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10 NEW SUPER LAPTOPS PUT TO THE TEST! 

cannpuTE 



SEPTEMBER 1991 




DOUBLE YOUR HARD DISK SPACE 

KEY LEGAL STRATEGIES FOR HOME OFFICES 

DOS 5-COMPLETE USE^S GUIDE 

EXCLUSIVE! REAL MOTION VIDEO FROM A DISK! 



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ZE(E386SX-20! 
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out the need for a cache. And that's 
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Your new ZEOS 386SX-20 also 
includes the most advanced SX 
motherboard available anywhere. 
Because we've not only added incre- 
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controllers /?/?is the serial, parallel 
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board! This results in even greater 
reliability and expandability 

ZEOS SX SYSTEMS RATED #1! 

After aU, the ZEOS 386SX-20 
comes from a family oi Editor's 
Choice '555 systems. And most 
recently, in PC Maga2dne's Service 
and Refebility issue, ZEOS sj^tems 
received the #1 SX rating overall. 
When you receive your new ZEOS 
386SX youll see why ZEOS is #1. 
Take our case and power supply 
for instance. 

Your new system will indude our 
custom 200 Watt power supply and 
seven bay SpaceSaver desktop case. 

NASmo^l'£5^7'^'i°"^1S^"7fe,=?';'"T- """Ml «;!?=■ P[==f« ^lUl forc^nrat priciHK and warnuily details. ZEOS is a publicly traded company. 

Circle Reader Service Number 14S 



You save space and still have room 
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the components in your system will 
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fans. After all, the cooler your 
system runs, the longer it will last. 
Now that's uncompromising value. 
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Performance. Quality Price. 
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Includes Genuine 
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a 6-16, 2-8 bit expansion 
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supply and two cooling 
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■ Includes ZEOS 24 Hour 
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Options Ga\oret 
Including 14 ' 1024 VGA, 
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VOLUME 13, 
NO. 9, ISSUE 



33 



DDnnpuTE 



SEPTEMBER 1991 



6 

EDITORIAL LICENSE 

By Peter Scisco 

Magazines, like 

sharks, must move forward. 



8 

NEWS & NOTES 

By Alan R. Bechtold 

Court jesters, 

sandbagged silicon, and 

more news. 



14 



FEEDBACK 

Bad sectors, 

disappearing menus, and 

more. 



18 

BRAIN WAVES 

By Sherry Roberts 
If you're too busy 

to attend traditional schiool, 
tap into techinology 

and give your brain a boost. 



26 

SHAREPAK 

By Ricfiard C. Leinecker 

This montfi's disk brings 

two puzzles for gamers 

and a writing coach. 



28 

BREAKING COMMUNICATIONS 
BARRIERS 

By Gail Dutton 

Software and 

hardware combine to help 

aphasic patients 
use and process language. 




By Denny Atkin 

Get help 

for almost anything almost 

anytime 

through your modem. 

66 

TIPS & TOOLS 

Really wild 

cards, power pointers, 

redirecting DOS, 

batch files in graphic mode, 

and more 

strategies for computing. 

TO 

PROGRAMMING POWER 

By Tom Campbell 

Global variables 

are tempting, but they can 

backfire on you. 



ArlisI Terry Rosen created Post-Modern Still Life using Lighispeed 

Design software on a Sun Micro workstation. Recollections of a 

Cezanne tabtetop — but is the table indoors or out? Even the 

postcard suggests the historically eclectic vocabulary of 

postmodernism. And what better way to express it than through that 

most postmodern of appliances, the computer? 



33 

TEST UB: LAPTOPS 

This month 

we take ten top 

portables on 

the road for a series of 

grueling tests. 



56 

DOS 5.0— A PERFECT 10 

By Mark Minasi 

Here's the best of 

what's new 

and how to get the most 

from DOS 5.0. 



POINT & CLICK 

By Clifton Karnes 

Work out a cold 

hard cache for your GUI to 

pick up speed. 

74 

INTRODOS 

By Tony Roberts 

Add some life 

to your command line. 

76 

HARDWARE CLINIC 

By Mark Minasi 

Which computer 

bus should you take? 



COMPUTE (ISSN 0194.357X) rs published manlhly in ihe United Siaies and Canada Dy COMPUTE Publications Irternalional Lid.. 1965 
Broadway. New Yoik. NY 10023 5965. Vblumo 13. Number 9, Issue 133. Copyright © 1991 by COMPUTE Publioations Inisrnalional Lid, 
All fights reserved- Tel (212) 496^100. COMPUTE is a registered iraderrark ot COWPUTE Publications International Lid. Primed in the 
USA and distnbuted ^voridwide by Curtis Circulation Company, P.O Box 9102. (^nnsaLken. NJ 08103 Second-class postage paid at New 
York. Hf. and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to COMPUTE Magazine, PO. Sox 3246. Harian, lA 
51537-3041, Tel. (KM) 727-6937 Entire conlenis copyrighted. All righis reserved. Nothing may be reproduced in whole cr in part without 
written permission from Ihe publisher. Subscriptions: US, AFO - S19.94 one year; Canada and elsewhere -S25,94 one year Single copies 
$2.95 in US. The publisher disclaims all responsibility to return unsolicited matter, and all righis in portions published thereof remain Ihe 
sde property o1 COMPUTE Pubiicalcns International Ltd Letters sent to COMPUTE or its editors becotrie Ihe property of the magazine. 
Editorial offices are located at 324 W, Wendover Ave., Sle, 200. Greensboro, NC 27408. Tel. (919) 275-9809. 



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connpuTE 



80 

DISK UPDATE 

By Richard C. Leinecker. 

The latest on 

COMPUTE'S PC Disk. 



82 

STACKER 

By Clifton Karnes 

Double your 

hard disk space with this 

combo. 



84 

WORKPLACE 

By Daniel Janal 

Use your PC to automate 

thank-you notes. 

86 

STREET LEGAL 

By Rosalind Resnick and 

Susie Archer 

Keep your home office 

running on 
the straight and narrow. 

90 

ARTS & LHTERS 

By Robert Bixby 
CorelDRAW! outshines 
the competition with an 

array of impressive 
features and an elegant. 

easy-to-use design. 

92 

TRANSPARENT LANGUAGE 

By Anthony Moses 
Everyone wants to know a 

foreign language, but 

nobody wants to learn one. 

Here's a way. 




113 

REVIEWS 

Sneak Peeks of Reader 

Rabbit II and T/ie Treehouse. 

Also, more 

than two dozen reviews of 

leading productivity, 

entertainment, and education 

packages. 



94 

PATHWAYS 

By Steven Anzovin 
Carpal tunnel syndrome. 

Typist's neck. 
Computer ailments with 

a single 
culprit: your keyboard. 

96 

GREAT HEAVENS ABOVE 

By Lament Wood 
Reach for the stars 

with your 
personal computer, 

100 

FAST FORWARD 

By David English 

Your laptop's parallel port is 

the secret for 

avoiding obsolescence. 

106 

CHUCK YEAGER'S 
AIR COMBAT 

By Denny Atkin 

One of the best combat 

flight simulations ever. 

108 

GAMEPLAY 

By Orson Scott Card 

In war games, abstraction 

doesn't equal distraction. 

110 

MARTIAN MEMORANDUM: THE 
MAKING OF A COMPUTER MOVIE 

By Richard 0. f\/lann 
Access Software's disk- 
based video breakthrough is 
the first computer "talkie." 



144 

CONVERSATIONS 

By Peter Scisco 

Trip Hawkins gets 

interactive on 

multimedia, entertainment, 

and education. 



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EDITORIAL LICENSE 



Peter Scisco 



Our new 

presentation Is 

designed 

to sirowcase the 

people and 

Ideas that mahe 

COMPUTE 

Uie magazine It Is. 



If you're familiar with Woody 
Allen, you might remember 
a scene from Annie Hall in 
which our intrepid but 
angstridden protagonist com- 
pares his current love relation- 
ship to a shark. "It has to 
keep moving forward," he 
says, "or else it dies." The 
joke comes when Alvie Singer 
closes his metaphor: "I think 
we have a dead shark on our 
hands." 

It's a very funny line, first be- 
cause of the incongruity of 
comparing love to a meat-eat- 
ing fish (who can hear that 
line and not think of Jaws?) 
and second because of its 
small glimmer of truth. 

Magazines, like sharks and 
love, also must move forward. 
(1 think only network television 
reinvents itself faster.) 

This issue of COMPUTE 
marks another stage in our ev- 
olution toward becoming a 
computer magazine of the 
nineties, which promise to be 
a decade in which value re- 
places vanity and activism 
replaces avarice. The person- 
al computer can play an impor- 
tant role in all of this as the 




tool for people who've chosen 
to be active participants in 
the Information Age. 

Employers, coworkers, and 
neighbors look to COMPUTE 
readers for advice in choos- 
ing, evaluating, and buying 
computers, software, printers, 
and all the rest of the devices 
that complement today's so- 
phisticated PCs. Industry an- 
alysts and researchers point 
to the consumer market as 
the fastest growing segment 
of the computer market. Just 
visit your neighborhood elec- 
tronics store or the office su- 
perstore down the highway, 
and you're likely to see 
stacks of computer products 
laid out like so many stereos 
and typewhters. 

The reasons behind this 
shift range from falling prices 
to changing social attitudes. 
Fully equipped 386SX PCs 
sell for under $1,900; 286- 
based PCs, low-end Macs, 
and hard-drive equipped Ami- 
gas sell for less than $1,000. 
Professionals looking for qual- 
ity family time are choosing to 
bring work home or telecom- 
mute. Other workers, victims 
of a tight economy, are strik- 
ing out on their own, using 
the PC as a support staff for a 
variety of home-based servic- 
es and other businesses. 

You might be an old hand 
at blazing trails through the of- 
ten confusing and contradicto- 
ry world of computer technol- 
ogy, or you might be new to 
the silicon jungle. But no mat- 
ter where you fall in that 
range, one thing is certain — 
once you bring that PC 
home, your world unfolds into 
an expanding universe of pos- 
sibilities. 

In looking through this is- 
sue of COMPUTE, you'll see a 
lot of new images. But you'll al- 
so find some old favorites. For 
example, we've brought our 
COMPUTE Choice reviews 
back to the departments 
where they belong, where we 



can showcase these worthy 
products and give them the in- 
depth treatment they de- 
serve. Our Test Lab section 
boasts a new design and lay- 
out. Inside, you'll still find the 
information and benchmark 
testing to guide you toward 
making the best buying deci- 
sions based on your needs, 
not on manufacturers' spec 
sheets. 

Our Home Office depart- 
ment will continue to examine 
strategies to make you more 
productive with your PC, 
whether you're a home- 
based entrepreneur or run- 
ning an extended office and 
telecommuting to company 
headquarters. In Discovery, 
you'll read of creative uses for 
the computer and learn how 
to use all this new technology 
to give your kids an edge in 
the classroom. In Entertain- 
ment, you'll get a close look 
at the latest in electronic 
games, from executive play 
toys to virtual reality. 

Along the way, COMPUTE 
will showcase artists who are 
using computers to create the 
images, music, and writing 
that will define for the history 
books a generation of techno- 
savvy electronic eclectics. 

The way people use com- 
puters and the possibilities of 
computer technology deter- 
mine the shape of COM- 
PUTE 

If you don't own the fastest, 
most powerful computer in 
the world, if you've used your 
computer only for word proc- 
essing and number crunch- 
ing, we'll help you upgrade 
your system and discover 
new uses like video, multime- 
dia, and desktop publishing. 
If you use your computer in iso- 
lation, as a vessel of technol- 
ogy, we'll help you set sail in- 
to the world of telecommunica- 
tions where you can join an ar- 
mada of PC users who are 
exploring a new world of elec- 
tronic communities. D 



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NEWS & NOTES 



Alan R. Bechtold 



Leading Edge 

hopes to live up to 

its name witti 

ttie introduction ot 

N3/SX and 

N3/SX20 notebooks. 



A Difference of Opinion 

The federal judge who at first 
ruled Ashton-Tate's dBASE 
copyright claim invalid in 
1990 has reversed his own de- 
cision. According to the Wall 
Street Journal, software pub- 
lishers and industry iegal ea- 
gles did a double take be- 
cause such rapid reversals 
are a rarity in the U.S. judicial 
system. The reversal doesn't 
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Tate, however, who must still 
defend its dBASE copyright 
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ware, publisher of the popular 
Foxbase dBASE ///-compati- 
ble software packages and util- 
ities. The decision should 
give Ashton-Tate a bit more le- 
gal ground when the suit 
reaches court. Judge Terry J. 
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sudden reversal. 

Into the Notebook Fray 

Until now. Leading Edge Prod- 
ucts resisted the urge to enter 
the notebook PC market — but 
it couldn't resist forever. The 
company just unveiled the 




N3/SX and N3/SX20, its first 
two entries in the notebook 
market. 

The new Leading Edge 
notebook PCs weigh just 6.9 
pounds each. Both feature 9- 
inch diagonal sidelit triple su- 
pertwist LCD displays with 
640 X 480 VGA resolution ca- 
pable of generating 32 
shades of gray. Each comes 
equipped with an 84-key key- 
board with an embedded nu- 
meric keypad, 12 function 
keys, and inverted-T cursor 
keys with key spacing de- 
signed for ease of use. 

The N3/SX features a 
3B6SX processor running at 
16 fvlHz and support for an 
80387 coprocessor. It comes 
standard with 1MB of memo- 
ry, expandable to 5MB, a 
1.44MB floppy drive, and a 
20MB hard drive. A proprie- 
tary slot is dedicated for an op- 
tional 9600-bps fax and data 
modem. The unit is powered 
by either an AG power adapt- 
er or ni-cad batteries. The unit 
retails for $2,595. 

The N3/SX20 has the same 
features as the N3/SX with the 
exception of a 20-MHz proces- 
sor and either a 30MB or 
60MB hard drive. The 30MB 
version retails for $2,895; the 
60MB version retails for 
$3,195. For more information, 
contact Leading Edge Prod- 
ucts, 117 Flanders Road, West- 
borough, Massachusetts 
01581; (508)836-4800. 

Apple Suit Broadened 

According to Microsoft corpo- 
rate spokespersons, Apple 
Computer wants to 
broaden the scope 
of its lawsuit 
against Microsoft 
and Hewlett-Pack- 
ard to include Mi- 
crosoft Windows 
3.0. The original law- 
suit, filed by Apple in March 
1988, alleges that Windows 
2.03, which was the Windows 
version on the market at that 



time, infringed on Apple's 
copyrights. Windows 3.0 was 
released in May 1990. 

Microsoft claims the intent 
to amend the complaint was 
disclosed in a phone call 
from Apple's general counsel. 
Since the original filing of the 
lawsuit, Microsoft maintains 
that it hasn't infringed on any 
Apple copyrights and that it 
will continue to fight these al- 
legations vigorously. 

More Troubles for 
Microsoft? 

Lawsuits from Apple aren't 
the only things Microsoft has 
to worry about lately. Accord- 
ing to Microsoft officials, the 
staff of the Federal Trade Com- 
mission has decided to ex- 
pand the scope of its nonpub- 
lic investigation of the compa- 
ny. The FTC plans to examine 
third-party allegations that Mi- 
crosoft "has monopolized or 
has attempted to monopolize 
the market for operating sys- 
tems, operating environ- 
ments, computer software, 
and computer peripherals for 
personal computers," 

Until April 10 of this year, 
the focus was on an alleged 
horizontal agreement be- 
tween Microsoft and IBM. The 
agreement was purportedly re- 
flected in a joint press release 
issued at Comdex in Novem- 
ber 1989. That press release 
discussed future directions of 
OS/2 and Windows. 

Reconcilable Differences 

You want to buy a Sharp Elec- 
tronics Wizard palmtop organ- 
izer to help you stay on sched- 
ule, but what will that mean 
for the schedule on your desk- 
top PC? Will you be forced to 
keep two computer sched- 
ules updated and reconciled? 
The answer is No. thanks to 
Borland's Sidekick 2.0 and 
the new Sharp Organizer 
Link II. 

The Wizard can easily be 
connected to a desktop PC 



Become a Lotus' 1-2-3 
"Spreadsheet Performer", 

Forget about thick manuals. Forget about searching 

for the right key to punch. Because now you can get 
help right on the screen — with MicroTutor* for Lotus. 
You work smarter and faster with iVIicroTutor's tips and 
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Here's How It Works 

MicroTuior'.s on-screen help walks you through Lotus 1-2-3 functions— 
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What You Learn 

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5. YoLi earn back the low cost many times 
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1. Call 1-800-828-2917 and use your Master- 
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Ypfif ' ^^''"' "" '''''^'■' ''"^^" ^'''"*'"f^ "" "'y ^'t:- •''L'nd .MicroTutor to me for the 
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All orders shipped within iS hours. 



1 need this disk size: D 5 'A" D 3 '.^' 1 1 Do you have a hard drive? D Yes D No 



Company, 
Address 



_2ip_ 



City 'Slate 

i^hone ( ) 

D Check or .Money Order Enclo,sed D I'u rtlia.se Order Enclosed 
Charge to: 

D Ma-steiCard D A.MKX D VI.SA D Di.scover Cant Hxpire.s_ 
Card 3 



Signature . 



All iirtkfs muvt Ih- ^i^nc^.l 



Plea.se mark your selection(s)' ami calculate yourioial l>clou. 

D Lotus 1-2-3 Release 3.1 S'iy.95 

D Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.2 S49.95 

D Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.0 S49.95 

D Lotus MacrcK .'. S49.95 

(For all Lotus Relea,ses) 

n WordPerfect' 5.1 $49.95 

□ WbjciPerfect* 5.0 ..S49.95 

DMS-DOSM.Ol S49,95 

D MS-DOS' 3.3 S49,95 

n Leam to Use a PC S49.95 

Total » of Seleaions at S49.95 each= S 

Shipping and Handling s -■9> 

(AK. HI, PR, PO. Box, $5.20; Foreign, S15.95) 

Add Sales Tax (PA 6%) ..,„. s 

Software names are registered trademarks of (heir respective 



companies. Copyright © National teaming Systems 
Circle Reader Service Number 201 



TOTAL S 



NEWS & NOTES 



with a cable included with the 
Sharp Organizer Link II pack- 
age for connecting palmtop or- 
ganizers to desktop PCs. Spe- 
cial software, which is loaded 
on the desktop PC, manages 
the transfer of schedules di- 
rectly into Sidekick's Time Plan- 
ner feature. Sidekick's Recon- 
ciliation feature then com- 
pares the two schedules and 
reconciles any discrepancies, 
consolidating them into a com- 
mon file. 

The Time Planner, which in- 
cludes an appointment book, 
calendar, and to-do list, can 
automatically track and exe- 
cute actions such as sending 
MCI Mail messages or activat- 
ing a pager. In addition to the 
Time Planner, Sidekick has 
an address book, notepad, 
and calculator. The Wizard in- 
cludes an address book, tele- 
phone directory, world clock, 
notepad, and calculator. 

A Home Computer That 
Means Business 

Radio Shack's newest person- 
al computer, the Tandy 1000 
RLX, is a home computer de- 
signed to meet the demands 
of many small businesses. 
This IBM-compatible PC car- 
ries the extra power of a 10- 
MHz 80286 microprocessor 
and one 3'/2-inch 1 .44MB flop- 
py drive. A second SVa-inch 
drive bay accepts either a flop- 
py drive or a 20-40MB hard 
drive. The system also has 
one PC-compatible expan- 
sion slot. 

The 1000 RLX includes Tan- 
dy's DeskMate and DeskMate 
Home Organizer's 24 easy-to- 
use home management appli- 
cations. Pull-down menus 
and pop-up dialog boxes, 
along with the point-and-click 
convenience of Tandy's 
mouse, permit quick and 
easy performance of most 
tasks. Both the hard and flop- 
py disk configurations include 
high-resolution VGA graphics, 
a voice message option in 

10 COMPUTE 



DeskMate's Information Cen- 
ter, a two-button mouse, two 
joystick connectors, micro- 
phone and stereo headphone 
jacks, and a realtime clock 
with battery backup. All inter- 
nal components are designed 
to function without an internal 
fan, meaning the 1000 RLX 
runs cooler and quieter than 
most computers on the mar- 
ket today. 

Suggested retail prices are 
$799.95 for the 1000 RLX and 
$1,199.95 for the 1000 RLX 
hard drive model. Monitors 
are additional. 

900 Woys fo Fix It 

Epson America has found a 
convenient way to charge cus- 
tomers for help with the instal- 
lation, configuration, and oper- 
ation of their computers. A 
new 900 telephone line (900- 
988-4949) supplements the 
end-user assistance regularly 
provided by Epson author- 
ized resellers. The 900 line is 
open Monday-Friday, 10 
a.m. -7 p.m. Callers are con- 
nected with an Epson support 
representative after a pre- 
recorded message, which 
states that after an initial min- 
ute of free time, the caller will 
be billed at a rate of $2 per 
minute. 

End users who need assis- 
tance locating the nearest Ep- 
son Customer Care Center 
should call (800) 289-3776. 

IBM Goes to Hollywood 

The latest Hollywood pre- 
miere isn't an action-packed 
star-studded motion picture. 
It's IBM's new presentation 
graphics software. Dubbed 
Hoilywood. the package al- 
lows business professionals 
to create high-quality 
hardcopy, transparencies, 
slides, and onscreen presen- 
tations. 

Hollywood runs in Windows 
3.0. Text- and graphics- 
based presentations are easi- 
ly created using the pro- 



gram's integrated outliner, tem- 
plates, color schemes, fully 
scalable fonts, and charting, 
drawing, and painting tools. 
The program also features a 
sophisticated screen-show ca- 
pability. A spreadsheetlike in- 
terface makes entering data 
for presentations easier, and 
the runtime screen-show mod- 
ule lets users create presenta- 
tions that include sophisticat- 
ed transition effects, which 
can be distributed and dis- 
played without Hollywood but 
still within licensed use. 

Hollywood requires an IBM 
PC, PS/2, or IBM-tested com- 
patible with at least an 80286- 
based processor (386 or high- 
er is recommended), a hard 
drive, and 1,6MB of RAM 
(2MB or more is recommend- 
ed); DOS version 3.3 or high- 
er; Microsoft Windows 3.0; an 
IBM or Microsoft mouse or 
compatible; and any Win- 
dows 3,0-supported color vid- 
eo adapter. Suggested retail 
price is $495. 

For product information 
and a demonstration disk, 
call (800) IBM-7699. 

Too Much Silicon? 

What could be more perfect 
for the beach than a comput- 
er made entirely of sand? 
World-famous sand sculptor 
Todd Vander Pluym created 
the sand computer as a 
stage for an international 
awards presentation honoring 
technical computer solutions. 
The idea was a natural. "The 
raw material of the silicon 
chip — the foundation of the 
modern computer — is sand," 
said Vander Pluym. Unfortu- 
nately the computer isn't ex- 
actly portable, weighing 
about 25 tons. The all-sand 
work of art was also doomed 
to break down quickly but for- 
tunately it held up long 
enough to stage the awards 
ceremony. 

Recipients of the 1991 
CSC Technical Excellence 




Another Eastern block falls. 



There's a new'TRIS on the block, its name is 
WORDTRIS. And if you love TETRIS, this latest fast-action, 
falling block, Soviet game will boggle your mind. 

This time the falling pieces are letter blocks. Form them 
into words and score points. As 
each block falls, it pushes down 
the blocks below, producing an 
ever-changing kaleidoscope of 
letters where scoring oppor- 
tunities appear- and vanish - 
at the Wink of an eye. 

Create words horizontally or 
vertically, but don't put all your 
E's in one BASKET Because 
every time a word lines up, poof! those letters disappear, 
and the blocks below pop up to fill the spaces. So when- 
ever you earn points you stir up the alphabet soup. And 
suddenly that falling M has no HOME to go to. 

Avallablein retail storesor for Visa/MasterCard orderscall lollfree, 

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WORDTRIS keeps raining vowels and consonants until 
you've collected enough words to move to the next level, 
or the well fills up. Of course, each successive roundups 
the ante as the blocks fall ever faster. But you can choose 
your difficulty level to match 
your skills, and select from 
single player, cooperative, 
competitive, head-to-head or 
tournament modes. The 
built-in 30,000 word diction- 
ary verifies even the most 
obscure word. 

Set the difficulty level at 
10 and you'll find WORDTRIS 
harder to keep up with than 
the changes in Eastern Europe, 

WORDTRIS. Another great 
game from the TETRIS people. 



SSilQIEaiEll 



SIpectntmHoioByte 



Available (or IBM and Mac/Macll. 



Spectrum HdoB^^ 

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Circle Rndsr Service Number 1S2 



NEWS & NOTES 



Credit-card- 
size memory cards 
store data 
in Hewiett-Pacliard's 
new palmtop. 



Awards were Robert Heppe 
of Washington, D.C., who 
helps the United States keep 
tabs on satellites — where 
they are and where they're go- 
ing; Paul Gustafson of Chica- 
go, Illinois, who helps indus- 
tries cut costs by increasing 
workloads on their existing 
mainframe computers: Luc 
Mercier of Brussels, Belgium, 
who helps governments and in- 
ternational industries track 
down bugs, viruses, and oth- 
er problems in computer net- 
works; Eric Booth of Lanham, 
fvlaryland, who has discov- 
ered ways to stretch the life of 
satellite software through 
reuse; and Paul Chapman of 
Belmont, Massachusetts, who 
employed higher mathemat- 
ics to reduce the amount of 
steel used in manufacturing 
processes. 

Travel Agent on a Disk 

tf you've had it with red-eyes 
or 500-mile flights that should 
only take an hour but require 
four connections and three lay- 
overs, don't despair. Now you 
can figure out your own flight 
itinerary and then have your 
travel agent book the flights 
and make all the other neces- 
sary arrangements. 

Now you can view more 
than 250,000 direct and sin- 
gle-connection flights to and 
from 1200 destination cities 
right on your own PC, without 
a modem. Flight Disk, from Of- 
ficial Airline Guides (GAG), is 
a collection of floppy disks 
featuring information on direct 
and connecting flights for the 
most frequently traveled city 
pairs in the United States, Can- 
ada, Mexico, and the Caribbe- 
an. 

The computer makes all 
the information — over 700 pag- 
es' worth — contained in the 
OAG Desktop Flight Guide for 
North America available elec- 
tronically at a glance. Previ- 
ous editions of Flight Disk con- 
tained schedules for about 



110,000 flights and 600 desti- 
nations. 

Flight Disk is offered on 
a subscription basis for a 
yearly fee of S199 plus $15 
for postage and handling, or 
$99 plus postage and han- 
dling for subscribers to the 
OAG Desktop Flight 
Guide, North Ameri- 
can edition. New is- 
sues are published 
monthly. 

Anyone interested 
in a free 30-day trial 
of Flight Disk can 
call (800) 323- 
3537. 

One Million 
Served 

Borland In- 
ternation- 
al's Quattro 
Pro spread- 
sheet soft- 
ware is selling like hot cakes. 
Since its introduction nearly 
two years ago, over 1 million 
copies of the program have 
been sold. 

The growing worldwide 
spreadsheet market might ac- 
count for some of Borland's 
success with Quattro Pro. Win- 
ning an unprecedented 37 in- 
ternational industry awards 
doesn't hurt, either. Since 
1989, Borland's share of the 
worldwide spreadsheet mar- 
ket has grown from 8 percent 
to 20 percent. In the U.S., its 
share has doubled, growing 
from 12 percent to 24 percent 
in the same time period. 

Check Out This Palmtop 

Just when you thought com- 
puters couldn't get any small- 
er, Hewlett-Packard unveils a 
new palmtop PC that's about 
the size of a standard check- 
book. Weighing just 11 ounc- 
es, the 95LX comes with DOS 
3.22, Lotus 1-2-3, and an ar- 
ray of organizer tools, all load- 
ed in ROM and ready to use. 
Other very useful features in- 
clude an advanced financial 



calculator and communica- 
tions capabilities. 

The 95LX has a QWERTY 
keyboard and uses credit- 
card-size memory cards to 
store data. A modem port 
and printer port are also includ- 
ed. It retails for $699. 




For more information, con- 
tact Inquiries Manager, Hew- 
lett-Packard Company, 1000 
NE Circle Boulevard, Corval- 
lis, Oregon 97330; (503) 752- 
7736, 

TV for Computer Lovers 

Serious computer users are of- 
ten too busy watching their 
monitors to spend much time 
watching television. When the 
subject is computers, howev- 
er, it's a different matter. The 
PBS series "Computer Chroni- 
cles" is apparently one of the 
best television programs 
around with a focus on com- 
puters. The program was re- 
cently named Best Computer 
Television Program of 1990 at 
the Sixth Annual Computer 
Press Association Awards. 
The show won out over some 
tough competition, including 
ABC's "Business World" and 
CNN's "Future Bytes." 



Alan R, Bechtold is editor of In- 
fo-Ma( Magazine, an electron- 
ic news weekly published by 
BBS Press Service. O 



12 COMPUTE 



My Citizen Makes Working At 
HOME LOOK VERY Attractive. 



SIMPBOirS -_ 



PROPOSED TREES FOR 
MAIN STREET UBRARY PROJECT 




From advertising copy to business letters to product 
descriptions and designs, the Citizen GSX-130 is the practical 
24-wire printer for the smaJl business or office at home. It's one of 
the fastest printers in its class. And it gives you just about 
everything you might need. 

Even color. It's easy to print attention-getting documents that 
express your ideas, facts and figures with impact. Simply snap in 
the optional Color On Command™ kit and start printing in color 
with the software you probably already own. 

With Command- Vue 11'" you're in control of color, pitch, 
popular typefaces, page layout and more. All in plain English, all 
with the touch of a switch. 

The GSX-130 handles paper easily and effortlessly, too, with 
continuous paper tear-off that instantly advances the next page to 



the tear-off bar. Paper parking allows you to switch between 
continuous paper and single sheets, so you're always ready for anything. 

You'll have all the power you need, all al^ 
a great value. And to assure you of that, 
we include the Citizen Pledge of 
Quality - a two-year warranty. ■ 

The Citizen GSX-130. 
The practical way to 
professional printing. 
For more information call 
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^CITIZEN" 



Circle RoBdsr Service Number 1ES 




FEEDBACK 



Amiga and 8-bit 

Commodore 

coverage, removing 

bad sectors, 

using GETS and PUTs, 

contacting 

GeoWorks, and more. 



Representative Sample 

1 could see it coming a few 
months ago: COMPUTE has 
gone IBM on us, rendering it- 
self useless to those of us 
who had subscribed for the 
very reason that it featured oth- 
er computers. I think that the 
subtitle of your magazine 
should be changed to The 
Complete IBM-Compatible 
Computer Resource. You 
can't possibly be giving a fair 
representation of the negative 
mail you're receiving. 

LEUND JONES 
DALLAS, TX 

COMPUTE still covers the Ami- 
ga and 8-bit Commodore com- 
puters. Issues of COMPUTE 
are created for these comput- 
ers in a very complex binding 
process and sent to readers 
who subscribe to Amiga Re- 
source or Gazette. If you're 
not getting the issues you 
want to read, write to us, and 
we'll notify the subscription 
sen/Ice that you want your sub- 
scription changed. Or for 
more rapid response, call 
(800) 727-6937 and request 
that your subscription be 
changed to the multiple-sub- 
scriber edition. We try to pub- 
lish a representative sample 
of mail in "Feedbacl<," as 
well as letters that will be help- 
ful to other readers. It's true 
that we receive some letters 
from Amiga and 8-bit Commo- 
dore owners confused by the 
changes in COMPUTE. 
Thanl<s for giving us the oppor- 
tunity to explain how we han- 
dle the special sections. 

Hard Disk Headache 

When I run CHKDSK on my 
20MB hard disk, it shows 
98,304 bytes in bad sectors. 
Will a reformat of the hard 
drive remove the bad sec- 
tors? Also, when I first pur- 
chased my computer, it 
would automatically boot 
from the C drive. Now it re- 
quires a system disk in drive 



A to boot up. What did I do 
wrong? 

ALFRED M, BELL 
ARLINGTON, VA 

Reformatting your hard disk 
won't eliminate the bad sec- 
tors, and you wouldn't want to 
eliminate them because using 
those marginal sectors could 
endanger your data. Hard 
disk manufacturers thorough- 
ly test their products for de- 
fects and areas that may not 
reliably hold data. If defects 
are found, a bad track map is 
created and affixed to the top 
of the drive. During low-level 
formatting, those marginal ar- 
eas are roped off so no data 
can be stored there. 

Bad tracks usually com- 
prise less than 1 percent of a 
disk's total surface — in your 
case, it's about half that 
much. In the normal course of 
operations on a hard disk, a 
few bad sectors are nothing 
to worry about. 

Your inability to boot from 
drive C indicates that, for 
some reason, your system 
has lost the information that 
tells it drive C is a boot disk. 
This is a fairly common prob- 
lem. The easiest solution is to 
use a commercial disk-utility 
program to identify and repair 
the problem. No hard disk 
owner should be without 
such software. 

It also may be possible to 
repair the damage on your 
own. but first make a backup 
of the hard disk for safety. 
Next, boot from a floppy disk 
and use the command SYS 
C: to place new copies of the 
system files on the hard disk. 
If this fails to get your hard 
disk back to normal, you'll 
have to reformat the disk to 
make it bootable again. Be- 
fore going ahead, make sure 
you have backups so you 
can restore your data. 

Up a Tree 

We at the Aldridge Company 



appreciate your review of 
Tree86 in the article on DOS 
shells [COMPUTE, November 
1990). I believe you found 
one of the major strengths of 
Tree86 — its small size. All of 
Tree86 fits on one 5y4-inch 
disk, and it can be run from a 
floppy, making it extremely 
portable. 

We'd like your readers to 
know that the multiple 
screens Mr. Bechtold found 
lacking will be available in 
the next release of the pro- 
gram. 

Another of TreeSS's strong 
points is its intuitiveness and 
ease of use. This is accom- 
plished through its pull-down 
menus accessed v/ith hot 
keys. The fact box included in 
the article indicated that 
Tree86 used function keys 
and no menus, which is an er- 
ror. We'd iike to let your read- 
ers know. 

VALERIE BURSON. VICE PRESIDENT 
THE ALDRIDGE COMPANY 
HOUSTON, TX 

In Search of Works 

I need the phone number 
and address for GeoWorks. 

E. WILLIAMS 
HUNTINGTON BEACH. CA 

The address is GeoWorks, 
2150 Shattuck Avenue, 
Berkeley California 94707. 
The telephone numbers are 
(800) 772-0001 for orders 
and (4 15) 644-0883 for the 
company's offices. 

You Put What You Get 

I can't figure out how to use 
GET and PUT in GW-BASIC. 
Also, I'd like to create a menu 
that will pop up and then dis- 
appear. How can I do that? 

SETH FULMER 
PALM, PA 

This little program will grab 
whatever is in the upper left 
corner of the screen and 
smear it In various ways 
across the screen (note that 
you have to type or draw 



14 COMPUTE 



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Circle Reader Service Number 18t 




FEEDBACK 



something In the upper left cor- 
ner for this program to work). 
The PSEl XOR. and OR op- 
tions were used with PUT. 
You could also use the AND 
and PRESET options. Note 
that you have to dim an array 
variable to use it with GET, 
but when you use GET and 
PUT, you leave off the sub- 
script. 

The second half of the pro- 
gram creates a menu and sen/- 
Ices it. Of course, a menu pro- 
gram like this only works 
while BASIC Is running. If you 
want to create a simitar pro- 
gram that would work in DOS, 
you should create it in C or a 
compiled BASIC. 

