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Al-Central^ 2 ^ 

February 1990 
Vol. 6, no. I 

ISSn 08854017 
newstand price: $2.50 

A journal and exchange of Apple II discoveries photocopy charge per page: $o. 1 5 


The spring 1990 AppleFest is moving from its previous Boston 
location to the riew York metropolitan area. The show will take place 
on May 4-6 at the new Garden State Conference Center in Somerset, 
n.J., within an hour's drive of Manhattan. The date was advanced one 
week to avoid a clash with the Apple Developer's Conference sched- 
uled for May 7-11. 

Cambridge Marketing, the company that organizes AppleFest, 
expects to attract a larger number of attendees at the new location 
and also hopes to reach a new audience. The new site is also expect- 
ed to be less expensive than the Boston location; for example, hotel 
rooms are anticipated to be 25-35% less than comparable rooms in 

ComputerFest, a new event, will be run in conjunction with Apple- 
Fest to also allow reaching the increasing number of educational and 
home users of MS-DOS machines. Apparently, just adding Macintosh 
users to AppleFest didn't satisfy some exhibitors' goals. Attendees will 
be able to participate in both events. AppleFest is expected to be the 
larger of the two events. 

The incorporation of an MS-DOS "adjunct" to AppleFest will no 
doubt concern Apple Computer, Inc., but it certainly responds as well 
to the attendee's desires as does the decision to incorporate Macin- 
tosh products into what users perceive as the major Apple II trade 
show. We will see how (and if) Apple responds to this challenge. 

The First International Computer Forum, sponsored by the 
International Computer Club, is being held June 14-17, 1990 at the 
World Trade Center in Moscow, U.S.S.R. Complete details are avail- 
able by writing to the address International Computer Club, Serova, 4, 
Proyezd, Moscow, 101813, USSR, telephone 921-09-02. You'll want to 
contact the ICC early, as the membership rates will increase stepwise 
on March 1, April 1, and April 15. 

Those who fondly remember the AST VisionFlus digitizer for 

the Ilgs may be happy to know that the product is returning to the 
market under the auspices of Silicon and Software, 18004 Sky Park 
Circle, Suite 240, Irvine, Calif. 92714, (714) 250-8101. Mot only that, 
the price has been lowered to $299 from the original price of $395. 
Also available from the new company is a Ilgs RAM memory expan- 
sion card expandable to 4 megabytes of RAM, and up to 640R of ROM 
in the optional ROM card. Special pricing exists on these products 
until March 31, 1990. 

Ariel Publishing is consolidating its publications into 8/16, a 

new monthly technical journal for Apple II programmers. The new 
publication will be source code intensive. Monthly columns include 
coverage of Orca/C, Micol Advanced Basic GS, Merlin 8 and 16 bit 
assembly, Applesoft, and ZBasic. Other environments such as Pascal, 
Orca/M, TML BASIC, etc., will also be examined frequently. A one-year 
subscription (12 issues) will be $29.95. A companion disk will also be 
offered which will contain the issue's articles and source code along 
with additional articles, code, utilities, and product demos. The 
diskette will be $69.95 per year, $39.95 for six months, and $21 for 
three months. The first issue is expected in March 1990. For further 
information, contact Ariel Publishing, P.O. Box 398, Pateros, Wash. 
98846, 509-923-2249. 

Apple itself has announced a new quarterly technical journal, 
develop. The journal will go out to Apple Certified Developers, Part- 

ners, and Associates, and is also available on a subscription basis. It 
will consist of technical information and examples down to actual 
code examples. 

The journal is not Apple II specific, but will include Apple II arti- 
cles. For information on develop, contact the editor, Louella Pizzuti, 
at Apple Computer, Inc., 20525 Mariani Avenue, M/S 75-3B, Cuperti- 
no, Calif. 95014 (AppleLink Pizzuti 1). 

The first issue of develop will contain an article on the Apple 
II Development Dynamo by Eric Soldan. Eric described this system 
at the A2'Central Summer Conference in July 1989; it consists of a 
run-time library and macro interfaces to allow using the (Macintosh) 
MFW Ilgs cross-development system (and, we hope, eventually the 
AFW development environment on the Ilgs) to develop applications 
for the older Apple II systems. The Dynamo supplies many standard- 
ized routines as part of the library, including manipulation of strings, 
variables, arrays, and integer math. By using these routines, each pro- 
grammer is freed from having to write these common utilities for him- 
self. The Dynamo also includes a "builder" to create the application 
from the programmer's modular code and data segments, and a 
"loader" which takes care of the task of loading and relocating these 
modules (even into extended memory on a 128K lie or lie) at run 

While the Dynamo is primarily an assembly language tool which is 
currently limited to Apple's Macintosh-based MFW development envi- 
ronment, it does provide a development functionality that has not 
been present for the 8-bit Apple II systems and should ease the task 
of writing large applications for these systems.— DJD 


ltwquaqe arts software." 

6.2 A2-Central 

Vol. 6, no. 1 

GS Numerics: graphic math 

In the movie "Peggy Sue Got Married", the title character respond- 
ed to an algebra instructor by explaining that she knew for a fact that 
she would never have any reason to know algebra in the future. That 
is probably somewhat true for most people, and the program about to 
be described is not going to be of use to them. 

For those people who never have, or will have, a use for algebra, 
consider the program in the following light: a good deal of our future 
depends on people who will have those skills, and the existence of a 
program that can help the "algebra technicians" of the future learn 
their trade well is an important step. And, in the broader sense, such 
a program may indicate the type of use that computers should be put 
to in education; as tools to make concepts more easily and quickly 
understandable. The fact that this particular tool is aimed at a specific 
segment of education should, if it is a good tool, make us long for 
and seek to find similar tools in other areas. 

In 1972, when I graduated high school, the state-of-the-art tool for 
doing the very complex calculations of "higher" math and science was 
the slide rule. What 1 originally found fascinating about a slide rule 
was that I could see the way that logarithms worked. Though I had 
worked with logarithms since junior high school, they were always 
somewhat "magic". Having the slide rule's graphic representation of 
the logarithmic "spacing" between the numbers used in the calcula- 
tion gave me a concept of how an addition could become a multipli- 
cation. I finally understood how logarithms mattered in mathematics, 
rather than Just blindly using them as a tool. 

The battle didn't stop there. With college came courses in engineer- 
ing physics and calculus. Physics was so math-intensive that, even 
using a slide rule to "assist" in working problems, a set of problems 
could take hours to solve. 1 was lucky in that hand-held calculators 
had appeared by that time, and quickly had dropped to a price of 
"only" a few hundred dollars. The purchase of one of the leading 
models at that time, a Hewlett-Packard MF-45 scientific model, cut 
working physics problems from literally hours to minutes. 

Calculus was more of a problem. Calculus involves many concepts 
that are more visible when viewed graphically, rather than as cold 
numbers on a page. But there was no equivalent of the pocket calcu- 
lator to cut out the drudgery of producing those graphical representa- 
tions. You created a graph by calculating a large set of points, plotting 
them on graph paper, and connecting the dots. 

GS numerics ($130 from Spring Branch Software, Inc., R.R. 2, Box 
268A, Manchester, Iowa 52057, 319-927-6537) is a program that fills 
that gap. It combines the features of a scientific calculator with an 
integrated graphing program. In addition, several other types of math- 
ematical quantities (matrices, systems of linear equations, complex 
numbers) can be manipulated. 

As a pure calculator, OS numerics resembles the classic Hewlett- 
Packard calculators, down to the use of the Lukasiewicz ("reverse Pol- 
ish") notation for entering data without the use of parentheses. The 
GS numerics calculation screen is divided into three major compo- 
nents: the Register-Memory section, the Function section, and the 
Conversions/Elements section. 

