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■ December 

newstand price: $2.50 

A journal and exchange of Apple II discoveries photocopy charge per page: $o. 1 5 

The Ides of October 

I was not a fan of either history or English literature in school until 
we had a class assignment to read Shakespeare. One of the first plays 
we were assigned was Julius Caesar. You know the plot: a group of 
respected men, ostensibly friends of Caesar's, decide to wrest him 
from power, for their own gain, by assassination. 

The part of Julius Caesar that gripped me was Marc Anthony's eulo- 
gy at Caesar's funeral. Anthony was stuck with the dilemma of 
addressing a crowd that had been convinced by Brutus and his 
cohorts that Caesar had been justly slain for being overly ambitious. 
Since the conspirators were prominent, respected men, Anthony 
could not directly "slander" them by accusing them of an unjust mur- 
der. Instead, he employed sarcasm to expose the hipocracy and 
treachery of Brutus and his cohorts. He bemoans how unfortunate it 
was that the ruler known to all as benevolent and wise had turned out 
to be so "ambitious" as to justify his murder. Anthony put the respon- 
sibility for the act at the feet of the conspirators without directly 
accusing them, quoting their derisions of Caesar while referring to 
them as "honorable men". 

The rulers that came after Caesar didn't fair so well; one of the 
most notorious was Hero, who was supposedly so indifferent to the 
state of the empire that he "fiddled while Rome burned". Eventually, 
the empire fell to armies, which Romans likely considered "inferior", 
because Roman civilization had become complacent and even dis- 
dainful of the world outside their empire. 

History repeats itself both in the large and small scale. One 
year ago, Apple's stock was slumping; its management emphasized 
only Mac products (mostly the higher-priced models) during the fall 
promotional campaign and the ligs was given only token recognition. 
And Apple took it in the teeth in fall sales. Since that time, after shuf- 
fling a few high-level executives, Apple has emphasized the need to 
lower the cost of its products to be competitive and its recognition 
that the Apple 11, which built Apple's empire, will need to be support- 
ed into the future. John Sculley himself has made these statements 
on several occasions. But he has also kept insisting that "Macintosh 
technology" is what people want. 

In that context: "Friends, 1 come to bury the Apple II, not to praise 
it." There are two parts to this story; one (told here) is what Apple is 
doing to its Apple II customers in its ambition for the Macs and the 
second (in "Apple vs. ...Magnavox?" in this issue) is what the entire 
market is doing to Apple. 

John Sculley is an honorable man. This year, on October 15th, 
Apple announced three new Macintosh models and started its fall 
advertising campaign and promotion in a roll-out "show" that oozed 
like a late-night "infomercial". Here are the systems that Apple spent 
(at least part oO your money developing. 

The Mac Classic replaces the Mac Plus and Mac SE; it is based on 
the same "compact Mac" vertical design as the earlier Macs, with a 
built-in 9-inch black and white monitor. Like the previous compact 
Macs, it uses a 68000 processor running at 8 MHz (for a speed com- 
parable to the Mac SE), and comes with one megabyte of memory 
standard (expandable to 4 megabytes). It does include an Apple 
SuperDrive (1.44 megabyte floppy that reads Apple or MS-DOS disk 
formats) and a keyboard and mouse, and the retail price is $999. The 
only other configuration is the addition of one megabyte of memory 

(total of two megabytes) and a 40 megabyte hard drive at a system 
price of $1499. 

The Mac LC is the "low cost color Mac". At $2499, the CPU includes 
a 16 MHz 68020 processor (giving about twice the speed of a Mac 
SE), 2 megabytes of RAM (expandable to 4 or 10 megabytes with an 
optional expansion card), an Apple SuperDrive, a 40 megabyte inter- 
nal SCSI hard disk, a keyboard and mouse, but no monitor. The CPU 
expansion includes the standard Mac ports: printer, modem, SCSI, 
Apple Desktop Bus, and sound output. In addition, the LC has a video 
connector, a sound input (monophonic), and one expansion slot 
("020 Direct Slot") access port. 

The LC supports several monochrome and color Macintosh moni- 
tors via the built-in video circuitry. The LC is also the only Macintosh 
that will support an optional Apple lie Card ($199) for running 8-bit 
Apple II software. 

It will take us a while to find out how "no compromise" the Apple II 
emulation card is; the LC is not expected to be available in quantity 
until January 1991 and the lie emulation card is not scheduled for 
release until March. The product information sheet for the card indi- 
cates that it can run at either 1 or 2 megahertz and will use up to 
256K of the LC's memory as expanded Apple II memory. Both of 


6.82 A2-Central 

Vol. 6, No. 1 1 

these may be considered "restrictive" against enhancements that 
many users have added to their current Apple II systems. 

The Macintosh llsi is the model that looks most productive to us; it 
uses a 20 MHz 68030 that should be up to five times faster than the 
Classic and its built-in video circuitry supports the same monitors as 
the Mac llci (Apple High-Resolution RGB, Portrait Display, and 
Monochrome displays). It has basically the same port configuration as 
the Mac LC, with the addition of a connector for an external floppy 
disk, stereo sound output, and the presence of an 030 Direct Slot 
rather than the 020 slot of the LC. The llsi price is $3875 without key- 
board (the basic Apple Keyboard is $129) or monitor; the CPU 
includes 1 megabyte of memory, expandable to 1 7 megabytes. 

The Mac Classic looks more like a clever marketing move than true 
revolution; it effectively provides the pricing of the slow-moving Mac 
Plus with the slightly better performance of an SE, but minus the 
internal expansion capabilities of the SE. Apple credits part of the 
cost reduction to the new motherboard design for the Classic, which 
uses fewer discrete parts. The SuperDrive (which has so far been 
excluded from the Apple II series) adds perceived value; it allows 
using a higher-density 1.44 megabyte disk format and reading MS- 
DOS disks that the Apple 3.5 drive cannot. But a cynic can only won- 
der why the SE was comparatively so expensive versus the Mac Plus 
to begin with. 

The Mac llsi looks like the revolution: nearly the power of the 25 
MHz Ilci in a box that costs at least a third less. Adding the 68882 
math coprocessor (standard on the Ilci) only adds about $250 to the 
retail price of the llsi. This is good competition for the upper-middle 
range MS-DOS systems. We even ordered one for the office because 
our desktop publishing program. Quark XFress, running on a Mac SE 
(for all the flexibility it offers) makes you want to smash the computer. 
But realistically, at about $4200 for a complete (monochrome) sys- 
tem, the llsi is still priced out of the reach of the mass market. 

The curiosity is the Mac LC. It appears to be close to the original 
Mac II (which also used the 68020) in power, but with video support 
included and, of course, Apple II compatibility (minus slots) optional. 
The fact that Apple says the machine won't be available in quantity 
until January 1991, and the He emulator not until March, makes it 
sound as if the machine was "pre-announced" to stymie Apple II sales 
in the fall. The LC appears to have been designed and positioned 
specifically as an "Apple II killer". 

Apple seems to feel that making the Apple 11 competitive is 
too ambitious. But has Apple really made its Mac product line com- 
petitive, or is it merely trying to use pricing to drive the market in the 
direction its executives see fit, away from an existing user base? Look 
at the pricing of the Mac LC compared to an all-Apple Ilgs system: 
$1149 for the Ilgs CPU, $399 for the Apple 3.5, $129 for the Apple II 
High-Speed SCSI Interface and $1299 for the Apple Hard Disc 40 SC 
with terminator and cable. The Ilgs is over $400 more expensive! 