10 DIM A%(1000) 

20 SCREEN 2 

30 GET(0,OH123,123),A% 

40 FOR I = TO 75 

50 PUT(I,I),A%,PSET 

60 NEXT 

70 FOR I = TO 75 

80 PUT (75+l,75-l),A%,0R 

90 NEXT 

1D0FORI = 0TO75 

110 PUT (150+I,I),A%,XOR 

120 NEXT 

130 CLS 

140PRiNTCHRS(201);;FOR 1 = 

TO 11:PRINT CHR$(205);: 

NEXT:PRINT CHR$(187) 
150 PRINT CHR$(186)+"1. Goto 

D0S"+CHRS(186) 
160 PRINT CHRS(186)+"2. Exit 

menu"-f-CHR$(1S6) 
170 PRINT CHRS(200);:FOR I = 

TO llrPRlNT CHRS(2D5);: 

NEXT:PRINT CHR$(188) 
180 GET(D,0H144,32),A% 
190 CLS 
200 PRINT"press any key to show 

menu" 
210 AS = INKEYS 
220 IF AS=" "THEN 210 
230 CLS 

240 PUT(D,0),A%,PSET 
250 A$=INKEY$ 
260 IF AS=" "THEN 240 
270 IFA$="1"THEN 

CLS:SHELL:CLS 
280 IF AS="2"THEN CLS:END 
290 GOTO 250 



PC or Not PC 

In the January 1991 issue of 
COMPUTE, in the "Feed- 
back" column, you stated 
that TSR-management pro- 
grams called Mark and Re- 
lease were published in the 
January 1990 issue of some- 
thing called COMPUTEI's PC 
Magazine. Is that something 
different from COMPUTE? I'm 
interested in the disk you men- 
tioned. Please get me more in- 
formation. 

THOMAS C. SK1DMORE 
SALT LAKE CITY. UT 

Up until May 1990, COMPUTE 
published four separate maga- 
zines: COMPUTE!, COM- 
PUTEl's PC Magazine, COM- 
PUTEI's Gazette, and Amiga 
Resource. COMPUTEI's PC 
Magazine, along with the oth- 
ers, was "folded Into" COM- 
PUTE when COMPUTE Publi- 
cations was purchased by Gen- 
eral Media. COMPUTEI's PC 
was a bimonthly magazine- 
disk combination. 

For any past issue of COM- 
PUTEI's PC (including disk), 
send an $8 check or money or- 
der payable to COMPUTE. 
The address is COMPUTE Sin- 
gle Copy Sates, 324 West 
Wendover Avenue, Suite 200, 
Greensboro, North Carolina 
27408. Specify that you want 
the January 1990 COM- 
PUTEI's PC and disk. 



Readers whose tetters appear 
in "Feedback" will receive a 
free COMPUTES PC clock ra- 
dio while supplies last. Do 
you have a question about 
hardware or software? Or 
have you discovered some- 
thing that could help other PC 
users? If so, we want to hear 
from you. Write to COM- 
PUTE'S Feedback, 324 West 
Wendover Avenue, Suite 200, 
Greensboro, North Carolina 
27408. We regret that we can- 
not provide personal replies 
to technical questions. O 



16 COMPUTE 



EDITORtAL 

Editor In Chief Pelei Scisco 

Art OlreclDr Robin C Case 

Executive Editor Clifton Karnas 

Senior Editor Emeritus Keitti Fefrell 

Managing Editor David tiensley Jr. 

FesttJres Editor F^bert Bixby 

Associate Editor David Engiisti 

Editor, Gazette Tom Nelsel 

Associate Editor, Denny Atkin 

Amiga Resource 

Reviews Editor 

Assistant Editors 



Copy Editors 

Editorial Assistant 
Interna 



Mtks Hudnall 
M Cnampion 
David Sears 
Karen Huffman 
Susan Thompson 
Kandi Sykes 
Ciiantefle OligschlaegGr 
Efin Rtchler 



ART 
Assistant Art Director Kcnnclh A. hlardy 
Designer Jo 6oykjn 
Typesetter Terry Cash 
PRODUCTION 
Production Manager De Potter 

Tratfic Manager Barbara A. Wiiliains 
PROGRAMMING 
Programming Manager Riciiard C Leineclter 
Programnwrs Bruce Bcwdsn 
Steve Draper 
Troy Tucker 
ADMINISTRATION 
President Kaliiy KeetOfl 
Executive Vice President, William Tynan 
Operations 
OHIce Manager Sybil Agee 
Sr, Administrative Assistant, Julia Fleming 
Customer Service 
Administrative Assistant 
Receptionist 



Elireda Chavis 
Cynthia Giles 
ADVERTISING 
Vice President, l^ter T Jotinsmeyor 
(212MW-B100 
James B. Martise 



Associate Publisher 

Vice President, 

Sales Development 

Marlcetlng Manager 



Caroline Hanfon 
(919) 275.ge09 
ADVERTISING SALES OFFICES 

East Coasi: FulH^ge and Standard Display Ads— Peter T Jolins- 
meyer. Chris Coelho. COMPUTE Publications International Ud,. 
1965 Broadway. New Vork. NY 10023; (212) 49fr«10Q- l>tew Eng- 
land — Jack Garlend. Garland Associates. Inc . ID Industrial 
Park Rd.. Hingham, MA 02043. (617) 749-5852. East Coast and 
Midvrfest: Fractional an<l ProOuct Mart Ads — Caro ine Hanion. 
Product Mart Manager; COMPUTE Publications International 
Ltd.. 324 W. Wendover Ave , Suile 20O. Gieensboro, HC ZTAOS: 
1919) 275-9609 Soolheaslern Accis Mgr: Fu!l-F^ge. Standard 
Display, and Mail-Ofdar Ads— Harriet f^igers, 1726 K St NW. 
Suile 903. Wasnington, DC. 20006. (202) 728-0320. Florlda- 
J. M Remer Associates, 3300 NE 192nd St.. Suite 192. Aven- 
lura. FL 331E0; (305) 933-1467. (305) 933-B302 (FAX). MidwesI: 

Full-Page and Standard Display Ads— Siatr Lane, t4altonal Ac- 
counts Manager; 1025 Crescent Blvd , tSlen Ellyn. IL 60137; 
(708) 790-0171. Northwest— Jerry Thompson. Jules E. Th- 
ompson Co.. 1290 Howard Ave , Suite 303, Burlingame, CA 
94010; (415) 348-8222 John Taggarl, (415) 547-4102. Lucille 
Dennis, (707) 451-8209 Souihwest— Ian Lingwood. 6728 Eton 
Ave, Canoga Park. CA 31303; (818) 992-4777 West Coast: Erac- 
tjonal Matl-Order. Sharewate, and Produci Mart ASs— Lucille Den- 
nis. Jules E. Thompson Co , 1290 Howard Ave.. Suite 303, 
Burlingame. CA 34010; (707) 461-6209. UK & Europe— Bever- 
ly Watdale. 14 Lisgar Terr.. London W14. England: 01 1-441-602- 
329a. Japan — Intergroup Communications, Ltd.; Jiro Semba. 
President; 3F T[ger Bldg 5-22 Shiba-Koan. 3-Choine. Minato- 
ku. Tokyo 105, Japan. 03-434-2607, Classilied Ads— Sharon 
Sleinkemper, COMPUTE Publlcolions Internalionai Ltd.. 1966 
Broadway. New York, NV 10023. (212) 724-0911. 
THE CORPORATION 
Bob Gucclone (chairman) 
Kathy Keeton (vice-chairman) 
David J. Myerson [chief operaling ofiicer) 
Anthony J. Gucckine (secretary-treasurer) 
William F. Marlieb (presideni, markeling & advertsing sales) 
John Evans (presideni, loreign editions) 
Patrick J Gavin (vice president, chief financial office:) 
ADVERTISING AND MARKETING 
Sr. VP/Corp Dir . New Business Development; Beverly 
Wardale. VP/Dir , Group Advertising Sales: Nancy Kesienbaum; 
Sr, VP/Soulhern and f^idvvest Advertising Dir ; Peter Goldsmith 
OlHoes: New York: 1965 Broadway, New York NY 10023- 
5965. Te'. (212)496-6100, Telex 2371 26, MidweSI: 333 N, Michi- 
gan Ave, Suite 1810. Chicago. IL 60601, Tel. (312) 346-9393. 
South: 1725 K St. NW. Suite 903. Washington. DC 20006, Tel. 
(202) 728-0320. West Coast 6726 Elon Ave., Cancga Park, CA 
91303, Tel. (B18) 932-4777 UK and Europe: 14 Lisgar Terrace. 
London W14. England. Tel. 01-828-3336 Japan Intergroup 
Jiro Serrba. Telex J25469IGLTYO, Fax 434-5970. Korea: Kaya 
Advtsng.. Inc. Rm, 402 Kunshin Anneir B/D 251-1. Oohwa 
Dong. Mapo-Ku. Seoul. Korea (121). Tel. 719-6906. Telex 
K32144Kayaad 

ADMINISTRATION 
VP/Finance. CFO: Patrick J. Gavin, Sr. VP/Administrative Serv- 
ices: Jeri Winston: Sr. VP/Ari & Graphics: Frank Devino; VP/ 
New^tand Circulation: Marcia Orovitz: VP/Dlrector ot New Mag- 
azine Developrr,ent: Ffena Cherry; VP Director Sales FYomotions: 
Beverly Greiper; VP Produciion: Hal Halpner; Dir Newsstand Cir- 
culation: Paul Roinick: Dir. Newsstand Circulalion Distribution: 
Charles Anderson, Jr., Dir. Subscription Circulation: Marcia 
Schultz; Director of Research Ftobert Ptatlner; Advertising Pro- 
duction Director: Charlene Smith, Advertising Production Traf- 
fic Mgr. Mark v^illiams; Tralfic Dir. William Harbutt: Production 
Mgr.; Tcxn Stinson: Assl. Prodjction Mgr: Nancy Rice, Foreign 
Editiorts Mgr,: Michael Stevers; Exec. Assl. to Bob Guccione: 
Diane O'Connell; Exec. Assl. to David J. Myerson: Tefl Psani; 
Special Assl. to Bob (Succione: Jane Homlifih. 




^^Pff^yG^f: S*' 



Pick Our Brains. 



.^ 




Product support for your IBM 
or compatible. 

CompuServe, the worid's laiigesl net- 
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Circle Reader Service Number 103 



one else, and before the)' hit the market. 

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Education can be a 
powerful thing. 
Use your computer as 
o doorway to 
knowledge — online. 



8RAIN 

WAVES 



BY SHERRY ROBERTS 

p e've tieard thiat the computer 
1 |f is an educational tool for so 
^* many years that it's almost a 

clictie. But thie next generation 
of education programs — called online 
education or computer-based distance 
learning — is anything but dull and hack- 
neyed. This is education on the brink — 
technology tapped and tiarnessed to 
bring learning to people who are too 
busy to attend traditional school or 
who don't have access to convention- 
al campus environments. 

For example, an American soldier 
enrolled in an online college course at 
NOVA University in Florida continued 
to file assignments and attend elec- 
tronic classrooms via his computer 
while stationed in the Persian Gulf. 

"The whole goal is to reach as 
many people as possible with quality 
instruction," says Margaret Morabito, 
founder of the Computer-Assisted 
Learning Center (CALC), which offers 
continuing education, self-enrichment, 
and college-level courses for long- 
distance students of all ages on the 
online service GEnie. "There are so 
many barriers to learning in the offline 
world. Online is an excellent medium 
for overcoming those barriers." 

In the offline world, there are busi- 
nesses with inflexible hours, jobs with 
strenuous travel demands, and chil- 
dren that require babysitters. For the 
handicapped, the offline campus may 
be a chore to navigate. For students 
living in out-of-the-way locales — a 
ranch in the Australian outback or a 
small burg in Alaska — the offline cam- 
pus may be hundreds of miles away 

Although online education appeals 
to a broad spectrum of people, from 
elementary students to senior adults, 



19 



the greatest growth in this area has 
been undergraduate and graduate conn- 
puter-based degree programs for wori<- 
ing men and women. 

Now a Fortune 500 executive can fin- 
ish her doctoral degree without ever set- 
ting foot in a classroom; she can do 
her homework between business meet- 
ings or on a flight to Japan; she can at- 
tend class from a hotel room half a 
world away — as long as she packed 
her computer and modem. 

Online education can be as unstruc- 
tured as someone putting out a call for 
help with homework on CompuServe's 
Student Forum or as rigid as one of the 
curriculum-based degree programs of- 
fered by schools such as the Universi- 
ty of Phoenix, NOVA University, or the 
New York Institute of Technology. 

The whole concept of computer- 
based distance learning is so new 
that everyone involved is a pioneer. No 
two educational institutions have organ- 
ized their programs the same way. The 
only common denominator is the use 
of computer and modem. 

CALC, for example, requires stu- 
dents to attend something called real- 
time classrooms. Unless a student has 
a medical or technical excuse, the stu- 
dent is expected to meet with the In- 
structor and other students online at an 
assigned time. The University of Phoe- 
nix, on the other hand, does not re- 
quire online students to log on for a spe- 
cific class; students log on and off at 
their convenience to retrieve assign- 
ments, turn in homework, and confer 
with the teacher or other students. 

NOVA University teams teleconfer- 
encing in the electronic classroom 
with videotapes of live classrooms and 
attendance at on-campus institutes. 

The cost of CALC courses ranges 
from free to $40, pius connect time at 
$6 an hour. Tuition for online courses of- 
fered by accredited universities ranges 
from $100 to S250 per credit hour. 
Some programs charge an additional 
communications fee, which covers 
course and access setup and online 
hours; others allow students to pur- 
chase blocks of online hours. 

School supplies are high-tech but ba- 
sic: a computer (any kind), a modem, 
and telecommunications software, usu- 
ally provided by the school. Online 
courses also require textbooks just 
like their campus counterparts. 

On Your Schedule 

Flexibility — the ability to attend class 
wherever and whenever they wish — is 
the main reason students enroll in on- 
line degree programs. 

Lorraine Wright, an internal auditor 
for AT & T in Atlanta, Georgia, says 
the online program of the University of 

20 COMPUTE 



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Prodigy provides online Weekly Reader to 
give younger users news and fun. 



scJEncE cEnter 



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.^NOW - 

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No mystery: you can always find Carmen 
Sandiego on Prodigy, teactiing geograptiy. 

Phoenix was the only way to get her 
master's degree in business administra- 
tion. "My job requires 50 to 80 percent 
travel, but now that I have a laptop, I 
can go to school. There's no way I 
could make the ti'aditional classroom 
setting." 

When Wright first heard about com- 
puter-based learning from a coworker, 
she had her doubts about the quality 
and the serious intention of such pro- 
grams. She quickly learned, though, 
that online learning is no easy cruise. 

She estimates she spends 15-20 
hours a week studying offline — five 
hours of reading each weekend and 
12-13 hours of work on two papers 
due each week. The first six weeks of 
class, she downloaded 500 pages of 
class material and student comments. 
"Because of the communication 
mode, I think you spend more hours 



per week on classwork [than in the tra- 
ditional classroom course]," Wright 
says. "But that Is the price you pay for 
flexibility." 

Students also choose online courses 
because of the diversity of their class- 
mates. The computer has facilitated 
the creation of truly global classrooms 
where students from Singapore study 
with students from Seattle and the stu- 
dent in the electronic desk next to you 
could be an airplane pilot, a CEO, or a 
retired schoolteacher. 

"I like the networking with class- 
mates," Wright says. "I've met people 
in my class from all over the United 
States from different companies and 
backgrounds. If I were in any of their 
towns, I'd feel comfortable enough to 
call them up and visit with them." 

Students and teachers alike say 
there is a noticeable lack of shyness in 
electronic classrooms. "It is a very lib- 
erating and democratic environment," 
explains Tom Bishop, director of mar- 
keting for the University of Phoenix On- 
line program. The university, which has 
13 campuses throughout the South- 
west, began offering computer-based 
degree programs in 1989. 

"It is the content of the student's con- 
tributions that is important," Bishop 
says, "not the student's physical char- 
acteristics." 

CALC's Morabito agrees, "When 
you're online, you don't have the phys- 
ical presence, the facade that you 
must put on. No one knows that you 
didn't dress up to come to class or 
that you're handicapped and in a wheel- 
chair or what kind of car you drive. 
Everyone is treated on the same basis, 
and it opens people up." 

As computer-based education has 
developed, participants have noticed in- 
direct benefits; students report a dra- 
matic increase in communications and 
analytical thinking skills. The logistics 
of attending class via computer discour- 
ages rambling monologues (on the 
part of either student or teacher) and 
eliminates the potential for off-the-cuff 
answers. 

Dr, Edward A. Becker, director of 
Graduate Accounting Programs at NO- 
VA University, describes four commu- 
nication skills: reading, writing, speak- 
ing, and listening. He theorizes that to- 
day's highly technological and com- 
plex work environment requires a fifth 
communication skill: computer literacy. 

Students taking computer-based 
courses, by necessity, learn how to 
use a computer. Few of them are hack- 
ers. Often they turn to their teacher or 
fellow students for help when technol- 
ogy is about to get the better of them. 
Schools provide students with support 
while they learn the basics of comput- 




FOR WRITERS, 
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USAGE. MECHANICS,- 
VOCABULARY,Wp .. 
STRUCTURE M^^ 

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VAGUENESS 
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• POOR USAGE 

• NONIDIOMATIC PHRASES 

• GENDER-BIASED LANGUAGE 

• NONSTANDARD SPELLINGS 
-PUNCTUATION MISTAKES 

BASIC GRAMMATICAL ERRORS 



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Among Editor's many convenient features: 

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easy to use. of incorrect and proper usage and and expanded by the user. 

• Comextualized online reference mechanics. • Users can create and run additional 
help is available with a keystroke. usage dictionaries. 



Writing Sample as Formatted 
by Editor 

<1 > Literature professors are caught up in 
a historic al motion that challenges 
them to confront ethical questions 
raised by their teaching practises . 

<2> Some writers claim that criticai 
theory's day has_past_ifs zenith; 
others complain that alot of students 
have read "more wofits on theory than 
works of literature! 

<3> Those who teach theory in the 
classroom claim that each and every 
student should have a conscious 
awareness of the Ideologies 
underlying works of literature. 

<4> In the ca se of the universities, this is 
teading to a situation in which the two 
sides are becoming more completely 
polarized, to say the least . 



Elaine C. Thiesmeyer 
Rochester Instilute o/ Technoiog>' 
John E. TTiiesmeyer 
Hoburt and William Smith Colleges 



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Editor's Analysis of Writing Sample 

FIX 

<2> fias past 

POSSIBLE COUmU PHRASE MISSPELLED; -passed"? [m] 
<2> it's 

POOR USAGE; contraction or misspelled possessive [U] 
<2> alot 

SPELLING ERROR; and note ttiat "a lof Is informal [1] [s] 
<2>". 

MISPLACED QUOTATION MARKS [ql 

TIGHTEN 
<3> each and every 

TAUTOLOGY [Tj 
<3> conscious awareness 

TAUTOLOGY [T] 
<4> in ttie case of 

WORDY PHRASE [W] 

POLISH 
<1> practises 

NONSTANDARD SPELLING [n| 
<4> Itiis is 

POSSIBLE VAGUE DICTION; can you clar 
<4> to say the least '^ 

OVERWORKED OR TRITE PyRASE 

CONSIDER 
<1> historical 

COMMONLY-IS 
<2> critical ^ 

COMMONLY MISUSED TERM; "cmciar? [^ 
<4> more completely 

POSSIBLE ILLOGICAL EXPRESSION [X] 




■ Editor has four usage dictio- 
tmes: FIX, TIGHTEN, 
POLISH, and CONSIDER - 
Man)' users run FIX jirsi , 
since it catches the most 
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Braciteteci codes refer tisers lo 
online Iielp and to samples in 
the rwnud. 



Writers who /md diat Editor 
flags a term they always list' 
correctly may delete that 
term from Editor'^ lua^e 
dicrinnaries. A scholar who 
o/ten iwites about aiiical 
theory, far instance, may 
want [0 remote the term 
"aided" from the 
CO.VSIDER dictionary: 



Circle Reader Service Number 160 



PHONE OB 
OLTSIDEl 



^9l5^n 5-7447 
(919)515-2682 

Please make checks 
paydile to TASL; 
Itnciude ihifping 
'charges. Said to 
TASL, Box 8202, 
North Carolina State 
^University, Rtileigh, 
^NC 27695-8202. ., 

USANDCANAD; 
S2.75for|iirst f)ro- 
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additional program. 
OUTSIDE US AND 
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each additional program. 



er use — from how to log on to the 
school's system to how to get a tran- 
script of last week's session from the 
school's library. 

The Price for Flexibility 

The most commonly heard complaint 
about online education is the lack of 
the "warm fuzzy factor" and face-to- 
face interaction. Participants miss the 
human touch and sometimes dislike 
dealing with an inanimate object. 

Schools say they make a special ef- 
fort to maintain contact with students in 
online programs so that they feel nei- 
ther stranded nor isolated. When stu- 
dents yearn for the sound of the hu- 
man voice, they frequently pick up the 
telephone and call classmates and 
teachers. Several members of a Univer- 
sity of Phoenix study group that live in 
New England drove to a mutually con- 
venient location for a get-together. 

"It is much warmer and more human 
than most people would expect," Bish- 
op says. "Humor comes through even 
in the typewritten word." 

NOVA University solves the problem 
by integrating into its programs chanc- 
es for students to meet their online 
classmates and mentors in person' NO- 
VA requires master's and doctoral stu- 
dents to attend either week-long insti- 
tutes or weekend seminars in Fort Lau- 
derdale, Florida. NOVA students and 
teachers also rub elbows at symposia 
held every three months at regional 
sites, such as Phoenix, Cincinnati, At- 
lantic City and Jacksonville. 

Degrees of Value 

The New York Institute of Technology 
started the American Open University, 
its computer-based distance learning 
program, eight years ago. Dr. Ward 
Deutschman, director of the American 
Open University, says today the pro- 
gram is "clearly a success." 

He says his online programs have on- 
ly a 10-15 percent attrition rate as com- 
pared to the 50-80 percent attrition 
rate ordinarily found in traditional dis- 
tance learning programs or correspon- 
dence courses. 

Interaction is the element that 
makes online learning more than a mod- 
ern day correspondence course. "We 
have found that connectivity between 
student and faculty the fact that a stu- 
dent can get a response to his ques- 
tion in a day or two and that he is ex- 
pected to interact online, makes a dif- 
ference," Deutschman says. 

Even if the computer does help 
keep some students in school, so to 
speak, is it all for naught? Are degrees 
earned via computer considered as val- 
uable as those earned on campus? 

Deutschman admits that the tradition- 

22 COMPUTE 



al world of academia has yet to wel- 
come computer-based education with 
open arms. 

"Some institutions that haven't been 
involved with distance education look 
at anything different with a jaundiced 
eye," Deutschman says. "The plus 
side of this is that institutions offering 
distance learning are really attending 
to the quality of instruction they are giv- 
ing. Tfiey are investing enormous 
amounts of time and effort into ensur- 



ing that their quality of education is scru- 
pulously maintained." 

Frequently schools defend the qual- 
ity of instruction in their online pro- 
grams by using the same faculty to 
teach both campus and online cours- 
es. Or schools hire experts in their 
fields to teach particular online cours- 
es. NOVA University has the invest- 
ment director for Travelers Insurance 
and an expert from the Internal Reve- 
nue Service on its accounting faculty. 



ONLINE WITH THREE UNIVERSITIES 



Working adults make up the majority of 
online students for a simple reason: 
They're always working. 

The purpose of online education is to 
improve access to learning for people 
who can't attend traditional classrooms 
because of their jobs or other circum- 
stances. Here are three academic insti- 
tutions whose online programs are all di- 
rected to adults. 

University of Phoenix 

The University of Phoenix Online pro- 
gram not only requires all students to be 
"working adults" but insists that all mem- 
bers of the faculty be working profession- 
als in their fields of expertise. 

Incorporated in 1976 in Arizona, the 
university has 13 campuses and learning 
centers in Arizona, California, Colorado, 
New fvlexico, Utah, and Puerto Rico. It is 
accredited by the North Central Associ- 
ation of Colleges and Schools, 

The university started its Online pro- 
gram in 1989 and has 340 students. De- 
grees that can be earned through Online 
include a bachelor's degree in business 
administration, a master's in organization- 
al management, and a master's in busi- 
ness administration. 

Oniine's electronic classroom is open 
24 hours a day, seven days a week, allow- 
ing students to control the time and 
place of their individual participation. Stu- 
dents go online at their convenience to 
retrieve assignments, turn in or upload 
homework, and participate in class dis- 
cussions. 

Programs are built upon the experi- 
ences of the working professional so stu- 
dents can apply what they learn as they 
learn it. Frequently, papers and projects 
must relate to the student's own 
workplace. 

"We find that adults demand that the 
education they are consuming have im- 
mediate relevancy," says Tom Bishop, 
the university's director of marketing. "It's 
not just a hobby." 

American Open University 

American Open University is the dis- 
tance learning arm of the New York In- 
stitute of Technology In Central Islip, 
New York. Six hundred students from 
throughout the United States, Singapore, 
fvlalaysia, and Europe are pursuing de- 
grees at AOU through their computers. 



AOU, which is accredited by the fvlid- 
dle States Association of Colleges and 
Schools, offers Bachelor of Science de- 
grees in general studies, business ad- 
ministration, and behavioral sciences. It 
also offers a Bachelor of Professional 
Studies degree in general studies. 

Students receive a course learning 
package which includes a textbook, a de- 
tailed syllabus, and assignments. Home- 
work assignments and special projects 
are sent in by the student through the com- 
puter. In computer conferences, a men- 
tor directs the learning activities just as an 
instructor in a conventional classroom 
does. Students can read, review, and 
write messages to the instructor and oth- 
er students through the computer. 

NOVA University 

NOVA University liegan offering online ed- 
ucation in 1983. It is a muttifaceted pro- 
gram that integrates computer confer- 
encing, videotapes, and the traditional 
component: the face-to-face classroom 
environment. 

Accredited by the Commission on 
Colleges of the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Schools, NOVA has 300 on- 
line students. The university offers doc- 
toral degrees in information systems, in- 
formation science, computer education, 
and training and learning. It also offers a 
master's in computer-based learning. 

Students also may lake some account- 
ing courses online. By the end of 1992, 
NOVA expects to be able to offer online 
an entire master's degree in accounting. 

NOVA has perhaps the greatest va- 
riety in its delivery system. NOVA stu- 
dents not only are expected to spend a 
great deal of their time on computer, ei- 
ther in realtime electronic class or send- 
ing in homework electronically, but they 
also use videotapes of actual classroom 
sessions filmed on NOVA's campus In 
Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 

Concerned that students might miss 
the human contact ol classroom-based 
education, NOVA requires attendance at 
two week-long institutes or weekend sem- 
inars held on campus. The university al- 
so offers symposia at four sites through- 
out the country to share in person the lat- 
est research on that term's topic, to en- 
courage students to share their own re- 
search, and to provide face-to-face an- 
swers to students' questions. 



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FROM HOME SCHOOLING TO HELP WITH HOMEWORK 



Every Monday night at 8:00 12-year-old 
Danny Brumleve switches on his comput- 
er and goes to school. This session he 
is taking a course on C programming 
fronn the Computer-Assisted Learning 
Center (CALC) on GEnie. Last session 
he aced English 203, also from CALC, 

Danny's mother, Dorothy, describes 
her son as "very bright, severely gifted," 
Last year she decided to remove Danny 
from private school and try a year of 
home schooling while he awaits accep- 
tance into a special high school. She or- 
ganized tutors, arranged a Latin course 
for Danny, and browsed through GEnie. 

Dorothy Brumleve, a computer pro- 
grammer, considers the CALC courses 
a valid part of Danny's curriculum, "I 
think it's a unique opportunity. He's too 
young to enter junior college, yet he's tak- 
ing comparable courses on CALC." 
CALC offers courses that can earn col- 
lege credit from Edison State College. 

Danny says the courses are fun. And 
the Urbana, Illinois, ninth grader says, "I 
learn a lot more this way" 

Dorothy Brumleve is quite satisfied 
with online education and proud of her 
son, "It attracts a different audience, a stu- 
dent that really wants to learn, a student 
that's not there for the party. Because 
there isn't a party. The student has to be 
nnotivated to keep up when he doesn't 
have the daily contact with a teacher." 

Home schooling information also is 
found in one of CompuServe's 240 fo- 
rums: the Education F^orum. 

Although CompuServe does not offer 
curriculum-based online classrooms, it is 
a source for online students to get help 
with their homework. The CompuServe 
Information Service, which was intro- 
duced in 1979, offers members access 
to 1400 databases, including Peterson's 



College Guide to accredited or ap- 
proved U.S, and Canadian colleges, as 
well as Grolier's Academic American 
Encyclopedia, a reference source updat- 
ed four times a year. 

CompuServe's Science/fvfath Educa- 
tion Forum has a data library with prac- 
tice problems to help students study for 
college board examinations. The Stu- 
dents' Forum is where it's happening for 
middle schoolers: junior high students ex- 
change ideas with teachers and other stu- 
dents and receive homework assistance. 

With 800,000 CompuServe members 
worldwide, the potential for help is limit- 
less. As Debra Pedersen Young of Com- 
puServe says, "Who knows who is going 
to answer your question? It could be 
someone in the tJ.K. or someone next 
door." 

Homiework help is also available, and 
independent study is encouraged on the. 
Prodigy network. Although it, like Com- 
puServe, doesn't offer curriculum- 
based programs. Prodigy features online 
learning situations. Besides gathering in- 
formation through Prodigy's reference da- 
tabases and posting calls for help on its 
bulletin boards, students could supple- 
ment their studies with features from old 
favorites such as National Geographic 
and Weekly Reader. 

America Online also boasts a number 
of homework options, including regular- 
ly scheduled homework sessions each 
weeknight, private tutoring, boards on 
developing study skills, an Exam Prep 
Center with tips for taking exams, and an 
exam exchange where students and 
teachers can upload and download ex- 
ams to use or practice with. There are 
many other options currently online or in 
development intended to assist students 
and make learning fun. 



Thie University of Pinoenix requires thiat 
its instructors not only tnave tine appro- 
priate academic accreditation but be 
currently practicing professionals in 
their fields. 

Tlie other attack on legitimacy 
comes from critics who question (now 
tfiose who administer online programs 
know who's doing the homework and, 
ultimately, earning the degree, fvlany 
schools require online students to 
take midterm and final examinations in 
the presence of a proctor who has 
been approved by the school. Or, as in 
the case of NOVA, they actually re- 
quire the student to show up on cam- 
pus for brief but important seminars 
and institutes. 

There is a feeling among those in- 
volved with online education that spe- 
cial recognition ought to be given to 
those who earn a degree via comput- 
er. Take a look at the online student, 
says Deutschman: The person has to 

24 COMPUTE 



be self-disciplined, motivated, and 
able to work without a support group. 
"If [people] can be successful in dis- 
tance learning, then you know they've 
got something," Deutschman says. 
In fact. Bishop predicts online de- 



grees will become increasingly valua- 
ble as employers gain experience with 
online graduates. "The development of 
analytical skills, as a result of the me- 
dium, changes the way people can con- 
duct themselves in the workplace, Em- 
ployers are going to be very pleased in 
the kind of results they get with people 
in this program." 

The Quality Goes In 

Educators running online programs 
know that such programs will never re- 
place traditional classroom learning. 
Online education is seen as an alterna- 
tive service for a special group. 

They predict, however, that technol- 
ogy-based education will have an Im- 
pact on classroom-based education. 
They expect it. in some ways, to en- 
hance campus learning. 

Campus students, Deutschman 
says, may pressure schools to provide 
the same technological access to teach- 
ers that online students have. Online stu- 
dents typically can ask their professors 
a question via modem and get an an- 
swer in a day or two, while the campus 
student with a question is at the whim 
of his schedule and his professor's of- 
fice hours. 

But perhaps the greatest success of 
these groundbreaking education pro- 
grams is that some educators have 
stopped talking about computers and 
begun using them. At last, in the case 
of online education, the computer has 
become an educational tool as essen- 
tial as pencil, paper, and textbooks. 

As Becker says, "We've been using 
lecture techniques to teach from tie be- 
ginning. Then, when Gutenberg invent- 
ed the pnnting press, we began using 
textbooks and lecture. All the studies 
tell us that there are more ways to 
teach effectively — one is videotapes, 
and one is computer. 

"Everybody is looking at [online learn- 
ing], and everybody is talking about it. 
The future is wide open; we're only lim- 
ited by our imaginations." □ 



SOURCES 



America Online 

8619 Westwood Center Dr., Ste. 200 

Vienna, VA 22182 

(703) 448-8700 

American Open University 
(New York Instflute of Technology) 
Colton Ave., Bidg. 66, Rm. 227 
Centra! Istip, NY 11722 
(800) 222-6948 

CompuServe 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus, OH 43220 
(614) 457-8600 



NOVA University 
3301 College Ave. 
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314 
(800) 541-6682 

Prodigy 

445 Hamilton Ave. 
White Plains, NY 10601 
(800) 776-3449 

University of Phoenix Online 
101 Caiiiornia St., Ste. 505 
San Francisco, CA 94111 
(415) 956-2121 



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SHAREPAK 



Richard C. Leinecker 



Four 

programs to 

entertain 

you and your 

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for hours 



SEPTEMBER PAKS 
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ARGH Version 3.0 

ARGH. the first SharePak pro- 
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Well, playing is actually 
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Sounds easy, huh? Sure, 
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Gapper 

Talk about a game that will 
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To play, you'll need 256K 
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PRO football Picks 

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For this game you'll need 
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PRO-KRlBi 

Do you write well? Could your 
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PRO-SCRIBE'S "idea!" pat- 
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SCRIBE'S vocabulary to keep 
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26 COMPUTE 



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COMPUTING FOR THE 
PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED 



BREAKING 

COMMUNICATIONS 

BARRIERS 



BY GAIL DU^ON 



R 



emember writing term papers? It 
I seemed like a major chore in high 
school and college. Just imagine writ- 
king one blindfolded or without touch- 
ing your PC, and you'll have an idea of what 
it's like for blind and quadriplegic students 
and professionals. Imagine writing it in, say, 
Chinese, a language foreign to you, and 
you'll understand the challenge aphasic pa- 
tients — those who've lost the ability to use 
and process language — face when trying to 
communicate even simple requests. 

Fortunately software and hardware solu- 
tions are available, although they aren't wide- 
ly known. Often the solution is simply a mat- 
ter of locating the right pieces and integrat- 
ing them into a computer. 

Scanning and Voice Synthesis for 

the Visually Impoired 

One system pieced together by two Yale Uni- 
versity students relies upon a voice synthe- 
sizer and a scanner to let visually impaired stu- 
dents and staff have full access to the infor- 
mation stored in Yale's Sterling Library 
{where the system is housed) and any other 
written resources available. Built by Matthew 
Weed, a blind political science and history ma- 
jor, and Victor Grigorieff, a computer science 
and psychology major, the system is based 
on a Macintosh llfx, although it can run on ear- 
lier models, since each Mac program has a 
similar interface. It uses only commercially 
available software and hardware. 

Because the Macintosh interface has re- 
mained consistent, visually impaired users on- 
ly have to learn one set of concepts to run sev- 
eral different programs. The Mac also has 



the flexibility Weed and Grigorieff require. 
With It, they can convert from Mac to IBM 
text files as needed so users can copy files 
for use on their own computers. 

In addition to the Macintosh llfx, the sys- 
tem uses the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet Plus, 
OmniPage and ou/SPOKEW software for scan- 
ning and voice synthesis. inLARGEior mag- 
nifying text, a word processing package, and 
a 19-inch monochrome monitor With outSPO- 
KEN, the visually impaired can use graphical 
interfaces 95 percent as effectively as sight- 
ed users. And system glitches are minor; for 
example, the ScanJet Plus sees the number 
2 as a tilde and the letter / as an n, but it's 
about 99.5-percent accurate. 