In Lukasiewicz notation, the data is first placed into an ordered set 
of four storage registers called the "stack"; when a data item is keyed 
in, it is copied into the lowest register in the stack. Any items already 
on the stack are "raised" to the next higher register position in the 
stack, with the highest (fourth) item being crowded off the top of the 
stack and lost. GS numerics keeps the stack visible at all times, so 
you can not only see the value of the last number entered, but also 
the values of all data on the stack and the changes that occur during 

The Hewlett-Packard calculators lack an "equals" ("=") key to indi- 
cate that a calculation is to be performed, and instead use the 
function key itself ("+", "/", "SIM", and so on) to perform the operation 
on the required number of items at the bottom of the stack. For 
example, if you wish to calculate the value of the expression: 

1 + (2.35 * SIN(3.14)) 
you can use the sequence: 

1 ENTER 2.35 ENTER 3.14 SIN * + 

which tells the computer to "input 1, then push it up a level on the 

stack, input 2.35, push it, input 3.14, take the SIM of the last entry, 
multiply the lowest two numbers on the stack, and then add that 
value to the next number on the stack (1)". It looks awkward com- 
pared to the description we might use for the first expression: "find 
the SIM of 3. 14, multiply it by 2.35, then add 1". Reverse Polish Flota- 
tion was designed to eliminate the need for entering parentheses as 
part of the expression; whether it is an improvement has been a mat- 
ter of debate among scientific calculator users for years. 

If you don't care for RPN, you can enter the first equation above 
directly into the Input Register and 05 numerics will evaluate the 
expression for you and put the result in the (stack's) x-register. 

The Register-Memory section also contains a set of 26 memory reg- 
isters labelled A-Z, each of which can store one value. The basic four 
algebraic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and divi- 
sion) can be performed directly between the "x" and "y" registers of 
the stack and the corresponding data in a selected memory register. A 
two-value (X-Y) "CSTORE" register is also provided. This gives GS 
numerics' calculator the ability to do (two-dimensional) vector arith- 
metic directly, working with rectangular coordinates (and complex 
numbers) or polar coordinates (using angular data in radians, 
degrees, or grads). 

The Functions section includes 48 "buttons", each labelled with a 
mnemonic form of the corresponding function (e.g. "Sin(x)*", 
"CADD"). Function labels that end with an asterisk can be used when 
entering expressions into the Input Register, as with the example 
above. Labels that are not marked with an asterisk, such as the 
"CADD" ("complex number addition") cannot be entered in this man- 

The Conversions/Elements section contains tables marked "Area", 
"Length", "Mass", "Power", "Volume", and "Temp", each with a selec- 
tion of buttons marked with various units for the section. Selecting 
first one button within a table and then a second button in the same 
table causes the contents of the x register to be converted according 
to the relation between the two unit measurements. For example, 
with "2.000000" in the x register, pressing the "Length" button "inch" 
followed by "meter" converts the value in the x register to "0.050800" 
(2 inches equals 0.050800 meters). 

A key marked "Elements" in the lower right-hand corner of the Con- 
versions section toggles that section's display to an alphabetical list of 
elements. Pressing one of the element keys places a number repre- 
senting the atomic mass of that element in the x register; for exam- 
ple, pressing "C" causes the atomic mass of carbon (12.01 1000) to 
appear in the Input Window and in the x register. When finished with 
the elements list, pressing a "Conversions" key returns to the Conver- 
sions display. 

Among the menu items are more complex entry and calculation 
operations to work with systems of linear equations, matrices, polyno- 
mials, and regressions. The scope of GS numerics goes beyond what 
can be described in detail here, but the general thrust of the opera- 
tions is to allow the user to enter and edit the expressions, to solve 
them, and (if appropriate) to send the results of the solution to the 
calculator for further manipulation. In most cases you can also save 
prepared data to a disk for reference in another session. You can 
even record and save the operations performed during a session to a 
disk file so they can be re-created later. 

One item sorely lacking in the linear system and matrix dialogs is 
an extended display of the current linear equation and matrix data. 
The value at a specific column and row can be displayed by manipu- 
lating "Col" and "Row" scroll bars, but a way of viewing the actual 
equations would be welcome. 

A major class of features in GS numerics involves graphing the 
results of your manipulations. This is a wonderful tool for seeing the 
"physical" entities that the mathematical expressions of calculus rep- 
resent. It would be impossible to explain all the features here, but a 
brief tour of a specific example follows. We'll explain a little of the 
concept of the math as we go. 

One classification type of mathematical functions is the polynomi- 
al. A polynomial consists of a series of terms of the form "a*x^n", 
where "x" is a variable value, "n" is an (integral) power applied to the 
value of X, and "a" is a coefficient value that "x^n" is multiplied by. 
Let's arbitrarily construct a polynomial function f(x): 

M'Central 6.3 

February, 1990 

f(x) = xM -3*X"3 -8*x"2 +12*x +16 

GS numerics allows you to enter the coefficients for the polynomial 
and, as in most portions of 05 numerics, save the data for future ref- 
erence. You can then ask 05 numerics to calculate and display the 
graph of the function for a range of values for x. 

Among the operations that 05 numerics can apply to a polynomial 
is "taking the derivative". Without explaining the mechanics of this 
operation, we'll just say that the operation results in another polyno- 
mial function of x which we'll call "f'(x)", in this case: 

f' (x) = 4*x"3 -9*x"2 -16*x +12 

One of the qualities of the derivative is that, for any value of x, f'(x) 
will evaluate to the slope (the rate of "ascent" or "descent", when 
viewed graphically) of a line that only touches the curve at a 90 
degree angle ("tangent to the curve") at the location of x on the graph 
of the original function f(x). Piotice that most of the terms end up 
being described in relation to a graph of the polynomial. 

Confused? That's what the first few weeks of calculus are like. In 
order to get a better grasp of the quantities being described, usually 
calculus students are encouraged to actually sit down and calculate a 
series of values for the original function at various values of x, and 
then graph the results. Then the student may be asked to calculate 
the derivative function f'(x) and also calculate and graph a similar set 
of values for the derivative. As you can imagine, this can take hours, 
especially if your initial guess as to an appropriate range of values for 
"x" doesn't happen to generate a particularly useful graph. 

With 05 numerics, you can generate the visual graph by entering 
the coefficient terms for the polynomial and selecting "Polynomial" 
from the "Graph" menu. The program will ask you to enter the lower 
and upper boundary values for x, and then spend a few moments cal- 
culating a series of values for f(x). Then OS numerics draws the graph 
on the llgs screen. 

As part of the options available before the function is graphed, you 
have the opportunity to "overlay" the graph of the derivative of the 
function by selecting an appropriate check box while entering infor- 
mation for the graph request. 

There is much revelation here. You can see the graph of the orig- 
inal function. If you need to see detail, you can select a portion of the 
graph and G5 numerics will re-draw that portion to a full-screen scale. 
With the derivative overlaid, you can click on a single point in the 
graph and see the value of f(x) at that point automatically calculated 
and displayed (though 1 found positioning the mouse to exactly the 
correct point was tricky). You can also exchange the original function 
and the derivative as the "active" curve; selecting the derivative 
allows you to look at the value of f'(x) and see how it relates to the 
equivalent point in f(x). 

