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Full text of "The American instructor, or, Young man's best companion : containing, spelling, reading, writing and arithmetic, in an easier way than any yet published ; and how to qualify any person for business, without the help of a master ; instructions to write variety of hands ... ; how to write letters on business or friendship ; forms of indentures ... releases, &c. ; also merchant's accompts, and a short and easy method of shop and book-keeping ; with a description of the several American colonies ; together with the carpenter's plain and exact rule ... ; likewise the practical gauger made easy ... ; to which is added, The poor planter's physician ... and also prudent advice to young tradesmen and dealers ; the whole better adpated to these American colonies, than any other book of the like kind"

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Ml nve believe, and almqfl all nut i t 

All bail.' ye g, vers of the , 

That raife our 7 r Part;. 


American Infthi£fcor : 

o R, 
Young Man's Best Companion* 


Spelling, Reading, Writing and Arithmetic, in an eafier 
Way than any yet publifhed ; and how to qualify any Perfon for 
Bufinefs, without the Help of a Matter. 

Inftruclions to write Variety of Hands, with Copies both in Profe and 
Verfe. How to write Letters on Bufinefs or Friendfliip. Forms of 
Indentures, Bonds, Bills of Sale, Receipts, Wills, Leafes, Re- 
leafes, &c. 

Alfo Merchant's Accompts, and a fhort and eafy Method of Shop and 
Book-keeping ; with aDefcr'ption of the feveral American Colonies. 

Together with the Carpenter's plain and exact Rule ; fhewing how to 
meafure Carj enters, Joiners, Sawyers, Bricklayers, Pluilierers, 
Plumbers, Mafons, Glafiers, and Painter's Work. How to undertake 
each Woik, and. at what Price ; the Rates of each Commodity, and 
the common Wages of Journeymen ; with Gunter's Line, and Cog- 
gefhal's Description of the Sliding Rule. 

Likewife the Practical Gaugcr made eafy; the Art of Dialing, and 
how to erect and fix any Dial ; with Inftrudtions for Dying and Co« 
louring, and making Colours. 


The Poor Planter's Physician. 

W'th Instructions for Marking on Linen; how to Pickle and Pre-' 
ferve ; to make divers Sorts of Wine ; and many excellent Plaifters 
and Medicines, neceffary in all Families. 

And also 

Prudent Advice to young Tradesmen a«d Dealers. 

The whole better adapted to thefe American Colonies, than 
any other Book of the like Kind. 

By GEORGE FIS&ER, Accomptant. 

The Fourteenth Edition, Rtvifed and Cot retted. 


Printed and fold by H. Gaine, at the Bible and Crown, 
in Hiwover-Squaret M,DCCjLXX# 



/Need fay but little by way of Preface^ in relation to 
the Ufefulnejs of this Beck, the Title Page fo fullf 
declaring its Contents : But as a Preface is u'ual'y 
expecled, I muff and cannot well avoid faying fome- 
thing with refpetl to its Utility. 

As to the firfil Step of forming the young Man's Mind 
for B/fmefs, viz. The being infiruSied in, ana acquainted 
with our Mother Tongue, viz. Englifh, it miift and is 
acknowledged by all, to be a due and principal Qualification 
in writing Bufmefs, and therefore it is necejjary to be there- 
with well acquainted. 

Then in the next Place, to tvrite a good, fair, free, and 
commendable Hand, is en neceffary in mofl, if not in all the 
Affairs of Life, and Occurrences of Bufinefs. 

The next Thing touched on, is in relation to the inditing 
of fame few Epiffles or Letters in a familiar Stile, and on 
Jundry Subjects and Occajions f With Directions how to 
fubferibe or conclude a Letter, and alfo to fuperfcribe or di- 
rect Letters, according to the different Ranks and Qualities 
of the Perjons to whom directed : And this cannot be denyd 
but to be a Qualification fit for a young Man, and alfo to 
ethers of more adult Tears. 

The next Accomplifhment for a young Man, and largely 
treated on in this Bock } is that excellent Science of Ark li- 
me lick, 

iv The PRE F^A C E. 

metick, both Vulgar and Decimal : Leading him by the 
Hand, and by eafy Steps, through its whale- Courfe. 

Again, the young Man is next jhewn the ingenious Art of 
Book-keeping after the Italian Manner, by way of Double 
Entry ; and that is an Accompli/lament that capacitates him 
for Bufmejs in the highejl Degree : Under which Head, he 
is alfo informed how to draw out or make various Sorts of 
Accompts or Writings, relating to Mercantile Affairs ; as 
Bills of Loading, Invcices, Accompts of Sales, together with 
authentick Examples of Bills of Exchange, with Notes con- 
Kerning them ', likewife Bills of Parcels of divers Kinds ; 
alfo various Sorts of Receipts, &c. All which is expedient 
for a young Man to know and underjland, if he would be 
dextrous in Bufinefs. 

Next he hath a concife Account of the feveral American 

Colonies ; with a Jhort bwi comprehenfwe Account of all the 

Ay ts and Sciences : An hijtorical Table of the mojl remark- 

able Events that have happened in the World ; and an Ab- 

Jlracl if the Hi/lory of England. 

Here a~e aljo, cafy, plain, and likewife curious Direc- 
tions for meafnr'mg all Sorts of Planes and Solids (Arithme- 
tftally and InjlrumcntaHy) as the Works of Carpenters, Joi- 
wers, Saiuyers, Bricklayers, Majons, Plaifierers, Painters t 
Glafiers, &c. with the Prices of their Works. 

Here is likewife fl)ewn the Methods, of extracting the 
Square, and Cube Roots, with fome of their Ufes, in relation 
to Mcafwing, he. 

Aljo P radical Gauging of divers Kinds ofVeffels, Tuns, 
&c. Likewife Dialling in various Kinds, with the Rrprefen- 
taticn of the feveral Sorts of Dials, and hsw to beautify 
and adorn them. 

Next are Precedents of Law Writings, as Bonds, Bills, 
Indentures, Wills y Letters of Attorney, he. in great Va- 
riety, and adapted to thefe American Colonies. 

Lajlly, fotne Di> eclions relating to the pleafant and de- 
lightful Ait of Grafting and Inundating. To which is fub- 
joined, fame Jn/lruc'tions /•? young Women how to Pickle and 
Preferve all Kinds of Fruits and Flowers, he. with In- 
fo u ft ions for making divers Sorts of Wines of LugUfti 

Growth i 


Growth ; and alfo for preparing many excellent Medicines^ 
Plaiflers, Sec. with feveral good Prefcriptions of proper 
life againjl mofl Diflempers : Fit for, and necejjary in, all 
Families. Including the whole of that ufeful little Tracl, 
intitled, The Poor Planter's Phyfician. 

To the whole is added, fome prudential Advice to a young 
Tradefman or Dealer, which, if obferv'dy may, with God's 
Blejjing, make his Fortune. 

In the Britifli Edition of this Book^ there were many 
Things of little or no life in thefe Parts of the World : In 
this Edition thofe Things are omitted, and in their Room 
many other Matters inferted, more immediately ufeful to us 
Americans. And many Errors in the Arithmetical Part 
are here carefully corrected. 

Vale & Fruere. 





To Spell, Read, and Write 


The Ufe of Great and Small Letters ; how to divide them 
into Votvels and Conjonants ; what Diphthongs are, their 
Numbers, and how pronounced and written. 

1 HE Subject Part of this Book being to inflruft 
Young (as well as Old) People, in the general 
Rules of Bufmefs and Converfation thereunto 
belonging, the firft Step I fhall take for forming 
the Mind for Buhnefs, is that moll neceifary Accom- 
plilhment, the Spelling and Writing good and proper 
Ennlijh ; for let a Perfon write never fo good a Hand, yet if 
he be defective in Spelling, he will be ridiculed and con- 
temptibly fmiled at, notwithstanding his fair Writing ; and 
which will, indeed, make his Orthographical Faults be 
more confpicuous. But to the Matter. 

Firjl, We aie to take Notice, that of Letters are made 
Syllables, of Syllables Words, and of Words, Sentences, C5V. 
The Letters are in Number 24; to which if you add j and 
v Confonants, being of a different Shape and Sound from the 
reft, they make 26. As to the Letters, we aie to obferve 
their Names, their Form, and then Force : Their Names, 
whereby to know them ; their Form, whether great or fmall ; 
and their Force in Pronour.r iation or Utterance. 

A 4 Letters 

a The Young Man's Bejt Companion. 

Letters are diftinguifhed, according to their Scund, into 
Vowels and Confpnants : A Vow e lis a Letter that foundeth 
by itlelf, and they be five in Number, 'viz. a, e, i, o, u, and 
y, the Greek Vow el ; which alfo is a Vowel in Englijh, when 
it cometh after a Confonant, and hath the Scund of i ; as 
in by, Jly, reply, Sec. A Confonant is a Letter that foundeth 
not, except it be joined with a Vowel, for without one of 
the Vowels no Syllable can be made ; as, b, c. d. &c. with- 
out the Aid of a Vowel, make nothing : So that Vowels and 
Confcnants may be compared to Nouns Subjlanti've and Nouns 
Adjefii-ve, each repairing the other's Afliftance. Though we 
have but 24 Letters, and 6 of them Vowels, yet we have 
21 Confonants; for j, h>, and^, when they are fet before 
any Vowel, in the fame Syllable, become Confonants ; as 
was faid before concerning y ; as in Jupiter, Juno, Jilt, 
'vulgar, 'violent, 'vigour, Sec. Note, That / Confonant hath 
the Sound of g, as in join, jangle, jingle, Sec. 

When two Vowels come or meet together in a Word, and 
are not parted in thePronunciation, but united in oneSound, 
fuch are called Diphthongs ; being 13, viz. ai, ei, oi, and 
vi, au, eu, 011, ee, 00, ea, eo, ca, and ei, ; as in maid, faith, 
either, join, aid, eunuch, fiout, feed, feed, food, bread, 
Jlealth, wealth, people, Jleeple, boat, goat, heat, beat, feat % 
friend, field, Sec. Note, That in the firli 7 Words, both 
Vowel, are founded; but in the oiher 15, one of them is 
fcarcely heard. 

There are alfo thofe that are czWc&Tripthcngs, where three 

Vowels meet in one Sound, as in Beauty, Beau, Lie!/', 'and 

View : Likewife ay, ey, oy, uy, aw, ew, and ow becoms 

^Diphthongs, at the End of Words, but are called improper 

Diphthongs ; as in jay, key, joy, fa-zu, bew, See. 

Of Letters Great and Small y and when to be ufed. 

FIRST Negatively, Great Letters arc not to be ufed \A 
the Middle or latter End- of a Word, except the whole 
Word be fo written, as JEHOVAH, LORD, or Titles 
of Books, Uc. For it would be very abiurd to write thus : 
To Mr. geoRgE RoGeRs In thaMes StReEt. 

if, Great Letters, or Capitals, are written at the Begin- 
ning of Sentences ; as, Fear God, LTonour the King. Know 
when to fpe::k, and when to hold your Tongue. 

iJ/y, After every Period, or Full Stop, when new Mat- 
ter begins. As, Some Time after that Accident, another tol- 

lowed 4 

The Young Maris Beji Companion. 3 t 

lowed, which was this, c5c. London, May 16. Turin, June 
12, iffc. 

*$dly, All Proper Names of Perfons, Places, Ships, Rivers, 
fcjff . are to begin with a Capital ; as, George, London, the 
Dreadnought, Thames, Severn : All Chriilian Names and 
Surnames, both of Men and Women, mufl begin with a 
Great Letter ; as, Samuel Sharp, Mary Sweeting, Sec. 

\thly, The more eminent Words in a Sentence ; as, Faith 
is the Foundation of the Chriitian Religion ; or, any Word 
that we have a particular Regard or Deference for ; as, 
God, Chrifl, King, Queen, &C 

$thly, At the Beginning of every Line in Poetry ; as, 
Improve your Time : Time pajfeth quickly on ; 
Nor doth fo good fucceed, as that that's gone. 
6thly, All Names of Arts, and Sciences, and Trades ; as, 
Writing, Arithmetick, Geometry, Mujick, Carpenter, Smith, 
&c. And evermore the Perfonal Pronoun /, and the Inter- 
jection O, mufl be Capitals. 

For it is ridiculous to write thus ; On Monday lajl i came 
to your Houfe, but you -was not at Home ; then i went, &c. 

Lafily, I think I may venture to give a general Rule when 
Capitals are to begin Words, which is this ; All Nouns Sub- 
ftantive may begin with a great Letter ; and a Subilantive 
may be known by the Signs either of A, An, or The, before 
them ; as, a Houfe, a Mill, an Ox, an Afs, the City, the 
River, Sec. And 1 think the Adjeftive (which declares what 
Sort of a Thing the Subflantive is) may be with a Small, 
and the Subflantive with a Great Letter ; as, the white Horfe 
the long Rope, brown Bread, fat Beef, Sec. 

Small Letters are commonly written in all other Places, 
as Verbs of the Aclive and Paffive Voice, &c. 

Obfervations concerning the Sound of Letters^ and which 
are omitted in Pronunciation. 

A Is not founded in Pharoah, nor in Sabbaoth, but as if 
} written Pharo and Sabboth ; neither in Marriage, but 
as Marrige, alfo Parliament, as Parliment, and Chaplain, as 
Chaplin, Sec. In fome proper Names it is not founded, but 
drop'd in the Pronounciation ; as in Aaron, Ifaac, Canaan, 
Balaam, which are pronounced as if written, Aron, Ifac, 
Canan, Balam ; but we mufl except Ba-al, and Ga-al. A is 
founded broad like aw, in Words before Id and //; as in 
bald, fcald, ball, wall, fall, Sec. 

A 5 B is 

4 The Young Maris Beft Companion. 

B is not founded in thumb, dumb, plumb, lamb, doubt, 
debt, fubtle, Sec. but founded a^ if written thum, dum, plum, 
/am, d6ut, det, fettle. 

C is founded hard like K, before a, o, and u, and before 
/ and r ; as in thefe Words, cane, came, comb, cub, clay, 
crane, crab ; and foft in cement, city, and tendency ; C lofeth 
its found in fcene, fcience, and <vic7uals, and in •uerdicl, 
likewife in indicl, indiclment ; alfo before k, as in flack, 
rack, flick, thick, brick. 

Ch is founded like K, in Words of Foreign Extra&ion, 
and in many proper Names of the holy Scripture ; as in 
Chorus, Chymifl, Chryfoflom, Chift, Chederlaomer, Baruch, 
Archippus, Sec. Ch in French Words found like jh, as in 
Chevalier, pronounced as Shcualier : Machine as Majheen. 
Marefchal as Marjhal, Capuchin as Capufheen, Chaife as 
Shaze, Sec. 

D is not founded in Ribband, nor in Wedne/day, but pro- 
nounced as Ribbin, and Wen/day ; the Termination ed is 
fhortened into /, as burned, bwnt, choacked, choakt ; ripped, 
ript ; pqfled, pafl ; choped, chept ; &c. 

E is not founded in heart, neither in hearth, or dearth, Sec. 
and feldom heard but in Monofyllables ; as in me, he, Jhe, 
ye, the, Sec. where it hath the Sound of ee ; but in Words, 
derived from the Hebrew and Greek, e hath its perfect Sound 
as Jejjbf Jubile, Mamre, Ni?ie--ve, CanJace, Cloe, Eunice ; 
Penelope* helmone, Phebe, Epitome, Cataflr'phe, Gethfmam, 
and from the Latin, fimile, and premunire, Sec. E final, or 
e at the End of a Word, ferves to lengthen the Sound, and 
to diftinguilh it from other Words without e, which are 
founded fhort; as in thefe Examples following,. wis. Cane, 
at: ; /.'.!.' r, hat ; lite, bit ; fare, far ; hope, hop ; made, mad ; 
mane, man;, fcr ape, f crap % fla e, flar ; tune,- tun ; write, 
writ ; Sec. And in Words of more than one Syllable, length- 
ens the Sound of the laft Syllable, but doth not increafe the 
Number of S llables ; as, admire, dcijiije, blafpheme, Sec. 
E lengthens the Syllable in Tyre, Kcnite, and Shu-la-mite, 
E muft not be made to lengthen a Syllable, when it is made 
ihort by two Confonants ; as in pafs, turn, black ; not paffe, 
lur:ie. blade. Words ending in ere, gre, and trc, found the 
e b< fore the r, as in thefe Words ; acre, lucre, centre, fe- 
fulchre, txore, tnaugre, mitre, luftre ; which are founded as 
if written aker, Inker, fenter, Jepulker, tyger, mauge'r, mitter, 
and lufler. E final, when not founded, teivss to lbften c and 


The Young Man's Bejt Companion. 5 

g, as in ace, place, lace, f/ice, truce, oblige, huge, age, &c 
If Nouns in e final take s after them with an Apoilrophe be- 
fore it, it ftands for his, as the Pope's Eye, or the Eye of the 
Pope. If without an Apoftrophe, it makes the Plural Num- 
ber, as Talks. E mult be joined to long /in thefe Words ; 
Horj'c; Nurfe, Pwfe; not Hors, Nurs, or Purs. If to e at 
the End cf a Word, a long Vowel be added, the e is to be 
omitted, as in writing, loving,' doing, Sec. not writeing, 
loueing, or dteing ; except the Terminations ^ and ce before 
able, as in charge-able, peace-able, &c. E muil not be written 
after a Diphthong, in thefe Words ; -vain, maid, gain, 
fear, gnaw, Sec. not 'vainc, maide, gaine, Sec. 

F in Plurals is changed into -v, as, Jlrife, firives, fiaff, 

G is not founded in jign, reign, neither in gnaw, gnat, 
a Jfig n * defign, feignior, ferciglio, phlegm, Sec. but founded as 
if fenior, feralio, feme. G is founded foft in gender, ginger, 
and gipfy ; but hard in Gibeon, Giber ah, Gilboa, Geth-Jemane, 
and hard alio in thefe proper Names, Gib/on-, Gilman, and 
Gilbert ; and likewife in thefe common Words ; gelt t geld, 
gird, gimp, geefe, gander, gabble,' gather, gild, SeC.^ Go- 
ierve, That if G be hard with a long Vowel, m is joined 
and pronounced in the fame Syllable ; as in Plague, Prague, 
Hague, rogue, league, dialogue,, catalogue, Sec. 

Gh in the End of feme Words, where au or cu goes be- 
fore, hath the Sound of ff, as in tough, rough, cough, laugh, 
founded as if tuf, ruff, off, laf ; but huff, cuff, fnuff, 
and buff, muft be fo written. — Gh is not founded in mighty, 
though, through, neither in daughter, or Vaughan. 

//hath Place, but no found, in Chryjtal, Chronicle, Chrifi, 
Ghojf, Jchn, Zbine, Schedule, and Schifm. Hh not founded 
at the End of Words, if it be alone, without t or c before 
it, as, /natch, watch, Sec. 

I is not founded in adieu, juice, Hjen'fon, fruit, bruijt, 
SalfLury ; but founded like ee in oblige, Magazine, and Ma- 
chine, Sec. lis founded lung in proper Names ending in iah, 
Jeremiah, Hezekiah ; but ihort in A-ri-el and Me^ri-am. — 
The tail'd j, or Confonant, hath been fpoke of before. 

Kis nearly allied in cound with C ; but to know when 
to ufe one, and when the other, Note, that C hath the Force 
cf isfonly before a, c, 00, and u, and thefe two Comonants 
landr; and therefore we mult not write, kare for care, 
fan far cow. krown for crown ; and the ufe cf K is only 

before . 

6 The Taung Man's Beft Companion. 

before e, i, and ;; ; wherefore we mufl write keep, key, 
knight, kill, &c. not ceep, cey, cnight, nor cil : We mult 
write Calendar, Catherine, rather than Kalendar, or Ka- 

L is not founded in calf, half, chalk, Jlalk, nvalk ; but 
pronounced as if cafe, hafe, chalke, flaulk, wauk. Neither 
is / pronounced in Briflol, Holbourn, Lincoln, Salmon, or 
Chalron ; but founded as if writ, Brijlow, Hoburn, Linccn, 
Sammon, and Chaudron ; nor in Colonel, where the firft / 
kath the Sound of r, as Curnel. 

JV/hath the Sound of n, in the Word accompt. 
h is not heard in autumn, lime-kiln, filemn, limn, hymn, 
tolamn, nor in condemn. 

Oh not founded in people, feoflfe, hafon, mutton, and loll 
alfo myecman, ma/on, righteous, bacon, jeopardy, and crimfon. 
O fometimes founds like oo, as in doing, moving, proving, 
ice. O is not neard in coroner, damofel, Nicholas, carrion, nor 
in chariot ; but pronounced as if writ croavner, damfel, 

Nickhs, carrin, and charrit O is fometimes founded 

like i ; as in women and flagon, pronounced as if ivimmen 
and flaggin. And fometimes O is founded as «, as in corduit,, attorney, {and Monmouth, being heard as if writ 
tundit, cunjure, atturney, and'Munmouth. 

P is written, but not founded, in empty, prefumptuous, 
ffalm, fumpter, accompt, attempt, pfalter, and fymptom ; a'.fo 
in fumptuous, contemptuous, receipt, and con/umpti<ve, Sec. 

Ph have the found of /, when together in one Syllable ; 
as in phihfophy, phijician, Jfaph, and elephant, but we mull 
not write flofphy, flfitian, nor Afaf, or clef ant. Ph, are 
parted in Jhep-herd, tip-hold, and in Clap-ham, and other 
fuch compounded Words. 

<?. After ^always follows u in all Words ; and in French 
Words it hath the Sound of k ; as in rifque, liquor, catho- 
lique, banquet, conquer, mafqucrade, chequer ; pronounced 
as rip}, likker, catholic, banket, &c. 

S is not founded in if and, <vij count, or ifle, nor in Life, 
but pronounced as Hand, vicount, He, and Lile. 

There be two Sorts of f's, the long/ thus/; and the lit- 
tle /, thus s ; the long / in the Beginning and Middle of 
Words, (but never at the latter End) and the fhort orfmall 
s, at the latter End of Words,' and founds hardlike z, in all 
the Words cf the plural Number, and in Words of the third 
JPerfojj j as games, worms, be reads, (he bears. £ founds 


The Toting Man's Beft Companion. 7 

hard, in Words that terminate in fi'-n, as in circumcifon, 
e-vafon, delufion ; but after a Confonant foft as in cotwer- 
fton, comtnifjion, dimenfcu. S is lik'ewife founded hard in thefe 
Words, r'aife, praife, chaije, chcefe, thefe, comp'Je, expqfe, 
brv.ife, refufe, applaufe, 'jbaufe, claufe, ~ wifdom, cafement, 

and dam/el. -I do not think it any very great Abufe, to 

have the final 1 s fometimes in the Beginning or Middle of 
a Word, as well as at the latter End ; cfpecially if a / 
follow it, thus st. 

Th founds fine in thin, think, and wrath ; and is founded 
hard in thee, then, they, that, blythe, tythe, and Jithe ; 
alfo in mother, brother, hither, thither ; and in loath, death, 
and cloathier, Sec'. 

Ti before a Vowel or Diphthong, hath the Sound of ft ; 
as in patience, dictionary, gratian, oblation; notion, tran- 
Jlation ; except when/ gees juft before it, as in thefe 
Words, queftion, fuftian, bajlian, combuftion, and celeflial, 
and alfo beflial, Sec. In fome Words of Hebrew and Greek, 
ti retains its natural Sound ; as in Shealatiel, Phaltiel, 
Shephatiah, Cctittia, Adramyttium, and the like ; and in 
mightier and mighliefi, emptiefi, emptied ; and from pity, we 
fay piti-able, 

U is founded like i in bury, birry, buzy, bizze ', buflnefs, 
as bizznefs. 

W is not founded, though written, in answer, /word, 
whore, nor in fwooning away, neither is it heard in wrap, 
wrath, -wrong, wretch, wreath, wrangle, wriggle ; but 
pronounced as if ford, hore, founing, and hath the Sound of 
R in the laft feven Words, njiz. rap, rath, rang, Sec. 

Wh belongs to Words purely Englijh ; as what, when, 
iv here and wheel. 

X is founded as "z, in Xenophon, Xerxes, Xenocrates, and 

T is either a Vowel or Confonant, as hinted before. A 
Vowel, in my, by, Jly, thy, and fometimes when a Vowel, 
it hath the Sound of ee, as in nvorthily, chrifiianity, liberty, 
formerly, formally, Normondy and Dorothy. J* is a Confonant 
when it begins a Word, as in yet, you, yonder, younger, 
and yeflerday. 

Z hath its proper Sound, in Zeno, zeal, zealous, and in 
Zenobia. It hath the Sound of/ in Elizabeth, fze, prize, 
and Melchizedeck ; the firft of which Words hath been for- 
merly, and fometuaes «ow is writ with an f, thus EHfabeth. 


8 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

Thus far for the found of Letters fingle ; and now I fliall 
give a few Notes concerning two Letters, when they are 
united in cne Sound, called Diphthongs ; and firft of 

Ai and Ay. Thefe have the found of a, in air, fair., fair, 
may, /lay, play ; but a is loll in Calais, (a Town of France) 
and pronounced feparately in Sinai, (aMquntain of Arabia). 

Ei and Ey, are founded in eight, ftreight, Jleight, and 
heyday ! and are pronounced as e, in key, <vcil, and a nvcy ; 
but eye mull be excepted : And ei is founded as a, in neigh- 
bour, and heir, being pronounced as nabor and are. 

Oi and Oy have a Sound peculiar to themfelves ; as in 
oil and oyfter ; but make no Diphthong in going or doing. 

Au and Aw commonly keep a proper Sound ; as in 
augur, aujlcre, daw, maw, faw, &c.^but au is lolt in aunt, 
and ganger, being founded as ant and gager ; iikewife is 
not heard in Emma-us, and Ca-per-na-um. 

Eu and Ew have an united Sound in all Words, as in 
feud, brew, new, and grew ; but eu, is no Diphthong in 
Zac-che-us, or in Bar-ti-me-us. 

Ou and Ow. On is exprelfed in foul, foul, proud, loud; and 
civ in bow, cow, and now ; but ou founds like 10, in foup 
(a Fiench Diih) Stroud, (a Town in Kent) and Cowper, (a 
Man's Name) founded as if focp, Strood, and Cocpcr. 

Ee is no Diphthong in Bc-e-ritcs, Bc-er-jhe-ba, and in Be- 
el-ze-bub, one cf the e's is dropt in Picnounciadon ; neither 
in Words beginning with rt, or pre, as re-enter, pie-e-mi- 

Oo is properly founded in cool, /col, pool, and'tccl ; but 
hath the Sound of * in roa/, /oo/, and. foot ; and makes no 
Diphthong in Co-cs, co-c-pe-rate. 

Ea founds like a, in fa, pea, feam, and jca//: ; and hath 
the found of e in bread, head, lead, dead, fearch, leather, 
feather, heauen, and leamen ; but is no Diphthong in <ven- 
ge-ance, mifcre-ant, or any Hebrew, Greek, or Latin Words ; 
as in Ka-dejh, Bar-ne-a, Jtir-jath-je-vi-rim., nor in Ce-fa 
re-a, i-de-a, cr o-ce-an ; neither in re-al, be-a-ti-tude, ere- 
a-tor ; but except creature ; nor in Words beginning with 
pre, as pre-amble, &c. 

Ga is f< raided as o in e-otf/, £<?#/, and roa/ ; and founded 
broad as au, in broad a,nd ^cfltf ; but is no Diphthong in 
Gcw, (a City in India) or in the Hebrew Words Zo-an, Zo- 
ar, and Cil-bo-a. 


the Toung Man's Beft Companion. 9 

Ie before a fingle Confonant, founds like ee, as in brief, 
thief, and thief; but if before two Conlonants, it founds 
like e ; as in friend, ft 'eld; but at the End of Envlifo Words, 
e final is not heard, as in die,fgnifie, and is no Diphthong 
in A-bi-e-zer, Eli-e-zer, nor in the Englijb Words di-er, car- 
ri-er, or cL-thi-er ; and in Words derived from the Latin, 
ie is parted, as in cli-ent, o-ri-ent, qui-et, and fci-ettce. 

Ui is founded as u in juice, fruit, and fuit ; but u is loft 
in conduit, build, and guife, and is no Diphthong in je-fu- 
it, ge-nu-in, ox^ru-i-ti-on. 

JE and OE be no Englijh Diphthongs, but are ufed in 
jEfop, JEneas, uEtna, Cafar, Oedipus, and Qeccnotny ; but 
in common Words they are neglected; as in equity, female, 
and tragedy, tho' derived of aquiias, fcemina, and tragcedia. 

Of Syllables, and their Divifton, being the Art of Spelling, . 

A Syllable is a taking Letters together, and uttering them 
in one Breath, as <vir-tue ; fo that virtue being thus 
divided, cr taken afunder, makes two Syllables, viz.tvV and 
tue, which put together, form the word 'virtue. And many 
times a Vowel, or aDiphthong, of thcmfelves, make a Sylla- 
ble; as in a-bate, e-<ve-ry, i-dle, o-ver, u-fu-rie ; fo of 
Diphthongs, as au-ger, Eu-jlace, owner, ai-der, ry-fter, Ea- 
ton, oa-ten : By which we may particularly note, That no 
Syllable can be made, be there never fo many Confonant s, or 
fo few, without the Aid of a Fonmel or Diphthong. 

The longeft Monfy liable s we have in Engiijb, are length, 
frength, and freights ; which llill would be nothing, with- 
out the Vowel e and i. x 

All Spelling may be taken in, under thefe four following 
general Rules, or Heads. 

if, When a Confonant comes between two Fonvels in di- 
viding the Word into Syllables, the Confonant is joined to the 
latter Vowel ; as in fa-ture, na-iure, de-li-<ver, u-ni-ty, &c. 
except compound Words, which terminate -in ed, en, eft, 
eth, er, ing, ijh, and ous ; as coafted, gold-en, know-eft ww- 
eth, bear-er, fooling, bar-ba-rous, r< • - bs. 

zdly, When two Confonant s come toge lie] n the 1 Idle 
of a Word, they are to be parted if not j. roper to b« ; n a 
Word; as num-ber (Iran-ger, for-tune, Lfc. noi \umb-er, 
Jlrang-er, fort-une : To tins Rule ifexce] tec . \v Lids with* 
as ox-en, ex-er-cije, &t. When the fame Confonant is doubled 


io The Young Man's Befi Companion. 

in a Word, the firft belongs to the foregoing, and the latter 
to the following Syllable, as in the Rule above, and in thefe 
words, Ab-ba, ac-cord, an-no, ad-der, iffc. 

idly, Confonants that can begin Words, mull not be parted 
in the Middle ; as a-gree, be-Jlow, re-frain, fisfr. not ag-ree, 

befltow, ref-rain. Thefe Confonants may begin Words, 

*viz. bl, br, ch, cr, dr, dw, fl, fr, gb, gl, gr, in, &c. as 
blunt, break, cbaw, cry, draw, dwell, fiejh, gbof, &c. On 
the Contrary, Confonants that cannot begin Words, muft be 
parted in the Middle, as in Sul-tan, and as faid above. 

jjftbly, When two Vowels come together not making a 
Diphthong, they muft be divided; as in w'-c/, va-li-ent, 
Li-onel, du-el, cru-el, me-te-or, and La-o-di-ce-a. 
Some particular Notes. 

L is doubled in Words of one Syllable, as well, tell, fwell, 
ball, wall, fall, will, bill, mill, &c. But in Words of more 
than one Syllable, the Word always terminates with Jingle/, 
as angel, Babel, hurtful, dutiful, and beautiful. Neither 
muft / be doubled in alway, alfo, altboujb ; not all-way, all- 
fo, all-tbough, &c. But Words accented on the laft Syllable, 
muft be excepted from the Rule above, <viz. infiall, recall, 
inroll, rebell, and repell. 

T muft be ufed before the Termination ing, as buying, ly- 
ing, carrying, marrying, paying, faying, burying, &C 

The long/ muft never be ufed at the End of a Word, or 
immediately after the fhorter or fmall s. 

^"ihould be ufed inftead of SI, where it appears to have 
been in the Original ; as reflexion, connexion, rather than 
refleclion, or connection, &c. 

Remember, that if you cannot write out the whole Word 
at the End of the Line, break it off at the End of a Syllable, 
thus con- 
demn ; not thus ■ ■■ , cond- 

emn : Again dif- 

charge ; not — difc- 


C muft not be put between two Confonants ; as tbink,~r\ot 
tbinck ; tbank, not thanck ; brink, net brinck ; but if a 
Vowel goes before c, you muft write c before k, as brick, 
flick, thick, &c. 

E ySWmuft not be placed after a Syllable made long by a 
Diphthong, as rain, not raine ; brain, not braine ; «- 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. i i 

Jlrain, not rejlraine, Sec. Neither is it necefTary after a 
double Confonant, as i?in and add ; not inne or adde : But 
we muft except Anne, a ChriiKan Name, and Dcnne, a Sur- 
name ; and alfo Deale, the Name of a Town in Kent. 

Ph muft be retained in Words of a Foreign Original ; 
as pbancy, prophet j not fancy, profef. 

U follows .££ all Words, as was faid before. 

J^ is better than C, in fome Words from the Latin, as 
oblique, antique, relique, rather than oblike, antike, or relike t 
Alfo paquet, rifque, traffique, and Fabrique, from the French. 

K is by fome thought unneceffary in Words of Foreign 
Extraction, viz. arithmetic, mufic, logic, public, catholic^ 
and phyfic ; rather than arithmetic^, 8zc. 

Of S and C. Some People may eafily drop into Error 
by miftaking S for C, as in the Beginning of the follow- 
ing Words, where C hath the perfect Sound of S, though 
C muft undoubtedly be written, w. in 



Cell , 

























But thefe Words muft 
Science Sceptre 

Schedule Scheme 

When to write ti, 
vjith ti. 
' Action 











be written with. S, viz. 
Scarcity Sciatica 

Schifm ScythiaA 

and wheny? viz. 

with fi. 














Leiceflcr, not Lefter 
Shrewfbury, not Shrofbury 
Carlifle, not Carlile 
Weftminfter, not Weftmifter. 

li The Young Marts Beft Companion.- 

Thefe Words fpell thus. 
Paffion, Ko/'pafliori Salifbury, not Salfbury 

Fafhion, not Fation 
Cufhion, not Cution 
Gloucefler, not Glofter 
Worcefter, not Woriler 

AnotherQualification in Spelling, is rightly to diftinguiflv 
Words of the fame Sound, though widely different in their 
Senfe and Signification : Such as thefe that follow, viz. 

A Peal, of Bells 
Appeal, to higher Power* 
Appear, to be feen 
A Peer, a Lord 
/ray, good Order 
Array, to cloth 
A Rcfe, to fmell t» 
Afofe, did rife 
Are, they be 
Heir, to an Eflate 
Arrant, notorious 
Errand, a Meifage? 
Arrows, to fhoot 
Arras, Hangings 
A Scent, or Smell 
A/cent, a going up 
AJJent, Agreement 
jtffijtance, Help 
AJJiftants, Helpers 
Augur, a Soothfayer 
Augre, to bore with 
Ax, to cut with 
AS/s, of Parliament 
Aujlere, fevere 
0-,fa; a Shell Fifli 

Babel, the Tower 
Babble, to prate 
Bacon, Hog's Flefh 
Baken, in the Oven 
Beckon, to make a Sign 
Bail, a Surety 
Bale, of Goods 


A Bel, Cain's Brother 
Able, to do a Thing 
A Bell, to ring 
Accidents, Chances 
Accidence, a Book 
Acre, of Land 
Acorn, of an Oak 
Acbor, a Valley of that Name 
Advice, Counfel 
Advife, to countil 
Acccunt, Efteem 
Acccmpt, of Reckoning 
Ale, a Drink 
AH, Trouble 
All, every one 
Awl, for Shoemakers 
Alley, a narrow Place 
Ally, a Friend or Confederate 
Allay, to give Eafe 
Alley, bafer Metal 
Altar, for Sacrifice 
Alter, to change 
Ale-hcof, an Herb 
Aloof, at a Di fiance 
sllowd, approv'd 
Aloud, to (peak fo 
Ami/s, wrong 
A Mifs, or Miftrefs 
Ant, a Pifmire 
Aunt, a Father's Sifter 
Anchor, of a Ship 
Anker, aRundlet 

The Young Man's Be ft Companion. i$ 

Sat without Hair Brute, Beaft 

BawTd, cry'd out 

Ball, to play with 

i>7zi>./, to cry. aloud 

Ba ra, a Woman's Name 

■>v, in Africa 
i • ' . • -j i Fruit 
2?< i -. naked 

Bear, a B«aft, or to bear 
2?tf>\r, of Bay Trees 
Baize, Cloth of Cokhefter 
£« ?, Vile 
2?«/r, in Mafic 
Belly, Part of the Body 
Belie, to fpeak falfly 
Be, they are 
2?*r, that makes Honey 
Beer, to drink 
Bier, to carry the Dead on 
Bell, to ring 
2?*/, an Idol 
Berry, a fmall Fruit 
2?ary, the Dead 
Blue, a Colour 
Blew, as the Wind 
Beard, a Plank 
2?o-V, a Hole 
2?oar, a Beaft 
Bo*e, to bore 
2W, a Country Fellow 
jBuA/, Confident 
Bcxvl'd, at the Jack 
2k//, the Door 
Boult, the Meal 
Bow, to bend, or the Bow 
Bough, of a Tree 
Boy, a Lad 
2?a<y, of an Anchor 
Bread, to eat 
Bred, brought up 
Breeches, to wear 
Breaches, broken Places 
Bruit, a Report 

Burrow, for Coneys 

Bivrough, a Corporation. 

Z'y, near 

2?«y, with Money 

Brews, he breweth 

Brui/e, a Hurt 

Brewis, of Fat and Bread' 

CW«, that kill'd his Brother 
Caw, to walk with 
Caen, in Normandy 
Calais, in France 
Chalice, a Cup 
CW/, by Name 
Caw I, or Suet 
Cannon, a great Gun 
Canon, a Church Rule 
Capital, great or chief 
Capitol, a Tower in /<!«»# 
Career, full Speed 
Carrier, of Goods- 
Cellar, for Liquors 
£V//fr, that felleth 
Cenfer, for Incenfe 
Cenfor, a Reformer 
Cenfure, to judge 
Centaury, an Herb 
Century, an hundred Year* 
Centry, or Sentinel, a Soldier 

on Guard 
Chair, to fit in 
Piw«j a Job of Work 
Champaine, Wine of France 
Champaign, a wide Field, or 

Summer's Expedition 
C holer, Rage or Anger 
Collar, of the Neck 
Co//<?r, of Beef or Brawn 
deling, of a Room 
Sealing, with a Seal 
Cittern, for Mufic 
Citron, a Fruit 

14 the Young Man's Befi Companion. 

Clerk, a Clergyman 

Clerk, of a Parifh 

Claiffe, Part of a Sentence 

Claws, of a Beart or Bird 

CW/, a Garment 

Cote, for Sheep 

Comb, for the Hair 

Come, hither 

Commit, to do 

Comet, a blazing Star 

Common, ufual 

Commune, to converfe 

Condemn, to Death 

Contemn, to difpife 

Council, of the King 

Counfel, Advice 

Ccud, or could 

CW, to chew as Beafts 

Deceafed, dead 
Difeafed, fick 
Decent, becoming 
Defcent, going down 
DiJJent, to cil'agree 
I)*?/, low in the Earth 
!>/>/, a Town in France 
Defer, to put off 
Differ, to difagree 
Derbe, a City of y^fa 
De>by, a Town of England 
Defert, Merit 
Defart, a Wildernefs 
D<?av, a falling Mift 
.£>**, owing 
Do, to make 
. Do*, a female Deer 
Dough. Pafte 

Current, a pafling or running-Dc«, a Spanijh Lord 

C our ant, a Meffenger or 

News Paper 
Currants, Fruit 
Crick, in the Neck 
Creek, of the Sea or River 
Coujin, a Relation 
Cozen, to cheat 
Cymbal, a m lineal Inurnment Z)ow, cf a Houfe 

Done, acted 
'Dun, a Colour 
Dolphin, a Fifh 
Dauphine, the French 

eitlVjiL Son 
De-vices, Inventions 
Devizes, in JViltfhirg 
Doe~-, that doeth 


Symbol, a Mark or Sign 
Cyprefs, a Tree 
Cyprus, an Ifland 
Cr,v/?, for Oil 
Cruize, by the Sea Coafr, 
Cygnet, a young Swan 
Signet, a Seal 

Dane, of Denmark 
D eigne, to vouch fafe 
/>£/«, Hopping Water 
Damn, to condemn 
Dame, a Miltrefs 
ZXw, of Price 
ZW, in a Park 

Dragon, a Be aft 
D r agcon, a Soldier 
Draught, of Drink 
D'ougbt, Drynefs 
Ddcur, Grief or Paift 
Dollar, a Piece of Money 
Demure, Sober 
Demur, a Stop or Doubt 

£«r, of the Head 
£Vr, ever 
Early, betimes 
Yearly, every Year 
Earth, the Ground 
Hearth, of the Chimney 

The Young Man's Befi Companion. 15 

Eajler, the Fefrival 
Ejiher, a Woman's Name 
Enter, to go in 
Inter, to bury 
Elder, not the Younger 
Eldem, a Tree 
Eaten, or fvvallovved 
Eton, a Town's Name 
Eminent, famous 
Immenent, over Head 
Eno-uu, in Number 
Enough, in Quantity 
Earn, to deferve 
r*™, Woollen Thread 
Team, to pity 
Envy, or Hatred 
Envoy, a Meffenger 

Fillip, with the Fingers 

Philip, a Man's Name 

Flcaver, of the Field 

/Yea;-, Meal 

Fleer, of the Room 

Fcllo-zv, to come after 

Fallo-.v, Ground not plow'd 

FzW, to find any thing 

Fin'd, amerced 

Fiend, a Devil 

Flea, off the Skin, and alfo 

Flee, to efcape 
Fcnvl, a Bird 
/V?.7, dirty 

Francis, a Man's Name 
Frances, a Woman's Name 

Exercife, Labour or Practice Frays, Quarrels 
Excrcife, to conjure Froize, Pancake with Bacon 

Err, to miftake G 

Er, Brother to Onan, SonsGall, of a Beafl 

of Judah 
Extant, in being 
Extent, Diflance 
Fein, defirous 
Feign, to diffemble 

Gaul, France 
Garden, of Herbs 
Guardian, an Overfeer 
Genteel, graceful 
Gentile, a Heathen 
Gentle, mild 

Fair, beautiful or a Market Gefture, Carriage 

Fare, Victuals 

Faint, weary 

Feint, a falie March 

Fourth, in Number 

Forth, to go out 

Feed, to eat 

Fee'd, rewarded 

/*>, Wood 

Fur, or Hair 

Felon, a Criminal 

Fellon, a Whitlow 

.fV/?, of Steel 

Foil, put to the worft 

Fly, as a Bird 

Fly, orlnfeft ' 

Je/ler, a merry Fellow 
Groan, with Grief 
Grown, greater 
Guilt, of Sin 
Gilt, with Gold 
G> eater, bigger 
Grater, for Nutmegs 
Grave, for the Dead 
Greave, Armour for the Leg 
Guefs, to imagin 
Guefi, one entei tain'd 
Gluttcnous, greedy 
Glutinous, nicking as Pitch 
Great, large 
Grate, for Coals, c^V. 
-» Graze, 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

Graze, to eat 

Grays, a I own 

Groat, Four pence 

G, ot, a Cave 

Gallits, Ships with Oars 

Gallo-ix's, for Criminals 

H«r>, of .the Fields 
Hair, of the Head 
Har/b, fevere 
/.V , minced Meat 
L-rt . <-//, a Fiarbour 
Heaven, a large Place of 

Heart, cf the^Body 
Hart, of the W< ods, or an 

over-grown Buck 
Herd, of Cattle 
Heard, did hear 
/fortf', not foft, or difficult 
Here, in this Place 
/Aw, with the Ears 
High, lofty, 
Hie, away, make hafte 
jfftz*, that Man 
Hymn, to fing 
Hail, congeal'd Rain 
Half, the Ship 
Hall, in a Houfe 
Haul, pull 
Higher, taller 
Jftre, Wages 
///j, of him 

Halm, wholy 
Hoc/>, for a Tub 
Whoop, or ho ! lo ! 
Hugh, a Man's Name 
Hue, of Colour 
/fc-w, with an Ax 

/, Imyfelf 
Eye, to fee with 
JrfZ?, lazy 
Idol, an Image 
/'//, I will 
lie, of a Church 
IJle, an Iiland 
0/7, of Olives 
Imply, in Work 
Imply, to fignify 
/*, within 
//?;/, for Travellers 
Incite, to ftir up 
Jnjight, Knowledge 
Ingenious, of quick Parts 
Ingenuous, candid 
Iron, Metal 
Ironie, fpeaking by Contraries 

Ketch, a Ship 
( atch, to take 
Kill, to flay 
Kiln, for Lime 
.foW, good natur'd 
Coind, Money 
Knave, difhonefi: 

Hijs, as a Snake, or to deride Nave, of a Wheel 

Hoar, FvoLl 
Whore, a lewd Woman 
#0/?, or Hollownefs 
Whole, intire 
Jfc / lo ! to call 
Holk-vo, to make deep 
//c/y, pious 
Wholly, intirely 
Home, one's Houfe 

Knight, by Honour 
Night, Darknefs 
Laid, placed 
Lade, the Water 
Lane, not a Street 
Lain, did lie 
Latin, a Tongue 
Latten, Tin 


T'he Young Man's Befl Companion. 1 7 

^Lattice, of a Window 
Lettice, a Woman's Name 
Letuce, Sallad 
Leafe, of a Houfe 
Leajh, ;hree 
■Lees, of Wine 
Leefe, old Word for Iofe 
Leader, that jumpeth 
Leper, one leprous 
LeJJen, to make lefe 
LfJ/on, to read 
Z^y?, fmalleft 
Z^yi 1 , for fear 
Lethergy, Sleepinefs 
Liturgy, Church ftrvice 
L'er, in wait 
Lytr, that tells Lies 
Limb, a Member 
Limn, to paint 
Line j Length 
Loin, of -Veal 
Lo-iv, humble 
IB Lo, behold 

Lofe, to fuffer Lofs 
Loo/e, to let go 
wLoiver, to let down 
Lo<wr, to frown 
Made, fmifhed 
Maid, a young Woman 
Main, Chief 
Mane, of a Horfe 
Male, the He ' 
Mail, Armour 
Manner, Cuftom 
ManSr, a Lordfhip 
Market, to buy or fell in 
fiark, it, note it 
da'jb, low Ground 

Mede, one Media 
, Mean, of low Value 
Mo'», Carriage or Afpeft 
Meat, to eat 
M /<>, to meafure 
MeJ/age, Bufineis 
Mejjuage, a Hou/e 
Mews, for Hawks 
Mufe, to meditate 
Mighty, powerful 
Moiety, half 
Aft&, Meafure 
.Moil, Labour 
A%/6.', Strength 
A/z/«, in •. hi efe 
Moat, a Ditch 
M'te, in the Sun 
More, in Quantity 
jl/w, a Black 
Mower, that moweth 
Moore, barren Ground 
Morter, made of Lime 
Mortar, to pound in 
•M'./i?, Vermin 
Mould, to call in 
_A r «y, denial 
Neigh, as a Horf; 
Neither, none of the tw9 
Nether, lower 
Naught, bad 
Nought, nothing 
Avg-6, near, 
A;k, a Man's Name 
Nice, curious 

Niece, a Brother's Daughter 
.Not, denying 
Knot, to tye 
Note, mark 

■/«/&, for a-Horfe, or cf a Net Note, of one's Hand 
lartin, a Man's Name Nofe, of the Face 

/«r^», a Bird AW£'s Ark, 

/?«</, a Meadow 

8 The Young Mail's Beft Companion. 


Oar, of a Boat 

Ore, crude Metal 

O'er, over 

Off, caft off 

Of, belonging to 

Our, belonging to us 

Hour, of the Day 

Ob! alas ! 

Owe, in Debt 

One, in Number 

Own, to acknowledge 

Order, Rule 

Ordure, Dung 

Pair, a Couple 

Pare, cut off 

Pear, a Fruit 

Pattin, for a Woman 

Patent, a Grsnt 

Pm-, a Lord 

Pier, of Dover 
Peter, a Man's Name 
Pet re, Salt 
iW/, for Water 
Prf/<?, of Countenance 
Pale, a Fence 
Place, Room 
Plaife, a Filh 
Par/on, of the Parifh 
Per/on, any Man 
Po/f, for Hops 
Pe//, of the Head 
Pool, of Water 

Prey, a Booty 
iV«y, befeech 
Profit, Gain 
Prophet, a Foreteller 
Prailice, Exercife 
Praclife, to exercife 
Prefence, being here 
Prefents, Gifts 
Princes, the King's Sons 
PiinceJJes, the King's Daugh- 
Pleafe, to content 
Pleas r Defences 
Precedent, an Example 
Prejident, Chief 
Principal, Chief 
Principle, the firft Rule 

Quire, of Paper 

Choir, of Singers 

Queen, the King's Wife 

Quean, an Harlot 

Par/-, to torment 

Wreck, of a Ship 

i?fi/V/, Water 
Reign, of the King 
P<?/«, of a Bridle 
2?«jw, of the Sun 
Raife, lift up 
P<2<rf, to run 
i?tf/?, to demoliih 
^w, Grain 
Pi/£, to get up 

Pw, with the Eyes, or of Red, in Colour I 

the Skin 
Pwr-, necefficous 
Palate, of the Mouth 
iV/tf, Bed 
Pofy, a No feg ay 
Poefy, Poetry 
Power, mighty 
■Pour, as Water 

Read, the Book 

Reed, of the Water 

Relict, a Remainder 

Relid:?, a Widow 

i?0<?, of a Filh, or a Female 

Pew, the Boat 
Right, not wrong 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 19 

Rite, a Ceremony 
Write, with a Pen 
Wright, a "Wheelwright 
Reddijh, of Colour 
Radijh, a Root 
Rear, let up 
Rear, behind 
Ruff, for the Neck 
Rough, not fmooth 
7?^, Corn 
Rye, in Connecticut 
#'ry, crooked 
Ring, the Bells 
Wring, the Hands 
.£//«*, a Fog or Mift 
Rhyme, Verie 
Rind, of Cheefe 
Rode, did ride 
Road, the Highway 
Rote, got by Heart 
Wrste, did write 
Wrought, did Work 

Savour, Tafte or Smell 
Saviour, that faves 
Sheep, a Beaft 
5/6//, for .the Sea 
Sight, View 
C#f, to fummons 
Sail, of a ship 
Sale, of Goods 
&'»/£, fink down 
(inque, Five 
SVoav, not quick 
Sloe, Fruit 
5e-zy, Seed 
Seix>, with a Needle 
So, thus 

Slight, neglected 
Sleight, of Hand 
.SWf, a Part 
Sum, of Money 
$e«/, or Spirit 

Soal, a Fiih 

*& le, of a Shoe 

5o«, of a Father 

5a», in the Firmament 

Sore, painful 

Soar, aloft 

Sivore, did T fwear 

Stare, to look on earneflly 

Stair, a Step 

Stile, to get over 

57j/^, of Writing 

Sound, whole, firm ; alfo 

Sivoon, to faint away 
Straight, not crooked 
Strait, narrow 
Succour, Help 
Sucker, a young Sprig 
Spear, a Weapon 
Sphere, a Globe 
Then, at that Time 
Than, in Comparifon 
Tame, gentle, not wild 
Thame, in Oxfordjhire 
Tear, to rent 
Tear, of the Eye 
Tare, an Allowance in Weigk 
Tare, a Vetch, 
y«/, of a Beaft 
7«//?, a Story 
Tiles, for the Houfe 
Toy Is, Nets 
7"e//, to Labour 
There, in that Place 
Their, of them 
Throne, of the King 
Thrown, as a Stone 
7/V*, a flowing Water 
T^V, made faft 
Time, of the Day 
Thyme, an Herb 
7>«.w, of Hoffes 

x b y««, 

The Toung Man's Befi Companion. 



Teem, with Child 
Tivo, twice one 
To, the Prepoiition 
Too, likewife 
Toe, of the Foot 
Tow, to draw 
Tow, to fpin 
Told, as a btory 
Tcll'd, as a Bell 
Tour, a Journey 
TpTver, of a Church 

Vacation, Leifure 
Vocation, a Calling 
£W, a Covering 
^V<?, between two Hills 
Vain, foolifh 
Vein, of the Body 
Vane, or Weathercock 
Value, Worth 
Valley, a Vale 
^7«/, a Glafs 
/W, a Fiddle 

Tour, of you 
Ewer, a Bafon 
U/e, Praclice, 
Vfe, to be wont 
Ewes, Sheep 

Wade, in the Water 
Weighed, in the Scales 
Whale, of the cea 
Wail, to lament 
Ware, Merchandize 
Were, was 
Where, what Place 
Weigh, to weigh 
JF<?y, five Quarters 
/i^W, good 

Wheal, frum Scourging 
Wield, a Sword 
Weald, of <S«^£x in £>/tf 
#^k, in the Neck 
When, at what Time 
White, of Colour 
Wight, an Ifland 
Wbijl, Silence 
#7/?, knew 
/FcW, of Trees 
Wcju d y for would 

Tea, Yes 
2V, you 
Ewe, a Sheep 
2 eou, a Tree 
J'arB, made of Wool 
Team, to weep. 

0/ Stops, Marks, and Points, ufeid in Reading and 
Writing, with their Places and Significations. 

TiiESE are of abfolute Neceffity ; and great Regard 
ough to be had to them, to avoid Confufion and 
Muconftru&ion, and for the better Undei {landing of w' t 
we read and write ourfelves ; and are likewife of Ufe to 
others that {hall hear us read, or fee our Writing : They 
teach us to obferve proper Diilances of Time, with the ne- 
ctliary Raifing and Falling of the Tone or Voice in Read- 
ing, and the needful Stops or Marks to be ufed in Writing, 
that we may underllar.d it ouriehes, and that our Meaning 
may not be miiundcritood. or mifapplied by^others. 


The Young Man's Beft Companion* 2 1 

Stops, or Paufes, confidered as Intervals in Reading, are 
indeed no more than four; though there are other Marks 
to be taken notice of, but to other Purpofes : The Names 
of thefc four principal Stops are, m. a Comma, Semicolon, 
Colon, and Period or Full Slop ; and thefe do bear to one 
another a kind of progreihonal Proportion of Time; for 
the Comma fignifies a btop ofleifurely telling One, the Semi- 
colon Two, the Colon Three, and the Period Pour. 

And are made or mark'd thus : 

Comma, (.) at the Foot of a Word. 

Semicolon (;) a Point over the Comma. 

Colon (:) two Points. 

Period (.) a fingle Point at the Foot of a Word. 

, Example of the Comma.) There is not any thing in the 
World, perhaps, that is more talk ; d of, and. lefs under- 
flood, than the Bufinefs of a happy Life. 

; Example of the Semicolon.) It is not a Curfe that 
makes way for a Bleffing ; the bare Wilh is an Injury ; 
the Moderation of Amigonus was remarkable. 

: Example of the Cokn.) A found Mind is net to b£< 
fhaken with popular Applaufe : But, Anger is ftartled at 
every Accident, 

. Example of the Period.) It is a" Shame, fays Fabius, for 
a Commander to excufe himfelf, by laying, 1 was not aware 
of it. A Cruelty that was only fit for Marius to fuffer, 
Sjlla to command, and Catiline to aft. 

By the Examples foregoing, we may eafily note, that a 
Comma is a Nete of a fhort Stay, berween Words in the 
Sentence ; and therefore the Tenor of the Voice mult Itill 

be kept up. The Semicolon is a little long r, and the 

Tone of the Voice very little abated. — The Colon fignifies 
perfect Senfe, though not an End of the Sentence ; and 
the Voicj a little abated, or let fall. — The Period cc;: jtes 
perfect Senf.-, and the End of the Sentence. 

? When the Queftion is afked, there is a crooked Mark 
made over the Period thus ? and is called a Note of Inter- 
rogation : Example, What could be happier than the State 
of Mankind when People lived without either Avarice or 
Envy ? The Time of Paufe for this Stop, is the fame with 
the Semicolon. 

! If a hidden Crying out, or Wondering, be exprefTcd, 
then this Mark is made o\ter the Full Stop, thus ! and called 

* B z 

22 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

a Note of Admiration or Exclamation. Example, Oh the 
alloniihing Wonders that are in the elementary World! 

( ) It" one Sentence be within another, of which it is no 
Part, then 'tis placed between two Semicircles or Parenthe- 
fis, made thus ( ) Example, Pompey, on the other Side (that 
hardly ever fpake in Public without a Blulh) had awonaer- 
ful Sweetnefs of Nature. Again, if Authors be fure to 
make Choice of the belt; and (as I faid before) to ftick 
clofe to them. Once more ; Honour thy Fathe. and Mother 
(which is f he firft Commandment with Promiie) that it 
may be well with thee. — In reading a Parenthefis the Tone 
muft be fomewhat lower, as a Thing or Matter that comes 
in by the bye, breaking in as it were on the, main Coherence 
of the Period. The Time is equal to a. Comma, and ougjit 
to be read pretty quick, left it detain the Ear too long from 
the Senfe of the more important Matter. 

' Jpoftr»pbe is a Comma at theHead of Letters, ugnify- 
ing lbme Letter or Letters left put for quicker Pronuncia- 
tion ; as I'll for / will, would 1 ft . for nuoutdeft, Jhan't for 
pall net, ne'er for ne-ver, is'tjor is it, 'tis for it is, i'tV for 
in the, o'er for over : Or to denote a Genetive Cafe ; as, 
my father's Houfe ; my Uncle's Wife, tffr. 

' decent is placed over a Vowel, to denote that the Strefs 
cr Sound in Pronounciation is on that Syllable. 

° Breve cr crooked Mark over a Vowel, fignifies it muft 
be founded Ihort or quick. 

* Caret figr.ihes forr.ething is wanting, and is placed un- 
derneath the Line, juft where any thing omitted, by Mif- 
take, or Forgetfulnefs, SsV. mould be brought in. 

* Circumflex is of the fame Shape with the Caret, but 
is placed over fome Vowel, to mew the Syllable to be 
long, as Eu-pbrd-tes. 

" Diahfts, or two .Points placed over two Vowels in a 
Word, fignifies they are to be parted, being no Diphthong. 

- Hyphen or Note of Cotmrdion, is a ftraight Line ; which 
being fet at the End of a Line, (hews that the Syllables of 
that Word are parted, and the Remainder of it is at the Be- 
ginning of the next Line; and fometimes is ufed in com- 
pound Words ; a« Burnt- facrifices, Heart-breaking, Soul- 
healing, Book-keeper, ciJV. N. B. That when you have not 
Room to write the whole Word at the End of a Line, but 
are obliged to finilh it at the Beginning of the next, fuch 
Words muft be truly divided, according to the Rules of 

Spelling ; 

Tb'e Young Man's Bcfi Ccmpanicri. 23 

Stalling; as re-ftrain, not '■ *. 

t>' . When the Hyphen is placed over a Vowel, it is 
pi erly a iXilh, ana Signifies the Omiffion of worx; it is- 
much afedin old Latin Authors, and fomfe times xwEngliJh, 
efpet.ially in Law Bufinefs. Example ; It is very comedable 
to write a good-Hani. 

^ Index, is a Note like a Hand, pointing to fomething 
very remarkable 

* Afterifm or Star, directs to' fome Remark in the Mar- 
gin, or at the Foot-wf the Page. Several of them together, 
denote fomething defective, or iminodelt, in that Paiiage 
of the Author. 

f Obi!r/l>,-iS a Mark like a Dagger, and refers to the 
Ma gin, a* the Afterifm* ; And in Dictionaries, it iigniiies 
the Word to be obfolete, or old, and out of ufe. 

*[] Paragraph, denotes a Divifion, comprehending feve- 
ral Sentences under one Head. • 

§ Section, figniaes the Beginning of a new Head of Dif- 
courfe, and is uled in fub-dividing a Chapter, or Book,- 
into leffer Parts or Portions. 

[ ] .brackets or Crotchets, generally include a Word or 
Sentence, explanatory of what went before ; or Words of 
the fame Senfe, which may-be ufed in their Stead. 

" ^'uotation, or double Comma reverie, is uied at the- 
Beginning of the Line, and ihews what is quoted from an 
Author to be in his own Words. 

Thus much for Pointing, Stops, and Marks ; which, if 
carefully heeded and obferved, will add Grace and Credit 
to your Writing. 

Of Abbreviations. 

TO be ready in thefe, fhews a Dexterity in Writing; 
and is very neceffary for Difpatch : For by thefe, we 
expeditiously exprefs, or fet down a Word Shortening it, by 
making fome initial Letter or Letters, belonging to the 
Word, to exprefs it ; as in the Table following. 

A. For Anfwer or After- A. M. Anno Mundi, Year 

noon of the World 

A, B. Arts Bachelor Adm rs - Adminiftrators 

A. Bp. Archbifhop A. M. Artium Magiftcr, 

Act- Account Mailer of Arts 

A. D. Anno Domini, Year Ana. of each a like Quautity 

of our Lord Ap. April, or Apoiile 

B 3 Adtr}- 

2 4 

The Young Mar's Beft Companion. 

Adm L Admiral 
Ag u Againft 
Am u Amount 
Anab. Anabaptift 
Aug. Auguft 

A. R. Anno Regni, in the 
Year of the Reign 

Aft. P. G. Aftronomy Pro- 
feflbr of Grefham College 
Auft. Auftin, or Auftria 

B. A. Batchelor of Arts 
B. D. Bachelor of Divinity 

B. V. Blefled Virgin 
Bart. Baronet 

Bp. Bifliop 

Char. Charles, or Chapter 
Cant. Canticles, or Canter- 
Cat. Catechifm 
Char. Charles, or Charity 
Chap. Chapter 
Cent. Centum 
Ch. Church 
Chanc. Chancellor 
Chron. Chronicles 
Capt. Captain 
Clem. Clement 
Col. Coloffians 
Cl. Clericus 
Co. County 
Coll. Colonel 
Cem x% - Commiflloners 
Cok. ConftanceorConftantine 
Con/. ConfefTor 
Cou'd, for could 
Cor- Corinthians orCorollary 
Cr. Creditor 

C. R- Carolus Rex, or 
Charles the King 

C. C. C. Corpus Chrifli Col- 

C. S. Cuftos Sigili, Keeper 

of the Seal 

C. P. S. Cuftos Privati Sigili, 
Keeper of the Privy Seal 

D. Dean or Duke 
Dan. Daniel 

Dr. Doctor or Debtor 
Dea. Deacon 
D°- Ditto 
D. Denarii, Pence 
Dec. Or xber, or \ober, De- 
Devon. Devon/hire 
Deut. Deuteronomy 
Dec. Deceafed 
D. C. Dean of Chrift Church 
Docl. Doftrine, 

D. D. Do&or of Divinity 

E. for Earl 
Earld. Earldom 
Edm. Edmund 
Edzv. Edward 

E. gr. Exempli gratia, for 

Engl. England 
Eliz. Elizabeth 
Efa. Efaiah 
Eph. Ephefians 
Eccl Ecclefiaiics 
Ex. Exodus, or Example 
E'v. Evangelift 
Exp. Explanation 
Expo. Expofition 
E/q. Efquire 
Exon. Exeter • 
Fr. French, or France 
F<b. February 
Fra. Francis 
jF. R. S. Fellow of the Royal 

G. God, Great, or Gofpel 
Gal. Galatians 
Gen. Genefis 
Gen m0 - Generaliffimo 
Geo. George 

G. R. 

The Toung Man's Beft Companion. 25 

G. R. Georgius Rex, George 

the King 
Gar. Garrifon 
Gen. General 
Gent. Gentleman 
Ge/p. Gofpel 
Greg. Gregory 
Hen. Henry 
Hamp. Hamper 
Hund. Hundred 
Hum-' Humphry 
Heb. Hebrews 
i. e . id eft, that is 
/. H. S ]■ fusHominum Sal- 
vator, Jefus Saviour of Mea 
Id. Idem, the fame 
hjl Inftance or Inftant 
J a. James, or Jacob 
Jan. January 
Jer Jeremiah 
Jef. Jefus 
Jn°- John 
Jud. Judges 
If. Ifaac 
I'll, I will 
L't, is it 
I'd, I had 
I'm, I am 

J. D. Jurium Doclor, Doc- 
tor of Laws 
J of. Jofhua 
K. King 
K m - Kingcom 
Kn l - Knight 
L. Lord 

L. Liber, a Eook 
L. Librce, Pounds 
lieu. Lieutenant 
Lp. Lordfhip 
LadiQr" Ladyfnip 
L. L. D. Legum Doctor, 

Doftor pf Laws 
Lea'tfr Learning 

U- Letter 

Lam. Lamentations 

Leu. Leviticus 

Lei's. Let: us 

M. Marquis, or Monday, or 



Mat. Matthew 

M. Manipulus, a Handful 

M. A. Matter of Arts. 

Ma^ Majefty 

M d - Madam 

Monf. Monfieur 

Math. Mathematician 

Mr. Matter 

Mrs. Mittrefs 

M. D.. Medicinae Doclor, 

Doctor of Phyfick 

M. S. Memorise Sacrum 

Sacred to the Memory ; 

alfo Manufcript 

Mich. Michael orMichaelmas 

Min Minifter 

N.- Note, or Nativity 

Na\ Nathaniel, or Nativity 

N. B. Nota bene, Note, or 

mark well 

Nic. Nicholas, or Nicodcmus 

N. S. New Stile 

7V°' Number 

k. ANon liquet, it appears not 

No-v. or gber, November 

O. Oliver 

Obj. Objeaion 

O^- Obedient 

O. W. Old Word 

O. S. Old Stile 

OH. or %ber, Oftober 

Oxon. Oxford 

P. Paul, Paulus, Publius, 

or President 

Pugil, a Handful 

Pen. Penelope 



The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

P d - paid 

Par. Parifh 

$• per, or by 

Pat. Patience, or Patrick 

Per Ct. Per Centum, by the 

Pari. Pajiiarnent 

Id. Peter 

Phil. Philippians, or Philip 

Pbilorn. Philomethes, a Lo- 
ver of Learning 

Phi io- Math. Philo; e- 
maticus, a Lover or" the 

P. M. G. Profeflbr of Mafic 
at Greiham Colle^ e 

Prof. Tb. G. Profefibr of Di- 
vinity at Greiham College 

Prif. Prifciiia 

Pf. Pfalm Pr. Prieft 

Q Queen, or Quefdon 

5. quail, as it were 

j. </. quafi dicat, as if he 
Ihould fay 

q. I. quantum libet, as much 
as you pleafe 

f. /. quantum fufficet, a 
fufficient Quantity 

fr. Quarter, or a Farthing 

R. Rcafon 

.£. Rex, King ; or Regina, 
Re-vd. Reverend 

Rev. Revelations 

Rich. Richard 

Robt. Robert 

Rog. Roger 

Ret. Return 

Reg. Prof. Regius Profefibr, 
founded by K. 1 ici.iy VllL 

Rom. Romans 

Rt.Honlk. Right Honourable 

Rt. Wpl. Right Woi.fhipful 

St, Saint 

Sam. Samuel 

Seel. Section 

Sept. or joer, September 

Serj. Serjear t 

Ser--v. Servant 

Sbr. Shire 

Shan't, for fhall not 

Salop, ohroplhire 

Sol. Solution 

Staff. Stafford 

Sp. Spain, or Spanilh 

Sr. Sir 
fs. Semiflis, half a Pound 

S. S. r. P. A Profeffor, or 
a Doctor of Philofophv 

Sreuu. Stew aid 

1 bo. Thomas 

The/. 1 heifalonians 

Toe. Theophilus 

lu. Tobias 

V. Virgin, or Verfe 

U. Ufe 

Vid. fee 

yen. Venerable 

Vi% Videlicet, to wit, or 
that is to fay 

Wm. William 

Wp. Worihip 

Wpl, Worfhipful 

W. R. William Rex 

°i:>i. when 

A«, Chriftian 

Xt. Chrift 

Xiopher. Chriftoper 
ye. the 
yn. then 
yo. you 
ym. them 

;'. that 
yi vour 

Z. Zeal 

cif. et, and 

fcff. Si cetera, and the reft, 
or, and fo forth. And 

The Young Maris Befi Companion. 2/ 

And now having finifhed my Directions concerning Spel- 
ling, Pointing, cjfc. I mall proceed to give fome Inflruc- 
tions in Relation to the moll ufeful Art of Writing. 

When any Perfon has thoroughly acquainted himfelf with 
Spelling, and underllands good Englijh, l3c. the next Step 
necefTary, is the Acquiring of" the accomplifhing Art of fair 
Writing, to put this Spelling in Practice : In order thereto, 
I fhall endeavour to give fuch Directions, and proper In- 
structions, as may duly qualify any Perfon therein. 

Firit, and principally, there mull be a fixed Defire and 
Inclination imprinted in the Mind, for its Attainment : For 
I myfelf had never acquired, or arrived to any Proficiency 
in it, if I had not had aflrong Defire and Inclination to it, 
rifing from being convinced of its excellent Ufe in Trade, 
and all Manner of Bufinefs, according to the Verfe, 
Great ivashis Genius, mojl fublime his Thought, 
That firft fair Writing to Perfection brought, &C. 
Next to the Defire, there mull be added a iteady Refolu- 
tion to go through with it, 'till it is gained ; and by a di- 
ligent and indefatigable Application, overcome all Teem- 
ing Difficulties, that may arife in the Progrcfs of its At- 
tainment, agreeable to this Diftich ; 

By frequent Ufe, Experience gains its Growth ; # 
But Knowledge flies from Lasdnefs and Sloth. 

# -# *•-##•#*-#«#*•*#«***##$ 


IRST, 'tis necefTary to be provided with the follow- 

ing Implements, a>iz. good Pens, good and free Ink, 
and alio good Paper when arrived to commendable Perfor- 
mances ; likewife aflat Ruler forSurenefs, and a round one 
for Difpatch, with a Leaden Plummet or Pencil, to rule 
Lines : Alfo Gum Sandiick Powder (or Pounce as they call 
it) with a little Cotton dipped therein, which rub gently 
over the Paper, to make it bear Ink the better ; particularly 
when full Hands are to be written, fuch as Text, l3c. and 
efpecially when you are obliged to fcratch out a Word or 
Letter ; for then there will be aNecefiity for its Ufe : And 
rubbing the Place with the Pounce, fmooth it with the 
Haft of the Penknife, or clean Paper, and then you may 
write what is proper in the fame Place. Thefe Implements 
are fummed np in thefe Lines. 

B -5 A fen* 

2 8 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

A Pea-knife Razor Metal, Quills good Store ; 
Gum Sandnck Powder, to pounce Paper o'er ; 
Ink, Jhining black ', Paper more <zvhite than Snow 
R'und and fiat Rulers, on y cur/elf befiovj, 
With witting Mind, thefe, and induftrious Hand, 
Will make this Art your Servant at Command. 

7*0 hold the Pen. 

TH E Pen mufi be held iomewhat floping, with the 
Thumb and the two Fingers next to it ; the Ball of 
the Middle Finger muft be placed ftrait, juft againft the 
upper Part of the Cut or Cradle, to keep the Pen fteady. 
The Fore Finger lying Itrait on the Middle Finger ; and 
the Thumb muft be fixed a little higher than the End of 
the Fore Finger bending in the joint : and the Pen be fo 
placed, to be held eafily without griping. The Elbow muft 
be drawn pretty clofe to the Body, almoft to touch it. You 
muft fupport your Eland, by leaning on the Table Edge, 
refting on it, half way between your Wrift and Elbow, not 
fuffering the Bail, or fleihy Part of your Hand to touch the 
Paper ; but reicing your Fland on the End of your Little 
Finger, that and your fourth Finger bending inwards, and 
fupported on the Table as abovefaid. So fixed, and fitting 
pretty upright, not leaning your Breaft againft the Table, 
proceed to the making the fin all o, the a, e, c, i, m, r, s, w, 
and x ; which muft all be made of equal Bignefs and Height, 
the Diftance or Width between the two Strokes of the n, 
muft be the fame with the Diftance or Width of the three 
Strokes of the m ; the fame Proportion of Width muft be 
©bferved in the u, iv, and o. The Letters with Stems or 
Heads, muft be of an equal Height ; as the b, d,f, h, k, 1, 
andyi And thofe with Tails, muft be of equal Depth, as 
the f,g, p, a, andyl The Capitals muft bear the lame Pro- 
portion one to another, with refpecl to Bignefs and Height, 
as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and 7, tiff.— This Proportion 
of Letters, both of Small and Great, muft be obferved in, 
and will ferve for, all Hands whatfover. N. B. That all 
upright Snokes, and thofe leaning to the left Hand, muft 
be fine or hair Strokes ; and all downright Strokes muft be 
fuller and blacker. And when you are in Joyning, where 
Letters will naturally join, without any ftraining, take not 
off the Pen in Writing, efpecially in Running or Mix'd 
Hands. Care likewiie muu be duly taken, that there bean 


The Young Marts Beft Companion. 29 

equal Diftance between Letter and Letter, and alfo between 
Word and Word. The Diftance between Word and Word 
may be the Space that the fmail m takes up ; but between 
Letter and Letter, not quite lb much. Sit not long at writ- 
ting (that is no longer than you improve) efpecially at the 
firtt, left it weary you, and you grow weary of Learning. 
Imitate the beft Examples, and haveaconftant Eye at your. 
Copy ; and be not ambitious of writing faft, before you 
can write well : Expedition will naturally follow, after you 
have gained a Habit of writing fair and free ; and 'tis much 
more commendable to be an Hour in writing fix Lines well, 
than to be able to write fixty Lines in the fame Time, which 
perhaps is perfect Scribble, and altogether unintelligible. 
/\nd beftdes by a flow and fair Procedure, you will learn in 
half the Time ; and therefore 'tis a vain Thought in a 
Learner, to defire to be quick before he hath acquired Ex- 
perience, and a Freedom of Writing by frequent Practice. 
If you have Cotton in you Ink, look well that there be no 
Hairs at the Nib of your Pen. Never overcharge your Pen 
with Ink ; but make what is too much into the Ink again. 
When you leave off, keep your Pen or Pens in Water, till 
you come to your Writing again. 

How to make a Ten. 

THIS is gained fooner by Experience and Obfervation 
from others, that can make a Pen well, than by ver- 
bal Directions. But Note, That thofe Quills called Seconds 
are the beft, as being hard, long and round in the Barrel : 
and before you begin to cut the Quill, fcrape off the fuper- 
fluous Scurff with the Back of your Pen-knife, and moit on 
the Back of the Quill, that the Slit may be the finer, and 
without Gander's Teeth (as the Roughnefs of the Slit is by 
fome called) After you have fcraped the Qu'tl as abovefaid, 
cut the Quill at the End, half through, on the back Part ; 
and then turning wp the Belly, cut the other half or Part 
quite through, -viz. about a quarter or almoft half an Inch, 
at the End of the Quill, which will then appear forked : 
Then enter the Pen-knife a little in the back Notch ; and 
then putting the Peg of the Pen-knife, Haft (or the End 
of another Quill) into the back Notch, holding your 
Thumb pretty hard on the Back of the Quill, (as high as 
you intend the Slit to be) then with a. fudden orquuk 
Twitch, forte up the Slit ; it muft be fudden and fxnart, 


^o The Young ALrns Bejf Companion. 

that the Slit may be the Clearer : Then by feveral Cuts of 
each Side, bring the Quill into equal Shape, or Form, on 
both Sides, and having brought it to a fine Point, place the 
In fide of the Nib on the Nail of your Thumb, and enter the 
Knife at the Extremity of the Nib, and cut it through, a 
little floping : Then with an almoil downright Cut of the 
Knife, cut off the Nib ; and then by other proper Cuts, fi- 
nifh the Pen, bringing it into handfom Shape, and proper 
Form ; But meddle not with the Nib again, by giving it any 
Trimming or fine Cutts ; for that eaufes a Roughnefs and 
fpoils it : But if you do, to bring theNib the evener, you muft 
nib it again, as above dire&ed. <£jT Note, That the Breadth 
of the Nib muft. be proportioned to the Breadth of the Body, 
or downright black Strokes of the Letters in whatfoever 
Hand you write whether Small or Text. Note alfo, That 
in yeur fitting to write, you place yourfelf direftly againft. 
a fore-right Light, or elfe to have it on your left Hand, 
(which I elteem belt) but by no Means, to have the. Light 
on yeur right Hand, becaufe the Shadow of your Writ- 
ing-Hand will obftrutt your Sight, and therefore is very 
improper. And therefore, methinks, all Perfons in fixing 
v.p their Accompting Houfes, fhould have a particular 
Regard to their Situation, in refpett to what was before 

Thus far for Direction. Now for Application. I have 
here fet Copies of the rnoft ufual, fafhionable, and com- 
mendable Hands for Bufinefs ; with Alphabets of Great 
and Small Letters proper to each. Be fure you make 
your Letters well, (both Small and Great) before you pro- 
ceed to joining. Be careful in Imitation, and obflrve 
the foregoing Directions, and without doubt you will gain 
your End. Cammand of -Hand, or the Art of. ftriking 
Letters, &c. is gained by frequent pradifing after good 



STir Toung 

m»»v a 

rji Companion. 31 



c .is 



n D 









Dn Bal< 






• — ;- co 
13 ^ : 


ould qi 
ean Ma: 



2 -^ 











d e f g 



4_l .«\ 

<£ ± . 
^ c 









MS § 




1 often 

32 The Young Marts Befi Companion. 

Copies in Profe, and Clinking, in Alphabetical Order. 


ART is gained by great Labour and Induftry. 
A covetous Man is always, as he fancies, in Want. 

Add to your faith Virtue, and to Virtue Knowledge. 

A blind Man's Wife, they fay, needs no Painting. 

A comely Countenance is a hlerit Commendation. 

A Place of ill Example may endanger a good Man. 

A prudent Man values Content more than Riches. 

A virtuous Mind is rather co be ehofen than Promotion. 

A fair Piece of Writing is a Sort of fpeaking Picture. 

All mundane Things run a continual Round. 

Authority is the main Point in Government. 

All God's Commandments keep moft divinely pure. 

A Man's Manners oft-times forms his Fortune. 

A great Lyar is feldom believed, tho' he fpeaks Truth. 

All evil Things and vain, ftrive never to maintain. 

A virtuous minded Youth, will ever love the Truth. 

A prudent Youth and wife, will not Advice defpife.' 

All you that write well, ftrive others to excel. 

Abundance ruins fome-, but Want makes all to moan. 

Amendment ltill mould iliine, in all and every Line. 

A greater Lofs can't be, than that of Liberty. 

A good and virtuous Lad, will fhun whate'er is bad. 

Abundance proves a Snare, but moil of Want are aware. 

All Idlenefs avoid, by it moft are deilroy'd. 

All idle lazy Boys, obflruft their Parents Joys. 

A Man by Conduct may keep Mifery away. 

All Mifhap hath been occafion'd by our bin. 

Avoid th' Occafion ltill, of running into ill. 

A Youth that would tranfeend, mult ever mind to mend. 

A Lad that would excel, muft mind his Copy well. 

Bounty is commendable in fome, but it ruins others. 
By a commendable Deportment we gain Reputation. 
By Delight, and fome Care, we come to write fair. 
By Diligence and Induitry, we come to Preferment. 
Beauty without Virtue, is but a painted Sepulchre. 
Beauty commands fome, but Money all Men. 
By conftant Amendment, we rife to Preferment. 
Brave Men v. ill do nothing unbecoming t •lemfe ves. 
Be wife and beware ; of blotting take care. 


The* Young Man's Bcfi Companion. 33 

Bounty is more commended than imitated. 

By Iniquity and Sin, Misfortunes enter in. 

By Idlenefs and Play, Youth fquarrder Time away. 

Barren are thole Joys, we wafte away in Toys. 

Blefs'd are their joys above, who do their Time improve. 

Badnefs brings all Sadnefs, therefore follow Goodnell. 

By truiling to To-morrow, Men plunge themicivesin borrow. 

Bi wife betimes, fhun darling Crimes. 

Contentment is preferable to Riches and Honour. 
Cajs they be counted wife, who Counfel do defpife ? 
Care mixed with Delight, will bring us foon to write. 
Confider the lhortnefs of Life, and Certainty of Death. 
Contentment is a Gem, beyond a Diadem. 
Competency with Content, is a great Happinefs. 
Contention and Strife, make uneafy our Life. 
Courtiers receive Frefents in a Morning, and forget e'm by 

Caution and Care, oft bafHe a Snare. 
Contentment makes a Man happy without a Fortune. 
Cenfure no Man, nor detraft from any Man, 

Deride not Infirmities, nor triumph over Injuries. 
Delight and fome Care, will make you write fair. 
Delight in Virtue's Ways, and then you'll merit Praife. 
Death conquers potent Princes, and their' Powers. 
Delight in what you undertake to learn. 
Duty, Fear, and Love, we owe to God above. 
Death is before the old Man's Face, and may be at the 

(young One's Back. 
Death only can declare, what Duft the Bodies of all Mortals 

Drinking is the Drowning of Cares, not the Cure of them. 
Death deitroys not the Soul, but an ill Life does. 
Do to others as you would, that they unto you mould. 
Delay is the Remora to all good Succefs. 
Deprive no Peiion of his lawful Due, left they fhould do 

(the fame by you. 
Delight and Pleafure's but a gclden Dream. 
Death is Iefs fear'd by a Fool than a Philcfopher. 

Endlefs Joys have thofe, whofe Sins are vanq'pfh'd Foes. 
Every I'xant and. Flower, fhews to us Goa s Power. 


34 The Young Man's Befi Companion. 

Example oft doth rule, the wife Man and the Fool. 
Examples oft prevail, when Arguments do fail. 
Every i^lle Thought, to Judgment mull be brought. 
Every Sluggard is the Caufe of his own Misfortune 
Envious Men do fret, when they fee others get. 
Evil Company makes the Good bad, andtheBad worfe. 
Experience is the beft Looking-Glafs of Wifaom. 
Even at Head and Feet, be lure your Letters keep. 
Endeavour to do well, and then you may excel. 
Every Man is right, that mixes Profit with Delight. 
Evil Men and fly, take Care how you come nigh. 
Envy and Care, make the Body grow fpare. 
Every money'd Man, hath others at Command. 

F i 
Fair Words commonly drefe foul Deeds. 
Fair Faces have fometimes foul Conditions. 
Few do Good with what they have gotten ill. . 
Future Events muft be left to Providence. 
Fools are ruled by their Humour, bat- wife Men bylnterefh 
Firm, keep your .Mind on Things that arc fublime. 
Fear is a good Watchman, but a bad Defender. 
Fate will itill have, a kind Chance for the Brave. 
Fraud in Childhood, will become Knavery in Manhood. . 
Fear without Hope turns to Defpair. 
Fatfh and Hope are both dead when divided. . 
Fortune at feme Hours to all is kind. 
Feign 'd Looks oft hide what the falfe Heart doth know. . 
Fortune and Fame create a great Name. 
Friends in Adverfityare not often found. 
Fools and Knaves are not Companions for honeft Men. . 
Frugality and Induiln are the Hands of Fortune. 

Godlinefs with Conrentmont is great Gain. 
Good Manners in a Lad, will make his Parents glad. 
Great Minds and fmall Means ruin many Men. 
Good Manners, Grace and Truth, are Ornaments in Youth. 
Good Men, as well as bad, have fometimes Fortunes fad. 
Great Good you fure will find, if you are well inclined. 
Godlinefs hath the Promife of the Life that now is, tsV. 
God's Works only are perfect in their Kind. 
Gluttony ranfacks Noab's Ark for the Riot of a Meal. 
Grief nourilh'd ; n yourBreaft, will never let you Reft. 
Greater Proht dor' «\vays come of Learning than of Play, 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 35 

Great Me*, tho' they fhou'd, are not always good. 
Good Men are fafe when wicked Ones are at odds, 
det what you get honeiily, and uie it frugally. 
God is Omniprefent, True, and Almighty. 

Ilafty Refolutions are feldom fortunate. 
Halle makes Walte of Paper, Ink and Time. 
He that Humbles, and falls not, mends his Pace. 
Honour and Renown, will the Ingenious crown. - 
Hypocrites firil cheat the World, and at laft themfelves. 
Honour fhat is true, 'tis lawful to puriue. 
Human Life will human Frailties have. 
He that fends a Fool of an Errand, ought to follow him. 
Honours are Burthens, and Riches have Wings. 
He is a wife Security, that fecures himfelf. 
He that fins againlt Conscience, fins with a Witnefs. 
Honour the hoary Head, that Virtue's Paths do tread. 
Happy are their Joys, who turn away from Toys. 
Hours fly fwift away, improve each Moment in the Day. 
He that fwims in Sin, mult fink in Sorrow. 
He that fears not an Oath, will not tremble at a Lye. 
He hath his Work half done, that hath it well bepun. 

Inftru&ion, and a good Education, is a durable Portion.- 
Ignorance is the greateft Enemy to Learning. 
In praifing fparing be, and blame moil Sparingly. 
Imaginary Toys, do pleafe fome idle Boys. 
Intempcranceis attended byDifeafes, andldlenefs withWant. 
]t is good to have a Friend, but bad to need him. 
Idlenefs and Sloth, decreafeth Learning's Growth. 
Innocency need not fear the Lion, or the rugged Bear. 
It is better to be unborn thanuntaught. 
It is too late to fpare, when the Bottom is bare. 
Idlenefs hath no Advocate, but many Friends. 
Improvement of Parts, is by Improvement of Time. 
If you'd win a Pen of Gold, rirft learn well the Pen to hold. 
It is the Work of an Age, to repair the Mifcarriage of an 
K (Hour. 

Keep a clofe Mouth, if you'd have a wife Plead. 
Kings, as well as mean Men, mull die. 
Kings may command, and Subjects mull obey. 
Kingdoms and Crowns, mufl in the Duit be laid. 
Knowledge fublime, is gained by much Time. 


36 The Young Man's Befi Companion. 

Keep at a Diftance from Company that's ill. 
Keep good Decorum in your Words and Deeds. 
Keepclofe your Intention, for Fear of Prevention. 
Kings may win Crowns, but cannot conquer Death. 
Keep Faith with all Men, and have a Care of a Fie. 
Keep good Company, if you'd keep a good Name. 
Knowledge, if abus'd, is like a Gem ill us'd. 
Kingdoms bring Care, and CroVns are heavy Thin g s to wear. 
Keep out evil Thoughts by entertaining 
Kind A&ions neglected, make Friendfei{ fi f feed. 
Keep fafegocd v_ouufel, and enterta : n :.o ill Ac' ice. 
Kindle not Paffion's Fire, ir burns with dreadfal Ire. 

Learn to live, as you would wife to die. 
Love and Honour will bear no R'vais. 
Learn to unlearn what you have karat a*n;fs. 
Learn now, in Time of Youth, to follow Grace and Truth. 
Liberty is grateful to all, but deitruaive to many. 
Lying is the Duty of none, but the Curb: m of many. 
Learning 0.0 but love, and then you will improve. 
Liberality, without Discretion, btcomes Profufenefs. 
Let no Jeft intrude upon good Manners. 
Learn now, in youthful Prime, to hufband well your Time. 
Learn how to make as well as ufe a Pen. 
Liberality mould have no Object but the Poor. 
Loft Opportunities are very rarely, if ever, recovered. 
Let not the work of To-day be put off 'till To-morrow. 
Laugh not out of Meafure, nor out of Seafon. 

Money makes honeft Men and Knaves, Fools and Philo- 
Monuments of Learning are the moft durable. 
Many know Good, but do not the Good they know. 
Make ufe of Time, now whiift you'r in your Prime. 
Money commonly corrupts both Church and State. 
Many think not of living, 'til they can live no longer. 
Money pleads all Caufes and defends all Titles. 
Many, when they have fill'd their Bellies, complain of weak 

Meafure not Goodnefs by good Words only. 
Marriage is out of Seafon, if we are either too Young or 

(too Old. 
Moft precious Time efteem, which no One can redeem. 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 3 7 

Many live Beggars all their Lives, that they may not die fo. 

IVkneymakes fome Men mad, many merry, bat few fad. 

Many are led by the Ears more than by the Underftanding. 

Mofl precious Things are ftill pcifefs'u with Fear. 

Many aje made Saints on Earth, that never reach Heaven. 

Men of Intrigue commonly fail with all Winds. 

Money anfwers all Objections, and removes all Scmp'es.- 

Money and Poverty make great Knaves and little Ones. 

Misfortune is the Touchltone of Friendihip. 

Marriage, fays fome, breeds Cares and Cuckolds. 

Mend your Manners, and that will mend your Fortune. x 

Many want Help that have not the Face to afk it. 

Momentary and vain, is all earthly Gain. 

Nothing is conftant in this uncertain World. 
Neceflity is commonly the Mother ef Invention. 
Next to a good Confcience, prefer a good Name. 
None fo high can be, as no Mil-hap to ice. 
Nothing is fo hard but Diligence may overcome. 
No Talk's too hard, when Heaven"s the Reward. 
None can lay himfelf under an Obligation to do III. _ 
Never lament or weep, for Lofs of what you cannot keep. 
Noife and Talk, without fome Rule, doth indicate that 

(Man a Fool. 

Nature feldom changes with the Climate. 

Never lludy to pleafe others, and thereby ruin yourfelf. 

Nature's oldeit Law we find, is that we to ourfelves be kind. 

Opportuni y negledted, brings fevere Repentance. 

On prefent Time ciepend our future State. 

Opus and Ufas, as we read, are fometime Latin for ourNeed. 

Of what gives moll Deli ht, we fooneil lofe the Sight. 

Omitting doing Good, is a committing Evil. 

Orators are more folicitous to fpeak well than to do fo. 

Our Sand doth run apace, and foon we end our Race. 

Our Inclinations get the Rein, to gain a Point we mould 


Our Minds muft be cultivated, as well as our Plant;. 
'Other People's Death ihould be Memento's to our own. 

Our early Care mould be, to live moll pioufly. 

Our Time of Life is cail'd a Span, by which obferve how 

(frail is Man. 

One falfe Step fometimes prevents another. 

3 8 The Toting Man's Eejjt Companion: 

Provide againft the worft, and hope for the beft. 
Poor Men want manv Things, but covetous Men all. 
Patience and Time run thro' the rougher! Day. 
Put to your Tongue a Bridle, that it talk not idle. 
Pain, Diigiace, and Poverty, have frightful Looks. 
Prayers and Provender hinder no Man's Jou ney. 
Put not off the main Buiinefs of Life, to the very Article 

(of Death. 
Pain we can count, but Pleafure deals away. 
Poor Freedom is better than rich Slavery. 
Patience i_s the Lord of the lean Meat of Adverfity. 
Paflion and Partial ty govern in too many Cafes. 
Perfection in this World, is Virtue; and in the nexv 


Quick Promifers are commonly flow Performers. 

Quietnefs and Content, are Mates moit.Excellent. 

Qualify exorbitant Paffions with Quietnefs and Patience, ■ 

Quiet Men have quiet Minds, and enjoy Content. 

Quicken Learning with Alacrity nnd Delight. 

Quarrelfom Perfons fometimes meet with their Match. 

£>uot Homines tot Sententiee, fo many Men, &c. 

Quills are made for Pens, and Pens for Letters. 

Quietly learn to bear aCrofs, if we repine, 'tis to our Lofs. 

Queftions in Jeft, no ferious Anfwers need. 

Quench Paffion's Heat ; don't furler it to reign. 

Quantity with fome is what they'd hit; but Quality prevails- 

(with Men of Wit. 
Remember your Duty to God, your Neighbour and yourfelf. 
Repentance comes too late, when all is confumed. 
Realon mould always guide, and o'er our Ads prefide. 
Reputation is the Darling of human Affection. 
Reft continued long, makes Idlenefs grow ftrong. 
Rely on\irtue mere than Blood, for that is what you mou'd. 
Repent To-day, To-morrow may be too late. 
Reputation is like a Glafs, when cracked, it will be crazy. 
Reputation is gain'd by many Actions, and loft by one. 
Remember Death, and do not forget Judgment. 
Religion in Hypocrites, is as it were but bkin acep. 
Relations and Friends, purfue their own Ends 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 39 

Religion hath and doth give Countenance to much Wick- 
Riches ferve a wife Man, and rule a Fool. (ednefs. 
Run no greatRifque for 'vantage fmall, tho' fome for Money 

(hazard ail. 
Reafon's Dictates follow Hill ; which if you do, -you'll ne'er 

(do 111. 
Righteous Mens Prayers (hall be regarded. 
Repentance is a quite forfeiting Sin ; but he repents not 

(that remUiiis therein. 
Refolve to amend, and purfue it to your End. 
Review the Time that you have mifpent ; think upon it, 

(and lament. 
Recreation mould fit us for Bufinefs, not rob us ut Time. 

Sin and Sorrow are infeperable Companions. 
Some are too ilirF to bend, and too old to mend. 
Some --wt'linglier difcharge aReckoning, than pay a Debt. 
Sin is n oft certain, firft Caufe of Misfortune. 
Study to live quiet, and to do your own Buhnefs. 
Some in their Zeal are hot, but Knowledge they've not. 
Set Bounds to Zeal by Difcretion. 
Silence is the Sanctuary of Prudence and Difcretion. 
Sloth is an Argument of a mean and degenerate Mind. 
Short and therefore vain, is all earthly Gain. 
Soft Words, fometimes, work upon the proudeft Heart. 
Sleep and Jdienefs are Enemies to Learning. 
Sin is the Caufe of Shame ; who love it are £0 blame. 
Small Means, and large Minds, ruin many Men. 
Short are all Extreams, whethei of Good or III. 
Spend Time in good Duties, and Treafure in goo J Works. 
Some go tne and brave, finely to play the Knave. 
Six Foot-of Earth, ends all Diitinctions of our Birth, 
fccme rauil die, that others may live, faid the Gra\ e-digger. 
Silly People are commonly picas' d with filly Things. 
Some are Jull of 'oral Sanctity, and mental Impiety. 
Small Front comes from all ungodly Gain. 

Train up a Child in the Love and Praftice of good Manners. 
The End of Mirth is many times the Beginning of Sorrow. 
Time is fo fwift of Foot, that none can overtake it. 
Time paifeth fwift away, nu Mortal can it ftay. 
Time pafleth fwift away, improve therefore each Day. 
The doing nothing^ is very near doing Evil. 


40 The Foung Man's Beft Companion. 

Thole who won't mend To-day, Jhall have more Work 

The Borrower is a Slave to the Lender ; and the Security 

(Slave to both. 
Truth is the ftrongeit Bands of human Society. 
The Endowments of the Mind, ought not to be confined. 
There s no difcerning Pate, that can contend with Fate. 
The Deftruclion of the Poor is their Poverty. 
The Country cares not what the City thinks. 
To do Good is the Way to find it. 1770. 
'Tis juft fo much loft as isidlyfpent. 
There is no fuch Thing in Nature as Perfection. 
Time, Tide, r.nd Carriers, will for no Man itay. 
The Unfortunate are infulted by ever; Rafcal. 
'Tis inhuman to fport with anothers Intimities. 

Virtue is firft to be fought for, and Money the next. 
Vain and tranfitory, is all mundane Glory. 
Virtue and Fortune work Wonders in the World. 
Value more good Confcience than a great Fame. 
Unwillingly go-to Laiv, and willingly make an End. 
Underloading a Thing is half doing it. 17D9. 
• Variety is the Happinefs of Life. 1234567. 
Virtuous and brave Actions gain Reputation. 
Uie ioft Words and hard Arguments. 1759- 
Virtue is commended of all, but folh-xv'd by few. 
Unfhankfulnefs is the Caufe of the Earth's Unfruitfulnefs. 
Vain Conceitednefs is ridiculed by all. 1 2345. 
Virtue is feldom found a Match for Power. 
Underlland Things not by their Form, but Quality. 
Virtue nil commend, but few do it attend. 
Union a id Peace, make Difcord to ceafe. 1769. 
Valoi: ' and Greatnefs, are preferr'd before Neatnefs. 
Vain md fooiiih i lungs, Dilrcputation bring. 
Virtu jus Actions will, bring Reputation fiill. 

What is more vain than publick light to Ihun. 
Who fears no Bad, Hands molt unarm'd to ///. 
What pleafes Cod mult be, none alters his Decree. 
We arc many 1 lines d< c< iv'd with the bare ^hew of Good. 
Women and Wine, tho ; they fmile, luey make Men pine. 
When Fortune knocks, be {:c:e to ope the Door. 
Wine is a Turn-coat, hrit a Friend, then an Enemy. 


The Young Maris Befi Companion. 4r 

What is violent is feldom permament. 1. 4, 10, 9. 
When good Cheer is lacking, our Friends will be packing. 
We dance well, while Fortune plays on the Mufick. 
We keep a better Account of our Money tJian our Time. 
Wickednefs in Jell, leads us to Wickednefs in Earneft. 
We mult not blame Fortune for our own Faults. 
Where Knavery is in Credit, flonefty is put out of Counte- 
We muft lock to Time paft, to improve what's to come. 
What is fixed in our Hearts, is lejJom out of our Heads. 
Wickednefs conies on by Degrees, as -u. ell as Virtue. 
Would you be rich, be indmtrious ; if wife, be Itudious. 

Xenophon was a great Captain, as weU as a Philofopher. 
Xerxes wept at the thoughts that his vaft Army would be 

(dead irr ico Years. 
Xerxes whift. theSea becaufe it would not obey hisCommand. 
Xenocrates, tho' a Philofopher, was very dull and heavy. 
Xenophilus liv'dwithoutSicknefs one hundrt Und it :ven Years. 
'Xamples of the bell for ever mind, and imitate-in kind. 
'Xpel bad Thoughts, and what is Sin, forth of your Mind, 

(and let what's good ccme in. 
'Xamine well how you imjr rove, for that will be as you 

(your Learning love. 
'Xercife will much Improvement gain. 123456. 
'Xperience is the Miitrefs of all Arts and Sciences. 
'Xcel in what you can, and ftrive to lead the Van. 
'Xprefs your Defire to learn by your Diligence. 

Youth is full of Dfforder, and Age of Infirmity. 
Young Men lament, your Minutes mlfpent. 
Your Time improve, and fquander't not away. 
Your Spelling mind, and Scnfe of wlia-: you write. 
Yield quieti)- to what mull: come unavoidably. 
Young Men in Strength mould provide againft Age and 

Youth in their Prime, mould manage well their Time, 
Youth to the Grave do go, as -well as the Aged 
Yield yourfelf Servant to Righteoufnefs and to (IdHnefs. 
Your Copy mind, write fair, and of blotting beware. 
Your Care mould appear 1 y v. riting nioft fair. 
Your Delight and your Cans will make vou write fair. 

6 ' Z 

42 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. % 


Zeal, in a gocd Caufe, commands Applaufe. 
Zeal, mixt with Love, is harxnlefs as the Dove. 
Zealoufly llrive, with Emulation write. 1770. 
Zealoufly ftrivc for an eternal Crown. 12345.. 
Zeno was the firft cf the Stoic Philosophers. 
Zeal without Knowledge,' is but Religious Wild-fire. 
Zaccbeus he was low, but yet his Faith wan't Co. 
Zeal, if not rightly directed, is very pernicious. 
Z-eaiouily bend amain, fair writing to obtain. 

Short Lines for Text Hand. 

Abandon whatfoever's Til Be Wife betimes. 