The ScanJet Plus is used to scan books, 
research reports, journal articles, and other 
printed documents into the Macintosh at a 
rate of two side-by-side pages per 40 sec- 
onds. The text is then converted to sound us- 
ing OmniPage and outSPOKEN. To listen to 
the file, the user opens the menu with a 
mouse or keystrokes and selects the options 
from the choices spoken by the voice synthe- 
sizer. 

When the file appears, the voice synthesiz- 
er reads it aloud either one line at a time or 
one word at a time as the user cursors from 
line to line or word to word. Either method 
can become tiresome, so Weed often in- 
structs the computer to speak faster — up to 
twice as fast as the average human reads 
aloud. With outSPOKEN, the user can also 
control type fonts, vocal pitch, and volume, 
and it offers a word dictionary for user-de- 
fined pronunciation, a graphics dictionary for 
identifying common signs and symbols, and 



28 



COMPUTE 




29 



a Find command for locating informa- 
tion on the screen. 

By using this system, Weed's need 
for hundreds of audiotapes and the 
hours it tal<;es to search them for spe- 
cific quotes are eliminated. He's cut 
the time required to write a term paper 
from four or five hours per page to 
about 35 minutes per page. 

The system is as advantageous for 
dyslexics as it is for blind users. Grigo- 
rieff says. With inLARGE software, in- 
dividual letters, words, and lines can 
be enlarged up to three inches in 
height on the system's 19-inch monitor. 
Words can still be spelled and words 
or sentences spoken, making it easier 
to read new words. To help users 
keep their places, the system speaks 
the word the cursor is on and presents 
text with a ragged right edge and a ser- 
if typeface. InLARGE a\so offers a full- 
screen crosshairs cursor to make it eas- 
ier to locate. Grigorieff says the sys- 
tem's potential is limitless. 

Visually impaired users can access 
networks such as ARPAnet, Internet, 
and Bitnet — invaluable aids in techni- 
cal work, Eventually, Weed and Grigo- 
rieff hope an interuniversity electronic 
library will be established so scanned 
versions of references can be loaned 
just like printed versions of documents. 
Right now, though, Weed says copy- 



right laws are a problem. At Yale, 
there are only about a dozen potential 
users, and the possibility that any one 
book that's scanned will be used again 
is slim, he says. So to save computer 
memory, he's spending part of his sum- 
mer erasing the books that have al- 
ready been scanned into the system. 
Yale's system was built last fall with 
a $15,000 grant from Yale University. 
Because costs are dropping. Weed esti- 
mates the same system could be built 
today for a little more than $10,000, 

Design by Voice and Movement 

All the way across the country, Jeff 
Burnett, an architecture professor at 
Washington State University, and Tech- 
nical Applications Group colleagues 
have built a system that allows quadri- 
plegics to work on electronic CAD pro- 
jects with the same levels of expertise 
as their able-bodied colleagues. This 
system, Burnett says, also works with 
anything graphically oriented, includ- 
ing spreadsheets. 

The project, as yet unnamed, trans- 
parently links a DOS machine to the 
powerful UNIX systems that are need- 
ed for CAD and to a telephone. That 
configuration can then be booted auto- 
matically and controlled by speech rec- 
ognition technology and an infrared 
headpointer. The system is "glued" to- 




gether with custom software. 

Users can boot up the machine by 
triggering a sensor — either a pressure 
pad or a special reflector — that can on- 
ly be triggered by their wheelchairs 
when they roll up to the PC. Once the 
machine is booted, the menu comes 
up and can be used either by issuing 
voice commands or by using a head- 
pointer as a mouse. 

The software was written specifical- 
ly for a headpointer made by Millenni- 
um Stride Computers, although others 
can be used. Because the headpointer 
uses infrared sensors, users don't 
have to be tethered to their computers 
with electronic cables, 

The pointer is actually a reflective 
tape mounted on eyeglasses or even 
on a pencil tucked behind one ear. It's 
tracked with an infrared device mount- 
ed atop the computer — just the oppo- 
site of a TV remote control. 

To select a menu function, users 
move their heads so the tape's reflec- 
tion hits the desired icon; then a word 
is spoken that's the equivalent of click- 
ing a mouse button. The adaptive inter- 
face allows users to move the window 
around rather than moving their heads 
in awkward positions. 

The system has a small vocabulary, 
oriented toward CAD work, that isn't 
context sensitive. Individual users can 
load a personal vocabulary or label doc- 
uments by spelling the needed words 
with the phonetic alphabet. To load the 
word angle, for example, the user 
would say, "Alpha, November, golf, Li- 
ma, echo." Burnett's system uses a 
Votan voice recognition board, one of 
the most functional available. 

When the phone rings, an answer- 
ing machine or the computer picks up 
the call, stopping the CAD program in 
its place. The user can converse using 
either a microphone and speaker combi- 
nation or, for more privacy, a headset. 
To hang up the phone, the computer's 
voice recognition system listens for the 
words hang up and a confirming utter- 
ance. Upon hang-up, the user can re- 
sume CAD work instantly. 

"If users are familiar with CAD, they 
can be functional on this system with- 
in one day, and in only a few weeks, af- 
ter creating macros and editing the 
vocabulary, can compete in the same 
arena and at the same level as their 
able-bodied colleagues," Burnett 
says. In practice, success can depend 
very much upon the user's personal mo- 
tivation. 

Users are now being trained on this 
system at the University of Washington 
Center for the Handicapped in Seattle. 
After the training, they leave with hard- 
ware and software tailored specifically 
to their own work environment. 



30 COMPUTE 




"^ 



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TURN ON THE LEARNING POWER! 

The Learning Adventure" Computer Club 

925 Oak Street, Scranton, PA 18515 Dept. TARB91 

YES! Please send me ttie program 1 li;ivc indicated l)elo\v uj preview 
for f) days at no risk (ir obligation. I m;iy return tlic program Lrf'ler 1> 
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I'll pay )iisl S9.95 plus shipping and handling and enroll as a new 
menilxT. I need buy iu.st 3 more selections at regular club prices in ihe 
ne.\l year and may cancel anyiime thereafter. 

Kame 

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Zip 




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Please check if you have a: n Printer D Modem D Color Monitor 



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senci you details of the club's operation wiih your enrollment shipment 
and you have a 15-day, no-obligation privilege to decide if you wish to 
continue as a memlx-r. 



Images Instead of Alphabet 

Researchers at Tufts University School 
of fvledicine in Boston are using com- 
puters to tackle a different problem: 
how to fielp patients wfio have lost the 
ability to use language — usually as the 
result of a stroke. The type of brain dam- 
age called aphasia affects the portion 
of the brain where words and speech 
are processed, leaving patients with 
the ability to comprehend much of 
what others say but unable to reply. 
They can't formulate thoughts into co- 
herent phrases or sentences. Roughly 
one-fourth of the half-million people 
who suffer strokes each year also de- 
velop aphasia, according to Cheryl 
Goodenough-Trepagnier, associate pro- 
fessor of rehabilitation medicine at 
Tufts. 

Aphasic patients can, however, 
learn to organize symbols into a coher- 
ent order to form thoughts and sentenc- 
es. In the 1970s, patients learned to 
use cards with symbols to express 
their thoughts. Now those symbols 
have been expanded and loaded onto 
an Apple computer, simplifying their 
use. 

Trepagnier's system, called 
NewVic, features hundreds of sym- 
bols — still called cards and decks — 
arranged in categories of people, ac- 
tions, objects, modifiers, and preposi- 
tions. Eight symbols are displayed per 
computer screen. Patients use a 
mouse to select cards, scroll through 
the screens, and move from screen to 
screen. Decks are flexible enough 
that they can be designed to allow 
speed and vocabulary size to match a 
patient's abilities. 

Some people pick up the system al- 
most immediately, while others take a 
few weeks and still do very well with it. 
Although they don't know what the lim- 
its are, Trepagnier says the patients 
most likely to benefit are those who 
take to the system immediately and 
who are functionally impaired. "We're 
just beginning to be able to develop an 
appropriate communication medium 
for people with severe aphasia. The 
big problem is slowness," she says, "be- 
cause people are trying to lay out mes- 
sages through very impaired motor abil- 
ities. I haven't clocked it, but it's faster 
than three words per minute [for pa- 
tients who are fluent with NewVic]. One 
of our major concerns is finding a way 
to communicate at a rate other people 
can tolerate, so users actually get to en- 
gage in conversation." 

Another difficulty is in designing sym- 
bols to match verbs since aphasics of- 
ten have more trouble conceptualizing 
verbs than nouns, Trepagnier current- 
ly uses pictures to suggest verbs but 
wants to develop an approach where 

32 COMPUTE 



patients can animate a figure through- 
out an action, actually setting the imag- 
es in motion. For example, eating an ap- 
ple could be shown by choosing a 
hand, apple, and head; putting the 
hand and apple together; dragging 
them to the head; and clicking a 
mouse key. To say, "The girl is run- 
ning," a user could choose a picture of 
a girl, click the mouse at her feet, and 
move the mouse rapidly across the 
pad. The computer would show it as a 
girl running across the screen. 

Of course, aphasics can only use 
NewVic if they have it with them. Hope- 
fully someday a true portable machine 
with a touchscreen will be available, sim- 
ilar to some of the lightweight portables 
that have surfaced in recent months. 

Trepagnier plans to make her sys- 
tem and basic documentation availa- 
ble to the public this year. It uses the 
NewVic software she developed and 
runs on a Macintosh SE or SE30, or 
any other Macintosh machine with at 
least 512K of RAf^. 

What About Tomorrow? 

Great strides have been made in re- 
cent years to bring the challenges of 



the physically impaired to the forefront 
of the American consciousness. In 
fact, many other products geared to- 
ward the disabled, in addition to the 
ones mentioned in this article, are ac- 
tually on the market now, but most are 
known only within small circles. 

Computer technology promises to 
make life easier for the disabled. Per- 
sonal fulfillment and overcoming stum- 
bling blocks have always been the key 
goals of the personal computer, Now 
the technology that has leveraged our 
productivity and filled our leisure 
hours is helping the silent to speak, the 
blind to see, and the paralyzed to ma- 
nipulate their worlds, and it's enabling 
technicians and research laboratories 
to perform computer-aided miracles. 

Perhaps tomorrow, finding special 
hardware and software for the physi- 
cally challenged will be as simple as 
checking out a disk at the local library 
or heading to the nearest electronics 
store for the latest equipment. □ 

Gail Button is an independent writer specializing 
in science and technology. Her articles have ap- 
peared in Science. Sea Frontiers, The World & I. 
IEEE Software, and other publications. She is 
based in southern Calilornia. 





PRODUa LISTING 


For more information on 


the products discussed in this article, contact the 


manufacturers and publishers at the addresses listed below. 


Software 




Nod Headpo Inter 

$495 

Millennium Stride Computer 


inLARGE 




$95 




1275 Kleppe Ln., Sle. 5 


outSPOKEN 




Sparks, tMV 89431 


$395 




(702) 331-6000 


Berkeley Systems 






1700 SiiattuGk Ave. 




ScanJet Plus 


Berkeley, CA 94709 




$1,595 


(415)540-5536 




Interface Kit 

S595 

Hewlett-Packard Customef Information 


NewVic 




$500 




19310 Prune Ridge Ave. 


Department of Rehabititation Medicine 


Cupertino, CA 95014 


Tufts University Sctiool of Medicine 


(800) 752-0900 


Cheryl Goodenough-Trepagnier, Ph.D. 




75 Kneeland St., 5th Floor 




VPC 2100 Voice Recognition Board 


Boston, IVIA 02111 




$1,800 


(617)956-5036 




Votan 

210 Hammond St, 


OmniPage 2.12 for the Macintosh 


Fremont, CA 94539 


$695 




(415) 490-7600 


Caere 






too Cooper Ct, 






Los Gatos, CA 95030 




Additional Resources 


(408) 395-7000 




IBM National Support Center for 
Persons with Disabilities 


Hardware 




P.O. Box 2150 

Atlanta, GA 30301-2150 


Keyboard Switches 

S60-$150 




(800) 426-2133 


Zygo Industries 




Resource Center for the Handicapped 


P.O. Box 1008 




20150 45lh Ave, NE 


Portland, OR 97207 




Seattle, WA 93155 


(503) 684-6006 




(206) 362-2273 



TEST LAB 



AST PREMIUM 
EXEC 3a6SX/20 

Have you ever loved something 
so much that you were willing to 
overlook its flaws? That's how I 
feel about the AST Premium Ex- 
ec 386SX/20. Despite the prob- 
lems with early production mod- 
els, this is the best overall note- 
book computer I've seen. 

For one thing, it speeds along 
at a full 20 MHz. which is fast 
enough to run most Windows pro- 
grams at a comfortable clip. In ad- 
dition, you can order the Premi- 




um Exec with a 20MB, 40MB. or 
60MB hard drive that's rated an 
impressive 23 milliseconds 
(20MB drive) or even faster 19 mil- 
liseconds (40MB and 60MB 
drives). I'm using the 60MB ver- 
sion, and it's a real joy to have so 
many of my favorite programs 
with me — no matter where I go. 
AST Research has made up- 
gradability a major feature of its 
desktop computers and has car- 
ried that philosophy to its new 
line of notebook computers. You 
can buy the 12-MHz 286 version 
of the Premium Exec notebook 
and upgrade the microprocessor 
later to a 20-MHz 386SX— for not 
much more than the price differ- 
ence between the two machines 
($400 as opposed to S499). 



While the 386SX comes with 
2MB of RAM and the 286 comes 
with 1MB, you can expand the 
memory of either machine to a to- 
tal of SMB. Even though the Pre- 
mium Exec is relatively new, you 
can already buy memory up- 
grades from discount mail-order 
houses at a substantial discount. 
(AST charges $995 for 4MB, 
while one maii-order company 
charges $388 for the same 
amount of memory. As for the note- 
book itself, you can buy the vari- 
ous models by mail order at a dis- 
count of about 20-25 percent.) 

The Premium Exec's LCD 
screen is the sharpest I've seen, 
and its VGA controller, from Cir- 



AST RESEARCH 

16215 Alton Pkwy. 

P.O. BOX196S8 

Irvine, CA 92713-9658 

(800) 876-4278 

(714! 727-9292 

List Price: $2,995 for 20MB; $3,395 

for 40MB; $3,795 for 60MB 
Street Price: $2,337* 

rus Logic, does a great job of 
translating colors into 32 
shades of gray. For 
those times when you 
absolutely must have 
color, you can hook up 
a color VGA monitor 
through the external VGA port. 

In addition to the VGA port and 
the usual parallel and serial 
ports, the Premium Exec includes 
a PS/2 port that lets you add an 
external keyboard, mouse, or nu- 
meric keypad, You can also add 
an internal 2400-baud data mo- 
dem ($249) or an internal 2400- 
baud fax modem ($349). The fax 
modem is send-only (9600 baud) 
and uses the Sierra chip — so it 
works fine with WinFax. Even 
though you can hook up an exter- 
nal keyboard, you'll probably use 
the built-in keyboard most of the 
time. The AST's keyboard stands 
out as one of the best I've seen 
on a notebook computer. It has 
a good feel and a slight audio 
click when you press a key. Un- 



like some other notebook comput- 
ers, this one doesn't make you 
press a special option key to ac- 
cess the Home, End, PageUp, 
and PageDown keys. My only crit- 
icism is that the right Shift and 
Backspace keys are too small. 

As for the case itself, it's solid- 
ly built and looks great. The 
small battery is relatively light- 
weight and easy to remove. The 
screen feels firm when you move 
it into place and locks tight when 
you close it for travel. 

Many notebook computers of- 
fer power-saving features to ex- 
tend the life of the battery. The Pre- 
mium Exec tops them all with 
three ways to save power; pro- 
grammable timeouts that can 
shut down the hard drive and 
LCD screen when they're not be- 
ing used, a suspend/resume 
mode that can shut down the en- 
tire system while preserving your 
data (unfortunately, this feature 
doesn't work with protected- 
mode programs, such as Win- 
dows 3.0), and a BlOS-ievel 
clock-speed control feature that 
can automatically slow down the 
processor when it isn't process- 
ing data or redrawing the 
screen. With the power-saving fea- 
tures switched on, you can ex- 
pect over three hours of battery 
life with each charge. Until note- 
book computers are available 
with Intel's new power-saving 
386SL chip, the Premium Exec is 
the state of the art in power man- 
agement. 

So what were the problems 
with the early production models? 
The screen flickered slightly 
when the Premium Exec was run- 
ning on the battery, and Windows 
programs wouldn't recognize the 
modem, I also couldn t get one of 
the units to recognize the PS/2 
port. All three problems were 
fixed with BIOS updates, so be 
sure to get a BIOS with a version 
number of 1 .06.04 or higher. 

Notebook technology moves 
so fast that a recommendation 

'Test Lab street prices are an average ot 
prices aavertised in computer magazines 
and national newspapers during June. 

33 





















Y 


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) 


^ 




1 

i „ 


L 


f 




1 


1 





"It expanded my horizons, 
without exceeding my budget " 

"With PRODIGY,® there's a panorama 
of information, services, advice, 
and entertainment at my command. 

Hundreds of exciting features, and all for 
just $12.95 a month, •with no online time 
charges. That means I can use PRODIGY 
without worrying that the meter is ruiming. 

"The great graphics and friendly interface are 
real attention-getters. And the menus and 
cross-referencing features make it so easy, 
my whole family's involved. 

"There's so much to tell you about PRODIGY, 
I hardly know where to start. 

"We talk to other members. 

We all love the PRODIGY clubs where 
we exchange information about things 
we eryoy. The computer club is great 
because it keeps me up on the latest 
PC technology My vrife's favorite is the food 
club where she shares recipes and tips. 

^l do more shopping and banking 
in a lot less time. 

I go window-shopping for ideas on PRODIGY 
and make purchases by keyboard instead- 
of by car. And when the bills arrive, no 
problem. With PRODIGY I can pay them 
right from my PC. It would take all 
day to tell you about all the exciting 
things I do on PRODIGY. 

"You gotta get this thing." 

The PRODIGY service, connected to your home 
____,^,^ computer and phone 
:^^ttKBA line, has games, sports 
pj^iry .' information, an encyclo- 
pedia, and much, much 
more. And, it's just $12.95 
amonth,includmg 
30 personal messages.* 

PRODIGY is available for IBM* or compatible, and Macintosh* 
computers. Call 1-800-776-3693, ext: 212, to find out where 
you can purchase a PRODIGY Service Start-up Kit 
now. Or look for PRODIGY already included " 
with many popular computers 

Circle Reader Service NumbefJjSi 





TEST LAB 



can be outdated by the time you 
read a review. Withi thiat disclaim- 
er out of the way, I can safely say 
Ihiat the AST Premium Exec offers 
\he best speed, expandability, 
arid power-management features 
of any notebook computer. And 
all for a very attractive price, 

DAVID ENGLISH 



DELL 320N 



Given a notebook computer's de- 
sign constraints, Dell has done a 
superb job with the 320N. As 
with any laptop, this machine cer- 
tainly makes compromises, but 
eacfi one is well thought out and 
carefully engineered. In almost 
every area, Dell has done a little 
more and gone a little farther to 
make this machine smaller, fast- 
er, and easier to use than the com- 
petition. 

If you look at the dimensions 
and weight of this computer, for 
example, you'll notice that it's 
just a bit smaller and a bit lighter 
than most of the other laptops re- 
viewed here, And if you place the 
320N beside almost any other 
notebook, this machine's sleek 
black body and carefully sculpt- 
ed features will make the other ma- 
chine look clunky. But the 320N 
is much more than just small size 
and high style. 

The standard VGA screen 
(640 X 480) is exceptionally 



bright. When you're looking at 
LCD VGA displays, one of the 
most important features to consid- 
er is the finesse with which the vid- 
eo controller maps colors to gray 
levels. In this respect the Dell is 
exceptional. In Windows' Soli- 
taire, for example, you can tell the 
red cards from the black ones by 
their shading. 

As far as video 
speed goes, this ma- 
chine's scrolling and re- 

DELL COMPUTER 
9505 Arboretum BEvd. 
Austin, TX 78759 
(8001 426-S150 
List Price: $3,399 lor 

40MB; $3,699 lor SOMB 
Street Price: n/a 



400 pixels of vertical resolution in- 
stead of the VGA's possible 480. 
a common compromise in note- 
books. Laptop UltraVision from 
Personics fixed this problem and 
allowed DOS to use the full 480 pix- 
els for a much improved display, 
but I'd prefer that the machine's vid- 
eo controller do this itself. 




fresh rate are quite 

fast. One of the 

best ways to 

judge video 

speed is to 

use a 

mouse in 

graphics 

mode. Most 

LCD displays simply can't keep up 

with the mouse cursor, but the 

320N does a very good job. 

My onty complaint with the 
screen is that it's compressed 
when DOS programs run. This 
happens because the video's ver- 
tical resolution in DOS is actually 




The 320N's keyboard is certain- 
ly a compromise compared with 
most desktop keyboards, but its 
85-key layout is very well thought 
out and offers a 3-mm key travel 
(most notebooks have a shorter 
2-mm key travel). The cursor 



COMPUTE APPLICATION 
INDEXES 

Since the Test Lab section is 
designed to give you the best 
information about how sys- 
tems will perform when you 
take them home or to your of- 
fice, we performed a set of 
tests involving commonly 
used applications. 

The timings indicate how 
long it took a particular com- 
puter to sort a database, per- 
form a search and replace in 
a word processor, and recal- 
culate a spreadsheet. 

—RICHARD C- LEINECKER 



35 



TEST LAB 



keys assume an inverted T forma- 
tion and the Home, PgUp, PgDn, 
and End keys line up along tlie 
right side of the keyboard. None 
require you to press a special Fn 
key to access them. 

There are also 12 function 
keys, which are smaller than the 
other keys. But you don't have to 
press the dreaded Fn key to use 
them. 

The Dell sports a 2O-MH2 
386SX CPU that provided more 
than enough power for everything 
I wanted to do on the road, includ- 
ing running Microsoft Windows in 
386-enhanced mode. 

As for memory, the 320N 
comes with 1fvlB, expandable to 
SMB. The unit I reviev/ed was 
maxed out with the full StvlB, 
which 1 certainly recommend, if 
you can afford it. 

The machine comes with either 
a 30- or 60MB 19-ms IDE hard 
disk. The unit 1 reviewed was 
equipped with a 60, and it siz- 
zled. 1 never felt I was waiting for 
the hard disk, even when using 
virtual memory {using the disk as 
if it were RAf\/l) in Windows. 

The 320N's ni-cad battery 
gave me a bit of a scare. It's sup- 
posed to last for three hours, but 
the low battery light came on af- 
ter about ten minutes of use. The 
machine continued to chug along 
happily, however, for nearly 
three hours. The warning light 
kept me worried, however. 

To help consen/e the battery, 
you can employ several power- 
saving features built into the 
32QN. You can set timeout values 
for the hard disk, the display, and 
the system. In addition, there's a 
convenient standby button that 
places the machine in a special 
battery-saving mode. 

When it comes to talking to the 
outside world, the Dell 320N has 
a full complement of ports. There 
is one serial and one parallel port, 
an external VGA port, and PS/2 
mouse and keyboard ports. An in- 
ternal modem is available as an op- 
tion, 

You've probably gathered that 
I'm enthusiastic about this ma- 

36 COMPUTE 



chine. It's beautifully designed 
and exceptionally fast and pow- 
erful. But is it worth the price'' At 
S3,399 for the standard configu- 
ration, it's not cheap, but if you 
look at similarly equipped compe- 
tition, it's almost a bargain. 

If you're thinking about buying 
a notebook, the next question to 
ask about the 32GN is whether 
you need this much power. If 
you're primarily doing word proc- 
essing, for example, then a note- 
book in the 320N's class is over- 
kill. But you need a powerhouse 
like the 320N if it's your primary 
machine. And for running Win- 
dows, a computer in the 320N's 
league is a must. For state-of-the- 
art computing in a very small pack- 
age, the 320N is a world-class per- 
former that goes the extra mile. 

CLIFTON KARNES 



at 16 MHz, and my review unit 
was packed with 3MB of memo- 
ry. Only the 20MB hard disk left 
me feeling a bit cramped for 
space. 

The two most important parts 
of any laptop, arguably, are the 
screen and the keyboard. These 
are the parts that you have to in- 
teract directly with, and the Grid 
has the best-feeling keyboard 
and the nicest screen I've ever 
used, laptop or desktop. Key- 
board springs are used in the 
Grid to provide excellent tactile 
feedbac[< without annoying click- 
ing sounds. The keyboard spac- 
ing is the same as you'd find on 
a stand-alone PC l<eyboard, so 
your fingers aren't cramped as 
you type. The 12 function keys 
are arrayed across the top of the 




GRID SYSTEMS 

47211 Lakeview Blvd. 

Fremont, CA 94537- 

5003 

(8001 222-GRlD 

(415) 6S6-4700 

List Price: $3,495 lor 

20MB; $3,995 

for 80MS 

Street Price: n/a 



GRID 1720 



Laptops are great, but it's rare 
that you would choose one over 
a comparably equipped desk- 
top computer. That's exactly, how- 
ever, what the Grid 1720 con- 
vinced me to do. Ever since I've 
had my review unit, I've only 
turned on my 386SX desktop to 
play Lexi-Cross. This sleek, 
black, 6.9-pound Grid packs 
enough power to run all but the 
most demanding applications. 
Its 80C2B6 microprocessor runs 



keyboard, and the cursor keys 
are in a standard inverted-T lay- 
out. You can reverse the posi- 
tions of the Ctrl and CapsLock 
keys by simply switching the key 
caps and flipping a switch on the 
bottom of the computer. Only the 
lack of a separate numeric key- 
pad would ever tempt you to 
take advantage of an externa! key- 
board. 

You owe it to your eyes to 
check out the Grid's LCD VGA 
screen. Easier to look at for long 
periods of time than even the 
sharpest Super VGA monitors, 
the Grid's screen produces 



crisp, solid black characters on 
a gray background. Best of all, 
you won't notice any of the ghost- 
ing common to VGA-resolution 
LCD screens. (The monitor was 
noticeably sharper than that of 
Tandy's similar 2810 notebook 
PC.) I felt the desire to use an ex- 
ternal VGA color monitor only 
when I played games, 

The Grid 1720 has most of the 
amenities you'd expect on a mod- 
ern laptop. Along with VGA and 
keyboard ports, it comes with se- 
rial and parallel ports, a 1.44MB 



drain and decreases battery life. 
With 3MB I was able to use the 
1720 for about 3 hours. Remov- 
ing the 2MB of expansion memo- 
ry increased that duration to a lit- 
tie over 3Vi hours. Unless you 
absolutely require 5MB of memo- 
ry, the 3MB-configuration com- 
promise between battery life' and 
performance will serve you well. 
Adding memory or an 80287 
math coprocessor won't cause 
you much trouble — just remove a 
panel from the bottom of the com- 
puter and plug in the SIMMs or 




floppy drive, and an internal 
Hayes-compatible modem, Grid 
chose a 20MB hard disk to save 
space and weight — it's one of the 
new 2'/2-inch models. Despite 
the limited capacity, it's quiet and 
uses very little power compared 
to larger drives. 

Normally I find Windows too 
sluggish on a 286 system, but the 
extra zip provided by the Grid's 
16-MHz clock speed makes all 
the difference. The 3MB of memo- 
ry in the system I tested allowed 
me to set up a large disk cache, 
speeding operations even more. 
Add one of the new clip-on track- 
balls, and you've got a nice, porta- 
ble, no-compromise M//nc/ows sys- 
tem for the road. 

While the 1720 can handle up 
to 5MB of memory, each addition- 
al megabyte increases power 



math chip. 

The Grid has above-average 
power-managennent capabilities. 
The hard drive and screen will au- 
tomatically power down after a us- 
er-selectable period. You can al- 
so selectively disable the speak- 
er, serial port, LCD display, and 
hard drive in order to save pow- 
er. For non-speed-sensitive soft- 
ware applications, such as word 
processing, toggling the system 
down to 8 MHz will extend battery 
life even further. A key combina- 
tion will put the computer in stand- 
by mode, turning off the hard 
disk, LCD, backlight, and floppy 
disk controller. The program in 
memory resumes upon the first 
keypress, 

The concise 97-page owner's 
manual covers all the computer's 
features and provides a brief in- 



troduction to MS-DOS. While oth- 
er computer packages may in- 
clude larger, more detailed man- 
uals, average users will probably 
find all the information that they 
need here. And this manual is 
small enough to slip into your lap- 
top carry case. 

The Grid 1720 is speedy, well- 
constructed, and an ergonomic 
marvel. And it's certainly one of 
the most attractive MS-DOS com- 
puters I've ever used, desktop or 
laptop. Now I understand why NA- 
SA has flown Grid laptops on the 
space shuttle. 

DENNY AiKIN 



HYUNDAI SUPER-LT5 

The Hyundai Super-LT5 makes 
the machines I once toted under 
my arm se(@m terribly limited — 
and wonderfully light, At 11-plus 
pounds, it's a load at the end of 
your arm or on your lap, with a 
bulky AC adapter when you're 
not running it on battery power — 
but then, that's true of any laptop 
in this class. The Super-LT5 is al- 
so a fast, efficient laptop with a 
roomy hard drive, a sharp 
screen, and a nice-size keyboard. 

Weight aside, it's a well-made 
machine with the advantages of 
a desktop model compressed in- 
to a box smaller than a briefcase. 
With a built-in handle and a 
screen that folds down and locks 
readily Into place, the Super-LT5 
is its own case. 

The keyboard, though 
understandably cramped, fea- 
tures full-size, fully responsive 
keys. It's laid out in a familiar man- 
ner, with the function keys ar- 
rayed horizontally along the top. 
The number keyboard overlaps 
some of the letters, meaning that 
it's separated from the familiar 
overlay with the cursor-movement 
keys. Given that the Hyundai Su- 
per-LT5 is a laptop, it's a perfect- 
ly suitable layout, although the 
f^lumLock key's proximity to the 
right Shift, Ctrl, and Alt keys 
caused me to activate it inadver- 
tently more than once. 

37 






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COMPUTER M CE 



MICROSOFT rai«n s« 

MICROSOFT BUS VERSION $104 

MICROSOFT BALLPOINT $129 

MICROSOFT SERWWINDOWS $149 

LOGITECH C9SER-PSn $49 

LOGITECH MOUSEMAN $79 

LOGITECH TRACKMAN SER $J5 

DEXXA MOUSE BT LOGITECH $11! 

LOGITECH CORDLESS JIM 



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LBP8 
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POSTSCRIPT 



PACIHC PAGE FOR HP^ 
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EXECUTIVE NOTEBOOK 
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24O0BD IMTERNAL $149 W,'MN?5 $210 

2400/9400 FAX/MODEM $347 

ETHERNET ADAPTER $295 

LAPLAN TWISTED PAIR 
ETHERNET ADAPTER $199 

REMOTE 5250 EMULATION $499 
REMOTE 3270 EMULATION $499 



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MC SCSI ADAPTER 



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COMPAQ DESKPRO 



TOSHIBA 



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T1100SX,TSI00, T5200 2Mfl $159 

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T3100SXC 4MB $399 

TIOOOSEnCEAJ & nOOOSX /MB $189 

Tl OOOSEOCEM & nOOOSX 2Mfl $249 

TIOOOLEiT2000SX 4Mfl $495 

T3I00SX.T3200SX 4Mfl $447 

T320O 3MB S279 



DESKPRO 384/20/15n0E/2SE & }t4S 

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COMPAQ LAPTOPS 



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4MB EXPANSION BOARD $710 

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IXI-IOONS 

1S6X4-60NS 

156X4-I00NS 

256X4-I20NS 

156XI-30NS 

2S6XI-I00NS 



$5.70 
$5.50 
$S.1S 
$5.50 
$5.25 
$5.00 
$105 
$1.85 



156XI-IJONS 
156XI-ISONS 
44X4- eONS 
i4X4-IOONS 
44X4-I20NS 
t4XI-IOONS 
44XI-I20NS 
44X1- 1 SONS 



$1.40 
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SIHM^IPP MODULES 



$74 

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S3BS 

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4X9-70NS $147.00 256X9-70NS $11.00 

4X9-eONS $230.00 156X9-80NS $19.00 

IX9-7DNS $59.00 256X9-I00NS $17.00 

IX9-80NS $53.00 256X9-I20NS $15.00 
IX9-I00NS $51.00 

SIPPS ADD $3.00 EACH 



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B3D87-I4 


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FIVE YEAR PRODUCT 

WARRANTY GUARANTEE 



UPGRADE TIPS FOR 
PERSONAL COMPUTERS 



I, Max out your motherboard first 
Consult your computer owner's 
manual to find out which kind of chips 
your computer takes. If your manual 
IS not available, count the chip or simm 
sockets and get the part number of the 
existing chips. Then call us. 

1. Ail LIM 4.0 expansion boartk are 
not created equal. Make sure the 
board you wish to purchase can run 
your applications and has the capacity 
you need. 

3, If your short on expansion slots, 
you should consider a board tfiat has 
I/O ports to allow future external 
expansion. 

4, If you plan on upgrading to a 
more powerful computer in the 
future, you may wish to purchase chips 
^ enough so they can be used inyour 
new system when you upgrade at a 
later date. 



800678-8648 5 YEAR WARRANTY ON PARTS 714 258-2818 FAX 



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NO SLRCHARGE ON VISWMASHRCARD. AMEX ADD 4S fURCHASE ORDERS ACCEPTED FROM QUAURED miS IVS, RETOCKiNG FEE ON AJ. NOW)BKTM REOJRNS PRICES SU^Ea TO CHANGE 

Circle Reader Service Number 195 



TEST LAB 



The machine's floppy drive 
and expansion ports are readily 
accessible, as is the mother- 
board. I had no trouble hooking 
up my VGA monitor to get full col- 
or, though the Super-LT5's 
screen proved marvelously well 
lighted, well defined, and easy to 
adjust — just right for my v/riting. 
Brightness and contrast were ad- 
justable via two smoothly sliding 
controls adjacent to the screen, 
a more convenient location than 
I'm accustomed to seeing even 
on full-size desktop monitors. 



bleshooting tips; however, it 
should have an index. 

There are no cables to install 
and no screws to screw, and get- 
ting the machine up and running 
takes no more or less time or ef- 
fort than with a comparable desk- 
top model. Included with the Hyun- 
dai Super-LT5 are DOS disks and 
a reference disk that includes Win- 
dows and OS/2 drivers. 

The Hyundai Super-LT5 has a 
built-in MS-DOS shell program, 
which is a nice feature. It's too 
bad this particular shell program 



HYUNDAI ELECTRONICS 

AMERICA 
166 Baypolnte Phwy. 
M San Jose, CA 95134 
ISOO] 727-6972 
List Price: $3,995 
Street Price: $2,329 

n 




You'll 
find expansion 
jacks around the lap- 
top's sides. Besides the port for 
the external monitor, there are 
ports for a keyboard, a 5%-inch 
floppy disk drive to supplement 
the built-in 3'/s-inch drive, and a 
printer. I tried hooking up my desk- 
top IBfvl-compatible's keyboard 
to the Hyundai Super-LT5, but its 
recessed external keyboard jack 
proved too deep for my angled 
plug. You can, however, plug in 
an internal modem, 

The laptop operates very qui- 
etly, emitting just enough 
squawks to let you know when it's 
reading a disk. I found the inter- 
nal speaker to be adequate, per- 
haps just a little too quiet. 

The user's guide provides 
clear, basic guidance, with a par- 
ticularly helpful chapter of trou- 

40 COMPUTE 



is unnecessarily complicated, re- 
quiring unnatural key combina- 
tions when a simpler menu prob- 
ably would've done the trick. 
Again, it's a nice feature to have; 
it just doesn't make getting 
around in DOS as easy as it 
could. 

Though not astoundingly fast, 
the Hyundai Super-LT5 generally 
works quickly and efficiently In- 
stalling software onto the hard 
drive takes relatively little time. 