1 used the options in the Polynomial menu to calculate the slope of 
f(x) at a specific point. One of the options allows the entry of a sec- 
ond polynomial, so (with a little algebra) I supplied the equation need- 
ed to draw the tangent line representing the slope. Selecting "Polyno- 
mial" on the graph menu allowed me to graph the function, and this 
time 1 selected to overlay the graph of the second polynomial. Select- 
ing "Print" from the "File" menu gives me the hardcopy of the graph in 
a fraction of the time that it would have taken me to produce by 

1 wish this tool, and equivalents for other subjects, had been avail- 
able when I was in school. It probably would not have reduced the 
amount of time spent in education, but it would have greatly 
increased the productivity of that time.— DJD 

The AppleCD SC drive 

In their most practical sense, computers are meant to be informa- 
tion manipulators. They are used as tools in other ways, but informa- 
tion manipulation is their most unique skill among machines. We 
attempt to use computers to amplify the quality and quantity of our 
decisions by having them remember and manipulate more informa- 
tion than we can easily handle ourselves. 

Three limits we run into with computers are limitations in time (the 
speed of the actual CPU system), limitations in their ability to dupli- 
cate our thought processes (the suitability of their programming to a 
task), and the amount of data they can access (mass storage). 

We seem to always run up against these limits no matter how fast, 
"smart", or large the system we are currently using is. The $1199 
AppieCD SC is a product from Apple that is intended to address one 
of these problems. 

The AppleCD SC is a mass storage device using CD-ROM tech- 
nology. "CD-ROM" splices together the two acronyms "CD" (compact 
disc) and "ROM" (read-only memory). Physically, the CD-ROM media 
exactly resembles the popular audio compact discs (CD). Like the cur- 
rent audio discs, a CD-ROM disc can be read ("played") but not written 
to ("recorded"); hence the application of the term "read-only". CD- 
ROM media uses an optical format, rather than magnetic fields, to 
store information, and is read with a beam of laser light. 

Why would anyone use a read-only disk when a normal hard drive 
allows you to both read and write data? CD-ROM gives you the ability 
to store over 550 megabytes (dependent upon the storage mode) of 
data on a plastic disc 12 centimeters (about 4.7 inches) in diameter 
and slightly over one millimeter (0.05 inches) thick. That translates to 
the equivalent of 14 40 megabyte hard disks, 688 800K (ProDOS 3.5 
format) disks, or 3929 140K (ProDOS 5.25 format) disks, or 270,000 
pages of single-spaced text all on one light-weight transportable disc. 

Since a CD-ROM disc is designed as "read only", the data on the 
disc cannot be accidentally or intentionally altered by a user. This is 
an advantage when there is no need to revise the data, or the produc- 
er of the data does not want the information altered. The disc itself is 
physically less volatile than the magnetic diskettes commonly in use; 
stray magnetic fields won't damage the data, the disc surface is not as 
prone to damage by abrasion (though it isn't indestructible), and 
since the disc is only accessed by a beam of laser light there the only 
significant point of wear is the (dataless) disk hub. 

Since the CD-ROM disk is physically identical to an audio CD, tracks 
of audio information (distinct from the computer data sections) can 
also be included on the diskette, newer laser video disk players also 
accept video information on CD-sized disks. A CD-ROM can indeed be 
multi-media, with computer, audio, and video data components. 

The large amount of storage makes CD-ROM ideal for holding 
space-eating audio and graphics information, whether in computer- 
readable form or on a multi-media disc designed to be used with 
ancillary video and audio equipment. For example, a computer could 
read and display data from the CD-ROM's "computer data" area while 
commanding the CD-ROM drive to play a short video section and 
soundtrack through an external video monitor and speakers. Comput- 
er data, video, and audio information can be accessed under control 
of the computer or someone operating the computer. This is the con- 
cept of "interactive media"; a user can use the computer to select a 
function and the computer can access many types of data to carry out 
the function. 

The cost of mastering and mass-producing CD-ROM discs is higher 
than for diskettes, but the large amount of available storage makes 
the cost per megabyte much lower. The cost of making the CD-ROM 
master for duplication is much higher than duplicating a diskette 
(which only requires the computer used to create the disk and a blank 
diskette), so the cost of starting production is several thousand dol- 
lars rather than the few dollars it takes to start producing diskettes. 
Yet it may be feasible to make 1000 CD-ROM discs for a few dollars 
each though, as for diskettes, the retail cost of a CD-ROM will be 
largely affected by other factors: marketing, licensing fees, perceived 
value, and so on. Eventually, a larger market for the discs should 
drive the costs of physical production down (the more disks you can 
create and sell from a single master, the less you have to make per 
disc), but currently CD-ROM suffers from the "chicken and egg" syn- 
drome: in order to sell more discs, enough CD-ROM drives have to be 
sold to provide a market, and in order to sell drives you have to have 
software to convince consumers the drives are valuable. 

CD-ROM is then best suited for products where a large amount of 
data is involved, where it is acceptable (or desired) for the data to not 
be altered on the distributed disk, and where the demand for the data 
Justifies the production cost. 

Since the CD-ROM can store so much data, it is feasible for it to 
contain data for several different computers. For example, it's reason- 
able to imagine a disk containing an encyclopedia and also a program 
to access the encyclopedia's information from MS-DOS, Apple II, 

6.4 A2-Central 

Yol. 6, No. 1 

Macintosh, and other systems. There is plenty of room on the CD-ROM 
disc for the multiple formats. 

But what if the encyclopedia itself takes up 90 percent of the disc? 
Does that force us to have only one computer supported per disc, 
since there is not room to duplicate the encyclopedia's information 
separately for each computer type? 

Obviously, the sane solution is to put the encyclopedia's informa- 
tion in a format that every computer can read, and then to use the 
remaining space for any computer specific areas that are needed. 
Then all that's left to decide is what format should be used for the 
"common" area containing the encyclopedia. 

One of the formats Apple has chosen to recognize is defined as 
ISO 9660/fligh Sierra, intended to be a computer-independent specifi- 
cation. The programs that run on an Apple 11, llgs, Macintosh, or non- 
Apple system to access the CD-ROM drive will have to be specific for 
each model of computer, but the High Sierra data file itself should be 
accessible to all of those systems. It would be possible to create a 
CD-ROM with the encyclopedia in the High Sierra format taking up the 
bulk of the disc storage, and then have specific ProDOS, QS/OS, Mac- 
intosh, or other sections on the disk (each "invisible" to the other 
computers' sections) to contain software to read the High Sierra 
portion. You can obtain a document describing the ISO 9660 stan- 
dard by writing HISO, National Bureau of Standards, Administration 
101, Libraiy E-106, Gaithersburg Maryland, 20899. Unfortunately, like 
many "standards", all High Sierra formats may not be equal. Apple's 
AppIeCD SC Reference manual defines Apple extensions to the ISO 
standard that Apple considers necessary to allow its computers to 
interact with the "generic" CD-ROM format. Apple explains the method 
of applying these rules to the creation of ISO 9660 files that can be 
accessed by their computers' operating systems, without conflicting 
with the ISO definitions. Files that do not contain these extensions 
may be problematical for Apple systems, however. 

The AppIeCD SC drive communicates using a SCSI interface, it 
can be attached to an Apple II through an Apple II SCSI interface, or 
to a Macintosh Plus, SE, or II model through the built-in SCSI interface 
supplied on those systems. Apple's manual, advising that "removable 
media like CD-ROM disks can cause identity problems for other 
devices in a SCSI chain under ProDOS", recommends that the drive 
be assigned the lowest priority SCSI device identification number (0) 
and that only one removable media device be connected in the SCSI 
chain. This precludes booting from the AppIeCD SC if you also have a 
hard disk (or other disk device) attached to the SCSI chain, since 
Apple mentions that the system will attempt to boot from the highest- 
numbered device. 