The discrepance is easy to see by looking at drive prices. Apple 
apparently takes less profit on the Mac's internal drives. For example, 
the external Apple 40SC drive price is $ 1 299, over half the price of 
the LC by itself and just $200 short of a Mac Classic with this drive 
bulit-in. Also, the current retail price of the SuperDrive has been low- 
ered to the same level as the Apple 3.5. Does anyone think Apple 
might be leaning a bit heavy on peripheral pricing to the disadvantage 
of the Apple II? Of course, we have all seen the comparative invest- 
ment of that money in the development of new products for the Apple 
II and Mac lines, and in the respective advertising for the two lines, 
and can comfortably say that the price difference is going into the 
bank, not into added value. 

Apple Marketing: "Honorable men, all." As if on cue, one day 
after the new Macs were rolled out, Apple's new Apple USA president, 
Robert Puette, was quoted in the San Francisco Chronicle saying that 
Apple was phasing out the Apple 11 line. Apple issued a clarification to 
deny that that was the gist of his statement; here is Apple’s clarifica- 

"We remain committed to our millions of Apple II customers and 
we want to make sure that they understand the high level of support 
that Apple has behind the Apple II line. We want Apple II owners to 
remain happy with their investment in Apple II technology and we 
continue to look for more ways to protect that investment and extend 
the life of Apple II products— both as standalone computers and as 
part of networks. 

"We will continue to sell, support, and service the Apple II product 
line and provide enhancements to that line as long as customer 
demand warrants it. We plan to continue to enhance the existing 
product line through updates to system software and peripheral add- 
ons. We fully expect Apple II computers to continue to serve educa- 
tion and other customers satisfactorily for many years to come. 

"On the other hand, we have no plans at this time to introduce 
new, standalone Apple II models. However, we will incorporate Apple 
II technology into current and future platforms, as we have with the 
Apple lie card for the Macintosh LC. We believe that this compatibility 
strategy will preserve customer's investments in Apple II, while allow- 
ing them to move to new technology platforms if they wish." 

Apple's technical service and support doesn't do a whit for the sur- 
vivability of the Apple 11 if its lack of marketing support causes all the 
third-party developers to move on to other platforms. When Puette 
says Apple will continue to "sell" (rather than "advertise" or "market") 
Apple II products, he Indicates that the money Apple earns on Apple 
II products will be cheerfully contributed to the "send a Mac to 
school" campaign. Only third-party support makes the Apple II viable; 
Apple has always been two steps behind in providing Apple II product 
support equivalent to what it supplies for the Mac. Several years of 
such inactivity is not a coincidence; it's a philosophy. The Apple II has 
survived despite, not due to, Apple's executives. 

Apple has responded to pricing complaints about the Mac, 
but continues to deny Apple 11 users similar considerations. Why 
does a company that appears to have lost its competitive ability con- 
tinue to make one of its own product lines visibly noncompetitive? We 
think the answer is obvious: Apple management has believed its own 
Macintosh sales pitch to such an extent that it simply doesn't like the 
Apple II. It has no interest in positioning the company to sell Apple 
products against the competition, only Macintosh products. The Mac 
ego has won over the Apple II heart and mind. 

The only fall advertisement we have seen (in the November 1990 
Technological Horizons in Education Journal) "featuring" the Apple II 
shows a line of Apple systems (lie, Ilgs, Mac Classic, Mac LC) with the 
captions "This year, the hottest topic in the classroom will be evolu- 
tion." and "Introducing the new Macintosh computers." Apparently, 
Apple has decided that this is the promised "appropriate" visibility of 
the Apple II in Apple's advertising; obviously, the implication is that 
the He and Ilgs are passe'. What a way to instill customer loyalty; it 
makes me want to bring my He to Long Beach and set fire to it in 
front of the AppleFest exhibition. (But I can't; air pollution and the 
plastic case prohibit me.) 

Which brings us to an allegory regarding a later stage in the history 
of Rome...— DJD 

Apple vs. ...Magnavox? 

Financial publications have been questioning not whether the 
Apple li will be around in a few years (indeed, Apple seems to have 
succeeded in getting the Apple H entirely out of computer industry 
news reports), but whether Apple Computer, Inc., will be around. 

Apple is, as John Pothier of Vitesse has put it, "an 800 pound goril- 
la" in the world of Apple II marketing. Apple has felt comfortable 
spending its time bullying the Apple II market. But now they look up 
and see they are surrounded by a lot of other 800-pound gorillas from 
the MS-DOS forest; competitors have cut Apple's market share from 
15 per cent to under 10 per cent in the last five years. And then there 
is the awakening Ring Kong: IBM. 

We received several calls after Apples fall announcements from 
education purchasers who wanted to know how to handle future pur- 
chases in the event Apple was actually phasing out the Apple II line. 
Here's pretty much what we think Apple is facing. 

"Will Apple learn from Betamax?", the October 29 issue of 
Forbes asks. A short article compares the domination of MS-DOS 
clones in the personal computer market versus Apple's proprietary 
systems to the battle of the widely licensed VHS videotape format to 
Sony's Beta format; a battle that VHS eventually won on sheer num- 

December 1990 

A2'CentraI 6.83 

If you prefer, think of it as the "refined" Mac empire against the less 
refined (but more aggressive) Huns. Apple will assert that their 
machines are technologically superior and capable of superior soft- 
ware. Beta video enthusiasts are also quick to opine that the Beta for- 
mat quality is superior to the VHS format. We can see merits in this 
argument; it's nice to have higher quality. But it's nicer to have a 
wide selection of readily available software. 

Beta lost the war to VHS due to wider licensing of the VHS format. 
Beta was often first with new features, but VHS was often quick to fol- 
low, and one feature VHS led Beta in from the start was longer taping 
times. VHS prices also tended to be lower than the Beta machines, 
especially the flagship Sony products. Many users were prepared to 
live with slightly less quality in order to have lower equipment prices 
and tape costs. As inexpensive VHS machines proliferated, stores 
were more likely to carry a better assortment of software (prerecorded 
cassettes) for the VHS than the Beta machines. Eventually, many 
stores catered to VHS only; without easily obtainable software, the 
market for Beta machines was even more severely constrained. For 
home taping enthusiasts, there was (and is) no reason to move away 
from Beta as long as blank tape is available, but as the major market 
moved to "users" who primarily wanted the machines to play rented 
or purchased tapes, availability of tapes started driving the market. 
Eventually, VHS sales eclipsed those for the Beta format, and the 
effect snowballed. Sony finally cried "uncle" and gave up on Beta. 

Apple is dangerously close to the software imbalance situa- 
tion, but not for exactly the same reasons. Like home video 
equipment owners, most computer customers are consumers rather 
than producers of software either because they are intimidated by the 
process of programming the systems (either VCR or computer) for 
home taping, or Just because their intent for the machine is to use 
pre-packaged software. 

Hot everyone wants to make movies, or can; not everyone wants to 
program, or can. But for those who do want to produce software, the 
barriers are lower compared to those for the prospective video direc- 
tor. Most video rentals are movies that cost millions of dollars to pro- 
duce and distribute; many useful computer programs are written by 
one individual or a small group of programmers. You can become a 
freelance programmer much easier than you can become a freelance 
movie producer and Apple's immediate problem isn't the ability to get 
new software produced. 

Apple's market is constrained with a different straight Jacket. Apple 
sells its computers exclusively through a relatively small number of 
Apple Authorized Dealers. Most of Apple's competitors for the market 
sell through several additional venues, including mail order (with the 
blessings of the parent companies) and retail stores. 

Apple insists their dealer network gives "added value" to the sys- 
tems, and dealer support is part of the reason for Apple's pricing 
structure. On the flip side, if a dealer does not do a good Job of sup- 
porting Apple systems, Apple's customers don't see the positive 
effects that Apple anticipates and are left wondering why they paid 
"extra" for the Apple label. Meanwhile, they wander through retail 
stores with rows of MS-DOS machines and wonder why a low-cost, 
widely-supported machine should not be their next choice. Why, even 
the "Apple" dealer may have some of these machines displayed 
attractively within eyeshot of Apple's own systems, which can only 
reinforce the omnipresence of MS-DOS in a buyer's mind. 

