words is deleted: 

l_JLp ^Jl* c jUiij (1) 
l_Ap jS'X* c Oj1*jsj (2) 

i Jlp ki^Jj-< ^u^S C jUiiJ (3) 

j^s\s>- £ J0» A^uiJ t jliiiJ (4) 
j^sU- jS'i-a C j jliij (5) 

j^fl\s>- C-Jj-« -b^tj C (6) 

Oilii; (7) 

The following two words remain unchanged: 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



j-a C J&jl (2) 

The word (jj) changes the positive imperfect tense ( ^jUiil 
cudll) to the negative perfect tense (^^^ LS *tfli(). 

The paradigms of (<-3j j*-*) - the active voice and (J - the 

passive voice - when used with (01), (U->), G-*V and ( 

I), will be the same as was in the case of ((J). 
Examples: 



\°j\*Jj 01 






ijii ill 



















The word (uJ) means 'not as yet'. Thus (J*A> ^) will mean 'he 
did not do as yet' . 

The ^) enters all the word-forms of the passive tense 

(J In the active tense it is only used in the third 

person (v^) and first person (J&s*) word-forms. 



If any of the precede a (^jU^» J*i) whose ( ft 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa ^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



:uK)l) is a (JO j^), the (3LJI ^> is deleted. 
Examples: 





Example of 

(J) 


Example of 


Example of 

0) 



































Hereunder follow the paradigms of (^jU^ J*i) when used with 
the particle ((J). 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



ILuL 



1 jj 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 9 

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using (jj): 





(i) 




(2) 




<3) 




(4) 




(5) 



(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (y^t fH): 





(1) 




(2) 


* tO s 


(3) 


din; 


(4) 




(5) 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa ^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The (f V) and ( J y) of Emphasis 

(4J jj j jISUI - The Energetic Forms 

(1) To create emphasis in the meaning of (^jL^-* J**), the ( ^ 
-aIS'IxJI) is prefixed to it and j jj) or ^ j-0 suffixed to 
it. The (4LiJ ^ jj) is (-iAA^) and is suffixed to all the word-forms 

The (4jLa>- Ojj) is (^jS'L-) and is not suffixed to the 
(V^) and (cJ j-* word-forms. 

(2) The letter prededing the Oj) is in the 
following word-forms: 

y^il! _ l-JLp ^TJu. j i. (1) 

— t-JLe cJ j-* ^1 j t Jiif (2) 

_ jTx. j t Jiif (3) 
^liitJ _ Jb-1 j t Jiil (4) 
J£i2 _ ^Kz* ^ t (5) 

(3) The j^V' ^ y) * s deleted in the following words before 
attaching the (-^txJl d y): 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



jiiil) — c-JLp £ ' Aj> i DjiiflJ (2) 

DLUjjxi Ju)J^ <iuiS c jliiiJ (3) 

j> Sj> ^uiS c OU*jSj (4) 

— j-^l^ ^S"^ c j jliiJ (5) 
(jliiixi — ^-^U- oJj-« -b^tj i (J^jsj (6) 

(4) The (cJtit) of the is retained while the (^Li* j jJ) itself 
becomes (jj^Jx^), e.g. ( JlUiJ). 

(5) The ( j! j) of (/'JLi ^) and the (c5) of ^-1 j) are also 
deleted. The (>w?) before the (jlj) and the (a before the 
(jS) are retained, e.g. (jiiiJ) and (j-Uixi). 

(6) In the (cJ word-forms, an (cJ>Jt) is inserted between 

the ( 0 jj) of and the j y) so that three nuns do not 

occur in one place. This will occur in the following two word- 
forms: 

oiiiiiii t_jLp cjj-* 1 (1) 

(7) The (SI-aj j jj) itself is (j j~~SO) in these two words. In short, 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJxsxiiXxxsA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



the Oy) is (jj~^x-a) after and (^jSjL*) in the other 

instances. 

(8) The (ajLas- Ojj) is similar to the (3iJL j jj) except in the 

(4^") and (dJj^ word-forms. The (4jLa>- ^ y) is only used 

in those words where there is no (<-il!) before (^i-i) 0 jj) and 
these are eight word-forms. 

Once (Sl-i) j jj) and (*jLjb=- 0 jj) enter a (^jU^ J**), its 
meaning changes to the future tense. 



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Dili] 


















jiii] 


















































yti3 







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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 















□ 




□ 














□ 




□ 


□ 




□ 








□ 




□ 














□ 




□ 


□ 




□ 















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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 10 

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using (2 — LJL j j — ;) in the 
active and passive tenses: 

l£j (i) 

(2) 
(3) 

'-A (4) 
U>'& (5) 

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (2 — kJaf- jj — >) in the 
active and passive tenses: 





(i) 


& 


(2) 


* fa s 


(3) 




(4) 




(5) 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Imperative ( J) 

The (j — <^?L>- j — *l - imperative second person) is constructed 
from the (^jU2» J*i) in the following manner: 

(1) The (^jl — «Ml 2 — - the sign of the imperfect tense - 
is deleted. 

(2) If the following letter is (iij the final letter is 

rendered QjS'L-). Example: the verb (**jJ) changes to (-^). 

(3) If the following letter is — a (J — o jJl Sj — =*) is 
inserted at the beginning and the end is rendered (jS'L*). 

(4) If the (2 — J&1 CJ*) has a — the (J — * jJl S is 
rendered a Example: (j^>) becomes (j-M>). 

(5) If the (JUl&l j^p) has a (3—^9) or (ij—^S), the ( 
J-^jJl) is rendered a (a Examples: 

(^zsJu) becomes (^i). 
j-M) becomes (<v j-^i). 

(6) The j jJ) is deleted while the (S j — j j— !) - 
the nun of the feminine plural - is retained. Examples: 

( jllii;) becomes (U**!). 

(^jiiij") becomes Qj-^i). 



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(7) The (2 UJ! — >-) at the end is deleted. Examples: 

(y>JJ) becomes (£^>). 

(tf h becomes (pi). 
(^^.ioiJ) becomes Cj^-}). 

(8) The imperative of the first and third persons ( j »i 

Itj v is formed by adding a (^V) at the 

beginning of — ^> J — This has the same effect 
on the verbs as (*->). 

(9) The (JL-sTtsJl pV) and (JL-jTtsJl j can also be attached 
to the ( word-forms. 

Hereunder follow the paradigms of (^jj — *^ j — - the 

imperative active) and (J j j^l j - the imperative 

passive). 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



0^1 
i4 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

































A 










































'jib 









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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

Exercise 1 1 

Conjugate the imperative (j 4) of the following verbs in 

the active and passive forms first and then conjugate them 
using the (JLSlsl! fi) and (JLSlsi! 0 y): 

(1) 
(2) 

U^; ( 3) 

J***' (4) 
£4 (5) 



The Prohibition 

(1) The particle (V) is used before — yaj> J — *i) to denote 

prohibition. It has the same effect as (p — i) in changing the 
different word-forms. 

(2) The (2 — L2j j jj) and (2 — a-i^- Oj — >) can be attached to all 
the forms of { LS ^\). 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



jjj^ Jib 



*y 



*y 



i^Il *y 



^1- v 



*y 



*y 



!>ui; *y 



•y 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 









LT - 




(_r - 








° r x". M 






° r i- m 






V 




o 
























° r -A v 


° r i? m 




° 1' M 


o 




o 


o 




o 















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Exercise 12 

(1) Conjugate the prohibition ^) of the following 

verbs in the active and passive forms first and then 
conjugate them using the (wLS"li)t ("V) and d jJ): 

^ (1) 



(2) 

_ ( 3) 
(4) 



(5) 



(2) What is the (4*^0 of the following verbs? 



DlH^Jy^ (1) 

^ (2) 

olLaj *y (3) 

'u&V (4) 

jil^^J *y (5) 

*J*J V (6) 

jill^Iij *y (7) 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



THE DERIVED NOUNS (Usiil *U"Vl) 

The following six nouns are derived from the verb: 

U^Jl (4) Js^aisil (H-l (3) J jiuii! ^\ (2) JpUJ! (1) 

(J >Ji (6) sJVi I (5) H^ii 
The Active Participle (JpUJi ^i) 

The active participle (J^Lail j^-t) indicates the person or being 

from whom the action emanates, e.g. (^^) - a person who 
listens. 

In 3-root letter verbs (J j£ the (J*^ j*-^) is formed by 

adding an (eJ-it) after the first letter, rendering a (a to the 
second letter and (jj j^j) to the final letter. Thus, (J**) becomes 
(Jpli). In the dual forms (V^'X 0-^') and (0 jj) are attached to 
the end, e.g. (O^Ip-U). For the feminine form, a round (a) is 
inserted at the end. For the masculine plural (_f (^j) is 

inserted, e.g. ( jjipli), while for the feminine plural (cJ y 

the syllable, (ot) is attached, e.g. (oMe-li). There are three 

scales for the masculine form and three for the feminine form of 
the word. 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i oj ' c/fxaljLa ^A/io^ljIzotocjij 







-T J 


u 








0°JLpU 


^ 3 


- 











In the indicative case (£» jJl 3J^~), the (V^) is used with an (cJ-it) 
while in the accusative and genative cases (yMj 4-~^Jl ^^), it 
is used with a (c5) preceded by a (^oi). The ( j jj) of the (ViS) is 
(jj^50), e.g. (O'jUli) and (<>^). 

For the masculine plural in (^i J\ 2 -!^), a (j) is used while in 
(yMj (w^aJl 2 -!^), a (c5) preceded by a (a j-^S") is used. The 
( j y) of (^) is (£■ e.g. (O^pli) and (^iL^li). 



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Exercise 13 

Conjugate the (J^LaM ^J\) of the following verbs: 





(1) 




(2) 




(3) 




(4) 




(5) 




(6) 




(7) 




(8) 




(9) 




(10) 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Passive Participle (J *^\) 

The passive participle (J f>\) is that entity on which the 

action occurs, e.g. - the thing which is opened. It is 

formed by adding a {^y^ f) at the beginning, a (j) after the 

second letter and (jj j£) at the end. The first root letter ( 

jJUf I) becomes (^jS'L-) while the second one becomes j^-^). 
The additions for the dual and plural forms are the same as the 
(J^-liJl j*—t). Like the (J-p-^ it a l so has six word-forms. 



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Exercise 14 

Conjugate the (J j*iit ^S) of the following verbs: 





(i) 




(2) 


fa 


(3) 




(4) 


<- 


(5) 


J— k 


(6) 




(7) 




(8) 


j£k 


(9) 




(10) 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

The Elative (J-^Ji p-l) 

The (J^2ii)l ^l) is a derived noun that indicates the comparative 

or superlative degree e.g. (J-^') - more virtuous or most 

virtuous. The scale of (J**') is used for this purpose, except for 
colours and defects. In the case of colours and defects, the scale 
of (J*ii) is used for ajL^JI) e.g. (J*^) - red, ( LS -«-^) - 

blind. Tanwm never enters the end of (J*^aixil ^1). The ( j»— <! 

J^aixil) generally renders the meaning of the doer (J^) but 

sometimes it can render the meaning of the object (J j***), e.g. 

- more famous. 

Hereunder follows the paradigm of the (J^aixJl <l): 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c^xaSna ^A/loili/iofogLj 













£ '*L» sl* 
















lLj'J^ ji SLx 









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Exercise 15 

Conjugate the (J^aixJl ^J\) of the following verbs: 



\% (1) 

J1W (2) 
(3) 

'P* (4) 

JA' (6) 
(7) 
( 8) 

J£*' (9) 
(10) 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The {*jrA* 2jL^) 

The ajL^j) is a derived noun referring to the permanent 

quality of an entity, e.g. (J4*-*-) - beautiful. The (J-£^ r*-^) on 

the other hand describes a temporary quality e.g. (^^) - 
listening at the moment. A person will only be referred to as 
(t-jjW?) if the quality of (<— ' emanates from him whereas the 

attribute of (J^-^-) applies to a person all the time. The ( "^p 

H^>) is always intransitive G»jV) even though it may be 

constructed from a transitive verb (c^-bc^). Hence the difference 

between and (j*^*-^) is that ( ( ^»^) indicates a being 

listening at the moment while (£s^-~0 indicates a being which 
permanently has the quality of listening even though there may 
be no object. Therefore one can say (dl^US" but to say 

(JX»U5' £^«-~>) is incorrect. The (^r^* " e ^ s ) has six word-forms 

like the (J^Li^ r*-^)- For the dual and plural forms, changes are 

made to the end as in the (J-£^ r*-^). 

Hereunder follows the paradigm of the ^i-^): 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The ('H-^ 2j ^ 3 ) is used on many scales for which there is no 
rule. It is based on (^Lc) - as heard from the Arabs. Sometimes 
a (I), (j) or (c£) is inserted after the second alphabet, e.g. 
UtJi), (jjij), j^i). Sometimes the root-form remains 

intact but a change occurs in the harakat, e.g. (t-ot^), (t-u^-), 

* °. 

( yu&). Some of the more common scales are listed hereunder. 



Scale 


Example 


Meaning 






handsome 




* •».» 


impure 






brave 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 







chaste 


J* 3 


1< o ^_ 


thick 






empty 


J* 




free 


J** 


* r 


happy 


IP Is 




companion 






noble 






red 






thirsty 



The Noun of the Instrument (aJ^t f\) 

The is a derived noun that indicates the instrument 

used for the action. It is formed by adding a f ) at the 

beginning of the root letters. It has three scales. 



Scales 








Examples 








Meanings 


needle 


fan 


key 



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The paradigm including the dual and plural cases is as follows: 



Scales 


Examples 







































Sometimes the underived noun is used to denote an 

instrument. Different scales are used for this purpose but there is 
no rule for arriving at a particular scale. Examples: 

(<_^) - axe , - adze 6 , (^^) - knife. 



Adze: kind of axe with arched blade used for shaping wood. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 16 

(a) Conjugate the ^>\) of the following verbs: 



> r (5) 


'J> (4) 


v' (3) 




^(1) 


J^(10) 


e*(9> 


yi(8) 


(7) 


J^(6) 



(b) Identify the derived nouns in the following sentences: 



. Lo^jJbl ! jjjaala 2lSjLJ(j JjjLJl (2) 

. jvs y> ji'ij "AS- y> j L^J 4jjUr J^P (3) 
. jljjj j JL&1 I^U NJ j (4) 

. jlw>J £iL» LgJ j,J=J (5) 

. £~^Jl ^jj^ jl (6) 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Adverb >Jl ^\) 

The (<-3 JiJl ^1) is a derived noun that indicates the place or 
time of the action. If the word indicates the place of the action, it 
is called ( JlSCll tJ> J&) and if it indicates the time of the action, it 

is called (Ob»jJi Ja). It is made by adding a j^-i* at the 

beginning of the root letters. It has two scales, namely (J*-**) and 

(JjuL*). If the (^jU^») is (uv^l or (uytSl ^wa*) or 

(^yaSU), the jJi!l will be on the scale of (J^»), e.g. 

and y>). If the (^jU^) is (Oi*^ jj^Jx^) or 

(JU>), the jjiil will be on the scale of (J^- 4 ), e.g. 

and 

The paradigm including the dual and plural forms is as follows: 

















scale 








example 



The ji-^t) is often constructed from the underived noun 

(J»*U-) on the scale of to indicate an excess of that object 

in that place, e.g. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(cjC^\j>) - a place of many lions - derived from (*xl*t) - lion, 

(Aji^. a place of many predators - derived from - 
predator, 

(A^Ja^) - a place of many ducks - derived from (^kj) - duck. 

There are certain words, which according to the rule should have 

a (^is) on the (4^i^J( (A?), but have been used with a (a j-^S") 

instead. These may be regarded as exceptions to the rule. The 
scholars have written that it is permissible to pronounce these 

words with a (^*^*) as well. These words are: 



Word 


Meaning 


Word 


Meaning 




place of 
prostration 


■fi _ 0 s 


place of assembly 


jit 


place of rising 


ia a ■ ■■ * 


place of falling 




place of staying 




intersection 




place of 
slaughtering 




place of slaughtering 




place of 
germinating 




east 




place of resting 
the elbow 




west 




nostril 




place where one 
expects something 



Sometimes the (<-i jjall is used on the scale of (tiki*), e.g. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa d\l\ozlripLotocjij 



(Sj^Jx^) _ antimony bottle, from (J^O - antimony. 

The scale of (2Jl*i) indicates the place where a thing falls during 
the action, e.g. 

(2jll~p) _ the water which falls during bathing, 

(4^* US') - the dirt which falls off the broom when sweeping. 

Exercise 17 

(a) Conjugate the {y* J&h of the following verbs: 



b 3 


(1) 




(2) 




(3) 




(4) 


>< 


(5) 




(6) 




(7) 




(8) 




(9) 




(10) 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

The Intensive Adjective (a*JQl 

The (SAJLII Ai^) is a noun that indicates excess in meaning of 

the verbal noun e.g. - one who hits a lot. The difference 

between (aAJLII aA^) and (J~^ixi1 ^t) is that in (aAJLII Zk^), 
the excess meaning is limited to itself without taking others into 
consideration whereas in the (Jy^iill ^1), the excess in 

meaning is in comparison to others. Hence (■X^^> ^ j^>\) or 

jilt ^1) is in comparison to others while (<~j1 j^) is not in 
comparison to anyone. 

In the (4*JLl1 **-z^>), there is no difference in gender. Sometimes 
a (a) is added for excess in meaning, e.g. (a^Up J^-j) - a very 
learned man, (4^lip al - a very learned woman. 

When (J^) is in the meaning of (J^Li), or (J j**) is in the 

meaning of (Jj*jL»), a differentiation is made between the 
masculine and feminine forms. Examples: 

The following scales are the ones most frequently used for 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Scale 


Example 


Meaning 






very cautious 


J? 




very knowledgeable 


Sy^ 




big eater 


Jlii 




shedder of blood 


JlHi 




very great 


j£ 




very truthful 




■>» ^ 0 


one who cuts a lot 






one who awards many prizes 






chatterbox 






very strange 






very decisive 






one who habitually laughs 


Jj^ 




eternal 






most holy 




lib 


very agile 



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Exercise 18 

(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: 

(1) He is very agile. 

(2) This book is very strange. 

(3) The principal awards many prizes. 

(4) Abu Bakr is very truthful. 

(5) She is a big eater. 

(6) Allah is very knowledgeable. 

(7) The king was a shedder of blood. 

(8) The student is very cautious. 

(9) His mother is very patient. 

(10) The mujahid is extremely brave. 

(B) What is the scale of the following (AjJLii £^>): 





(i) 




(2) 




(3) 




(4) 




(5) 




(6) 


pi 


(7) 




(8) 




(9) 


yjii (10) 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



The Categories {<~>\jv) of Verbs 
The MjJ) of {sj* JM) 

You have already learnt that the verbs of (-1 -three root- 

letter verbs - have six categories - plural of (<-r-^)- 

The First 0-^): Cr*4i ^) 

(J^j Jii) - the (aIKJI ^Ip) of the (y^Hl) has a while 
the (^jL^») has a (3-*-^), e.g. (j-UJl) - to help. The abbreviated 
paradigm 7 of this («— is as follows: 



7 The abbreviated paradigm is where the first (Si* — of each paradigm 
of the active and passive tenses is used. 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



The Second (v^) : ( ^ J*4 <~/j*=) 

(J*il Jii) - the (aIKJI *Jje) of the (y^Hl) has a while 
the (^jL^») has a (a j^), eg _paJl) - to hit. The abbreviated 
paradigm of this O—^) is as follows: 



The Third (s^L>) : (^£sJ ^xi) 

(Jj«il Jis) - the (SliSCJt ^Ip) of the has a (2^xs) while 

the (^jL^>) also has a (*>cxs), e.g. (^L^') - to open. The 
condition for this (s->^) is that if the verb is (^x^») 8 , the ( ^ 
must be from the (5-ii>- This 
does not mean that every verb which is (^y>^>) and whose ( 

8 — ^) is that word which has no (3 — Ull — >■), two letters of the 
same type or (»_y*) as its root letter. 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



aIISCJI) or (aIISCJI fi) is from the (^il>- J>jj>-), will be from 
(j^i i—>L)). The abbreviated paradigm of this 0—^) and the 
remaining (c-jIjj!) is similar to the above-mentioned examples. 



^ ^XjL° j g * L>t3 ^-^! ^-^J ^Jli jg« ^-XjSj 



The Fourth (v>L>) : 

(J^-aj J*i) - the (SlKJl jIp) of the (^LU) has a (« while 
the (^jL&») has a (^), e.g. (£*Ul) - to listen. 



j)^ 9 ^aw^O J ^«U^ j^S L^aw^v £^<»-^ 

sTUf, 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



The Fifth M) 

(jii; Jii) - the ^Ip) of the (^lil) has a while 

the (^jU^») also has a (3-«~<^>), e.g. (f ^J') - to be noble. The 
verbs of this (s-^) are intransitive. In this (s-»b), instead of the 
(JpliJl the C 2 -^-^ ^i^) on the scale of (J^) has been 

used, e.g. (p->y ). 



^ cy yyi yy j ^y 'jp cy \y^ yy 
tyjai\ yys ^ yy\ ^tli 



The Sixth (^b) : (v— ^ ^) 

(Jjufc J*i) - the (aIKJI jIp) of the has a (o ^-S') while 

the (^jUk^) also has a (o y^), e.g. (l-^L^JI) - to ponder. 
Besides (c--^^), no other J*i) has been used in this 

(^L). Acccording to some scholars, the verb is also 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



from this (s^). However, verbs that are (J^) 9 or (U^iJ) 10 have 
been used, e.g. (o j. ^>jj) and c^j)- The verb (4—*^) has 
also been used with a on the (S^ifsJl ^^p) of (^jU^), 

that is (t^-U-J). 




9 A word having a (j) or as the (a^I^JI «.Ls). 

10 A word having two (SjjJl 



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Exercise 19 

Conjugate the following verbs as done above: 

Li"(l; 



r^(3: 

J- (5; 

(6) 
LJ>> ( 7; 

,> ( 10) 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c^xaSna ^A/loili/iofogLj 



The (V 1 Jih of (4^ >ky jyt) 
The Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb 

Arabic is extremely rich and copious in derived forms 
which extend or modify the meaning of the root form of 
the verb, giving many exact shades of meaning. This is a 
common feature of Semitic languages and perhaps it 
reaches its pinnacle in Arabic. 

Derived forms are made by adding letters before or between the 

root letters of the simple verb. Accordingly, (j-v^j), which is the 

root, means to help. From this verb the following verbs are 
derived with differing meanings: 



Verb 


Meaning 




to support 




to try to help 




to render mutual assistance 




to come to someone's aid 




to ask for assistance 



Another example of derived verbs is (JS) which means to kill. 

When extra letters are added to this root, the following meanings 
are achieved. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Verb 


Meaning 




to massacre 




to combat, battle 




to fight with one another 




to risk one's life 



Very few verb roots have all the other derived forms. Some have 

only one (like - <—o to drive away) or two (like - to sink), 

while others have four or five as in the above examples. There is 
often a good deal of overlapping of meaning between the forms. 

Sometimes the root form is not in use while the derived forms 
are used, e.g. ( - to arrange). 

The (s-^O of (v wbj^> are twelve in total. They are 

formed by adding extra letters to the {^"^ J**^) of ( J?£i 

■5 Upto a maximum of three extra letters can be added to a 

verb, thus bringing the maximum number of letters of a verb to 
six (root letters plus extra letters). 

Seven of these (<_->IjjI) have (J-^ j-Jl aj^*) at the beginning while 
five do not have. Besides (-5 t y%"), every letter with a y~) 
will become (j* in the (J i^ 9 ^) except for the 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa ^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

penultimate letter which will be The Q^L-) will 

remain as it is, 
e.g.(^J), G^i). 

When (£) or (V) are used in the ( tJ iAl ^^), the (J^ jJ! 
will not be pronounced as will the (*J^) of the (V) and (V), e.g. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The 12 M jit) of (v ±>y jyt) are as follows: 





Example 


Extra Letters 








f 




1 mil 




I 


no hamza 






\ 


no hamza 






o t f 


cW 1 ^ 






j c T 




JlLi] 




J«f 


J^Jl Sy 




j£ 


^ ( o 


no hamza 


jpii 




1 t o 


no hamza 










J^l 








J^l 




J t U T 








j ' ' 





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Construction of the Derived Nouns 

To construct the (J-^ti^ ^>\) of any (s->L>) besides (J ^J^), 

the (uijyt^ ^jUi*) is modified by adding a ^) at the 

beginning and making the penultimate letter (j if it is not 

already (jj~J>1*). 
Examples: 

fj** - f>i 

The (J (t—l) is like the (J^LiJl ^1) except that the 

penultimate letter is j^- 4 ). 
Examples: 

The of these (s-Mjji) is used on the scale of the 

(J ^1). There is neither (2J^I (»— I) nor (J^aijt j^-t) in 
these (<_.»!jj)). In ordert to express the meaning of the (Sj^I 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



the words {^>M) are added to the (j-Wa-») for this purpose, e.g. 
(<_jux?rUt 4jU) _ the means of refraining. 