The AppIeCD SC also includes audio outputs consisting of a stereo 
pair of RCA phono connectors on the back of the unit that can be 
connected to an external amplifier, and a miniature stereo headphone 
jack and volume control on the front of the unit. 

To place a disc in the drive, the disc to be used is first inserted into 
a (provided) cartridge, and the cartridge is inserted into the drive. The 
only control for the disc drive (other than the power switch) is an 
eject button. 

For the llgs, the QS/OS System Software supplies an Installer script 
to add the AppIeCD SC support files to your boot disk. The necessary 
files include an FST (file system translator) for the High Sierra/ISO 
9660 data format, and a "CD Remote" desk accessory that lets you 
control the AppIeCD SC as an audio CD player when it is not being 
used as a data drive. The Apple He software supplied also includes a 
"CD Remote" application, but access to the ISO 9660 format requires 
that the disc supplier include a He application that can explicitly read 
the information. 

Apple provides the CD-ROM Explorer demonstration disc with 
the drive. The disc includes a ProDOS partition with distinct demon- 
stration programs for the Apple He and the llgs, a Mac partition, and 
some audio tracks used by the demonstrations for both computers. 

For the Apple llgs, Apple recommends booting the Explorer disc 
since the demonstration is incompatible with the QS/OS System Soft- 
ware now commonly in use (the provided system on the disc is an 
older version of ProDOS 16). This is a bit problematical if the CD-ROM 
is not the only disk drive on the SCSI chain; one of the easier solu- 
tions appears to be to boot ProDOS 8 from another device, then set 
the prefix to the Explorer volume and "-PRODOS". When the disc 
boots, it will detect the machine (He or llgs) it is running on and load 

the appropriate version of the demonstration program. 

The demonstrations are remarkably similar among the three sys- 
tems, though there is some variation among the types of demonstra- 
tion programs provided. In keeping with the graphics-intensive theme 
in Apple's approach to hypermedia, the basic demonstration consists 
largely of a series of graphics "pages" which have active "buttons" 
that can be selected by the user. Selecting a button can take you to a 
new page for further information and possibly a further selection, or 
carry out another action (such as playing an audio track). The inter- 
face program used for the Macintosh is HyperCard; the He and llgs 
screens mimic the Mac demonstration in functionality though their 
interface appears to be custom made for the demonstration. 

The core of the Explorer disk is a tour and demonstration of the 
features of CD-ROM, much like a computerized "slide show" with all of 
the available enhancements such as sound, animation, and so on. 
Two special demonstration menus are included; a set of musical 
audio samples, and a suite of demonstration programs. 

The audio samples (also playable on a standard audio CD unit) 
show both the quality and the utility of the CD-ROM drive as a sound 
source; when not being used as a data drive, the AppIeCD SC is a 
competent (though costly) audio CD component. The inclusion of the 
CD Remote utilities allows you to use the AppIeCD SC as if it were a 
low-end audio CD player; the features of the "remote" are sparse (but 
necessary, the drive itself has no controls!) but adequate, including 
controls to skip to various tracks, a time/track display, a "scan" fea- 
ture, an "Eject" button, and some rudimentary track programming. 
One irritating problem we had on the llgs "CD Remote" accessory was 
that the scan function always jumped to the first audio track on the 
disc; it wasn't actually possible to "scan" within a selection other than 
the first one on the disc. Also, pressing the "Eject" occasionally result- 
ed in the "CD Remote" reporting "No Disc", but not ejecting the car- 

The number of demonstration applications increased as you went 
from Apple H to Hgs to Mac. For the He, the applications were Book- 
Brain, HouseCall, and Public Domain Software. 

BookBrain (The Oryx Press, 2214 North Central, Phoenix, Ariz. 
85004, 602-254-6156) helps a young reader (grades 4-6) select possi- 
ble reading material by asking what type of book the reader is inter- 
ested in and recovering a title with the requested criteria from a 
database. The program also supplies a brief description of the sug- 
gested book's topic. Housecall (Rocky Mountain Medical Corporation, 
5680 Greenwood Plaza Blvd., Greenwood Village, Colo. 80111, 505- 
775-1257 and 800-255-5556) is a database containing medical infor- 
mation on a wide variety of subjects in text format. Public Domain 
Software (Facts on File Publications, 460 Park Avenue South, New 
York, N. Y. 10016, 212-685-5544) is a selected set of Apple H pro- 
grams. Though intriguing, these programs did not seem to illustrate 
anything startling about the capabilities of CD-ROM other than the 
ability to work with large amounts of on-line data. 

The Hgs application menu added Visual Dictionary (also from Facts 
on File), which allows a user to search for a keyword and displays an 
image on the computer which includes the word of interest among 
the item labels. Using the mouse to click on an item generates an 
audio pronunciation of the item's name (through the Hgs sound cir- 
cuitry), in multiple languages if you prefer. The heavy use of graphics 
and sound necessitate the use of CD-ROM's massive storage capacity. 

But the Hgs application that most clearly demanded the features of 
CD-ROM was Stardate (The University of Texas, RLM 15.508, Austin, 
Texas 78712), a visual database of the solar system produced by the 
University of Texas McDonald Observatory. Beginning with a map of 
the solar system, the user is asked to select a planet. After the selec- 
tion is made, Stardate presents a series of illustrative slides with infor- 
mation about the selected planet, accompanied by audio descriptions 
played through the AppIeCD SC drive's audio circuitry. 

Stardate was also present on the Macintosh partition, with the Mac 
version using the same audio soundtracks. We briefly experimented 
with the Mac side of things to see how the other half lives; the tech- 
nology doesn't seem to be particularly better suited to the Mac than 
the Hgs. The He doesn't seem far behind; it lacks some of the detail in 
the graphics display and sound of the Hgs, but "general" applications 

February, 1990 

A2-Central 6.5 

such as the encyclopedic databases may not require a graphics inter- 
face, and the use of the AppleCD SC audio output allows the lie to 
duplicate function without an equivalent to the Ilgs's sound circuitry. 

Our other test disc was Fhil and Dave's Excellent CD (named 
after Phil Williams and Dave Szetela at Apple Developer Services), a 
disc distributed to Apple developers containing ProDOS and Macin- 
tosh partitions with extensive technical documentation, system soft- 
ware, tools, sample code, and other goodies. The disc is essentially 
an on-line reference resource for developers. The remaining portion 
of the disk is fluffed out with audio tracks of advertising samples and 
musical segments. 

The disc is a great idea, in theory. Having such items as Apple II 
Technical Piotes, sample code, AFW interfaces, and system software 
on-line in a single volume puts a large number of important resources 
in a single place. But after playing with the disc a few days, it became 
obvious that the data just wasn't useful in such a unique way that we 
could Justify buying an AppleCD SC to access it. The total amount of 
data in the ProDOS partition added up to about 15 megabytes, which 
would fit on a standard hard disk drive with room to spare. 

So the question arises: why distribute this on a CD? Well, it is less 
costly than sending out twenty 5.5 disks with the same information. 
But a further justification is apparent when you look at the Mac parti- 
tion, which shows over 180 megabytes worth of data. Obviously, mail- 
ing out that many floppies to all developers would be infeasible. 

There is a lot of Apple 11 information on the Mac partition, including 
many "compressed" Apple II disk images, but accessing it requires 

adding the price of a Mac to the price of the CD-ROM drive (and devel- 
oper's fees). That's a very expensive peripheral; again, Apple compro- 
mises the utility of Apple 11 information by supplying it in a "foreign" 

It is just as bad on an AppleShare network. The Mac-specific files 
are only accessible by another Macintosh on the network which is 
able to run the applications needed to access them. The "foreign" Pro- 
DOS partition does not appear. For a CD-ROM to be useful in the cur- 
rent AppleShare environment, the Apple 11 (ProDOS) partition informa- 
tion would have to be duplicated in the Macintosh partition in the 
form accessible by the AppleShare server. 