Care Deftroys the Body — Do the Things that are Juit 
Expect to receive as you give—Frequent good Company. 
Give what you give cheai fully — Ha\ e gooa Men in Elk em. 
Imitate that which is good — Keep God's Commandments. 

Learn to be wife Money anivveVs all Things. 

Nothing get, nothing have Obferve Model!) . 

Pieafures are very fhort Pains are very long. 

Quit all Revenge Quiet your PalTions. 

Re.compe^ce a good Turn Repent of your Sins. 

Spare for to live Sin very little. X*c- 

Time will improve Turn from your Sins. 

Ufe moderate Pleafure Ufe not bad Company. 

Vain are fome Pleafures Vile are fome Vulgar. 

Wifdom is the principal Thing Wife Men are fcarce 

Xcnophon and Xcnoc atet Zeno and Zencbia. 

Double Lines in Verfe. 

All you that in fair writing would excell, 
How much you write regard not, but hyw welt. 
Bear your Pen lightly, keep a lteady Hand, 
And that's ihe Way, fair Writing to command. 
Carefuily mend in each fucceeding Line. 
For that's the Way to reach to wliat is fine. 
Descending Strokes are dark, but upwards fmali ; 
Even at Head and Feet keep Letters all. 
From Blots keep clean your Book ; and always mind, 
To have your Letters all one Way inclin'd. 
•Grace every Letter with perfect, full and fmall, 
And keep a due Proportion in them all. 


The Young Man's Befi Companion, 43 

Hold your Pen lightly, gripe it not too hard, 
And with due Care your Copy well regard, 
Join every Letter to its next, with Care, 
And let the Stroke be admirably fair. 
Keep a light Hand, and fmoothly glide along, 
Afcending fine, and downward Strokes are itrong. 
Let graceful Beauty in each Line appear, 
And fee the Front do not excel the Rear ; 
MajefUc Grace, beautiful and flrong, 
Doth, or elfe ought, to every Line belong. 
No rough Edges ever fhould be feen ; 
But all the Letters mould be fmooth and clean. 
Of Care depends the Beauty of each Line, 
For that alone will make your Art to fhine. 
Praife is deferving to the careful Hand, 
But to the Unthinking, doth Correction Hand, 
Quit yourfelf nobly, with a prudent Care, 
Of clumfey Writing, and of Blots beware. 
Remember ftrictly, what the Art enjoins, 
Equal fiz'd Letters, and as equal Lines- 
Small Letters muft of equal Height be feen ; 
The fame of Great ; both beautifully clean. ♦v 
Time and Delight will eafy make the Talk : 
Delight, Delight's- the only Thing I afic ! 
Vain are the Hopes of thofe that think to gaia 
This noble Treafure, without taking Pain. 
Whilft idle Drones fupinely dream of Fame, 
The Induflrious actually do get the fame. 
'Xamples of the bed, with Emulation ftrive, 
To imitate, and then your Name'll furvive. 
Youth is the Time for Progrefs in all Arts ; 
Then ufe your Youth to gain molt noble Parts. 
Zeal for Attainment of each Art fh u'd burn 
With fervent Warmth, then to Account 'twill turn. 

Since good Ink is neceffary to good Writing, I Ihall give 
a Receipt or two for making fome of the belt black Ink in 
the World, which is as follows, viz. 

A Receipt for Black Ink. 

TO fix Quarts of Rain or River Water, (but Rain Wa- 
ter is the belt) put one Pound and a Half of freOi blue 
Galls of Aleppo (for thofe of Smyrna are not ilrong enough) 

C bruifed 

44- the Young Mans Bejt Companion. 

bruifed pretty fmall ; 8 Ounces of Copperas, clean, rocky, 
and green ; alio 8 Ounces of clean, bright, and clear Gum 
Arabick ; and 2 Ounces of Roche All urn : Let thefe ftaud 
together in a large Stone Bottle, or clean Stone Pot r or 
earthen Pot, with a narrow Mouth to keep it free fromDuft ; 
fhake, roll, or ftir it well, once every Day, and you will 
have .excellent Ink in about a Month's Time: And the 
oldej it grows, the better 'twill be for Ufe. 

Ingredients for a 'Quart. 

I Quart of Water, 4 Ounces of Galls, 2 Ounces of Cop- 
peras, and 2. Ounces of Gum, mix'd and ftirred as above. 

5^ If you foak the green Peeling of Walnuts (at the 
Time of the Year when pretty ripe) and Oak Saw-duft, or 
fmall Chips of it, in Rain Water, and ftirr'd pretty often 
for a Fortnight, and then ftiain'd, and die Water ufed with 
the fame Ingredients as above, the Ii*k will JiiU be ftronger 
and better. 

How to make Red Ink. 

TAKE 3 Pints of Stale Beer, (rather than Vinegar) and 
4 Ounces of ground Brazil Wood ; fimmer them to- 
gether for an Hour ; and then ftrain it thro' a Flannel, or, 
&c. then bottle it up (well flopped) for Ufe. 

Or you may diflblve half an Ounce of Gum Stcnnega, or 
Arabick, in half a Pint of Water ; then put a Pennyworth 
of Vermillion into a fmall Gallipot and pour fome of the 
Gum Water to it, and ftir it well, and mix it together with 
a Hair-pencil, to a proper Confiftency ; but it will not incor- 
porate prefently, but by the next Day it will ; then having 
a clean Pen, dip it into the Ink, having firft well ftirred it 
with the Pencil, and then you may ufe it ; It is a fine and 
curious Red, tho' not fo free as the other. And after the 
fame Manner, you may rmike any other colour'd Ink, as 
Blue, Green, Yellow, Purple, l$c. having divers Gallipots 
for that Ufe. In like Manner, you may mix the Shell Gold, 
for curious Qccafion*, pouring two or three Drops, accord- 
ing to Direction, into the Shell, and mix it tW/ with a clean 
Hair Pencil, and with it put a little into a clean Pen, XSc. 
The fmall Shells may be bought at fome Fan-fellers, or 
Fan-painters, at two or three for Tv/o-Per.ce ; or the large 
ones (which are the belt) at the Cclour-fhcjs, at Six-Pence a 



^he Young Man's Beft Companion. 45 
T0 keep Ink from Freezing or Moulding. 

N hard froity Weather, Ink will be apt to freeze ; which 
^ if once it doth, it -will be good for nothing ; for it takes 
away all it's Blacknefs and Beauty. To prevent which (if 
you have not the Conveniency of keeping it warm, or from 
the Cold) put a few Drops of Brandy, or other Spirits, into 
it, and it will not freeze. And to hinder its Moulding, put 
a little Salt therein. 


familiar Letters en feveral Occafions, and on 
divers Subjeffs. 

BEFORE we enter upon Arithmetick, it may be proper 
to give fome Examples of Letters on various Subjects, 
and upon divers Occafions j which Letters frequently read 
over, and fometimes copied, it may be a good Introduction, 
to a handfome Style of Senie, and to a commendable Man- 
ner of Writing ; ' befides the Help and Ule they may be of 
in noting and obferving the Method of Spelling good Eng- 
lijh, and orthographically placing Great Letters, or Capi- 
tals, where they ought to be ; and alfo an imprinting in 
the Mind the due Notion of Points, Stops, cif<r. and when 
and where to be made. 

Letters are varioufly worded, and ought properly to ex- 
prefs the Defires, Thoughts, iffc. of the Writer to the Rea- 
der, that thereby the Receiver of the Letter may fully un- 
derftand, and bcjuftly inform'd of the Occafions, Wants, 
or Intentions of the Sender. 

Letters being writ on divers Subjects, and on fundry Oc- 
cafions, they may be ranked under thefe Denominations, or 
feveral Heads following, viz. Letters of proffered Afiftance, 
Letters Confolatory, Letters of Thanks, Letters Congratulatory, 
Ditto of Reprccf, Ditto of Excufe, Ditto Jcafi/cry, Ditto of 
Advice or Ccunjd, Ditto ef Recommendation, Ditto Exhort a- 
tory, Ditto of Remonjlrance, and Letters of Vift, properly called 
Familiar Letters, Letters of Bufnefs ; and laftly, Mixed Dei-. 
ters, that is, on various Subjecls, and different Affairs. 

I mall not have Room to touch upon every one of thofe 
particularly ; but I (hall give fundry Examples promifcuofly 
exhibited, and are fu^ as thefe thnf follow, viz. 

r ? 1 ■ 1 1 iiirlfcirtmi 

4.6 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 
A Letter from a Son to his Father. 

London, \th Dec. 1 768. 
Honoured Father, 

WITH all dutiful Refpect, I trouble you with thefe 
Lines, to enquire of the good State of your Healthy 
(of which Ifhall be extreamly glad to hear) and to prefent 
you my moft humble Duty, and tenders of filial, and mod 
affectionate Service. I have not had the Favour of any Let- 
ter from you, fince that from you dated the 8th of Qclober 
laft, which I reply'd to very next Poft, and in fuch Par- 
ticulars as you enjoin'd me. I have fent you, Sir, by Samu- 
el Simple, the Pemfcy Carrier, a Spaniel Dog, which is an ex- 
cellent good one of his Kind, and fit for the Sport of your 
Place ; his Name is Tray, and is very free for the Water ; 
and if he hath any Fault, it is being a little too eager, but 
he is young, and may be brought to what you pleafe to have 
him. I hope my Sifter Mary is well, to whom pray give 
my kind Love, and alfo be pleafed to accept of my Duty 
10 yourfelf, which is the Prefent needful from, 
Sir, ymrtmfi Dutiful Son, 

and humble Servant, 

Anthony Addlehill. 

The Anfwer. 

Pem/ey, $th Dec. 1768. 
Dear Tcney, 

I Received your Letter of the 4th Inftant, and I take No" 
tice of your dutiful Refpeft and kind Wifhes for my 
Health, which, I thank God, I perfeftly enjoy at prefent, 
as I vvifh and hope you do yours. — 1 received your Prefent 
of the Dog'; but the poor Cur was almoft ftarved, having 
(as I fuppofe) had nothing on the Road ; but he is now in 
good Condition, and hath been try'd as to his Mettle, and 
find he is a good one. 1 have fent you by the Carrier half 
a Dozen wild Ducks, which Tray fetch'd when I had fhot 
them. Your bifter Molly remembers her kind Love to you, 
and hah fent you a Turkey, and a Chine of Bacon, to 
which I wilh you (and your Friends, if you invite any) a 

^_ S ood 

The Toung Man's Beji Companion. 47 

good Stomach. With my Bleffirig and Prayers to God for 
you, conclude your tender and very 

having Father, 

Andrew Addlehill. 
P. S. We have a great many 
Wild Fowl in our Level, fo that 
you may expect another Prefent 
of that Kind in a little Time. 

Nate, 'That thefe fcur Jbort Lines are called the Pojlfcript, 
becaufe they are writ after, --when the Body of the Letter is 

A Letter from a Toung Man to his Uncle. 

Honoured Uncle, Norwich, Dec. 7, 1768. 

• SIR, 

TKS many kind and courteous Things that you have 
dene for me, oblig'd me in Point of Gratitude, as 
W/as Duty, to return you my molt humble Thanks, and 
to offer you" my poor, but real and hearty Service, in the 
Affair between you and Mr. A. B. of this Place: And if 
ve-vV/pleafe but to communicate to me your Intentions, and 
give me your Directions therein, I (hall obferve and follow 
them with all Punctuality ; and will from Time to Time 
give an exatt Account of my Negotiations in that Affair. 

So expecting to receive your Commands by the firft con- 
venient Opportunity, I reft and remain, 

Si', j cur y.'.Ji obliged Nephew, 

and -very bxnibls Servant, 

Brian Bing. 

The Uncle's Anfwer. 

London, %th Dec. 1768. 

I Take your Offer of Service to me in the Bufinefs between 
me and Mr. A. B of your City, very kindly, and think 
none fitter to adjuft that Affair than yourfelf ; but I am un- 
willing to go to Law, and had rather, much rather, that 
you would endeavour to bring him to fovne reafonable Ac- 
commodation ; for in fuch Conteits the Winner is a Lofer 
at the Upfhot. So if I can bring him to any reafonable 
Terms, 1 Jhall be very glad : You underiUnd the Affair, 
C 3 and 

4 8 The To wig Man's Bejl Companion. 

and fo I pall commit it wholly to your difcreet and good 
Management, being perfuaded that you'll do for me as for 
j-ourfelf : So I remain your Loving, 

And Ajjeftionate Uncle. 

Bazil Bing, 

A Letter from a Niece to her Aunt. 

London, gib Dec. 1768. 

THE Trouble I have already given you, puts me to 
the Biufh, when I think of intruding again on your 
Goodnefs ; but Ncceffity, that frequently puts us upon 
what we have not always a Mind to, and forces us againft 
our Inclinations, is now the Motive that induces me to be 
thus troublefome. Pray dear Madam, excufe me, if I once 
more beg your Afiiftance in this Time of my unlucky Mif- 
fortune, and I fhall ever have a grateful Remembrace of 
your Goodnefs to me ; and I hope I fhall be one Time or 
other in a Capacity of making fome Returns of the many 
Obligations your Goodnefs hath conferred upon me, your 
moil refpeclful Niece, 

And humble Servant, 

Penelope Pinch. 

A Letter of proffered djftftar.ct to a Friend. 

Dear Friend, 

I Should be falfe to true Friendfhip, if I fhould negleft 
or caft off my Friend in Advcrfity ; I hearing that you 
are under fome Misfortune, and, at prefent forccwhat 
pinch'd with Want, I fend you thefe Lines for your Con- 
solation, defiling you to bear up againft your ill Luck 
with as much Prcfcnce of Mind as you can ; for afi'ure 
yourfelf I fhail fuddenly follow this FpiiUe in Perfon, and 
ccme, I hope, opportunely enough to your AffiUance ; 
'till which Time, take Courage, and be affured that ycu 
(hall not be difappointcd of timely Help, from dear 

Teio^s, in Reality, 

Timothy Timely. 

A Brother 

The Young Man's Beft Companion, 49 

A Brother to a Sifter. 

Dear Sifte-, 

THE great Diilance and long Abfence of me from you 
(tho' I have not wanted good company) makes me 
very folicitous concerning your Welfare. Natural Affection 
inclines me ltrongly to have you in Remembrance, ten- 
dering your Health and Welfare in every Refpect as dear 
as my own ; and there is nothing at my Command, but, 
if you requeil, it mail be freely yours. Notwithstanding 
the Dif'tance, I purpofe (God willing) to make you a Vifit 
very Ihortly, and had done it before now, but an urgent 
Occaiioil interpos'd, the Particulars of which being too 
long for a Letter, I (hall acquaint you of when I fee you. 
Pray give my due Refpecls to all Friends, particularly to 
honeii Mr. S. T. ami fo in a hopeful Expectation of find- 
ing you all well at my Arrival, I conclude, and remain, 

Dear Sifter, 
Tour ajfeclionate Brother , 

and bumble Servant, 

James Canter. 

A Letter from a Youth at School to his Parents. 

London, loth Dec. 1768. 
' Honoured Father and Mother, 

I Received your kind Letter of the 4 th of November pair, 
and alio the feveral Things therein mentioned, by the 
Chichtjicr Car.ier, for which I return you my moft humble 
and hearty Thanks they coming very feafonably to the Re- 
lief of my Occafions. 1 b egin to make pretty good Im- 
provement in my Learning now (tho' at th- firft it feem'd 
a-iike irkfome, and hard) and I hope to gain the Point at 
lalt, for which you fc-nt me hither. Pray, dear Parents, ac- 
cept of my Iri'oa hiimble Duty to yourfelves, and kind Love 
pray remember to my Brothers, and Sifters, and to my 
quondam Play-fellows, particularly to Jacky Rattlebrains, 
and tell him I hope by this Time he begins to be a little 
ferious. — This being all at prefent from, 

Honoured Parents, 
Your dutiful Sen, and humble Servant, 

Nathaniel Serious. 


£0 The Toting Man's Beft Companion. 

From an Apprentice to his Friends. 

Honoured Father and Mother, 

BY thefe I let you know, that by your good Care and 
Conduct I am well fettled, and am very well pleafed 
with my Station, and could not but in Duty return you 
my hearty Thanks in a grateful Acknowledgment of your 
Love and tender Care of me ; I will endeavour to go thro' 
my Bufinefs chearfully ; and having begun well, I hope 
I ihall perfevere lb to do to the End, and that I may be a 
Comfort to you hereafter, and in fome Meafure make a 
Return of your Love and Kindnefs to me, who am, 
Tittr vioft dutiful and obedient 

Son, and Servant, 
Daniel Diligent. 

A Letter cf Recommendation. 

S I R, 

THE Bearer hereof Francis Faithful, I fend to you a* 
one whofe Honefty you may rely on, and my Expe- 
rience of his Conduft and Fidelity gives me a certain 
kind of Confidence, in recommending him to you ; but 
you know me, Sir, and I believe you cannot in the lealt 
think that I would recommend any one to you, that I had 
the leaft Umbrage of Sufpicion or Doubt concerning their 
Probity. I am with -due Refpecl, 

Sir, your real Friend, , 
and humble Servant, 
George Generous. 

A Daughter to a Mother, in Relation to Marriage. 

Honoured Mother, 

WITH all Duty, Humility and Refpeft, I addrefs 
myfelf to you in thefe Lines, hoping they will find 
you in perfect Health both of Body and Mind, for which I 
am never wanting in my Prayer to implore. As I would 
act nothing that is very material, without your Knowledge, 
Confent, and Approbation, I thought it my Duty to ac- 
quaint you of a Matter of the greateft. Weight and Impor- 
tance, pardon me, if I blufh to name it, -viz. that of my 
Marriage ; the Perfon (as I think) is well deferving of me, 


The Young Man's Be.Jl Companion. 5 1 

or one much better; it is Wlx.A. B. of C. You know 
both him and his Character, was. one fober, diligent and 
good humour'd ; but however I fhall fubmit to your good 
Pleafure and Guidance in an Affair ot fuch momentuous 
Concern, and remain, 

Honoured Mother, 

Your dutiful Daughter, 

and 'very humble Servant, 
Mary Modeity. 

To a Country Chapman. 

London, llth Dec. 1768. 
Mr. Francis Fairdealcr, 

YOU and I have formerly had Trading together, and 
it is not my Fault that we do not continue fo to do \ 
for affure yourfelf, I have a great Value and Refpett for 
you, and on that Account none ihall be more ready to o- 
blige you in what I may ; and pray let us once more re- 
aflume our Dealings together ; and you ihall find, that for 
any Goods you have Occafion for in my Way, none fhall. 
ufe you more kindly than, 

Tour real Friend, and humble Servant, 

Titus Trade well. 

A Letter cf Congratulation. 

IF you were but fenfible how much I am affected with 
the good and molt acceptable News that I hear of your 
good Fortune, you wocud conclude that the Joy that fur- 
prizes me for the fame, is equal to yours that enjoy fo 
happy a Turn of Providence : I could exprefs myfelf fur- 
ther on this Theme, and enlarge exceedingly on fo plea- 
fing a Subjeft ; but let this at prefent fuffice, till I have a 
more favourable Opportunity of expreffing my Joy to you 
perfonally : In the Interim, I am truly, 

Your fine ere Friend, 

and very humble Servant, 

Ralph Real. 

C 5 A Leu- 

The Tsung Mans Beji Companion. 
A Letter of Enquiry of Health. 

Hanv.icrfmitb, \ztb Dec. 1768. 
S I R, 
Not hearing from you in fuch a Length of Time as 
from the nth of June laft to this Time, I am theie- 
fbre under a great Concern for you, left fome Misfortune 
of Siekntfs, or fame other Accident, hath happened to 
you, or to f me one of your Family ; my Uneafinefs 
thereon, occasions my giving vou the Trouble of thefe 
Lines, which I wilh may find Things with you better than 
my Fears fuggeft ; however to put me out of Pain, be 
pleas'd to let ine know the Certainty with what convenient 
Speed you can ; and thereby you'll very much oblige, 
Yew cordial and real Friend, 

and 'very humble Serian*, 

Peter Pitiful. 

A Letter by Way of Petition to a Friend. 

Honoured Sir, 

I Am uncertain whether my late Misfortunes have come 
to your Knowledge : however, I molt humbly prefume 
on your good Nature, being aflured by fundry Examples 
of your Companion, that you w.ll think of, and take Pity 
on the DiftrerTed ; therefore, as an Objeft truly de erving 
Compaflion, I moll humbly implore, and petition you to 
confider the many LofTes and Difappointments that I have 
met with in my unlucky and wayward Fortune, which 
have reduced me to fuch neceffitous Circumftances, that 
I cannot poffibly proceed in my Affairs : You was pleafed 
ence to ftile me your Friend, and (o I was indeed ; and {0 
I would moft certainly be now, and fhew it by a lignal 
Proof of Kindnefs, if our Circufnilances were changed, 
by Handing between you and Misfortune, and fcreening 
vou from the malevolent and inaufpicious Influences of 
crofs-grain'd Stars. I doubt not, Sir, but your Generofity 
and Goodnefs is as great ; and I hope, with all Humility., 
you will be pleafed to interpofe your good Offices, c5>. 
between unlucky Fortune, and, 

Your "very humble Servant, 

Lawrence Lucklefs. 

A Letter 

The Young Man's Beft Companion. 53 
A Letter of Friendjfoip. 

Dear Friend, 

IT is now a long Time (as I account it) fince you and I 
have had any mutual Converfe by Letter, which to me 
is a great Unhappinefs ; and really, if Dillance did not 
fomewhat excufe, I lhould be apt to tax you with Unkind- 
nefs ; but, however, perhaps you may not have the fame 
Conveniency cf Writing at your Place (for want of Poflage) 
as we have at Ours, and on that Account, I ihall not infill 
on your Infringement of Friend/hip ; but the chief Purport 
of thefe is to enquire of your Welfare, and to have an Anf- 
wer given to, Sir, 

Your real Friend, 

and 'very humble Ser<va nf, 

Kendrick Kindly. 

A Letter of Correfpondence. 
S I R, 

YOURS of the 5th uh. is now before me ; in anfwer 
to which, I poiitively declare, That Mr. J. B. hath not 
been with me to prefent the Bill of Exchange that you men- 
tion in your Letter of Advice to me, and therefore there 
can be no juft Caufe of Proteit, or any other Charge, put on, 
Sir, Tour humble Servant, 

John Innocent. 
It is as proper to know how to fubferibe, and how to 
direct, as it is how to write a Letter. 


To bis moft Excellent Majtjly, or, to bis mojl Sacred Ma~, 
jejfy, Sec. To the !^jtsen's mojl Excellent Majejly, &c. 

To the Prince, To his Royal Highnefs, &C. 
To the Princefs, To her 'Royal Highnefs, Sec. 

To Spiiitual Lords. 
To his Grace the Lord Arehbijhop of Canterbury, or, 
To the mnjl Reverend Father in God, Sec. 

To other Bifhops, 

To the Right Reverend Father in God, &c. 

To the Inferior Clergy, 

To the Reverend Mr. A. &c. or, To the Reverend Doctor, ScC. 

To Temporal Lords, 

To his Grace the Duke of, ScC. to the Right Honour able the 

ll.irquil if Hc.llfax. To the Right Honourable ike Earl 

54 *tht Young Man's Befi Companion. 

°f Sujfex. To the Right Honourable Lord Vifcount Ajh- 

Sons of Nobility, 

Mufl be dignified (tho' not immediate Heirs) with the 
Tide of Honourable, as being their Due by Birth. 

To a Baronet, Honourable, by Virtue of his Patent, or 
Right Worjhipful ; and alfo to a Knight, Right Worjhipful. 
To an Efquire, Worjhipful. — Every Privy Counfellor, tho' 
not a Nobleman, hath the Title of Right Honourable. All 
Embafladors have the Stile of Excellency ; as hath alfo the 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and the Captain General of 
His Majefty's Forces. The Lord Mayor of London, during 
his Mayoralty, hath the Title of Right Honourable. And 
the Sheriffs, during that Office, have the Title of Right 
Wor/hipful. All Mayors of Corporations have the Title of 
Efattires, during their Office. 

For the Beginning of Letters. 

To the King ; Sir, or May it pleaj'e your Majejly. 
To the Queen ; Madam, or May it pleafe your Maje/fy. 
To the Prince ; &>, or May it pleafe your Royal Highnefs. 
To the Princefs ; Madam, er May it pleafe yourRoyal Highnefs. 
To a Duke ; My Lord, or May it pleafe your Grace. 
To a Dutchefs ; Madam y or May it pleafe your Grace. 
To a Marquis ; My Lord, or May it pleafe your Lordfl?ip. 
To a Marchionefs ; Madam, or May it pleafe your Lady/hip. 
To an Earl, Vifcount, or Baron ; Right Honourable, or 

May it plfaje your Lord/hip. 
To their Cenforts ; Madam, or May it pleafe your Ladyjhip. 
To a Knight ; Sir, or Right Wor/hipful. 
To his Lady ; Madam, or May it pleafe your Ladyjhip. 
To a Mayor, Juftice of the Peace, Efquires, &c. Sir, or 

May it pleafe your Worjbip. 

At fubfcribing your Name, conclude with the fame 
Title you begun with ; as My Lord, your Lordjhip, &c. 

Of Secret Writing. 

HERE it may not be improper to fay fomething of 
Secret Writing ; to which BilhopWi/Ains, in his Book 
of Mathematical Magick, fpeaks largely ; but it is princi- 
pally concerning Writing in Cypher, which requires great 
Pains, and an uncommon Share of Ingenuity, both in Wri- 

The Young Man's Befi Companion. $$ 

ters, and Readers. But however I fhall /hew two or three 
particular Ways, that are very pretty and amufing, and 
alfo very eafy both as to Coil and Pains. And, 

Fir/?, If you dip your Pen in die Juice of a Lemon, or 
of an Onion, or in your own Urine, or in Spirits of Vitriol, 
and write on clean Paper whatever you intend, it Jhall not 
be difcerned till you hold it to the Fire, and then it will ap- 
pear legible. And if with any of the aforementioned, you 
write on your Skin, as on your Arm, the Back of your 
Hand, &c. it fhall net be feen till you burn a Piece of Pa- 
per, and with the Afhes rub on the Place, and then it tuill 
appear very plain. And this I have experienced and try'd, 
and therefore can fay, Probatum eft. 

Another V/ay is, When you write a Letter that you in- 
tend fhall not be difcoverei, but to thofe you think fit ; is 
firft to write your Thoughts on one Side of your Letter 
with black Ink, as ufual (but it ought to be on thin Paper) 
and then on the contrary Side, go over the faid Matter that 
you would have fecret, with a clean Pen dipp'd in Milk ; 
and that Writing fhall not be read without holding it to the 
Fire, as mentioned above, and then it <vnill appear legible*, 
in a bluifh Colour. 

A third Method, is to have two Pieces of Paper of equal 
Size, and the uppermoft cut in chequered Holes or Squares, 
big enough to contain any Word of fix or feven Syllables,, 
and in trefe Squares write your Mind in regular Senfe ; and 
then take of the faid chequered Paper, and fill up the Va- 
cancies with Words of any Kind, which will render it per- 
fect Nonfenfe, and not capable of being read, to any Pur- 
pofe of Intelligence. And tranfmit and fend the faid upper- 
moft, or chequered Paper, or another exactly of the fame 
Form, to your Correfpondent ; whereby he fhall. by laying 
it nicely on your faid Letter, read your intended Senfe, 
without being perplexed with the Words of Amufement 
intermixed, which makes it altogether unintelligible. 

Or again, you may write to your Friend in proper Senfe, 
with common Ink, and let the Lines be at fo commodious a 
Diftance, that what you intend to be fecret, my be written 
between them with Water, wherein Galls have been fteeped 
a little Time (but not long enough totindlure the Water) 
and when dry, nothing of the Writing betwen the faid Lines 
can be feen ; but when it is to be read, you mull, with a 
fine Hair PenciL dipp'd in Coperas Water, go between the 


.-6 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

faid Lines, and fo you mnke it legible. Note, This Way 
will give no ground for Suipicion, becatife the Letter feern- 
eth to carry a necclfary Sehie in thofe Lines that are fet at 
inch a proper Diilance, &c. 


AFTER Writing, the next necetfary Step toward? 
qualifying a Perfon for Bufinefs, is the UndcrlUnding 
that truly laudable and moil excellent Accomplilhment, the 
noble Science cf /rithmctick; a Knowledge L> necerlary in 
all the Parts of Life and Bufinefe, that fcarce any Thing is 
done without it. 

In my Directions for its Attainment, I mall proceed with 
fuchPlainnefs cf Method and Familiarity of Stile, as fhall 
render it eafy to be understood, and confpicuous to the 
■meaneft Capacity. 

And firft of Notaticn and Numeration. 

In Notaticn, we muft note or obferve that all Numbers are 
exprefied by, cr compofed of, thefe ten Figures or Charac- 
ters following, <viz. 
One, Tnvo, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, Nine, Cypher. 

123 4 567 8 9. . ° 

Nine of thefe are caHed figniflcant Figures, to diftinguifh 
them frcrn the Cypher, which cf itftlf fignifies nothing ; but 
as it is placed (in whole Numbers) fcrves to increafc the Ya- 
lue of the next Figure or Figures that Hand before it ; as 3 
is but Three ; but before the Cypher, thus 30, the 3 bee mes 
Thirty, tffc. But in Decimal Fractions, the (o) decreafes 
the Value of the Figure behind it ; for therein, 3 is three 
Tei tls of ?ny Thing ; but by placing o before it, thus, 03, 
■it is decreafed from 3 tenth Parts, to three hundredth Parts 
cf any Thing, c5V. — We are to note, That every one, or 
any of the abovementioned nine Figures, or Digits, have 
two Values; one certain, 2nd another uncertain ; the cer- 
tain Value is, when it ftands alone by itfelf; the uncertain 
is, when joined or placed with other Figures or Cyphers ; 
for when any one of thefe Figures dands alone, they hgnify 
no more than their own f:mple Value ; as 5 is but Five, 4 
but Four, 6 but Six, and 3 no more than Three fcJV. And 
this is the certain Value cf a Figure : But when another Fi- 
gure or Cypher is annexed, they then are encreafed in their 


The Tcttttg Mali's Befi Companion. 57 

Value ten times ; as 5, or 5 Units, or Ones, to 5 Tens or 
Fifty, 4 to 4 Tens Or Forty, 6 to 6 Tens or Sixty, and 3 to 
3 Tens Or Thirty ; as thus 51, Fifty-one ; 42, Forty-two ; 
63, Si\ty-three ; 34, Thirty-four, iffc. Again, if any of 
the faid Finurcs ftand in the third Place towards the Left- 
band, thcyYignify fo many Flunureds as they exprefi'ed 
Units or ones ; as 500 is Five Hundreds, 400 Four Hun- 
dreds, 600 Six Hundreds, and 300 Three Hundreds, &c. 
If any of them poffefs the + th Place towards the Left-hand, 
they are fo many Thoufands as they contain Units. And. fo 
any, or every Figure, encreafes by a Ten- fold Proportion 
from the Right-hand to the Left, according to the Place it 
is found or ilands in; fo that 5 may be but Five, or Fifty; 
Five Hundred, or Five Tfcoufand. In the firft Place 5 ; in 
the fecond 50 ; in the third 500 ; in the fourth Place 5000, 
£5.-. And therefore, this is the uncertain Value of a Figure. 
But the true Value of Figures in Conjunction, may be fully 
learnt and uhderftood by the following Table. 

The Numeration Table. 


-5 cs 

Vm U, <*j 5 23 v3 2 . 


<==; 3 * 
■** J5 

c .-— 3 -r « , 

° H O 

"3* • *tt -fa 
w O 




X S P 

N ^ O 

— w m CNOO r^MD u-» -^- "<■> « ►■• 


*+***>/***** r~*~n 


4^6 789 012 

1234567890 il 


345 6 7 8 9 ox 

123456789 c 


234 567 890 


123 456 789 


12 345 678 


1 234 567 


123 45 6 

12 3 4 5 

12 34-; 


1 234 

1 2 3 


I 2 


For the eafier Reading of any Number 
at the Head of the Table by Heart j as 

, firft get the Words 
Units, Tens, Hun- 

58 The Young Man's Befi Companion. 

dreds, Thoufands, 13c. and appply'd thus, 75, five Units, 
five, and 7 Tens, Seventy, that is Seventy-five. Again, 
678 ; 8 Units, Eight ; 7 Tens, Seventy ; and 6 Hundreds, 
fix hundred ; that is, Six hundred feventy eight. Once more 
3456 ; 6 Units, fix ; five Tens, fifty ; 4 Hundreds, four 
Hundred ; 3 Thoufands, three Thoufand ; together, Three 
thoufand four hundred fifty-fix. Read the 4th Line of the 
Table downwards, viz. 123456789; here the Valuation of 
the Figures is from the Right-hand to the Left, as 1 in the 
ninth Place is Hundreds of Millions ; but to be read from 
the Left-hand to the Right ; thus, One hundred twenty 
three Millions, four hundred and fifty-fix thoufand, feven 
hundred eighty-nine. But any Number may yet be read 
more intelligibly, viz. by Stops.^thus , Make a Comma 
after every third Figure or Cypher, beginning at the Right- 
hand, and fo on towards the Left, making a Stop after 
every third Figure or Chypher, as abovefaid ; thereby dif- 
tinguifliing every third Place into Hundreds, as Hundreds 
of Units, Hundreds of Thoufands, Hundreds cf Millions, 
and Hundred Thoufands of Millions, c5V. And for Trial, 
let's read the f rft Line of the Table ; the laft Place in Va- 
luation is Hundred Thoufands of Millions, and to be point- 
ed into Periods thus, 123,456,789,012;- and read thus; 
One hundred twenty-three thoufand, four hundred fifty-fix 
Millions, feven hundred eighty- nine thoufand, and twelve; 
that is, no hundreds but twelve. Again, read the follow- 
ing Number, viz. 276,245,678,921,460; here the nrft 
Point or Period is between 4 and 1, and the laft between 
2 and 6, and to be read thus ; 276 Millions of Millions, 
245 Thoufands of Millions, 678 Millions, 921 Thoufands, 
460 Units, or Ones. And thus may any Number be read 
with eafe, though a large one : And thus are large 
Numbers or Sums exprefied, or fet out in the Exchequer, 

Bank, Lottery Tickets, cffr. as thus No. 224, 156 19, 

478 and 420,000, &c. The foregoing Table of Nume- 
ration is on the Right-hand diftanced out into Periods,, 
for the eaiier Reading thereof. 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. $<) 

Numbers to be read or written, viz. 

96, Ninety-fx. 

242, Two hundred forty-ivjo. 
^924, Seven thou/and 9 hundred 24. 
54006, Fifty-four thoufand and fix. 
524707, Five hundred 24 thoufand 707. 
4706240, Four millions 706 thoufand 240. 
62700472, Sixty-tvoo millions 700 thou/and 472'. 
474960204, /W hundred 74 «*/#«* 960 thoufand 204. 
4214007042, Fo«r thoufand 214 millions 7 thoufand 42. 
44214800240, Forty-four thoufand 214 riutf/>#i 8 hundred 
thoufand 240. 

0/ Numerical Letters. 

Sometimes Numbers are expreffed by Letters ; and it it 
neceffary to underftand them, for the readier Reading the 
Dates of Years, frequently ufed at the Foot of Title Page* 
of Books, and on Funeral Monuments, and in Roman Hi- 
ll ory, &c. 

I Signifies One. lOOODD f*>* Hundred Tbow 

V Five. fa*- _ 

X Ten. CCCCCID0003 Ten Hun- 

L Fifty. Jred Thoufand, or a Mil- 

C An hundred. H^- 

CC Tvjo hundred. MDCCLXIX, exprrffcsthis pre- 

D or 13 F*W £«»*W. >*/ Date of 1769, M £««£ 

M or CI,-) // Thoufand. One Thoujand, D Fm #«»- 

lOn F/o* Thoufand. dred, CC Two Hundred, and 

CCI33 Ten Thoufand. LX1X, Sixty -nine; together, 

•OOO ^{/O 1 Thoufand. One 1 houfand Seven Hun- 

CCCCI3333 ^ Hundred dred and Sixty-nine. 




S the putting together two or more Numbers or Sums, 
fo as their total Value may be difcovered, or known. 

Herein we mull always obferve to fet the Numbers to be 
added, orderly one under the other; that is, Units under 
Units, Tens under Tens, Hundreds under Hundreds, l3c.. 

as in the fubfequent Examples. 


60 The Young Mans Beft Companion. 
Addition of Numbers of one Denomination. 

Tanls. Gallons. ' Pounds. 

X ("/" 

T. U. 


T. U. 

Th. Th.H.T.U. 

2 4 


5 ^ 

5 7 9 6 2 

4 2 


3 2 

3 9 7 4 4 

6 8 


7 8 

6 7222 

8 6 


9 6 


2 4 


2 2 


4 2 


7 8 

3 9 ° 

2 8 6 

3 5 

6 2 

247 4 S 4 

In Addition of fimple Numbers, whether it be Tata's, 
Gallons, Pounds, or any Thing elfe, remember to carry 1 for 
every iv that you find in the firir. Row cr Rank of Figures, 
being Units, to the next Row of Tens ; and the like from 
the Rank of Tens to the Row of Hundreds, b'<r. and what 
ever it makes in the laft, you mull: let it down, amount to 
what it will. 

The Numbers above are (ex down in order, as before di- 
rected ;, that is, Units under Units, Tens under Tens, £?*> 
as may be plainly underftood, by being indicated at the 
Hea 1 of each Row, or Rank with Units, Tens, Hundreds, 
ifc. Then in calling up each Example, to know its Total, 
I begin at the Right-hand, or Unit's Rank, of the firlt Ex- 
ample, and Cv.y, 2 and 4 is 6, an* 6 : s 12, and S is 20, 
and 2 is 22, and 4 is 26 ; in which Row there are two 
Tens and 6 over ; wherefore i fetdovvn 6juil under its own 
Rank, and carry 2 to the next or laft Row, and fay, 2 that 
I carry and 4 makes 6, and 2 is 8, an;! 8 is 16, and 6 is 
22, and 4 is 26, and 2 is 28 ; and it beinrr the laft flow I 
fct down the Am- unt, viz. 28 ; fo that the Total Number 
(f Yards is found to be (by this Method) at the Bottom 
2$6. And the next or fecond Example, is found bv the 
fame Method to be 3562 Gallons. And in the third and 
laft Example, tha Total Number of Pounds is found by the 
fame Way to be 247484. And fo the Total of any other 
Example of the fame kind, viz. fimple Numbers of one 
Denomination, may be found. Note, That when any of 
the Ranks amount to juft 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, &c. then 
you mull fct down the o, under its proper Rank, and carry 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 61 

either \, 2, 3, 4, or 5, according to the Number of Tens 
that you find, to the next Row ; and To you will always do, 
when it fo happens, whether in the firit, fecond, or third 
Row; or in any other, except the lait, where what it a- 
mounts to mufl be fet down, without any Referve or Car- 
riage in the Mind, becaufe there is no other Row or Rank 
to carry to, as was hinted before. 

And fo much for Addition of Numbers of one Denomination, 
which never varies from what has been faid above ; ferving 
ftrictly to keep the critical, and nicely fetting down in 
perpendicular Order your feveral Numbers that Units may 
precifely and directly Hand under Units, Tens under Tens, 
l£c. as hath fully been declared before. The next in Order 
ofCour."^, is Addition of Numbers of feveral Denominations, 
or Addition of Money. 

As we in England, or Great-Britain, keep our Accounts 
in Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, and Farts of a Penny ; 
fo you are to note, That 

4 Farthingi make I PcKny, 
1 2 Pence 1 Shitting , and 
20 S illings I Pcund. 

And here alfo you are ftri&ly to obferve, and with the 
fame Punctuality to mind, that Pounds be let directly under 
Pounds, Shillings under Shillings, Pence under Fence, and 
Farthings under Farthings ; as in the Examples hereafter 

But before yoa proceed, it will be necefiary to have the 
following Tables by Heart, for the readier Knowledge how 
many Shillings there are in fo rainy Pence, and apprehend- 
ing how manyPounds are contained in fomanyShillings,c5V. 

Pence, s. 




20 is 1 


30 is 1 


30 — 3 


40 — 2 

■\° — 3 


50 — 2 


<o - - 


60 — 3 

~ 5 

7° - 3 


70 — 5 


80 — 4 

Ho — 6 


90 — 4 



100 — <; 

160 — 8 


1 10 — 5 


lip — q 


1 20 — 6 

120 — IO 


6i The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

The Ufe of thefe Tables is this ; whenever > ou are Caff- 
{ng up any Example, or Sum of Money, you begin at the 
Right-hand (as before in Sums of one Denomination) the 
Place of Pence, and fuppofe the Rank, Row, or Denomi- 
nation of Pence amounts, from the Bottom to the Top, to 
56 ; then your Table of Pence tells you, that 50^. is 45. and 
2d. 6 over is 4*. Sd. If to 92^. the Table tells you that qod. 
is 7 s- 6 J. and 2d. over is js. Sd. And if to 81^. the Table 
fhews that Sod. is 6s. Sd. and id. more makes 6s. od. l$c. 

The Shillings Table ferves to lead you to a quick Recol- 
lection how many Pounds there are in fo many Shillings; 
as, admit the Rank of Shillings arife to 157.1. The Table 
fays that 50*. is 2/. \os. and ys. over makes 2/. \js. If to 
84J. the Table declares that' 80/. is juit 4/. and 4/. over 
makes 4/. 4/. If to 112s. the Table tells you that iooj. is- 
5/. and 12s. more makes 5/. 12s. &c. 

Addition of Money. 
Money Owing, and Money Received, as follows. 

( I ) 

"Mr. Andrews 

Mr. Bent 

Mr. Crawley 

Ow. J Mr. Dupper 

to . Mr. Ed/in 

Mr. Franklin 

Mr. Gregory 

JAr. Fijber 


12 6 


06 9 


12 c 


17 7 


06 6 


12 3 




'5 4 

( 2 ) 



Rec. ,' i?rW C7o/£ 


Port Wine 

_ Logwood 

s. d. 
10 9 




79 16 
42 18 
66 12 
90 16 
84 07 
24 12 
60 10 

45 02 11 

496 02 10 

Note, That I. ftands for Pounds, s. for Shillings, d. for 
Pence, and qr. for Farthings ; in regard that Libra iignifies 
a Pound, Solidus a Shilling, Denarius a Penny, and Que 
drans a Farthing. 

I begin with the firfl Example of Money Owing, and fay, 
^ and 3 is 7, and 6 is 13, and 7 is 20, and 9 is 29, and 
6 make 35 Pence ; now 30 Pence, according to the Table, 
is zs. and 6d. and $d. makes zs. and 1 id. I fet down 11 
exactly under the Rank of Pence, and fay 2 Shillings that 
I carry (which I do to the Rank of Shillings) and 5 is 7, 


*fhe Young Man's Beji Companion. 63 

and 21s 9, (for I only take the Units Rank of Shillings) 
and 6 is 15, and 7 makes 22, and 2 is 24, and 6 is 30, and 

2 makes 32 ; and now being come to the 'lop of the Sum, 
and it making 32, I come down with the Tens ofShillings, 
faying 33 and 10 is 42, and 10 is 52, and 10 is 62, and 
10 is 72, and 10 makes 82 Shillings ; and the Table telling 
me that 80 Shillings is 4 Pounds, I knew therefore 82/. 
is 4/. v- wherefore I let down the odd 2/. juft under the 
Row ofShillings, and carry 4 Pounds to the Pounds ; fay- 
ing, 4 that I carry and 5 is 9, and 6 is 15, and 4 is 19, and 
c is 24, and 6 is 30, and 4 is 34, and 7 is 41, and 4 makes 
45 Pounds ; fo that the Total of thole feveral Sums of 
Money, due to thofc feveral Perfons, amounts 1045/. is. i\d. 
as in the Example. ; 

In the fecond Example of Money recc.ved, I begin at tne 
Right-hand (as in all Additions, Subjh uSiinns, and Multi- 
pUcatiom^e do, and ought fo to do.woi king from the Right- 
hand to the Left ; but in Divifion you begin the Operation 
at the Left, and work towards the Right) and fay, 6 and 4 
is 10, and 3 is 13, and 9 makes 22 ; and 22 Pence being 
is. and lod. I fet down lod. and carry is. to the Shillings ; 
faying i that I carry, and 2 is 3, and 7 is 10, and 6 is 16, 
and 2 is 18, and 8 'is 26, and 6 makes 32 ; then I come 
down with the Tens, faying 32 and 10 makes 42, dc. and 
find at the Bottom it comes to 102 Shillings ; which making 
5/. is. I fet down 2/. and carry 5/. to the Pounds ; faying, 
5 that I carry, and 4 is 9, &c. I find that at the Top it 
amount to 36, wherefore I fet down 6 exactly under its 
own Rank, viz. the Rank of Units of Pounds, and carry 

3 for the 3 Tens that are in 30 ; for at all Times in the firlt 
Denomination of Addition, whether of Money, Weight, 
or Mcafure, that is in the Denomination of Pounds, 1 uns 
or Yards, you mull cait them up as Sums of one Denomina- 
tion ; that is, for every Ten carry One to the next, dc. 
faying, 3 that I c^arry and 6 is 9, and 2 is 1 1, and 8 is 19, 
lie. and find that at the Top it comes to 49 ; wherefore I 
fet down 49 before the 6, find the total Amount of the 
Money received for thofc particular Goods or Wares fold, 
is 496/. zs. lod. 


64 The Young Mans Beft Companion. 
More Examples for Praftice. 

I. s. d. 
rMr. Matey 17 12 6\ 
Mr. Gant 26 10 2 
Mr. Hern 50 00 o 
Mr. James 44 12 Sf- 
Mr. King 60 14 o 
Mr. Smith 29 16 6\ 
«="> Mr. A/e«.t 16 10 o 
^ I Mr. Flapper 20 00 o 
o Mr. Oliver 27 11 4 J 
S j Mr. Perkins 17 04. o 
j Mr. Quintan 20 10 3 
CMr. Roper 46 16 8 

Total, 377 18 3 - 


10 20 il 4 

/. x, J. 

I46 12 3 | 

4 10 6 

278 IO 9 

07 9 

46 16 6 

1 00 

100 00 

1 01 

72 12 4 

04 6 

69 16 6 £ 


460 12 6 

4 14. 4 

49 10 

07 6 

7 12 4 \ 

01 6 

22 10 

02 6 

164 12 9 

3 10 9 

75 10 6 

1 10 

1494 16 6 |- 

-18 00 4 

Over the middle Example there are Numbers fet, to de- 
note what you mult Hop at, if you cannot call it up without. 

Addition of Avoir-du-pois Weight. 

By this Weight are weighed all Kinds of Grocery Goods 
or Wares, or Goods fubjeel; to walte ; as Tobacco, Sugars, 
Fruit and Drugs ; as alio Butter, Chee/e, Allom, Tallow, 
Flejh, Iron, Brafs, Copper, Lead, Tin, or Pewter, Pitch, 
Tar, Roftn, Hemp, Fiax, Soap, Salt, and all Kind of Gar- 
filed Goods ; that is, thofe Goods that have Duit, Drofs, or 

A Table of y his Weight is as follows, viz. 


4 Quarters make 1 Dram dr. Drams 

16 Drams 1 Ounce osu. Ounces 

16 Ounces 1 Pound lb. Pounds 
zS Pound 1 qr. of a hundred 

Weight, or 1 1 2 lb. qrs. Quarters 

4 Quarters 1 Hundred Wt. C. Hundreds 

20 Hundred Wt. 1 Tun T. Tens 


The Tcung Man's Befi Companion. • 65 

Small Weight. 
20 4 28 28 28 10 16 16 

C. qrs. 16. C- qrs. lb. C. qrs. lb. lb. cz. dr. 
5 — I — 16 24 — I — 12 9 — 1 — 16 24 — I I — -1 2 
4 2 — 24 42 2 OO 4 3—26 42 14 15 

6 — 3—06 16 — 1— 12 7 — i — 00 64 — ;o — ii 

7—0—12 25 — 3—24 5 — 3" — 2 7 29—09—10 

9 — 1 — 20 19 — o — 20 4 — 3 — 00 jo — 12 — 13 

6 — z— 00 26 — 1 — 22 2 — 2 — 02 27 — 13 — 14 

39-3—23 154— 3-5-06 34 — 3 — 15 206—09 — 11 

In the ftrrt of thefe Examples I begin at the Right-hand, 
to wit, at the Denomination of Pounds, and Hop at every 
28, fo many Pounds making a Quarter; that is, at every 
28 I make a Speck on my Nail (not in the Sum, for that 
Way is not proper or handibme) and I find two 28's, and 
22 lb. over; wherefore I fet down 22, and carry 2 qrs. to 
the Quarters, and adding them up find them n, which is 
2 Hundred and 3 qrs. over ; wherefore I fet down 3 and car- 
ry 2 to the Hundreds ; which alfo added up, make 39 ; (o 
that the Total Weight is 39 C. 3 qrs. and 22 lb. &c. 

And for the Example of Small Weight, there I Hop at 16 
and 16, and at 10 in the Pounds, and rind the Total 206M. 
9 oz. and 1 1 Drams. There's no Occafion for flopping, but 
only at 28 in the Great Weight, and at 16 and 16 in the 

^ Note, That in weighing at the Water-fide, or elfe- 
Where, they do cot weigh by the Ton in Great Weight, 
though fome Goods are fold by if, as Iron. Log-i>_<oc/, Chcefe, 
&c. but by Hundreds, Qoa/felrs*, and Pounds, and after- 
wards computed by Tons, [ffr. 

Addition of Troy Weight. 

By this Weight are weighed Jewels, Gold, Silver, Pearl, 
Ehduaries,, and Liquors ; a Pint of Water, Wine, tfJV. be- 
ing a Pound, and the ufual Denominations are Pounds, 
Ounces, Penny-weights and Grains, as in the following Ta- 
ble, -VIZ. 

f 24 Grains make 1 Penny-weight, 
Note, That S 20 Penny-weights I Ounce, and, 
(. 1 2 Ounces I Pound, Trey. 


66 The Young Man's Befi Companion. 

Note al/o, That 25 lb. is a Quarter of a Hundred by this 
Weight, 100 lb. is one hundred Weight, and 20 hundred 
one Ton of Gold or Silver. 

Examples of Troy Weight. ». 

»ots ol 

"Silv. wt. i'iz. 


12 20 24 

10 20 24 


1. o%. p-i.v. gr. 


1 Wt 

4 05 12 10 


06 10 11 

204 10 14 


5 04 16 17 


10 1 1 12 

96 07 17 


3 11 19.20 


06 07 17 

I OO 11 12 


4 06 07 12 


10 12 14 

56 16 20 


t; Ol 11 12 


II 12 13 

212.10 23 


4 1J I2 J 3 


07 06 17 

96 19 12 

28 06 00 12— — 


05 01 12- 

767 17 02 

In the Denomination of Grains I flop at 24, and find it 
to amount to 3 Penny-weights and 12 Grains over ; where- 
fore I fet down 12 Grains and carry three Pennyweights to 
the Pennyweights ; then I fay, 3 that I carried and 2 is 5, 
and 1 is 6, and 7 is 13, and 9 is 22, and 6 is 28, and 2 is 
30; and then coming down with the Tens, I fay, 30 and 10 
is 40 and 10 is 50 ; £Sr. juft as I do in Addition of Money ; 
(for as thfie 20s. make a Pound, fo here 20 Pennyweights 
make an Ounce) and find it to come juft to 80 ; now in 80 
there are juft 4 Twenties, or 4 Ounces ; wherefore I fet 
down 00, and carry 4 to the Ounces, and find them to a- 
mount to 42 ; which makes 3 Pounds and 6 Ounces over; 
wherefore I fet down 6, and carry 3 to the Pounds ; faying, 
3 I carry to 4 is 7, and 5 is 12, {3c. and find they come 
to 28 ; foche' Total is 28/. 06 ex. 00 /-xv. izgr> andfoof 
the Reft. 

Honu to pro-ve Addition. 

IN all Additions, whether of fimple Numbers, that is, 
Numbers of one Denomination ; or in Examples com- 
pound, that is, ofdiverfe Denominations, as Pounds, Shil- 
ling p e/ice and Farthings ; or, Tuns, Hundreds, Quarters, 
and rti:,.ds, Great Weight ; or Pounds, Ounces and Drams, 
Small Weight ; Pounds, Ounces, Penny-xueights and Grains, 
Troy Weight ; I fay, in any of the Examples above-men- 
tioned, the trueft and bell Method of Proof is to caft 
the fame downwards (beginning at the Top) as you did the 
fame upwards, beginning at the Bottom, and if it proves 


The Toting Man's Beft Companion. 6y 

the fame Total, the Work is infallibly right, and beyond 
any Contradiction ; and is much better, and more fenfible 
than the common Method ufed in Schools, of making two 
Totals, by omitting the upper Line in the Second, which is 
altogether impracticable in real Bufinefs. I might here alfo 
give the feveral Examples of other Additions, fuch as Apothe- 
caries Weight, Cloth, Liquid, Dry, and Long Meafures, Time, 
&c. but the Method ferves for any of them, having refpedl 
to the feveral Tables of Quantity belonging to thofe feveral 
Denominations of Addition above mentioned, which are as 
follows, viz. 

//Table of the Parts of Apothecaries Weigh. 

20 Grains, I Scruple. 9 a Scruple. 

3 Scruples, I Dram. 3 a Dram. 

8 Drams, I Ounce. 3 an Ounce. 

1 1 Ounces, i Pound. fa a Pound. 

By thefe Weights they compound their Medicines ; but 
they buy and fell their Drugs by Avoirdupois Weight. 

Cloth 'Measure. 
4 Nails, or 9 Inches, I qr. of a Yard. 
4 qrs. or 36 Inches, I Yard. 
£ qrs. or 45 Inches, I Ell Englijb* 
3 qrs. or 2 7 Inches, 1 Ell Fltmijh. 
6 qrs. or 54 Inches, 1 French Ell. 

A Table of Wool Weight, 
Note, That 7 /£. makes I C&<x/£ ; 2 Cloves? or 14/^. i 

&e»* ; 2 S/fl/w or 28 /£. 1 Tod; 6 To*/ and a Half i Wej, 

or 182 lb. 2 ^yj, or 364 /£. 1 S<7<r/S ; and 12 Sachs 1 /.#/?, 

or 4368 lb. 240 /£. 1 /W of Wool. 

Note, That 1 lb. z oz. 12 /w. Troy, is equal to a Pound 

Avoirdupois. And a Pound Troy is about 13 ox. 2 Drams 

and a Half Avoirdupois. 

I. s. d. 

A Pound of Weight Troy 7 of S - Ivcr is worth 1 3 02 2 

APoundWt.^-Tw«V/ozV J J 3 15 3^ 

A Pound Avoirdupois is heavier than a Pound Troj; .- But 
an Ounce Tray is heavier than an Ounce Avoirdupois. 

D A Table 

68 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

A Table of Liquid Meafure. 

Liquid Meafure is of two Sorts, 'viz. One for Wine, Bran- 
dy, &c. and the other for Beer and Ale. 

Wine, &c. 
8 Pints one Gallon, 2 Hcgfheads 1 Pipe or Butt, 

4.2 Gallons 1 Tierce, 2 Pipes or Buts 1 Tun, or 252 

63 Gallons 1 Hogfhead, Gallons. 

84 Gallons 1 Puncheon, 

Note, That fweet Vyl hath 236 Gallons to the Tun : But 
Oyl from Greenland hath 252 Gallons to the Tun. 

Note,The Wine Gallon contains 23 1 Cubic or folid Inches, 
by which all Liquids are meafured, except Beer and Ale. 

Beer Meafure. 

8 Pints 1 Gallon. 2 Kilderkins 1 Barrel, or 36 

9 Gallons 1 Firkin, Gallons, 

2 Firkios 1 Kilderkin, 1 Barrel and Half, or 54 Gal- 

Ions, 1 Hogfhead. 

Ale Meafure. 
8 Pints 1 Gallon, 2 Kilderkins 1 Barrel, or 3.2 

8 Gallons 1 Firkin of Ale, Gallons, 

Soap or Herrings, 1 Barrel and Half, or 48 Gal- 

2 Firkins 1 Kilderkin, Ions, 1 Hogfhead. . 

Note, The Beer and Ale Gallon are the fame, viz. 282 
folid Inches ; but with this Difference, i. e. the Barrel of 
Beer contains 1228 Cubic Inches, or 4 Gallons more than 
the Barrel of Ale. 

In a Tun of Wine are In a Puncheon art 

2 Pipes or Butts, 84 Gallons, 
6 Tierces, ** 168 Pottles, 

252 Gallons, 336 Quarts, 

504 Pottles, 672 Pints. 

1068 Quarts, In a Hogfhead are 

3016 Pints. 63 Gallons, 

In a Pipe or Butt are 1 26 Pottles, 

2 Hogfheads, 252 Quarts, 

3 Tierces, 504 Pints. 

1 26 Gallons, In a Barrel of Beer are 

2? 2 Pottles, 2 kilderkins, 

504 Quarts, 4 Firkins, 

.j 008 Pints. 36 Gallons. 


Tbe Young Man's Bejl Companion. 69 

72 Pottles, 
J44 Quarts, 
288 Pints. 

In a Barrel of Ale are 
2 Kilderkins. 

4 Firkins, 

32 Gallons, 

04 Pottles, 
iz3 Quarts, 
256 Pints. 

Dry Meafure. 

Sea Coal are heaped or 


2 Pints 1 Quart, 

2 Quarts 1 Pottle, 

2 Pottles 1 Gallon, 

2 Gallons 1 Peck, 

4. Pecks 1 Bufhel Land Mea- 

5 Pecks 1 Bufhel Water Mea- 

4 Bufhels 1 Comb, or half 

2 Combs 1 Quarter, 

4 Quarters 1 Chaldron, 

5 Quarters 1 Wey, 
2 Weys 1 Laft, or 10 Quarters 
4 Fatts or Vatts, or 36 Bu r 

fhels, of Sea Coal, 1 Chal- 
dron ; and 21 Chajdron is 
accounted a Score in the 
River of Thames; Salt and 2560 Pints 
Note, By an Aft Anno 17 12, the Bufhel is 2178 Cubic 
Inches, and a Gallon of this Meafure is 272 Cubic Inches. 

elfe there are 5 
to the Bufhel. 
ht the Laj} are 
2 Weys, 
10 Quarters, 
80 Bufhels, 
320 Pecks, 
1280 Potdesj . 
2560 Quarts, 
5120 Pints. 

In a Wey are 
5 Quarters^ 
40 Buihels, 
160 Pecks, 
320 Gallons, 
640 Pottles, 
1280 Quarts, 

Long Meafure. 

3 Barley Corns 1 Inch, 
12 Inches 1 Foot, 
3 Feet 1 Yard, 
3 Feet 9 Inches 1 Ell Engl. 
5 Feet a Geometrical Pace, 

5 Yards and Half, 1 Pole, 
Perch, or Rod, 

6 Feet 1 Fathom, or 2 Yards, 

8 Furlongs, 
320 Poles, 
1 760 Yards, 

40 Poles, or 220 Yards, 1 
8 Furlongs one Mile, or 

1760 Yards, 
3 Miles one League, 
20 Leagues, or 60 Miles 1 
Degree; and 360 Degrees 
the fuppofed Circumfe- 
rence of theEarth andSea. 

In a Mile are 

5280 Feet, 
63360 Inches, 
190080 Barley Corns. 
D a Land 

jo The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

Land Measure. 
5 Yards and Half, i Pole, Perch or Rod. 
40 Poles make 1 Rod, or quarter of an Acre. 
160 Poles in Length, and 1 in Breadth, 'is 1 Acre. 
80 Poles in Length, and 2 in Breadth, 1 Acre ; and, 
40 Poles in Length, and 4 in Breadth, 1 Acre. 
4 Poles in Length make 1 Chain. 
10 Chains in Length, and 1 in Breadth, make 1 Acre. 

60 Seconds 1 Minute, In a Year are 

60 Minutes 1 Hour, 

24 Hours 1 Day natural, 31557600 Seconds, 

7 Days 1 Week, 525960 Minutes, 

4 Weeks 1 Month, 8766 Hours, 

13 Months, 1 Day, and 6 365 Days, 6 Hours. 

Hours, *i Solar Yeiar. 
Note, The Year is alfo divided into 12 Calender Months, 
which con tain 365Days, according to this good oldVerfe,ws. 
Thirty Days hath September, April, June and November, 
February hath 28 alone, and all the Reft Thirty and One. 


THE next Rule in Arithmetic is Subtraction (or com- 
monly called tubjiradkn) and this 'Rule teaches to . 
take a leffer Number, or Sum, out of a greater, and fhew- 
eth the Remainder, P.efr, Excefs, cr Difference. 

Note always to place the leffer Number under the greater 
(with the fame Care and Order as in Addition) fo the Units 
may Hand under Units, Tens under Tens, l£c. and the Re- 
mainder under the Line is the Difference fought : And fuch 
Difference being added again to the leffer Number, fliall 
make the greater Number, and is a certain Proof of the 
faid Rule. 

y/ General Rule. 
Whatever you ufed to flop at in Addition (whether of one 
Denomination or of feveral) the fame you muft borrow in 
Subtraction, when need requires : Remembering to pay, or 
carry 1 to the next Place towards the Left-Hand. Example: 
Suppofe Mr- Andrezis owes to Mr. Baker 323 /. whereof 
Mr. A. hath paid to Mr. B. the Sum of "146/. in Part ; 

what remains due to Mr. Baker ? 

Anfwer 177/. 


The Young Man's Beji Companion* 7 1 

Here the leiTer Number 146, ftands. under the, greater 32,3 ; 
and to find the Remainder or Sum reiting clue, I fay, 6 irom 

3 I cannot ; but 6 from 13 (for you mult always borrow 10 
of the next Figure in the fame under Line, and put it to 
the Figure or Cypher that ftands dire&ly over the Figure 
you fubftract) and there remains 7 ; then 1 that I borrow and 

4 is 5, for as I borrowed 10 (or 1) out of 4, fo I mult pay the 
laid 1 or 10 (for fo it really is, becaufe of the Decuple Pro- 
portion of Increafe from the Right-hand to the Left) to the 
faid Figure 4 again, as above hinted: ] fay, 5 from 2 I 
cannot; but 5 from 12 (borrowing 10, and putting it to 
the over Figure 2, as above dire&ed) and there remains 7 ; 
then 1 thatl borrowed and 1 is 2, from 3 the over Figure, 
and there refts 1, and fothe Example is done; and by it is 
Ihevvn that J. ftill owes B. 177 Pounds, as appears in the 
Work ; and for Proof of its Verity, add 177 the Remainder, 
to 146 the lefler of the two given Numbers, and it will 
make 323, being the fame with the great Number, or Sum 
of Money firit due ; and therefore, a fure Proof of the 
Truth and Certainty of the Rule. And as Subtra&ion is 
proved by Addition, fo may Addition be proved by Subtrac- 
tion ; for if the two aforefaid Numbers, -viz. 323 and 146, 
are added, their Total is 469, from which if you deduft 
146, the Remainder will be the great Number ; or if you 
fubftracl 323 from the faid 469, the Remainder will be 
146, the lefler Number. 

All Examples or Sums in Subftraclicn of one Denomina- 
tion, are' performed as above, they varing not at all : But 
however, once more for the better Explanation. Admit, a 
great Sheep-Malter hath in all 6904 Sheep, and takes out 
of them 2490 to difpofe of at Market ; how many doth he 
leave behind ? To know this, fet them down thus : 
From — 6904 the Greater Number,^ 
Take — 2490 the Lelfer Number. 

Anfwer44i4 the Remainder. 

Here I fay, o from 4, and there remains 4 ; then 9 from 
nothing (or o) I cannot ; but 9 from 10 (putting or making 
the o 10) and there remains 1 ; then 1 thatl borrow and 4 
make 5 ; and 5 from 9, and there reft 4 ; and laftly, 2 from 
6, and there remains alfo 4, (for I borrowed none, and 
therefore there's no Occafion of paying) fo that he leaves 
behind him jufl 4414; which put to the Number he takes 

D 4 t© 

72 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

makes the Number he firfl: had, viz. 
eduction to be true, and the Anfwer 

More Exam-pies for Praftice. 

to Market, makes theNamber he firft had, viz. 6904, and 
foe^ws the Deduction to be true, and the Anfwer right. 

From 4796 
Take 2929 










Rem. 1867 



Proof. 4796 



Any Diitance of Time that is from any particular Date 
of a Year, may be known by fubitrafting that Date from 
the prefent Date of the Year. 

I.— 1770 IF. — 1770 

1666 the Fire of London. 1588 the S^anijh Invafioa. 

Since 104 Since 182 

III. 1770 

1605 Gun-powder Treafon, 

Since 165 

Subtraffion in divers Denominations. 
Of Money. 

/• s. d. Suppofe Mr. Campion owes Mr. 

Due 9—02 — 6 Darnell 9 /. 2 s. 6 d. and Mr. C. hath 

Paid 6—16—4 P a id Mr. D. in Part 6 /. 16 s. \d. 

• what remains due to Mr. Darnell ? 

£e/?s due, 2 — 06 — 2 Anfwer, Due to Mr. Darnell 2 /. 6s. 

; ■ ■ 2 d. as by this Example. 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. J 3 

10 20 124 Again, Mr. Edwards fells 

/. s. d. q. to Mr. Francis, S"panijh Wool 

Sold for — 242 — 16 — 3 i to the Value of 242/. 16/. 

Paid in -Part 174 — 12—6 §» 3V: f. and pays prefent Mo- 

■ ' ney, and by a Note on Mr. 

Anf-jjer — 68 — 03— -9 I Good-win, the Sum of 174/'. 
- 12/. 6</. f ; what Money re- 
mains unpaid from Mr. Francis? Anfwer, 63/. y. gd. \. 

In the firlt of thefe Examples I fay, \d. from 6d. and 
there remains zd. then 16s. from 2/. I cannot, but borrow- 
ing* one Integer of the next Denomination, or 1 Pound 
which is 20/. I fay 16 from 20, and there refts a, and 
taking; the over Number 2, and putting it to the Remain- 
der 4 makes 6 ; wKerelbre I pat ddfrn 6 in the Place or 
Shillings, and fay, 1 that I borrow and 6 is 7 ; now 7/. 
from 9/. there remains 2/. fo the Money refting due to Mr. 
Darnell, is 2/. 6/. zd. as in the Example. 

fn the fecond Example I fay, 2 Farthings (or a Half- 
penny) from 3 Farthings, and there remains 1 or |, which, 
I let down in its proper Place, viz. under the Denomina- 
tion of Farthings ; then 6 from* 3 3 cannot, but 6 from 
\2 f (as marked over the Denomination) and there remains 
6, and 3d. over it make gd. which I place under the Line 
in its right Place, -viz. of Pence ; then 1 that I borrowed 
(that is 1 Shilling) and 12 is 13 ; 13/. from 16s. and there 
refts 3, which I likewife fet down under its own Rank ; 
then 4 from 2 I cannot, but 4 from 12 (borrowing 10, as 
in Addition, 1 carry 1 for every 10) and there refts 8 ; 
then 1 that 1 borrow and- 7 makes 8, 8 from 4 I cannot, 
but 8 from 14, and there remains 6 ; fo that the Sum re- 
maining due is 68/. 3/. gd. \. as in the Work. And for' 
its Proof you muft add the Remainder, 68/. 3/. gd. f. to 
the leffer, or under Sum, 174/. 12/. 6d. \. and it makes 
24.2/. 16/. 3d. f . the Sum firft due, and is a Proof tf the 
Work's being right. See the Example above. 

D 4 More 

74 The Youngs Maris Befi Companion. 
More Examples for Prague. 

JO 20 II 4 IO 10 12 10 XO 11 4 

/. s. d. I. s. d. L s. d. 

Due — 174— 1 6— 6 \ 74 — 10—4 2471—07—0 

Paid-- 97 — 12— 4 I 29—12—9 1976— 16— 6 § 

Remain 77—04 — l f 44 — 17 — 7 494 — 10— 5 \ 

Proof 174— 16— 6 I 74—10—4 2471—07—0 

20 12 

Iy? Da* — 74 — 00 — 00 274-*- 16 — 6 796 — 00 — 

P aid ■ 46 — 12 — 10 197 — 19 — 4 279 — 11 — 7 

Balance 27 — 07 — 02 76 — 17 — 2 516 — 08 — 5 

Proof — < 74 — 00 — 00 274 — 16—6 796 — 00—0 

" * 

Sometimes a Sum owing Owing — 2661. 

may be paid at feveral ■ 

Times ; then the feveral f 20 

Payments mail be added 15 

together, and their Total 30 

dedutted from the Sum Paid at Tims \ 90 

f.rit due, as in this and the j 17 

Examples following. 1 24 

L 60 

Paid in a!! z$6 deduS 

Refls due 10 
Proof 266 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 75 

/. /. d. „ _/. s. d. 

More due 249 — 12 — o Received * 100 — 10 — o 

f 24 — 12 — 6 
20 — 00 — o 

- 6—16—0 

10 — 00 — o 
5 — 12 — f 

<veral Times, 

Rtajtodat/e-) l6 _ l6 _ 6 Patdto Jeveral , 2 >_ IO _ 

' j 22 _ IO - 2 Ptr > J ' J 7-09-6 

I 13 — 12—6 I 9 — oS — 6 

L 7—16—4 I 7—12—6 

Received in all 115 — 02 — 9 Paid in all 

»■■■■ 1 1 ■■■—- « 

Reft s due 1 34— 09 — 3 Remains in the \ 

Bag. I 

Proof 249—12 — o 

Avoir-du-pois Weight. 
10 20 4 28 10 4 28 

6j — 09 — o 


Tuns. C. qrs. lb. 
From 44 — 12 — I — 10 
Take 39 — 14 — 2 — 06 

C. qrs. lb. 

246 — 2 12 

164 3 — 22 

IO l6 l6 

lb. ex. dr. 

146 — 02 — 10 

97 — IO — 12 


48 — 07 — 14 

Proof 44—12 — I — IO 246 — 2 — 12 I46 — 02 10 

'Troy Weight. 

10 12 20 24 10 20 24 

lb. cz. pivt. gr. ox. pwt. gr. 


462 — 04— 10— II 1247 — 10 — 12 


196 — 09 — 06 — 16 976 — 16 — 17 

Remain 265 — 07 — 03 — 19 

Proof 462 — 04 — 10— II 

1247 — 10 — 12 

And fo much for SubtraElion ; which Method will ferve 
for any Denomination whatever, having refpett to the fe- 
veral Tables of -Quantity, as before hinted in Addition. 


"bt Young Mart's Bejl Companion. 


THE next Rule in order is Multiplication, and perhaps 
the moll ferviceable Rule in Bufinefs, for its quick 
Difpatch, of all others In Arithmetic!:, and I lhall endea- 
vour to mew, by its Nature, Quality and Ufe, that it is fo. 

1. Multiplitation is a Rule that by two Numbers given, 
teacheth to find out a third, which lhall contain either of 
the two as many Times as the other containeth Units. 

2. In fome Cafes Multiplication is alfo a comper J . : ous 
Working of Addition. 

3. It ferves likewife to bring great Denominators into 
fmall, as Pounds into Shillings, Pence, or Farthings. 

4. Having the Length and Breadth of a plain Superfi- 
cies, we find its Contents in Square Meafure. 

5. By Multiplication we find by having the Value cf one 
Thing, or the Wages of one Perfon, how to know the Va- 
lue of many Things, or the Wages of many Perfons. 

In Multiplication we are particularly to take Notice cf 
thefe three Terms, 'viz. 

f Multiplicand, 
The. <. Multiplier, and 
i Produa. 

1. The Multiplicand (generally the greater of the two 
Numbers) is the Number to be multiplied. 

2. The Multiplier, generally the lelfer of the two Num- 
bers) is the Number to multiply with. 

3. The Prutua, or Refult of the Work, being the An- 

fwer. , . . -j 

But before any Procedure can be made in this Rule, it is 
necefiary to have the following Table by Heart, and' that 
very perfectly. 


The Young Man's Befi Companion. JJ 

The Multiplication Table. 













1 r 






$5 Kvi ... 








l S 




2 7 

3° j 33 








' 36 





2 5 








4 2 


















9 o 





90 ' v9 




: 10 

I 20 

! i 




This Table is fo plain and eafy, that there is no need of 
Direction ; for ts but guiding the Eye from the Side Column 
to the H6ad, and in its oppofite Angle or Square you have 
the ; and con trati wife, by directing the Eye from 
the Head and Side, you have the fame ; as o times 9 is 54, 
and 9 times 6 is 54 ; fo 7 times 8 is 56, and 8 times 7 is 
56, C3\: Andio nought to begot by heatt for the more 
dexterous Readinefs in multiplying. 
Now for Application. 

Exrmple 1. How many is 3 times 472 ? Which 
mult be'fet down as in the Margin ; and then fay, 3 
tines 2 is 6 ; which place under 3 the Multiplier; 
then 3 times 7 is 21 ; let down 1 under 7, and ear- 
ly 2 for the two Tens ; as in Addition of one Deno- 




7 8 The Young Mans Befi Companion. 

minati«n\ then 3 times 4 is \z. and 2 i? 14; which let 
down, and the Product 1416 ; that is, 3 times 472 makes 
fo much ; and may be proved by Addition, by fetti'ng down 
472 three times, in additional Order, and caflfing it up> 
which makes the Aflertion good in the feoond Dilution, 
that this Rule cornpendioufly performs the Office of" Addi- 
tion. Likewife the foregoing Example agrees with the firit 
Definition; for as 3 times 472 makes 1416,10 doth 472 
times 3 make the fame, i>/z. 1416. 

Example 2. Again how many makes 742 multiplied by- 4 ? 

742 Multiplicand."] Here I fay, 4 times 2 is 8, aid 4 

4 Multiplier. I times 4 is 16, 6, and carry 1 ; and 4 

— — > times 7 is 28, and 1 is 29, which fet 

2968 Producl \ down ; fo the whole Product is 2968, 

— J as per Exampl e. 

More Examples of one Figure in the Multiplier, are 
thefe w. 

Multiplicat. 7420 4444 74-6° 9°7°4 56789 
Multiplier 567 89 

Proditfl 37100 26664 52220 725632 511101 

Compound Multiplication. 

Is when the Multiplier confifts of two, three, four or 
more Figures, or Figures and Cyphers. 

And here you muft begin with that Figure which is in 
the Place of Units of the Multiplier, and go through the 
whole Multiplicand, by multiplying each Figure of it firft by 
that faid Unit Figure, then by the next, to wit, by the Fi- 
gure in the Place of Tens of the Multiplier, then with the 
third, ciJV . to the laft ; always remembring to place the firft 
Figure of every Product or Line, (for you will ever have as 
many as you have fignificant Figures in the Multiplier) I fay 
remember to place the firft Figure of each Line exadtly and 
perpendicularly under the Figure you multiply by ; and then 
add the feveral Lines or Products together, which fo col- 
lected gives the total Product required, a* in the Examples 
following, <viz* 


¥he Young Maris Beji Companion. 79 

Example l . 
How many is, or are, 23 times 7426 ? firft I 7426 

begin with the Unit Figure 3 in die Muh-i-'lcr, 23 

faying 3 times 6 is 18 ; S (which I let dire&ly ' . 

under 3 by which I multiply) and carry i ; then 22278 
3 times 2 is 6, and 1 is 7 ; then 3 times- 4 is 14^52 
1 2 ; 2 and carry 1 ; then 3 times 7 is 21, ■ 
and 1 is 22 : And fo I have done with the firft . 170798 
Figure of the Multiplier, viz. 3. Then I go to ■ 
the next, that is 2, and twice 6 is 12; 2 and carry r, 
(which 2 is placed in a direct Line under 2, the Multiply- 
ing Figure) then twice 2 is 4, and 1 is 5, then twice 4 is 8 ; 
and laftly, twice 7 is 14, which I fet down : Then I add the 
two Products together, faying 8 is 8, i3c. and the Total is 
the right and proper Product, or Refult of the Multiplica- 
tion, viz. 170798. Again, 

Example z. 

What is the Refult or total Product of ———527527 
Multiplied by 285 

It will appear too prolix, and altogether 2637635 ' 

unneceffary, to give more verbal Directions, 4220216 

nay, "indeed naufeo us Tautalogy, fince thofe 1055054 

given above are fufficient ; and therefore the - 
Learner is referred to the Obfervation of the 150345 195 
Example,as alfo to thofe two that follow, viz. 

527535 275S27 

15728 i97 2 5 

4220280 1 379 I 35 

1055070 55 l6 54 

3692745 193°7 8 9 

2637675 2482443 

5 2 7535 275827 

8297070480, 5440687575 

When Cyphers are intermixed with Figures in the Multi- 
plier, then multiply by the Figures as above ; and when you 
come to a Cypher in the Multiplier, then fet down another 
Cypher exactly and perpendicularly under it, then begin the 
Multiplitand agaia with the next Figure to the Cypher in the 


go The Young Marts Bejl Companion. 

Multiplier, and go through it In the fame Line, placing the 
firft Figure of that Produft next to the Cypher towards the 
Left-hand, but then heed muft be taken that the next Figure 
or Cypher of the next Line muii be fet down one Degree 
farther towards the Left-hand, and not immediately under 
the laft Figure fet down next to the Cypher : As in the fol- 
lowing Examples may be fully understood. 

24393 7 86 437 I 3 2 75 &6 

402 23604. 6030 

48786 31457484 9827580 

975720 471862260 19655160 

23593113 ■ 

9805986 JS7 28 74 2 I9753435 80 


"When you have a Cypher or Cyphers in the Multiplier,. 
at the Beginning towards the Right-hand, then fet it, or 
them, backwards from the Place of Units towards the Right- 
hand ; and when you have multiplied by the Figure or Fi- 
gures, annex the Cypher or Cyphers : As in thej'e Examples. 
4762 479 62 463 2, 

70 400. 2600 

333340 19184800 2779 2 

j_ - ,. , 9264 


If ycu have Cyphers both in the Multiplicand and Multi- 
flier, then neglect the Cyphers in both, and multiply by 
the Figures, and annex the Cyphers at. laft : At in theft 

42600 42300 37 6 4°° 

220 12000' 2400 

852 846 15056 

852 423 75 2 * 

1— — — — — — - » " 

9372000 507600000 903360000 

— . — i ; — ■ " ■ ■ •■ ' 

"^ When 

The Toung Man's Beji Companion; 8i 

When you are to multiply by 10, ioo, iooo, or ioooo, 
it is only adding or annexing fo many Cyphers to the Mul- 
titlicand, that is, either i, 2, 3, or 4 Cyphers, and the Work 
is done. Example, Suppofe I am to multiply 375 by the 
Numbers above ; if I multiply it by 10, then I join o to 
37c, and then it makes, or the Product is 3750 : If by 100, 
then I annex 00, and then it makes 37500: If by 1000, 
I put to it 000, and then it produces 375000. And Iaitly, 
if by 10000, I then add 0000, and then it makes 3750000 
tfc. And thus may any Number be multiplied, when the 
Multiplier confills of a Unir with any Number of Cyphers, 
and done by Infpe&ion only, without any formal letting 
down the Multiplicand, with a Line drawn under it, &c. 

Thus far for Direction in the Manner how to multiply ; 
the next will be to fhew the Ufes of Multiplication in real 
Bufmefs, and how to apply it on proper Occafions, viz. 

1. Suppofe you want to know how many Half Crowns 
there are in 246/. you know that 8 Half Crowns make 1A. 
wherefore fet them down thus. 

Multiply by. 

246 /. 

Anfwer n 

Again, in 1968 Half Crowns, how many Pence 2 
30 Pence in Haifa Crown. 

59040 Pence the Anfwer. 

And this ferves to make out, th%t great Denominations 
are brought into fmaller by this Rule, according to the third 

2. Admit you wanted. to know the Contents of a large 
Shuffle board Table, 34 Feet long, and 4 Feet wide ; mul- 
tiply 34 the Length, by 4 the Breadth, and the Anfwer will 
be 136 Square Feet for the true Contents of fuch a Table. 
And this agrees with the 4th Definition of this Rule. 

3. If I know the Value of a Yard of Broadcloth to be 
12 Shillings, wha<- is the Value of zzo Yards of thefaid 
Cloth in Shillings i 



8:2 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

Multiply by 12 


2640 Shillings, or 132 Pounds. 

If the Wages of 1 Seaman be 23 Shillings a Month, what 
L> the Wages of 250 Seamen for the fame Time ? 
Multiply by 23 

Anfwer 9750 Shillings, or 287/. 10/. 

And thefe two Examples accord with the fifth Definition, 
or Ufe of this Rule. 

And thus much for plain Multiplication. 

I fhall, in the next Place, fay fome fmall Matter con- 
cerning Multiplication of Money, and a little of its Ufe, 
and fo conclude this Rule. 

Multiplication of Money. 

Multiplication of Money (what molt would learn above 
any Thing) hath great Affinity with Addition of Money ; the 
fame Method being taken in carrying from one Denomina- 
tion to the next, viz. from Farthings to Pence, from Pence 
to Shillings, and from Shillings to Pounds. And as in Addi- 
tion (and other Multiplications) you begin at the Right-hand, 
and proceed towards the Left ; fo here you begin at the 
leaft Denomination, which is alfo at the Right- hand. 

This Method of accompting, is the moll apt and expe- 
ditious of all others, for fmall Quantities ; and therefore 
extremely necelfary in making Bills of Parcels, &c. and is, 
beyond all Contradiction, as fure and certain as any way 

The General Rule. 

Is always to multiply the Price by the Quantity. 
The firlt Step is, for Quantities from 2 to 12 ; and this 
is done by one Multiplier ; as in the Examples following. 


the Young Man's Beft Companion. 83 

Example i . I. s. d. 

Multiply — — 7 — 12 — 6 

(or 6 Pieces of Cloth at/. 7 — 12 — 6 per Piece) by 6 


Here I fay 6 times 6 is 36 Pence, which is jufl: 3/. I fet 
down o in the Place of Pence, and carry 31. to the Place of 
Shillings, (exactly the fame as in Addition of Money) then 6 
times 12 is 72, and 3 is 75^. or 3/. 15J. wherefore I fet 
down 15 in the Place of Shillings, and carry 3 to tiie 
Pounds ; then 6 times 7 is 42 and 3 is 45/. So die whole 
Amount of the 6 Cloths, at 7 — 12--0 per Cloth, is 
45/. 15/. as in the Work, and very concife. 
Example 2. 

Again, how much is 9 times 13X. \d. or what is the 
Amount of 9 Marks ? 9 

In this Example I fay, 9 

times 4 is $6d. or 3s. I fed 6 — 00 — o Anf-j;er. 

down o. and carry 3 ; then 

9 times 3 is 27. and 3 makes 30 ; I fet down 00 and carry 
3 (as in Multiplication of frmpie Numbers ;) then 9 times ! 
is 9, and 3 is 12, which being the Tens of Shillings, con- 
fequently they are Angels ; which being halved, make jufl 
61. and fo much is the Value of 9 Marks* or any thing 
elfe at that Price, to. 13/ \d. 

Example 3. 

Once more, What comes„i2 Gallons of Wine at 5/. \d. 
per Gallon ? s. d. 

Here I fay, 1 2 times 4 is 48 ; o and 1 2 

carry 4; then 12 times 5 is 60 and 4 is 

64/. or 3/. 4/. /. 3—4—0 

The next Degree or Step of Advance in this Way of 
Reckoning, is of Quantities excfteding 12, even to 12 times 
12, or 144 ; all which as far as 144, are found in that ex- 
cellent Table, the Table of Multiplication ; which is a ready 
Help to all Purpofes of Reckoning, and particularly in this 
Way ; and that you may proceed with Dexterity, you mull 
be very ready in the faid Table, that you may be immedi- 
ately apprehenfive what component Parts hit your Quantity 
piopcfed, or pretty near it, (for any Quantity below 1 z 


8'4 The Young Man's B eft Companion. 

needs no Recollection at all, as in two of the Examples fore- 
going) and then work accordingly ; as i 5 Yards at, &c. I 
readily know that 3 and 5, or 5 and 3, are to be my Multi- 
pliers. If to 21, then 3 and 7, or 7 and 3, as above. If to' 
30 then 5 and 6, or 6 and 5, alfo 3 and ro, or 10 and 3. 
If to 45, 48, 56, 66, 72, 96, &c. then 5 and 9, 6 and 8, 
7 and 8, 6 and 11, 6 and 12, and 8 and 12, &c. are to 
be Multipliers, and exactly hit their feveral Quantities of 
which there are component Parts ; and Examples of this 
Kind have two Multiplications for their Solution. 

When the Quantity propofed is a Number irregular, or 
fuch a Number that no two Numbers in the T>bie can be 
•feund to anfwer it, then we muft multiply by two fuch 
Numbers as come pretty near it, as is faid above ; and for 
the Number wanting, to make up the Number or Quantity' 
propofed, multiply the given Price of one by the Number 
that is wanting ; which will make three Products by thre* 
Multiplications ; which laft Product mull be added to the 
foregoing Products refulting from two Multiplications, and 
the Total Will be the Anfwer. 

And firft, I fhalMhew Examples of the fecond Step, mix* 
of regular Quantities that exceed 12, and are precifely an- 
fwered at two Multiplications, filch as mentioned above, 
viz.. S. d. 

What comes 15 Yards cf Muflin to, at 3—5 
per Yard 3 and 5 

Here 3 times 5 is 15^. or is. and 3^. ■ 

3 and carry is. then 3 times 3 is 9, and 10 — 3 

1 is 10*. fo the firft Product is icv. 3d. 5 

which I multiply by j, faying, 5 times ■ » 

3 is i$d. or is 3<?'. 3 and carry 1 ; then 2 — ll — :$. > 

5 times 10 is 50, and 1 is ju. or 2/. — ■ 

II*. So the whole Amount of 1 ;; Yards, at 3/. $d. per 
Yard, is 2/. lis. 3d. And demonftrable thus, viz. If 10s. 
yd. be the Value of three times 3*. $J. then 5 times the 
Value of icv. 3d. muft of Neccflity be 15 times the Value 
of sjjr. 3d. becaufe 5 times 3 is 1 5 : And its Truth may be 
proved by "Additions and Multiplication, thus ; fet down 3/. 
^d. three times in additional Order, and put the three Lines 
together, and the Total of them multiply by 5, as before, 
and the Anfwer will be; the fame. Or fet down 17/. id. 
(the Product of 3*. $d. multiplied by 5) three, times alfo,. 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 85 

and add them together, and the total will be exactly the 
fame with the Refult by Multiplication ; as in the following 
Specimen of Work. 

(2) (3) 

J. d. s. d. 

3—5 '7— ! 

5 17— 1 


/. d. 








t— 11 


17— I 

Here the firft of thefe two Proofs is worked by Addition 
and Multiplication, and the fecohd by Multiplication (as per 
Margin) and Addition. Alfo, 

By this we fee, that in all Examples under this Head, we 
are to pitch on two Numbers (for Multipliers ) in the Table; 
which multiplied together, make the Quantity propofed ;, 
andthen we are to multiply the Price by one of theNumbers 
(it matters not by which firft) and then that Product is to be 
multiplied by the other Number, and the fecond or lait Pro- 
daft will be the Anfwer. 

Example 2. 

Again, what is the Value of 21 Gallons of Brandy ? 

s. d. In this Example I fay, 7 

at 7 — 9 per Gallon, times 9 is b^d. or 5;. 3^. 

7 and 3 I fet down 3 and carry 5 ; 

then 7 times 7 is 49, and <; 

2—14 — 3 is . 54-f- or 2/. 14*. So the 

firft Product is 2/. 14*. 3^ 

. which I multiply by 3, and 

g oz n that produces the laft Product 

- or Anfwer, -viz.%1. zs. gd. 

Now follow a few more Examples of this Sort, without 
any verbal Dire&ions, bccaufe I think thofe already given 
to be fufficient. 


§6 The Young Man's Befi Companion. 

Example 3. Example 5. 

What comes 30 Eils of 56 Bulhels of Wheat. 

Holland to j. d. s - d. 

at 3—7 per Ell at 4—9 

10 and 3 7 and 8 

1 — 15— 10 1 — 13— 3 

3 8 

Jn/zver 5 — 07 — 6 Anfaer 13 — 06— O 

. , Example 6. 

jr. d. 

Example 4. 72 Broad Pes. at 23 — 6 *«r£. 
45 Pound of Raw bilk 12 and 6 

/. I 

at 15 — 6 per lb. 14 — 02 — O 

5 and 9 6 

^ — 17 — 6 84 — 12 — o 


■ In the firft Product the half 

Anfwer 34—17—6 of 28 Angels is 14/. is'c. 

In the firft Produft of this Example 7. 

Example I fay, the half of ioS/£. of Indigo Lahore, 

7 is 3 and half, or 3/. 10 s. at 7.?. — Sd. 

Andinthelaft,thehalfofi5 9 and 13 

is 7 andhalf, or 7/. ioj. &c. • 

3— o— o 

Anfixer 41—8 — o 

Example 8. I. s. d. 

96 C. of Currants, at — 2 — 13 — 6 /«- C. 

8 and 12 

21 — 08 — o . 

Anpwer 256 — 16 — o 


The Young Man's Befi Companion. 87 

The next Gradation of Advance, is of Quantities irregu- 
lar, or of Numbers that are not to be 'anfweredprecifely at 
two Multiplications : In this Cafe, there arifeth no Increafe 
of Difficulty, but it is as eafy as the Examples foregoing ; 
only here you will have an Addition of one Line more, oc- 
cafioned by bringing down the Price of one to be added 
to the la ft Product, orelfe a Line more made by multiplying 
the Price by what is defective or wanting in die Number by 
two Multiplications to make up thepropofed Quantity com- 
pleat ; as it may be of 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. as by the fubfe- 
quent Examples may be feen and underftood. 

Example 1. What is the Product of 2/. 13/. 6d. mul- 
tiplied by 39 ? 

1.2 — 13 — 6 Here I find that 6 mul- 

6 and 6 tiplied by 6, makes 36 ; 

- -r . which is within 3 of the 

16 — 01 — o Quantity propofed ; where - 

6 fore I multiply by 6, and 
■ — that Product again by the 
96 — 06—0 other 6 ; the lait Product is 

8 — 00 — 6 96/. 6s. which is the Value 

■ of 36, but wc want to know 

104 — 06 — o the Value of 39 ; wherefore 

I multiply the Price of one, 

viz. 2/. iji. 6d. by 3 that is defective or wanting to 
make up 36 to 39, faying 3 times 6 is \%d. Wc. And find 
that 3 times 2/. 13/. 6d. is 8/. 00s. 6d. which added to 
96/. 6s. od. the Total 'gives the compleat Value of 39; 
for 36 and 3 makes 39. See the Work. 

Example 2. What comes 79 C. wt. of Cheefe to, at 28/. 
per C. weight ? 

/. s. d. In this Example I fay, 7 

28 o times o is o ; then 7 times 

7 and 11 8 is 56 ; 6 and carry 5 ; 
and 7 times 2 is 14, and 

9 — 16 — o 5 is 19 ; the Half of which 

11 is 9 and half, or 9/. icv. 

od. So the firft Produd 
is 9 I. 16 s. o d. which 
multiplied by 11, pro- 
duces 107/. 16 j. o d. or 

107 — 16 — o is 9/. 16/. o d. which 

z- — .16 — o multiplied by 11, pro 

. — duces 107/. 16 s. o d. 0. 

110 — 12 — o Anfvier the Value of 77 ; then 

. . for 2 wanting I multiply 

S8 The Young Marts Bejl Companion. 

the Price by it, and that gives 2/. 16s. od. which added 
to 107 /. 16 j. od. which makes the whole Value of 70, 
"«• IIC ^- 12/. o</. as in the Work. Or, as there are 110 
Pence in the Price, you may multiply 28*. by s . 
79 without bringing it into Pounds as you 28 
work it, but omit it till the lait, and then cut 79 

off or feparate the.laft figure, or Cypher of the . . 

Product towards the Right-hand, and halve 252 
thofe towards the Left, which Half will be 196 

Pounds, and the Figure cut off Shillings, as in . 

this Example. 221 2 

/• 110,12 

The Half of 2, is 1, and the Half of 1 is o, which 1 
joined to the 2 fevered from 221, makes 12 ; fo the Anfwer 
is no/. 12s. as before. 

Example 3. 1 12 Pound of Sugar as 5^ per lb. fet down 
thus : 

s. d. 

$\per Pound 
10 and 10 


2 — 05 — 10 

05—06 the Produft of 5^. §• by 12 defective. 

.2 — 1.1 — 04 the Anfwer. 

Here after I have multiplied by 10 and 10, the Parts of 
100, there wants 12 ; wherefore I multiplied $d. § by 12, 
and it gives 5/. 6d. for 12 lb. at 5^. \, which added to 
7.1. 5/. ioa'. of the Value of 100, makes 2/. \\s. ±d. the 
true Value of 112 lb. at^. f per Pound. 


The Toting Man's Befi Companion. % 

Example 4. 94 Stone of Beef, at zid. or is. 10/. per 

1 j. 10^. 

10 and 9 : Here what is wanting 

after the two Multiplica- 

jg 04 tions, is 4 ; wherefore I 

o mul iply 1 j. 10 d. (the 
Price) by 4, which pro- 

. Q r 00 duces 7 s. \d. to be ad- 


ded, fcfr. 

,8—12—04 Anfwer. 

Example 5. 97 C. § of Raifins. 

25—06 per C. After I have multiplied 

* 9 and 10 by 9 and 10, I multiply 

the Price 25*. 6d. by the 

jj_ q 06 Quantity wanting, and it 

IO produces 8/. iSs. 6d. there 

______ for the Half C. I take 

II4 _ I5 _oo Half of the Price, which 

8 18—06 is 12s. yd. and then col- 

12—09 for the I C. led the three Lines, the 
Total of which is 124/. 6s, 

124—06—03 3^- for the Anfwer. 

Note, From the laft Example may be obferved, that there 
is no need of too much Solicitude concerning coming fo 
very near by two Multiplications, for there 7 is wanting 
to make up the true Quantity ; nay, if the two Multipli- 
cations be fhort by 20 or 12, it is near enough ; for 'tis 
as eafy to multiply the Price by 10 or 12, as by 2 or 3, 
and the Addition is the fame. 


go The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

Example 6. Once more ; What comes 1 10 C. £of Hops 
to, at 4/. ioj. 6d. per C. 

I. s . d. After I have multiplied by 10 

4 — 10—06 and 10, which makes 100, I mul- 

10 and 10 tiply the Price, 4/. \os. 6 d. by 

.- 10 that is wanting, which gives 

45—05 — 00 the fame with the firlt Product, 

10 «k, 45/. 5 s. o d. which Hands 

—————. under the Product by 100 ; and 

452 — 10—00 for the f of a C. I take f 

45 — 05 — 00 of the Price, viz. firft the Half, 

2—05 — 03 and then the Half of that Half, 

1— 02 — 074 that is 2/. 5/. 3^. and 1/. 2s. jd. \ j 

— — which four Lines added together, 

501 — 02 — iofAnfwer. make 501/. 2 t. 10 d. \. for the 
■ Anfwer. 

To prove Multiplication. 

Whether of Simple Numbers, or of Money ; it is moft 
'furely done by Bivijion ; but before that is known, f&ke 
this Method, viz. As you multiplied the Multiplicand by 
the Multiplier, fo contrariwife multiply the Multiplier by the 
Multiplicand ; and if the Produfts are alike, the Work is 
right ; or otherwife one of them is wrong, and rauft be 
gone over again till they do agree. 

Example 1. 

361; Days in a Year. 
24 Hours in a Day. 

Here (reverfly) I fay, 5 times 4 1*5 20 ; o and carry 2 ; 6 
times 4 is 24, and 2 is 26 ; 6 and carry 2, and 3 times 4 is 
12, and 2 is 14. Then 5 times 2 is 10 ; o and carry 1 ; 
6 times 2 is 12, and 1 is 13 ; 3 and carry 1 ; and 3 times 
z is 6, and 1 is 7. Which Products added together make 
8-60, the Hours in a Year, without taking in the odd 6 
Hours, which the Year doth confift of more than 365 Days. 


the Young Man's Beft Companion. 9 1 

Example z. 

56 Gallons of Spirits at I fay here, twice 7 is 14 ; 2 

/. d. and cany is, and 3 times 7 is 21, 

3 2d. per Gallon. and 1 is 22/. or \1. zs. Again, 

7 and 8 twice 8 is i6d. 4 and carry is. & 

,_ twice 8 is 16 and 1 is lys. 17 

l 02 2 and carry o ; and once 8 is 8/. 

8 Thus both thefe examples are th^ 

. ., fame in confequence as if you 

S 17 4 Anfwer. proceeded in the common and 

regular Method of Multiplication 
and fhevvs the Truth of the Ope- 

The next Rule in Order of Gourfe, is 


THIS Rule, though accounted the hardeft Leflbn in 
Arithmetick, yet I fhall make it eafy and intelligible 
to the meaneft Capacity. 

TheUfeof this Rule is to know how many times one 
Number or Sum is contained in another ; as if it were afle'd 
how often is 9 contained in 54 ; the Anfwer is 6 times ; or 
how many times 1 2 is there in 144 ? Anfwer 1 2 times. 

As by Multiplication great Names or Denominations are 
brought into fmall ; fo contrarily by Divijion, fmall Names 
are brought into greater ; as Farthings (from one Gradation 
to another) into Pounds, Pounds Weight into Tuns Weight, 
and Gallons Liquid into. Tuns Liquid, &c. 

In this Rule we are to take particular Notice of thefe three 
certain Terms following, -viz. 

1. ") {Dividend, or Number to be divided. 

2. >The < Divijbr, or Number by which we divide. 
3- 3 [.Quotient, or Anfwer to the Work ; which 

fhews how often the Divifor is contained in 
the Dividend. 

4. The Remainder ; which is an uncertain Branch of this 
Rule, becaufe there is fometimes a Remainder, and fome- 
times not. ^ And you muft particularly note, That the 
Remainder is ever of the fame Name with the Dividend, 
and is always lefs than the Divifor ; for if it be more, or 
equal to the Divifor, the Work is wrong. 

Divijion is either Single or Compound ; Single, when the 
Divifor confilteth of a fingle Figure, and the Dividend of 

E two 

j^2 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

two at raoft. Any of this fort is anfwered by the Multiple 
cation Table; as if 63 were to be divided by 7, the Anfwef 
will be 9 times. Here 63 is the Dividend, 7 the Divifor, 
. and 9 the Quotient or Anfwer. 

Compound Divifion is when the Dividend hath many, or 
more Figures or Cyphers than two, and the Divifor one or 
more Figures or Cyphers, c5r, 


How many times 7 is there contained in 365 ? Or, how 
many Weeks in a Year ? 7) 365 (52 

j4 general Rule for Working ■ 

f 1. Seek, 15 

Note < 2. Multiply, 14 

/ 3 . Subftraft. 