To express the (J^ixJt ^\), the word (Xil) is used before the 
(<_jj^2^» jJ^2^»), e.g. (L>u**-} -Lit) - more refraining. Words like 
(j^!), (Jit) etc. can also be used. 



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The Abbreviated Paradigm J> ~=) of Each 



The remaining word-forms follow the same pattern. 

The detailed paradigms of this verb are provided 
hereunder. 



11 A hamzah that is not deleted in pronunciation when prefixed by any 
letter. 





The sign of (Jl — *i\ *-M — >) is a M Sj — «*) 11 in the 
^U! J_«AJI) and (j-^t) while the ji — ^il 2 — is 
always (^j** — ^u»~). The (£- — Sj — «*) of the — s^lu) is 
deleted from the — ^»). Thus jSi — j) becomes Q» j — 



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r# 


^p,H 






c>i 




































VP 








^p 








\°pp 




e# 








^p 


&ph 




p 






















}p 







c 3 « c j j « p* c jl « ^x^» c ^ — ^» : J P-LaJl 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

Exercise 20 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

(5) [pjf (4) (3) atf (2) ^Xf (1) 

The sign of (J^> s-^b) is the tashdid of the (S^JS^Jl in the 
( L? ^>ll1) and (j^>^>- y>\) without a (o) preceding the ( s-li 
The (£_ jUait 2^.Mp) of this (*-^) is also always 

(fj— ^). 

The (j-U^) of this (v^.) is also used on the following scales: 
(JVii) e.g. (f lL t fUT); 
(J&) e.g. (L^oT); 
(51**) e.g. 
(JUiJ)e.g. 0^). 

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. 



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Li 








































































































lis j->^> 



c v2^» t o jij t oLij *oj> i lJ$j : J pL«J| 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

Exercise 21 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

'<3& (5) jos (4) % (3) j3 (2) (1) 



The sign of (SlpLi* is the (S*tf! j <JiJl) after the (4^KJl 
in the (^lil J*^) and (j-^U-l yS/t J**) without a (o) 
preceding it. The (^jL^ll 4^*>Ip) of this is always 

(fj— ^). 

The (jX^2j>) of (31pLL» ^L) i s also used on the following scales: 
(J&) e.g. (Jl3); 
(JQ) e.g. (J£»). 

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. 



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Jjii" h 
















































































Jill' N 









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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Exercise 22 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

(5) >C (4) £ilS (3) Jlili (2) Lilj (1) 



Jy^ q\ a ^ g ft l^j l ; l? ai l ^ a : ) ^ ; l? a i I ^ Jfo q\a ^ g ft l^j l ^ ai l ^j^jajj ^ ,1? a i I 

The sign of (JUii! <-->L>) is the (0) before the (3_oiS0l s.li). This 
is always intransitive (f*j^). 

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. 



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>&Sl 


























>&) 






















Si 
















Si 
















l>#Sl 












j JsJcj 




>1 ; ! Si 


>l ? li 






>iii Si 


>illi 







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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 23 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

Li^aJi (5) JiiJi (4) Lis!} (3) Lidi3i (2) (1) 



The sign of (Jl*x»l *-»^) is the (o) after the (3^JL50l 
Rulel 

If the (aJ&l of (Jl*s»! ^U) is (a), (i), or Q), the (o) of 
(J Lot) is changed to (». If the (A^ifsJl is a 0), then (fbol - 
assimilation) is compulsory, e.g. ( j*>sY) changes to (^^i). 

If the (2^ifsJl s.U) of (Jbcil s^b) is (i), then after changing the 
(cj) to (i), the following three changes are permissible: 
(1) The (i) is changed to (J) and the rule of (f^i) is applied, 
e.g. (j^j^I) changes to 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(2) Sometimes the (-5) is changed to (i) and then the rule of 
(^U-^t) is applied to the ^li), e.g. ( ^SvJi}) changes to 

(3) Sometimes the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of 
( f liol), e.g. (X^i)- 

If the (2-J^J( s.li) of (JUiil ^l>) is (j), then after changing the 

(0) to (-5), the following two changes are permissible: 

(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (^lio}), 
e.g. Cp^ji). 

(2) Sometimes the (^) is changed to (j) and then the rule of 
(^liot) is applied to the (a^xJI e.g. changes to 

(A 

Rule 2 

If the (*J&1 sXs) of (JUiil ^b) is (^), (^), (J?), or (Js>), the 
(o) of (JUxil) is changed to (-^). If the (S^KJl ^li) is a (-^), then 
it is compulsory to apply (f L^i) e.g. (^_-ixl?() changes to (^_Jif (). 
If the (A^iisJl ^li) of (JUcil s-^) is (-^), then after changing the 
(o) to (-^), the following three changes are permissible: 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(1) The (J«>) is changed to (-If) and the rule of (f^i) is applied, 
e.g. ((i-^i) changes to (ji-^f i). 

(2) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (f L^}), 
e.g. 

(3) The (-if) is changed to (-if) and the rule of (f is applied, 
e.g. changes to 

If the (iuKJl of (JUal <-A0 is (^) or (Jo), then after 

changing the (o) to (-if), the following two possibilities are 
permissible: 

(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (fL^}), 
e.g. (jJh-^l) and (<-?> 

(2) Sometimes the (-If) is changed to (^p) or (<_/?) and then the 
rule of (c^i) is applied, e.g. (j~^>i) changes to (jr-^i) and 
(<_j jX^st) changes to (<—> j-^i)- 

Rule 3 

If the (A^iSCjt s.\j>) of (Jijtxit is (o), then it is permissible to 
change the (o) to (o) and apply the rule of (^l£o|), e.g. (j^|) 
changes to (jL>|). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Rule 4 

If the (JuA&l of (JUal <_Aj) is (o), (o), Qr), Q), (i), 

(*), (a"), (J 1 ')' (l^)' O)' (^). or (^)» then after changing the 
(o) to the same letter as the the (25" _/»-) of the (o) 

is transferred to the preceding letter and the rule of (fb£o|) is 
applied. The (Jvj-^ is deleted, e.g. (*-*ax?M) changes to 

U-s^) and (c^^l) changes to 

(4.2) The jU^) of these verbs - (jU^) and - will be 
(j^akJ) and (c^-^j). 

(4.3) It is permissible to have a (a y^) on the (S-JiCJl s.li), e.g. 
(^♦-ya^j j*-*a^-) and (c^-^j The words (Oj^-^o) and 
(tS'Ht) which have appeared in the Qur'an are from this («- J b). 

(4.4) It is permissible to read a on the (S-dSOl of the 
(J^-liJl j^-l). Therefore all three harakats are permissible, e.g. 

(^*), {^^), ((H^ 1 ). 

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Exercise 24 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

J^M (5) (4) r >i (3) J^i (2) (1) 

The sign of (J%^i <—^) is the repetition of the (kdSCjl and 
four letters after the (J*» jJl S>°*) in the (^lil J*aM). The ( £i 
of this (s-'Lj) is always except in (^yziU). 12 



Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



12 The rules of (^L;) will be discussed later. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa i^A/loifi/iofogLj 



























































































































0 J, - 0 4 


ki c c>£_ 


^>t-4 t j 





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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

Exercise 25 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

[A (5) %>l (4) % (3) (2) £,} (1) 

4_L« j^Ul JlIaIL* j g * lilaj jj^-^j (J4^J J 1 ^*^ 4 J & * lilaj jJ^flX) (J4^ 

The sign of (J*^~ s->^) is the tashdld of the (A^iSCjl ^^p) and (o) 
precedes the (4^i5Cj( in the (^LlJ J*-^)- 

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

























































































c— LSj 
















'Jul 



















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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 26 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

fa (5) L££ (4) fa (3) fa (2) fa (1) 

^LaX* j *^L)l_aj JjLali j-*JJ J 1 " 1 ^^ J ^ * *^ J ^-^ J 0 ^*^ J J ^' 

The sign of QJ^-Laj c_-jLj) is that the (o) precedes the (A^i^Jl 
in the (/jV'LlI J*-*^) and there is an extra (i_i!t) after the ( s-li 

Rulel 

In (J*flJ s-'L;) and (J*^ <-r^), when two (<-^)'s are adjacent to 

one another in the (^jL^» J*i), it is permissible to delete one, 
e-g- 

(fa) ► o$f) 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Rule 2 

If the (JuA&l ftt) of (Jlflj and (JpU: ^U) is (o), (o), 
Qr), W ,(*), 0), (t/), (J>), iw*), (J>), (^) or (Ji), it is 
permissible to change the (o) into the (^<J^J( s.\i) and apply the 
rule of (f L£oi). In this case, the Cg-^^ J**^) ar *d Cr*') require a 

(J^> jjl at the beginning. The (J*il «_^) and (JpUI <_Aj) 

have been created due to this rule. 

Examples: 

(a&) ► (a^) — ► uM) 

(jsii) — ►(jsbj) — ►(jiiii) 

^jij ^Li ^ y^i y& 1^4 *J$4 — J**i ^ 
jsi?i <u* jiii OsiJi jib' jiifi _ JpiIi ub 

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 









































cJLjLSj 



















































































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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Exercise 27 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

^ikf (5) y>ijaf (4) 'JjU; (3) JiLsf (2) oSi^j (1) 

The sign of <_jU) is the extra and (o) before the 

It is permissible to delete the (o) from the verb ( ^IkiLl 
£vk£~o). The verbs (I jpUaI*>1 ui) and (^jal-j jj mentioned 
in the Qur'an are from this (4-^). 



Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 







(Jjjjdl ^jUall 


(JjjJ.1 ^lil 








' ' !i° t 

, y2 . . . »> 1 




1 ■ ^ «7. 








































































1 ,</?■■«* 1 































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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Exercise 28 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

^k£-i (5) (4) (3) (2) ^LS*£-i (1) 




The sign of (Jl*l*i1 is the repetition of the (£j and the 

appearance of a (j) between the two (£0's. This (j) has changed 
to a in the (jwL^») due to the preceding (a This (<-r J ^) 
is mostly intransitive (f j^). 



Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 











;yy^v 






y,yukl 


lliyuk; H 






Qyukl 


f^y^ 










y,yuk£) 


y^yuk; 


^ykl 






jlli y*kf 


l£liyukl 








^yukj 


y^ Si 


[yykj 


y^yuk; 


oliyki 




Liyukl 


oll^yuk; 




f^yukf^ 


lyiyukl 


o^yukf 


jv-u*^ y^>-i 


>>k;V 




v^yuk; 


oiiyki 




Liykl 


ol^yuk; 





























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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



Exercise 29 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

$M (3) }Spi (2) ^Sj^i (1) 



The sign of (jLb^j <_jL) is the repetition of the (J) and the 
appearance of an extra (t-iJt) before the first (J) in the ( J*-^ 
This (^1) changes to a (l£) in the 

The (f in this (<-r->L>) is similar to the (f ^i) of <~>\j). 
The verbs of (jU*i| <^^>) and (JtL*i} <^^>) mostly have the 
meanings of colours and defects and they are intransitive 



Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioijjfiollocjij 













^lijJ 


*lilb 


^liSl 




£lio3 


OUliOj 


Cilia} 




f^lioIJ 




! j^lia} 




^liox! 


*»liOj 


cJilia} 




lilios! 




l^lia} 




^^liol! 




j^lia} 




?»liSl 




CiJ^lia} 


liliof ^ 


eta 


OulijJ 


CJuJ«lia! 












^liS} 


^•^lijj 


cu^tia} 


Cilia? ^ 


Cilia} 


OUliJu 


CJuJ«lial 


^L»lijj ^ 






^lia} 


f liaf ^ 


glials 


*li.s) 






^liol) 


*»lilb* 


LuJ«lia} 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 30 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

(4) jCi (3) oils'! (2) L>\&1 (1) 



The sign of (Jtj*it <->1j) is the (j) after the (2_<d£Jl ^p). 

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioijjfiollocjij 



















Si 
























Si 
















l%sSl 








Si 








\'j>%3 Si 
















Si 
















\%\ Si 








1%iSi 









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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 31 

(A) Conjugate the following verbs: 

ij>i(l) 

(2) 

(B) What is the C 2 ^^) of the following words: 

dij&J (2) 
V (3) 
&jJ^ (4) 
b^i (5) 
(6) 
(7) 

DUll^j (9) 

Djjilli *y (10) 



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Four-Root letter Verbs 

The MjJ) of(^Uj) 

j^'yt a j^-ri j j-s-* a j**^ 

The sign of <_-jL) is the presence of four root letters in the 
(^lll J*iJl). The (£_ jUait '^%s>) of this is (f j-***). 

The rule for the y*-) of the jUall 2^Mp) is that if the ( J*iJl 
^^slit) has four letters, whether root letters or extra letters, the 
(^jU^it ^>Mp) will be y^^>) even in the active tense 
( J> e.g. (fjsi), (JJliJ), (>;'). If the ( J*iJl 

^^slit) has less than or more than four letters, the ( 
£jl*ai1) will be (£_ e.g. Cr-4»), (<-^i), (JM). 



Four-root letter verbs are of three types: 

(1) those of genuine four-radical origin, e.g. (*^- J) - to translate. 

(2) verbs formed by the doubling of a biliteral root, e.g. {j& j&) - 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



to gargle, - to stammer. 

(3) composite roots taken from a familiar phrase or combination 
of roots, e.g. (J*U^~) - to say Al-hamdulillah, (J^-^-O - to say 
Bismillah. 

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 







































































d)l 










o *> 'o ^ 










l>J Si 




(1)1 








il) 


a *> 'o ^ 


>;f Si 


>;(] 


>1 




>j Si 









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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 32 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

(3) 

(4) 

>Ii(5) 

(B) What is the (&-^) of the following words: 

y-^v (i) 

^ (3) 
J/j (4) 
(5) 

ij>I^ ( 6) 

(7) 

i>J^ (8) 
2>^i ( 9) 

;>>j?v ( iO) 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJxsxiiXxxsA oj ' c/$xa£ria ^A/loili/iofogLj 



The Derived Forms of Four-Root Letter Verbs 

jiiiJ ub 

The sign of (JJ^~ s-'L)) is the extra (o) before the four root 
letters. 

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

















Jo~°" 




















Jo~^ 


Jo- 0 " 


















yo^" 






Jo- 0 " 
























J^O~°" 
























Jo-* 1 ' 


C-J-; j-^J 






Jo~° 


lib 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 33 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

pLX ( 5) 'jkj (4) (3) jT^i (2) (1) 

j jxJUi^ jxJLJ^ jxJLJ^ ^"^1 ytJ^JU> jg* tjt ^*JUsj ^xJuaj ^stJuaj 

The sign of «— is having four root letters, the repetition 

of the second (J) and the inclusion of (J-^ jJl aj^) in the ( J*a!' 
^lil) and (^t). 

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 





















! yiliXJ 




! ytiil 
















O j-*-^} 




! jCLjcS 


(1)1 jxJ^jH 


tJjjtdil 


jjytAJL *y 






















LaJj ^xJUi 1 
























LaJj ^xJUi 1 




jj J*£*&\ 












Oj jJtdil 








Uj ^3t-vtjl 



. o! ^JujL* L 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 34 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

(5) (4) (3) jtii (2) J>-^i (1) 



4^P J-^j^i ^ J-*^ (J-ij J-^ >gi ^^j^i J-^J-rf (J^^i 

The sign of (jUJUil ^L) is the inclusion of (J-^> jJl in the 
(^lil J*i!t) and (y t) and the extra (0) after the (£). 

Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow 
hereunder. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 























Oliio^o 






! jJL^o jIJ 




! jJLio^jj 




(j^io J3 










OLs-do ^o 


IxiLio^jj 




















ULiJ ^jj 


oLs->io 








O ^jLJLo j-o 
















oLs-do 












jdJ>i si 










<3^° ./H 







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Exercise 35 

(A) Conjugate the following verbs: 

£iuL°( (2) 
o~^ ? >i (3) 

y^i (4) 

J^>1 (5) 

(B) What is the (**-^) of the following words: 

J^>JV (1) 

jikkliUi (2) 
^!>(i ( 3) 
oi^jllll (4) 

£jaT£-l (5) 

(6) 

OLxLySj _^>t_4 (7) 

\°y*£'j\ (8) 

jl£^xT^ (9) 
^> ? >jV(10) 



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Other Derived Forms 

The M y\) of (J^io aJ J%) 

There are two categories of (<-j\jj\) here: 

(1) (V* </^j* J^) 

(2) j^L) 

The first category (2 Jp^-*) has seven (<_Mjj1): 

(1) (A__LUS) - the (J) is repeated, e.g. (2 — - to don a 
shawl. 

(2) (4— Jj*3) - there is an extra (j) after the (^), e.g. 
(aJj^) - to don a trouser. 

jj^~> ^ y'yt Jjj—* ^ Jj^i Jj^- : ^ j-^" 

(3) (iUj) - there is an extra after the (<->), e.g. 
(S ^kl^) - to command. This word can be used as OJ*4~0 as well. 



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Jfa'yP Jh'yrf.A j^i 0 J v°.,. / * y>y/>\ Jh'y /? '. 4jL) 

(4) - there is an extra (c5) after the (^), e.g. 
(4ij - to trim the extra leaves of a plant. 

(5) (Alf'jd)- there is an extra (j) after the (<-i), e.g. 
(aj j j^-) - to make someone don socks. 

(6) (Siiid)— there is an extra (0) after the (£), e.g. (aIuIS) - to 
make someone don a hat. 

^g_Jlj (j-uii 4_L/« j^'yt ^j^ui-La j^i <L^lU ^~JljL j^^^U^ I 4jL) j 

(7) (SlUfl)- there is an extra (<J) after the (J), e.g. (SlliS) - to 



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make someone don a hat. 

y^i alUlS ^UjL j i_r"^-* y& aU-Ji ^Saj '. 

((^jUi) was originally (^^Ui). (^^Jij) was originally 

( Lr ^JjL ! ). (SLJi) was originally (2^Ui). These changes will be 
discussed later. 

The second category - (^y ^Mji J^-*) has three groups: 

(1) (Jlki£ j^cL) 

(2) (JULJl 

(3) (JlLlb 

The first group (J^*^ J^-*) has 8 Ijj'): 

(1) (JiaiJ) - the extra letters are (o) before the (<->) and the (J) 
is repeated, e.g. (c_~J^0 - to don a shawl. 

(2) (J jitf) - the extra letters are (o) before the (<— *) and the (j) 
between the (£j and the (J), e.g. (Jjj^J) - to don a trouser. 

(3) (Jx>JS2) - the extra letters are (o) before the and a 



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after the e.g. QjJaliJ) - to be a satan. 

(4) (j&jte) - the extra letters are (o) before the 0-9) and a (j) 
after the (<-*), e.g. js*j) - to don socks. 

(5) (J-*aJ) - the extra letters are (o) before the (<3) and a ( j) 
after the (£0, e.g. ( ( _ r uJ_aJ) - to don a trouser. 

(6) (J*L*J) - the extra letters are a (o) and a (^») before the (^), 
e.g. (jSlvJ) - to be poor. 

(7) (CUUjsJ) _ the extra letters are a (cj) before the 0— ') and a 
(cj) after the (J), e.g. (o _/i*j) - to behave like a devil. 

(8) (J*i?) - the extra letters are a (o) before the (<-*) and a (e£) 
after the (J), e.g. (,j~iij) - to don a hat. 

The conjugation of these (<-j\y>\) should be done like 
(Jj J), while the last one, namely, (J*^) is like (^^M; L5 -^*). 

The second group, (Jlu*ib J^L») has two (<_jIjjI): 

(1) ( JOSail) - The second (J), the ( j) after the (g) and the ( 5>°* 



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J^jJt) are extra, e.g. (^L^LtSt) - to walk with the chest and 
neck protruding out. 

<>Cj» y>^\ ^j~^jt3>j» y^i L^L^Liij ^j*^*SjuLi ^^jjj : 4jjj j,/}~s 

(2) 0lH*3l) - The (c5) after the (J), the ( 0) after the {£) and the 
(Jws>jJl aj^*) are extra, e.g. (s-liiL^) - to lie on one's back. 

(jlL-cj y> s )j\ Jj^lL~^° y^i s-LalLvj ^alL^o ^JilLvj \ 4_aj j-^2j 

The (j-L^-*) of this (<- r J ^.) - (^l^lu-t) was originally 
(^LSlil-l). The (ij) was changed to a (5j^). 

The third group - (jLUib Jpd-*) has one (<-r J ^): 
(JOpjSI) - The (j) after the (<-*) and one (J) is extra, e.g. 
jSl) - to strive. 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



In all the word-forms of this (s- 1 ^), has been applied and 

the changes are similar to those of ( 



Exercise 36 

What is the word-form of the following words and which 

are they from: 

jidijSC: *y (2) 

<_jy j-i^ (3) 

( 4 ) 

C^h^ (5) 

^iLf (6) 
^1(7) 
'c}'j& (8) 
i^lisf (9) 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Seven Categories 

With regards to the letters of verbs, they fall into seven 
categories, namely: 

Definitions 



Term 


Meaning 


Example 




A word whose root letters do 
not have a (Sy*), (5_J*J! »_j^^) 13 
or two letters of the same type 




Jit. 


A word having a (5 — l*Jl <-ij — >-) 
in the (<u!SsJl 




<_> j^-f 


A word having a (3 — l*Jl <-*j — >■) 
in the (<uiSsJ! 


Jii 




A word having a (5 — l*Jl <J>j — >•) 
in the (^KJl ^) 






A word having a (Sj — «*) as a 
root letter - a hamzated verb 


>f 




A word having, as its root 
letters, two letters of the same 
type 


JL« 




A word having two ( jj — >■ 
4i*Jl) as the root letters 





The (jl* _-..,) are G), (uJi) and ( tf ). 



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1) The term (J x*^) refers to any verb that contains a 

(5LJ1 Ji j>-). 

2) If there is a (2 — UJl l3 j>-) in the (2 — ?.! — »), it is called 
(Lii! J£^) or (JlU), eg (^j). 

3) If there is a (2 — <_> in the (2 — ,ji — p ), it is called 
(O^ J^) or 0-* e.g. (Jli). 

4) If there is a (2 — Ui! ^ — s~) in the (2 — «i£Jl it is called 
(flLS! J£^) or (^U), e.g. (£3). 

5) If the (2 — »l — •) has a ( j), it is called (c5 jl j Jt — ^) eg 

6) If the (2 — oJS^Jl has a it is called {^J\ — j Jl — eg 

(S^). 

7) If the (2 — J&1 ui— p) has a (j), it is called (<£ jtj <-3 j—ppT ) 
eg (JlS). 

8) If the (2 — J&1 ^) has a it is called (J\—>„ j—^h 
eg (lyi). 

9) If the (2 — «i£Jt f^) has a (j), it is called (c£ jl j — 5) eg 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



10) If the (luKJl ^) has a {tS), it is called yl—i — 0 e § 

1 1) If the (lui&l s.li) has a (S j_ «*), it is called (1 — ill j j — 
eg (J). 

12) If the (2 — J&l o^_p) has a (Sj— «*), it is called ( jj— ^ 
uy^) eg (jfc-). 

13) If the (JuKJl ^) has a (Sy>), it is called it jj — «~^) 
eg (f>). 

14) (lJ) — ^) is of two types: (tijj — i~i — ^) and ( <_i — 

15) (tijj — i~i — ^) is when the two (2 — UJl i_i j — ^) are 
separate, e.g. (^j). 

16) (jjj — lJj — jiJ) is when the two (2 — L*Jt (3 j — ^) are 
adjacent to one another, e.g. (iSj^)- 

17) If the (2 — J&1 CXr- and (2 — J&1 ^) are the same, it is 
called cJ-f-Ua-*) e.g. (-^). 



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18) If the (<->) and the first (J) and the (^) and the second 
(J) are the same letters, it is called — >j ^J-f-\ — e.g. 

(Jjij). 