The battery for the Hyundai Su- 
per-LT5 takes four to six hours to 
charge and lasts for one to three 
hours. Given the machine's pow- 
er, that seems reasonable, even 
though it would be nice if it could 
hold out longer on a charge. One 
problem I encountered using the 
laptop on both electrical and bat- 
tery power was that after a while 
it got uncomfortably hot under- 



neath, especially when I was us- 
ing it while wearing shorts. 

Fortunately, I never subjected 
the Hyundai Super-LT5 to the 
toughest test I ever gave a laptop 
during my days as a newspaper 
reporter: skidding it across a con- 
crete parking lot after accidental- 
ly tripping in the dark during a 
late-night run for police news. 
Even so, it appears to be a solid- 
ly built, durable tool, capable of 
performing almost as well as a 
pricey desktop computer but with- 
out the usual constraints; it's pow- 
erful and portable. 

EDDIE HUFFMArNJ 

LEADING EDGE 
D/LT3a6SX PLUS 

Nothing makes the time go by on 
a long plane ride like a good lap- 
top, and whether you use yours 
for spreadsheets or Star Control, 
the Leading Edge D/LT386SX 
Plus certainly beats a talkative 
stranger when it comes to air- 
borne companionship. Whatever 
your reason for carrying a laptop, 
you'll v/ant to balance weight, dis- 
play readability, and price 
against its usefulness. A close 
look at this laptop reveals a per- 
plexing mix of fine and somewhat 
below-average features. 

On the plus side, the D/LT 
does run a 16-f\/IHz 386 proces- 
sor, providing the necessary mi- 
cro horsepower to make Win- 
dows run at a usable speed, and 
the 40MB hard drive provides 
more than ample storage space 
for on-the-road applications and 
their data files. The 3y2-inch 
1.44MB floppy drive port faces 
you, so you can keep an eye on 
disk activity. All the standard 
ports — serial, parallel, and PS/2 
mouse — further enhance the D/ 
LT's versatility. For you avid tele- 
communicators, the roomy mo- 
dem bay looks as if it should eas- 
ily accommodate the Leading 
Edge S199 proprietary modem. 
Should you have the chance to 
plug the D/LT into a color moni- 
tor, you won't be disappointed by 



the graphics; this laptop's crisp- 
VGA 640 X 480 pixel output 
does justice to your games as 
well as your chart generators. 

A winner all around, the D/LT's 
keyboard doesn't complicate typ- 
ing by shrinking its keys; they're 
the same size as those of larger, 
stay-at-home machines. While 
the keyboard won't detach from 
the D/LT entirely, it does have the 
surprising ability to sled forward 
away from the rest of the ma- 
chine, putting just enough dis- 
tance between you and the LCD 



There's more to testing the life of 
a laptop battery than turning it 
on and letting the unit run until 
the power gives out. To truly 
test a manufacturer's claim of bat- 
tery-powered operating time, 
you have to lest the battery as 
if it were in normal use. 

Almost all laptops use re- 
chargeable ni-cad {nickel-cadmi- 
um) batteries, with a flat voltage 
discharge. That simply means 
that voltage discharges constant- 
ly until the battery runs dry. For 
example, a six-volt ni-cad bat- 
tery will give a constant six-volt 
discharge up until the moment 
it dies, unlike, say, flashlight bat- 
teries that gradually lose power. 
Ni-cad batteries also operate 
well in low temperatures, unlike 
their acid-based automobile 
counterparts that tend to be slug- 
gish on very cold mornings. 

Our test lab charges the ni- 
cad battery according to the man- 
ufacturer's exact instructions. 
Once the battery is fully 
charged, the laptop is put to 
use, and its between-charge 
lifespan is tested using COM- 
PUTE'S battery-testing program. 
The program monitors the lap- 
top constantly until it completely 
gives out, so the exact power- 
up and power-down times can 
be recorded. 

But there's more to it than 
that. To realistically simulate lap- 



screen for a comfortable working 
relationship at your hotel room 
desk. Well, maybe not quite far 
enough for some; the glare from 
this laptop's 8x6 inch backlit dis- 
play can quickly tire your eyes. 
Compared to many other laptop 
displays, this one's downright fa- 
tiguing. And despite a purported 
antiglare feature, text on the D/ 
LT display, like text on many lap- 
top displays I've looked at, is 
best read in indirect light. The 
brightness and contrast sliders 
do little to improve the situation. 



Also problematic is the screen's 
tendency to fall forward at the 
slightest disturbance and to resist 
proper positioning. Setting the dis- 
play in place often requires mul- 
tipie attempts. Practice patience 
here; the manufacturer warns 
against bending the screen back 
too far. though it remains a con- 
stant temptation. A more effective 
locking and tilting mechanism is 
definitely in order. 

Those traveling computer- 
philes who remember the heyday 
of the KayPro luggable won't 



HOW THE POWER GOES 

top use, our testing program 
runs the laptop disk drive in a se- 
lected duty cycle. For instance, 
in a 40-percent duty cycle, the 
drive runs for four minutes of 
continuous disk access and 
then rests for six minutes. The cy- 
cle is repeated constantly until 
the battery dies. The test pro- 
gram's timer constantiy saves to 
disk, so when the system is boot- 
ed up again after recharging or 
plugging in, the time has been 
recorded for reference. A stop- 
watch serves as backup. 

If a laptop has an automatic 
rest mode or screen blanker, 
someone physically monitors 
the computer, tapping it every 



screen cycle to return the 
screen to normal mode. 

Once the battery dies, the lab 
repeats the test two more times 
in its entirety, beginning with a 
battery recharge. After testing 
each laptop three times, the lab 
uses a spreadsheet to calculate 
mean times for each battery. 

Most batteries are going to 
yield about the same amount of 
running time because they're es- 
sentially the same product — re- 
chargeable ni-cad cells. The re- 
al difference is in how you use 
your laptop, what type of micro- 
chip runs it, and the machine's 
built-in power-saving features. 

—JILL CHAMPION 



Battery Depletion Test 




4 
3 

s - 

X 
1 

o 


1 


1 

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• High Resolution Matrix Printer Output ol 
240X4SO dpi 

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fonts available 

• Emulates Epson, 
IBM & Diablo 

• Large Alphanumeric 
LED display 



«548 







WE ACCEPT.. 



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(213) 328-3344 ■ FAX: (213) 328-2907 • (800) 345-5568 

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IBM PS/2 MEMORY 



HliMil.'ililillllil 



CAT.* 

30FS34S 
30FS3a) 
6450372 
64S0EO1 
6450604 
6450608 
34Fe933 
645037S 
6450379 



DESCRIPnOM NSI 

51 ZKB Upgrade PS/2 30 2S6 44.00 

2MBUpgtai)ePSe302a6 126.00 

2MBMOTwyAd3pteiG4503fi7 395,00 

1MBaMUPS2 70-E81;l21 68.00 

2MB SIMM PS,2 50Z-70 10800 

2MBS!MfJPS,'270-A21 12800 

4MB SIMM PSffiSSSXiBSSX 279,00 

1MB Man, BO PS/2 80^1 96,00 

ZMBMwi. BDP&2Sail1-]21 158.00 



CAT. I - 

6451060 
6450605 

34F3077 



DESCRIPTION 


NSJ 




150 130 


in 


ao 70 


to 


ISO 


12D iQD an 


70 n 


4MBMem.BDPSa80-A2IA31 


293.00 


2Sei8 


15.00 17.00 


19.00 


22.00 




64x1 .90 


S20 ISO 




J-eMB Xpand Mm. PS12 70iS0 


348.00 


2S&<9 


t7.C0 19.00 


21.00 


24.00 




E4x4 


200 2.15 2M 




IV/2MB 




IMBxS 




5050 


51.00 60.00 


65.00 


K6)(1 I2S 


).40 1.60 1£5 


210 


2-UMBXpand BO, PSffi 70480 


388.00 


IMSxQ 




53.50 


54.95 65,00 


68.00 


2S6rf 


5.35 5.70 6.00 


675 7J0 


«/2MB 




iMm 






259.00279.00 


309.00 


1MBx1 


5.45 5.65 


6i0 7iO 


2-14MBXpandaD.PSffi50-65SX 
W/2MB 


388.00 


4M9I9 






279.00 2G9.00 


299.00 









CNlL for PS/i MEMORY 



LASER PRINTER MEMORY 



CAT.t DESCRIPTION HS1 

107331-001 512KB Upgrade Pdbble III 38.00 

I07J32-001 2MB Uporads PofteKe III 118.00 

107651JM1 tUBModJePcrlayeSeS 218.00 

107653-001 4UeXpandMaii.Po<tk]le3ee 630.00 

107654401 4MBMmn.XlansonPortablo386 630.00 

lOeoeMCI tMBXpaidM«nofyDP3a6-16 288.00 

106070001 4UBXpaidM«iiayDPi56-16 630.00 

108071-001 1WBMomMyUp9iadoDP386-1G (08.00 

108072-00) 4MB Mmwy UpQiade DP3S6-1 6 438.00 

110235O01 IMG Memory BD 31 286 leaOO 

110257.CO( 4M6Wotoo'B0S11286 630.00 

I12S34«)I 4MBMj)dj6DPJ66S-16 298.M 

111131-001 1MB Module DP3effifl6E. 386 2ft25E 96.00 

111132-001 4MBModul8DP26c6£,3S620-25£ 228.00 

111831-001 1MBXpwdM«ii.DP386S-ie 148.00 

111634«)t 4MBXpandM«n.DP386S.16 358.00 



CATt 

113644^1 

11364WM1 

1I3«4»»1 

115144-001 

116561-001 

1l65eS{(l1 

117077-001 

117081-001 

1I7M1-0O2 

1ia304JM1 

118304001 

118305001 

11868M01 

116689001 

116690001 

118700001 



DESCRIPTION 

1MB Xpand Mem. DP3SS 20E. 25£ 



NSI 

148.01 
4MBXpandM«ii. DP3e6 20e.25E 358.00 
1MB Module DP386S-16 ItO.CO 

1MB Module DP136-33,48G-25. SysprolSO.OO 
SMB ModJs 456-25, Syjpio 899.00 

32ME tAjdUo ClP4e6-25, Sraxo 4.990.00 
5l2KBMiim. BDPwtaHoLTE 
1MB Man. BO Putable LTE266 
2MB Manory BO PcrUfcl« LTE 286 
1MB Module tec SLTn86 
2MB Module (a SI.Tn86 
4MB Module (a SIT/1S6 
1MB Module 0P288N,368N 
2MB Module DP388N. 3363-20 
4MB Modie DP2e8N. K6N. 3865-20 396.00 
0-4MB Eip-BD DP286N, 3e6N 1 08.00 



1l9.m 
99.00 
156.00 
174.00 
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Ctll 

m34748 IMB 

H33475e 2MB 

H33477B 4MB 

K33443B IMB 

H33444B 2MB 

H3344Se 4M6 

EP1000 1MB 

EP2000 2MB 

EP4000 4WB 

T11000 1MB 

TB1000 1MB 

TB2000 2MB 

TB3000 3MB 

TB4000 4MB 



WORKS WITH 

HPUMfJ«IlP,lll,IIID 
HPLaswJstllP.IIUIID 
HPUs«Je(llP,lll,IIID 
HPUserJetlltllD 
HaawJelllillB 
HfT.»«rJelll4)ID 
Epson EPL-6<X)0 
Epson EPI.-60QD 
Epson EPL-axX) 
Texas kis^unent 
l^oUserPS 
Tofihiba Page Ustf 8 
TceHa Page User 6 
Tofihte Page U^er 6 
Tosliiba Page Laser G 



»Sf 
99-SS 
13955 
214.95 

m.m 

13995 
214.ft5 
129.00 
169.00 
249.00 
129.CO 

118.00 
164.00 
208.00 
248.00 



Ctll 

1039136 1MB 

1039137 2MB 
1038675 3.5MB 
M600S 1MB 
MeOOe 4MB 
SS3-1300 1MB 
SS3.1SeO 2MB 
N/A 4MB 
PA1000 IMB 

PA2000 2MB 

PA3000 3MB 

PA4000 4MB 



WORKS wrm nsi 

IBMLa!a4019:4019E 129.00 
IBM Laser 4019:14O19E 169.00 
IBM Laser 401 %4019E 229.00 
Apple LaserWriter llfrnx 85.00 
Apple LaserWriter IWD(319.O0 
Ca™LBP.Efl 119.00 

Ca»nLBP-6ll 189.00 

Canon LBP-6II 269.00 

PanasorW:iO(P4420; 118.00 
K)(P445a 

Paiusorio KXP4420; 164,00 
KXP44S0i 

PanasorkKXP«20; 
IO<P44SOi 

PaiBsoric KXP4420; 
KXP4450i 



208.00 
248.00 



TOSHIRA MEMORY 



NEC MEMORY 



CAT.I 

PC6-PA7I371I 
PC7-PA8301U 
PC8-PA8302tJ 
PC9-PAS340U 
PC9-PA8341U 
PC10-PAe304U 

PC12-PA8307U 



DESCRIPTION NSI 

3MB Mem Card Potable T3200 228.00 

2MB Mem Card Potable T51 00 188.00 

2MB MemCard Pot^e Tl SX) )62.00 

512K Man Card PortibleT3100E 120.00 

2MB Hera Card Potable TllOOe 168,00 

2MB Mem Card Pot^kile 168.00 
TS200 Toshba Osstto T8500 

2MB Mam Card PorUUeT3200SX 168.W 



CAT. I DESCRIPTION NSI 

PC12-PA8309U 4Ma Man. Card Portable TSJOOSX 389.00 

PC14PA8306U2Ha Hem Card Portable T1200XE 168.00 

PC14-PAe311U1HBHaTiCardPortabto 218.00 

T1000SE:TlOOOXE 

PC14PA8312U2HB Mem Card Portable 276.00 

TlOOOSEiTIDOOXE 

PC15^A8306U 2MB Mem Card Portable 162.00 

T3100SX 



Call 

APCH655X 
APCH656X 

APCH657X 

APCH850E 

APCHe52E 



DESCRIPTION NSI 

2MBMo<fPowomate388^ 458.00 

SMB Eipanson Board 1,1 90.00 

Powermale 386)25 

1MB Bffi» Board 1,250.00 

Powermale 38&2S 

IMBExpoisonSoafd 24000 

Powermale SX Plus 

4MB Eipaiskm Board 690,00 

Powermale SX Bus 



Call DESCRIPTIDN KSI 

PC21.21 1 MB CD ProSoeed 286^868X245,00 

PC2t-22 4MB CD ProSpeed 286386SX 569.00 

PC21-26 2MB CD ProSpeed 2S6;386SX 309.00 

PC31-21 2MB CD ProSpeed 386 319.00 

PC31-22 8MBCDProS{»ed386 1,190.00 

KrN2000 2MB Expulsion Board 440.00 

/SX powermale SX Plus 

KTtBOOO SMS Btpxiam Board 1,190.00 

/SX PowermateSXRus 



AST MEMORY 



HP MEMORY 



CAT. I 

5«S10001 
500SIOO02 



600510003 
500510004 



500610007 
500510008 



500510010 



DESCRIPTION NS) 

512KUp^dKjlPiem286FASTRAM 39.00 

2MB Upjrd Kil Prom WS 386SX; 1 18,00 

WS 268; Bravo 286 j 366SX; Rampage 

flus 286; Admlj Piem S/2; Ram Admlg; 

Advantage 

1 MB Upgrd Kit Premiura 186 98,00 

4MB UpgtdKlPrwn 386. Rampage 31O00 

Hu3/MC:Advntg 288 1386 

1 MB Up7d Kit Pran 386C: 3S6n 6 85,00 

4MB upgrd Kit Piem 3860; 366/1 6 23000 

Advanced FASTRAM; FAStboard 386 

51 2K Upgrd Kit Pr6mWS38eSXi 39,M 

WS 286: Btavo 2S6, Rampage « 286 



CATt 
SCW10011 
500709«I1 
500709001 
50071 8O01 
50071 M02 



500718004 
500760001 
S00818OO4 

ASrSX20 



DESCRIPTION 

128K Upgrd Kit Bravo 288 

512K Upgrd Kit Advn 12; Rampage PC 

512K Upgrd Kit RmpageRirsflUC 

1 MB Mod, Pran 38625 8 3e6SX/16 

1 MB Mod, Prem 388(33 -25; SX/1 6; 

486/33;25T; 2SrE; 25, 25£; 

Adapter Board 500722-004 

2MB Upgid Kit Prem 488 Series 

tMBKt Prem 486 Series 

1-16MB Exp Bd Prem 1S&25J1; 

Pie!n486's 

lMBMalPremll386SX/20 



NSI 
40.00 
40.00 
40.00 
65,00 
75.00 



186.00 
870.x 
450.00 

84.00 



CaL I DESCRIPTION NSI 

D13S4A 2MBUp-KilVec»aO£'16S 114.00 

4ES12PC 
01640A IMBUp-KitVECTRA 62.00 

OSiZOPC; RS25PC S 20C 
D1642A IMBUp-KilVECTRA 234.00 

Q3i20PC;RS25PC*20C 



Call DESCRIPTION NSI 

D154aA IMBUp-KJlVECTTUkOS/ieS 6200 
DI540A iMBUp-KKVECTRAQSneS 62.M 
D2150A1MBModVECTRA<S6PC 78.00 

D2l51A4MBModVECTflA486PC 26^00 
Det52A SMB Hod VECTRA386®;486PC 900.00 
D2381A2M8 Hod VECTTU 388/25 PC 144.00 



IAIJ,',lil:yi:lil:l;likl;I.MirTTMmi 



ZENITH MEMORY 


CAT.I 


DESCfllPnON NSI 


CAT.I DESCRIPTION 


NSI 


ZA160*l 


2MB CardSuper Sport SX;2B6E 240.00 


ZA3034ME2 4MB Card Turbo Sporl 3a6E 


590.00 


ZAieM6 


1 MB Cad Super Spot 286: 288£ 160,00 


ZA3eO0ME lMBMod,Z-386/20-25-33-33E 


79.00 


ZA1B0-B6 


2MB Card Super SporlSX (ALPHA) 240.00 


ZA36Q0MG 2MGMod,Z-38&!0-25-33 


13000 


ZAieO-87 


2MB Csd Super SpoitSX (BETA) 240.00 


ZA3e00ME 1 MB Mod, Z-38S20-25-13-33E 


79.00 


ZA1034ME 


IMB Card Turbo Sport 386E 199.00 


ZA3800MK 4MB Mod. Z-38t20-2S-33-33E 


288.00 


2A1C34ME2 


4HB Card Tirto Sport 386E 590.00 







BOCAR A M/XT-Provides up to 2MB o( 
aparxied rT«moy to 8 bit bus. Operates up b 1 2 
MHz. U5e5 2S6Kb-fiAM-wili OK „.,,... St20.CC 

wi1h512)( 139.00 

«n1h2HB 219.00 

BOCARAMfAT PLUS-Prov,desupio 
6MB ot aidenied. exparKted or badrfil memoy. 
Opaates up to 33MK2 and is sset Uyu soltware. 

Uses 256K D.RAM-i«ilt OK $1 19.00 

*ith2Ma 219.00 

BOCARAWAT-l/0 PLUS-Pio«d9sup 

Id 4M8 o( XlBided, Xpanded o baddil itemay. 

For 16 bit bus. Opaaiss up b 33 MH: arid is set 

tiru software, has saiai and parelEe/ port Uses 

IMBD-RAM- 

witiOK t149.IM 

»rlh2MB 249.00 



BOCARAM 30-Provides up lo 2Me of 
a^unded memory lor IBM PS/2 model £5, 30 and 
8l]|bu$ uliiaig 3.5* lloppy dislis. Uses 2S6K D- 

RAM- wiDi OK (1 59.00 

witti 2MB 249.00 

BOCARAM S0/60-Provid«suptii4UB 

BMpaiKled, extended o baddfll monorv fo f^S2 

model 50, 60. Uses 1 MB D-RAH- 

wil!i OK $149.00 

wilh 2MB 249.00 

*ilh4Mfl 349.00 

BOCARAM SOZ-Protides up lo 2M6, 
waKsbte, aqwided or extended mnnory fo 
ISM, PS/2 modd 50, SOZ, 60. Uses 1 1 H8 D- 
RAM- 

srithOK $129.00 

with 2MB 229.00 



Calaloa/manufycturer's part numbers are for your convenience. Alt products are 3rd party manufactured. 100% Compatible. 
ALL MEMORY PRODUCTS COME WITH 5 YEAR UNCONDITIONAL WARRANTY. CALL FOR QUANTITY PRICES. 



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AMERICAN 
EXPRESS 



Cirde Reader Service Number 147 






TEST LAB 




much mind carrying the hefty D/ 
LT for short distances. After all, 
this computer's 13 pounds 
doesn't compare to the weight 
and bulk of most earlier porta- 
bles. More contemporary users, 
though, might not want the bur- 
den of this much weight, espe- 
cially in this age of 386 note- 
books. The D/LT thankfully bal- 
ances on its edge quite well. 
Even if the D/LT should fall over, 
I wouldn't worry much about dam- 
age — this machine's case could 
stop bullets. 

This laptop doesn't spare you 
the cold reality of mysterious bat- 
tery charges. You should expect 
about two hours of use per full re- 
charge of the ni-cad battery Ex- 
pect less if you access your hard 
drive and floppy frequently Lead- 
ing Edge has built in some fea- 
tures to help you conserve pow- 
er and keep track of the D/LT's bat- 
tery life, Left unattended, the D/ 
LT dims its screen to conserve 
power. A battery check light flash- 
es when power's low, and if you 
don't soon save and shut down, 
you might damage your hard 
drive and will certainly lose your 
work. 

Alarm software, such as Bat- 
tery Watch, warns you when bat- 
tery failure will occur, but you'll 
need to buy such software sepa- 

44 COMPUTE 



LEADING EDGE PRODUCTS 
117 Flanders Rd. 
Westborough, MA 01581 
1800) 874-3340 
List Price: $2,198.00 tor 40MB; 

$2,599.00 for lOOMfl 
Street Price: $1,846.33 



rately The D/LT comes bundled 
with DOS 4.01, Windows3.0, 

and Microsoft Works. 

You might think that 

a laptop with a VGA 

- — — port makes the perfect 

go-between for home 

computing and comput- 
ing in your hotel room, but think 
again. Most laptops just don't of- 
fer the expandability that full-size 
PCs do, and even the larger-than- 
average D/LT won't adequately 
serve as a substitute. With a 2MB 
RAM limit and no card slots, the 
D/LT won't replace your versatile 
desktop PC. And for true portabil- 
ity, you'll want to try the Leading 
Edge NB 300S notebook comput- 
er. The standard unit packs less 
RAM and hard drive space than 
the D/LT, but its reduced weight 
and increased operating time per 
battery charge probably bring it 
closer to your idea of what con- 
stitutes a laptop these days. At on- 
ly about $400 more than its larg- 
er cousin, the notebook warrants 
a frequent traveler's attention. 

So, who needs the D/LT? Well, 
for shoppers who appreciate a 
bargain, the D/LT could turn out 
to be a surprise hit. To compete 
with other manufacturers in this 
market of increasingly smaller 
and lighter portable computers. 
Leading Edge lowered the sug- 
gested retail price of the D/LT lap- 
top by about $1,000. Any further 
price cuts could carve out quite 
a niche for this machine, especial- 
ly with computer users who travel 
only from time to time but want to 
make sure they can work out of 
town if they need to. 

DAVID SEARS 



PANASONIC 
CF-270 BUSINESS 
PARTNER 

Can a seven-pound notebook 
computer measure up to the 
needs of someone accustomed 
to using a well-equipped desktop 
machine? Panasonic's CF-270 
Business Partner comes mighty 
close and offers many of the im- 
portant features that we've now 
come to expect in notebook com- 
puters. 

At a mere seven pounds, the 
CF-270 is a lightweight whose ap- 
proximate dimensions are 12 inch- 
es by 10 inches by 2 inches- 
small enough to fit into most at- 
tache cases. The CF-270 com- 
pares well with other notebooks 
currently available, offering a 16- 
MHz 80C286 CPU, 20MB hard 
drive, 1.44MB SVg-inch floppy 
drive, 640 x 480 backlit black- 
and-white LCD display with 16- 
leve! gray-scale VGA, and 1MB 
standard memory (expandable to 
5MB), 

The CF-270 comes with two 
3V2-inch floppies, which include 
everything you would expect, in- 
cluding MS-DOS 4.01 and GW- 
BASIC. The floppies also include 
some programs that add impor- 
tant features; a setup program, a 
power-management program, 
FDISK to set up the hard drive, 
and a diagnostic program that 
tests each component of the sys- 
tem. 

How long the battery holds a 
charge and how long it takes to 
recharge can often be the deter- 
mining factors when you're decid- 
ing which notebook to purchase. 
The CF-270 comes equipped 
with a quick-charge battery that 
will fully recharge in about two 
hours when the computer is 
turned off and in four hours if you 
use the computer while charging. 
The battery charge lasts about 
two hours but will vary depending 
on how often the drives are ac- 
cessed and which power-conser- 
vation options you've selected. 



The CF-270 software (called 
Power Management Setup Utility) 
allows you to select power-reduc- 
ing options including slowing or 
shutting off tfie CPU when the 
computer is not busy, turning off 
the hard drive motor when it's not 
in use, placing the floppy drive on 
standby, and automatically turn- 
ing off the screen or the entire 
unit if there's no keyboard input 
after a certain time interval. Each 
of the power-saving features op- 
erates only when the CF-270 is run- 
ning on battery power. 

Using the Power Management 
Setup Utility is simple enough. 
The manual briefly explains each 
of the options, and the utility in- 
cludes online help screens — a 
handy convenience, especially if 
you want to change an option at 
31,000 feet and haven't brought 
the manual. 

I set the system to maximum 
power savings and found that the 
system functioned satisfactorily. 
The only time I could detect a slow- 
down in performance was when 
I accessed the hard drive after 
the motor had shut off. Usually 
the delay was only a few seconds 
while the drive got up to speed 
again, a small price to pay to ex- 
tend the life of a battery charge. 

I especially liked the keyboard 
and its layout; a touch typist 
would have little trouble adjust- 
ing. If you're a heavy spread- 
sheet user, you'll enjoy being 
able to convert the keyboard to a 
numeric keypad. Although not as 
convenient as a separate key- 
pad, this compromise proves 
quite workable. 

The CF-270 comes with sever- 
al external ports and jacks. With 
the serial and parallel ports, you 
can connect to your favorite print- 
er, external modem, or serial 
mouse. And with its VGA port and 
keyboard jack, you can use your 
CF-270 as if it were a desktop com- 
puter. 

The CF-270 comes with sever- 
al manuals. Less than 100 pages 
long, the basic User's Guide cov- 
ers all the basics clearly and 
concisely. Also included are a 



PANASONIC 
COMMUNICATIONS & 
SYSTEMS 
otiice Automation 

Group 
TWO Panasonic Way 
Secaucus, NJ 07094 
(800) 742-8086 
List Price: $2,299.00 

(or 20MB, 

$2,799.00 (or 

60MB 
Street Price: 

$1,995.33 



very short Getting Started Guide, 
a User's Reference Guide, an MS- 
DOS Shell User's Guide, and a 
Quick Reference Guide to MS- 
DOS and GW-BASIC. Anyone 
with any experience with MS- 
DOS computers should find this 
documentation satisfactory, albe- 
it a bit skimpy. If you've never set 
up a new system before, you 
might find the process a bit intim- 
idating, as you would with most 
computers. And if you have lim- 
ited experience with DOS, you'll 
not learn much from these 
guides. 

Panasonic has designed a re- 
spectable notebook computer 
that includes most of the features 
we've come to expect. If you're in 
the market for a small, lightweight 




computer that will fit easily into 
your carry-on luggage and on an 
airplane's table tray, you would 
do well to consider the Panason- 
ic CF-270 Business Partner. 

STEPHEN LEVY 

SHARP PC-6220 

Sharp's PC-6220 is a compact 
and, on the whole, well-designed 
computer for its small size {11 x 
8x 1 .5 inches). This 80C2e6 note- 
book computer runs at 12MHz 
and comes equipped with a full 
megabyte of memory. Its durable 
exterior and light weight (4.4 
pounds without the optional flop- 
py drive) should make this ma- 
chine an attractive option in the 
world of portable computing. 



THE POWER-SAVING SL CHIP 



Intel has introduced a new 20- 
MHz SL chip, exclusively for lap- 
tops, that's supposed to add sig- 
nificant power-saving features. 
Zenith claims its MastersPort 
386SL (currently the only laptop 
with an SL chip) will preserve an 
application for two weeks and 
then resume at the push of a but- 
ton. 

Since most of the recent lap- 
tops carry the SX chip — and 
will for some time to come — 
your best bet for extended lap- 
top battery use is to buy a lap- 



top with an array of power-sav- 
ing features. An automatic 
screen timeout blanks the 
screen after a period of time 
passes without mouse or key- 
board input, a sleep or rest 
mode will actually slow down 
the computer's processing time 
while the machine is still running 
but not in use, and standby 
mode is designed to conserve 
power while allowing instant ac- 
cess to what you were working 
on with the press of a key. 

— j;ll champion 



45 



TEST LAB 



Frequent travelers will appre- 
ciate riot having to carry around 
any more pounds than neces- 
sary, Once you've loaded your 
hard drive with the software you 
use, you don't really need to lug 
the optional 3'/2-inch plug-in flop- 
py drive. If you don't care to in- 
vest in the external drive, a ROM 
version of Traveling Software's 
LapLink software and the sup- 
plied cables will let you make 
transfers between this notebook 
and your desktop computer. Lap- 
L/n/f works fine, though, and in no 
time f was transferring my favor- 
ite word processor, graphics, en- 
tertainment, and other software to 
the 6220's hard drive. 

The system's port covers must 
be detached and stand a good 
chance of getting lost (a storage 
hatch for these little guys would 
be a nice feature). And the 
screen/cover is stiff and difficult 
to place at just the right angle, It 
would've helped if a demonstra- 
tion program or at least some mod- 
est utilities had been included ei- 
ther in ROU or on the 20MB hard 
drive. When you consider the pow- 
er that has been packed into 
such a small package, however, 
a lot can be forgiven. 

Though the 6220 is as power- 
ful as a desktop AT, it shares 
with many other notebooks the lim- 
itations of a 20MB hard drive. 
There are limitations on the num- 
ber of powerful applications you 
can use. For instance, Microsoft 
C6.0 with all the associated utili- 
ties takes up at least 3MB of stor- 
age, as does GeoWorks Ensem- 
ble, while WordPerfect 5A and 
Windows 3,0 take at least 6MB 
each. 

An informal test of processing 
speed, using a few of my own cal- 
culation-intensive routines and 
comparing completion time with 
the completion time on other AT- 
compatibles, showed that the 
6220 compared remarkably well. 
If you add a coprocessor in the 
notebook's 80C287 socket, you 
can expect even better perform- 
ance. You have the option of in- 
creasing the system menriory, 

46 COMPUTE 



which will also boost perform- 
ance. Memory can be increased 
to two or three megabytes 
through the purchase of optional 
1MB RAM cards. 

You can set the liquid crystal 
display for CGA, EGA, and MDA 
emulation, as well as the default 
VGA. And a Hercules option ex- 
ists for an external monitor. The 
6220 does a pretty good job of dis- 
playing graphic images in 16 
shades of gray. 1 tested several 
compatible images with the 



SHARP ELECTROHICS 
Sharp Plaza 

Mahwah, NJ 07430-2135 
(800) 237-4277 
List Price; $3,199.00 
Street Price: $1,987.32 



same resolution and 
found reasonable faithful- 
ness. The next test in- 
volved running a few 
graphic-intensive 
games. Games, as 
programmers 
and game play- 
ers were early ^^^ 
to discover, ^^r 
challenge comput- ''" 
er abilities like no oth- 
er software. In fact, the 
games I tried worked surprising- 
ly well. The persistent problem 
with any LCD screen continues to 
be the slow liquid crystal re- 
sponse times — if the image on 
the screen is changing rapidly, 
there's a blurred, shadowy effect 
because liquid crystals, rather 
than being strictly on or off, show 
an obvious range of activation. 
An optional adapter for CRT out- 
put, to either a multisync or VGA 
monitor, makes the 6220 more 
convenient for desktop use. The 
same is true of the separately 
sold numeric keypad and expan- 
sion unit. The expansion box will 
provide power and peripheral con- 
nectivity while furnishing two ex- 
pansion slots. 

The nickel-cadmium battery 



supplied with the 6220, after its 
initial two-hour charge and with on- 
ly limited hard drive access, 
goes for about an hour and a half 
before a warning beeper informs 
you that there's only about ten min- 
utes of power remaining. If you 
don't save what must be saved 
within that ten minutes, it will be 
lost. The AC adapter, included, ei- 
ther doesn't recharge the battery 
when the computer is being 
used or does so very slowly Ei- 
ther way, if you need to get 
the 6220 back on the 




road 
again soon 
you must switch it off and wait for 
the battery to recharge. An option- 
al battery pack, which plugs into 
the back of the unit, is available, 
and according to the manufactur- 
er, It will extend battery-usage 
time an additional three hours. 

I also experienced difficulty in- 
stalling the battery pack, a prob- 
lem which I attribute to the ma- 
chine's overall compact design — 
sometimes a little extra space is 
welcome. Because the battery 
slot is barely larger than the bat- 
tery, the connector wires can eas- 
ily get in the way during battery 
insertion. I worked and worked to 



get the battery pack neatly seat- 
ed without deforming the case or 
mashing the wires; every possi- 
ble permutation was (gingerly) 
tried. At last I had the battery and 
the wires in place, but the battery 
cover remained misshapen on 
the underside of the unit through- 
out the review process. 

Except for its hefty price tag, 
I would not hesitate to recom- 
mend Sharp's PC-6220 note- 
book computer. In two weeks of 
heavy use, it performed flawless- 
ly. And what liberty when your 
AT is no more difficult to lug 
about than a common book! 

BRUCE M, BOWDEN 




VGA COLOR FOR LAPTOPS 



What's next for the laptop comput- 
er? Just a few years ago, color dis- 
plays for portables seemed wish- 
ful thinking, but with the Sharp Col- 
orstar, wishes can come true. No 
washed-out gray-scale images 
here; this machine delivers a stun- 
ning 256 vivid VGA colors, cho- 
sen from a palette of 262,144 pos- 
sible hues, Combine brilliant col- 
or generation with the inherent 
sharpness that comes with small- 
er screens, and you have a re- 
markable picture, whatever you 
choose to display 

Using Sharp's innovative thin- 
film transistor (TFT) active-matrix 
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) tech- 
nology, the Colorstar stands 
head and shoulders above the 
competition in terms of visual im- 
pact. Each pixel has its own sili- 
con thin-film transistor to allov/ pre- 
cise color control. Not surprising- 
ly, color LCDs aren't easy to pro- 
duce; even a single pixel error 
stands out, so production stan- 
dards call for perfection, not ap- 
proxinaation. In part because of 
this difficulty, the Colorstar will in- 
itially sell for $10,000 to $15,000, 
but you can expect prices to fall 
as burgeoning consumer de- 
mand for color LCD microtel- 
e visions encourages the improve- 



ment of factory methods. 