The Developer Services CD-ROM is still evolving though, and we 
can hope that this "failure to communicate" will be resolved. 

One unknown quantity is just how many other CD-ROM discs are 
available that are usable for prospective Apple 11 AppleCD SC pur- 
chasers. Apple publishes multimedia guides for the Macintosh, but 
have not been as visible in disseminating information for the Apple 11. 
Apple Developer Services does produce The CD-ROM Development 
Resource Guide, a directory of companies providing services to aid in 
CD-ROM production. 

The utility of the AppleCD SC (or any CD-ROM drive) is determined 
by Apple's commitment to support it for the Apple 11 customer. We 
find the technology's potential impressive, though at this point we do 
not see sufficient utility to justify Apple's premium price for the tech- 
nology for individual Apple 11 owners.— DJD 

Corrections and amplifications 

The "file count correction" in line 2120 of 
"directory reader" program in last month's 
issue is incorrect. Deleting the incorrect line 
corrects the problem. 

RepairWorks author Gary Morrison saw the 
comment about using AppleWorks GS to 
recover damaged AppleWorks database files 
("Data Transfer Revisited" on page 5.95 of last 
month's issue). Although RepairWorks was 
mentioned, Gary knows of no reason why his 
program would not be able to recover such a 
file under the same situation that AppleWorks 
GS would be able to read the file. We assume 
Jim Hirsch was being a bit poetic in his intro- 

Regarding the use of Tinder to copy large 
files such as AppleWorks.GS ("Miscellanea" in 
last month's issue), it appears that the prob- 
lem is not universal. Further testing indicates 
my hard drive (interfaced through an Apple II 
SCSI interface and using System 5.0.2) is the 
only target device to exhibit the problem con- 
sistently. Copying the file to other types of 
drives (such as a RAM disk, or an AppleShare 
volume) with Finder consistently resulted in a 
working copy of the program. 

Since this is the February issue, there is no 
catalog this month; instead , you'll find an 
index for Volume 5 of A2‘Ceniral enclosed 

with your newsletter. We do have a few new 
items, though, taken from requests from past 
letters. For those who work with AppleWorks, 
we have SuperFatch 6,1 (#QC-00/; $39.95) 
and The UltraMacros Frimer (#fiA-00I; 
$19.95). We also have the Hite Owl Slide-On 
Battery (^FIO-OOI; $14.95), Don Elton's popu- 
lar Talk Is Cheap communications sokware 
(IICS-OOI; $40, which includes Tom Hoover's 
GEnie Master program to simplify use of 
GEnie) and, for those who don't want to spend 
the time downloading fonts from GEnie, an 8- 
disk Font Collection (I^FC-OOI) assembled by 
Mark Collins, keeper of the A2-Central Font 
Clearinghouse .—DJD 

GS/OS Resources 

Ahhh, System 5.0, what an operating system! 
We like it! 

Is there a good Ilgs version of the Macintosh 
ResEdit program? Is Apple going to do one or 
has some mind-manglingly clever hacker beat- 
en them to it in the shareware or public domain 

Phil Tyler 
Manchester, England 

Originally, ProDOS 8 supported three stor- 
age types for files: seedling, sapling, and tree. 
The difference between the formats essentially 
lies in their use of indexing blocks to locate 
the portions of the file containing data: 
seedling files (the smallest, 512 bytes or less) 
have no index blocks (the file consists of one 
data block), sapling files (intermediate) have a 
single index block which contains pointers to 
all the data blocks of the file, and tree files 
(the largest, up to 16 megabytes) contain 
index blocks which point to other index blocks 
which point to the actual data blocks. 

GS/OS introduced a new "extended" storage 
type, which contains an "index" block that 
actually points to two different "forks" for the 
file, a data fork and a resource fork. 
"Resources" are special forms of information 
in the file that can be accessed by a single 
manipulation tool, the Resource Manager sup- 
plied starting with Ilgs System Software 5.0. 

Manipulations of extended files are not sup- 
ported under ProDOS 8, which was not 
designed to recognize their structure, so most 
ProDOS 8 utilities will refuse to work correctly 
with this type of file. 

We are a little thin on our comprehension of 
resources, but we understand that the intent of 
their use is to allow a program to access these 
particular items of information (requesting it 
via the Resource Manager) without having to 
know the exact form that the data is stored in 
on disk. This facilitates allowing a utility to edit 
the item (resource) without having to alter the 
way that the program accesses it. 

Imagine a program that has several items of 
text defined within data tables for the program. 
If the data tables are changed, the program 
itself would have to be reconstructed to 
accommodate the change. If the same data 
could be stored externally in a resource, then 
the information could be easily changed with- 
out the program having to be altered as long 
as the number and type of data items con- 
forms to the information the program expects. 
This gives a user more control over customiz- 
ing some aspects of a program, because it is 
not necessary to delve into the program itself 
to make the change. Instead, a resource editor 
can be used. 

Apple has not released a Ilgs equivalent of 
the Mac ResEdit utility. A resource compiler 
(REZ) and de-compiler (DEKEZ) for the AFW 
and ORCA environments is available in the 

new Frogramming Tools and Interfaces 

package ($50) from: 


Apple Computer, Inc. 

20525 Mariani Avenue, M/S 33-G 
Cupertino Calif. 95014 
(408) 562-3953 
(800) 282-2732 

The following companies have announced 
products that will allow editing resources: 

6.6 A2-Central 

Vol. 6. No. 1 

Byte Works, Inc. 

4700 Irving Blvd. NW 
Suite 207 

Albequerque N.M. 87114 
(505) 898-8183 
Desigimaster ($95) 

Simple Software Systems International 
4612 North Landing Drive 
Marietta Ga. 30066 
(404) 928-4388 
Genesys ($125) 

So What Software 
10221 Slater Avenue 
Suite 103 

Fountain Valley Calif. 92708 
(714) 964-4298 
(714) 963-3392 
Call Box ($99) 

Call Box is the only one of these products 
that we have seen in a release version, and its 
implementation of resources was neither com- 
plete or totally consistent with those of REZ 
and DEREZ. 

The new TMIL Pascal // compiler ($125) also 
contains a resource editor as part of their desk- 
top development environment: 

TML Systems, Inc. 

8837-B Goodbys Executive Drive 
Jacksonville Fla. 32217 
(904) 636-8592 

Resources on the Ilgs are still evolving, so 
we expect the editors will also be improving 
some in the coming months —DJD 

Hard decision 

I'm buying a hard drive; any good books on 

Paul Christianson 
Lancaster, Calif. 

Buying a hard disk is a major purchase deci- 
sion; unfortunately, we do not have a wide 
variety of makes and models from which to 
make absolute recommendations. You should 
consult with dealers that sell a variety of 
drives, and also obtain specific information on 
any drives that interest you from the respective 

Quality Computers, 15102 Charlevoix, 
Grosse Fointe, Mich. 48230, (313) 331-0700, 
sells The Hard Disk Buyer's Guide for $6 
which describes several hard disk features 
users should evaluate when buying a drive. If 
you buy the drive from Quality Computers later 
the cost of the guide is refundable; if not, it 
still is an inexpensive way to get general infor- 
mation before a purchase.— DJD 

Kudos for Interactive 

Concerning a letter in your Jan. 1990 issue 
(page 5.93), about using analog to digital cards 
(ADCs), you recommended several companies, 
including Interactive Microware. I've used two 
products from Interactive Microware and can 
vouch for the quality and usefulness of both. 