. (*> 

Having fet down the Example with two crooked Lines or 

half Parenthefis, one for the Divifor, and the other for the 
Quotient, I begin according to the afore -mentioned general 
llule for Working, by feeking or aflcing how often I can 
take 7, the Divifor, out of 36 the two firit Figures of the 
Dividend (for I cannot take;? out of 3, the Quotient, being 
never to begin with o) and the Anfwer is 5 times ; where- 
fore I place 5 in the Quotient, and multiply the Divifor 7, 
"fey it (as directed in the General Rule) faying 5 times 7 is 3 j, 
which I place under 36 ; and then thirdly, according to the 
faid Rule, I fubftratt 35 from 36, and there remains 1 ; to 
which I bring down the next, or lail # Figure of the Dividend, 
tvix. 5, and then there is 15 for a new Dividend, or 
Dividual, to work upon ; then I afk or feek again, how 
oft 7 may be taken in 15? and the Anfwer is 2 times ; 
wherefore I put 2 in the Quotient next to the 5 ; by which 
2 I alfo multiply the Divifor 7, faying twice 7 is 14; 
which I fet down under 15, and fubltract and there re- 
mains 1, which I place between two Semicircles thus, (1) 
as it ftands in the Work ; where obferve, That 365 is the 
Dividend, 7 the Divifor, 5 2 the Quotient, or Anfiver, and 
I the Remainder. The Quotient declares that 7 is contained 
5n 365, 52 times, and 1 over or remaining ; which I fet 
ever the Divifor, thus, -f , and fignifies that there is one 
Seventh of a Week, or 1 Day, more than juft, 52 Weeks 
,in a Year, or 365 Days -, which is eafily to be found by 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 93 

collecting the Days of. each Calender Month as they ftand 
in the Almanack. 

You may not?, That the faid J is properly what is called 
zFraflion, or a Piece or Segment of the Dividend; but of 
this hereafter. 

Note alfe, That if there had been more Figures or Cy- 
phers in the Dividend, they muft have all been brought 
down, one by one at a time (and never but one at a time) 
and (after Su.bftra.3ion) fet to the Remainder ; and if there 
remains o, youjnuft ftill bring down but one Figure or Cy- 
pher at a time, and for every Figure oro fo brought down, 
there muft be a Figure or o placed in the Quotient, according 
to the times you can take the Divifor out of the feveral 
Dividual; you make, by drawing down a Figure or Cypher 
at a Time out of the Dividend, till all be brought down, 
and the Work ended. 

For a Specimen, let us divide 8060 Pounds of Tobacco 
equally among 8 Men. 

8) 8060 (1007 Quotient. Here I fay the Eights in 

8 . . . 8 once ; which I put in the 

'— — Quotient, then the Eights 

60 in o, o times ; which I like- 

56 wife put in the Quotient; 

■ then the Eights in 6, o 

(4.) times again ; which is alfo 

placed in the Quotient, and there remains 6; to which I 

bring down o, the laft of the Dividend, and it makes 60 ; 

laftly, the Eights in 60 7 times, and 7 times $ is 56, from 

60, and there remains 4 ; fo the Quotient (hews that each 

Perfon muft have 1007 Pounds of Tobacco for his Share in 

the Dividend 8060, and there remains 4 Pounds over and 

above, which makes Half a Pound more due to each Man, 

becaufe 4 the Remainder is Half of 8 the Divifor ; and fo 

the Work is done, the Quoitent giving to each Man 1007 

Pounds and a H a lf f° r hi s equal Share. 

Note, That in the Operation, every time that you bring 
down a Figure or Cypher, you are to make a Point under it 
in the Dividend, tohgnify that fuch a Figure or Cypher 
hath been brought do wn and done with, as may be obser- 
ved in the foregoing' Example. 

Though this iway of Working is plain, and eafy to be 

underftood, yet it is fomewhat tedious ; and therefore I Ihew 

a quicker Way for Difpatch when the Divifor is a fingle 

E 2 Figure; 

94 ?7^ Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

Figure ; as fhall be made confpicuous in the:e Examples 
following, 'viz.. 

i. ii. in. 

4) 78906 5) 34567 6) 29702 
Quotient 19726 (2) 6913 (2) 4950 (2) 

4 5 


Proof 78906 345 6 7 29702 

In tb» firftof thefe Examples I fay, the 4's in 7, once, 
and there remains 3, which makes 8, the next Figure in 
the Dividend 38 ; then the 4's in 3S, 9 times ; 9 times 4 is 
36, from 38, and there remains 2 ; which makes 9 the next 
Figure in the Dividend, 29 ; then the 4's in 29, 7 times ; 
7 times 4 is 28, from 29, and there rcfts 1, which makes 
the next of the Dividend, 10, and the 4's in 10 twice; 
twice 4 is 8, from 10, and there remains 2 ; which makes 
6thelaftofthe Dividend, 26; laftly, the 4's in 26, 6 
times ; and 6 times 4 is 24, from 26, and there relts 1 the 
Remainder ; and fo for the other two Examples. And for 
Proof of the Work, (or of any other Example) multiply 
the Quotient by the Divifor, and take in the Remainder in 
the firlr. Place, or Place of Units ; and if the Pioducl be 
the fame with the Dividend, tie Divifion is right; fori 
fay, 4 times 6 is 24, and 2 the Remainder makes 26 ; 6 
and go 2, iffc. 

More Examples by a Jingle Figure* 
3) 54321 7) 279060 9) 234567 

Quotient 18107 (o) 39S65 (5) 26063 (o) 

Proof 54321 279060 z 34567 

This is the fhorteft Way of Diviilon that, can be by a 
fingle Figure. 

As it is neceifary for Expedition to multiply by 11 and 12 
as by a fingle Figure, to hav< the Productin one Line ; io 
divide as in thefe Examples, -viz. 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 95 

11) -]z6\6zo6 12) 76677240 

Quotient 6604:00 
1 1 



Proof 72646206 


11) 47627000 

12) 42007400 

Quotient '^2gjZ7 
1 1 

(3) ' 

3500616 (8) 

Proof 47627000 42007400 

In the firft of thcfe Examples, I fay, the n's in 72, an " 
fwer 6 times, ci?<r. In the fecond, I fay, the iaVu^, 
anfwer 6 times,-. &c. In the third, the 1 i's in 47, 4 times, 
4 times 11 is 44, from 47, and there relts 3, lie. In the 
fourth, I fay, the 12's in 42, 3 times j 3 times 12 is 36, 
from 42, and there remains 5, (Sc. 

J3y being ready and dextrous in the Examples above, you 
may expeditiously divide by thefe Numbers, to. 110, 120, 
iioOjXt 1200, bfc for it is but cutting off, or feparati-ng 
the Others from 1 1 and 12, (when thefc Numbers happen 
to be Divifors) and cutting off and feparating the like Num- 
bers, of Figures or Cyphers from the Right-hand of the Di- 
vidend, and then divide the other Figures or Cyphers to- 
wards the Left-hand, by 11 or 12, as it fhall happen; as 
in the Examples following, <viz. 

Divide 34567 by no, and 890123 by 120, and 98765 
by 1100, and 67S901 by 1200. 

11,0)3456,7 i2|o)890i2|3 

Quotient 3 1 4t \ or T \% 7417 , s ~ or T V e 

11, co) 987,65 12(00) 6789(01 

Quotient 89 |t or £& 5 6 5 -& or f»V« 

When you divide by 10, 100, 1000, or 10000, life you 

havt n thh;- more to do than to cut off, or to itparate fo 

jriny gur • Cyphers oftheDividend, towards the Right 

Hand, as you have Cyphers in the Divifor, and thofe Figu res 

E 3 towards 

96 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

towards the Left make your Quotient ; and thofe cut off 
towards the Right, is the Remainder. 

Divide 123456789 by 10, 100, or 1000, 10000. 

By 10 the Quotient is 12345678, and the Remainder 9. 

By 100 the Quotient is 1234567, and Remainder 89, 

By 1000 the Quotient is 123456, and Remainder 789. 

By ioooo the Quotient is 12345, and Remainder 6789. 

When the Diviibr confifteth of feverat Figures, then 
there arifeth a little more Difficulty, in the Work, but if the 
following Directions are heedfully attended to, the feeming 
Difficulty is eahly overcome; as in the facceeding Examples, 

Suppofe I am to divide 78901 Pounds among 32 Parifhes, 
or fuppofe an AfTefiment of fo much Money was laid on fo 
many Parifhes 5 what muit each Parifh pay by an equal Pro- 
portion towards the raifing fuch a Supply ? 

Divifor 32) 78901 (•••• Quotient. 

The Example thus fet out, I begin at the Left-hand, feek- 
ing how often I can take 32 out of 78 ; or more eafy, how 
many times 3 there is in 7, and the Anfweris two times ; 
which I place in the Quotient thus 32) 78901 (2, and then 
according to the General Rule of Working, I multiply the 
Divifor 32, by the two placed in the . Quotient, faying, 
twice 2 is 4, and twice 3 is 6; fo there is 64 to be taken 
out of 78, and Hands thus : 

32) 78901 (2. 

Then I make a Point under 9, the third Figure of the 
Dividend, and bring it down to the Remainder 14, and then 
the Work appears thus : 

32) 78901 (24 

. H9 
Then Ifeek again, afking how many times 32 in 149 ? 
which is not readily to be anfwered ; but how many times 3, 
the firft Figure of the Divifor, is there in 14, the two fiiil 
Figures of the Dividual 149, and the Anfwer is 4 times ; 
wherefore, after placing 4 in the Quotient, I multiply, (as 
directed in the General Rule) the Divifor 32 by the faid 4, 
%i n g» 4 "mes 2 is 8, placing it under 9 in the Dividual: 


fhe Toung Man's Beft Companion. 97" 

then 4 times 3 is 1 2, and fet down under 14 ; fo there is 128 
to be taken out of 1 49, and then the Work appears thus : 
32) 78901 (24 And after Subftratfion there remains 21 ; • 
64" then I make a Point under o in the Divi- 

■ dend, and bring it down to the Right 
149 of the Remainder 21 ; and then there is 
128 210 for a new Dividual ; then as the 

general Rule direfts, I feek again, fay- 

210 ing, how many times 32, the Divifor, 

is there in 210, the Dividual? oreafier, how many times 3 
in 21 ? ^ For obferve well, That when ever you have a 
Place more in the Dividual than in the Divifor, then always 
feek how oft you can take the firir. Figure of the Divifor 
out of the twofirft of theDividual) and the Anfwer is 7 
times ; but it will not bear 7 times, for 7 times 32 is 224, 
and you cannot take 224 out of 2jo ; or rather you cannot 
take 22 out of 21 ; wherefore try in your Mind before you 
fet down the Anfwer, or Figure in the Quotient, whether 
it will go to the Number of Times as is moft eafily fuggelted 
as here the Queftion orDemand is readily anfwered 7 times ; ; 
and fo many times 3 may be taken in 21 ; but when you 
come to multiply the whole Divifor by the times you place 
in the Quotient, you begin at the Right-hand, and go to* 
wards the Left, carrying the Tens that arife to the next 
Place, which increafes the Produft fo, that fometimes Sub- 
ftra&ion cannot be made, becaufe the under Line is greater 
than the upper, or that which you mould fubftxaft from ; 
wherefore firil: try in your Mind as abovefaid ; and fince i : 
will not bear 7 times, try if it will go 6 times; faying,6 times 
2 is 12, 2 and carry 1, and 6 times 3 is 18, and 1 is 19 ; 
and 19 may be taken out of 21, therefore fet down 6 in the 
Quotient next to the 4, and multiply the Divifor 3 2 by it, 
and the Work will ftand thus : 

32) 78901 (246 Here the Divifor 32 multiplied by 6, 

64. • • • gives 192 to be taken out of 210, and 

1 - the Remainder is 18 ; to which, after 

H9 a Point made under it, I bring down 

128 the i, the laft Figure of the Dividend, 

■ and then there is 181 for a new Divi- 
210 dual; then according to the Rule, I feek 
192 again (for you are to note, That the 
- aforefaid General Rule for working mull 

181 be as often repeated as you bring down a 


9 8 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

Figure or Cypher from the Dividend, to make a new 
Dividual ; and alfo, that for every Figure or Cypher 
brought down, there mult likewii'e be a Figure or Cy- 
pher placed in the Quotient, how many times 32 the Di- 
vifor may be taken out of 181 the Dividual ; or hoW many 
times 3 in 18, anJ the ready Anfwer is 6 times, but on the 
Tnal I find it will not go 6 times, wherefore I try a time 
lefs by 1, <vi z . 5 times and find 32) 78901 (2465 
it will bear it ; and letting 5 in 64 • • * 

the Quotient next to the 6, I ■ 

multiply the Divifor 32 by it; 149 

and it produces 160; which fub- 128 

ftracled from 181, the kit Re- 

mainder is 21, and the Quotient 210 

or Anfwer is 2465 ; and fhews 192 
that 32 is contained in 78901, » 

2465 times and 21 over, us! per. 18 1 

Work. 160 

Again, admit a Nobleman hath 30,000 /, per Annum, 
what is his daily Income ? 

If you divide 30000 by 365 (the Days in a Year) the 
Quotient will be the Anfwer. Set it down for working thus. 
36O 30000 ( 
Firft, feekhow many times 365 can be taken in 300, (an 
equal Number of Pkces with the Divifor) anfwer o times; 
wherefore I go a Place farther to the Right-hand in the Di- 
vidend (foro mull: never begin theQuotient,as was faid be- 
fore) and make a Point under it, <viz. under the kit o but 
one, as may be feen in the Example ; and there being a 
, Place more in this pointed out Dividual than in the Divilor, 
I (eek how oft the firft Figure of the Divifor, viz, 3, is con- 
tained in the two firft Figures or Places of the Dividend, wz. 
30, and the Anfwer is 10 Times; but you are never to take 
above 9 times at once, in any of thefe Examples of Divi- 
fion, wherefore try in your Mind whether it will bear 9 
times, before you fet it down in the Quotient (as was faid 
before) faying to yourfelf, or in your Mind, 9 times 5 is 45; 
<; and go 4; 9 times 6 is 54, and 4 is 58 ; 8 and go 5 ; and 
9 times 3 is 27, and 5 is 32 ; now 32 cannot be taken out 
of" 30,' wherefore take a time lefs by a Unit or One, viz. 

8 times 

The Young Man's Eejl Companion. 99 

8 times ; and finding it will not go 8 times, fet down 8 in the 
Quotient ; and then fay, 8 times 5 is 40, o and carry 4 ; 
and 8 times 6 is 48, and 4 is 52 ; 2 and carry 5 ; and 8 
times 3 is 24, and j is 29 ; and then there is 2920 to be 
taken from 3000 ; and after Subtraction the Work appears 
thus. 365) 3000 (8 


Then to the Remainder 80, I bring down o, the laft of 
the Dividend, and then there is 800 for a new Dividual ; 
then you mult try how oft you can take 365 out of the faid 
Dividual 800. and the Number of Places being equal to 
both in Divifor and Dividual, to wit, 3, afk how oft three 
in. o ; anfwer twice ; ibput 2 in the Quotient, and fay twice 
5 is 10 ; o and carry 1 ; and twice 6 is 12, and 1 is 13 ; 3 
and carry 1 ; and twice 3 is 6, and t is 7; fo there is 730 
to be deducted from 800, and the Remainder is 70, as in 
the whole Work may be feen, viz. 

365) 30000 (82 Thus by the Work The Noble- 

2920- man hath Eighty-two Pounds per 

. ._ Diem, and 70 Pounds over ; which 

800 if multiplied by 20, the Shillings 

730 in a Pound, would produce 1400 

■ — ' Shillings ;' which if divided per 

(70) faid Divifor 365, there would 

come cut 3/. a Day more, and there will be a Remainder of 
305, which multiplied by 12, the Pence in a Shilling, pro- 
duces 3660 ; which divided ftill^r 365, gives 10 Pence a 
Day more : So that 3CG00 /. a Year, is A82---3— -10 a Day. 
Once m: re ; Divide 46242 Gallons of Canary, by 252, 
the Gallons in a Tun, thus fet down : 
252) 46242 (183 In this Example, after Enquiry, 

252' • I find that it will not go twice ; 

therefore I fet down 1 in the Quo- 

2104 ' ti nt, and place 352 under 462 of 

2Ci6 the Dividend, and after Subftrac- 

■ tion the Remainder is 210 ; to 

8 8a which I bring down 4 from the 

756 Dividend, and the Dividual is 

2104 ; and then feeking again, 

(126) find it will bear 8 times; which 

placed in the QuQt-'erit, aad the Divifor 252 multiplied by 


" --" --'- --'■ ■ 

ioo The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

it, the Produttis 2016 to be fubftracled from 2104, which 
being done, the Remainder is 88 ; to which 2, the laft: Fi- 
gure of the Dividend being brought down, there is 882 
for the laft Dividual ; and then feeking again, I find it will 
go 3 times ; and the Product of the Divifor multiplied by 3, 
is 756; which fubftra&ed from 882, there rermains 126 for 
the laft, or true Remainder : So that by this Divifion I 
find there are 183 Tuns in 46242 Gallons, and 126 Gallons 
remaining, or over and above; which being Half cf 252 
the Divifor ; the Remainder is therefore Half a Tun more. 
When you have a Cypher or Cyphers in the Divifor, in 
the Firft, Second, or Third Place, &c. feparate fuch Cy- 
pher or Cyphers with aDaihof the Pen, from the reft of the 
Divifor; and alfo cutoff as many Figures or Cyphers from, 
the Right of the Dividend, as you cut off Cyphers from the 
Divifor, and divide the remaining Figures towards the Left- 
hand by the remaining fignificant Figures of the Divifor. 
Divide 42952 Square Poles of Land by 160, the Square 
Poles in an Acre of Land. 

i6|o) 4295 12 (268 Here the Cypher is cut ofF from 
32* •• the Divifor, and 2 from the Di- 

■ ■— vidend ; then I alk how oft 16 in 

109 42 ; anfwer twic«; then the 16's 

96 in 109, anfwer 9 times ; then 

j6's in 135, anfwer 8 times. So 

135 there are 268 Acres, and 7 remains, 
izS that is in 268 Acres, -? s or -fa or 
almoft Half an Acre. 

.-.; (7) 

Divide 2;|oo)62746|co( 2323 £f or §f§° 


. In this Example, two Cy- 

87 phers are feparated from the 

S 1 Divifor, and alfo two Places 

. i from the Dividend, and then 

64. 62746 is divided only by 27. 

54 See the Work. 


(25) ■ - When 

The Young Man's Bejl Companion. ioi 

When the Divifor is 3, 4, 5, 6, or more Figures, there 
is a fure and eafy Way of performing the Work truly, by 
making a Table of the Divifor : which may be done by 
Addition, or by multiplying the Divifor by 2, 3, 4» &?• 
Admit you are to divide 987654321 by 123456. 

123456)987654321 (8000 Times 

987648- •• 8 1 12345 6 


Here having noted the 
Number of Figures in the 
Divifor, which here is 6, 
I make a Point under the 
Sixth Figure, or Place of 
the Dividend, l$c. 















1 1 1 1 104 

The foregoing Table is made by doubling the firft Line, 
which makes 246912 ; which added to the firft or .uppermoft 
Line, gives the 3d Line 370368, which alfo added to the 
faid firft Line, makes 493824 for the 4th Line or Produft ; 
and fo of the reft ; ftill rememberiug to add the fubfequerit 
Line or Produft to the firft or uppermoft Line,tiilyou come 
to the laft Line of 9 times, which isimi04; the Truth 
of which may be proved by multiplying the firft or uppermoft 
Line by 2, 3, 4, 5, &e. and if you commit an Error by 
Addition, it may be found or corre&ed by Multiplication. 

The Ufe of the faid Table. 
When you have pointed out your Number of Places in 
the Dividend, caftyour Eye on the Table, and at the firft 
View you may know how many times you can take, as in 
this Example, 7 times is too little, and 9 times too much ; 
wherefore I fet down 8 in the Quotient, and then multiply 
and fubftraa, and the Remainder is 6 ; to which I bring 
down 3, and put o in the Quotient, then to the 63, I bring 
J down 

io2 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

down z, and place o in the Quotient ; then to 632 I bring 
down 1, the laft Figure of the Dividend : But Itill it will 
not bear any Times or Time, wherefore I put another o in 
the Quotient ; and fo the Work is done, and the Quotient 
is 3ooo, and the Remainder 6321, as in the Work. 

Thus having plainly,, fully, and pertinently (hewn, by 
verbal Directions, the Method of working Divifion; 1 think 
it unnecefiary to give any moreExamples in that Manner, 
but fhall leave fome few Examples for Practice Sake, whole 
Quotients and Remainders are exprefled, but the Operation 
omitted, to fave Room, and for Trial of the Ingenuity of 
7400690042 divided by 987, the Quotient is 7498166, 

and the Remainder 200. 
4.79679002742 divided by 4689, the Quotient is 102298704 

and the Remainder 4566. 
79697.67002 divided by 976294, the Quotient is 8163, 

and the Remainder 279080. 
456789012345, divided by 9876543, the Quotient is 

46249, and the Remainder 8775138. 
764697 by 4500 Quotes 16993, and Remainder 1249. And 
8092320000 by 345000, quotes 23456, and remains (0) 
The Proof of Multiplication and Divifion. 

THefe two Rules reciprocally prove each other ; for in 
proving Mult iplicatien, if you divide the Product by 
.the Multiplier, the Quotient will be like the Multiplicand; 
©r if the Multiplicand, the Quotient will be the fame with 
the Multiplier. , "* 

£xa.. t i. 345 

24 Exa. 2. 

— Or thus, 

{ I J 3§o 345 ) 8280 (24 

690 690 

24) 8280 (345 , 3 8o 

7 2 " 1380 

108 (o) 




The 2~oung Man's B eft Companion. 103 

'To prove Divi/ion. 

Divifion may be proved by Divifion thus : 
If you divide the Dividend by the Quotient, the Quo- 
tient will be your former Divifor. 

Divide 82S0 by 345. 

34O 8280 (24 
Here the Working again is needlefs, it being in the Paq;e 
foregoing ; and fhews the Truth of the Aflcrtion, that Di- 
rjijion may be proved by Divifion, as aforefaid. 

But the moil ufual Way of proving Di-uifion, is by Multi- 
plication^ this Manner, viz. multiply the Quotient by the 
Divifor, and the Product will be equal to the Dividend, 
Example of 1 , in the foregoing Page. 
345 Quotient. 
24 Divijor. 
— — Note, That when there is any 

1380 Remainder, fuch Remainder mult 

690 be taken in or added to the Pro- 

■ duft. 

8280 Proof. 

As in Multiplication, I gave fome Examples of its Utility 
in Money, fo likewife I fhall give a few Examples of Divi- 
fonof Money ; whereby may be feen how expeditiously 
fome Things may be done, without having Recourfe to Re- 
duction, the Rule of Three, I3 V. viz. 

Example 1. 
Divide 26 L 12 s. 6 d. equally among Five Men. For 
Difpofition of working, fet it down as follows. 
/. s. d. 
5)26 — 12-6 In the Working of this, I fay, the 

"- jj's in 26, 5 times ; 5 times 5 is 25, 

5 — 06 — 6 from 26, and there remains 1, or 1 

5 Pound, or 20 Shillings ; which with 

the 12/. in the Place of Shillings, 

Proof. 26— 12--6 makes 32/. then the 5's in 32, 6 

times ; 6 times 5 is 30, from 3 2, and 

there remains zs. or 24^. which with the bd. in the Place 
ofPence, makes 30; then the 5's in 30, 6 times; and fo 
the Work is done, and theAnfwer is that each Man muft 


104 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

have /. 5—06—6 for his equal Share in thefaidDivifion of 
/. 26—12—6 amongft 5 Perfons ; and the Truth of it is 
proved by Multiplication of Money, fufficiently fhewn in 
the Rule of Multiplication ; as here, 5 times 6 is 30 ; 6 and 
carry 2 ; and 5 times 6 is 30, and 2 is 32 ; 12 and carry 
1 i and 5 times 5 is 25, and 1 is 26, SsV. 

Example 2. 

Divide the Charges of a Country Feaft, amounting to 
/. 246 — 13 — 4 equally among 12 Stewards, to know what 
each Steward mull pay. 
/. s. d. 
12) 246 — 13 — 4 Here I fay the 12's in 24 

^___— . — • twice, and the 1 2's in 6, 

Anfauer 20 — 11 — i^ times, and there remains 6/. 

. — or 120/. and 13^. make 133; 

and then 12'$ in 13 once-, and there remains is. or nd. then 
1 2 and 4 is 16; and the 1 2's in 1 6 once, and 4 remains ; fo 
that each Steward muft pay /.20--1 1--1 -A or four Twelfths 
of a Penny, fomethingrr.ore than a Farthing ; and this may 
be proved as that above. 

When any Quantity is fuch a Number that any two Pi- 
gits of the Multiplication-Table, multiplied together, make 
the faid Quantity or Nunb*r» then the Quotient may be 
very expeditioufly found at two Divifions, and feoner than 
at one. Example: Divide 7872 by 32. In this Example 
the Digits, component Parts, or Ratio's, which multiply'd, 
too-ether, make the Divifer 32, and 4 and 8, or 8 and 4; 
for it matters not which of the Ratio's you divide by firft; 
for either of which Divifions give a true, and the feme 
Quotient; as may befeen by the different Methods of the 
following Work. 

4 ) 7872 Or thus, 8) 7872 

8) 1968 4) 9 8 4 

246 Quotient. 246 Quotient. 

Here though the Operations are divers, yet the Quotient: 
are one and the fame. Again, divide 44184 by 56. 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 105 

Example 2. 

7) 44* 8 4 

8) 6312 

789 Quotient. 

Here the Divi/ors are 7 and 8, or 8 and 7 ; for either, 
or both, will give the fame Quotient. 

And thus may above Forty Examples be wrought by 
Numbers out of the Multiplication Table, with great Dif- 
patch and Expedition, as by 15, 18, 25, 35, 64, 72, 96,^. 

When it happens there is any Remainder in the firft Divi- 
fion, or the laft, or in both ; to know the true Remainder as 
if you divided by the common Way, take this Method, viz. 
multiply the firft Divifor by the laft Remainder, and to take 
it in or add the firft Remainder, if there be any, and the 
Produtt will be the true or fame Remainder as if you divided 
by the long Way. Example : Divide 4567, by 15. 

3) 4567 

— — Here I multiply 3, the firft Divifor, 

5) 1522 — 1 by 2, the laft Remainder, and take in 

— 1, the firft Remainder, and it makes 7 

304 — 2 for the true Remainder, as may be 
proved at Leifure, by the other Way. 


The fame Obfervation and Method muft be taken with 
refpeel to component Parts mentioned before, in Divifion 
of Money, as in Divifion of fimple Numbers. 


3) t. s. d. 

Divide 463 — 1 8- — 06 into 18 equal Parts.. 

(6) 154 — 12 — 10 
Jnfiwer 25 — 1 5 — 5^ 

By this Method of Divifion of Money (if the Quantity be 
as aforefaid made by even component Parts) you may, by 
having the Price of feveral Things, know the Price or Va- 

106 The Toung Man's Bejl Companion. 

lue of one Thing, at the faidRate, as well as by the Rule 
of Three : So doth Mult/plication of Money anfwer Queftions 
in the Rule of Three, when the firft Number is a Unit or 

Example by Divijion. 
7) /. s. d. 
If 84/^. of Coffee coft 31 — 10 — o what is that a lb ? 

12) 4—10 — o 

Anfwer o — 07 — 6 a Pound. 

As in the Multiplication of Money, to have an Anfwer, 
you multiply the Price by the Quantity, fo in Diviilonof 
Money, you divide the Price by the Quantity, to have 
your Anlwer. 

I could fpeak more largely, if I had Room, of the ex- 
cellent Ufes ihat may be made of Multiplication and Di<vi- 
fion only ; but their various Ufes will be better undcrftood 
by their Application in the following Rules of Arithmetic^ 
particularly in the next Rule, cail'd, 


WHICH is an Application of Multiplication and£)/'- 
ti/ion, ihewing how to reduce Numbers of one De- 
nomination to another, thereby uifcovering the fame Value, 
tho' in different Terns. 

1. As m-fl. All Great Names are brought into Smaller by 
Multiplication, as Pounds into Shillings, Pence, or Far- 
things, by multiplying 20, 12, and 4. Or Hundreds 
Weight into Pounds Weight, by multiplying by 4 and by 
28, or by 1 12 ; or lower, into Ounces or Drams, by multi- 
plying by 16 and 16. 

2. And on the contrary. All finall Names are brought 
into greater by Divifion ; as Farthings into Pounds, by di- 
viding by 4, 12, and 20 ; and Pounds Weight intoHun- 
dreds Weight, by dividing by 28 and 4 ; and Drains into 
Pounds, by dividing by 16 and 16. 

But you may Kite, 1 hat Pounds only are brought intari 
Pence, by multiplying by 240 ; or into Fai things "by mul- 
tiplying by 960 ; and juft the contrary by Divifion. 

And for Weight, as expreffed above. 


The Young Man's Befi Companion. ioj 

The Senfe, Meaning and Ufe of Reduction, is exprefled in 
the following Verfes. 

Reduction fhe-ivs hoiv <zve of Names inU/e, 

May Great to Small, and Small to Great, reduce ', 

So that the -Infwer -vjhich Jhall thence ari/e, 

The given Sum in Value equalize ; 

Multiply, or divide it, back you muji ; 

Which makes again your given Number juj?. 

Example I. 

In 240 /. Sterling how many Pence ? 
20 Shillings 1 Pound. 
■ Or thus. 

4800 Shilings in 240 /. . 240 /. 

1 2 Pence 1 Shilling 240 d. in a /. 

Anpwer 57600 Pence in 240 /. 9600 

. , . . — 4S0 

Jnfnxer 57600 

Example 2. 
In 226 Tuns of* Copper, how many Pounds Wt f 
20 C. 1 Tun. 

Or thus, 

4520 Hund. Wt. in 226 Tuns 226 Tuns 

4 qrs. 1 C. 20 

18080 qrs. of aC.Wt. in 226 Tuns 4520 
28 ib. 1 qr. ofaC. 112 

144640- 54H° 

36160 45 2 ° 

506240 Pounds Wt. in 226 Tuns 506240 Pounds 

Thefe foregoing Examples are great Names to be brought 
into Small (as may eaflly be obferved and underitood;) there- 
fore, as the firft Rule is done by Multiplication, 
by multiplying the greater Name by the Number of the 
next leffer Name that makes one of the faid greater ; as in 
the lait Examples the lclicr Name to Pounds is Shillings ; 


re 8 The Young Marts Beji Companion. 

wherefore Imultiply by 20, becaufe 20 of that leffer Name 
makes one of the faid greater Name, i.e. 20 Shillings make 
a Pound. And the fame Regard is had, and Method ob'- 
ferved in the Example of Weight ; as is very plain to befeen 
in the Work, and is called ReduRion Defcendiug, becaufe it 
brings Higher or Greater denominations into Lower or 

4) Example 3. 

Bring 494400 Farthings into Pounds. 

• ■ Or thus : 

12) 123600 Pence. 96)0) 49440I0 (51$ /. 

480 • • 

2J0) 1030J0 Shillings. In this Way 

■ — — ' 144. I divide by 

515 Pounds. 96 960, the 

" " " ■ Farthings 

4?o in a Pound, 
4S0. tiff. 


In the firft Way I divide the Farthings by 4, becaufe 4* 
of them make a Penny, and the Quotient; is Pence ; then 
thefe Pence I divide by 12, becaufe 12 of them make a 
Shilling, and that Quotient is Shillings ; which Shillings I 
divide by 20, to bring it into Pounds, thus; I cut off the 
Cypher in the Dividend towards the Right, for the Cypher 
that is in the Divifor 20, which is alfo feparated from 2 
with a Dafh of the Pen, (as may be feen in the Work) then 
I halve the Figures one by one, as^they are united with the 
Remainder in the Dividend; which Half is Peunds, and is a 
fhort Way of Dividing by 20 ; in the Example I fay, the 
Halfef 10 (becaufe Imuftnotfet down o at the Beginning) 
is 5, and the Half of 3 is j, and there remains 1 ; which 
makes the ,ext, which iso, 10; and the half of 10 is 5. 
So that 10300 Shillings makes 515 Pounds, or there are ib 
many Pounds in 494400 Farthings. 

Note, In dividing by 20, as above, if any Thing re- 
mains it muft be joined or annexed to the Figureor Cypher 
cut off ; as fuppofe there had in halving the laft Figure ex* 
cepting that you cut off, remained 1, which there doth ne- 
vermore, and then neither, but when the Figure halveth 


The 2~oung Man's Beji Companion. 109 

odd; I fay, if there had remained 1, then it muft have 
been joined to the Cypher feparated or cut off, and then 
there would have been 10 Shillings. 

Example 4. 

Reduce 27552 Pounds Weight into Hundreds Wt. 

28) 2/552 (984 Or thus '. 

252 ' • ■ ■ - lb. 

246 C. wt. Jnfiver. 112) 27552(246 Anf, 

235 224" 


M3 44 8 


— — . 672 

(0) 672 

In the firfl of the two foregoing Examples, I divide the 
Pounds by 28, to bring them into Quarters ; then I divide 
thofe Quarters by 4, to bring them into Hundreds Weight, 
as in the Work. 

In the fecond Way, I divide the Pounds Weight by 112, 
the Pounds in a C. Weight, and it brings the Pounds 
Weight into Hundreds Weightatonce. 

The faid Examples are ©f fmall Denominations to be 
brought into greater ; and therefore according to the fe- 
cond Rule of Direction, it is done by Divifion, by dividing 
the letter Name by as many of them as make the next 
greater Name ; thatis, by 28, becaufe 28 of them make pae 
of the next greater Name, <oix. a Quarter of a Hundred ; 
and this Reduction is called Reduction Afcending, becaufe it 
brings low or fmallNames to higher or greaterDenominati- 

ons. By which may be obferved, that all Queftions in 

Reduction whether Amending or Defcending, are anfwered 
either by Multiplication or Divifion, or by both ; as will 
plainly appear in the fundry Examples of reducing of divers 
Denominations to others. 

When it is required to reduce Numbers of feveral Deno- 
minations by Reduaion Defcending, or by Multiplication, you, 
are to work as before ; but you muft always remember to 
take in fuch Numbers as fiand in the Place of the next in^ 


I to the Young Man's Beft Companion. 

ferior Denomination ; as when you multiply the Pounds by 
20, if there be any Shillings in the Denomination or Place 
of Shillings, you mull take them in. So likewife when you 
multiply the Shillings by 12, if there be any Pence in the 
Place of Pence, you muii alfo take them in. And fo when 
you multiply the' Pence by 4, to bring them into Farthings, 
you muit take in the Farthings, if there be any, in the 
Place of Farthings, as in the following Work. 
Example 5. 
/. s. d. 
In 346 — 16 — 9I how many Farthings ? 
20 Shillings 1 Pound. 

6936 Shillings in 346/. 16 /. 
12 Pence 1 Shilling;. 

83241 Pence in 346/. 16/. yd. 
4 Farthings 1 Penny. 

332966 Farthings in 346/. i6j. gd. \ . 

The Example is (o plain in the Work that it hardly needi 
any Explanation ; but I begin to fay,j o is o, but 6 in the 
Units of Shillings, is 6 : then twice 6 is 12; and 1, in the 
Tens of Shillings is 13 ; 3 arid carry 1 ; and twice 4 is 8, 
and 1 is 9 ; twice 3 is 6 ; then by 12, faying 12 times 6 is 
72, and 9^. (in the Place of Pence) is 81 ; j and carry 8 ; 
and 12 times 3 is 36, and 8 is 44 ; 4am! carry 4 ; and 12 
times 91s 1 08s and 4 is iizj 2 and carry 11 j and 12 
tknes 6 is 72, and 11 is 83, &c. 

Example 6. 
C. qrs. lb. 
In 56 — 2 — 16 of Tobacco, how many Pound Weight ! 
4 — qrs. 1 C. 

226 qrs. in 56 C. 2 qrs. 
28 lb. 1 qr. of a C, 


Anf. 6344 Pounds Weight in 56 C 2 qr«. 16 lb. 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 1 1 1 

In the foregoing Work, I firft multiply the 56 C. by 4 
and take in the two Quarters ; and then 1 multiply the 226 
qrs. by 28, faying 8 times 6 is 48, and 6 (the Unite Figure 
in the odd Pounds) is 54; 4 and carry 5, cjfc. Then I 
multiply by 2, laying twice 6 is 12, and 1 (that ftands in 
the Place of Tens in the odd Pounds) is 13 ; 3 and carry 1, 
ciu\ Then adding the two Products together, they make 
6344 Pounds, contained in 56 C. 2 qrs. 16 lb. as in the 
Work is confpicuous, or the Example may be fooner done 
by multiplying the 56 C. by 112, the Pounds in a C. Wt. 
and taking -in the ©dd Weight, <viz. 2 qrs. 16/6. or 72 
Pounds at once, tlms : 

•56 I fay here, 12 times 6 is 72 : 2 

112 and carry 7; and 12 times c »s 

60, and 7 is 67 ; then one- 6 is 

672 6, fetting it down in the third 

56,72 odd Weight. Place, becaufe by m uftiplying by 

12 at once, two Pieces are taken 

6344 up ; See the W^k. 

Or (till briefer thus, by fettins down the 56 C. four 
feveral Times in following Manner ; taking in the odd 
Weight, as before. 

56 C. 

5 6 

■ 56 

The fame as lbove, viz. 6344 Pounds. 

Reduction Afcending, 

Is the bringing Numbers from a lefTer Denomination to a 
greater, and is the Reverfe of Reduction Defcending ; and 
each may ferve as a Proof to the other, one being per- 
formed by Multiplication, and the other by Di-vi/ion. 

And Note, That when at any Time in Reduction De- 
funding you take in, or add to, the odd Money, Weight, 
or Meafure, as you multiply the feveral Denominations, fuch 
Quantities will be Remainders in Reduilion Afcending. 


1 12 The Young Man's Beft Companion, 

Example by the tivo foregoing Sums. 

In 332966 Farthings, how many Pounds ? 

i-z) 83241 — \d. remains what taken in. 
2,0) 693,6 — 9<J- remains what taken in. 
346- ■■ " 16s. remains. what taken in. 
So that in 33296.6 Farthings, there are 346/. 16/. $d.% 
and is a fure Proof of the foregoing Work defcending. 

Again, in 6344 Pounds Weight, how many Hundreds 
^Weight ? 4) • 

^8) 6344 (226) qrs. 

56 •' 

'74 56 C, 2 qrs. taken in. 
56 . 

(16) remain Pounds taken in. 
S6 that in 6344 Pounds Weight there is 56 C. 2 qrs. i6#. 
and proves the foregoing Example defcending to be right. 
Now follow promiscuous Examples of both Kinds of Re- 
4u&ion, one proving the,cther. 

In 276/. 12s. how many Pence ? 
20 12 
In 663 84^. how many Pounds r 


12 2|o) 5 53)2 

Jnf. 66384^. JnJ.l 2-]b\\2 and/^/. 
In 47964 Grains how many Pounds Troy,? 
24) 47964 (i99r* oT , 
24 •• * 12) 99—18 Pwts. 


In 8 lb. 3 oz. iBpnvt. 12 gn Anfox* 
\2 how many Grains. 

236 99 

216 20 

204 1998 

192 24 

•Cr. (12) 7994 


Attpwtr. 47964 and Proof. 

The Young Man's Bejt Companion. J 13 

In 34 C. a of Cotton Wool, how many Pounds ? 

34 -H*) 3892. (34 C. I Proof. 

34 33 6 ' 


- 532 

3892 Pounds. • 448 

(84) lb. or I of C. 

In 456 C. 3 qrs. 27 lb. of Copper, how many Pounds^ 
And what comes it to, at 21 d. per lb. 

456 c. 

456 Or thus-, 

456 c. 

456 45 6 

,111 112 

51183 Pounds. 5472 

21 456 


1 11 

102366 51 183 Pounds. 

1074843 Pence ; which bring into Pounds by Divijion, 
» or Reduction Afcending, as before fhewn, and 

it will amount to./. 4478 : 10:3. 

Bring 4796 Ells Flemijh into Ells Englijh ; multiply by 3. 
3 and divide by 5, becaufe 3 Quarters make an 

• ■ Ell Flemijh, and 5 an Ell Englijh. 

5) 14388 


Reduce 456 Ells Englijh into Yards ; multiply by 5, an;d 
divide by 4, thus : 

456 Englijh Ells. 

5 qrs. 1 Eng. Ell, In 570yds. how many £>/§-. Ells ? 
4 qrs. 1 Yd. 

4) 2280 qrs. 
Yds. 570 Anf. 

5) 2280 

Englijh Ells 456 Anf-wer and ZVtfo/". 


1 1 4 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

Bring 130 Tuns of Wine into Gallons. 
4 Hogfheads 1 Tun. 

Or thus. 

520 252 Gallons 1 Tun. 

63 Gallons 1 Hogfhead. 1 30 Tuns. 

1560 7560 

3120 252 

Anf. 32760 Gallons. 32760 

And fo the contrary by Dix<iJlon. 
Lajls. Starters' Bujbels. Pecks. 

Reduce 42 3 5 2 into Pecks. 

10 qrs. 1 Laft. 
" Here I multiply by 10, and 

423 qrs. take in 3 qrs. and then by 8, 

8 Bulhels 1 qr. and take in 5 Bufhels ; and 
— — laftly by 4, and take in 2 

3389 Pecks. 

4 Pecks iBufhel. 

13558 Pecks in 42 Lafts, 3 Quarters, 5 Bufhels, 
■ and 2 Pecks. 

In 13558 Pecks, how many Lafts, &c. 

8) 3389 2 Pecks taken in. 

i]o)42[3 5 Bufhels taken in. 

Lafts 42 3 Quarters taken in. 

Jnjhver, 42 Lafts, 3 Quarters, 5 Bufhels and 2 Pecks. 

Thus by the two foregoing Examples it is feen, that Re- 
dutlion dfcending and Defcending mutually prove each other, 
as was faid before ; and is no more than that Multiplication 
and Divijion prove one another. 

By Redudion alfo, 

Foreign Coins of Exchanges may be reduced to Sterling 
Money ; and on the contrary, Sterling Money to Foreign. 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 115 

Reduce 246 Venetian Ducats de Banco, into Sterling Mo- 
ney, the Exchange at 52^. Sterling per Ducat, thus : 


5 2 


12) 12792 


/. 53,6 To be paid in London, 
for the 246 Ducats drawn in Venice. 
Reduce 53/. 6s. Sterl. into Ducats at 52^. Sterl. per Due. 


52) 12792 (246 Ducats to be paid in Venice for the 53/. 6s. 
104 drawn in London, 

To reduce Flemijh Money into Sterling Money, divide, 
the Pence Fkmifh by the Par of Exchange, -viz. 33J. ^d. 
and the Quotient will be the Sterling Money ; and what re- 
mains, multiply by 20, &c. Example. 

In 242/. \y. ^d. Fkmifh, how many 
20 Pounds Sterling, &c> 

33-f- 4^- Flcmip. 4853 
12 12 

4°o 400) 58240 

/. 145 Sterling. 
Remains 240 



12 Shillings Sterling. 

F By 

:ii6 the Young Maris Beft Companion. 

By the Work it appears that 145 I \V Sterling, an- 
fwers, oris equivalent to 242 /. .13*. 4^ Flemijh, at 33;. 
4^. Flemijh, per Pound Sterling. 

Thus Flemijh Money may be reduced to Sterling Money, 
though the Par of Exchange be at any other Rate of Shil- 
lings and Pence Flemijh ; but when at the Rate, as above, 
•viz. 33 s. q.d. (the common Par) then the Anl'wer is fooner 
found by multiplying by 3, and dividing by 5 ; for 400^. 
Flemijh is the fame to 240^. Sterling (each being a PouncQ 
as 3 is to 5 ; for if you divide 240 by 3, it quotes 80 : So 
400 divided by 5, quotes the fame. 

The. foregoing Example done by the laft propofed Way. 

/. 242 — 13 — 4 Flemijh. 

5)728 — 00 — o 

/. 144 — 12 — o Sterling. 

Note, French Money is reduced to $fe< ling, viz. Livres, 
Sols, and Deniers (or French Pence) as Sterling and Flemifo 
Money is by multiplying by 20 and by 12. Alfo Proclama- 
tion Money is reduced to Sterling, if you multiply by 3, and 
divide by 4. 

In 436 French Crowns, each 54^. % Stcrlingy how many 
Pounds, &c. Sterling ? 

426 In this Example the Num- 

54 ber of Crowns is multiplied 

by 54V. and for that I take 

1704 tlie ""4th Part of 246, which 

2130 is io6| of a Penny, or a 

io6| or § d. Halfpenny ; which added to 

« the other Pence, gives for To- 

12) 23110: xod. tal 2311c*/. which divided by 

12, quotes 1925, and \o L 

2)0) 19Z J5 remains; fo the Anfwer is 

96/. 51. xod. I Sterling; as in 

Anfwer A 96 : 5: 10 Ster. the Work. 

Again, bring 1600 Pieces of Eight Mexico, at 54*/. | 
Sterling, into Pounds, &c. Sterling? 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 




12) 86800 Pence. 


/. 361 : 13 : 4 

Here the 1600 Pieces of 
Eight are multiplied by 54, 
to bring them into Pence ; 
and for the j. I take 4 of 
1600 twice, C5<r. as in the 
Work. And the Anfwer is 
/. 361 : 13 : 4. 

Th>s Method is c^Ufe in reducing theExchanges of Co* 
diz, Leghorn, and Genoa,. Or when the Exchange is at (o 
many Pence, and Eighths of a Penny, (as often the Ex- 
changes run) then multiply the j iber to reduce it 
into Penc:, by the Pence contained in a Piece of Eight; 
and alfo multiply the faid given Number apart, by the Nu- 
merator or upp-er Figure of the ide by 
the Denominator, or under Figure of l n, and the 
Quotient will be Pence; which add to the other Pence 
produced by multiplying the given Nu;... Pence 
contained in one of the Pieces for Exchange ; then divide 
the total Pence by iz, ci?c. 

Bring 296 Dollars, at 5 zd. f Sterling, imoPouuds,,^* 
Sterling ? 296 

5 2 



IS39 2 


12) I5614 

296 Dollars. 

8) 1776 

222 Pence. 

Anfwer /. 65 : 1 : 2 Sterling Money due for 
■ 296 Dollars, at 52 d> % 

Sterling per Dollar. 


1 1 S The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

But Ducats, Dollars, Cronvns, Millreas, &C. arc more 
expeditioufly call up by the Rules of Practice hereafter to 
be Ihewn. 

And Co much for Reduction. The next Rule in Arith- 
metic A, is 

The GOLDEN RULE : Or Rule of Three. 

IT is called the Golden Rule from its excellent Perform- 
ances in Arithmetick, as in other Parts alio of Mathe- 
matical Learning. 

And the Rule of Three, becaufe from three Numbers' 
given, propofed, or known, we find out a fourth Number 
required, or unknown, which bears fuch Proportion to the 
third as the fecond doth to the firft Number. From whence 
alfo it is called, The Rule of Proportion. 

And of this Proportion there are two forts ; »ne called 
Direcl, and the other Indirect or Reverfe. 

Direct Proportion is^when the fecond and third Numbers 
are multiplied together, and their Product is divided by the 

Indirect or Reverfe Proportion is, when the firft and fe- 
cond Numbers are multiplied together, and their Produft 
is divided by the firft. 

In Direcl Proportion, the fourth Number, or Anfwer to 
the Queftion, contains the third Nnmber as often (or as 
many times) as the fecond contains the firft. 

But in Indirect Proportion, the greater the third Number 
is, the lefs : s the fourth ; and the lcfl'tr the third Number 
is, the greater is the fourth. 

The Stating the Quejlion. 

The chiefeft Difficulty that occurs in the Rule of Three, 
is the right placing the Numbers, or ft; ting the Queition ; 
for when that is done, you have nothing more to do, but 
to multiply and divide, and the Work is done. 

And to this End, we are to remember, that of the three 
given Numbers, two of them are always of one Name or 
Denomination; and the other Number is ever of thjfame 
Name with the fourth Number or Anfwer required ; and 
muft always be the fecond or middleNumLer ; p.ndtheNum- 
ber that afketh the Queftion, mull ftill poffefs the third or 
laft Place ; and the other Number of the fame Name with 
the third* muft be the firil Number ; for, the firft and third 
Numbers muft always be of one Name, vix. both Money, 


The Young Man's Befi Companion. 119 

both Weight, both Time, or both Meafure. And though 
they be of one Kind, yet if one of them is altered, by Re- 
duction, from a high to a lower Name, then the other muft. 
be reduced to the fame Name. For you muft particularly 
note, That if either the Jirft or third Numbers conjiji cf feve- 
red Denominations, that is of Pounds and Shillings ; or Pounds, 
Shillings and Pence ; or of Pounds, Shillings, Pence, and Far- 
thigs ; er of Tons, Hundreds, Quarters and Pounds, &c. 
then mujl they be reduced to the loivcft 'Name mentioned. And 
if one happen to be of divers Denominations, and the other but 
of one Name ; then the Number of one Name muft be reduced 
as low, or into the fame Name with the other ; as fuppofe the 
f.rjl Number is brought into Farthings, then the third Number, 
though, but Pounds, muft be brought into Farthings alfa. Then 
you are to multiply the fecond and third Numbers together 
(when the Proportion is Dired) and divide the ProduSi by 
the firft Number, and the Quotient thence arifmg will be the 
Answer to the Queftion, and in the fame Name with the middle 
Number : And if in a fmall Denomination, it mujl be brought 
by Divifon to the higheft Name, for the better under/tending 
the Anfivtr. You muft alfo Note, That if the middle Num- 
ber be of fever al Denominations, it muft be brought into the 
loweft mentioned. 

Example I. 
If 12 Gallons of Brandy colt 4/. \0s. what will 1-34 
Gallons coll at that Rate ? " 

Stated for Working thus. 
Gallons. I. s. Gallons. 

If 12 • ■ 04 — 10 *■ ■ " ■■' 134 

20 90 

9® 12) 12060 

2J0) 100I5 

/. 50 5 Anfu-er-. 

Here the firft and third Numbers are of like Names, viz. 
both Gallons ; and 134 being the Number that afketh the 
Queftion, it hath the third l'lace, as it always muft, as be- 
fore aflerttd ; and 4/. lor. the fecond Number, being of 
two Denominations, viz. Pounds and Shillings, it is re- 
duced into the loweft mentioned, viz. Shillings, as before, 
y q directed, 

120 *the Young Maris Beft Companion. 

directed, and then the three Numbers are thefe, viz. 
12 — 90 — 134; and 1 34 the third Number, being multi- 
plied by 90, the fecend Number, produces 12060 ; which 
divided by 12, the firit Number, quotes 1005 Shillings, 
the Name cf the middle Number 90 ; and 1005 Shillings, 
divided by 20, gives 50/. 5/. for the Anfwer ; And for 
the Proof of its truth, ftate it back again thus : 
Example 2. 
Gal. 1. s. Gal. 

If 134 coil 50 — 5 what 12 f 


134) 12060 (90s. Anfwer, or 4/. 10/. 

1 206 the Colt of 1 2 Gallons, 

— and is a fure Proof of the. 

firft Work ; and the back ftatingand working the Proof is. 

as much a Queflion in the Rule of Three as the firft. 

By the foregoing Rules and Directions, and. thefe two 
Operations, you may underiland the Nature of the Rule, 
and Method of working, and with Eafe and Certainty an- 
fwer any Example propofed in the Rule of Three direft : 
And therefore, 1 fhall emit what I can of verbal Directions, 
and abate as much of Figure WV rk as is confident with Dif- 
patch, and of not leaving the Work too obfeure ; to fave 
Room, and not to be too prolix ; and to this End I fhall only 
give the Examples Hated, and a little of the Work, and 
the Anfwers to the Qucitions, leaving molt of the Opera- 
tions to be performed by the ingenious Practitioners. 
Example 3. 
If 56 % of Indigo coft 1 il. 4s. what will 1008 ffc. coil 
at that Rate ? 

ft>. * ife. 

If 56 — 224 — ico8 ? Anfnxer 4032J. or 201/. 12s. 

Example 4. 
If half a C. Wt. of Rofe Copper coft 4/. 1 8/. what 
Quantity will 14*. buy at that Rate ? 

s. ifc. s. 

If 98 buy 56 what 14? d?i/kver 8 ife. of Copper. 

Example 5. 
If 4 C. 3 qrs. of Sugar coft 5/. 15/. yd. what will 4 
Hogfheads come to, weighing 42 C. 1 qr. 14/. If 

The Young Mail's Befi Companion. 121 

ffe. d. Ife. 

If 532 — 1387 — 4746; Anfiver, 12373 Pence, or 51/. 
\\s. id. And the Remainder 266 ; multiplied by 4, gives 
1064 ; which alfo divided by the firft Number 532, gives 
a Half-penny more ; fo the whole is 51/. iu. id. f. 

Any of thefe Examples, or any other, may be proved by 
a b.ick-ft.iting, according as the firft Example was proved. 
And each Proof becomes another Queftion in the Rule of 
Three, as was faid before. 

Example 6. 

If I have 50/. a Year Salary, how much is du3 to me 
for 144 Days Service at that Rate ? 
Days. I. Days. 

If 3 6' 5 _ 5 o— 144. ? Anfjjcr, I. 19— 14— 6/ ° 5 - Parts of 
ai Penny. 

In this Example, the Product of the third by the fecond 
Number is 7200 ; which divided by the firft 365 (according 
to the Rule) quotes 19 Pounds, the Name of the middle 
Number and there is a Remainder of 265 : which multi- 
plied by 20 according to ReduBion, and the Product ftill 
divided by365, there comes out 14 Shillings; andyet there 
is a Remainder of 190, which multiplied by 12 and the 
Product divided by 365, gives 6d. and there's a Remainder 
of 90 ; v/hich multiplied by 4 (the laft inferior Name) and 
d'vided by 365, yet it would n®t come to a Farthing more ; 
fo that the Anfwer is as above, 19 — 14 — 6£ij* 

You are to note always, That nvhen any thing remains 
that is reducible to an inferior or lower Name ; after multi- 
plied as above, it mujl continually be divided by the firfi 

Note alfo; --when the firft of the three given Numbers is an 
Unit, or One, the Work is performed, or Anfwer found by 

Example 7. 

If I am to give \js. for lib. of Bailadint Silk, what 
rsuft I give for 264/^. at that Rate ? 
lb. s. lb. 

If 1 17 264 


Anfwer 4488, or 224/. 8;. 
Example 8. 
If I buy 49 Bags cf Hops, at 12 /. 12;, 6 d. per Bag, 
what come they to at that Rate ? J}^ 

122 The Young Maris Beji Companion. 


■6 49 

7 and by 7. 

Bags. I. s. d. 

1 " 12 12 — — 6 49 Bags. 

88—-07— 6 

618 — 12 — 6 Anjhver. 

The foregoing Work is performed by the component 
Parts of Muhiplicatisn of Money, as taught in that Rule. 

When the Third or Laft of the three given Numbers is 
an Unit or One, then the Work is performed by Diviftcn. 

Example 9. 

If 12 Ells of Holland coft 3/. 6s. what is the Price of 
1 Ell at that Rate ? 

Ells 12) j. Ell. 

If 12— ———66 ■■ 1 Anfwer 5 s. 6d. 

5 t \ of is. or 6d. 
Example 10. 

If 56 Yards of Broadcloth coft 40/. 12/. what comes a 
Yard to at that Rate ? 

Yards 7) I. s. Yd. 

If 56 - ' ■ - '40 — 12 ■■ ■ 1 Js/zver \^.6d. per Yi. 


o — 14—64'. Anfiver. 

This Example is wrought by Divi/lon of Money, and by 
Component Parts ; as before taught in the Rule ofDi'vifon. 

Example 1 1 . 

If A owe? B 296 /. ty s. and compounds at 7 /. 6 d. in 
the Pound j what mud B take for his Debt ? 
s. - d. s. 

If 20 — 90 5937 Anfiver I. m — 6 — 4!- 

Example 1 2. 

If a Gentleman hath an Eftate of 500/. a Year, what 
may he expend daily, and yet lay up 12/. 15s. per Month ? 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 123 

Firft multiply 12/. 15/. per 12, the Months in a Year, 
and it makes 153 /. which deducted from 500/. the Re- 
mainder is 347/. Then fay, 
Days. I. 

If 365 347, what 1 Day ? Anfwer igs. 

After you have reduced the Pounds into Shillings, which 
make 6940 ; you divide them by 365, and the Quotient is 
10/. per Day. 

The Rule of Three Reverfe, er of Indirefl Proportion. 

WHAT Indirefi Proportion is, hath been hinted 

In DireS Proportion, the Product of the Firft and Fourth 
Numbers, is equal to the Producl of the Second and Third. 

But in this Proportion, the Product of the Third and 
Fourth Numbers, is equal to the Produd of the Firft and 

The Method of ftating any Queftion in this Rule, is the 
fame with that of the Direii Rule. 

For the firft and third Numbers muft be of one Name, 
or fo reduced, as in that Rule ; and the Number that moves 
the Queftion muft pofTefs the third Place ; and the middle 
Number will be of the fame Name with the Anfwer, as it 
is there. 

To fao-w when the Queftion, belongs to the Direct, and when 
to the Reverfe Rule. 

When the Queftion is ftated as abovefaid, confider whe- 
ther the Anfwer to the Queftion ought to be more or lefs 
than the fecond Number ; if more, than the letter of the 
firft and third Numbers muft be your Divifor. 

But if Lefs, then the Bigger of the two extreme Num- 
bers muft be your Divifor. 

And if the firft Number of the Three is your Divifor, 
then the Proportion is Direii ; but if the laft of the Three 
given Numbers is your Dim/or, the Proportion is Indues! 
or Reverfe. 

Or without Regard, either to DireSi or Reverfe ; 
If more is required, the LefTer ) • r\- ■/■ 
If lefs, the Greater \ ls *>"»'»' 

F 5 Example 


J 24 %bt Young Man's Befi Companion. 
Examples for Explanation, 
Example I . 
If 4 Men plain 250 Deal-boards in 6 Days ; how many 
Men will plain them in 2 Days ? 

If 6 Days require 4 Men, what 2 Days ? Answer 12 Men. 

Example 2. 
If a Board be 9 Inches Broad, how much in Length will 
make a Square Foot ? 

In B. In L. In B. 

If 12 ■ ■ 12 what 9 Inches broad r. 

9) 144 

Anfvoer 16 Inches- broad. 

In this Example, the fisft and fecond Numbers are rnuK 
tiplied together, (as they always mult be) and their Produft 
is divided by the Third ; as in the Example above it, and. 
agreeable to the aforefaid Affertion ; for in the hr&. Exam- 
ple, it is moil certain, that 2 Days will require more Hand? 
to perform the Work than 6 Days ;■ therefore the Lefferof 
the extreme Numbers is the Dboi/ut \ and declares the 
Quotient is in the Indirett Proportion. 

Likewife in the fecond Example, 9 Inches in Breadth 
jDuft needs require more in. Length to make a Foot, than 12 
Inches in Breadth j wherefore it is in the fame Proportitn 
with the nrff Example, becaufe the Divi/or is the third 

Example 3.. 

How many Pounds of Coffee, at 5 /• 9 d. per lb. i* 
equivalent in Value with 246 Pounds of Tea at 13 s. 4^.. 
W lb, 
* d. lb. d.. lb. 

If 160 give 426, what 69 ? Anfwer 987^^ 

Here it is manifeft that there muft be more Pounds of the 
Coffee than the Tea ; therefore $9 is the Divifor, which it 
the- third Number, ci?c» Exampk 

The Young Man's Beft Companion. T25 

Example 4. 

How many Yards of Sarcenet, of 3 qrs. wide will line 
9 Yards of Cloth of 8 qrs. wide ? 
qrs. ivide. yds. long. qrs. wide. 

If 8 9 what 3 

8 Here the narrower the Silk 
■ the more in Length is requir'd. 

3)7 2 
Yards 24 Anfiwer* 

Example 5. 

If a Quartern Loaf weigh 4/^. { when Wheat is 5/. 6d. 
the Bufhel; what muft it weigh when Wheat is 4/. the 
Bufhel ? 

d. \lb. d. lb. 

If 66 9 — . — 48 Anfwcr 6} 

Example 6. 

If in 12 Months 100/. Principal gain 5/. Intereft ; what 
Principal will gain the fame Interest in 5 Months ? 
M. LP. M. 

12 ■ . . . ■ 100 5 


5) 1200 
Anfwer, 240 /. Principal.. 

The Diulh Rule of Tloree Dlred. 

N this Rub there are Five Numbers given to find out a- 
_ Sixth, in Proportion to the Produdt of the fourth and 
fifth Numbers, as the third Number bears to the Product 
of the firil and fecond Numbers. 

Qneftions in this Kind of Proportion, are wrought ei- 
ther by two Operations in the Single Rule of Three Direa y 
or by the Rule compofed of the Five given Numbers, and 
the one may be a Proof to the other ; zs may be feen in 
the Example following. 


126 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

Example i. 

If ioo Pounds Principal, in 12 Months, gain 5 Pounds 
Intereft, what will 246 Pounds Principal gain in 7 Months? 
If 100 gain 5 what 246 

1 Joo) 12I30 

i|oo)6|oo Anfwer. 12/. 6s. 

M. I. s. M. 

Then fay again, if 12 gain 12—6 what 7 



iz) 1722 


20) 143,6 

/. 7,3,6 Jnfzver. 

in the firft Stating, the Anfwer is, that if 100/. gain 5 
Pounds, the 246/. will gain 12 Pounds 6 Shillings. 

Then I fay in the next Stating ; If 12 Months gain 12/. 
6s. what will 7 Months gain ? And the Anfwer of the 
Work is, /. 7 — 3 — 6. And fo much will 246 Pounds gain 
in 7 Months, if 100 Pounds gain 5 Pounds in 12 Months. 

You muft particularly note, That in all Operations where 
the Anfwer to the Queftion is found by two Rules of 
Three, the Anfwer of the firft Stating is ever the middle 
Number of the fecond Stating or Work ; as in the pre- 
ceding Examples is plainly feen. 


The Young Man's Be/} Companion. 1 27 

The foregoing Queftion anfvvejed by a Rule compofed 
of five given Numbers, thus : 

If 100- 










1200) 8610(7/. 

In this Work, in flaring the 

Quelton, the firft and fourth 

Numbers are made of oneName, 210 

and the fecond and fifth ; then 20 

the two firft Numbers are multi- ■ " 

plied together for a Divifor, and 1 200)4200(3/. 

the laft three Numbers are mul- 3600 

tiplied together for a Dividend, - ' 

and the Quotient or Anfwer as 600 

in the fame Name with the mid- 1 2 

die Number, viz. Pounds Inter- * — — 

eft; as in the Work I find the 1200)7200(6^. 

firft Quotient 7 Pounds Intereft; 7200 

and fo I proceed from one De- ■■■ 

nomination to another, till I (o) 
find the fame Anfwer as in the 
Work at two Statings, <viz.. 
/. 7 — 3 — 6. 

This Method of Operation ferves to anfwer all Quefti . 

ons in the Double Rule of Three Dired. 

The Double Rule of Three Reverfe. 

IN this Rule you muft place your Numbers in fuch Or- 
der, that your fecond and fourth Numbers may be of 
one Name or Denomination, and your third and fifth. 
If 100/. Principal, in 12 Months, gain 61. Intereft; 
what Principal will gaia 20 /. Intereft in 8 Months ? 


128 The Young Man's Befi Companion. 
Stated thus : 
IP. Mo. Lint. Mo. 

(0 (2) (3) (4) (5) 

If ioo ——12 6 8— —-——20 

12 6 

i2co 48 the Divifor. 

48) 24000 (500/. P. Anfwer. 

.^ . ■ 

In this Work, the third and fourth Numbers are mul- 
tiplied together for a Divifor ; and then the firft is mul- 
tiplied by the fecond, and that product by the fifth Num- 
ber, and the Product 24000 is divided by 48, and the 
Quotient is 500/. Principle ; which is what will gain 20/. 
Intereft, in 8 Months, and the Anfwer to the Queition, 
as may be feen in the Work, 

Rules of PraSiice. 

THESE Rules are fo called from their frequent Ufe 
and Brevity in cafting up moll Sorts of Goods in 

Note, That any Shieftion in the Rule of Three, ivhen tkt 
firft Number in Stating is 1, it is moft briefly done by theft 
Rules called Practice. 

But previous to thefe Rules, it is necefTary to have the 
following Tables by Heart. 

Parts of a Shilling. Of a Pound. 

. 1 





a Pouni> 

s. d. 

10 IS 


6 8 






3 4 


2 6 





1 & 


I P 


*the Young Marts Beji Companion. 129 

Paris of a Shilling. Example I . 

Sd. is j 43.6 Pounds of Sugar, at 6d. per lb. 

k I/.. 


/. io| 1 3 Anfwer. 

Here 6d. being the Price of each lb. and the Half of a 
Shilling ; therefore the Half of 426 is taken, and give* 
Z\y. or 10/. 13/, 

Example 2. 

i^d is \ I 51 zlb. of Cheefe, at \d. per lb, 
of I« J 

2|o)i 7 [o-8^ 

I. 8, 10,8 Anfwer. 
Here \d. is ~ of a Shilling ; therefore the third Part of 
j;i2 is J70J. and \ of a Shilling, or Sd. remains. 

Note, Always what remains is of the fame Name with 
the Dividend, which here is Groats, fr the founds of Chceji 
are at a Groat each. 

Example 3. 

3</. is \ I 246 Yds. of Ribband, at $d. per Yard, 

of \s, J " 

2|o) 6|i — \ of a Shilling, or 6d. 

I. 3 — 1 — 6 Anfwer. 

Here the Yards are divided by 4, becaufe 3d. is the 4th 
cf a Shilling ; and it quotes 61 Shillings, and 2 remains* 
or two 3 Pences ; fo the Anfwer is /. 3---1— 6d. 

And thus may any propofed Queftion be anfwered, be- 
longing to the firft Table, or Parts of a Shilling ; that is 
by dividing the given Number by the Denominator of the 
Fraction, and the Quotient will always be Shillings, which 
(the Remainders being known as above) bring into Pounds, 
by dividing by 20, &c. 

When the Price of the Integer is at a Farthing, a Half- 
penny, or three Farthings more than the Price of Pence 
mentioned, then for thofe Farthings take their even Part 
of the foregoing Quotient taken for the even Part of % 
Shilling, and add, 6jf*. 


130 The Toung Man's Beft Companion. 

249 Ells of Canvas, at 4I per Ell. 

4</. is ■§- 
of 4</. 


10 I or \d. \ Answer. 

2 l°)9l3 — 4i dnfwer. 


In this Example I divide by 3 for the Groats, as being 
the Third of one Shilling, and it quotes 83J. then I con- 
fider that a Half-penny is the Eighth of 4/. therefore I 
take the eighth Part of the Groat Line, or 83*. and that 
produces 10s. and -| of a Shilling, or \d. \ ; then the two 
Lines being added together, make 93J. 4^. £■, or 4/. 13;. 
4^. f , as in the Work. 
Parts of a Pound. 
10s. is \ j 254 Yards of Cloth at \ou pa- Yard. 

/. 127 Anfixier. 

Here the Half of 254 is taken, becaufe 10/. is the Half 
of a Pound. 
s. d. 
6 8 is \ I 972 Gallons at 6s. 8d. per Gallon. 

/. 324 Answer. 

Here the third Part is taken, becaufe 6s. Sd. is the 
Third of a Pound ; and the Anfwer is /. 324. 

And thus may any Queftion propofed be anfwcred be- 
longing to the fecond Table, or Parts of a Pound ; that is, 
by dividing the given Number by the Denominator of the 
Fraction, and the Quotient will always be Pounds ; and if 
any thing remains, it is always fo many Halves, Thirds, 
Fourths, or Fifths, tsfc. of a Pound, according to the 
Denominator that you divide by. 

If the Price be Shillings and Pence, or Shillings, Pence, 
and Farthings, and no even Part of a Pound ; then multi- 
ply the given Number by the Shillings in the Price, and 
take even Parts for the Pence, or Pence and Farthings, 
and add the feveralLines together, and they will beShillings; 
which Shillings bring into Pounds, as before. Ex* 

The Young Man's Beji Companion. 1 3 1 


lb. s. d. Ells s. d. 

426 at 4 — 9 216 at 2 — Sz 
4. 2 per Ell. 

1704 43 2 

.&/. | I 213 3^ I I 54 

3^. H 106 I 6</. £/.' * 9 

. of id. J •• ■ 

2|o) 202(3 2jo)49(5/. 

/. IOI-3-6 Jnfwer. 2 \\ l S Anfnuer. 

396 Gallons of Brandy, at ys. $d. 
7 per Gallon, 

U \ is. 1 198 
3* I to. I 99 

2|o) 306I9 

/. 153(9 -dnfiver. 

When the Price is tod. only annex o to the Right of 
the given Number (which is multiplying by 10) and they 
are Pence ; which divide by 12, and by 20. 

Example; 426 /£. of Hops at icV. per lb. 


/. 17 — 15 An/iuer. 
When the Price is \\d. fet down the Quantity twice in 
^he Form of Multiplication, and add the two Lines to- 
gether, then divide by 12, and 20. Example. 
426 lb. of Copper at \\d. per lb. 

12)4686 Pence 

2|o) 39J°— 6 

/, iq — IO — 6 Anfater. 



1 3 2 The Young Man's Bejt Companion. 
If the Price be nd. £, take Half the uppermoil Line, fcfe, 

942 It. of Tobacco, at 1 id. \ per lb. 


12) 10833 Pence 

2|o)9o|2 — gd. 

/. 45 2 — 9 Anpwer. 
When the Price is it. only divide by 20. 

z\o) 96I4 lb. of Tobacco, at \zd. per lb. 

I. 48,4 Anftwer. 

When the Price is zs. it is done at Sight, by doubling 
the laft Figure towards the Right-hand, and fetting it apart 
for Shillings ; and the Figures toward the Left are Pounds. 

596 Gallons cf Spirits, as is. per Gallon. 

/. 59 — 12 Anfwer. Here the Double of 6 is izs. and 
the 59 are Pound?. 

From this Method of working by zs. a Multitude of 
Examples may be molt expeditiouily wrought, viz. 

is. r of zs. 
6d. f of is. 

3d. fof 6 d. 


444 Cambrick. 
at 5 s. 9 d 
44 — 8 at 2 /. 
44 — 8 at 2 /. is. I zs. 
22 — 4 at 1 s. 6d. ± is. 
1 1 — 2 at 6 d. 
5 — 1 1 at id. Anf-jjer. I. 74 — 1 1 at 3; 

426 at 3 s. 6 i. 

per Yard,. 

42 — 12 at zs, 
21 — 6 at If n 
10 — 13 at 61 

Anfwer, 1 27 — 13 at 5 — gd. 
The Operation of thefe two Examples is fo intelligibly 
wrought, that there is no need of verbal Explanation. 


"The Young Man's Befl Companion. 133 

Again, 548 Yards of Broadcloth, at 1 zs. 6d. per Yard. 

/. 54. 16 at zs. 6 times zs. is \zs. 

6d. is 328, 16 at \zs. Note, That it,!. \\s. is 

i of zs. J 13, 14 at 6d. the fourth Part of 54/. \6s. 
- ■ the two Shilling Line. 

I. 342, 10 Anfiver. 
Or multiply by \zs. and take H-alf of the given Num- 
ber lor the 6d. thus : 548 Yards. 




t \o)6S 5 \ o 

l. 342 — 10 J f fiver. 
When the Price is an even Number of Shillings, mul- 
tiply the Number of Integers by Half the Price, and 
double the firft Figure of the Product for Shillings and 
carry as is ufual in Multiplication, and the other Figures 
towards the Left will be Pounds. 

296 Yards of Cloth, 14/. per Yard. 

7 the Half of 14 Shillings. 

/. 207 — \s. Anfwer. 

Here 7 times 6 is 42 ; the Double of zs. is 4/. 13 c. 

When the Price is an odd Number of Shillings, work for 
the even Number as above ; and for the odd Shillings, take 
the ~ of the given Number, and add them together. 

496 Gallons of Citron Water, at 17* per. Gal. 

8 the' Half of 16, or even Part. 

396 — 16s. 
24 — 16 

421 — 12 Anjhver. 

' In 

134 We Young Man's Beft Companion. 

In this Example I fay, 8 times 6 is 48 ; the Double of 
8 is 16s. and carry 4 ; then 8 times 9 is 72, and 4 is 76; 
6 and carry 7 ; and 8 times 4 is 32, and 7 is 39, then 
the Half of 4 is 2, tie. 

Even Parts of a Pound. 

Yards. Nobles s. d. 

\os. j 426 of Cloth, at xos. 429 at 6 — 8 each. 

is | — — per Yard » ■ ■■ 

213 Anftver, 6 — %d. \ | /. 143 Anf-wtr. 

lb. lb. 

598 of Cochineal, at 

■5J. per lb. 4/. 

y I /. 149I or 10 s. Anfvjer. is ~ 

154 of Indigo, at 

4-f. per lb. 

I. 3 of or i6s.An/. 


3/. 4^. I 542 Zealand Dollars, at y. jlA. 

"i I „ 

90g or 6j. 8</. Anpvuer I. 90 — 6 — 8 Sterling. 

In all thefe Examples of Practice, I divide by the De- 
nominator of the Fraction, and what remains is alwayi 
of the fame Name with the Denominator ; as one Half, 
Thirds, Fourths, Sixths, or Eights of a Shilling, or of 
a Pound, Istc, 

If the Price be Half a Crown, divide by 8 ; if at 20/ 
or is. 8, divide by iz, tsV, 

When the Price is Shillings and Pence, and no even Part 
of a Pound ; multiply the given Number by the Shillings, 
and take Parts of it for the Pence, as directed before. 


246 Marks, \$s. 4^. 


- For the Groat, I fay the 3*1 

4^. 7 1 738 in 24, 8 times ; and the 3's'in 

is. 246 6, twice, c5V. 



/, 164" Anfiver. 


The Young Maris Beft Companion. 135 

But this Example may be fooner done by multiplying 
the given Number by 2, and dividing that Produci by 3 
(becaufe a Mark is two Thirds of a Pound) thus : 

3)49 2 

I. 164 Jnfiucr and Proof. 

I have not here Room to fpeak of the various and almoft 
infinite Methods and Rules of Prabice (having feveral 
ether Subjects and Things to treat on) but fhall leave 
fome general Ruler, which if heedfully noted, will be of 
great Ufe to Learners ; and are thefe, viz. 

1. When the Price is Parts of a Farthing ; or of a Penny, 
as \, |, -£, 13 c. then multiply the Integers by the Numera- 
tor, and divide by the Denominator, and the Refult will be 
either Farthings or Pence ; which reduce to Pounds, l$c. 

2. When the Price is Pence, and no even Part of a 
Shilling ; as fuppofe $d. jd. Sd. or gd. then it may be 
done by taking their Parts, as 3 d. and 2d. is 5 d. and 
tfd. and 3d. is id. and \d. and 4//. is %d. and 6d. and 3d. 
is gd. but it is an eafy and fure Way to multiply the 
given Number by 5, 7, 8, org, and then the Product is 
Pence ; which reduce to Pounds by Reduction. 

3. When the Price is Pence, and Parts of a Penny ; as 
id. \, 2d. j, or 6 %, then work for the Penny by taking the 
t' t ; for 2d. the -£ ; and for 6 d. the \ : Then for the 
Farthings, take the \ of the Penny Line and ft>f ', § of 
the Two-penny Line ; and for f , take \ of the 6 Penny Line ; 
then add their Refults together; «uid the total will L»e Shil- 
lings, which reduce to Pounds by dividing by 20 Or by 
the fure Way of bringing the mixt Number into the low- 
elt Denomination ; as id. |, into 5 Farthings, 2d. \> into 
5 Halfpence, and6</. |, into 27 Farthings; then multiply 
the Integers by 5, and the Produci is Farthings ; or by 5 
Halfpence, and the Produci will be Halfpence ; or by 27 
Farthings, and the Produci will be Farthings ; which, 
whether Farthings or Pence, reduce to Pounds, cffr. 

4. When the Price is Shillings and Pence, or Shillings, 
Pence, and Farthings, multiply the Intergers by the Shil- 
lings of the Price, and takeParts for the Pence, or Pence 
and Farthings, csV. S» If 

i^S The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

5. If the Price be Pounds and Shillings, or Pounds, 
Shillings, Pence and Farthings ; multiply by the Shil- 
lings in the Price, that is, in the Pounds and Shillings, 
and take Paris for the Fence and Farthings. 

6. When the Number cf Integers hath a Fra<5lion an- 
nexed or belonging to them ; as |, f, £, cifr. then take 
£> h cr 1 of the Price of" one of thi Integers, and add 
that to the other Refults. 

ARE and TRET?, &c. 

Grp/s jffeigfa is the Weight of the Goods in Hundreds, 
Quarters and founds, with the Weight of the Hogfhead, 
CaJc, Choir, bag, bale, U??. that contains the Goods. 

(d to the Buyer for the Weight of the 
Hog: head, Gafk, Cheft, Bag, bale, t5V. 

Trcit is an Allowance made for Walk, Dull, &c. in fun- 
■ f Goods, as Tobaccoes, Cottons, Pepper, Spices, 
&c. and is always. \lb. per \oxlb. Suttle, and iound by di- 
viding I • Suttle bounds by 26, becaufe^ times 26 makes 
hen the Grofs Weight is brought intq Founds, 
■ the Tare is deduced, they are called Pounds 
; and after the Tare is fubftra&ed, the remaining 
P< unds arc call ■>.-/.'. Je ; tvhich divided by 26 (ai 

jfaid before) qu ' s I'ounds Trett, &c. 

T, are at ■■ C* v 2', Hogjbepd-, Mag, Sic. 

The A'. '?■ ances for Tare are varioiuly wrought; as by 
-the follow ng Examples, 

In 12 Cafks of Indigo, containing 45 C. 1 qr. 14$. 
Grofs, Tare 30/^. per Cafk, how many Pounds Nett ? 
12 Cfcflos C. \r. lb. 

' 45—1 — 14 

360 Pounds Tare. 45 


5082 Pounds Grofs. 
Subflraft 360 Pounds Tare. 

_ , . _ Jfi/nver 4722 Pounds Nett. 

In this Example, the lbs. Tare of one is multiplied by 
the Number of Calks, and the Produft is 360 Founds Tare, 
and the Grofs Weight is reduced into Pounds by the Method 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 137 

fliewn in Red-udion of Weight ; and then the Pounds 
Tare are deducted from the Pounds Grofs, and the Re- 
mainder are Pounds Nett, viz. 4722, as in the Work. 

When the Tare is at fo much per C. tut. multiply the 
Number of Hundreds by the Tare, and take Parts for the 
odd Weight, and add it to the Tare found by Multiplica- 
tion, and divide it by 112, to bring it into Grofs Weight, 
in order for Subftraftion. Example. 

What is the Nett Wt. of 12 Cafks of Argol, Wt. Grofs. 
84 C. 2 qrs. 14 lb. 
1 4 Tare per C. 
, , C. qrs. lb. 

236 8+ — 2 — 14 Grofs. 

jj4 10 — 2 — S4 Tare. 

7 for Half C. 

1 I for 14 lb. 74—0—5+ Ne " Wt - 

412). 1 i84}(i° C - 

64 lb. or half a C. and 8 lb. 

The Tare in the : t Example ; \ t< be fnmd by the fore- 
gone Directions, jC. z qrs. '■'-'• |, which fubftra&ecl as 
tn the Work, leaves 74.C. o qrs. 5 lb'.\ % for the Nett Wt. 

But the foregoing Example ma) be fooner done hy Prac- 
tice, thus : 

C. q-S. lb. 

■—2—14 Grofs. 
fub. 10—2 — 8f Tare. 

74— 0—5 1 Nett. 

In this Method, the Gfdfs Weighl is divided by 8, be- 
caufs 14 lb. is one Eighth of iiklb. ra.d the Remainder is 
reduced into the riext bfe ier'NaVnej end fell divided by 
8, to the End, and then deducted as above, and the Nett 
Weight is the fame as by the other Way. And fo may any 
Tare/w Ct. be found, it' iheTare be an even Part of nzlb. 
as 14 is one Eighth, and yiL is the Half of that, and i6lb. 
is one Seventh, and 8#. is Half of that, l5c. that is, if 
the Tare be at 7 lb. per C. find it for 14.1b. as before, and 
then take the Half of that for 7 lb. per C. Tare, the like for 


133 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

8/£. per C. Tare; take one Seventh for \6lb. and then 
the, Half of that for Sib. per C. Tare. 


What Trett is, when allowed, and how found, hath been 
faid already ; now I fhall give an Example for Explana- 
tion as follows. 

Bought fix Hogfheads of Tobacco, containing Grofs 
and Tare as follows, m. 

N. C. qrs. lb. lb. 

i qt. 4 — i' — 20 Tare 80 

2 5 — 2 — 19 100 

3 6—3—18: 102 

4 7— 3— Iz 1C H 

5 8—2—13 

6 9—1 — 14 


26) 4198(161 lb. Trett, 42—3—12 602 

26 . . 42 

— — 42 

159 42I96 


3 : 

4800 Pounds Grofs. 
38 fubftracl: 602 Pounds Tare. 

4198 Pounds Suttle. 
deduft 161 T 6 T Pounds Trett. 

4036 -/j Pounds Nett. 

There are fome few other Rules, fuch as Barter, or ex- 
changing Goods for Goods ; alfo Exchange for Coin, 
Profit, Lofs, &c. but all of them being done either by the 
Rule of Three, or by Rules of Practice, it is therefore 
here unneceffary to enlarge upon them. 

Of FRJCTIONS Vulgar and Decimal. 

WHAT Franions are, hath already been hinted in the 
Rule of Divifwn, from whence they arife ; for the Re- 
mainder is a fuppofed Part of theDivifor ; as admit 54/. u 
divided into Twelve equal Parts, the Quotient is 4 ; and the 
Remainder 6 : So that here 6 is fix Parts of 12, or fix 
Twelfth's, equal to aHalf; for 6 is the £ of 12 ; and fet down 
in this Form T \ and underflood by thefe Names, viz. 

6 Nutnt' 

The Young Man's Beft Companion. 139 

6 Numerator. 

12 Denominator. 

The Numerator is above the fhort Line, and fheweth the 
Number of Parts ; and the Denominator Hands under the 
Line, and declares the Number of equal Parts the Integer 
or whole Number is divided into ; as above 54 lb. is divided 
into 12 Parts, and the Quotient fays there are 4 of thofe 12 
Parts contained in 54, and 6 remains, or 6 Twelfths of a 
Pound, or 10 s. as above faid. • 

Fractions are thus fet down and read, viz. f , or one 
Fourth; \, one Half, \ t one Third, \, one Fifth; |, one 
Sixth ; \ two Thirds; f , two Fourths ; f, two Sixths ; f, 
five Sevenths, tffc. 

Fractions are either proper or improper. A proper Frac- 
tion hath its Numerator lefs than the Denominator ; as |, 
five Eighths ; \\' t twenty-four Fifty-Sixths, iffc. 

An improper Fraction hath its Numerator greater than 
the Denominator ; as |, feven Thirds ; *!> forty-eight 
Fifteenths, ESr. 

Afgaxa, Fractions are either Simple or Compound ; /imple 
when Part of an Integer or Thing hath but one Numerator, 
and c»ne Denominator ; as {- of a Pound Sterling £ of a C. 
Weight, I of a Ton, 4 of a Gallon, &e . Compound, is a 
Fraction of a Fraftioc., as the \ of a | of a Pound Sterling 
is equal to Half a Crown ; or when one is divided into 
any Number of Parts, and tkofe Parts again fubdivided in- 
to Parts, 13c. 

Fractions are of two Kinds, viz. Vulgar and Decimal. 
Vulgar Fractions are as declared before. Decimal Fractions 
are artificially exprefled by fetting down the Numerators 
only, the Denominators being underftood ; and are always a 
Unit with as many Cyphers annexed as there are Places in 
the Numerator ; and therefore muft be either 10, or fome 
Power of 10, as 100, 1000, 10,000, or 100,000, ciJV. 

Decimal Fractions appear as whole Numbers, (and in the 
general fo wrought) but are diftinguifhed from them by a 
Point or a Comma prefixed thus, ,5, and is read five Tenths; 
,32, thirty-two Hundredths ; ,256, two Hundred ;6 Thou- 
fandths : But of Decimal Fractions and their Ufe hereafter. 
Reduction of Vulgar Fradions, is to fit Or, prepare them 
for Addititn, SubJlradioH, Sec. 

G 1. To 

140 The Xoung Maris Beji Companion. 

I . To Reduce a mixt Number to an improper Fradion, 


Multiply the Integer by the Denominator, and take in 
the Numerator. 


Redu.ce 12 Gallons | to an improper Fraction, thus, 

LAnfwer, 51 Fourths, or 51 Quarts. 
2. To reduce an improper Frail ion to a whole or mixtNumber. 
Rule. Divide the Numerator by the Denominator. 


Reduce the laft Example to a whole or mixt Number, viz, 
51 4) 51 (12 

4 48 

3 Remainder. 

4 Divifor. 

Here 12 Gallons is the whole Number, and J the Frac- 
tion, the fame with 3 Quarts. 

3. To reduce Fraclions t« a common Denominator. 


Multiply the Numerator of each Fraction into all the De- 
nominators, except its own, and the Product will be a Nu- 
merator to that Fraction ; and then do fo by the next, fcfr- 

Reduce f, and | of 201. or any other Integer, or Thing, 
to a common Denominator ; fay twice 4 is 8, and 6 times 8 
is 48, for a new Numerator to f ; then fay, 3 times 3 is 9, 
and 6 times 9 is 54, for a new Numerator to | ; laftly, fay, 
r times 4 is 20, and 3 times 20 is 60, the Numerator to 4J 
Then, to find the common Denominator, fay 3 times 4 is 12, 
and 6 times 12 is 72, the common Denominator : So that 
jl is equal f, ff to fc and ff to -|. And thus proved ; 

The Toung Man's Befi Companion. 141 

Added together 
make 162. 


of a Pound is 













45 o 162 Common Denominator. 
Here the feveral Numerators are added together, and they 
make 162, which placed over the common Denominator 72, 
make the Improper Fraction '^f ; and its Value is found as 
before directed. To reduce an improper Fraction to a nvhok or 
mixt Number ; as may be feen in the foregoing Page. 

4. Ts reduce a -Fraclion into its lo-ivep? Terras* 


If there are even Numbers, take Half of the Numerator 
and Denominator as long as you can ; and then divide them 
by any Digit Number (i. e. 3, 4, 5, 6, ISc) that will leave 
no Remainder in either. 


Reduce || into its loweft Terms- fay, the | of 56 is 28, 
and the \ of 84 is 42 ; and then, the \ of '28 is 14, and 
the \ of 42 is 2J. So the Fraction ff is reduced to if- 
And fmce they both are not to be halved any longer ; for 
though you can halve 14, yet you cannot 21, without Re- 
mainder ; try therefore to divide them by feme other Digit 
Number ; and you will find, that 7 will divide both Nume- 
rator and Denominator without any Remainder ; then fay, 
the 7's in 14, twice ; and the 7's in 21, three times : So is 
the Fraction || ruducedinto its loweftTerms, -| two Thirds ; 
and is the fame in Value with |^., and. done in this Form ; 

.2 27 

56 J 28 J 14 1 2 

H\ 43 I 21 1 3 

And the Certainty that f is the fame in Value with -|| is 

found by multiplying any Interger by the Numerator of 

each Fia&ion, and dividing by the Denominator of each, 

Fraclion. Example. 

x4fc *£ht Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

Let the Integer be \l. Sterling, or 20s. 
The bejl Way. The common Way. ' 

s. s. 

20 20 

2 56 

84.) 1 1 20(1 3 s. 


> 13M'- 


7& J 

Here it is manifeft, that by working by a Fraction in its 

loweft Terms, much Time and Figures are fared. In one 
Operation, 20, the Interger is multiplied by 2, and the Pro- 
dudl 40 divided by 3, and there remains 1, or | of a Shil- 
ling, or a Groat, as in the other Work. 

There are other Methods of reducing a Fraftion into its 
loweft Terms ; but in my Opinion, none f© ready as the 

5 . To reduce a compound FraSlion into a fimple One of the 

fame Value. 
Rule. Multiply the Numerators together for a Numera- 
tor, and the Denominators together for a Denominator. 

Reduce I of -Jof | of a Pound Sterling, into a fimple Frac- 
tion. Say twice 3 is 6, and 5 times 6 is 30, the Numerator: 
Then 3 times 4 is iz ; and 6 times 12 is 72, the Denomi- 
nator. So |i of a Pound is equivalent to | of £ of | of a 
/. Thus proved, -£ of a/, is 16 s. 8 d. and \ of ditto, or 
16/. 8d. is \zs. 6d. and f of izs. and 6</. is 8j. \d. the 
Anfwer: And multiplying 20 by 30, and dividing by 72, 
gives the fame Anfwer, as in the following Work is plain. 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 



72) 600 (8/. 

24 Remains 
12 Multiply 

y ss. \d. 

72) 288 {\d. 

6. To ,/SW A&* /Va* of any Fraeliort, whether of Coin, 
Weight or Meofure. 

Rule. Multiply the Integer by the Numerator, and di- 
vide by the Denominator ; and if any Thing remains, mul- 
tiply it by the Number of Units of the next inferior De- 


What is \% of a Pound, or 20/. ? the foregoing Exam- 
ple of Proof to the compound Fra&ion f of { of |, and as 
it is worked there, it need not again be repeated. 
Again, What is | of a Ton Weight ? 

20 the Integer. 
5 the Numerator. 

The Denominator 6) 100 


16 — 4 remains. 
4 qrs. 1 C. 

6) 16 

C. qrs. 2 — 4 remains. 
28 lb. I qr. 

6) U2 

16 C. zqrs. \%lb.$ lb. 18— I 
G 3 


/. 38 Anfwer. 
Here 1 and 3, the Numerators, make 4; and * is I, and 
is 3, and 5 makes 8; and 1 and 2 is 3, and the Anfwer 

Or they may be reduced to improper Fractions, thus : 
25! 12I 103 

4 4 49 

103 49 4) 152 

144 The Young Man's Beft Companim. 

Here the Integer 20 C. is multiplied by the Numerator 5, 
and the Product 100 divided by the Denominator 6, and 
the Remainder 4 is multiplied by the Parts of the next in- 
ferior Denomination, cffc. and the Anfwer is 16 C. 2 jrj. 
18 lb. ■* or I of a Pound Weight, as in the Work. 

Addition of Vulgar Frattions. 

IF the Fractions to be added have a common Denomina- 
tor, add the Numerators together for a Numerator, 
and place it over the common Denominator. 

Add -f, £, and f cf a Pound Sterling together. Say 2 
and 3 is 5, and 4 is 9, the Numerator ; which place over 5, 
the common Denominator, thus, f, and this im- 
proper £ra&ion f is in Value 36 /. for 9 times 5) 9 

41. (the ;th of a Pound) is 36*. thus : Here f is 

i6x. I fay the 5's in' 9, once, and 4 remains, /. 1 \ 
which is •* of a Pound. 

But if the Fractions to be added have unequal DenomJ- 
nators, then they muft be reduced to a common Denomina- 
tor, by a Rule before Ihewn, before Addition can be made: 
and then proceed as above. 

2, When mixt Numbers are to be added, work with the 
fractional Parts as before, and carry the fractional Value 
to the whole Numbers. 


Add 25/. i to 125, thus: 25^- 

4. 4. 38 Pounds. 

Here the Numerators are added, and their Total is 152 ; 
which divided by 4, the common Denominator, quotes 38 

r'c") r ) J s>, the fame Anfwer as above. 


The Toung Man's Befl Companion. 1 45 

3. When Compound Fractions are to be added to Simple 
Ones, reduce the Compound Fraction to a Simple One, as 
before directed ; and then proceed as above. 
Add I and f to \ of ~ of a Pound ; thus, once 2 is 2 
and twice 4 is 8, the compound Fraction ; then add faying, 
2 and 3 is 5, and 2 is -£, equal in Value to iys. 6d. 
SubJlra£tion of Vulgar Fraftions. 

IN this Rule, the Fractions rnuft have a common Deno- 
minator, or be reduced to sue, before Deduction can 
be made. 


What is the Difference between £ and \ ? Anfwer ~ ; and 
proved by Addition ; for 5 and ~ make £ or 3 Quarters. 

Note, The Difference between the Numerators is the 
Difference of the Fractions. 

Again, from f of a Pound, take T \ ; Here the Fractions 
are to be reduced to a common Denominator ; 36 the firft 
Numerator, and 20 the fecond Numerator, and theiu Dif- 
ference is 16, and 48 is the common Denominator ; fo that 
if, or J in its loweft Terms, is the Difference between f 
of a Pound, and T s y of a Pound, that i* 6s. Sd. 

To fubJlraSi a Compound Fraction from a Simple one. 

Rule. Reduce the Compound Fraction to a fimple One, 
and then work as before. Example. ' 

From £f take f of | ; fay twice 8 is 16, and 3 times 9 is 
If, the compound Fraction : Then if and || mull be re- 
duced to a common Denominator, thus ; 13 times 27 is 351, 
the firft Numerator ; and 14 times 16 is 224, the fecond Nu- 
merator, and 14 times 27 is 378, the common Denominator. 
Then fubftract 224, the fecond Numerator, from 351, the 
firft Numerator, and the Remainder is 1 27, which place over 
378, the common Denominator, thus, 4f-| jbifiwer. 
When a fimple Fradion is to be dedufied from a whole Number. 

Rule. Subflract the Numerator of the Fraction from the 
Denominator, and Place the Remainder over the Denomi- 
nator, and carry 1 to fubftract from the whole Number, &c. 

From 12/. take -§- thus ; fay 5 (the Numerator) from 8 
(the Denominator) and there remains 3, which place ever 
the Denominators, thus, £, then 1 from 12 and there re- 
mains 1 1 ; fo the Anfwer is, /. 1 1, j, sr 1 1 — 7 — 6, as may 
be proved by the whole Numbers. G 4 Muf- 

146 The Toting Mans Beft Companion. 

Multiplication of Vulgar Fractions. 
p / l\/TUltip]y the Numerators into one another for a 
ue ' 1VJ. Numerator of the Product; and then do the fame 
by the Denominators, for a Denominator of the Produdt. 


Multiply | of a Pound, by § of ditto ; fay 3 times 5 ij 
15, the Numerator; and 4 times 6 is 24, the Denomina- 
tor ; fo the Anfwer is f^, or in its loweft Terms \. 

You are to Note, That Multiplication in Fractions leffens 
the Product, tho' in whole Numbers it augments it; as 
above, -| or lis. 6d. is lefs than -| or \6s. %d. and alfo 
iefs than the other Fraction \ or 15/. The Reafon of which 
I have not here Room to infift on ; but it is given in my 
Arithmetick in Multiplication of Vulgar Fraclions ; to which 
Book I refer the Reader for that, and fundry Enlargements 
in the feveral Rules in the Science of Arithmetick. 
2. To multiply a --whole Number by a Fraflicn. 

Rule. Multiply the Integer by the Numerator of the 
Fraction, and place the Product over the Denominator. 

Multiply 56/. by | 56 


168 1 

-■ > Facit, 

This improper Fraction *| 8 reduced according to Rule, 
makes but 42 /. which is lefs than 56 ; and confirms what 
was before affertcd, viz. that Multiplication of Fractions 
leilens the Product, &c. 

3. To multiply a Simple by a Compound FraBian. 

Rule. Reduce the Compound Fraction to a Simple One, 
as before taught, and Work as above. 

Multiply I of a Pound, by | of £ of a Pound : Say, 6 
times 6 is 36, and 8 times 1 2 is 96. So that the Aafwer is 
36 or | i n its loweft Terms ; equal to js. 6d. 

Divijion of Vulgar Fractions. 
T% /TUltiply the Numerator of the Divifor into the 
ica/i?. PyJ^ Denominator of the Dividend, and the Pro- 
duct is the Denominator of the Quotient j and then mul- 

The Young Man's Beji Companion. \$y 

tiply the Denominator of the Divifor into the Numerator 
of the Dividend, and the Product will be the Numerator 
of the Quotient. 


Divide 4| by 4 ; f ) \\ (f f Quotient. 

Here 16 multiply by 2, gives 32 ; and 15 by 3, gives 
Ac ; fo that the Quotient is f £, equal to 1 |f, as in the 

Again, Suppofe || was divided by | the Quotient will be 
i\ equal to 1 Integer, or whole Thing. And fo any other 

Reduction of Decimal Fractions. 

WHAT a Decimal Fraaion is, hath been already 
fhewn. The next Step is, how to reduce a Vulgar 
Fraftion into a Decimal ; which is no more than to annex 
Cyphers at Difcretion (that is, 2, 3, or 4, \£c.) to the 
Numerator, and then divide it by the Denominator. 

Example 1. 

Reduce £ of a Pound Sterling to a Decimal. 

4) 3 00 ) 

— — > that is, 75 Hundredths, equal to 3 qrs. of any 
,75 ) Thing, whether Money, Weight, Meafure, fcfr. 
as being £ of 100 ; and fo, 25 Hundredths is, in Decimals, 
the Quarter of any Thing, as being \ of 100; and five 
Tenths expreifes the Half of any Thing, as being the \ 
of 10. 

In Reduction of Decimals, fometimes it happens that a 
Cypher or Cyphers muft be placed to the Left Hand of the 
Decimal, to fupply the Defect or Want of Places in the 
Quotient of Divifion, or in the Produdt of Multiplication 

of Decimals. la this Cafe always remember, That fo 

many Cyphers as you annex to the Denominator of the 
Vulgar Fraction, fo many Places you muft point off in the 
Quotient towards the Left-hand ; but if there be not fo> 
many Places to p©int off, then you muft fupply the Defeft 
by placing o to the Left of the Decimal. 

Example 2. 

Reduce gd. 01 ? £s to the Decimal of a Pound SfcrKngt 
thus ; 

G 5 34[q 

'*4$ The Young Man's Bejl Cempamen. 


7 2 • • < _ . 

Here is bat three Places in the Quotient, 

180 'viz. 375 ; and. therefore I cannot point off 
168 4 for the four Cyphers annexed to 9 ; where- 

- fore I prefix o to the Left of the Quotient 
I2C\ 375, thus ,0375, and then it is the Dcci- 
120 mal of 375 ten thoufandths Parts of an In- 

■ teger in the Work. 


The more Cyphers you annex, the nearer you bring 
your Decimal to the Truth : But in moft Cafes, four Cyphers 
annexed is fufhcient. But when you are to reduce \, f, or 
-| (as above) of an Integer- to a Decimal, or any Number of 
Shillings to the Decimal of a Pound, two Cyphers' are fuf- 
ficient.. One Example more. Example 3. 

Reduce 3 Farthings to the Decimal of a Pound, that is, 
9^% vulgarly, 960 F arthings being a Pound, and therefore 
fo expreffed, and with the fame Reafon as 9 Pence before, 
■240 Pence being a Pound. 

96J0) 300000(0 (,003125. The Work being perform'd. 
according to the Divifion, with two Cyphers prefix'd, 
quotes, ,003125, or 3125 Millionth Parts of a Pound- 
by the fame Method, the Vulgar Fra&ion of Weight, 
Meafure, &c. are reduced to Decimals. 
Example 4. 

How is vz Pounds Weight expreffed in the Decimal of t 
C. Weight Avoirdupois, or 1 1 zlb. the Vulgar Fraction is 
T i|, and the Decimal, 1071, found as before, thus, 

112) I20000(,J07r 

112 The Remainder 48 is not worth 

— Nctice, being lefs than the 

&c. iooooth Part of an Unit, or 1 . 

Example 5. 
How is 73 Days brought, to the Decimal of a Year vul- 
garly thus expreffed -j||. 