The Colorstar comes with a 20- 
iVlHz 386DX processor, 2MB RAM 
(expandable to 10MB), a 1.44MB 
floppy drive, and a 100MB hard 
drive. Want expandability? The Col- 
orstar has a half-size expansion 
slot (AT-bus, for networking, 
among other things), the standard 
parallel port, two RS-232C ports, 
a keypad port, and a CRT output. 
And best of all, the Colorstar 




coutd have been a set piece for an 
episode of "The Jetsons." Sleek, 
ergonomic, and the very picture of 
high-tech, the Colorstar should 
turn heads on the basis of its style 
alone. And while this high-end ma- 
chine may not wind up in your 
stocking this Christmas, move it up 
your wish list anyway 

-^AVID SEARS 



TANDY 2810 HD 

Versatile and packed with fea- 
tures, the Tandy 2810 HD laptop 
computer offers enough features 
to meet most of your computing 
needs, even if you're accus- 
tomed to working with a desktop. 
You get 1MB of RAM (expanda- 
ble to 5MB), a 20MB hard drive, 
and a 3y2-inch 1.44MB floppy 
drive. The computer operates at 
16 MHz and has a socket for an 
optional math coprocessor, 

The 2810's 84-key keyboard 
has full 101 -key emulation and al- 
lows for some customization. If 
you don't like where the Ctrl and 
CapsLock keys are located, you 
have the option of physically re- 
versing their positions. Smartly 
laid out, the keys have a good sol- 
id feel to them. 

Other keys on the 2810 initiate 
battery power conservation. 
These place the computer in 
standby mode, toggle the speed 
between 16 MHz and 8 MHz, dis- 
able the speaker, switch from the 
internal screen to an external mon- 
itor, turn off the serial ports, and 
more. 

In most working environments, 
I never noticed the small amount 
of noise generated by the 2810's 
disk drive. On the rare occasions 
I was able to use the laptop at 
home in my library-quiet den, I 
found the noise distracting. No 

47 



TEST LAB 




TANDY 

1800 One Tanity Center 
FL Worth, TX 76102 
(817) 390-3300 
List Price: $2,499 
Street Price: n/a 



problem; press a key, and the 
drive shuts off until needed. You 
can also configure the computer 
to shut off the drive and/or dis- 
play after a certain period of in- 
activity. This saves battery pow- 
er, too. 

The 2810 warns you when the 
batteries need recharging, giving 
you ample time to save any work 
in progress. If they should fail 
while you're working, however, 
the Resume feature remembers 
what's in memory when the ma- 



NORTON INDEXES 

The Norton computing, disk, 
and overall indexes show you 
how well a computer performs 
when compared to a 4.77- 
MHz XT (the original IBM PC). 
In the Norton index, such an 
XT has a value of 1 .0. If a com- 
puter is twice as fast, it will 
have a value of 2.0. The great- 
er the index value, the faster 
the computer — and the faster 
your applications will run. 

The CPU (Central Process- 
ing Unit) speed test rates the 
computer's microprocessor 
performance. The disk index 
rates the performance of a sys- 
tem's hard drive. The overall 
performance index factors in 
the CPU and disk indexes 
among other things. 

-RICHAflD C. LEINECKER 



48 COMPUTE 



chine runs out of power. When 
you turn the power on again, the 
program reappears, and you con- 
tinue where you left off. 

To add a printer and a mouse 
to the 2810, just plug the appro- 
priate cables into the computer's 
parallel and sehal ports. You can 
just as easily connect a VGA mon- 
itor and a full-size external key- 
board via the built-in monitor and 
keyboard ports. This makes the 
2810 a convenient backup for 
your desktop computer 

The 2810's VGA LCD screen 
with fluorescent backlighting has 
a three-position brightness 
switch and a sliding contrast con- 
trol bar allowing for readability in 
a wide range of lighting condi- 
tions. A key combination lets you 
further vary the contrast of char- 
acters and background; you can 
even reverse the display entirely. 



As with all Tandy computers, 
the 2810 comes equipped with 
the DeskMate graphics-oriented 
interface and application soft- 
ware. These applications include 
a word processor, drawing pro- 
gram, spreadsheet, calendar, ad- 
dress book, filer, and telecommu- 
nications program, 

Other manuals should emulate 
Tandy's User's Guide. Written for 
the 2810. it isn't meant to cover 
57 other models or configura- 
tions. The introduction guides 
you through the basics, explains 
the different keys and setup op- 
tions, and explains many useful 
MS-DOS commands. A separate 
manual guides you through Desk- 
Mate and its applications. 

Setting up a new computer is 
always challenging, but Tandy's 
manual removes much of the con- 
fusion that comes from working 
with a new system. The manual ex- 
plains the different parameters 
and what they do; then it explains 
your options. For example, the 
time and date functions are fairly 
simple to understand, but do you 
know if you want to enable or dis- 
able the serial ports, FDC Stand- 
by, Standby Timeout, or VRAM 
Timeout? After a quick glance 
through the slim but thorough man- 
ual, you'll have no doubt about 
what these functions do and how 
you want them configured. 

Adding extra memory cards 
and allocating memory are also 




carefully explained. The 2810 has 
1MB installed with 640K of con- 
ventional memory and 384K of ex- 
tended or shadow RAM. Availa- 
ble slots leave room for an addi- 
tional 4MB of RAM. Depending 
on the requirements of the oper- 
ating system and the software 
you run, you can configure addi- 



2000 notebook just may be your 
ticket. 

It's an amazingly small 286 note- 
book computer, measuring only 
11 inches wide x 8.5 inches 
deep X 1.4 inches thick and 
weighing in at a meager 4.4 
pounds. It comes standard with 
1MB of RAM, a 20MB hard disk. 




tional memory either as expand- 
ed or extended. Some configura- 
tions require minimum allocations 
for shadow RAM and a software 
driver installed in a CONFIG.SYS 
file. Once again, you1l find this in- 
formation clearly spelled out in 
the manual. 

A solid performer, the Tandy 
2810 HD will keep pace with ad- 
vanced users but, thanks to 
clear documentation, won't over- 
whelm a beginner. With 1MB of 
RAM, a high-density disk drive, a 
20MB hard drive, a VGA display, 
bundled software, and solid work- 
manship in an attractive pack- 
age, this laptop is ready to go to 
work for you in a big way. 

TOM NETSEL 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 
TRAVELMATE 2000 

If you're ready to take your com- 
puting on the road, then the Tex- 
as Instruments (Tl) TravelMate 

"Unadle to run lest. 



and a backlit LCD VGA display. 
The TravelMate has an attractive- 
ly Styled case and a comfortable, 
solid-feeling keyboard, 

The unit I reviewed came with 
the optional external SVa-inch 
disk drive and 2400-baud mo- 
dem/fax card. All of the optional 
accessories can be quickly in- 
stalled or detached, which 
means you don't have to lug 



them around when you don't 
need them. The drive plugs direct- 
ly into an expansion port located 
on the back of the computer. To 
install it, simply pop off the rear 
cover and plug in the drive. Two 
thumbscrews hold the drive in 
place, so you don't have to fuss 
with cables. It's pretty slick. 

The modem/fax card plugs in- 
to a small compartment located 
just above the keyboard. The 
card is held in place by a single 
screw and the plug. I assumed 
that this screw would be a thumb- 
screw like those on the disk 
drive, but it's not. However, if you 
have a small screwdriver, you 
can swap cards in a matter of min- 
utes. 

I was impressed with the soft- 
ware that came with the system: 
BatteryPro and LapUnk, a file 
transfer program that serves as 
your gateway to the outside 
world if you don't purchase the 
optional 3'/?-inch disk drive. 
Connected by the LapUnk ca- 
ble and running the LapUnk soft- 
ware, two computers have com- 
plete access to each other's 
disk files. BatteryPro is perhaps 
the more valuable piece of soft- 
ware. It's a utility package that 
functions as a power-conserva- 
tion system for the computer. 
The BatteryWatch feature of the 
package monitors battery con- 
sumption, and BatteryPro pro- 
vides only the power necessary 




TEST LAB 



to do your work. This combina- 
tion saves valuable battery pow- 
er that's usually wasted by other 
portables. 

The battery test results for the 
TravelMate were acceptable. 
With the BalteryPro utilities in- 
stalled, it's possible to get about 
an hour and a half of use from 
each charge, with moderate disk 
activity. The battery pack con- 




sists of a candy bar-shaped ni- 
cad battery that's about 1 1 '/?. inch- 
es long. It fits into a very tight com- 
partment on the back of the com- 
puter. The process of removing 
and replacing this piece of hard- 
ware is, at best, difficult. Howev- 
er, that's an extremely small 
price to pay when you consider 
the small, lightweight design of 
the TravelMate. 

Included with the modem is a 
well-rounded set of communica- 
tions programs, BitCom and Bit- 
Fax. BitCom is a full-featured ter- 
minal program, and BitFax takes 
advantage of the card's fax ca- 

50 COMPUTE 



pabilities. Both are extremely 
easy to use; in fact, I successful- 
ly used both without reading a sin- 
gle page from the manuals. I'd 
never sent a fax before doing 
this review, but 6/?Fax walked me 
right through the whole process 
of sending files to a fax machine 
here in the office. 

I thoroughly enjoyed using the 
TravelMate 2000. I thought the 
computer was well designed and 
attractive. In addition, it 
seems to be very sturdy 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 
Intormatlon Technology 

Group 
P.O. Box 202230 
Austin, TX 78714-2230 
(800) 527-3500 
List Price: S2,309.00 for 

2(iMB; $2,790.00 

lor 40NfB 
Street Price: $1,028.70 



and solid, which is a big 
plus in a portable computer. 

The only thing I didn't like 
about the computer was the 
small plastic covers that protect 
the external ports. They just 
didn't want to stay in place for 
me. I simply removed them and 
placed them in the box for safe- 
keeping. {Most partables don't 
even have protective covers, so 
it's not really a problem.) 

Ifyou're thinking about purchas- 
ing a high-quality notebook com- 
puter, then you owe it to your- 
self to check out the TravelMate 
2000. It's a very powerful tool 
that comes with good software, 
has room for expansion, and of- 
fers you a wide range of op- 
tional equipment. 

TROY TUCKER 



COPROCESSOR SPEED 

COMPUTE'S benchmark statis- 
tics allow you to compare how 
our Test Lab computers han- 
dle COMPUTE'S proprietary 
benchmark tests. But there's 
another kind of comparison 
you should consider — the 
speed of a computer with a 
math coprocessor versus the 
speed of a computer without 
one. 

When one of our review com- 
puters arrived at the lab with 
a coprocessor, we decided to 
run our benchmarks first with 
the coprocessor and then with- 
out it. The differences in per- 
formance were quite dramatic 
in some tests. 

In the computer-aided de- 
sign (CAD) tests, for example, 
the coprocessor enabled the 
computer to load a drawing in 
just under 14 seconds rather 
than the minute and 8 sec- 
onds the computer required 
without the coprocessor. Re- 
scaling a drawing required a 
minute and 12 seconds with- 
out the coprocessor, 16 sec- 
onds with it. In the floating 
point math calculation compar- 
isons, the differences are sim- 
ilarly dramatic. With the 
coprocessor, floating-point ad- 
dition required 35 microsec- 
onds, 306 microseconds with- 
out it. 

However, when our lab ran 
speed comparisons in applica- 
tions—including a database 
sort, a database reindex, a 
text search and replace, and 
a spreadsheet recalculation — 
the differences were decided- 
ly less significant. 

Any kind of application that 
requires the plotting of curves 
or other geometric shapes or 
any type of vector-based graph- 
ic will benefit significantly from 
a math coprocessor. Anything, 
in other words, that's math in- 
tensive will benefit. 

—MIKE HUDNALL 



TOSHIBA T1000LE 

At first glance you might pass 
over this laptop for other more 
powerful models. But that could 
be a big mistake. I ran this 8086- 
based machine under some of 
the most demanding conditions 
for months, and it performed with 
flying colors. 

Let's start with the important 
stuff. It's lightweight and rugged, 
and it has a good battery life. You 
can't love one of these babies af- 
ter lugging it to three trade 
shows in two weeks unless it's re- 
ally light — and this one is. Using 
a canvas case to carry it, I trav- 
ersed several airports, a hotel lob- 
by, and several sidewalks without 
any hint of soreness in my tender 
shoulder. On our semiofficial 
scale here at COMPUTE, it 
weighed in at seven pounds. 
With the carrying case, the pow- 
er supply, and an assortment of 
backup floppies, the total is 
around eight pounds. Not bad, 
considering everything I needed 
to do my work was in the pack- 
age. 

And none of that banging 
around broke anything. Sure, I'm 
careful. But when fighting jet lag, 
I, like most other people, get a bit 
careless. You won't find any flim- 
sy breakaway doors on this unit. 
Just good, honest, substantial cov- 
ers that stand up to almost any- 
thing you can dish out. 

If you've ever flown from one 
side of the continental U.S. to the 
other, you know it's a long trip. 
Not being one for the in-flight mov- 
ie, I counted on having some- 
thing to work on for the entire SVa 
hours. No, I didn't get that far. But 
I did work for almost 4 hours with 
heavy disk access. For most peo- 
ple that's plenty 

What about performance? As 
an 8086-based machine, it was 
good, though not as fast as a 286 
or a 386. When you're on the 
road, though, how often do you 
reindex your database files or re- 
calculate your spreadsheet? 
Most of us run a simple database 
program, contact manager, or 



TOSHIBA AMERICA 
INFORMATIOM 
SYSTEMS 
9740 Ireine Blvd. 
Irvine, CA 9Z718 
(800) 334-3445 
List Price: $1,739.00 
Street Price: $1,530.98 



word processor, 
and for those ap- 
plications, my Toshi- 
ba filled the bi 
When I did compile a 
program with my Micro- 
soft C compiler and 
stepped through the pro- 
gram with the Codeview debug- 
ger, I was pleasantly surprised at 
how well it performed, Ttiese two 
programs separate the men from 
the boys real fast. They both 
squeeze every available ounce of 
performance out of a system. 
And on this computer the perform- 
ance was adequate. 

I'm not fond of laptop key- 
boards, but this was one of the 
best I've experienced. Positive 
key movement with definite con- 
tact points let me know that I was 
working on something solid. 
There isn't a separate numeric key- 
pad, but the most important func- 
tions, such as PageUp and 
PageDown, have their own sepa- 
rate keys. 

Reading the display is easy if 
you've adjusted it properly, The 
controls are right there on the 
side— no fumbling around to get 
the right setting. In a wide variety 
of situations, this Toshiba's dis- 
play was crisp and clear. One 
nice addition that helps adjust for 
different uses is the ability to 
change system fonts with a hot 
key. If you're having trouble read- 
ing what's on the screen, you can 
toggle between the fonts and de- 
cide which is best. I found myself 
changing fonts several times 
each day as I went from setting 
to setting. 




I had an internal modem that 
was a lifesaver when I had to 
send files to the office. It's one con- 
venience I wouldn't want to be 
without. With the phone cord that 
arrived in the box, I was able to 
connect in all of my hotel rooms. 

There's an indispensable fea- 
ture built in that's as close as a 
hot key away. It's a pop-up dis- 
play showing you how much pow- 
er is left in your batteries and let- 
ting you set various switches so 
that the computer is tuned for max- 
imum performance. You can turn 
the speaker and modem on or 
off, set the display to reverse, and 
toggle the auto power off features 
of the hard drive and display. 

A single internal floppy drive 
was all I needed: Once all of my 
files were copied to the 20IV1B 
hard drive, I rarely needed it. 
Disk access for both drives was 
good — on par with any desktop 
model with an 8086 processor run- 
ning at 9.5 MHz. 

If you have to be the first on 
your block with the latest comput- 
er technology at any price, you'll 
probably look elsev/here. But if 
you're interested in a great value 
on a workhorse unit, this laptop is 
for you. It's not fancy or overwhelm- 
ingly fast, but dollar for dollar, 
you'll get your money's worth. 

RICHARD C. LEINECKER 

51 



SINCE 1979 



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Barringfon, IL 60010 

'We Lovt Out Customers' 



SINCE 1979 



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COMPUTER DIRECT, INC. 

22292 N. Pepper Road 
BarringlDn, JL 60010 

'li'e Love Out Customers' 



Circle Reader Service Number 114 



TEST LAB 



FURTHER 
INFORMATION 



AST PREMIUM EXEC 386SX/20 

CPU: 80386SX, CPU Speed: 20 
MHz 

Conventional Memory: 640K. Ex- 
tended Memory: 1MB, up to 
8MB 

Ports: serial, parallel, VGA, 6-pin 
PS/2-style mini-DIN (for 
mouse, keypad, or keyboard) 

Drives: 3y2-incti 1.44MB floppy, 
20MB, 40MB. or 60MB tiard 

Video Modes: VGA paper white 
with 32 shades of gray 

Screen Type: backlitCCFT super- 
twist film LCD 

Standard Accessories: MS-DOS 
3.3, LapLinkS, serial interface 
cable, BatteryWatch, tilt stand/ 
battery pack, 110/220-volt au- 
tosensing AC adapter, carry- 
ing case with handle, AST utili- 
ties, complete documentation 

Optional Accessories: 2400- 
baud modem— $249, 9600- 
baud fax/send— $349, numer- 
ic keypad — $119, leather ac- 
cessory case — $299, nylon ac- 
cessory case — $1 29, car adapt- 
er/battery charger with built-in 
quick charger— $129, light- 
weight small trickle battery 
charger — $29, secondary bat- 
tery pack— $99, 4MB memory 
expansion (SIMMs)- $999, ex- 
ternal charger for use with AG 
and auto adapters to charge 
secondary battery pack — 
$119 

Warranty: one year (extended 
warranty available) 

Sepu'ice Plan: through dealer or 
third-party maintenance com- 
pany 

circle Reader Service Number 301 

DEU 320N 

CPU: 80386, CPU Speed: 20 
MHz 

Conventional Memory: 640K, Ex- 
tended Memory: 1MB, expand- 
able to 5MB 

Ports: serial, parallel/external 
drive, VGA, keyboard/keypad, 
mouse 

54 COMPUTE 



Drives: 3y2-inch 1,44MB floppy, 
40MB or 60MB hard 

Video Modes: VGA 

Screen Type: triple supertwist 
LCD 

Standard Accessories; battery 
pack, nylon case, AC power 
adapter 

Optional Accessories: 1MB mem- 
ory— $149.00, 2MB memory— 
$249.00, 4MB memory— 
$498.00, monochrome VGA 
monitor— $149,00, color VGA 
monitor— $399.00, SuperVGA 
color monitor— $499,00, 2400- 
bps data/fax modem (price 
unavailable), extra battery — 
$79.95, DOS 3.3— $99.95, 
DOS 4.01 or 5.0— $119.00, 
pocket network adapter 
cards— $279.00-$659.00, 
9600-bps fax— $399.00, 8387 
SX coprocessor— $349.00, ex- 
ternal S'A-inch 1.2MB drive — 
$349.00, 40/120MB external 
tape backup unit — $449.00, nu- 
meric keypad — $149.00, auto- 
mobile adapter— $129.00, ad- 
ditional AC adapter— $69.95, 
pseudoleather case— $99.95, 
replacement slip case — $17.95 

Warranty: one year parts and la- 
bor, 30-day satisfaction guar- 
antee 

Service Plan: automatic one-year 
contract with next-day on-site 
replacement, can be extended 
for additional fee; offered by 
Dell, performed by Xerox 

circle Reader Service Number 302 

GRID 1720 

CPU: 80C286, CPU Speed: 16 
MHz 

Conventional Memory: 640K, Ex- 
tended Memory: 1MB. up to 
5MB 

Ports; serial, parallel. VGA, exter- 
nal PS/2-compatible keyboard, 
modular phone jack 

Drives: SVa-inch 1.44MB floppy, 
20MB or 60MB hard 

Video Modes: CGA, EGA, VGA 

Screen Type: backlit triple twist 
LCD 

Standard Accessories; internal re- 
chargeable/removable battery 
pack. DOS 4.01 , AC power sup- 
ply, 2400-baud modem, real- 



time clock 

Optional Accessories: leather 
carrying case, corduroy car- 
rying case, enhanced battery, 
Xircom token ring adapter, eth- 
ernet adapters (prices unavail- 
able) 

Warranty; one year 

Service Plan; information availa- 
ble by calling Grid 

circle Reader Service Number 303 

HYUNDAI SUPER-LT5 

CPU: 80386SX, CPU Speed: 8/ 
16 MHz switchable 

Conventional Memory: 640K, Ex- 
tended Memory; 2MB, expand- 
able to 6MB 

Ports: serial, parallel, VGA, exter- 
nal floppy drive, external key- 
board 

Drives; SYj-inch 1.44MB floppy, 
40MB hard 

Video Modes: VGA 

Screen Type: backlit supertwist 
LCD 

Standard Accessories: AC adapt- 
er, ni-cad battery MS-DOS 
4.01, GW-BASIC 

Optional Accessories: 2400-bps 
modem — $395, soft black car- 
rying case with shoulder 
strap — $95, extra battery 
pack— $145 

Warranty: 18 months 

Service Plan: through dealer 

Circle Reader Service Number 304 

LEADING EDGE D/IT386SX PLUS 

CPU: 80386, CPU Speed: 16 
MHz 

Conventional Memory: 640K, Ex- 
tended Memory: 2MB 

Ports: serial, parallel, VGA, 
mouse 

Drives: 3Va-inch 1 .44MB floppy, 
40MB or 100MB hard 

Video Modes: VGA 

Screen Type: bacl<l!t supertwist 
LCD 

Standard Accessories: battery 
MS-DOS, GW-BASIC, and Win- 
dows 3.0 

Optional Accessories: modem — 
$199, extra battery pack— $70, 
cigarette-lighter adapter — $6, 
carrying case — $70 

Warranty: 12 months on all 
equipment 



Service Plan: no on-site for lap- 
tops; carry-in to dealers; num- 
ber listed above 

Circle Reader Service Number 305 

PANASONIC CF-270 
BUSINESS PARTNER 

CPU: 80C286, CPU Speed: 16 
MHz 

Conventional Memory: 640K, Ex- 
tended Memory: 1MB, expand- 
able to 5MB 

Ports; serial, parallel, VGA< exter- 
nal keyboard 

Drives: 3 '/2-inch 1.44MB floppy, 
20MB hard 

Video Modes; VGA 

Screen Type: backlit supertwist 
LCD 

Standard Accessories: MS-DOS, 
GW-BASIC, diagnostic utilities, 
AC adapter 

Optional Accessories: 1MB RAM 
card — $369, rechargeable 
ni-cad battery — $99, internal 
2400-baud modem— $199 

Warranty: one year parts and 
labor 

Service Plan: through Panasonic 

Circle Reader Service Number 306 



SHARP PC-6220 

CPU; 80286, CPU Speed; 12 
MHz 

Conventional Memory: 640K, Ex- 
tended Memory: 1MB, expand- 
able to 3MB 

Ports: serial, parallel, numeric key- 
pad, bus for expansion unit 

Drives: 20MB hard 

Video Modes: CGA, EGA, VGA, 
MDA 

Screen Type: backlit triple 
supertwist LCD 

Standard Accessories: AC adapt- 
er, MS-DOS, LapLink 

Optional Accessories: CRT 
cord— $149. 1MB memory — 
$499, add-on battery— $249, 
S'/s-inch 1.44MB floppy drive— 
S299, fax/modem— $499, nu- 
meric keypad— $99, expan- 
sion unit— S699 

Warranty: one year for service 
and parts 

Service Plan: through Sharp Elec- 
tronics 

circle Reader Service Number 307 



TANDY 2810 HD 

CPU: 80286, CPU Speed: 16 
MHz 

Conventional Memory: 640K, Ex- 
tended Memory: 384K, expand- 
able to 5MB 

Ports: serial, parallel, VGA, exter- 
nal keyboard, external disk 
drive 

Drives: SVs-inch 1 .44MB floppy, 
20MB hard 

Video Modes: VGA 

Screen Type; backlit triple super- 
twist LCD 

Standard Accessories; MS-DOS 
4.01, battery, DeskMate 3. LIM 

4.0, AC adapter, charger 
Optional Accessories: 2400- 
baud internal modem — 
$199.95, replacement bat- 
tery— $99,95, 1MB memory— 
$399.95, carrying cases — 
$39.95-$49.95 

Warranty: one year 

Service Plan; optional extended 

plan with Radio Shack 
Circle Reader Service Number 308 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 
TRAVELMATE 2000 

CPU: 80286. CPU Speed: 12 
MHz 

Conventional Memory: 640K, Ex- 
tended Memory; 1MB, expand- 
able to 3MB 

Ports: serial, parallel, numeric key- 
pad, expansion station 

Drives: 20MB hard (standard), 
40MB hard (optional) 

Video Modes; VGA 

Screen Type: sidelit triple super- 
twist LCD 

Standard Accessories: DOS 

4.01, BatteryWatch, Laptop 
and File Manager, LapLink 

Optional Accessories: modem — 
S299, extra RAM module— 
$399, optional floppy drive — 
$219, math coprocessor — 
$589, CRT interface— $109, ex- 
tra battery pack— $89, external 
battery pack — $179, numeric 
keypad— $69, deluxe carrying 
case— $69, leather portfolio— 
$49, expansion station— $799 

Warranty: one year 

Service Plan; optional, varies by 
location 

Circle Reader Service Number 309 



TOSHIBA T1000LE 

CPU; 8086, CPU Speed: 9.54 
MHz 

Conventional Memory; 640K, Ex- 
tended Memory: 1MB, expand- 
able to 9MB 

Ports: serial, parallel 

Drives: aVj-inch 1.44MB floppy, 
20MB hard 

Video Modes: CGA 

Screen Type: sidelit supertwist 
LCD 

Standard Accessories: DOS 3.3, 
Reference Guide, Portable 
Companion, MS-DOS Manual, 
FirstTime Guide 

Optional Accessories: 1MB mem- 
ory— $269, 2MB memory— 
$479, 4MB memory— $889, 
8MB memory — $1,779, univer- 
sal AC adapter— $75, battery 
pack recharger — $279, battery 
pack 2200 milliamps— $105, 
battery pack 1700 milliamps — 
$65, modem-slot battery 
pack — $65, fabric carrying 
case — $79, leather carrying 
case — $105, automobile adapt- 
er — $59, 2400-bps Hayes-com- 
patible modem for dedicated 
slot— $279, 2400-bps Hayes- 
compatible modem (cellular 
modem) — $359, external 5Vi- 
inch 360K floppy— $399, Toshi- 
ba BASIC 3.0— $99, MS-DOS 
4.01— $99, Desk Station II— 
$1,199 

Warranty; one year parts and la- 
bor 

Service Plan; Exceptional Care 
(Toshiba), first year free 

Circle Reader Service Number 310 



All Benchmark/Performance 
Testing is conducted bu Com- 
puter Product Testing Serv- 
ices, Inc. (CRTS), an inde- 
pendent testing and evalua- 
tion laboratory based in 
Manasquan, New Jersey. 
Every effort has been made 
to ensure the accuracy and 
completeness of this data as 
of the date of testing. Per- 
formance may vary among 
samples. 



55 



DOS 5.0 
A PERFECT 10 




THE 

SOFTWARE BARGAIN 

OF 

THE YEAR 

BY MARK MINASI 




Since its introduction ten years ago, 
DOS has seen a lot of clianges, 
not all for the better. People with 
long PC experience and good mem- 
ories know that new versions of DOS 
are often mixed blessings, so the 
news that there's a new version may 
not bring a smile to everyone's face. 

But this version is different, and it 
ought [0 make you smile. With version 
5.0, DOS has emerged from its stormy 
adolescence and developed into a ma- 
ture, well-rounded operating system. 

What's so special about this DOS? 
Well, it uses less memory than previ- 
ous versions and includes commands 
that allow you to unerase files and, 
more amazing, unformat disks. 

It comes with a shell that lets you 
run multiple programs at the same 
time, and it remembers your last 20^ or 
so commands, allowing you to recall, 
edit, and reissue them, saving count- 
less keystrokes. 

With the new DIR command, you 
can sort files by name, size, date, or ex- 
tension; show hidden files; only show 
hidden files or files that haven't been 
backed up; and a multitude of other 
possibilities. 

If I sound breathless, 1 am. I've 
worked with enough so-called new-and- 
improved software products to know 
what to expect of a new operating sys- 
tem. I figured that 5.0 either wouldn't 
work with my Novell network, would 
clash with my OnTrack Disk Manager, 
or wouldn't run with Windows, and on 
and on. 

imagine my surprise when I saw 
that 5.0 ships with a Novell driver, a 5.0- 
compatible version of the OnTrack soft- 
ware, and new and cleaner versions of 
EMM386.EXE and HIMEM.SYS, the crit- 
ical memory-organizing device drivers 
used by Windows 3.0! 

Microsoft has really put some 
thought into this system, and I'm sure 
it's going to pay off. I wouldn't be sur- 
prised if virtually everyone in the PC 
world hasn't switched to DOS 5.0 with- 
in a year. 

More Memory 

At a recent press conference, a Micro- 
soft PR person asked, "What is Micro- 
soft best known for?" A member of the 
audience shouted, "The 640K limita- 
tion!" 

That wasn't the answer the flack was 
looking for, but it addressed perhaps 
the best-known and most annoying lim- 
itation of MS-DOS. The operating sys- 
tem is restricted to using the lowest 
part of your computer's memory poten- 
tial, called conventional memory. 

Some vendors have responded to 
this problem with clever programs 
called memory managers. The best- 

58 COMPUTE 



selling of these are OEMM, from Quar- 
terdeck Systems, and 386MAX, from 
Qualitas. These programs allow you to 
make some use of the extended mem- 
ory that often goes unused on a 386, 
386SX, or 486 system. These 386- 
type systems can theoretically have 
more than 4000 megabytes of extend- 
ed memory, so any program that lets 
you use some extended memory is ob- 
viously valuable. 

These memory managers perform 
two main functions. First, they allow 
you to load device drivers and memory- 



You'll need to focus on the 
HIMEM.SYS and EMM386,EXE device 
drivers, the new DOS=HIGH,UMB com- 
mand, the DEVICEHIGH CONFIG.SYS 
command, and the LOADHIGH AU- 
TOEXEC.BAT command. 

You'll have to noodle around with 
these a bit to make them work well, but 
it's worth the time. One final caution: In 
order to load DOS above the 640K ad- 
dresses, you need an 80286 or better 
computer; to load device drivers and 
TSRs above 640K, you need an 80386 
or better. 



DOS 5.0'S TOP 1 hN FEATURES 


• New memory manager that loads 


• New QuickBASIC interpreter (QBASIC) 


DOS, device drivers, and TSRs into 


• New command-history retriever (DOS- 


high memory {DOS, HIMEM.SYS, and 


KEY) 


EMM386.EXE) 


• Improved SYS command (SYS) 


• New unerase, untormal, and file-sys- 


• Improved shell with built-in task switch- 


tem tracking commands (LINERASE, 


er (DOSSHELL) 


UNFORMAT and MIRROR) 


• Improved directory command (DIR) 


• New text editor with full mouse support 


• Improved disk checking (CHKDSK) 


and pull-down menus (EDIT) 


• Improved memory viewing (MEM) 



resident TSR programs above the 
640K of conventional memory, freeing 
up conventional memory that was 
once used by these helpers. 

Second, they temporarily translate 
some of that otherwise-unused extend- 
ed memory into a third kind of memory 
called expanded memory, memory 
used by programs like 1-2-3 version 2 
or l/VordPerfecf version 5.1. 

Both of these functions are valuable, 
and that's why both Qualitas and Quar- 
terdeck sales are doing well at the mo- 
ment. 

But now, they have competition 
from DOS itself. The new HIMEM.SYS 
included with 5.0 does more than sim- 
ply serve Windows; it provides the real 
magic behind one of 5.0's most eye- 
catching features. 

Is There Really 61 4K Free? 

1 just ran CHKDSK, and it told me that, 
despite having loaded a pile of memo- 
ry-hungry device drivers and TSRs, I 
have 614K of my 640K free. Under 
DOS 3.3, that number would've been 
somewhere around 520K; under 4.01, 
it would be about 508K. 

HIMEM, in concert with a new CON- 
FIG.SYS command DOS=HIGH, actual- 
ly loads as much as 64K of DOS into 
your computer's extended memory! An- 
other 5.0 program, EMM386.EXE, al- 
lows you to load device drivers and 
TSRs above 640K, just like OEMM and 
386MAX, and again, it works without a 
hitch with Windows. 

Once you get a copy of 5.0, don't 
miss out on these memory benefits. 



A Kinder, Gentler File System 

You've done it. I've done it. 
Everyone's done it at some point or an- 
other: accidentally erased a file. If 
you're like millions of PC users, you've 
gone out and purchased The Norton 
Utilities. PC Tools, or Ttie Mace Utili- 
ties. But 5.0 now includes the utilities 
UNDELETE, UNFORMAT, and MIR- 
ROR from Central Point Software's PC 
Tools Deluxe. UNDELETE reverses a 
file erasure — within limits. If you wait 
too long between when you've erased 
the file and when you try to undelete it, 
it may no longer be recoverable. 

How does UNDELETE work this mi- 
nor miracle? Simple. When DOS eras- 
es a file, it doesn't go to the actual 
trouble of overwriting the area on disk 
where the file resides. Instead, it just 
marks that area as usable for creating 
new files. 

As long as you don't create any new 
flies, there's no demand to actually util- 
ize this available area. Create a new 
file, however, and there's the chance 
that your "erased" file will actually be ir- 
revocably overwritten. UNDELETE 
sniffs out the waiting-to-be-overwritten 
file and reconstructs its old directory en- 
try. 

You can make life easier for UN- 
DELETTE, however, with another of the 
Central Point tools now in 5.0: MIR- 
ROR. MIRROR makes a copy of your 
system's table of contents— two areas 
you may have heard of, called the Pile 
Allocation Table (EAT) and the root di- 
rectory. 

Both UNDELETE and UNFORMAT 




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USING DOS 5.0'S MEMORY MANAGER 



To get the most from 5.0's new memory 
management skills, you need to follow a 
few simple rules. 

The first two lines in your CONFIG.SYS 
file should install HIMEM.SYS and 
EMM386.EXE in that order, if you're run- 
ning EtvlM386 just to load device drivers 
and TSRs high and aren't using its abili- 
ty to emulate expanded memory, you'll 
need to add the parameter NOEMS. Al- 
so, if your system includes hardware 
that uses addresses between 640K and 
1024K, you'll need to add the exclude 
switch (X) to tell EMM386 not to use 
those addresses. Here's an example of 
those first two lines: 

DEVICEsC:\DOS\HIMEM.SYS 
DEVICE=C:\DOS\EMM386.EXE NOEMS 
X=CCOO-DOOO 

Make sure you use DOS 5.0's HIMEM 
and EMM386 commands. You may 
have several copies of these on your 
hard disk. Find the old ones and delete 
them. 

Now you're ready to load device driv- 
ers and TSRs high- 

To load a device driver high, instead 
of using DEVICE=, you use DE- 
VICEHIGH=. For example, to load AN- 
SI.SYS high, you'd use the command DE- 
VICEHIGH=ANSI.SYS. It's important to 
note that you can't use DEVICEHIGH 
with HIMEM.SYS and EMM386.EXE. 

As a rule, it's best to load programs in 
order by size, starting with larger pro- 
grams. 

To load DOS itself high, you'll want to 
add ttie command DOS=HIGH,UMB. 

Here's a sample CONFIG.SYS for 
DOS 5.0: 

DEVICE=C:\00S\HIIVIE!V1.SYS 
DEVICE=C:\DOS\EIVIIVI38B.EXE NOEIVIS 
DEVICEHIGH=C:\DOS\SMARTDRV.SYS 

2048 1024 
DEUICEHIGH=C:\DOS\SETVER.EXE 



DEVICEHIGH=C:\D0S\ANS1.SYS 
DEVICEHIGH=C:\iViOUSE.SYS /S50 
SHELL=C:\D0S\C0IV!1V!AND.C0IVI C:\ 

D0S\/E:512 /P 
BUFFERS=ia 
FILES=40 
STACKS=0,0 
DOS=KIGH,UIVIB 

To load TSRs high, yot; simply pre- 
cede the command in your AUTOEX- 
EC.BAT with LOADHIGH. For example, 
to load DOS's new DOSKEY command- 
history retriever into conventional mem- 
ory, you'd put the command DOSKEY in 
your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. To load this 
program into high memory, you use the 
line LOADHIGH DOSKEY. 