Exercise 37 

Classify the following verbs according to the seven categories: 

'J) (2) 
y (3) 
r luS ( 4) 

^> (5) 
£W (6) 
( 7) 

TJJ (8) 
i£(9) 
^ (10) 



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The Rules of 

Rule 1: 

It is permissible to change a (Sj «*), that is alone and 

( t j5'L-) to correspond to the previous j>-). 
That is, 

(a) after a ( 4 ^>^), change the into an {±j>^). 
Example 

( u^J )(head) becomes( ^j. ) 

(b) after a (^o-^ 5 ), change the («>=*) into a (j). 
Example 

^Jj (destitute) becomes (^j-O- 

(c) after a (a y^), change the («>=*) into a 
Example 

(wolf) becomes (s-J-i). 

ppppp 

^[£] Ifc eia as 

Rule 2 

If a hamzah mutaharrik (iij — aj — «*) appears before a 
(Sj — <■*) that is (jS'l — «<), it becomes necessary to change the 
Q^S'L-) letter to the corresponding (3l*J! t_i y^). 

Examples 



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(j^f! becomes ^y>\ 

tfW becomes 

Ut»l! becomes UL>jt . 

@a ©a ©a ©a ©a 
am am a@ am am 

Rule 3 

(3.1) It is permissible to change a (aj — =*) that is (^j — 

and is preceded by a (2-^) to a (j). 
Example 

O j*r becomes 0 j^- 

j j^r is the plural of *j J>- which means a perfume holder. 

(3.2) It is permissible to change a (aj — «*) that is j — xi-«) 

and is preceded by a (a j^') into a (c£). 

Example 

Jj> becomes . 

ppppp 
a@ a@ is is am 

Rule 4 

(4.1) If two (aj «*)'s are 0j — >^») and one of them is 

Qj — ~Sv*), then it is permissible to change the second (a j — «*) 

into a (c5). 
Example 



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can also be read as . 
If there are two (oj — =*)'s which are j — >*z>) and none of 

them are (jj «^»), then it is necessary to change the 

second into a (j). 

Examples 

i) *oHI will be read as 

ii) J^ff will be read as J^jt 

(e.br) originally was — A?r) (J — pI» ^ — ^( of ^ — ?r). The 
(c5) which comes after — >\j lJ — Si) will change into a 

(aj — «*). It becomes Now there are two ( aj — =* 

ii j — and one of them is (j j — ~£L*) . The second (a j — <■*) 

changes into a becoming >■) (according to the 

rule of 3 — «11 - rule 4.1). (^1 — can also be written as 

sr. The •>) on the (c5) is J +*> (difficult to 

pronounce). Therefore it is removed and (j- 

remains. Now due to (ui^ ^ ^ < ^ >r i) (the coming 

together of two — letters), the — ^ c5) is deleted. 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



We are left with j — JU- which can also be read as s-U- . 
Step by Step 

L-* 1 * — ► L;^ — ► & ^) 
— ► & — ► 

ga ga ga ga ga 
a@ as as as a@ 

Rule 5 

If a (a j — «*) comes after the (j) or ((5) that are — * and 

oJJlj or if a (Sj — «*) comes after the of (jy< — *sj ji — ^1), it is 

permissible to change the (Sj <■*) into the letter that 

precedes it and then (A sol) (incorporation of one letter 

into another) is made. 

Example of (j) Soilj Sj^. 

The word (2i j is the (J y** f\) of $'jh fy). 
Example (<j) «-b> 



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Example of j^w^ f\ 

The word — it) is the (j^ — p — -I) of j — »l) which is 
the of (<_^ti) - meaning axe. 

ppppp 
a@ am is is am 

Rule 6 

If there occurs a (Sj — «*) after the i — It) of J — ^tjL» and before 

a (c£), the (Sj — <■*) changes to (2 — I — j) and the (c£) 

changes to (i-J^t). 

Example 

The word (Ulki-) is the plural of (2Zk>-). 

The word (t — iUa^-) was originally (^l — )a>-). The (ij) which 
comes after the (<u> — It) of — «!"■) as the second last letter, 
changes into a (oj — =*). 14 It becomes (s-s-t — Jas-). Now we 
have two (iij — ><^» oj — °*)'s and one of them is (jj — -~^-«). 

The rule of (2 *jI) applies, whereby the second (Sj =*) 

changes into a (iS) and becomes ^t — Ja^-. Now there is a 

14 This refers to rule no. 18 which you will read under the rules of Js~ . 



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(Sj — =*) after the (<Js — il) of J — o^L* and it is before a ((J). It 
changes to (2 — ^yl* \ — i) and the (iS) changes to (lJ> — St). The 
word becomes (UU^-). 

NOTE: This law is compulsory (b j^-j). 
Step by Step 

Ep m\ \m \m m\ 
a@ a@ a@ a@ a@ 

Rule 7 

If a (a J — »*) is (iij — and it comes after a QjS'l — ->) that is 
not a (aJ — Jtj «^») nor is it (jji — c5) , then the (2 — ^ ^) of 
the is given to the letter preceding it. 

This law is permissible 0 jt yr). 
Examples 

1) In the word (Ji — the (2 — S" of the (oj — «*) is given to 
the (,_/<) and the is then deleted. It becomes 

2) In the words — L»l Ji the (2 — j>-) of the (Sj — =*) is given to 
the (-5) and the («>■*) is then deleted. It becomes 



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3) In the words el — U-) ^ — *°J the (2 — S" j>~) of the (Sj — «*) is 
transferred to the (jS) and the (Sj — «*) is then deleted. It 
becomes (ol^ ^ji). 

pa pa ©a ga @a 
a@ as is is am 

Rule 8 

The rule of (J* is compulsorily applied to all the 

(Jl — «if) (verbs) of (iSj—i) and (cS^— *) ( ^ j^^l j 1 — ^ 

Example 

In is^'j) the (2 — of the (Sj — <■*) is given to the (j) and the 
(S j«*) is deleted. It becomes (c£ ji). 

NOTE: 

It is permissible to apply this rule to the (oil: — $.1 — ft) 
(derived nouns) too. 

The ( L5 ^ j-Ua*) can be read as (c£l or (c£ y). 

The (aJI j^w-l) can be read as (SI ^») or (SI j^»). 

The (2 — of the (Sj — =*) of (Sir, — •) is given to the (j) and 



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then the («>=*) is removed leaving (ol y). 

The (dy^ can be read as (^J y) or (iS y). 

©a ©a pa m\ m\ 
90 a@ a@ a@ a@ 

If a (iij — >*z» lj — «*) is preceded by a (iij — >^>) letter, then 

both (4- — 1 j5 Oi — ; ui — ;) and — j*j Oi — > uj — >) are both 
permissible. 

9.1 (v — i ujrf uiO is to read the (Sj — «*) between its (^j — £•) 
and the of the ( 2l*Jl y) corresponding to its 
(hamza's) y~. 

9.2 (J — — j ju) is to read a letter between its (^j — and 
the (^j — 5*) of the ( 2 — L*Jl l3 j — ?-) corresponding to the 
preceding y-). 

(Dy uy) is also known as J^S-^". 

Examples 

When (uy u-u) is made on the word (J^), then in both 

y 0^ uy) and (J — the (^j — will be that of (Sj — <■*) 
and OJJI). 

In the word — if (v — i ui — ! ui — 0 is made, then the 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(£_ j£) will be between and If — **j Oj — ! Oj — 0 is 

made, then the will be between (« j-°*) and 

(Oil). 

In the word (pjJ) if (l_~> y Oy OiO is made, then the 

will be between and (j). If — j*j Oj — » Oj — 0 is 
made then the y*) will be between and G_aJI). 

(9.3) If there is a (2 f Sj =*) after (»J St), it is 

permissible to apply y 0^ OjO only. — ^ Oj — ! Oj — 0 is 
not permissible in this case. 

Examples 

[1] In the word the («>=*) is y**). Therefore the 
(Sy 6 ) will be read between the y 1 ) of the («>»*) and the 
(UJI). 

[2] If (s-ly) is read with a the («>=*) will be read 
between the y£) of the (iy?) and (jl j). 
[3] If (sfj) is read with a (5^^), the will be read 
between the Qr y£) of the («>=*) and 



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Rule 10 

If a (^Ifix^l a yP) comes before a (a j^®) as in the word 
(pjoii), then it is permissible to apply the rule of 

(f ^Ob ( Rule 4 )- Thus ' (<r^) wil1 be read as ((^j') • 

It is also permissible to make (J^ — -J), whether — j jS) or 

It is also permissible to bring an (cJ-!l) between the two 
(aj^*)'s and read it as 0»-^fi). 

©a mi ©a m\ <m 
a@ 90 a@ a@ a@ 

Exercise 38 

(1) Apply rule no.l to the following words: 

(3)>(2> >:^(i> 

(2) Which rule applies to the word 1) and how? 

(3) Analyse the changes to the word (s-\*S>). 

(4) Apply the rule of Q y-fr*) to the word (aj 

(5) What can (cJlf) also be read as? 



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The Orthography 15 of the Hamzah 

The following rules are general guidelines with regards to 
how a hamzah is written: 

(a) Hamzah is invariably written over or under an alif at 
the beginning of a word, e.g. (y I), (y>\) and (OL*Jl). 

(b) When the initial hamzah is followed by an alif of 
prolongation (long vowel lJ — Si ), the latter is replaced by a 

madd over the initial alif, e.g. {y I) for (y^). 

(c) The hamzah tends to be written over the semi- 
consonant (2 UJl l3 j corresponding to the vowel 

(o j>~) of the preceding letter. 
Examples: 

(J.b), (jjj), (C^ik^) 

(d) Where the previous consonant has a (0_^x the 

hamzah tends to be written over the semi-consonant 
(4l*j! y^) coinciding with its own vowel j>~). 
Examples: 

(Jj>— ), (^b. 

This rule is applied for — ^?Ll( J — instead of (c) above. 

Thus, ((j-J — 0 is written with a (j) and U-5 — with a 
without dots. 

15 the correct spelling 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



The Paradigms of (jy^>) 

J » j—fri |j >-\ J ^Ji Jj>-lj JtS- 1 \Jj>-\ -l^b Jj>-1 

jii j 4 ^ i_> jiJi Ji^-L" *y 4_lp ^ y.ui 

j J >-! jbJ >-! <u^> cJj^Jlj jjJL^I OlJ^t 



Analysis of the changes 



(1) The (j — *I) of this — >) is — >-) which is an exception 
from the normal method of constructing the (j — — >-) 
was originally (i^-jl). 

(2) Similarly, the (j — «f) of (J— Tb' J— is (J— T). It is 
necessary to delete the from both (i^-) and (J^"). 

(3) In the verb, — i j — it is permissible to delete the 

hamzas and to retain them. Therefore, both (j ») and 

(j are correct to use. If the verb is used at the 

beginning of the sentence, it is more eloquent to delete the 



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(«>■*), e.g. it is stated in a hadith, (SlUaJlj jU"SUjl ijy). 

(4) If the verb is used in the middle of the sentence, then 
most often the hamzah is retained, e.g. The Qur'anic verse, 

(5) In the word-forms of (^jj — *^ ^ — -ait) of this — i), 
besides the singular first person (jJ^2 — * J — the rule of 
((_/•• j) has been applied. The same rule applies to the 
(J yJM ^m\) and M >Jt 

(6) The rule of (jZ>) applies in the (^J^ ^^)- 

(7) The rule of QfJ — >) applies in the (J j — — s^it) 
except for the singular first person O*-^- 4 j). 

(8) In the singular first person (jj^s — * ^ — *-tj) of ( — s<ail 

and the (J^aixJl the rule of (<j^) applies. 

(9) In the plural (<*— ^) of (J—^irJl ^ — -I), the rule of (filjf) 
applies. 

(10) In the singular first person of the (J j — £ jl — ^ail), 

, o / 

the rule of dyy) applies. 



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Exercise 39 

(a) Conjugate the following verbs: 

(b) What is the paradigm of the (Jj ^j\ ^») of 

(Lof)? 

(c) What is the paradigm of the (^jj j *fy of 

(>t)? 

(d) What is the paradigm of the (^jj ^ ^Lll) of 

(e) How has the word G~^jt) changed from its original? 



d°/j U of, U j U 4 L> j! skaill J**tj ^l~>t« 0ljC4* 



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Analysis of the changes 

(1) The changes of this — >) are similar to those of ( ^ — ?M 
^ — ^u) except for the imperative (j — »\) - (j — - where the 
rule of (Olljt) applies. 

(2) The other j — >f) of Oj — 4 LS — follow the same 
pattern. 



Exercise 40 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

0*} ( 2 ) 

(b) What is the paradigm of the ^> of 

(c) What is the paradigm of the (J y>\) of (aJ()? 

(d) What is the paradigm of the ( J ^LU) of (yf)? 

(e) How has the word changed from its original? 



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o >s J. , tot * ; o , ,> : * , 0 , A, .0 

y O J ^jiJl ^^Jli *y <UP ^^lil J j-o-^i ^ 

Analysis of the changes 

(1) The rule of (01 — III) applies in the (<-j jj— *11 ^), 
(uijyt^ and (j-Ls^»). 

(2) The rule of Q>*jf) applies in the ( J lT^ 5 ^)- 

(3) The rule of (^*?j) applies in the (<_* jy^ll ^ jUail). 

(4) The rule of — <) applies in the (J j — f^l ^ji — sill), 
(JpUJI j^-l), (J ^1) and M >Jt ^l). 

y^i UlJLsI.il jiLxl^o JilxLxlj ijolxl*^ j^i UlJuxl^ 0ilxl*o jiuu-j 
jilxLi 1L» li^Jt Oilili V ilp ^^tj (jotil-l ^i* y>0l jSl£LJ> 

Analysis of the changes 

(1) Conjugate all the verbs of (* — *i J — j>« ^ — ( -r J ^') like 
the conjugations of (^l) and (y-^i). 



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Exercise 41 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

Ljut-I ( 1 ) 

CfA (2) 
>% (3) 

(b) What is the paradigm of the (^jl ^> *-•) of 

(c) What is the paradigm of the (J y>\) of (Ait)? 

(d) What is the paradigm of the (J j^l of Qy >)? 

(e) How has the word (I jj^i) changed from its original? 



Discussion of (uyJl jj-^) 

(1) The rule of (ui — ; uj — >) or (J^g — -J) applies to all the verbs 

of of (ij — £ ^ — ui — *Jt jj-H-*)- Note that this rule 

is optional. 

(2) The rule of (Ji — -o) applies to the — ^») and (j — *l) of 
Oyi jyJl jj^). 

(3) (jjjj jlj) is from (Oj — ^ s-^ — 0, (J- 5 — <-a — -0 is from 



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(£tXJ <^^>), (j*-***^ is from ^>^>), ((*J — Ij (*J — i) is from 

(4) In the imperative (j after applying the rule of 

(Js-JLj), the (J — ^ jJ! 5j — =*) is deleted. Therefore (j — Jji) 
becomes (jj), (Jjs — becomes (J — — ^i) becomes 
(^) and (jU^) becomes (^J). 

The conjugation of the imperative second person ( j »T 

(_i j yt* j-^U-) form is as follows: 

























J- 
















d 






d 





Discussion of (^i 

(1) In most of the word-forms of — Si jj — the rule of 
(uy ua) or S) applies, e.g. (I^Sj fy). 

(2) The rule of applies to (J j — ^1 J — j), e.g. 



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(3) The rule of (fcSl — - Sij — ^ Sj — =*), that is the rule of 
(,_/»> j) applies to all the word-forms of (j — »l) and ( — ^ 
Accordingly, in the words Qj — »}) and (Ij — «j * — )), the 
hamzah can become (<*J> — St), in the words (s-^J) and ( ^ — i 
s-ij — j), the hamzah can become (j) and in the words — Ji) 
and jj), the hamzah can become 



Exercise 42 

Conjugate the following verbs: 

J*fe (6) 
(Lik; (7) 

£&} (8) 

fj^i (9) 
Ljjfe-i (10) 



f^; (l) 
*M Jj (2) 
^(3) 
1^7 ( 4) 

o-W (5) 



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The Rules Of (J^) 

Rule 1 

(1.1) The (j) which appears between (^jUlail oL>*>Ip) 16 

which is (^ and the (2 — «i^Jl ^ — p ) which is (jj — «->£>-«), 
falls off. 

Example 

The word ^Pjj becomes -Jju . 

Every (j) that comes between the 

(^ jXjL» ^jL^> oL»*>Ip) and the (4^iS" ^) which is 

j XjL»), the (j) falls off, on condition that either the 

(2^15' ^) or the (S-JlT J) is from the {^J^ j j^) 17 . 
Example 

The word y. becomes 
Note: 

Every (c_£j'j — ^) on the scale of (s-'j — ^) follows this 
rule. 

pa pa pa pa pa 
aa as as as as 



16 ^ jU2» oUMp are the following letters j ii o Jl 

17 The i^^- 'j^r"" are the following letters: ^ ^ ^ ^ 4 



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Rule 2 

If a is on the scale of (J*i) and its (4^i5Cjl is a 

(j), that (j) is deleted and the (4-J5" ^) is given a 
(a j^S). A (a) is then added at the end of the word. 

Step by Step Example 

jij ^ Xs> ^ Ap ^ oAp 

Note: 

If the (^jl — has a (2 — ?xis) on its (2 — US' for example 
in the word the (2 — <J^J( s\ — '») of the (j^ — *a*) can also 

be given a 

Step by Step Example 
The word (2*~") the of j). 
^ ^ ^ 

Note: 

It is also permissible to read as (2-**-). 

pa pa iga ga mi 
Ife am is is Ife 



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Rule 3 

(3.1) If a (j^^ j) is not (J-Ll^) and is preceded by a 
(a it changes into a (<S). 

Example 

The word .sU-j^ changes to ■iLv*. 
Exception 

The word (jt j — U-1) will remain unchanged, because the (j) 
is 

(3.2) If (jS'l — (5) is not (^^ — «) and it is preceded by a 

(4^5), the (c5) changes into a (j). 
Example 

The word changes to (j^ y>). 

Exceptions 

The word (j^») remains unchanged because the (iS) is 
(^). 

(3.3) If an (lJ — St) is preceded by a (4-« — it will change 
into a (j). 



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Step by Step Example 

Jfli ► JAS ►Jjy 

(3.4) If an (lJj — St) is preceded by a (Sj — -~S"), it will change 
into a (c5). 

Example 

The plural of (v* j^*-*) is (c-jIjU^). This changes to 

(t_~)jL>^) because the (* aJ^) is preceded by a (« j~^"). 

ga ga ga mi ga 
a@ 90 as a@ a@ 

Rule 4 

If the (aJ&l of (JUsi! ^b) is a ( JU>t j) or 

{^J^>\ t£), the (j) or ((J) will change into a (o) and 

«t) will be made, that is, both the (<^->)'s will be 

assimilated. 

Step by Step Example of (c£j^j J 1 -^) 

Step by Step Example of (,-JL» Jli.) 
'.LLJl ►'!«_?! ►'lil 



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pa pa pa pa pa 
a@ am a@ is as 

Rule 5 

(5.1) If at the beginning of a word there is a (> — ^ j), it 
is permissible to change it into a («>=*). 

Examples 

(o j — >r j - plural of * — t j) changes to (a j — >r\). (This is an 
example of an ^1). 

(c-i — Sj - the [ J ^j^^] of d~i jj) changes to 
(c-j; — St). (This is an example of a J**). 

(5.2) If (jj — j) appears at the beginning of a word, it 
is permissible to change it to a («>»*). 

Example 

(^Lij - swordbelt) can be read as (^&i). 

(5.3) If a (^j — » j-« j) appears in the middle of a word, it is 
permissible to change it into a («J^*). 

Example 

(jj^l) can be read as OJ- 1 ')- 



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Rarely is a j) changed into a («>»*). 

Examples 

(O^j - one) can be read as (-^')- 

(aUj - a lazy woman) can be read as (SUI). 

ppppp 
a@ a@ a@ a@ a@ 

Rule 6 

When two (iij — ><^» Jtj) come together at the beginning of 

a word, it is compulsory — *-tj) to change the first (j) 

into a 
Example 

(J^st jj) is read as (J^>( jt) (This is the plural of ZLss>\j). 

(J^aj jj) is read as (J — This is the (ji — ^-1) of 

ppppp 
a@ 90 a@ a@ a@ 

Rule 7 

(7.1) If (j) or (c5) (iij-j^u) is preceded by a 3_^s, the (j) 
or (c5) is changed into an (<— «Jl)- 



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Examples 

Example of a (ii j) in the middle of a (J**): 
(JjS) changes to (J IS). 

Example of a (ii c£) in the middle of a (J**): 
(£o) changes to (£^j). 

Example of a (ii y*^»j) at the end of a (J*S): 
(yo) changes to (&3). 

Example of a (ii (5) at the end of a (J**): 
(^•j) changes to (^j). 

Example of a (ii y*^»j) in an (^1): 

jj) changes to (s-^). 
Example of a (ii e£) in an 
(l_~J) changes to (<--^)- 

Conditions for the above rule 

This rule only applies if the following conditions are met: 

[1] The (j) or (ii ^ must not be in the place of the 

(2 — JjxJl f.\ — j). Therefore this rule will not apply to the word 



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- the (j) is in the place of the (A^ifsJl s-U) and the 
(^3) is a (uikp i_i It will also not apply to 
because the (j) is in the place of the (2 — J&l t\ — s) of ( 

It will also not apply to - (<J) is in the place of the 
(4J1SCJI pU) of (J*ij ^L>). 

[2] The (j) or (c5) must not be in place of the (2 — £j of 
a word which is (lJ — (lJ — ;ii is that word which has two 
2 — L*Jt t-ij — Therefore this law will not apply to the word 
((5 j — U) . Here (j) is in the place of the (2 — «ii The 
law will also not apply in the word — ~~). Here (iS) is in 
the place of the (2^ii 

[3] The (j) or (c5) must not come before the (<_i St) of 

(2_j i — 7). Therefore this law will not apply to the word 

0 j — since there is a (j) before the (lJ — St) of (2-^ i — ") 

and in the word (1 y»j), since there is a (c£) before the 

OJJ!) of (V-^"). 



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[4] The (j) or (c5) must not come before a — '\j a-* — »). 

Therefore this law will not apply to the word (J j jb) 

because the (j) is before a (c5) which is not a ( ^ j 9- 

— y^l). It will also not apply in the word (jj — jp) because 
the (j) after the (c5) is not a — ^ <3 j — ?-). Also in the 

word (3 — jLp), the (c£) is before an (* i — Si) which is not a 

(^1 J>^). 

Objection 

In the words (}°y^), (Oj — ^S»), (Oj — ^kf) and (jt — ^°"), the 

(j) and (c£) were not supposed to be changed to (t-i St) 

because they came before a (a^ — Jlj oJ — «), but yet this rule 
has been applied. 

Answer 

The (<J) in these words is a separate word and it is the 
(Joli) of the (J — *i), while the (t>A — ») is not — Jlj), therefore 
the (j) or ((5) changes to (<-aSS) and then falls off due to 



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Step by Step Examples 



[5] The (ilj — (5) or (iij — xCa j) must not be before ( iS 

Jiu>), for example, the word ((J j Lp). The or 

(iij — ><^»j) must also not be before — jS'lJ 0), for example, 
the word 

[6] The word must not have the meaning of a colour or 
defect, for example, 

(j jp) (to be one-eyed), 

(^Lv£>) (to have a crooked neck). 

[7] The word must not be on the scale of (d\ — L*£), — Ui) or 
(a!*4), for example 

(Oljji) - (DLUi) - example of (j). [meaning - rotation] 



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- (OLUi) example of ((£)■ [meaning - flowing] 

— ys) - — 1*4) example of (j). [meaning - name of a 
spring of water] 

— - — example of (c£). [meaning - to walk 

arrogantly - from iU-] 

and (2 — ^ y~) - ( 2 — L*4) example of (j). [meaning - weaver - 
plural of 

[8] The word must not be from (Jl — *xst <_->t — >) having the 
meaning of (J-pSjL" — >)• For example, the word jj — (in 

the meaning of jjt ^ ) and jj — xpt (in the meaning of 

Both words mean to take in turns. 

(7.2) If after such an (<J> — St) (which has been changed from 
a j or (J), there is a (jS"^) letter, the (o^t) falls off. 

Examples 

[1] In the word (tjj — po), the first (j) changes to i — St). It 

becomes (IjLpS). Here (iJ> — St) has come before a (jS'l — ^ j). 
The (<~aJS) falls off and it becomes 



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[2] In the word — J), the first ((J) changes to an (<_i — it). 
Due to the (<-i — H) coming before a QjS'l — ^-), it is deleted. It 
becomes J). 