365) 730 (,2 An/. 2 Tenths. Thus prcrved, 36,5 

730 . ' 


i Here 365, the Days in a Year, is divided by 10 twice, 
and the Quotients added together, and they make 73 Days, 


The Toung Man's Befi Companion. 149 
Valuation of Decimals. 

TO find the Value of a Decimal Fraftion, whether of 
Coin, Weight, Meafure, c5V. 
Rule. Multiply the Decimal given by the Units contained 
in one of the next inferior Denomination, and point off as 
many Places from the Right-hand, as you have in your De- 
cimal ; fo thofe Figures toward the Left of thofe pointed 
off, are Integers or whole Numbers ; and thofe on the other 
Side toward the Right-hand are Parts of i or Unity ; that 
is, fo many Tenths, Hundredths, Thoufandths, or Ten 
Thoufandths of one of thofe Intergers, whether a Pound, 
a Shilling, or a Penny, &c. or of a Ton, a Hundred, a 
Quarter, or a Pound Weight, &c. and fo of any other 
Integer, of what Kind or Quality foever. 
,4.76 Parts of a Pound Sterling. 
20 Shillings a Pound. 

9>5 2 ° 

12 Pence 1 Shilling. 

Anfvoer. 6,240 
9/. 6d. 960 4 Farthings 1 Penny. 

Parts or I 

of id. ,960 Parts of 1/. or almoft | of id. 

,476 Parts of a Ton wt. 
20 C. 1 Ton. 


4 qrs. I C, 

jfnfwir. zil: 1- qr. of a C. 

f C. 2 qrs. 2 lb. 240 Parts 


In the Example of Money, I multiply the Fraction by 20, 
and point off 52b for the three Places in the Decimal, is'c. 
and the Anfwer is gs. 6d. f . 

In the Example of Weight, I proceed as in that of Mo- 
ney (the Fraction being the fame) but with different Refpeft 

1 50 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

to the inferior Denominations ; and the Anfwer is 9 C. 2 qrs. 

2 U- tHS of a Pound Weight. 

To find the Value of a Decimal in Money in a briefer 

Method, was. 

*»&. Always account the Double of the firft Figure (to 
the Left-hand) for Shillings ; and if the next to it is 5, 
reckon i>. and whatever is above 5, call every One Ten, 
and the next Figure fo many Ones as it contains, which 
Tens andOnes callFarthings ; and for every 25, abate one: 
As admit the laft Example of Money, was. 476 the Double 
of 4 is 8 ; and there being one five in 7, (the next Figure) 
I reckon is. more, which makes gs. and there being 2 in 7 
above 5, they are to be accounted two Tens or 20; which 
with the next Figure 6 being fo many Ones, makes 26 
Farthings ; and abating 1 for 24, give 6d. and almoft a 
Farthing more, for the Fraction 960 Thoufandths of a 
Pound wants but 40 of a Farthing. 

Addition of Decimals. 

IS the fame in Pradice as in whole Numbers, only infet- 
ting down. Care muft be taken that the Decimal Parts 
ftand refpeaively under their Parts ; that is, Primes under 
Primes, Seconds under Seconds, Thirds under Thirds, tfr. 
and the Integers ftand as in whole Numbers. 



I— 1 

















>4 7 9 



7 4 

,4 2 

,4 2 



,o 6 



6 5 

.7 9 4 




4 2 

>.o 5 



437 >7°5 i,4 7 6 ° 2,1 4982 
Note, There muft be as many Places pointed off as there art 
in the biggeft Number. ' # 

The cafting up of the foregoing Examples is the lame 
with Addition of one Denomination in whole Numbers I 
The Total of the firft (fuppofing them Pounds Sterling) is 
437/. and ,705 Parts. The fecond is 1/. and ,4760 Parts. 
And the third is zl, and ,14982 Parts. 


The Young Marts Bejl Companion. 151 

SubJiraSiion of Decimals. 

THE Numbers mull be placed as before in Addition, 
and then proceed as in SubJlraSlion of one Denetnina- 


tion of Nurd en. 

I. pts. I. pis. I. pts. 

46,51 140,42 4762,0 

9,24 91,7462 0,472 

37,27 4 8 > 6 73 8 4761,528 

Multiplication of Decimals. 

HERE the placing the Numbers and Operation is the 
very fame as in whole Numbers ; and only remem- 
ber to point off towards the Right Hand fo many Places 
for Decimals as you have Decimal Places in both Multipli- 
cand and Multiplier. 

















345> , 5° 






4« 2 5 



,01328 4> 6 3*5 

Note, That where there are not a competent Number of 
Figures, or Places to point off, fuch Defe£l is fupplied with 
Cyphers to the Left-hand ; as in the 4th and 5th Examples, 
according to what was before hinted in reducing a Vulgar 
Frattion to a Decimal. 


152 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

Divifion of Decimals. 

IS the fame in Operation as in whole Numbers. The only 
Difficulty is to know how many Decimal Places to point 
off towards the Left-hand of the Quotient ; to which End, 
remember this Rule ; Obferve how many Decimal Places 
there are both in the Divifor and Dividend, and note the 
Difference ; and whatfcever it is, fo many Places mull be 
pointed off to the Right-hand of the Quotient. 


Divide 12,345670 by 6,789) 12,345670(1,818 

In this Example, the Dividend 678q-" 

hath three Decimal Places more 

than the Divifor, wherefore I 55566 

point of three Places to the Right- 543 12 

hand of the Quotient, viz. 818 ; ■ 

fo the Quotient is 1 Integer, and 12547 

,818 Parts. 6789 

543 I2 

Divide 3, 46000 by 1,23) 3,46000 (2,813 
246 • • * 

Here the Difference between ■ 

the Divifor and Dividend is 
three Places ; as in the forego- 
ing Example ; therefore ,813 
is pointed off for the Decimal 
Fraction ; and the Quotient is 
2 Intergers, and ,813 Thou- 
sandths of an Integer, or 1. 


Thus much for Fractions Vulgar and Decimal ; wherein 
I have been as concife as poffible, and worked with as-much 
jttamhefs as I could invent. 


The Young Mans Bejl Companion. 153 


THE next Qualification to fit a Man for Bufinefs, af- 
ter Arithmetick, is the Art of Book-keeping, or Mer- 
chants Accompts, after the Italian Manner, by Way of Dou- 
ble Entry. 

It is not without good Reafon that mod People of Bufi- 
nefs and Ingenuity, are defirous to be Mailers of this Art : 
for if we confider the Satisfaction that naturally arifeth 
from an Account well kept ; the Pleafure that accrues to a 
Perfon by feeing what he gains by each Species of Goods 
he deals in, and his whole Profit by a Year's Trade ; and. 
thereby alfo to know the true State of his Affairs and Cir- 
!cumftances ; fo that he may, according to Difcretion, re- 
trench or enlarge his Expences, t$c, as he lhall think fit._ 
This Art of Book- Keeping, or Merchants Accompts, is 
talked of by many, but truly underftood but by very few : 
For every petty School-mafter in any By-Corner, will be 
fure to have Merchants Accompts expreffed on his Sign, as a 
principal Article of his Ability, in Teaching ; though, 
ftrictly fpeaking, for want of the Practical Part,, knows 
hardly any Thing of the Matter,, and confequently inca.- 
pable of teaching it. 

Inftru&iohs, Notes, Rules, and Dire&ions for the 
right ordering and keeping Merchants Accompts, by 
the excellent Order of Charge and Difcharge, com- 
monly called Debtor and Creditor. 
Of the Books in Ufe. 

THE Books of principal Ufe, are the Wafte-Booh, 
(er by feme called the Memorial) Journal, and 


IN this Book muft be daily written whatever occurs in 
the way of Trade ; as Buying, Selling, Receiving, De- 
livering, Bargaining, Shipping, c3V. without Omiflion of 
any one Thing, either bought or fold, cifc. as Money lent, 
or received at Intereft. But not Money received or paid for 
Goods fold or bought at Times ; for that will come of 
courfe, and muft be entred into the Cajh-Book, from whence 
It is polled into the Ledger. 

The Wafie-Book is ruled with one Marginal Line, and 
ftree Lines for Pounds, Shillings,, and Pence, and the Day 


1 54 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

of the Month, and Year of our Lord, is inferted in the 
Middle of the Page. In this Book any one may write, and, 
on Occafion, any Thing may be blotted out, if not well 
entered, or any Error be made. 


INTO this Book every Thing is potted out of the Wafte' 
Book, but in other Terms, in a better Stile, and in a 
fairer Hand, without any Alteration of Cyphers or Figures; 
and every Parcel, one after another, promifcuoufly fet with- 
out Intermiffion, to make the Book, or feveral Entries of 
it, of more Credit and Validity, in cafe of any Law Dif- 
fpute, or any other Controverfy that may happen between 
Merchant and Merchant. In this Book you are to diftinguHh 
the Debtor and Creditor (or in quainter Terms, the Debit 
and Credit.) And to this Book you mxft have Recourfe for 
the Particulars of an Accompt, which in the Leidger are 
entered in Grofs, that is, in one Line. In this Book alfo, 
the Day of the Month mutt be placed in the middle of the 
Page ; and is ruled with double marginal Lines, for Refer- 
ences to the Leidger ; and with three Lines for /. s. d. as 
the Wafte-Book. 

Of the Leidger. 

FROM the Journal or Bay-Book (as derived from the 
French) all Matters or Things are potted into the Leid- 
ger, w ich by the Spaniards are called El Libro Grande, a» 
being the biggeft Book, or Chief of Accompts. The Left- 
hand Side of this Book is the Debtor, and the Right the 
Creditor ; and the Numbers and Folios of each Side mull be 
alike as 45 Debtor, and alfo 45 Creditor. The Day of the 
Month (in this Book) by moil is fet in a narrow Column 
on the Left-hand, and the Month on the Left of that ; But 
where I kept Books, the Number in the narrow Column 
referred to the Journal Page, and the Month and Day was 
placed in the broad Column, to the Right of that; and at 
the Head of each Folio is the Name of the Place of Resi- 
dence, and the Year of our Lord ; as thus : 

London, Anno ■ ■ I77P« 

But the Examples of the feveral Books hereafter follow- 
ing, will make the foregoing Hints of them much moreia- 
telligible.— And as I am upon theDodrine ofBoek-keep- 
ing, I'll take this as an univerfal Text (f or fo it is) w*. 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 155 

Debtors to the 

All Things Received, or the Receiver, are 
Delivered, or the Deliverer. 
Wafte-JZcok Entry. I. 

London, January i, I J JO. 
Bought of William Wilkins, of Norton- 
Falgate, 1 20 Yards of white Sarce- 
net, at zs. 3d. per Yard, to pay in j 
two Months. — — — ■ • — I 13 

The Journal Entry of the fame. 

Wrought Silk, Debtor to William Wil- I 
kins, I. i3- : — 10 for 120 Yards off 
white Sarcenet, at zs. 3d. per Yard, I 
to pay in two Months. — — — 1 13 

In this Example, the Account of wrought I 
Silks is the Receiver, and therefore I 
Debtor toW. Wilkins, the Deliverer 


Wafe- Entry Book. 

January 4. 

Sold Henry Harrington 246 lb. nett of 

Indico Lahore, at 6s. 6d. per lb. to 

pay in 3 Months. 

Journal Entry. 
Henry Harrington Dr. to Indico, for 
246 lb. nett, at 6s. 6d. per lb. to 
pay in 3 Months. 

Once more. 

Wafte-Book Entry. 

Bought of George Goodinch, Sen. viz. 

C^.Cheefe 4 3oC.i J at7 / _ 

23/. \d. per C. — J 

Butter 5 oFirkins, qt.nett " 
28oolb. at 3d. per lb. 
to pay in 6 Months. 


lb. £ 35—0 

Journal Entry. 
Sundry Accounts Dr. to Geo. Goodinch, 

/. 537—05 viz. 

Cheefe of Cbejhire, for 
430 C.f 23/. \d. per C. 
Butter for 50 Firkins, qt. \ 
nett zSoolb, at 3d. per lb. | 

J/. 502—5 










Wat. e- 

i$6 The Young Marts Bejt Companion. 

Sold "James 'Jenkins, viz.. 
WhiteSarcenet 50 Yards, 

at 3.1. per Yard 
Indico Lahore 5oPounds, 

at js. per Pound 

7 IO o 

17 10 o 

Journal Entry of the laji. 
James Jenkins Debtor to fundry Ac- 
counts, fix. 
To white Sarcenet 50 Yards, at 3/. 
per Yard 7 10 o 

To Indico Lahore for 50 7 
lb. at js. per lb. J 

17 10 o 





From thefe few Examples of Entry, it may be obferved, 
that an experienced Perfon in Accompts, and a good- Writer, 
may keep a. Journal without, a Wafie-Book, or & Wafte-Book 
without a Journal, fince they both import one and the fame 
Thing, though they differ a little in Words, or expreffing; 
for the Leaves of both are numbered by Pages, or Parcels, 
as fome do. 

But however, Lfhall give Methods of keeping each as 
far as Room will give me Leave. 


The Wafte-Book. 

London, January I ■ 


An Inventory of all my Effefts of Money, Goods, 

and Debts, belonging to ?ne A. B. of London, Mer- 

chanr, viz. 

In Calh for trading Occafions 

4726 lb. 1 

l 77> 4> 

In Tobacco 4726 lb. 7 

at ad. per lb. \ 

In Broadcloth 6 Pieces 7 

at 50^. per Piece — \ 
Dowlas 1000 Ells, at ) 

zs. \d. per Ell — J 
Canary Wines 9 Pipes 7 

at 20/. per Pipe — j 
Due to me from Henry 1 

Bland, per Bond — J 



270, — , — 

60, — , — 




The Toujtg Maris Beft Companion. 157 

( 1 ) 


Inventory, &c. as above. 

iSundry Accts. Dr. to Stock — 4138,17,10 

i.Cafh for trading Occa- ? 

Tobaceoes 4726 /. at gd. 1 

per lb. y 

Broadcloths, 6 Pieces at 7 


50/. per Piece J 

Dowlas 1000 Ells, at 27. ^d. 7 

p ef Ell. _ j 

1'Canary Wine 9 Pipes, at J 

30 /. per Pipe j 

3' Henry Bland due on Bond 

J77> 4> 6 


116, 13,4 

270,— -,— 


4P 3 8.i7llO 

I lhall make one Page ferve for Waile-Book and Journal 
Entries, to fave Room, and alio to have both Methods of 
Entry under Eye, to make them more intelligibly ufeful to 
the Reader, he hereby being not obliged to turn over Leaf 
to fee their Difference of Entry. 
1 Wane-Book. 

London, January I.- 


Owing to William Webb, by } 
Note of my Hand — \ 

Ditto to Roger Ruff, to Ba- 7 
lance of his Account — j 

Ditto to Henry Horn, due the ) 
4th of May next 3 


16 12 4 

Stock Debtor to fun dry Accounts, 
I. 128 — 12 — 4 -viz. 

by Note J 

To William Webb, 

of my Hand 
To Roger Ruff for Balance 

of his Account 
To Hewy Horn, due the 4th 7 ^ 

of May next — J 

> 16 12 4 

128 12 

1 1 28 ' IZ 4 

158 The Young Maris Beji Companion. 


London, Feb. zd 


Sold Thomas Town/end, viz. 
246 lb. of Virginia Cut To- 7 

bacco, at 14^. per lb. j 

460 Ells of Dowlas, at 3 s. \ 

per Ell J 

14 07— 
6 9 

Feb. 2. 


Thomas Toivn/end, Debtor to Sundries, 

To Tobacco, for 246 lb. at 
\\d. per lb 

14 07- 


To Dowlas, for 460 Ells, at 
3*. per Ell. 

for 460 Ells, at 1 , 
I. } 6 9 

Ditto 24/^. 
Bought of Leonard Legg, 4 Pipes of Ca- 
nary, at 28/. /«- Pipe — — 

To pay in 6 Months. 


1 12 



Ditto z^th. 
Canary Wine, Debtor to Leonard Lt 
for 4 Pipe§, at 28/. per Pipe — — 
To pay in 6 Months. 

The fhort Lines ruled againft the Journal Entries are, or 
may be, termed Polling Lines, and the Figure on Top of 
the Lines denotes the Folio of the Ledger where the Debtor 
is entered ; and the Figure under the Line mews the Folio 
of the Ledger where the Credit is entered ; and the other 
fmaller Figures againft the fundry Debtors, or fundry 
Creditors (whether Goods or Perfons) mew alfo in what 
Folios of the Ledger they are polled. And the Figures in 
the narrow Column towards the Left-hand of the Pounds, 
Shillings, and Pence Lines, direct to the Folio in the 
Ledger where the Debit or Credit is polled, that is, to the 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 159 

Accompt of Goods, or of the Perfon immediately following 
the Words To or By ; the firft being proper to the Left or 
Debit Side of the Ledger; and the other n/ed always on the 
Right or Credit Side of the Folios in the Ledger. 

There are feveral other Books ufed by Merchants befides 
thofe three before-mentioned ; as the Cajh-Beck, which is 
ruled as the Ledger, and folio'd likewife, wherein all Re- 
ceipts of Money are entered on the Left-hand Folio, and 
Payments on the Right ; fpecifyingin every Entry the Day 
of the Month (the Year being fet on the Top) for what, and 
for whofe Account the Money was received, or paid ; and 
the Total Debit or Credit of each Side is to be pofted into 
the Ledger, to the Account of Cam therein, in one Lin« of 
either Side, viz. to or by fundry Aceompts, as per Cam- 
Book, Folio, effr . which is to be done once a Month, or at 
Difcretion ; and the Particulars of each Side, Article by 
Article, are to be pofted into the Ledger to the proper Ac- 
eompts unto which they belong ; with References in the 
Cam-Book to the feveral Folios in the Ledger ; and carry 
the Balance over Leaf in the Cam-Book ; by which you 
may know at any time what Calh you have, or ought to 
have, by you. 

Another Book, is a Book of Charges of Merchandize, 
wherein is to be entered the Cuftom and petty Charges of 
any fhipp'd Goods ; as Porterage, Wharfage, Warehoufe- 
room, &c . and once a Month is transferred into the Cam- 
Book on the Credit Side, making Reference to the Book of 
Charges of Merchandize ; and likewife the fame in the 
Debtor Side of the fame Accompt in the Ledger for the 
Particulars thereof. 

The next Book I mail name, is the Invoice Book, or 
Book of Factories : In this Book is to be copied all Invoices 
or Cargaifons of Goods ftiipped, either for Aceompts pro- 
per or partable ; and alfo of Goods received from Abroad, 
which muft always be entered on the Left-fide, leaving the 
Right-fide Blank ; and on the Advice of the Difpofal of 
Goods fent Abroad, and alfo on the Sale of Goods receiv'd 
from Abroad, enter them on the Blank or Right-fide ; fo 
that at firft View may be feen how the Accompt ftands, cifr. 

The next a Bill-Book, wherein is enter' d Bills of Ex- 
change accepted, and when they become due j and when 
paid, made fo in the Margin. 


i'6o T'be Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

The next is a Book of Houfhold Expences, for the 
Monthly Charge fpent in Houfe keeping ; likcwife Apparel, 
Houfe-rent, Servants Wages, and Pocket Expences ; and 
this may be monthly fummed up, and carried to the Credit 
of Cam. 

Betides the above mentioned, there muft be a Book to copy 
all Letters fent abroad, or beyond the Seas ; wherein the 
Name of the Perfon or Perfons to whom the Letter is fent, 
mult be written pretty full, for the readier finding the fame. 

The next is (and what is very neceffary) a Receipt Book, 
wherein is given Receipts for Money paid, and exprefledfor 
whofe Accompt or Ufe, or f jr what it is received ; to which 
the receiving Perfon muit fet his Name for himfelf, or forne 
other, with the Year and Day of the Month on the Top. 

Lajlly, A note or memorandum Book, to minute down 
Affairs that occur, for the better Help of Memory ; and is 
of great Ufe where there is Multiplicity of Bufmefs. 

Having given an Account of the feveral Books, and their 
Ufe, the next Thing neceifary will be, to give fome few 
Rules of Aid to enable the Book keeper to make proper 
Entries ; and to -diilinguifh the feveral Debtors and Cre- 
ditors, w'x. 

Firft, For Money received make Cafh Dr. to the Party 
that paid it (if for his own Account) and the Party Cr. 

Secondly, Money paid make the Receiver Dr. (if for his 
own Account) and Cafh Cr. 

Thirdly, Goods bought for ready Money, make the 
Goods Dr. to Cafh, and Cafh Cr. by the Goods. 

Fourthly, Goods fold for ready Money, juft the contrary, 
r. e. Cafh Dr. and the Goods Cr. 

Fifthly, Goods bought at Time ; Goods bought are Dr. 
to the Seller of them, and the Seller Cr. by the Goods. 

Sixthly, Goods fold at Time: jult the contrary, i. e. the 
Party that bought them is Dr. to the Goods, and the 
Goods Cr. by the Party. 

Seventhly, Goods bought Part for ready Money, and the 
reft at Time. Firft, make the Goods Dr. to the Party for the 
Whole. Secondly, make the Party Dr. to Cafh for the 
Money paid him in Part of thofe Goods. 

Eighthly, Goods fold, Part for ready Money, a»d the reft 
at Time. Firft, make the Party Dr. to the Goods for the 
Whole. Secondly, Cafh Dr. to the Party received of him 

in Part of thofe Goods ,-Or either of thefe two laft 


The Young Man's BeJfCempanion. 16 1 

Rules may be made Dr. to Sundries; as Goods bought/ 
Dr. to the felling Man for fo much as is left unpaid, and to 
Cam for fo much paid in ready Money. And fo on the 
contrary for Goods fold. 

Ninthly, When you pay Money before it is due, and are 
to have Difcount allowed you, make the Perfon Dr. to Cam 
for fo much as you pay him, and to Profit and Lofs for the 
Difcount ; or make the receiving Man Dr. to Sundries as 

Profit and Lofs is Dr. 

To Cam for what Money you pay and have nothing for 
it, as Difcount of Money paid you before due, and to 
Abatement by Compofition, Houihold Expences, fcfa. 

Per Contra, Cr. 

By Cafh for all you receive, and deliver nothing for it ; 
as Difcount for prompt Payment, any Legacy left you, 
Money received with an Apprentice, and by the Profit of 
every particular Commodity you deal in, by Ships, in 
Company, by Voyages, cif<r. 

To balance or clear an Account when full written, 

1. T"^ IR ST, if the Dr. Side be more than the Credit, 
X make the Old Accompt Cr. by the New ; and if the 
contrary, make the newAccomptDr. to the Old : but if the 
Debtor Side be lefs than the Credit, then make the old Ac- 
compt Dr. to the New, and the new Accompt Cr. by the 
Old, for fuch a Reft or Sum as you fhall find in the Accompt. 

2. An Accompt of Company, wherein you have placed 
more received of another than his Stock ; then add as much 
on the Debit Side as you find on the Credit Side ; to the End 
that, in the new Accompt, you may have fo much Debit as 
you put in, and fo much Credit as you have received. 

3. In Accompts cf Merchandize, you muftenterthe Gain, 
or Lofs, before you make the old Accompt Cr. by the New, 
and the New Dr. to the Old, for, the Remainder of Goods 

4.. In the Foreign Accompts, which you are to keep with 
a double Margin, or Column, for Dollars, for Crowns, or 
any Foreign Coins whatfoever, which have been received or 
paid by Bills of Exchange for Goods fold by Faftors or Cor- 


1 62 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

'refpondents, or bought by them for the Accompts beforj; 
here you muft firft balance the faid inward Margin of Dol- 
lars, Crowns, &c. 

¥0 remove an Account full written to another Folio. 

Sum or add up, the Dr. and Cr. Sides, and fee the Dif- 
ference, which place to its oppofite ; as, admit the Cr. Side 
exceeds the Dr. then you are to write the Line in the Old 
Accompt to balance on the Dr. Side, toanfwer the Line on 
the Cr. Side of the New Accompt. 

How to balance at the Tear's End, and thereby to know tht 
State of your Affairs and Circumjlances. 

YOU muft make Accompt of Balance on the next void 
Leaf or Folio of your Ledger to your other Accompts ; 
but after fo done, do not venture to draw out the Accompt 
of Balance in the faid Folio, till you have made it exatt on 
a Sheet of Paper, ruled, and titled for that Purpofe ; be- 
caufe of Miftakes or Errors that may occur or happen in the 
Courfe of balancing your Ledger ; which are to be reftih^ 
ed, and will caufe Erafements or Alterations in that Ac- 
compt, which ought to be very fair and exaft : and after 
you have made it to bear in the faid Sheet, copy fair the 
faid Accompt of Balance in the Ledger. 
The Rules for Balancing are thefe, tnz. 
1/?, Even your Accompt of Cafh, and bear the Nett Reft 
to balance Dr. 

2dly, Caft up all your Goods bought, and thofe fold, 
what kind foever, in each Accompt of Goods ; and fee 
whether all Goods bought, be fold or not j and if any re- 
main unfold, value them as they coft you, or according to 
the prefent Market Price, ready Money; and bear the 
Nett Reft to balance Dr. 

idly, See what your Goods or Wares feverally coft, and 
alfo how much they were fold for, and bear the Nett Gain 
or Lofs to the Account of Profit and Lofs. 

\thly, Even all yourDrs. and all your Crs. in order as they 
lie, and bear the Nett Reft of every Dr. and Cr. to Balance. 
$thly, Even your_ Voyages, your Factors Accompts, 
wherein is either Gain or Lofs, and bear the Nett Gain or 
Lofs to the Accompt of Profit and Lofs, and the Goods 
unfold to Balance. 


The Toung Man's Beji Companion. 163 

Cthly, Even the Accompt of Profit and Lofs, and bear 
the Nett Reft to Stock or Capital, as an Advance to your 
Stock or Capital. 

■jthly, Even your Stock, and bear the Nett Reft to ba- 
lance Cr. 

Then caft up the Dr. and Cr. Sides of your Balance ; and 
if they come out both alike, then are your Accompts, well 
kept ; otherwise you muft find out you/<3|rror by pricking 
over your Books again, to fee whether'you have entered 
every Dr. and Cr. in the Ledger as yoa ought. 

Note, By pricking over fkr Book is meant, an Examining 
every Article of the 'Journal, againjl the Ledger, and mark- 
ing it thus, — or thus f ; and upon the fecond Examination 
thus % 5 and upon a third Examination thus |j ; or any other 

Note alfo, in all Accompt s of Goods, you muft keep a Co- 
lumn in the middle of the Leaf, of each Side, for Number, 
Weight or Meafure. 

And alio Note, That the Money, Wares, or Goods remain- 
ing in your Hands, and the Debts owing to you, mujl ever ba- 
lance with the nett Stock and Debts owing by you. 

Though all that hath been faid in relation to Book-keep- 
ing, and the ieveral Rules thereunto belonging, may feem a 
little abftrufe to the altogether Unlearned therein, yet there 
is no fuch mighty Difficulty to inftrutt them as they may 
imagine ; for thefe following Hints may render what hath 
been already faid intelligible to an ordinary Capacity. 
. V?, Stick clofe to the Text, or general Rule beforcmen- 
tioned, viz. That all Things received, or the Receiver, 
are Debtor to all Things delivered, or the Deliverer ; for 
this Rule holds good in all Cafes. 

idly, When the Dr. (whether Perfon or Goods) is known, 
the Cr. is eafily underftood, without mentioning it ; For if 
A be Dr. to B, then B is Cr. by A, for what Sum foever 
it be ; alfo, if Goods be Dr. to C. then C is Cr. by thofe 

Goods for the Sum they amount to This I mention, 

becaufe that moft Authors (if not all) that I have met with 
on the Subjeft of Book keeping, fpend a great many Words, 
which I think (begging their Pardon if I err) might befaved, 
in declaring the Creditor, as well as fhewing the Debtor, 
when it may be underftood, as aforefaid. 

idly, This Art of Italian Book-keeping, is called Book- 
keeping by double Entry, becaufe there muft be two Entries ; 

H the 

164 The. Young Mans Beft Companion. 

the firft being a Charging of a Perfon, Money, or Goods ; 
and the fecond a Difcharging of a Perfon, Money or Goods. 
^thly, Striclly note, That if the firft Entry be on the Dr. 
or Left-hand Side of your Ledger ; the next or fecond Entry, 
muft always be made on the Right or Credit Side of your 
Ledger ; for when ever one Perfon or 1 hing is charged, 
then always another Perfon or Thing is difcharged for the 
Sura, let it be what it will. 

And fo it is in balancing or evening an Accompt, and 
carrying it to another Folio ; for if the old Accompt be even- 
ed by Balance on the Credit Side, then the new Accompt 
muft be debited or chare ed on the Debit Side, fur the Sum 
that balanced the old Accompt. 

Much more might be faid on this Art of Book-keeping, if I 
had Room ; but I have plainly fpoke to the principal Fun- 
damentals thereof, which I hope may be fufheient for the 
Inftruftion and Improvement 'of any intelligent Reader. 

The next Matter I (hall go upon, is to fhew, or give Ex- 
amples of various Kinds of Receipts and promilfary Notes ; 
alfo Bills of Parcels in different Trades i likewife Bills of 
Book-Debts, Bills of Exchange, with Remarks on them; 
and fome other Precedents of Writings in Trade and mer- 
cantile Affairs. 

And firfl of Receipts of different Forms 

I. s. d. 

REceived, September 23, 1768, of Mr. "J 
Anthony Archer, the Sum of Six f 6_ e o_ 
Pounds, Nine Shillings, on Account for f 
my M after Bryan Murray, per me J 

Caleb Catchmoney. 

London, September 23,, 1768. . 
iS Eceived of Mr. Kendrick Keeptouch, 1 
XV Ten Pounds Eleven Shillings and i- 10—11—06 

Six-pence, in full, per me 3 

Henry Hajty. 

Note, the Sum received mufi always be expreffed in Words 
at Length, and net in Figures, in the Body of a Receipt j but 
it may and ought to be expreffed in Figures behtnd a Brace (a 
in the two foregoing Examples, or under the Wt-bandPart f 
the Receipt, as in the following) as well as in the Body of the 
Receipt. wlica 

The Toting' Man's Bejt Companion} 165 

When a Receipt is given in aBook, there is noOccafion to 
mention the Man 's Name of whom you receive theMoney; 
becaufe that is implied, he being the Owner of the Book. 
A Receipt in Part of Goods fold. 

REceived the 24th of September, 1768, of Mr. Timothy 
Truftlittle, Fifty Pounds, in Part of Indico fold him the 
2 2d Inftant, per me. Lawrence Lo<vemoney. 


A Receipt given in a Receipt Book- 

REceived the 26th of September, 1768, the Sum of Foi- 
ty-five Pounds, by the Order, and for the Accompt 
of George Greedy, Efq; per Timothy Trufty. 

£.45 — o — o 

REceived the 27th of September, 1768, of Mr. Daniel 
Davenport, and Company, One Hundred Pounds, on 
Accompt of Self and Partner, per James Jenkins. 

£.100 — o — o 

REceived of Mr. Timothy Tennant, this 25th Day of Oc- 
tober, 1768, Six Pounds, for a Quarter's Rent due at 
Michaelmas laft, for my Mailer Lancelot Letfarm, per me. 
jT.S — o — o Francis Faithful. 

R° Eceived Auguft 14, 1769, of Mr. Peter Bijhop, Twenty- 
nine Pounds Six Shillings, in Part of a Bill of Sixty 
Pounds, due the 3d of Qilober next, to Mr. Samp/on Shuffle, 
per Francis Fidal. 


A Receipt on the Back of a Bill of Exchange. 

SEptember 30th, 1768, received the full Contents of the 
within mentioned, being 500 Pieces of Eight, per 

Nathaniel Needy. 

Promiffary Notes. 

IPromife to pay Mr. Timothy Teazer, Sixty Pounds, on 
the 20th of this Inftant September, witnefs my Hand thi» 
15 th of September, Anno 1768. 
Daniel Dilatory. 

£.60 — 00 — 00 

IPromife to pay to Mr. Cbrijlopher Cajb, or his Order, 
five Pounds for Value received ; witnefs my Hand this 
26th Day of OcJober, 1768. 

. Robin Ruck. 

/. c — 00—00 

12 Hz A 

1 66 The Young Mtfn's Bejl Companion. 

A Note given by Two. 

WE, or either of us, promife to pay to Mr. Matthew 
Mijtruft, or his Order, Six Pounds Sterling, ©n 
Demand, for Value received : Witnefs our Hands thii 27th 
of September, 1769.. 

■ Nathan Needy. 

£.6 — 00 — 00 Samuel Surety. 

Witnefs, Nicholas Notice. 

A Bill of Debt. 

MEmorandum, That I William Want, of London, Wea- 
ver, do owe and am indebted unto Mr. Timothy 
Truji, of Wejlminjler, Watchmaker, the Sum of Twenty-five 
Pounds Six Shillings, of lawful Money of Great-Britain; 
which Sum I promife to pay the faid Timothy Truft, his 
Executors, Adminiftrators, or Afiigns, on or before the 10th 
Day of December next enfuing. Witnefs my Hand this 22d 
Day of Qtlober, 1769. William Want. 

Witnefs, Titus Teftis. 

A Bill of Parcels. 

IT is ufual when Goods are fold, for the Seller to deliver 
to the Buyer, with the Goods, a Bill of Parcels ; which 
is a Note of their Contents and Prices, with a Total of their 
Value call up, £5V. — Thefe Bills ought to be handfomely 
writ, and in methodical Order, according to the beft and 
cuftomary Way of each particular Trade. 

I fhall therefore fhew the Forms or Bills of Parcels in fome 
Trades and Profeffions, with the fhorteft Methods of calling 
up the feveral Articles in each Bill. 
A Mercer's Bill. 
London, December 26, 1768. 
Bought of dbel Atlas, and Ben. Burdett, viz. 
12 Yds. I of rich flowered Sattin, at izs. 6d.ferYd. 
8 Yds. of fprigg'd Tabby, at 6s. id. per Yd. 

5 Yds. I of Farrindon, at 6s. Sd. per Yd, 

6 Yds. of Mohair, at /y. zd. per Yd. 

1 7 Yds. \ of Luteftring, at is. \d. per Yd. 

16— 7 — 8 
Sometimes the Money is paid prefently, then the Receipt 
is made as follows. 


The Young Marts Bfjl Companion. iSy 

REceived th? 26th of September, 1768, Sixteen Pounds, 
feven Shillings, and eight Pence, in full of this Bill, 
for my Mailer Abel Atlas, and Company, per me 

Francis Fairfpoken. 
A Wollen Draper's Bill. ' 

London, September 24, 1768. 
Bought of Benjamin Broadcloth, zzd of September, 1 768, 
*ui%. s. d. 

7 Yards of fine Spanifh Black, at ■ 18 — 4 per Yd. 

5 Yds. \ of Ditto, at 1 2 — 4 ditto. 

6 Yds. \ of fine mixt Cloth, at 15 — 9 ditto. 

16 Yds. £ of Frize, at 3 — 6 ditto. 

4 Yds. of Drap-de-berry, at -'— 13 — 5 ditto. 

5 Yds. | of fuperfine Spanijb Cloth, at 18 — 10 ditto. 

A Linen Draper's Bill. 
September 26, 1768. 
Bought of Marmaduke Mujlin, viz. 
16 Ells of Dowlas, at is. \d. per Ell. 
14 Ells of Lookram, at is. 3^. per Ell. 
22 Ells \ of Holland, at 3.?. \d. per Ell. 

1 Piece of Cambrick, at 15s. 

85 Yards \ of Diaper, at it. lod. per Yd. 
19 Yds. I of Damafk, at 4/. ^d. per Yd. 

2 Pieces o£ Muflin, at 18/. 1 od. p«r Piece. 

The feveral Articles of thefe Bills are purpofely omitted 
being caft up, for the Exercife of the Reader in the Rules 
for Practice ; or by the Rules of Multiplication of Money, 
before fhewn ; which indeed is the beft Method of all, for 
the ready calling up the divers and fundry Articles con- 
tained in any Bill of Parcels whatfoever. 

We'll take the laft Article of the Wollen-Draper's Bill, 
viz. 5 Yds. f, cifr. at i8j. lod. per Yard. 
Si 18—10 

I 7 

/. 4 — 14 — 2 - 

16— s| 8) 131 — 10 

Facitl.5 — 10 — 7i 16 — 5I 

In this Example the Price is multiplied by the Quantity, 

<viz. 5 Yards ■£, according to the Rules delivered in Mul- 

H 3 tiplication 

1 68 The Toung Man's Bejl Companion. 

tiplication of Money ; and the Product by 5 is /. 4 — 14— 2. 
Then for the f of a Yard, I multiply the Price of the Inte- 
ger, viz. i8j. 10^. by the Numerator of the Fraction, viz. 
7, and divide by the Denominator 8, and the Quotient is 
16/. $d. r agreeable with the Rule fpoke to in the Doctrine 

of Fractions. Which 16s. ^d. |, added to the Product 

of i8j. io^. multiplied by 5, gives /. 5 — 10— -j\, as in the 
Operation above. 

A Grocer's Bill. 
Bought of Robert Raijin, and Peter Plumb, October the 
4th, 1768, <viz. 

C. qrs. lb. I. s. d. 
Sugar 2 Hhds. qt. — 17 — 2 — 17 at 1 — 10—6 per C. 
Raifins 3 Barrels — 6 — 1 — 19 at 1 — 14 — 5 
Tobacco 1 Hhd. . — 4 — o — 12 at 4 — 19 — 4 

Rice 1 Barrel 1 — o — 15 at 2 — 16 — 4 ' 

Pepper 1 B<ig 1 — 3 — 19 at 3—12 — 4 

Brimftone 2 — 1 — 19 at 1 — 19 — I 

A Hofier's Bill. 
Bought of Silve/ler Slipftoching, Sober 5th, 1768, viz. 

5 Pair of \ omgns mixt W'orfted Hofe, at • — 5*. -J. 
3 Pair of Weinens Silk Hofe, at - gs. \d. 

22 Pair of Men's Wollen ditto, at ■ 3s. id. 

, 8 Pair Women's ditto, at 2j. zd. 

21 Yards of Flannel, at — — . %s. ud. 

8 Pair of Thread Hofe, at 3-r. \i> 

The bcit and moit expeditioHS Way of calling up thefe 
feveral Articles is by the Method fliewn in Multiplication of 

A Fijhmenger's Bill. 
Bought of Leonard Ling, 6th of Oilober, 1768. 
3 C. of Haberdine, at — : — I. 7 — 10 — 6 per C. 

I i of Ling, at 8 — 12 — 6 

I f of Stock-Fifh, at — — 4 — 10 — 6. 

6 \ Barrels of White Herrings, — 3 — 10 — 2 
I Barrel of red Herrings, at — 2 — 12 — 6 

or dried Salmon, at o — 10 — 2 

The Amount of each Article is purpofely omitted for 

the young Man's Exercife in Arithmetick. 

Note, Haberdine or Ling, 124 is a Hundred ': Of Stock fijb 

and Herrings, 1 20 to tbe Hundred, 1 200 te a Tboufand, and, 

j 3 Barrels a Lajf. 

A Leather- 

The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 169 

A Leather-feller's Bill. 
Bought of Henry Hide, the 7th of Oflober, 1 768, <vix» 

s. d. L 

15 Large dil'd Lamb Skins, at ■ 1 — 3 \ per Skin. 

13 Kipp of Goat Skins, 3 — 4 

137 Allom'd Sheep Skins, at ■ 1 — 3 

19 Calf Skins, at 4 — 3 

85 Oil'd Buck Skins, at 12 — 9 

10 Ruflia Hides, at 12 — 9 

60 Dicker of Hides, at — /. 15 — 11 — 6 
Note, 50 Goat Skins make a Kipp ', and other Skins, five- 
/core to i'?e Hundred. A Dickor is I o Hides or Skins ; and 20 
Dicker a Laji. 

A Pewterers Bill. 

Bought of Andrew Antimony, OSiober the 7th, 1768, viz. 

I. s. d. 
9 Hard Metal Dimes, wt. \z\b. at i^d.per lb. — 2 9 — - 
1 Dozen of ditto Plates, --— - 017 — 

I Chambe:-pot of ditto, ' — — 04 — 

1 Standilh of ditto, - — — 04 — 

2 Tankards of ditto, — — o 510 
18 Beft Spoons, ■ — - — 046 

3 Hard Metal Porringers, 03 — 

1 Salt of 'litto, - — o i 10 

I Sett of Caftoi-s, ■ o 10 — 

4 19 z 

Examples of Cajling. 

22 pr. of Wollon Hofe, 42 lb. of Pewter, at 1 — i 

at y. zd. per Pair, ; 

7 and 3 

1 — 2 — 2 ~6 



3 — 2 the odd Pair. 


Anfwer I. 2 — 9 — o 

/. 3 — 9 — 8 Anfwer. 

H{ Bill* 



Jpril 20 
ditto 24 
May 4 

y««£ 12 

27>e Young Man's Beji Companion. 

Bills on Book Debts. 
A Woollen Draper's Bill. 
Francis Frize, Dr. 


To 16 Yds. I of Black Cloth, 

at , 

To 4 Yds. ~ of Drap-de- berry, 

at - 

To 35 Yds. mixt grey Cloth, 


To 9 Yds. of fine ditto, at 
To 12 Yds. I of fine Broad 

Cloth, at 



l 7 

per Yd. 

}7 3 

If the Gentleman pays the Whole Bill, then make the 
Receipt thus : 

Received the 19th of Otto. 1768, of Mr. Francis") 
Frize, the Sum of Fifty-four Pounds, &c. in full / /. 
of this Bill, and of all Accompts, for my Matter, (54, fcfr. 
Da vid Draper, per Michael Meafure<well. J 

1 A Mercer's Bill 
Madam Dinah Dilatory, Dr. to Bryan Brocade, 

Yards. /. d. 

To 16 f of flower'd Sattin, at 14 9 per Yd. 
To 14 of Venetian Silk, at — 

To 99 of Mohair, at 

To 14 \ of flower'd Damafk, at 
To 5! of Genoa Velvet, at 
To I of Luteftring, at — 
If Par- of this B 11 is paid, write thus 
Received of Madam Dinah Dilatory, 
Twelve Pounds Ten Shillings, in Part of 
Payment for my Mailer, Bryan Brocade, 








26 | 


7 ! 

26 1 

1 1 





10 00 


April 14 
May 16 
June 12 


14 i 

Henry Hunter. 
A Corn Chandler's Bill. 
Mr. Robert Racer, Dr. to Lional Livery. 

s. d. 
To 5 Quarters of Oats, at — 23 per Bufh. 
To 9 Bufhels of Beans, at — 410 

To 7 Bufhels of Bran, at 1 10 

To 19 Bufhels of Oats, at — 1 11 
To 16 Bufhels of Beans, at — 3 11 

A Toiac- 


May I) 

The Toung Man's Be/? Companion. if I 

A Tebacconiji's Bill. 
Mr. Francis Fume, Dr. to Richard Raifecloud, 

ditto 25 
7««<? 4 

j her 7 

ditto 13 

Auguft 2 

7&rr 6 
8&r 29 


\o\ ptr li~ 


To 1 Hhd. of Tobacco, qt. nett, 

569 lb. at — — 

To 1 Boxqt. 75 #. £ nett, 

To 5 Bags of Old Spanijh, qt. nett 

671/4. at 3* 

To § Hhd. qt. 334 Grofs Tare 

42 nett, 293 /£. at 55 

To 2 Rolls of Tobacco, qt. g^lb. 9^ 
/? Stationer's Bill- 
Mr. S//«r« Scribler, Dr. to Pbineas Foolfcap, viz. 

s. d. 

10 9/erR. 

6 3 

8 2 

2 6 

15 11 


To 57 of Demy Paper, at — 
To 195 of 2d Foolfcap, at — 

To 375 of 2d Demy, at 

To 95 ©f French Royal, at — 
To 26 Rolls of Parchment, at 

Note, A Roll of Parchment is 60 Skins : A 
Ream of Paper 20 Quires ; and Bale of Paper 
10 Reams. 

A Bricklayer's Bill. 

1769. Mr. Martin Mefuage, Dr. to Peter Pantile-, viz. 

March 25 To 25 Thoufand of Bricks, at \6s.per M. 
ditto 30 To 11 Thoufand of Plain Tiles, at 20.1 .6i./*rM, 

il 1 To 28 C. of Lime, at \is. per C. 
ditto 9 To 20 Load of Sand, at p. 6d. per Load. 
May 20 To 140 Ridge Tiles, at 8j. 6d. per C. 
June 24 To 9c Days Work, myfelf, at p. per Day. 
To 90 Days m.y Man, at zs. td. pe-r Day. 
To 90 Days another Bricklayer, at 2j. 6d. 
To 90 Days for two Labourers, at 2od. per 
Day each. 
Note, 1000 plain Tiles is 1 Load; and 25 Bags or Bujhels 
cf Lime I C A Brick muji be 9 Inches long, and 4 Inches \ 
broad. Brichs are of three Sorts, Plaice Bricks, Red and 

Gi y Stock Bricks. 

Here it is neceflarv to give a general Rule for the Caltmg 

ud any ThuiK fold" by the Thousand ; as Bricks, . ies, 

r ' H5 Clinkardi, 

172 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

Clinkards, or Flanders Paving Bricks, and feveral other 
Things mentioned in the Book of Rates, 'viz. Barrel Hoops, 
Goofe Quills, Oranges and Lemons, Squirrel Skins, Bil- 
lets, l3c. 

And the eajy Rule is this, viz. 
Multiply the given Number by the Shillings in the Price, 
(if the Price be at fo many Shillings perM) and always cut 
off three Figures or Places towards the Right-hand ; and the 
Figures towards the Left-hand are Shillings, which divide by 
20, to bring them into Pounds ; and thofe Figures feparated 
towards the Right-hand multiply by 12, the next inferior 
Denomination ; and ftill cut off, or feparate three Places to- 
wards the Right-hand, and the Figures toward the Left are 
Pence ; and the three lall Figures cut off, multiply by 4. ; and 
ftill feparate three Places toward the Right-hand, and the 
Figures toward the Left are Farthings. — And if the Price 
be Shillings and Pence per Thoufand, then reduce the Price 
into Pence, and multiply the given Number by the Pence 
contained in the Price, cutting off three Places toward the 
Right as aforefaid, and the Figures toward the Left are 
Pence, which bring into Pounds, according to Rule ; and 
multiply the Remainder, or Figures cut off by 4, 13c. 
24650 Brick, at 17 s. per Thoufand. 


Anf. Shillings 41,9(050 20/. 19/, and T^§of aShrL 
or/. 20,19^! 

Example 2. 
261324 plain Tiles, at ids. 6d. 
198 12 

2090592 198 d. 


Pence 51742,152 
Divide pe r 12) 4 

2o)s. 43 1 1 — iod. (60S 

I zi$— n— 10 and t §|$ of a Penny. 

The Young Man's Beft Companion, 173 

Wken Things bought by the Thoufand, and retailed by 
the Hundred, as particularly Dutch and English Pantiles ; 
then follow this Rule, viz. 

Multiply the given (Quantity by the Price, whether Shil- 
lings, or Shillings and Pence. If Shillings, multiply by the 
Number of Shillings, and cut off two Figures or Places to- 
ward the Right-hand, and thofe toward the Left are Shil- 
lings ; which reduce to Pounds as ufual ; and what remains, 
that is, the Figures cutoff, multiply by 12; and again cut 
off two Places more toward the Right-hand, and the Figures 
to the Left are Pence ; and what remains multiply by 4, &c. 

1726 Pantiles, at js. per C. 


lz .That is, 61. os. yd. i and -^ of 
""* lo 'a Farthing. 

3l3 6 J 
If the Price be Shillings and Pence, multiply by tnePence 

contained in the Price, and proceed as before ; and then 

the Figures toward the Left-hand will be Pence 3 which 

reduce to Pounds, according to Rule. 

2964 Stock Bricks, at 2s. 6-d. per C 
30 Pence 


Pence 88a|zo" 

4^ That is, 3/. 14/. id. and T || 

of a Farthing, or T -|§ of a Penny. 

80 ~ 

This Method is preferable to Praclice, becaufe of its 
Exaftnefs for the odd Number above Thoufands or Hun- 
dreds, which would be puzzling to be very exaft as to the 
odd Number , but by this Method, the Queftion is folved 
to the 1000 or 100 Parts of a Farthing ; as may be feer* 
by the foregoing Examples of the Operation. 

Qf : 

*74 37^ Toung Marts Beft Companion. 

Of Bills of Exchange. 

BILLS of Exchange are either Inland, or Foreign: 
The Inland Bills are drawn by one i rader in one City 
or Town, upon another of another City or Town in the 
fame Kingdom ; as London upon BriJioL or Exeter upon Lon- 
dn, fcs'V. and thefe chiefly concern our Shop-keepers, and 
whole'fale Traders, either of Town or Country, and the 
Foreign more immediately concern the Merchant. 

Bills of Exchange, if handlbmely drawn, muft be written 
in a fair Hand, on a long Piece of Paper, about three 
Inches broad ; and writ in Form after the following Pre- 

A Bill payable upon Sight. 

New-York, 6th October, 1769. 

AT Sight hereof, pay to Mr. George Greedy, or his Or- 
der, the ium of Fifty Pounds, Philadelphia Curren- 
cy, for Value received of Chrifopher Cajh ; and place it to 
the Accompt, as per Advice, of 

To Mr. Peter Punctual, Your humble Servant, 

Merchant in Daniel Draivbill. 

Note, A Bill at Sight is payable three Days after the Ac- 
ceptor feeth it. 

Ne-iv-York, November 4, 1 769. 

SEven Days after Sight hereof, pay to Mr. Nathan Needy, 
or his Order, Twenty-four Pounds, Ten Shillings, 
New-England Currency, old Tenor, for Value received 
here of Mr. Timothy Transfer, and place it to Accompt, as 
per Advice from 

To Mr. Simon Certain, Your Friend and Servant, 

Hatter, in Milk- Michael Money man. 

Street, Bojion. 
If Mr. Needy fends his Servant, Andrew Benfon, to re- 
ceive the Money ; after he hath writ his Name on the Back 
of the Bill, (which is his Order) the Servant muft write a 
Receipt to his Mafter's Name, thus : 

REce'rved, November 17, 1769, the full Contents of the 
within mentioned Bill, being Tiventy-J'our Pounds, Ten 

Wunefs, Nathan Needy. 

^Andrew Benfcn, 

4 Foreign 

The Young Man's Befi Companion. 175 

A Foreign Bill of Exchange. 

Philadelphia, May if, J 768. 


AT thirty Days after Sight of this my firft of Exchange, 
my fecond, third o. fourth, of the fame Tenor, and 
Date, not being paid, pay to Mr. Stephen Emerjon, or Order, 
the Sum of One Hundred and Sixty Five Pounds Sterling, 
Value received here, and place the fame to Accompt, as 
per Advice frum 

To Mr. Simon urepay, Your humble Servant, 

Merchant, in London. Ebenezer Reynolds. 

The Acceptance is thus wrote under the Bill : 
Accepted this 16th Day of November, 1768. 

per Simon Surepay. 

Notes on Bills of Exchange. 

I, ' f"^HE Acceptor of any Bill is become abfolute Dr. to the 
Per/on to whom the Bill is payable for the Contents 

2. The Per/on to whom the Bill is payable, mujl demand 
the Money the 'very Day it becomes due, and if the Acceptor 
die before it becomes due, it mujl be demanded of the Executor 
or Adm'miftrator. 

3. The Drawer of any Bill muft always giaje his Correspon- 
dent a Letter of Ad-vice, that he hatb drawn Juch a Bill on him 
for juch a Sum, tftc. 

4. None may pay a Bill without fitch a Letter of Adnjice. 

5. A Bill is due the third Day after the Expiration of the 
Time mentioned in the Bill. 

Of Endorfmg. 

IT frequently happens, that between the Acceptance of a 
Bill, and the Time of Payment, the Party to whom it 
is firit made payable, hath Occafion to pay it away ; if fo, he 
writes his Name on the back of the Bill, which is his Order, 
(as faid before) and gives it to the Perfon he is indebted to, 
and then he is irapowered to receive the Money : And it 
may be, the fecond Perfon alfo wants to pay it away : and 
then he writes his Name Hkewife under the other, and de- 

176 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

livers it to a third Perfon to receive the Money ; and it 
may be, the third does the fame, and delivers it to a fourth 
Perfon, &c. All that do fo are Endorfers ; and he that laft 
hath the Bill, if the Acceptor will not pay it, may fuehim 
or the Endorfers, or Drawer, or any of them, for the 

An Endorfement is generally in thefe Words, vix. Pay 
the Contents of the within mentioned Bill ta Henry Hafty. 

George Greedy. 

But many times the Name only is accounted furncient, 

Of Protefling. 

WHEN a Bill is to be protejied, the Party that hath 
the Bill muft go to a Publick Notary (not a common 
Scrivener) whofe Bufinefs it h\ and he goes with you to the 
Acceptor's Houfe and demands Payment, &c. and then he 
draws up a Proteft according to Law ; which is to be re- 
turned to the Drawer within the Time limited, tsfc. 

It is needlefs to give here the Form of Protejt, becaufe 
no Man can do it of himfelf. 

A BUI of Debt. 

KNOW all Men by thefe Prefents, That 1 Lawrence Lack- 
cam, of Bolton, Vintner, do owe and am indebted unit 
Charles Creditman, of the Jame Place, Salter, the SumofOnt 
Hundred and Fifty Pounds lawful Money of Boflon, old Tenor, 
which feid Sum I promife to pay unto the f aid Charles Credit- 
man, his Executors, ddmimjirators, or ffigns, on or be/on 
the zyh of December next enfuing the bate hereof. Witmft 
my Hand and Seal, this 6th Day of Odober, 1768. 
Sealed and Delivered, 
in the Prefence of Lawrence Lackcafli. 

A Bill for Money borrowed. 

REceived and borrowed of Oliver Overcalh, of Philadel- 
phia, Merchant, Fifty Pounds, which 1 do herebv pro- 
mife to pay on Demand. Witnefj my Hand this 6th Day of 
October, 1768. 

/. 50 Peter Penury. 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 177 
The Form of an Invoice. 
Port Royal, in Jamaica, July z^th, Anno 1 768. 

INVOICE of five Barrels of Indico, five Hhds. of 
Sugar, and five Hhds. of Pymento, fhipped on board 
the George of London, George Jones, Commander, for Accompt 
and Rifque of Me/Irs. John and Thomas Fijher, of London, 
Merchants, being mark'd and number'd, as per Margent ; 
Contents, Colts and Charges, w'«. 
I F Indico 5 Barrels | /. 

143 lb. 



756 lb. nett, at zs. zd. per lb. 


5 Hhds. Tare. 
C.qr. lb. C 
n-3-27 — 1-2-19 
12-2-19 — 1-3-00 
13-2-13 — 1-2-16 
14-1-15 — 1-3-H 
15-I-10 — 1-3-22 

68-0-00 — 8-3-12 

C. qr. lb. 
Grofs 68-0-00 
Tare 8-3-12 

Nett 59-0-16 
at 24J. per C. 


5 Hhds. Tare 
lb. lb. 

432 84 

39 6 72 

410 81 

37 6 7 o 

412 82 

2026 — 389 

2026 Grofs 
389 Tare. 

Nett 1637 at i\d. \ 
per lb. 
To Coft of 5 Barrels and 

10 Hhds. 4-7-9 
To Storage 1-0-0 




To Commiffion at 5 per C.\ 
Errors excepted, per A. B. \- 


178 The Toung Man's Bejl Companion. 





O tfk 





your Account Cur- 
rent for the Neit 
Proceed, bad Debts 
excepted, — 


Porteridge of ditto 
Comm flion 0: 
Sales, at 5 per C. 
Storage, at z\ pt 

L N Account of Sa 
V of black Cloth, 
d ; received from 
Mr. Lawrence Lucky 

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ard the Ship 
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the Young Man's Bejl Companion. 179 

7 he Extraction of the Square and Cube Roots, of great 
Ufe in Mecfuring, Gauging, &c. 

The Square Root. 

iff, A Square Number is any Digit, or any other Num- 
J\, ber, which being multiplied into itfelf, produceth 
a Square Number ; as 4 multiplied by 4, produceth 16; fo 
16 is the Square Number, and 4 is faid to be the Root of 
16, becaufe it grows from, or is produced of 4 ; fo 4 is the 
Square of 2, for twice 2 is 4, and 9 is the Root of 81, for 
9 times 9 is 8 1 , &c. 

zdly, To extradt the Square Root of any Number^ is to 
'find another Number, which multiplied by (or into) itfelf, 
produces the Number given, and is a Proof of the Work. 

^dly, Square Numbers, are either fingle or compound. 

ybly, All fingle Square Numbers, with their refpedive 
Rents, are contained in the following Table, viz. 

Roots. 1 1 | 2 

[ 3 1 

4 1 

5 1 6 | 7 1 8 | 9 

Squares.] 1 | 4 

1 9l 


25 | 36 | 49 I 64 | 81 

ybly, When the Root of any Square Number is required 
lefs than 100, and yet not exactly a fingle Square exprefTed 
in the Table above ; then you are to take the Root of the 
Square Number exprefled in the Table, which (being lefs) 
comes the nearer!, to the given Number to be fquared ; As 
fuppofe 60, the neareft Root to it (as being lefs) is 7, and 
12 being given, the Root belonging to it is 3. 

6thly, A compound Square Number is that which is pro- 
duced of a Number confifting of more Places than one, mul- 
tiplied by itfelf, and never fefs than 230: So 459 is a com- 
pound Square Number, produced by the multiplying 27 
into itfelf. 

jt&fy, The Root of any Number under 100 may be eafily 
known by the foregoins Table of fingle Squares : But to 
extract the Root of a compound Number of feveral Places, 
obferve the following Directions, in Relation to the Finding 
the Root of this Square Number 45796. 

1. bet. 

i Bo The Teung Man's Beji Companion. 

I. Set a Point over the Place of Units thus, 45796, and 
fo fucceflively over every fecond Figure towards the Left- 
hand, as thus, 45796; and again thus, 45796. Thus muft 
your Number be prepared for Extraction in Natural Num- 
bers ; But in the Decimals, you muft point from the Place of 
Primes towards the Right-hand, omitting one Place, as 
above ; and if the Decimals are odd, affix a Cypher towards 
the Right-hand of them to make them even. Your Number 
thus prepared, draw a crooked Line on the Right of the 
Number as in Divifion ; and indeed the Operation of the 
Square Root is not much unlike Divifion ; only there the 
Divifor is fixt, and in the Square Root we are to find anew 
One for each Operation. I fay having made a^crooked Line 

thus, 45796 (feek the neareft Root in the foregoing Table, 
to the firft Point on the Left-hand, which here is 4, the Root 
of which is 2, which place behind the crooked Line thus ; 

45796 (2 

and fubftracl it, and there remains o : Then to the Remain- 
der, bring down the next Point 57 thus ; 

4379 6 (2 

which call the Refolvend ; then double the Root of the firft 
Point, and place it on the Left-hand ©f the Refolvend (or 
proper enough the Dividend) thus ; 

4) 57 
The 4, the double of the Root 2 on the Left-hand of the 
crooked Lino, call the Divifor, then feek how often 4, the 
Divifor, can be taken in 5, the firft Figure of the Refolvend 


fbe Young Man's Bejl Companion. i § i 

(c7 for you are to omit the lafl Figure towards the Right- 
hand) which here is one, which i place behind the Root 2, 
and alfo behind the Divilbr 4 thus 1 

Then multiply the Divifor (now) 41, by the Figure laft 
placed in the Root, viz. I, and place it under the Refol- 
vend thus, and fubftraft it therefrom. 

45796 (21 

40 57 
4 1 

Then bring down the next Point, viz. 96, and place it 
on the R' fit of the Remainder 16 for a new Refolvend or 
Dividend thus ; next double * ' ■ 

the Quotient, or Fart of the 4579 6 ( 2I 

Root, viz. 21, and place it 4 

for a new Divifor to the new 

Refolvend 1696, thus : 41) 57 


42) 1696 
Then feekhow oft 42 iA 169 ?(ftill referving or omitting the 
unit Figure of the Refolvend or Dividend, as aforefaid) and 
I find I can have it 4 times, which I place in the Quotient, 
or Place of the Root, and then the Work appears thus ; 

45796 (214 

41) 57 Refolvend. 
4 1 

42 1) 1696 Refolvend. 
1696 Product. 

1 82 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

In the Iaft Step, I place 4 in the Root, and likewife 4 be- 
hind the Divifor 42, which makes the new Divifor 424. to 
the Refolvend 1-696 ; which Divifor multiplied by 4, the 
Figure laft placed in the Root, produced 1696; equal with 
the Dividend or Refolvend aforefaid, as in the Operation . 
may be feen. So that the Square Root of 45796 is 214; 
for 214, multiplied into itfelf, produces 45796, the Num- 
ber given, whole Square Root was fought. 

More Examples. 

What's the Square Root of 12299049 (3507 the Root? 


lit Divifor 65) 329 Refolved. 
325 Produtt. 

2d Divifor 700) 490 Refolvend. 
000 Produtt. 

3d Divifor 7007) 49049 Refolvend. 
49049 Produtt. 



1 Divifor 22) 6© 


2d Divifor 246) 1 600 

3d Divifor 2524) 12400 

4 Divifor 25289) 230400 
^' • 

C 2 799) 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 183 

Note, That ivhen the Divifor cannot be had in the Refol- 
wend, then place a Cypher in the Quotient, and alfo on the 
Right of the Divifor, and bring the Refolvend a Step loiver, 
and then bring dovjn the next Square, &C as in the Example 
above may be Jeen. 

Note further, If any Remainder happen to be after Extrac- 
tion, you may proceed by annexing Pairs of Cyphers to the Left 
of the given Number, and fo come to what Exaclnefs you pleafe. 

Note alfo, Such Numbers given for Extraciion that leave 
Remainders, are by fome called Irrationals, becaufe their Roots 
cannot be exaclly difcovtred, but fill there ivill be fomething 
remaining, though you vjork by <u.-bole Numbers of Fractions ; 
As in the Example above, vohere the Remainder is 2799. 

The Extraflion of the Cube Root. 

TO extract the Cube Root of any Number, is to find 
another Number, which multiplied by itfelf, and that 
Product by the Number found, produces the Number given 
for Extraction. 

From the foregoing Table for Extraction of the Square 
Root, proceed the feveral Squares of the Cube Root, viz. 




if, To prepare any Number for Extraction, make a 
Point over Unity, and fo fuceeffively over every third Fi-r 
gure, miffing two between each Point ; but in Decimals, you 
mult point from the Place of Units to the Right-hand, &c 

Extract the Cube Root of 46656, prepared thus, as a- 
bove directed. 

Here are but two Points, therefore the Root will have 
but two Places. 

idly, The Number being prepared, fee k in the foregoing 
Table the neareft Reot to the firft Point or Period 46, 
which you will find to be 3, which place in the Quotient 
thus, 46656 (3 the Cube or Triple whereof, viz. 3, is 27, 


1 1 2 

3 1 4 1 5 

6| 7 I 

8 | 9 

< U 

9 |i6| 25 

36 | 49 1 

64 | 81 
512 | 729 

1 | 8 

27 |6 4 | 125 

216 1 343 

184 The Young Man's Bcft Companion. 

which place under your firft Point 46, as in 

the Margent ; the which fubftratt from 46, 46656 (3 

and there refts 19 ; this is your firft Work, 27 

and no more repeated. Then to the Re- . 

mainder 19, bring down the next Period, 19 

•viz. 656 (which is the laft) and place it on the Right of 

the Remainder 19, thus ; 

46656 (3 


19656 Refolvend. 
Then draw a Line under the Refolvend ; next fquare the 
3 placed in the Quotient ; which makes 9, which multiplied 
by 300 makes 2700 for a Divifor, which place accordingly 

46656 (3 

2700) 19656 
Then feek how often 2 in 19 ? Anfwer, but 6 times, be- 
caufe of the Increafe that will come from the Quotient, then 
multiply the Divifor by 6, and the Product will be 16200; 
which place orderly under the Dividend thus ; 

46656 (36 

2 7 


Then proceed to find the Increafe coming from the Quo- 
tient thus ; Square your laft Figure 6, and it makes 36 ; 
which multiply by 3, the other Figure of the Quotient, it 
gives 1 c8 ; which multiplied by 30, makes 3240. This 
place alfo orderly under the lait Number before let down, 
viz. 16200, and the Work will appear thus ; 



2700) 1 9656 Dividend. 

~*Q6<;6 Then 

The Young Man's Beft Companion. 1 85 

Then cube the Figure laft placed in the Quotient, •v/z. 6, 
and it makes 216 ; which place orderly likewiie under the 
Line 3240, as above, then add the three Lines together, 
and they make 19656 (for To many you always have after 
the firft Operation.) And feeing the Total to be equal to the 
Dividend above, ■viz. 19656, and no more Periods to bring 
down, I fee the Work is finifhed, and find the Cube Root 
of 4.6656 to be 36. 

Some Geometrical Problems ujeful in Menfuration. 

Upon a right Line given to erecl a Perpendicular , as in 
Figure I. 

LET CD be the Line given to have a Perpendicular 
raifed on it from B, with the CompafTes (opened at a 
fmall convenient Diftance) place one Foot in the point B, 
and with the other make two marks E and F, on either Side 
of B ; then open the CompafTes to a more large and conve- 
nient Diftance, and make the Arch GG, by fetting one Foot 
in E, and as near as you can over the Point B, then (the 
CompafTes being open at the fame Diftance) place one Foot 
on the Point F, and defcribe the Arch HH, crofting the 
former at the Point A ; thro' which Interfeftion with a Ru- 
ler draw the Line from A to B, which will be perpendicular 
to the Line CD. 

How to raife a Perpendicular on the End of a Line. 

This is effected feveral Ways ; but I fhall inftance only 
two, which are very eafy. ^ See Figure 2. 

Fir/! Method. 

Suppofe the Line AB be given to raife a perpendicular 
towards the End. 

Firlt open your CompafTes to any fmall diftance, andfet 
one Foot in the Point A ; and with the other^defcribe the 
Arch FED ; then with one Foot of the CompafTes in D 
(they being opened to the fame Diftance) crofs the Arch in 
E; and then fetting one Foot in E, with the other make the 
Arch AFG, crsfiing the firft Arch in F. Again, fet one 
Foot in F, and with the other defcribe the fmall Arch HH, 
eroding the former in the Point C ; fo the Line AC being 
drawn is the Perpendicular required. 


1 86 The Young Man's Befi Companion. ^ 

The Second Method. 

Admit B be the Poin t given on which to draw the Perpei 
dicular B I. Open the Compares to any fmall Difiance ; ar 
fettingone Foot in the Point B, pitch down the other Fa 
at Random, as fuppofe at K ; then the Foot retting in } 
turn the other about till it crofs the Line AB in L; the 
draw the Line K L, and fet the fame Difiance #1, [T_ 
which the Compafies already Hand from K to M ; fo a Lir" 
drawn from B, thro' M, is the Perpendicular on the End 
the Line AB. 

How to divide a Right Line into two equal Parts, and 
Right Angles ; as in Figure the 3d. 
Suppofe the Line A B be given to be divided into 2 equ 
Parts, at Right Angles. Take in the Compafies any Dil 
tance above Half the Length of A B, and fetting one Foe! - 
in the Point A, with the other draw the Arch C D E ; the 
the Compafies unaltered) fet one Foot in B, and with th 
other crofs the former Arch both above and below the Lint 
in the Points F and G ; then a Line drawn from F to 1 \ 
mall interfeft, or cut the given Line in H, and divide th / 
Line AB into two equal Parts, and at Right Angles. _ 

Of Parallel Right Lines : __ 

Right lined Parallels, are Lines drawn on a Plane tfit.i 
equal Length and Difiance ; and tho' infinitely extend^ 
will never meet, and in all Parts retain an equal Diiktnce 
fuch as thefe underneath. 

£ C 

C D ' 

To draw a Right Line Parallel to another Right Lin 
at a Difiance given ; as in Figure the 4th. ^_ 

Take in your Compafies the given difiance G H, that 
fetting one Foot in E, draw the Arch IK; then moving tt 
F, defcribe the Arch L M ; then laying a Ruler on th< 
Top of the two Arches, juft touching them, draw til 
Line NO, which will be parallel to the given Line E F. 

To bring any three Points (not in a fir ait Line) into a Circle t 
by finding the Centre, fo that the Circle fi/all pa/s thri 
thofe Points ; as in Figure the yb. » 

Let the three Points given be AB and C, through whicfc 

it is required that a Circle be drawn. Fixlt, fet one Foot oj 


tfto.t G--...A..- 

C E 

Oim I 

F 1) 






A V I. 



UQo. to 

Zftg. /4- 


k l 



2/. 3<5' 




2/. 1$ 

' r/ %- <5 


t. ■ c 7 


#5fl>. /<T 








The Young Man*s Beji Companion. 187 

the Compafl'es in one of the given Points, as fuppofe in A t 
and extend the other Point to B, another of the Points, and 
draw the Arch of a Circle G F D ; then (the Compaffes not 
altered) fet one Foot in B, and with the other crofs the faid 
Arch with two fmall Arches, in the Points D and E, and 
draw the Lins D E. Thirdly, fet one Foot in C, (the 
Compares being at the fame Diftance) and with the other 
Foot crofs the firft Arch , F D in the Points F and G, and 
draw the Line F G, eroding the Line D E in the Point O, 
which is the Centre fought for ; in which, place one Foot 
of the Compaffes, and defcribe the Circle at the Diftance 
A, and it paffes through all the given Points AB and C. 

How to make a Line of Chords Geometrically, to any ajjignei 
Length or Radius. 

Since in the Art of Dialing, there is frequent Ufe made 
of the Line of Chords, it is proper here to (hew the Making 

A Line of Chords is 90 Degrees of the Arch of a Circle, 
transferred from the Limb of a Circle to a ftreight Line ; 
now every Circle, whether great or fmall, is divided (or 
fuppofed to be divided) into 360 equalParts, calledDegrees : 
So the Semi or Half Circle contains 180, the Quadrant or 
Quarter 90, and the Radius or Semi-diameter (which is 
that Line on which the Circle or Semi-circle is drawn or 
defcribed) noted in Figure the 6th of the Line of Chords t 
with the Letters A B t is always equal to 60 Degrees of that 
Circle which it defcribes, and therefore 60 Degrees of a 
Line of Chords is called the Radius thereof. 

To make the Line of Chords : As in Figure the 6th. 
Firft draw a Line of any Length, as C B D, and on the 
Middle thereof draw the Perpendicular A. B ; next open 
yourCompaffes to theRadius or Length that you would have 
your Line of Chords be of ; which admit A. B. and with 
that Diftance onj?. as the Centre, defcribe or draw the Semi- 
circle CAD, which is divided into two equal Parts, or Qua- 
drants, by the perpendicular Line A B; thirdly, divide the 
Arch or Quadrant A R D, in 90 equal Parts or Degrees j 
which is done by taking the Length of the Lines AB, and 
fctting that Diftance on the Quadrant A D, and from D ta 
R -, fo is D R 60 Degrees, and A R 30 Degrees ; then take 
the Diftance A R, and let it from D to S, fo is the Quadrant 
divided into three equal Parts, at the Point 6. and R, each. 

1 8 8 The Young Man's Uejl Companion. 

containing 30 Degrees ; this done, divide the fevera] Spaces 
between JR., R S, and S D, into three equal Parts, each 
of which will be 10 Degrees, according as the'Numbers are 
feen and fet apart to them : And theie again divided into 
two equal Parts, each Part contains 5 Degrees ; and every 
of thofe into 5 fmaller, as in the Reprcfentation ; and fo the 
whole Quadrant is divided into 90 Degrees. Fourthly, The 
Quadrant JRSD being thus divided into 90 Degrees, fet 
one Foot of the Compaffes in D, and open the Foot to A, 
and defcribe the Arch JEF, touching the Line CD, in F' 
fo is the Point F, upon the Right Line C D, the Chord of 
90 Degrees. Fifthly, open the Compaffes from D to 80 De- 
grees, and defcribe the Arch 80 GH; fo fhall the Point H 
be the Chord of 80 Degrees. Sixthly, Open the Compaffes 
from D to 70, defcribe the Arch 70 / K, fo is if the Chord 
of 70 Degrees. Again, Open the Compaffes from D to R, 
the Radius of 60 Degrees, and defcribe the Arch RLE, fo 
is B the Chord of 60 Degrees, equal to the Radius. Do the 
fame by 50, 40, 30, 20, and 10, and then you will have 
the Line DF divided into 90 unequal Parts, called Chords, 
as in Figure 6. 

Thus much for the Line of Chords, frequently madeufe 
of in Dialling, where there is not the Conveniency of hav- 
ing a Mathematical Inftrument-maker near at hand. 

Note, A Degree is the 360th Part of any Circle, and every 
Degree is fuppojed to be divided into 60 equal Parts, called 
Minutes ; and every Minute is fuppojed to be fubdivided into 60 
equal Parts called Seconds, &c. 

■ Of Menfuration of Plains and Solids. 

THE feveral Kinds of Meafuring are three, vix. 
\jl, Lineal, by fome called Running Meafure, and is 
taken by a Line, and refpecls Length without Breadth ; 
the Parts of which are, 

12 Inches 1 Foot, 3 Feet 1 Yard, \6 Feet and Half a 
I Rod, Pole, or Perch. 

All Kinds of ornamental Work, fuch as Cornice Freeze, 
Uc. are meafured by Running Meafure. 

zdly, Superficial, or flat fqu are Meafure is that which re- 
fpefts Length and Breadth ; and the Parts are, viz- 

144 Inches one Foot, 72 Inches half a Foot, 36 Inches one 
Quarter of a Foot, 1 8 Inches Half a Quarter of a Foot, 272 
Inches and a Quarter one Rod, 136 Feet Half a Rod; 1296 
Inches, or 9 Feet, one fuperiicial fquare Yard. . $/ly, 

*%l?e Young Man's Bejl Companion. 489 

yily, Solid, or Cube Meafure, which refpedls Length, 
Breadth and Depth, or Thicknefs ; and the Parts are, -viz. 

1728 Inches 1 Foot, 1296 Inches three Quarters of a 
Foot, 864 Inches Half a Foot, 432 Inches one Quarter of 
a Foot, and 2j Feet 1 folid Yard. " 

Superficial Meafure. 

TO meafure Things that have Length, and Breadth, fuch 
as Boards, Glafs, Pavement, W-ainfcoat, and Land, i» to 
take theDimenfions of the Length andBreadth, according to 
the cuilomary Method ufed in each Particular; as Board and 
Glafs are meafured by the Foot, but the Dimenfions are, 
taken in Feet and Inches, and the Content given in Feet. 

Wainfcot and Paving by the Yard, as are alfo Plaiftering 
and Painting, and the Dimenfions are taken in Feet and 
Inches, and the Content given in Yards. 

Dimenfions of Land are taken by the Pole or Chain, of 4 
Poles in Length ; all which is taken in fquare Meafure fuper- 
iicial, that is, an Inch, Foot, Yard or Pole ; which is not 
only fometimes in Length, but alfo as much in Breadth too j 
or if itwants of it one Way, it mult be made up the other,.. 
Of the Square. 
The fquaring of any Number, is multiplying it into itfelf, 
as 12 Inches multiplied by 12 Inches, make 144 Inches 
fquare, on the Flat. The Square of any Thing is found four 
feveral Ways, viz. by whole Numbers, by Decimals, by 
Practice, and by Crofs Multiplication; in each of which 
Methods I fhall give Examples of Operation. 

When any thing is to be meafured, it mull be confidered 
what Form or Fafhion it is of; and then it muft be mea- 
fured according to the feyeral Rules for each Figure. 

Fir/i, If it be a Square of equal or unequal Sides, that is, 
one Way longer or wider than the other (as Boards are al- 
nioft always much longer" than they are broad) then the 
Length and Breadth muft be multiplied one by the other, 
which makes it fquare Meafure, as was hinted before ; ancl 
if that Pruducl be divided by its proper Divifor, as 144 is 
thf Divifor for Rat or fuperficial Meafure, and 1728 the 
Divifor for cube or folid Meafure ; the fi'rft being the fquare 
Inches in a fuperficial fquare Foot, and the other the cu- 
bkk fquare Inches in a folid Foot fquare. 
Admit a Board be 1 2 In.ches broad, and 8 Feet, or 96 In- 
ches long, how many fquare fuperficialFeet doth it contain f. 
I Z B. *2 

190 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

~ 1 L. 96 12 

« I ... I , M 

144) 1152 8 Feet. 


Here the Length in Inches is multiplied by the Breadta 
in Inches, and the Product 1152 divided by 144, the iquare 
Inches, in a Foot, quotes 8 Feet fquare for the Contents of 
Che Board. 

A general Rule for Difpatch. 

If the Length of a Board, or Piece of Glafs be given in 
Feet and the Breadth in Inches, multiply one by the other 
(without any Redu&ion) and divide the Product by 12, and 
the Quotient will be the Anfwer in Feet, and the Remain- 
der will be Parts of a Foot. So the foregoing Example 
might have been fooner done by dividing 96 in Length, 
by 1 2 the Breadth, and it quotes 8 Feet for the Content, 
as by the former Way. 


Suppofe a Board be 14 Feet long, and 15 Inches broad, 
what's the Content in fquare Feet i 

14 Feet long. 

15 Inches broad. 

— — ■ So the Anfwer is 17 Feet 

12)210 and \ . And fo for any other 

Example of this Kind. 

Feet 17 — 6 T ^ or f 
Or t concifer tbus t 

14 Here 3 Inches is the £ of a 

by I — 3 Foot, whereof | of 14 is 

■ ' « taken and added to 14, and 

14 it makes 17 Feet and f, equal 

3 In. | 3| or I to £. 

Jnfwer. 1 7 \ 

If a Board be wider at one End than the other, then take 
the Breadth in the Middle, or add the Meafure of both Ends' 

'the Young Man's Beft Companion, l$i 

together and take the Half for the mean Breadth, which 
multiply by the Length. 


Suppofe a Board to be i 20 Inches long, and the narrow- 
eft End 10 Inches wide, and the broadeft End 24 Inches 
wide ; what is its Content in fuperficial Feet ? 

aaa J 34 broadeft End. 

Add \ ro narrower*. 

the 44 


is 22 the Medium. 
120 the Length. 

144) 2640 (18 Feet £ Anfwm 

J 44 • 

Rem. 48 I 4 1 1 

or 4 Inches ; 48 the Remainder 

144 1 12 I 3 is i of H4« 
Or thus. 
Feet. Inches. 
10— —00 narrower! End. 
» 10 the mean Breadth* 

For 10 In. i*F*- 


In. 10 00 


18 04 Anpwer. 

If a Board or Piece of Glafs be ever fo irregular, it may fee 
meafured very near, by taking thcBreadth in 5 or 6 Places. 
and add the feveral Breadths together, dividing the Total 
by the Number of Places, and the Quotient will be the 
mean Breadth ; which multiply by the Length, C5c. 

Having the Breadth in Inches of any Board, or Piece of 
Glafs, to know how much in Length of that Board or Piece 
of Glafs- will make a Foot Superficial, 

1 I RmU. 

j 92 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

Rule. Divide 144 by the Inches in Breadth, and the Qho- 
tient will be the Length of that Board that will make a 


If a Board be 9 Inches broad, what Length of that 
Board will make a fuperficial Foot ? 

Or by the Rule of Three Rcverfe, thus, 
9) 144 /. b. I- I. I. n. 

If iz give 12, what 9 broad ? 

Inches 16 Anfvoer. 12 

9) 144- 

Anfiwer. 16 Inches. 
If a Board be 1 2 Feet \ long, and 1 5 Inches broad, how 
many fquare Feet doth it contain ? 





150 long. 

i> 2 5 

15 broad. 

. . 





125 • 

144) 2250 (15 Feet. 

Feet 15,625 




Inches 7,500 



Remainder 90 

Quarters 2,000 

Multiply by 1 2 Inches 1 Foot. 

144) 1080 (7 Inches. 


Remainder. .72 

by 4 i of an Inch. 
144) 288 (2 \ or * 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 193 

By Crofs Multiplication. By Praaice. 

Feet. In. Feet. In. 

12 6 12 6 

1 3 i-3 

12 o 

12 6 

g 6 $ Inches J 3 1 f 

o 1 J Facit 15 7 § 

Anfw. 15 7 I 

Here the Content is found four feveral Ways, vix. by 
multiplying the Inches together, and dividing by 1+4, cifr. 
The next Work is performed Decimally ; the third Method 
is by crofs Multiplication; and the M and belt is by 

Any of thefe Methods may be eafily underftood by the 
Ufe of the Arithmetical Part of this Book, except the Me- 
thod by crofs Multiplication, which, I think, hath not 
been fhewn ; wherefore I fhall explain it here. 

In the Example, 1 Foot 3, Hands ander 12 Feet 6 ; and 
having drawn a Line, fay, once 12 is 12 ; then I fay Crofs- 
way, 6 times 1 is 6 Inches ; fo that Line is o Feet, 6 Inches ; 
Then Crofs-ways again, I fay 3 times 12 is 36 Inches,. the 
I2's in 36 is 3 times, or 3 Feet ; fo that Line is 3 Feet o 
Inches. Laltly, I multiply the Inches together, faying, 3 
times 6 is 18, the 12's in 18 once, and there remains t>, or 
T \, equal to f, as in the Work. 
Proper Diretlions for Joiners, Painters, Glafiers, he. 
Rooms being generally various in their Forms, take this 
general Rule in all Cafes, <vix. 

Take a Line, and apply one End of it to any C rner of 
the Reorn ; then meafure the Room, going into every Cor- 
ner with the Line, till you come to the Place where you 
nrlt began ; then fee how many Feet and Inches the String 
contains, and fet it down for the Compafs or Round ; then 
take the Height by the fame Method. . 

Glafiers are to take the Depth and Breadth of their 
Work, and multiply one by the other, dividing by 144 ; 
Glafs being meafured as .Board. 

1 i Having 

194 The Toting Man's Bejt Companion. 

Having thus fhewn the Method of calling up Dimenfi. 
ens, t come now to Particulars ; and the firft of 

Glaziers Work^ by the Fort. 
If the Window be fquare, multiply the Length by the 
Breadth, which will produce the Content, as abovefaid. 

A Window glaized 
By Crofs Multiplication Feet. In. 

Feet. In. 8 g 

8 9 high. 7 Feet 3 

7 3 broad. .. 

— — — 6i 3 

56- o 3 Inches |z 2 { 

2 o 

5' 3 63 5 1 

2 I 

63 5 x Anfwer. 

If the Windows are arched or have a curved Form, no 
Allowance is made by Reafon of the extraordinaryTrouble, 
and Wafte of Time, Expence or Wafte of Glal's, & c . And 
the Dimensions are taken from the higheft Part of the 
Arch, down to the Bott m of the Window, for the Height 
or Length, which multiply by the Breadth, and the Product 
will be the Anfwer in Feet, (5V. 

Glafiers are often fo very nice, as to take their Dimen* 
fions, and to meafure to a Quarter of an Inch. 

Feet. In. 

4—3 I !<>ng. 

2 Feet 7 { broad. 

6 Inches is f 
1 | is | 

1" it 

2-1 I 

1 1 

ii— 4 | 

Glafs is meafured by the Foot, as faid before ; and flie 
Price of Work in England, in Sterling Money is as fol- 
lows, viz. 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. t$$ 

Englim GUfs />er Foot . - 0—5 

French and Crown Glafs ■ - . 1 ■ i—& 

Common Work, Leading included, for every Foot ) , 
fquare - ■ ■ ■ , ., ' f O— ft 

New Leading old Glafs per Foot . . 0—3 

Common Diamond Squares, each ■ ■ . . ... o— I 

Painters Work by the Yard. 

WHEN the Wainfcot of a Room is painted, you are 
to meafure round the Room with a Line, as hinted 
before, without girting the Mouldings, which are to be 
meafured by a String, and added to the other ; then mul- 
tiply the Compafs by the Height, with the Addition of 
the Mouldings, fcJV. and you have the Content in Feet 
and Inches, which reduced to Feet* bring into fquare 
Yards by dividing by 9. 

Example 1. 
A Room painted. 

Feet. In. 
Being 45—8 in Compafs, ) What is the Content in {quote 
10 Feet 6 high. J Yards? 




Yards 53 — 2 — 6 An/wer. 

" T ' 

Example 2. 

If the Height of a Room painted be 12 Feet 4, and 
the Compafs 84 Feet 1 1 ; what iquare Yards doth it con- 
Uin i Anfwer 116 Yards 3 Feet 3 f. 

Feet- In. Note, Double Work is al* 

84 — ii Compafs. lowed in Window- Shutters ; 
12 F. 4 high. Sam-Fraraes and Mamlepieces 

■ are reckoned by themfelves, 

In. 10 1 9 — 00 unlefs the Mantlepjeces ftand 

4 j 28—03 1 in tne Wainfcot, and then they 

* are to be meafured as plain 

9) 1047 — 03 % Work, deducting nothing for 

the Vacancy* 

Yds. 116— 03— 3 I An/, 


I9 6 &be Young Man's Beji Companion. 

Prices in England. 3- d. 

Common coloured, 3 Coats in Oil, per Yard 0—6 

On old Colour ' 0—4 

"Wal rut-tree Colour *— ; — ■ 1 — 

Marble Co:our, from 16^. to • 2—0 

Safh-Fraaies, each . ■ ■ 1 — 

Safh-Lights, each 0— 1 

Window-Lights, one with another ■ — 3 

Iron Cafements - 0—3 

"Joiners Work. 

WAINSCOTING, the Dimenfions are taken as in 
Painting q/iz. by meafuring the Height (indenting 
the String where ever the Plane goes, as well as the Pain- 
ters do where ever the Brum goes) and then the Compafs ; 
which multiply one into the other, dividing the Produft 
by 9, and the Quotient is the Anfwer in fquare Yards. 

What is the Content of a Piece of Wainfcoting that is 
.9 Feet 3 Long, and 6 Feet 6 broad ? 

Feet. In. The Length and Breadth 

o — 3 being multiplied together, 

6 F. 6 brings it into fquare Feet ; 

which divided by 9, (the 
fquare Feet in a Yard) pro- 
duces 6 Yards, \ for the An- 
fwer, as per Margin. 
6 Yds. I Anf. 








9) 60- 




m >. 


By Crofs Multiplication tbtu , 
Feet. In. 

60—1 I as before, which divide by 9, t$c, 


The Young Marts Bejl Companien. 197 

Once more. 
There is a Room wain/coted, the Compafs of which is 
47 Feet 3 Inches, and the Height 7 Feet 6 inches ; what'? 
the Content in Yards fquare ? Anfnxer 39 Yards \. 
Feet. In. Or thus. 

47 — 3 Compafs. Yds. In. 

7 F. 6 the Height. 15 — 9 

— 2 Yds. 6 

33°— 9 
6 In. I 23— 7? 

., . 6 In. 

9) 3b4-4 1 „ . 

. Mnfwer. 39 — 4 

Anfiutr. 39 Yds. f or | 

The Prices per Yard. s. &» 

For good Wainfcot 


Wainfcoting, not finding Stuff, l£c. 2—0 

Coarfe Wainfcoting ■ 1 — o 

Deal \Yainfcot, finding Stuff 3 — o 

Not finding Stuff ■ I — 6 

Carpenters Work. 

ROOFING, Flooring and Partitioning, the principal 
Carpentry in modern Buildings, are.meafured by the 
Square of 10 Feet each Way, that is 100 fquare Feet. 

For Roofing, multiply the Depth and half Depth, by 
the Front : or the Front and half Front by the Depth, 
and you'll have the Contents. 
The Dimenuons are taken in Feet and Inches. 


How many Squares deth that Piece of Work contain that 
Hieafures 199 Feet io Inches in Length, and 1 o Feet 7 Inch- 
es in Height ? Anfwer 21 Squares, ^Feet, 10 Inches |. 
Ope at ion, 
feet. In. This Work is done by 

199 — iq long. cutting off two Places 

10 F. 7 high. toward the right Hand, 
1008 — 4 an( i 'he Number on the 

5; 09 — 11 Left are Squares, Uc. 

21 J 14— 1®£ An/. 21 Squares, 14 Feet 10 In. f. 


™ __ ,-,-,-,-,-,..,- .. 

198 T'fo 7i?K»£ M«»V 2?*/? Companion. 

If a Floor be 49 Feet 7 Inches 4 Parts long, and 26 Feet 
6 Inches broad ; how many fquare Feet ? 

The Operation by Croft Multiplication, 
Feet. In. Parts. 

26 6 o 

13 I H 8 4 Anfwtr 13 Squ. ^Feet, 8In.4Pts. 

Note, In meafuring Roofing, no Deduclion is made for Sky- 
lights, Chimney- Shafts, Sec. 

In meafuring Flooring, take the Dimenfions of the whole 
Floor at once in Feet, and then meafure the Content in fu- 
perfkial Feet of the Vacancy for the Stairs, Hearths, cifr. 
which dedud from the whole Floor, and the Remainder is 
the true Content ; which bring into Squares as before. 

Note, In Partitioning, you muji meajure the Doors, Door- 
tefes and Windows, by tbemfel-ves, and dedud their Content 
tut of the Whole ; except by Agreement they are included ; and 
then you rnufi mention in the written Agreement, Doors, Door- 
tafes and Windows, included. 

There are divers Sorts of Carpenters Work belonging to a 
Building,-?/'*. Cantaliver- Cornice, Modilion-Cornice,Plain- 
Cornice, Guttering, Rail and Ballufters Lintale Penthoufe- 
Cornice, Timber-front, Story, Breaft-fommers, Shelving, 
Dreft'ering, &c. all which are meafured by Lenial, or Run- 
ning Meafure. There are alfo Doors and Door-cafes, Lant- 
horn Lights, with their Ornaments, Balcony-Doors and 
Cafes, Cellar Doors and Curbs, Columns and Pilafiers, 
Cupolas, &c. all which are valued by the Piece. 
Carpenters Work in England, is done at tbt following Stif- 
ling Prices, viz. /. s . d» 
Flooring, finding Boards, the Square - 1 — 15 — o 
Not finding Boaxds, from is. 6a\ to _«—— e — 06—0 

The Young Man's Beji Companion. 199 

Roofing with Oak ■ - 2 00 

Not finding Timber - ■ I2 Q 

Partitioning per Square .. . o- 15 a 

Not finding Timber — — - £ 

Stairs with Rails and Ballufters compleat ■ ... 1 — JO 

Sawing of Oak and Elm per 100 Feet . o — 02 6 

Trees tor Fences — o — 02 o 

Oak 1 imber is commonly fold for 4.0/. per Tun, that is 

40 Feet fquare in the Place ; Alh 30/. and Elm z$ s per 


Note, Carpenters meafure the Timber Frames of any Build- 
ing (ivhicb 1 hey call the Carcaje) by the Square 0/ 10 fuper~ 
ficial Meajure, or 1 00 Jquare Feet, as hinted before* 

Bricklayers and Tylers Work* 

Of Walling. 

WALLING is meafured by the Rod Statute-Meafure, 
being 272 Feet and \ fuperhcial. The Method 
of taking their Dimensions is thus ; foi a Wall round an 
Orchard or the like, they measure the Length by a Line 

Jjoing over the Buttreffes ; and for the Height, they mea- 
ure over the Mouldings (prefiing the Line into them) even 
to the Middle of the Coping: They likewife take Notice 
of the Thicknefs of the Wall, that is how many half 
Bricks in Length the Wall, as in Thicknefs ; for three 
half Bricks, that is a Brick in Length, and one in Breadth, 
is Standard I hicknefs ; And all Walls, whether lefs or 
more, muft be reduced to that Thicknels, by this Role, 
viz. Multiply the Product of the Length and Height, by 
the Number of half Bricks that the Wall is in Thicknefs : 
which Product divide by three, and then the Quotient by 
172 (the 5 being generally neglected in Vulgar Working) 
and the Quotient will be Rods, at a Brick and half thick 
Standard Meafure. 


Admit the Face of the Wall meafure 4085 Feet, and 
the Thicknefs be two Bricks and a Half, or five half 
Bricks thick, how many Rods doth it contain ? 


200 The Young Man's Brft Companion. 


3) 2 °4 Z 5 

272) 6808 25 Rods, Atipwer. 

When the Work is wrought Decimally, then you divide 
by 272 |, or 272,25, which gives the Quotient fomewhat 
lei's. But the Meafuring of Brick- Work may be fhortened 
by having the Rod of 16 Feet \ centenmaily divided into 
100 equal Parts, with which you take the Dimenfions, and 
the Length of the Wall in thofe Rods ; and 100 Parts 
multiplied by the Height, give the Content in Rods, of 
any Wall that is a Brick and half 1 hick. Deduction muft 
be made for Doors, Windows, tiff. 

A Table to reduce Brick -Work to Standard Meafure, 
1. e. a Brick and a Half-Thick. 

1 Subftraft V\ 

2 Add ± [ 

3 ? 


2 )> Reduces to a Brick and Half. 
Multiply <{ 3 I 



Suppofe a Garden- Wall to be 254 Feet round, and 12 

Feet 7 Inches high, and three Bricks thick ; how many 
Rods doth it contain ? 

254 In this Operation, the Ag- 

12 gregate, or Total, is multi- 

• plied by 2, becaufe twice 3 

In. 3048 is 6, tl>e Number of half 

6 I 127 Bricks; and that reduces the 

i T V 21 — 2 Work to Standard-Meafure, 

■ as by the Table above. 


27z) 6392—4 (23, I Rods : 


The Young Man s B'ejf Companion. 20 1 

Of Chimnieu 
This Brick Work is commonly agreed for by the Hearth, 
■ and alfo fometimes by the Rod ; and trfe*Method of taking 
Dimenfions is thus : If the Chimney ftands fingly, not lean- 
ing againft, or being in a Wall, and worked upright over 
the Mantle tree to the next Floor ; it is girt about the Breaft 
for the Length, and the Height of the Story is taken for 
the Breadth, and the Thicknefs of the Jaumbs for the Thick- 
nefs. But if the Chimney ftands againft, or in a Wall, 
which is before meafu red with therelt of the Building ; then 
the Breadth of the Breaft or Front, together with the Depth 
of the two Jaumbs, is the Length ; the Height of the Story 
the Breadth, and the Thicknefs of the Jaumbs the Thick- 
nefs ; but if the Chimney ftands in the Corner of a Room, 
and has no Jaumbs, then the Breadth of the Breaft is the 
Breadth, the Height of the Story the Length, and the Thick- 
nefs the Thicknefs. And for the Shaft it is commonly girt 
in the fm all eft Fart, for the Length ; and the Thicknefs of 
both tides, for the Ticknefs ; in Confideration of the 
Widths, Fargiting, Scaffolding, &c. 

Note, There is nothing to be de dueled for the Vacancy be- 
t-ween the Hearth and the Mantle-tree, becaufe of the Widths 
and the Thickening for the next Hearth above. 

Arches are meafured by taking the Breadth and half the 
Breadth of the Arch, and add them together ; and then to 
multiply the total by the Length, for the Content in Thick- 
nefs of the Arch. 

Gable Ends. 
Take half the Perpendicular for the Breadth, and the 
Width of the Houfe for the Length, or half the Width of 
the Houfe for the Breadth, and the Perpendicular for the 
Length ; which brings the Meafure to an Oblong, which is 
eafily meafured by multiplying the Length by the Breadth, 

Note, A Perpendicular is a donun or upright Line in the 
Work thus] ; There are fever al other Things in Bricklayers Work ; 
as Cornice, Facias, Sireight Arches, Scheme Arches, Hips and 
Valleys in Tiling, and Water Courjes : All vohich are meafured 
by the Foot Lineal, or Running Meafure. Alfo Peers, Pilafers, 
Rujlick Work, &C which are valued by the Piece. Englifj 
Prices in Sterling Money. I. s. d. 

For Walls, finding Materials 5 — 00 — o per Rod. 

Not finding Materials — — — - •* 1 — 10— • ditto, 


202 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

Prices. /• '• d. 

For Tyling, finding Materials — I — 05— o per Squire. 

Not finding Materials o — 05 — o ditto 

For Tyling finding Materials ex- J o _ I0 _ o Roi 

cept 1 ilea) that is 15 Feet iquare J r _ 

For ftriping without taking down — o — 05 — 6 ditto. 
With taking down ■■ o — 07 — o ditto. 

For Pointing ■ o — 02 — o ditto. 

Pavement for Cellars, Waih-houfes, &c. is meafured by 
the Square Yard. 

If a Cellar, Wafh-houfe or Court-yard, be paved with 
Bricks, or pitched with Pebble, being 9 Yards 2 Feet long, 
and 6 Yards 2 Feet broad ; how many Yards fquare doth 
it contain ? Answer, 64 Yards 1 and £ Feet, as by the 
following Work. 

Yds. F. Tdi. F. 


6 Yards 2 

64 — 4 Jn/iver. 

58— © 



2$ Here the Anfwer is found by three 

2<y different Operations, and the Refult 

— of each, to the fame Amount, <viz. by 

9)580 Crofs Multiplication, by Pta&ice, &c 

Yards 64$ 

Is valued by the Square of 10 ; in feme Pl*ces by the 
Rod of 18 Feet fquare ; that is 36 fquare Yards, or 324 

j^ In Tyling and Slating, where there are Gutters and 
Valleys, there is commonly Allowance, which is to take the 
Length of the Roof all along upon the Ridge, which makes 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 203 

the Gutter double Meafure ; which in fome Places is allow- 
ed, in others not. Sometimes there is an Addition for hol- 
low Ware, that is, Ridge files, Gutter Tiles, Corner and 
Dormer Tiles ; and here Cuftoms differ : For in fome Places 
they account one fuperficial Foot for every Foot lineal or 
running Meafure ; then 100 Feet lineal is reckoned a 
Square. In other Places, for every 100 of fuch Tiles they 
reckon one Square. 

Is of two Kinds, ra Firjt, Work lathed and plaiftered, 
foretimes called Ceiling. Secondly, Plairtering upon Brick- 
W< rk, or between the Quarters in Partitioning, by fome 
called Rendering ; both which are meafured by the Yard 
fquare, as the Joiners and Painters do. In taking Dimen- 
fn 11s of Ceiling, if the Room be wainfcoted, they confider 
how far the Cornice bears into the Room, by putting up a 
Stick perpendicular to the Ce ling, dole- to .he Edge of the 
uppermefc Part of the Cornice ; and meafure the Diftance 
from the perpendicular Stick to the Wainfcot ; twice which 
Diftance mult be deducted fiom the Length and l<readth of 
the Room taken upon the Floor, and the Remainder is .he 
true Length anu Breadth of the Ceiling : As fuppofe a Floor 
is 24 Feet long, and 18 Feet broad, and the Cornice 'Vjot* 
out 6 Inches ; dedutt a Foot for both Ends, and the Length 
of the ceiling is Z3 Feet; and the fame for the Breadth ; it 
leaves 17 Feet broad ; which (if the Room be fquare) r.iul- 
tiplied together, the Content is 391 Feet, or 43 Yards an4 
a Half. Example 1. 

23 Feet the Length. 
17 Feet hroad. 



9) 391 (43 Yards, 4 Feet. 


If the Ceiling of a Room be 19 Feet 10 ©ne Way, and 17 

Feet 6 the other, how many fquare Yards does i; contain ? 