The AI-13 card is a very fast, 12-bit, 16 chan- 
nel ADC that 1 use to digitize physiologic data in 
medical research. The company supplies an 
excellent manual and examples on disk to 
demonstrate how to access the card from 
assembly language, Pascal or BASIC. The card 
uses the memory space allocated to the slot in 
which it resides: to activate the card in BASIC, 
you POKE in a value that sets both the channel 
and gain, and then PEEK the result in two bytes. 

The ATIADATA card is a single channel, 12-bit 
ADC that 1 use to digitize data from a liquid 
chromatograph UV detector. Interactive 
Microware supplies software to digitize and 
manipulate chromatographic data. That soft- 
ware will run on a 48K Il-Plus or higher under 
DOS 3.3. We have found the software to be 
both friendly and robust. 

Interactive Microware also supplies digital to 
analog cards and a host of other special input 
cards, and supplies some specialized scientific 
software for data acquisition and analysis. We 
have found IM to be very helpful with tech sup- 
port, though they don't know much about the 
Ilgs, and haven't upgraded their Apple II soft- 
ware to use either ProDOS or the Ilgs. They do 
have software to allow the Apple II to drive a 
number of scientific instruments, such as chro- 
matographs, spectrophotometers, etc. 

Thanks for continuing to answer questions 
and produce a super resource for the Apple II. 

Steven R. White 
LaQrange Park, 111. 

TransWarp with more byte? 

Can the TransWarp with the 65C802 option 
work with 16-bit programs on a He? 

riono Porcu 
Brossard, Quebec 

The 65802 is a processor that recognizes 
the same instructions as the 65816 used in the 
Apple Ilgs, but is compatible with the 6502 
used in the older Apple ll models (Apple //, lie, 
and lie) and clones (see "A 65802/65816 pre- 
boot" and "Introduction to the 65802/65816", 
Open- Apple, August 1986). If you have a 
65802 that can operate at the 3.6 megahertz 
clock speed of the TransWarp (most 65802's 
we've seen are rated for at least 4 megahertz 
operation), the socketed 65C02 in the Tran- 
sWarp can be replaced with the 65802. You 
could also replace the slower 6502 on the 
motherboard in the same manner. 

What you gain is somewhat nebulous unless 
you have software that specifically uses the 
extended command set of the 65802. One 
example is the Merlin 8/16 assembler version 
for the lle/llc, which is specifically written to 
take advantage of the extra commands. But 
overall, such software is rare. 

If by "16-bit programs" you mean Ilgs soft- 
ware, the answer is no. One of the concessions 
for the 65802's hardware compatibility with 
the 6502 is the limitation of the 65802 to 
access only 64R of linear memory as opposed 
to 16 megabytes for the 65816. But the larger 
problem is that the Ilgs hardware has been 
expanded beyond the features of the older 
models, and the Ilgs System Software environ- 
ment (and programs that operate with it) 
depend upon those extended hardware fea- 
tures.— DJD 

Time for Business Card 

1 have a Street Electronics Business Card 
installed in my Apple He. It is a multifunction 
card, supporting serial output for a printer and 
modem, along with a clock. Because all my 
slots are used, 1 use a specially patched version 
of ProDOS 1.1.1 which came with the hardware 
that recognizes the clock in slot 1. Standard 
ProDOS does not look for a clock in slot 1. 
When time ended for ProDOS 1.1.1, I patched 
this version of ProDOS to go beyond the time 

Because Street Electronics no longer manu- 

factures this card, they have no plans for a 
patched version of ProDOS 8 which would rec- 
ognize the clock in slot 1. My most recent call 
to the company about two weeks ago confirmed 
this. While it might not be financially sound to 
go through the cost of developing such a 
patched ProDOS 8, it may make good sense to 
develop such a patch to foster customer good 
will and loyalty. While Street Electronics does 
continue to manufacture Apple peripherals, I 
would find it hard to recommend a company 
which does not offer continued support. 

Is there anyone who has patched ProDOS 8 
to recognize a clock in slot 1? While I continue 
to use ProDOS 1.1.1, I know that its time will 
come to an end. I believe the date patch 
allowed ProDOS 1.1.1 to recognize another five 

Dennis A. Ziomek 
Chicago, 111. 

Apple's standard FroDOS clock driver will 
recognize a Thunderclock-compatible clock 
card in any standard slot (1-7). The problem is 
more likely that the clock driver required for 
the Business Card needs to be transferred 
from the patched FroDOS l.l.l to the newer 
version. Ferhaps a reader has a suggested 

More hypermedia 

In the last issue of AFDALog, there are two 
hypermedia products listed for the Apple 11 fam- 
ily of computers with the following characteris- 

HyperStudio Ilgs only $115 4 3.5 disks 

Mor-Tech (v2.6) any Apple II $195 3 5.25 disks 

Since 1 have an Apple He, I am interested to 
know about the Tutor-Tech product. According 
to the description which appears in AFDALog, 
both products do more or less the same. But 
the following questions come to me: 

Four 3.5 disks contain a lot more code than 
three 5.25 disks. But 195 bucks is more than 
115. Why? 

HyperStudio has received a lot of praise in 
the press in the last three months because they 
say that "It adds hypertext capabilities to the 
Apple Ilgs, which are new to it", but 1 have not 
seen any comments about Tutor-Tech, which 
seems to be an older product than HyperStu- 
dio. If Tutor-Tech is the original hypermedia 
product for the Apple H family, why has it not 
been reviewed in that way? 

Is Tutor-Tech ProDOS based and can it use 
3.5, hard drives, or RAM disks, or is it copy pro- 

Can you help me solve this puzzle? Can you 
give me some advice about this? 

Juan 1. Cahis 
Santiago, Chile 

To answer the latter questions first: Tutor- 
Tech not only predates HyperStudio, it pre- 
dates HyperCard for the Macintosh. We men- 
tioned the product ourselves back in March 
1988 ("A month of firsts", page 4.10); it is an 
authoring system that uses the basic "card and 
button" application interface popularized by 
HyperCard, but lacks the extended features of 
HyperCard and HyperStudio. The product is 
FroDOS based and not copy protected, and a 
recent revision has been released. Tutor-Tech 
is available from Tech ware Inc., F.O. Box 
1085, Altamont Springs, Fla. 32715, 305-834- 

February, 1990 

As for why Tutor-Tech is not getting recent 
acknowiedgement in the press, it probably 
relates to the way the product is marketed. 
We've seen Tutor-Tech being primarily pro- 
moted for the educational market; you don't 
see ads for the product in end-user magazines 
like inCider and ISibble, for example, flyper- 
Studio is being pitched to a much wider audi- 
ence as a user application. 

We wouldn't presume to judge the relative 
costs of the products. /Is a practical matter, we 
believe HyperStudio is a more powerful pack- 
age for llgs owners, and the fact that it costs 
slightly less (the suggested retail price on 
HyperStudio has escalated to $150) should set 
the pointer firmly in its favor for llgs owners. 
But creating an application designed to run on 
a 128B lie/llc with much of the functionality of 
programs which have the resources of a more 
powerful llgs or Macintosh system is no easy 
feat, and the cost of software is affected by its 
perceived value. Apparently Techware believes 
the price to be reasonable, and is receiving 
enough sales to keep it there.— DJD 

More keyboard options 

Thanks to the lead given by Steve Marker in 
the riovember issue of A2-Central, after 
installing System 5.0 1 experimented with press- 
ing the option key and each of the other keys in 
turn. Option-a gave me a, option-e gave a, 
option-i gave a, option-o gave 0, and option-u 
the umlaut as stated. I also obtained g by press- 
ing option-c, but please, what do I press to get 
the grave accent which is so frequent in 

Many thanks for the wonderful service pro- 
vided by A2-Central. 