Given the need to reach a broader market, Apple's competitors 
have not stood still. Even IBM, which (like Apple) has fought mail- 
order sales, now sells PS/1 systems through that mass merchandiser. 
Sears (see "Miscellanea", October 1990). This, plus a lower price 
point for a color system ($2000 retail versus $3000 retail for a Mac 
LC color system) has left IBM rather comfortable with the new Apple 

Apple is making an attempt to present its systems as providing 
more value for the consumer dollar. Unfortunately, Apple Worldwide 
Products Manager Bill Goins's demonstration on the "Hew Product 
Information" promotional tape mailed after the October introductions 
seems to leave a significant gap between Apple's real competition 
and what Apple thinks its competition is. In comparing the Mac LC 
motherboard to a 386SX motherboard, Goins correctly points out that 
the bare-bones 386SX board needs to add 256-color video, sound 
input/output, and SCSI to match basic features with the LC. However, 
his first contention is that there are not enough slots left to add three 

cards for these features. This sounded odd; 1 grabbed an issue of FC 
Magazine that reviewed twenty-one 386SX systems and the least num- 
ber of slots available on any of the machines after adding video was 
three (five was the normal figure). He also put the price of adding the 
features at nearly $2000; even using well-recognized components, 1 
could only generate a figure of about two-thirds that. During a similar 
presentation at Apple's October product roll-out, a SCSI interface was 
presented as costing a few hundred more than a $500 Western Digital 
interface that includes on-board caching and very high throughput. 

Apple may have been comparing prices with Compaq or IBM, but 
these companies are not the real competition; their pricing is not rep- 
resentative of the industry at large. 

Apple is losing the marketing battle on sheer visibility of its 
competitor's machines. As MS-DOS computer sales increase, so 
does the proportion of shelf space MS-DOS software gets at stores, 
feeding the cycle; it's the VHS versus Beta syndrome again. Plus, 
since these stores can't sell Apple systems, why should they carry Mac 
or ligs software? (Oh, but Apple Ile/IIc software is fine; while Apple 
itself doesn't compete for space, often the same stores carry Laser 
128 models.) 

The highly discriminating user may hold out for an Apple system, 
but at some point even that "discriminating" user may get uneasy 
about the sheer sensory overload of MS-DOS omnipresence and 
decide that it's better to have a slightly "inferior" machine with wide 
support than a "superior" machine that is becoming a needle in a 

I admit to being one of these; I was within an eyelash of ordering a 
new Mac Ilsi when "comments" from Apple executives, and the subse- 
quent inaction in reversing them, forced my thinking to clear. These 
people don't want to sell and support systems, they want to export a 
philosophy without regard for their existing customer base. 

"Buy CD-ROM drive, get computer free." That wasn't the way the 
Montgomery Wards' ad read, but that was my immediate reaction on 
seeing the Vendex headstart LX-CD package. It includes a 10 MHz 
8088 CPU with 768K memory (640K for programs, with the remaining 
I28R configurable as a printer buffer), a 1.44 megabyte 3.5 drive, 40 
megabyte hard disk, VGA (video graphics adapter) video interface 
card, three-button mouse, serial port, parallel port, 101-key keyboard, 
clock, 10 manuals... and a 680 megabyte CD-ROM drive with audio 
adapter and stereo output (with volume control and headphones). We 
have since found these systems offered at several retail outlets at a 
median price of $800, monitor not included. 

But wait, that's not all. The unit also includes several CD-ROM 
discs: Microsoft Bookshelf (dictionary, almanac, Bartlett's Familiar 
Quotations, Chicago Manual of Style, Roget's II Electronic Thesaurus, 
a 130,000 record Business Information Sources address book, 
houghton-Mifflin Spelling Verifier and Corrector, houghton-Mifflin 
Usage Alert (grammar verifier), ZIP code index, and a set of standard 
business forms and letters). The hew Grollier Electronic Encyclope- 
dia, and a combination disc containing FC Globe 3.0 (a graphic atlas 
with associated information database), hot Line Two (a dialer and 
phone number database), a sample-size version of the CD Guide 
Optical Edition (a commercial database of audio compact discs), and 
30 games. One audio sampler disc is also included. 

Software supplied on the installation disk includes a menu-based 
selector (you can exit to the MS-DOS prompt if you like, but you never 
have to see it otherwise), two self-study tutorials (one on computers, 
the other on the headstart system itself), a very basic integrated soft- 
ware package (with word processor, spreadsheet, and database), disk 
utilities (file/volume utilities, backup, and optimizer), several "pop-up" 
desk accessories (in MS-DOS lingo these are called "terminate and 
stay resident" programs, or "TSRs"). And, as they say, much much 

Assuming you can put up with MS-DOS, this CPU costs only about 
$100 more than an average (bare) CD-ROM drive. All you need to add 
to use the system is a VGA monitor (monochrome will run you about 
$150; color about $350 and up) and, if you like, a printer. The unit 
Justifies the price even if you're only going to use it as an electronic 
reference source and never intend to use it as a general-purpose com- 
puter. If you're interested, you may have to hunt around for this 

6.84 A2'Central 

Vol. 6, No. 1 1 

system; it was marked down from about $1500, and supplies seem 
to be going fast in our area. 

This unit points out just how much lower in cost "main- 
stream" systems are going to be than Apple tends to recognize 
or represent. We've maintained in the past (and still believe) that 
comparing Apple's prices to "clone" PC prices is unfair to Apple. How- 
ever, the components in this PC are at least "second tier" brand 
names: the video card is an ATI VGA Wonder for example, a respect- 
ed name in the PC market. Vendex itself is owned by Philips, as in 
"North American Philips" and "co-inventors of compact disc technolo- 
gy". This is not some anonymous startup clone maker; this is a major 
consumer electronics firm that has taken technology and packaged it 
in a form attractive to the general consumer rather than a compart- 
mentalized "target market". And you may also have heard of the com- 
pany that makes the CD-ROM data/audio interface-Sony Corporation. 

The Vendex points out how Apple strangles itself with "target mar- 
keting". We found out the CD-ROM reference discs were in the stan- 
dard High Sierra format. So we chucked them into our AppleCD SC 
drive on a llgs with the High Sierra FST installed and, sure enough, 
the files popped right up on the desktop (our Mac couldn't catalog 
the Microsoft Bookshelf disc, but the llgs said the file system was 
fine). Here we have utilities of definite interest to llgs owners, and 
Apple's feeble-minded marketing hasn't been able to spawn a llgs 
version of the applications to access the data. A 10 MHz 8088 is no 
threat to a llgs (trust us; we've used them side by side), but the differ- 
ence is that Apple wants your Apple 11 running K-8 software, while 
Philips is prepared to give you every business, education, and 
home productivity resource that their CPU will run, and even put 
some of it in the box to use from the time you first get the system 
home. Which company would you rather buy from? 

At one end (Mac marketing), Apple is trying to present itself as a 
competitive company. In terms of marketing, it isn't; even as Apple 
projects its message that Macs are competitively priced, the con- 
sumer's everyday experience tells him that MS-DOS systems are more 
popular. And entry level systems are cheaper, especially if color is an 
issue. They are expandable (try to add a color display to a Mac Clas- 
sic). At the other end (Apple II marketing), Apple has been dissuading 
new customers and frustrating developers seeking market share. 

The problem with living in your own world is that you can be 
trapped there. Expect to see the successors to the Philips machine 
(80286 and 80386SX versions, possibly with different combinations 
of the supplied software) in consumer electronics stores near you 
with a Magnavox, rather than a Vendex, logo. One salesman told us 
that Philips wanted to make the machines more visible and that 
putting a name more recognizable than Vendex on them was an 
immediate part of the plan. 