(7.3) If such an (<Jn — St) has come before a (o — Jb" o) of 

— ^t* J — even if the (o) is (iij — the (cJ> — It) is 
deleted. 

Examples 

1. The word (o j — eo) changes to (ot — po). Now we have an 
(<_i — It) before — jjL? cj) of — J — Therefore it is 
deleted. It becomes (c^po). 

2. The word (tjj^-5) changes to (titio). There is a ( c- — JU" t — J 
iij — ;*ju) after the (cJ> — It). Therefore the (cJ> — It) is deleted. It 
becomes upo. 

(7.4) In the ( ) of j ydt ^tlt), from ( c >>• £— ^ 

V — £ t_P) until the end, if the word is (c5j!j j — =*•!), whether 
the (2 — JlSCJI u^p) has a (3-« — >^>) or (2 — =>*is), after deleting the 
(t-iit), the (4-«i5sJt s.L») is given a 



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Example in which (S-JT ^) has a (^i) 

(Jij — i) changes to »). The (lJ^JI) is now deleted because 
it is followed by a — --). It becomes (j — U). The (J) is 

now given a >>) because it is (c5j'j It 

becomes (^). The word QJS) is from the O^S-;) of G^)- 

Example in which ^) has a 

^> ► i> ► i> ► 'cfl> 

The word (^*) is from the (s-*^) of ((* jS'). 

(7.5) In the (Si-— jj— *11 t^— ^Ul), from ( c \y 

4 JLp) till the end, after deleting the (<Ji — Si), if it is ( j — :*■! 

^S — j) or there is a («j — ~S") on the (2 — US' ^) in ( i-3 j — st-l 
c5 j! j), the (aJ&ll frli) is given a 

Example in which (S^ifT £j has a (« ^) 

In the word (jf^ — ;), the (iij — l£) is preceded by a (3 — >^s). 
Therefore the (iS) changes to (lJ — St). It becomes — ;). 



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The (<_i — !l) is deleted. It becomes (j — Now the is 
given a (a j-~5"). It becomes 

Step by Step Example of (c£j^j ^ j^ 1 ) with (« 
► ► ► 

The word (^y^ 1 ) is from the (s->L>) of 

HHHilll 

Rule 8 

(8.1) If the letter before (j) or (if) is (jTl — ^), the (3_T ^) 
of the (j) or (c£) is transferred to the preceding letter. 

Example 

[1] In the word (J j — «j), the (2 — S" y^) of the (j) which is a 
(5^ — >i>) in this case, is given to the (<i). It becomes (J j — «j). 
(This is an example of <Jj\j ^j^)- 

[2] In the word (£- — the («j — ^S") of the (<S) is given to the 
(<-r>). It becomes (£- — ^). (This is an example of <3 j — ?H 



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(8.2) If the (2 — r j>~) is a (2 — ^si), the ( j) or (c5) is changed 
into an (odl). 

Examples 

[1] In the word (J j — <L), the (2 — >d) of the (j) is given to the 
(t3). It becomes (J j — <L). Now due to the (2 — the (j) is 
changed into an (lJ-!1) becoming (JUL). 

JjJl ► JjJl ► Jul 

[2] In the word (£- — the (2 — ?xis) of the ((J) is given to the 
becoming (£- — ^). Now due to the (2 — >^>) of the (<s) 
the ((J) changes into an (l_aJ1), thus becoming (^4>)- 

£ts! ► ► 

Remember 

The conditions applicable to Rule 7 apply to Rule 8 as 
well. 

(8.3) If such a (j) or (<S) is followed by a (jS'l — ~>), in the 



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case of and (a j^), the (j) or (tj) will be deleted. 

Example of (cJjtj j^S) 

In the word (J j — k (J) because of (O^S — - ^ — the (j) 
is deleted. It becomes (Jij (J). 

Example of ^L. i_> ^1 

In the word (£— -~j p — S), the (<J) is followed by a (jS'l — 
therefore the (c£) is deleted. It becomes (^j 

(8.4) If a (j) or (c5) is followed by a (jS"! — ^) and preceded 

by a (2 — the (»-Ji — it) (which was originally j or <S) is 
deleted. 

Examples 

(J yu jj) changes to (Jl — «j p — S). After the (<Ji — Si) is deleted, 
it becomes (Jij (J). 

(£ — -j jj) changes to (£j — o ^ — S). After the (<_i — St) is deleted, 

it becomes (^ (J). 
Important 



Page 181 



SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



This rule (Rule 8) does not apply to the words — ej j — ») 

because condition number one has not been fulfilled. 

In the words (c_£j — k>) and — the rule is not applied 

because of condition number 2 - (i_aJJ C^p). 

The words (Jl j**), (J* j 3 *^) and (j- remain unchanged 

because of the fourth condition - (a JJlj aJ^» JJs). 

However, the (j) of the (J j — ^ ^1) is an exception to 

condition number 4. Despite there being a (aJ — Jij aJ — »), the 
(aS' _^~) of the (j) or (c£) will still be given to the previous letter. 

Example of 

In the word (JjjJL*) which is the (J j — of (Jl — 5), the 
(5^ — ^) of the (j) is still transferred to the (<i). It becomes 
(Jjj — £•). Due to (uiiS'l — w- £^ — *^!-|), the first (j) is deleted. 
It becomes ( J ji« ). 



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Example of {^J^ t-5 y>r\) 

In the word (^j~^) which is the (J j — of — ;), the 
(2 — S" of the is transferred to the (v). It becomes 
(^j — Due to — - {_} — the ( j) is deleted and it 
becomes (£- — ^). Since the corresponding (3 — S" of (c5) 
is a (o the (<— ') is given a (« It becomes (^sr 9 ). 

Exception 

In the words jj — *j (to be one-eyed), ^ — yaj (to have a 

crooked neck), i j — ^1 (black), Jfiu — A (white) and a .5 j — ~* 

(black), due to condition number 6 (i.e. having the 
meaning of a colour or defect), no change occurs. 

The aforementioned rule (Rule 8) does not apply to ( * — 

J- — s^jsj), that is those words on the scale of (Jj — or 

(^^rodl JUil), like (« — SjSI & and * — > J j — 51); and words that 

are y. J^»), like {Jh jZ> and jj^). 

Bp Bp sp ©a Bp 
a@ a@ as as a@ 



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Rule 9 

(9.1) If there is a (j) in the (2 — JT of (J j— ^— 

the preceding letter is made (jS'l — *>) and the (5 — S" ^) of the 
(j) is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the (j) 
changes to ((J). 

Example 1 

Jj 5 ► ► Js*. 

Example 2 

(9.2) If there is a (c£) in (J j — ^ — in the place of the 

(2 — US" the preceding letter is made (j^ — -0 and the 

(2 S" of the (tj£) is transferred to the preceding letter. 

No other changes are made. 

Example 1 

In the word (£- — jj) the (<—>) is made (jS"! — ^). It becomes 
(^). Now the (o j*-) of the (c£) is transferred to the 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



(s-O, thus becoming (^>). 

y ► ► Cf : 

Example 2 



In the word >-t) the (o) is made (Jz ' — --). It becomes 

0 f ^ 

(j^ The (2 — s j>-) of the (e£) is transferred to the 

,0 0 \ 

(c->). It becomes — >-1). 



(9.3) It is also permissable to retain the (2 i y^) of the 

preceding letter and to make the (j) or the (iS) i^p \ — --). In 
this case the (iS) changes to (j). 



Examples 



► £?• ► f^y- 

t ,0*0 i ,0 ,0 i 



(9.4) It is also permissible to pronounce these words with 



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(^ — — &1) means to pronounce a (2 — S" ^) in such a way 
that it has the effect of another (2 — S" ^p-). For example in 
the word (J — **), the (Sj — of the (J) is pronounced in 
such a way that it has the fragrance of a 

Similar is the case with the of (£- — The (Sj — of 

the (v) will have the effect of a (4-« — The condition for 
this rule is that changes must have taken place in the 
(t-9 j j — *j>) form of the verb. Therefore, the word (jj — xp!) 

will remain unchanged because the (^jj — *<•) form of this 

word, namely (j j^i) was unaffected by any change. 

(9.5) In {iS jl j if th e ( :u ^" £0 is <£. J^) in 

(lJ j yd( ^Hl), after the is deleted in the 

is given a from the 

(4i^) of (v — *^ ^-~> j-* until the end (i.e. £- — «^ j 2 — .jS 



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Step by Step Example 

cJ ji ► cJ y ► cJy — ► oils 

► lis 

(9.6) In (^J\ — i lJj>t\), whatever the (2 — i may be, or that 
(c5j(j i_> j — ?r1) where the (2 — «1S" ^) is (jj — in the 
(<3jj — Jill yr^)> after deleting the (ij), the (2 — s.1 — j) is 
given a (a from the C 2 -*^) of (4- — jLp — > until 
the end, that is, cJ j-a j ^S"^ ( *-^ j 



Example of (^Jk ^y^) 

Example of such a (<_£ jlj <-* wherein the ^p) 
is 0^^) 



u 3 ^ u 3 ^ u 3 ^ o^ 1 



Note that the forms of (^jj — *-«) and (J j — are now the 

same. However the (J — ^) - original form of each one will 
be different: 



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Original Form 


Changed 
Form 






oil 

































Note: 

In the (J j — fSr) of (Jl*i^ — — l), the transferring of the 
(2 — ST j^-) is not according to this rule i.e. rule number 9, but 
is due to rule number 8 (the rule of Jj — Therefore the 
rule of (J j — i) and — ^1) will not apply. For example 
(j^w') becomes (^s^i). 

If 11 II If 11 



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Rule 10 

(10.1) If the (2 oi^Jl fi) of the following word form's 

(Si- — vf) is (j) or it becomes Q^p \ — -0 if it is preceded 
by a (2-w?) or a (o 

4. J*ii 

Examples 

(jp^b) becomes (j^AO - example of (c5j'j (j^^*) 
(^ ji) becomes j.) - example of {^J^i o^ 1 ) 

If the (j) or (c5) of the (2 — J&1 ^) is preceded by a (2 — 
it becomes in accordance with the rule of (J^). 

Examples 

(^^io^) becomes (^^i^cj) - example of {^J^. <j^^) 
0-^ ji) becomes - example of (c^j'j 



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(10.2) If a word has a (j) preceded by a ^) and 

followed by another (j), that (j) falls off. 

Example of (j) 

In the word — j (4- — ?Ip s — » £_ — «^-) 5 before the (j) 

there is a (3-> ^») and after the (j) there is another (j). 

Therefore, the first (j) is made Q^S"! — and the second one 
falls off due to (J^L- ^Lj>-1). It becomes ( j j^-k). 

If a (c£) is preceded by a (Sj — S) and followed by another 

(tS), the first (<,£) becomes (^Si and the other (c£) is 

deleted because of (juS'l— ^Lj^-I). 

Example of {(J) 

In the word j-** j (j — >^>U- o — ; there is a (Sj — -X) 
before the ((J) and it is followed by a second (c£). 

Therefore the first (ij) becomes (jS'l ->) and the second 

(<J) falls off. It becomes QJ^ J). 

(10.3) If a (j) is preceded by a (<« — and followed by a 



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(l£), the preceding letter is made (jS"! — *») and the (2 — S" 
of the (j) is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the 
(j) changes into a (iS) and falls off due to ( £j «^>rl 

Example 

In the word (jiy-^ — ~) the (j) is preceded by a — ^) and 
followed by a (c5), therefore the preceding letter is 
made QjS'l — and the (2 — S' y^) of the (j) which is a (a j — ^) 
is transferred to the preceding letter, the (g). It therefore 
becomes (jj jf-^ — "). Due to the preceding (Sj — -*S"), the (j) 
changes into a Now due to (Cflp\ — £j — the (ij) 
is deleted. It becomes (^IpJj). 

(10.4) If a is preceded by a (o j — ^) and followed by a 
(j), the preceding letter is made — ->) and the (2 — S" ^p-) of 
the ((J) is given to the preceding letter. Then the (c£) 
changes into a (j) and falls off due to (jcSL* 



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Example 

In the word (0 j — </> j), the (<J) is preceded by a (Sj — and 
followed by a (j). Therefore, the preceding letter (>) is 
made ( ( jfTL«) and the (3 — S" y^) of the (<S) which is a — >^>), 
is transferred to the preceding letter (^*). It becomes 
(0 j — ^>jj). Due to the preceding — >^>), the (c5) changes to 
(j). It becomes ( Jjj — * jj). Now due to (u>^ — ^ — 
the (j) is deleted. It becomes ( j y j). 

Further Examples 

\°jJA (\°j1jls - o>jyiil yr^ 1 ) becomes . 
j - J j4<k\ ^slil) becomes \'y j . 

Step by Step 

► I^J 

— ^ 

HHHHH 



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Exercise 43 

(a) Identify the rules or changes of (J — x**) in the following 
words: 

j^i (6) 
u>% (7) 
(8) 
(9) 



Rule 11 

If a (j) appears in the place of the (2 USCJl after a 

(o the (j) changes into a (<^). 
Example 

In the word (j — «o) the (j) appears in the place of the ( 
2 — JJxJl) after a (o j — ^). Therefore the (j) changes into a 
((5). It becomes 

The same change occurs in (W* 0 ), C^^- 5 ) and 
>^ ► >^ 



W (2) 

(3) 

^> (4) 

&y (5) 



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► llfO 

Rule 12 

If a is in the place of the (A^iSCj! preceded by a 
(4^5), the (c5) changes into a (j). 

Example 

In the word ^ , which is (4- — *Lp — « -^j) of ( — ! 

— S") from the masdar (ajl — fi), meaning intellect, the (iS) is 
in the place of the (3 — «iSCj1 preceded by a — ^»). The 
(<S) changes into a (j). It becomes 



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Rule 13 

(13.1) If a (j) comes in the place of the (2 — Ji" £j) preceded 
by a (a j — ) in the (j^ — ^»), it changes into a (c5), on 
condition that (J^ - a change) occurred in the (J**). 

Examples 

1. The word (which is the — ^ of ^ — 5) was originally 

2. The word l«L — (which is the — ^ of A — was 
originally L«t j-^. 

However, the word (W jS) which is the of (f jts) of 

(2 LpLL» >) remains unchanged, because no (J 

occurred in the (J**). The (J**) is ((*j^). 

(13.2) The same (J — occurs if a (j) comes in place of 
the (5 — US' of a word that is (£- — «^), on condition that (j) 
is (^pL) in the (2jl> — y3 J — or (J — Jju) took place in the 
(j) of the (2J^ j). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Examples 

1. The word — >■ (the £- — of the word Jp j — >-) changes 
to — This is an example of a (£- — «^) in which the (j) is 

* .s * Its 

2. The word *\ j — =*■ (the £- — «^ of the word J — j^-) changes to 
s\ — I*-. This is an example of a (£- — in which the (j) is 
changed in the original (from i to ). 

HHHHH 

Rule 14 

(14.1) If a (j) or (<j£) which are are not changed from any 
other letter, come together in one word, which is not 
( LS &\ — ij J — >*L>) (on the scale of ^ j — and the first of the 

two, namely the (j) or (iS) is (jS'l — then the (j) changes 

into a Then (^ — eo}) is made and the preceding (4-« — 

is changed into (a y^). 

Examples 

1. In the word ^ — ^ , (j) and come together, and the 
first of the two i.e. the ((J) is (jS'l — ^). Therefore the (j) 
changes into a (c5), thereby becoming ^). After 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



(f ^'■ 5 i) i s made, it becomes {^-"). 

2. In the word {tS j — » y), (j) and (jS) come together, and 
the first of the two i.e. the (j) is (jS'l — Therefore the (j) 

changes into a thereby becoming (^ ^ _/>)• After 

(>t — Pi}) is made, it becomes — * y). The — ^) of the (>) 
is changed to a (a j-~S"), thereby becoming y). 

3. In the word (l£j — ^»), (which is the — <^a of ^ — ^> 
LS — ^j), the (j) and (<S) come together, and the first of the 
two i.e. the (j) is (jS'l — ~>). Therefore the (j) changes into a 

becoming ^ — After (^ — sol) is made, it becomes 
— >^-*). The (4-« — >^) of the ((*) is changed to («j — 
thereby becoming — ^j>). It is also permissible to read the 
(>) with (5j — ^S") corresponding with the (2 — S" y-) of the 
that is Q^). 



(14.2) The 0— ^U- yO of (L_,j1 _ ^ jL. _ ^j! - to take 
i 

refuge) is The (s-) changes to a (iS). It becomes j — i\, . 

Because this (c5) has changed from a («j — «*), rule 14.1 will 



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not apply. 

Another example where this rule will not apply is the word 
(0 No change occurs because it is (^-^.j J^-*). 

If the (j) and (iS) are in different words, no change will 
occur. 

Example 

(1) Aillj is[ - the (j) will not change into a ((J). 

(2) d> j\ — ZJs\ j — j jj ' — jf, - the of the word — and 

the (j) of the word (j — jjj) are in different words and will 
therefore remain unchanged. 

ppppta 
& Ifa <aa <aa as 



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Rule 15 

If a word is on the scale of (Jj — *s) and it has two (j)'s at 
the end of the word, then both the (j)'s are changed into 
(tj) and (A — is made. The — of the preceding letter 

(2 JisJl ^ p) is changed into (<>j ^5") and it is also 

permissible to give the (A^iSCj! a (a 

Example 

The word (jj — ta) - (£- — <?- of j — ta) is on the scale of (J j — *■«). 
Therefore, according to the above rule, both the (j)'s are 
changed into (iS). It becomes — Then — eoj) is made 
thereby becoming — Si). After changing the (t» — ^>) of the 
preceding letter into (ij — ^5"), it becomes ^ — Sj. It is also 
permissible to read it as ^J-i. 

ppppp 

& 90 §1H §1H 90 

Rule 16 

(16.1) If there is a (j) in the (2 — J&1 ^) of an (p — -I) 
preceded by a — ^>), the (2-« — will be changed into a 
(ij and the (j) into a (c5)- The (c5) is then made 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

Q^Lx). Due to (ui^L* ^Lj^tI), the (c5) is deleted. 
Example 

In the word (j — iSf) - (£_ ^- of j — S3), the (j) is on the ( 
2 — U^xJl) of an (ji — preceded by a — >^). Therefore the 
(4^ — will be changed into a {}j — «*0 becoming (j — S^l). 
Then the (j) changes into a (c5), thereby becoming — S^l), 
which can also be written as — S-ify. After (iS) is made 
— due to (u^l — - — o^i), the (c5) is deleted. It 
becomes (jJ-Sl) which can also be written as (J^l). 

Step by Step Example 

*p — ► S&f — »*^Q>h — 
> sJ 

(16.2) The law of (16.1) will also occur on a — which 
is from (J*^~ s->^) and is (iSj^j u^^)- 

Example 

The word (j Uj) undergoes the following changes, 

eventually becoming (J*j). 



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► 

(16.3) The law of 16.1 will also occur on a (j^ — which 

is from (J^-Uj" ^L;) and is (e£j'j <j^^)- 
Example 

The word (jJi undergoes the following changes, 

eventually becoming (J^"). 

fa — ► y — ► y # — ► y # — ► y # 

► JUj 

(16.4) If a (c_£) comes in the (2 — J&1 fi) of an * — wl and is 
preceded by a letter which has a — the (^ — is 
changed into a (a j~~^). 

Example 

The word ((^t^') - of ^ — i?) changes to — isl) , which 
can also be written as (j* — The is made QjSi — --) so 
it becomes (j* — ^1). Due to (ui^ — ^ £j — "^i). the (<J) is 
deleted. It becomes (j- — bl), which can also be written as 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Step by Step Example 

► I> f 

„ — » Jd 

ppppp 

9h 90 90 9H 90 

Rule 17 

(17.1) If a (j) or ((5) comes in the place of the (2 — «iS" £j of 
a word which is (J — f-li ^ — *>\), the (j) or (c5) changes into a 
(st), on condition that change took places in the (J**). 

Examples 

1. The word (J jl — 5) changes to (J — e l5). (Changes took place 
in its J*i from Jji to J Li). 

2. The word — >) changes to — >)• (Changes took place 
in its J*i from £o to £^j). 

(17.2) Sometimes the (2 — UJ! lJj — ?-) is deleted as in the case 
of (jl — *) which was originally (yl — »). This word is used in 



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the Qur'an: (jt* l-> ^ lii ^1p) 
Exception 

In the word the (j) will not change into a because no 

change took place in the J^i (iSjji L$ Jj). 

©9 B9 ©9 ©9 B9 
90 90 90 SIR f 7 

Rule 18 

If a j j) or (^j iS) or j \Jt&\) appears after the (o i — Si) of 
(J^li-a), it changes into a (a J^*). 

Examples 

1. The word Qjl — ^) changes to (jj^ — ^p) - (£- — «^ of the 
word jjitP). This is an example of (j). 

2. The word 0-*j'j — •i) changes to (<-JijIj — - (£- — ^ of the 
word 2jL yi>). This is an example of (<J). 

3. The word (J(ll-j) changes to (JjI — j) - (£- — ^ of the word 
3Ju-j). This is an example of (^j iJlSI). 

Exception 

The (£- — of the word — ^») is (<— -jt — Although the 
is original, it changed into (oj — «*). This is an exception 



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to the rule. 
Rule 19 

If a (j) or {<S) comes at the end of a word after — >\j — St), 
they change into a («j — «*). This rule applies to all kinds of 
words, namely j-W^, 2 y^>, J£w> and ~L*U-. 

Examples of j-Wa^ 

i. jUo ► $.UO (example of j) - (s-S Pi means 

supplication). 

ii. Ci>^JJ ► s-'JJ (example of c£) - («-tjj means 

pleasing appearance). 

Examples of £fr 

i. jlpi ► fr lpi (^-of £jS) 

ii. jC_^<t ► s.C_^<t of ji wt, which was originally 

7» 0 

i. * (£-^of^). 



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Examples of X»U- f\ 

(example of j) 

ii. c^Oj ». s-'ij (example of iS) 

ppppp 

90 90 90 90 90 

Rule 20 

(20.1) If a (j) comes in the fourth position or later in a 
word and it is not preceded by a — «^) or a — ^ j), it 
changes into a (iS). 

Examples 

1. The word (OLp^ — j) was originally ( OljpJ — j). The (j) is 
in the fourth position of the (J — thus it changes into a 
(iS). 

2. The word (C — ~Ip1) was originally (o j — LpI). The (j) is in 
the 4th position of the (J**), thus it changes into a 

3. The word (c-JjiX — was originally (o jL>c — The (j) 
is in the sixth position of the (J — **), thus it changes into a 

(g0- 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

(20.2) The plural of (s-l^J — *) is — *), which originally 
was (jtp-^ — *)• In this word, the (j) is in the sixth position. 

It changes into a (jS) and (A col) is made. It becomes 

$ * , & a , 

— »). The rule of (^ — (Rule number 14, example 2) 

is not applicable here because the (iS) has changed from 

an — SI). The (Jj — i*) of this word is (*&J — «)■ In Rule 14, 

the condition was that the (j) or ((J) must not be changed 
from another letter. 

mmmmm 

Rule 21 

(21.1) The (»-J> — II) that comes after a — >>) changes into a 

0)- 

Examples 

1. The word (vjj ^) was originally O—'jl <^») - (the 

[J j^st ^^L*] of Vjl — s-^jl — The — II) is preceded 
by a (^-v 5 ), thus it changes into a (j). 

2. The word j — ^ - (jji — >\ — --I) of (s->jl — ^>) was 
originally j} — The {<Jt — H) is preceded by a — 
thus it changes into a (j). 



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(21.2) The (<_i — St) that comes after a C a j — changes into a 
(Lf). 

Example 

The word <— ij^*^> (plural of <~>\j was originally 

^(jl — The — St) is preceded by a (Sj — -X), thus it 

changes into a It becomes (4-~>jb^>) . 

ppppps 
& Ifa 9a as 9e 

Rule 22 

If there is an (*tftj lJ — St) before the (U> — St) of - — ") or 

(ji L- cJ y it changes into a (e£). 