Bob Symonds 

Bromley, Kent 

The llgs manuals still don't supply the infor- 
mation, but the Mac SE manual had some 
clues (on page 139), as did the AppleWorks 
GS vl,l manual addendum. You've found all 
of the "prefix" codes except the more obvious 
Option-', which gives the grave accent a, and 
Option-n, which add the "tilde" a. 

Fiotice that the characters produced by the 
option-key combinations may vary among char- 
acter sets, so use the above as a guide, not a 
set of hard ruies.—DJD 

Catalog to text 

Do you know a way I can print the contents 
of my disk directories to text files so 1 can use 
them with AppleWorks or Fublish-Itf? 1 have 
Copy ll Plus, but that seems to only let me print 
the directories out. 

Dan Goldblatt 
Highland Park, M.J. 

for FroDOS directories there are several 
alternatives, including writing your own pro- 
gram to read and print the directory informa- 
tion to a text file (see "Reading /RAM from 
BASIC" in the last issue for an example of how 
to read a directory). One problem you will run 
into is that you must READ the complete direc- 
tory before you try to OFEFi and READ another 
directory (even a subdirectory on the same 
disk); BASIC. SYSTEM uses a special routine to 
READ the directory information that doesn't 
retain its position within the directory informa- 
tion if you try to suspend reading the informa- 
tion in order to READ another file. 

There are also commercial utilities that will 

create a file from directory information for use 
by another program. The Information Desk 
utility from Glen Bredon's FroSel package can 
direct its output to a disk File, for example. 

If you specifically want to create an Apple- 
Works database from the information. Beagle 
Bros TimeOut FowerFack has a utility named 
File Librarian that will load the directory infor- 
mation (including all files in subdirectories) 
into an AppleWorks database. 

Another useful utility is LastCat from Living 
Legends Software, F.O. Box 4313, La Mesa, 
Calif 92044, 714-676-1940, which can read 
standard FroDOS, Apple Fascal, CF/M (5.25 
formats only), and DOS 3.3 (5.25 format only) 
directories and create a text file or AppleWorks 
database form of the information.— DJD 

Clock timed out 

1 would like to tell A2-Central about a soft- 
ware problem 1 had, and the solution, in the 
event that others are having it too. The problem 
was that whenever 1 tried downloading files with 
AppleWorks GS on QEnie, 1 was getting about 
30-50% errors in XMODEM (about 30 blocks out 
of 100 transmitted). This was happening all the 
time, every time 1 called. It also started happen- 
ing while calling CompuServe. 1 found out 
through elimination that the problem is the new 
Beagle Bros desk accessory called Menu Clock 
from their 05 Desk Accessories disk. When 
deleted from my system, everything works fine. 
Please let anyone else out there know. It took 
me quite a while and cost a considerable 
amount of on-line time to figure this out. 

Tim Crossman 

Manamio, B.C. 

PaintWorks Goldik 

Is there any hope of anyone getting Faint- 
Works Gold to work with System 5.0? Activision 
has stated that they are not working at updating 
any of their productivity software. Is there any- 
thing we can do? 

C. S. Buback 
St. Charles, Mo. 

Graphics guru Jason Harper has been circu- 
lation a patch to allow FaintWorks Gold to 
work on a llgs with at least 1.5 megabytes of 
memory. From BASIC, try applying this patch 
to a backup of your FaintWorks Gold pro- 

POKE 768,127 


As far as encouraging Mediagenics (Activi- 
sion) to re-enter the Apple II market, about all 
we can suggest is to write a letter to the com- 
pany letting them know you regret their deci- 
sion.— DJD 

No Slot Clock fix 

Here is some information on the Tio Slot 
Clock {PiSC) which your readers will appreciate. 
1 have been disassembling and commenting the 
HSC utilities mentioned below. A friend was 
unsuccessful in trying to get the PiSC to work 
with ProDOS 8 vl.8. This is the fix 1 came up 
with for him. By the way, you have a terrific 

Systems Manufacturing Technology's (SMT) 
Pio Slot Clock {PiSC) utility diskette is successful 
in patching ProDOS versions 1. 1-1.7 to poll the 
PiSC upon request. However, my version of the 
utilities, dated 4/27/87 and supplied with Pro- 
DOS 8 vl.2, fails to patch Version 1.8 correctly, 
although the utility "thinks" it has been success- 

A2'Central 6.7 

ful. The problem comes about because the utili- 
ties, by necessity, have to patch ProDOS code 
that Apple has not guaranteed to remain at 
fixed locations for all ProDOS version. With the 
creation of vl.8 around August of 1989, these 
location changed. Since my utilities were creat- 
ed about 2.5 years prior to vl.8, the patch was 
not successful on this latest version. 

To fix the problem type the following patch 
into IHSTALL, located on your backup copy of 
SMT's Pio Slot Clock Utilities diskette. This will 
result in a utility that successfully patches Pro- 
DOS versions 1. 1-1.8. 



157 IF PEEK(X) <> 76 AND PEEK(X) <> 96 THEN 
X=20742: R=10294: IF PEEK(X) <> 76 AND 

REM ProDOS vl.8 

158 HOME 



How reboot the SMT PiSC utilities and select 
"PATCH A PRODOS DISK" and follow the instruc- 
tions. The utility now will successfully patch 
disks with ProDOS versions 1. 1-1.8, however it 
will also notify you if it does not recognize the 
version of ProDOS you are asking it to patch 
and abort the update to ProDOS. 

Frank Shirk 
Florissant, Mo. 

No ROM 02? 

I have an Apple llgs, with ROM vl.O. I've read 
that the new ligs's have ROM v3.0. When did I 
miss v2.0? Am I entitled to an upgrade? What 
changes were made? 

Rami Levy 
Brooklyn, H. Y. 

To our knowledge, there was no "ROM 02" 
released. The changes between ROM 00, ROM 
01, and ROM 03 are documented in Apple 
llgs Technical Hole #26, "ROM Revision 
Summary". Apple has not provided a "ROM 
only" upgrade for previous llgs models 
because some features of the ROM are tied to 
features of the new llgs hardware. We have 
models of both the old (ROM 02) and new 
(ROM 03) ligs's here and we agree with the 
assessment that, for most users, the improve- 
ments are not significant. Almost all the func- 
tionality of the "new" llgs can be created on 
the older ligs's by upgrading the memory to at 
least one megabyte and using System 5.0.2. 
Given the cost of Apple's original lie to llgs 
motherboard upgrade, the cost of a mother- 
board exchange to get the "new" llgs probably 
would not be competitive with selling your 
older llgs CFU and putting the money toward 
the new CFU box. 

There is also the problem that some llgs 
memory cards that use more than 4 rows of 
memory may not work correctly in the newer 
machines due to the way that the one 
megabyte of standard memory is accessed. 
Some companies have been able to provide 
upgrades to their memory boards to solve 
this.— DJD 

6.8 A2-Central 

Vol. 6, No. 1 

AAFES pro and con 

Apple certainly needs a roast after pulling 
their products from the military base 
exchanges. This tiff seems to be over their 
(AAFES, exchanges, and catalog order) wanting 
to give the best possible deals to their some- 
what captive and transient customers (Apple 
says they could deal with local dealers... what if 
one goes to another base?) to package systems 
and discount as they decide in their bulk pur- 
chasing. I have a vested interest in that, I pur- 
chased my Ilgs and accessories through an 
exchange, and my wife was to the point of (for 
shame!) looking at a Mac.. .now??? The comput- 
er area (Scott AFB, 111.) now offers only IBM 
clones (Tandy, Epson, Commodore, etc.), 
Ataris, and video games. 