Both Tom Vanderpool and 1 have these machines at home now; 
mine sits right across from my llgs. The llgs System Software beats 
MS-DOS 3.3 like a drum; copying or moving files on the LX-CD is like 
pulling teeth, and the performance is not what you'd expect from a 
turbo clone (I'm realistic about this, and plan to replace the LX-CD 
motherboard with a 25 MHz 80386). The applications (other than 
those supplied on CD-ROM) are pretty unexceptional, but they are 
essentially free. With CrossWorks, 1 have more data compatibility with 
the LX-CD than Apple has ever deigned to offer me with the Mac, and 
such transfers work two ways instead of always going irreversibly 
from Apple II to Mac. I can walk into any store and be inundated with 
rich alternatives for new software. I'd rather have Apple II software 
(and I buy Apple II versions where 1 can; MS-DOS versions of some 
applications and games seem to have a knack for being bland), but 
Apple has made that choice for me. I hope they and their stockhold- 
ers enjoy shunting revenue to other companies. 

Apple should recognize that these systems will probably be widely 
available soon. Shoppers are going to be stunned by the amount of 
software available with the system as well as the amount of aftermar- 
ket software and hardware and many Apple II users like myself will be 
more than happy to reward these consumer-oriented companies 
especially if it keeps money out of Apple's MacPockets. So what's to 
be said about Apple's marketing thrust? 

Dumb. Very dumb.— DJD 


Okay, we've delivered the eulogy and the sermon. Now let's go to 
the dinner and get on with life in the Apple II world. Goods things are 
happening, too! 

Apple has released llgs System Software 5.0.3. Revisions 
include a much (make that much) faster ImageWriter driver, a real 
ImageWriter LQ driver, and the usual bug fixes and feature enhance- 

One very neat enhancement is in the Standard File dialog that 
Desktop applications use to select files; at the volume level, instead 
of using the Tab key or "Disk" button to step to each disk in agonizing 
sequence, there is now a "Volumes" button that brings up a list of all 
disk volumes on line. You then open the volume of interest and pro- 
ceed to locate your file. For those of us who have "slow" volumes 
(notably CD-ROM or AppleShare server volumes where many files may 
exist in the root directory) or many disk volumes on line at once this 
selection process is much more convenient than the old way. 

A pesky bug in the Resource Manager has also been fixed so that 
reasonably safe resource editing is now possible. 

If your program checks the ProDOS 8 vl.9 global page for the 
version number, the version indicated is vl.8. Since there are no 
changes in the ProDOS vl.9 MLI, this shouldn't cause problems 
unless you want to know the specific version in memory for some 
other reason. It's just another way Apple's numbering systems leave 
us perplexed. 

Apple n software sales have risen 10 per cent this year 
according to the Software Publisher's Association; this despite 
no visible positive marketing effort by Apple for that CPU line and 
dwindling Apple II (and Mac, incidentally) sections on local store's 
software shelves. We assume that most Apple II products must be 
selling through direct mail. 

Zip Technology is shipping their llgs accelerator products. All 

versions are supplied with processors running at 8 MHz. The Model 
1500 ZipChip GS ($250) replaces the processor on the motherboard 
and incorporates an 8R cache. The Model 1525 ZipChipGS Plus 
($300) contains 16K cache memory and adds DMA compatibility. The 
slot-based Model 1600 ZipGSX card ($350) has the same features as 
the Model 1525 but is user upgradeable to faster processors and 
more cache memory for more acceleration. Contact Zip Chip, Inc., 
5601 West Slauson Ave., Suite #190, Culver, Calif. 213-337-1313, 
FAX 213-337-9337, to order or for more information. We hope to be 
getting a unit to evaluate in the near future. 

ASIC Technologies' Tony Fadell, designer of ASIC's fast 
65816-workalike chip, reports via the comp.sys.apple2 network 
that prototypes have achieved 17 MHz and that production samples 
made with new 1 micron processes (the "1 micron" refers to how 
small the circuit elements on the chip can be fabricated) may be able 
to achieve over 25 A/Hz. 

Vitesse, Inc., has been busy. Besides enhancing their Quickie 
software (Tom Vanderpool has tried a similar scanner with the Quick- 
ie and with MS-DOS software and says the Quickie seems to do a bet- 
ter job), they've announced a suite of llgs printer drivers and a new 
disk repair utility. 

In addition to the Quickie software enhancements to support most 
100 to 400 dots per inch (DPI) scanners with the II+, He, llgs, and 
Laser 1 28, the update makes these scanners compatible with West- 
Codes in Words optical character recognition software. Vitesse will 
offer this "add your own scanner" package for $129 (for the con- 
troller card, two software disks, and user guide). 

tiarmonie ($49.95) adds support for several printers and a couple 
of parallel interfaces to the llgs System Software. Supported printers 
include the Hewlett-Packard DeskJet, LaserJet IIP, LaserJet III, and 
PaintJet, the Apple ImageWriter, and the Epson LQ series (and com- 
patibles). tiarmonie also includes its own serial port and parallel card 
drivers for use with the printer drivers. 

Salvation Deliverance ($49.95) is a QS/OS utility intended to vali- 
date and repair disk volumes. It will check the file structures and 
attempt to identify and rectify problems, and locate and mark bad 

December 1990 

Al'Central 6.85 

disk blocks. 

Need to work with files inside of GS/OS applications? Seven 
Hills Software's Disk Access ($49.95) is a New Desk Accessory that 
installs on your boot volume and allows you to do disk and file main- 
tenance without having to exit to Finder. As a matter of fact, if you 
decide you can do without Finder, a very small program launcher 
(whimsically named Out To Launch) is also supplied. The combina- 
tion gives you the file launcher (minus icon support) and file utility 
functions of Finder, but with a faster startup time. 

When opened. Disk Access’s window explodes to present an array 
of function buttons above an information window (usually the file list 
for the current working directory). The array of active buttons changes 
depending on your location on the hard disk and your selection of 
files, but basically all the file functions of Finder are available, plus a 
few extra like Find File (locate a file by name) and Show File (display 
the contents of a file). 

Seven Hills is releasing new or upgraded versions of several prod- 
ucts, including Font Factory (a ligs font editor with font sets) and 
GraphicWhter III (a feature-laden desktop publishing program). We 
hope to look these over in future issues. 

Micol Systems is working on version 4.0 of Flicol Advanced 
BASIC for the Ilgs. New features will include the ability to call all 
QS/OS functions, universal availability of hex numbers, support of 4- 
byte integers, use of commas in number formatting (such as "X% = 
186,000"), editor enhancements, and (as they say) more. 

Hardware maker ThirdWare (the FingerFrint folks) has moved 
to 3300 Corporate Avenue #116, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 33331, 305- 
389-9009, FAX 305-389-9066. 

Claris has announced an AppIeWorks GS template contest for 
teachers. Entries must be postmarked no later than January 10, 
1991, and will be judged by representatives of Claris, The Apple- 
Works Educator, and TI Sr IE. Call 1-800-747-7483 for entry forms 
and contest instructions. 

Claris also announced a second edition of The AppIeWorks 
Resource Guide for Teachers and Parents. It should be available 
through Claris and selected education dealers as you read this. 

InCider Magazine is planning to supplement its current cover- 
age of the Apple II with coverage of the new Macs. Please note 
the word "supplement" is not the word "replace". 

Meanwhile, nibble claims to be the last Apple 11 exclusive maga- 
zine. Okay, if we don't count ourselves and 05+ as "magazines" per 

Our plans here at Al-Central are to continue helping and 
supporting Apple II users on into the next millennium. At that 

time we ll reevaluate the situation. This month we decided to show 
our commitment by purchasing 8/16 magazine from Ross Lambert's 
Ariel Publishing Co of Pateros, Wash. Lambert started 8/16 in March 
of this year to provide a monthly forum for 8- and 16-bit Apple II pro- 
grammers and developers, both hobbiest and professional types. 