Here's a sample AUTOEXEC.BAT: 

©ECHO OFF 
VERIFY OFF 
PATHC:\DOS;C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\ 

UT;C:\BA;C:\UT;C:\UT\NU;C:\UT\XY 
C:\DOSMVIIRROR C: /I 
SET DIRCMD=/W/P/ON 
PROMPT SDSJP$G 
LOADHIGH C:\DOS\DOSKEY /INSERT 
CD \WINDOWS 
WIN 

There's one more command that's essen- 
tial for memory management — MEM. 
MEM's been around since DOS 4.0, but 
it has a new feature that displays how 
much memory your device drivers and 
TSRs are using and where in convention- 
al or upper memory they're loading. 

To get the big picture, type MEM/C 
IMORE at the DOS prompt. If some of 
the programs you tried to load into high 
memory actually loaded into convention- 
al memory, change the order in which 
they load. You'll probably need to experi- 
ment a little to get the most from 5.0's ex- 
cellent new memory management fea- 
tures. 

— CLIFTON KARNES 



use this copy as a starting point when 
reconstructing files after damage or era- 
sure. The MIRROR backup isn't essen- 
tial, but it greatly increases your chanc- 
es of data recovery. And running it reg- 
ularly is painless — just include it in 
yourAUTOEXEC.BAT 

The third command of this group is 
the nnost annazing: UNFORMAT Acci- 
dentally format a floppy disk or a liard 
disk, and in a twinkling you can undo 
the damage. This seems to violate the 
laws of physics, but again, there's no 
real magic involved. It's already been 
said that erasure operations don't ac- 
tually overwrite files. Instead they tell 
DOS to forget that the files exist and 
treat the areas in which they reside as 
available. As it turns out, the FORMAT 
command just does the same thing on 
a grand scale. 

60 COMPUTE 



UNFORMAT reconstructs the FAT 
and root directory, effectively nullifying 
the accidental FORMAT operation — 
again, this only works if you run UNFOR- 
MAT before you create any new files. 

Along the lines of data recovery, 
there are two minor revisions of old 
DOS programs that are worth mention- 
ing. FORMAT itself is smarter and can 
now format a disk in just 16 seconds, 
provided that the disk has already 
been formatted at some time in the 
past. 

And SYS, the DOS utility that makes 
disks or hard drives bootable, used to 
be very picky about which disks it 
would work with. Its criteria for boota- 
bility were so stringent that it was near- 
ly useless. 

SYS's limitations really showed 
when trying to upgrade the DOS on 



your hard disk. More than once, I 
gave up trying to get SYS to play ball 
and just reformatted the disk to get the 
new DOS on the hard disk. 

SYS is now much more accommodat- 
ing. So much so, in fact, that it seems 
amenable to making any disk boota- 
ble, so long as there's about 85K of 
free space on the disk for the system 
files. 

The UNDELETE and UNFORMAT pro- 
grams, and others like them, have cer- 
tainly been available through third par- 
ties for years. But it's nice to finally see 
them included with DOS. These tools 
are too good for just power users to 
know about. And the fact that SYS is fi- 
nafly useful (after a mere ten years) is 
quite welcome. 

The Old Shell Gome 

More and more PC users prefer a pro- 
gram-launching, file-managing shell pro- 
gram to the arid charms of the C 
prompt, so word of DOS 4.01 's shell pro- 
gram was greeted enthusiastically in 
the user community — at least until the 
community actually saw the shell. 

You could say that the DOS 4.01 
shell was to shells what EDLIN is to ed- 
itors. DOS S.O's DOSSHELL improves 
on the previous shell to a point where 
it's actually not bad. as shells go. Even 
veteran command line jocks may find 
a use for the shell's newest feature — 
task switching. 

With task switching, any computer, 
even an XT, can load multiple pro- 
grams and switch among them. Now, 
be sure to read that correctly This isn't 
full-fledged multitasking. Load 1-2-3 
and WordPerfect, and only one of 
them is actually running at any time — 
the program that you're working with. 

But when you want to switch from 1- 
2-3 to l/l/orcfPerfecf, you don't need to 
exit 1-2-3 and start WordPerfect. Rath- 
er, you just type Alt-Esc, a key combi- 
nation familiar to Windows users. 

The main benefit is quick switches 
from one program to another, which 
could be quite a welcome benefit for a 
user with an older 8088-based system 
or someone who doesn't want to have 
to fool with Windows just to load multi- 
ple programs. 

Each DOS session, by the way, 
gets 582K of RAM {on my system, at 
least) — not bad for a task switcher 
that comes free with the operating sys- 
tem, 

Other than task switching, the shell 
has the usual shell features — mouse 
support for selecting files for copying 
and deleting, a visual representation of 
your disk's tree structure, and point- 
and-click program launching. 

There are a couple of little extras, 
too: a 50-line screen mode and the an- 



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BUSINESS 



J FormGen (1630) Design and print 
any business/office form easily. 

-i FormGen Fil! (1631) FiH out 

FormGen-created forms more quickly 
and accurately, i'equires FormGoni 
J FormGen Business Forms (1632) 
An excellent collection of pre-designed 
business forms, iieq, FormGon) HD 
J Doctor Data Label (1717) A profes- 
sional matHist manager. HD, .512K 
J Checkmate Plus (1109, 1110) A 
complete cfiecktHxik manager. Handles 
unlimited accounts and does reconcili- 
ation, i?- disks) 512K. HD 
J Business Kit (16S6) Two programs 
(or small businesses: Simple Book- 
keeper and Billing Statement. 
LI Solvelt! (1 624,1 625) Excel lent finan- 
cial calculations package. (2 disks) HD 
U Invoice-It (1664) Keep track of in- 
voices, merchandise, vendors and 
customers at ttie point of sale. HD 
:J Names and Dates (1619.1620) An 
address book, calendar system, and 
mailing list combination. (2diaks)512K 
U ZPAY 3 (161 0, 1 61 1 ) A full-featured 
payroll package. (2 disks) HD 
U PC-Areacode(1655) Helps you find 
the areacode for any city in the U.S. or 
Canada quickly and easily. 



EDUCATION 



J Computer Tutor (123S) Become a 
more effective computer user, 
a School Mom (1 251 ) Teaches kids 2- 
14 the basics of art, music, spelling, 
English and math. FANTASTIC^! C6A 
U World (1221) A computer encyclo- 
pedia of global information. CGA 

□ Total Recall (1245) This program 
helps you quickly memorize words and 
information on any subject. 

U Algehrax (1233) A great program 
that teaches algebra. CGA, DOS 3.0 

J Pre-Caiculus (1218) Excellem pre- 
calc tutor. Reviews algebra and trig. 
'J Play n' Learn (1236) A collection of 
learning games for cliildren. CGA 

□ Kl nder Math (1 262) An excellent math 
tutor for children- Three levels of diffi- 
culty. Very entertaining, CGA 

"JWordWhte(1252)Achallengingwofd 
game that tests your vocabulary. 

J Word Gallery (1256) Teaches kids 
to link v^fiften words with objects. CGA 
J Wunder Book (1 269) A collection of 
5 colorful and fun games in Englisti, 
Spanish, French, and German for chil- 
dren 3 to 10 years old. EGA or VGA 
J Animated Shapes (1264) Teaches 
shapes and colors lo pre-schoolers 
using animated graphics. 640K. EGA 



SPREADSHEET 



lJ On Side (1506) Prints your spread- 
sheets (or any file) sideways. 
U As-Easy-As (1805) A fantastic Lo- 
tus 1-2-3 compatible spreadsheet. 
J Lotus Learning Sys.(1810,t811)A 
complete package that makes it easy 
to learn Lotus 1-2-3. (2 disks) HD 
U InstaCalc (161) A very high-power, 
stand-alone spreadsheet which may 
also be run as a TSR (pop-up) spread- 
sheet. (2 disks) 



MS WINDOWS 3.0 



These programs require Windows 3,0. 
J Almanac (1470) An excellent calen- 
dar/information utility. 
^ Icon Library (1 481 ) Customize your 
Windows operating environment with 
this collection of over 300 icons. 
_1 Paint Shop (1488) An excellent 
graphics tool for desktop publishing. 
Supports BWIP, GIF, IMG, MAC, PCX, 
and RLE fonmats. 

_l Active Life (1 472) A poweriui sys- 
tem for managing your active business 
and personal life. 

J Icondraw (1478) Create your own 
icons to use with Windows 
LJ XVTDraw (1489) A great drawing 
program that is in many ways better 
than the Wi ndows Paintbrush program. 
J Screen Peace (1486) A FANTAS- 
TIC screen saver with many beautiful 
and interesting variations. 
Zi Change Cursor Utility (1487) Al- 
lows you to design you r own arrow and 
hourglass cursors to use with Windows. 



WORD 
PROCESSING 



a WP 5.0/5.1 Clip Art (1875,1876) A 

large collection of c lip art to add spice to 
your WP documents. (2 '.fisksl 

J PC Write 3.03 (1851-1853) A very 
popular fuH-featured word processor. 
(3disks)HD, 512K 

J WP 5-1 Learning System (1865- 

1 867) Be a more prof icient WP user. (3 
disks) HD. 51 2K 

J Readability Plus (1340) A comput- 
erized writing style analyzer. 
JGrabPlus/LaserLabel(ie83,1884) 

Takes addresses from a word proces- 
sor and sends them lo the printer, HD 



APPLICATIONS 



J Trip Planner (1 33 1 ) A computerized 
road map. Computes best route. Very 
popular! 

_l Melody Maker (1918) A fun and 

easy-to-use program for new or expe- 
fienced music students. Comes with 
several songs. 

J Calendar fVfate (1344) A full-fea- 
tured program designed to create per- 
sonalized calendars. 
□ Lotto! (1 31 3) Win Ihe lottery with the 
help of your computer! 
JBowl 101 (1346) Auser-friendly bowl- 
ing league management program. 
J The Electric Almanac (1341) A 
source for lots of useful information. 



GRAPHICS 



J Picture Label (1501) An excellent 
label printing program that uses 
PrintMaster or PrintShop graphics. 
-I Banner Maker (1502) Prints ban- 
ners in various sizes, styles, and fonts. 
J Dazzle (1530) An amazing random- 
ized color pattern generator. Perfor- 
mance art for the eyes! i;GA or VGA 
J Cooper PM Graphics (1516,1517) 
Approx, 800 clip-art images to be used 
with PrintMaster. (2 disksl 
D Cooper PS Graphics (1518,1519) 
Approx. 800 ciip-art images to be useci 
with PrintShop. (2 disks) 



HOME & FAMILY 



J Family Tree Journal (1122, 1123) 

Presents your genealogical information 
in book form. (2 disks) HD 
J l-fome Inventory (1 1 05) Keeps track 
of all your personal property. 
3 Personal Budget Tools (1 1 08) Pro- 
vides a simple way to plan for annual, 
semi-annual, and quarterly expenses. 
J Win Kit (1343) Create your own will 
valid in all 50 states. 
Zl Cash Control (1127) Manage your 
bank accounts the fast and easy way 
with this great program, 320K 



UTILITIES 



J Auto Menu (1409) A professional 
hard disk menu system. Run any of 
your programs from a customized 
menu. HD 

J ViruScan (1440) Ivlake sure your 
computer is virus-free with this vafuable 
utility. Highly recommended! 
J Tree View (1418) A superior DOS 
command shell with pull-down menus. 
J Telix (1422) The best telecommuni- 
cations program available. HD 
J VGA Fonts (1442) A collection of fun 
and interesting fonts to spice up your 
VGA screen display. VGA 

-J Virus Central ( 1 441 ) A program that 
simplifies the use of ViruScan by pro- 
viding a menu oriented environment 
Requires ViruScan 512K CGA, HD 

J PC Pro (1443) Combines a user 
menu, a file manager, an enhanced 
DOS prompt, and many new features 
into one environment 384K, HD 



GAMES 



a Double Blocks (1970) ATERRIFIC 
Tetris clone for 1 or 2 players. Records 
top scores. You will love this!! 
a Video PokerAJItima 21 (1945) The 
BEST poker and blackjack games! 
Zl Pharaoh's Tomb (1974) Face mon- 
sters and traps as you explore the 
pyramid. Your goal is to sun/ive, 
J Bass Tour (1 92S)Fishinyour choice 
of lakes. Try to win the trophy. 
Zl ZZT (1 921 ) Test your problem solv- 
ing ability and your a rcade skills as you 
battle your way through 43 rooms. 
-J Field General (1931) Experience 
the excitement of a pro football game 
from a coach's point of view. CGA. HD 
J Insanity (1 936) Find your way out of 
this maze before going insane! CGA 
Zl The Monuments of Mars! (1920) 
Many tough levels filled with puzzles, 
traps and creatures. 350K, CGA 
Zl Arctic Adventure (1982) Contains 
80 new levels of mind bending, finger 
twitching, arcade action. 3yM. CGA 



VGA GAMES 



Zl Shooting Gallery (1990) Seven 

variations of a shooting range on your 

computer screen. VGA, mouse 

J VGA Sharks (1992) Recover lost 

treasure in stiark infested waters in this 

action arcade game. vrjA 

J Beyond Columns (1997) Beyond is 

like Tetris with a tv/ist. VGA 

J VGA Jigsaw (1993) Uses beautiful 

pictures to create puzzles for you to put 

back together. VGA 



EGA GAMES 



J The Last Half of Darkness (1962) 

Scary graphics and mysterious puzzles 
to challenge your mind. EGA. HD 
-I Dark Ages (1 964) A bril liant arcade/ 
adventure game with superij graphics 
and animation. 400K, EGA, 286 or faster 
mHcnint; 

J Poker Slot (1 989) Plays just like the 
video poker machines you see in casi- 
nos. Great graphics! EGA, mouse 
J Commander Keen (1986) One of 
the best games we have ever seen. 
Exceptional play and graphics. EGA 
J Double Link (1983) A great Tetris 
style game that is sure to keep you 
challenged. EGA 





IMPORTANT 


CGA 


= Requires Color Computer 


EGA 


= Requires EGA or VGA 


HD 


= Requires Hard Drive 


512K 


= Requires S12K RAM 




For multi-disk sets 




count alt disks in set 



' When you order and pay for 5 or 
more (disks, select an additional 3 
disks FREE (limit 3 free per order) 



Name 

Address . 
City 



Slate 

Phone ( ) . 

Visa/MC# - 

Exp, Date 

Signature 

Disks Ordered 



-Zip. 



X S2.49 or $ 1 .99 each . . . S 

J Need 3 1/2" disks? 
If so - add SI per disk 
(including free disks) . . , $ 

Packing & Handling . . . S 3.00 
Foreign Shipping Charge 
(Canada $2 / Other S4) S 

jCOD (U.S. Only) 

add $4 if you reg. COD S 

J Federal Express - add $4 
(Continental U.S. only) $ 

TOTAL S 



JCheck'MO J VisiajlvlC -ICO.D. 



GOLD HILL 
SOFTWARE 



l>0 Box 6KI 

Gold Hill. on »7.>35 



^ ORDER TOD 
1-800-234-6467, 



swer to an old DOS question, How do 
I rename a directory? Tlie customary 
way to rename a directory has been to 
create a new one witli the desired 
name, copy the files to the new direc- 
tory, and erase the old one. But with 
the DOS shell, you just click on the di- 
rectory and select Rename under the 
File menu. 

Teaching an Old DOS New Tricks 

Finally, there's a group of items for 
which 5.0's designers can be justly 
proud. DOS 5.0 eradicates bugs 
(some ancient, some arising as recent- 
ly as DOS 4.01), and it adds many 
long-awaited features. 

Perhaps the most significant of 
these is much smoother support for 
large drives. DOS 4.01 supported 
drives larger than 32 MB — that was al- 
most its sole saving grace — but it had 
a catch. In addition to the extra 10K of 
RAM that DOS 4.01 needed, you also 
had to load SHARE, a memory-resident 
program that burned up a few more K 
all by itself. 

Setting up dhves is a bit easier with 
the new FDISK, FDISK, for those 
who've avoided it, is one of the pro- 
grams that you (or someone) must run 
when setting up a new hard disk. 

Part of the setup process divides a 
hard drive into sections used by differ- 



ent operating systems — some for DOS 
and some for UNIX, for example. Most 
of us give 100 percent of the disk to 
DOS, but whoever sets up the disk 
must still make the explicit step of allo- 
cating the entire disk to DOS. DOS is 
not the primary partition by default. 

Under previous versions of DOS, a 
setup person occasionally ran into a 
blockade. If there's already a partition 
from an operating system other than 
DOS {such as UNIX), FDISK couldn't de- 
lete it. This put installers in a difficult po- 
sition if they didn't have the FDISK for 
the originating operating system. Only 
the UNIX FDISK could delete a UNIX- 
created partition. 'With 5.0's FDISK, how- 
ever, you can now delete any kind of 
partition. 

Since DOS 2.0, CHKDSK has done 
an odd thing when it encounters a 
disk problem called lost clusters. It 
tells you that you've got lost clusters — 
a relatively minor problem indicating 
some confusion in DOS's disk house- 
keeping — and offers to fix them. You 
give it the go-ahead, but it doesn't ac- 
tually fix the problem. 

Then you look more closely at the 
screen. Before it told you about the 
lost clusters, it warned you that the /F 
option wasn't activated, so changes 
would not be written to disk. 'What it 
was trying to tell you was that some- 



thing was wrong, but that CHKDSK 
wasn't started with the /F option and 
that CHKDSK isn't allowed to make 
any changes to the disk, even much- 
needed fixes, without the /F option. 

That doesn't keep CHKDSK, howev- 
er, from leading you to believe that it is 
going to do something useful with the 
next few lines. It has confused more 
than one user, but no longer. Now 
CHKDSK is much more direct, telling 
you that you have a problem and that 
you must rerun CHKDSK with the /F op- 
tion in order for it to fix the problem. 

EDIT, DIR, and More 

A few paragraphs back, I did a little left- 
handed EDLIN bashing. EDLIN's still 
around — for the purists — but now 
there's EDIT, a fairly complete full- 
screen text editor. It supports the 
mouse and has search and block op- 
erations, word-wrap, and printing — al 
supported by a pull-down menu sys- 
tem, It's easy to use, it boasts good 
help, and it's fast. 

Ever wanted to sort the output from 
a DIR command? The new DIR com- 
mand can sort files by size, extension, 
name, or date of creation. When clean- 
ing out a directory to make space, you 
can sort the files by size {DIR /OS) so 
that you can figure out which files will 
yield the most space once deleted. 




"Here's our last chance to figure out ttiat new program, guys.' 



62 COMPUTE 



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DOS has iiad an almost human Ii1e cy- 
cle. At birth, ten years ago, it was a 
promising new baby of an operating sys- 
tem. It couldn't support hard disks or se- 
rial printers, but it could do basic things 
fairly well, certainly as well as other op- 
erating systems on microcomputers at 
the time. 

PC-DOS 1.0 included the COPY, 
ERASE, and TYPE commands: it even in- 
cluded a version of CHKDSK. DOS 1.1 fol- 
lowed a bit later, offering a few bug fix- 
es as well as support for the then-new 
360K double-sided drives. (Remember 
that for years, the driving force for new 
versions of DOS was support for new 
IBM hardware.) 

Meanwhile, Microsoft began a tradi- 
tion of offering roughly parallel, slightly tar- 
dier, but more stable versions of DOS 
called MS-DOS. In truth, it never really 
mattered all that much whether you 
used fvIS- or PC-DOS, since they both 
ran on almost all machines. The first re- 
lease of l\/IS-DOS was version 1.25. 

DOS [eft toddlerhood with 2.0, which 
saw the beginning of hard disk support, 
■device drivers, and a few notions stolen 
from an older operating system typically 
seen then on minicomputers — UNIX. 
DOS 2.0's quantum leap from 1.1 was 
the kind of development that would 
make any parent proud. 

Somewhere after version 2, however, 



THE CHANGING FACE OF DOS 

DOS entered a stormy adolescence. PC- 
DOS 2.1 (MS-DOS 2.11} was just a slight- 
ly more memory-hungry version of 2.0 
that IBM released mainly to support the 
substandard floppy drives it put on ihe 
late and unlamented PCjr and the now- 
forgotten PC Portable. 

DOS 3.0 was an example of more 
growing pains. IBlVl released it to sup- 
port the new 1.2IVIB drives shipped with 
the AT, but inside it was very different, 
The file system was cleaned up a bit, 
and the entire operating system's 
source code was converted from assem- 
bly language to C. 

tslone of these changes were appar- 
ent to users, but people certainly noticed 
the conversion's unpleasant side effect: 
DOS 3.0 took up 50 percent more mem- 
ory than 2.1. 

DOS 3.1 was written to support an 
IBM LAN product, 3.2 added support for 
the 720K floppies on the IBM Converti- 
ble and added a tew commands 
(XCOPY is the most prominent), but it 
was really 3.3 that convinced people to 
upgrade to version 3. 

DOS 3.3 was a bit more stable (al- 
though it wouldn't run with some compati- 
bles' hard disk controllers} and provided 
a way to support hard drives larger than 
32IV1B through logical drives. Instead of 
telling DOS that you had a hard drive of 
the unpalatable size of, say, 60MB, 



you'd tell it that you had two hard 
drives — one the maximum size of 32tv1B, 
the other 28MB. 

DOS 4.0 tried to present a better face 
to the world in the form of the original 
DOS shell, but that face suffered from 
near-terminal acne. The quickly 
patched 4.01 tamed the obvious bugs, 
but 4.0 is still far outsold by its older broth- 
er, version 3.3. 

Now, with DOS 5,0, it seems that DOS 
has gone to college, lost a little weight, 
learned a few manners, and gotten a bit 
of polish. It even gets along better with 
its relatives, OS/2 and Windows. 

Memory Munching 

To get an idea- of how DOS's appetite for 
memory has changed over the years, 
here's a comparison of DOS versions 
with the memory requirements for each. 

Version Memory Requirement (K) 

1.0 11 

1.1 12 

2.0 24 

2.1 26 
3.Q 37 

3.1 38 

3.2 S3 

3.3 54 
4.01 65 

5.0 61 (without memory manager) 

5.0 29 (with memory manager) 



63 




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You can finally display hidden files 
(DIR /AH), or for that matter, you can 
display only those files that have their 
archive bits set (DIR /AA)— that is, 
files that haven't been backed up yet. 
And now tfiere's a feature wherein DIR 
w/ill search more than just the current di- 
rectory Can't remember where you put 
RESUfvlE? It's easy to find; DIR \ RE- 
SUME /S/B does the trick. 

And once you've decided on the 
DIR switches you'd Itke to use, instead 
of typing them each time you issue the 

64 COIVIPUTE 



DIR command, you can set an environ- 
ment variable. For example, to always 
sort on filename, you'd put SET 
DIRCMD=/ON in your AUTOEX- 
EC.BAT. 

Now DIR not only shows you how 
much free space is on the disk but al- 
so computes the total amount of 
space taken by the files whose names 
It has just shown you. For example, 
type DIR ".BAT and it will, as always, 
show you all the files with the BAT ex- 
tension, but it will also tell you how 



much space is taken up in total by 
those files. 

And once you've found all of those 
BAT files, perhaps you'd like to erase 
some, but not all, of them. Just type 
ERASE '.BAT /R The /P means pause 
and verify for each file. One by one, it 
examines ail of the files, asking if that 
file should be erased. 

Of course, having all these new op- 
tions means you may miskey now and 
then, which makes yet another new 
command, DOSKEY, all the more use- 
ful. DOSKEY remembers your last 20 
or so commands. Using the up- and 
down-arrow keys, you can recall a pre- 
vious command, edit it, and reissue it. 
saving tons of keystrokes. 

You can even write macros and as- 
sign them to keys, the way you do 
with 1-2-3 and other applications. 
There have been public domain ver- 
sions of this utility around for years, but 
it's nice to see it's finally pari of DOS. 

If you've cursed DOS's BASIC inter- 
preter, either BASICA Of GW-BASIC de- 
pending on your DOS version, DOS 
5.0 has a surprise for you. The new 
DOS comes with a reduced-function ver- 
sion of fvlicrosoft's Oi//cy<6/AS/C compil- 
er. It even ships with a few sample pro- 
grams that are a bit more interesting 
than the old mortgage calculator. 

Space is running out, so let's see 
what's left. The ATTRIB command can 
now modify hidden and system attrib- 
utes, in addition to the archive and 
read-only bits, which it could modify be- 
fore. 

fvlODE CO80,50 shows a 50-iine 
screen on VGA: there's a 43-line 
mode for EGA. fvlODE wili also speed 
up your keyboard. 

And all these neat new features 
cried out for another new feature: built- 
in help. Can't remember the new syn- 
tax for DIR? No problem. Just type DIR 
/?, and you'll get a complete listing of 
the options and syntax for the com- 
mand. 

So there you have it. Not only is fvlS- 
DOS 5.0 a stable replacement for its old- 
er brother 4.01. but it reduces the 
need for file recovery tools like The Nor- 
ton Utilities (around $100), task switch- 
ers like Software Carousel (around 
$80), 386 memory managers (around 
$100), hobby-level BASIC compilers 
(around $70), and full-screen text edi- 
tors (S50 to $400). Not a bad deal. I'd 
say DOS 5.0 is the software bargain of 
the year. 



MS-DOS 5.0 

Microsolt 

One Microsoft Way 

Redmond. Washington 98052 

(206) 882-8080 

$99.95 



ONLINE 



Denny Atkin 



No matter 

when problems 

arise, tlie help 

you need can be 

found online. 



A NEW MEANING 
FOR ONLINE HELP 

It's 9:45 on Friday night, and 
you can't get your new En- 
dows spreadsheet to print side- 
ways on your ink-jet printer. 
The software company's offic- 
es won't open again until Mon- 
day morning, so you can't call 
the technical support line. 
What will you do? 

You could try calling local 
bulletin board systems and 
posting a plea for help there, 
but the odds are pretty slim 
that someone else in Hat- 
tiesburg, Mississippi, is using 
the same hardware and soft- 
ware combination that's troub- 
ling you now. You'd better call 
a national service, where 
you're more likely to find some- 
one familiar with your problem. 

The first place to cfieck is in 
the technical support chapter 
of your program's manual. If 
the company has an online sup- 
port round table, chances are 
good you'll find it listed there. 
If not. log on to your favorite net- 
work, open your terminal pro- 
gram's capture buffer, and get 
a list of ail of the special inter- 
est groups (SIGs) on the net- 
work. Log off and peruse the 
list offline, looking for SIGs 
that cover topics related to 
your problem. Since you won't 
feel the "time is money" pres- 
sure checking the list offline, 
you might find more areas ap- 
propriate to your problem. 

Once you find a SIG that 
might help with your problem, 
all you can do is upload your 
problem and hope that some- 
one ansv/ers you in time, 
right? Wrong! Why wait for an 
answer that might already be 
there? 

fvlany online sen/ices will let 
you search message catego- 
ries for occurrences of a spe- 
cific word or phrase. If your 
service of choice has such a 
feature, use it to search for an 
appropriate word— in this 



case, perhaps sideways or 
printing. If not, then open your 
capture buffer and invoke a 
nonstop read command of the 
messages in that particular cat- 
egory. Close the buffer, log 
off, and load the capture file in- 
to a text editor. 

You can now use your text 
editor's search command to 
hunt quickly through the file 
for words that might flag a mes- 
sage that relates to your prob- 
lem. With any luck, one of 
these methods will find a mes- 
sage relating to your problem 
and how to solve it. 

If not, though, don't de- 
spair. Chances are you can 
leave a message online and 
still get some helpful advice be- 
fore your deadline, 

Check for a support area 
for the publisher of your spread- 
sheet program. If that turns up 
nothing online, check for a Win- 
dows support area. If you're 
on BIX, you'll find IBIVl.WIN- 
DOWS. On CompuServe, 
there's the fviS Windows Ad- 
vanced Forum (WINADV), the 
Windows New Users Forum 
(WINNEW), and three Win- 
dows [hiid-pany forums (WIN- 
APA, WINAPB, WINAPC). 

If you don't have any luck 
there, find the general forum 
for your computer platform, in 
this case an IBf^ compatible. 
On BIX, check IBM. PC; on GE- 
nie, go to the IBMPC Roundta- 
ble at page 615; on Compu- 
Serve, check the IBM Applica- 
tions forum (IBMAPP); and on 
People/Link, GO \BM. You 
might also want to see if 
there's a SIG run by your print- 
er manufacturer, since you're 
having a printing problem. 

Hooray! You've found atop- 
ic discussing your spread- 
sheet program. The next thing 
to do is to compose a mes- 
sage describing your problem 
and asking for help. It's smart 
to leave messages in more 
than one area, in the hope 
that more people will see your 
message and you'll be likely to 



get an answer faster. 

When you type your mes- 
sage, make sure you provide 
all the necessary details. In- 
clude your hardware configu- 
ration, DOS version, software 
versions, and any TSRs or oth- 
er applications you may be run- 
ning at the time. Explain exact- 
ly what's happening when the 
problem occurs. The more de- 
tail you provide, the more like- 
ly someone will come up with 
a solution for your problem. 

If you post your message in 
more than one SIG, though, 
don't leave the same long, de- 
tailed message in each one. 
That would be costly to you 
and to the people who have to 
read your message over and 
over again. In the other areas, 
post something along these 
lines: "I'm having problems 
printing to my Howitzer BJ-220 
printer using the Aileron for Win- 
dows spreadsheet. If you 
think you can help, please see 
message 42 in the Windows/ 
Spreadsheets conference." 

You could ask that any help- 
ful hints be sent via electronic 
mail, which would be easier to 
check the next day, but then 
you'd be depriving others of in- 
formation that could potential- 
ly help them later. 

Next, you log off and go to 
bed. The following morning 
you log on, and someone has 
referred you to a new printer 
driver that you can download 
on that service. You grab the 
driver and install it, and your 
spreadsheet prints beautifully. 
Even if somebody didn't leave 
a solution to your problem, 
chances are good that you'll 
find some hints that will help 
you isolate the problem. 

The next time your work 
comes to a ghnding halt due 
to a technical problem at a 
weird hour, don't get ticked 
off; log on instead. 

Send comments and sug- 
gestions to DENNYA on BIX 
and GEnie, DENNY on Plink, 
or 75500.3602 on CIS. □ 

65 



TIPS & TOOLS 



When I leach PC 

seminars the 

most controversial 

advice in the 

whole class is to 

leave the PC 

on all the time. 



Really Wild Cards 

Sometimes you want to be 
able to use wildcard specifica- 
tions on programs or DOS 
commands that don't support 
them. It might be convenient 
to enter the command TYPE 
'.TXT to read a directory full 
of text files. But it doesn't 
work that way. 

However, STAR. BAT does 
thai — and one better. It allows 
you to use lists of file specifi- 
cations! For example, enter 
the command STAR TYPE 
*.TXT *.BAS TESIC to run 
the TYPE command on all 
text files, all BASIC files, and 
the C program TEST. The 
STAR program does its mag- 
ic witfi the sorely neglected 
FOR command in batch: 

ECHO OFF 
CLS 

HEM Check for at least 2 para- 
meters. 

IF "%1" = " " GOTO Syntax 

IF "%r = " " GOTO Syntax 

REM %%1 Is the command or 

REM program. Everything else 

REM is matched by the file 

REM specilication. 

FOR %%r IN (%2 %3 %4 %5 %6 
%7 %8 %9) DO %1 %%r 

GOTO Bottom 

:Syntax 

ECHO Need a program or com- 
mand name and one or more 
file specifications. 

ECHO For example: 

ECHO STAR TYPE*. DOC 

ECHO STAR OB S.BAS 
TIMER.BAS 

:BDttom 

The heart of the program is 
its FOR loop. %1 is the name 
of the program or command. 
%2 through %9 are the com- 
mand line parameters. Note 
that the program will quit if it 
doesn't find at least a pair of 
parameters: the program or 
command name, and at least 
one file specification. The 
%%r gets replaced by each 
file matching each file specifi- 
cation; in the TYPE example 



above, all files ending in TXT 
are matched and copied into 
%%r file by file in directory 
order. 

You could improve this pro- 
gram even further by using a 
SHIfT. That would give you 
even more than the eight file 
specifications offered by this 
version of STAR, although I've 
never used more than three 
or four. 

TOM CAMPBELL 
IRVINE, CA 



Always On 



When I teach PC troubleshoot- 
ing seminars, the most contro- 
versial advice in the whole 
three-day class is to leave the 
PC on all the time. Why? 
Here are a few short reasons: 

• Turning electronic devices 
on and off subjects them to 
a power-on or ballistic 
surge. Light bulbs burn out 
mainly when you turn them 
on, right? The same princi- 
ple is involved with your 
computer, 

• The small motors on hard 
disks have a hard time start- 
ing up in the morning. Grant- 
ed, leaving them on all the 
time will shorten their lives 
due to the greater de- 
mands on the motor bear- 
ings, but generally the bear- 
ings aren't the things that 
die. What kills hard drives is 
that one day they can't get 
started. Leave them on and 
avoid the start-up problem. 

• Think of all the things that 
you use every day whose cir- 
cuits are active all the time: 
electronic clocks, thermo- 
stats, TVs with the instant- 
on feature. These are all fair- 
ly reliable, right? 

There is a catch to leaving 
your PC on all the time: You 
have to make sure that you've 
got good surge protection 
and a good fan. With a good 
fan, your PC can operate in 
the desert at 105 degrees 



and be perfectly happy. 

MARK MINASI 
ARLINGTON. VA 

Reet Delete 

Sometimes it's nice to have 
DOS ask whether I'm sure 1 
want to delete all the files in a 
subdirectory, but most of the 
lime I know what I'm doing, 
and I'd just as soon not have 
to ansv/er any questions from 
the operating system. 

Use DOS redirection to 
solve this problem. Create a 
file called YES.TXT with a text 
editor or with COPY CON. In 
this file put the letter V fol- 
lowed by a carriage return. 
Save it as an ASCII file. 

Next, enter the following 
line in a batch file and save it 
as EMPTY. BAT 

ERASE *.* < YES.TXT 

Now, when you give the 
command EMPTY, the batch 
file runs and gets its input 
from the file YES.TXT The Y 
answers the Are' you sure? 
prompt for you. You can put 
the YES.TXT file anywhere on 
your system (I keep mine in 
the BATCH subdirectory) as 
long as you include its full 
path when you use it in batch 
files. 

The following command de- 
letes everything in a subdirec- 
tory, but this method lets you 
see what's going on while the 
files are being deleted: 

FOR %%F IN (*.*) DO ERASE 

%%F 

This deletes every file in 
the directory, but it does so 
by executing the ERASE com- 
mand for each file, giving you 
a chance to double-check 
the files as they are being elim- 
inated. If you have second 
thoughts about tossing a cer- 
tain file, use an UNERASE util- 
ity to bring it back. 

TONY ROBERTS 
eREENSBORO. NC 



66 COMPUTE 



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TIPS & TOOLS 



Graphics Botching 

You might assume that, like 
most utilities, batch files won't 
work in graphics mode. Not 
true — they work just fine. Show- 
ing remarkable foresight, the 
designers of the PC wrote the 
BIOS so that all text services 
work equally well in either 
mode, and DOS displays text 
with the help of BIOS servic- 
es. So batch files will work. To 
try it out, create a file called 
TEST.BAT: 

REM TEST.BAT 

PAUSE Note that text displays just 
line in graphics mode. 

Then fire up BASIC or GW- 
BASIC and run this short pro- 
gram: 

100 REM Go to graphics mode. 

110 SCREEN 2 

120 REM Drop to DOS and run the 

130 REM TESIBAT program. 

140 SHELL "TEST" 

150 REM Wait tor the user to 

160 REM press Enter. 

170 INPUT 

TOM CAMPBELL 
IRVINE, CA 

Blank Echo 

Here is yet another look at 
echoing a blank line in a 
batch tile. You can't just type 
ECHO all by itself on a line, be- 
cause you'll get a message 
like ECHO is off. 