204 The Toung Man's Bejl Companion. 
By Crofs Multiplication, thus. 

J 9 

: 10 
: 6 



14 . 
9 • 



9) 347 • 1 (38 Yds. 5 Feet 1 Inch. 
Example 2. 
How many Yards fquare are there in a Piece of Plaiftering 
that is 47 Feet 4 Inches 7 Parts long, and 18 Feet broad ? ' 
F. I. Pts. 


3 and 6 

142 — 1 — 9 

9) 852—10 — 6 94 Yds. 6 Feet, 10 Inch, 6 Parts, Anfatr. 

In measuring Partitioning for Doors, Windows, and 
other Vacancies, there muft, be an Allowance or Deduction 
made, they being Deficiencies. 

Price per Yard in England. s. d. 

For every Yard of common Plaiftering, finding \ 

Laths, Nails, fcfr. ■ \°~ 9 

Not finding Laths . ■ 0— |f- 

For White-wa/hing with Size o— \\ 

Partitioning, finding all Materials 0—3 

Mafons Werk. 

THE Mafons Work, confifKng of Stone, is of two Sorts, 
•viz. Superficial and Solid. Pavement, and the Face 
of Stone Walls, Houfes, &c. are meafured as Brick. Work. 
If the Work have Ornaments, as Capitals, Pilafters, Rails 
•and Ballufters, &c then they are valued by the Piece. 

EngUJl) Price.. s. d. 

For every Foot of Plain Work in Walls, &e. • 0—8 

For plain Cornice, about — — . — 1 — 5 


The Toung Man's Befi Companion. 205 

For rough Stone Wall, with Lime, 16 Feet £ long 1 s. d. 

and 1 Foot high, per Rod \ \ — 2 

Without Lime, per Rod ■ o — 3 

faving, digging the Stone, and all Workmanfhip, > 

per fquare Foot j ° 3 

Prices of Stone and Urns. 

Rough Paving 1 d. per Foot ; Rough Afher, or Coping, 
\d ' per Foot ; Fine Afher, id. per Foot ; Bale per Foot 4^. 
Carbe, per Foot, 6d, Urns 3 Feet high, 1/. 4 Feet high 
1/. 1 or. 5 Feet high, 2/. and 6 Feet, 3/. 

Glaziers Work. 

IT may be done thas ; Multiply the Length in Inches and 
Parts, by the Breadth in Inches and Parts, and feparate 
the Decimals (if any) as before fhewn. 

In. Pts. 
A Piece of Glazing 29,5 long, 
and 7,0 broad. 

144) 206,50 (1,5 So the Contents is i f. 
144 5 and \ of an Inch. 

12) 62 (5 

Here, after the two Places are feparated by a Comma, the 
Remainder is divided by 144, and then what remains by 12, 
Isff. Or thus, as if Shillings and Pence. 

s. d. 
2-5 I 

F. I. 

12) 17 — o I (1,5 I Anfvser. 

The Expeditious Way. 

When the Length of any Superficies, either of Board or 
GJafs, is given in Feet, and the Breadth in Inches,, then 
onlv multiply the one by the other, and divide by 12, 
and the Quotient will be the Anfwer in Feet, and the 


206 The Young Man's Bejl Companies 
Remainder will be the Parts of a Foot ; as hath been fpoken 
of before. 

Admit a Window, to be 15 Feet long, and 12 Inches broad. 

12 Inches broad. 

12) 180 (15 Feet Anfwer. 
Of fioara Meajure. 

WHENEVER the Breadth is given in Inches, and 
the Length of the Board in Feet, they only multi- 
ply one by the other, and divide the Pradudt by 12, and 
the Quotient will be the Anfwer in fquare Feet : But if 
the Breadth and Length be given both in Inches, then mul- 
tiply one by the other, and divide by 144, and the Quo- 
tient will be the Anfwer in fquare Feet. 
Example I 
Suppofe a Board (or any other thing of flat Meafure) be 
15 Inches broad, and 16 Feet long, what is the Content 
in fquare Feet ? 

192 Length in Inches. 15 Breadth in Inches. 

15 Breadth in Inches. 16 Length in Feet. 

144)2880 (20 Feet. 90 

288 15 

(o) 12) 240 (20 Feet. 

Here the Example is wrought both Ways, as abovefaid, 
and the Anfwers are both alike. 

Example 2. 
Suppofe a Board be 8 Inches and \ in Breadth, and 16 
Feet long ; what is the Content in fquare Feet ? The Work 

In this Example, I multiply 
by 4 and 4, the component 
Parts of the Ratio's of 16 the 


| Breadth 
and by 4 





. 11 



The Young Man's Beft Companion. lOf 

Example 3. 
Again admit a Board 17 Inches £ broad, and 28 Feet long, 
what is the Content ? 

7 and 4 

■ This Example is multiplied 

124.J by 7 and 4, the Ratio's of 2! 

4 the Length. 


Anfwer 41 Feet T S T 

0«« /wo« 4>' ttn other Way. Suppofe a Board be 32 
Inches broad, and 37 Feet, or 444 Inches in Length ; what 
is the Content i 4 and 8 Breadth. 


144) 14208 (98 Feet and § 

> h i 


The Parts tf a Superficial Ftet is 144 fquare Inches. 

72 half a Foot. 
108 three (Quarters. 

126 three Quarters and half a Quarter. 
36 a Quarter of a Foot. 
18 half a Quarter. 
In the laft Work, I multiply 444, the Inches of the 
Length, by 4 and 8, the component Parts of 32, the Inches 
of the Breadth ; and then divide the laft Product by 144, 
and the Anfwer is 98 Feet, and 96 fquare Inches remain, 
which is tws Thirds of a Foot. 

Mr. Darling, in his Treatife ©f the Carpenter's Rule, hath 
with great Pain* (and no doubt with as great Care) given a 
great many Tables for the Anfwer of fundry Dimenfions in 
Beard and Timber Meafure ; but he meafures beft, that doth 
it experimentally by Arithmetic^, by thofe ftiort and eafy 


30 S The Young Maris Befi Companion. 

Rules before and hereafter mentioned, and take not Things 
upon truil ; for tho' Tables may be right, fo perhaps they 
maybe alfo wrong (for Error, is endlefs) and then to be whol- 
ly guided by fuch Tables, it would be of fad and very per- 
nicious Confequence ; and if the Artiit is ignorant of Arith- 
metic!;, he will be bewildered and plunged into inextricable 
Difficulties.- 1 muft confefs that Tables are of consider- 
able Help in cafe of Expedition ; but then you muft be very 
well acquainted with them ; otherwife. I can in muchlefs 
time caft up the Dimenhons, than you fhall be in .finding out 
your feveral Numbers, and adding or fubftracting them, 
fcsfc. No Man .that is wife, ought to depend upon aiay Table 
for his Government, till he hath proved the Truth of eve- 
ry Line, and he that is able to do that, is capable of mak- 
ing any Table for his own Ufe ; which if he takes care 
that it be correct., he is well provided, and need not be led 
into Error or Confufion by falfe Tables. 

Of Land Meafure. 

LAND is ufually meafured by the Acre ; the Dimen- 
fions are taken with a Pole of 16 Feet and a Half; 
or a Chain called Gunter's Chain, confining of 4 Poles in 
Length, and is divided into 100 equal Parts, called Links, 
anfwering to Decimal Arithmetick. 

Note, I Acre contains 1 60 fquare Poles ; I Rod or Quar- 
ter of an Acre, 40 fquare Poles. 

Note alfo, In any Number of Chains are fo many 100 
Links, as 4 Chains are 400 Links, and 6 Chains 600 Links, 
Sec. In a Jquare Chain are 16 fquare Poles ; and if you divide 
160 (the fquare Poles in one Acre) by 16 (the fquare Poles in 
a Chain) the Quotient is l o, the fquare Chains in 1 Acre. 

A fquare Chain contains 10,000 fquare Links, (or 100 
multiplied by 1 00^ and confequently I Acre contains 100,000 
fquare Links. 

To meafure a Geometrical^ or True Square. 

A Square is contained under 4 Equal Sides, and 4 Right 

Let Figure 7, reprefent a fquare Piece of Land to be 
meafured, every Side whereof is 20 Poles ; multiply 20 by 
20, being both the Length and Breadth, and the Prcduft 


The Young Man's Befl Companion. £og 

is 400, for the Content in fquare Poles, which divide by 
160 (the fquare Poles in 1 Acre) and the Remainder 80 by 
40 (the fquare Poles in a Rod) quotes 2 Acres, and 2 Rods 
for the Content, as in the Operation. 

l8|o4o|o(2 Acres, 
3 2 

4|o)8|o(2 Rods. 


Note, The fquare Root of the Area of any Square is the 

Side thereof; as in Fig. 7. the Area or Content is 400, <wbofe 
jitnare Root is 20, the Side of the Square. 

To meafure a Parallelogram, or Long Square. 

A Parallelogram, is contained under 4 Right-angles, but 
not 4 equal bides ; -yet the oppofite Sides are equal. 

Admit Figure 8, to be a Parallelogram, or Long-Square, 
whofe Length is 21 Chains, 36 Links, and Breadth 11 
Chains, 64 Links ; what is the Content of that Piece of 
Land r 

The method of calling up the Contents of any Dimen- 
fions taken with Gunter's Chain, is to multiply the Chains 
and Links together, and cutting off 5 Figures towards 
the Right-hand, the Remainder on the Left-hand will be 
Acres; then multiply thofe Figures towards the Right- 
hand by 4, and from that Product cut off 5 Figure* as 
before ; fo will the Figure on the Left-hand be Rods : 
Again, multiply the Remainder laft cut off by 40, cutting 
off alfo from the Produd 5 Figures to theRight-hand, 
and the Figures towards the Left-hand will be Poles ; and 
if there be any Remainder it will be Decimal Parts of a 
Pole. So in the prefent Example, the Anfwer is 24 Acres, 
3 Rods, 18 Poles, and Tt ££+ Parts of a Pole. 


210 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

21,36 Length. 
1 1,64 Breadth. 

Acres 24J86304 

Rods 3I45216 

Poles 1 8(08640 

To meafurt a Rhombus. 

A Rhombus or Diamond like Figure, is contained under 
4 equal Sides, but not Right-Angles ; yet the oppofite 
Angles are equal. 

Admit Figure 9 to be a Rhombus, whofe Side is 16, and 
Perpendicular ;+.; which multiplied together, the Froduft 
is 224, for the Area. 

To meafure a Rhomboides, 

A Rhomboides is contained under 4 Lines, whofe oppo- 
fite Sides are equal, and oppofite Angles equal ; yet not 
all equal Sides, nor any Right-Angles. 

Admit Figure 10, to be a Rhomboides, whofe Length 
is 22, and perpendicular, or parallel Diftancc, 8, which 
multiplied together, the Product is 176, for the Area. 

To meafure dhy Manner of Triangle. 

Ever}' Triangle is half that Long-fquare, whofe Length 
and Breadth is equal to the Perpendicular and Bafe. There- 
fore from rhe greateft Angle, draw a Line perpendicular to 
the Bafs, which multiply by half the Bafs, and the Product 
is the Area. 

Admit Figure 1 1 to be a Triangle, whofe Bafe or longeft 
Side is 26 Poles, and the Perpendicular 2 6 Poles, which 


the Toung Marts Befi Companion. 2 r r 

multiply together, and the Producl is 416, for the Area of 
the Long-fquare EFCB, half of which is 208, the Area 
ef the Triangle ABC. 

Or if you multiply the Bafe 26, by 8 the half Perpen- 
dicular, the Product is 208, the Area as before. 

Or elfe multiply half the Bafe 13, by the whole Perpen- 
dicular 16, the Produd is 208 as before. 

To meafure a Trapezium. 

A Trapezium is contained under 4 unequal Sides, and 4 
«nequal Angles. 

Admit Figure 1 2 reprefent a Field ; to meafure which 
draw the Diagonal DB ; fo is the Figure divided into two 
Triangles, which you may meafure according to the laft 
Example, by letting Perpendiculars fall from the Angles 
^and C, upon the Diagonal DB, which will be the Bafe 
Line to each Triangle. 

But with more Brevity, you may add the two Perpendi- 
culars together, and multiply the Sum of them by half the 
Bafe, and the Product will be the Area of the Trapezium. 

Suppofe the Sum of the 2 Perpendiculars in 22 Poles, and 
half the Bafe is 14 Poles, which multiplied together, the 
Product is 308, the Area in fquare Poles ; or 1 Acre, 3 
Rods, and 28 Poles. 

To meafure any irregular Piece tf Land. 

Firft take care that the whole Plot be divided into Tra- 
peziums and Triangles, according ta your own Fancv, and 
the Nature of the Thing will bear ; then meafure thofe 
Trapeziums and Triangles, as is before direfted, and add 
the feveral Contents together ; fo will the Sum be the Con- 
tent of that irregular Figure. 

• Admit Figure 13 reprefent a Field to be meafured, which 
is divided into one Trapezium, and two Triangles, as the 
Figure directs. 

Now to find the Content of this Figure, meafure the 
Trapezium and Triangles as before direfted, and add them 
together as folio weth. 

Trapezium FBCE 234 

Tri »« te - \fcD % 

The Area ©f the Figure ABCDEF, 349 Tquare Pole*. 
& Of 

212 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 
Of a Circle. 
Figure the Fourteenth. 

A Circle is contained under one Line, called the Circum- 
ference or Periphery ; as ABC. All right Lines drawn 
from the Center E to the Circumference, are equal, and 
called Radius's, or half Diameters ; and the long Line 
through the Centre from A to C, is the Diameter. 

To divide a Cole into 6 equal Parts, extend the Com- 
pares to half the Diameter, as from J to the Centre E. 
and the Extent will do it. 

Half the Semi-circle of the Circle, that is, half of the 
Half of the Circle, is called a Quadrant, or Quarter. 

If the Diameter of a Circle be 7 Inches, or 7 Feet in 
Length ; then is the Periphery or Compafs 22 Inches, or 
22 Feet about. 

Example j. 
If the Compafs of a Circle be 66 Feet, what is the Di- : 
ameter ? 

Multiply 66 by 7, and divide the Product by 22, and 
the Quotient gives the Diameter. 


22)462(21 Feet, Anfwer ; 


Example 2. . . 

If the Diameter be 21 Inches, what is the Circum- 
ference ? , ■ ; ■ ' ' , ' ; ' ■ ' ' 

The Operation is.juft the Reverfe, viz. 



7) 4 6z 

Inches 66 Jn/hver. I* 

The Young Man's Beji Companion. 2 1 $ 

If a Globe be 3 1 Inches } in Compafs, what is tie Dia- 
meter ? 

Work"d Fractionally thus : 

Say 7 times 1 is 7, and 3 the Numerator makes 10, 9 
and carry 1 ; then 7 times three is 21, and 1 carried is 22 : 
So the Product is 220 the Dividend ; which divide by 22, 
agreeable to the Proportion before mentioned. 

Example of Operation. 

22) 220 (10 Anfwer, 10 Inches Diameter. 

Example 3. 
Contra. If a Circle be 10 Inches Diameter, what is the 
Circumference i 

The Work. 

7) 220 

31 \ Answer and Proof. 

To meafure the fuperftcial Content of a Circle, either 
in Inches or Feet. 

Rule. Multiply half the Periphecy or Compafs, by half 
of the Diameter, and the Product will be the Content. 

Admit a round Table to be 14 Inches Diameter,, and 44 
ditto in Compafs ; what's the fuperftcial Content in fquare 
Inches ? 

22 half the Compafs. 
7 half the Diameter. 

154 Anfwer. 

Or if the Diameter be fquared or multiplied Into itfelf, 
and thatProdudt multiplied by 11, and the Refult thereof 
divided by 14, gives the fame Content. 

K 2 Ex- 

a 14 The Young Marts Beft Companion. 

Example. 14 multiplied. 

by H 

produces 196 
multipl y by 1 1 

divide by 43) 2156 (154 Quotient. 
effr. as before. 
Figure the Fifteenth. 
To meafure half a Circle or round Table, viz. 
Rule. Square the Semidiameter C D, and that Product 
multiply by 22, and divide by 14 ; f© the Anfwer is 77 
f^uare fuperfieial Inches. Inches. 



14) 1078 (77 
To meafure the Quarter or Quadrant of a 'Circle. 
Rule. Multiply the Line CE into itfelf, and proceed as be- 
fore ; but multiply the firftProducl. by theHalf of 22, viz. 11. 
Decimally ought to be thus. 

3 ' 5 
3? 3>5 
3 i 


iof 11 


I2f I225 



By 11 

* * . H) »3475 (9»6a| 

14) ! 34i (9 r °- m I26 
126 ■ 

g 7 

&c. 87 



the Young Man's Beft Companion. 215 

The Decimal Work produces Co, 62 1 equal to half an 

the fame Anfwer as the other < S-Inch, and T | or 

viZm ( 100) half of half an 

Inch. . ' — 

By thefe Methods may a Piece of Timber, that is halt 
round, or a Quarter round, at the Bafe or End, be mea- 
fur'd ; that is, by multiplying the fquare Inches at the 
End by the Inches of the Length. 

Solid Meafure. 

IS that which hath Length, Breadth, and Thicknefs, as 
Timber, Stone, and fuch like, which are meafured by 
the Foot ; and herein you are to obferve, that a Foot of 
Timber or Stone, is accounted a Foot fquare every Way, 
in the Form of a Dye, which hath fix Sides. 

The Rule for working is to multiply the Length and 
Breadth together, and th^t Product by the Depth or Thick- 
nef and the lair Prouud will be the Content in Cubick 
Inches which if Timbtr or Stone, divide by 1728, (the 
Cubick Inches in a fulid Foot) and the Quotient gives the 
Content in fohd Feet. 


Admit Figure the 1 6th to reprefent a Solid in Form of 
a Cube; whole Length, Breadth and Thicknefs, is 12 in- 
ches; multiply 12 by 12, and the Product is 144, which 
multiplied by 12, he Product is 1728, for the Content in 
cubick Inches : Hence it appears that a cubick Foot is \z 
Times more than a fuperficia- Fo-.t; fo that a fuperficial 
Foot is 144 Inches, and a cubick Foot '.72$ Inches. 

The Dimenfions of Timber are confidered in Breadth, 
Thicknefs and Length ; the Breadth and Thicknefs are 
commonly called the Square. 

Note, The Parts of a Solid Foot, being 1728 Inches. 

Three Quarters"] 

Half I f a Foot is .) 864 (j nches# 

A Quarter — I 
Half a Quarter. J 

<° \ Solid Feet of i JJJjf } Timber is a Tun or Load. 
K2 Exan$U. 

fi2 9 6T 


1 1 6 The Young Man's Bejl Cempanion. 


If a Tree be 16 Feet long, and 18 Inches fquare, how 
many folid Feet doth it contain ? 

Mukip.J 'I l6 


192 the Length in Inches. 
324 Breadth and Thick- 
■ nefs. 




62208 (36 Feet. 

\ (0)" 

Square { « 

By Practice. 





6 In. | 9 


2 —3 

4 and 4 



Feet 36 — AnfiMtr. 

Example 2. 

Suppofe there is given a Square Piece of Timber, whofe 
Breadth is 2,25, and Thicknefs 1,64 Feet, and Length 
36,5 Feet, how many folid Feet are contained therein i 


The Young Marts Beft Companion. 21 J 

2,25 Breadth* 
j, 64 Thicknefs. 

1 1 0700 

134,68500 Jnfwer, 134 folid Feet. 

that is, 
or 192 

Suppofe a Piece of Timber be 15 Inches fquare ; 
ir Inches broad, and 15 Inches thick, and 16 Feet, 
Inches long ; what is the Content of that Piece of Timber 
or Stone (or any otherThing that is to bemcafured by cube 
or folid Mcafure) in folid Feet ? 
15 Broad. 
15 Thicknefs. 



192 172S) 43200 (25 Feet: 

■ 34S6.. 

450 Tc — 

2025 8640 

225 8640 

43200 folid Inches. (o) 

So the Anfwer is 25 Feet of fold Timber in fuch a Piece 
or in fuch a Stone of fuch Dimenfions. 

Or if you multiply the Content of the Square by the 
Length in Feet, and divide that Product by 144, the Quo- 
tient will give the fame Coatent or Anfwer as before. See 
the following Work. 


2i 8 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

225 the Square. 
16 the Length. 

144) 3600 (25 folid Feet the Content. 
A Second Example in this, may be after the fecond Ex- 
ample in Board Meafure. That is, fuppofe a Piece to be 8 
Inches one Quarter Square, anu the Length 192 Inches; 
what is the Content ? 

1728) 13068 (7 Anpwtr. 

ufn/wer, 7 Feet and half, and 108 cubic Inchea. 
DeciM liy. 
8,25 - 68,0625 f"°, uare Inches. 

8,^5 192 Length in L.thes, 

4125 1361250 

K'io 6125025 

61 jo 680025 

6b. 625 13068,0000 

Anther Example. Suppofe a Piece of Timber to be 17 
] . tfcree Quarters Square, and 28 Foot long, what is 
the Content ? 

17 Inches three Quarters multiplied into itfelf Decimally, 
the Product will be 315,0625 ; which multiplied by the 
Length 336, the Produit wih be 105861, cutting off the 
four Cyphers, and the Anfwer will be 61 Feet, and 453 
remains, being one Fourth of a Foot, and 21 Inches. 

In fuperficial or flat Meafure, having the Breadth of a 
£ an', or Piece of Glafs given, to find what Quantity in 
Length it will take to make a Foot fquare. 

Rule. Only make the Ereadth in Inches Divifor to 144, 
the fquare Inches iri a fuperficial Foot, and the Quotient 
will be the Length in Inches that will make a Foot. 

If a Board be 8 Inches broad, what Length of that Board 
(or Piece of Glafs) will .make a Foot : 

8) 144 

The Young Man's Beft Companion. 219 

8) 144 

Anfaer, 18 Inches, or 1 Foot and a Half. 

Again. If a Board be 16 Inches broad, what Length of 
it will make a Foot ? 

16)144 (9 Inches. Answer, 9 Inches. 

This Method is manifeftly true, from this Gbfervatjon ; 
that a Board a Foot, or 1 2 Inches broad, will require a 
Foot, or 12 Inches in Length, to make it exadtly fquare, 
or 144 Inches. And this is known without Operation. By 
this Method, may a Table of Board or Glafs Meafure be 

Likewife in folid Meafare to know what Length ot the 
Piece of Timber will make a Foot folid, you mull make the 
Inches fquare Divifor to 1728, (the fquare Inches in a 
Fcot folid) and the Quotient will be the Anfwer in Inches 
of Length, that will make a Foot folid. - 

' If a Piece of Timber be 8 Inches fquare, what Length 
of it will make a Foot ? 

64) 1728 (27 Anfwer, 27 Inches, or 

128 2 Feet three Inches in 

— — Length. 


Here the Square of 8 is 64, tiff- 

Again. Suppofe a Piece be 18 Inches fquare, what Length 
will make a Foot ? An/wer, 5 Inches and one Third. 
The Square of 1 8 is 324) 1728 (5 £§| equal to £. 


Once more : Admit a Piece of Timber be 2 Feet, z 
Inches fquare, i. e. 26 Inches fquare, which is, l$c. 

676) 1728 ( 2 Inches \l,% or i Jnfwer.] 
135 2 

5o if a Piece be 10 Inches fquare, the Anfwex will be, that 

* s n 

-22,0 The Toung Man's Bejl Companion. 

17 Inches and -££<> of an Inch is required for the Length, 
And thus may a Table of fquare Timber be proved. 

In meafuring of round Timber, the common Way is to 
take 5 of the Circumference for the true Square, but it is 
erroneous, and gives Solidity fomewhat lefs than the true 
Content : But the true Way is to multiply half the Dia- 
meter by half the Compafs, and then that Product multiply 
by the Length, which divide by 1728, and the Quotient is 
the Content. If you cannot come to meafure the End of the 
Piece, you may know the Dia- 
meter by this Proportion, w, 3182 
as 22 is to 7, fo is the Compafs In 66 the Compafs. 
to the Diameter. Or you may ■ 
find the Square of a round Piece 19092 
of Timber by this Rule, m'x. 19092 
multiply 3182 by the Inches of ■ 
the Compafs, and cut off 4 Fi- 2i|ooi2 Anf. 21 In. 

gures to the Right-hand. ■ and T ?^| 

1 0000 

Having the Breadth and Depth of a Piece of Timber or 
Stone, to know how much in Length of it will makeafolid 
foot ; multiply one by the other, and let it be a Divifor 
to 1728, thus : 

24 broad. 
18 thick. 

432) 1728 (4 Inches in Length, M/wer. 

And thus you may make a Table to ferve all Breadths 
and Depths, by which much Labour may be faved in mul- 
tiplying and dividing, and yet meafure any Piece ©f Tim- 
ber thereby very exa&ly. 

. The ufual Way of tapering Timber, is by this Method, 
■»«:. take the Dimenfions in the Middle, and multiply that 
by the Length ; which, though fomewhat falfe, yet, if 
done ac feveral Lengths, as at every 5 or 6 Feet, it will 
fee very near. . 

The Ysung Man's Befi Companion. ill 


IS meafured by the folid Yard of 27 Feet ; that is, 3 
times 3 is 9, and 3 times 9 is 27 ; by which are mea- 
fured Vaults, Cellars, Clay for Bricks, &c. Other Things 
are meafured by the Flore of 324 folid Feet. 
If a Vault or Cellar be digged 9 Feet deep, 4 Feet f long, 
and 3Feet 9 Inches broad ; what is itsContent in. folidYards? 

4 I lon g- 
9 deep. 

4° k 
3 F. 9 broad. 

121 §• 
6 Inches £ 20 5 
3 \ of 6 10 

2 7) 1 S 1 i (5 Yards 16 Feet f. 

(16) Example 2. 

How many Yards of Digging will there be in a Vault 
that is 25 F. 4 long. 15 F. 8 broad, and 7 F. \ deep, 
/>«- 3 and 5 F. 8. 






nches | 8- 



-5 IF- 

f deep. 





-1 1 

-5 1 

27) 2976- 

-6f (nofflr^, 

2 7 


5 A/ifiwer. 


222 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

Example 3. 

There is a Mote that is 64.8 Feet long, 24 Feet broad, 
and 9 Feet deep ; how many Flores ? 
^48 long 
24 broad 

1555 2 

divide by 324) 139968 (432 Flores, Anfiwer. 

Solid Bodies being frequently painted, it is necelfary to 
know how to find their Superficiality. To find the Super- 
ficial Content of a Square, or many fided or round Pillar ; 
multiply the Sum of the Sides or Circumference by the 
Height in Feet; and the Produft divided by 9, the Quo- 
jien will be all fquare Yards. 

Of a Globe. 

Multiply the Circumference in Feet by itfelf, and then 
that Product by this Decimal ,0354, and this laft Product 
will be the Content in Yards. 

Not*, A folid Yard fquare of Clay will make about 7 or 
Sco Bricks ; and the Price of making is 7 or $s. Sterling a 
Thoufand, 3 Bags (or Bufhels) and half of Lime, and 
half a Load of Sand, to laying 1000 Bricks. 

500 B'ick. | make aLoad. 

j 000 Plain Tiles J 
25 Bags 1 C. of Lime. 

To meofure a Pyramid. 

JF a Piece of Timber be right-lined, having but one Bafe, 
which is fquare, and ends in a Point, it is called a Pyra- 
mid ; the folid Content of which is found by multiplying the 
fuperfieial Content or Area of ( he Bafe, by one third Part of 
the Length Or one third Part of the Area of the Bafe, 

multiplied by the whole Length, gives the Content alfo. 

The Young Man's Beft Companion. 11$ 

Suppofe Figure the 17th, reprefent a Pyramid to be mea- 
sured, vvhofe Breadth at the Ba;e is 5 Feet, and the Length 
j 5 Feet ; what is the Content in folid Feet ? 

5 I Side of the Bafe. 

25 Area of ditto. 
5 £ Part of the Length. 

Anfwer 125 tne Content in folid Feet. 

To mcafurc a Cone. 

IF a Piece of Timber be right-lined, having Length, and 
only one Bafe, which is round, equally decreeing, and 
ends in a Point, it is called a Cone j the folid Content of 
which is found, by multiplying the Area of the Bafe, by 
one third Part of the Length ; where Note (and likewife in 
the Pyramid) the true Length is from the Centre of the Bafe 
to the terminating Point. 

Admit Figure the i&th, reprefent a Cone, whofe Diame- 
ter at the Bafe is 5 Feet, and the Length 15 Feet; wha* 
is the folid Content ? 

5 C the Diameter. 
5 1 

25 the Square of do. 
multiply by 1 1 

divide by 14)275 (19 -& 

r ^ of the Length. 

Jnfwer 98 x \ the folid Content. 

This Method may ferve for tapering Timber, or of any 
other Thing of the Shape reprefented in Figures 17 and 18. 

The next neceffary Qualification that I fhall touch upon, 
to introduce a young Man into the Knowledge of Bufinefs, 
is to fay fomething in Relation to the Art. 


224 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

Of Gauging. 

THERE is a near Sort of Kindred or Affinity between 
the Art of Meafuring of Timber, and that of Gaug- 
ing or Meafuring of Liquors ; for both are performed by 
cube or iolid Meafure, and therefore not improper clofdy 
to follow one another ; For as often as there are found 1728 
folid or cubicle Inches in a Piece of Timber (of what form 
foevcr) fo many folid Feet it is faid to contain. So likewife 
in the Art of Gauging, fo many Times as 282 (the folid 
Inches in a Beer, or Ale Gallon) are found in any Veffelof 
fuch Liquor, fo many Gallons is fuch a Veflel faid to hold. 
And fo of Wine ; but in that the Divifor alters, it being 
231 folid or cubic Inches. 

And the Gallon of Dry Meafure, contains 272 £ cubi- 
cal Inches. 

Note, Every cuhlcal Foot in Beer sr Ale Meafure, contains 

6 Gallons, and almofi a Pint. 
The fame in Wine Meafure, is J Gallons, 2 Quarts, and 

al?noJl a Pint. 

A cubical Foot of dry Meafure contains 6 Gallons, and 
fomewhat above half a Gallon. 

For 141 Inches make 2 Quarts of Beer or Ale ; 70 Inches 
§ one Quart, and ■$$ Inches \ a Pint. 

To find the Content of any VefTel that hath the Form of 
a Cube, that is, a Figure whofe Breadth, Depth, and 
Length, are all equal, and is very well reprefented by the 
Shape of a Dye commonly play'd withal. 

Rule, Multiply the Side into itfelf, and then again that 
Producl by the Side ; which laft Produft, if for Beer or 
Ale, divide by 282, the Inches in a Beer or Ale Gallon ; 
and for Wine, Brandy, c5r. by 231, the cubical fquarc 
Inches contained in a Wine Gallon. 


Suppofe a Cube, whofe Side is 79 Inches, I demand 
the folid Content in Beer and Win; Gallons r 

The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 225 

79 282) 493039 (1748 Beer or Ale Gal. 

79 282 . . . 


21 10 



Wine G. 


*3 6 3 ■ 

2 30 493039 ( 2 i34 
462 . . . 


43 68 7 



493039 Cube Inches. 






To find the Content of a Parallelopipedon, which is a 
Figure contained under 6 Sides, of which the Oppofites are 
parallel, and of the Form of Figure the 19th. 

Rule, Multiply the Length by the Breadth, and that Pro- 
duct, by the Depth ; and then divide by 282 for Beer or Ale, 
and 23 1 for Wine. Example. 

Admit the Length of a Cittern to be 95 Inches ; and the 
Breadth 62 Inches, and the Depth 23 Inches ; what is the 
Content in Beer and Wine Gallons ? 

95 Length. 

62 Breadth. 

231) 135470 (586 Wine Gallons. 190 
1155 57° 


Hem. (104). 

282)135470 (480 Beer Gals. 

Rem. (no) £■„ 

226 The Young Man's Bejl Companion* 
To Gauge a Back^ or Square Tun. 


Suppofe its Length 112 Inches, Breadth 72 Inches, and 
its Depth 4.8 Inches ; what is its Content in folid Inches, 
and alfo in Beer Gallons ? 

112 Length. 282)387072(137203!.^/ 

72 Breadth, 282 

224 1050 

784 846 

8064 2 °47 

48 Depth. J 974 

64512 732 

32256 564 

387072 folid Inches. (168) 

To bring thefe Gallons into Barrels divide them by 36, 
the Gallons in a Barrel of Beer, thus. 

36) 1372 (38 dvfwer, 38 Barrels and \ 

ic8 . or 5 uf a Barrel ; and as for 

— — the Remainder 168, it is 

292 fomethmg above half a 

288 Gallon. 

To find the Content of any Right Cylinder in Gallons ; 
that is, to compute the Content of any round Tun, Tub, 
i£c. whofe Diameters at Top and Bottom are equal, and at 
Right Angles with its >ides. 

Rule, Square the Diameter, which Product multiply al- 
ways by 11, and divide the Produci by 14, and the Quo- 
tient will give the Content of the Tub at one Inch deep ; 
then multiply the Quotient by the perpendicular Height of 
the Caik, and the Product is the Content in folid Inches. 

Let Figure the 20th, reprefent a round Tub, whofe Di- 
ameter is 72 Inches, and the Height 56 Inches, what is the 
Content in Beer Gallons ? 

7 2 

fbe Young Man's Beji Companion. 227 




5184 the Square of the mean Diameter, 

H) 57024 (4073 

56 • • • 56 the Length. 

102 z 4438 

98 20365 

44 22bo88 folid Inches 



The afOrefaid fot'd Inches brought into Gallons, make 
80S and 232 f- ; id I dies r ,■ : n Something above three 
Quanm of a Ga.l nj In all 22 Battels', 10 Gallons, and. 
| of Beer. 

To find the Content of any round Tun, or Tub, nubofe. Diameters 
at lop and Bottom are j aralLl, but unequal. 

Rule, Firft the two Diameter?, then multiply the 
greater Diameter by the leffer, and to the Prod i:& add the 
two former Squares ; multiply the Sam of thef: three by ^ 
rf the Depth, and divide the Product by 359 for Beer 
Gallons, or by 294 for Wine Gallons. 


Suprofe the Diameter at the Top be 30 Inches, the Dia- 
meter at the Bottom 36 Inches, and the Depth 24 Inches, 
what is the Content in Beer Gallons ? 


£2 8 The Touncr Man's Bejl Companion. 

The Square of 30 is 

The Square of 26 is 

30 rr.ulriplied by 26 ■■ 

The Sur. is 

multiply by \ of the Depth 

divide by 359) 18848 (52 Gallons and {. 


To gauge a Butt, Pipe, Hogjhead, Barrel or any other 
cloje Cajk. 

In order to .perform this difficult Part of Gauging, the 
three following Dimenfions of the propofed Cafk muft be 
truly taken in Inches, and decimal Parts of an Inch, <viz. 

1. The Diameter at the Bung within the Cafk. 

2. Either of the Head Diameters, fuppofing them both 

3. The Length of the Cafk within. 

In taking of thefe Dimenfions, it mull be carefully ob- 
served, that the Bung-hole be in the Middle of the Cafk; 
and that the Heads of the Cafk are equal and truly circular ; 
if fo, the Diftance between the Infide of the Chine, and 
the Outfide of its oppofie Staff, will be the Head Diame- 
ter within the Cafk, very near. 

Having taken the Dimenfions, the next Thing is to find 
fuch a mean Diameter, as will reduce the propofed Cafk to 
a Cylinder, which may be found by the following Rules. 

Sabftratt the Head Diameter from the Bung Diameter, 
and multiply the Difference by 0,7, or by 0,65, or by o,6, 
or by 0,55, according as the Staves are more or lefs arch- 
ing ; add ths Product to the Head Diameter, and the Sum 
will be the mean Diameter required. 

Note, Thefe firii of the four Rules, (-viz. 0,7) is commonly 
ufed amongft Gaugers for all Sorts of Caffcs, but there are 
very few Calks that will contain quite fo much as this Rule 
will make it. But if the fecond and third of thefe Rules 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 229 

(iiz. 0,65 and 0,6) be duly applied, they will anfwer very 
near amongi* the common Sort of Eaglifh made Calks ; 
and the fourth Rule foiz. 0,55) will come pretty near the 
Truth in computing the Contents of Calks whole Staves 
arealmofl itrait beiwixt the Head and tbe Bung, w'z. fuch 
as Wine Pipes, C5V. 

Ha- ing found the mean Diameter, theContent of the Calk 
may be computed by -ither of the cw> follow!: g Rules. 

Rule, I. Multiply the Square of the mean Diameter by 
the Length of the Calk, and divide the Product by 359 for 
Beer Gallons, or by 294 for Wine Gallons. Or thus, 

Rule 2. Multiply the Square of the mean Diameter by 
H, and divide the Product by 14 - then multiply the Quo- 
tient by the Length of the Calk, and divide the Product by 
282, for Beer Gallons ; or by 231 for Wine Gallons. 

Admit Figure 20, reprefents a Hoglhead to fee gauged, 
whole Bung Diameter is 31,5, Head Diameter 2^,5 and its 
Lengths 42 Inches, what is the Content in Beer and Wine 

Diameter { Bung 31,5 
at the I Head 24,5 

The Difference 
multiply by 

the mean Diameter 

add j 4.55 

( 29,05 
'( 2 9>°5 

the Square 143,9025 
the Length 42 

3rg)35443, 905(98, 729 

323I, &c. Anj-.uer, 98 Beer Gallons and 

^%l% of a Gallon. 


294) 3 5 443 >9°S( l *°> 5 57 

204, &c< Anjnxer, 1 20 Wine Gallons, 

and r |4^ of a Gallon. 

M , Or 

230 The Toung Man's Beft Companion, 

Or thus by the fecond Rule. 

the Square 843,9025 
multiply by 11 

Divide by 14)9282,9275 (663,066 
84, £sr. 42 

» ... 

282) 27848,772 (98,754 

2538, dfc. Beer Gallon^. 


231)27848,772 (120,557 

231, &c. Wine Gallon* 


To find the S^itnvtity of Liquo*- rem-vvin^ in a Jphenidical 
Lajk jianding on its Htad. 

From the Area of the Bung Diameter, fubftraft the Area 
of the Head Diameter, and multiply the Remainder by the 
Square of the Difference between the wet Inches and the 
Semi-length, and this Product divide by thetripple Square 
of the half Length, and fubftract the Quotient frorr the 
Area of the Bung Diameter ; then multiply the Remain- 
der bv the Difference between the wet Inches and the Semi- 
, and the Produft will be how much Liquor is con- 
tained in the VciTel above, or under its half Contents. 


("the Bung . . . . 40,8") 
« r J the Heads — — 35,3 I what is the Content 
atippoie S the Length __ 61,8 f in Beer Gallons? 

L the Wet Inches 4 1,9 J 


I'he Young Man's Befi Companion. 231 

61.8 the Length 1 1 

30.9 the half Length 1 1 

41,9 the wet Inches are m 

30,9 the half Length. 

n,o the Difference. 
Area of the Bung Diameter 4,6362 

Ditto of the Head Diameter 3*4705 fub. 

The Square of the Differenee 121 

1 1657 

1 1657 

The triple Square of the \ Length 2865) 141,0479(491 

1 1460 • • 

30,9 4*6362 Ar«a of the Bung 26449 

30,9 fub. 492 the Quotient 25785 

278.1 45 8 7° 6647 

9270 11 5730 

954,81 5°>457° (9 J 7) 


131,25 the half Content of the Veffel. 
50,45 the Liquor qt. above the half Content. 
181,70 the Quantity of Liquor qt. in the Veffel. 
To gauge any Thing that hath the Shape of a wooden Hand" 
Bonvl, as the Bottom of a round Copper, &c. 
Admit the Bowl to be full of Water ; the firll Thing is to 
meafure the Surface of the Water ; that is done by multi- 
plying half the Circumference by half the Diameter, and 
that gives the Content in fuperfkial fquare Inches. Then 
find the Depth of the Water in different Places ; then add 
thofe different Depths together, and divide the Total by the 
Number of Depths that you take, and the Quotient gives 
the mean Depth : When you have found the mean Depth, 


232 the Young Marts Befl Companion. 

multiply it by the Number of Inches that you found on the 
Surface of the Water, and the Produd gives che iohd Square 
Inches, which reduce to Gallons, as taught before. 

Suppofe the Circumference be 120 Inches, the half of 
Which is 60 Inches, and the Diameter admit to be 60 Inches, 
the half of which is 30 Inches ; and fuppoie the fcveral 
Depths to be 7, 8, 9 and 10, which put together make 34 
Inches ; which divide by 4, the Number of Depths, quotes 
the mean Depth, viz. 8 j 



23 15300 (66 Anfixtr* 66 Wine Gallons, 3 Gal. 
1386 ; above a Hhd. 

1440 282) 15300 (and 54 Beer Gallons, or 
1386 1410* a Hhd. 

<4) I2 °9 


Some U/es of the Square and Cube Roots. 

THE Root of the Prcduft ef any given Number, 
is the mean Proportional fought ; fo the mean 
Proportional between 16 and 64, will be 32 ; this ls&f 
good Ufe in finding the Side of a Square equal to any 1 a- 
rellelogram, Rhombus, Rhomboides, Triangle, or regu- 
lar Polygon. 

2. To find the Side of a Square equal to the Area of a gvotn 
Rule. The fquarc Root of the Content ©f any given Su- 
perficies is the Side of the Square.— So if the Content of 
a given Circle be 160, the Side of the Square equal will be 
12^, 01 in Decimals 12,649. 

<fhe feting MM$ mfi Companion. 233 

3. The Area of a Circle being given, to find the Periphery. 
Rule. Say as 113 to 1420, or 1 10 12,56637 ; fo is the 

Area to the Square of the Periphery— So if the Area of a 
Circle be 160, the Peripheiy will be found to be 44,84. 

4. The Area of a Circle being given, to find the Diameter.- 
Rule. As 355 to 452, or as i to 1,273239, fo is the 

Area to the Square of the Diameter. 

5. Any two Stdes of a Right Angled Triangle being given, 

to find the third Side. 
In this ufeful Problem lies hid a great Part of the Ma- 
thematicks ; it being aflerted and proved, that the Square 
of the Hypothenufe, or longeft Side of a Right Angled 1 11- 
angle is equal to the Sum of the Squares of the Bale and 
Perpendicular, that is, of the other two Sides. 
Example by the Adjacent Figure. 

C Let the Bafe or Ground 
AB reprefent the Breadth 
of a Moat or Ditch, and 
the Perpendicular B C re- 
|S prefent the Height of a 
Caftle, Tower, or City- 
Wall ; and the Hypothenufe.or Longeft Side, reprefent the 
Length of a Scaling Ladder. . 

In this Figure, the Bafe AB is fuppofed to contain 40 
Yards and the Perpendicular, or Height of the Tower or 
Wall, 30 Yards ; What Length will the Hypothenufe AC, 
or the Scaling Ladder, be ? '_ ' 

Rule. The Square Root of the Sum of the Squares of the 
Bafe and Perpendicular, is the Length of the Hypothenufe, 

as per Work. 

1600 the Square of the Bafe 40. 
900 the Square of the Perpendicular 30. 

The Sum 2500 (50 Yards the Root or Length of the 
. . Scaling Ladder. 



were req 

if the Length of the Bafe, or Breadth of the Ditch, 
squired; then the Square Root of the Difference of 
the Squares of the Hypothenufe and Perpendicular is the 
Length of the Bafe, or Breadth of the Ditch or Moat. 
Example per Work. 


234 ¥be Young Man's Beji Companion. 

2500 the Square of the Hypothen, A C, 
900 the Square of the Perpendicular £ C. 

The Differ. 1600 (40 Yards the Root, or Breadth of 

the Ditch. 

And if the Height of the Tower or Perpendicular B C 
were required ; then the Square Root of the Difference of 
the Diftance of the Square of the Hypothenuie and Bafe, 
is the Height of the Perpendicular B C, reprefenting a 
Tower, a Wall, a Steeple, or any Thing elfe. 

Again. Any Number of Men given to be formed into a 
Square Battalia, to find the Number of Rank and File. 

Rule. The Square Root of the Number of Men given, 
will be the Number of Men to be placed in Rank and File. 

Example. Admit an Army of 32400 Men were to be 
formed into a Square Bataiia; the fquare Root of 32400 
will be found 180 ; and ib many Men mud be placed in 
Rank and alfo in File. 

The Ufes of the Cube Root are to find out a Proportion 
between like Solids, as Globes, Cylinders. Cubes, tsV. 


Suppofe a Bullet of 8 Inches Diameter weigh 72 Pounds, 
what will a Bullet weigh whofe Diameter is 4 Inches ? 

Rule. Since like Solids are in tripple Proportion to their 

Sides, Diameters, Lines, &c. it holds ; as the Cube of the 

Diameter given is to the Weight thereof, fo is the Cube of 

the Diameter fought to the Weight thereof; as per Work. 

CD ft. CD. 

If 512 ' 72 64 


43 2 

512) 4608 (9 Pounds. 


The feting Man's Reft Companion. 235 

Example 2. 

If a Ship of 1 00 Tons be 44 Feet long at the Keel, of what 
Length mull: the Keel be of a Ship that carries 220 Tons ? 

Say, as 100 is to the Cube of 44, that is, 85184; fo is 
220 to 1874.04,8 ; whofe Cube Root is 57,225, the Length 
of the Keel fought. Example 3. 

There is a Cubical Veflel whofe Side is 12 Inches, and 
it is required to find the Side of a Veflel that holds three 
Times as much. Here the Cube of 12 is 1728, which mul- 
tiplied by ■ ■ 3 

produces 5 1 84 

and the Cube Root of which is 17,306, the Aafvoer re- 
quired, or Side fought. 
An eafy Rule to find the Length of the Majls of a Ship, <viz. 
Two Thirds of the Length of the Keel, and the Breadth 
of theBeam, is the Length of the Main-raalt ; and the Rule 
is therefore, to multiply the Length of the Keel by 2, and 
to divide the Producl by 5, and then o the Quotient add 
the Breadth of the Beam, and the Total is the Length or the 
Main-malt. Example. 

Suppofe a Ship to be 108 Feet by the Keel, and 40 Feet 
by the Beam, what is the Length of her Main-maft I 

Add \ 7 2 tw0 Thirds of the Keel. 

1 42 t he Breadth of the Beam. 
Anfwer, 1 1 2 
Anfwer, The Length of her Main-maft is 1 iz Feet, as in 
the Work. Again. 

Admit a Ship to be 84 Feet by the Keel, and 31 Feet 
by the Beam, what is the Length of her Main-maft ? 
84 per KeeL 

3) 168 

AAA 5 S^ two Thirds of the Keel. 
Afl { 3 1 the Breadth of the Beam. 

Anf-wert 87 Feet, the Length of the Main-maft. 
L If 

236 the Young Muni Bc/t Companion. 

If you divide firft by 3, and then multiply the Quotient 
by 2, it gives the two 1 hirds of any 1 hing as well as the- 
other Way. 

Another Way to find the Length and Thicknefs of Majls in 
Yards, viz. 
The Way to find the Length of the Main-Mall, is to 
add the Breadth of the Beam, and the Depth of the Hold 
together, and divide the Total by 1, 5, and the Quotient 
will be the Length of the Main-Mall in Yards. 

Admit a Ship whofe Keel in Length is 73 Feet, and the- 
Breadth of the Beam 28,,' Feet, and the Depth of the 
Hold 12 Feet, what is the Length of the Main-Maft? 

28,5 Breadth of the Beam. 
12,0 Depth of the Hold. 

1,5) 40,5 27 Yards, Anfwer. 



Anfwer, 27 Yards, or^i Feet, z* per Work. 
Or if, mftead of dividing, you multiply by this Mul- 
tiplier, *fe. ,6666 and point of the Decimals, you will 
have the feme Anfwer. 

40,5 Here the Anfwer is 26 
,6666 Yards and T || of a Yard, 

. not wanting one Second 

33330 to make it 27 Yards, as 
266640 before. 


I here multiply the under by the upper Number, to 
fave both Figures and Room. 

To find the Thicknefs of the Mart, having the Length, 
fay bv the Rule of Proportion, (or Rule of Three) if 
84 Feet long require 28 Inches thick, what 81 Feet long, 
as in the following Work. 

The Toting Man's Bejl Companion. 

F. I. In. thick. F. L 

V. 84 , — 28 — 81. 


2 3' 

84) 2268 {zj Inches thick, Anfwer. 
168 • 

As. By Trigcnometry, or the Doctrine 

of Triangles, or a Multitude of 
Queitions lblv'd, relating to failing 
B on the Seas ; to give one Initance. 
Suppofe two Ships fet Sail at one 
Time, from one Place, the one failing directly Eaft 48 
Leagues, as from C to B ; and the other direclly North, 
from C to J, 36 Leagues ; the Queflion is, how many 
Leagues are they diftant or afunder one from the other ? 
48 multiplied by 48, produces — - ■ 2 3°4 

36 multiplied by 36, gives — — 1296 

which two Numbers added, give for Total 360a (60 
the fquare Root of which is 60 ; and fo 
many Leagues are the two S-hip's afunder or 36 
diftant one from the other. 

Here the Dillance of each Ship's failing is fquared, and 
their Squares added together, and Total is 3600 ; the 
fquare Root of which is 60, and the Anfwer to the Quef- 
tion, as in the Work. 

And being here fpeaking fomething relating to Sea 
Affairs, it may not be improper to fay fomething con- 
cerning the Mariner's Compafs. 

Before the Invention of this excellent and mofr. ufeful Tn- 
firument, it v/as ufual in long Voyages to fail by, or keep 
along the Coait, or at leaft to have it in Sight ; as is mam- 
fell and plainly evident, by the Voyages of St. Paul, Jcls 
xx, u and 27 '; which Courfe made their Voyages long, 
L 2 and 

238 The Youn£"Man y s Bejl Companion'. 

and very dangerous, by bsing fo near the Shore. But now, 
by the Help of a Needle touched by the Magnet or Load- 
ftone, which by a wonderful and hidden Quality, inclines 
its Point always northerly, the ingenious Mariner is di- 
rected in his proper Courfe of Sailing, through the vaft 
Ocean, and unfathomable Deaths, to his intended Port : 
And if the Wind is favourable, can fail near 333 Leagues, 
or xooo Miles in a Week, tho' in the darkeft Weather, or 
darker). Night, when neither Land, Moon, nor Stars, are 
to be feen ; which before, were the only Guide ; and, if 
not feen, the Sailers were at a great Lois, and expofed to 
the moil imminent Danger. 

Behold the Figure or Reprefentation of the faid Com- 
pafs, with the Cardinal and other Winds that followetk. 

The Defcription. 
\Ji, The Cardinal Points are, the North, South, Eaji, and 
JVcfi Points of the Horizon. The Needle in the Center 
points with its principal End to the Flo-wer-de-luce, and 
fh«\vs its Direction Northerly : And the faid Floiver-de-luct 
is z\h placed in Maps to the fame intended Purpofe. 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 239 

idly t The Letters N by E on the Right of the faid 
Flower-de-luce, fignifies, and is to be read North by Eaji ; 
and the next after it N N E. that is North North Eaji ; 
and the next N E by N. to be read North Eaji by North ; 
and (o round the Circumference, which Mariners ufually 
have by Heart, particularly, the Pilot who guides the Ship 
accordingly ; and fometimes he is helped by the Sight of 
the North Pole Star when on this Side the Equator ; and 
by the South Pole, on the other Side. 

The next Thing I /hall proceed to, is to give the Senfe 
and Meaning of fomc few Terms ufed in .Dialing, Geogra- 
phy, Sec. 

A /mall Reprefentation of the Globe. 

The Poles of the Equinodtial (commonly called the Poles 
of the World) are two fixed Points in the Heavens, op- 
posite one to the other ; one pointing to the North, which 
is therefore called the North, or Artie Pole, marked with 
the Letters N. P. and the other pointing Southward, and 
therefore is called the South, or Autarkic Pole, marked 

with S. P. 

L 3 The 

240 The Young Man's Beji Cempaniw. 

The Axis of the World, is a Line imagined to pafs 
through the Center of the Earth from one Pale to the 
other, ?.s the Line N. P. S. P. 

The EquinoSial in the Heavens, or Equator on the Earth, 
is an imaginary great Circle ef the Sphere, which divides it 
into two equal Parts, to which the Sun apparently comes the 
loth of March and 12th of September, at:d then makes 
equal Day and Night; it is noted by the Letters AL. CK 

'I he Eciiptick is"a great Circle interfering the Equinoc- 
tial in two oppofite Points, the Beginning of Arias, and 
the Beginning of Libra, and makes an Angle therewith 
of 23 Deg. 29 Min. reprefented by the Line 93 Vf : It is di- 
vided into 12 equal Parts called Signs, each containing 30 
Deg. which are as follow. 

Aries r") "1 Libra ~\ & 

r r aurus . J I called I S " rpt ° ■ I *} "lied 

Gemnun ^ Northern ^feff"" I £ Southern 
Cancer 25 • c . '. Lair nonius \ Vf c - 

Leo a I SlgU$ - I Aquarius \ X ^^ 

Virgo m J J Pifces J X 

The Zodiack is a Zone or Girdle, having about 9 De- 
grees in Breadth on each Side of the Eciiptick, and limits 
the Latitudes of the Planets in their Revolutions. 

The Meridian, from Meridies, Noon, or Mid-day, is a 
Circle paffing through the Poles of the World, exactly in 
the Middle between the Eaft and Weft ; to which when the 
Sun comes every Day it is Noon. Ths Stars are alfo faid 
to be South, when they are upon the Meridian. 

The Tropicks are two Circles parallel to the Equinoctial, 
and 23 Deg. 29 Min. diftant therefrom, being the Bounds 
of the Sun's greater! Declination North and South. The 
North Tropick is marked with ss C, called the Tropick 
©f Cancer ; and the South Tropick with B Vf, called the 
Tropick of Capricorn. 

The Zenith or Vertex, is an imaginary Point in the 
Heavens directly over our Heads, as Z. 

The Nadir is the Point oppofite to the Zenith, and di- 
rect ly wnder our Feet, as N. 

The Horizon is a great Circle 90 Deg. diftant from the 
Zenith and Nadir, which encompafles the Earth exaftly in 
the Middle, and appears to every One ftanding in an open 
Plain, to divide the vifible from the inviiible Part of the 
Heavens. It determines the Rifing and Setting of the Sun, 
Hlooo, and Stars, in any particular Latitude; as H. O. 

The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 241 

The Latitude in Geographv, or on the Earth, is the 
Height of the Pole of the World above the Horizon, 
which is always equal to the Arch of the Meridian be- 
tween the Zenith and Equinoclial. on the Earth, is an Arch of the Equator, 
contained between the Meridian of the Place where the 
Longuude is aligned to begin, and the Meridian of any 
oth- . Place, and is accounted Eafierly and Wefterly. 

. Circle circumfcribing the Earth, or Terreltrial 
Gi It, is fuppofed to be divided into 360 equal Parts, called 
De ices ; each of which is accounted 60 Miles ; and if you 
multiply 90 the Quadrant or Quarter of the Globe, by 60, 
the Product will be 5400, which multiplied by 4, gives 
21600 Miles for the Circumference of the Earth and Sea. 

The next Thing I mall proceed to, is to fay fomething 
in Relation to the Art of making Dials : But it may, and 
is very proper, to defcribe and ipeak of the Ufe of a very 
neceifary Inftrunicnt called a Quadrant, the Shape of which 
is here reprefented. 

242 The Young Man's B 'eft Companion. 

This Quadrant or Quarter of a Circle, is varioufly 
ufeful, on fundry Accounts, viz. To take Heights and 
Diftances, whether acceffible or inacceffible ; to find the 
Hour of the Dny, c5V. 

Its Defcription. 
The outward Arch is divided into 90 Parts or Degrees, 
(being the fourth Part of the Circle of the Sphere) and 
figur'd from 10, 20, i£c. to 90 ; above which Figures, are 
Letters fignifying the 12 Calender Months of the Year, as 
j . for January, F. {or February, &c. And again, over thofe 
Letters fur the Months are Lines to know the Hour of the 
Day; And upon the Line CD, are Sights of thin Brafs 
to be lpied through, or for the Sun to fhine through, from 
one to the other. Laitly. in the Middle, or Point of the 
Quadrant, viz. at A, is a Line or Thread of Silk fixed 
through a Hole, with a Plummet of Lead at the End of it, 
and alio a imall Bead in the Middle. 

Some of the many Ufes of this Inftrument are as follow. 

Of Heights. 
Suppofe yeu would know the Height of a Steeple, Tow- 
er, or Tree ; hold up the Quadrant, and view through the 
Sight* the Top of the Steeple, Tower, or Tree, and then 
ftep forwards or backwards, till you find the Plummet hang 
at Liberty juft at 45 Degrees, that is, jult in the Middle 
of the Quadrant ; then is the Height of the Steeple, 
Tower, or Tree, equal to the Diftance of your Standing- 
place from the Bottom of the Steeple, adding for the 
Height that you hold the Quadrant from the Ground. 

If the Plummet interfeft one Quarter of the Quadrant, 
or 22 Degrees and a Half, then twice the Diftance of your 
Standing is the Heighth ; and if three Quarters of the Qua- 
drant, or 67 Degrees and a Half, then Half the Diftance 
of your Standing is the Height. 

To find the Hour of the Day. 
Lay the Thread juft upon the Day of the Month, then 
hold it till you flip the fmall Bead or Pins-head to reft on 
one of the 12 a Clock Lines; then let the Sun fhine from 
the Sight at C to the other at D, the Plummet hanging at 
Liberty, the Bead will reft on the Hour Line of the Day. 

To find the Latitude of a Place. 
Hold up the Quadrant, and thro' the Sights thereof (or 
along the Edge) fpy (in a clear Star light Night) the North- 
b Pole 

The Young Man's Beji Companion. 243 

Pole Star ; the Plummet hanging at Liberty, the Thread 
will reft on the Degrees of Latitude of the Place you be in, 
or where you take your Obfervation. If at London, you 
will find it 51 Degrees and 32 Minutes. If at Brijiol, 51 
Degrees 27 Minutes. If at York, 53 Degrees 58 Minutes; 
and if at Berwick, 55 Degrees 54 Minutes, &c. 

When it is faid that fuch a Kingdom, Country, City, 
Town, or Place, lieth from 40 to 50 Degrees North Lati- 
tude, it is to be underftood, that it lieth on the North Side 
of the Tropick of Cancer, or North Boundary of the Sun to- 
wards England, to which the Sun comes about the 10th or 
nth of June, and makes our Days the longeft. And about 
the 10th or 1 ith Day of December, the Sun enters the Tro- 
pick of Capricorn, its South Boundary, and is then the 
fartheft from us, and makes our Days the ihorteft. 

Of Dialling. 

Dialling is a very ancient Art, even as old as the Time 
of King Hezekiab, where mention is made of the Dial of 
Abaz, in the 2d Book of Kings, Chap. xx. Verfe 1 1. 

The Gnomon or Subftile of a Port or Horizontal Dial, 
fhould point direftly South, and its Back will be then di- 
rectly North. The South may be truly known by a good 
Watch or Clock, juft at Noon ; for then the cun is always 
at the Meridian; and makes juft 10 o'Clock ; fo that 
knowing the South, it will not be difficult to find the North, 
it being its Oppofite. 

To fix a Dial North and South. 

Fallen your Board on the Top of a Poft, and then with 
your CompafTes make 4, or 5, or 6, Circles, one within 
the other, from the Center or Middle, where place a large 
Pin perpendicular or upright, and nicely obferve when the 
Sun mines in the Forenoon, on which Circle the Head of 
the Pin lhadoweth ; then there make a Mark ; and do the 
fame in the Afternoon, when the Shade of the Pin's Head 
comes on the fame Circle; and from the Mid- way of the 
two Marks, draw a Line to the Center, on which place 
your Meridian or 12 o'Clock Line, fo will the Poft Dial 
point North and South. 

By the Meridian Line, you may alfo know when the 
Moon, or a Star of Magnitude, comes to the South ; which 
when they do, they are always at the higheft, whether by 

Night or Day. 

2 at 

244 ? he Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

But to proceed to Dialing, the following Figure repre- 
fents an Horizontal Dial, defcribed for the Latitude of 
New-York, at 41 deg. 44m. North . 

10 Tl 

Firjt, Draw the Meridian or 1 2 o Clock Line B A C, 
and crofs the fame with the Line D E, at right Angles in 
the Point A, which muft be the Center of your Dial, and 
the Line D E, is the 6 o : Clock Line ; then take with your 
Compaffes 60 Degrees from a Line of Chords, and with 
that Extent, fetting one Foot in the Center at A, with the 
other defcribe the Circle DOE, which dene, take from the 
fame Line of Chords, all the Hour Arches in the following 
Table ; and placing one Foot of your Compares in 0, 
(where the Circle crofTes the Meridian) with the other fat 
eff the Hour Arches both Ways upon the Circle DDE. 
Latitude 41 Degrees ^m. North. 



Fore- I After- 


noon, j noon. 

D. M. 

ii 1 

9 4 6 

10 2 

20 22" 

9 3 
8 4 

} 7 5 

3 2 44 
48 4 
67 22 


The Toung Mart's Bejl Companion, 245 

Againft 1 1 and i, is 9 Degree9 and 46 Minutes, which, 
take with your Compafs from the Line of Chords, and fet- 
ting one Foot in the 12 o'Clock Line at O, with the other 
make a Mark in the Circle both Ways ; then draw [freight 
Lines from the Center A, crofting the Circle in thofe two 
Marks, and you will have the true Hour Lines of 11 o'Clock 
in the Forenoon, and one in the Afternoon. Then to draw 
the Hour Lines of 10 and 2 o'Clock, look in the Table 
for 10 and 2 Hours, againft which you will find 20 De- 
gieusand22 Minutes, which take from the Line of Chords, 
and mark as the other from the 12 o'Clock Line both 
Ways on the Circle. The fame is to be done for 9 and 3 
o'Clock ; and alfo for 8 and 4 o'Clock j and the like for 
7 and 5 o'Clock. 

Note, For 5 o'Clock in the Morning, and 7 in the After- 
noon, which are below the 6 o'Clock Line, fet off the fame 
Dijlauce as 5 and 7 abeve it. 

laflly, For the Height of the Gnomen or Stile, take 
from the Scale of Chords the Poles Elevation, which at 
New-2~ork,is 41 Degrees 44m. and fet thatDiftance from O 
to P on the Circle, then draw the dotted Line A P H, 
which ihall reprefent the upper Edge or Height of the 
Stile to be erected over the 12 o'Clock Line, and fo your 
Dial is finifhed. 

Of Upright Planes. 

THOSE Planes are faid to be Erect or Upright which 
ftand perpendicular to the Horizon of the Place, 
whofe upper Part pointeth to the Zenith, and their lower 
Part to the Nadir ; and fuch are the Walls of Houfes, 
Churches, Steeples, c5<r. againft which Dials are common- 
ly made. 

Of Upright or Ere& Planes, there are two Sorts, <viz. 
DireS and Declining. 

Hozv to draw the Hour-Lines on a Direcl South Plane, in 
the Latitude of 41 Degrees 440*. as de/cribed in the following 


246 The Toting Man's Bejl Companion. 

Firft, draw the Meridian or 1 2 o'Clock-Line A B, and 
crofs it with the Line D E, for the 6 o'Clock-Line, then 
with your Compaifes take 60 Degrees from a Scale of 
Chords, and placing one Foot at A, (where the 6 o'Clock 
Line crofles the Meridian) with the other draw the Semi- 
Circle DOE. 

Next for the Hour-Arches, you muft take them out of 
the following Table, and project them into the Dial, after 
the fame Manner as in the Horizontal, only in this you 
mult infer; but 12 Hours. 

Latitude 40 Degrees North. 




1 After- 



1 noon. 

D. M. 

1 1 


11 28 



23 5 1 ? 



5 2 33 



37 °° 



19 17 


'The Young Man's Beft Companion. 247 

Laftly, for the Height of the Stile, take from the Scale 
of Chords 50 Degrees (the Compliment of the Pole's Ele- 
vation at Philadelphia) and fetting that Diftance from O to 
y, on the Semi-Lircle, draw the dotted Line APH, which 
fhall reprefent the Height of the Stile as in the Figure. 

In making; this Dial, you make two Dials ; for the Erect 
Dire& North Dial, is but the Back-fide of the South ; for 
as this beholdeth the South Part of the Meridian ; fo the 
other faceth the North Part of the Meridian ; and as the 
Meridian Line in the South Dial fhews when it is 1 2 a Clock 
at Noon, fo the Back-fide thereof, viz. the North-fide, re- 
prefents the Hour Line at \z a Clock at Midnight, and 
therefore not exprefled, nor the Hour-lines of 8, 9, 10, 11 
at Night, or of 1, 2, 3, or 4 in the Morning, the Sun being 
never feen by us above the Horizon at thofe Hours : So 
that the North Dial is capable of only receiving the Hours 
of 5, 6, and 7 in the Morning, and 5, 6, and 7 in the 
Afternoon, and (in this Latitude) not of all them neither, for 
it fhines not in this Plane at 8 a Clock in the Morning, 
nor at 4 in the Afternoon. 

An Erefi DireEl North Dial. 


248 The Young Marts' B eft Companion. 

To draw Hour-lines on an Erccl Dirccl Eait or Weft 

Plane- Kour lines in thefe Dials muft be parallel to 

one another, and the Dial not have any Center, but drawn 
as follows. 

An Eaji Direct Dial in Latitude 40 Degrees. 

Let ABCDhe the Dial Plane, on which is to be drawn a 
Direct Eaft Dial, upon the Point D, if'an Eaft D12I ; and 
on the Point C, if a Welt. With the Radius (or 60 Degree;.) 
of the Line of Chords, defcribe the obfeure Arch EF; then 
.from your Chords take 50 Degrees, the Compliment of the 
Latitude of the Place, and fet them from E to F, and draw 
the Line OF quite thjo the Plane; then that you may pro- 
portion the S'ale to ne, fo that ycu may bring on all 
the Hoars from Sun-ril ug to j 1 a Clock, aflame two Points 
in the Line F D, \-iit- I ..wards the End D (as the Point G) 
foj the Hour L . of 1 1, and another at H, for the Hour Line 
of 0; an i 1 1 . the Points G and H, draw the Lines 11 G n, 
and 6 /< r c n fet one Foot of the Compaffes at / (open'd 
to • -') and defcribe the obfeure Arch / K; from 
your Scale of Chords take' 15 Degrees, and fet them from 
1 to K. and draw the Line G K, extending it to the 6 a 
CJ k Line in the Point Z j fo mail L H be of the Height 
of the Perpendicular Stile proportioned to this Plane. 


The Tcunz 



For the drawing of the Hour-lines, fet one Foot of the 
Compares (opened to 60 Degrees of. the Chords) in L, and 
with 1 he other defcribe the Arch M N, between the Hour- 
line of 6, and the Line G L ; which divide into five equal 
Parts in the Points 0GO0G and a Ruler laid from the 
Po ; nt L, to each of thcie Points 0, &c. will cut the 
Equinoctial Line /// in the Points***** ; thro' which 
Points draw Lines parallel to 6 H 6, as the Lines 7*7, 
8 « 8, &c. as may be fecn in the Figure. 

And thus you have made two Dials, viz. a Weft Dial as 
well as an Eaft ; only the Arch £ F, through winch the 
Equinoctial paffeth in the Eall Dial, is drawn on the Right- 
hand of the Plane ; but in the Weft it muft be drawn on 
the Lefc ; and the Hour Lines 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and ir 
in the Forenoon, on the Eaft Dial, muft be 7, 6, 5, 4, 
3, 2, and 1 in the Afternoon, upon the Weft Dial, as in 
the Figure. 

An Erect and Direft Weft Dial. 

The Stile of the Eaft or Weft-Dials, may be either a 
ftreight Pin of the juft Length of the Line HO in the other 
Figure, which is equal to HL in the Eaft-Dial hxed in the 
Point H, on the Hour Line of 6, and exaftly perpendicular 
to the Plane, fhewing the Hours by the Shadow or the Apex, 
or very near the Top thereof. Or it may be a Plate of Brafs 
of the fame Breadth with the Diftance of the Hour-lines of 

6 and 

2 50 The Young Marts Beji Companion. 

6 and 3 ; which Plate mull be fet perpendicular upon the 
Hour Line of 6, and-fo it will (hew the Hour by the Sha- 
dow of the upperEctge thereof, as in the foregoing Weft Dial. 
An eafy Way ho<w to fix a Dial North and South. 
Fix a fquare Piece of Board like a Trencher on the Top 
of a Puft, and with your Compafles draw 4, 5 or 6 Circles 
one within another from the Center ; in which Center fix a 
large Pin perpendicularly, and when the Sun (nines in the 
Forenoon, note which Circle the Pin's Head fhadeth, and 
there make a Mark : Do fo in the Afternoon, when the 
Shadow of the Pin's Head comes on the fame Line; and 
from the Midway of thofe two Marks, draw a Line to the 
Center ; upon which Line lay your 12 a Clock or Meridian- 
hne of your Pod Dial, becauie it direftly points North and 
South. Thus by this plain Way, without any other Inftru- 
nient, find the Situation of your Dwelling, whether full 
North or South, or whether it declines Eaftor Weft, &c. 
Of Beautifying and Colouring Dials. 

FIRST, the Boards are to brufhed over with Linfeed 
Oil, thinly ground with Spanidi Brown done over 3 
or 4 times (drying between each time) a little thicker each 
Time with the Colour ; and this is called Priming, 
j. To make the Fat Oil for Dials. 

Boil Red Lead, and Linfeed Oil, and a little Litherage 
of Geld (about a Pennyworth) together, till almoft as 
thick as Syrup ; and when cold, and well fettled, pour the 
cleared into a Bottle or Bladder for Ufe. 
The Gold Size for Dials. 
Mix fine ground yellow Oker with the aforefaid fat Oil, 
to fuch a Confiftency, as when ufed, it may fettle fmooth. 
of itfelf. ' 

A Mixture for Hour-Lines. 
Grind Vermillion or Lamp-Black with the fat Oil. 
To draw Go/den Letters or Figures for the Hours. 

Firft draw thera with a Pencil dipped in the Gold Size 
before mentioned; which when fo dry as juft to fticii to 
your Fingers, then with afmooth-edg'd Pen-knife (hape your 
Leaf Gold to your Mind ; take it up with a Piece of Cot- 
ton Cloth fixt to the End of a Stick, and lay it on the Size, 
preding it down with the fame Cotton, and when dry, brufti 
offtheJoofe Gold with a Feather, and fmooth the rough 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 251 

!ldges of the Letters with a Pencil dipped in red or black 

Of the Dial Plane. 

Let the Board be of the befl: feafon'd, fineft, cleareft Oak, 
3ne, two or more Feet fquare, and about three Inches thick. 
Take two Boards, and get them planed on both Sides, and 
then laid in the Sun-ihine, or near a moderate Fire 2 or 3 
Days together ; then plane them again, and fix them with 
good Joints ; and fallen them in gluing with wodden Pegs, 
as 1 have feen Coopers fix their Pieces of Heading for their 
Caflcs ; and when thus glued and dried, plane them again, 
and then failen them, by nailing two fmall Plates of Iron 
or Tin on the Back. If you cannot get feafon'd Wood, but 
green, then boil it about an Hour in Water, to make it 
tough, and keep it from warping. In the general, Wood 
is accounted better than Stone, becaufe it keeps the Co- 
louring more llanch or firm. 

Before you colour your Dial-plate or Board, fix your 
Iron Stile, and having marked your Hour-lines with Ink, 
and fattened a Nail at the End of each Hour-line, that the 
Head of each Nail may ihadow or direft you to the Center 
when it is coloured ; and as it may happen that Golden 
Letters or Figures may decay in a few Years, you may on 
that Account make them with White-lead Paint, peinted 
with Red in a Black Margin — When your Dial is finilhed, 
and dry, dip a Feather in yo.ur Oil, and anoint it thiniy ; 
for the finer yon mix or grind the Colouring with the Oil, 
the more beautiful it appears, though not fo lafting. 

Thefe Hints of colouring Dials, puts me in mind of fome 
other neceflary Touches, relating to fundry Mixtures^ of 

Colours and dying of Stuffs, &c, collected from Mr. Sal- 
mon's Polygraphy. 

Of Colours and Dying. 

Whites, are Cerufe, Flake-white, and White-lead. 

Blacks, are Lampblack, burnt Cherry-Hones, and old 
Ivory burnt. 

Reds, are Red-lead, Vermilion, Red Oker, and Indian 
r ake. 

Greens, are Verdigreafe, Verditer, and Sap-green, made 
of the Juice of Buckthorn Berries. 

Yellow, are Saffron, yellow Pink, and Gambogia. 


252 " The Young Man's Bcji Companion. 

Breivns, is Umber burnt. 
Geld Colour, is Orphnent. 

Again, Verdigreafa with a little Sap-green, makes a good 
■and a right Green. 

Blues, are Ultaniarine, Smalt, Indigo, and Blue -Bice. 

Of mixing Colours. 
Colours are mixt by being ground on a Stone with fair 
Water, feverally, and dried and kept in Paper Bags for' 
Ufe ; except Lamp-black, Saffron, Smalt, Gambogia, and 

Blue, to compound, temper a little Indigo and Smalt 
with Oil. 

A light Blue ; mix Smalt and White-lead together. 
Red Colour, mix Lamp-biack and White-lead toge.her 
on a Marble. 

A Fox Colour, is Umber burnt. 

Gold Colour, is Orpiment mixt with fat Oyl, by a Knife 
on an Earthen Plate, or Gally-Tile rather. 

To hinder Colours from cracking, put Oil of Walnuts 
to them. 

Yellow Colour, beat Saffron to Powder, and fteep it in 
Vinegar. — Or take the Yellow Chives in white Lillies and 
-Gum Water mixt for Writing. 

Red, Vermiliion with Gum-Water mixt for Writing. 
Golden Letters, to write, mix Vermillion and' Gum-Ar- 
moniack with Yelks of Eggs. 

Of Dying Wool, Stufs, &e. 

To die Blue, Take Woad 1 Pound, and mix it with 4 
Pints of boiling Water, and dip Whites in it 24 Hours. 

To die Red of a clear Colour, take 60 Pints of Water 
wherein Bran has been fteeped 24. Hours, and when drained, 
diffolve 2 Pound of Allom, and a Pound of Tartar ; in 
which Water boil what you have to dye for 2 Hours; then 
take it out, and boil it in half as much frefn Water made 
of Bran, viz. 30 Pints; to which add Madder 3 Pound, 
and fo perfect the Colour with moderate Warmth, with- 
out Boiling. 

To die Green, Firft make a Yellow by the Direction un- 
.derneath ; then take 60 Pints of Water wherein Bran hath 
•been foaked, as afcreihid, then ftrain it, let 3 Pound of 
Allom be diffolvcd in it, and then boil what you have to 
dye in it, for 2 Hours. lo 

The Young Man's Bcjl Companion. 253 

To dye Yellow, Take Woad 2 Pound, of the faid Water 
)f Bran, and boi! til! the Colour is good. 

Arid if you would have the h'\d TelLiv to be Green, put 
the Staff into the aforefaid Blue Lye. 

]'o dye a Sad Colour, add Logwood to the Black Dye be- 
fore mentioned. 

To dve Linen or Thread, &c. like Red : Take Powdef 
of Brazil and Vermilion, of each 1 Ounce, boil'd in Ailom 

Water. ^ . . 

To dve Linnen or Thread Yellow ; diffolve Gambogia 

in Allom Water, t$c. . . 

To ftain Skins blue ; Boil Eldern Berries, and with the 

Liquor brufh over the Skins, and wring them 3 then boil 

the Berries in Allom-water, and wet them twice over. 
A Hint of Generals, or Things frcper lo be known and 
remembered on proper Qccafwns. 

A Ream of Paper, 20 Quires. 

A Quire of Paper, 24 or 25 Sheets. 

A Bale of Paper, 10 Reams. 

A Roll of Parchment, 5 Dozen, or 6© Skins. 

A Dicker of Hides, 10 Skins. _ 

Ditto of Giovcs, 10 Dozen Pair. 

A Lair, of Hides, 20 Dickers. 

H Load of Timber unhewed, 40 Feet- 

A Chaldron of Coals, 36 Buihels. 

A I-krihead of Wine, 63 Gallons. 

Ditto of Beer, 54 Gallons. 

A Barrel of Beer, 36 Gallons. 

Ditto of Ale, 32 Gallons. 

A Grofs, 144, or 12 Dozen. 

A Weigh of Cheefe 256 Pounds. 

Days in a Year, 365, Weeks, 52, and Hours, 8766. 

Pence in a Pound 240, Farthings 960. 

An Acre of Land, 160 fquare Poles or Perches. 

A Lalt of Corn or Rape Seed, 10 Quarters. 

Ditto of Pot Afhes, Cod-hfh, White-herrings, Meal, Pitch 
and Tar, 12 Barrels. 

Ditto of Flax and Feathers 17 C. of Gun-powder 24 Bar- 
rels, or 24001b. of Wool 4368 lb. 

A Tun of Wine, 252 Gallons, Oil of Greenland, 252 
Gallons ; and fvveet Oil of Genoa, 236 Gallons. 

A Tun in Weight, 20 C. of Iron, 13 c. but of Lead there 
is but 19 C and a Half, called a Fodder or Foiher. 

A. Todd of Wool, 2S Pounds. A 

254 37* Young Man's Beft Companion. 

A Pack of ditto, 364. Pounds. 

A Load of Bricks 500 ; and of Plain-Tiles, 1000. 

A Stone of Fifh, 8 ft), and of Wool l^lb- the fame for 
Horfernan : s Weight, and alfo Hay ; but Pepper, Cinna- 
mon, and Allom, have but 13 ft}. £ to the btone. 

Ditto of Glafs, 5 Pounds ; and a Sear of ditto, 24. St ne. 

A Trufs of Hay, 56 Pounds, and a Load of ditto, 39 

Note, Neiv Hay in June and Auguft ought to be 60 
Po-unds to the Trufs ; as per Statute of 2 of Vv'ijliam and 
Mary, 1693. 

A Cade of Red Herrings, 500 ; and of Sprats, 1000. 

Iron and Shot, 14. lb- to the Stone. 

Barrels of fundry Commodities. 

Anchovies, 30 lb. 
A double Barrel, 60 lb. 
Nuts or Apples, 3 Bufhels. 
Pot-a(h or Barrilla, 200 lb. 
White or Black Piates, 300. 
Candles 10 doz. lb. 
Salmon or Eel , 42 Gall. 
Figs, 3qrs. 141b. to 2 C. £ 

Raifins, 1 C. wt. 

Oil, 3 1 Gallons and Half. 

Spanifh Tobacco, 2 C. to 

Gun Powder, 1 C. wt. 
Soap, 2401b. 
Butter, 2241b. 
Herrings, 32 Gallons. 

Things in Whdefale Trade, bought and fold by the Thoufand. 

Cuttle Bones 

Oranges and Lemmons. . 

Chair Nails. 

Tacks and Tenter-Hooks. 

Pomgranates andTazels. 

Goofe Quills and Thimbles 


Clinkers, or Flanders Tiles. 

Billets and Leaves of Horn. 

Barrel Hoops. 

Squirrel Skins. 

Slat and Hilling Stones. 

Pins and linall Needles, by the 1000 Dozen. 

Things fold and bought at Six Score to the Hundred. 

Bauks and Barlings, 
Barrel and Pipe Boards. 
Bomfpars and Bow-itaves. 
Canfpars and Caprevans. 
Herrings and Deal Boards. 

Nails, Eggs, and Cod-fifh, 
Cole, Ling, and new Lasd- 
fifn, Stoek-nfhof all Sorts. 

Ells of Canvas, and molt Fo- 
reign Linnens. 

And Hhd. Staves. 

Of Money. 

TH E Current Coin of England, is made either of 
Copper, Silver, or' Gold. Of Copper is mads the 
Farthings and Half-pence. Of Silver, the Pennies, Two 


'the Tcung Man's Beft Companion. 2 £5 

pences, Three-pences, Groats, Six-pences, Shillings, Half 
Crowns, and Crowns : But there is very little Silver coined 
below the Sixpence. Of Gold is made the Half-Guinea, 
the Guinea, and the 5 Guinea Piece : Befides, there are 
Foreign Pieces of Gold, that pafs, tho' with fome Scruple, 
as the Porluguefe Moidorc, at zjs. and the Milled or French 
Piftole as 1 8/. There are alfo fome few ancient Pieces of 
Gold of a pale Colour, as being alloyed with Silver, and 
therefore may be reckoned the belt, and fometimes called 
Anirel or Crown Gold ; whereas the old Gold or Broad 
Pieces are moftly alloy'dwith Copper, which makes them 
of a reddilh Colour. 

Imaginary Money. 

We appropriate feveral Names to Money, of which there 
is no Coin ; as, s- d. 

The Pound of 20 o 

The Mark 13 4 

The Noble, or half Mark 06 8 

The Angel, or # 100 

In England and its Colonies, Accounts arc kept in Pounds, 
Shillings, and Pence ; and their Marks are derived from 
their Names in Latin, <viz. I. for Librae or Pounds, s. for 
Solidi or Shillings, d. for Denarii or Pence, qr. for S>ua- 
drantes ©r Farthings, 4 making a Penny ; and expreffed or 
fet down thus. /. s. d. qr. 

4 16 8 2 
but better thus, /. 4 16 8 \ ; the Mark for Pound Hand- 
ing before the Sum denominates the tirft Number, and the 
others are known of Courfe ; for after Pounds follow Shil- 
lings, and after Shillings fucceed Pence, CSV. When the 
Price of any Thing is Shillings and Pence, it is fet down- 
thus ; t. d. 
4 6 
or thus. 4/6 : And when Shillings and Pence, and Parts of 
a Penny, exprerTcd thus, s. d. 

4 6 k 
or thus, 4/6f . The latter Way by fome is accounted the 
neateft, and beft Method to exprefs Parts ef a Penny or 
Farthings j thus, 

256 The Tottng -Marts Bcji Companion. 

I a Farthing, or one fourth Part of what it follows. 
\ a Half-penny, ov one Half of what it follows. 
^ three Farthings, or 3"4ths, or qrs. of what it follows. 
And being thus fet Fraftien-wife the under Figure fiiewj 
how many Farts the Quantity before it is divided into, and 
the upper Figure ihews how many of thofe under Parts the 
Fraction Hands for ; as thus, \ of an Ell, | of a Foot or 9 
Inches, and the fame of a Shilling is 9 Fence ; of a Found 
is 25s. Yds. 

If you are to fet down 6 Yards and a Half, write thus, 6f 

c l 

Nineteen Hundred three Quarters thus, in-*. 

Sixteen Pounds and a Quarter thus, i6i 

or elfc thus, 16 C. |, 161b. J, 5 Feet f, 14 Days J. Here 
the Name is put between the whole Number and the Frac- 
tion, which 1 think is the plainer and better Way : For Ex- 
ample, 6f Hhd. may through Ignorance or Wilfulnefs, be 
read, 6 Half Hhds. as well as 6 Hhds. and a Half; and at 
a certain Place where I have had Buiinefs, the Wharfinger* 
Clerks expreffed their half Hhds. in this Manner. 

A Table of the Value of Gold and Silver. 



1 Pound is worth 
1 Ounce 

1 Penny Weight 

1 Grain ■ 

1 Pound is worth ■ ■ 

1 Ounce 

1 Penny Weight 

t Grain 

lnjlrumental Arithmetick, 













AS Problems or Queftions in Meafurement, &c. are fol- 
ved or anfwered arithmetically by the Pea, (o are 
they alio infcrumentally taken bj Compares from certaia 
Lines, Cffc. or Rules made for that Ptrrpofe, for the Help 
of thofe that are deficient in Arithmetick, or for a quicker 
Difpatch of Bufinefs ; and fuch Performances are called in- 
jlrumental Arithmetick ; and of the InlbrumentSj the moilin 


The Young Man's Be/! Companion. 257 

Vogue or Ufe, are thefe Three : i. The Carpenter's Plain. 
Rule. 2. Cutter's Line. 3. .Qoggejhbll s Sliding-Rule. 

I. TZx? Carpenter's Plain Rule. 

I (hall defcribe and fay fometking of the Carpenter's Plain 
Rule in Relation to its Ufes, &c. 

Its Defcription. 

7^/j Rule is made Ufe of in meafuring Beard and Timber y 
being tivo Feet in Length, and divided into twenty-four Parts 
tr Inches, and every one of thofe Parts or Inches fu b divided' 
into half Inches, and each of thofe Halves into 'Quarters, and 
each Quarter into tvoo Parts ; fo that every Inch is divided 
into eight Parts, and the whole Length into 192 Parts. 

This Rule is well known, and therefore not abfoltately necejfa* 
ry of Reprefentation, but however,, for the better underfand~- 
kg it, I /ball give one thus ; 

Under Board Meafure 
thus defcribed, 



I* I 4 





+ 13 






This Line begins at 6, and goes on to 36, within 4 Inches 
of the End of the Rule on the Right-hand. 
Its Ufe. 
In. Deep, Feet. In. Pts. 

p 1 12 o »] 

I 2 6001 

A Board be-^ 









o I in Length make 
o J a Foot bquare. 


By this Table it is manifeft, and ea£ly «nderftoo6^That 
a Board of 4 Inches requires 3 Feet in Length to nuke a 
Foot Square, and a Piece of 3 Inches broad will require 4 
Feet in Length to make a Foot Square. 

At the other End of this Rule is a Table called Under 
Timber Meajure ; and thus deiuribed. 

258 The Yeynz Man's "Reft Com f anion. 

I 1 

* 1 

3 1 







H4 1 

36 | 

16 | 











1 11 

This Line begins at 8 and a Half, and goes on (by Di- 
viiions) to 36. 

In Square. 


If a Piece of 
Timber be 


6 I 





2, n 

2, 3J 

o (in Length make 
9 1 a fblid Foot, 

By this Table it is plain. That if a Piece of Timber be 
6 Inches Square, then 4 Feet in Length of that Piece will 
make a folid F'oot. 

It is a common Method with Carpenters, to add the 
Breadth and T'hicknefs ©f a Piece of Timber in Inches to- 
gether, and call the Half thereof the Square efthatPiect; 
but this Method gives the Content more than it is ; and the 
greater the Difference, the larger the Error : But the true 
Square may be found in Gutter's Line, thus ; place one 
Point of the Compares upon the Line for the Thieknefs, 
half Way of that Extent, and that will be the true bquare 
in Inches. 

2. Gunters Line. 

This Line is commonly fet on the Carpenter's plain Rule, 
and Confifts of two Lines, one fet at the End of the other, 
and Diftance* taken by Compares, as aforefaid ; and it is 
fomewhat of the following Form, 


the Young Men'''! T\e,Jt Companion. 

Canter's Line. 


: h 

To prove the Line by the Compaffes, obferve, 
1 to 2 equal I 2 to 4 

10 Diftance j 4 to 8 
8 to j 3 to 6 

5 to 
4 to 

To Number on the Line. 

Obferve, That the Figures 1, 2, 3,4, £, 6, 

.9,. fometimes flgnity themfelves /imply 

or alone; at other Times, 10, 20, 30, 40, Sec. 

Again at other limes, 100, 200, 300 or 1000, 


To find a Number on the Line, as fuppo/e 1 34. 
For the Figure 1, account 1 on the Line; 
and for 3, take 3 of the large Divifions ; and 
for 4 take 4 of the fmaller Divifions ; and that 
is the Point. Again, to find 750 on the Line ; 
for 7 take 7 on the Line, for 50 take 5 of the 
greater Divifions, and that is the Point. 

To find a /mall Number on the Sine, as fuppo/e 


For 1, take 1 as before, and for 2, take 2 

of the larger Divihono, and that is the Point. 

In meaiuring Board or Timber, it is belt to 

have a Line of 2 Foot long, and Compaffes 1 

Foot long. 

Nete, Let the Meafurement be by the Inch, 
Foot, Yard, Pole, Rod, &c. it is beft to have 
it decimaily divided, or fo fuppofed, that is, into 10 Parts, 
ac the Meafurement mould require, and on the Carpenter's 
Rule, the Foot fo divided. 

Note al/o, That if the Point of the Compaffes fall off the 
Line in the Work, remove it to the fame Figure r Place on 
the other Line ; and the Ieffer Extent you take with the 
Compaffes is frequently the beft. 

Multiplication by the Line. 
To multiply 5 by 7, fet one Foot of the Compaffes in 1, 
and extend the other to 5 upwards, and with the fame 
Ex tent place one Foot in 7, and the other Foot will full 
on J5, the Anfwer. 

M Di'vi/ioH 

t.6o The Tcurtz JL&ss'j Beji Companion. 

C-'vJi n by the Line. 

Example i. Divide 63 by 3 ; extend from 3 to 1 down, 
wards, and the Extent will reath the fame Wa) fr&m 63 
to 21, the Quotient. 

N. B. In multiplying you mufi always extend upwards, t/.at 
is, from I, to 2, 3, /o 4, &C. and an the contrary in divi* 
ding ex/end downwards. 

Example 2. Divide 288/. equally among 16 Men: Ex- 
tend from 16 to 1 downward; and that. Extent will reach 
the fame Way, from 288/. to 18/. for each Man. 


Example 3. Suppofe 750/. were to be divider! among 
25 Men ; Extend from 23 to 1 downward ; and that i_x- 
tent will reach the fame Way, from 750 te 3c/. each Man's 

The Rule ef Three direcj. 

Example I . If a Bufhel of Barley coil 3/. what will 40 
Eufhels coft ? Extend from I to 3 upwards, and that Ex- 
tent will reach the fame Way from 40 to 120 Shillings, the 

Example 2. If one Ell of Holland coft 3 s. 6 d. what 
will 40 Ells coft ? Extend from 1 to 3 and a Half upwards ; 
and that Extent the fame Way will reach frarn 42 to 140/. 
the Anfwer. 

Rule of Three Inverfe. 

Example I. Admit the Bufhel of Wheat to be worth 3 /. 
4 / or 40 d. and then the Two-penny Loaf to weigh 2c oz. 
what mall the faid Two-penny Loaf weigh when Wheat is 
worth 5 s. the Bufhel ? Extend from 60 to 20 downwards, 
and that Extent the fame Way will reach from 40 to 13 
Ounces and { for the Anfwer. 

Example 2. If 136 Workmen fortify a Place in a Month 
or 28 Days, how many mull: be employed to do it in eight • 
Da)s? Extend from eignt downwards, to 136, and that 
Extent the fame Way will reach from 28 to 476 Workmen, 
the Anfwer. 

The Ufc in Board Meafnre. 
Example. If a Board be 9 Inches broad, and 19 Ffet 
lon°-, what is the Content in fuperficial Square Feet ? Ex- 
tend from 12 (the Center of Foot Measure) to 9 d f\vn- 

v /ards, 

the Tfatng ivfarSs Udjt Companion. 261 

wards, and that Extent the fame Way will reach from 19 
to 14 and J. 

In Timber Meafure.. 
Example. A Piece of Timber 24 Inches fquara, and 3 
Feet long, what is the Content in folid Feet ? Extend from 
22 (the center) to 24 upwards, and that Extent twice the 
fame Way will reach from 8 to 32 Feet, the Content. 

Brick Work. 
How many Rods of Work are there in 4085 Feet ? Ex- 
tend from 272 downwards to 1, and that Extent the fame 
Way from 40S5, will reach to 15 Rods, the Anlwer. 

3. CoggeJhaVs Sliding Rule. 
The next Inftrument 1 fhall fpeak of, is that which goes 
by the Name of CoggejhaVs Sliding Rule. And firit of, 

Its Defcription. 

This Rule is framed 3 Ways, Aiding by one another as 
the Glaucrs Rule ; Hiding on one Side of a two Foot Joint 
Rule ; and one Part Hiding on the other, in a Foot of 
Length ; the back Part being flat, on which are fundry 
Lines and Scales. 

Upon the aforefaid Aiding Side of the Rule, are 4 Lines 
of Numbers, three are double Lines ; and one a Angle Line 
of Numbers, mark'd (as in the Reprefentation by and by 
annexed) with ABC and D, the three marked AB and C, 
are called double Lines of Numbers, and figured i, 2, 3, 4, 
5> 6, 7, 8, 9. Then 1, 2, 3, 4, <;, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 
at the End. That mark'd D, is the Angle Line of Numbers, 
aid figured 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 30, and at the End 
40, even with and under 10, in the double Line next to it, 
and that is called the Girt Line, and fo marked in the 

1 he Figures on the three double Lines rf Numbers, may 
be increaied or decreafed at Pleafure ; thus one at the Ee- 
g nmng may be called 10, 100, ioco ; the 2 is 20, 20c, or 
200c ; fo that when 1 at the Beginning is 10, then 1 in the 
Middle is 100, and 10 at the End is icoo ; but if 1 at the 
Beginning is counted for 1, then 1 in the Middle* is 10, 
siid 10 at the End is 100. 

And as the Figures altered fo Hiuft the Strokes or 

Divihons between them be altered in their Value atcor- 

M 2 ciing 

262 The Young Man's Bejt Companion. 

ding to the Number ( f the Parts they are divided into ; as 
thus from 1 to 2, 'tis divided into 10 Parts, and each 
Tenth is divided into 5 Parts ; and from 2 to 3, it is di- 
vided into 10 Parts, and each Tenth into 2 Parts, and fo 
on from 3 to 5 ; then from 5 to 6 it is divided into 10 Parts 
only ; and fo on unto 1 in the Middle of the Rule, or the 
firft Part of the double Line of Numbers. The fecond Part 
or Radius is divided into the like Radius. 

The-Girt-Line marked D, is divided from 4 to 5 into 10 
Parts, and each Tenth into 2 Parts, and fo on from 5 to 
10; and then from 1 o to 20, it is divided into 10 Parts, and 
each Tenth into 4 Parts, and fo on all the Way from 20 to 
40 at the End, which is right againft 10 at the End of the 
double Line of Numbers. 

The Lines on the back Side of this Rule that (lide on one 
Side, are thefe, <ui». A Line of the Inch Meafure from 1 to 
12, each divided into Halves, Quarters, and Half Quar- 
ters ; another Line of Inch Meafure from j to 12, each di- 
vided into 12 equal Parts, and a Line of Foot Meafure, 
being one Foot dividedinto 100 equal Parts, and figured 10 
zo, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100, even with 12 
on Inch Meafure. 

And the back Side of the Hiding Piece is divided into 
Inches, Flalves, Quarters, and Half Quarters, and figured 
from 1 2 to 24, fb tnat it may be Hid out to 2 Foot, to mea- 
fure the Length of a Tree, or any Thing elfe you have Oc-. 
cafion to meafure. 

The Vfe of the Double Stale. 

Example I . 
Suppofe there is a Geometrical Square whofe Sides are 3 
Feet \ each ; fct one Foot on the Line B, to 3 \ on the 
Line A ; and then againft 3 £ on the Line B, is 12 >'eet \ 
on the Line A, which is the Content of fuch a Square. 
F. Pts. 

3—6 1 
3 -6 j 

Jr"" - ^ Arithmetically. 


9 ~ J 

12 — 3 Proof. 


fbe Young Man's Beji Companion. 263 

In this Work by Arithmetic I multiply 3 F. 6 Parts by 
3. and it produces 10 Feet 6 Inches ; then I take the Half 
of 3 F. 6 for the 6 Inches (by the Way of Pradice) becaufe 
6 Inches is the \ of 12, CSV. Again, Suppofe there is a 
Board 27 Feet and \ long and 16 Feet \ wide, what is its 
Content ? 

j\ Pts. 
16 I 27,50 Length. 



The Area 446 Feet, 

Anfwer 446,8750 Prod. 

Suppofe the Side of a Rhombus to be 8 Feet 6 Inches f, 
and the Breadth, or Line A B, 8 F. 4! , what is the Con- 
tent ? Set 1 Foot on the Line B, to 8 Feet T -£,3 on the Lino 
A. then againft 8 Feet T %% on the Line B is 7 1 Feet T £-§ 
Parts of a Foot on the Line A. And to know the Value 
of the Decimal, or Part of the Foot, look for T £-§ on the 
Rule, and you will find againft it 4 Inches f , fo that the 
Content of this Rhombus is 71 Feet 4 Inches f> 

Again, Suppofe the Length of a Rhomboides to be 17 
F. 3, or 17 T |-|, and the Breadth 8 F. 7 or 8 T -||, what is 
the Content? Set 1 Foot on the Line B, to 17,25, on the 
Line A, then againft 8,58 on the Line B, is 148 Feet on 
the Line A. The Figure hath been prefented before, and 
operated arithmetically, therefore here unneceiTary. 

To me af lire a Triangle by the Rule. 

Every Triangle is half of that long Square, whofe Length 
and Breadth are equal to the Perpendicular and Bafe ; 
therefore from the greateft Angle or Corner let fall a per- 
pendicular Line to the oppofite Side (as hath been faid be- 
fore) of the Bafe, and to find its Content take half the 
Length of the Bafe, and the whole Perpendicular, ©r \ the 
Length of the Perpendicular, and the whole Bafe, and 
then multiply, cSV. 


Let the Bafe of a Triangle be 4 Feet 1 Inch f , and the 
Ferpendicular 2 Feet 1 1 ; the Half of the one, is 2 Feet 
7 Parts ; and of the other, 1 Foot 7 Parts. Set one ®n the 
Line B, to 4, 1 5 on the Line A; then againft 1,07, Half 
the Perpendicular on the Line B, is 4 Feet and almoft f a 
Foot, for the Content. Or if you fet 1 on the Line B, to 
M 3 1,07 

264 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

1,07 on the Line A, againft 4,15 on the Line B, is 4, and 
almoft \ a Foot on the Line A. 

Again, another Way. If you fet one on the Line B, to 
4, 1 on the Line A, then againft z.15 on the Line B y is 8 
Feet 1% (which is about 1 1 Inches) on the Line A, the Hatf 
wh^recf. is 4 Feet 5 Inches j, which is tae Content of the 

Of the Girt Line.. 
Suppofe the Diameter of a Circle be 2 Feet 7 *£ what it 
its Content ? Set 1 1 on the Girt Line D, to 95 on the 
double Line C ; then againft 2 Feet T *-§ on C, the Girt 
Line is 3 Feet r|| oa the double Scale of Numbers D t 
which is the Content. 

Board Mcafure. 
Suppofe a Board be 27 Inciics \ broad, and 15 Feet \ 
kng, what is its Content? Set 12 on the double Scale B, 
to 27 \ on the double Scale A ; then againft 15 Feet \ on 
the double Scale B, is 35 Feet the Content on the double 
Sca.e A. 

When Dimenjions are Feet and Parts, and the Content required 
in Feet and Parts. 

Admit a Board be 24 f long, and 1 Foot \ broad, what 
is the Content? Set 1 on the double Scale to 1 \ on tin 
d uble Scale A; then againft 24 £ on the double Scale B, 
is 37 Feet 7 'o on tne double Scale A, and is the Content. 

Suppofe a Piece of Glaring be 29 Inches \ long, and 7 
Inches broad, what is the Content ? Set 144 (reprefented 
by 1,44) on ;he Line B, to 7 Inches on the Line A; then 
againft 29 \ on the Line B, is 1 Foot and almoft \ on the 
lime A. 

Suppofe a Room Wainfcotted be 44 Feet in Compafs, 
and 9 Feet | high, what is the Content ? Set one on the 
double Scale B, to 44 Feet \ on the double Scale A ; then 
againft 9 Feet | on the double Scale B, is 433 Feet T | on 
the double Scale A, the Content. 