Lambert published 8/16 in both paper and disk versions, which 
were available separately. Production costs have forced us to discon- 
tinue the paper version of 8/16. The disk version will henceforth be 
known as 8/l6-CentraI. Subscribers to the paper version will get 
disks instead, using a conversion formula that's fair to everyone. 

8/I6-CentraI will be edited by Jay Jennings. Jennings was a con- 
tributing editor to 8/16 since its inception and was an A2-Central 
staff member even before that. See this month's catalog for subscrip- 
tion details. 

An Al’Central footnote. Up till now, A2-Central has been orga- 
nized as a sole proprietorship owned by Tom Weishaar and his wife, 
Kathy O'Connell. At our current growth rate, we should have gross 
sales in 1991 in excess of $1 million. Consequently, Tom and Kathy 
have decided to change the company's structure to a corporation. 
Ownership won't change, as Tom and Kathy will still own all the stock. 
Just the legal underpinnings. 

Our Apple Il-related activities will continue under the A2-Central 
banner, but the official name of the corporation, which you may 
encounter from time to time, will be Resource Central, Inc. We see 
ourselves as a publishing company and we intend to continue 
expanding our family of publications. We are studying several differ- 
ent markets that we might enter, some of them computer-related and 
some not. 

To beef up our Apple II customer lists, we've decided to take 
the advice we've been giving Apple and do some big-budget 
marketing ourselves. We've produced a red and yellow, 24-page ver- 
sion of our monthly catalog (this one describes all the products in 
detail) that will be mailed to our subscribers in the next few weeks. 
And also to a lot of people we'd like to have as subscribers. 

Now that this monthly newsletter, A2-Centrai has a whole car full 
of siblings (Stack’Centrai TimeOut-Central and 8/16'CentraI) rid- 
ing with it, 1 have three less ways that I have to try to split A2-Cen' 
tral itself; in the past, it has been difficult to determine the direction 
that A2-Central the newsletter should go. The direction 1 plan to take 
now is in locating and sharing details about new products for the 
Apple II. We'll continue to cover the major details of all Apple II activi- 
tites, however, so keep those cards and letters coming-Uncle DOS 
insists he'll continue to take on all comers.— DJD 

For those of you having trouble getting 
AppIeWorks OS's Page Layout module to size 
your super high-res graphics correctly when 
preparing to print in "Condensed" mode, disre- 
gard the directions in the reply to "Apple- 
Works GS draft printing" (A2-Central, p. 
6.64). While importing the graphic into a page 
set up to print in condensed mode, use the 
Option key while placing (not resizing) the 
imported image on your page. Once the image 
is placed and visible, it will retain its dimen- 

sions relative to the page size until you drag a 
corner of the image to resize it, or until you 
switch your Page Settings information. So if 
you do decide to switch to "Fiormal" or "Inter- 
mediate" print sizing after importing the 
image, you'll need to resize the graphic manu- 
ally to fit the image to the new page size. Or, if 
using "Liormai", re-import the graphic without 
using the Option key while placing the image. 

And someone put an "Easter Egg" in the 
AppIeWorks GS "About" box. Make sure you 
have Cairo. 18 installed in your "Fonts" folder 
on your boot disk. Launch AppIeWorks GS, 
open a new word processor document, then 
pull down the "apple" menu and select "About 
AppIeWorks GS...". When the "About" box 
appears, type the word "moof" and hit return 
to see the Apple Developer Support mythical 
mascot, the dogcow. 

We mentioned jb Technologies last month 
in connection with hard disk repairs. We 
neglected their address, however; iF's 5105 
Maureen Lane, Moorpark, Calif 93021, 805- 
529-0908, FAX 805-529-7712. 

"Can you help us Find...?" (p. 6.22) asked 
about creating an AppIeWorks screen using 
larger characters for visually impaired users. 
We still haven't heard of a video driver to allow 

AppIeWorks to use a large-scale font, but RC 
Systems had a different slant on the solution: 
among the adaptive technology devices they 
sell is The AppIeWorks Companion ($49.95) 
that modifies the AppIeWorks startup disk to 
add speech synthesizer support and new 
AppIeWorks commands (string search on 
screen contents, editing command enhance- 
ments, ten user-definable macros, narration of 
documents for proofing). A utility to convert 
AppIeWorks word processor files to ASCII Files 
is also included. 

The enhancements use no desktop space, 
and are compatible with Beagle Bros' TimeOut 
and most desktop expanders. AppIeWorks 2.0 
or later is required, as well as a Slotbuster II 
with speech synthesizer option or a Dou- 
bleTalk speech synthesizer.— DJD 

Mac LC and lie emulation 

I have had the opportunity to read your pub- 
lication several times in the past. Finally, I 
decided to cough up the bucks for my own sub- 
scription. While I was at it, I ordered the com- 
plete set of back issues. I think I made a good 

6.86 Al'Central 

Vol. 6, No. 11 

investment. I am now enjoying current issues as 
they come in and filling in with five years worth 
of interesting Information from the past. My spe- 
cial area of interest is Apple II networks. On this 
topic, I have questions and comments. 

My main question is: will the Apple He card 
for the recently introduced Macintosh LC allow 
access to Apple II software on an AppleShare 
file server? 1 think this would be important. 
Also, what will the price be for this card? I have 
heard different numbers. 

My main comment is: Aristotle (Apple's Pro- 
DOS 8 based AppleShare menuing system) is 
the pits! How could the self-professed gods of 
user interface at Apple ever have released such 
a product? 1 have been amazed by it's total lack 
of merit ever since first using it in 1987, prior to 
it's wide release. However, to be honest, I have 
a self-serving motive for stating this opinion. 
The company that I work with has recently intro- 
duced a menu system that is AppleShare aware. 

The product, EasyShare llx, has many benefi- 
cial features, but one may interest you more 
than the others. It supports DOS 3.3 over an 
AppleShare network! I don't mean a few select- 
ed products, I mean most products from most 
publishers. For DOS 3.3 products, the menu 
system generally requires no product modifica- 
tion, supports simultaneous network and floppy 
disk access, supports the volume number 
parameter, and usually returns to the menu with 
just a keypress. 

Brian Walker 
LPC, LAHPRO Corporation 
2850 Metro Drive, Suite 413 
Minneapolis, Minn. 55425 

We saw the Apple II emulator briefly in a 
Mac LC at our local Apple roll-out of the new 
Macs. What we noticed is that it definitely 
looked like a coprocessor, not seamlessly inte- 
grated into the LC. As a "bridge" machine, the 
ligs beats the Mac LC hollow, unless you're 
bound and determined to "go Mac". Since the 
lie card for the Mac LC isn't anticipated until 
next March, and the LC itself doesn't seem to 
be in local stores, detailed reports will have to 

An Apple Direct article says AppleShare 
isn't currently supported on the emulator, but 
will be by its release date. The product infor- 
mation sheet lists the final retail price at $199, 
but prices have been known to change (the 
article in Apple Direct had the price at $249). 
Since the primary market will likely be to 
schools, Apple probably will price the card as a 
loss-leader to make the Mac LC bundle more 
attractive, so we expect the $199 figure to 

Since Apple seems determined to force our 
hand to supporting coprocessors, we're plan- 
ning to get a Diamond 'TrackStar (Apple lie 
emulator for MS-DOS machines) and look it 
over, too, just to keep your options open. We 
have no immediate plans to add coverage for 
either of the host machines, though (if we do, 
it will be in new and distinct publications). 