ECHO Is a three-part com- 
mand: 

• With no arguments, it re- 
ports status: ECHO is on, or 
ECHO is off. 

• With arguments ON or OFF, 
it enables or disables com- 
mand echoing. 

• With any other argument, it 
just repeats back what you 
tell it: ECHO Hello will just 
make the PC say Hello on 
the screen, 

How, then, to create a 
blank line on the screen? 

68 COMPUTE 



There are three approach- 
es. The first is to use the 
ANSI, SYS escape codes to 
move the cursor around, creat- 
ing blank lines by skipping 
lines. It's too much work. And 
if ANSI. SYS wasn't loaded by 
the user's CONFIG.SYS file, 
this approach won't work. 

An easier way is just to use 
the ECHO command with a pe- 
riod (.) after it. Try it out: 

©ECHO OFF 

ECHO The lollowing is a blank 

line: 
ECHO. 
ECHO See? 

(Editor's note: This tech- 
nique won't work consistently 
in all versions of DOS.) 

The third way is to hold 
down the Alt key and type 
255 on the numeric keypad af- 
ter the ECHO command. This 
enters a blank character after 
the ECHO command, which 
will print to the screen. 

MARK MINASI 
ARLINGTON, VA 

The Straight and Narrow 

Sometimes you need to em- 
ploy DOS utilities in a batch 
file, but you can't ensure that 
they are available on the tar- 
get machine. For example, 
this handy tine displays a sort- 
ed directory: 

DIR I SORT 

However, it requires that 
SORT.EXE appear some- 
place on the path. IF EXIST 
won't do it, because in order 
to use it, you must know the 
full pathname of the file. 

FOR comes to the rescue, 
thanks to the fact that DOS 
treats the semicolon as a sep- 
arator. Try this program twice. 
The first time, use the name of 
a program you know is on the 
path; for example, SORTEXE. 
Next, try a name you know 
doesn't exist; for example, 
LUNKHEAD.TMP. In both cas- 



es you should remember the 
extension: SORT won't work, 
but SORTEXE will. 

ECHO OFF 

CLS 

IF"%r'==" " GOTO END 

SET TMP=N 

FOR %%l IN (%PATH%} DO IF 

EXIST %%f \%1 SET TMP=Y 
IF %TMP% = Y ECHO %1 is 

on the path. 
IF %TMP% == N ECHO %1 is not 

on the patii. 
SET TIV1P= 
lEND 

The SET TMP=N line 
means Make the value of the 
environment variable T!\AP the 
letter N. This is short for No. 
because we assume the file 
doesn't exist. (If you are al- 
ready using TMP as an envi- 
ronment variable, use some 
other variable name in place 
of TMP in the example.) The 
next line is the heart of the pro- 
gram. The FOR loop search- 
es the path directory by direc- 
tory doing an IF EXIST 
search in each one. If the file 
is found, the value in TMP 
changes to Y. You can now 
query this value anytime you 
want in the program. The pro- 
gram then displays the results 
of the search and removes 
the TMP environment varia- 
ble, since it's no longer need- 
ed by your environment. 

TOM CAMPBELL 
IRVINE. CA 



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I Circle Reader Service Number 182 



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PROGRAMMING POWER 



Tom Campbell 



Global variables 

are tempting. 

but lii<e spicy lood, 

ttiey can come 
baclc to haunt you. 



GLOBAL 
WARNINGS 

If you're a regular reader of 
this column, you're familiar 
with my diatribes against glob- 
al variables: They make code 
harder to maintain and reuse, 
they can be dangerous, and 
so on. But globals offer an im- 
portant feature that local vari- 
ables don't: They retain their 
values between subroutine 
calls. 

Of course, this can be a 
trap. You may find yourself 
dealing with an unexpected 
bug (then again, how many of 
them are expected?) in which 
the value of a global is sup- 
posed to change but doesn't, 
it can be a long time before 
you discover that you've cre- 
ated a local variable in one of 
your routines with the same 
name as the global. 

Another example: In some 
multitasking environments, 
where several copies of the 
same program can be running 
at the same time, the global var- 
iable space, like the code, is 
a shared resource. So if 
you've written a word proces- 
sor and user A adjusts the tab 
settings while user B is pains- 
takingly editing a complex ta- 
ble, user B's work might sud- 
denly take a nasty turn for the 
worse the next time the dis- 
play is reformatted, because 
you've put the tab settings in 
a global variable. 

Closer to home is Microsoft 
C. which relied on globals to 
such an extent that a huge 
number of its library routines, 
including common ones tike 
scanf(), didn't work under Win- 
dows or OS/2 because they 
multitask. The list of verboten 
routines dwindles with each re- 
lease of the compiler, but the 
lesson remains — not even the 
biggest developers are im- 
mune to questionable program- 
ming practices. 

Disregarding for the mo- 



ment that you probably pro- 
gram on a PC and don't have 
to worry about multiple users, 
there's a third kind of variable 
called static that gives you the 
best of both worlds. It has the 
same scope as a local varia- 
ble, yet it saves the value of 
thai variable between subrou- 
tine calls. Statics may be ini- 
tialized when declared, but 
the initialization is performed 
only once — not each time the 
routine is called. The name stat- 
ic is a C term; Turbo Pascal 
gives these variables the con- 
fusing moniker typed con- 
stants. They're declared in the 
CONST section, yet, unlike nor- 
mal constants, their values 
may be altered. 

How can statics coexist 
with the apparently exclusive 
global and local types? By trick- 
ery in the compiler. 

Local variables are kept on 
the stack, which on many ma- 
chines (80;<86 machines 
among them) can be just 
about anywhere in memory. 
Even between invocations of 
the same routine, that rou- 
tine's stack can be in a differ- 
ent place, and it's tracked by 
a variable on the CPU called 
the stack pointer. Since the 
same local variable could be 
stored in a hundred different 
places inside of a second, you 
can't rely on its value. 

Globals, on the other hand, 
sit placidly in the same place 
all the time. The compiler itself 
is therefore written to "remem- 
ber" the name of a global varia- 
ble during the entire compila- 
tion. It remembers a local var- 
iable only while it's generating 
code for the routine in which 
that variable was declared (as 
well as any nested routines, in 
the case of Pascal) and lets 
the slack pointer track its phys- 
ical location in memory at run- 
time. As you've probably 
guessed, a static is stored in 
the same area of memory as 
global data, but its name is on- 
ly meaningful to the compiler 



while the routine it was de- 
clared in is being compiled. 

This month's program is ON- 
PATH.EXE. which lets you find 
all files on the path that meet 
the file specification you give it. 
To use it, enter ONPATH file- 
spec at the command line. 
Here are some examples; 

ONPATH TLINK 

ONPATH C0MMAND.COM 

ONPATH README.TXT > LPT1: 

Don't give it a leading directo- 
ry name, as in ONPATH C: 
\DOS\LINK.'. It won't work 
right, and if you want to re- 
strict your search to a directo- 
ry, you might as well use DIR. 
The first example finds all 
files starting with TLINK and 
ending with any extension. 
For example, my path is 
PATH=E:\BAT;E:\BIN;C:\DOS; 
E:\W0RD5;C:\WIND0WS; 
E:\B0RLANDC\BIN;E:\GEO 
and the search for TLINK on 
my machine turned up this dis- 
quieting result: 

E:\B1N\TLINK.EXE 
53414 05-07-90 02:QOa 
E:\BORLANDC\BIN\TLINK.EXE 
72585 02-13-91 02:00a 
E:\BORLANDC\BIN\TLINK.CFG 
19 03-Z4-91 01:52a 

3 File(s) found. 

When dozens of strange er- 
rors popped up in a program 
after I installed a new compil- 
er, I discovered I needed ON- 
PATH. The same program 
had compiled just fine before. 
You can" see the culprit 
above. Two different versions 
of the linker. Since E:\B1N 
came before E:\BOR- 
LANDCNBIN on the path, the 
older linker was being run 
first. 

The second example, us- 
ing the filespec COM- 
MAND. COM, will find all cop- 
ies of C0MMAND.COM on 
your path. 1 found three ver- 
sions of COMMAND, from 



70 COtiflPUTE 



DOS versions 2.0, 3.2, and 3, 
on the path of one machine 
(not mine!). Note that, like 
DIR, ONPATH appends ".*" 
as the extension if you don't 
provide one. ONPATH's out- 
put is redirectable, as you 
can see in the third example. 

A static variable is used in 
the routine NextDirOnPath, 
which is passed a string to 
which it writes the name of 
the next directory on the 
path. If you have the very 
short path C:\iDOS;E:\BIN, 
the first call will write C:\ DOS 
to its Result parameter. 

Note that NextDirOnPath 
thoughtfully removes trailing 
semicolons and backslashes. 
The second call writes E:\ BIN 
to Result, and the last call re- 
turns an empty string. NextDi- 
rOnPath must obviously save 
the ever-shrinking path some- 
where, yet ONPATH. PAS 
sports no global variables. 

NextDirOnPath works its 
magic by storing the path in a 
typed constant, Turbo Pas- 
cal's confusing name for stat- 
ic variables. The first time 
NextDirOnPath is called, the in- 
put variable Result is empty, 
so Turbo's GetEnv function is 
used to extract the PATH varia- 
ble from your DOS environ- 
ment, whereupon it's written 
to the static variable (or 
typed constant) SavedPath. 

On later calls to NextDirOn- 
Path, Result will be a nonemp- 
ty value, so GelEnv is only 
called the first time. A search 
now commences for the first 
semicolon. When it's found, 
the path up to that point is cop- 
ied into Result, it's amputated 
from the beginning of Saved- 
Path, and the surviving path 
is automatically available for 
the next call to NextDirOnPa- 
th. You could have a global 
named SavedPath and varia- 
bles named SavedPath in eve- 
ry routine, yet the static varia- 
ble SavedPath would retain 
its value and be visible to this 
routine and this one only. □ 



UEES CHT, DOS: ( OHPATH showE files matching *1 on the pith, 

PROCEDURE Pause; ( Pause on any Jtey except Esc. which <nits to DOS. 
VAR 

ch : CHAR; 
BEGIN 

IF KeyPressed then r r( a >:ey was pressed, pull it 

BEGIN j off the keyboard buffer. Then 

ch := ReadKey; I check to see if it's Esc. 

IF ch = #27 THQl ( If it is, iiuit to DOE, setting 

halt (II; ( ERRORLEVEL to 1. 

REPEAT ( If it's not Esc, wait around 

UNTIL KeyPressed; ( for another keypress; then 

ch := ReadKey; ( toss that one into the bit 

QID; t bucket as well. 
EMD; ( PROCEDURE Pausel 



PROCEDUBE NextDirOnS>ath|VSE Result 
VAE 

Semicolon : INTEGER; 

caisT 

SavedPath : STRIJiG = ' • : 
BEGIN 

IF Result o ■ ' THEN 

SavedPath : = GetEnv { ' PATH ' i ; 
Semicolon : = Pes ( ' ; ' . SavedPathI . 
Result ;^Copy(SavedPath, 1, Pos( 



: STHIHGI ; ( Writes the name of 
( the next dir on the path to 
( Result, saving the remaining 
I path in a local static variable^ 



{ (which Turbo Pascal calls } 

( •typed' constant. \ 

If the input is empty, it's the) 

first time. Save PATH= here. } 

Trim off any semicolon, tf need) 

. .'. SavedPathI); { be.) 

( Delete trailing semicolons. ) 



IF Semicolon' > THEN 

Delete{Result, SesniColon. 1) 
ELSE { Delete trailing backslashes. 

BEGIN Result := SavedPath; SavedPath := '•; END; 
IF Pes I A', Result! = Length I Result I THEN 

Delete (Result, Length (Result) . 1); 
Delete (SavedPath. 1. Semicolon); ( Remove this dir name from the 
END; { PROCEDURE NextDir J { locally preserved pathname. 



FUNCTIcai LeadingZero (Value 
VAE 

tnrp : STRING; 
BEGIN 

Str (Value: O.cmp! ; 

IF Length (trap) = 1 THEN 
tmg ; = ' ' + tesj?; 

LeadingZeiro : = tffl)?; 
END; 

PROCEDURE WriteFilenafliednsertPsth 

VAE 

Display : STRING; 
Index, Len : INTEGER; 
ParsedTime : DateTiffle; 

BEGIN 



INTEGER) ; STRING; 

Stolen straight out of the TP ! 

online help, this formats Value) 

in a way siBilar to DIR'fi--withl 

{ a leading if the number is ) 

i only one digit wide. > 



STRING; Dirlnfo : SearchReo) ; 
This routine displays a 
filenajne in a manner similar 
to that of DIR. except that it . 
. precedes it with the path. That) 
( maVes it easier to see matches,) 



Display := InsertPath + Dlrlnfo.Name; 
Len := Length (Display) ; 
IF Len > <5 THaJ Len := 40; 
Write (Display) ; 

FOR Index := Len TO 40 DO Write! ' •) 
Write I Dirinf o . Siie ; 8 1 ; 
Write ( • ■ 1 ; 

UnpackTimelDirlnfo.Time, ParsedTime) 
WITH ParsedTime IX) 
BEGIN 

Year := Year - 1900; 

Trfrite (LeadingZera(Honth) . ' - ' ,LeadingZero(Day) 



( Create a 40-character ) 
( width pathname. Truncate) 
( if it's over 40. ) 
( Display the filename; ) 
( then pad with spaces ) 
( Right-justify the size. ■) 

{ Parse the time into three) 
( fields, then display it ) 
( with leading Og. ] 



IF hour - 12 THEN Hour :. 24; 
IF Hour = THEN Hour ;. 12; 
IF hour < 13 THEN 

WriteLn(LeadingZero(hour) , ': 
ELSE 

WriteLn(LeadingZero(hour-12) , 
END; 
( PROCEDURE writeFilename ) 



( TricJcy hiandling for noon) 
( and midnight . ) 

*, LeadingZero(min} . 'a') 

':', LeadingZero(rtLin) . *p'); 



■); 



STRING; 
Rewrite (Output ) ; { Hake output redirectable. ) 



END; 

VAR 

Dirlnfo : SearchRec; 
FilesFound, Index ; INTEGER; 
FileSpec. NextDir. NextNaaie 

BEGIN 

Assign (Output 
FilesFound := 
FileSpec : = ' 

NextDir : = ■ * 

IP ParainCount 

ELSE 
BEGIN 

Write) 'File or file specification to search for 
HeadLn( FileSpec] ; 
IF FileSpec = • ' THEN 
Haltd); 
END; 
TFPosr,", FileSpec) s THai ( Add an inplied 



THEN FileSpec := ParamStrd) 



FileSpec := FileSpec 
NextDirOnPath I NextDir) ; 
WHILE NextDir ■:> ' ■ DO 

BEGIN 

NextName := NextDir * 



Enter to quit. ') ; 



the way ) 



. ( DIR does, if no extension. I 
( Get next dir name from path. J 
( For each directory on the path: ) 



- '\' * FileSpec; ( Get full file spi 

FindFirst (NextName. Archive, DirInfoi;i Find first match 
IF DOSError = THQ( ( If match is found, display it 
BEGIN 

IrfriteFilename(NextDir * '\', Dirlnfo); 
INC (FilesFound) ; [ Track numtier of files found. 
END; 
WHILE DOSError tt DO 
BEGIN 

Pause; 

FlndNext IDirlnto); 
IF DOSError . THEN 
BEGIN 

WriteFilename (NextDir 

INC (FilesFound) i 

END; 
END| 
NextDirOnPath(NextDir) ; ( Repeat this process for each 
END; ( directory on the path. 

trfriteLnC '. FilesFound, ■ File(E) foaio.'l; 
END. 



) 



( As long as matching files can ) 

i be found in this directory. ) 
i allow user to press Esc to quit) 

( or space to pause. Then print j 

( the filename in question with ) 

its location on the path. ) 

'~ 'W Dirlnfo); 



71 



POINT & CLICK 



Clifton Karnes 



Where your 

GUI is a tortoise, 

a cache 

wili bring It up 

to speed. 



COLD HARD CACHE 
FOR YOUR GUI 

Whether you're running Win- 
dows, GeoWorks Ensemble, 
or a more exotic graphical us- 
er interface, one thing's for 
sure: You need a disk cache. 
Why? Because all GUIs are 
disk-intensive. They simply 
can't keep everything they of- 
fer in the computer's memory, 
so they routinely swap pro- 
gram code and data from disk 
to memory and back. Every 
time your computer reads 
from the disk, your system 
slows down. Just how much de- 
pends on how fast your hard 
disk is. 

By far, the most cost-effec- 
tive way to speed up your 
hard disk is to use a disk 
cache. This is such an impor- 
tant tool that Windows actual- 
ly includes a cache as stan- 
dard equipment, and it auto- 
matically installs it for you. 

GEOS doesn't come bun- 
dled with a cache, probably be- 
cause its programs run so fast 
without one. You pay the 
price for speed, however, 
when you run a DOS program 
or shell to DOS. Here GEOS is 
a tortoise; a cache will dramat- 
ically improve its speed. 

So, you need a cache. But 
which one? Windov/s users 
get the latest version of 
SMARTDrive free (it comes 
with most versions of MS- 
DOS, too), but there are other 
programs that claim to be bet- 
ter. This month I looked at two; 
HyperDisk (HyperWare, 
Route Box 91, Pall Mall, Ten- 
nesee 38577; 615-864-6868; 
$69,00) and Power Cache 
P/us (Intelligent Devices, 112 
Harvard Avenue, Suite 295, 
Claremont, California 91711; 
714-920-9551; $99.95). Both 
high-performance programs 
work with Windows, GEOS, 
and DOS, and both claim to 
be faster than SMARTDrive. 

HyperD/s/c comes with spe- 



cial versions for conventional 
memory, 286 systems, and 
386 systems. As with most 
modern caches, it can cache 
in conventional, expanded, or 
extended memory, but if 
you're running Windows, you'll 
almost certainly want to use ex- 
tended memory. 

Power Cache Plus comes in 
two versions; PCPFASr offers 
faster performance, and 
PCPSMALL is slower but opti- 
mized to use less memory. As 
with HyperDisk, it can cache 
in conventional, expanded, or 
extended memory. 

Power Cache Plus has one 
incompatibility with Windows: 
It can't coexist with a perma- 
nent swap file. If you run Win- 
dows in 386-enhanced mode 
and use a permanent swap 
file, you'll take a performance 
hit by switching to a temporary 
swap file, as we'll see. 

To test these caches, I ran 
a series of benchmarks in Win- 
dows, DOS, and GEOS and 
found some surprising results. 

For the Windows \esl, I cre- 
ated a macro using Pub- 
Tech's BatchWorks that opens 
four applications along with typ- 
ical documents. I loaded 
Word for Windows with a 34K 
document, Microsoft Excel 
with a 15K spreadsheet. Q-hE 
with a 190K database, and 
Crosstalk. After each was load- 
ed, its window was resized 
(with BatchWorks), and then 
each was closed. 

I ran the tests on a Gateway 
25-MHz 386 with 4h/1B of RAM 
and a 17-ms 110MB hard 
drive. I set each cache for 
1024K using extended memo- 
ry. In 386-enhanced mode, 
the suite of Windows pro- 
grams produced the following 
times; 

No cache 2.08 minutes 

HyperDisk 1.03 minutes 

Power Cache Plus 1 .68 minutes 
SMARTDrive 1.13 minutes 

Both HyperDisk and 



SMARTDrive were able to 
work with a permanent swap 
file with which Power Cache 
Plus is incompatible. Because 
of this, its time suffered. 
When I tested HyperDisk and 
SMARTDrive without a perma- 
nent swap file, their times 
were closer to that of Power 
Cache Plus. Next I tested all 
three caches in DOS, using 
the database cache test sup- 
plied with Power Cache Plus. 
Here, the results were amaz- 
ing. Power Cache Plus aver- 
aged more than twice as fast 
as HyperDisk, and in reading 
and writing random records, it 
was more than three times as 
fast. SMARTDrive and Hyper- 
Disk were neck and neck. Av- 
erage times were; 

No cache 6.79 minutes 

HyperDisk 4.61 minutes 

Power Cache Plus 2.14 minutes 

SMARTDrive 4.69 minutes 

For GEOS, I tested each 
cache with a variety of opera- 
tions; loading GEOS from 
DOS, running GeoDraw and 
GeoWrite, and shelling to 
DOS— one of GEOS's slowest 
operations. Since GEOS is 
less disk-intensive than Win- 
dows, neither cache signifi- 
cantly improved the perform- 
ance of GEOS applications. 
But the time it took to shell to 
DOS and return was more 
than doubled with both cach- 
es. Cache times for these op- 
erations were almost identical 
for HyperDisk. SMARTDrive. 
and Power Cache Plus. 

What does all this mean? If 
you're using lots of DOS appli- 
cations and you don't mind 
not being able to use a perma- 
nent swap file in Windows, 
then Power Cache Plus is the 
choice. If you're not into DOS 
apps in a big way, then Hyper- 
Disk is the winner by a hair. 
For most of us, SMARTDrive 
will do just fine, especially if 
you can afford to give it 
1024K of memory. □ 



72 COMPUTE 




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INTRODOS 



Tony Roberts 



Tirad ol that same old 
DOS prompt? Here's 
tiow to add a little tile 
to your PC's com- 
mand tine. 



A PROMPT 
RESPONSE 

Over the years, the DOS 
prompt has taken a lot of 
heat. It's been called cold, un- 
friendly, and a lot of other 
names — many unprintable. 
It's not hard, though, to take 
the edge off the infamous 
prompt. In fact, fooling with 
the DOS prompt has provided 
many an evening of recreation 
for computer users. 

DOS provides the PROMPT 
command so you can custom- 
ize the prompt to your liking. 
In many cases, this command 
is either ignored or placed in 
the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and 
forgotten. A common example 
is the command PROMPT 
$P$G, which is found on most 
hard disk systems. 

Although it doesn't look like 
much, the above command in- 
structs the computer to print 
the current directory path fol- 
lowed by a greater than sign. 
It might come out looking some- 
thing like C:\ DOS\ UTILITIES>. 

But how did the cryptic com- 
mand PROMPT $P$G turn in- 
to something helpful and use- 
ful? The answer is meta- 
strings. Metastrings are 
groups of characters (strings) 
that the program changes in- 
to something else. In the case 
of the PROMPT command, (he 
dollar sign is a signal that tells 
the program to apply a special 
interpretation to whatever char- 
acter follows. 

The metastring SP is trans- 
formed into the current path, 
and $G is transformed into the 
greater than character. Your 
DOS manual includes a table 
that lists the PROMPT meta- 
strings. Among them are 
codes to display the current 
time or date, as well as char- 
acters to move the cursor to 
the next line or to erase the pre- 
vious character. 

If you use a program such 
as a word processor or spread- 



sheet that allows you to shell 
to DOS, you've probably had 
the experience of forgetting 
that your application program 
was running, and you've tried 
to run it again. 

To remedy this problem, 
start the application via a 
batch file that uses the 
PROMPT command to remind 
you that you should exit back 
to your application. Here's how 
I do it for Borland's Quattro Pro: 

©echo off 

PROMPT Spreadsheet program ac- 
tive. Type EXIT to return.$_$P$G 
cd \QPRO 

q 

ci\ 

PROIVIPT SP$G 

The metastring $_ is translat- 
ed into a carriage return-line- 
feed, so this prompt ends up 
being displayed on two lines. 
At the end of the batch file, 
the prompt is restored to its 
normal state. 

Some users like to create 
elaborate prompts using 
some of the graphics charac- 
ters that are available in the up- 
per half of the ASCII set. To 
use these characters, first 
look them up in an ASCII 
chart so you'll know the ASCII 
number of each character 
you want to use. 

Then, to include the charac- 
ter in your prompt command, 
hold down the Alt key and 
punch in the ASCII code on 
the numeric keypad. When 
you release the Alt key, the 
character will appear on- 
screen. 

If creating the perfect 
prompt has caught your fan- 
cy, you'll want to take the 
next step and include some 
ANSI escape sequences in 
your prompt, allowing you to 
add color to your creation. 

To do this, you'll need to 
have the ANSI .SYS device driv- 
er or an equivalent (NAN- 
SI. SYS, GANSI.SYS, or TAN- 
SI, SYS) installed on your sys- 



tem. If it's not installed, you 
can add the line DE- 
V1CE=ANSI.SYS to your CON- 
FIG.SYS file. If the ANSI.SYS 
file is in a directory other than 
the root directory, be sure to 
include the complete path to 
it in the DEVICE statement. 

With ANSI.SYS installed, 
you can make your prompts in- 
clude boldface, flashing, or re- 
verse type, and you can se- 
lect foreground and back- 
ground colors as well. 

ANSI commands involve the 
use of another set of meta- 
strings called escape sequenc- 
es. These sequences combine 
an escape character (ASCII 
27), a left bracket ([), an op- 
tional parameter, and a one- 
letter command code. 

This gets pretty involved, 
and there isn't room here to 
list all the codes and parame- 
ters for colors and video 
modes, so I'll provide an exam- 
ple to get you started. 

Let's take the usual $P$G 
prompt and spice it up by dis- 
playing the prompt itself in re- 
verse video. 

PROMPT $E[7M$P$G$E[M 

Notice the metastring $E in 
the command above. This is 
the PROMPT command's way 
of sending the escape charac- 
ter. When ANSI.SYS detects 
the escape character fol- 
lowed by a left bracket char- 
acter, it knows that it should in- 
terpret the characters that fol- 
low. The code 7M is the ANSI 
code for reverse mode. AN- 
SI.SYS switches the display 
to reverse mode, and then 
the PROMPT metastrings 
SPSG are expanded and print- 
ed. Finally, another escape se- 
quence changes the video 
back to normal mode. 

As I said, you can have a 
lot of fun playing with 
prompts. Send me your best 
creation in care of COM- 
PUTE, and I'll print a selection 
in a future column. □ 



74 COIVIPUTE 



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HARDWARE CLINIC 



Mark Minasi 



Which 

computer bus 

Is best 

for you— ISA, 

MCA, 

or EISA? 



DON'T CATCH 
THE WRONG BUS 

In the past four years, there's 
been plenty of smoke (and mir- 
rors) about computer buses. If 
you're like most people, you've 
heard of IBM's Micro Channel, 
and you may know of the clone- 
meisters' response, EISA. 
They're supposed to be better 
somehow — aren't they? 

Here's the straight and skin- 
ny on what these new buses 
offer and why you should 
care. In the process, I'll ex- 
plain a whole bunch of things, 
including the horrifying DMA 
Speed Scandal. 

First things first: What's a 
bus? Basically, a bus is the set 
of connectors — the slots — on 
your motherboard. It's the 
point from which your system 
can be expanded. 

Fortunately, the buses in 
the PC are well documented. 
That means that anyone can 
design and sell an add-in cir- 
cuit card, and that's got a lot 
to do with why the PC is so pop- 
ular in the first place. The en- 
tirely open nature of the PC — 
its bus slots, its third-party oper- 
ating system (you had a 
choice of buying DOS, CP/M, 
or the p-System from IBM in 
1981) — and its fully document- 
ed BIOS are the reasons why 
the PC is the market leader. 

Ticket to Ride 

The original PC had the bus 
that's still found on XT 
clones. If you count all the met- 
al fingers in a PC bus slot, 
you'll find 62— and each of 
the 62 wires has a specific 
job. Some transmit data, 
while some communicate ad- 
dress information. Some 
warn the CPU of upcoming ac- 
tivity or ask the CPU to yield 
control of the PC, as when 
one circuit board talks direct- 
ly to another (that's called 
DMA or bus mastering, and 
I'll discuss it soon). 



On the original PC, 8 of the 
62 wires transferred data. 
That's why the PC bus is 
called an 8-bit bus. The ad- 
vent of the AT in 1984 saw a 
modification of the PC bus to 
double the width of the dala 
path, leading to the so-called 
AT bus. This bus has a 16-bit 
data path, allowing it to trans- 
fer 16 bits in the time that the 
PC bus would take to transmit 
8 bits. Data paths on comput- 
er buses are like lanes on high- 
ways; the more lanes you 
have, the more that can be 
transported (bits on buses, 
cars on highways). The AT 
bus became the standard for 
most clones and has been re- 
dubbed the Industry Stan- 
dard Architecture, or /S/\ (pro- 
nounced ice-ah). 

ISA has served us well to 
date, but it's limited in sever- 
al ways. First, the 16-bit data 
path was nice in 1984, but it's 
less than optimal for 386DX 
and 486 computers. Both of 
those chips have the potential 
to do 32-bit data transfers, so 
a 32-bit bus would create a 
market for add-in boards that 
could more fully exploit the 
full power of those chips. 'Vir- 
tually all ISA machines run 
the bus slots at a mere 8 
MHz. so even the fastest ISA 
machines must slow down to 
8 MHz whenever communicat- 
ing with an expansion board. 
Second, ISA uses edge-trig- 
gered interrupts. The alterna- 
tive would be level-triggered in- 
terrupts. Edge-triggered inter- 
rupts are more noise-prone 
and so restrict how fast a 
PC's CPU can communicate 
with its expansion boards. 

The DMA Scandal 

IBM decided to scrap ISA al- 
together with its post-1 987 PS/ 
2 line of computers. The PS/ 
2s use an entirely new bus 
called Micro Channel Architec- 
ture (MCA). 

Working from a clean 
slate, IBM was free to add 



some nifty features to MCA. 
First, there's a 32-bit version 
of MCA as well as a 16-bit ver- 
sion, allowing greater speed 
in 386DX and 486 PS/2s than 
would be possible if they 
were ISA machines. Unfortu- 
nately, it's not much faster — 
the maximum clock rate for 
MCA slots is only 10 MHz. It al- 
so uses the cleaner level-trig- 
gered interrupts. 

But it doesn't stop there. 
DMA is faster under MCA 
than under ISA, and MCA of- 
fers bus mastering. DMA is 
short for Direct Memory Ac- 
cess, an interface method 
that allows peripheral devices 
(such as disk controllers or 
LAN boards) to transfer data 
to and from memory without 
having to first pass the data 
through the CPU. 

Why's that good? Consider 
what happens when you ask 
your floppy disk to read a file. 
The CPU tells a board called 
the floppy disl< controller to 
read a block of data from the 
floppy; that block is 512 
bytes long. Once the data 
has been read by the floppy 
controller, that 512 bytes 
must be moved into memory 
so that the floppy controller 
can get ready to read (or 
write) more data to (or from) 
the floppy. How does it get 
moved? The basic way is for 
the CPU to take each byte 
from the controller (one at a 
time), figure out where in mem- 
ory to put that byte, and go 
on to the next byte. The 
buzzword for this kind of trans- 
fer is PIO. or Programmed In- 
put/Output. PlO's fine, except 
for the fact that it's slow, 

Enter DMA. With DMA, we 
eliminate the middleman. The 
floppy disk controller is tempo- 
rarily empowered to talk direct- 
ly to the CPU's memory — 
hence the name Direct Mem- 
ory Access. DMA is solely in- 
tended for speed. 

Which brings us to what I 
call the DMA Scandal. For pur- 



76 COMPUTE 




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HARDWARE CLINIC 



poses of toial backward com- 
patibility, IBM ran the DMA on 
its 8-MHz AT at 4.77 MHz— 
the speed of the PC! Follow- 
ing IBM's lead, the makers of 
virtually all ISA machines to 
this day run their DMAs at 
4.77 MHz. That means that 
when your 33-MHz ISA 386 is 
doing DMA, it slows down to 
the speed of the original IBM 
PC. A few no-name doners 
run DMA at 10 MHz, but 
they're few and far between. 
Incredible, ain't it? 

Micro Channel improves on 
ISA by running DMA at half 
the processor speed, so a 10- 
MHz PS/2 runs DMA at 5 
MHz — basically the same as 
an ISA machine, but a 20- 
MHz PS/2 runs DMA at a 
more acceptable 10 MHz. 

Switch Flipping 

Perhaps the nicest feature of 
MCA is Programmable Option 
Select (PCS). Anyone who's 
ever had to flip switches and 
move jumpers on an expan- 
sion board will appreciate 
this feature. When installing 
an expansion board, you of- 
ten have to configure the 
board. For example, when in- 
stalling an internal modem, 
you must set it as either 
C0M1 or COM2. You set it by 
moving a jumper or flipping a 
DIP switch. That's annoying 
because it means that every 
time you want to reconfigure 
a board, you've got to pop 
the top on your computer, re- 
move the circuit board, make 
the change, and replace it. 
MCA {and EISA, for that mat- 
ter) allow all of these choices 
to be made with software — a 
real timesaver. 

Even better, an expansion 
board whose configuration is 
software adjustable means au- 
tomatic configuration. Rather 
than your setting the modem 
to COM2 because you have a 
mouse on C0M1, why not 
just let the MCA configuration 
software sense the conflict 

78 COMPUTE 



and resolve it automatically? 
That's just what the PS/2 Ref- 
erence Disk does (or tries to 
do, but that's for another col- 
umn). EISA, again, shares 
this capability. 

The Empire Strikes Bock 

Nice as these MCA features 
are, they come at a terrible 
price: ISA-compatible boards 
don't work in MCA machines, 
and MCA boards don't work 
in ISA machines. Further, IBM 
wrapped up MCA in enough 
legal red tape that it became 
quite unattractive for third-par- 
ty PC vendors to clone the 
new bus. To legally offer an 
MCA clone, vendors must 
pay IBM a royalty equal to 5 
percent of their gross sales 
on the machines, Five per- 
cent is usually the total profit 
for most makers of compati- 
bles — as Big Blue well 
knows. 

So Compaq and a number 
of other vendors (Wyse, AST, 
Tandy, Hewlett-Packard, Ze- 
nith, Olivetti, NEC, and Ep- 
son—the initials spell 
watchzone when you include 
Compaq) designed an alterna- 
tive bus with features similar 
to MCA's: software-setup bus 
mastering, faster DMA, and 
32-bit width. They call it EISA 
(pronounced ease-ah), for Ex- 
tended Industry Standard Ar- 
chitecture. 

Then they went IBM a hair 
better. They designed EISA to 
be backward compatible with 
ISA. Every EISA slot has a dou- 
ble-decker connector. The 
top part is the ISA circuitry, 
and the bottom part has the EI- 
SA lines. Only EISA boards 
have connectors that can ex- 
tend down to the EISA part. (I 
wonder if that's where the Ex- 
tended in Extended Industry 
Standard Architecture came 
from.) 

EISA has a few other leads 
on MCA. An EISA machine 
can have up to 16 slots; 
MCA, 8. EISA can allow an ex- 



isting ISA board to run its 
DMA at twice normal speed 
with no hardware changes to 
the ISA board (there must be 
some new software, howev- 
er). The speed of EISA itself 
is, unfortunately, stuck at 8 
MHz. 

The EISA specification al- 
lows boards to be physically 
larger and draw more power 
than MCA. That's important be- 
cause it means that EISA 
boards are cheaper and easi- 
er to design, and so presum- 
ably will cost less. 

All Aboard 

So what's the right bus for 
you? Well, the vast majority of 
the boards out there are ISA 
compatible, despite the fact 
that the PS/2 has been 
around for four years. EISA 
boards are as scarce as 
hen's teeth, so even if you did 
buy an EISA machine, you'd 
have to wait for boards that ex- 
ploit EISA's capabilities. 

Further, 90 percent of the 
expansion boards wouldn't 
benefit from the improved 
throughput of MCA or EISA- 
talking to my printer or 9600- 
bps modem at 8 MHz Is hard- 
ly what I'd call useful. The 
boards that really would ben- 
efit from better throughput are 
VGA boards, hard disk control- 
lers, and LAN cards. EISA 
and MCA versions of these 
are appearing, but slowly. 

So buying an ISA machine 
today still isn't a bad idea, par- 
ticularly when you consider 
the cost. 