Admit a Piece of Painting be 13 Feet \ broad, and 23 
Feet f long, what is the Content ? Set 9 on the double 
Scale i?, to 13 I on the double Scale A, then againft z\ \ 
on the double Scale B, is 35 Y arils | on the double Scale 
4, and is the Content. 


The Young Man's Bejt Companion. t6$ 

Of Bonds and Conditions of Bonds. 

ABOND is a Writing Obligatory, for Payment of 
Money, i£c. confuting of two Farts, ift, The Ob- 
ligation, wherein are infertedthe Names of the Parties and 
their Additions, the Penalty, Date, iffc. And zdly, The 
Condition, which exprefly mention* what Money is to be 
paid, or Thing to be perfarmed, and the limited Time for 
Performance thereof; for which the Obligation is peremp- 
torily binding. 

When the Matter or Thing to be done, or not to be 
done, by a Condition, is unlawful or impoflible, or the 
Condition is repugnant, infenhble or uncertain, it is void : 
And if a Thing be poiiible at the Time of making the Ob- 
ligation, but afterwards becomes impoflibie by the Aft of 
God, or of the Law, or of the Obligee, it will be void. 
Alfo, if a Man or Woman is compslld, for Fear of Impri- 
fonment, to enter into a Bond, c5V. fuch Compulfion will 
fruftrate the Bond. Ce. Lit. i 

But an Obligation may be good, altho' it contains falfe 
Latin, or falfe Engli/h, if the Intent of the Parties appears, 
and may be made certain. V 

Where no Place is mentioned for the Payment of Money 
en a Bond ;he Obliger is to find out the Obligee. And if 
a Day is not fet for the Payment of Money, the Debt is 
due prcfently ; but if it be en a Mortgage, the Party fhall 
have Time during Life, unleis haftened by Requefl. i Inji. 

ZCo, 209. 

In Obligations, he to whom the Obligation is made, it 
called the Obligee, and he who is bound is called the Obli- 
gor. In other Writings the Parties are ftiled according to 
the legal Terms, as Vendor, Vendee, LefTor, Leffee, Mort- 
gagor, Mortgagee, Gantor, Grantee, Donor, Donee, &c. 
Email Parties muft'be of the full Age of Twenty-ene Years; 
for Infants cannot make any Obligation or Covenant, &c. 
unlefs it be for Neceffaries, Apparel, Schooling, Sec. Per- 
fons of full Age mult alfo be of found Mind, and not Lu- 
naticks, Ideots, &c. Co. Lit. iji. 4 Rep. 126. 

A Bond from One to One. 

KNOW ALL MEN by thefe Prefents, That I .J e b H 
A. of the Townfhip of, &c. in the County of, Sec. 
Gentleman, am held and firmly bound unto William B. of, 
fcc. in the County of, &c. Efquire, in One Hundred Pounds 
M 4 «f 

±66 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

of good and lawful Money of Great-Britain, to be paid to 
the faid William B. or to his certain Attorney, his Execu- 
tors, Adminiilrators or Afligns ; for which Payment well 
and truly to be made, I bind myfelf, my Heirs, Executor! 
and Aaminiftrators, firmly by thefe Prefents, fealed with my 
Seal : Dated this fifth Day of Oflober, in the 9th Year of 
the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Third, by the 
Grace of^ God, of Great- Britain, France and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith, CSV. and in the Year of our Lord 
One 1 i Seven Hundred and Sixty-nine. 

THE CONDITION of this Obligation is fuch, That 
if the Above-bound J. A. his Heirs, Executors or Admi- 
niilrators, do well and truly pay or caufc to be paid unto 
the above mm'd W. B. his Executors, AdmiRiftrators or 
Afligns, the full Sum frf Fifty-two Pounds and Ten Shillings^ 
of lawful Money of Great -Britain, on or before the fifth 
Day of January next enfuing the Date hereof; then this 
Obligation fhall be void, otherwife it fhall remain in full 
Force and Virtue. 

Sealed and Dclinjered 
in the Frefence of 

A Bond --wherein five Pcrfons are bound to one. 

KNOW ALL MEN by thefe Prefents, that we William 
A. of, Ufc. in the County of, &c. Gentleman, and 
John B. of effr. in the County of, &c. Yeoman, are held 
and firmly bound to Thctnas C. of, l£c Efquire, in T<w» 
Hundred Pounds, of good and lawful Money of Great- Britain, 
to be paid to the faid Thomas C. or his certain Attorney, 
Executors, Adminiilrators or Afligns ; for which Payment 
to be well and truly made, we bind oorfelves and each of 
us, jointly and feverallv, for, and in the whole, our and 
each of our Heirs, Executors and Adminiltrators, firmly by 
thefe Prefents, fealed with our Seals j dated the Day ef, 
tffc. in the Year of the Reign, l5c. 

THE CONDITION of this Obligation is fuch, 
T>,at if the Above-bound, W. A. and J. B or either of 
them, their, or either of their Heirs, Executors or Admi- 
nistrators, do and fhall well and truly pay, or caufo to be 
paid, unto the faid T. C. his Executors, Adminil' 
Afligns, the Sum of One Hundred Pounds, of lawful Money 
»f Great-Britain, with Interefl for the fame, at the Rate 


The Young Maris Beji Companion. 26 y 

of, &c. per Cent, per Ann. on the Day, &c. which will be 
in the Year of our Lord, &c . Then, &c. or elie, &c. 

A Condition of a Counter Bond, or a Bond of Indemnity, 'when 
one Man is bound for another. 

THE Condition of this Obligation is fuch, That 
whereas the above-named A. B. at the Kequeft, and 
f< r the only proper Debt and Due of the above-b.)und CD. 
vvith him the (aid (.'. I), is in and by one Bond or Obligati- 
on, bearing equal Date with the Obligation above w.itten, 
held and firmly bound untoi;. F. of, tffc. in the penal Sum 
of Five Hundred Pounds, lawful Money of New-York, con- 
ditioned for the Payment of Time Hundred and F fty Pounds, 
with legal Intereit for the fame, ?Jc next enfiung the Day 
of the Date of the faid recited Obligation, as in and by the 
faid Obligation and Condition thereof may more fully and 
at large appear. If therefore the faid ..". D. his Heirs, Exe- 
cutors, or Av.miniihatorSjdo and ihallwell and truly t .ay, or 
cauie to be paid, unto the faid E- F. his Executor;,, A. mi- 
niitrators or Afligns, the faid Sum of Two Hundred and Fifty 
Pounds, with legal Interefton the faid Day, Ifjc. next enfuing 
the Date of the laid recked Obligation, according to the ' 
true intent and Meaning, and in fuil Difcharge and Satis- 
faction of the laid recited Obligation: Then, i5c. or elfe, t5V . 

A Condition to perform Covenants in a Deed. 

THE CONDITION of this Obligation is fuch, 
'1 hat if the Above-bound A. B. his heirs, Executors 
and Adminiflrafors, and every of them, do and ihA'l in all 
Thiags well and truly obferve, perf rm, fulfil, accomplish, 
]■ ■ , and keep all and finguiar the Covenants, Grants, Ar* 
tides, Claufes, Provifoes, Payments, Conditions and Agree- 
ments, which on the Part and Behalf of the laid A. B. his 
Heirs, Execu'ors and Administrators, are, or ought to be 
obkr ed, performed, fulfilled, accompliihed, paid. and kept, 
cc inprifedor mentioned, in certain Indentureb.bearir g eveal 
Date vvith the above-written Obligation, made or mention- 
ed to be made, between the faid A. B. of the one Part, and 
the above-named C. D. of the other Part \k>v in one Pair 
of Indencau s of Leafe made between, &c.~] according to 
the true Intent and Meaning of the fame Indentures j 
Then, &c. 

A I or 

268 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

A Condition of an A* bitration Bond, nvith an Umpirage. 

THE CONDITION of this Obligation is fuch, That 
if the Above-bound A. B. his Heirs, Executors 
and Adminiftrators, and every of them, do and (hall, for 
his and their Parts and Behaifs, in all Things well and 
truly ftand to, ©bey, obferve, perform, fulhl and keep the 
Award, Abitrament, Order and Determination of E. f, 
of, &c. and G. H. of, Uc. Arbitrat&rs indifferently cho- 
fen, as well on the Part of the faid A. B. as on the Part 
and Behalf of the above-named C. D. to arbitrate, award, 
judge of, determine and agree for, upon, touching and 
concerning all and all Manner ©f Action and Actions, 
Caufe and Caufes of Aftion and Aftions, Debts, Accounts, 
Differences, Quarrels, Difputes, Reckonings, Agreements, 
and all Dues and Demands whatfoever, both in Law and 
Equity, or etherwife howfoever, which between them the 
faid A, B. and C. D. or either of them, at any Time here- 
tofore have be?n,or at the Time of the Sealing hereof had, 
moved, ftirred up, or in any wife depending, fo always as 
the faid Award, Abitrament, Judgment, final End, De- 
termination and Agreement, between the faid Parties, be 
made in Writing, indented under the Hands and Seals of 
the faid Arbitrators, ready to be delivered to the faid Par- 
• ties, at or in, &c. next enfuing the Date of the above-writ- 
ten Obligation j Then, 13c. 

The Umpirage. 
And if the faid Arbitrators fhall not make and draw up 
the faid Award in Writing, as aforefaid, on or before, kc. 
and the fame deliver to the faid Parties, as aforefaid ; if 
then the faid A. B. his Executors and Adminiftrators, and 
every of them, do and fhall ftand to, abide, obferve, per- 
form and keep the Award, Umpirage, final End and Judg- 
ment of/,. M. of, &c. Umpire indifferently eletted between 
the faid Parties, for ending and compofing of all the Diffe- 
rences aforefaid, fo as the faid Umpire do make and draw 
up his faid Award, Umpirage and Determination, in Writ- 
ing, indented under his Hand and Seal, ready to be deliver- 
ed to the Parties, on or before, Sec. Then, &c. or elfe, &c. 

Of Releafes of Rights, Aiiions, Claims and Demands. 

AReleafe is the Difcharge of a Right or Action, Debt, 
Duty or Demand ; and all Actions, real, perfonal and 
xaix'd, may be difeharged by Releafe ; alfo all Debts, Le- 

The Young Man's Beji Companion. 26$ 

gacies, and other Duties, Annuities, Lands, Rights and 
Titles to Lands, &c. 

A Releafe of all Aftions or Suits bars all Actions and 
Suits, and Bonds and Statutes, where the- Caufe < f Action is 
fubiifting at the Time of the Releafe. A I eleafe of all 
Quarrels, difcharges all Actions ical and perfonal, and the 
Caufes of fuch Actions. A Releafe cf all Debts difcharges 
all Debts then owing from the RelefTee upon Specialties, 
Executions, &c. A Releafe of all Duties bars all A&ions, 
Judgments, Executions, Obligations, Rents, Sec. and by a 
Releafe of all Demands, all Rights and '< itles to Lands, 
Conditions, Bunds, bta f utes, Recognizances, Contracts, 
Covenants, and all Manner of AclioRs, real and perfonal, 
Debts, Duties, Judgments, Executions, Rents, Annuities, 
lie. are releafed and difcharged. Co. Lit. 286, 291, 292, &e. 

By a R.eleafe of all a Man's Right toLanus, all Actions, 
Entry, ! itle of Dower, Rents, Sec. are difcharged ; but a 
Right deicending to the RelefTor afterwards, it is not there- 
by releafed. A Releafe of 1 itie to Lands is equally ex- 
tenfive to a Releafe of Right ; and a Releafe of all En- 
tries, or Right of Entry, bars all Right or Power of Entry 
into Lands. Co. Lit. 289, 345. 

If a Creditor be made Executor by his Debtor, or if the 
Creditor being a Woman, marries her Debtor, thefe are 
Reieafes in Law of the Debts. Ce. Lit. 264. 

A General Releafe of all Demands. 

KNOW ALL MEN by thefe Prefents, That I A. B. 
of, &c. Gent, have remifed, releafed, and for ever 
quit-claimed, and by thefe i relents do for me, my Heirs, 
Executors and Aciminillrators, remife, releafe, and forever 
quit claim unto C. b. of, &c. Gent, his Heirs, Executors 
and Adminiltrators, all and an Manner of Action and Ac- 
tions, Laufe and Cauies of Action and Actions, Suits, Bills, 
Bonds, V\ nt ngs, Obligations, Debr% Dues, Duties, Rec- 
konings, Accounts, bin ao oun.s of Money, Judgments, 
Executions, Extents, Quarrels, L^ntroverfies, Trefpafles, 
Damages and Demands w latlbever, b< th at Law and i» 
Equity, or otherwife howfoeyef, which againft him th« 
faid (.. D. I ev r had, now have, or which I, my Heirs, 
Executors and Adminidrators, (hall or may have, claim, 
challenge or demand, for or by Reafon or Means of any 


170 Vbe Young Man's Belt Companion. 

Aft, Matter, Caufe or Thing, from the Beginning of the 
Worhl to the Day of the Date of thefe Prefects, in V. it- 
' nefs whereof, I the faid A. B. have hereunto put my Hand 
and Seal, the Day of, &c. in the Year of our Lord, One 
Thoufand Seven Hundred and Sixty-nine. 

A Releafe of ' P erf anal ASions. .. 

KNOW ALL MEN' by thefe Prefents, That I A. B. 
of, &c. have remifed, releafed arid quit-claimed, and 
by thefe Pn do for me, my Heirs, Executors and Ad- 
miniilrators, and every of themremife, releafe, and forever 
quitclaim unto ' . D. of, &c. his Heirs, Executors and 
Administrators, and every of them, all and all Manner of 
Perfonal Action?, iuits, Debts, Duties, Sum and Sums of 
Money, Claims and Den a.ids Perlbnal whatfoever, from 
the Beginning of the World until the Day of the Date 
hereof. In Witnefs, &c. 

Of Letters cf Attorney., and other Authorities, Sec. 

A Letter of Attorney is an Authority given to another 
to do feme Aft, or perform fome Thing, in like 
Manner as the Pcrfon authorizing might do the fame. And 
what a Man may do by himfelf, he may generally do by 

But the Attorney mud not exceed his Power ; if he does, 
what he tranfafts will be void. If a Man makes' a Letter 
of Attorney to another to deliver Livery and Seifin in iuch 
a Place, and he does it elfewhere ; or at fuck a Time, and 
he does it before or after, the Aft of the Attorney will be 
void. P loved. 475. 

In other Cafes it is the fame ; and a Man may limit hi» 
Authority as ltriftly as he pleafes. 

A Letter of Attorney. 

KNOW all Men by thefe Presents, That I Charles 
Careful, of Lewis in the County of Suffex, Apothe- 
cary (for divers Considerations and good Caufes, me here- 
unta moving) have made, ordained, conitituted and appoin- 
ted, and by thefe Prefents do make, ordain, conititute and 
appoint, my trufty Friend Timothy Wagstaff, of Remfey, in 
the County aforefaid, Gent, my true and lawful Attorney, 
for me, in my Name, 3nd to my Ufe, to afk, demand, re- 
cover, or receive, of and from A, B. of Rye, in the faid 


The Young Man's Bejs Companion. 271 

County, the Sum of Forty Pounds, giving, and "by thefe 
Preients granting to my ia d Attorney, my fole and full 
Power and Authority, to take, purfue, and follow fuch legal 
Courier, for the recovery, receiving and obtaining the 
as I myielt might or couid di , were I perfonaliy pre- 
fent ; and upon the Receipt of the fame Acquittances, and 
other fflfficient Difchar^es, for me, and .n my Name, to 
make, fign, feal and deliver ; as alio one more Attorney or 
Attornies under him, to iubftitute or appoint, and agaiiv 
at his Pleafure to revoke, and further to do, perform, and 
finifll for me, and in my Name, all fingular 1 hing or 
Things, which fnall Or may be necefTary touching and con- 
cerning the Premi'es, as fully, thoroughly, and entirely, 
as 1 the laid Charles Careful, in my own Perfon ought or 
could do, in and aboeit the fame : Ratifying, allowing, 
and confirming, whatfoevermy faid Atto. ney lhall lawfully 
do, or caufe to be done, in and about the Execution of 
the Premifes, by Virtue of thefe Prefents. in Witneii 
whereof, 1 have hereunto fet my Hand and Seal, the 6th 
Day of May, in the ninth Year of our Sovereign Lord 
George III. by the Grace of God, King of Creat-Briiain t 
&c. in the Year of our Lord God, 1709. 

A Letter of Attorney hy a Seaman. 

KNOW al! Men by thefe Prefents, That I Timothy Tar- 
paulin, Mariner, now belonging to his Majefty s Ship 
the Rye, for divers good Caufes and Conlidera'tions me there- 
unto moving, have, and by thefe Prefents do make my truiiy 
Friend [or beloved Wife] Henry Hearty, Citizen and Baker 
of London, my true and lawful Attorney, for me, and in 
my Name, and for my Uie, to a&, demand and receive, 
of, and from the Right Honourable the Treafurer or Pay- 
mailer of hi« Majeity's Navy, and CommiiHoners of Prize- 
Money, and whom elfe it may concern, as well ail fuch 
Wages, and Pay, Bounty Money, Prize Money, and ano- 
ther Sum and Sums of Money whatfoever, as now are, 
and which hereafter ihall and may be due ©r payable unto 
me ; alfo all fuch Penfions, Salaries, Smart Money, or all 
other Money and Things whatfoever, which n®w are, or 
at any 1 ime hereafter (hall or may be due to me, for my 
Service, or otherwife, in any one of his Majefty's Ship or 
Ships, Frigates or Velfels : Giving and hereby granting, 


ZJ2 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

unto my faid Attorney, full and whole Power, to take, 
purfue and follow fuch legal Ways and Courfes, for the 
Recovery, receiving and obtaining, and difcharging upon 
the faid Sum or Sums of Money, or any of them, as I 
myfelf might or could do, were I perfonaily prelent ; and 
I cio hereby ratify, allow and confirm, all and whatever 
my faid Attorney Ihall lawfully do, or caufe to be done, in 
and about the Execution of the Premifes, by Virtue of 
thefe Prefents. In Witnefs whereof, I have hereunto fet 
my Hand and Seal, this 2zd Day of January, Sec. 

Timothy 'Tarpaulin, © 

Of Articles of Agreement. 

ARTICLES of Agreement are mutual Covenants en- 
tered into by Parties, where both of them are o- 
bliged to do fomething, one in Return to the other. 

They are of various Kinds, as bufinefs falls out; and 
fome of them are the following. 

Articles for the tuning down an old Hottfe, and building up 
a new One, for a certain Sum of Money, 

Articles of Agreement made, &c. between A. B. of &c. 
and CD. ef l5~c. 

FIRST, The faid C. D. for himfelf, his Executors, 
Adminiftrators and Afligns, doth covenant, promife 
and grant, to and with the laid A. B. his Executors, Ad- 
miniitrators and Afligns, by thefe Prefents, in Manner fol- 
lowing (that is to lay) \ hat he the faid C. D. his Execu- 
te rs, Adminiftrators and Afligns, or fome of them, for the 
Con.iderations herein after mentioned, lhall and will forth- 
with take down, or caufe to be taken d©wn, the now Dwel- 
ling-Houfe of the .aid A. B. fituate, &c. and in the Room 
and Stead thereof fhail, on or before, &c. next, make, ered, 
build and fet up, in a Workman- like Manner, one new 
1 enement or Dwelling Houfe, Thirty Feet wide in front, 
Fifty Feet long or deep Backwards, and Three Story high, 
&c. each Story be ng, &c. Feet ; together with a Cellar of 
the Dimeniion^ of, Sec. And lhall alio make four Roemi, 
&c. on each Floor, nd alio that he the laid C. D. his, &c. 
fliail find and l rovide, at his or their own Charges and Ex- 
pence, all Manner of Tiles, Bricks, Laths, Nails, Lead, 
Iron, Sand and h'me, Timber, and all ether Materials 


the Young Man's Bejl Companion. 27$ 

whatsoever, which fliall be fit and neceflary tu be ufed in or 
about the faid Builuing, and fhall carry away all Rubbifll 
that fhalt any way aril* by Reafon of the laid Building. 

And the laid A. B. for himfelf, his Executors and Admi- 
nistrators, in Coniidtration of the faid Building lb to be 
built and hnilhed in Manner aforefaid, by the laid C. D. 
his, &c. doth covenant and grant to and with the faid C. D. 
hii Executors, Adminiftrators and Afligns, by thef; Pre- 
fents, That he the faid A. B. his Executors, Adminiftra- 
toib and Altigns, or fome of them, fliall and will well and 
truly pay, or caule to be paid unto the faid C. D. his Ex- 
ecutors, Administrators or Afligns, the Sum of 300 1. of, 
Ice at three feveral Payments, viz. 100 1. thereof on, &c. 
(or in Hand at his Beginning of th<* Work, &e.) iool. 
more w.ien the Roof of the faid Building is framed, tim- 
bered and tiled; and 100 1. more, Reiidue, and in full 
Payment of the faid Sum of 300 1. when the whole Build- 
ing is fully compleated in a Workman-like Manner, as 

And for the Performance of all and every the Articles 
ef Agreements above-mentioned, the faid A. B. and C. D. 
da hereby bind themfelves, their Executors, Adminiitra- 
ti:rs, and Afligns, each to the other, in the Penal i>um of 
600 I. of, &c. firmly by thefe Prefents. 

in >< ituefs, &c. 

Of Bills of Sale, and Bargains and Sales. 

A Bill of Sale is an lnilrument ufed for the Transfer- 
ring of the Property of Goods ; but a Bargain and 
Sale transfers Lands, Tenements, Rents, Advowfons, 
Tithes, &c. in Fee Ample, Fee tail, for Life or \ears, as 
well as Goods and Chattels. 

A Man may bargain and fell his Goods at any Time ; 
and if the Bargain is that you fhall give me lo much for 
a Horfe and you give me a Shilling or a Penny in Earneft, 
which I accept, this is a perfect Sale. Noy. Max. 87. 

Where Lands are conveyed by Bargain and Sale, there 
mult be a good Conlideration given ; and where the Free- 
hold is to pais, Inrollmsiu is neceflary (within fix Months) 
as it is provided by Stat. 27. H. 8. and it needs no Livery 
of Scifin, Sec. to perfect it. But a Bargain and Sale may 
be made of Goods and Chattels, Leafes, &c. without 
C onuderation or hirollnient, with Livery and Seifin. 5 Co. 
I) 2. Cro. 240. 


274 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

A Bills of Sale of Goods. 

KNOW all Men, & c . That I /. K. of, 13 c. for and 
in Conitderation of the Sum of, &cl to me in Hand 
paid at and before the Sealing and delivery of thefe Prefents, 
by T. S. of, i3c the Receipt whereof I do hereby acknow- 
ledge, have bargained and fold, and by thefe Prefents do 
bargain and fell, unto the faid-r .S. all the Goods, lloufhold- 
Stuff, and implements of Houfhold, and all other Goods 
whatfoever, mentioned in the Schedule hereunto annexed, 
now remaining and being in, &c. in the Poffeffion of, kz. 
To have and to hold all and lingular the laid Goods, Houf. 
'hold-Stuff and Impl.ments of Houfhold, and every of them, 
'by thefe Prefects, bargained and fold unto the laid T. S.his 
Executors, Adminiftrators and Afligns, forever. And I 
the faid /. K. for myfelf, my Executors and Adminiftrators, 
all and lingular the faid Goods and Houfhold fluff unco the 
faid T. S. his Executors, Adminiftrators and Afiigns, a- 
gainftme the faid /. K. my Executors, Adminiftrators and 
ns, andagainit all and every other Perfon andPerfons 
whatfoever, fhall and will warrant, and for ever defend by 
thefe Prefents. Of which Goods, I the faid /. K. have put 
the laid T. S. in full Polleffion, by delivering him one Sil- 
ver Tankard, &c. at the Sealing hereof. In Witnefs, &c. 

A Bill of Sale of Part of a Ship, with its Furniture, Sec. 

f~y O all People, &c. I H. I. of, &e. fend Greeting. 

_ I Knew ye, that I the faid H. I. for and in Confedera- 
tion of the Sum of, 13 c. to me in Hand paid by T. S. of, 
&c. the Receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge, &c. 
have granted, bargained and fold, and by thefe Prefents I 
the iitid //. /. do grant, bargain and fell, unto the faid/. S. 
one eighth Part (the Whole in eight equal Parts to be di- 
vi,i d) of the Ship called, Sec. cf the Pen ef, &c. and Bur- 
then of, &c. now lying and being within the Harbour of, 
&c. together with one full eight Part of all the Mails, Sails, 
Sail-\ards, Anchors, Cables, Ropes, Cords, Boars, Oars, 
Pieces of Ordnance, Guns, Gunpowder, Shot, 
Apparel, Ammunition, and Furniture to the faid Ship 
nging, or appertaining : To have and to hold the faid 
ith Part of the faid Snip, and ail other the Pi 
hereby granted, with the Appurtenances, unto thefaid f.S- 
his Exetuter*, Adminiftrators and Afiigns, as his and their 


The Young Man's "Beji Companion. 275 

own proper Goods, and to his and their own proper Ufe 
and Ufes for ever. And ] the faid H. I. do for myfelf, my 
Heirs, Executors and Adminiftrators, covenant and grant 
to and with the faid T. S. his Executors, and Afligns, by 
thefe Prefents, that I the faid H. I. at the Time of Sealing 
and Delivery of thefe Prefents, am the true and lawful Ow- 
ner and Proprietor of the faid eighth Part of the faid Ship, 
and Prcmifes hereby granted, with the Appurtenances. And 
that I have full Power and Authority to grant, bargain and 
fell the faid eighth Part of the faid Ship, with the Premifes 
hereby mentioned to be granted, with the Appurtenances, 
unto the faid T. S. his Executors, Adminiftrators and A{- 
figns, in Manner aforefaid. And alfo, That it fhall and 
may be lawful to and for the faid T. S. his Executors and 
Afligns, from Time to Time, and at all Times hereafter, 
quietly and peaceably to have, hold, pcffefs and enjoy, the 
faid eighth Part of the faid Ship, and all other the Premifes 
hereby granted or mentioned, or intended to he granted, 
' with the Appurtenances, without the Lett, Trouble, Denial, 
Moleltation, Hindrance or Difturbance, whatfoever, of me 
the faid H. I. my Executors, Adminiftrators or Afligns, or 
of any other Perfon or Perfons whatfoever, lawfully claim- 
ing, or to claim from, by or under me, them, or any of us, 
and that freed and difcharged of and from all former and 
other Bargains, Seals and Incumbrances, whatfoever made, 
done, or committed by me the faid H. I. &c. In Witnefs,&c. 

A Bargain and Sale of Lands. 

^~ , HIS Indenture made, &c. between///, of, &c. of 
the one Part, and T. R. of, &c. of the other Part, 
witneffeth, That the faid //. /. for and in Consideration of 
the Sum of. &c. to him in Hand paid by the laid -/'. R. the 
Receipt whereof the faid H. 1. doth hereby acknowledge, 
he the faid H. I. hath granted, bargained arid fold, aliened 
and confirmed, and by thefe prefents doth grant, bargain 
and fell, alien and confirm unto the faid T. R. his Hens 
and Affigns for ever, ail that Meffuage, &c. and that Piece 
or Parcel of Land, &c. fituate, &c. and alfo all Trees, 
Woods, Under-wojds, Tithes, Commons, Common of 
Pallure, Profits, Commodities, Advantages, Hereditaments, 
Ways, Waters and Appurtenances whatfoever, to the laid 
Mciiuage and Lands a.bove-mentioned belonging, or aay 


2j6 The Young Mini's Beji Companion. 

wife appertaining : And alfo the Reverfion and Reverfinns, 
Remainder and Remainders, Hents and Services, of th« 
faid Premifes, and rf every Part thereof; and all the E. 
ftate, Right, Title, Interest, Claim and Demand, whatfot- 
ver of him the faid H. I of, in and to the faid Mefiu.ige, 
&c. and PreRiifes, and every Part thereof. To have and to 
hold the faid Mefiuage or Tenement, ai.» all and fin^uUr 
the Premifes above-mentioned, and eveiy i'art and Parcel 
thereof, with the Appurtenances, unto the faid T. R. his 
Heirs, and Affigns, to the only , roper Ufe and Behoof (;f 
the faid T. R. his Heirs and Afiigns, for ever. And the 
faid H I. for him and his Heirs, the faid MeiTuage or Te- 
nement, and Premifes, and every Part thereof, againft 
him and his Heirs, and againft all and eery other :'erfou 
and Perfons whatfoever, to the faid T.-R. his Heirs and 
Afiigns, fhall and \v II warrant, and for ever defend bjr 
thefe Prefcnts. In Witnefs, &c. 

Of Gifts, Grants, Exchanges, &c. 

A Deed of Gift may be made of Lands or Goods ; but 
Care muft be taken that it be BOt fraudulent ; for a 
Deed of Gift made with Intent to defraud Creditors of 
their juft Debts, as againft fuch Creditors, &c. is void, 
Stat. 27 EL 

When a Woman is married, all her Goods and Chattels 
become the Goods of the Hufband by Gift in Law ; but 
he is liable to the Payment of her Debts. And when a 
Man is made Executor, the Law gives the Goods and 
Chattels of the Teftator to the Executor; but fukject to 
Payment of the Teilator's Debts. 3 Rep. 27. 

All Grants muft be of Things certain ; and Office, or any 
Goods or Chattels perfonal, may be granted by Word, with- 
eiuDeed. And if a Man make Apparel for another, and 
put it upon him to ufe and wear, this amour. ts to a Gift or 
Grant in Law, of the Clothes itfelf. 1 H. 4. 31. 

A Deed of Gift of Goods and Chattels^ 

TO all People, &c. I A. B. of, &c. fend Greeting, 
Know ye, That I the faid A. B. for and in Confi- 
de ati n of the natural Love and Aftedion which I have 
and bear unto C. D. &c. and aifo for other good Caules and 
Confider; to moving, have given and grant" 

ed, and by thefe PrelenCs do give, graat and confirm unto 


the Young Man's Beft Companion. 9.JJ 

the faid C. D. all my Goods, Chattels, Leafes, Debts, Plate, 
Jewels, &c and ail my other Subllance wha foever, move- 
a ! -; and immoveable, o what Kind, Nature and Quality 
j. i cr the fame are, and in what Place or Places foever the 
fa e luaii be found, as well in my own Cuftody or PoffeiTion, 
a- ii the foifefTion, Hands, P. wer and Cui:odycf any other 
Penon or Perfons whatfoever (or ali thofe Goods and Chat- 
tels in the Schedule hereunto annexed mentioned) To have 
and to hold all and lingular the laid Goods, Chattels, 
Leafes, Debts, and all other the afbrefaid Premises unto the 
laid C. D. his Executors, Administrators and kffigns, to his 
and their own proper Ul arad Ufes for ever. And I tie laid 
J. B. all and lingular the aforefaid Goods, Chattels and 
Preniife* to the faid C. D. hi Executors, Adminifhat«ri 
and Afiigns againft ail Perfons, do Warrant, and do for 
evei Defend by thefe i'refenis. In Witnefi, kc. 

Lw ry and Seilin mult be ecdorkd thus : Memorandum 
th« Day, kc. Livery and Seilin was delivered by the with n 
named A. 3. unto the laid C. D. of one Piece of Plate, kc. 
in the Name of all th^ Goods and Chattels within menti- 
oned, to hsld to him the faid C. D. his Executors, &c. for 
ever, according to the within written Deed. 

A Deed of Gift of Lands? &c. 

THTS Indenture made, &c. between A B. of, kc. of 
the one Part, and C.B. of, &c. Son of the faid A. B. 
of the other Part, witneffeth, that the laid A B. fiw and 
in Confideration of the natural Love and Affection which 
he hath and beareth unto the faid C. B. And for the b t- 
ter Maintenance and Livelihood of him the faid C. B. hath 
given, granted, aliened, infeoffed and confirmed ; and by 
thefe Prefents doth give, kc. unto the faid C. B. his H irs 
and Afligns, All that Meffuage or Tenement, fituate, &c. 
and alfo all thofe Pieces or Parcels of Land lying, &c. 
containing, &c. in the .'"enure and Occupation of, &c. and 
all and fingular the Houfes, Edifices, Buildings, Barns, 
Stables, Courts, Gardens, Orchards, Feedings, Woods, 
Under- woods, Common s, Common of Palture, "Ways, 
Paths, Parages, Waters, Water-courfes.Eafeu.ents, Profits, 
Cemmodities, Advantages, Hereditaments, and Appurte- 
nances whatfoever to the faid Meffuage or Tenement, Lands 
and Premifcs above-mentioned, or any Part thereof, belong- 
ing, or in anyways appertaining, or therewithal commonly 


ij% 'the Young Marts Bejl Companion. 

ufed, occupied or enjoyed, or accepted, reputed, taken or 
known as Part, Parcel, or belonging of or to tlie fame: And 
the Reveriion or Reverfions, Remainder and Remainders, 
Rent and Services of all and finguiar the faid Premifes j 
and all the Eitate, Right, Title, Intereft, Property, Claim 
and Demand whntfoever, of him the faid A. B. of, in and 
to the faid Meffuage, Lands and Premifes, and of, in and to 
every Part and Parcel thereof, with their and every of their 
Appurtenances, and all Deeds, Evidences and Writings con- 
cerning the faid Premifes only, or only any Part thereof, 
nosv in the Hands or Cufcody of the faid A. B. To have 
and to hold the faid Meffuage or Tenement, Lands, Here- 
ditaments, and all and lingular the Premifes hereby granted 
and conveyed, or mentioned or intended to be granted and 
conveyed, with their Appurtenances, uvto the Lid C. B. 
his Heirs and Affigns, to the only proper Ufe and Behoof of 
him the laid C. B. his Heirs and Affigns forever: And the 
faid 4. B. for himfelf, his PLirs, Executors and Admini- 
ftrators, doth covenant, promife and grant to and with the 
faid C. B. his Heirs and Affigns, by thefe Prefents, that he 
the faid C. B. his Heirs and Affigns, fhall.and lawfully, may, 
from henceforth for ever hereafter, peaceably and quietly 
have, hold, ufe, occupy, poiTefs and enjoy the laid Meffuage 
or Tenement, Lands and Premifes above-mentioned to be 
hereby granted, with their and every of their Appurtenan- 
ces, free, clear and difcharged, or well and fu.liciently faved 
and kept harmlefs of and from all former and other Grants, 
Bargains, Sales, Giits, Jointures, Feoffments, Leafes, Dow- 
ers E'tates, Entails, Rent Charges, Arrearges of Rents, 
Statutes, Judgments, Recognizances, Execu ions, and of 
and from all other Titles, Troubles, Charge; and Incum- 
brances whatfoever, had, made, cemmitted, done or fuf- 
fered, or to be had, made, &c. by him the faid A. B. his 
Heirs, Executors or Adminiltrators, or any other Perfon 
or Perfons lawfully claiming or to claim, by, from or under 
him, them, or any, or either of them. In Witnefs, &c. 

Of Indentures. 

NDENTURES are Deeds indented, cut at the Top one 
m into the other, and are fometimes of manv Parts. When 
a Deed is of two Parts, it is called Bipartite ; when there 
are three Parts, Tripartite ; when there are four Parts, 



The Touiig f.&s's T\tji Companion. 279 

Quadrupartite ; when five Parts, Quinquepartite ; and 
when it is of fix Parts, Sextipartite. And every Party to the 
Deed is to have a Part of it : The Grantor, &e. figns the 
Original, and the Reft are Counterparts. 

There are other Indentures, fmaller in their Nature, as 
Indentures of Apprenticeihip, Partition, &c. 

1 An Indenture for placing forth an Apprentice. 

THIS Indenture made, kc. witnefleth, That A. B. 
Sen of, &c. hath of his own free and voluntary Will 
(or by and with the (Jonfent of his Father) placed and bound 
himfelf Apprentice unto D. E. of, &c. Few-terer, to be 
taught in the faid Trade, Science or Occupation of a Pew- 
terer, which he the faid D. E. now ufeth, and with him as 
an Apprencice to dwell, continue and ferve from the Day of 
the Date hereof until the full End and Term of feven Years 
from thence next enfuing, and fully to be compleat and 
ended ; During ail which Term, the faid Apprentce his 
faid Matter weil and faithfully ihall ferve, his 6ecrets keep, 
his lawful Commands gladly do, Hurt to his faid Mafter 
he mail not do, nor wilfully fuller to be done by others, 
but of the fame to his Fower ihall forthwith give Notice 
to his faid Mafter. The Goods of his faid Mafter he Ihall 
not imbezle or walte, nor them lend without his Confent 
to any ; at Cards, Dice, or any other unlawful Games he 
Ihall not play; Taverns or Alehoufes he fnail not fre- 
quent; Fornication he ihall not commit; Matrimony he 
Ihall not contract ; from the Service of his faid Mailer he 
Ihall not at any Time depart or abient himfelf without his 
faid Matter's Leave ; but in all Things, as a good and 
faithful Apprentice, ihall and will demean and behave him- 
felf towards his faid Matter, and all his, during the faid 
Term. And the faid Mafter his faid Apprentice the faid 
Trade, Science, or Occupation of a Pewterer, with all 
Things thereun:o belonging, Ihall and will teach and in itrucl, 
or caufe to be well and furhciently taught and inftruded, af- 
ter the beft Way and Manner that he can ; and Ihall and will 
alfo find and allow unto his faid Apprentice, Meat, Drink, 
Walliing, Lodging and Apparel, both Lir.nen and Wooll- 
en, and all other Neceflaries fit and convenient fcr fuch 
an Appentice during the Term aforefaid. And at the End 
of the laid Term Ihall and will give to his faid Appren- 
tice, one new Suit cf Apparel, &c. In Witnefs, &c. 


2 So The T&m? Marts B<Ji Companion, 


Licence is aPowcr to do and execute Come A& or Thing; 
or to enjoy Lme Beneht, Privilege or Protection. 

A Licence to a Debtcr. 

TO all People, &€. We A. B. C. D. E. F. &e. whofe uic Here unde written, and Se.'.is aiiixed, 
Creditors of L. M. of, &c. Merchant, lead Greeting. 
Whereas the laid L. M. on the Day of the Datt hereof, 
it indebted unto us the faid Creditors in divers tans of 
Money, whi:h, by Reafon of great Lofies and Miifor- 
tunes, he is not at pieient abie to pay unto us without 
Reipite of Time to be given for taat Purpole : Know ye 
therefore, that we the laid Creditors do, by thefe Pre- 
sents, give and grant unto the laid L. M. free Licence, 
and our lure ana lafe Condutt to come and go, and reiorl 
unto us, and every of us, to compound and take Order 
with us, and every one of us, for our and every cf our (ail 
Debts ; and alfo to go about his or other Buiincfi and Af- 
fais at his free W ill and Plcafure, from the Day of the Date 
hereof unto the full End and Term i f one whole Year next 
coming, witiiout any Lett, Suit, Trouble, Arrefl, Attach- 
ment or other Dhturbance to be offered or done unto h.m 
the (aid L. M. his Wares, Goods, Money or Merchandizes 
whatfoever, by us, or any of as, or by the nc.n, Executors, 
Adminiitrators, Partners or AiL^ ns of as, or any of us, or 
by our or any of our Means and Procurement. And we the 
faid Creditors fe orally and respectively, each tor him. elf, 
his Executors and Admimltrators, dotn levcraily and apart, 
and not jointly covenant and grant to and with »he laid L.M. 
by thefe I'refents, That if any Trouble, Vexation, Wroag, 
Damage, or Hindrance mail be done unto him the faid L.M. 
either in his body, Goods or Chattels, within the faid Tern 
of one whole Year from the Date hereof, by us, or any of us, 
the faid Creditors, or by any Perfon or Perfons, by ®r thro* 
the Commandment, Procurement or Content of us, or any 
of us, againit the Tenor and £ffec~l of this our Licence, that 
then he the faid L. M. by Virtue of thefe P.elents, ihall 
be discharged and acquitted for ever towards and agaiuft 
him and them of us, his and their Executors, Adminii ra- 
ters, Partners and Afligns, and every of ther , by whom, 
and by whole Means he Ihall be vexed, arreiUd, troubled, 


*tbe %'nii*2 Man's Befl Companion. 281 

jmprifoned, attached, grieved, or damnified, of all Man- 
Ktl of Actions, ouits, (Quarrel*, Debts, Duties and De- 
mands, either in Law or Equity wuatioever. from the Be- 
ginning ot the World to me JJay of tke Date of thefc 
Faluns. In Witnefi, Sec. 

0/ Leafes, Dijirefs for Rent, &c. ' 

ALeafe is a Deed whereby Lands and Tenements, Sec. 
are demifed and letten for a leis Time than lie that 
doiii Jet them hath therein : And Leafes are either for Life 
|r for Yeais : Leaies for Life are called Freehold, and re- 
quire Livery cf Seiiin : Leaies for Years are calied Chattels, 
and are not iuherhable by Hers, bat go to the Executors, 
&l and a Leale for a 1 1< uland ^ ears ii but a Chattel. 

A Leale ma) be made for Weeks, Months, Quarters, &c. 
until fuch a i erm is expired : But in every Leale for Years 
the Teim mult have a certain Commencement and Deter- 
mination, or by Reference to a Certainty be made certain. 

If a Tenant for Years let up Wainfcot, Doors, Windows, 
Benches, &c. they may be taken down by fuch Tenant, fo 
at it be done before the End of the Tern, and he leave the 
Freehold in as good Condition as hefoundit. Cc.Z//. 5;, 272. 

Tenants in Tail, Bifhops, &c. may make Leaies for Lives 
or Years, upon certain Conditions ; they are to be made by 
Deed indented, to begin from the making ; they are not to 
exceed three Lives, or Twenty-ore Years ; they mui-c be of 
Lands commonly lei to Farm ; and the accuftomed yearly 
Rent, or more, is to be referved. Stat. 32 H. 8. 

A Leafe of a Hoitfe for a Term of Tears. 

THIS Indenture made the fifth Day of OStohtr, in the 
Year of our Lord, 1769, and in the ninth Year of 
the Reign of our Sovereign L*>rd GEORGE the Third (by 
the Grace of God) King of Great-Britain. France and Ire' 
land, Defender of the Faith, kc. between A. B. cf the Pa- 
ri ih of, &c. in the County of, &c. Gentleman, of the one 
Part, and C. D. of, &c. in the County of, Sec. Mercer, 
ef the other Part, witr.efleth, That the laid A. B. for and 
in Confideration of the yearly Rent and v. .ovenarts herein 
after referved and contained, on the Part and Behalf of 
the faid C. D. his Executors, Adminiftrators and Aftgns, 
to be paid, obicrvtd and performed, hath demifed, 


282 The T/iunr Mori's Btfi 'Companion. 

granted, and to Farm lctten ; and by thefe P relents doth 
demife, oV. unto the faid C. D. all that Meffuage or Te- 
nement called, i3c. now in the PofTeflion of, tsc. iituatc 
and lying in, c5<r. with all and lingular Ways, Waters, 
Lights, Eafements and Appurtenances, to the faid Mef- 
fuage or Tenement belonging, or in any Ways appertain- 
ing ; together with the U.e of the Goods in the 6chedule 
hereunto annexed mentioned ; to have and to hold the 
faid Meffuage or Tenement, and Prermfes above mention- 
ed, with the Appurtenances, unto the faid C. D. his Ex- 
ecutors, Adminii'crators and Afligns, from iSc. next, for 
and during the Term of feven Years thence next enfuing, 
and fully to be compleat and ended ; Yielding and Pay- 
ing therefore yearly during the faid Term unto the faid 
A. B. his Heirs and Afligns, the yearly Rent of 30 1. 
of, c5V. in and upon the Feafts of, c5>. by even and equal 
Portions. And if it fhall happen the faid yearly Rent a- 
bove referved, or any Part thereof, to be behind and un- 
paid in Part or in All, by the Space of Twenty-one Days 
next after any or either of the laid Days appointed for 
Payment thereof, then and from thenceforth it lhall and 
may be lawful to and for the faid A. B. his Heirs and Al- 
igns, into the faid Premifes to re-enter, and the fame to 
have again, repoflefs and enjoy, as in his and their nrft and 
former Eftate, Right and Title-; any Thing herein con- 
tained, to the contrary thereof in any wife notwithitanding. 
And the laid C. D. for himfelf, his Executors, Adrai- 
niitrators and Afligns, doth covenant and grant to and 
with the faid A. B. his Heirs and Afligns, that he the aid 
C. D. his Executors, Adminiibators and Afligns, lhall and 
will well and truly pay, or caufe to be paid unto the faid 
A. B. his Heirs and Afligns, the faid yearly Rent above 
referved, at the Days and Times, and in Manner and 
Form above exprefled, clear oft", and over and above all 
Taxes, Rates and Payments whatf»ever (except iSc ) and 
alfo that he the laid C. D. his Executors, Adminiiirators 
and Afligns, lhall and will from i ime to Time, and at all 
Times during the faid J erm hereby ranted, well and 1ufh- 
cien^lyrepair, maintain, fuflain, uphold, amend and keep the 
faid demifed Premifes, and every Part thereof, with the Ap- 
purtenances, in, by and with ail and all Manner of needful 
and neceflary Reparations whatfoever, when and as often as 
Need fhall require ; And the fame fo well and fufRciently 
repaired, maintained, fuitained, upheld and kept, a: the 


Thi Young Man's Beft Companion. 1 %% 

End of the faid Term unto the faid A. B. his Heirs and Af- 
figns lhall and well peaceably and quietly leave and yield up ; 
and alfo mall and will then leave unto the faid A. B. his 
Heirs and Afllgns, all fuch Goods as are mentioned in the 
Shedule hereto annexed, in as good Condition as they are 
now in (reafonable Ufage of them, and the Cafualty of Fire 
in the mean Time excepted.) And the faid A. B. for him- 
felf, his Heirs and Afllgns, doth covenant and grant to and 
with the faid C. D. his Executors, Adminifcrators and Af- 
figns, that he the faid C. D. his Executors, Adminiftrators 
and Afligns, lhall and may, by and under the yearly Rent 
and Covenants herein before referved and contained, peace- 
ably and quietly have, hold, occupy, poflefs and enjoy, all 
and lingular the faid Mefluage or Tenement and Premises 
above-mentioned, with the Appurtenances, for and during 
the faid Term hereby granted, withoat the Lett, Trouble, 
Hindrance, Moleftation, Interruption and Denial of him 
the faid A. B. his Heirs and Afligns, or of any other Per 
fon or Perfons claiming, or to claim by, from or under him. 
In Witnefs whereof the Parties firft above named, have to 
thefe pre feat Indentures interchangeably fet their Hands 
and Seals, the Day and Year above written. 

Of djfignments. 

AN Afiignment is the fetting over all a Man's Right, in 
Land or Goods, to another Perfon. There is an Af- 
fignee in Deed, and an Aflignee in Law ; An Aflignee in 
Deed, is he to whom a Leafe, Eftate or Intereft, is aflignei 
by Deed : And an Aflignee in Law, is fuch as the Law ap- 
pointed without Deed, as an Executor is an Aflignee in 
Law. Dy. 5. 

If aLeflee for Years aflign over his Term, the Landlord 
may charge which of them he will ; but an Acceptance of 
the Rent from the Aflignee (knowing of the Afiignment) 
determines the Election. 3 Co. 24. 

An AJJlgnment of a Bond. 

WHEREAS A. B. of, &c. in and by one Bond or Q- 
bligation, bearing Date, &c. became bound to CD. 
or, Sec. in the Penal Sum of 500 1. conditioned for the Pay- 
ment .of 250 1. aad Intereft, at a Day fi nee pad, as by the 
Bid Bond and Condition thereof may appear. And whereas 
N there 

2 84 The I'drtng Man's Bcft Companion, 

there now remains due to the faid C. D. for Principal and 
Intereil on the faid Bond, the Sum of 275 1. of, &c. Now 
know all Men by theft- Prell its, that the faid C. D. for and 
in Confideration of the faid Sum of, &c. to him in Hand 
paid by E. F, of, &c. the Receipt whereof the faid CD. 
doth hereby acknowledge, he the faid C. D. hath afligned 
and fet over, and by thele Prefents doth aflign and fet over 
unto the faid E. F. the faid recited Bond or Obligation, and 
the Monies thereupon due and owing. And all his Right, 
and Intereil of, in and to the fame. And the faid C. D. for 
the Confiderations aforefaid, hath made, ordained, confti- 
tuted and appointed, and by thefe Prefents doth make, &c. 
the faid E. F. his Executors and Adminillrators, his true 
and lawful Attorney and Attornies irrevocable, far him and 
in his Name, and in the Name and Names of his Executors 
and Adminillrators, but for the fole and proper Ufe and Be- 
nefit of the faid E. F. his Executors, Adminillrators, and 
Affigns, to aflc, require, demand, and receive of the faid 
A. B. his Heirs, Executors and Adminillrators, the Money 
due on the faid Bond; and on Nonpayment thereof, him 
his Heirs, Executors, and Adminillrators, to fue for, re- 
cover and receive the fame. And on Payment thereof, to 
deliver up and cancel the faid Bond, and give fufficientRe- 
leafes and Difcharges thereof; and one or more Attorney 
or Attornies under him to conilitutc ; and whatfoever the 
faid E. F. or his Attorney, mall lawfully do in the Premi- 
fes, the faid C. D. doth hereby allow and confirm. And 
the faid C. D. doth covenant with the faid E. F. That he 
the faid C D. hath not received, nor will receive the Mo- 
nies due on the faid Bond, or any Part thereof, neither 
fhall or will releafe or difcharge the fame, or any Part there- 
©f, but will own and allow of all lawful Proceedings for 
Recovery thereof, he the faid E. F. faving the faid C. D. 
harmlefs of and from anys Colts that may happen to him 
thereby. In Witnefs, &c. 

Of Mortgages, &C. 

A Mortgage is defined to be a Pawn ©f Lands, Tene- 
ments, &c. for Money borrowed : And may be made 
by Leafe for a long Term of Years (the ufual Way) Leafe 
and Releafe, Aflignment, &c. It is a Deed upon Condition, 
and until Failure in Payment of the Money borrowed, the 
Mortgagor is to enjoy the Lands ; and tho' Failure be mad* 
he has a Right of Redemption. 

1"-he Yotmg Marts Bcji Companion. 2S5 

If any Perfon, who has once mortgaged Lands, mort- 
gage the fame to any other Perfon, without difcovering to 
the fecond Mortgagee the prior Mortgage, the Mortgagor 
mail forfeit his Right of Equity of Redemption ; and the 
fecond Mortgagee may redeem, Stat. 4. &r 5. W. & M. 

Beiides Mortgages of Lands, Goods may be granted on 
Condition, in the" Nature of Mortgage, 

A Mortgage of Good:. 

THLS Indenture made, Sec. between L. M. of, Sec. of 
the one Part, and W. II. of, Sec. of the other Part, 
witnefTeth, That the faid L. M. for and in Confideration of 
the Sum of, Sec. to him in Hand paid by the faid W. H. at 
and before the Sealing and Delivery of thefe Prefents, the 
Receipt whereof the faid L. M. doth hereby acknowledge; 
He the faid L. M. hath bargained and fold, and by thefe 
Prefents doth bargain and fell unto the faid W. H. One Wag- 
gon, with the Horfe-Tackle and other Appurtenances there- 
to belonging, &c. To have and to hold the faid Waggon, 
and all other the Goods and Chatties above, by thefe Pre- 
fents bargained and fold unto the faid W. H. his Executors, 
Adminiftrators and AlTigns for ever. Provided always, and 
upon Condition, That if the faid L. M. his Executors, 
Adminiftrators and Aftigns, do and mall well and truly 
pay, or cauie to be paid unto the faid W. H. his Execu- 
tors, Adminiftrators and AlTigns, the full Sum of, Sec. in 
and upon, Sec. next coming. That then thefe Prefents, and 
every Thing herein contained, mall ceafe, determine, and 
be void ; any Tiling herein contained, to the contrary ia 
any wife notwithstanding. And the faid L. M. for himfelf, 
his Executors and Adminiftrators, doth covenant and grant 
to and with the faid W. H. his Executors, Adminiftrators 
and Aftigns, that he the faid L. M. his Executors, Sec. 
ftiall and will well and truly pay, or caufe to be baid un- 
to the faid W. H. his Executors, Sec. the faid Sum of, Sec. 
at the Day and Time, and in Manner and Form aforc- 
faid, according to the true Intent and Meaning of thefe 
Prefents. In Witnefs, &c. 

A Mortgage of Lands. 

THIS Indenture made, Sec. between A. B. of, &c. of 
the one Part, and C. D. of, Sec. of the ether Part, 
witnefi'eth that the (aid A. B. for and in Coaudcration cf 
N 2 tl; c 

_2&6 'The Toivng men's Bejl Companion. 

the Sum of, &c. to him in Hand paid by the faid C. D. the 
Receipt whereof the faid A. B. doth hereby confefs and ac- 
knowledge ; he the faid A. B. hath granted, bargained and 
fold, and by thefe Prefents doth grant, bargain and.fejl unto 
the faid CD. All that Meffuage or Tenement, &c. fituate, 
lying and being, &c. And alfo theReverfion andReverfions, 
Remainder and Remainders, Rents and Services of all and 
fingular the faid Premifes above-mentioned, and of every 
Part and Parcel thereof, with the Appurtenances. To have 
and to hold the faid Meffuage or Tenement, Lands and Pre- 
mifes above-mentioned, and every Part and Parcel thereof, 
with the Appurtenances, unto the faid C. D. his Executors, 
Adminiitrators and Afligns, for and during theXerm of 500 
Years next and immediately enfuing and following, and ful- 
ly to be compieat and ended ; Yielding and paying there-, 
fore yearly during the faid Term, one Pepper' Corn in and 
upon the Feait of, &c. if demanded. Pro ided always, and 
upon Condition, that if the faid A. B. his Heirs, and Af- 
figns, do and fhall well and truly pay or caufe to be paid un- 
to the faid C. D. his Executors, Adminiitrators or Affigns, 
the Sum of, &c. with legal Intcreft for the fame, in and 
upon, &c. next enfuing the Date hereof; then thefe Pre- 
fents, and every Thing herein contained, lhall ceafe, de- 
termine, and be void ; any Thing herein contained to the 
contrary notwithftanding. And the faid A. B. for him elf, 
his Heirs and Affigns, doth covenant and grant to and with 
the faid C D. his Executors, Adminiitrators and Affigns, 
that he the faid A. B. his Heirs and Afligns, ihall and will 
well and truly pay, or caufe to be paid unto the faid C. D. 
his Executors, Adminiitrators or Affigns, the faid full Sum 
of, &c. in and upon the faid, &c. next coming, according to 
the true Intent and Meaning of thefe Prefents. And alio, in 
cafe Failure ihall be made, that he the faid C. D. his Execu- 
tors, &c. fhall and may at all Times after Default, in Per- 
formance of the Provifo or Condition herein contained, 
peaceably and quietly enter into, have, hold, occupy, poflefs 
and enjoy all and fingular the faid Meffuage, Lands, and Pre- 
mifes above-mentioned, and every Part and Parcel thereof, 
with the Appurtenances, for and during the Remainder of 
the faid Term of 500 Years hereby granted, which fhall be 
then to come and unexpired, without the Lett, Hindrance, 
Moleitation, Interruption and Denial of him the faid A. B. 
his Heirs and Affigns, and of all and every other Perfon and 



The Toung Mail's Befi Companion. 287 

Fcrfons whatfoever. And further, That he the faid A. B. 
and his Heirs, and all and every other Perfon and Perfons, 
Mid his and their Heirs, any Thing having or claiming in the 
faid Melfuage or Tenement and Premifes above mentioned, 
or any Part thereof, fliall and will at any Time or Times, 
after Default fliall be made in Performance of the Provifo or 
Condition aforefaid, make, do and execute, or caufe or pro- 
cure to be made, &c. All and every fuch further and other 
lawful and reafonablc Grants, Atis and Aflurances in the 
Law whatfoever, for the farther, better and mere perfeft 
granting and affuring of all and lingular the faid Premifes 
above-mentioned, with the Appurtenances, unto the faid 
C. D. To hold to him the faid C. D. his Executors, Ad- 
lttiniftrator« and Afligns, for and during all the Reft and Re- 
fidue of the faid Term of 500 Years above-mentioned, 
which fliall be then to come and unexpired, as by the faid 
C. D. his Executors, Admin iftrators or Afligns, or his or 
their Council learned in the Law, fhall be reafonably de- 
vifed, advifed and required. And laftly, It is covenanted, 
granted, concluded and agreed upon by and between the faid 
Parties to thefe Prefents, That untii Default fliall be made 
in Performance of the Provifo or Condition herein contain- 
ed, he the faid A. B. his Heirs and Afligns, fhall and may 
hold and enjoy the faid Melfuage or Tenement and Premi- 
fes above-mentioned, and receive and take the Rents, Iffues 
and Profits thereof to his and their proper Ufe and Benefit ; 
any Thing herein contained to the contrary thereof in any 
wife notwithstanding. In Witnefs, &c. 

Of Conveyances, Feoffments, Wills. 

^'TpHE ufual Conveyance of Lands at this Time, is by 

X Leafe and Releafe. A Leafe for a Year, or a Bargain 

and Sale, is firft drawn to give Poffeffion, by Force of the 

Statute 27 H. 8. and then the Releafe is made to convey 

the Fee of the Premifes to the Perfon intended. 

A Releafe made by one that hath no Right to the Lands, 
is void : And a Releafe to one, ,hat at the Time of the 
Releafe had nothing in the Lands, is alfo void ; for he 
ought to have a Freehold, Pofleflion or Privity. A Releafe 
of a Man's Right in Fee-fimple, is not fufneient topafs the 
fame ; but a Releafe to a Man and his Heirs, will pafs as 
a Fee-'fimple, and to the Heirs of his Body, as in Eftate Tail. 
Ce ' Lit - N 3 A Feoff- 


■288 Fbe Ymng Mwfs Bejt Companion, 

A Feoffment wat our ancient Conveyance of Lands ; to 
which Livery and Seifin is neceffary, the Poffeflion being 
thereby given to the Feoffee : And this Deed is faid to ex- 
cel a Fine or Recovery, it clearing all Diflcifins, and other 
wrongful Eftates, which no other Conveyance doth ; and for 
that it is fo folemnly and publickly made it has been of all 
ether Conveyances the moil obferved. Plon.vd. 554. 

By Leafe and Releafe, Feoffment to Ufes, Fine and Re- 
covery of Lands, &c. Marriage Settlements and Jointures 
ire made to Women (in Confideration of their Fortunes) 
which the Law is ever careful to preferve ; and whereof 
the Woman may not be diverted, but by her own Fine, z 
Co. Rep. 

All Grants, Conveyances, &c. made of Lands or Tene- 
ments, to defraud any Purchafer of the fame for valuable 
Confideration as againft fuch Purchafer, and all claiming 
under him, fhall be void. Stat. 27 Eli** 

A Leafe or Bargain and Sale for a Tear, as the Founda- 
tion of a Releafe. 
THIS Indenture made, &c. between A. B. of, &c. of 
the one Part, and C. D. of, &c. of the other Part, 
witneffeth, That the faid A. B. for and in Confideration of 
the Sum of Five Shillings of, &c. to him in Hand paid by 
the faid C. D. the Receipt whereof is hereby»aeknowledged, 
he the faid A. B. hath granted, bargained and fold, and by 
thefe Prefents doth grant, &c. unto the faid C. D. all that 
Meffaage,&c. and theReverfion andReverfions, Remainder 
and Remainders, Rents and Services of the faid Premifes 

i above mentioned, and of every Part and Parcel thereof, 
with the Appurtenances ; To have and to hold the faid Mef-^ 
fuage or Tenement, Lands, Hereditaments and Premifes a- 
bovementioned, and every Part and Parcel thereof, with the 
Appurtenances, unto the faid C. D. his Executors, Admini- 
ftrators and Affigns, from, &c. for and during unto the full 
End and Term of one whole Year from thence next and im- 
mediately enfuing and following, fully to be Compleat and 
ended ; Yielding and Paying therefor* one Pepper-Corn in 

' and upon the Fcaft of St. Michael the Archangel (if de- 
manded) To the Intent that by Virtue of thefe Prefents, 
and by Force of the Statute for transferring of Ufes into Pof- 
ieffion, he the faid C D. may be in the actual Poffeflion of 


The Toung Man's By} Companion. 289 

all and fingular the faid*Premifes above-me'ntioHed, with 
the Appurtenances, and be thereby enabled to accept and 
take a Grant and Releafe of the Reverfion and Inheritance 
thereof to him and his Heirs to the only proper Uie and 
Behoof of him the faid C. D. his Heirs and Affigns, for 
ever. In Witnefs, &c. 

A Releafe or Conveyance of Lands. 

TinS Indenture made, Sec. between A. B. of, Sec. of 
the one Part, and C. D. of, &c. of the other Part, 
witneffeth, That the faid A. B. for and in Confederation 
ef the Sum of, Sec. to him in Hand paid by the faid C. D. 
the Receipt whereof the faid A. B. doth hereby confefs and 
acknowledge, and for divers other good Caufes and Cobb- 
derations him thereunto moving ; he the faid A. B. hath 
granted, bargained and fold, aliened, releafcd and confirm- 
ed, and by thefe Prefents doth fully, freely and abfolutely 
grant, bargain, Sec. unto the faid C. D. (in his actual Pof- 
feflion now being, by Virtue of a Bargain and Sale to him 
thereof made for one whole Year, by Indenture bearing 
Date the Day next before the Day of the Date of thefe 
Prefents, and by Force of the Statute for transferring of 
Ufcs into Poffefiion) and to his Heirs and Afiigns for ever, all 
that MelTuage or Tenement, fituate, Sec. with the Rights, 
Members and Appurtenances thereof, and all Houfes, Edi- 
fices, Buildings, Orchards, Gardens, Lands, Meadows, 
Commons, Paft tires, Feedings, Trees, Woods,Under- Woods, 
Ways, Paths, Waters, Water-courfes, Eafements, Profits, 
Commodities, Advantages, Hereditaments and Appurte- 
nances whatsoever, to the faid Meffuage or Tenement be- 
longing, or in any wife appertaining, or which now are, 
or formerly have be&i accepted, reputed, taken, known, 
ufed, or occupied or enjoyed to or with the fame, or as Part, 
Parcel or Member thereof, or of any Part thereof, fituate, 
lying and being in, &c. aforefaid : And alfo the Reverfion 
and Reverfions, Remainder and Remainders, Rents and 
Services, of all and fingular the faid Premifes above-men- 
tioned, and of every Part and Parcel thereof, with the 
Appurtenances : And alfo all the Eftate, Right, Title, 
Interelt, Claim and Demand whatsoever, as well in Equity 
■s in Law of him the faid A. B. of, in and to all and fin- 
gular the faid Premifes above-mentioned, and of, in and 
N 4 t * 

290 The Toimg-Man's B'cft Companion. 

to every Part !fnd Parcel thereof, tvith the Appurtenances ; 
and alfo all Deeds, Evidences and Writings, touching or 
concerning the faid Premifes only, or only any Fart thereof, 
together with true Copies of all other Deeds, Evidences 
and Writings, which concern the faid Premifes, or any 
Part thereof, jointly with any other Lands or Tenements, 
how in the Cuftody or Poifefiion of him the faid A. B. or 
which he can or may get or come by without Suit in Law ; 
the fame Copies to be made and written at the Requeft, 
Colls and Charges, of the faid C. l>. his Heirs and Af- 
figns : To have and to hold the faid Mefluage or Tene- 
ment, Lands, Hereditaments, and all and lingular the 
Premifes above-mentioned, and every Part and Parcel 
thereof, with the Appurtenances, unto die faid -'. D. his 
Heirs and Affigns, to the only proper Ufe and Behoof of 
the faid C. D. his Heirs and Affigns, for ever. And the 
faid A. B. for himfelf, his Heirs and Affigns, dcth cove- 
nant and grant to and with the faid C. D. his Heirs and 
Affigns, That he the faid A. B. now is the true lawful and 
rightful owner of all and Angular the faid MeiTuages, 
Lands, Tenements, Hereditaments and Premifes above- 
mentioned, and of every Fart ai.d Parcel thereof, with 
the Appurtenances : And alfo, that he the faid A. B. now 
is lawfully and rightfully f ifed, in his own Right, of a 
good, fure, perfecl:, abiblute and indefeasible Eilate of 
Inheritance in Fee-fimple, of and in all and fingular the 
faid Premifes above-mentioned, with the Appurtenances, 
without any Manner of Condition, Mortgage, Limita- 
tion of Ufe or Ufes, or other Matter, Caufe or 1 hing, 
to alter, change, charge or determine the fame : And alfo, 
that he the faid A. B. now hath good Right, full Power, 
and lawful Authority, in his own Right to grant, bargain, 
fell and convey, the faid Mefluage, ^,ands, Tenements, 
Hereditaments and Premifes above-mentioned, with the 
Appurtenances, unto the faid C. D. his Heirs and Affigns 
to the only proper Ufe and Behoof of him the laid 
C. D. his Heirs and Affigns, for ever, according to the 
true Intent and Meaning of thefc Prefents ; and alfo, that 
he the faid C. D. his Heirs and Affigns, fhall and may at 
all Times forever hereafter, peaceably and quietly have, 
hold, occupy, polfefs and enjoy, all and lingular the laid 
Mefluage, Lands, Tenements, Hereditaments and Premi- 
fes above-mentioned, with the Appurtenances, without 


The Young Mtftfs Bejt Companion. 291 

the Lett, Hindrance, Moleftation, Interruption and Deni- 
al, of liim the faid A. B. his Heirs and Affigns, and of all 
and every other Perfon or Perfons whatfoever ; and that 
freed and difcharged, or otherwife well and fufficiently 
faved and kept harrnlefs and indemnified, of and from all 
former and other Bargains, Sales, Gifts, Grants, Leafes, 
Mortgages, Jointures, Dowers, Uies, Wills, Entails, Fines, 
Poll fines, Ilfues, Amerciaments, Seizures, Bonds,Annuities, 
Writings Obligatory, Statutes Merchant, and of the 
Staple, Recognizances, Extents, Judgments, Executions, 
Rents and Arrearages of Rents, and of and from all o- 
ther Charges, Eitates, Rights, Titles, Troubles and In- 
cumbrances whatfoever ; had, made, committed, done or 
fuffered, or to be had, made, &c. by the faid A. B. or 
any other Perfon and Perfons whatfoever, claiming or to 
claim, by, from or under him, them or any of them ; and 
further, that he the faid A. B. and his He rs, and all and 
every other Perfon and Perfons, and his and their 
Heirs, any Thing having or claiming in the faid Premifes 
above-mentioned, or any Part thereof, by, from or under 
him, mall and will, from Time to Time, and at all Times 
hereafter, upon the reafonable Requeft and at the Cofts 
and Charges of the faid C. D. his Heirs and Affigns, make, 
do and execute, or caufe or procure to be made, Sec. all 
and every fuch farther and other lawful and reafoRable 
Aft and Acts, Thing and Thiags, Device and Devices, 
Conveyance and Conveyances, in the Law whatfoever, for 
the further, better and more perfeft granting, conveying 
and alluring of all and fingular the faid Premifes above- 
mentioned, with the Appurtenances, unto the faid ,'. D. 
■ his Heirs and Affigns, to the only proper Ufe and Behoof 
of the faid C. D. his Heirs and Affigns, for ever, as by 
the faid C. D. his Heirs or Affigns, or his or their Council 
learned in the Law, fliall be reafonably. deviled, or advifed 
and required. And laltly, It is covenanted, granted and 
agreed upon, by and between the faid Parties to thefe Pre- 
fents,-and the true Meaning hereof alfo is, and it is hereby 
fo declared, _ that all and every Fine and Fines, Recovery 
and Recoveries, Ailurance and Afiurances, Conveyance and 
Conveyances, in the Law whatfoever, already had, made, 
levied, fuffered, executed and acknowledged, or at any 
Time hcreafcer to be had,, made, &c. by cr between the 
faid Parties to thefe Preients, or either of them, or by or 


292 The Young Man's Befl Companion. 

between them, or either of them, and any other Perfon or 
Perfons whatsoever, of the fairl Meffuage, Tenement, 
Lands and Premifes above-mentioned, with the Appurte- 
nances, either alone by itfelf, or jointly with any other 
Lands, Tenements, or Hereditaments, fhall be and enure, 
and (hall be adjudged efteemed and taken to be and enure, 
as for and concerning all and fingular the faid Premifes a- 
bovc-mentioned, with the Appurtenances, to and for the 
only proper Ufe and Behoof of the faid C. D. his Heirs 
and Affigns, for ever, according to the true Intent and 
Meaning of thefe Prefents, and to and for none other Ufe, 
Intent or Purpofe whatfoever. In Witnefs, &c. 

A Deed of Fesjfment of a Meffuage. 

THIS Indenture made, &c. between H. I. of, &c. of 
the one Part, and K. L. of &c. of the other Part, 
witneffeth, That the faid //. /. for and in Confideratien 
of the Sum of Five Hundred Pounds of lawful Money of 
Great-Britain, to him in Hand paid by the faid K. L. the 
Receipt whereof the faid H. I. doth hereby confefs and 
acknowledge, and for other good Caufes and Confiderati- 
ens him thereunto moving, he the faid H. I. hath granted, 
bargained and fold, aliened, enfeoffed, releafed and con- 
firmed, and by thefe Prefents doth grant, &c. unto the 
faid K. L. All that Meffuage, &c. now in the Poffeffion of, 
&c. fituate and lying, &c. and alfo the Reverfion and Re- 
verfions, Remainder and Remainders, Rents and Services 
thereof; arid alfo all the Eltate, Right, Title, Intereft, 
Claim and Demand, whatfoever, of him the faid H. I. of, 
in and to the fame Premifes, and of, in and to every 
Part and Parcel thereof; To have and to hold the faid 
Meffuage, Sec. and Premifes above-mentioned, with the 
Appurtenances, unto the faid K. L. his Heirs and AiTigns, 
to the only proper Ufe and Behoof of him the faid K. L. 
his Heirs and Affigns, for ever, under the yearly Rent of 
Four-pence ; {or to be holden of the Chief Lord or Lords 
of the Fee of the Premifes, by the Rents and Services 
therefore due, and of Right accuftomed.) And the faid 
//. /. for himfelf, his Heirs and Affigns, doth covenant 
and grant to and with the faid K. L. his Heirs and Affigns, 
that he the faid H. I. now is lawfully and rightfully, feifed 
in his own Right of a good, fure, perfeel, abfolute and 


The Young Ivluni Bcf. Companion. 293 

indefcafible Eftate of Inheritance in Fee-fmiple, of and in 
all and fingular the faid Meffuage and Premifes above- 
mentioned, and of every Part thereof, with the Appurte- 
nances, without any Manner of Condition, Mortgage, Li- 
mitation of Ufc or Ufes, or other Matter, Caufe or Thing, 
to alter, change, charge or determine the fame : And alio 
that he the faid H. I. now hath good Right, full Power, 
and lawful Authority, in his own Right to grant, bargain, 
fell and convey, the faid MefTuage and Premifes above- 
mentioned, with the Appurtenances, unto the faid K. L. 
his Heirs and Affigns, to the only proper Ufc and Behoof 
of the faid K. L. his Heirs and Affigns for ever, accord- 
ing to the true Intent and Meaning of thefe Prefents. And 
alio, that he the faid K. L. his Heirs and Affigns, fhall 
and may, from Time to Time, and at all Times hereafter 
peaceably and quietly have, hold, occupy, poffefs and 
enjoy, all and fingular the faid Premifes above-mentioned 
to be hereby granted, with the Appurtenances, without 
the Lett, Trouble, Hindrance, Moleftation, Interruption 
and Denial, of him the faid H. I. his Heirs or Affigns, 
and of all and every other Peifon and Perfons, whatib- 
ever, claiming or t-n claim by, from or under him, them, 
or any of them. And further, that he the faid H. I. and 
Lis Heirs, and all and every other Peifon snd Perfons, and 
his and their Heirs, any Thing having or claiming in the 
faid MefTuage and Premifes above-mentioJied, or any Part 
thereof, by from or under him, fhall and will at all Times 
hereafter, at the Requeit and Cells of the faid K. L. his 
Heirs or Affigns, make, do and execute, or caufe or pro- 
cure to be made, done and executed, all and every further 
and other lawful and reafonable Grants, Afts and Af- 
finances in the Law whatsoever, for the further better, and 
more perfect granting, conveying and alluring of the faid 
Premifes hereby granted, with the Appurtenances, unto 
the faid K. L. his Heirs and Affigns, to the only proper 
Ufe and Behoof of the faid K. L. his Heirs and Affigns, for 
ever, according, to the true Intent and Meaning of thefe 
Prefents, and to and for none o'ther Ufe, Intent or Purpofe 
whatfoever. And laftly, the faid H. 1. hath made, ordain- 
ed, conftituted and appointed, and by thefe Prefents doth 
make, ordain, conllitute and appoint M. N. of, &c. and 
0. P. of, &c. his true and lawful Attornies jointly, and 
cither ef them feverally, for him, and in his Name, 


1 9-}- The Young Mayh Be ft Companion. 

into the faid MefTuage and Premifes, with the Appurte- 
nances hereby granted and conveyed, or mentioned to be 
granted and conveyed, or into fome Part thereof, in the 
Name of the whole, to enter, and full and peaceable Pof- 
n and Seifm thereof for him, and in his Name, to 
take and have, and after fuch Poflefiion and Seiiin fo there- 
of taken and had, the like full and peaceable Pofiemon and 
Seifin thereof, or of fome Part thereof, in the Name of the 
v-ii e, unto the faid K. L. or to his certain Attorney or 
Attornies, in that Behalf, to give and deliver ; to hold to 
kim the faid. K. jL< his Heirs and Aftigns. for ever, accor- 
ding to the Purport, true Intent and Meaning of theie Pre- 
fents ; ratifying, confirming and allowing all and whatso- 
ever his laid Attends, or either of them, fhall do in the. 
Premifes. In Witnefs, &c. 

A Wtlt'witb Devife ef Lands , Goods arid Chattels,. 

IN the Name ©f God, Amen. I H. I. of, &c. being 
weak in Body, bat of found Memory (bleffed be God) 
do this Day, &c. in the Year, &c. make and publifh this 
my laft Will and Teftament in Manner following ; (that i» 
to fay) Firft I give to my Son K. I. the Sum of Five Hun- 
dred Pounds. Alfo I give and bequeath to my Daughter 
Mi I. the Sam of Four Hundred Pounds. Alfo I give to my 
dear Wife E. I. the Sam of Three hundred Pounds. Alfo T 
give to my Brother T. I;- and Coufin L. I. each the Sum-- 
ef One Hundred Pounds, to be paid within fix Months next 
after my Deceafe. Alfo I give all that Mcffuage or Tene- 
ment, fituate, &c. wherein I now live, to my faid Son K. I. 
to hold to him during his Life ; and after his Deceafe I 
give the ffinfe to t»y Daughter M. I. during the Remain- 
der of my Ettate andlntereft therein. Alfo I give all my 
Lands in the Parifh of, &c» to my Wife E. I. to hold to 
her during her natural Life, fhe" making no Wafte or De- 
ftruction thereupon ; and from and after her Deceafe, I 
rive ai>d ievife the fame to my faid-Son Kx.1. for the Term 
or his natural Life ; and after his Death I devife the lame 
to my Daughter M. I: during her natural Life ; and after 
the Determination of that Eftate, I give and devife the* 
■ to my loving Friends C. D. and E. F. and their 
Heirs, uuiing the Life of my faid Daughter M. to the 
Eatent to preferve and fuppart the contingent Ufes and Re- 

1 Lc To (Dig Man's Beft Companion. 295 

maindcrs herein after limited ; hut nevertheless, in Trull, 
to permit my Daughter M. to receive the Rents and Profits, 
thereof during her Life ; And from and after the Deceafe 
of my faid Daughter M. then to remain to the firft Son of 
my faid Daughter M. and the Heirs of the Body of iuch 
firit Son lawfully iifuing ; And for Default of fuch J Hue, 
then to the Ufe and Behoof of the fecond, third,-, fourth, 
fifth, and all and every other Son and Sons of my laid 
Daughter M. begotten ^ the elder of iuch Son and Sony, and 
the Heirs of his Body, lawfully bluing, to be always pre- 
ferred, and to take before the Younger of fuch Sons, and 
the Heirs of his Body : And for Default of fuch LTue, then 
I give the fame to, Sec. for and during the Tern of his 
natural Life ; And after his Deceafe, to remain to his 
LTue in Tail, in fuch Manner as I have limited the fame to 
my Daughter M. and for Default of fuch IfTue, then to re- 
main to, Sec. and the Heirs Male of his Body begotten, &c. 
And for Default of fuch Iifue, to remain to my own right 
Heirs forever. All the relt of my Lands and Tenements 
whatfocver, whereof I fhall die feifed, in PoiTeflion, Re- 
verfion or Remainder, I give to my faid Son K. I. his 
Heirs and Afiigns, forever. -Alfo I give to, &c. Eight 
Guineas a Piece to buy them Mourning, &c. Alfo, I give 
to my Servant Man, &c. and the twe Servant Maids that 
fhall be living with me at the Time of my Deceafe, Ten 
Pounds a Piece. Alfo, I give to the Poor of the Parifh of, 
&c. Fifty Pounds. Alfo, I give my Wife E. I. during her 
Life, the Ufe of all my Plate and Houmold-ftuft ; And 
after her Death the fame to remain to, &c. Alfo, All th« 
Reft and Refidue of my Good?, Chattels, and perfonal 
Eftate whatfoever, I give to my faid Wife E. I. And I 
Bake and ordain her niy faid Wife foie Executrix of this 
my Will, in Truft for the Intents and Purpofes in this my 
Will contained. And I make my loving Friends, Sec. 
Overfeers of this my Will, to take care and fee the fame 
performed according to my true Intent and Meaning ; and 
for their ! J ains, I give each of them, &c. In Witnefs where- 
of, I the faid //. /. have to this my laft Will and Teftamen-t 
fet my Hand and Seal, the Day and Year above written. 
Signed, fcaled and delivered by the laid 
//. 1. as and for his laft Will and Te- 
ftament, in the Prefence of us, v/ho 
were prclent at the Signing and Seal- 
ing thereof. ^ ^ 1 -" 1 

296 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

A Will gives and conveys Eftates, and alters the Proper- 
ty of Lands and Geods, in like Manner as a Deed execu- 
ted in a Man's Life-time. It was ordained by Statute 32 
H. 8. and by zo. Car. ?.. all Devifes of Lands, &c. are to 
be made in Writing, and figned by the Devifor in the 
Prefence of thre-e \\ itnefles. 

Wills arc to be governed by the Intention ; and the In- 
tent in Devifes mny fometimes make filiates to pais contrary 
to the Rules of the Law, with Refpeft to other Deeds. 
The firft Grant and lail Will Hand in Force. Co. Lit. 25. 
Plovjd. 162. 

There mull be three Witnefles to the Signing and Sealing 
of a Will. 

AJJjort but comprehenfive Account of all Arts and 

ALCHYMY, is that fublime Part of Chymiftry, which 
teaches the Art of tranfmuting Metals, and making 
the Grand Elixir, or 1'hilofopher's Stme, as fome are weak 
enough to believe. But the beft Definition of it is, that it 
is an Art without Art, which begins with Lying, is carried 
on with Labour, and ends with Beggary. 

ALGEBRA, commoRly calied the Analytick Art, be- 
caufe it teaches how to reiblve Quefcions, and dem&nftrate 
Theorems, by fearchir.g into the fundamental Nature and 
Frame of the Thing. It is the Science of Quantity in Ge- 
neral, or a peculiar Method of Reafoning, which takes the 
Quantity fought, as if it were known, and then by the Help 
of another, of more Quantities given, proceeds by undeni- 
able Confequences, tiil at length the Quantity firft only 
fupp'.fed to be known, is found to be equal to fome Quan- 
tity or Quantities certainly known. 

ANATOMY, is that Art which teaches to difiect or take 
to Pieces any Animal Body, in a curious and dexterous 
Manner, in order to difcover and explain the Original, 
Nature and Ufe, of its feveral Parts, for the Improvement 
of Phyfick and natural Philofophy. 

ARCHITECTURE, is the Art of eredling Edifices 
proper for Habitations. The Antients have eftablifhed five 
Orders of Architecture, called the i'v/can, the Dorick, the 
Ionick, the Corinthian, and the Cempofite, or Roman Order, 
the Difference between which Orders confifts in the Co- 

The Young Man's Beft Companion. 297 

lumn, with its Bafe and Capital, and the Entablature, that 
is, the Architrave, Fri/e and Cornice ; for thefc are the 
Parts which conilitute the Order, and each one hath its 
proper and peculiar Meafures. The Rules of Architecture 
require Solidity, Convenience and Beauty. Solidity implies the 
Choice of a good Foundation, and good found Materials to 
work with. Convenience confifts in ft) ordering and diipofing 
Ithe Parts ef an Edifice, that they may not hinder or em- 
(arrtfsone another. Beauty is that due ranging and agree- 
able Union and Syrnetry of all the Parts, which, upon the 
Whole, exhibits to the Eye of the Spectators a beautiful 
Form and Appearance. Architecture may likewife be di- 
vided into Civil, Military and Naval. Civil ArcUtcelnre 
teaches to contrive and erect cemmodious Buildings for 
the Ufes of Civil Life ; fuch as Churches, Palaces and pri- 
vate Houfes. Military Architecture lhews the beft Way of 
railing Fortifications" about Cities, Towns, Camps, Sea 
Ports, c5V. Naval Architecture is employed about the Build- 
ing of Ships, Gallics, and other Veflels for the Water, to- 
gether with Ports, Moles, Docks, \3c. on Shore. 

ARITHMETICK, is the Art ©f numbering 
truly, and of finding all the Properties and Powers of 

ASTROLOGY, is that fooliih Science which 
pretends to foretel future Events from the Motions of 
the heavenly Bodies, and their Afpetts one to another ; 
er from fome imaginary, hidden Qualities, which the 
weak Admirers of this Cheat will have to be in the 

ASTRONOMY, is a mathematical Science, 
which teaches us the Knowledge cf the Stars or heavenly 
Bodies, viz. Their Magnitudes, Diftanees, Motions and 

BOOK-KEEPING, is the Art of keeping fo 
diftin&ly all the Tranfa&ions of a Man's Bufinefs, that he 
may know at any Time the true State of his Affairs with 
Eafe and Certainty. 

BOTANY, as it relates to the Science of Medicine, 
teaches to difcover and enumerate the feveral Virtues of 
Plants and Simples : As it relates alfo to Natural Hi jlory, 
it teaches to diftinguifh the feveral Kinds and Species of 
Plants, Trees, Shrubs, 13c. one from another, and to give 

juJl Defcriptions of them. 


29 8 The Young Man's kejt Companion. 

C H Y M I S T R Y, teaches how to feparate the dif- 
ferent Subitances that are found in mixed Bodies, as Ani- 
mals, Plants or Minerals, ai-.d to reduce them to their firft 

C HI R O L O G Y, the Art of dumb Language, or a 
Method of talking by Signs made with the Hands. 

CHIRURGERY (or, as it is commonly written 
and pronounced, Surgery) is tie third Branch of the cura- 
tive Part of Medicine, and teaches how feveral Difcaies 
and Accidents, incident to the Body of Man, may be cured 
by manual Operation. It is divided by fome into five 
Parts, i. Sytubejis, a fetting together Things that are fe- 
parated. z. Diarefis, a feparating Things that were before 
connected. 3. Diortbefis, a correcting of Things fqueezed 
together and contorted. 4. Ex<ere/ls, the taking away of 
Superfluities. 5. 4nap)ercjis, the restoring of that which 
was deficient, it is a common Saying, that a good Sur- 
geon fhould have an Eagle's Eye, a Lion's Heart, and a 
Lady's Hand. 

CHRONOLOGY, is the Art of computing Time 
from the Creation of the World for hiftorical Ufes, and 
preserving an Account of remarkable TranfacTions, fo as 
to date truly the Beginnings and the Ends of Reigns of 
Princes, the Revolutions of Kingdoms and Empires, fignal 
Battles, c3V. 

COSMOGRAPHY, teaches to defcribe the whole 
Frame of the Universe, with the feveral farts thereof, ac- 
cording to their Number, Pofitions, Motions, Magnitudes, 
Figures, C5Y. The Sciences of Aftronomy and Geography 
are comprehended in this. 

D I A L I N G, is the Art of drawing Lines on a given 
Plane, in iuch a Manner as to fhew the Hour of the Day 
when the un fhincs. Papyriiis Cur/or fet up the firft Sun- 
dial in Rome, about the Year of the City 447 ; and before 
that, according to Pliny, there was no Account of Time, 
but the Sun's riling and fetting. 

ETHICS, is the Science of Morality, by which 
we are taught the Rules and Mealurcs of human Action ; 
the Writers upoa if ufually divide it into two Parts : The 
fiil contains an Account of the Nature of moral Good and 
Evil : The other enumerates the feveral Virtues in which 
the Practice and Exercife of Morality cohfifis, and which 
arc the propei Means for us to obtain true Felicity, the 
End of all Moral Aclicns. G E O- 

The Young Man's Weft Companion. 299 

GEOGRAPHY, teaches to defcribe the whole 
Globe of the Earth and all its Parts. It is ufually divided 
Jllto General and Particular. General, or Univer/al Geogrci- 
fhy, confiders the whole entire Globe of Earth and Water, 
jis to its Figure, Magnitude, Motions, Land, Sea, IsC 
without any Regard to particular Countries. Particular, 
or Special Geography, considers the Coniiitution of the fe- 
veral Countries, or Regions, tiieir Figure, Bounds, Parts, 
\$c. The Foreifs, Mountains, Mines, Rivers, Animals, 
feints, &c. As alfo the Climate, Seafons, Weather, Heat, 
Cold, Diilance from the EquinocTial, fee. the Inhabitants, 
Arts, Communities, Cities, Commodities, Foods, Lan- 
guage, Cuiloms, Policy, Religion, (3c. 

GEOMETRY, originally fignifies the An ef r?.ca- 
furing the Eaith, or any Diitances or Dimenfious on, or be- 
ing to it ; but it is now ufed for the scien ..n- 

tity, Exteftfion or Magnitude, abftracfcedl) confidered, v itji- 
out any Regard to M. " Gesmetry may be divided into 

four Farts. i.Planimiet v, 01 the Menfuri 'ain Sur- 

faces. z.Jltimetry, or the ak ng and mc.iluring cf Heights, 
whether acce'J bic or inaccefiibie. •?. Longimetry, or the Art 
of taking th« Diitances of 'things afar off, as Steeples, 
Houfes, Trees, csV. 4. Stereometry, or the Art of meafur- 
ing folid Bodies. 

GRAMMA R, is the Art of Speaking or Writing 
properly, or of expreffing the Relation of Things in Con- 
feuclion, with due Accent in Speaking, and Chr'tv graphy 
ur Writing, according to the Cuftom of thofe whole Lan- 
guage we iearn. 

HERALDRY, is the Art of Armoury, or Blazoning. 
Itconfihs in the Knowledge of what relates to royal Solem- 
nities, Cavalcades and Ceremonies at Coronations, Inter- 
of Kings, Instalments, Creation of Peers, Funerals, 
ages, <3c. and alfo in giving the proper Coat-armour 
to all Perfons, regulating their Right of Precedency in Point 
ef Honour, andreftrainiag thofe from bearing Coat-armour 
that have not a juft Claim thereto, &c. The Herald's Col- 
lege is a Corporation efhiblithed by Richard }\l. conniii 
of Kings at Arms, Heralds, and Purfuivants, who are em- 
ployed to denounce War, proclaim Peace. Sec. 

HUSBANDRY, is the Art of tilling or cultivating 
the Earth, in order to lender it fertile, and to affiit Nate-e 
ia bringing to preater Perfection the Products thereof. 


3©o The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

HYDRAULICKS, the Art of making all Sorts of 
Engines to carry or raife Water, or which are moved by 
Water, and ferve for other Ufes. 

HYDROGRAPHY, is that Part of Geography 
which confidcrs the Sea, and teaches the Art of making 
Sea Charts, meafuring and defcribing the Sea, acceunting 
for its Tides, Counter-tides, Currents, Bays, Soundings, 
Gulfs ; alfo its Sands, Shallows, Shelves, Rocks, Promon- 
tories, Diflances from Port to Port, with whatfeever is re- 
markable either out at Sea, or on the Coaft. 

HYDROSTA T I C K S, is the Dcflrine of Gravi- 
tation in Fluids, or that Part of Mechanicks that confiders 
the Weight or Gravity of fluid Eodies, efpecially Water, 
and alfo of folid Bodies immerged therein. 

L A W, applied to the fe\eral Policies and States of 
People, is the Maxims and Rules they have agreed upon, or 
received from their Magiftrates, in order to live in Peace 
and mutual Society: or it is a Command or Precept com- 
ing from fome Superior Authority, which an inferior is ob- 
liged to obey. Arijlotle defines it to be a Declaration deter- 
mined by the Common Council of a City, fhewing in what 
Manner Things are to be dene ; But Chambers, in his Dic- 
tionary, thinks this is not fo properly a Law as a Covenant. 

LOGICK, is the Art of conducting the Underftand- 
ing in the Knowledge of Things and the Difcovery of 
Truth. It may be divided into four Parts, Apprehenfion, 
"Judgment, Dijcourfe, and Method; as in order to think a- 
right it is necefTary to apprehend, judge, difconrfe and me- 
thodize rightly. My Lord Bacon divides Logick into four 
Branches, according to the Ends propofed in each ; for a 
Man reafons either to find what he feeks, or to judge of what 
he finds, or to retain what he judges of, or to teach what he 
retains ; and from hence arife fo many Arts of Reafening, 
viz. '1 he Art of Inquifition or Invention, the Art of Exa- 
mining or Judgment, the Art of Preferving, or of Me- 
morv, and the Art of Elocution or Delivering. 

M A T H E M A T I C K S, is the Science of Quantity, 
and comprehends whatever is capable of being numbered or 
meafured. It may be divided into Speculative, which refls in 
the bare Contemplation of the Properties of Things ; and 
Praclical, which applies the Knowledge of thefe Pro- 
perties to fomeUfes in Life, as in Aftronomy, Architecture, 
Geographv, Mechanicks, Mufic, Opticks, Perfpe&ive, &c. 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 301 

MECHANICKS, is a mix'd, mathematical. Science, 
which confiders the Nature and Laws of Motion and mov- 
ing Powers, with the Effects thereof in Machines, &c. 

METAPHYSICKS, may be called the Science of 
natural Theology ; it confiders Being in general, abftracV 
ed from all Matter, <vmk. The Effence ef it, which feems to 
have a real Being, though it does not exift, as a Rofe in 
the Depth of Winter. It is fo fublime, or rather fo abflrufe 
a Science, that there is a great Difference among Authors 
about its Nature and Ideas. 

M U S I C K, is the Science of Sound, or the Art of 
difpofing and conducting Sounds, of proportioning them a- 
mong themfeives, and feparating them by juft Intervals in 
fuch a Manner, as to produce Harmony and Melody. 

NAVIGATION, is the Art of failing or con- 
ducting a Ship or YclYcl from one Place to another, the 
fhortcit and molt commodious Way. It likewife compre- 
hends the Art of building and loading of Ships. 

OPTICKS, is a mixed, mathematical Science, which ex- 
plains the Manner wherein Vifion is performed in the Eye ; 
treats of Sight in general, gives the Reafons of the feveral 
Modifications or Alterations which the Rays of Light un- 
dergo in the Eye ; and fhews why Objects at different Di- 
ftances, and in different Situations, appear greater, fmaller, 
more diltinct, more confuted, nearer, or more remote. 

PAINTING, is the Art of reprefenting natural Bodies, 
and giving them the Appearance of Life. It may be divided 
into four Parts, Inn/entien, Dejigu, Difpojition and Colouring. 

PERSPECTIVE, is that Part of the Mathematicks 
which gives Rules for the reprefenting of Objects on a plain 
Superficies, after the fame Manner as they would appear 
to our Sight, if feen through that Plain, it being fuppofed 
as tranfparent as Glafs. 

POETRY, is the Art of inventing and compofing Fables, 
Stories, Allegoric, l£c. inVerle. It is related to Painting, 
as it defcribes the Paffions and Manners of Men; and to 
Mufick, as its Stile confifts of Numbers and Harmony. 

PHILOSOPHY, is the Knowledge or Study of 
Nature and Morality, founded on Reafon and Experience. 
Philofophy owes it Name to the Modefty of Pythagoras, 
who refufed the Title of Wife given to his Predeceffors, 
and contented himfelf wkh the Appellation of a Friend, or 
Lover of Wifdom. 


302 The Toung Man's Beft Companion. 

PHYSICK or MEDICINE, is the Art of healing Dif- 
eafes. According to Boerbaave, it confiits in the Knowledge 
of thofe Things by whofe Application Life is either pre- 
ferved healthy or found ; or when difordefed, again re- 
ftorcd to its Health and Vigour. 

PHYSIOGNOMY, is the Art of knowing (or rather 
guefiing) the Humour, Temper, or Difpofition of a Per- 
fen by the Lines and Characters of his Face. 

RKETORICK, is the Art of fpeaking in the moft 
elegant and perfuafive Manner ; or as ray Lord Bacon de- 
fines it, the Art of applying and addrefling the Dictates of 
a to the Fancy, and of recommending them there fo 
as to attract the Will and Defires. 

SL'ULPTUR E, is the Art of cutting or carving 
Wood, Stone, Marble, &c. and of forming various Fi- 
gures and Reprefentations therein, particularly of Men, 
Beafts, Birds, &c. 

THEOLOGY or DIVINITY, is that Science 
which infiru6ls us in the Knowledge o God and divine 
Things. It is generally divided into five Parts, i. Natural 
Theology y is the Knowledge we have of God from his 
Works by the Light of Nature and Reafon. 2. Supernatu- 
ral Theology, is that which we learn from Revelation. 3. 
Piftti-ve Theology, is the Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, 
and of the Signification theieof, conformably to the Opi- 
nions of tiie Fathers and Councils, without the Afliltance 
of any Argumentation. 4.- Moral Theology, is that which 
teaches the divine Laws relating to our Manners and Ac- 
tions. 5. Scholajlick Theology, is that which proceeds by 
Reafoning, and taking certr-in eltablifhed Principles of 
Faith for granted, from thence deduces Abundance of 
ftrange Things, and has made a fine Piece of Work of it 
indeed. The Antients had a Three-fold Theology. The 
firft Fabulous, which flourifhed among the Poets, and was 
chiefly employed in the Genealogies of the Gods, tffc. 
The fecond Political, which was embraced by the Politici- 
ans, Priefts and People, as mofl fuitable and expedient to 
the Safety, Quiet, and Profperity of the State. The third, 
Natural, chiefly cultivated by the Philofophers, as molt a- 
greeable to Nature and Reafon. Thii lafl acknowledged 
only one Supream God. 


tfhe Young Man's Befi Companion. 303 

Of the Seven Wonders of the World. 

TH E Pagans did commonly boaft of fcven ftately 
Structures, that were named, The Seven Wonders of 
the World. 

I. The greateft Wonder, and raoft incomparable Vv T or,k, 
was the Temple of Epbejus, dedicated to Diana. It was 

f firfl begun by Ctefipbon, and feated (for Fear of Earth- 
quakes) in mariih Ground ; it was 425 Feet long, and 
220 Feet broad; it had in it 127 (lately Marble Pillars, 
each of which had been the fele Enterprize and Work of a 
Kin^ who was refolved to nake his Piety and Magnificence 
appear upon his Pillar. It was 200 Years in building, 
though many Thcufands of Men were employed in the 
Work ; it was rebuilt at the Command of Alexander tbe 
Gnat, by Dinocratcs, his Engineer. 

II. the Walls of Babylon, and the pleafant Gardens 
which Queen S emir amis planted ; about this Work 300,000 
Men were continually employed many Years. Thefe 
Walls were 300, or 350 Stadia about, which make about 
22 Euglijb Miles ; they we-c 50 Cubits high and fo broad, 
that two or three Chariots might go upon them abreaft, 
without any Danger. 

III. The Labyrinth of Egypt, built by Maros, or Me- 
nis, for his Tomb, in which 10 large Apartments, or fump- 
tuous Palaces, were built, to equal the 16 Governments, 
or Provinces of Egypt ; there were in it fo many Ways and 
artificial Walks, that it was no eaiy Matter to find the 
Way out of it. Dadalus took his Model from this, to build 
his Labyrinth in Crete. 

IV. The Pyramids of Egypt, which remain to this Time ; 
there Here three of them ; the greateft was built by Chemnis, 
King of Egypt, as a ftately Monument of his Power, and 
to he his Sepulchre after his Death : It was placed about 
16 Englijh Miles from Memphis, or Grand Cairo, and was 

[about 1440 Feet in Height, about 143 Feet long on each 
Side of the fquare Bafis, and 600,000 Men were employed 
in building it, during the Space of 20 Years. It is built 
of hard Arabian Stones, every one about 30 Feet long. 
Cbemnis was torn in Pieces in a Mutiny of his People, and 
could never obtain the Honour of being interred in this Se- 
pulchre. Cepbus, his Brother, fucceeded him, and imitated 
his vain glorious Actions, in erecting another lefs than the 


304 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

former. The laft was built by King Mycerinus, or (as feme 
fay) by the famous Strumpet Rbodope ; upon this appears a 
great Head of black Marble, of 102 Feet round about 
the Temples, and about 60 Feet high from the Chin to 
the Crown of the Head. 

V. The Maufola-um of Caria, which Queen Artemi/ia 
■built, as a Sepulchre for her deceafed Hufband Maufolus ; 
fhe enriched it with fo many rare Ornaments, that it was 
eiteemed one of the greatelt Wonders of the Wsrld ; and 
all Monuments of this Kind have fince been called Maufc- 
lasa. This Queen did love her Hufband fo much, that 
befides this Ediice, which fhe eretted for him, fhe caufed 
the Afhes of his confumed Body to be put into a Cup of 
Wine, and drank it, to give him a Lodging next to her 

VI. The ColhJJus of Rhodes was made by Chares of Afia 
Minor., of Brafs, in the Space of 12 Years, and was dedi- 
cated to the Sun. It coft about 44,0001. Englijb Money, 
and was placed at the Entrance of the Harbour of the City, 
with the right Foot Handing on one Side of the Land, and 
the Left on the other ; between the Legs the talleit Ships, 
with their Marls, did enter into the Haven. 
fell to the Ground by an Earthquake, few Men were able 
to embrace the litter Finger of this prodigious Statue. It 
was 800 Feet high, and of a proportionable Bignefs ; and 
when broken down and beat to Pieces by the Saracens, that 
took the Iiland, Anno Dom. 684, they loaded above 900 
Camels with it. 

VII. The Statue of Jupiter Olympius was the ncateitof all 
thefe Works : It was erected by the Elecns, a People of 
Greece, and placed in a Temple dedicated to Jupiter, which 
was enriched afterwards with many curious Rreprefentations 
av,d excellent Statues ; This of Jupiter was fitting in a 
Chair half naked, but from the Girdle downwards he was 
covered ; in the right Hand he held an Eagle, and in the 
Left a Scepter. Caligula endeavouring to tranfport it to 
Rome, but thofe that were employed about it were frighted 
from their Enterprise, by unexpected Accident. This 
Statue was made by Phidias, and was 150 Cubits high ; 
the Body was of Braft, but the Head was of pure Gold. 