We've been turning our DOS 3.3 diskettes 
into coasters, but there is a lot of educational 
software out there that is DOS 3.3, so there 
may be a mad rush for your product for that 

We've heard several educational software 
companies are starting to re-write their soft- 
ware to work under FroDOS and with network 

compatibility. Good network utilities will be in 
demand as software becomes network aware; 
as a program selector, Aristotle sent us back to 
the shelf looking for something with a useable 

We're still trying to Figure out why Apple 
used number keys in some of the AppleShare 
utilities with MouseText windowing interfaces, 
rather than open-apple-0 (for "Open") and so 

Ingenuity drive repairs 

I own an Ingenuity OverDrive. Any known 
source of parts? 

Andrew Klimas 
Randallstown, Md. 

Bill tieineman says he can handle most 
repairs on Ingenuity drives at a reasonable fee; 
you can reach him at Custom Software, Inc., 
7734 S. Broadway Road, Whittier, Calif 90606, 

Siot 3 Ciock 

I would like to inform your readers who 
might have a Slot 3 Clock from Southern Cali- 
fornia Research Group (P. 0. Box 593, Moor- 
park, Calif. 93020, 805-529-2082) that I have 
updated the ProDOS installation software for it. 
The update will install the clock driver into all 
official versions of ProDOS 8 (from vl .0 to vl .9) 
and is easily modifiable for future versions of 
ProDOS by the user. 1 have permission from Phil 
Wershba of SCRQ to distribute this software to 
all those who wish to purchase it from me. Any- 
one interested can call me Monday through Fri- 
day from 9 AM to 5 PM Pacific Standard Time at 
415-489-7024. I will determine a price for the 
update based on the number of responses I get. 
More responses will lower the price, as I just 
want to recoup for my time spent on the pro- 
ject. Any material and handling costs will be fig- 
ured in also. Interested readers should call to 
discuss what they would be willing to shell out 
for the update and to give me their addresses 
so that I can inform them of my final decision. 

For use in the Apple II, Ik, or He I highly rec- 
ommend the Slot 3 Clock card over the rio Slot 
Clock chip. This card does not stick up in the 
way of peripheral cards like the clock chip. It is 
designed to plug into slot 3 in the He without 
interfering with the operation of any extended 
80-column text/RAM card in the auxiliary slot. It 
supports Applesoft, DOS 3.3, ProDOS, Apple- 
Works, and any software accessing the 
date/time through the ProDOS Machine Lan- 
guage Interface. Its software installs directly into 
ProDOS so that a pre-boot is not necessary. It 
has a long-lasting replaceable lithium battery. 
(Mine is still ticking after four or five years now). 
The timing is adjustable if necessary. It enables 
time and date stamping of DOS 3.3 files when 
saving them to disk the first time. And it 
enables time and date stamping at all times in 

James P. Davis 

Hayward, Calif. 

More DMA SCSI timings 

As a fellow DMA SCSI card owner, I must 
reply to Udo Huth's letter ("Don't hang up", 
June 1990). I have a Jasmine 40 megabyte 
drive attached to the DMA card in slot 7 and I 
originally thought the system was hanging if the 
drive was not switched on. In practice, it "times 
out" after 20-25 seconds and continues from 
the 3.5 disk. 

1 have some comparative times for the old 
and new cards. My Hgs system has 3.25 
megabytes of memory, a TransWarp GS, and my 
Jasmine's seek time is 28 milliseconds. The 
interleave is 1:1, which is better than 2:1 and 
the (unknown) original value, but I'm not sure if 
it's the best! Both times use the new drivers 
(which are slightly faster for the old card as 
well!). A fascinating thing is that the times often 
vary up and down by several seconds under 
otherwise fixed conditions. The times listed are 
average timings: 

Rev. C 


Boot to Finder 



- 550K of DA' 8, etc. 

i^ldfoiks GS 
- HP, SS, Com 



PioSel voluoe stats 

■* linear read 



- randcB read 



- OS ovei^ead 



Digitized sound files 
- 200+ blocks 



- 600+ blocks 



- 670+ blocks 



The sound files were what 

convinced me to 

buy the card. I can play through a directory of 
sounds in (almost) real time— very impressive. 
The simple fact is that the card speeds up the 
transfer rate. If the drive spends its time seek- 
ing, as during a boot or loading a segmented 
file like AppleWorks GS, then the speed-up is 
minor. Give it a large file to load and you are 
talking "greased lightening". 1 am hoping Claris 
will provide an installation option to allow "true" 
preloading of AppleWorks GS so that people 
with enough memory and a DMA card will be up 
and running (all modules) in around 12seconds! 

Peter Watson 
Box Hill north, Vic. 

The Apple High-Speed SCSI card does not 
maintain an on-card cache, so it does have a 
significant disadvantage when loading smaller 
Files versus a card such as the RamFast, which 
retains some of the disk image in it's cache 
RAM. Using a drive with an internal track cache 
will offset part of that advantage, but not all. 
We really notice the RamFast's speed when 
loading a program that uses several small files, 
such as AppleWorks 3.0 plus a large number of 
'TimeOut files. The lIgs boot process also loads 
a large number of distinct files, and the Ram- 
Fast's speed is noticable there, too. 

The Apple High-Speed SCSI Card takes 
advantage of a feature of the SCSI driver and 
GS/OS to be able to load large files very quick- 
ly; there is a command (documented in the 
Apple High-Speed SCSI Card Technical Ref- 
erence from AFDA) that allows GS/OS to pass 
the card a buffer location and request that the 
card load a number of sequential blocks from 
a File to the buffer, bypassing much of the 
operating system overhead. This is how the 
spectacular Star Wars demo is performed. 
However, this feature is only available with the 
combination of the High-Speed SCSI Card and 
GS/OS, so a lie user will not see an equivalent 
beneFit for large files. For those users, the 
RamFast provides the ultimate throughput in 
all circumstances we currently know of.—DJD 

December 1990 

Al-Central 6.87 

VT alternative 

Regarding "Terminal Emulation" (Al^’Cen- 
tral, Movember 1990, p. 6.76): John F. Snow's 
Snowterm is a program that will do most of 
what the user wants by creating his own charac- 
ter set. And it's fast and ligs specific as well. 
The only drawback is it only does text transfers 
(no protocol transfers). 

Hugh Grant Delaney 
Pinawa, Man. 

SnowTenn is a shareware program that 
operates using the Ilgs's Super Uigh-Resoiution 
display. It supports VT-52 and VT-IOO emula- 
tions (minus the 132-column modes), and uses 
its own customized screen font for displaying 
text during communications. 

Since SnowTetw uses a graphics font, sup- 
port for international character sets is possible. 
The shareware release uses the USA character 
set for the VT-IOO emulation, but a UK set is 
also supplied to users who register by paying 
the shareware fee. These fonts are not stan- 
dard lIgs fonts, but it may be possible to create 
other character sets for the program. John 
points out that SnowTenn won't switch 
between the US and UK sets such as the VT- 
IOO does. 

SnowTenn is $20 (add $5 for shipping out- 
side of north America) from Snow Software, 
F.O. Box 58621, Salt Lake City, Utah 

The New Print Shop revisited 

1 just received the Hovember, 1990 issue of 
Al-Central (on disk) and 1 generally agree with 
Mr. Barr's "review" of Broderbund's Tiew Print 
Shop. 1 am especially pleased that 1 can now 
run (this version of) Print Shop from my hard 
drive and 1 made sure to comment on that fact 
when 1 returned the owner registration card to 
Broderbund— 1 encourage everyone to do the 

One other quirk of the Mew Print Shop sur- 
faces if you use Glen Bredon's ProSel-8 as a 
program selector on your hard drive. If the ProS- 
el-8 file RAM.DRV.SYS is run before you launch 
the new Print Shop, you will see the following: 

IThe New Print Shop 

/RAM Dish Required 
Press any hey to r^oot 

The solution is to warm boot the hard drive 
(seeing that RAM.DRV.SYS does not "run") and 
relaunch the new Print Shop, which then pro- 
ceeds to run beautifully! 