Example 

i. The (V^) of (^ — L^>-) is ( jt — jl^-). The end of the word 
(^-^~) has an (i_i — St) which does not accept a (2 — y-). 
Therefore, the (t-Ja-Sl) is changed into (c£). 

ii. The (gt-) of (J£-) is (o^). Here also the the (o^l) 
of (^5^) is changed into (c£). 

ppppp 

90 90 90 90 90 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

Rule 23 

If (l£) appears as the (2 — US' £j) of either a plural on the 

scale of (J — *i) or it appears in the feminine adjective on the 

scale of ((_^**), the preceding letter is given a (a j^). 
Examples 

1. The word (Je-?. — ;) (plural of s\ — and Jfiu — >}) was 

originally Ja^ — ;. The (tS) appears as the (2 US' ^) of 

(J thus the preceding letter is made (jj It 

becomes dj^.). 

2. The word — - meaning 'to walk arrogantly') was 
originally — ^^). The (c5) appears as the (2 — US' £j) of the 

feminine L*i), thus the preceding letter is made 

(j j^~SC>). It becomes (^1^). 

Note: 

This rule is like an exception to Rule 3 where the (<J) 
changes to (j). Instead of changing the (iS) to (j), the (iS) 

is maintained and the (2-« ^) which is the preceding 

(2S' is changed to (a j^S'). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The (J- — s^jsj a — *>\) falls in the category of (ob - — ^1), that 

is, a noun not having any descriptive qualities. 
Examples 

(^j — - the — of (4, — Jfl ). It was originally 
(^^jjJf) - purer. The (c5) is changed to (j). 

— ^j^") - the (c- of — S"T). It was originally 

( LS 14^') - (more intelligent). The (iS) is changed to (j). 

Step by Step Examples 

> Jj° 

► ^£ 

Rule 24 

If a (j^ — comes on the scale of (3 — I and the (2 — US' 
£0 is a (j), the (j) will change into a (iS). 

Example 

The word (Ajjlp ) was originally (SJ jj jS" ), the (2 — «iS" ^) is a (j), 

thus it changes into a thereby becoming (aJ j^S ). 

ppppp 

9H §E 90 90 90 

ff ule 25 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The rule for words on the scale of (J^O or (J — is that if 
they end in (iS), and are (a _^->), [that is, they are neither ( <— 5 yu> 
C^Ij) nor then in (j — £— » the ((J) is 

deleted. The (^oiS" ^) is now read with tanwln. 
In 5J^>-), the word will remain j^L»). 

Example of (« that is, they are neither Q*V — ; <— * ^») nor 
(^_5L^): j^-) changes to (j\ j*-). 



If they are (Si y^), the becomes ( ( jS"L*>) in 

(j — =Mj *JU-) and in (4 ^Jl 2 — JU-) f the will be 

Examples: (<_Sjl _pr') changes to _prl) or (<_£jl j^rl). 











^ji^ii Lit, 





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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



All words having (li iS) preceded by a (a follow this 

rule. Such words are called {^f> <*-^[)- 
Examples: 




A3 jXj» 



Step by Step 

4 ^SsJ 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



43 ju> 

gapppp 

90 90 90 90 90 

flute 26 

(26.1) If a (j) comes in place of the (S-<d£Jl *V)of — £i) in a 
word which is either or (J^ — s^jL" j*-^}), it changes 

into a 

Examples 

i. The word (L-S^) was originally 0 y^). A (j) comes in place 
of the (4-d£Jl ^) of ((ji**). Thus it changes into a It 
becomes (W- 5 )- This is the (J^2jL" from jj^j VjS) 
-to be near, [j-^j s-^L 

ii. The word 0 — Jp) was originally (I j — Ip). A (j) comes in 
place of the Thus it changes into a 

It becomes (Op). This is the (J-v^J from ( Up 
I jip to be high, [j-^j s-»L>]. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c^xaSna czMpxfrifLotocjij 

Exception 

If this word is a (Si — it remains unchanged e.g. c£ jj — p (a 
female warrior). 

(26.2) If a comes in place of the (2 — <JSCj| ^) of a word on 
the scale of { { J^>), it changes into a (j). 

Example 

The word ((£ j£>) was originally (^"). A (if) comes in place of 
the (iXi! ^) of this word. Thus it changes into a (j). 

Exercise 44 

(a) Apply the rules of (J^*-*) to the following words: 

(2) 
^ (3) 
# (4) 

^ (5) 



^iH- (6) 
oUHJ (7) 

ys^- (8) 

^ (9) 
^(10) 



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The Paradigms of (J^») 

i j P y> j gi t J Pj J PjJ >-^JJ Jlplj j^i IJlPj Juu _lPj 

j(j P J P y» A L« )ai\ JjJ ^ "UP ( 5 s^'j -^-P "Ua y»Ul 

Sl—*^ jlj Jl— *1« aJ—*^ J pl jtJlxl* Jl*l« 4JL« aJUIj Jlp( j-« 

0 jJ P j! (1)1 Jl Pjl J Pj( 4 ^ J t o^iilJ( Jjiilj J^pl y» jbt*l« 

OljJtPj j JLPj jUIlPj c£~^J 4-U cUj^Jij Jiptjlj 

Analysis of the changes 

(1) The verbs of — are used in all the (s-'lj — J) 
except 

(2) The ( j) of (<-> — *11 ^ jl — sail) has been deleted due to 
rule no.l - the rule of 

(3) The (j) of the (j^ ^») has been deleted due to rule 

no. 2 - the rule of (aAp). 

(4) In (J j — ^ — s^Lll), the (j) can be changed to (aj — <■*) 
according to rule no. 5 - the rule of (a j — tI). Accordingly, 

— pj) can be pronounced as — pf). The same applies to the 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



feminine of the (J^ <isJa\ * ^1) - (lJJ, e-j) can be 

pronounced as (iS^). 

(5) The broken plural - 0 — ^ £- — «^) of the ( J — pUJI j, — .,! 
— '>}*) which is — p-IjI) was originally — The first 

(j) is changed to a (aj — «*) according to rule no. 6 - the rule 
of(J^tjf). 

(6) The (j) of the (3 — ^ — ^1) has changed to ((5) according 
to rule no. 3 - the rule of 

(7) However, the (j) is unchanged in the dimunitive ( * — ^1 
ji^-^xJl) of the (3-JVI j, — -I) - (J_I*Jji) and in the ( ^ 
j — - (J — IpI because the reason for the change is not 
found, namely the (j) and a preceding (a y^). 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Analysis of the changes 

(1) In this (<-r>\ — 1), the only change that has occurred is in 
the (J j — ^srl — sill) where the (c£) has changed to a (j) 
according to rule no. 3 - the rule of (j** y). 

_^Ul jy/^* li^rj J^rJJ J^rlj l£r j J^r} 

Analysis of the changes 

(1) In the imperative (j — <^L>- j — *l) - — >) , the (j) has 
changed to a ((J) according to rule no. 3 - the rule of 
(.5UI4). The same rule applies to the (3 — Nt ^1) - ( j J — 

(2) In the word (J — the (j) has changed to a (aj — »*) 
according to rule no. 6 - the rule of (J-s^j'). 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



(3) It is permissible to change the (j) to a («j — «*) in (J — ss-j) 
- the (J j — (iM ( bS — s — ?Ip jTJl. Jb-1 j) and in (J-^rj) - 
the broken plural of the (dJ j-* Jy^aiiil ^1). 
There is no other change in this (^L;). 

j^J <l*~*j ^-"-•'JJ £*"J J £"*^J J"§"* J l*l»>j £-^> ^--*'J 
^aljt t_j jj& j_4 j^J A^Jis i^Jkjj i_» *JJ ^— J^tj t (^»J&J 

Analysis of the changes 

(1) In both the above-mentioned (s-^j >}), the (j) of the 

(^jl — >^») has been deleted due to rule no.l - the rule of 
(~* — The changes in the other words are similar to ( ^ — £j 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



j4* aJu>j UL»j J^jj J^>j j J^lj ^i»J ^-*J J-^ <>*J 

Analysis of the changes 

(1) The changes in this (<-r>\ — >) are similar to those of ( J — pj 

JLaj| 4i« y>Lil JUsl« j^i talajl Ail) Juijl j Ail* j^i talajl _Lo Jl2jI 
jCjUl _ Jl*s3l ^Jl Jlio 

Analysis of the changes 

(1) According to rule no. 4 - the rule of — oj\), the (j) and 
(<S) have changed into (o) and have been assimilated into 
the (o). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c-cl\l\oilifioto^ij 

ilailll _ Jl*3l ub ja cSj'j Jlia 

<U« ^Ul Ji j^i I^Loj], ASjj Jijl j Ji ^gi taULj -^ji 

* :» » ;» .0 > '„» * i, * „» : < :» ■ 
Analysis of the changes 

(1) In both the paradigms, the (j) has changed into (<J) 
according to rule no. 3 - the rule of 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 45 

(a) Conjugate the following verbs: 

rA (3) 
Jill (4) 

Jail£-I (5) 

s*t (6) 
^ 0) 

Sii ? i (9) 
^j(10) 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



The Paradigms of y^\) 

J* 51. ^'ui 'jv J 1 -^ j Syi 

J jjL» 2JU(j JjliL» jUUL» JliL» i_i ^JiJl J^ij ^ <up LS ^-Jlj 

Jjiilj JjjLL* jUl ji^ Jt jJL* J jUL« Olx) ji^ 2J yij> JjLL« Oil 
ju jS ^ jS dJjU(j J j LSI j 0 jJ j5l jUjil J j5i 4w« Juc-^aAxil 

Oil) jij 

There is no change in the words (J j and (2 i yu>) 

because they were originally (Jlj — No change occurred 
in (Jlj — «-*) because of the exception in rule no. 8, namely 
that the (j) should not be followed by an 

Hereunder follow the paradigms of the silil) and 

j\ — All other verbs which are (<s j\ j Jl — i*) from this 
(s->Ij) follow the same pattern. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

















j^y 








J IS 




^y 








uii 
























cilS 
















;^:y 


3% 


J# 








j> ; y 


Jii- 






lis 














gU-y 


^>*y 












^y 






oii 


diS 














3&y 














j>y 






lis 


lis 


j^y 




JU— f 






ills 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 







































































uu_J ^' 














































MM 







y&j t yufi t 1 yu*) t 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



















































OlJUL_xi 




UU_J 














& 




J 5 






Ulis! 


















'J/ 



































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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 























u'li? Si 


u>rsi 






i^jijl' Si 








jij Si 


jif Si 


jiiiLJ Si 




u'ulJ Si 




odi' Si 




^ 




yii-Si 




jii Si 


jif Si 


ou'ulJ Si 




u'ulJ Si 


u^Lj ^ 


^il-Si 




Si 


1^ Si 






yiLJ Si 




ou'ulJ Si 


L)U^L_f ^ 


u'ulJ Si 


li^i — f N 


odi- Si 




yl-Si 






y>Si 















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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa d\l\ozlripLotocjij 







r- 1 

J JM&1 


















Dlili 
























oiins 






oil jJL» 


oiks 



























Analysis 

(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to the words from (J IS) till (IxJlS). 

(2) Rule no. 7.4 applies to the words from (j — IS) till (1 — IiS) in 

the jUail). 

(3) Rule no. 9 applies to the words from (Jli) till (^S). 

(4) Rule no. 9.5 applies to the words from (j — IS) till (\ — uS) in 
the (J ^ jUit). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(5) In the paradigm of (J j — h), rule no. 8.1 applies to all the 
words, while rule no. 8.2 applies to all the words of 

(6) The imperative (j *l) is made from (J j Sj). After 

deleting the Jai\ 2 the last letter is rendered 

(jTL*). The ( j) is deleted due to — «Jt £j — »M) - two 
sakins coming together. 

(7) Where the (ui^ £^ ^-^i) no more remains, the 

deleted letter returns as in the paradigms of (2 — LiiJl jj — !), 

e.g. (Jy). 

(8) Rule no. 17 applies to the paradigm of (J — ^UJl * — ^1), 
e.g. Q>% 

(9) Rule no. 8 applies to the paradigm of (J j — * — 
e.g. (J^). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 46 

(a) List the detailed paradigms (jy, £Jl j v^Jt) of the 

following verbs: 

'S/J.'<3\j (1) 

tM ( 2 ) 

l3j^' t5li (3) 

(4) 

(b) Name the word-forms {^p) of the following verbs: 

0^(1) 

o>>; ( 2) 
p (3) 
Oj^i (4) 

\yj (5) 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



The Paradigm of (^Ij 

£j ^« j^J l*L ^J^i £yi J (^Ki £^ 

£^ <u»« aJUIj ^ll* ^^r 4 £st* ^ ( — ^ j^J' ^ ^ (_s4-^ J 
Analysis 

The (J j — (1-^1) and — ^ p — *»\) have become similar 
after changes were made. However, the original form of 
each word is different. The original form of the ( ^ «<! 

J j — was j — while the original form of the ( ^ — «<! 

Jail) was 

Hereunder follow the paradigms of this (<-r>t>). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

















iy y 




iy 




^: 




£*y 








ipi; 




G*y y 












^y y 


14 


jy 






^y 


^y 












^y 


y^. 


^¥ 


y° : 


y° : 




cy y 




jy 








^y 










y 


y 






0 Jto 






yy y 




c^J 












jlxlj 










y^ 


y^ 








y^y 












cy y 




iy 







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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 





(J jj*U £_ jUil 








*.*13 


kl* li 


kJ li 




01*13 


Lp13 j li 


i*U jj 


u* 1 ^ 








^ • 




kl" li 


kJ li 
Cj r 








l*li 


0li*I3 


oiIL3 


'•Jtl* li 


'JJ li 


<_r • 


*.ils) 


kl" li 


ki li 




01*13 




l*li 




s -il3' 


IIpLj li 


f«*li li 


a -.pii3 


*jtl3' 


• r 


° jJi li 
^ r 


0LpC3' 


01*13 


LpLj li 


l*li jj 


0l£u3 


OllkiJ 


















y ? 





0*13 t ^*1U c ^*13 c ^*13 
t ^Ll3 t c t : 5jLijLl o j3l £j> J j^*tI ^ jL^il 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c^xaSna czMp'iljfzollocjij 













* '° 'i 




erf 


•it ' t '*\ 


•it " '\ 


t ' t 






a '1 


! jpUJ 


1 










•it ' t 'it 


•it ' ° '1 


t ' fit 


t ' ° 't 


•.I " '*\ 


•.t'° 'l 
JUxJ 






i ' . 'A 

c^M 




crl 




jLpLxj 




LpLxj 




s i t 'it 


^4 


i° it'-i 
1 j^Uij 




* , t 'i\ 

°f • , 


Cf* 


° , t '-t 

<^f * , 








t t 'il 


1*1 


•\i C° 'it 


Ou*j 


' ° 'it 





















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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

















<< * 


















*^Lj m 
lT • 1 
























i_r • s 
























*^Lj m 




° _frllf M 
i_T • 31 














jllki V 








0^ 


y v 


y v 











c^Sfc 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa d\l\ozlripLotocjij 







r-' 




* so 






'e 




0^**** 


01**** 


Ol*jb' 






O JJl*** 


0 ^*5L> 






<**** 




01***** 




01***** 


01**j1j 


£)l** 




ol**** 


oI*jI> 










OLp-C* 

















Analysis 

(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to all the words from (£j ;) till 

(2) Rule no. 9 applies to all the words of (J ^^lll). 

(3) In the (y*> j >*i! ^jUall), rule no. 8 has been applied. 

(4) Rule no. 17 applies to the (J^LiJl ^1). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



4_L/« J^- 4 <J^! (J?" J J^* *^ 

To distinguish between the (j — *l) of (jj — in which the 

(a j — «*) is deleted and the (j — *l) of (<~i j — sH), one will notice 

that in (<_i_prl), besides the and (c- — £. — «^), 

the (A^iS^Jl ,j\p) remains in all the words. Examples: 

— ^ ^rf ^Jj 5 ^ j 5 ^3). The ( ui — f- 

2 — USsJl) returns in the words attached to (2 — LSJ jj — J) and 

(2jLA>- 0 jj) as well. Examples: j^. ^ j5) 

However, in (Oi — jj — the (2 — «iS^Jl ^ — p ) is deleted 

from all the words. Examples: 

(^L. c \°j&> \L> t djj i Isjj Ijjj Ijj) 

Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

























Lilk 








OlilkJ 




tiik 








j jilicj 




lylk 








cJlkf 








iiik£! 


jlilki 






lilk 


jliikl) 


























lllk 












ylk 


Oylkj 




















Olilk 


lllk 


Olilki 


Olilki 






Ollak 












^(j 




> . , * 












Lslkj 




lit 


lit 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioijjfiollocjij 

Analysis 

(1) The forms of the (J — ^UJl ^1) and (J j— *&\ p — -I) have 

become the same, namely (il However, the original 

form of each word is different. The (J pIaj! * -I) was 

(i jiLt) while the (J j — p — -I) was (>j — xl*). Note that the 
(t-ij — Jiil is also the same as the (J j — ^ — as in all 
other M jjT) of (a ^ jjP). 

(2) The verbs of the perfect tense — in the form of 
(s-^ j3 X» a-uxT) and — — * £ — are the same as 
the (j — jTJ — « ^7) and (j — ^U- — » £. — ^) of the 
imperative (j — that is (^ — xil) and (tjil — xSI). However, the 
originals of the — were (b j — xil) and j — xil) while 
the originals of the (j — *)) were (ta j — xil) and (Iji j — The 
(j — »l) is constructed from the — «^») which is (Ota j — xSj). 
Therefore the (j) is 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



This (<— »b) is similar to (S%) - (c£ jlj _p-t). 

y^i <L«ljLu«>j ^La£^o j,_JLu«>l j ^Js£*j*a y^i <L«LaX^j j,_JLu»o ^LaiLul 

Analysis 

(1) The word — was originally ((* y& — -"j). Rule no. 8 
is applied and it changes to 

(2) Rule no. 8 and rule no. 3 have been applied to — «o) 
which was originally (/»jii«o). 

(3) The word (W j-i: — ^i) has been changed due to rule no. 8 
to (4^ULxl*j). 

(4) The change in (p_Jx^>) is similar to that of (^Jtu^S). 

(5) The (2 — «i£J! ^s>) is deleted from the (j — «t), (,^—4) and 

(fjj^ ^ jUa-*), e.g. (ji-a^-o (J C jt-fll-J ^ t jt-Ssl*}). 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



(6) When (2-Laj by) or (2 — L&>- by) is attached to the (j — »l) 
or ((_^), the deleted letter returns, e.g. 

0jU>tJUvj jL>t£^o j ^>tX^« j^s 0jL>tX^j ^j>tX^o jlj>t£^j 

This (s->^) is similar to (/»LS£-|). 

j,J( <u« ^UL« ^gi 4^1ij ^UL j ji-ji* j^i p-JL ^lil 
The changes of this (s->^) are similar to those of (^*UxLt). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 47 

(a) List the detailed paradigms (jy, £Jl j v^Jt) of the 

following verbs: 

'Jl4& (1) 

6°i tO ( 2 ) 
(3) 
(4) 

(b) Name the word-forms (£^>) of the following verbs: 

°J (2) 

(4) 
(5) 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



The Paradigms of (^y^) and ((J^) 

, off, >,t\' t,= , ,>', * >, 

£o| tCj> y»U1 y^i s.Uo i^^i J y"^i ^° 

^p(jj> jb'lplu s.Lp1u ^llu jllpLu alalia ^llu jllpJu* ls^^ 
Analysis of the changes 

(1) The verbs of — i u &»\ — ;) and dj\ — j <-i j — *-t) do not 
come on the (s-'LO of (j-**!). 

(2) The (j) in the (<J»j—}oi\ ^1) - (^PJl_Ji) and in the ( p — -I 
3 — M) - — a ) is deleted due to rule no. 7. If these words 
are used with (Jt) or as a (<-il — ^>), the (lJ — Si) is retained, 
e.g. (jU'&lb. j J^°^j ij'^)- 

(3) The (j) in the word (s-l^ — *) has changed to (aj — »*) as in 
the (j-Ua*). 

(4) In the plural of the (<->j — joJ! j, — -I) - (*|J — and the 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



plural of the (J- — s^iJt ^ — *\) - {9 iSl), rule no. 25 has been 
applied. 

(5) In the word — *) which is the plural of the ( p — 
^Vt), the (j) has changed to a (l£) due to rule no. 20. 

(6) Rule no. 26 has been applied to ( L g£-3>). 

(7) In the words (01 — and — the (<Ji — St) has 
changed to a (c5) due to rule no. 22. This applies to all the 
words which are (c- — \y of the (J- — s^Jl * — >-l) and the 

1 — ^ cJ j-* of the (J- — *aJci\ — ^1), whether the words 
are (^w), (^^) or (Jaw). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 















J>4°J 


>^:y 






>^ 


IpS 




1^1; y 


Ollplb 


jl^plb 




t^pS 




>^:y 


j^plb 


j^plb 




t^pS 




^l-y 




jPJJ 




c~pS 




lyu; y 




jl jpjj 


l£p.i 


lipS 




Dy^l'y 


y^ 


j jpJy 


y^ 


OjpS 




^i-y 




jP_U 




O jpS 




y 




jl jPJJ 




llf^pS 


i>of y 


^i-y 


j jpjj 


j jPJJ 






L^y 




y^ 


y^ 








^ y 


OllpJb" 






llf^pS 


y^y 


y 


y^ 


j^plb" 




y>s 




>sfy 












>^y 








if^pS 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 











(j^ - 




c - r 


S- JLi J 

c - r 




jl^pJLi 


iIpju li 
















f- JJ Li 

C r 


f- li 

c r 






















c r 


c. jr; J 

c r 




(1)1 ^p-lij 










Lpjj Li 








c. IT 1 


tff^" r 














^LfL! 


jLtJJ Li 








yfLJ 




j jpjU 




^L! 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

























Ijplu! 






jPwUJ 


jpjlJ 






f- Oil 






(jl jp-xij 




IjpjiJ 






'•IpjlJ 










/ »i 

L JI 




Of * ° f 






j Jpwljj 


i_r°' 


\pl>i! 




Jui 


* ,i 

LT J ' 






jllpjil 


jl Jp.sl 








* * , o i 




' .^.^ 












j jpjU 







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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 





iUiill 0 jJl 






- 1 




^ju Si 


Si 


(1)UpOj Si 




Cpjj Si 


i^pjj Si 










*IcJLJ M 








jllpJJ ^ 




iipji Si 








'•Ipju Si 








^jj Si 


^jj Si 


jllpjj ^ 




iIpjj Si 




j jpju" ^ 




^pjj Si 


y>jj Si 


*^*jLj M 








jllpjj Si 




iipji Si 


i^pjj Si 










^Sl 


dy>°J Si 


^of Si 


£sf Si 






^luSi 


Si 



°^piJ Si t °^>f Si <. Si < o^i" Si c 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa d\l\ozlripLotocjij 







r- 1 

J 










{■is 






jt jP_b» 






^tlu 














jtilpLu 






jtil^tS 






ot jplu 





























Analysis 

(1) Rule no. 7 has been applied to (S-*o). 

(2) If an (lJ — St) is changed from a (j), it is written in the 
form of an (<Jt — St), e.g. (t — eo). If the (lJ — St) is changed from a 
(c£),it is written in the form of an ((J), e.g. (^j). 

(3) If an (lJ> — St) is deleted due to ( l jcS'\ — -Jl ^1 — *2*|) or 
(jjj — J), if (Jt) is attached or the word is (<-il the 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



(lJj — St) will be written in the form of a (<S) in all three cases 

- (j — sMj 4 s^Jtj Jt 3JU-), e.g. If the word (^pJ — has 

(Jt) attached to it or it is (<->! the (<Js St) will be 

written in the form of a ((J) e.g. (j»^pJ — » j — Jt t J — &), 

(J-LpJ — ^ j J^J — Jt c Jfj) and ( j — Jb 

(i-SLpJ «). According to the grammarian, Slbawayh, in 

— v^Jt 2 — !b^) ; the (ajj — v^i* i_Jj — St) will be written in the 
form of an (cJ-St), e.g. {^S\s-^> j). 

(4) In the dual form (t j eo), the (j) remains unchanged 

because it appears before the (cJ-St) of (V^)- 

(5) From (0 j eo) till the end, all the words are in their 

original form. 

(6) In the (J j — ^ — ^^), rule no. 11 has been applied to 
all the words whereby the (j) changes to (iS). In the word 
(yo), the ((J) is deleted. 

(7) In words like (j*-^ — j), the (j) has become 1 — due 
to rule no. 10.1. In — j), ( 0y>J — f) and Q^IpJ — f), the ( j) 
is deleted due to rule no. 10.2 and 10.3. Besides the ( £- — «^ 
o — \y) and all the forms of (3 — j^T), all the remaining words 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

are unchanged. 