Joseph Yanko 
Webster Grove, Mo. 

I have just recently returned from Korea 
where 1 had the "pleasure" of working with 
AAFES in the computer section of the store. The 
situation as 1 understand it is that the actual 
Apple dealership is, in the typically efficient mil- 
itary manner, held by the same company that 
also holds the Tandy and Commodore franchis- 
es. This company by the way is located some- 
where in Texas, Dallas I think. As a result your 
AAFES "Apple Dealer" is in actuality only a retail 

This is a relationship somewhat similar to a 
corner gas station, i.e. their attitude is "hey, we 
only sell the stuff". 1 originally got involved with 
AAFES in an effort to help make their computer 



©Copyright 1990 by 

Most rights reserved. All programs published in A2-Central are public 
domain and may be copied and distributed without charge. Apple user groups 
and significant others may obtain permission to reprint articles from time to time 
by specific written request. 

Edited by: 

Dennis Dorns 

with help from: 

Tom Weishaar Sally Dwyer Dean Esmay 

Joyce Hammond Steve Kelly Jay Jennings 

Tom Vanderpool Jean Weishaar 

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section a place you could go to for help. It was 
a totally frustrating experience. The bottom line 
here is this may actually be a blessing in dis- 
guise. There are Apple dealers in the economy. 
There is also a current, up to date source of 
software and hardware through the mail order 
houses. It will take a little effort on your part to 
find alternate sources but you will find as I did 
that the effort is well worth it. 

The real reason, in my opinion, that Apple 
has discontinued this particular franchise is the 
volume of complaints about the lack of service. 
This is a very positive sign that at long last 
Apple is starting to listen to its customers. 

Mark Snyder 
Pemberton, M.J. 

Apple's "dealer support" has always been a 
tricky issue. Apple has historically tried to limit 
sales to "Authorized Apple Dealers" and to 
specifically exclude mail order sales so that 
users would have a local dealer to help solve 
their problems. Of course, if you buy an Apple 
product and then move to an area where a 
local dealer is not available, you're on your 
own. The same thing can occur if the local 
dealer (or even Apple office) decides that a 
computer model is not worthy of continued 
support; we have received and published these 
types of complaints in the past. 

But there is sometimes encouraging 

More news from overseas 

Once again. Pm firing up my word processor 
to exchange some Apple 11 discoveries. 

Recently, AppleWorks 3.0 did arrive here too, 
followed by UltraMacros 3.0. My opinion? WOW! 
A zillion cheers or so for the Beagle gang. It's 
this kind of evolution that's giving weight to the 
"Apple II Forever" yell. 

About some lights in the darkness of the 
Apple II position here in The rietherlands. A 
bunch of persistent Apple-lovers has taken vari- 
ous initiatives, which has resulted in some very 
nice things. 

The Dutch national Apple users group 
"Klokhuis" ("apple core") formed a Special 
Interest Group for AppleWorks. This SIG is offer- 
ing every possible service for all AppleWorks 
users. The kernel of the SIG comprises experts 
in all territories. Interested readers should con- 
tact Theo Bakker, VIedderdiep 28, 1509 WZ 

At last, a dealer is again providing hard- and 
software (Apple and others) at reasonable 
prices. Headed by a nice guy who knows what 
Apple IIs can do, this is the service all Dutch 
Apple users have been missing for too long a 
time. You might remember Kees Buys, the 
"boss" of SEA Software; he was at your Develop- 
er's Conference last June (address: Qude 
Wouwsebaan 33, 462 1 JE Bergen op Zoom). 

The black hole continues to fill. Another 
Apple II expert. Disk Kronemeyer (don't you 
love those Dutch names?) is not only manufac- 
turing all kinds of interface cards (among them 
a Ilgs color video-digitizer for PAL video!) but 
has taken up an Applied Engineering dealer- 
ship, too. He is supplying bargain prices; 
address: Kronemuis ("crown mouse") Interface 
Technology, Pinksterbloemweide 14, 3448 TH 

A bunch of Ilgs users who are also program- 
mers has formed the GS/OG, the acronym (in 
Dutch) for Apple Ilgs/Developers Group. This 
provides a platform or forum for any other Ilgs 

user or "weekend programer" who is in need for 
assistance as far as programming is concerned. 
Quite some expertise is found within the 
GS/OG; the creator of SDE {Software Develop- 
ment Environment; an assembler that surpasses 
quite a few others), one of the beta-testers for 
Applied Engineering, and a guy that has written 
a complete bookkeeping/accounting program 
for the Ilgs with pull-down menus, graphic desk- 
top, mouse control and all other stuff (of course 
this program is made according to all of the 
Dutch tax rules). The GS/OG can be contacted 
through Kees Buys of Sea Software (address 

Another group of Apple II fanatics, targeting 
mostly the II+, lie, and lie users, has formed an 
"Apple II Support" service; "support" in the 
widest sense of the word. Contact Frans Ver- 
schoor, Hoorderhavenkade 26c, 3038 XH Rot- 
terdam for more details. 

And, as if this isn't positive enough yet, even 
Apple rietherlands is showing a little shifting 
towards the Apple Il(gs). Its existence is not 
neglected anymore, the managing director even 
committed to supporting the Il-line in a recent 
interview, and in the Dutch headquarters a few 
employees are spotted who know that Apple 
has more 11s than the Mac II alone. The wind is 
not much more than a tiny breeze, but to 
rephrase Bob Dylan: "For the times, they are 

By now you should have received the Fho- 
tonix copier for the Ilgs, as Guy Spirytus from 
Paris told me he would send you a copy. It is 
made by the same wizards that wrote Nucleus 
and is another outstanding example of what 
smart programmers can do with the Ilgs capabil- 
ities. According to FOMS, the French Apple 
Journal, nucleus was running on a big screen at 
the latest Apple Expo in San Francisco and 
greatly impressed all visitors. Apple should put 
both products in the box with every Ilgs! Yes, in 
"la douce France" nice things are going on for 
the Apple II. 

John L. Tegelaar 
Hieuwkoop, The rietherlands 

We have indeed received Fhotonix. Along 
with nucleus and some other demos we have 
seen from France, it is quite impressive for 
measuring the potential of the ilgs. Fione of 
these products use the ilgs tools in the GS/OS 
environment, however, which limits their real- 
world utility. The versions of nucleus and Pho- 
tonix we have seen won't even operate on the 
newer (ROM 03) ilgs CFU's. 

We are very happy to hear all of the stories 
regarding both the efforts of Apple 1 1 enthusi- 
asts to support and promote the machine, and 
that some of this enthusiasm may be swaying 
officiai Appie support in your area. Apple is not 
so large a company that it can drive the market 
solely on its own, but if Apple chooses to only 
support the Macintosh and there is no "grass 
roots" effort to combat the lack of Apple 11 sup- 
port, then the Apple 11 market can languish in 
silence. An example is the reported slow "holi- 
day season" sales of Apple's low-end systems 
(both Apple 11 and Macintosh!) in the US, where 
Apple only ran glossy television advertisements 
where the high-end Mac Ilex was usually fea- 
tured. The media here has been criticizing 
Apple's wisdom in apparently ignoring lower- 
end markets that originally built the compa- 
ny.— DJD