Skip Hayes 
Billings, Mont. 

Although harry Barr mentioned a problem 
with using the new Print Shop with the Zip 
Chip on his system, many readers have noti- 
fied us that they haven't had such problems. 
So your mileage may vary.—DJD 

Revised No Slot Clock utility 

I have used SMT's no Slot Clock in my Apple 
He for almost a year and have been totally 
happy patching ProDOS vl.7 from the no Slot 
Clock Utility Disk. The patches to the utility 
offered by Shirk and Broder for ProDOS v. 1.8, 
and 1 .9 did not work on my disk and resulted in 
ProDOS coming back with a "Relocation Error". I 
called SMT (at their new number) and asked if 

they had developed a patch for the latest ver- 
sions of ProDOS. The SMT Tech Rep was courte- 
ous, knowledgeable about Apple computers (I), 
and very helpful. They have written an entirely 
new utility disk that (1) installs a no Slot Clock 
driver as the first ".SYSTEM" file on your disks 
and (2) contains the latest versions of both Pro- 
DOS and BASlC.System. The beauty of 
HS.CLOCK.SYSTEM is ProDOS is no longer mod- 
ified and future upgrades will not result in the 
"Relocation Error" when using the no Slot 
Clock. The installation of the driver went 
smoothly, ending up as the first ".SYSTEM" file 
on each disk, thus assuring the no Slot Clock 
was available to ProDOS. Additionally, accord- 
ing to the READ. ME file, if the no Slot Clock is 
not installed, the driver does not load and the 
next ".SYSTEM" file is executed. This is a new 
utility, with a date of 16 Oct 90, and I doubt 
that its existence is well known since SMT has 
moved and they are not set up to deal directly 
with the public (they cannot take credit card 
orders and prefer checks). My order was filled in 
three days. 

The price of the utility disk (including ship- 
ping) is $7.50. Specify that you want the new 
ProDOS no Slot Clock Utility Disk. You can con- 
tact SMT at: 

SMT Inc. 

310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 112 
San Marcos, Calif. 92069 

Richard Cheney 
San Pedro, Calif. 

Okay, okay, I plead the absence of any 
experience with the ISo Slot Clock. Otherwise 
I probably would have noticed that the only 
change to the ProDOS 8 v 1.9 patch we pub- 
lished last month and the vl.8 that we pub- 
lished in February is the REM statement. 

Apple prefers that utilities that add drivers 
to ProDOS work in the manner you've 
described for the ISo Slot Clock patches; that 
is, the PRODOS file should be allowed to load 
and then a program should be used to add the 
driver to the ProDOS image in memory, rather 
than having the patches made directly to the 
PRODOS file itself This insures that the format 
of the original PRODOS file remains known and 

With SMT located, we'll defer the Mo Slot 
Clock patch updates to them.—DJD 

CloseView and friends 

InfoWorld (December 11, 1989, p. 53) says 
that "sticky keys.. .and CloseView... are built into 
every Mac and Apple ligs sold". "CloseView" is 
supposed to assist low vision users. Is it in the 
"regular" ligs, built into System 5.0.2, or is it a 
hardware modification only available with the 
ROM 03 ligs? Can CloseView be invoked 
through software? 

Also System Disk 5.0.2 has a CD controller 
HDA built in. Will this work with a non-Apple CD 
player? Does it need a controller card to do so 
such as a SCSI card or disk controller? Will it 
only play music or will it read the High Sierra 
standard data CD-ROMs. (Or do these CD's run 
only with IBM software?) 

I've asked my local Apple dealer these ques- 
tions, and gotten a blank stare in response. 

Larry Haukum 
Fairport, H.Y. 

Apple is working on several "adaptive" addi- 
tions to the ligs system software, though it 

looks like InfoWorld jumped the gun a bit on 
CloseView. The first we've seen of it is on the 
new developer CR-ROM from Apple, "Might of 
the Living Disc". 

When using ligs Desktop-based applications, 
CloseView allows you to employ selectable 
magnification to enlarge a portion of the 
screen to fill the entire display. This way, 
someone who has trouble working with the 
size of the objects employed in Apple's graphic 
interface can expand a problem section of the 
display in order to see what's going on. While 
in the expanded display, if you try to move "off 
the edge" of the enlarged screen, CloseView 
will scroll to the next portion of the actual 

Another enhancement currently shipping in 
a test version through APDA is the Video Key- 
board MDA, which serves as an alternative 
character input device for someone unable to 
use a normal keyboard. Video Keyboard brings 
up a miniature version of the ligs keyboard on 
screen for access via a mouse (or mouse- 
replacement pointing device). By moving the 
mouse cursor to a key and clicking, the equiva- 
lent keystroke is entered as if it had been 
typed from the keyboard. 

For someone who can use a keyboard but 
has trouble pressing multiple keys at once, 
"sticky keys" allows simulating the multiple 
key-down keypresses by substituting a 
sequence of equivalent keystrokes. Instead of 
holding down Option-Shift-3 simultaneously to 
type Option-#, for example, with "sticky keys" 
you press Option, then Shift, then 3, sequen- 
tially. This feature is part of the ROM 03 ligs; 
you can enable it by striking the Shift key Five 
times in succession without moving the 
mouse. To disable it, press the shift key five 
times in succession again, or press two "modi- 
fier" keys (option, command, shift, control) 

Just as Video Keyboard lets you use the 
mouse cursor to operate the keyboard, the 
ROM 03 ligs has a "keyboard mouse" enabled 
by pressing Command-Shift-Clear. The numeric 
keypad can then be used to move the mouse 
cursor: "8" moves the mouse up, "I" moves it 
down and to the left, and so on. The increment 
of movement can be changed by pressing the 
keypad followed by 1-9 (or "0" for incre- 
ments of 10). You click or press the mouse 
with the "5" key (the duration determines 
whether it's a click or a press); to drag, you 
press "0" to start the drag, move the pointer, 
then press "5" to end the drag. There are more 
equivalents, but if you have a ROM 03 ligs 
they're all in the manual (pages 15-19). 

After the ROM 03 ligs, the ligs System Soft- 
ware gurus at Apple realized that they could 
add most, if not all, of the same functionality 
to the ROM 01 machine via software. Thus, 
part of the test suite sent out in the Universal 
Access disk package is an Easy Access. Init ini- 
tialization program that provides sticky keys 
and the keyboard mouse for both the ROM 01 
and ROM 03 ligs. 

The Mac versions of CloseView and Easy 
Access ship with the Macintosh System Soft- 
ware. The ligs versions weren't present in our 
licensed version of 5.0.3; we don't know yet 
how they will be distributed. 

The CD-ROM drivers and CD Remote MDA 
that Apple supplies with the ligs System 

6.88 A2-Central 

Vol. 6, No. 1 1 

Software are intended for use with Appie's 
SCSI interface cards and a CD-ROM drive; not 
an audio CD player (if you're interested in con- 
trolling an audio-only CD player, see "Picture 
this", in the July 1990 issue). Other peripheral 
cards which won't work with Apple's SCSI 
drivers will have to supply their own CD-ROM 
driver software. 

Until recently, the only CD-ROM player that 
we've heard works is Apple's AppleCD SC unit; 
since Apple has dropped the price from the 
original $1199 to a more competitive $899, 
this isn't quite the scare it used to be. But A2- 
Central freelance Pont Librarian Mark Collins 
recently discovered that a less expensive 
Peripheral Land (47421 Payside Parkway, Fre- 
mont, Calif 94538, 4 1 5-657-22 1 1 ) CD ROM 
drive also works. 