(8) The plural masculine word-forms are the same for the 
masculine and feminine, namely (0 j&^t) and (0 j&^i). 

(9) In the (J j — ^ j\ — ^ail), the (j) has changed to (<J) due 
to rule no. 20, e.g. (^Uj). 

(10) The (j->l>- Jb~! j) and (j — i>\*~ c have 

the same word-forms, namely {^-^ "). However, the 

original form of the (j ^»L>- o J ?-tj) was 

(jj jP^j) while the original form of the (j — ^»L>- o — £. — ^) 
was ( jjpJJ). 

(11) In words like — j j — !). due to the (<~i — ^) at the end, 
the effect of the QJ) is not visible. 

(12) If at the time of — «Jl ^1 — **v|), the first sakin 
letter is a (a^ — *), it is deleted. If it is not a (3^ — »), the (j) is 
rendered a (4-« — >>) and the (l£) a (Sj — e.g. (OjpJ — J) and 
(Of^). 

(13) Rule no. 11 has been applied to all the words of 

(J — plil! (i — -I). Rule no. 10 applies to (fjS). The rules of 

(^ jJLlt rt-^VI) mentioned previously apply to it. 

(14) Only (ftps}) has been applied to the (J (»— I). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 48 

(a) List the detailed paradigms (jy, £Jl j v^Jt) of the 

following verbs: 

^-o-^o Low*** ( 1 ) 

(2) 

yuu Up (3) 

A' % (4) 
%^ (5) 

(b) Name the word-forms {^p) of the following verbs: 

J-Hi(l) 
'vf&t'J (2) 

j»'(4) 
^ (5) 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



pi ^ l/s ^ ft lX* ^jj r 0 S** ft eft 

Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of this verb. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



























&J'J 






















\yj 
























&j 




















yj 






















d° r °j 




0 Jo 2 








o?J 










«y 


d£>°J 


dC>°J 


















J>'J'J 




1 0 / 





















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SJzom ids. ZlxexxiXxxsA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 















^ J li 


li 






C°j li 


li 














(v r 


»°i li 






4-V 








'■Z/l li 


li 






li 
<v ^ 


/i li 
















yy ^ 






° J.° j li 


° J 3 li 






C°i li 


ii« 0 j li 














pf^i 








f>7 


r>7 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

















/J 
























(V 




















tJ v J ; 


(V 


























° /.I 








- Jl 
















$ 











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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

















.'j V 








\i>°j> ^ 






yj- ' 


yj. s 






(V J 


(V * 














O^S- 21 








(V J 


/i N 










i'i »■ J n 


ilrV 21 












° j°i N 






- y 2 




o£v Si 






















0^ 



r&yv rc/jv i'v/v i 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa d\l\ozlripLotocjij 























































oil* y 




















Us 









Analysis 



(1) The (<-j >J1 - { LS -^J>) is (ui— «l! £ j— s*-0 if the verb 
is (^aSU). 

(2) When the word * y) is used with (Jl) or as a 

(u3Ua^>), the (<-iil) reverts, e.g. (^^Ul) , _/•). 

(3) Rule no. 25 applies to (f1y>) and IjT). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(4) Rule no. 7 has been applied to *j>) whereby the 

(if) has changed to an (i_aS1). 

(5) In the broken plural (^ — the (<S) was changed to an 
(lJj Si) and was thereafter deleted due to ( £j 

(6) In the words — «j) and (t j — *j), the (iS) was changed to 
an (cJdl) due to rule no. 7. 

(7) In the words — *j) and (\ — the (lJ — St) was deleted 
due to (o^L-Jl 

(8) Rule no. 10 has been applied to 0 yj)- 

(9) Rule no. 10 has also been applied to — * j), — » J), 

(^J 1 )' (y^V)' — *J)> @j — (JJj-J). After changes 
were made in the singular feminine second person - 
J) ~ ^ became like the plural feminine second person. 

(10) Rule no. 7 has been applied to the passive tense verbs 
like j) etc. 

(11) In the word ((*Sj), the (iS) was made sakin and then 
deleted due to (O^L-J ^Ux?r1). 

(12) In the word (J j *Sj), the harakah of the (c5) was 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



transferred to the preceding letter, the (<S) was changed to 
(j) and then deleted. 

(13) Rule no. 14 has been applied to all the words of 
(J_>*ii1 ^1), e.g. (ys)- 

^j, ^Jj Js>\j 

Analysis 

(1) The same changes as — i ^ — ^-5) have occurred in the 
active tense of this verb. The other words are affected in 
the same way as (j&M 

(2) As an exception to the rule, the rule of — ta) has been 
applied to the word y). 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



^il^c^j jULio^ aLi^c« ^l^t^ oLv^u?^ ^Ju?^ 4x< aJUIj 
DLoio 1 ! ^Ju>-I <Uv° ( Jy^g Jjts (j ^ilic* jbLiv^t^ {.Liot* j 

The verbs of this category are very similar to those of 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 49 

(a) List the detailed paradigms (jy, £Jl j v^Jt) of the 

following verbs: 

Jn(1) 

°l£ j'4 Jj> (2) 

(4) 
J* (5) 

(b) Name the word-forms {^p) of the following verbs: 

^ y (2) 
^ ^ (3) 
oiililii (4) 
(5) 



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J> Za Jy> ^ aIISj J>'j£ "J* 33 Jfj ^ ^Uj ^4 ls*J 

In this category of verbs, the rules of (Jl i*) have been 

applied to the (2 — «i^Jl s-1 — s) while the rules of {^y^ — >) have 
been applied to the {} — ui — £•). Most of the paradigms 
are similar to those of j, ^j). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

















;>:y 






y^ 


u 


#yy 


^:y 


juSjj 


jllflj 






>y y 


>^:y 




jjjL 






jy y 


^y 










#y y 


^y 


jLS y 


jQj 


Ixlsj 




y*yy 




y^ 


y& 


yw 




jyy 


^y 










#y y 


^y 


jus 


jQj 




Lo-Lsj 


yy y 


^y 




j ji" 


0 *>„.» 




yy y 


^y 




y^ 




O-vSj 


^yy 


^y 


jus 


jiiaj 


LaJUSj 


Lo-Lsj 


y*yy 


y^y 


yv 


y^ 






J^y 


^y 








C-vSj 


LjtJ 3 y 


> r y 






uls j 


ulsj 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 





















Xi 


(J 


li 




jlXJ 




Qj li 






U 








Jjj" (J 


-j li 




jlXJ 
















a . xi 


Jjj (J 


"J li 




jlXJ 




IX" 












a -XJ 


° i°j li 


'JJ °J 

r 


jLi j£J 


jlXJ 




LlSj li 
















jf jJ 











i ( yS 1 i j3 j£J 1 ^ jj 1 jj : 4jLX-| j jji ^4 J j^Jt\ ^ jUill 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 





iUiill 0 jJl 








XJ 


— — 


-J 




jLXJ 


LS^3 


1X3 












a .X£! 








jlXJ 




IXJ 




jLLaU 




'. XJ 




US* 












lis 




z * 








C? 






jLi j£J 


jLi 


Li^i 




jLi 


jL\S 










Jjti 













j jS ji) t ^^ji ji] t t j-S jil t j ji jJ t t j*S jJ ! 4jLiiM j jjl J j^Srl y'VI 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 















c3jj SI 


-J N 


jiiiy Si 


<1)C2j SI 


□y si 


Hi' SI 




a Jl V 










is y j 


-J N 






















c3ji SI 


-J N 


l)CSjj ^ 






Hal SI 


j jS jj ^ 


'•Jf S/ 








a jf V 
of 1 






oiiy Si 




si 


Cij SI 


O^Sjj si 












'Jjf V 


jf Si 











j?y ^ ' ^ ' h*j y ' ^y ^ * 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa d\l\ozlripLotocjij 







r- 1 

J JM&1 




J* 









































































Analysis 

(1) The (j) of Sj) and all the other verbs has been 

deleted due to the rule of 

(2) The rule of » j) has been applied to the (<S) of 

(°y£). 

(3) The imperative (J) was constructed from — After 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



deleting the s^il 2 the last letter which is a 

(4l*j! y^) was deleted. It became (ti). 

j ^ ^ £ ui yy ^ jy 'j 33 JO >^ jj 

Jy^ailll JjUi j ^(j^ OIjUI* s-Ul* j Jtj^ OIjUIo alii* Jl y Ollll* 



The paradigms of this category is similar to (^Jk ^ j). 



jbl j,^ * 5.I a j jlja^ jbl j,^ a a! j,^ * jbW« jb * (_£ j,^ a 

OL OUj jJs ^ ji? 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



<UP ^^_Jl j t^wis-l 4^4 t^Z t?-UX^i L5^« 

^gi Ull^rt ^ji^J S" J: ^^"i i^^i LS^i 

il. Li^Jl v^rJ ^ Zj> L-i^l Za 'jM 

$ , * , t' * , i* ^ j ^ * j , * , t , *' > £ • * * * i> s 

eS^""*^ LS^" J S*^ 4 J^* V*-^ LS^^ LS^* 1 



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jj 4L y.Ul ^iL. Caij ^JL j jL> ^4* aIaL" ^iL ^ 

^.tii jiii ^ j 34* °<J&- J^- 

SUf^l SJlPlia Ub jtflU 

yu\ "yy SL.1y ^jj j ^ j^i SWy 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa d\l\ozlripLotocjij 



The (j) of the verbal noun (jJ — ^») changed to (iS) due to 
rule no. 16. In (j — =Mj £- — s jJl 2 — Sb^) it is deleted due to 

y u3i _ Jibs; ub j« c^j'j 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Exercise 50 

(a) List the detailed paradigms (jy, £Jl j v^Jt) of the 

following verbs: 

J*** 'iff - (2) 
J 3 - "j) (3) 
^J3 (4) 

'iff Ji LS^ (5) 

(b) Name the word-forms (^v) of the following verbs: 

'</*J (!) 

lyjt ( 3) 

££03 (4) 
j?l (5) 



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Combination of (jj-<^») and (J^ 4 ) 

^\ } J( yyi Jj> Vjf JTj jjt J^T Vjf Jji' JT 

The paradigms of this verb are similar to those of (J J^)- 
The rules of have to be applied to the while the 

rules of (J^*-*) apply to the (j). Wherever there is a conflict of 
the two, the rules of (J^*-*) will be given preference. For 
example, (JjJj) was originally (Jj^). It required the rule of 

(tjAj) to change the to (<-aji), whereas the rules of (J^) 

required the transferring of the harakah to the preceding letter. 
Preference was awarded to the latter. 

Similarly, (JjJ>) was originally (Jj<J). The rule of (j- 9 *) 
required changing the to (<-Js->l). However, the rule of 

(Jx**) of transferring the harakah was preferred. It became 
(Jjji). Thereafter, the second hamzah was changed to (j) due to 
the rule of (f-^jl). It became (J jji). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



O j^fi Ub ^J\j J}yr\j bail 

ks- LS ^Jij °s\ <u-« -4 s -* ^ J ^ ^ 

This (s-'Ij) is similar to (g^i The above-mentioned rule has 
to be considered here as well. Consequently, in the word (^), 
the rule of (^i) is given preference to the rule of (^j). The rule 
of (4^J1) applies to (*M>). 

^\ j Jjf o. yyi #f Jt y{ j JT ^ #f $ vf 

The rules of (jj^-p) apply to the hamzah while the rules of 
(^U) apply to the (j). 

o j-i? ub jtf^Uj bail 

oo( a^> y>y\ ^Jb> y^i UUjI ^"U Jl j o! ULJl ^"L 



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of c/h-aka jy[ox^ot 0[ 



This paradigm is similar to ji ^j)- 



_J Vu» y^l j^s (jJvj ^) j <~>\ j^i Is-U ^1 



3 ^ yH\ Jy jrfi iSj Jj J *ij >^ *3j 

t^r^ 2JNJ1 j ^ jbT^ 4^. (_> JiJl y V <UP j 



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As mentioned previously, the rule of (J^>) is compulsory in the 

verbs of this (<-r^)- Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of 

this verb. Since it is a very common verb and many rules have 
been applied to it, it should be thoroughly learnt. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 





Jd\ jlSIj 












' £> 




i_j a Jill 




(J a Jill 
















ciy 










«y 


^y 








$J 


^y 


j^y 












^y 












^y 








rfi 


yy. y 


yy y 




yy 






^> y 


^l/y 


<sj 








#y 


#y 










»y 


j^y 


b'jj 








wy 






yy 






#y 












yy _ y 


c£j y 


ci'j 


ci'J 


a jo * 


a *ois 


* J 'J 


^y 




is) 








c^y 











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SJLaiJl 0 jjl ^ 










a " 't 
Cf-J 


' ■* 0 1 


' ' • t 

y-H 




•ii" 't 


Wji («-) 


i " ' ° t 




•/ ' 't 


0 - / 0 . 


i° " ° t 




a " ;t 


' ^ ° t 




Jb JJ 


m" it 

Jb ^ 




i " - ° t 
(J 




M'°' 't 




""' 










Jb JJ 


jb ^sJ 


i " - ° i 
^ ,j 


i " - ° 1 
^ (J 




•/ ' -t 
Jj^ 




0 ' i ° i 


a 'it 
CAP 


a 'it 
CAP 




r 1 


Jb 


Jb 


i"- ° t 


i " - ° t 


jbT^J 






6# ^ 








3^' 








>7 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



SJLiasJl 0 jJl ^ 






















Q 








































j 
































£> 


















*2 




7 


2 



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SJLfliJl 0 jjl ^ 










77^ 


j* ^ 








^7 ^ 






o7 ^ 


yj ^ 




77^ 




') y 








Li J ^ 








" " * M 


Oiji V 


77^ 


77^ 










^7 ^ 


17 V 






7" ^ 




7/ ^ 


77^ 












1 " - M 
by i 




o£y Si 


7S^ 




7^ 


77^ 








7;^ 


3^ 





' 73* ^ ' 7/ ^ ' °^j7 ^ ' 77 ^ : M c ^ 
77 V < 73^ V « erf c Ojy ^ 
^ < 73* ^ < 77 ^ < ^ ^ ' 73*' ^ = ^ M £• J ^ g^ 1 

77 v ' 73^ ' 73* v < &* 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 





J} J£\ ^1 




JpUJI ^1 


J's 




J/ 












,\y 
































lis 
















>? 









Analysis 

(1) The verb was originally (<J* ji). The rule of (J^>) is 

first applied after which the (c5) is changed to due to rule 

no. 7. This change applies to all the word-forms except the dual 
form in which only the rule of (J^j) applies. In the plural 
masculine forms and the singular second person feminine, the 
(l-aJI) is deleted due to (O^LJ! ^U^-l). 

(2) In words like (<S J, <jJ), no visible change has taken place 
because the does not accept any harakah. 

(3) The (^J>-!l) is deleted from words like (j. because of the 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

(4) In words like (jj J)), the (iS) reverts in place of the 
because the latter cannot accept a harakah. The (^L^" Oy) 
requires a before it. 

(5) In (djji), due to ^U^rl) between the (j) and the 
( j), and the (j) is not a (a-^>). Therefore a (k>_s^) is rendered to it 
to indicate the deletion of the (j). 

(6) The imperative (j) is constructed from (c_£ J). After deleting 
the (^jUall 4^>*^), the is deleted from the end. It becomes 

6). 

(7) The imperative was originally (j). The (a1*J1 
which was deleted due to a (e-iSj) now reverts. However, the 
(<_aJI) W as not capable of upholding a harakah. Hence, the (iS) 
which changed into (o^) reverts so that it can carry the (*s*^i) 
which the (2JL£ j ^;) requires before it. It becomes In (Ojj) 
and (^j), the (j) and (c5) are rendered a dammah and kasrah 
respectively because they are not (i^>). A harakah is not 
permissible on a (a-^). The dammah indicates the deletion of the 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(j) from the original while the kasrah indicates the deletion of a 

(1) The remainder of the paradigm is similar to (^J £_b'). 

(2) The verb (puio which is (^'b j^-'j j**^ can 
be from <— »b) or (^x* <—^)- A letter from the (V^" - j j>-) 
is present in the (i*I5vJl The (S of the (^U.! J*iil) is 
not visible. In the verbs before (j^), the (ij) was changed to 
0-aJ!). The original of the (*J^t) could therefore be either ( c5 

or (l>-j/iAA (J). The question arises as to why the verbs 
from (j^) till (uti) have been rendered a kasrah. The answer to 
this is that if this verb is from '—'b), the kasrah of the ( s-li 
indicates the kasrah of the 

ui*0. If this verb is 

from (^e2i i—>b)> the kasrah of the (S^iSCJl s.li) indicates the 
deleted (<J) as in (yj). 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(3) In the imperative ({j*) and the words affected by (f >*-) like 

(U^i *J), the hamzah can be changed to ((J). In (Ui) and ( *J 

Lio), the hamzah can be read as an (t-iil). The (2-UJt <-i ^) will 
however remain and not be deleted because the hamzah is a root 
letter. In the (2-J^J( fl) is not deleted. 

(4) The hamzah of (^^ , ) and (^A- 9 ) cannot be changed to (c£) 
and then (fL^}) be applied because the (c£) is an original letter. 
Therefore the rule of (tevja^-) cannot be applied here as this is not 
a (aJJt j sJL«). 

(5) The (c5) of (^Ut-a) and similar words is not changed to a 
hamzah because it is a root letter. The rule of (J^**) only applies 
to a (a^jlj j) or (o*tflj (5). 

Exercise 51 

(a) List the detailed paradigms (jy, £)l <3 j d\) of the 

following verbs: 

J°j,Jj(4) Jfc Jf(l) 

c^t ^if (5) t/j (2) 

fij ^ ( 3) 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The Rules of (l-apU^>) 

Rule 1 

If there are two letters of the same type (<j~^ — =*^») or they 

are similar — «^) and the first is (jS'l — it will be 

assimilated into the second letter. That is, {A — «}) will be 
applied. 

This rule applies whether the letters are in the same word 
or in two separate words. 

Examples of (fL^}) in the same word 

i. ► J_« (Example of [ju«jbs>] letters, that is "-5") 

ii. zJJi> ► JJ^> (Example of [^^JU^] letters, that is "-5") 

iii. * — j-^p ► j*JXp (Example of [Oiij' 

letters, that is "-5" and "O") 

In the case of (uyj^ the first letter is changed into the second 

letter before is applied. In the above example, (-5) is changed 

to (O) first, and then the two (O)'s are assimilated. However, the (i) 
is still written, although not pronounced. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Examples of (fL^i) in two words 
Exception 

In two words, if the first word is a (a^) 1 , the letters will not be 
assimilated, that is, ((»^}) will not be applied. 

Example 

However, if the (oJ — ») is in the same word, — will be 
applied. 

Example 




'A «) is either a (j) preceded by a (C — a (cs) preceded by a (5j— s") or 
a ( Ji) preceded by a (a^j) 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

Rule 2 

If two letters of the same type are (ii j — >*z»), and the letter 
preceding the first (J ji J-i L») is also (ii j — the first letter 
will be made (^p L*<) and then the two letters will be assimilated, 
that is, will be applied. 



Example 




letter 

However, if a noun (jt-^}) has a (35" on the (2 — <J5sJl jj^P), the 
letters will not be assimilated. In this case, (>liol) will not apply. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Example 

*>. * 

ppppp 

90 90 90 90 90 

Rule 3 

If the letter preceding the first (J J' J — is Q^r ' k ") and not a 

(oJU), the (aT j*-) of the first letter will be given to its preceding letter 
and then (>lPil) will be applied. 

Example 

\ (J}i jj u) preceding letter 

I (J first letter 
((jU) second letter 

J>i ► J>i ► >i (V> <-r^) 

Exception 

This rule does not apply to the words of (J>«L»). 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Example 

4-4^ (No change is made.) 



Rule 4 

If the preceding letter is a (^ — *), without transferring the 
(2 — S" y^), the first letter will be made (jS'l — and both will 
be assimilated, that is, (f L£o!) will be applied. 

Examples 

o-» J**) ° f c^ 1 ^ v^) 

\ \ X. 

^ 1st a-L* 

2nd 

£cj*-l>- ► ► 

Si^» (J J*3) of (a1pUL> 

**JA ^ ^ ^ 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Rule 5 

If after applying (A — ^\), there is a (<Ji — Sj-pause) due to 

(j — or there is a (f j — the following are permissible in 
the second letter: 

i. 4^3 - because it is the lightest letter (olS" 

ii. o j-^S' - whenever any (jS'^) letter is rendered a harakah, it is 
rendered a kasrah. The rule is 

iii. Jji - (no takes place). 

Example 

The(4*-*s y»l)of(yij ji)is: 

If the preceding letter (Jjl J — i t») is (> j-« — then — 
is also permissible. 

Example 

When the final letter has ( jjSL*), either because of a suffix, or 
because it is in the jussive case (f ji-' aJU-) or it is the imperative 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(y^), the two letters must be written separately, e.g. (loX») and 

When the final letter is (ii y>^>) - it is vowelled - the two are 
coalesced. 18 This does not apply to the (jX^u>) - verbal noun, 
where the (eJ>Jt) interposes between the two final letters, e.g. 

Exercise 52 

(1) Which rule has been applied to the word Qj k>) and 

how? 

(2) Explain the rule applied in the word (0 j£> jJ). 

(3) Analyse the rule applied in the word (i_~~o). 

(4) Apply rule no. 4 to the word (^j). 

(5) What are the different ways of reading the imperative 
singular form of the following words? 

^(2) 
&(3) 



18 joined and made into one. 

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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



J_4 J_« J_« <U/° y>^j\ j^i tj^a jJoJ -La J ib> j^S t-L« J-aJ jj« 

Analysis 

(1) Rule no. 2 has been applied to 

(2) In the words (-Uj) and rule no. 3 has been 
applied. 

(3) Rule no. 4 has been applied to (^), and (-iW). 

(4) In the imperative and prohibition (^^^j V*), rule no. 5 has 
been applied. 

Hereunder follows the detailed paradigms of this verb. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 





(Jill JLTtj 

£ -J *J> 

Jj^l 


^jUll 


^jUll 

i_j a Jill 


(^ai 


(^ai 




toy 










toy 


toy 


oito 








y 


wy 










toy 


toy 






OJL« 




toy 


toy 


oito 








j^iuj y 












toy 


toy 










toy 


toy 


oi to 


Olto 


^ to t 




ytoy 


jtoy 






o to S- 




^to y 


^to y 






c-oju> 


colt* 


to y 


toy 


o(to 


Olto 






osiuj y 


O-Sjui y 










^y 


^y 


i 

JL.I 


iif 


Oil* 




toy 


toy 











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SJLfliJl 0 jjl ^ 








' \ 


JJU-J 


S i ' J ° i 


i t s o , 


M*i' \ 
JlJLo_J 


M*l ' 't 




1*1 J ' ° t 


Vr 't 


•l 1 J 't 






it 

JJLoJl! 


J it 


4 I ' - ° t 


4 I J - ° t 


M*i' it 


M*l ' -t 


1*1 ' - ' 1 


1*1 J - ° t 






. O ' o -» o ! 


0/0 , 0 . 


\*> ' il 


•>*> J ;i 




S l J - ° 1 


\I*i' il 






fit* i " i 


Vrit 








•1*1 ' it 




■ V - 1 1 


■ V- 1 1 


M*i' it 


M*l ' -t 


l S i ' - 0 t 


|V ; " t 
























Hi jj 









jail! c <1)X«U c ului) c jIu£J 



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0_U-J 


« ' *< 


-U.J 


•ilV *\ 
JlJLo_J 


1*.-* '1 




iV 'i 

IJU-J 




•i i J 't 


0 I , >. 




JJLoJl! 




4 I ' it 


JloJl) 


JlJLoJJ 


JlJLoJj 


l 4 l ' -1 


IJLoJj 








•\°.>V '! 






*i ' -1 








1*1 ' il 




JJLoJj 


jJL» 


0 1 ' -1 


0 i J. 