Among the many renowned Buildings and Errections of 
the Antients, the Capitol at Rome may juftly claim a Place ; 
it was confecrated t© Jupiter Iwperatar; upon Mount Tarpeia 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 305 

it was built, and was a famous Edifice, the richeft and moll 
noted in all Italy. It was beautified with the Statues and 
Images of all the Gods, with the Crowns of Victory, and 
with the Spoils ©f the Nations conquered by the Romans. 
It was feated in the r.-.ofl: eminent Place of the City, by 
Tarqvinus Prifcus, and Ser-vius Tullius, two Kings of Rome, 
and afterwards mightily enlarged by the following Genera- 
tions. The Temples of Neptune, Vulcan, Saturn, Man, 
JEfculetpius, Hercules, Fejla, and "Janus, are noted by Au- 
thors to have been brave Structures, worthy of the Roman 
Grandeur ; as alfo the Pantheon, dedicated to all the Geds. 
To thefe may be added, the Royal Palace of Cyrus, 
King of Media, built in a very grand and extravagant 
Manner, by Menon who cemented the Stones with Gold ; 
alfo the Temple built zx Athens to Minerva, and another in 
the fame City to Mars, where the Judges met to examine 
Caufes of Life and Death ; with the glorious Temple, or 
Fabrick, at Delphcs, where Apollo gave Oracles. This 
Temple was enriched with innumerable Gifts, which came 
from every Part of the World : In it was a Woman Prielr. 
named Phtsbas, otherwife Pythia, or Pythoniffa, that re- 
ceived the Enthufiafim fitting upon a little Table fupported 
with three Feet ; it was called Tripous or Cortina, becaufe 
it was covered with the Skin of the Serpent Python, whom 
Juno had fent to diftrefs Latcna, Apollo's Mother, in the 
Ifland of Delos ; when Apollo came of Age, he killed this 
Serpent with his Bow and Arrows, after a long and grie- 
vous Combat ; during which thefe Words, Io Pecan, 
were frequently heard in the Air, and which afterwards 
were frequently ufed in publick Rejeicings. 

Of the MUSES. 

THE Mufes had fevcral Names given them by the 
ancient Poets, according to the feveral Places where 
they dwelt ; fometimes they were called Pier ides, on ac- 
count of the Forelt Pier is, in Macedonia, where they were 
faid to be born ; fometimes Htliconiades, from Mount Heli- 
con, which was near their beloved Parnajfus, and fometimes 
by other Names, according to the Pleafure of the Mytho- 
logifts, in their fabulous Accounts of the Heathen Deities. 
They were fuppofed to be the Daughters of Jupiter and 
Memry, which liftion was introduced, becaufe Jupiter 


%o6 The Young Maris Bejl Companion. 

was fuppofed to be the firft Inventor of Difciplines, which 
are necefTary in order to a regular Life. 

Thefe Mufes, by the Afllftance of Apollo, invented Mu- 
fiek ; their chief Office was to be preient at folemn Fefti- 
vals, and facred Banquets, and there to fing the Praifcs of 
famous Men, that they might encourage others to under- 
take glorious A&ions, as D y AJJigny obferves. 

They were reprefented as Women, becaufe Difciplines and 
Virtues have feminine Names affigned to them ; they were 
painted young, handfome and modeft ; agreeably drefTed, 
and crowned with Flowers ; they were much efteemed for 
their Chaftity, and it is written of them., that when .donis, 
the Favourite of Venus, offered to ftir up in them fome In- 
clinations to Love, they fell upon him, and killed him. 

They were at firft but three, and sailed Melete (Me- 
ditation) Meneme (Memory) and Aonide (Singing) but a 
certain Carver of Sycion, having Orders to make three Sta- 
tues of the three Mufes for the Temple of Apollo, miftook 
his Inftructions, and made three feveral Statues of each 
Mufe, and thefe happening to be very curious and beauti- 
ful Pieces, they were all fet up in the Temple, and from 
thence began to be reckoned nine Mufes ; afterwards Hefad 
named them, Calliope, Clio, Erato, 'Thalia, Melpomene, 
Terpfecborc, Euterpe, Pclybmnia, and Urania. 

Calliope as fuppofed President of Heroick Poetry, Clio of 
Hi/lory, Erato of the Lute, Thalia of Comedy, Melpomene of 
Tragedy, Terpfichore of the Harp, Euterpe of Wind Mufeck, 
Polyhmnia of Mufeck, Urania of AJlronomy. 

Alexander Rojs fays, there weie at firft three Mufes, to 
Ihew the three Sorts of Mufeck, Singing, Blowing, and 
Playing ; the firft is the Throat, the fecond in Wind-In- 
Jlruments, and the third upon Strings ; Or to ihew the 
Three-fold chief Learning in the World, Philofophy, Rhe- 
toric^ and Matkematicks : Philofophy is Three-fold, rati- 
onal, moral and natural; there are three Parts in Rhetorick, 
the Demonflratirje, the Deliberative, and the Judicial; there 
are alfo three Parts of Matkematicks, Arithmetick, Geome- 
try, and Mufeck. Afterwards the Number of Mufes increa- 
fed to feven, either becaufe of feven Holes in Wind Inflru- 
ments, of feven Strings on other Infiruments, of the feven 
liberal Sciences, or of the feven Planets. Laftly, they 
came to be nine in Number, from the nine Spheres, which 
they held made a Harmony. They were called 


The Young Man's Befl Companion. 307 

the Daughters of Jupiter and Mnemoj'yne, to fhew that 
Learning cannot be had without the lntellefi and Memory, 
which are moft eminent in learned Men ; or rather that 
God is the Author of Learning, and Memory the Mother 
or iNurfe thereof; therefore the Poet afcribes to the Mufes, 
Memory, and Utterance ; by the one they are preferved, 
by the other they are heard. 

They are calld Mufa; from Maiojlhai, to enquire ; this 
belongs to Iwventicn ; and from Mucfhai, to initiate into 
facred Myfleries, by which is meant Judgment ; fo that the 
Mufes, or Learning, confifts in Invention and 'judgment. 

The Mufes were winged, to mew the Nimbleneis of good 
Wits, and the Quicknefs of Poetry and Mujlck, in moving 
the Jljjtdions ; they bore Palms in their Hands, to fhew 
that they conquer Mens Paffons ; they did all dance in a 
Ring to fhew the Agreement and Harmony among the li- 
beral Sciences ; and the Graces were joined with them to 
fhew the folid Joy that is the conftant Attendant on Learn- 
ing and Virtue. 

They had divers Names from divers Occafions, as Nymphs 
and GoddeJJes of Water, to fhew the Clearness of Poetry ; 
Parnajjidei, Heliconides, Pierides, Aonides, Pegajides, slga- 
nippides, Libeth) ides, T.'.efpiades, &c. to fhew the various. 
Kinds of Learning, and the many Labours the Scholar mult 
undergo, before he can attain unto Excellency. The parti- 
cular Names of the Mufes are alfo very fignificant, as Clio, 
from ( lecus [Glory] becaufe great is the Glory of Learning, 
though Ignorance be its Enemy ; Euterpe, from Euterpus 
[delightful] becaufe there is no Delight comparable to 
that of virtuous learned Men ; Thalia, from Thalein [to 
grnv green] for Learning will ftill rlourifh, and never wi- 
ther; Melpomene, from Meletenpoiomene [making Melody] 
fo the L ; fe of a Scholar is ftill chearful and melodious ; 
Terpjfubore, from Terpo and Choria [to delight in Singing or 
Da c ng] for the Mirth of learned Men is within them- 
felves ; Erato, from Eratus [Dove] for the more a Man 
knows Learning, the more he loves it. Polyhymnea, or Po- 
lymnia, from Pclus and Umnos ; no Mens Minds arc fo full 
of Melody and fpiritual Comfort, as the Minds of learned 
Men ; Urania, fiom Uranos [the Heaven] for Learning 
came from thence ; Caliope, fr-imCalei opa [a good Voice] 
there is no outward Voice fo charming and melodious as the 
inward Voice of Knowledge in the Mind, by which a Maa 

O dif- 

30 8 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

difeourfeth with himfelf, and is never lefs alone than when 
he is alone. 

The. Ancients built Temples to the Mu/es remote from 
Cities, and defcribed them fitting on the Top of PamaJJus, 
to fhew Learning hath its Seat in the Heady which is ttte 
Top and Capital of Man's Body ; and as all Gods and God- 
dejjes had their Birds dedicated to them, fo had the Mu/es 
the laborious Bees, who. very much refemble Scholars ia 
their Providence, Indujiry, Labour, Order, and Harmony ; 
they are content with little, yet afford much Benefit to the 
Owner ; fo do Scholars to the State ; neither is there any 
Creature, to which learned Men and Students ar; more be- 
holden, than to the Bee, which both affords them Food and 
Phy/tck in its Honey, and Light in their Lucubrations in its 


THERE has been no King, nor other Perfon, that 
we read of in profane Hiitory, that has rendered his 
Name more famous than Hercules, who, fcr his noble 
Acls, and glorious Deeds, was deified and placed among 
the Stars. 

His Father is faid to be Jupiter, and his Mother Alcmena ; 
when his Mother was big with Child with him, Sthelenus, 
King of Mycene, was in great Hopes of obtaining fpeedily 
a Son, afterwards named Euryjiheus. "Jupiter took an Oath, 
that he that fhould be born firft, mould be King, and have 
an abfolute Command over the other ; which when Juno. 
(Jupiter's Wife, the fwern Enemy of all her Hufband's 
Concubines, and of all the Children that were born of 
them) had accidentally heard, fhe caufed JEuryftheus to come 
forth of his Mother's Womb, at the End of (even Months, 
and by that M ans procured unto him the Scepter with the 
Sovereign Command. 

'Tit, faid that when Jupiter lay with Hercules' ^Mother, 
he fpent three Nights (which h .: caufed to be joined toge- 
ther) in begetting him : his Body and Stature were an- 
fwcrable to the Pains and Power of his Father, for he was 
iVvcn Feet high, had three Ranks of Teeth in his Mouth, 
and cut of his Eyes fparkles of Fire and Light cid fome- 
times proceed. 

Jxnc, at the Interceffion of Pallas, feemed to be recon- 
ciled to' Hercules ; as a Teflimony of her Good-wilUo him, 
when in his Infancy, fhe ga\ e fuck to him of her own 

Brtait : 

The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 309 

Breaft ; by that Means it happened, that the little Hercules, 
having fpilt fome of the Milk out of his Mouth, he whited 
that Part of the Sky that is called the Milky Way. This 
Kindnefs was only feigned to fatisfy the Requeftof Pallas ; 
fur a while after, when he was yet in his Cradle, fhe lent 
two dreadful Serpents to devour him, which did not how- 
ever anfwer her Expectation ; for the Child, without any 
Show of Fear, caught them in his Hands, and tore them 
in Pieces. 

When he came to Years of Underftandlng, hewas put 
under the Tuition of fuch Mailers as did excel in many 
Arts and Sciences, to learn of them the Things that were 
required to make him accomplished. He was taught by 
Teutarcs, a Scythian, to handle the Spear and Dart ; lu+ 
cites, the Son of dpollo, taught him the Rudiments ot 
Learning, and becaufe he had chaftifed him with a B.od, 
Hertules killed him when he came to be of Age ; from Eu- 
molpus he learned the Art of playing upon lnltruments of 
Mufick ; Chiron gave him an Iniight into Aitrology, and 
Harpolicui made him underftand the.other Sciences that were 
neceffary to accompliih a Man of his Birth and Valour. 

He was fcarce eighteen Years of Age, when Euryjlheus 
engaged him in the molt difficult Enterprizes, and expofed 
him to all Manner of Dangers to make him periih ; lb that 
once he took a Refolution to obey him no longer ; but the 
Oracle informed him, that it was the Will of the Gods, 
that he Should pafs twelve Times more through Dangers, in 
Obedience to the Commands of this Tyrant. Theie. are 
named the twelve Adventures or Labours of Hercules. 

1. He was appointed to deilroy a great Lion of the Fo- 
reft of Nemca, that was fallen from the Moon, and. foiled 
the Country round about ; he difcharged all his Arrows at 
this wild Beatt to little Purpofe, and then encountered it 
with his Club only in his Hand, but the Skm was lo tough 
and hard that no Weapon could enter it, which when H..r- 
cules perceived, he caught hold of the raging Lion, and tore 
him in Pieces with his Hands. Ever after he delighted in 
wearing the Skin of this Lion about him, as a Token of 
his Victory, and in Imitation of him all Heroes have skins 
of Lions, or other wild Beaits upon theii-Bucklers ; and 
fome fay, this is the Lion that was placed among the 
twelve Signs of the Zodiack. 

O 2 2. He 

sio The Toung Maris Bejt Companion. 

2. He was fent to the Lake of Lema, near Argos, to en- 
counter with an Hydra, a notable Serpent, or Dragon of a 
ftrange Nature ; for it had feven Heads, and when one wa» 
cut off, many others did immediately burft forth, lb that it 
wasnotpofiible to overcome thisMonfter, unlefsallhis Heads 
were cut off at one 'J ime, and the reft of his Body dcftroyed 
by Fire and Sword, which was executed by Hercules. 

3. Euryjihcus fent him to Mount Erymantbus, in Arcadia y 
where a wild Boar of extraordinary Bignefs deftroyed all 
the neighbouring Fields : Hercules dragged him alive to 
Euryftheus, who was'almoft frighted out of his Wits when 
he beheld him. 

4. He got hold of the Stag of the Mountain Menelaus, 
whofe Feet were of Brafs, and Horns of Gold, when he 
had purfued it a whole Year. 

5. He put to flight the Birds of the Lake Stympbolus, that 
were fo numerous, and of fuch a prodigious Greatnefs, that 
they darkened the Air, and hindered the Sun from mining 
upon Men, when they flew over them ; befides they did 
often take up fome, and carry them away to devour them. 
But thefe Encounters were not worthy to be compared 
with his Combat againft, 

6. The . wazons, who were Women of Scythia, dwelling 
upon the Coafts of the Hircanian Sea, who having follow- 
ed their Huibands in the War, and feeing them all cut off 
by the Enemy, near the River Thermodon, in Cappadoaa, 
they refolved to maintain the War themfelves, and not to 
fuffer any Man to have Command in the Army, or King- 
dom, or to live among them. They went among their 
Neighbours to fetch from them Children ; the Males they 
deftroyed, but kept the Females, and brought them up in 
a warlike Manner ; and that they might be more ready to 
handle the Bow and Arrows, they burnt their right Paps, 
in their Infancy. They behaved gallantly in the Siege of 
Troy under the Conduct of Penthefilea ; but were forced *o 
yield to the Valour of Hercules, who being accompanied by 
T'he/eus, went againft them, according to the Command of 
Euryjlheus, and took their Queen Hippolite, who was after- 
wards married to Tbejeu . 

7. He undertook to cleanfe the Stables of Augeas, King 
of Elis, in which Thouik^ds of Oxen had been daily fed, 
fo that the Dung, by a long Continuance, was much in- 
creafed, and filled the Air with Infection ; Hercules there- 

The Young Man's Beji Companion. % 1 1 

fore turned the Current of the River Alpheus from its ordi- 
nary Courfe, and caufed it pafs through the Stables ; thus 
he carried away the Filth in one Day, according to his 
Bargain ; but Augeas was not grateful to him for his Pauis, 
for he denied him the tenth Part of the Oxen that were 
kept there; this caufed the Death of -ugeus, andtheLofs 
of his Goods 

8. He feized upon a Bull, that did breathe nothing but 
Fire and Flame, which Neptune had fent into Greece to pu- 
nifh fome Difgraces and Aftronts, which he had received 
from that Country. 

9. He paffed into Thracia, where he caufed the Tyrant 
Diomedes to endure in his own Perfon, that which he made 
Others to fuffer, which was, he gave all Strangers that he 
could catch in his Kingdom to be devoured by his Florfes. 
Hercules ferved Bijiris King of Egypt, in the fame Manner 
becaufe he was fo cruel to all Strangers, as to cut their 
Throats upon the Altars of Jupiter, that he might cloak 
his Cruelty by a Pretence of Piety'. 

10. Geryon, King of Spain, who was reported to have 
three Bodies, becaufe he commanded three Kingdoms, was 
no lefs cruel than the former ; he fed ibme Oxen, which 
he highly efteemed, as Diomedes did his Horfes, and to keep 
them, he had a Dog with three Heads, and a Dragon with 
Seven. When Hercules was fent thither by Euryjfbeus, he 
treated him as he had formerly done Dicmedes. 

11. He was required to put into the Poflcfiion of Eury- 
Jiheus, certain Golden Apples belonging to Juno, that were 
in the Cultody of fome Nymphs, the Hefpertdes, Daughters 
of Hefperus, the Brother of Atlas ; but before any one 
could come at them, a great Dragon that was at the Entry 
of the Gardens where they grew, was to be firft overcome. 
He found Means to accompiifh this Enterprize alfo ; fome 
fay he made Ufe of Atlas, who went to gather them, while 
he took his Burden upon him, and bore up the Heavens 
with his Shoulders. 

12. The 1 aft Injunction which he received from Eury- 
ftheus, was to fetch from Hell the Dog Cerberus, from 
whence he brought alfo Thefeus, that was gone down to keep 
Company with his dear Friend Pirathous. 

Thefe glorious Afticns made Hercules dreadful to Eury- 

Jlheus, and to all Princes in the World. Afterwards there 

was no Tyrant, nor Monfter known, but he undertook to 

Q ft dcftroy 

3 1 2 the Toung Man's Bejt Companion. 

deftroy them ; thus he put to Death Cacus (the Son of Vul- 
can, who had three Heads) becaufe he was a notable R< b- 
ber, who did fpoil and deitroy all that came near the 
Mount Auentin. From thence he went to Mount Caucaj'us, 
where he delivered Prometheus, and killed the Eagle that 
devoured his Liver. He had alfo an Encounter with Auta- 
vs, the Son of the Earth, who was of a prodigious Bignefs 
and did commit all Manner of Cruelties ; Hercules lifted 
him up in his Arms, and preffed the Breath out of his Body. 
But as Hercules was big, and of an high Stature, a fmall 
Matter was not fufficient to nourifh him, for as he walked 
in the Fields, one Day when he was hungry, he met T'heo- 
damus, tilling the Ground, he fnatched from him one of 
his Oxen, which he laid upon his Shoulders, and devour- 
ed every Bit of it before Theodamus, who loaded him all 
the while with Curfes and Imprecations. 

He made a Journey into Spain, where he feparated the 
two Mountains, Calpe and Abyla, to let the main Ocean 
imo the Land, by the Straits of Gibraltar ; thefe two Moun- 
tains iituated one agaiuft another, Calpe in Spain, and Abyla 
in Mauritania, do appear afar off as two Pillars, they are 
faid to be the two Pillars of Hercules, where he engraved 
thefe Words, Non plus ultra ; as if thefe were the utmoft 
Bounds of the World, beyond which he could not enlarge 
his Dominions. In all his Conqueits, he made Ufe of a 
Club of an Olive Tree, which at lait he dedicated to Mer- 
cury, the God of Eloquence, whofe Virtue he acknowledged 
to be more profitable than the Power of Arms. 

To recount all that the Antients have recorded of this 
famous Man, weuld make a pretty large Volume, and per- 
haps not be fo agreeable to fbmePerions as this Epitome; 
therefore we will juil hint at the Cataftrophe of Hercules, 
and conclude our Narrative. 

Like the Heroes of old, he was enamour'd with Women ; 
he married Megara, the Daughter of Creon, King ofTbehs, 
whom he afterwards killed ; then he became a Slave to Om- 
phale, Queen of Lydia, for whom he changed his Club for 
fpinning Inllruments, and his Lion's Skin for the Garments 
of a waiting Maid. Afterwards he became amorous of De- 
janira, for whom he was to fight Achelous, the Son of 
■Thctys, whom he conquered ; and returning with her to a 
Hiver's Side, where NeJ/its the Centaur cff< red his Service to 
carry herlichind him to the othej Side ; when the Traitor 


the Young Man's Beft Companion. .313 

came over, he would have abufed her, h?.d not Hercules 
pierced him with an Arrow to the Heart ; when he was 
ready to expire, he refolved to revenge himfelf in this Man- 
ner : He gave his Garment dropping with his Blood to 
Dejanira, perfuading Iter, -that if her Hufband did wear it 
but once, he would never have Love for other Women. 
The filly Creature believes him, therefore fhe fent it to 
him by Lychas his Man, when he was facrirking upon 
Mount Oeta ; but it fell not out as fhe had imagined, for 
as foon as he had put on this Coat, the Blood of Nejjiis, 
which was a moil powerful Poifon, caufed fo great a Burn- 
ing all over his Body, that in Defpatr he call himfelf into 
a flaming Pile of Wood, and there was confumed to Afhes. 

His Servant Lychas was drowned in the Sea, where he 
was changed into a Rock, and Dejanira, for Grief, killed 
herfelf, -with a Blow of her Hufband's Club. 

Hercules, before he died, obliged PhikSetes, the Son of 
Peart, his Companion and Friend, to fvvear unto him never 
to difcover .he Place where his Afhes and Bones were bu- 
ried ; he then delivered unto him his Arrows, colour'd 
with the Blood of die Hydra, which were afterwards car- 
ried to the Siege of Trey. 

An Account of the Births, Cbaraflers, and perfonal ^u/i- 
lities, of the Monarchs of England, fr:m William 
the Conqueror to the Reign sf his prejent Majcfty King 
George the Third. . 

N O R M AN K I N G S. 

WILLIAM the Conqueror was Son of Robert Duke 
of Normandy, by one of his Miftrefles named Har- 
lrtte, (whence fome imagine the Word Harlot derived) a 
Skinner's Daughter of Falaize ; which gave occafion to 
his being furnamed the Ballard ; but this he afterwards 
changed to that of Conqueror, from his fubduing Eng- 
land. He was born in 1026 ; and fucceeded is Father as 
Duke of Normandy 1035 ; being at that Time but nine 
Years old ; and after his Victory at Haftings in Suflex, 
was crowned King of England on the 14th of October, 
Anno 1066. 

He was tall, and fo big, that his Corpulency grew trou- 
blefome so him in his latter Years. His Strength was {o 
great, that Hillorians fay, no Perfon but himfelf, could 


3 14 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

bend* his Bow. He was laborious, feafoned to all the 
Hardfhips of War, and patient in ail Seafons, Hunger, and 
Thirft. He had a great Soul, and elevated Mind ; and of 
fo prodigious a Genius, that nothing efeaped his Exami- 
nations. He delighted in War; underftood it well, and 
was fuccefsful in it. When once raifed to Anger, it was 
aimoft impoffible to appeafehim. 

He died of a Fever at Roan in Normandy, the 9th of 
September, io&a, in the 61ft Year of his Age, and was 
buried at Caen in St. Stephen's Abbey, which he endowed 
with rich Revenues. 

WILLIAM II. furnamed Rufus. 
^ WILLIAM the Second fucceeded his Father ; was legi- 
timate Son of Maud, Daughter to Baldwin the fifth Earl 
of Flanders. 

He was born in the Year 1056 ; was crowned King of 
England by Lanfranc, Archbifhop of Canterbury, on the 
17th of September, 1687; and being wounded acciden- 
tally, as he was hunting in New-Foreft, by one of his 
Domefticks, named Walter Tyrrel, a French Knight, died 
of the Wound on the 2d of Auguft, 1100, and in the 13th 
Year of his Reign, aged 44 Years. 

The only good Quality remarkable in him, was his fignal 
Courage which rofe aimoft to Fiercenefs : And he carried 
his Vices and Tyranny to fo great a Height, that the 
Wound he received was conlldeied, not as the Ettecl: of 
mere Chance ; but as fent by the Hand cf God, in order 
to rid the Ens:li(h of fo wicked a Prince. 

HENRY I. furnamed Bz au-Clf.rc. 

As King RUFUS left no Iilue, his Erother Henry (by 
the fame Mother) fucceeded him, and was crowned King 
by Maurice Biihop of London, on the 5th of Auguft, 1 100. 

He was married firft to Maud,. Daughter of Malcolm, 
King of Sceis ; and afterwards to Adeliza, Daughter to 
Geofrey Earl of Lcuvain, by whom he had no Illue. 

His Death was occafioned by eating too many Lam- 
preys which threw him into a Fever, of which he died in 
the Caftle of Lyon in Brai near Roan, on the ift ©f De- 
cember, 1 135* after a Reign of 35 Years ; and was buri- 
ed in the Abbey of Reading in Berkfhire. He was very 
handfome, brave, and had a great Capacity ; was ex- 
tremely fober, inexorable to Offenders : lie had a great 
Love for Learning, whence be was called Beau-Clcrc ; but 


The Toung Man's Bejl Companion. 315 

thcfe good Qualities were fullied by Cruelty, Avarice, and 

STEPHEN, King of England. 

After Henry's Deceafe, Stephen Sou. to Adela, Daugh- 
ter of William the Conqueror, and of Stephen, Earl of 
Blois, was crowned at Weftminfler the 26th of Decem- 
ber, 1 135. 

He died the 2£th of Ottober, 1154, in the nineteenth 
Year of his Reign, and fiftieth of his Age ; and was bu- 
ried in Feverfham Abbey. 

His Merit confiftcd in the Greatnefs of his Courage, 
elevaied Genius, andSoundnefs of his Judgment. Great- 
ly ikilled in military Affairs ; had great Experience, and 
a wonderful Patience. His Clemency and Munificence 
were the Ieaft of his Virtues : All thefe were heightened 
by the Stature and Majefty of his Perfon ; which render- 
ed him one of the moll amiable Princes of his Time. 

HENRY H. furnamed Plantagenet, and Duke of Nor- 
mandy, fucceeded Stephen. He was eldeft Son of Geofrey 
Earl of Anjou. Touraine, and Maine, and of the Em- 
prefs Maud, fole Heir to Henry I. Duke of Normandy. 

He was born at Mans the 4th of March, 1 133, and was 
adopted by King Stephen the 6th of November, 1153, and 
crowned King of England the 19th of December, 1155. 

He pol'fefled many good Qualities : He was juft, brave, 
generous, magnificent, clement, and prudc*t : But his 
Ambition and Lull were infatiable, and his Anger very 

On his Death-Bed he caufed himfelf to be carried to the 
Church ©f Chinon ; and being laid before the Altar, ex- 
pired. His Corpfe was carried to Fontevraud, as he had 
ordered, and was there interred. He died the 6th of Ju- 
ly, 1 1 89, in the 56th Year of his Age; having reigned 
34 Years, 8 Months, and 11 Days. 

RICHARD I. furnamed Lion's Heart. 

After the Death of Henry II. his fecond Son Richard 
fucceeded him. His Mother was EleaHor of Acquitaine, 
Dutchefs of Guinne and Gafcony, Sec. His exceeding 
Bravery acquired him the Name of Cceur de Lion, or Li- 
on's Heart : but for any other Virtue, it is needlefs to 
ieek for it. His Peribn was well-map ed ; blue Eyes, but 


3 1 6 'the Toung Man's Beft Companion. 

full of Fire ; and his Hair of a fandy Colour. His Death 
was occasioned by a Wound he had received by an Arrow 
at the Siege of Chaluz in Limoulin ; of which he died on 
April 6, 1199, in the 43d Year of his Age, and joth of 
his Reign, and was buried at Fontevraud. 

JOHN, furnamed Sans Terre. 
This Prince came to the Crown by Virtue of the lait 
Will of Richard. After having gone through many Trou- 
bles, Vexations, and Difappointments, during his Reign, 
chiefly owing to his Vice and Ambition, he died at New- 
ark, October 8, 1216, through Grief, for having loll his 
Baggage, which was very rich, which threw him into a 
Fever, and was augmented by eating tco many Peaches. 

He had Wit ; but it was of the vicious Kind : Was hot- 
headed, reftlefs, and hafty ; had noRefolution, but in his 
iirff. Tranfports ; which being over, he was foft, indolent* 
fearful, and wavering. Was cruel, voluptuous, and cove- 
tous ; had no Religion, Confcience, Honour, or Regard 
to Futurity. He died in the 51ft Year of his Age, and in 
the iBth Year of his Reign. 

This Prince fucceeded his Father, in the 10th Year of 
his Age : He was born October 1, 1207, and crown'd at 
Glocelter, O&ober 28, 12 16; and died in London the 
16th of November, 1272, aged fixty-fix ; of which he 
had reign'd fifty-fix Years and twenty Days. 

He was a Prince of very few Parts ; naturally inconflant 
and capricious. He loved Money to excefs j but then he 
fquander'd it away fo idly, that the prodigious Sums he 
levied on his Subjects, did not make him the richer. No- 
thing can be faid as to his Courage, becaufe he never gavel 
any fenfible Tokens of it ; but he may be juftly applau- 
ded for his Continence, and Averfion to whatever tended 
to Cruelty ; and to conclude his Character ; his Weak- 
nefs in fuffering himfelf to be gevern'd by haughty, felf- 
interetfed Counfellors ; and the arbitrary Maxims inftill'd 
into him from his Infancy, were the real Caufes of the 
Commotions which difturb'd his Government. 

EDWARD I. furnamed Long-Shanks. 

After the Death of Henry III. Edward, his eldelr. Son, 

by Eleanor of Provence, fucceeded him, and was crown'd 

©n the 19th of Auguft, 1274; and Hiftorians fay, that on 

iis Coronation-Day- five hundred Horfes were let loofe 


'The Tcung Man's Bcfi Companion. 3 1 7 

about the Fields, with liberty to every Perfon to keep as 
many as they could catch. 

He was extremely well-lhaped, and very tall, but his legs 
were a little too long ; on which Ac«ount he was furnamed 
Long-Shanks. He was an excellent King, a good Father, 
a formidable Enemy, and a brave Captain : He was chafte, 
juit, prudent, and moderate ; and on his Death-Bed ex- 
horted his Son to continue the War with Scotland ; ad- 
ding, " Let my Bones be carried before you to Battle, for 
" fure I am that the Rebels will never dare to Hand the 
'« Sigh't of them. 

He died at Borough on the Sands, a fmall Town in Cum- 
berland, the 7th of July, 1307,. after a Reign of thirty- 
four Years, feven Months, and twenty Days. His Body 
was taken to Weftminfter, where it was enclofed in Wax, 
and deposited near that of the King his Father. 
Prince Edward, after his Father's Death, fucceeded him ; 
and was the only Son that furvived him. He began his 
Reign 1307, and was one of the molt handfomc and belt 
fhaped Men cf his Time ; and had fo majeftic an Air, 
that it was almoft impoilible to look on him, without enter- 
taining an Eilcem fcr him : But the Beauties of his Body 
did not correfpond with his Mind. He was neither a War- 
rior, nor a Politician ; neither zealous for his Country's 
Good, nor paffionate of Glory ; neither was he endued 
with a Capacity for difficult Affairs, nor had he a genius 
fufficient to contrive, or Refolution to go through with 
fuch : To thefe Circumftances were owing all the Misfor- 
tunes of his Reign. This Monarch was depofed, and his 
Son proclaimed King in his Stead ; and was imprifon'd at 
Kenelwcrth Caftle ; but removed afterwards to Berkeley 
Caftle ; where Sir Thomas Gurney and Sir John Mal- 
travers put him to a cruel Death ; aaufinga red-hot Iron 
to be thrull up his Fundament, and in thefe cruel Tor- 
ments expired in October, 1327, after a Reign of twenty 

Edward the Third, eldeft Son to the deceased King, by 
Ifabeila of France, fucceeded his Father at the Age of 14, 
and in 1327. 

Hiftorians fay, that the bare Afpecl of this Prince drew 
Refped and Veneration. He was gentle and beneficent 


3 1 8 The Young Marts Befi Companion. 

to People of Virtue ; but to the Vicious inexorable : A 
Friend to the Poor, the Widow, and Orphan, and to all 
the Unfortunate in general ; and his greateft Delight was 
to footh their Misfortunes*; and though his Valour was 
well known to the World, it never puffed him up. His 
Subjects were dear to him ; and the uninterrupted Union 
that fubfifted between him and his Queen, augmented 
his Felicity. In fhort, he might have been looked upon 
as a perfect Prince, had not his Ambition prompted him 
to break, in an illaudable Manner, the Peace he had con- 
cluded with the Scots. 

He died the 21ft of June, 1377, in the 65th Year of 
his Age, and 51 ft of his Rdgn. 


This Prince (who was Grandfon to the deceafed King) 
came to the Crown in the nth Year of his Age, was 
born at Bourdeaux the 6th of January, 1336, and made 
Prince of Wales in 1377. Twenty-four Days after Edward 
died, Richard was crowned at Weftminfter.. 

He was Son to Edward the Black Prince, (fo called on 
account of his wearing black Armour) who was the firft 
created Prince of Wales. 

This unfortunate Prince being of a lavifhing and pro- 
fufe Difpofition, caufed his Subjects to revolt from him, 
and take Arms againft him : And at his Return from Ire- 
land was feiz'd and imprifoned in Flint Caftle, near Chef- 
ter ; but fome Time after, was fent to Pontefradt Caftle in 
Yorkfhire, where Sir Peter Exton, with eight Men, was 
fent to deftroy him ; but the King refolved to fell his Life 
as dear as poffible, and kill'd four of the AiTaflins before 
he fell himfelf, which Exton himfelf efFeacd. Thus died 
this unhappy Prince at thirty-three Years of Age. 

He was, as Hiftorians relate, the handfomeft Monarch 
in the World ; kind and magnificent, but foft, timid, of 
little Genius, and too great a Slave to his Favourites. 
HENRY IV. furnamed Bolingbroke. 

This Prince who fwayed the Scepter after the depofing 
of Richard II. began his Reign the 30th of September, 
1309. He was Son to John of Gaunt, third Son of Ed- 
ward" III. - ... 

His chief Character was an extreme Defire of reigning, 
itid he came to the Throne by a Method that was univer- 
sal 1/ 

The Toung Man's Beji Companion. 3 1 9 

fally difapproved, having taufed King Richard to be mur- 
dered ; which will be an eternal Blot to his Memory. 

He performed very few Actions which merit any Enco- 
mium ; and his Reign was a continual Series of Revolu- 
tions. 'Tis faid that he died of a Leprofy the 20th of 
March, 141 3 ; being the 14th of his Reign, and 46th 
of his Age ; but fome Writers fay he died of an Apo- 

HENRY V. furnamed of Monmouth. 

HENRY V. eldefl Son of Henry IV. by Mary le Bo- 
hun, Daughter of Humphry Earl of Hereford, was born 
at Monmouth, and was made Prince of Wales Anno 1399, 
and began his Reign 141 3. 

He was well Ihaped, and warlike ; an experienced Sol- 
dier, and a great Politician ; of an exteniive Genius in 
laying his Schemes, which never failed to fucceed. As 
he was a great Friend to Juilice, he obeyed its Dictates, 
and made others do fo likewife : He was devout without 
Orientation, and a great Protector of the Church and 
Clergy ; but a little ambitious ; not liberal, and inclined 
to cruelty ; and in his Father's Time had led a difiblute 

He died of a Bloody-Flux in Vincennes, Augufl^j, 
1422, in the 34th Year of his Age, after a triumphant 
Reign of nine Years and five Months. He left only one 
Son, brought him by Catherine his Queen. 

HENRY VI. furnam'd of Windfor. 

This Prince was but nine Months old when he afcended 
the Throne. He was born at Windfor, December, 6, 

He was a juft, chafte, temperate, and pious Prince ; and 
refign'd himfelf wholly to the Difpenfations of Provi- 
dence. He bere with uncommon Patience all the unifier 
Accidents of Life. His only Defect was a Sort of Weak- 
nefs of Mind, which render'd him incapable of govern- 
ing his Kingdom, without the Afiifiance of others. 

He was dethron'd in the Year 1461 ; bat recovered his 
Crown in 1471 ; and in 1472 loll it again, together with 
ihis Life. 

After this Misfortune of being dethron'd, King Henry 
the Queen his Confort, and the Prince of Wales his Son, 
fled to Scotland, and was refpectfully receivd in that 
Kingdom : But the Year following murn'd to England, 


£20 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

in Hopes of concealing himfelf there j not daring: to refide 
entirely in Scotland, dyeing in dread that the Scots would 
deliver him up ; but unfortunately was difcover'd and 
feized, carried to London, and lent to the Tower ; where 
Edward (for his own Security) facrificed him in -the 50th 
Year of his Age. 


Edward IV. Son to Richard Duke of York, was crown'd 
June 29, 1472, after King Henry's being dethroned : 
And netwithllanding he was of a furprizing, active, vigi- 
lant, and warlike Difpofition, he was no fooner inverted 
with regal Dignity, than he devoted himfelf intirely to his 

He was one of the handfomell Men in all Europe. Phi- 
lip de Commines pretends that he died through Grief, be- 
caufe Lewis the 1 ith prefer'd the Alliance of the Houfe of 
Aultria to that of his Family ; but this not probable. 
Some have accufed his Brother the Duke of Gloucefter of 
poifoning him : But the moll: likely Circumftance is, that 
his indulging himfelf at a Banquet too muck, occafion'd 
his Death ; for it threw him into a violent Fever, of which 
he died April 9, '4-^3> XXi tne forty-fecond Year of his 
Age, and twenty-third of his Reign. 


This unfortunate Prince was but twelve Years of Age 
when he began to reign ; which lafted but two Months 
and twelve Days ; himfelf, and his Brother the Duke of 
York, being both murder'd by the Protector, Richard 
Duke of Gloucefter, their Uncle, who afterwards ufurp'd 
the Crown. 

They were lodg'd in the Tower, where it was cuftom- 
ary for the Kings of England to refide before their Coro- 
nation ; and the Protector, upon the Refufal made by Sir 
Robert Brackenbury, Lieutenant of the Tower, to be an 
Accomplice of fo barbarous a Scene of Villainy, gave the 
Government of it, for one Night only, to Sir James Tyr- 
rel, who had fuborn'd one Miles Foreft, and John Digh- 
ton, who, in the Dead of Night, enter'd the Chamber 
where the two Princes lay, and flifled them,. Thefe 
fnocking Circumflances were told by Tyrrel, who was af- 
terwards executed under the Reign of Henry the Seventh. 
This inhumane Wretch was, by the Confent of the Peo- 

The Young Maris $eft Companion. 321 

pl«, crown'J King in 1483 ; and though his Character be 
well enough known by his abominable Actions, 1 mall de- 
fa: be him as follows : 

He was little in Stature, very ugly, and crook'd-back'd, 
a great Importer, Diffembler, Hypocrite, and cruel in his 
Nature ; but at the fame Time was brave and fagacious, 
and caufed Juilice to be adminifter'd to all his Subjects, 
without Diltinction. He was greatly fkill'd in Politicks, 
and had a furprizing Command over himfelf in concealing 
his Intentions. 

He was kill'd in the Battle of Bofworth-Field, which 
he fought againlt the Earl cf Richmond, the 22d of Au- 
guft 1485, who was afterwards King of England. 

His Body, after it was found, was carried to Leic^fter 
and expos'd to View for two Days ; then buried without 
any Ceremony : But Henry the Seventh, feme Time after 
caufed a Monument to be erecled over his Grave. 
After the Death of King Richard, the Earl of Rich- 
mond was crown'd King of England ; Richard leaving no 
legitimate Iffue. 

He was an able Prince ; chafte, and temperate ; an 
Enemy to all fcandalous Vices ; affiduous in Exercifes of 
Piety ; and caufed Juftice to be adminilter'd wherein his 
private Intereft was not concern'd ; for he was infatiably 
covetous ; yet he merited the Efieem of all Europe. 

He died the 2zd of April 1509, of a Confumption, in 
the 5 2d Year of his Age, and 24th of his Reign ; and 
was interr'd in that magnificent Chapel which he erected 
in Weftminiter- Abbey, called Henry the Seventh's Chapel. 
Henry VIII. fucceeded his Father Henry VII. and be- 
gan his Reign April 22, 1509, being in the 1 8th Year of 
his Age. 

He was a comely Prince ; but grew too corpulent in the 
latter Part of his Life. Pie was fkilful in all bodily Exer- 
cifes ; brave without Orientation ; of a candid and -frank 
Difpofition, and liberal to, Excels. He lov'd Study, and 
made a great Progrefs in the Sciences ; perfeft Mailer of 
Mufick; and Ikilled in Philofophy and Divinity : But, on 
the other Hand, was inclin'd to Cruelty; and withal, 
very prefumptuous and lafcivious. 
He died of a Complication ef Humours falling upon 


g22 ^he Young Man's Beji Companion. 

an old Sore in his Leg, the 28th of January, 1547, in 
the 56th Year of his Age, and 38th of his Reign. He 
left behind him two Daughters and one Son ; Mary, by 
Catharine of Arragon ; Elizabeth, by Anna Boleyn ; and 
Edward, by Lady Jane Seymour. 


This Prince began his Reign in 1547, and though but 
ten Years old, was well fkili'd in the Latin and French 
Tongues ; and had alfo fome Knowledge of the Greek, 
Spanifh, and Italian. 

He was a great Promoter of Trade and Learning, and 
an Encourager of the Reformation ; confirming the Grant 
of the King his Father, to the City of London, for Chrift's, 
and St. Bartholomew's Hofpitals ; and founded himfelf 
thofe of Bridewell and St. Thomas's, befides feveral 
Schools : But a Gonfumption carried him off the 6th of 
July, 1553, in the 1 6th Year of his Age, and 6th of his 


This Princefs came to the Throne after the Death of 
King Edward her Brother. After her Coronation, fhe 
was efpoufed to Philip II. King of Spain, by whom fhe 
had no Iffue. 

She was extremely bigotted to the Romifh Religion, 
■which fhe would have undoubtedly re-eftablifhed, had fhe 

Her natural Difpofition was cruel and revengeful ; and 
we meet with but one goed Action during her Reign, viz. 
Her rejecting the Propolal offer'd by the Spanifh Ambaffa- 
dor, of making herfelf abfolute. 

She died of a Dropfy the 17th of November, 1558, in 
the 43d Year of her Age, and in the fixth Year of her 


After the Deceafe of Queen Mary, the Princefs Eliz- 
abeth, her Sifter, afcended the Throne, in the 25th Year 
of her Age, 1558. She was tolerably handibme, and had 
a moft majeftick Air ; but the Circumftance that endear'd 
Iier moft to the common People, was a certain Affability 
which was natural to her, and which won her the Af- 
fection of the People. 

She was Miftrefs of a great deal of Wit, as well as of 
a folid Judgment, join'd to great CEconomy ; Learned, 


The Young Maris Beji Companion. 323 

and fpoke feveral Languages ; a great Politician, and 
Rever difclofed any of her Secrets, not even to her Fa- 
vourites or chief Minifters, who always paid an implicit 
Obedience to her Dictates : But the Circumftances, which 
above all ought to gain her Efteem, is, her making, the 
Englifh enjoy a Felicity unknown to their Anceftcrs. 

She was never married ; her Policy, and Love for 
Liberty, made her entertain an Averfion to the wedded 

She died March 24, 1603, in the 70th Year of her Age, 
and 45th of her Reign. 

James the Sixth of Scotland, and Firft of England, Son 
to the unfortunate Queen of Scots, fucceeded Queen 
Elizabeth. He was born at Edinburgh Caftle, and bap- 
tized a Roman Catholick, June 19, 1566, but afterwards 
educated in the Proteftant Religion. 

He was a learned Prince; but made not a right Ufe of 
his Knowledge. He was naturally as pacific, as Queen 
Elizabeth was magnanimous. 

A little before his Coronation, an intended Confpirccy 
was difcover'd, viz. To raifc to the Throne Arrabella 
Stuart, his Coufin German ; and fome of the Confpira- 
tors were executed ; the famous Sir Walter Raleigh was 
accufed of being concem'd in it ; and after a Confine- 
ment of twelve Years in the Tower, was beheaded Oct. 
29, 1618. 

The King died at his Palace at Theobald's of a Ter- 
tian Ague, after three Weeks Illnefs, March 27, 1625, 
in the 59th Year of his Age, the 22d of his Reign over 
Great-Britain, and 58th over Scotland. 
• This Prince, Son to King James, by Anne, Daughter 
to Frederick II. King of Spain, fucceeded him. He was 
born in Scotland, November 19, 1600, and crown'd King 
of Great-Britain, February 2, i6zjj-6. 

Some Writers fay, he was religious, chafte, fober, af- 
fable, and courteous; of great Feneration, folid Judg- 
ment, and an excellent Man. On the other Hand, that 
he was too fond of Prerogative, and fo weak, as to let 
himfelf be govern'd by his Wife and Favourites ; and 
that, by their Perfuafions, he executed feveral Things, 
which firft caufed his Subjects to murmur, and afterwards 


524 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

to break out into open Rebellion, which in the End 
proved fatal to him, for he was brought to the Bar as a 
common Criminal, and fentenced (without being fuffer'd 
t© plead in his own Defence) to be beheaded ; which Sen- 
tence was executed three Days afrer it was pafs'd upon 
him, being January 30, 1648-9. He fuffer'd Death with 
great Conftancy, and without difcovering the leaft Signs 
of Weaknefs or Surprize : And after his Body had been 
expofed to publick View for feveral Days, in one of the 
Apartments at Whitehall, was carried to Windfor, and 
interr'd in St. George's Chapel. 

From the Death of this King until the Year 1661 there 
was an Interregnum ; and England was govern'd by the 
Parliament, which was compos'd of 144 Perfons, known 
by the Name of Barebone's Parliament ; Oliver Crom- 
well being at the Head : But they resigning the Admini- 
stration of Affairs, Oliver caufed himfelf to be prociaim'd 
Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland ; and after 
having eftablilhed his Authority upon the Ruins of' the 
Parliament, (who were his Creatures) and made the Pro- 
tectorate hereditary in his Family ; after refufmg the 
Crown, which the fame Parliament offer'd him, he died 
of a Tertian Ague, Sept. 3, 1658. 

It was allowed by all, that he was a renowned Warrior; 
great Politician ; and Terror to France, Spain, and the 
United Provinces 

After his Death his Son Richard was prociaim'd Pro- 
testor ; but he did not long preferve this Title ; for in the 
Year 1660, Charles, Son to the deteafed King, was re- 
flor'd to the Crown. 


This Prince was crowned April 23, 1661, being St. 
George's Day. Fie was liberal even to Prodigality ; ex- 
tremely affable, and fo eafy in Converfation, that he 
feem'd defirous of doing Good to all. To this was added 
a fprightly Wit, and wonderful Conception ; and under- 
itood the Jntereft of his Kingdom, better than any of his 
Miniilers : But on the other Hand, he was too great a 
Lover of Eaie ; and he was julily blam'd for having too 
great an Attachment to the fair Sex. 

He died February 6, 1684-1;, aged fifty- four Years, af- 

*The Young Man's Befi Companion. 325 

ter having reign'd near twenty-four fince his Reftoration. 
And tho' he openly profefs'd the Proteitant Religion, he 
neverthelefs died (according to fome Authors) a Roman 


King Charles leaving no legitimate Iifue by Catharine 
his Queen, Daughter to Don Juan fourth King of Por- 
tugal, his Brother James Duke of York was proclaim'd 
King. He was born at St. James's Oftober 14, 1633, 
and crown'd April 23, i68<:. 

Hiilorians, who have writ impartially, fay, that he was 
a kind Father, a tender Hufband, a good Mafter ; and 
would have been a good King, had he not been milled 
by the wicked Minifters about him : That as his moft 
bi:ter Enemies cannot deny, but he fhew'd great Bravery, 
en feveral Occafions when Duke of York ; fo his bell 
Friends confefs, that he had more Piety than Refolution, 
when Kir>£ of England : In a Word, that the Religion 
he profefs'd was the Source of his Misfortunes, and the 
chief Caufe of his being dethion'd. 

He died at St. Germains in France, Sept. 6, 1701, in 
the 68th Year of his Age. 


After King James abdicated the Crown, William Naf- 
fau Prince of Orange, and his L'onfort Mary, Daughter 
to King James, were proclaim'd King and Queen of 
Great-Britain, the 13th of February, 1688-9 to the in- 
evpreffible Joy of the judicious and unbigotted Part of 
the Kingdom ; and were crown'd the Eleventh of April 
following at Weftminner, with great Magnificence. On 
December 28, 1694., Queen Mary died of the Small 

Her Piety was folid ; and an uncommon Goodnefs 
adorn'd her Soul. She had a great Sweetnefs of Temper, 
accompany'd with Majefty ; and an Air of Grandeur, 
without the leaft Pride or Affectation. Pier Conduct 
was admirable ; and entertain'd a fincere Affection for 
the King her Hufband, which he as kindly return'd. 
She paid an intire Submiffion to the Divine Will, which 
* (he 

326 The Young Maris Beft Companion. 

fhe gave convincing Proofs of in her expiring Mo- 
ments ; as indeed fhe had d ne, in the whole Tenor of 
her Life. 

The King died March 8, 1701-2, at Kenfington-Pa- 
lace, in the 53d Year of his Age, and 14th of his Reign. 

He was of a middling Stature, and a little round- 
ihoulder'd ; had an oval Face, a light brown Complexi- 
on, and a Roman Nofe ; his Eyes lively, and piercing; 
and never look'd {o well as on Horfe-Back ; as though 
Nature had form'd him to command in the Field. But 
the Defefts of his Body were compenfated by the Perfec- 
tions of his Mind; being endued with a quick, ready, at- 
tentive and penetrating Genius : Of found Judgment ; ad- 
mirable Forecaft ; a ftrong Memory, and a calm and in- 
trepid Courage. War was his greatelt Delight ; and Hunt- 
ing and Shooting his ufual Diverhons. In a Word, he was 
one of the greater! Men of his Age. He had declared 
himfelf, on all Occafions, an Enemy to Tyranny and Op- 
prefllon ; and, after having prefei v'd his own Country, 
was the Deliverer of England, and the Defender of the 
Liberties of Europe. 


This Princefs, after the Death of King William and 
Queen Mary her Sifter (they leaving no IfTue) was pro- 
claim'd and crown'd Queen of England, &c. and on the 
21ft of May, 1701-2, declar'dhis Royal Highnefs George 
Prince of Denmark (her Royal Confort) Lord High Ad- 
miral of England and Ireland. 

This Queen, initead of calming all Europe, which was 
her Intentions, involv'd herfelf in numberlefs domeftick 
Troubles, which foon brought her to the Grave ; being 
feiz'd with a Kind of Lethargy, fhe expir'd on the Firft of 
Auguft 17 14, on which Day the Elector of Hanover was 
proclaim'd King. 

She was virtuous, charitable, and a perfect Model of 
Piety ; and as a Sovereign eafy, kind, and generous. Her 
Majelty was extremely regretted by her Subjeds who had 
loved her with filial Affection during the whole Courfe of 
her Reign. She left no Children, though fhe had fix; 
two Sons and four Daughters. 


The Toung Man's Bejl Companion. 327 


This Prince, was the eldeft Son of Erneft Auguftus, 
firft Duke and Elector of Brunfwick Lunenburgh, by 
Princefs Soph'' a Daughter to Frederick, fifth Elector Pa- 
latine, and King of Bohemia, and Princefs Elizabeth, 
el Jell Daughter of King James the Firft. 

He was born the 28th of May, 1660; fucceeded his 
Father in the Electorate 1698, and was at Hanover at the 
Death of the Queen, and proclaim'd King of England, 
&c. the fame Day. 

He embark'd for England, with the Prince Royal his 
Son, the 16th of ^epten ber, 1714, and landed at Green- 
wich the 18th; and on the 20th made a magnihcent En- 
trance into London ; being attended by above zoo 
Coaehes and Six, belonging to the Nobiliy, Sec. The 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London attending in their 

His Majefty, in his laft Vifit to Hanover was taken ill 
on the Road between Delden and Linden; which Ulnefs 
proceeded from having eat Part of a Melon, which he 
did not well digelt. Being arrived at Linden, he was let 
Blood : But his Majefty being anxious to reach his Do- 
minions, travelled on, though he was importuned to the 
contrary, being much indifpofed : But being feiz'd, as he 
rode in his Coach, with a Lethargic Diforder, he re- 
clin'd his Head on a Gentlemar, who had the Honour 
to be with him, faying at the fame Time in French, C'fl 
fait de moy, that is, J am gone, or, it is over with me : 
However about Ten that Night he arrived at his Bro- 
ther's, the Duke of York, in Ofnaburg ; and after hav- 
ing again been let Blood, expir'd about One next Morn- 
ing, June 11, 1727, in the 68th Year of his Age, and 
13th of his Reign. 


As his late Majefty died Abroad, his Death v/as not 
known till the 14th of June, 1727, and his Majefty King 
George II. was, the next Morning, proclaimed King, and 
he with his Queen were crowned at Weftminiier, on the 

nth of October. 


328 The Young Man's Bcjt Companion. 

His Majefty found the Nation engaged in a War with 
the Spaniards; but in 1729, a Peace was concluded at 
Seville between Great-Britain, France and Spain. 

On October 29, 1739, War was declared againft Spain; 
and on November 22, 1740, Admiral Vernon, with fix 
Ships, took Porto Bello. 

Commodore Anfon failed from England with five Men 
of War in 1740, and after having fuffered the moll 
dreadful Diltreiies, fupriied and took Paita on the 12th 
of November, 1741, and having plundered and burnt 
the Town, and f-iz'd feveral Spanifh Ships, he on his 
Return, by the Way ©f the Eaft Indies, took the Manil- 
la Galleon, loaded with Treafure. He arrived in Eng- 
gland in 1744, with the Riches he had acquired from 
t he Spaniards, amounting to about 400,000 1. 

In 1744 War was declared againft France; and in 
1745, the People of New-England, affifted by ten Men 
of War under Commodore Warren, took Cape Breton, 
with the Lofs of only 100 Men ; but were afterwards 
obliged to part with it for Madrafs. 

On the 14th of July the young Pretender failed to 
Scotland in a fmall Frigate, and landed there on the 
27th of July. He foon obtained a considerable Force, 
and proceeding through feveral Parts of Scotland, had his 
Father proclaimed King, while he himtjdf aflum'd the Title 
of Prince Regent. He took feveral Places, and gained 
fome Advantages over the King's Forces fent againft 
him ; but at Length the Duke of Cumberland went to 
Edinburgh, and took the Command of the Army, and 
on the 15th of April, came to an Engagement near Cul- 
loden Houfe, and obtained a compieat Victory, in which 
about 1400 of the Rebels were killed, wounded and ta- 
ken PriiontiD, though the Roy a; Army had only do Men 
•killed, and 280 wounded. I he Earl of Kilmarnock, 
Lord Balmerino, Lord Lovat, and Mr. Radclirle, Brother 
to the late Earl of Dcrwentwater, were afterwards be- 
headed for this Rebellion on Tower-hill. 

Hostilities at Length, ceafed in Flanders, and a gene- 
ral Peace was proclaimed in London., February 2, 17, ,9. 
The French, however, loon broke the Peace by erecting 
Forts on the Back of the Brkiih Settlements in America, 
and in 1754, attempted to leize Nova Scotia: Thefe De- 

The Young MttrTs Beft Companion. 329 

pr&dations brought on feveial Engagements which were 
attended with various Succefs. 

Mean while the French landed 16,000 Men in Minorca, 
which was defended by Gen. Blakeney. His Majeity de- 
clared War again it France on the 17 th of May, i 75 6 > 
and fent Admiral Byng with a itrong Fleet to the Relief 
of Minorca ; but he neglecting to fulfil his Inductions, 
the Place was loft, and he was tried and fhot at Ports- 
mouth. • 

During thefe Tranfaftions Col. CUve diftinguifhed 
himfelf in the Eaft Indies ; and all the Towns and Facto- 
ries belonging to the French on the Coaft of Corcmandel, 
except only Pondicherry, were in a few Years taken by the 

In 1758 the Duke of Marlborough landed near bt. 
Maloes in France, burnt many thips, with a great Quan- 
tity of Naval Stores, Lieut. Gen. Bli^h ard Capt. (now 
Ford) How took Cherburgh and demolished its Fortifica- 
tions. Soon after Cant. Marlh took Senegal, and Com. 
Keppel took the Ifland" of Goree, on the Coait of Africa. 
On the 26th of July, Cape Breton was again taken by 
Gen. Amherft and Admiral Bofcawen. Soon after tort 
Frontenac furrendered to Lieut. Gen. Broadftreet and Fort 
du Quefne to Gen. Forbes. • 

On May 1, 1759, the valuable Ifland ©f Guadaloupe 
furrendered to the Englifh, and the fame Month Manga- 
Jante, Santos, and Deieada, became fubject to England. 
And the fame Year the French loft Quebec, the Capital of 

Canada. . , „ 

In 1760, Thurot landed with three Frigates in the Kay 
of Carrickfergus ; they were all taken by Capt. Elliot. 
And on Sent. 8, Montreal and all Canada Submitted to 
the Englifh. But after thefe glenous Conquefts his Majel- 
tv King George the II. to the inexpreffible Grief of his 
People, uied at Kermngton, on the 25th of Odober, in 
the 77th Year of his Age and 34th of bis _ Reign ; and 
! the next Day his preient molt gracious Majeity was pro- 
claimed King by the Name of George III. 

The Reign of George II. was dUbnguifhed by a Vari- 
ety of important Events, and chequered with a Vicifh- 
tude of Character and Fortune. He was in Perlon rather 
lower than the middle Siie, well lhaped, erect, with 
Eyes remarkably prominent, a high No.e, and fan ; Com- 

330 The Youn^ ManTBeji Companion. 

plexion. In his Difpofuion he is faid to have been hafty, 
prone t« Anger, especially in his Youth, yet ioon ap- 
peafed ; otherwife mild, moderate, and humane ; in his 
Way of Living temperate, regular, and fo methodical in 
every Branch of private (Economy, that his Attention 
defctnded to Objecls which a great King (perhaps) had 
better overlook. He was fond of military Pomp and Pa- 
rade ; and perfonally brave. He loved War as a Soldier ; 
he liudied it as a Science ; and correfponded on the Sub- 
ject with forne of the greatelf. Officers whom Germany 
had produced. The Extent of his Underftanding, and 
the bplendor of his Virtue, we fhall not piefu/iie- to af- 
certain, nor attempt to difplay ; we rather wiih for Op- 
portunities to expatiate on his Munificence and Libe- 
rality ; his generous Regard to Genius and Learning ; 
his royal Encouragement and Protection of thofe Arts, 
by which a Nation is at once benefited and adorned. 

To innoculate FRUIT-TREES. 

ABOUT Mldfummer> or a Month before or after, take 
off a vigorous Shoot from a Tie- you would propa- 
gate ; then make Choice of a Stock about three or four 
Years Growth, and in a fmooth Part of it make a down- 
right flit in the Bark, a little a-bove an Inch long, and a- 
nother crofswife at the Bottom of that, to give Way to 
the Opening of the Bark ; then with your Penknife gent- 
ly loofen the Baik from the Wood on both Sides, begin- 
ning at the Bottom ; next prepare your Bud, by cutting it 
off with your Knife, entering pretty deep into the Wood 
as much above as below the Bud, to the Length of the 
Slit in the Stock ; after the Bud is thus prepared, with the 
Point of your Knife and your Thumb take out the woody 
Part of it, carefully preferving the Eye of the Bud ; then 
put your Bud in between the Bark and the Wood of the 
Stock at the crofs Slit, leading it upward by the Stalk, 
where the Leaf grew, till it exa&ly clofes ; then bind it 
about with coarfe Woollen Yarn, the better to make all 
Parts of it clofe regularly, and the Bud incorporate with 
the Stocks, and the Operation is done. 

The Bud will be incorporated in about three Weeks 
Time, and then you mud loofen the Yarn, that it may not 
gall the Place too much j the quicker this is done the bet- 


The Young Marfs'EeJl Companion. 331 

ter. You may put two or three Buds into one Stock of 
Peaches and Nectarines, that if one don't fucceed another 
may ; and if your Buds innoculated in the Month of June, 
or before, don't hit, ycu may make a fecond Attempt the 
fame Year, and on the fame Stock, with better Succtfs. 
Let all Buds be taken off of the vigorous growing Shoot, 
and ufed immediately. 

To graff FRUIT-TREES. 

Grafting (or Ingrafting, or Grafting) is of four Sorts. 1. 
In the Cleft. 2. In the Bark. 3. By Approach. And 4. Of each of thefe in order. I. Graff ng in 
the Cleft., or Slit Graffng. This is performed on the Pear, 
Cherry and Plumb Stocks. After you have chofe your 
Stock, cut off" the Head in a fmooth Place, iloping ; then e- 
ven the Top horizontally with your Knife ; this being done 
make a Slit near two Inches deep down the Middle of the 
Stock, with a large ftrong Penknife ; then prepare your Cy- 
on (taken from a vigorous Shoot of the foregoing Year, 
which was prepared in January) Hoping it on each Side, 
from a Bud or Eye, but leaving it thiner on that Side 
which gees into the Stock than on the Outfide, fo that it 
may conform itfelf to the Slit in the Stock ; then place the 
Cyon in the Stock, and clofe the Bark of both exadlly. 
After this is done, temper Clay and ihort Hay together, 
and putting it round the Stock and the lower Part of the 
Cyon, but fo as not to difturb the Cyon, which mull be 
left with more than three or four Eyes above the Stock. 
In cafe the Stock be large, you may put two Cyons in the 
Cleft ; one on each Side. If the Stock be very large, ufe 
a Mallet and large Knife to make a Slit or Cleft. Let not 
your Cyons be loofe nor pinched. 

2. To graff in the Bark. This is only ufed for Apples ; 
and you are to cut the Head of the Stock as in the former, 
and inftead of flitting the Stock, flit only the Eark a little 
more than an Inch on the South-Weft Side, as long as the 
floped Part of the Cyon ; at the Top of the Slit loofen the 
Bark with your Knife, then with a fmooth Inftrument of 
Ivory ©r hard Wocd cut Hoping as the Cyon, make Room 
for the Cyon, by thruiting it down between the Bark and 
the Wood of the Stock, where it was flit ; next take your 
Cyon (being prepared with a flat Slope about an Inch long, 
ending in a Point, and begun from the Back of an Eye) 
and put into the Stock, thrufting the Top of the Slope as 

P low 

332 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

low as the Top Surface of the Stock ; then order the Bark 
on each Side the Cyon, that it may fall clofe to the Stock ; 
then clay it over as before. 

3. G raffing by Approach or Inarching. This is performed 
where the Stock grows fo near another Tree whofe Fruit 
you would propagate, that it may be joined with a Branch 
of that Tree, by cutting the Sides of the Branch and 
Stock about three Inches long and fo fitting them, that 
the Paffages of the Sap may meet ; in which Pofture let 
them be bound and elayed. When they are cemented, cut 
off the Head of the Stock, ubout four Inches above the 
Binding, and in March following cut off the Stub that was 
left of the Stock, and then clofe the grafted Place, that it 
may fubfift by the Stock only. This Graffing is alfo per- 
formed by cutting off the Head of the Stock at firft, Hop- 
ing it about two Inches long, and joining the Cyon there- 
to. This Manner of Graffing agrees belt with Fintt, Oranges, 
jPomegranates, and fuch like. 

4. Whip Graffing. This is where the Stock and Cyan 
are of the fame Bigneft ; the Stock mufl be floped an Inch 
or more, and alfo the Cyon ; and then one is tied upon the 
other ; or elfe a Shotilder may be made on the Cyon, to 
fuit with which, the Top of the Stock mould be cut ; 
then bind them together, and clay them. 

All thefe four Kinds of Graffing are performed chiefly in 
the Month of February. 

Of Pruning FRUIT-TREES. 

When a Tree is planted, and has produced two well dif- 
pofed Branches, with fome weak Ones intermixed, they are 
all to be (hortened equally, to. the Length of five or fix 
Inches ; and if the Pofition of the two Branches be irre- 
gular, there mufl be only one left to begin the Formation 
of the Figure of the Tree. It fometimes happens, thaf a 
Tree will fhoot five, fix, or feven Branches, the firft Year, 
in which Cafe three or four only of the belt Branches are 
to be preferved. A Multitude of Branches the firft Year, 
is not always a Sign of Vigour ; for they fometimes prove 
weak, occafioned by the Infirmity of the* Roots : But in 
the Pruning, generally a vigorous Tree cannot have too 
many Branches, if they are well difpofed ; nor a weak 
Tree have too few. The Sap of all Trees muft be kept in 
due Bounds, and a greater Liberty is to be allowed to 
flrong Trees than weak Ones ; For which Reafon, ftrong 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 333 

vigorous Branches, are left a greater Length than feeble 
Ones, and it is belt to prune weak, fickly Trees, early, that 
the Sap may not wafte itfelf too much. 

The mod feafonable Time for this Work, is about the 
Month of February ; but the more luxuriant a Tree is, the 
later it is pruned the better ; and in fuch a Cafe, it is not 
too late to* do it after the Tree has begun to moot. Some 
Trees (efpecially the Vine) require feveral Prunings in the 

A Jhort Account of the Britijh Plantations. 
H U D S O N's B J r, 

A Very cold Country, and but thinly peopled with In- 
dians. The Enqlijh have a Fort or two on the Bot- 
tom and Weft Side of the Bay, for the Sake of Trade with 
the Natives for Skins, which are chiefly Beaver, value $r- 
bout 200,000 £. Sterling, per Annum. 

A large Ifland, cold and barren ; the Settlements and 
Fortreffes few, and made only for the Sake of the Fifhery 
upon the Coafts, which is the greater! in the World ; the 
Englijb, French, &c. loading near 600 Sail yearly with 
Cod-fifh, which is carried to the Mediterranean, and other 
Parts of Europe. The Fifhery in thefe Seas is an inexhau- 
ftible Fund of Wealth, and the Pofleffion of it deemed pre- 
ferable to the Mines of Peru : It breeds great Numbers of 

hardy Seamen. 


Of which Quebeck is the Capital, was firft fettled by the 
French, and continued in their Poffeffion until the 14th of 
September, in the Year 17*59, when it was taken by the 
Englifh under the Command of General Wolf, who was kil- 
led in the glorious Conqueft, and Montreal furrendered to 
General Amherft the 7th of September following. In the 
Year 1753, Canada had not more than 45,000 Inhabitants, 
but when it was given up to the Englijh 19,650 Men were 
found capable of bearing Arms, befides the Clergy, and 
Labourers fufficient to carry on their Plantation Work. 
The whole Country was ceded to Great-Britain by the De- 
finitive Treaty of Peace concluded at Paris the 10th of 
Feb. \n6x. Little can be faid with Regard to the F« rtiUty 
of the Soil, the Inhabitants feldom raiie Food fufficwnt for 
therafelves, tho' they abound inHorfes and Neat U't.e. 

y ^ AG V A- 

334 tt* young Man's Beft Companion. 


A fine, fertile Country, but not hitherto much cultivated. 
Its Coafts have many good Harbours, and Plenty of Fifh. 
The Government is Englifh, but mofl of the Inhabitants 
Trench, who fubrnitted in the'laft War, on Condition of re- 
taining their Pofleffions, and remaining Neuter in ail future 
Wars between the two Nations. Annapolis Royal was the 
Capital, a fortified Town, with an EngHJh Garrifon. The 
Iflands of Cape-Breton, belonging to this Territory, were 
given to France at the Peace of Utrecht, on which they 
built Lovijburg, and fortified it with incredible Art and Ex- 
pence ; but in the late War, it was reduced and taken by 
the Wifdom of Governor Shirley, and the Bravery of 
his New-England Troops, under General Pepperrell, 
countenanced by a Squadron of Britifh Ships, commanded 
by the late aftive, vigilant and fuccefsful Commodore 
Warren. At the Peace it was reft >red to France, and 
the Englijb have fince built Halifax on Chebouilou Harbour ; 
but Cape-Breton was again retaken from the French in the 
Year 1759, by Atnherft, Wolf and Bofcazven. 


Comprehends four feveral Governments, or Colonies ; 
3. The Majfachufetts. 2. Neiv-Hampjhire. 3. Connetlicut. 4. 
Rhcde-IJland. The Climate is healthful ; the People hardy, 
induftrious and fober ; the Laws and Government good; 
but the Soil generally not very fertile, and there being no 
Staple Commodity for Exportation, the Country is poor, 
and under great Difficulties to pay for what it wants from 
abroad. There are many fine Habours and Plenty of Fifh 
on the Coafts, a great Number of pretty Towns, in every 
one of which is a Free School; Boston, the Capital, is 
efteem'd at prefent the greateft Town in North-America, 
and the beft govern'd. Port/mouth is the chief Town in 
Ne-iv-HampJbire. Newport the Capital of Rhode-IJland Go- 
vernment ; and Hartford of Conneclkut. In the two laft 
named Governments they annually eledl their Governors, 
\£c. In the two former the Governors are appointed by the 
Crown. In Rhode-Ifland there is the greateft Liberty in 
Matters of Religion. Their Money is Paper, continually 
decreafing in Value ; Silver and Gold, when any appears 
among them, is bought up and remitted to England. Their 
fjrft Settlement began about 1620. 'Tis fuppofed the 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 235 

difciplin'd Militia in the four Governments make near 
200,000 Men. 

Is a Royal Government ; both Governor and Council 
being appointed by the Crown. The People chufe the Af- 
fembly.i It has not much Territory, and does not people 
very faff, being hindered, fome fay, by the exorbitant 
Grants of Lands made to particular Perfons, who will not 
divide and fell, but keep it for their Pofterity. The Capi- 
tal New-York, is feated at the Mouth of Hudfen's River, 
very convenient for Trade, and makes a beautiful Appear- 
ance. The Inhabitans, a Mixture of Englijh, Lew-Dutch, 
and French Proieftants, area genteel, generous People. 
The Produce Wheat, Bread, and Flour. The Money 
Gold and Silver, mixed with Paper. The firftfSettlement 
by the Dutch about the fame Time with that of New-Eng- 
land by the Englijh. 

N E JV-J E R S E Y, 
A flourifhing Colony, fituated between New-York and 
Pennjyh'ania. The Soil is in many Parts very fertile, pro- 
ducing all Sorts of Grain, tic. The Government like that 
pf New-York. The chief Towns, are Burlington, dmboy, Br unf- 
wick and Trenton. The Country in general well timber'd 
and water'd, and inhabited by a very good Sort of People 
One of the happieil Countries at this Time in the 
World ; God grant it may long fo continue. 

Pleafant and fertile Countries. Their chief Produce 
Tobacco. The People remarkable for their Hofpitality. 
The Settlement of Maryland began about 163 1 ; that of 

Virginia 30 or 40 Years before. The Governments 

of both Colonies are by Governor, Council and Afiembly, 
but the Laws of Virginia, are faid to be the moft favour- 
able for the People. No Countries in the World are better 
accommodated with navigable Waters. 

Are yet but thinly peopled. The Climate temperate ; 
but the Air, in the low, flat, Country, where the principal 
Settlements have hitherto been made, not healthful. Their 
chief Produce is Rice, Pitch, Tar and Turpentine. Back 
towards the Mountains the Land is faid to be equally fer- 
tile, and the Air more wholeforne, fo that a fine Country 
i> - 
^— -*- - 5 may 

336 The Young Man's Bejt Companion. 

may be expefted there in Time. The firft Settlement of 
the Carolina's was about the Year 1680. 
A new, but declining Colony. There are few Inhabi- 
tants at prefent befides the Soldiery, who are maintained 
there by Great-Britain. 

Ceded to Great-Britain by the Spaniards at the late 
Treaty of Peace, bounded towards the North by the Co- 
lony of Georgia, to the Eaft and South by the Atlantic 
Ocean and the Gulph of Florida, and on the Weft by the 
River Apalachicola. 

■ PENSACQLA, or W E S 7* F ' L O R I D A, 
Is bounded on the Eaft by the River Apalachicola, on 
the South by the Gulph of Me::i:o to the Lake Pon't- 
c'?artrain, on one of the Mouths of the Mijtjippi. This 
great River formed its Boundary to the Weft unto the 
31ft Degree of Latitude, from which a Line was ftruck 
acrofs the Northern Limit due Eaft, until it met the above 
mentioned River Apalachicola. 

Firft fettled in 1612. No Part of the World enjoys a 
purer Air, or more temperate Climate than thele Iflands, 
fo that for Health they are reckoned the Montpelier of A- 
meria. They are fituated in Lat. 32 Deg. 30 Min. N. 
above 200 Leagues from the Continent. 
Was taken from the Spaniards in 1655. A wealthy 
Ifland, but unhealthy, and fubjett t© Earthquakes. 
"Were fettled by the Engli/b, viz. Antigua in 1666. 
Montjerat in 1632. Nevis in 1628. St. Chrijlophers in 
1626. Barbuda in 1627. Anguillia in 1630. The chief 
Ifland and Seat of Government is Antigua. 
Was fettled about the Year 1625. The Produce of this 
and the other Weji-India Iflands is chiefly Sugar, Rum, 
c3V. The Labour chiefly done by Slaves, as in Maryland., 
Virginia and Carolina: Their Governments generally much 
alike, by a Governor, Council and Aflembly. The peo- 
ple rich, genteel, generous and hofpitable. The Trade 
of the Colonies with one another and Great-Britain, em- 
ploys a vail Number of Ships and Seamen, And moft of 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 337 

thofe on the Continent encreafe continually in People, par- 
ticularly Pennfylvania. 

The Family's Best Companion ; giving Inftruitions 
hozu to pickle and preferve ; to make divers Sorts of Wines 
of our Product ; together tviih many excellent and approved 
Medicines y Salves, &c. neccjjary in all Families. 

Of Pickling, Preferring, Candying, &C. 
To Pickle Cucumbers. 

WASH them and dry them in a Cloth; then take 
Water, Vinegar, Salt, Fennel Tops, fome Dill 
Tops, and a little Mace ; make it fharp enough to the 
Tafte ; then boil it a while ; then take it off and let it 
{land till cold ; then put in the Cucumbers, and flop them 
down clofe ; and within a Week they will be lit to eat. , 
To pickle Cucumbers green. 

Take two Quarts of Verjuice or Vinegar, and a Gallon 
of fair Water, a Pint of Bay fait, a Handful of green Fen- 
nel or Diil ; boil it a little, and when cold, put it into a 
Barrel, and then put the Cucumbers to the Pickle, and you 
may keep them all the Year. 

To pickle French Beans. 

Take them before they arejipe, and cut off the Stalks ; 
then take good Wine Vinegar, and boil with Pepper and 
Salt ; feafon them to your Palate, and let it fland till cold ; 
then take the Beans, and put them into a Pot, placing Dill 
between the Layers, and then put in the Pickle, and cover 
them clofe for three Weeks ; then take the Pickle, and 
boil and put it to the Beans boiling hot ; cover them 
clofe again, and, when cold, they will be fit to eat. 

Or French Beans may be pickled thus : Take your Beans 

and ilring them, boil them tender, then take them off, and 

let them fland till cold, then pat them into Pickle of Beer, 

Vinegar, Pepper, Salt, Cloves, Mace, and a little Ginger. 

To pickle Eldern, or any other Buds of Trees. 

Give them one or two Walras with Vinegar, Salt, whole 
Pepper, long Mace, and a little Lemon Peel in Pieces ; 
then drain them, and let the Buds and Liquor cool fepa- 
rately ; afterwards put them into a Pot, and cover them 
with your Pickle. 

To pickle Walnuts to eat like Mangoes. 

Take green Walnuts before the Shell is grown to any 
Hardnefs in them ; pick them from the Stalki, and put 

P 4 them 

33 8 The Young Man's Btjl Companion. 

them into cold Water, and fet them on a gentle Fire till 
the outward Skin begins to peel off ; then with coarfe 
Cloths wipe it off; then put them into a Pot, and put 
Water and Salt therein, fhifting it once a Day for ten 
Days, till the Bitternefs and Difcolouring of the Water 
be gone ; then take a good Quantity of Mufiard-feed, 
which beat up with Vinegar, till it becomes coarfe Muf- 
tard ; then take fome Cloves of Garlick, fome Ginger, 
r.nd a little beaten Cloves and Mace ; make a Hole in 
each Nut, and put in a little of this ; then take White- 
wine Vinegar, and boil them together, which put to the 
Nuts boiling hot, with fome Pepper, Ginger, Cloves and 
Mace, as aifo feme of the Muftard and Garlick, which 
Keep clofe Hopped for Ufe. 

To pickle Mujlirccms. 

Firft blanch them over the Crowns, and barb them be- 
neath ; then put them into a Pan of boiling Water, then 
take them forth, and let them drain : when they are ccld, 
put them into your Pot or Glafs, and put to them Cloves, 
Mace, Ginger, Nutmegs and whole Pepper ; then take 
White-wine, a little Vinegar and Salt : So pour the Li- 
quor into the Mulhrooms, and ftop them clofe for Ufe. 
To fickle any Sort of Flowers for Sallads, as Clove Gilly 
Flowers, &c. 

Put them into a Gally-pot, with as much Sugar as they 
weigh ; fill them with Wine Vinegar : To a Pint of Vi- 
negar, a Pound of Sugar. 
To pickle Samphire, Broom Buds, Ajlien-Keys, Purjlain, See. 

Take Samphire, and pick the Branches from the dead 
Leaves ; then lay it in a Pot, and make a ftrong Brine of 
Water, or Bay fait ; in the Boiling fcum it clean ; being 
boiled, and cold, put it to the Samphire; cover it, and 
keep it for all the Year ; and when there is Occafion to 
ufe it, take and boil it in fair Water, but the Water mud 
boil before you put it in ; when it is boiled, and become 
green, let it cool ; then take it out, and put it into a wide 
jnouth'd Glafs, and put ftrong Wine Vinegar to it, and 
keep it clofe for Ufe. 

To pickle Lemon and Orange Peel. 

Boil them in Vinegar and Sugar, and put them into the 
fame Pickle : Obferve to cut them in fmall long Thongs, 
the Length of Half the Peel of your Lemon : it ought to 


The Young Man's Beft Companion* 339 

be boil'd in Water before it is boild in Vinegar and Su- 

To prcferve green Apricots. 

Take them when they are {"mall and tender ; peel them 
and put them in hot Water, but let them not boil ; let 
them lie there till they begin to be green, then take them 
out, and put them in cold Water, then boil your Sugar, 
and let your Apricots run a little of the Water from them ; 
then put them into the Sugar, and let them boil till the 
Syrup becomes thick ; then put them into an earthen Pan, 
and let them remain there a Week ; then put them into a 
Preferving Pan, and make them boil again till the Syrup 
grows thick ; then put them once more into an Earthen 
Pan, and let them Hand till they are cold ; then take them 
out of their Syrup, and lay them on your Ardoife ; then 
dry them in your Stove, and turn them eften till dry; 
then put them in Boxes on Faper. 

To preferve Fruit Green. 

Take Pippins, Apricots, Pears, Plumbs or Peaches, 
when they are green ; fcald them in hot Water, and peel 
them ; -then put them into another Water, not fo hot as 
the firft ; then boil them very tender, and take the 
Weight of them in Sugar, and put to them as much Wa- 
ter as will make a Syrup to cover them ; then boil them 
femew hat leifurely and take them up ; then boil the Sy- 
rup till it be fomewhat thick, and, when cold* put them 

To preferve Rajberries. 

Take good Rafberries that are not too ripe, but very 
whole ; take away the Stalks, and put them into a flat bot- 
tamed Earthen Pan ; boil Sugar, and pour it over your 
Rafberries, then let them Hand to be cool, and when they 
are cold pour them foftly into your preferving Pan, and lit 
them boil till their Syrup be boiled pretty thick ; fcum 
them very well in the boiling ; this done put them in Pots, 
and, when cold, cover them up clofe for Ufe. 
To preferve Barberries. 

Take one Pound of Barberries pick'd from the Stalks, 
put them into a Pottle Pet, and fet it in a Brafs Pot full of 
hot Water, and when they be Hewed, {train them, and put 
to the Barberries one Pound § of Sugar, and to them put a 
Pint of red Rofe Water, and boil them a little ; then take 
Half a Pound of thefaireit Clutters of Barberries you can 

? 5 £«' 

34° ¥be Tour.g Maris Be ft Companion. 

get, and dip them in the S rup while it is boiling; then 
take the Barberries out, and boil the Syrup till it ; s thick, 
and, when cold, put them into Gally-pots or Giauco with 
the Syrup. 

To pre/erve Currants. 
Lay a Lay«r of Currants, and then a Layer of Sugar, 
and fo boil as before prefcribcd for F.aiberries ; fcum them 
in boiling till the Syrup is pretty thick ; then take them 
off, and, when they are cold, put them in Gally-pots or 
Glaffes clofely flopped. 

To prefer*ve Walnuts Green. 
Boil the Wallnuts till the Water taftes bitter, then take 
them off, and put them in cold Water; peel off the Bark, 
and weigh as much Sugar as they weigh, and a little more 
Water than will wet the Sugar ; fet them on the Fire, and 
•when they boil up, take them off, and let them ftand two 
Days, and then boil them again once more. 
To prejer've Grapes. 
Stamp and ftrain them ; let them fettle a while ; before 
you wet a Pound of Sugar, or Grapes with the Juice, 
ftone the Grapes, and fave the Juice in the Stoning ; take 
them off, and put them up, 

Ta preferve Cherries. 
Firft take fome of the worft Cherries, and boil them in 
fair Water, and when the Liquor is well coloured, ltr2in 
it ; then take fome of the bell Cherries, with their Weight 
in beaten Sugar; then lay one Layer of Sugar, and ano- 
ther of Cherries, till all are laid in the preferving Pan ; 
then pour a little Liquor of the worit Cherries into it, and 
boil the Cherries till they are well colour'd ; then take 
them up, and boil the Syrup till it will button on the Side 
of a Plate, and when they are cold, put them up in a Giafs 
clofe covered for Ufe. 

To candy Cherries. 
Take Cherries before they be full ripe, and take out the 
Stones ; then take clarified Sugar boil'd to a Heighth and 
pour it on them. 

To candy Pears, Plumbs, Jpricots. &C 

Take them and give everyone a Cut half through ; then 

call Sugar on them, and bake them in an Oven, as hot as 

for Manchet, clofe Hopped; let them ftand Half an Hour, 

then lay them one by one upon Glafs Plates to dry, and 


The Toung Man's Beji Companion. 34.1 

they will appear very fine and clear : In this Manner you 
may candy any other Fruit. 

• To candy Flowers. 
Pick them very clean* and to every Ounce of Flowers, 
put two Ounces of hard Sugar, and one Ounce of Sugar- 
candy, and diflblve them in Roie Water ; then boil them, 
till they come to Sugar again, and when it is almoil cold, 
put in your Flowers, and ftir them together, &c. 

Of making fundi y Sorts of Wines, 

Currant Wine. 

PICK the Currants (when they are full ripe) clean from 
the Stalks, theR put them into an Earthen Veffel, and 
pour on them fair and clean hot Water, that is, a Quart of 
Water to a Gallon of Currants ; then bruife or mafti them 
together, and let them ftand and ferment; then coves 
them for twelve Hours, ftrain them through h:ie Linen 
into a large earthen Crock (as they fay in SuJfoxJ and 
then put the Liquor into a Calk, and thereto put a little 
Ale-Yell, and when worked and fettled, bottle it off; 
This is exceeding pieafant, and very wholefoir.e for cool- 
ing the Blood : In a Week's Time it will be fit for bottling 

Artificial Claret. 

Take fix Gallons of Water, two Gallons of the belt Cy- 
der, and thereto put eight Pounds of the bell Malaga 
fins bruifed ; let them iknd clofe covered in a warm Pi ice 
fur two Weeks, ftirring them every two Day* well toge- 
ther ; then prefs out the Liquor into the VcfTel again, and 
add to it a Quart of the Juice of Barberies, and a Pint 
of the Juice of Bramble-berries, er Raiberries (which 
perhaps is the bell) to which put a Pint cf the Juice of 
Black Cherries; work it up with Muftard Seed covered 
with Bread Parte for three or four Days by the Fire-fide ; 
after which let it Hand a Week, then bottle it oft, and it 
will become near as good as, if not exceed, common 

Goojlerry Wine. 

The belt Way is to take to every three Pounds of Fruit, 
one Pound of ougar, and a Quart of fair Water ; boil the 
Water very well, but ycu mult put the aforefaid Quantity 
of Sugar when it is boiled ; bruife the Fruit, and iteej it 
Twenty-iour Hours in the Water, ftil it fornetimes-, then 


342 The Young Marts Beft Companion. 

ftrain it off, and put the Sugar to it, and let it ftand in a 
Runlet clofe Sopped for a Fornight ; then draw it off, and 
fet it up in a cool Cellar, and in two Montns it will be fit 
to drink. 

Rajberry Wine. 

Take the Rafberries clear from the Stalks ; to a Gallon 
of which put a Bottle of White Wine, and let them in- 
fufe in an earthen Veffcl two or three Days clofe covered ; 
then bruife the Berries in the Wine, and ftrain thro' fine 
Linen gently ; then let it fimmer over a moderate Fire, 
fcum off the Froth, and then ftrain it again, and with a 
Quarter of a Pound of Loaf Sugar, to a Gallon, let it' 
fettle; then in Flalf a Pint of White Wine boil about 
an Ounce of well-fcented Cinnamon, and a little Mace, 
and put the Wine ftrained from the Spice into it, and bot- 
tle it up. 

Dam/on Wine. 

Dry the Damfons in a Oven after you have drawn your 
Bread; then to every Quart of Damfons put three Quarts 
of fair Water, but firft boil it very well ; then put the 
Water and Damfons into a Runlet, with Sugar ; and hav- 
ing ftood a Time fufficient bottle it off. 
~~Wine of Grapes. 

When they are fully ripe, in a dry Day, pick of thofe 
Grapes that are ripeft, and fqueeze them in a Fat or Prefs 
made for that Purpofe, in which muft be a fine Canvas Bag 
to contain the Grapes ; and when in the Prefs, do not 
fqueeze them fo hard as to break the Stones, if you can 
help it, becaufe the bruifed Stones will give the Wine a 
difagreeable Tafte ; then ftrain it well, and let it fettle on 
the Lees, in fuch a Calk or Veffel as you may draw it 
off without railing the Bottom ;" then feafon a Cafk well 
with fome fcalding Water, and dry it, or fcent it with a 
linen Rag dipped in Brimftone, by fixing it at the Bouge, 
by the Bung or Cork ; then put the Wine into it, and 
ftop it clofe for 48 Hours ; then give it Vent at the Bouge, 
with a Hole made with a Gimblet ; in which put a Peg ©r 
Faucet, that may eafily be moved with the Fingers ; then 
in about two Days Time clofe it up ; and in about two or 
three Months Time it will be fit for drinking, and prove 
almoft as good as French Wine. 

Wine of Strawberries or Rafberries. 

Mafh the Berries and put them into a linen Bag, as a- 


The Young Man's Befi Companion. 343 

bovefaid for the Grapes, and fqueeze them into a Cafe, 
and then let it work as aforefaid in the Grape Receipt, 
&c. In this Manner may Cherry Wine be made ; but then 
you mull break the Stones, contrary to what was faid be- 
fore concerning the Grapes. 

A Jhort Way for Cherry Wine. 
Squeeze the Juice of Cherries into a Calk, and thereto 
put a fmall Quantity of Sugar correfponding to the Quan- 
tity of Juice, and when ilood a Month, it will be plea- 
fant Liquor. 

Black Cherry Wine. 

In the fame Manner, take a Gallon or more, of the 
Juice of Black Cherries, and keep it in a Vefiel clofe flop- 
ped till it works ; and, after it is fine, add an Ounce of 
Sugar to each Quart, and a Pint of White Wine. 

To mike Cycler. 
Grind, flamp or pound your Apples, and put them into 
a Prefs, and fqueez? them through hair Bags into a Tub ; 
then let it fettle, raid, according to your Quantity of 
Juice, put in fome Sugar at Difcretion ; then work it up 
with Ale-Yell, and let it flahd a Week ; then prepare 
your VeiTels according to the Quantity, clean and dry ; 
then put it up ; after which put into a Bag two Pounds 
of Honed Raifins, two Ounces of whole Ginger, and two 
Ounces of Ifingglafs, and fee it tied tight with a ftrong 
String fixed without fide the Barrel, that the Bag may fink 
to the Bottom : and after two Months it will be fit for Ufe. 

Take fix Gallons of Water, and thereto put fix Quarts 
of Honey, ftirring it till the Honey be thoraughly mixed ; 
then fet it over the Fire, and, when ready to boil, fcum 
it very well, then put to it one Quarter of an Ounce of 
Mace, and as much Ginger, and Half an Ounce of Nut- 
megs, fome fweet Marjoram, Thyme; Sweet Briar, toge- 
ther a Handful, then boil them in the Liquid, then let it 
Hand by till cold, and then barrel it up for Ufe. 

Of Jellies. 
Let them be of Apples, Currants, Rafberries, l£c. Take 
out the clear Liquor (when fqueezed) and boil it with Su- 
gar till it is as thick as a Jelly, then put it up in Glaffes. 


344 ¥be Toung Man's Beft Companion. 

Every Man his own DOCTOR : Or the 
Poor Planter's Physician. 

[Wrote by a Gentleman in Virginia, and firji printed there.] 

THE moil acceptable Service we can render to GOD 
is Beneficence to Man. There are three Ways of be- 
nefiting our Fellow Creatures. We may be ufeful to their 
Souls by good Initruction, and good Example : We may 
be helpful to their Bodies, by feeding the Hungry, cloath- 
ing the Naked, and prefcribing eafy Remedies to the Sick: 
We can aid them in their Fortunes, by encouraging of In- 
dultry, by relieving the DiilreHed, and doing ail the kind 
Offices we are able to our Neighbours. Thefe are the 
feveral Ways of improving the Taients our Maker has en- 
truited us with ; and we mufi every one expea hereafter to 
give an Account how we have employed them. 

I wiih it were in my Power to ier e Mankind, more 
than 1 do, in each of thefe Particulars ; but the grac.ous 
Acceptance of the Widow's Offering, encourages me alio 
to call in my Mite into the Treasury. I publilh this 
Treatife to lead the poorer Sort into the pleafant Paths of 
Health ; and when they have the Misfortune to be fick, to 
fhew them the cheapeft and eafieit Ways of getting well 

Our Country is unhappily fubjedl to feveral very fharp 
Diflempers. The Multitude of Marines, Swamps, and 
great Waters, fend forth fo many Fogs, and Exhalations, 
that the Air is continually damp with them : This, in 
Spight of all our Precautions, is apt to fhut up the Pores 
at once, and hinder infennble Perfpiration. From hence 
proceed Fevers, Coughs, S>uinjits, Pleurtfies and Co«f u mpti- 
ons, with a difmal Train of other Difeaies, which make 
as fatal Havock here, in Proportion to our Number, as 
the Plague does in the Eujlern Parts ol the World. 

In the mean Time, this is a cruel Lneck to the Growth 
of an Infant Colony, which otherwife,, by the Fruitfulnefs 
of our Women, and the great Number of Recruits lent 
from our Mother Country, would in a few Years, grow 
populous, and confequently confiderahie. 

It is impoffible to fee thefe Calamities return every Year, 
without the tendereft Commiseration. Certainly nothing 
can be more inelancholly, than to have fo many poor Peo- 

The Teung Man's Bejf Companion. 345 

pie perifh, purely for want of ufing timely Means for their 
Prclervation. They neglect to take any Remedy till their 
Cale is grown defper«.i.e, and Death begins to giare them 
.in the Face. They confider not, that a moderate Skill 
may recover a 1'arierft in the Beginning of a Diltemper, 
while he has Strength to go thro' all the neceflary opera- 
tions, when the whole College would not be able t > fave 
him, after his Spirits are funk, and all the Principles of 
Liie near extinguished. 

Tliis unhappy Temper occalions a great deal of Mor- 
tality : And what makes the Misfortune the greater, is that 
it falls heavier! on the younger Sort, who are moll liable 
to hurrying Diitempers. Indeed, iome would be glad of 
Afliftance, if they did not think the Remedy near as bad 
as the Difeafe : For our Doctors aie commonly fo exorbi- 
tant in their Fees, whether they kill or cure, that the Pa- 
tient had rather trull to his Conititu:ion, than run the 
Rifque of beggaring his Family. 

Thefe Confederations made me account it a Work of 
great Charity and publick Spirit, to communicate to the 
poor Inhabitants of this Calony, a fafe Method of curing 
then-delves, when they fhaii be fo unhappy as to fall into 
any of our common Maladies. And for their greater En- 
couragement, the Remedies I mall prefcribe, may be pro- 
cured with little Trouble and Expence, being, for the mod 
Part, fuch as grow at their own Doors, or may be •eafily 

But notwithftanding this well-meaning Elfay has really 
no other View than the Love of Mankind, yet it could 
not efcape being grofsly attack'd by fome Fyjls of the Fa- 
culty. However like JEfop's Viper, while they endeavour 
to make a venemous Lnpreflion on the, Fite> they only 
broke their own Teeth. In the mean Time, whatever my 
Obligations may be to 'em for their Scurrility, the hpneft 
Printer has reafon to thank them, becaule nothing contri- 
butes fo certainly to the quick Sale of any Performance, 
as a ftupid Anfwer to it. 

Providence has been fo good, as to furnifh almoft every 
Country with Medicines proper for the Diitempers inci- 
dent to the Climate ; and fuch domeltick Remedies are al- 
ways fufficient for the Poor, yvho homely Fare, 
and for the Temperate, whi . u.<c a u i J of GOD's 
Bleffings. Their Cafes are teldom complicated, and pro- 

346 TVte Toting Man's Beji Companion. 

ceed, for the mod Part, from Cold, or fome flight Tranf- 
greilion. In fuch Ailments, the Symptoms cannot eafily 
be miftaken, nor is the Cure difficult ; all the Secret lies 
in taking the Dijlemper in Time : And > this will be the more 
neceflary, becaufe mod Difeafes that happen from Cold, 
are exceedingly violent, and call aloud for fpeedy Affi- 

I muft therefore conjure my dear Countryfolk's to begin 
with thernfelves as foon as they can diftinguifh what Sick- 
nefs they have, while Nature is fixong and able to co-ope- 
rate with the Medicines they take. Nor can we hope, that 
Heaven will affift us in our Calamities, unlefs we endeavour, 
at the fame Time, to affift ourfelves. 

In fetting down the fallowing Prefcriptions, I have been 
cautions of talking like an apothecary ; that is, of ufmg 
hard Words, that perhaps neither my Patient, nor I my- 
felf understand. Nor have I taken them 'lightly upon 
Truft, but am able to recommend moft of them upon more 
than twenty Years Experience ; and for the reft, I have 
credible Authority. In the mean Time, I hope none will 
object, like Naaman, the Syrian, to the Eaftnefs of any of 
thefe Remedies ; but rather rejoice, that they can have the 
greateft of all Bleffings fo very cheap. And in Truth, 
People muft love Difficulty extremely, to flight Health, as 
they would a Miftrefs, for being gained with little Trouble. 

That this Treatife may be as ufeful as poffible, I have 
made fome fmall Additions here and there in this Edition, 
but fo as neither to fwell the Book, or enhance the -Price. 
And as the whole is defign'd for thofe who can't afford to 
die by the Hand of a DeSor, I hope the Legitimate Sons 
of Efculaplus will be the more merciful. But as for the fpu- 
rious Breed, they have no Right to find Fault with what 
they can't mend, and it will be prudent to make a Secret 
of their own Ignorance. 

Before I mention the Cure, I fhall endeavour to defcribe 
the Symptoms of each Diftemper, in fo plain a Manner, 
that any Perfon may be Mailer of his own Cafe, if he will 
but attend carefully to what he feels ,- otherwife he might 
rr.iilake his lllnefs, and apply an improper Remedy. I 
{hall alio recommend the Diet fitteft to be ufed in each 
Cafe ; which often contributes more to the Patient's Reco- 
very, than his Phyjick : At the fame Time, he fhall have 
my beft Advice, to prevent every particular Ailment ; 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 347 

which will be, happier for him, than to know how to 
cure it. 


I SHALL begin with a. Ceugb, which is the Foundation 
of many bad Diftcmpers. and therefore mould be ta- 
ken Care of as foon as porhble. It may be cured in the 
ning with riding moderately on Horfeback every 
E3 y, and only taking a little Ground Ivy Tea fweeten'd 
with Syrup of Horebound, at Night when you go to Bed. 
Eiit in Cafe it be violent, it will be proper to bleed eight 
Ounces, and be conftant in the Ufe of the other Remedies. 
In the mean while, you muft ufe a fpare. and cooling Diet, 
wit iut either Fleih or ftrong Drink. Nor fhould you 
Hove 3 urfelf np in a warm Room, but breathe as much 
as pofiible in the open Air. And to prevent this Mifchief, 
don't make yourfelf tender, but wafli every Day in cold 
Water, and very often your Feet. 

The Whooping Ceugb (often fatal t© Children) is attend- 
ed with a ftronger Convulfion than ordinary, which caufes 
the H "hooping. 

For this, boil Hy/op and Elicampane, a Handful of each, 
in 2 Quarts of Water, ftrain it off, and adding i Pound 
of clean Mufcovado Sugar, boil it again, and give the Pa- 
tient 2 Spoonfuls every 3 Hours. 

This fame Remedy is good for a Shortnefs of Breath, 
and a Hoarfenefs, only in thefe Cafes, Linfeed Tea 
fweeten'd with Honey, fhould be the conftant Drink, and 
a fpare and cooling Diet punctually cbierved. 
P L E U R I S T. 
A common Confequence of a violent Cough is a Pleu- 
rify ; which difcovers itfelf by a briflc Fever, and fharp 
Pain, pretty low in one of the Sides, (hooting now and then 
into the Brealt, and fometimes quite back into the Shoul- 
der Blades : It is uneafy every Time the Patient draws his 
Breath, and more (o when he coughs ; which is generally 
the Cafe in this Difeafe. 

The Moment any Perfon finds thefe Tokens upon him, 
he mull without Lofs of Time, take away 10 Ounces of 
Blood, and repeat the fame 3 or 4 Days fucceMively, if 
the Pain go not away before. On the third Day, .he may 
vomit with 80 Grains of Indian Phyfak (Virginian Ipeca- 
cuanna) and every Night drink 7 Spoonfuls of Pennyroyal 
■*— *- Water, 

348 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

Watery or the Decoction of it, moderately fweeten'd. In 
the mean Time., let him every three Hours, take Half a 
Spoonful of Honey and Linfeed Oyl mix'd together. He 
mould alfo flrew Indian Pepper upon Pennyroyal Plaifer, 
and apply it very hot to the Place where the fain lies, and 
be Aire to keep himfelf warm, and abftain from cold Wa- 
ter : Tho' if the Diftemper fhould prove obftinate, you 
muft apply a Blifier to his Neck, and one to each Arm, on 
the flefliy Part above the Elbow. 

The Patient's Diet fhould be light and cooling ; and his 
confhnt Drink, either Linfeed or Balm Tea, a little 

The bcft Way to prevent this Diftemper, will be, to 
bleed in the Beginning of any great Hoarfenefs, or Cough, 
and alf© to forbear fwilling great Quantities of Water, or 
Small Beer, in ordinary Life. 

FEVER Pain in the Head, Eye, or Ear. 

Something a-kin to this, is a Fever accompanied with 
a violent Pain in the Head, Neck, or Shoulder, or with an 
Inflammation in the Eye or Ear. In all thefe Cafes, you 
muft without Lofs of Time, bleed 10 Ounces. The next 
Day purge with the DecoBion of Mallows, and three Spoon- 
fuls of Syrup of Peach Bloffoms. If the Pain fliould conti- 
nue, you muft bleed again the third Day, and the Mor- 
row following repeat the Purge : And if the Pain be ftill 
obftinate, you muft renew both Bleeding and Purging a 
third Time. In the very Beginning, apply the following 
Poultis to the Part where the Pain lies : Boil the Leaves of 
Sage, Wormwood, and Rue together, and having beat them 
foft, grate Nutmeg thick upon them, and bind them on 
warm, renewing the fame Night and Morning : And in 
cafe the Difeafe hold out againft all this, your laft Refuge 
muft be a Blifier, near the Place where the Pain lies. 