CD-ROMs can hold data in several formats: 
computer data formats, audio compact disk 
sound, and so on. In terms of computer data, 
the Apple lie can read ProDOS partitions (if 
present) within the normal constraints of Pro- 
DOS (that is, only two partitions per slot are 
available at any one time, and a maximum 
total of four partitions split between slots 5 
and 2 if the SCSI interface is installed in slot 5 
and there is not another disk interface occupy- 
ing slot 2). The standard CD-ROM Migh Sierra 
format can be accessed by application soft- 
ware running on the He; that is, the program 
that accesses the CD-ROM must include driver 
code to access the high Sierra format. 

On the Ilgs, GS/OS can access either Pro- 
DOS or High Sierra partitions of a CD-ROM via 


©Copyright 1990 by 

Most rights reserved. All programs published in A2Central are public 
domain and may be copied and distributed without charge. Apple user groups 
and significant others may obtain permission to reprint articles from time to time 
by specific written request. 

Edited by: 

Dennis Dorns 

with help from; 

Tom Weishaar Sally Dwyer Dean Esmay 

Joyce Hammond Jeff Neuer Jay Jennings 

Tom Vanderpool Jean Weishaar 

42'Ceiitra/,— iled Open-Apple through January, 1989— has been pub- 
lished monthly since January 19^. World-wide prices (in U.S. dollars; airmail 
delivery included at no additional charge): $28 for 1 year: $54 for 2 years; $78 for 
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tions of our first four volumes are $14.95 each. Volumes end with the January 
issue; an index for the pno' volume is included with the February issue. 

The full text of each issue of A2-Central is available on 3.5 disks, along 
with a selection of the best new public domain and shareware files and pro- 
grams, for $84 a year (newsletter and disk combined). Single disks are $10. 

Please send all correspondence to; 

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its File System Translator (FST) capabilities 
(see "Apple vs. ... Magnavox" this issue). FSTs 
to allow accessing Macintosh and MS-DOS par- 
titions are possible, but such software has not 
been announced by Apple as yet. There is a 
close approximation to a Mac FST, though, if 
you have the equipment: attach the CD-ROM to 
an AppleShare server (Mac, of course), install 
the CD-ROM as a network volume, and then 
access it from a Ilgs workstation on the net- 
work. The Mac partition will be available to the 
server, and the AppleShare FST in the Ilgs will 
allow you to communicate with the server. 
(You could also access these from the He using 
the ProDOS 8 AppleShare Filing Interface; see 
"Ask (or Tell) Uncle DOS", August 1990), pp. 

The AppleCD SC includes audio outputs for 
CD audio, and the CD Remote allows you to 
use the CD-ROM as a very expensive audio CD 
Player from within a Ilgs desktop application; it 
pops up a graphic representation of a remote 
control (see "The AppleCD SC drive", February 
1990, pp. 6.3-5). When you exit GS/OS to Pro- 
DOS 8, the CD audio shuts off, however; 
maybe it's better not to count on the CD-ROM 
for your musical entertainment. 

The Apple CD SC also includes a 5.25 disk 
with a He standalone application that allows 
you to control the CD-ROM drive as an audio 
player; you can use this to start an audio CD 
playing when you aren't using the drive for 

No business with Apple 

In the early- to mid-eighties, when the busi- 
ness world was racked with indecision as to 
which operating system to adopt (ProDOS, MS- 
DOS, etc.), our firm (which provides job cost 
analysis and accounting services for builders 
and contractors) opted for Apple (lie) equip- 
ment. The computers were well-built and easy 
to use; enjoyed a fairly broad array of business 
and productivity software; and could be pro- 
grammed quickly and easily with the built-in 
Applesoft BASIC. Our first machine was an 
unenhanced He with a DuoDisk, 10 megabyte 
Rodime hard disk, 15-inch ImageWriter, and a 
stack of manuals. Software was BPI Accounting 
(general accounting, accounts payable, 
accounts receivable, inventory control, and PR), 
AppleWorks vl.O, and one or two utility pro- 
grams by Apple Computer. 

Today, eight years and three more He's later, 
we have our machines pumped up with Ohio 
Rache and RamFast SCSI drive controllers, over 
100 megabytes of high performance SCSI mass 
storage, 8 MHz Zip Chips, a 10 MHz Rocket 
Chip, and even a TransWarp //. Our software, 
too, has been upgraded whenever possible; 
including some sophisticated spreadsheets 
we've designed (using AppleWorks 3.0, power- 
fully enhanced by Beagle Bros), used in job cost 
analysis and financial performance. 

Sadly, we now face a changeover to cheaper, 
faster, and more supportable 386 clones and 
face as well the time-consuming, expensive, 
and frustrating transition to the world of MS- 
DOS, OS/2, and Windows 3.0. 

The reasons must be obvious to you, as you 
are closer to the industry than we. We have 
maxed out our equipment. We have maxed out 
our software. Long ago, Apple Computer rele- 
gated the He to R-12 and the teenager's bed- 
room, and then insulted the injured in an 
attempt to salve the Apple 11 crowd by creating 
the industry's slowest and least useful new com- 

puter, the Ilgs. The bulk of business software 
developers, witnessing the sad demise of the 
"business Apple" generally, and the Apple 11 and 
HI market specifically, gave a quick shrug and 
turned their attentions to the business market 
(read: IBM compatible). 

Apple Computer meanwhile, in keeping with 
its incredibly short-sighted and arrogant views 
that the pricey Macintosh was the only "true" 
graphics interface computer for business, is 
now throwing cheap Macs at the market in the 
vain hope that prospective buyers will not opt 
for the spectacular new windowing operating 
system from Microsoft. (Too late, Apple, they 
already havel See Business Week's cover story 
regarding Apple of a few weeks ago (October 
15, 1990 issue).) 

How, only outfits like Zip Technology (aided 
and abetted by guys like Andy Vogan of C. V. 
Technologies, and possibly the folks at Cirtech 
and Applied Engineering) can keep small busi- 
nessmen like me in the Apple H business. And 
don't talk to me about the Ilgs. Our next 
$12000 worth of computer systems will not 
bear the Apple trademark. But a fully DMA com- 
patible accelerator card or chip with a 10 MHz 
or 12 MHz processor would enable me and 
thousands like me to stay with our systems a 
year or two longer. Ho, the cost of going to a 
bunch of 386 machines is not in the hardware, 
it's in the software, the training, and the transi- 
tion time. That cost can only be measured in 
the thousands of dollars. I'll pay quite a lot to 
ward off that expense and trouble, and so 
would thousands of others. 

Thanks to Zip, C. V. Technologies, Cirtech, 
Applied Engineering, and others (and no 
thanks to Apple Computer) for keeping us in 
the Apple H business up to now. But 
Zip.. .please offer us just one more product that 
will keep us here just a while longer. We'll be 
watching and waiting; but please, not too long. 

Tom Thomas 
Thomas Associates 
Topeka, Rs. 

We'll continue to defend the Hgs; I'll only 
stop here long enough to say that the Hgs is 
not as "slow" as is rumored. But without seri- 
ously designed business software taking advan- 
tage of the enhanced features of the Hgs (you 
are better off running 8-bit software on 8 MFIz 
He's in terms of speed), there's no way to illus- 
trate it. 

Current Apple H owners shouldn't feel that a 
dark cloud has suddenly settled over them; 
other than the significant contributions Apple's 
Apple H technical staff has offered in develop- 
er support and operating system and peripher- 
al upgrades, if Apple Computer were to be 
blasted off the face of the earth tomorrow we 
doubt the average Apple H user would notice 
anything except a clearing of the air. Certainly 
the amount of pro-Macintosh and anti-Apple 11 
advertising would shift dramatically in the 
Apple H user's favor. Apple hasn't shown the 
ability to lead or follow it's user base, maybe 
they'll now (Finally) at least get out of the way. 
Or, if Apple's business performance doesn't 
improve, maybe the stockholders will force the 
necessary changes.— DJD