JJLoJj 


jJL» 






•ilV -1 


jl X« 


(V -t 










0.5 Jul 
















!u3 



jail) t jjJ»l! <, OJuii c 



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3JL&)l d jd\ gj> 








O-Uj ^ 


0wL»J ^ 








01^-OJ V 






Vr ' v 
jj^j ^ 








jj^j ^| 








jlJLoJ j 


01-UJ V 


IJLqJ ^ 




Olo-^ ^/ 


OU^wUj ^ 


0-iwU-J ^/ 




0-UJ ^ 


O-UJ ^ 


wUJ ^ 




jl_UJ ^ 


OI-UJ V 


IwUJ ^ 




Vi'* V 
JJ_»_) ^ 


0-UJ V 




0 V- V 




OJ-oJ V 








M*i ■* - M 








OliSali ^ 


O^luJ V 


oSali ^ 


oi.( Si 


Oaif Si 




aif ^ 


oU ^ 


o!ui ^ 




Hi y 



oHi V t Ooif N c Olui V i O^i V c 
O^ui ^ t OJui V <• OJuj ^ t oHj V : Oj-Jl ^> J j^srl Lf fJl 

° i , ° i ° * , > ' ° £ , > - 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



2ftl f\ 






JpUJI ^1 


















ill!* 

























































Analysis 

(1) From till the end, no (f^i) of the first (J) applies 
because the second radical is (jZ'L*). 

(2) However, from (ojX») onwards, (f l^-i}) applies because the 

(i) and (o) are j^il k_~> _/) - close in source of 
pronunciation. 

(3) Rule no. 5 has been applied to (*Uj jJ) etc. 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Exercise 53 

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail: 



1^1- (2) 
L4i L* (3) 
Li Li (4) 

L^ (5) 



(2) What is the word-form C 2 ^-^) of the following words: 

d^k (1) 

ji!tU; (2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 



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4J» 



^gi \j\ Jhl^l y> . '/>i Jsl^>\ j Jh°h .* j-gi tjl ^-^i jl^'^i J^-^l 

V ^JssI^sj *y <up jj^l jk^l ^ 

In this (<— the (J — ^UJl ^1), (J ^ — -I) and ( p — -I 
<-jj — iaJl) have become similar in form but the original of 
the (J — ^Uil — w-l) was (uj — *J! jj — while the ( * — -1 
J and J0> f\) was (OyJl ^ y**). 



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IuJ> <Cj» lJ Jail SjJL? ^ JloJ J-<J ^ 4_lp j SjJ>( 



JiiJ ub oipUa* 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



The rules of foj) have not been applied in these two 

paradigms. 

Wherever — col) has been applied in this (<-r>\ — ;), it is due 
to rule no. 4. 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



A Combination of (cJ^U^»), (jy*~qy) and (J^- 4 ) 

ft y ft y ft y ft v .up ^jf 

Analysis 

(1) The rules of (jj apply to the hamzah while the 

rules of (i_ap( — ^») apply to the doubled letters (ui — ~JU*i*). 

At the time of conflict, the rules of (<Jn&\ — will be given 
preference. 

if * h 

(2) In the word (>J — j), the rule of (<j"ij) was not applied. 
Rather the rule of was given preference. 

(3) After applying (A «}) to the word (f j'), the rule of 

(^tjt) was applied whereby the hamzah changed to (j). It 
becomes (j*y). 

JloI y» jbtJL* .il-L^ it jlo <bj^» itj^ jb y ;y <D Sj^J 



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Analysis 

(1) The rules of ^») apply to the doubled letters 

(Oi — iU^*) while the rules of (J — ^*-*) apply to the (j). At the 

time of conflict, the rules of (<_ipl s^») will be given 

preference. 

(2) In the word (-5 y), the rule of (J^) required the (j) to be 

changed to (c5) while the rule of (cJ-f-Ua-*) requires the 

transferring of the harakah of the first (-5) to the (j). The latter 
has been given preference. 




If there is a 



(jS'l — ~> j j — !) in one word followed any of the 



letters of ( j j — I* j) in another word, — W1 U be applied 
to the (j^L- o jJ). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Examples 

(dLj °^»), (LSJ tf), (jU^j and 

(jS'i ^ bJC^). (The tanwin is a nun sakin in reality). 

If the letters are in one word, (A — «)) will not apply, e.g. 

(lib), ( j(jl^). 

The (J) of the definite article (Jt) becomes assimilated in 
the ^Jj^X e.g. ( c _ r lIiJlj). 

The (5-**^ ^jj^) are: 

It is not assimilated in the remaining letters of the 
alphabet, e.g. (^liitj) 

The remaining letters are called (h y>$ <Jijj>-). 
Exercise 54 

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail: 

j>1 (4) 
3y (5) 



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Special Meanings of Each (s^) 

The (2^>U>-) refers to the extra meaning of a verb besides its 

literal meaning, e.g. j^v) means to expel. The verb is 

transitive. Here (V^^ 1 ) refers to the latter meaning, namely that 
of being transitive. 

The vastness of the Arabic language can be estimated from the 
(oL^>l>-) due to the fact that one verb can have so many 
different shades of meaning merely by using the verb in different 
categories (<_->IjjI). 

The (2*^) of ( jA> ub) 

(2JlL») - to mention a verb after (2!pLL* ^j\S) to show that one 

object overpowers another, e.g. {^uw^i Ji- J\ ^l*-^ li-) - The 
man disputed with me and I overcame him in the dispute. 

The of (o j& ob) 

The (v^^ 1 ) of this category is also (2JtL») on condition it is 

either (jLl»), ( J> yr\) or (^JL ^U). 
Example: 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



(4j"J^-y -V^j ij^ j) - I and Rashid made a mutual promise 
and I was predominant in the promise. 

The (I-^)of (£f ub) 

This (v^) most often has verbs which have the meaning of 

illnesses, grief, joy, colours, defects or physical forms, e.g. (p-*^) 

- to become ill. 

( 0y>~) - to be grieved. 

(£■ _/) - to become happy. 

(j Ji") - to be blackish. 

- to be one-eyed. 

(^Jj) - to have broad eyebrows. 

This (^L;) is mostly intransitive. 

The (&~# of (f / Ub) 

This (<-r>^.) is always intransitive. It refers to the natural qualities 

of a person that are of a permanent nature or a temporary nature 
achieved by experience. 

Examples: (^y-^-) - to be handsome, {^) - to be ugly, 
(4ii) - to have understanding, 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



The Derived Categories 

The (V^) of (JUi! ^U) 

(1) _ to make an intransitive verb transitive and if it is 
already transitive, to make it doubly transitive, e.g. 

(Jjj) - to descend, (J y\) - to send down; 

(£-w<) - to hear, {^^) - to make someone hear. 

(2) ( j-r^J) - to make the doer (J^-U) or the object (J j*-L*) 
obtain the root (-U^l*) of the verbal noun (j-L^») from which the 
verb is formed, e.g. (J*^ c-S' - I provided the shoe with 
shoelaces. The (i^-U - root) is y^) meaning shoelaces. 

( yS\) - to bear fruit. The (*i>-b») is meaning fruit. 

(3) - to take the object to the place of the noun (i^-L»), 
e.g. - I took it to the place of selling, that is the market. 
The (J^U) is (£o). 

(4) (<lM»crj) - to find something described with the (i^-L«), e.g. 
(Axlijf) - I found him to be stingy; (o»^f1) - I found him to be 
noble; {*5X*j>-\) - I found him to be praiseworthy. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(5) (J&WI c. *Lo) - to remove the (i^-U) from something. This 
is of two types: 

[1] if the verb is intransitive, the (j>-U) will be removed from 

the doer e.g. (Ji- J\ JaLil) - the man removed oppression from 
himself, that is, he was just. 

[2] if the verb is transitive, the (i>-t») will be removed from the 

object e.g. (Ji- J\ Ooiil) -I removed dirt from the eye of 
the man. 

(6) (i^-Lil s-lkpl) - the doer gives the object the (j>-t>), e.g. 
(c-JSCj! c-JU^pI) - 1 gave the dog a bone. 

(7) (^J-k) - the doer reaches the or enters it, e.g. ( ^1 

Ji- J\) - the man reached in the morning; (Ji- J\ <i JsJ) - the 
man reached Iraq. 

(8) (^JJjrs^) - It has three meanings: 

[1] to become the possessor of the (i^-U), e.g. (« ^-^i) - 
the cow became one with milk. 

[2] the doer becomes the possessor of something that is described 
by the that is, it has the quality of the ( A^-U), e.g. ( <-j j>r\ 

Ji- J\) - the man became the owner of mangy 19 camels. 
19 A skin disease affecting hairy animals that causes an itch. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



[3] the doer becomes the possessor of something in the place or 
time of the e.g. (aOJ! ci - the goat bore offspring 

in the autumn season. 

(9) ((3U«u»il) - the doer becomes entitled to the (i^-U), e.g. 
(-Ua ojt jjl) - Hind was entitled to be married. 

(10) (Ajj4^) - the doer reaches at the time of the (i^-U), e.g. 
jJl JUa^T) -the crop was ready to be harvested. 

(11) (<L*jCa) - the meaning of the (i^-U) is strengthened, either 
by making the act more final or making it more intense and wider 
in application, e.g. (J^l y^) - the date palm bore much fruit; 

I jL*\) - the morning became very bright. 

(12) (s-t^aj) - the verb is initially used from (JUi} This 
can be of two types: either the verb is not used in its root form 
(i e.g. (jSji) - to hasten; or the verb is used in the root form 
but for another meaning, e.g. - to fear while the root form 
(ji-i) means to be compassionate. 

(13) (k&\jfi) - to be synonymous with another verb, e.g. 
(ls^ J <_P^' ls 5 ' 0 ) _ ^ ot ^ mean: tne night spread. 



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(14) (&jlki) - to mention a verb after another verb to indicate 
the fact that the object has accepted the effect of the doer, e.g. 
(jJoti Aj^-io) - I gave him glad tidings so he became happy. 

(15) (^r—j) - making a relationship of something to the (i^-t»), 

e.g. (Ji- J\ c-> ysSl) - I made a relationship of disbelief to the 
man. 

(16) IjJj) - to make a transitive verb intransitive, e.g. 

(aS)1 jjllv X^-) - Salim praised Allah. (fJ^ J-^() - Salim was 
praiseworthy. 

The (OL^) of (J-*jS oli) 

(1) (4j*UJ) - Example: (Ji- _y! oJjJ) - 1 made the man sit. 

(2) (V^-»») - Example: (XpLii! o ^lii) - I removed the peel of 
the fruit. 

(3) (jutf) - Example: (jAlJl ls^"-*) _ He placed spices in the 
pot. 

(4) (5 j Jjy^) - Example: (jiJiJl j jj) - The tree bloomed. 



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(5) J^>) - Example: (jJjJI <j LJUJl jIp) - The students 
reached the depths of knowledge. 

((♦-s^-) - He came into the tent. 

(6) (^W 9 ) - This is of three types: 

Intensity in the verb, e.g. (jlUxil J yr) - The student roamed a 
lot. 

Intensity in the doer, e.g. (J* Lit ^5 y) - Many camels died. 

Intensity in the object, e.g. cJLIp) - She locked many 

doors. 

(7) (4-— J) - Example: (Ji- jJl cJL~i) - I made a relationship of 
transgression to the man. 

(8) - to make something don the e.g. 
(jj* o~LU-) - I draped the horse with a horse cloth. 20 

(9) (Jallsxj) - to join the (i^-U) to something, e.g. ( olai 
^Jsu~^\) - I applied gold to the sword. 

(10) (Jjjs»sJ) - to make something into the («i>-L») or similar to 
the (i^-l*), e.g. (Ji- J\ j^sj) - He converted the man into a 



A cloth used to cover animals to protect them from the cold. 



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Christian; (s-ta J\ cu*-^) - I made the sheet like a tent. 

(11) (j*p2>) - to abbreviate a sentence and express it by means of 

a single verb, e.g. (JJ-*) - to say 'La ilaha illallah'; (^-^) - to 
say 'Subhanallah'. 

(12) (3i3ljj9) - to have a similar meaning as y?-), (JUil <_jI>) 
and (J*^~ s-*^)- 

Examples: (^y^j *3 y>5) - I gave him a date. 
(j-JIj j^j") - The date dried out. 
y>j ,j» y) - He used the shield. 

(13) (s-\J&\) - Example: (4i«i5 ) - I spoke to him. This meaning 

is new in (J-*a> <-r J ^) because the (-5 y^) of the verb means to 
injure. 

The (OL^I^) of (&PULa ub) 

(1) (aS'jQw*) - the relation or application of the act to another 

person, e.g. (4-^) - to write; (l-JIS") - to write to someone, that 
is, to correspond. 

(2) (2i3lj^) - to have the same meaning as (-5 (JL**| s-^), 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(J^liJ <_jL) and (J-*£ <-r^). 
Examples: (y^j _/^) - He travelled. 
(aJJjuIj aix&\j) - I distanced him. 

(LJLiJ jjgjtC. OLbr ^Jl - The two men abused one another, 

(oijwsj c-jipW?) - I doubled the thing. 

(3) (Jsg^) - e.g. ( V 1 *- (i ^ am! - May Allah 
grant you well-being. 

(4) (*t2bjl) - e.g. (oldJ! sOa ^U) - He bore this hardship. The 

which is (a means to be hard-hearted. 

The (OL^I^) of (Jl*s3l ub) 

(1) (i&Jl) - This is of four types. 

(a) to make the (i^-l*), e.g. (js*z>rl) - He made a hole. 

(b) to hold, take or choose the ( A^-U), e.g. (c-ux^ri) - He held 
the side. 

(c) to make the object into the e.g. (aQJl tS^l) - 
He made the sheep into food. 

(d) to hold the object in the e.g. (el^spl) _ He held it 
in his armpit. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(2) (cJi j*e&) - to attempt to achieve an act, e.g. (^1^1) - He 
attempted to earn wealth. 

(3) - to do an act for oneself, e.g. (JX^\ J^"i) - He 
measured the barley for himself. 

(4) (APjlJa*) - Example: G*-^Ls <ul^p) - I made him grieve, so 
he began grieving. 

(5) - Examples: (^L'j ^l^l) - It became bright. 
jx*2>-\) - He entered Hijaz. 

(iS^ J J tS^jl) - He donned the sheet. 

(Ul^lsJj jlU- J\ ^&&-Y) - The two men disputed among 
themselves. 

(^prlxLlj jx^il) - He sought a rental. 

(6) 0^1) - This is of two types. 

(a) there is no (-5 e.g. - to slaughter a hungry goat. 

(b) the (-5 has a different meaning, e.g. - He 
kissed the stone, (^X^) - He was safe. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJxsxiiXxxsA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

The (OL^jL?-) of (JUiil ub) 

(1) (^j ji) - to be intransitive, e.g. ( y-^\) - It broke. 

(2) - to perceive something with the senses, that is, the 
acts are related to the external limbs. 

(3) (APjlk*) _ Examples: (^li3ls 'Sj^S) - I broke it, so it 
broke. 

(jlisls ullil cJLLpI) - I locked the door and so it was locked. 

(4) (£231 j*) - Example: (j*J4 ^S. - He reached Hijaz. 
This meaning is seldom used. 

(5) (s-1^1) - Example: (jU^i) - He went away. (J^») - to be 
cheerful. 

The (OL^bi) of (J^i <-*lfl 

(!) (f JjJ) , (<^jJ) - colours and (£-4*) - defects. 

Examples: (j-^i) - It became very red. 
(J_p~!) - He became one-eyed. 



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The (OL^b^) of (J*i? ub) 

(1) (APjlJa*) - Example: (^Jaiii A^tjai) - I cut it into pieces and 
so it became pieces. 

(2) - to think or to represent oneself to have a certain 

quality or status, e.g. ( j^>) - He represented himself as having 
patience. 

(3) (<wU5^J) - to refrain from the e.g. (<s y^) - He 
refrained from sin. 

(4) (j-J) - to don the e.g. - He wore a ring. 

(5) (J-*«J) - Example: - He used the oil. 

(6) - This is of four types. 

(a) to make the e.g. (ci~*^>J) - I made the tent. 

(b) to hold, take or choose the e.g. (c_u^J) - He held 
the side. 

(c) To make the object into the (i^-t»), e.g. (^^Jl y) - 
He used the stone as a pillow. 

(d) To hold the object in the (J^-l»), e.g. {J^>\ ift?) - He 
held the child in his armpit. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(7) (£tJj*tf) - to do an act slowly and several times. This is then 
of two types. 

(a) It is possible to achieve the act once but the doer does it 
slowly, e.g. j^>) - He drank in sips. 

(b) It is not generally possible to achieve the act once, e.g. 
(jlyjJI Jii^J) - He memorized the Qur'an a little at a 
time. 

(8) ( J - to become the or similar to the (X>-L>), 

e.g. (j^) - He became a Christian; (j>^>) - He became like the 
ocean. 

(9) (5 j j - Example: (J - He became wealthy. 

(10) (4i3lj«o) - to have the same meaning as the j£), ( s-jU 

and (JUi^»1 <- r J ^)- Examples: (JJ j J^j) - He accepted. 
(O^pjj - He remained awake. 

(g^js>*i**\ j ^y>*3) - He sought a need. 

(11) (s-l*tejl) - This is of two types. Either there is no (^ j£) or 
there is a (J y~) but it has a different meaning. 

Examples: ( ( _ r -<^iJ) - He stood in the sun. 
(jU^j) - He spoke. 04S") - to injure. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The (OL^bi) of (JPliJ ob) 

(1) (BjQj) - This is similar to (iTjli*.) of (iipU. ^L.). 
However, the difference between the two is that in (21pLL« 

one is mentioned as the doer (J^-p-Ls) while the other is mentioned 

as the object (Jj*jL») while in (J-p-^sj <— jIj), both are mentioned 
as doers but in reality each one is the doer as well as the object, 
e.g. j» j O^jj ji-j^J) - Rayhan and Farhan abused each 
other. 

(2) (J4s») - to simulate a state or status or representing oneself 
to have it, e.g. (^jUJ) - He pretended to be sick. 

(3) (XpjUxs) - Example: (^Uxs ajIlpU') - I distanced him so he 
was at a distance. 

(4) (£231 j*) - Examples: fJl*) - to be high; 
Qy^i) Lj) - to enter the right side. 

(5) (s-1^1) - Example: (^ J^) - Allah is most blessed. 
j) - The camel sat. 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

The (OL-^bi-) of (JUix-il ub) 

(1) (LJJp) - To seek the e.g. (-fill o^i*£-l) - I sought 
forgiveness from Allah. 

(2) (43 CI jl <jjU&tflt»l) - to be entitled to the (^t>), e.g. ( ^J/^i 

- The clothing was entitled to a patch. 

(3) (APjlko) - (APjlko) - Example: axISI) - I made him 
stand, so he stood up. 

(4) (d\J&rj) - Example: (o»^£L() - 1 found him to be noble. 

(5) (l)L1*?-) - to regard something as being described by the 
(i^-L»), e.g. - I thought him to be good. 

The difference between (ji-brj) and (<L)LLo~) is that there is 
certainty in the former and doubt in the latter. 

(6) (JjstJ) - to become the (j>-L») or to become similar to the 
(Jj>-L>), e.g. (j-jkl! jjfoci*^) - The mud became a stone. 

(7) (i^i) - Example: ^J^i) - He made India his 
homeland. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

(8) ( - to abbreviate a phrase, e.g. - to say ( ^JL) Ul 

(9) (JUJl J J*iJ j JU3I j - Examples: ( ^£-1 
yj) - to settle down, j i—>Us£^l) - to reply, ( j j^^-i 
jt^j) - to be arrogant, (^^tj l^a^sL.}) - to resist a temptation. 

(10) (s-t^l) - Example: (SSC- jJ! Js- J^^i) - He leaned over 
the pillow. 

The (OL^I^) of (JU-ail ub) 

(1) Jji) - This verb is mostly intransitive. Sometimes it can be 
transitive, e.g. (<uJ^£-|) - I regarded it as sweet. 

(2) - Example: (^j'Ul L~iyup1) - The land became 
full of grass. 

(3) (APjlJa*) _ Example: - I wrapped it so it was 
wrapped. 

(4) (Aiilji) - Example: (4xllk£L>1 j i$T>i^1) - I thought it to be 
sweet. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



The (OL*?bt) of (J^l ^U) 

Like (J%^1 ^\->), this category also has the following four 

meaning patterns: 

(f !#) , (^ jJ) and (L4P) 

Examples: (^^-M) - It became very white. 

(J I - He became one-eyed. 

The (OL^) of (Jij*3i ub) 

(1) (4*JC«) - Example: (i ji^-i) - He ran very fast. 

This category is {^^jw), that is, a word which has no (J-^>) 
origin nor something similar to the origin. 

There are two differences between (<_jL^S1) and (s-^i). It is a 
condition for (<_->l*22*l) that it must not be used in (i y£ ( _ S J "*^ J ")- 
For (s-'-^i), this is not a condition. Secondly, it is a condition for 
(c-jL^st) to be free of letters of ( J^|) and extra letters brought 
for a particular meaning Qvto-U u» j>-). 
An example of a letter of (i3^-[) is the (J) of the verb (J^-^) 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



which was increased to bring this verb onto the scale of f^^)- 
An example of a letter of (^<-^ ^ y^) is the hamzah of 
(> which was added to the verb to render it transitive. 

The (OL^lr) of ub) 

This category has many meaning patterns some of which are: 

(1) ( - Example: (J^~0 - He recited 'Bismillah. 

(2) (j*^!) - Example: - I made him don a burqa'. 

(3) (APjlia^) - Example: Jllll J 1 ^) - The night hid 
his sight so it became hidden. 

This category is used mostly as (^s^a) and (cJ-f-Ua^) and 
sometimes as e.g. (JjJj), C/jr'j)- 

The (OL^) of ob) 

(1) (APjlka) - Example: (^-^-Jis - I rolled it so it 
began rolling. 

(2) (oUasfll) - Example: - He walked conceitedly. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

(3) (v&S'y) - Example: (y>-^- - He screamed. 

The (OL-^bs-) of ( J*A^3| ub) 

(1) ji) - Example: - to gather. 

(2) (APjlki) - Example: aJ^JJ) - I made his blood 
flow and so it began flowing. 

The (OL^^) of (JlJUJl ub) 

(1) (f JjJ) - Example: (y^i) - to shudder. 

(2) (APjliai) - Example: (OllUi o ? llk) - I pacified him so he 
was calmed. 

(3) (oUaaSl) - Example: (|U«Sl Si^l) - The star shone - 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Application of the Special Meanings 

Quote 1: 

(J~JyS\ 2jjJ^« ^JsA c^iJt aU - excerpt from ( J yJ\ 

Translation: "All praises are due to Allah who raised the status of 
all the believers." 

Teacher: What special meaning of (JUil <_jL) is found in the 
verb (Jkf)? 

Student: The meaning of (aj JjJ) - to be transitive is found in this 

verb because the (-5 j£) of this verb is C&) which means to be 

high. This is intransitive. When it was taken to (JL**} ^>^>), it 
became transitive, having the meaning of 'raising'. 

Quote 2: 

(JLSo)! ^ 4j°lb Jiij 'yf cJ2\ ^j'Lp bis) - excerpt from 

Translation: "When he sees the Ka'bah, he should say 'Allahu 
Akbar' and 'La-ilaha illallah' ..." 

Teacher: What special meaning of (J-*flJ s->L>) is found in the 
verb G$") and (Ji*)? 

Student: The meaning of ( j-s^af) - to abbreviate - is found in this 
verb. 



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Quote 3: 

(^L' ax^ ^Ip J^CaJ ?.Li jt j) - excerpt from (^jj-Uil) 

Translation: "If he wants, he can give charity to six poor 
persons..." 

Teacher: What special meaning of (J*ij s-'L;) is found in the 
verb (3XaJ)? 

Student: The meaning of (s-^i) is found in this verb because the 
0 is ((3^3) which means 'to speak the truth'. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Challenging Words 

A few difficult verbs of the Holy Qur'an and other verbs will be 
mentioned here because the purpose of learning morphology and 
syntax is to understand the meaning of the glorious Qur'an. An 
explanation of these verbs generally refreshes one's knowledge 
of morphology. 

The verbs will be written according to their pronunciation and 
not according to their Qur'anic script so that the student can 
exercise his mind in trying to figure out the original word. In the 
analysis, the correct written form of the word will be provided. 



Analysis: This is the imperative (y*) of the verb (^j), the 
being (j-^ 5 ^ X» £f?~). The original word was ( <— * 
jijl), from the 0—^) of (Jl*s»|). It was constructed from the 
word (0 jib") which was originally ( j The of the 

(<J) was transferred to the preceding letter after deleting its 
harakah. Due to (^S'LJl ^Lj>-1), the which was then 
changed to (j) was deleted. Due to the entry of the the ( aj^* 
of (I^SjI) was deleted. The final (0) is not M y^l d y) 
but (ajISjJI djj) which enters the end of a verb between the verb 
and the ({J&l* is) to protect it from receiving a (S^T). It was 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

originally {^J ji^Ls). The (jJ^l« (j) was deleted and the (o 

of the (klijJl Djj) was sufficed upon. This occurs very often. 