Your Diet fhould be moiftand cooling, fuch as thin Ho- 
miny, Chicken-Broth, or Water-Gruel ; and your Drink, 
Linfeed or Ground- Ivy Tea, moderately fweeten'd. 

This Difeafe will be alfo belt prevented by Bleeding in 
any violent Cold. 

But when there happens a violent Pain in the Breaft, 
with cold Flefh, and a low, quick and uneven Pulfe, and an 
exceflive Weaknefs from the very Beginning of the Di- 
ftemper, you muft f >rbear Bleeding by all Means, till you 
have vvarm'd the Flefh, and rais'd the Fever. In order 


The Young Man's Bejf Companion. 349 

to which, give ,him a Decoction of Snakeroot and Pennyroyal, 
and endeavour to raife a Sweat between 2 Blankets, if pofli- 
ble. And becaufe the Cafe is very dangerous, apply ^Blijler 
to the Breaft where the Pain is, in the very Beginniag. 

Let his Diet be thin Hominy enrich'd with grated Nut' 
meg, and taken often to recruit the Spirits. 
^ U I N S E r. 

Another Diftemper confequent to a Cold is a £>uinfey, 
known by a Fever, with an Inflammation of the Glands 
about the Throat, and of the Uvula, to that Degree as to 
render all Swallowing difficult, and painful. For this, 
£/W immediately 10 Ounces, rather in the jugular Vein, 
than in the Arm ; and for Safety apply a Blifter to the 
Neck. If the Inflammation ihould continue, bleed again 
next Day. The Morning after take a Purge of the De- 
coaion of Mallows, with Syrup of Peach BloJ/oms, repeat- 
ing the fame three feveral Times, reibng one Day be- 
tween. From the Beginning, gargle with Dr. Papa's Li- 
quor hereafter defcribed ; and if the Uvula be much re- 
lax'd, drink Half a Pint of the fame, Night and Morning 
when you don't purge. 


But in cafe it prove no more than a common Sore- 
Throat, purge only once, and gargle with Papa's Liquor, 
or Sage Tea, fharpened with a little Allom. 

In- both Cafes, your Diet ought to be moift and cooling ; 
and your Drink Citiquefoil Tea. 

In order to prevent thefe Complaints, remember to wain 
your Neck, and behind your Ears, every Morning, in 
cold Water ; nor muffle up yourfelf too warm, either 

Night or Day. 

Next follows a Con/umption, a Diftemper flow and fure, 
that is lately grown very common amongft us. Here young 
People are more in Danger than their Elders, becaufe mpre 
liable to Inflammations. It is ufhered in by a Cough of 
long Continuance, which, by Degrees, inflames and ul- 
cerates the Lungs, brings on a Hedhck Fever, with a 
Spitting of bloody and corrupted Matter, and is general- 
ly attended with aHoarfenefs, and night Sweats In the 
mean Lime, the Patient will wafte in Strength and m 
Flefh, while perhaps he may eat rather more than he uied 
to do when he was well. ftw 

350 The Young Man's Bejt Companion. 

After the Ulcer' comes to be formed in the L un fj>> if 
■frill be difficult for inward Remedies to reach it. 
may before that, perhaps, cool the Inflammation, as well 
as fweeten and dirainfh the fharp Defluxion, fo as to pre- 
vent an Ulcer, but can rarely heal it. So likewife, Bllften 
and IJjj0 may revulfe the Humor, and prevent the Mif- 
chief, if feafonably made ufe of. 

Therefore all the Good we can hope for, in this melan- 
cholly Cafe, muft be done while the Confumption is ap- 
prehended only, and not actually begun. I would then 
recommend Bleeding 2 or 3 Ounces every third Day, with 
a conllant Riding about on Horfeback, and Change of Air. 
This will help Nature to throw oft" the Evil that threatens 
her, by calming the Blood, opening the Pores, and promo- 
ting infenfible Perfpiration. It may alfo enable her to 
make a vigorous Effort, by Means of a feafonable Boil, 
or Impofthume, on the outward Parts of the Body. For 
that InteHtion, I would alfo advife the Patient to Jhavi 
trader the Arms, and apply ftrong Pouhi/es, in order to 
draw the Mifchief, if poiiible, that Way. And for inward 
Medicines, let him only chew SuJJafras Rcct every Morn- 
ing fading. I would likewife intreat him, before he goes 
to bed, to take 3 Pills, made of Turpentine and Deers Dung., 
in equal Quantities : And, befldes thefe, let him once 
a Week take a Purge of Mallows, and Syrup bf Peach 

Let his Diet be without Meat, and mix'd with Abun- 
dance of Turnips, roafied Apples, Raiftns and Liquorice; 
and let his Drink be Beer brew'd with Ground-Ivy ; avoid- 
ing ftrong Liquors of every Sort, as he would Poifon. 

The Way to prevent this wafting Difeafe, is never to 
fuller a Cough to dwell upon you ; but bleed in Time, and 
purge gently once a Week. In the mean while eat not 
one Morfel of Meat, nor drink any Thing ftronger than 
a little found Cyder : And, to make the Game fure, ride 
every fair Day, and breathe as much as pofTible in the 
open Air. 

B L O O D T-F L U X. 

Another mifchievous Diftemper is the Bloody-Flux ; the 
Signs of which are, a fmall Fever, and grievous Griming. 
The Patient will alfo void flimy Excrements Are;} 1 ' with 
Bloed ; and, at the fame Time, be cruelly tormented in 
his Bowels. 


The Teung Man's B eft Companion. 351 

Upon the firil Appearance of thefe Symptoms, part with 
8 Ounces of Blood. The next Day take 80 Grains of In- 
dian Phyfick, by Way of Vomit, and work it well with 2 
Quarts of wan. Water. The third Day, take 70 Grains 
of the fame Indian Phyftpk, in hot Broth, made pretty 
fait ; and then 'twil go off by Way of Stc ci, and ■■bgtheqi 
the Bowels, _ ■->* 

In then • let the Food he takes by either poach' d 

Eggs, Mutton ken-Broth, and his con itant Drink, 

a DecoSion of calcin'd Deers Hor», with a Plaintain Leaf 
boil'd in it. 

To prevent this Difeafe, avoid fleeping on the cold 
Ground,' and wading in cold V/ater. Never eat immode- 
rately of any Sort of Fruit, nor venture to drink new or 
foul Cyder by any Means. 

And becaufe fome People, by fancying this Diftemper 
catching, are fearful of going near thofe unhappy Perfons 
' that have it, by which they often want the Afliftance that 
is neceflary ; 1 may venture to aflure them, their Appre- 
henfions are groundlefs ; and the Reafon this Difeafe goes 
fometimes round a Family, is, becaufe they live on the 
fame Diet, and breathe in the fame Air ; and then 119 
wonder if they fall into the fame Diforders, one after 
another, without any Manner of Infection. 
W H I T E - F L U X. 

There is alfo a Kind of White-Flu::, that will hurry a 
Itrong Man out of his Life in a ftiort Time. In this Cafe 
the Stools are frequent, without Gripes or Blood, but 
flowing from the Patient like Water, and having a fmalj. 
Fever attending it. 

Lofe no Time in this hafty Difeafe, but -vomit with In- 
dian Phyjick, and purge the next Day with the fame. In 
the mean while, you will do well t© wear fome Skin girt 
tigh: on your Stomach and Belly, with the Fur next you, 
or elk a Piece of foft Flannel. 

Let your Food be Hafty-Pudding, Panada, or Broth 
thickened with Flour, grating Nutmeg into every Thing you 
eat ; and let your Drink be a DecoSion of Deers Horn, 
made with a Leaf of Plantain. 

In order to prevent this Diforder, avoid walking and 
riding in the Night Air, guzzling huge Draughts of cold 
Water, and" devouring unreafonable Quantities of hruit, 
efpecially of that which is not ripe. 

L> U U o A- 

352 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 


A Common Lcfeuefs needs no Defcription ; and may be 
eafily flopped in the Beginning ; tho' fome People hufband 
it fo well, as to keep it running for many Years : So that 
all the Humours of the Body taking that Turn, make it 
difficult to cure. 

Therefore to check this Ailment in Time, you mull 
ruemit with Indian Pbyfuk ; then live three or four Days 
upon nevj Milk bml'd thick with Flour, or Tuckahoe, and 
drink the above-mentioned Deers Horn DecoSlion. 

Or mix an equal Quantity of Decoclion ef Mint Roots 
and Brandy, with the folks of two Eggs. This Drink 
warm three Nights together at going to. Bed. 

Then, to prevent it, eat not intemperately ; nor drink 
windy or foul Liquors, or too much cold Water. 

There is an eafy Remedy for all Sorts of Fluxes, ufed by 
fome Doilon of Negro Ships, with great Suecefs. They 
boil one Ounce of Bees-Wax in Rice, or Hajly- Pudding, 
fufficient for one Meal. They continue this a few Days, 
and fufFer the Patient to drink very little Water, enliven- 
ed with about a fourth Part of Rum. This Method fel- 
dom fails, even in Bloody- Fluxes, as well as Others, and is 
the more valuable for being neither dear nor difagreeable. 

But in Cafe of an ordinary Griping in the Belly, or Wind 
in the Stomach, drink a Gallon of ivarrn Whey, and if 
that cannot be had, a Gallon of warm Water, as faft as 
as you can fwallow it ; and afterwards purge with Mal- 
lows, and Syrup of Peach Blojfoms, once or twice. 

For a few Days content yourfelf with a moderate and 
«afy Diet ; and let your Drink be Balm Tern. 

It may be prevented by keeping your Back-door con- 
ftantly open, abftaining from windy Meats, and fermented 
Drinks, and being always careful not to' overload your 

C H O L I C K. 

The Ghclick is lately grown a very common Diftemper, 
and begins generally with a grievous Pain in the .iowels ; 
and, by being neglected, fixes at length in the Pit of the 
Stomach, where it feems to bore like an Augre :'. The Pa- 
tient frequently vomits every Thing he fwallows, and can 
hardly go to Stool, even with the Help of purging Me- 


The Young Marts Beft Companion. 353 

People thus affli&ed are apt to fly to Drams for Relief; 
but with lamentable Succefs. Thefe may eafe a Fit fome- 
times ; but are fure to add Fuel to Fire, and make the 
Difeafe return with more Violence. Befides, thefe Cordi- 
als have another bad Confequence ; they are apt to make 
People lbberly enough inclirf'd, by Degrees, grow too fond 
of their Phyfick. To cure all which bad Effects at qnce, 
I would recommend this certain and eafy Remedy : Let 
him leave off all ftrong.. windy and fermented Liquors, and 
drink nothing but Water, enriched with a brown Toaft.if 

But if this Remedy {hjcuid be efteemed worfe than the 
Difeafe, I would, howe . er, for the eafing a particular Fit, 
recommend two or three Quarts of warm Water. And to 
force a Paffage, you muff, take three or four Spoonfuls of 
Bears Oil, which will feldom fail ; or elle 'drink a Quar- 
ter of a Pint of the Decoction oi Peach Leaves, with two 
Spoonfuls of Syrup oi Peach BloJfoms\ and this Purge you 
ought to repeat two or three Times to carry off all Re- 
mains,' But if you would root out the Diftemper for ever, 
take the fame Medicines every full Moon ; and drink e- 
very Morning, for fome Time, SaJJafras Tea ; and, at 
Night, take as much Snakeroot Powder as will lie upon a 
Six-pence, in Mint-water, or Decoilion. V 

The Food proper in this Diftemper, is Chicken or Mut- 
ton Broth ; and the Drink Balm Tea, fweeten'd with Syrup 
of Mallows. 

And to prevent it, eat fparingly, forbearing every 
Thing that is fait and windy ; and never drink Spirits, 
one Drop of Green Tea, or brew'd Liquor of any Kind. 
D R T-G R I P E S. 

The Dry-gripes are now (blefTed be God) grown much 
rarer than formerly. I This is the cruelleft Kind of Cholick, 
called in Europe, the Cholick of Poitiers ; though here it 
might be called the Caribbee Cholick, becaufe very common 
in thofe Iflands ; and I wifh we may not have deriv'd it 
from thence, by too liberal an Ufe of their Commodities. 

It makes itfelf known by a moft tormenting Pain in the 
Pit of the Stomack, and the adjacent Parts. The Guts 
feel as if they were twifted, and all Motion downward is 
interrupted ; by this Misfortune, the unhappy Patient is 
inclined to vomit up every Thing ; infomuch, that fome- 
times his very Excrements are call out at his Mouth. In 
the firit Place, a Thoroughfare mull by all Means be at- 

354 ¥&> e Young Man's Be ft Companion. 

.tempted, by 3 Spoonfuls of Bears Oil, or by the Decoclion 
mi Peach Leaves, above mentioned. H thefc Remedies 
ftiould fail, you mufl fubmit to a Tcharco (J lifter, peri lin- 
ed by blowing the Smoak through a Pipe i»to the Funda- 
ment. And if the firft Operation lii uld hapj en to fail, it 
mufl be repeated, till a Palfcge be opened. At the fame 
Time, make a firong infuiion of Tobacco, and therewith 
anoint the lower Region of the Belly. 

After the Tallage is perfectly clear'd, your Diet, for 
fome Days, ought to be either Mutton or Chicken Broth, 
in which Mallows have been boil'd ; and your Drink 
fialm c l ea. 

Some have unadvifedly, in this Diftemper, ventur'd 
alfo to drink Rum, and other Spirits, to eaie their Pain ; 
but this has coft them dear, by taking away the Ufe of 
their Hands, and other Paralytick Misfortunes ; to cure 
which, the fame Remedies muft be afed, as are prefcribed 
hereafter for the Pal/ey. 

The belt Way to prevent the Dry Gripes, is to get rid of and Cholicks as focn as you can ; to eat fparingly of 
Fruit, and forbear all foul and windy Liquors ; nor med- 
dle with, or other Spirits, after it has been poifoned 
with foul Sugar and Lime-Juice. 

H E A R T - B V ' R N. 

The Heart-burn is an uneafy Heat at the Mouth of the 
Stomach, accompanied with four Belchings, and fome 
Times a Hiccup. . 

This is removed by chewing Sajhfras Bark, or by a 
Decoclion of it. 

It is prevented by forbearing Spirits and foul Liquers, 
and alfo the Ufe of high feafon'd and four Things, which 
kindle too fharp an Acid in the Stomach. 
P A L S E T. 

A Pal/ey comes fuddenly upen us, with dreadful Symp- 
toms, not eafy to be miftaken. We are bereft of Senfe and 
Motion, either in one, or more Parts of the Body ; or at 
leaft we find them numb'd and dilabled ; and where the 
Difeafe is extreme, one Side is taken quite motionlefs, and 

At the firft Appearance of thefe melancholly Tokens, 
furge with Indian Pbyfuk every other Day, for 3 Times. 
The Morning you don't purge, caufe yourfelf to beplung'd 
over Head and Ears into cold Water ; and this fhould be 


The Young Man s Beji Companion. 355 

repeated thrice every Week, for 3 Months together. You 
are alfo to mix equal Quantities of Spirit of Scurvy-graft 
and Hungary Water, and dipping a ftifF Combrufh therein, 
caufe your Head, being clofe fhav'd, to be well brufh'd with 
it feveral Times aDay ; likewife let the Palms of yourHands, 
the Soles of your Feet, and Nape of your Neck, be often rub- 
bed with the fame Mixture. After this has put fume- Senfe 
and Motion into your Limbs beat Rofemary in a Mortar, and 
make a little Ball of it, which you muft roil and work about 
in your Hands continually, renewing the fame every Day ; 
now and then too, put Tobacco up your Noftrils, letting it 
lie there for fome Time, in order to drive the clammy Phlegm 
1 your Brain. Thefe eafy Remedies will, by the Grace 
of God, do great Good in the Beginning of this Difeafc, by 
re ftoring the Nerves to their natural Tone, and giving new 
Vigour to the Animal Spirits, which have been clogg'd and 
obilructed. The Patient's Food mould be dry, and of eafy 
Digeltion, with Muftard and Horfe-raddifn mix"d with it ; 
and let Sage or Balm Tea be his conftant drink. 

To prevent this Diftsmper, feed feldom on fait or high 
feafori'd Dimes, nor cat much Milk, or other phlegmatick 
Food; never fleep in the dangerous Dew, or on the moift 
Ground, or continue long in a Cellar ; or other damp Situ- 
ation. Ufe much Exerciie, and let your Motion be always 
nimble, in order to quicken the Circulation, and frifk your 
iluggifh Spirits. 


Another Difeafe of the FIcad, is an Epihpjy, or Falling 
Sicknefs, not unufual in this Country. It discovers itfelf b/ 
very terribleSymptoms ; the unhappyPerfon falls down fud- 
denly deprived of all Senfe and Underltanding. No fooner 
13. he fallen, buuhe's immediately fhakenwith ftrong Con- 
vulsions, grinds his Teeth, roils his Eye-balls, and foams at 
the Mouth in a mod frightful Manner. So foon as the Fit 
is over his Senfes return, but commonly a Pain in tfce Head, 
and great DepreiEon of the Spirits remain upon him for fome 
Time after. The Return of thefe melancholly Fits is un- 
certain, tho', for the nioit Part the)- come near theFallt>r 
Change of the Moon. 'In the firft Place care fhould be taken 
to*caim the Spirits or the Patient and keep them from run- 
ning Riot in this uhhappj Manner. For that Intention 
bleed him, and then bui d often under his Nofe, or 

elie Leather, or the Hoofs of any Animal. J 

Q_ Four 

356 77"? Young Man's Beft Companion. 

Four Days befoie the full Moon, let him take a Vomit 
of Indian Pbyjick ; and four Days after the Full-Moon, let 
him take a Purge of the fame; and be fure to do the fame be- 
fore and after the Change : And this muft be repeated for 7 
Months together. On the Mornings when he takes no Pfoy- 
fick, he muft fwallow as much Po-ivder of Mijleto, as will lie 
upon a Shilling, in a fpoonful of the DecoSlion of Pennyroyal, 

For this Purpofe, the Leaves and tender Twigs of Mijleto 
muft begather'd in January (being then in theirPrirne) dry'd 
over an Oven moderately warm, and kept all the Year for 
theUfe abovementicned. Let the Patient's Head be fhaved, 
and a Plaifter made of the Juice of Rue, Sage, and Pennyroy- 
al, worn on the back Part of it. Let him often put Tobacco up 
one of his Noftrils, keeping it there as long as it has any 
Strength, to clear the Head of cold and clammy Phlegm. 
And let him now and then, befides, chew a Stick of Mijleto, 
and fwallow the juice. Thefe Directions muft be purfu'd 
feven Months, or more, to cure any Perfon intirely of this 
Diftemper ; and, if it be taken in Time, there will be great 
Probability of Succefs, at leaft in young People. Let his 
Victuals be fparing and eafy of Digeftion ; and his cenftant 
Drink, either Sage or Balm Tea. 

As People commonly fall firft into this Misfortune while 
the}' are Children, fo, in order to prevent it, Care fhould 
be taken never to fright, or ftrike them violently on the 
Head, Back- bone, or Nape of the Neck. 


A Lethargy, commonly called the Sleepy Difeafe, is an ex- 
ceflive Drowftnefs, attended with a Fever in which the Pati- 
ent is light-headed when awake. But he is apt to fall into a 
deep Sleep, from which it is no eafy Matter to awake him. 

]n this C'.ife mix Rennet with very ftrong Vinegar, and 
force it down the Patient's Throat. This muft be repeated 
3 or 4 Times, and it will generally recover him from his 
State of Forgetfulnefs, and by Degrees get the better of the 
Diftemper, efpecially if you add a perpetual Blijler between 
the Shoulders, A very fpare Diet, and living on dry Food 
as much as poffible, will prevent the Return of this Difeafo. 
F E V E P\, tuith 'violent Purging and Vomiting. 

A Fcx-cr, tuitb 'violent Purging and Vomiting, can't eafily 
be miftaken. The Stools, tho' frequent, are with great 
Fain andDiffieolty : both the Stomach and Bowels feel e'x- 
ceediag uneafy, and the wh,ole Frame is inuniverfalDiforder. 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 357 

_ As this Difeafe will hurry a Man foon to his long Home, 
without fpeedy Help, you muft forthwith make 2 Gallon.? 
of thin Broth, either of Half a Fowl, or a fmall Chicken, 
and drink it all in the Space of 2 or 3 Hours ; fome of this 
will come up, and fome go down, and cleanfe your Sto- 
mach and Bowels in fuch a Manner, at to make you well 
before you expedl it. 

Only be careful to live fome Days upon light and inno- 
cent Fare, boiling Mint in every Thing ycu eat, and gra- 
ting Nutmeg into all your Drink. 

Would you prevent this boiftercus Illnefs, forbear all 
Kind of Surfeiting and Excefs, never expofing yourfelf to 
be wet to the Skin, if pofhble. 

I muft not o.nit a Fever and Jgve, which is an Epidemic 
Diitemper in this moift and variable Climate, 'lis true, it 
feldom kills now a-Days; but if neglected too long, .cor- 
rupts all the Juices of the Body, and ends either in a jaun- 
dice, Dropjy, Dry-gripes, or Cache: j. Therefore I conjure 
all my good Patients, as they tender their Health and good 
Looks, to difpoifefs this Devil as foon as they can. 

An Ague returns either every Day, every third, or every 
fourth Day ; and the Way t& know which of thefe any Per- 
fon hath, is only to abide two Fits. If it come every Day, 
it will be often accompanied with a Pain in the Head ; in 
which Cafe, after the fecond Fit, you muft bleed % Ounces. 
The next Day purg e with Indian Phyjick, and two Days af- 
t«. thar, repeat the fame again, f'i his muft be followed, 
by taking eveiy Morning and Evening 20 Grains of the 
Powder of SaJJafras Root, mix'd with 10 Grains of Snake 
Root, in two spoofuls of the Decoclton of Wormwood, j 

If the Fit returns every third Day, omit Bleeding, in cafe 
there be no Pain. After the fecond Fit, vomit one Day with 
IndianPhyfick&XLcX purgevi'x'Ch the fame the next. It' thefe mould 
not mafter the Diitemper, you muft compleat the Cure with 
the Powder of Safiafras and Snake-root, taken as aforefaid. 

But in Cafe the Return ftioulu be every fourth Da. , you 
muft after the Vomit and Purge, take a Cold Water Sweat. 
That is, fo foon as the cold Fit is off, and the Fever begins 
to come on, go into naked Bed, and drink a Pint of cold 
Water; then cover yourfelf up, and, in a little Time, the 
Difeafe will be driven all out at your Pores. However, take 
the Powders after this Operation for fome Time, th"at you 
may make fure Work of it. Q_2 Your 

25$ The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

Your Diet Ihould be moift and temperate, and drink 
Cinquefoil Tea. 

It would be difficult to prefcribe Rules to prevent a Di- 
ftemper, to which our Situation is fo unhappily fubjefl: ; 
however, Prudence may be ufeful even in this Cafe. Ride 
therefore* 1 a great deal in the hot Months, to fweat out all 
indigested Humours ; and don't chili y<;ur Bowels too 
much Willi cold Water. Avoid, as much as may be, being 
abroad in the Rain, or in the Dews of the Night. Be cau- 
tious too of iieepingon the Ground, or with your Windows 
or Doors ODen, to let the Wind blow upon you. 

In cafe of a Continual Fever, ^/iW immediately 10 Ounces. 
The Day following, 'vomit with Indian- Phyfick ; and the 
Morning afteri purge with the fame And if you fh©uld be 
light-headed, be convuls'd, or incline too much to Sleep lay 
a large Blifier to the Neck, and to the flefhv Parts of each 
Arm; and take a Gliftcr every ; tight of Mallows and Syrup 
of Peach BloJToms, to abate the Heat of the Diftcrnper. 

It matters not how little People eat it) one of thefe Fe- 
tvers, becaufe the Spints requisite foi tion, are em- 

ploy'd in fl ugj h tlieDifeafe; But u hat httle Suf- bey do take, fhould be moift and cooling ; and 
their Drink a Vec'oSian of lentifully. 

To prevent this furious Malady, avoid all E .. (Tes of 
ftrong Drink, efpecially of Spirits, which the 

Blood, at the fame Time that they vitiate the Ferment of 
the Stomach ; upon which all Digeftion, and confequently 
all Health, depe 


But there is a Sfo-xv Fever, more difficult to manage than 
all the reft, whipn is the true Scorbutic Fever. The Signs 
of it are.a low, but quick Pulfc, a constant Thirft, a rai- 
ling away of the Flem, and a fallow Complexion. There 
will be fometimes too, a hard Swelling on one Side of the 
Belly, that feems to move about. 

As this lurking Diforder comes by a, long Courfe of ill 
Management, fo it wiU need fome Time to root it out. 
For that End, take a Vomit of Indian Phyfick, and the next 
Morning a Purge of the 'fanis ; which Purge ought to be 
n heated once a Week foriix Times atleaft. The Mornings 
you don't take Phyfick, drink conitantiy a Quarter of a 
I-tat of Safafras tea fading ; and every Night, as much 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 359 

Powder of Snake-root as will lie upon a Shilling, in three 
Spoonfuls of Decoction of Dittany. And if ycu fhould be 
collive, take ;i Glifter- every other Day of Decoclion of i W- 
lo-ws, with Syrup of Peach Bloffoms. This Method faithful- 
ly purfued for two Months, with modi ig, and a 
. Diet, will go near to finifh the Cart. 

hi the mean Time eat no Milk, Thing fait or 

hard of Digeilion ; but let your Sauce be *M. Park, C 
Crejfs, and Horfe-raddijh in Abundance ; beft 

Drink will be found Cyder, with a hot Iron qu in it 

er brew'd with Sorrel Tree Leaves. 
u to prevent this Illnefs, you muft indulge no fl 
Inclination, but ftlr about your Bu fin els brifkly, and •A'' 
often as you can ; never drink more than a Pint of "Water, 
or other Drink, in 24 Hours- Breathe as much as pc ibl* 
in the open Air in the Day Time, and avoid it in the i . t. 
W O R M F E V E E. 

There is befides, anotlicr Kind of Fevtr hard to be diftin- 
guiflied, efpccially among Children, and that is zWcrmFever. 
There will be a quick Pulfe, and often a Paiii in the Si'. 

tom'ach, isr Bowels, arid all occaficned by Worms'. 
and then too, there will be the Symptoms of the FJuk , 
even Convulsions ; fo that like the Devil it appears in all 
Manner of Shapes. The only Way 1 know. of etiTpennne it, 
is by a fwell'd Body, a tainted Breath, or a greed/ Appeal 
tite. beyond what is ufual in other feverifh Diforders. 

Give a Vomit of Indian Pkyfick one Da}', and a Purge of 
the fame the next. Beat die Seed of Jcrnfalem Ork, and 
tak: a Spoonful of it, mix'd with the Juice of Rue or Warm- 
wood, for three Mornings. From the Beginning, foak a 
cur'd Lea/ of Tobacco in Vinegar, and apply it warm to 
the Stomach or Belly ; and it will make the Worms much 
Sicker than it doth the Patient. Let his Food be feafon'd 
with a great deal of Salt ; and his Drink, Beer brewed 
pretty bitter, with Wormwood ioftead of Hops. 

It is difficult to hinder Worms from hatching and har- 
bouring in our Bodies, becaufe we fwallow their eggs al- 
moft with every Thing we eat; especially fuch as live 
much upon lndiati Ccrti will be full of them. So 
that I may venture to fay, three Fourths" of the Children 
that die in thefe Parts of the World, die of Worms. 

The beft Way to prevent them, is to make Ufe of a 

great deal of Pepper and Salt with your daily Food, and as 

. 0^3 little 

360 The Young Man's Beft Companion. 

little Vinegar as paffible, which is full of fmall Jnfe&s, to 
be feen by Millions with a Glsfs. 

C A C H E X T. 
I took Notice that a Cachexy was one of the Confequen- 
ces of letting a Fever and Ague continue too long; tho* 
the fame is produced likewife by an unwholfome Diet, by 
a flothful Habit, and drinking Abundance of cold Water. 
The Signs of i: are a flow Fever of the Heiiick Kind, a con- 
tinual Thirit, a Shortnefs of Breath, and a very cadave- 
rous Complexion. 

For the Cure of this lazy Diftenpcr, you mufl proceed 
in the fame Method as is directed in the C?fe of J/c-w Fevers ', 
only I would advife the Patient, over and above, to take e- 
very Day, at 10 in the Morning, and 4 in the Afternoon, a 
Dram of Rum, wherein the Flowers and Tops of Centory 
have been infulVd, and during the whole Courfe of the 
Cure, the Patient mufl, by ail Means, fhake oil' his lazy 
Difpofl tion, rife early in a Morning, and ftir about as brifkly 
as his flrength and Breath will permit. His Food ihouid be 
frefh, and tA.fy of Digeition ; and his Drink Beer brev/'d 
with Wormwood, and the Leaves of the Sorrel Tree. 

To prevent falling into it, never fuffer Agues vrjloiv Fe- 
vers to taint your Blood ; be nimble in your Motion and 
drench not yourfelf with cold Water between Meals. 
Another bad Effect of keeping an Ague too long, is the 
7'ellcw Jaundice. This difcovers itfelf by the yellow flue 
of the Face and other Parts of the Body ; nay the Whites 
of the Eyes and Urine will be alfo ting'd with it. 

For this Ilinefs take a Purge of Indian, and repeat 
it the third Day again. After that drink every Morning 
and Evening, for fixWeeks, a Quarter of a Pint of 
cn of the inner Bark of Elder, and the Root of Sujfhfras, 
in equal Quantities. In the mean Time, force your felf 
to itir about, and ride on Horfeback every fair Day. 

Let all your Victuals be light and temperate ; and your 
Drink Beer brew'd .vith Scrrel Leaves, Fine Tops, Root of 
Ajb, and a little old Iron. 

To ward off this ungracious Difeafe, cure your Agues in 
the Beginning, lingering Fevers, as foon as pofliblc, and 
life Agility in your Motion. 

But the mofl fatal Confeqaeace of keeping an Ague or 


The Feting Man's Beji Companion. 361 

Jaundice too long, is a Dropfy. This dire Calamity befals 
antient People fometimes, by Means cf natural Decay ; and 
fom '< :hofe that are young, when they made too 
bold . ■ > rheirConititucion. ' lis alfo apt to follow too great 
a Lofs of Blood, or too long a Familiarity with Opiates. 

A D,o>,jj firil mews itfelf by the Swelling of the Legs a- 
bout the Ancles, in fuch a Manner as to retain the Impreffi- 
on of your Finger. This Swelling appears moil at Night, 
and is ufually attended with a Sbortnefs and Difficulty of 
Breath, ever moil troublefome when the Patient lies down. 
He mud therefore refolve upon proper Remedies, before 
the Waters rife high enough to drown him ; and if he have 
but the Gift of Self-denial, he may by God's Help get the 
better of this mortal Enemy ; provided there be no uni- 
1 Decay, no Depravation of the Liver, or other Or- 
, neceilary for Blood-making. 
Now I can't recommend the Remedies for this Difeafc bet- 
ter, than by giving three remai kable Inilances of Perfons cf 
an advanced Age, who have beer, perfectly cur'd by them. 
The nrilwas SixlJnmas Millington, an eminent Phyficiart, 
who fell into a Dropjy at near 70 Years of Age. After drain- 
ing the Water, by 2 or 3 fmart Purges he performed the reft 
of the Cure by a rcfolute Self-denial. He cat nothing but 
what was light and nouiifhing ; and for his Drink, con- 
fined himfelf rigoroufly to a Quarter of a Pint of Rbe.njh 
Wine in 24 Hours (and hard Cyder would have d )ne the tin- 
finefs as well.) The firft Week his ThirfT: was. hardly to be 
endured ; but after that grew more tolerable. He continued 
this Courfe for two Months, and recovered compleatly. 

The fecond was the late Earl of Or/ord, who had this 
Diftemper in his grand Climacteric. He purg'd 2 or 3 Times, 
drank fparingly of Canary and Water, tbickned v*\\h the Yolk 
of a new-laid Egg ; and all his Victuals beiides were cook'd 
with Abundance of Garlick and Horfe-raddijb. This Method 
was purfued with great Conitancy for three Months, and 
bleft with entire Succcfs. 

The Inl'ance is an ancient Gentleman who trufted to 
the Remedies of our own Country, with the like happy Ef- 
fect. He drank the Decotlion of Sajfafras as foon as he got 
up, and chew'd the Root of it all the reft of the Morning till 
Dinner; then obferved a light and nourifhing Diet ; and 
drank moderately of clear found Cyder, wherein an hot Iron 
had been plentifully quench'd, and a little Allom dilfolv'd. 

c6z The Toung Man's Bejl Companion. 

Of thefe feveral Remedies you may plcafc to take your 
Choice ; or, inttead of Safafras, you may hold the Seeds of 
Telitdry of Spain in your Mouth, which will falivate Hill 
more powerfully. 

7 he Reft of the Cure mull: be compleated with reiterative 
Meats, and a very fhort Allowance of Brink. For your 
Diet I wculd recommend poach? d Eggs, thin Hominy ; Hogs 
Feci, Cow Heel, and Jelly Rro.h ; a'l which will renew and 
enrich the Blood, without provoking too much Thirft : 
and for Drink uic none but Sorrel Beer, or found Cyder, 
wherein hot Iron ha? ; ich'd feveral Times. 

To guard yourf "s wretched Diftemper, be 

cautious of fcorching your Liver with Spirits, or Excels of 
other ftrong Drink. Ja Cafe you be troubled with Bueding, 
flop it as loon as yoi can. By r.o Means accuftom yourfelf 
to Opiates, or fuffer an Ag ce, the Jaundice, or lingering 
Fever', to dwell long upon you. 

Becaufe I mentioned Lofs of Blood to be one Caufe of 
the Dropjj, I will hint at feme Means to fcanch thefe Bleed- 
ings that threaten the moll Danger. 


In Men the exceffive Flux of the Bleeding Piles fometimes 
ends in a Dropjy, if not itopp'd in Time, in that Late purge 
with Indian Phjfc.k two or three Times; and the Mornings 
you don't take that drink the Exprefi Liquor of frejk Afs 
Dung, fweetened with Syrup of Quinces, to be repeated 
three Times. In the mean while, take an Ounce of Ccn- 
fvrve of Rofes, twice or thrice a Day ; and after every Stool, 
wafh your Fundament clean with Decoclion of Comfry 
Leaves made very warm. Live all the Time upon a cool- 
ing Diet, without Meat ; and only drink Burnet or Yar- 
row Tea, fweeteivd with Syrup of Quinces. 

Thofe that are liable to this, or the like Infirmities, 
fnould avoid heating themfelves with lirong Drink, or too 
boiilerous Motion ; nor muft they fall into violent Paffions, 
cither of Love or Arger. 


In Women a Dropjy is often caus'd by Flooding, or the 
immoderate Flowing of their Cour/es. Let them for this, In 
the nrft Place, take away eight Ounces of Blood, and then 
proceed as in the foregoing Cafe ; only they muft inject the 
Decoclion of Comfry Leave j, and govern their Paffions if 
they can ; nor muft any Part of them, not fo much as their 
Tongue, be allowed to have too much Motion. This 

The Young Mali's Beft Companion. 363 

This Infirmity comes upon the Sex about $o Years of 
Age ; and after bleeding and vomiting-, nothing cures it 
better than the Ufe of the Cold Bath. 

BLEEDING at the NOSE. ; 

The Bleeding at the Noje mult be treated juft in the fame 
Manner, except the Decoclion of Comfry Leaves mould be of- 
ten fnuft'ed up the Nofe ; and a 1 ent foak'd in the fame 
frequently thruft into theNoftril; and if a little Allcm were 
difluiv'd in the Decoclion, it would be fo much the better. 

Then for Spitting or Piffing of Blood-, bleed 8 Ounces. 
The next Morning purge with Indian I'hyfuk ; and drink 
nothing but Tea made of Comfry Leave, or Root, and fwce- 
ten'd with Syrup of zhiincts. But whenever a Fever pro- 
duces Lois of Blood, the Heat of that muft be taken off by 
cooling Medicines, before the Bleeding will ceafe. 

In the Whites too I would recommend Bleeding in the 
.Beginning, and Purging two or three Times with Indian 
Phvfick. When fhe don't purge, let her Night and Morn- 
ing drink Haifa Pint of J'apa's Liquor, with an Ounce of 
Ci ferve of Rnjes diilolv'd in it ; and often inject the lame. 
For the reft, fhe muil ufe the fame Diet, the i:.;r:e ih-ink, 
the fame moderate Motion, and Freedom from Paffion, as 
are mentioned before. 


A Gleet or Running of the Reins, in Men, mull: be treat- 
ed in all Refpefb as the foregoing Weaknefs in the other 
Sex j provided always it be not Veneral. 


A Diabetes difcovers itfelf plainly, by making Water a- 
bundantly, which has commonly a greafy Skim upon it, 
'Tis alio attended with a low faeaki:tg Fe-ver, and n . u. 
ftronger Inclination to drink than eat. At the fame Time 
the Patient finds himfelf weak and low fpirked, with a LiH- 
lefihefs to all Manner of Motion. 

For this bad Diltemper there is this eafy and cheap 
Remedy, which rarely fails. Diilblve as much Allom in a 
Pint of PofTet Drink as will fit on the Patient's otomach 
without vomiting. Of this let him lip now and then two 
or three Spoonfuls, till all the Symptoms go oh". 

In the mean Time, let his Food be eafy of Digeftion, 


364 The Young Man's Bed Companion. 

and his Drink Balm Tea, moderately taken, or Brijlol 
Water, if it can be got. 

And the Way to avoid this Difeafe is, by a temperate 
Ufe of fuch Meat and Drink as breed good Blood. 
F A P O U R 0. 

There is no Difeafe puzzles Pbyfictatu more than the Va- 
pours, and Hyjlerick Fits. Theie Complaints are produced 
by fo many Caufes, and appear in fo many various Shape, 
that 'tis no eafy Matter to defcribe them. However, fbme 
of the Symptoms are a Thumping at the Heait, a Croaking 
of the Guts and a Fulnefs of the Stomach, whicli the Patient 
endeavours to eafc, as much as fhe can, by ; every 
now and then too, fomething feems to rife up to her Throat, 
that ahnoit Hops her Breath ; fhe has moreover, a great 
Heavinefs and Dejection of Spirit, and a Cloud feems to 
hang upon all her Senfes. In one Word, fhe has no Relilh 
for any Thing, but is continually out of Humour, fhe 
knows not why, and out of Order, fhe knows not where. 
This is certainly a miferable Condition and the more fo t 
becaufe the wcaknefs of the Nerves makes the Cure exceed- 
ing difficult. Becaufe the Stomach is fufpedled to be much 
in Fault, I would have thatcleanfed in thehrfi: Place, with a 
Vomit of Indian Phyfic ; the next Day purify the Bowels by a 
Purge ox the fame ; which mufi be repeated two Da>s after. 
The reft of the Cure mufl be performed by the exact Olfer- 
vation of the following Rider: Endeavour topreferve a cheer- 
fulSpir it, putting the beitConftruclion on everybody's Words 
andBehaviour ; plung threeMornings every Week into cold 
Water over Head and Ears ; which will brace the Nerves, 
and roufethe fluggifh Spirits furpri?Jngly. Obferve a ftrict 
Regularity andTemperancc in yomDiet ; and ride every fair 
Day fm all Journeys on Horfe-back. Stir nimbly about your 
Affairs, quick Motion being as neceffary for Health of Body, 
as for Dii'patch of Bufmefs. In the mean while, I abfolutely 
forbid all Sort of Drams, which will raife the Spirits only to 
fink them lower ; nor do I allow her one Pinch of Snuff, or 
one Drop of Bobea Tea, which make People lumpifh and 
miferable. Her Food muit be frefh and eafy of DigeiHon, nei- 
ther fait nor windy, nor may fheeat oneMorfel of Beef, which 
affords a grofsNourifhment, and inclinerPeople too much to 
hang themfelvcs. And for her Drink, fhe muft forbear Beer t 
with all windy and fermented Liquors ; and flick to Balm Tea 
entirely. — To efcape this Diforder, fhe muft fiifter none of 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 365 

the idle Difturbances, or Difappoimments of an empty 
\V orld to prey upon her Mind, or runic her fvveet Temper. 
Let her ufe jult Exercife enough to give a gentle Spring to 
her Spirits, without waiting them ; and let her be cheerful 
in fpite of a chuilifh Hulband, or cloudy Weather. 
Now 1 am upon Female Infirmities, it will not be unfeafon-« 
able to touch upon a common Complaint among unmarried 
Women, namely, The Suppmjjicn of the Ccxrjh. This don't 
only difparagetheirComplexioris, but fills them befides with 
•fundryDiforders. For this Misioi t.m.e, you muft /?<r^? with 
Highland Flag (commonly called Belly-ach Root J -d. Week be- 
fore you expeel to be out of Order ; and repeat the fame 
two Days after; the next Morning drink a Quarter of a 
Pint of Pennyroyal Water, or Deception, and as much again 
at Night when you go to Bed. Continue this 9 Days run- 
ning ; and after refting 3 Days, go on with it for 9 more. 
Ride out every fair Day, ftir nimbly about your Affairs, 
and breath as much as poffible in the open Air. 

You muil feed upon a warm and cordial Diet, enrich'd 
with a great deal of Mvjiard, Nutmeg, Horfc raddijh ana Gar~ 
den Crtffes ; at the fame Time avoiding every Thing that is 
altringent, phlegroanc and winjjy. And let your Drink be 
Beer, brew'd with Sorrel Leaves, or elfe Ground-ivy Tea. 

To prevent this Complaint, young Women mult, fhake off 
Sloth, and make ufe of their Legs as well as their Hands. 
They fhould be cautious of taking Opiate; too often, or Je* 
J'uits Bark, except in Cafes of great Neceffity ; nor mult they 
long for pretty Fdloivs ; or any other Tra'.h v.hatfoever. 
STONE in the B L A DDE R. 
Heaven beprais'd :hereis HttleOccarion to fay any Thing 
©f the Stcne in the Bladder, there be^ng few Initances of it in 
this Colony. Among the Gentry, the Madeira Wine which 
has but little Tartar in it, and the MohJ/es Beer, being foft 
and dealing, are happy Defences againft this Scourge of 
Luxury and Lazinefs : And then for the common Planters, 
their Pone, and other Preparations cf Indian Corn, being 
fmooth and hippery, are likewile -excellent Prefeivatives. 
Neverthelefs, fbme few of u.% by fitting too long either 
at our Book or our Bottle, have now and then, fome 
Touches of the Gravel, or Sione in the Kidneys. This makes 
itfeif known by a Pain acrofs^the Loins, by Urine ting'd 


$66 The Young Marts Beji Companion. 

tvith Blood and mix'd with Sand, and jagged little Stones ; 
the Stomach too is fometimes aftefted, and inclined to vomit. 

When you find thefe concurring Symptoms, drink 3 or 4. 
Quarts of Whey as fall as you can, wherein the Root of prickly 
Pear has been boil'd. When that has all pail, fqueeze the 
Juice of WUd Garlic into clean found Cyder, and drink a 
moderate Glafs of it Night and Morning for 6 or 7 Days. 

In the mean time, let your Food be thin Hominy, or Broth 
with a few Mallows boil'd in it ; and your Drink, a Decoction 
of Mallows, fwectned with Syrup of Violets. 

And the Way to ward off this painful Difeafe, is to be 
temperate in all your Enjoyments, to eat a great Deal of 
Milky and Meats made of Indian Com ; but above all 
Things be cautious of fitting ftill too much. 


A common Confequence of the Gravel is a SuppreJJion of 
Urine, occasioned, fometimes, by fmall Stones lodging in 
the narrow Paffages, that lead from the Kidneys to the Blad- 
der. The Signs of this Complaint are too plain to any One 
who has his Feeling ; and to cure it, you mull proceed in 
much the fame Method as for the Gravel ; only you fhould 
add Paj fey Tea to your Drink, fweeten'd with t,yrup of Violets* 

But if the Supprefiion arife from an Ulcer, or Inflamma- 
tion in the Neck of the Bladder, then the Symptoms are a 
'great Heat and Pain in that Part, with an urgent Need to 
make Water, but a Diiability to do it at all, or, at moil, 
not fafter than Drop by Drop. For this, boil one Part of 
Oil with two Parts of good Cyder, and thereof fwallow a 
Spoonful or two Night and Morning. Let your Diet all the 
while be cooling and eafy of Digeilion ; and your Drink, 
JParfcy Tea or Cyder, with a Plantain Leaf boil'd in it. 

To prevent this Ailment, eat feldom of peppcr'd or 
high feafon'd Meats ; and drink moderately of hot Li- 
quors : Tho', above all Things, you mull forbear ufing ar- 
tificial Provocatives to recommend you to the delightful 
Sex j but for that, let Nature be your only Prompter. 
The Symptoms of the Blind Piles, are little painful Swel- 
lings, appearing juil without the Fundament. They are 
•ccafioned by the Flowing of corrupted Blood into the 
Veffcls thereabouts, which fometimes creates fo much An- 

wim, as to put the Patient into a Fever, and render every 

'efture uneafy. 


The Toung Man's Beji Companion. 367 

For this Complaint, take every Morning fulling, in the. 
Yolk or a nezu laid Egg, 12 Grains of Brimjlone, finely 
puwder'd ;-and warn it down with a fmail Draught of De- 
coction of Mallo-zvs. And to ailwage the Pain, make Ufe 
of this outward Amplication ; Stamp a.roaJled Onion, with a 
little Ointment of 'Ja?nes-Tozin Weed; which mult be laid 
on warm, and renewed twice a Day. 

In the mean Time the afflicted Perfon's Diet ought to be 
moderate and cooling, without Meat of any Kind j and 
his conftant Drini , Milk and IVater. 

But, in order to prevent this Affliction, and root it out 
for ever, ufe the following Remedy. Boil a Handful of 
Mullein Leaves in a Pint of ne-zu Milk, and fweeten it with 
Syrup cf Violets. Drink this every Night for 6 Weeks to- 
gether, juft before you go to reft. 

.R U P T U R E. 

A Rupture is a common Misfortune, efpecially among 
Children. The Tokens of it are a painful Swelling and 
Inflammation in the Cods, occafioned by a Fall, or other 
Violence, that forces down the Guts into that Part, and is 
moll painful when the Accident lirft happens. 

For this, let the Patient immediately have a Trufs made 
that may hold the Part fufpended. Then apply freih Co-vj 
Dung, which mult be renewed Night and Morning, till the 
Fains are aiTwaged. After that, put on another Poultis, 
made of the Roots of Sivamp Lillies, and Sumack Berries, 
boil'd and beat well together ; which muft alio be refrefhed 
twice a Day, till the Swelling difappears. From the Be- 
ginning, Jet him gird a Belt tight about his Loins, and 
wear it continually, till the Bowels are drawn up to their 
natural Situation. 

Let his Diet be cooling, and eafy of Degeflion ; and his 
conftant Drink, a Decoction of Garden Cre//cs, fweeten'd, 
with Syrup of Quinces. 

In order to prevent this Difafler, care mud be taken never 
to over-ftrain yourfelf, ufe too violent Motion, or fall in fuch 
a Manner as to injure yourfelf in thofe fenfible and tender 

K I N G's EVIL. 

The King's Evil proceeds from a foul and obftinate Hu- 
mour in the Body that breaks out into Swellings and Sores, 
and is often derived from our Parents. 

For this ereat Misfortune take a clean Spunge, and dry 


368 Tbe Toting Man's Beji Companion. 

■it well in an Earthen Pot, and having reduced It to a fine 
Powder, take a< much as will lie upon aShillingMorning and 
Evening, in warm Ajfes Mill. This mult be continued for 3 
Months to compleat theCure, in the meanTime,Care fhould 
betaken to fcorch the Spunge. While this Remedy 
is taken inwardly, apply the Poults of Safiafras' to the Sores 
that arc broke, which will both draw and heal them. 

A fpare Diet mould be ufed all the while, without Salt 
Meat, or ftrong Drink. 

The beft Way to prevent this impure Diftemper, is for 
thofe that have it, never to marry, nor do worfe, that they 
may not tranfmit their Misfortune to Polterity.' 

r a w s. 

The Taxvs, or Country Diftemper, is very bad to cure per- 
fectly, efpecially when grown i.ivetrate. 'J his is the higheft 
Kind of Scurvy; and the Symptoms of it are, eating Ulcers 
in the Throat or Palate, and filthy Sores in other Parts of 
the Cody, having near Refemblance to thofe of the Pox. 

This unclean Difeafe often yields to Dr. Pa/a's Reme- 
dy ; or at leaft may be I ept under by it. 


Take 1 Ounce of the Bark of Sumack Root, 1 Ounce of 
hvier Bark of Spar.ijb Oak ; boil thele together in 2 Quarts 
of Water, till the DecoSHon be very ftrong. Of this Liquor 
drink a full Pint, Milk-warm, and immediately after it H If 
a Pint, quite cold ; and it will give you a powerful Vcmil. 

The next Morning take Haifa Pint of the fanw Drink 
warm, and the fame Quanti, again in the Evening ; and 
continue fo doing for 6 W ska or 2 Months ; only tiie Vo- 
ttit mult be repeated every feventh Day. In the mean 
Time gargsl your Throat, and wafh all your Sores and Ul- 
cers with the- fame warm Liquor, which ought to be made 
frelh every 2 Days. Behdes aii this, you muft chew the 
Sumack Root very often, and fwallow the healing Juice. 

Every Night, before you go to reft, take 2 Fills made 
of Turpentine and Deers Dung, in equal Quantities. 
The Pox may be cured exaclly in the fame Manner; and 
becaufc the Symptoms are much the fame, it is very pro- 
bable the One was a Graft of the other. The pious Spatii- 
tii h catch'd if. from their Negro Miftrclies in the V/eJt-Indi- 
es, a&d had the Honour of propagating it from thence to 
all the xeil of the World, 


The Young Marts Befi Companion. 369 

In both Cafes confine yourfelf altogether from eating 
Flefh, and from tlrong Drink, and be very careful of catch- 
ing Cold. To avoid this Misfortuc, eat feldom of rrcfh 
Pork, which breeds very grofs Humours ; live not too near 
a Swamp ; n >r ever venture upon ftrange Women, efpeci- 
ally not on Etbepians, 


Another woful Cafe is a Cancer, which fome difpairingly 
imagine to bo incurable; tho' bleffed be God, there have 
been fome Inltances of Succefs, by the Method hereafter 
mentioned. In the mean Time, it ufually begins with lit- 
tle hard lumps, or fwellings in the Brealt, Lip, oj other 
glandulous Part of the Body. TJiiefe afterwards break into 
pamful Sores, which eat farther and farther, till at laft they 
reach fome large Veffel, or mortal Part. 

In this Cafe the Patient mult fubrnit, in the firft Place, to 
have the hard Lump cut clean out, fo loon as he is convine'd 
it is a Cancer. And, for curing the Wound, he can't do bet- 
ter than make Ufe of the following Baljem : He muft boil 6 
Ounces of Saffafras Rod, and as much Dogwood Root in a 
Gallon of Water* till it be waited to a Pint, and having drain- 
ed it off, muft drench a Pledget therein, and apply it warm 
to the Sore, renewing it : And if he will have the 

Patience to continue this for fome Time, f can allure him 
he will not be the firft that has been bleft with Succefs. 

Let him drink Sajfajras Tea every Morning, live tempe- 
rately upon light and ianocent Food, and abftain intirely 
from ftrong Liquor. The Way to prevent this Calamity, 
is to be very fparingin eating freih Pork, to forbear all fait 
and high-feafon'd Meats, and live chiefly upon the Garden, 
the Orchard and the Hen-houfe. 


A Rheumatifm is a wandering Pain that Ihifts from one 
Joint or Part of the Body to another, and is generally ac- 
companied with a fmall Fever. 

i For this bleed 10 Ounces, the next Day vomit with Indi- 
an Phyfick, and the Day after that take a Purge of the fame. 
•After all this, boil a Shin of Beef in a Gallon of Water, 
till one Half be waited. Put into what remains a Pound of 
Garlick, and ilevv it till it comes to 3 Pints. Then ilram it 
again, and take a Quarter of a Pint, blood warm, Morn- 
ing and Evening for 3 Days, and you will find Relief. 


370 %he Toting Man's Beft Companion. 

As this Diftemper happens by a violent Cold, great 
Care fhould be taken to prevent the unhappy Caufe. 

I (hall next fay fomething of the Gout, which I obferve 
with Pleafure to be grown lefs frequent in the Country, 
than in the Time of our Fathers. It makes itfelf known 
with a Vengeance, by a painful Inflammation in fome of 
the Joints, especially of the Hands and Feet. 

It would be great Prefumption, after fo many vain At- 
tempts, for me to recommend any other Remedy for this 
obitinate Diltemper, than a ltric"t and fevere Temperance, 
both in eating and drinking. Neverthelefs, I am rot fo hard 
hearted as to deny my Patient any Kind of frefh and plain 
Food, that agrees with his Stomach : All 1 intreat of him, 
is to confine himfelf religioufly to a moderate Quantity. Nor 
can he do better, than to follow the Example of Cornera, a 
noble Venetian, who tied' himfelf down to 12 Ounces of 
Eatables, including Bread, an.; ^Ounces of Drink, in the 
24 Hours. He lluck clofe to this fnort Allowance, ufiag 
moderate Exercife ; and, from being a Cripple by the Gout, 
recovered his Health, and his Strength, to a Woftder : And 
having found fo much Benefit by thefe Rules, purfued them 
ftriclly to the End of a very long and happy. Life. 

Nor are thefe Weights fo fcanty as they may feem to be 
to fome keen Stomachs ; but, upon a fair Trial, they will 
be found fufficient to give Strength to the Body, ChearFul- 
nefs to the Heart, and Vigour to all the Faculties of the 
Soul. And, befides thefe happy Elfedts, they will do more: 
They will place you above the Influence of the Stars ; and 
make you able to fubdue your Pafhons, to the Empire of a 
cool and unclouded Underflanding. 

The fame Temperance that cures this Difiemper, will 
certainly not fail to prevent it ; make you live a great 
while, and very eafy while you do live. 


If any one mould have the Misfortune to be bit by a 
Rattle-Snake, let him kill the Viper immediately, and apply 
its Fat to the Wound. This will fheathe the Pcifon', and 
give Time for other Remedies to expel it cut of the Blood. 
The readielt Cure I knew, is St. Andrew's Crojs, which 
grows providential all over the Woods, during the whole 
Seafen that the Snakes are mifchievous. 

Let him take 60 Grains of the Root reduced to Powder, 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 3 7 1 

or a ftrong Dccofiion of the Leaves and tender Branches, 
and if oneDofe fliould not finilh the Cure, he mutt take a 
Second. There are other Plants grow ng in this Co 
that will anfwer the fame Intention fuch as the Fern Rat- 
tlc-fnakc Root, Ginger Snake-rect, the fmailer /i£a Rebecca* 
Oak of Jerufalem, and Dittany ; but St. JndrFw's Crofi is 
as powerful as any, and much easier procur'd, being the 
Growth of every Soil, that hath, not been clear'd thro' the 
whole Colony. Nor is there any Indian trader, but can 
bear Witnefs to its Virtue in this particular. 
BITE; of a MAD DOG. 

For the Bite cf a MadQog, which maybe reckoned a- 
mong thegreateft of Calamus I .v^'has communica- 

ted the following Remedy tp t] tried 

on more than 500 Perfons, with gre . ant Succefs. 

The Patient as focn as pofiible after bis ixsfortune, 
fliould bleed about 10 Ounce 1 -. Then I I 
cclour\i C, oumi Li~i;cr-Wori , dry'd , Hall an 

Ounce; which grows en barrejj Soils. He 

mult niix with this two Drac! ' .'.. 

Divide thofe into four]'' • t one every 

Morning failing in half a Pint of . this, 

the Patient muit beplung'd over Head and Ears in 
cold Water every Morning falling, foi ther, 

never Having longer than Half a Minute at a Time.. When 
he has bathed in this Manner ih long, he need go iu no 
n:o-e than three Times a Week for a Fortnight longer, by 
vhich '1 ime the Cure, by the Grace of God, will be hap- 
pily compleated. 

The Li-veravort, mould be gathered in OJIoLcr, and dry'd 
carefully in the Shade. 

F I L M. 

In Cafe a Film mould grow over the Sight of the live, cc- 
cafoned by a Blow, a Iharp Humour, or other Accident, 
you may take it off, with this eafyand cheap Remedy. Dry 
Human Dimg in the Sun that is yellow, and of a g "d 
Confidence, and having reduced it to a very hue }\onx 
blow it through, a Quill two or three Times a D>- into 
the Eje, and your Sight will be happily reitored in a fhort 

SORE E i F S. 

Common Sore Ejrs may be cur'd by wafhing them with 
Breaft Lliii, warm S*ge T&* or w ^h Rye U', uking 


$J2 The Young Man's Beji Companion. 

Care in the mean time not to rub them if they itch, or ex" 
pofe them to the cold Air. 

If by any Fall, or falfe Step, you mould happen to fprain 
a Joint, clap itintacold Water as foon as pofhble, and keep 
it there for feveral Minutes. Then cover the P; rt ill over 
with a Poultis of Clay well tempcr'd with ftrong . ii egar, 
which mufl be bound on fecurely. When the firfl grows 
dry, apply another, which will probably finifh the Cure 
without the Expence of a Surgeon. 

And now I mention Surgeons, by the good Leave of thofe 
Gentlemen, I will recommend to my poor Countrymen an 
eafy Remedy for fome little Complaints that fall within 
their proper Province. Nor will they take it amifs, I 
hope, if 1 endeavour to help fuch indigent Perfons as 
cannot purchafe their Afliftance. 

If any one therefore fhould break a Shin, or have any 
other green Wound (which by being neglected, often comes 
to be very troublefome) let him only e of that 

Fa'jlim, which the companionate Samarittn apply : d to the 
Wounds of the poor Israelite who among!! Thieves. 
Boil Oil Oli-vc and Wine in equal Quantities (and if you 
l 1 1 a little clean Mufccvado Sugar, it will be fo much the 
better) Drench a Pledget well in this Bal/am, with hich 
cover the whole Sore, and keep it on With any kicking 
Piasters, and it will be healed in one or two Dreflings. I 
have iikewife cur'd very bad Ulcers with it, but then I 
kept the Patient to a fpare and cooling Diet, making him 
drink Papas Liquor all the Time, and cleanfe the Sore 
with the fame every Time it was drefied. Jn thefe Cafes, 
it need not be drefled more than once in two Days, be- 
caufe it fhould be expofed as ieidom as poffibie to the cold 

If you have a Swelling' in any P.:rt Which you would 
difcufi-, mix po'wder'd P>rimjione, with the Juice of James 
Town Weed, and thereof make an Ointment with frefh 
Hogs Lard. Anoint with this twice cr tin ice a Day, keep- 
ing the Part warm, and you will rarely fail of Succefs. 
SWELLING to liRE A ... 
But if you would draw a Swelling to a Head, chew Saf- 
fafrus Rout, and apply, it by Way of Poultis, and it will 


The Young Man's Beft Companion. 373 

not only break the Swelling, but cure it alfo in a fhort 
Time, without any ether Application. 


If you mould have a Pain in the Bp.cIc, Loins, or other 
Part, that requires a Sear Cloth to affwage it, the molt ef- 
fectual One I can recommend, to you, is made after the 
following Manner. Powder the Root of JJfa Rebecca, Ccm- 
fry and Snake Root, then mix them with as much common 
^Turpentine as will make a large Plaiitcr, which apply hot 
to the Part, and it will give fpeedy Relief. 


If any one mould by Cold or ether Accident become 
Deaf, let him take the Bulb of a large Onicn, and fcoop 
out a pretty deal of the In fide. Then let him fill the hol- 
low Part half frill of Rattle l nake Oil, and place it on a 
Grid-Iron over live Coals, till the Pulp of ih^Onion incor- 
porate with the Oil.. Then ftraih it, and going to Bed, 
drop two Drops into the Patient's Ear very warm. After- 
wards Hop it with Cotton, and repeat it fix or (even Times, 
and you will have Realon to applaud the Medicine. 

Thus I have run through more of the common Com- 
plaints to which the Inhabitants of this Colony are fub- 
jec~l ; and prefcrib'd fuch innocent Cures, as will gene- 
rally fuccced, if timely made ufe of; yet am far from 
pretending that any of them are infallible ; We all know 
that Death ftrifc^g h home in fome Cafes, that all PJ> 
is vain. There are many In fiances too, where the Dif- 
eafes of our Climate have a little Dajh of the Pox, the . 
Scurvy, or the Gout ; and then they need a RATCL1FF 
Or a FRIEND to get the better of them. 

In the mean Time, it may feem ftrange, that, among 
the Remedies I have prefcribed, no honourable mention 
is made of Mercury, Opium* or the Peruveag Bark, which 
have almoit obtain'd the Reputation of Specificks. I ac- 
knowledge the powerful Effects of thefe Medicines, but 
am perfwaded they ought to be adminiftered with the 
greater!: Skill and Difcerumeut., a^ [ write only for 
the Service of the Poor, who are wnolly left to judge for 
themfclves, I was fearful of putting fuch dangerous Wea- 
pons into their Hands. 


374 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

An Index of Difcafes mentioned in Every Man his ow^ 


J~\. like of a 




Bite of a Mai Dog, 

37 1 

Bleeding at the 



Bleeding Piles, 


Bloody Flux, 


Broken Shin, 

37 2 




3 6 9 










Drop fy, * 


Dry Gripes, 


Epilcpfy, or Fallir 

-r c 

3 u 




Fever continual, 



with violent Pur- 
ging and V omitting, 3 5-6 
Fever, Pain in the Head, 

Eye or Ear, 3 48 

Film on the Eyes, 371 

Flooding, 362 

Flux immoderate of the 

Courfes, 366 

Gleet, or Running of the 

Reins, 363 

Gout, 370 

Gravel, 365 

Green Wound, 372 

The foregoing Diftempers arc the moll fatal and trou- 
blefomo we are afflicted with in this Country. I have 
been as fhort as I could, left I might lofe the Beneiit cf 
the Proverb, which fays, The Jhorteft Follies are the left. 
The Remedies I have prefcrib'd, are almolt all of oar own 




5 5- 


35 + 

King's Evil, 

3 6 7 


35 6 





g of Blood, 








1 1 lifm, 

3 6 9 


Slow Fever, 

Sore i 




Spitting of Blood, 



Stone in th 

Stone ',. 



3 Oo 

Suppreiiion of the Coc 



3 6 5 

Supprefuon of Urine, 


Swelling to break, ' 

37 2 

Swelling to dbcufs, ^ 

37 2 

Vapours, or ' Hyilerick 



Vomitting and Purging 




White Flux, 

35 1 

Whooping Cough, 


Worm Fever, 




Yellow Jaundice, 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 375 

Growth, there being no more than 5 or 6 foreign Medi- 
cines ; and they fo very cheap, that if I happen not to 
cure my Patient, I am fure I fhall not ruin him. And 
furely, no Man can fay, he dies very unfairly, when there 
is fo little ro pay, either to the DcSioi or Jpotbecary. Be- 
sides, I have another Thing to recommend r:-.e, that I 
don't cram my Patients with too much Pby/ick. My Pref 
fcriptions are generally firigle, and not compounded, like 
a Spanijb Oleo, of all Sorts of Ingredients, which muft 
certainly confound and defeat the Virtues of each other. 
Neither do I ranfack the Univerfe for outlandifh Drugs, 
which muft wafte and decay in long Voyages ; nor import 
the Sweepings of the Shops, which I am lure are decay-d; 
but am content to do -my Execution with the Weapons of 
C.ur own Country. 


X~\ Afti-root, 

Afs c|ung, 


Bawm, 348, 352 



pit aft-milkj 



( ung, 

( - 359, 

Ejeers dung, 
rs horn, 
. ood, 


Fern R^ttle-fnake- 

3 6i, 


> 353 


An Index of Ingredients made ufe of. 

362 J Ginger Snake-root, 371, or AlofF, 34.8 

362 35c, 365 

id-flag, or Belly- 

555 a-h-root, 365 

H„ney, 348 

3; 2 i fclqrehound, 347 

371 J Horferadifn, 355, 359, 361, 

3 6 7 j 3^5 

i Ium;:n dung, 371 

360 J flungary-vyp.ter f • 355 

372 wn-weed, 567, 372 
oak, 359 

'.:an Pnyh'ck, 337, 351, 
Wl 354> 35 6 > 557' 35 8 > 359» 

367" I . 3 6z > 3 6 3. 3 fc 4 

Indian Pepper, 

35 c '» 
35 1 ' 





Iron , 
Lin feed, 

-?6o ; Mallows, 

347 \ 

371 I Mint, 

559' 3 0o » 

366 J 






348, 349, 350, 

35 2 > 353» 35 8 > 359 


35 6 


376 The Young Maris Beji Companion. 




Muftard, 355, 


3 6 5 

Nutmeg, 351, 






37 2 

Oil of Rattle-fnake, 




Peach Blofioms, 



35°>35 : 

>35 8 


Peach Leaves, 


Pennyroyal, 348 

35 6 




Pelitary of Spain, 



35 J > 


Prickly Pear, 



3 62 > 









35 6 

3 62 > 3 6 3 

£ 355 
348, 356, 359 

34 8 > 3 5 5> 35 6 

St. Andrew's-crofs, 


35°' 353. 357. 
360, 361, 369 
Scurvy-grafs, 355 

Snake-root, 353, 357, 359 
Spamfti-flies, 34s, 349 , 3S0 
Spanilh oak, 368 

Sorrel, 359, 360, 360, 365 
Spunge, 3 6 7 

Sumack, 367, 368 

Swamp- lillies, 367 

Tobacco, 354, 








355' 359 

35 2 

350, 368 

356, 300, 372 

360, 367 


35 2 > 365 

34 8 > 357> 359 

Thefe Ingredients every Matter of a Family may cafily 
provide himfelf with ; as he fhould alfo with a Lancet, a 
Glyjfer-pipc, and a Syringe, that he may not be at a Lois in 
his Diitrefs ; and fpend that Time in running after Reme^ 
dies that ought to be made ufe of in applying them ; De- 
lays being never fo dangerous, as in the Care we ought to 
take of the Sick. 

'The Printer to the Reader nvijhith Health. 

THIS Book, intitled, Every Man his own Dotlcr, 
was firit printed in Virginia, for the Ufe of which 
Olony it was written by a Gentleman rending there. 
Great Numbers have been distributed among the People 
both in Virginia atld Maryland, and 'tis generally allowed 
that Abundance o Good has been thereby done. And as 
fome Parts of Pc.i\ ■••ania, the Jer/eys, and the Lower 
Counties on Delaw. by the Lownefs and Moiihiefs of 
their Situation, are iai to the fame Kind of Difeafes, 
I have been advifed to . :t this Book here, for the Ufe 


The Toung Man's Bejl Companion. S77 

and Benefit of thofe People in thefe Countries, as live at 
too great a pittance from good Phyficians. It is necefTary, 
however, to give the Reader this one Caution, that the 
Ipecacuana or Indian Phyjtck, fo frequently prefcribed by 
the Author, is much weaker in Virginia, than that which 
grows in Pe/injyl<vania ; fo that whereas he prefcribes 80 
Grains for a vomiting Portion, and 70 for a Purge ; 12 
Grains of our Indian Pbyfick, or Ipecacuana, will be iuffi- 
cient for a Vomit, and 10 for a Purge : There is another 
Sort which comes to us from Europe, and is to be found 
in the Apothecaries Shops, of winch 30 or 32 Grains is , 
commonly given for a Vomit, and 27 for a Purge, which 
will work molt Conftitutions fufhciently. 


APhyfician in Virginia has lately published an EfTay 
on the Pleiirify ; in which he discovers a Method of 
treating that fatal Diilemper, that he fays he always found 
to fucceed. '1 he principal Part of the Cure depends on 
the Ufe of a Simple that begins to be known in this 
Country by the Name of Rattle Snake Rcct, being the fame 
which the Indians ufe in curing the Bite of that venemcus 
Reptile. The Method which the Author pra&ifcs and 
recommends, is as follows. 

" Let the Patient ferft have io Ounces of Blood taken 
" from the Ann of the well Side or Foot, if both. Sides 
" are effected ; and every 6 Hours 3 Spoonfuls of the 
" following Tintture is to be given, the firft Dofe imme- 
" diately after, and continued till the Symptoms abate. 

" Take of the Rattle Snake Root 3 Ounce.', wild Va- 
" lerian Root an Ounce and a Half, let them be well 
" bruifed in a Mortar, then mix them with a Quart of old 
« Canary, and digeft in a proper Vefiel in a Sand Heat 
" for 6 Hours, afterwards decant for Ule. 

" Let fifteen Drops of Balfam Capi-vi, and as many of 
" Sal Volatile Oleofum, be given in a little ordinary Drink, 
" twice between each Dofe of the Tinfture, beginning 
" with the firft Dole two Hours after the Tincture; and 
" pive the 2d Dofe 2 Hours zfter. 

" Let the ordinary Drink be a Tea made of Marjh- 
" mallow Roots, always given warm. 

*« If the Patient has been ill feme Days before any 

«« Thing 

378 The Tcung Maris Bejt Companion. 

" ThiHg adminiftred, the Balfam is to be continued for 
" fomc Days after a considerable Amendment. 

" Blood letting is to be repeated the fecond Day, and 
f* in the fame Quantity as the hrit, if the Patient is not 
" mucli better, or the fame Day, unlefs fo better 

" in four Hours : But fuch is the Efficacy of th 
" cine, that there is feloom Occafiom The Symptoms 
" generally abate confiderably in 24 Hours, and the Re- 
" covery certain." 

But becaufe every One may not have Convcniccy for 
preparing this Tincture, nor have the other Medicines 
mentioned at Hand, and don't live within the Reach of 
a Phyfician, it is neceiTary to acquaint the Reader with 
what the Author adds further, viz* " A Decoction of 
" the Rattle Snake Rod alone in Spring Water, three 
" Ounces to about one Quart ; together with Pectoral 
" Teas fweetened with Honey, ivi// prove ejjetiunl vvith- 
" out any Thing tlfe, if the Patient lias bepn Jet Blood as 
" foon as taken, and this Decoction immediately given 
" afterwards." 

This is to be underftood cf the genuine Pleurify or Pe- 
ripneumany attended with a Fever. 

As for the other Difeafe, which often perfonates a 
PJeufiJy in thefe i;> r:rts, the Symptoms of which are, that 
the Patient is cold in a fomftiferous State, and fometimes 

In tti3 ■" Author omits Blood-letting as pernici- 

ous ; but Tincture a,fo'refaid is as effectual here 

as j u the only advifes that the Rattle 

'Snafo Hoot be "in equal Quantities. 

jfdvice to a ptihg Tradefman^ written by an old One. 
To my -Fii.-nd A, U. 

y£r you be . of me, I <zvrif& the following Hint;, 

icbieb ha<vs been of Service to me, and may, if obferved, 

be Jr 1 i ■ 

•J-} ErVHi'MBRR t ! it is Money. He that can 
j£\ by his Labour, and goes 

abroad th .' Day, tko' he fpe 

erijon or Idlenefs, ought tiot 
tc •. :cce; lie Has really fpent, or 

rather thrown away rive Shillings befides, 


The Young Man's Befl Companion. 379 

'Remember that Credit is Money. If a Man lets his 
Money lie in my Hands after it is due, he gives me the 
Intci oil, or 10 much as I can make of it during that 
Time. This amounts to a considerable Sum where a 
Man has good and large Credit, and makes good ufe 
of it. 

Remember that Money is of a prolifick generating Na- 
ture. Money" can beget Money, and its Offspring can 
beget more, and fo on ; live Shillings turned, is Six : 
T urn'd again, 'tis Seven and Three-pence ; and fo on 
til it becomes an Hundred Pound. The more there is of 
it, the more it produces every Turning, fo that the Pro- 
fits rife quicker and quicker. He that kills a breeding Sow, 
.deftroys all her Offspring to the thoufandth Generation. 
lie that murders'a Crown, deftroys ail it might have pro- 
duced, even Scores of Pounds 

Remember that Six Pounds a Year is but a Groat a 
Day. For this little Sum (which may be daily walled ei- 
ther in Time or Expence «nperceiv ; d) a Man of Credit 
may, on his own Security, have the conftant Poffefiion 
and Ufe of an Hundred Pounds. So much in Stock briflc- 
ly turn'd by an induitrious Man, produces great Advan- 

Remsmber this faying, That the good Paymajler is Lord 
of another Man's Pur/e. He that is known to pay punctu- 
ally and exactly to the Time he promifes, may at any 
Time and on any Occafion raife ail the Money his Friends 
.can ipare. This is fometimes of great ufe ; therefore ne- 
ver keep borrow'd Money an Hour beyond the Time you 
promifed, leit a Difappointmefct fhu.t up your Friend's 
Purfe for ever. 

The moll trilling Actions that affect a Man's Credit,'are 
to be regarded. The Sound of your Hammer at Five in 
the Morning, or Nine at Night, heard by a Creditor, 
makes him eafy fix Months longer. But if he fees you 
at a Billiard Table, or hears your Voice at a Tavern, 
when you mould be at Work, he fends for his Money the 
jiext Day. Finer Cloths than he or his Wife wears, or 
greater Exper.ce in any Particular than he affords him- 
felf, mocks his Pride, and he duns you to humble you. 
Creditors are a Kind of People, that have the lharpeft 
Eyes and Ears, as veil as the belt Memories of any in 
ih'c World. 


3 So The Young Maws B 'eft Companion. 

Good-natur'd Creditors (and fuch one would always 
chufe to deal with if one could) feel Pain when they are 
oblig'd to afk for Money. Spare 'em that Pain, and they 
will love you. When you receive a Sum of Money, di- 
vide it among 'em in Proportion to your Debts. Don't 
he afham'd of paying a fmall Sum becaufe you owe a 
greater. Money, more or lete, is always welcome ; and 
yeur Creditor had rather be at the Trouble of receiving 
Ten Pounds voluntarily brought him, though at ten dif- 
ferent Times or Payments, than be obliged to go ten 
Times to demand it before he can receive it in a Lump. 
It ihews that you are mindful of what you owe ; it makes 
you appear a careful as well as an honelt Man ; and that 
itill encreafes your Credit. 

Beware of thinking all your own thaf you pqflefs, and 
of living accordingly. >Tis a Mifrake that many People 
ydio have Credit fall into. To prevent this, keep an ex- 
att Account, for fome Time, of both your Expences and 
your Incomes. If you take the Pains at firft to mention 
Particulars, it will have this good Effeft j you will difco- 
ver how wonderfully fmall trilling Expences mount up to 
large Sums, and will difcern what might have been, and 
may, for the future, be faved, without occafioning any 
great Inconvenience. 

In fhort, the Way to Wealth, if you defire it, is as 
plain as the Way to Market. It depends chiefly on two 
Words, Industry and Frugality; /. e. Wafte neither 
Time nor Money, but make the belt Ufe of both. He 
that gets all he can honeftly, and faves all he gets (necef- 
fary Expences excepted) will certainly become rich : If 
that Being who governs the World, to whom all mould 
look for a Bleffing on their honeil Endeavours, doth not 
mi his wife Providence otherwife determine. 

The general Divifon of the Earth and Sea. 

THE Terrellrial Globe may be divided into two Parts, 
the Earth and the Sea. The Earth may be divided 
into known and unknown Lands. The latter includes 
fuch Parts as are yet undifcovered, of which there are 
doubtlefs many ; as alfo thofe that are but partb known 
by viliting the Coaft. The known Land is divided into 
two great Continents, the Old containing Europe, Alia, 
and Africa, and the New containing America. 


The Young Man's Bejl Companion, 3 S i 

Europe has Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Mufcovy 
or Ruffia, towards the North ; France, Germany, Poland, 
Bohemia, and Hungary, about the Middle ; Spain, Por- 
tugal, Italy, and Turkey in Europe, on the South. 

Asia has that Part of Rufiia next to Europe, and Tar- 
tary belonging to the Mufcovites in the North, Turkey in 
Afia, Perfia, Great Tartary and China, about the Middle ; 
rind Arabia the Mogul's Country, and the Peninfulas on 
both Sides the Ganges in the South. 

Africa has Barbary, Egypt, Nigritia, Guinea, Nu- 
bia, Abyflinia, &c. on this Side the Equator ; and Con- 
go, Zanquebar, Monoemugi, Monomotapa, and the Hot- 
tentos beyond it. 

America is divided into the North and South. The 
North contains New France, Nova Scotia, New England, 
Maryland, Pennfylvania, Virginia, Carolina, Georgia, 
New Mexico, and California. The South contains Ten a 
Firma, Peru, Brafil, the Land of the Amazons, Paraguay, 
Chili and Terra Magellanica. 

The Iflands of Europe in the Ocean are Great Britain, 
Ireland, Iceland, and the Iilands of the Baltic. In the 
Mediterranean are Majorca and Minorca, Malta, Sicilly, 
Sardinia, Corfica, Candy, Corfu, and the Iilands of the 

The Iflands of Ana in the Ocean are the Maldives, 
Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, called the Ifles of Sun- 
da ; the Moluccas, the Philippines, the Ifles of Japan 
and Formofa. Add to thefe the Ifle of Cyprus in the Me- 
diterranean, and Rhodes. 

The Iflands of Africa are the Canaries, the Iflands ©f 
Madeira, the Cape De Verd Iflands, St. Thomas, Afcen- 
fion, St. Helena, Sec. all thefe lie on the Weft. On the 
Eaft are the Ifles of Madagafcar, Comoron, and Bourbon ; 
with a great many fmall ones on the Coaft of Zanquebar. 
Likewife Zocotora, on the Arabian Coaft, near Cape 

The Iflands of America on the Eaft, are thofe of Fer- 
nando de Naronna. near the Coaft of Brafil ; and Saxem- 
berg, Pepys, and Malouinies off the Magellanic Coaft. 
On the Weft Coaft near Peru lie thofe of Cocos and the 
Gallopegas. On the Coaft of Chili, St. Felix, and Juan 
Fernandez. And farther in the Ocean the Ifles of St. 
Paul, of the Marquis of Meucjoza, Fernando Quiros and 
R 2 Solomon. 

3 $2 The Tcung Man's Beji Companion. 

Solomon. The Lies on the South are thofe of Terra def 
Fuego, including the Iflands Van Staten. On the Eaft 
the lefler Hies of the Straits of Magellan. On the North 
and Eaft Side are Newfoundland, Barmuda, the Lucayas 
or Bahama lilands. The Antilles or' Caribbee Jilands, and 
many others. 

The Sea is divided into the Extesior, or that which, 
furrounds the Continent . and the Interior, or that which, 
is contained within the Continent. The former is divided 
into i. The North or Frozen Ocean ; 2. The India Sea. 
or Ocean ■> 3^ The Oriental Ocean ; 4. The Wefterrt 
Ocean ; 5. The Southern Ocean ; 6. The Great South- 
Set, or Pacific Ocean. 

The Seas within the Continent are the Mediterranean,. 
the Baltic, the White Sea or Gulph of Ruffia ; the Black 
or Eu'xine Sea ; the Sea of Za'cach; or the Sea of Azoph,. 
formerly called Palus Mceotis, near the Black Sea ; the: 
Sea of Marmora, otherwise called the Propontis; the 
Cafpian Sea, which is properly only a Lake ; the Red. 
Sea, or the Arabian Gulph; the Perfian Gulph between 
Arabia and Pern a ; the Vermillion Sea near California ; 
the Gulph of St. Lawrence, near Newfoundland ; the 
Gulph of Mexico ; the Sea o£ Koreo, and the Sea of 

Of the principal Iflhmufes, Gulphs,. Straits, Lakes and 

N Isthmus is a Tart of the Earth fhut in between 
two Seas, and joins one Land to another, of which- 
there are two very considerable in Europe, viz. The I.'lh- 
mus of Corinth, which joins the Morea to Greece, and 
the Ifthmus of Precop, which unites Little Tartary with 
the Crimea. 

The moil remarkable Ifthmus in Afia is that of Tena- 
cerim, which joins the Peninfula of Malacca with the 
Kingdom of Siam. In Africa there is likewife only one, 
and that is the Ifthmus of Suez, which unites Afia with 
Africa. They formerly attempted to make a Canal from 
one Sea to the other ; but the Deiign mifcarried. In Ame- 
rica there is the Ifthmus of Panama, which feparatei 
North America fom the South. 

The Ocean forms eight remarkable Gulphs. There are 
three in Europe, which have the Name of Seas ; the Me- 

The Young Man's Beji Companion. 383 

diterranean, the Baltic Sea, and the White Sea. There 
are three in Afia, the Gulph of Bengal, the Perfian 
Gulph, and the Arabian Gulph or Red Sea. There are 
two in America, the .Gulph of California and the Vermib- 
lion Sea. 

The moll famous Straits are Hudfon's Straits in the 
N-Tth Part of America, and the Straits of Magellan in the 
South. The Idler Straits are thofe of Gibraltar, between. 
Africa and Europe, and which permit the Ocean to enter 
into the Mediterranean : The Straits of Babelmandle, be- 
tween Afia and Africa, and which join the Red Sea to 
the Ocean : The Straits called the Sound, which unite 
the Baltic with the German Ocean. 

The mofi famous Lakes are the Ladoga and Onega in 
the Confines of Mufcovy. The Cafpian Sea; to the Eafl 
of which lies the Lake Aral, but lately known to be of 
great Extent, and feems to be miftaken by forne for the 
Cafpian Sea ; the Lake Baikal ; thefe laft are in Afia. To 
which add federal Lakes in North America, or which the 
fuperior or upper Lake is the principal. 

The principal Rivers in Europe are the Thames in Eng- 
land, the Torneo in Sweden, at the Bottom of the Gulph 
of Bothnia; the Volga in Ruffiaj which runs into the 
Cafpian Sea; the Danube, which rifes in Germany and 
runs thro' Turkey in Europe into the Black Sea ; the 
Don or Tanais in Ruffia, which runs into the Sea of 
Azoph ; the Nieper which rifes in Poland, and empies 
itfelf into the Black Sea ; the Rhine in Germany ; the 
Loire in France ; the Po in Italy ; and the Tagus in 

In Afia there is the Euphrates, which rifes in the Moun- 
tains of Armenia, and runs on the Eail Side of the De- 
of Arabia, till it comes to the Place where Babylon 
formerly Itood, and uniting itfelf with the Tigris foon 
after it paHes by Bafra and falls into the Perfian Gulph ; 
the Tigris, which has its Source a little lower, and run- 
ning towards the South paries by Moful and Bagdad, after 
which it unites its Stream with the former, and empties 
itfelf into the Perfian Gulph; the Indus, this runs from 
North to South, dividing Perfia from the Mogul's Coun- 
try, and falis into the Indian Ocean ; the Ganges like- 
wife runs from North to South on the Eafl: Side of the 

Mogul's (^"ntrv. :-nrj f-dk into Ul? Gulph of Bengal, 

x-v 5 The 

3 $4 Mt rmi Z Man ' s Be ft Com P anion ' 

The chief Rivers in China are the Kan-ho or the Yellow 
River, and the Kyang or the Yang tie Kyang, both which 
run thro' the Country from Weil to Eaft. The chief Ri- 
vers in Siberia are the Irtifh, the Obi, the Tobol, the 
Jenifca, and the Selinga; and the principal in Great Tar- 
tary is the Segalian. 

The chief Rivers in Africa are the Nile, the Gambia, 
the Senega, and the Zaire. The Nile rifes in the Moun- 
tains of Abyifinia, and runs from South to North thro' 
Ethiopia and Egypt into the Mediterranean. The excef- 
five Rains in the South Parts caufe it to overflow the low- 
er Parts of Egypt once a Year, which renders it a very 
plentiful Ceuntry for Corn. 

There are two confiderable Rivers in North America, 
rhe River of St. Lawrence, and the Miilifippi, beiides ma- 
ny others, which are navigable, in our Englifh Plantati- 
ons. In South America the River of the Amazons, which 
is fuppofed to be greateft River in the World, and the 
Paraguay or la Plata. 

Of the different Religions of the World, and their 

ALL the Religions in the World may be reduced to 
four, the Pagan, Jewifh, Chriftian, and Mahome- 
tan, to which feme add the Natural. 

The Pa^an Religion is owing to the Inventions of Men, 
and confifts of various Kinds of Idolatry, and extravagant 
Opinions ; it teaches the worfbipping of Images, various 
Sacrifices, the Agency of Demons, and many other fuper- 
ftitious Practices. This was the Religion of the ancient 
Greeks and Romans, the People of America, and various 
other Parts. It is now extended over half Afia, five or fix 
Parts of Africa, and nineteen in twenty of America. 

The Perfians formerly worfhipped the Sun and Fire, 
but fince Mehometanifm is become the prevailing Faith, 
there are but few who profefs this ancient Religion. How- 
ever, fome are eftablifhed on the Borders of the Countries 
near to Perfia, and in the Peninfula on this Side the 
Ganges. Neverthelefs thefe Idolaters pretend they believe 
in one God, and that the Fire is his Image. They are 
called Gaurs or Gebres. 

The Religion of the Brachmans was formerly the prin- 
cipal in the Mogul's Country, and in the Peninfula on 
this Side the Ganges, even till Mahometanifm was efta- 

the Young Mans Beft Companion. 385 

blifhcd. It is now raoftly cultivated by the natural Inhabi- 
tants. It is ftiil prevalent in the other Dominions of this 
Peninfula, and in the Countries cf the Rayas, who keep 
their Ground again! the Mogul. Thefe Rayas are little 
Sovereign Princes, who do Homage to the Great Mogul, 
or pay him Tribute. 

The Brachmans or Gymnofophrfts were very fevere Phi- 
lofophers, who, according to Porphyry, made ProfefTion 
of a kind of Monaltic Life. The Bramins who fuceeded 
them are Indian Pricils, who are of the ancient Religion 
of the Banians, who arc Idolaters of the Indies. 1 hey 
believe the Tranfmigration of Souls. The Bramins and 
all their Followers have a great Veneration for a Cow, 
and they think themfelves happy when they die holding 
one of their Tails. 

The Chinefe in general, acknowledge no other God 
but Heaven. However, there are feveral Seels among 
them. That which is called the learned Seel, tho' they 
pay no regard to Idols, are faid to pay a Homage to the 
Sun, Moon, and Stars. Others have Idol Temples, and 
yet both one and the other have a great Regard for Con- 

The moft extenfive Form of Religion is that of Fo, for 
this prevails over Thibet, all the Welter n Tartary, as well 
as China, and moll of the Indian Hlands. It pretends to 
Revelation, and teaches all the Superilitions above-men- 

The Worfnip of the Sun before Chriftianity, was of all 
Religions the moil general } it was even found in America, 
for the People of Peru worfhipped the Sun, as alfo thofe 
of Florida; and feme in New Mexico worlhip him till 
this Day. Some other Nations of America are thought to 
adore fome imaginary Demon, and to ufe Conjurations by 
fuch Means; but however Travellers may have been im- 
pofed upon by their fantaftic Ceremonies, there are now 
very few in Proteftant Countries, who believe any Thing 
of thefe diabolical Stories. 

The Jewifh Religion has its Name from the Jews, a 
People of Syria in Africa, and was inftituted by Mofes a- 
bout 3198 Years ago. It was intended to reftore natural 
Religion, then decayed in the World, It confifts chiefly 
in the Belief of one God : But the Jews were fuch a ftuh- 
born unbelieving Race of Mortals, that no Miracles could 


2$6 The Young Maris Beft Companion^ 

prevent them from relapfing into Idolatry, till they had 
endured the Babylonilh Captivity, after which they feem 
to be pretty firm in their Belief, till they were divided 
into various Sects. The abstaining from Hog's J? lefh was 
>ably a temporary Law given to them, becauie it is 
bud for the Leprofy. But they ftri&ly adhering to the 
Letter, hold it in the utmoit Abhorrence even at this Day. 
It is now the prevailing Religion of no Country, the- 
Jews being no longer a Nation, but icattered over ail 
Parts of the Earth : But more particularly Europe, the 
South Part of Afia, ana the North Part of Africa, where 
they aie very numerous.. 

The Chriftian Religion takes its Name from Jefus 
Chriit, who was born in judea 1770 Years ago, and was 
crucified as sMalefaftor, about the Age of 33, for teach- 
ing his Doctrines.- It abolifbes the Jewifti Prieithood, and 
changes the Day of Yv'orihip from fcaturday to Sunday. 
The moral Part of it furpaiies all other Religions in the. 
World, it being the higheft Improvement of the Law of 
Nature. Chriftianity extends alinoil all over Europe, and 
feveral Parts of America, as the eitabliflied Religion,, 
where the Europeans- have any pciTeiTion, and it is prolef- 
fed by different People in the Turkifh Dominions, and is 
difperfed through feveral Regions of Afia and" Africa. 
But it is fo degenerated in many Places., that there re- 
mains nothing but the Name, particularly in Abyflinia, 
Armenia, and the Countries to the Eait of the Black Sea. 
In Europe it is divided into three principal Branches, the 
Roman Catholic, the Greek Church, and the Protectants. 
The Greeks are divided into three beds, thofe that have 
renounced the Supremacy of the Pope of Rome, thofe 
that are Jacobites, Cophtss or Eutychians, and thofe that 
are Neftorians. The Proteilants are divided into feveral 
Branches, the Lutheran, the Epifcopal, the Calvanilt, the 
Prefbyterian, the Baptift, Quakeriim, and Socinianifm, 
and maay other Seel-, of leiler Note. 

The Mahometan or Mahomedan is derived from Ma- 
homet in Arabian, wno published it as a Revelation 622 
Years after Chriit, and by Pvleans thereof became Sove- 
reign of Arabia. This Religion differs very little from 
that of the Jewilh, except in acknowledging Mahomet 
$0 be the Prsphet of God, their frequent Ablutions and 


The Young Mail's Beft Companion. 387 

Other Ceremonies. They have changed the Day of Wor- 
fhip from Saturday to Friday. 

Mahoinetaniim is the chief Religion in the Turkifh- 
Empire, and the only or.s in Arabia. It is fpread alt 
over Perfia, the Mogul's Empire, and many of the Indian 
Iflands on the Northern and Eaflern Coails of Africa,- 
with many of the Inland Countries. Some affirm it fix 
Times more extended than Ciuiiiianity. However it ha£ 
not penetrated into America.- 

Of the different Languages, and the different Colours, of 
the Inhabitants of the Earth. 

THE taoft general Languages are the Latin, the Teu- 
tonic, the Celtic or Keltic, the Sclavonian, the' 
Greek, the Turkifh, the Eaflern Syriac, the Arabic, the 
Tartarian, the Man chew, the Chinefe,- the Malayan, the 
Ethiopic. As for the Languages of Africa and America,, 
they arc fo many it would be a great Labour to reckon- 
the in up. 

As to the Extent of thei'e Languages, the Latin is a- 
chad Language ; but the Italian is a Corruption of it as 
veil as the Spanifh and French. The Teutonic Language 
is fpoken in Germany and Scandinavia. The Engliih is a 
Mixture of Latin, Teutonic, and Norman. The Danilh,. 
Dutch, flemifh, and Swedifh, are derived from the Ger- 

The Sclavonian has produced the Dalmatian, BofniaflV 
Albanian, Servian, Pulgarian, Moldavian, Bohemian. Si- 
lefian, the Polifh, Ruffian, Mingrelian, and Circafiian. 
The Turkifh prevails over Turkey, and a great Part of 
the Eaflern Tartaiy. The Eaflern S riac or Chaldaic 
is the Mother of the Weltcrn Syriac, the Hebrew, the 
Arabic, and the Abyfiinian L The Malayan pre- • 

va Is over a great Part of the farther Indies and the I- 
flands. The Chinefe is fpoken throughout China.. The 
Man chew prevails in Eaflern Tsrtary. The Celtic {herns 
to be the original and nioft general Language of Europe. 
It is Mill preferved in Wajes, Bretagny, and the North of. 
Scotland, and psrtrnlarly in Ireland. 

The Greek made a Progrefs wl erevcr that Empire pre-- 
vaded. ft is now fpoken in the South Part oi' Turkey in 
Europe, that is in ancient Greece, the Iflands of the Ar- 
chipeJago, and Nat. ha, but much corrupted. 


388 The Young Man's Bejl Companion. 

The Colours of the Inhabitants of the Earfh are four, 
I. White ; 2. Tawny ; 3. Black ; and 4. Red. 

The Inhabitants of Europe are White, as well as Part 
of the Afiatics, that is Natolia, Armenia, Georgia, the 
Northern Provinces of Perfla, and about the Cafpian Sea, 
Grand Tartary, and the Northern Parts of China. 

The Tawny or Brown inhabit a great Part of Barbary, 
Egypt, Zara, Zanguebar. In Aha they dwell in Syria, 
Diarbeker, Arabia, the Southern Part of China, the I- 
flands of Ceylon, the Maldive, Sunda, the Moluccas, and 
the Philippines ; the Indians are of this yellowiih tawny, 
and thofe that are more brown, are only made fo by the 
fcorching Heat of the Sun. 

The Inhabitants of Africa are generally Black, except 
thofe firft mentioned ; fo likewife are thofe of fome Parts 
of Aha, New Guinea, and New Holland. The Ameri- 
cans are Red from one End of that vaft Continent to the 
other; and if they appear in a more dufky Complexion 
in fome Parts, it is becaufe they daub themfelves with 
Bear's Greafe and other unclious Subftances. 

Mankind differ much in their Figure and Shape ; they 
are generally reduced to four Kinds ; the Ethiopians have 
a particular Afpect well known to all. But out of thefe 
we muft except Little Tartary and the North Part of 
Rufha. However, the Inhabitants of Barbary have Fea- 
tures not unlike thofe of the People of Europe ; as alio 
Turkey in Afia, and the Indians on this Side the Ganges, 
hare" fome Rcfemblance. 

The feccnd Sort are the Chinefe, the Tartars, the In- 
habitants of the Peninfula beyond the Ganges, the Iilands 
of Japan, the Philippines, the Moluccas and the Ifles of 
Sunda ; thefe have fiat Nofes, the Vifage extremely flat, 
and the Eyes oval or narrow. 

The third Kind comprehends the Laplanders and the 
Sawayoids, who are long-vifaged, frightful, and have 
fomewhat of the AfpecT: of a Bear. 

The fourth are the Blacks of Africa, who have woolly 
Heads, flat Nofes, and thick Lips ; their Tongues, and 
the Infide of their Mouths, are as Red as Coral. 

The fifth are the Americans, who are without Beards, 
and without Hair on any Part of their Bodies except the 
Hc3d, where it is long and black, when they will fuifer it 
to grow; they go generally naked, fome quite fo, and 


The Young Man's Beji Companion. 3 £9 

others only cover thofe Parts which Decency requires 
them to hide. It is the fame in Africa from Cape de Verd 
to the Cape of Good Hope, in the new difcovered Coun- 
tries to the South, and many other Places of the World. 

I know many Authors have alferted, that the Americans 
pull up their Beards by the Roots, in which they only 
copy one another ; but who can imagine that in fuch a 
vaft Country as America, all the People, with one Con- 
tent, mould agree to pluck out their Beards ? Befides, it 
is no very eafy Matter; and thofe who think otherwife, 
Jiad bell try. However, as I have had an Opportunity to 
obferve them, I can affirm the contrary. Befides, La- 
honton, who lived among them, declares the fame, as 
well as Charlevoix, who travelled quite through North 

■ It has greatly puzzled the Learned to know by what 
Means America came to be peopled. Some have affirmed 
they came from Phoenicia, becaufe they w.orfliip the Sun, 
and others have imagined they are derived from China. 
But this would be wonderfully ftrange, becaufe the Chinefe 
deal much in Words of one Syllable, and the Americans 
have Words of a prodigious Length. As for Jnftance, 
near the River of the Amazons, the Word Poettararrorin- 
couroac fignifies three; which is the higheft Number their 
Arithmetic arrives at, otherwife what a Trouble it would 
be to tell Twenty. Their Languages indeed are various, 
but none of them, that we know of, have any Analogy 
with thofe of the old World. Befides, had People come 
Volunteers into America, they would certainly have taken 
fome ufeful Animals along with them ; for before the 
Conquer! of America, by the Spaniards, there were no 
Horfes, Cows, Sheep, Hogs, Affes, &c. which are in 
Plenty elfewhere. But they had many Creatures, which 
are not to be found in any other Part of the World. 
Some fay they have Lions, but this is only taken from 
Report, for no Eye-Witnefs can be produced, who has 
ever feen any. The Cpnfideration of thefe Things influ- 
enced Charlevoix to affirm America was peopled by the 
Grand- Child. en of Noah : And the prefent Bifhop of 
.Clogher believes it was inhabited before the Flood, and 
that the; People were faved by the peculiar Care of Divine 
Providence ; others have averted, that thefe White, Brown, 
Red, and Black People mufl: all have had different Parents 


390 The Young Marts ~Bfft Companion. 

originally, and created at different Times ; but this is 
contrary to the Holy Scriptures, which make Adam and 
Eve to be the 'firft Parents of nil Mankind. But thofe 
-who believe theie were Men before Adam, from Cain's 
going to dwell in the Land of Nod, which feemed full of 
'Inhabitants, will make no Scruple to fublcribe to this 

Jult publifhed, and to be fold,, by H. GAINE, at tire 
Bible and down, in Hanover-Square, New-York, 



His own LAWYER. 

O R, 

A Summary of the Laws of ENGLAND, in a new and 
inftructive Method, under the following Heads, viz. 

I. Of Actions and Remedies, Writs, Procefs, Arrefts, 
and Bail. 

il. Of Courts, Attornies and Solicitors therein, Juries, , 
WitneiFes, Trials, Executions, cfiV. 

III. Of Eftates and Property in Lands and Goods, and 
how acquired ; Anceitors, Heirs, Executors and Ad- 

IV. Of the Laws relating to Marriage, Baftardy, Infants, 
Ideots, Lunaticks. 

V. Of the Liberty of the Subject, Magna Chart a, the 
Habeas Corpus Act., and other Statutes. 

VI. Of the King and his Prerogative, the Queen and 
^ Prince, Peers, Judges, Sheriffs, Coroners, Juftices of 

Peace, Conflables, i5c. 

VII. Of publick Offences, Treafon, Murder, Felony, Bur,- 
glary, Robbery, Rape, Sodemy, Forgery, Perjury, ci?r, 
And their Puniihment. 

AH of them fo plainly treated of, that all Manner of 
Perfons may be particularly acquainted with our Laws 
and Statutes, concerning Civil and Criminal Affairs, 
and know how to defend themfelvcs and their Eltate* 
and Fortunes. 



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Book taken apart, leaves deacidified 
with magnesium bicarbonate. Folds 
reinforced, leaves mended and sup- 
ported with lens tissue where weak. 
Resewed on linen cords with new all- 
rag end paper signatures & hand 
sewed headbands. Rebound in quarter 
Russell's oasis morocoo with hand 
marbled paper sides & vellum corners. 
Leather treated with potassium 
lactate & neat's foot oil & lanolin. 

Carolyn Horton & Assoc. 
1+30 West 22 Street 
New York, N.Y. 10011 


ill I I II 111 

NLfl D1DD11DT 5