Due to a (<-i*j), the (a j— is also not pronounced. It becomes 

Analysis: This is similar to (0 jiji »). The original word 

was {^J j — <~f). It is the imperative of the verb (<*_, — 
the (s->^) being It is written as (0 

Most often confusion arises in verbs where or (ty*-) 

occurs, a (AjlijJl ^y) is added to the end of the word and (<-i*j) 
is made on the ( dy) after deleting the <J). The student is 

perplexed to find a (v' j^V' ^ J^) ^ n s P^ te °f or (f J**) 

whereas the (0 _y) is jJI 0 jj). 

Similarly, a verb can sound confusing when the (J^ 3 ^' «J-**) is 

deleted from the middle of a sentence, especially when a student 
is asked to identify the verb by joining the words and reading 

them to him, e.g. in the verse dy^-J 2_uljL<Jl ^-fr^O to 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



read it as (^y), in Oj-^ ^ ^^), to read the verb as 
(jj.^), in J^), to read the verb as (j*^r J) and in ( 

dj*>rj\), to read the verb as (0 j*^- y>). 

When (b) or (^) enter the perfect tense of those verbs having 
(Jws>jJl iyP), the alifs of the (b) and (V) are also not pronounced 
just as the (J-^ _yl « is not pronounced. The verbs therefore 
sound confusing when read as (c-ux^), (Jzh*), (JxJiA) and 
This confusion is intensified in (JUijl <_jL) because 
the entry of Ci) creates the word while the entry of (L») 
creates the word Qy). The same rule applies to the word 
(Vj j]^.). Besides being the (j^-^ of (J ^1) from 
(J jJ^~), it can also be (s-^ j-* the tense being ( ^ 

L ysiij J LS ^^) from (JU-**} V^)- 
Similarly, the word (j-jj^-^) is from (JU^I s-*^)- 

Analysis: It was originally (^Jljbli), the word-form being ( 
jTXt), the tense <_> jytll ^lil). It is ( 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioijjfiollocjij 



from (J^^i *--»L>). It was (IffjlSl). Due to the entry of the 
(<-*), the (J-^ jJl is deleted. 




Analysis: This verb is (s-~^ the tense being ( 

c-~11 from (JUiJl s-*^)- The (J) of emphasis entered 

the verb, thereby deleting the (J-^ jJl 

Analysis: Due to the entry of (fL^i* — ^-Vl Sj — <■*), the ( Sj — =* 

J jJl) was deleted. The original word was (o yijc: — 

from (JUix^l s-jLj). 



Analysis: This was originally (OjjiUaiS). It is ( ^5"^ — « £ — 3* 
j — •^5^-), the tense being (^jj — — «^»). One (o) was 
deleted according to the rule of (J^^" V^)- 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



0 i 

Analysis: This is from the verb (J>\ — ">), ( o — J — ?-tj 

S JIp), the tense being (<-J — — «T). It is ( \ — aJl j j — 

^yaSU j). Due to the (j), the (J) became (jS'L*). 

After (j), it is compulsory (1 — > to make the (j — * jl pV) 
sakin. The compulsion is due to excessive usage. After 
0-*), it is permissible to do so (1 jl j*-). 

Analysis: This verb is from (jL>cit «-r^). It is ( ^S"X> J^(j 
S-jLp), the tense being (^-~~* ^j^ 2 -*)- It was originally 

((_s^). Due to the jussive mood j^rl ^^), the (<J) at the end is 
deleted. A pronoun (ji-w 5 ) was then attached to the verb which 
created the scale of (J**) - Therefore the (<3) became 

(tjZ'L*) as the Arabs tend to make the scale of (J**) into (J**) as 
in (<-i»). It is pronounced ). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Analysis: This is the imperative (£rj>) of (Jl*il s->^) ; the word- 
form being (j-^L>- / i« The pronoun was added to the 
end of the verb making it In the Qur'an, after this word, 
the words (a^-'j) appear. Therefore the form of (J**) - (j-f*-) 
was formed, similar to (Jj})- The Arabs make the middle letter of 
such scales also (^L). Consequently, the (a) became QjS'L-). 
It becomes (^J). 

Analysis: This verb is similar to Oj-*j), the word-form being 
(l-jLp jTX* £-£r) of the verb ( L5 ^ > ). The tense is ( 

ytit). It was succeeded by a (jWl <-j jl j). The rule of 
assimilation (f L£ol) was applied. Therefore it became 

Analysis: The verb is with (0!) attached to it. The word- 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 

form is while the tense is (t-^j yv> ^jL^»). Because 

of (01) it is in the accusative case (^—^Jt aJI^). It is from ( ^l; 
j^>) like Assimilation of both the nuns has taken place. 



Analysis: The verb is dj^), the word-from being ( <L-jy 

j^^), the tense being (c^ilt It is from ( 

j^>) like The (3jL* j ^) and (J) have been 
attached to the end. 

Analysis: From the verb (c5 ' j), this is the j-« ^-^j) 

word-form with the tense being ^jL^»). It is 

(^U ,_/2iUj j^xi\ jy^j>). It was originally y). Due to the 

(aIJj 0 jj), the j>^\ 0 jj) was deleted. The ((J), not being a 
(oX»), was rendered a (a 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Analysis: From the verb (jS j — "), this is the ( j> ^ — * ^ — »-tj 
j^>\^~) word-form while the tense is ( <~^jj — *i! Jf& — ^ 
ji £- — »). A (f — ^Vl Sj — «*) and ) have been attached 
before the verb, changing it into the jussive mood ( 3 — )U- 

Analysis: This is the (JpUJ! ^1) of the verb (^15), from the 
It was originally Q^lJli). Changes occurred in the 
word just as in (<j^'j). 

A second possibility is that it could be the imperative of 
(^UL ^li) from (2 — LpLL» — >), the word-form being ( £- — «^ 

It could also be j-a -^j) of the same 0-r^.). A ( j jj 

and ({J&j> ij) are attached to the end of the word. The 
c£) was deleted and the (« ) of the (klijJl jjj) was 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



deleted due to (<-i3j). 

The verb is not difficult to distinguish but sometimes when a 
word has a similar form in another language, confusion can arise. 
This word means carpet in Urdu and Persian and could perhaps 
cause confusion. 

Analysis: This verb was originally (jS^a) from (JUxst vb), 
the word-form being (s-^ J> ^ and the tense ( ^jU^ 

( _ r 2iU uijyt^). The rule of (JUcil *-«>Ij) has been applied to it. 



Analysis: From (JUii! <-->Ij), it was originally (d) j ^a S ^), the 
word-form being ^S"^ and the tense ( ^jUa^ 

<-3j The rule of (J 1*2*1 <--»1j) has been applied to it. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Analysis: It is (s-jLp _f ^Ij) from (JL*^1 <- r J ^.), the tense 
being (uijytll It was originally (jSjil). The rule of 

(JUxst <_->L) has been applied to it. 

Analysis: From (JUsi! ^L;), it is (j — ^U- — « £- — the 
tense being (^jyu* ^jL^»). It was originally ( j 

Analysis: This is the verbal noun — — s^) of ( <-r^ — > 
— *^), originally being (j — It can also be the ( * — *»\ 
J j*A\) or(^ Jai\ 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Analysis: From (jL>cit <—^), this is the ^S"^ 
word-form, the tense being (^Ji-^Uait It was 

originally {Jp^>\ t>^)- The (J-^jJl was deleted because of 
the precedence of the (^). The (0 y) of the word (j*) was 
rendered a (a according to the rule ( £ j>- £ j>- 1i} <j^~^ 
^JU). The (o) of (JUal) was changed to (J*). 

Analysis: This was Js1^\\j>). From (Jl*xj1 s- 1 ^), this is the 
{y^>- j> Sj> word-form, the tense being ( Jj^t ls^^ 
was deleted because of the 
precedence of the (t«). The (<-aJ1) of the (t») is not pronounced 
due to (j^U! ^U^rl). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Analysis: It was originally 0 j^U^tl^i). It is J> Sj> 

from the (JUix^l ^>^>), the tense being (uijytll ( _ s ^lit).The 
(o) of (JUiz^t) was deleted. 

Analysis: It was originally (^kilj) from (JUix^l ^-r^)- The 
(o) of (JUix^t) was deleted. 

Analysis: It was originally ( t y<il~J) on the scale of (jliiJ) with 
(5jLi^- j It is from (^xi Sometimes the 

(4jLuL>- jjj) is written in the form of tan win. 

g 

Analysis: It was originally — >v) like — * y), from ( c-M — > 
— It is permissible to delete the (c5) from the end of a 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



word that is ( ( _yaSU). 

Analysis: This was originally like 03**). When a 

pronoun is added to an extra (j) is first added to the verb 
after the This rule applies to and (^) when 

suffixed by a (jyw?). 

Sometimes a (<uS"L* (5) is suffixed to a verb that is ( cJ j-* .i^lj 
j-s^U-) when a pronoun is attached to it, e.g. the words of a 
hadith, (4Xb>r^J <&\js ^J). 

Analysis: The verb is (f jli) from (JUil <vL>)- A Q'l^i^'yi 
is prefixed to the verb and the pronoun (la) is suffixed to it. 
Subsequently a second pronoun {^S) is attached to the verb, 
thereby requiring a (j) and making the ((* y^^> 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



LIL. 



Analysis: This is like the verb the word-form being ( 

and the tense The question that arises 

here is that the (^jU^) of this verb is used (ui*^ cj^«) in the 

Qur'an. Consequently, the ( ( _ 5 v'U.1) supposed to be like 

(LIS) because the word-form is (y^i y^). The scholars of tafsir 
have answered this objection by stating that this verb is used both 
on the scale of and (y^i y&j). In the Qur'an, the 

is used from ^>t>) and the (^jU^) from ( y^>). 



Analysis: The verb is o**Jli) from (JUijl the word- 

form being (s-^ cJj^» -^j) and the tense ( 
t_jjyti().The (J-vfj^l was deleted because of the 

precedence of the (t-^). Because the ( J) is succeeded by a it 
is pronounced as a ((*). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Analysis: This verb was originally (^^s) from (J-*aj <-r^). 

The final doubled letter was changed to a (SLo! C*j>~). The 
Arabs often do this. 

Analysis: It was originally (^sii^i) from (^-C The word- 

form is (j-^ 5 ^ Jz1j> and the tense is (eJjyii! ( ^>ll1). 

Sometimes the Arabs delete one of the doubled letters. In this 
case, the first (J) was deleted. Sometimes it is pronounced 

(j^xliii) after transferring the harakah of the first (J) to the 



Analysis: According to some scholars, this verb was originally 
( Oj According to the previously mentioned rule, the first (j) 
was deleted after transferring its harakah. No need remained for 
the (J-v jjI «>°*). Therefore it was deleted. The word (0 j) 
remains. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



jk. 

Analysis: This is the (jv^ dJj-a of (J-j Jj) from the 

yis It is (cJ-f-Ua-*). It was originally ( i J^ 1 .l)- The rule 

of assimilation applies. Similar to this is the word 




Analysis: First Possibility: It is the (^jL^>) of (olS") in the 
accusative case aJU-). 

Second Possibility: It is ( ^jL^» ^JLp jZ X» 

<j j of (s-j s-^L;). It was originally (0 jj). The rule of 
(Jju) first applies to delete the (j). Then the rules of ( j^-^i) and 
(j^ jj) apply to change it to (OjSC). 

Third Possibility: It is ( cJuiJ i_> 

<j j from jS"). Its paradigm of the perfect tense ( (_^^ 
l3j ytll) is as follows: 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



qL| Oj^sj lIJj^j j£j I j)£>J J^j) 



Analysis: First Possibility: Besides the common verb (I^JlS) from 
{j^i s-jLj), this is made up of two words (^j) and OjJ). The 
former is (JjjjL* ^J-Jd ^»^\ <-J\s- _f 'X» ^>-\j) from 

j^s) while the latter is ( JzJA jyll y^t j->L>- ^S".!* 
djjA*) from 

Second Possibility: The verb is (J It is ( k_JLp ^S".!* 

cJ^iJ j^ 9 ^) from the v^)- It was 

originally (tjJjSj). The rule of (J j^j) was applied whereby the 
harakah of the (j) was transferred to the (ti) and the (j) was 
changed to 0_i!l). It became (tjJlSj). 



iririr 



Analysis: From (J*^*ij <—»Ij), this is ( 

the verbal noun being (ill^jTl). It was originally 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



(IS^^Tl) like (UliJ^Ji). The rule of (J ji) was applied. The 
(J^> jJt a j^*) was subsequently deleted due to the subsequent 
letter being (il >*^). It became (ISlSlS"). 



0** 



Analysis: This is from the verb (^^j ^j) from the (<-r> <- r J ^.). 

It is (tijys-* ^->L>- C-JJ^» The paradigm of the 
imperative is as follows: 
^ ^ ^ ^ f ) 



Analysis: This is from the verb (jj^i <J y^). It is ( ^Jr- 
,_/2iU lJ$Jj*j> ^jU^). It was originally (iS j^j). The rule 
of (j^-^i) was applied and the (iS) was changed to (j). 



Analysis: This is from the verb (iSj'k c^j- 5 )- It is ( Sj> 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa ^A/[oili/iofogLj 



JpliJl It was originally (0 jij^). The rule of (j^AO was 

applied and the (<S) was changed to (j). One (j) was then 
deleted. It became (Ojjta). When (3iUi>}) was applied to the 
pronoun (La), the (0) was deleted. 




Analysis: From the verb (iSjj. (Sjj), this is the verbal noun in 
the singular form. It is ( Oj y^> cJ^iJ) from the ( v j* 9 It 
was originally (^jj). The (j) was changed to (c£) and 
assimilated. It became (L>j). 

Analysis: First Possibility: It is the imperative (y \) of (J^*-), the 

word-form being (j-^L>- with a pronoun (U) attached 

to it. 

Second Possibility: It is from the verb (ji-~> j^ - )- It is ( 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa d\l\ozlripLotocjij 



Analysis: This is the imperative of (uU), the word-form 
being {j^>- <^>y of (4IpL^» It was originally 

(^Uf ). The rule of Lm}) was applied. 



Analysis: From the (J%^| "-r^X this is the 
It was originally like (^*-ii|).The rule of (Jj40 was 

applied. It becomes (OjQsl). The (Jv jJt aj^*) is deleted. It 
becomes (ujU). 

Analysis: This was {^Jy from the (^x* s^)- It is ( *^>-!j 
,_/2iUj jy«J( ^ p&z*). The rule of (J I*) 

was applied. Due to the (k»jU- 1 ), the (SU! lJ ^p-) is deleted 
from the end. It becomes (e-j^ jj). Subsequently, the rule of 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



(JjJL) is applied and the hamzas are deleted. It becomes (J^>). 

Analysis: From the (J^tatit), this is ( S-jLp _f^* 

i-i-iJ ^jj 3 ^ 1 )- It was originally (JjUjt) like (j^Jjji). 
The rule of (J^iL) is first applied whereby the (j) changes to 
and then the rule of (■s^y) to change the (j) to (iS). 



Analysis: From the (*lbi ^l;), this is ( y\ j-^U- ^S"^ J^lj 
^JipL^. .s y£ j it is like (Jj^j). 



Analysis: This is the ( .iy- ^jy^ j-*' jv?^ J> x» J^\j 

jj yL» eJtuiJ) from the (3lL*i s-*^)- It was originally (e£ ^^") like 
(£■ j^-b"). The rule of (j^-b) was first applied, followed by 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



deleting the (o) when constructing the imperative (yfy. The 
(2jj«J( was finally deleted from the end. It becomes (J^-). 

Analysis: From the ^^t), this is the ( y I J> X* J^lj 

jjyL* lJ^aJ the verb being (iSj^. <Sj>)- It was 

originally like (J^>-1). The harakah of the (j) is transferred 
to the (J) and the (j) is changed to The (J^ 3 ^' is 

no more required. It becomes (V). 

Analysis: From the (<-r> s-^), this is the ( 

^J\j Js> j^-tj liJt jj-o-S- 4 ^Jj*^ Lr^^')' me ver b being ( jty. d\ 

uj). It was originally (^j) like (<j-*j). The rule of (f^i) is 

applied. It becomes ( The paradigm of j lT^') * s as 
follows: 

oil yil Hi!] cJl oil 01 IsfT cJT iyT iff oT) 



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^lom the. ^Zhsaiuzsi of c/haha ^MozfiHoL 



Analysis: From the s-^), this is the ( ^jUali ( *^- 

olpL^ the verb being (jt> It was originally 

(jJU) like The rule of (fLioi) is applied to the (0). It 

becomes (0^). Then jl) is inserted before the verb ( d\ 

jp). The rule of (f^i) is again applied because the two nuns are 
adjacent to each other while the final nun becomes (v It 
becomes ( 01 jt). 



Analysis: It is ( -^y ^> j ^ j^"^ J 
tjytS! from (J%«i} ^-r^)- The verb is (OjWsl) like 

(^iliil). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the 
preceding letter while the (J^ jJl is deleted. It becomes 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Analysis: This is the (UJl jy~^> J^airJl ^S"^ 2^5) from 
(^-C V^)- It was originally (OuI-sJ). The rule of (j-^) is 
applied and the end is read as sakin due to (<J»*j). 

Analysis: This word was originally (j^J). There were three 
sins together which caused the word to become heavy in 
pronunciation. Therefore the third Qj-) was changed to 
which then changed to (<J>J0- The same rule applies to the word 
dj^ij) which was originally {^ J s-^jH). 

Analysis: This word was originally (jju^xj). The third (_/<) was 
changed to (iS) which then changed to due to the rule of 
(Jii). When ji ) entered the verb, the (3Ul <_i ^) was 

deleted from the end. A (a) was added for (<-a»j). 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 




Analysis: It is ( uyJl ^jy^' £ 

from (J*^i The verb is (G^M) like (l^T^-l). The 

harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the preceding letter while 
the (J-^ jJl is deleted. It becomes 

Analysis: It is ( uy^l jj- 0 -^ J j-f^ yr"^ ^SM* J^lj 

^Lj ^SU j) from (J*^i ^L>). The verb is Q^SsST) like 
(*j*J ^p-l). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the 
preceding letter while the (J-^ _yl is deleted. Waqf is made 
at the end. It becomes ( L ^S'). 

J* 

Analysis: It is ( c^jtj i_> jydl ^li! l_JLp J^l* J^l j) 

from (*1pLL» <-->Ij). The verb was (j-J^j). The rule of ({J^^i) was 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJxsxiiXxxsA oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



applied to change it to (^Jty. 



Analysis: It is ( i_> ^lll l_JLp ^S"!* J^lj 

JjxX) from (2lL*i <—X)- The verb was (^j-s). The rule 
of (J IS) was applied to change it to (iSj^)- 



Analysis: It is ( iSj^j yr\ l-Zjju* y>\ j^s\s>~ cJj-* 

from (j^sj s-X). The paradigm of this verb is y Jj^j J^). 

The paradigm of the {y\) is as follows: 

<yi ^ ^ ^ ji) 

Analysis: Besides the common verb there is a 

second possibility. It could be ( Ji^ j lt^^ 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



Jj yu>) from (> _f ^M). The paradigm of this verb is ( 
The paradigm of the (<-3jydJ (_^^) is as follows: 

( 0-J^-<xJ ^^oJ LoJ^oJ <S~> ^^-^ ^—^J^i ^^-^ ^^-^ 



Analysis: This is the ( d> yJ\ <_> jytll ^Ll! l_JLp ^S"!* J^l j 
iS^j) from the (J^i s-X). It was originally (Jtiji)- A (a) was 
added between the first and second letter against the rule ( ^-2*%>- 



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SJzom ids. [Uzs.ai.uzs.i. oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



Appendix A 

Morphology or Etymology? 

What is the subject of (<-^j — vaJ! ^ — L^) called in English? Is it 

Morphology or Etymology? Firstly, let us examine the 
definitions of both these terms in the light of contemporary 
works. 

The following definition of Morphology appears in "The 
Oxford Companion to the English Language" . 

"In linguistics, the study of the structure of words as 
opposed to syntax, the study of the arrangement of words 
in the higher units of phrases, clauses, and sentences. The 
two major branches are inflectional morphology (the study 
of inflections) and lexical morphology (the study of word- 
formation)." 21 

The following has been mentioned under the term, 
'syntax': 

"The ways in which components of words are combined 
into words are studied in morphology, and syntax and 
morphology together are generally regarded as the major 
constituents of grammar, although in one of its uses, 
grammar is strictly synonymous with syntax and excludes 
morphology." 22 

We find the following definition in Websters Dictionary: 
"2 a: a study and description of word-formation in a 
language including inflection, derivation, and 
compounding - distinguished from syntax. 

B: the system of word-forming elements and processes in 



21 The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 670, 1992. 

22 Ibid, p. 1016. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



a language." 

Encyclopaedia Britannica has the following definition: 
"In philology, morphology is that branch of grammar 
which examines the forms of words as well as the 
principles of word-formation and inflection." 24 

The following definition is found in the World Book: 
"Morphology: the study of the formation and structure of 
words." 25 

As for Etymology, the following are some of the 
definitions one may come across: 

"Etymology: Both the study of the history of words and a 
statement of the origin and history of a word, including 
changes in its form and meaning." 26 

"...that branch of linguistic science which is devoted to 
determining the origin of words." 27 

Websters Dictionary provides the following definition: 
"The history, often including the pre-history of a linguistic 
form (as a word or morpheme) as shown by tracing its 
phonetic graphic, and semantic development since its 
earliest recorded occurrence in the language where it is 
found, by tracing the course of its transmission from one 
language to another by analysing it into the component 
parts from which it was put together, by identifying its 
cognates in other languages or by tracing it and its 



23 Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1470,. 

24 Encyclopaedia Britannica vol. 15 p. 818. 

25 World Book vol.18, p. 518, 1992. 

26 The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 384, 1992. 

27 Colliers Encyclopedia vol. 9 p. 378, 1971; Encyclopaedia 
Britannica vol. 8 p. 804. 



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SJzom ids. ^Uxexuxjixea oj ' c/fxaljLa c^A/ioiljIzotocjij 



cognates back to a common ancestral form in a recorded 
or assumed ancestral language. 28 

The World Book states: 

"Etymology is the study of the origins and development of 
words." 29 

In Encyclopaedia Britannica, we find the following 
definition: 

"...that part of linguistics which is concerned with the 
origin or derivation of words." 30 

The Students Encyclopedia states: 

". . . the study of the origins and history of words." 31 

The Universal Standard Encyclopedia has the following: 

"... that branch of philology which deals with the origin 

and derivation of words, and with the comparison of 

words in different members of the same language 

group." 32 

Under the word, 'morphology' in Al-Mughni-Al-Akbar, an 
English to Arabic dictionary, the meaning is given as ( * — Lp 

t-^j v<aJl) while under the entry 'etymology', the meaning 

provided is (Jlixi^t ^). 33 

In the An-Nafees English to Arabic Dictionary, under 



28 Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 1 , p. 782. 

29 World Book, vol. 18 p. 518. 

30 Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 8 p. 804. 

31 Students Encyclopaedia, vol. 6 p. 456, 1970. 

32 Universal Standard Encyclopedia, vol. 8 p. 2930, 1956. 

33 Al-Mughni Al-Akbar, Hasan S. Karmi, p. 826 & p. 402, 1997. 



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SJzom ids. ^ZJx&aiXiXEA oj ' c/fxaljLa d\l\ozlripLotocjij 



morphology, we find the term (<3j — * — Lp) while under 
etymology, we find the term (o LiSCJl J^t" ^Jlp). 34 

In the Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 

under the entry {yJ> j v^Jt <\ Lp), we find the following: 

"morphology (gram.)." 35 

These definitions clearly indicate that Etymology deals 
with the history of words whereas Morphology deals with 
the subject of word-formation. Hence the most appropriate 

term for (t-^j — ^ — Ip) would be Morphology and not 

Etymology as has been erroneously used in some books. 



34 An-Nafees, Madgi Wahbah, p. 868 & p. 381, 2000. 

35 Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic P. 513, Third 
Edition 1976. 



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Bibliography 

(_$jjj^J( ( _s^ p i^ 1 *^-! ^jj-"*^ C--^ 
^ ^ J* j,, ^JJ! jUiS/t jU 

^ <us1 jjjJ( jLJr dUt* jjt s^oiJt Jl di-SL-i.! ^5 jt 

4jLp Aje^^fiJl ^Jlp 



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of c/haha jy[ox^LL 0[ 



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