On the other hand, an EI- 
SA machine has ISA compati- 
bility. And when the EISA 
boards do appear, you'll be 
ready. And just to make 
things complicated, one ven- 
dor even sells a reasonably 
priced EISA machine — the 
ALR Business VEISA. It won't 
be the only low-price EISA sell- 
er for long. 

Heck, maybe it is time to up- 
grade ... O 




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• 640K RAM. 

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• Full size ei 
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• IDI-key enhanced keyboard. 

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dot pilch: ,41mm 

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disk drive. ■14' color 
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stots: one 32-bit, 
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•101 key keyboard. 

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ISENO TO: DAMARK INTERNATIONAL, INC., 7101 Winnetka Ave. N„ P.O, Box 29900, MpIs,, MN 55429-0900 Copynghl 1991 DAMARK INTERNATIONAL, INC. All rights reserved, | 



DISK UPDATE 



Richard C. Leinecker 



If you've 

had problems wttn 

SuperMAC, 

yoit may not be 

formaning 

your files correctly. 

Here's helo. 



END MACROS 
THE RIGHT WAY 

We've streamlined COM- 
PUTE'S Menu Operating Sys- 
tem to make it simpler to use. 
In the past, we've offered thie 
option of running some of the 
programs directly from the 
menu. The menu program de- 
compresses the files {or loads 
them straight off the disk if it's 
a3'/2-inch disk) and then exe- 
cutes the code. IvIS-DOS has 
some inherent problems, how- 
ever, thai make this impracti- 
cal in most cases, so we've de- 
cided to eliminate this fea- 
ture — al least for now. 

If you try to run memory-res- 
ident programs, such as 
SCROLOCK from the April 
1991 disk, your computer will 
crash after quitting the menu 
program. That's because the 
system can't keep track of 
where everything is in memo- 
ry after the menu program is 
terminated. 

Some programs may look 
for a configuration file or other 
files they need to run. That's 
the case with ASIC from the 
February disk. It attempts to 
run but aborts because it can't 
find its support files. 

There's one last problem re- 
lated to running programs 
from the menu program. We 
used to use a file called 
LAUNCH.EXE to help us run 
programs from the menu, If 
you typed LAUNCH from the 
command line, though, it tried 
to execute code that didn't ex- 
ist. You won't find it on disk 
from this point on, but if you 
see it on old disks, don't run it. 
If you do, your computer will 
probably lock up, and you'll 
have to reboot. 

Ending Macros Gracefully 

SuperMAC {AptW 1991) loads 
a macro file that you create 
with your text editor or word 
processor. When the program 
runs, it loads the file and con- 



verts it to a format that its in- 
ternal routines understand. 
The conversion routines are 
designed to alert you to any 
problems in the macro file. If 
problems are found, the pro- 
gram quits with an error mes- 
sage. We've gotten calls from 
several people who've re- 
ceived these error messages, 
and we have some sugges- 
tions for avoiding them. 

The most common prob- 
lem is leaving off the carriage 
return at the end of the last 
macro. Your text editor will 
place a carriage return at the 
end if you press Enter. You 
can even add extra blank 
lines at the end of the file to 
make sure that at least one is 
there. 

A second problem can oc- 
cur when your editor places 
non-ASCII characters in the 
file. You have to make sure 
that your word processor 
saves the file as straight AS- 
CII text Make sure, too, that 
your editor saves the file with 
hard carriage returns and not 
just linefeeds. 

If you're still having trouble, 
you might have to resort to 
more thorough measures, 
fvlake sure that the DOS pro- 
gram called DEBUG is in 
your path or in the current di- 
rectory. At the DOS prompt, 
type DEBUG filename.MAC 
and press Enter. You'll see a 
prompt that looks like a dash. 
Press D and then Enter. DE- 
BUG will show you the first sev- 
eral lines of the text file as 
hex data. Disregard the num- 
bers in the left column; what 
you're looking for is to the 
hght. 

When your editor inserts a 
carriage return, it's actually in- 
serting two characters — a 13 
and then a 10. You'll see 
these in the DEBUG dump as 
a consecutive OD OA pair If 
you don't see several of 
these pairs, your editor isn't 
saving in the proper format. If 
you don't see one of these 



pairs after the last macro, you 
haven't ended with a carriage 
return. 

There's one more thing you 
can look for in the hex dump, 
Any character that's less than 
20 hex or greater than 7F hex 
doesn't belong in there. If you 
see characters in these rang- 
es, then your editor has insert- 
ed its own special formatting 
characters, and SuperMAC is 
reporting an error when it 
runs into these. 

Getting the Best Support 

If you call COfvlPUTE's office 
for technical support, you'll 
want to be prepared so you 
can get the best possible re- 
sponse. Here are some sug- 
gestions that will help our tech- 
nical staff solve your prob- 
lems. 

Be ready to list your com- 
puter's equipment. Ivlany pro- 
grams require certain equip- 
ment configurations to oper- 
ate properly. These programs 
may also need you to config- 
ure the program for the equip- 
ment on which it's running. 

It's especially important to 
know your graphics configura- 
tion for programs that run in 
graphics modes and your 
disk drive types for programs 
that are disk utilities or that ac- 
cess the drives often. Being 
able to accurately identify 
your system and its compo- 
nents will help give the tech- 
nical support person the infor- 
mation needed to identify 
your problem. 

Know the version of DOS un- 
der which your computer 
runs. You can get this by typ- 
ing VER at the DOS prompt. 

Although not always possi- 
ble, the most important factor 
is to be right at your comput- 
er when you call so the tech- 
nical representative can taik 
you through any problems 
while you're on the telephone. 
That may save you from hav- 
ing to call again because 
something wasn't clear. n 



80 COMPUTE 



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COMPUTE CHOICE. Double the 
storage capacity of your hard drive 
without spending a bundle. 

Clifton Karnes 



STACKER 



Face it: Your hard disk is too 
small. If you have a 40MB 
drive, you need a 60. If you're 
spinning a 60, you'd be better 
off with an 80. And on and on, 
ad infinitum. 

As a case in point, I recent- 
ly acquired a new computer 
with a 60MB drive, but before 
a month was out, I was spend- 
ing every free moment trying 
to decide what to kick off the 
disk to make room for some- 
thing else. This is no way to 
live, I told myself. 

Until recently, a larger hard 
disk was the only way to gar- 
ner more magnetic real estate. 
But Stacker, a hardware-soft- 
ware combo from Stac Elec- 
tronics, changes all that. With 
it, you can literally double the 
capacity of your hard disk with- 
out paying a performance pen- 
alty. How is this possible? In a 
word, compression. 

Stacker is a device driver 
with an optional coprocessor 
board that stores data on your 
hard disk in a compressed 
form. When you want to write 
something to disk, Stacker 
compresses the data before 
it's written. When you need to 
access the data again, Stack- 
er decompresses the informa- 
tion and sends it to you. 

Compression may sound 
complicated and dangerous, 
but Stacker works flawlessly 
and nearly transparently. In 
fact, if you're using an RLL con- 
troller (and almost everyone 
with a 40MB or larger drive is), 
your data is being com- 
pressed at the bit level al- 
ready. Mainframes have been 
using RLL compression tech- 
nology for years with no ill ef- 
fects. So compression is OK 
as long as it is 100-percent re- 
liable, and Stacker is. 

Installing Stacker isn't diffi- 




cult, but 
the more 
you know 
about your 
PC, the easier it 
will be. As I men- 
tioned earlier, Stack- 
er comes in two ver- 
sions. One version uses 
a software driver coupled 
with a coprocessor board. 
The other version uses a soft- 
ware driver alone. The 
coprocessor board offers fast- 
er performance and much bet- 
ter compression, so it's the- 
choice if you have a machine 
with an open slot. The 
coprocessor version also uses 
less conventional memory — 
21 K RAM as opposed to 30K 
for the software- only Stacker 

To install the coprocessor 
version, you place the board 
in any available slot and run In- 
stall. For the software version, 
you simply run Install. The in- 
stallation program creates a 
Stacker volume on your cur- 
rent hard disk that will hold 
your compressed files. For ex- 
ample, if you have one hard 
disk labeled drive C, Stacker 
will create a drive D to store its 
compressed files. Your sys- 
tem will see drive D as anoth- 
er hard disk, but in reality, 
drive D is a single large file on 
your C drive. 

Getting back to the installa- 
tion, the first thing the setup pro- 
gram asks you for is a base ad- 
dress in upper memory to use 



for your co- 
processor card, 
The program sup- 
plies a default (CCOO), 
which should work in most 
cases. Next, the program asks 
you for a size to use for Stack- 
er's disk cache. If you want to 
use your own cache, you can 
specify a size of 0. Next, Stack- 
er asks how much space you 
want to dedicate to your new 
SfacAer volume. After that, you 
can exercise the option to 
have the program transfer all 
the files on your current disk to 
the Sfac/<er disk, compressing 
them in the process. By de- 
fault, Sfac/cer leaves 1MB of 
disk space on the non-Stack- 
er volume. You can specify 
more if you choose. 

On a 60MB disk, Stacker 
took about 25 minutes to com- 
press 50MB of files, When the 
installation was finished, I had 
a 120MB hard disk with about 
70MB free. Not bad. 

If you're running Microsoft 
Windows, Stacker will work 
without a hitch, but you do 
need to go through a few ex- 
tra steps to install it correctly. 
First, if you're using a perma- 
nent swap file, you'll need to 



82 COMPUTE 



delete it before you run the in- 
stallation program. Then, 
when you're asked how much 
space to leave on your non- 
Stacker vo\ume, leave enough 
room to re-create your swap 
file later. If you normally use a 
4MB swap file, for example, 
you'll want to leave 4MB plus 
an extra megabyte on the 
drive: 5MB in all, After the 
Stecter installation is finished, 
you can rebuild your swap file 
on the non-Stacker volume. 
The only other thing you need 
to do is tell Windows about 
your Stacker coprocessor. 
You do this by adding the line 
emmexclude=ccOO-cfff in the 
386Enh section of your SYS- 
TEM. INI file. 

One thing that may worry 
you a little about this whole 
business is the fact that you're 
depending on this coproces- 
sor board to access all your da- 
ta. What happens if it goes 
bad? Here, there's nothing to 
worry about. If for any reason 
the board stops working, the 
program defaults to the soft- 
ware-only version, which han- 
dles everything itself. 1 tested 
this by removing the coproces- 
sor card and found that my sys- 
tem worked fine, though a lit- 
tle more slowly. 

You can use all your usual 
disk utilities on the Sfactervol- 
ume. If you accidentally delete 
a file, your undelete program 
should work fine, if you use 
Spinrite or another low- 1 eve I 
disk diagnostic program, Stack- 
er won't give it a moment's 
pause. And programs like The 
Norton Disk Doctor will exam- 
ine your Stacker volume and 
treat it just like any other hard 
disk. 

The only exception is that 
you can't run a defragmenting 
program on a Sfactervolume. 
Because of the way Stackeror- 
ganizes files, you could actu- 



ally increase the volume's frag- 
mentation. This means there's 
no way to defragment your 
Stacker volume, except by 
backing everything up and re- 
storing it. Stac realizes that 
this is a weakness with the sys- 
tem, and it is planning to in- 
clude its own defragmenting 
program with future versions. 

Now we're at the bottom 
line, and the two bottom-line 
questions are, How much com- 
pression will I get? and How 
much will my system slow 
down? On my 60MB hard 
disk, I received an overall com- 
pression ratio of 2:1 using the 
coprocessor version. This 
means I doubled the capacity 
of my hard disk, from 60MB to 
120MB, 

As far as performance 
goes, I ran a large number of 
benchmarks comparing my 
Stacker and non-Sfac/fsr vol- 
umes and found some surpris- 
ing results. Using a set of da- 
tabase benchmarks that read 
and write sequential and ran- 
dom records, I found overall 
performance of Stacker and 
non-Sfac/<er volumes using 
the coprocessor to be nearly 
identical. When reading and 
writing sequential information. 
Stacker is faster than my na- 
tive hard disk. When reading 
and writing random informa- 
tion, it is slower. As I men- 
tioned, this all averages out. 

I also tested Stacker and 
non-Sfac/cer volumes without 
the coprocessor card, and 
here, the non-Sfac/<er volume 
was about 18-percent faster 
than the software-only version 
of Stacker. 

With Stacker and its 
coprocessor board, my sys- 
tem feels the same as it did be- 
fore I installed Stacker Even 
with Windows, which is prob- 
ably the most disk-intensive 
program on the planet, I 







1 /J 

s 

r 


1 


^^ STACKER 





haven't noticed any perform- 
ance degradation. 

If you're thinking about buy- 
ing Stacker, there isn't much 
to decide. The system is so 
fast and transparent, you'll im- 
mediately reap the reward of 
a much larger hard disk and 
soon forget you're using it. 
You do need to take into ac- 
count, however, the size of 
your current hard disk and 
how much you'll gain by install- 
ing Stacker 

The larger your current 
hard disk, the more you'll get 
from Stacker. If you have a 
20MB disk, Stacker can turn it 
into a 40, but for what Stacker 
costs, you could buy a new 
40MB hard drive. With a 40MB 
disk, however, StackerwlW pay 
for itself, and with anything larg- 
er than 40MB, Stacker will 
give you the most cost-effec- 
tive increase in disk capacity 
you'll find anywhere. To in- 
crease your hard drive's capac- 
ity, you just can't go wrong 
with Stacker □ 



IBM PC am! 
Gompatibles, 51 2K 
RAM, hard drive— 
$229 lor 
coprocessor 
version, $149 for 
software-only 
version 

STAC ELECTRONICS 
5993 Avenlda Enclnas 
Carlsiiad, CA 92008 
(619)431-7474 



83 



WORKPLACE 



Daniel Janal 



A computer- 
generated 
tliank-you note 
doesn't liave 
to look like the 
most recent 
clearinghouse 
sweenstakes form. 



HOW DO I THANK 
THEE? WITH A 
NOTE, OF COURSE. 

When 1 was growing up, send- 
ing thank-you notes for gifts 
was considered a sign of 
good taste. But lil<e most ad- 
olescents, for me, writing 
tliem took a back seat to watcti- 
ing ball games. Maybe that's 
wtiy relatives stopped send- 
ing me birthday and holiday 
presents, Maybe if I'd 
thanked them, the presents 
would still be coming. 

Hmm, what a concept. May- 
be it works for businesses as 
well. You send business pros- 
pects thank-you notes, and 
they send more business your 
way. After all, a proper thank- 
you note serves many func- 
tions. 

For one, you can keep your 
name in front of prospects and 
clients by honestly thanking 
them for their time, effort, and 
interest. Your note will stand 
out while a direct-mail piece 
might not even register. 

One editor has a tremen- 
dousiy positive view of me sim- 




ply because I sent him a thank- 
you note early in our business 
relationship. Even though our 
paths rarely cross, he still 
tells people I'm a gentleman — 
all because I took the time to 
thank him. 

Why don't people bother 
with thank-you notes any- 
more? Let me count the excus- 
es: sloppy penmanship, spell- 
ing, and grammar; lost ad- 
dresses; too lazy. 

Fortunately, your computer 
can solve these problems 
and more. You can use a 
word processor to write the let- 
ter, check the spelling, and 
correct the grammar. If you 
have horrible handwriting, 
you can use a font that mim- 
ics handwriting like Script or 
Architect. (Check with large 
font libraries from Adobe or 
with shareware sources.) If 
you're truly lazy, you can 
scan your signature into the 
computer and paste it onto 
thank-you notes. 

Your note should contain 
certain key components: It 
should thank the recipient 
and refer to a specific inci- 
dent the two of you shared. 
That way you avoid the look 
and feel of a form letter, while 
prompting the recipient to re- 
member you. You then have 
permission to conduct busi- 
ness, addressing the per- 
son's requests and questions. 
Finally, you should end with a 
specific promise to follow up. 

How do you remember 
enough about all the people 
you meet to follow up without 
getting them confused? 
When I meet people at trade 
shows and seminars, I ask for 
business cards and then 
make a note of the person's 
interests, my promises, and 
what we talked about. You 
don't have to write The Great 
American Novel. 

How does all this save 
time if you have to write 50 dif- 
ferent notes to people you 
met at the Gargantuan Con- 



vention? Not to worry. You'll 
find that 90 percent of your let- 
ters fall into three categories: 
I'll call you to follow up, I'm 
sending you the product now, 
and I'll be sending you the 
product in the future. If you 
create three separate notes 
(or letters, if you have a lot to 
say) with such sentiments on 
your word processor, you'll 
have covered the majority of 
your thank-you-note recipi- 
ents. Then, you can use the 
time you've saved to corre- 
spond even more personally 
with the other 10 percent. 

Sort your business cards in- 
to three piles to correspond 
with the three note categories 
so you can "batch-process" 
the letters and virtually auto- 
mate the system. Write the 
three basic notes, call up the 
first one, and either type the 
person's name and personal 
references or use the mail- 
merge feature of your word 
processor. 

By stonng the information 
in a file, you can retrieve it for 
reference and reprinting when- 
ever you want. If you find 
mail merge confusing, you 
can make a copy of the mas- 
ter letter and manually type 
the information onto the copy, 
print it immediately, and save 
it for the future. Laser printing 
will allow you to send nicely 
printed letters and notes — 
even on fancy letterhead and 
odd paper sizes, such as 
note cards. Try printing a few 
sample sheets before invest- 
ing in a load of paper, 
though. You also should print 
a few practice sheets until 
you get the margin spacing 
just nght. 

Taking the time to send 
thank-you notes to your cli- 
ents and prospects is smart 
business. You'll be remem- 
bered for remembering them. 
By the way, thank you for read- 
ing this far. I wish I could 
send a note to thank each of 
you individually. □ 



84 COMPUTE 



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Keep 

your home office 

running 

on the straight and 

narrow. 

By Rosalind Resnick 
and Susie Archer 



People who run home offices typically 
spend half their time worrying about get- 
ting business in the door — and the oth- 
er half worrying that they've taken on 
too much. With all the attention paid to 
sales and marketing, the legal aspects 
of setting up and maintaining a home 
office are often overlooked. And yet 
there are many legal questions that 
ought to give you pause: What if you 
need a contract drawn up'' Which le- 
gal software gives you the biggest 
bang for the buck? And, most basic of 
all, does your community even permit 
you to work from home? 



Legal questions often defy easy an- 
swers, but that doesn't mean that you 
should rush out and hire a lawyer. 
Your PC, a modem, and a couple of 
self-help law books may be what you 
need to cut through all but the thorni- 
est of legal problems. Here's a begin- 
ner's guide to Home Office Law 101. 

Zoning 

The first legal issue many home office 
users must confront is whether they 
can legally open a home office at all. 
Some cities and states are very strict 
while others take a more tolerant view 



86 



COMPUTE 




i-gffr?^ 



M 



\ 



I 



of people running businesses in resi- 
dential areas. Many communities don't 
allow businesses to operate from a 
home but make exceptions for profes- 
sionals such as doctors, lawyers, writ- 
ers, and artists. Illegally operating a 
home office can result in a court order 
to cease all business activity, fines, 
and even jaiL The reality however, is 
that in most places home business 
bans are unenforced. (That doesn't 
mean you should break the law.) 

The best way to avoid zoning has- 
sles is to maintain good relationships 
with your neighbors, find out what 



kinds of businesses you can and can't 
run from home, and obtain all neces- 
sary permits and variances. To find out 
which home businesses are permitted, 
simply go to city hall and leaf through 
the local zoning ordinances or ask a 
city or county zoning official for help. 
If it turns out that your business is 
not allowed, you can always petition 
the local zoning or planning board for 
a variance. You should try to show 
that what you are doing is similar to a 
permitted occupation, that enforcing 
the ordinance would strip you of your 
livelihood, and that your business 



would not disrupt the neighborhood. 
It's not a bad idea to take a few neigh- 
bors with you — as long as they're on 
your side. Getting a building permit 
may require another trip to city hall. 

Permits 

Thinking about turning your spare bed- 
room, garage, or toolshed into a cozy 
home office? If you're planning to do 
more than slap on a fresh coat of 
paint, you may need a building permit. 
You may also need to obtain an occu- " 
palional license, register your busi- 
ness, gain permission to collect sales 

87 



tax, get an employer's tax ID number 
from the Internal Revenue Service, and 
file articles of incorporation. 

Insurance 

Many people who work at home don't 
realize that their homeowner's policy 
may not fully insure computer equip- 
ment used for business. 

Depending on the replacement val- 
ue of your home office equipment, you 
may want to buy an additional policy 
from a specialty insurer such as Safe- 
ware, the Insurance Agency via Com- 
puServe (type GO MALL) or by calling 
(800) 848-3469. 

Incorporation 

If you're like most home business own- 
ers and your company consists of you 
alone or you and your spouse, you prob- 
ably don't need to incorporate. As a 
sole proprietor, you and the business 
are one and the same. What the busi- 
ness earns is yours to keep; what the 
business borrows is money you owe. 
As your business grows, you may 
want to consider a more formal compa- 
ny structure. But beware: A partnership 
can burden you with somebody else's 
debts. Incorporating your business 
may lend it an air of permanence but 
can also saddle you with unwanted pa- 
penwork and legal bills. 

Taxes 

It's tempting to write off home office ex- 
penses on your 1040, but unless you 
want to risk an audit, you've got to 
know the rules. The IRS uses this two- 
part test: Is your home office used ex- 



clusively and regularly for business? 
And if it is, is your home office either 
your principal place of work or a place 
where you meet with customers or cli- 
ents in the normal course of business? 
If the answer to both questions is 
Yes, your tax savings may be substan- 
tial. But remember that you can only de- 
duct the portion of your expenses direct- 
ly attributable to your home office. 

Lawyers 

It's wise to comparison-shop when look- 
ing for legal assistance. Depending on 
the lawyer's expertise, reputation, and 
the size and location of !^is or her law 
firm, rates can range from $50 to over 
$200 per hour. Savvy legal consumers 
typically shop around — visiting, or at 
least calling, three or four lawyers and 
interviewing them about fees, strategy, 
and past experience in handling their 
particular type of case. Once you've de- 
cided which lawyer to hire, be sure to 
get a written contract. Run, don't walk, 
from any lawyer who promises to win 
your case or tries to bowl you over 
with legal mumbo jumbo. 

Prepaid Legal Plans 

One v^ay to keep your legal bills low is 
to join a prepaid legal plan that offers 
discounts on lawyers' hourly rates 
plus unlimited consultations by phone 
or letter. LawPhone Advisory Commu- 
nication Systems, a 50-state network of 
private attorneys, charges $60 for a 
three-month membership plus a S15-a- 
month continuation fee or $180 for an 
entire year. Members get free tele- 
phone consultations with a plan attor- 



ney; letters written on their behalf; re- 
views of contracts, leases, and other le- 
gal documents; and a 25-percent 
break on legal fees. 

Legal Software 

For those home office professionals 
who want to brave the legal jungle 
alone, there's plenty of software avail- 
able. Only a handful of programs are 
capable of generating documents oth- 
er than wills. It's Legal (Parsons Tech- 
nology), Personal Lawyer (BLOC Pub- 
lishing), and Hyatt Legal Services 
Home Lattyer(MECA Ventures) are gen- 
eral-purpose legal programs that spit 
out commonly used legal documents. 

Online Advice 

A lot of law-related information can be 
gleaned online at minimal cost. Ameri- 
ca Online and PC-Link offer information 
in their Small Business Resource area 
on topics such as "Obtaining Good Le- 
gal Advice and Controlling Legal 
Costs" and "Keeping Your Business 
Out of Legal Hot Water." CompuServe 
offers law-related information in its Le- 
gal (LAWSIG) and Work at Home 
(WORK) forums. Forum members who 
log on to LAWSIG can browse through 
such libraries as Computer Law and 
Software and Lawyer-to- Lawyer, an in- 
formation exchange for attorneys. 

How-To Books 

Since online searches can be expen- 
sive, it's a good idea to invest in a few 
self-help legal guides. Three we recom- 
mend are listed in the List of Products 
and Services box. lJ 



LIST OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 



America Online 
Quantum Computer Services 
8619 Westwood Center Dr. 
Vienna, VA 22182 
(703) 448-8700 

The Best Lawyers in America, 

$95.00 
Steve Naifeh 

and Gregory White Smith 
Woodward/Wliite 
129 First Ave. SW 
Aiken, SC 29801 
(803) 648-0300 

CompuServe 
P.O. Box 20212 
Columbus, OH 43220 
(800) 848-8990 

Everybody's Guide to the Law, 

$11.95 
Melvin Belli and Alien P, Wilkinson 
HarperCollins 
10 E. 53rd St. 
New York, NY 10022 
(212)207-7000 



Hyatt Legai Services Home 

Lawyer, $119.95 
IWECA Ventures 
327 Riverside Ave. 
Weslport, CI 06880 
(203)222-9150 

It's Legal, $49.00 
Parsons Teclinology 
P.O. Box 3120 
Cedar Rapids, lA 52406 
(800) 223-6925 

LawPhone 
P.O. Box 607 
Lanham, iVID 20705 
(800) 255-3352 

Personal Lawyer, $59.95 
Personal Lawfirm, $99.95 
(includes Personal Lawyer 

documents) 
BLOC Publishing 
800 SW 37th Ave., Ste. 765 
Coral Gables, FL 33134 
(305) 445-0903 



Prodigy 

445 Hamilton Ave. 
While Plains, NY 10601 
(800) 284-5933 

Saieware, the Insurance Agency 
P.O. Box 02211 
Columbus, OH 43202 
(800) 843-3469 

Using a Lawyer, $8.95 
Kay Ostberg 
Random House 
201 E. 50th St. 
New York, NY 10022 
(212) 751-2600 



88 COMPUTE 



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edit disk files, edit and search memory, 
find a specific text string in disk files — plus 
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tool, an editable macro key program, and 
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Our batch-file extensions add new com- 
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boxes, and write strings in your choice 
of colors anywhere on the screen — all 
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Then, add some zest to your batch files 
with a command that lets you play a se- 
ries of notes! 



Plus handy system tools let you delete 
an entire subdirectory with one command, 
find out if the system has enough memory 
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and much, much, more. 

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ARIS & LETTERS 



Robert Bixby 



Horse, created by 

Steve Lyons of 

Fairfax, Calilomia, 

winner ol tire 

Grand Prize World in 

tile CoremAW! 

International Design 

Contest, 

demonstrates the 

versatility 

ol CorelDRAW!. 



SHOWDOWN AT 
THE OK COREL 

It's little wonder that Co- 
relDRAV! so dominates its mar- 
ket, claiming over two-ttiirds of 
high-end illustrator sales, 
while its nearest competitor 
has less than a tenth. 

Four major factors account 
for this dominance: Its easier 
to learn and use; it uses wire- 
frame representation, vastly 
speeding the screen-refresh 
process; it features associat- 
ed tools for converting raster 
graphics to vector and for im- 
porting, exporting, and editing 
fonts; and it subscribes to the 
popular Pantone color-match- 
ing system, making it very at- 
tractive to professionals. 

A fifth item is special ef- 
fects. CorelDRAW! can now 
create blends as quickly and 
easily as Arts & Letters, which 
it surpassed by bringing out en- 
velope distortion first. Text and 
graphics can also be extrud- 




ed (extended into the third di- 
mension) with the option of add- 
ing perspective. Speaking of 
which, you can now use an au- 
tomatic routine to make your 
drawn objects appear to be 
on a plane oblique to the 
screen. 

CorelDRAWI's documenta- 
tion has always been good. Its 
onscreen tool box adds to the 
speed of learning, and nearly 
all of its processes are com- 
pletely logical. The only ones 
that might throw a newcomer 
off are determining how to ed- 
it existing text and how to 
draw with Bezier curves. Both 
are fully covered in the docu- 
mentation. 

CorelDRAW! gives you the 
option of viewing a wire-frame 
representation or a wire frame 
and a preview side by side. 
This almost completely elimi- 
nates the waiting encountered 
while Arts & Letters or Micro- 
grafx Designer recomposes 
the screen. 

MOSAIC. CorelTRACE, and 
WFNBOSS are programs 
shipped with CorelDRAW!. MO- 
SAIC changes the way you 
load graphics and clip art via 
disk. It changes the Open 
Drawing dialog box to a pic- 
ture gallery containing 
thumbnail bitmaps of the 
CorelDRAW! drawings. In- 
stead of depending on hast- 
ily conceived names to iden- 
tify files, you can locate the 
file in the MOS/A/C gallery 
and double-click on it, 
and it's loaded. 

CorelTRACE is an 
autotracing utility that 
traces black-and-white, 
color, or gray-scale imag- 
es into an EPS format Co- 
relDRAW! can import. It's 
not as fast or sensitive as 
Micrografx Designer's, and 
you have to leave the draw- 
ing program to use it. 
Still, it's better than many, 
and it's free with Co- 
relDRAW!. WFNBOSS can 
convert various font types 



for use in your CorelDRAW! ren- 
derings, and it allows you to ex- 
port Corel's fine stable of 
fonts for use as downloadable 
fonts. 

The Adobe Type 1 fonts ex- 
ported by WFNBOSS don't 
work with Adobe Type Manag- 
er programs shipped through 
late spring 1991, but a phone 
call to Corel Systems yielded 
assurances that registered us- 
ers should have received an 
updated version as early as 
last June, fixing this problem. 

As I mentioned, Corel- 
DRAW! subscribes to the Pan- 
tone color-matching system. 
You can specify a spot color 
by number, and your printer 
will be able to come up with 
the exact color ink to match. 
You can also freely mix proc- 
ess colors using several differ- 
ent mixing schemes and save 
your palette. 

With the latest version of Co- 
relDRAW!, you can now cre- 
ate bitmap and vector fills of 
your own or import any TIF or 
PCX file as a new pattern. 

Envelope distortion is a new 
topic that may seem strange 
to first-time users. Essentially 
it creates an enveloping rectan- 
gle around a selected object. 
This rectangle can then be dis- 
torted by dragging its han- 
dles. There are three set 
forms of distortion and a free- 
hand tool. The feature makes 
your drawing flexible — as 
though It were on a piece of Sil- 
ly Putty. By stretching and 
bending, you can distort it al- 
most infinitely. 

CorelDRAW! is a treasure 
chest of powerful tools. It's so 
powerful, in fact, a printer man- 
ufacturer told me it makes Post- 
Script printers look bad be- 
cause artists can easily over- 
whelm the PostScript interpret- 
ers in so many printers. 

Next month I'll talk about 
more powerful add-ons and 
tools for making graphic arts 
and desktop publishing pur- 
suits even more fun. 3 



90 COMPUTE 



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Circlfl ReadsT Servfce Numbar 175 




DISCOVERY 



COMPUTE CHOICE. Catch 

up on the classics in their original 

and foreign — language. 

Anthony Moses 



TRANSPARENT 
LANGUAGE 

To paraphrase Mark Twain, 
everyone wants to know a for- 
eign language, but nobody 
wants to learn one. Whien you 
consider how languages are 
usually taught, it's no wonder. 
Most of us encounter a sec- 
ond language in a high 
school class with lots of tedi- 
ous rote memorization but few 
rewards. And all that many of 
us can do with that language 
in our postacademic days is to 
tell someone where the pen of 
our aunt is, as long as it's on 
the table. Years later, we may 
toy with the idea of going 
back and refreshing our knowl- 
edge of the language, but 
we've forgotten too much. Be- 
sides, with our schedules, it 
would be years before we'd ev- 
er be able to read anything 
worthwhile: Balzac, Cervan- 
tes, Virgil, Maupassant, 
Flaubert, Ovid — all closed 
books to us until we can do sig- 
nificantly more than success- 
fully locate our aunt's Bic. 

Transparent Language crea- 
tor Michael Quinlan had a sim- 
ilar problem: How could he re- 
learn the German he had lost 
years ago — and relearn it well 
enough to read what he want- 
ed? And then, while he and 
his wife, Lynn, were teaching 
their four-year-old son to 
read, he had the chance to 
watch how a mind first learns 
a language. He concluded 
that perhaps the best way to 
acquire language skills is to ac- 
commodate the way the brain 
naturally works — not by mem- 
orizing an abstract grammati- 
cal system first, but by actual- 
ly using the language in an en- 
vironment that provides the 
support of specific knowledge 
whenever needed. Quinlan re- 








alized that the comput- 
er was uniquely empow- 
ered to be that environment. 
He began to design Transpar- 
ent Language. 

The philosophy of Transpar- 
ent Language is that you can 
learn to read a language by ac- 
tually reading something in 
that language— preferably, 
something enjoyable, One 
thing that makes learning to 
read a foreign language so dif- 
ficult is that, for a long while, 
you probably won't be dealing 
with anything worth reading. 
The common instructional ap- 
proach begins with a simple 
core vocabulary and grammar 
upon which you gradually 
build. The textbook reading 
samples reflect this, remaining 
at a cautious, low-vocabutary 
{and high-tedium) level. Few 
people can long bear reading 
denatured stories about 
where Marie or Gaius or Este- 
ban place their writing imple- 
ments. Worse, a graded read- 
ing sample can limit your pro- 
gress by making no demands 
upon you. The normal linguis- 
tic environment of a child is 
rich and challenging: the 
child is aware that there's a lot 



of 

interest- 
ing stuff going on over his or 
her head and is motivated to 
learn the language in order to 
get the goodies. Quintan's 
idea was, simply, to provide 
some goodies worth getting 
by immersing the reader in an 
interesting work as soon as 
possible and making reading 
it practicable. 

On the surface, the Transpar- 
ent Language program 
seems quite simple; the top 
half of the screen displays the 
text of an actual literary work 
in German, French, Latin, or 
Spanish, supported by five an- 
cillary windows at the bottom. 
As you scroll through the text, 
moving the highlight from 
word to word {or, in the case 
of idiomatic constructions, 
phrase to phrase), the win- 
dows provide a literal equiva- 
lent for the highlighted item, a 
translation of each sentence 
or clause into idiomatic Eng- 
lish, and additional commen- 
tary (such as tracing words to 
their roots or commenting up- 



92 COMPUTE 



on their grammatical or syntac- 
tic functions). If you prefer to 
read the text without these 
helps, you can opaque the 
help windows; but if, while read- 
ing, you don't recognize a 
word, you can glance at the 
definition window. If a phrase 
or an entire sentence is incom- 
prehensible, check the idiomat- 
ic translation — and then go on 
reading. Just as you'll improve 
your tennis game only if you 
keep playing tennis, no matter 
how badly at first, your read- 
ing comprehension will ad- 
vance only if you stick to read- 
ing. The odds are that you'll re- 
member the words the next 
time you encounter them be- 
cause you're learning them in 
the context of natural lan- 
guage usage. 

If this process somehow 
seems familiar, perhaps it's be- 
cause this is how you learned 
to read in the first place. You 
got the information you need- 
ed as you needed it, from an 
experienced reader, v/ithout 
necessarily understanding its 
place in a comprehensive 
grammatical scheme. And 
while such a knowledge of 
grammar is, of course, useful, 
it's not essential, As any lan- 
guage instructor could tell 
you, a good writer or reader 
may have trouble dealing with 
grammar exercises, while a stu- 
dent who breezes through 
grammar drills may have no in- 
tuitive feel for the language — 
and in language, the feel is 
the important thing. Language 
use is a right-brain activity; un- 
fortunately, most language in- 
struction comes in a left-brain 
format that, though easily mem- 
orized, cannot be as easily ap- 
plied in concrete language- 
use situations. Quinlan in- 
tends Transparent Language 
to operate more on the right- 
brain model, supplying conno- 



tation (or felt meaning) as well 
as denotation (or dictionary 
meaning) for tfie words you 
read — and therefore making it 
more likely that you will incor- 
porate the words into a living 
vocabulary. 

This is Transparent Lan- 
guage's advantage over 
some other forms of computer- 
assisted language acquisition. 
While there are already a num- 
ber of programs that purport 
to help you improve your for- 
eign language skills, most of 
these, as Quinlan observes, 
"are still mired in the textbook 
model." They provide drills, 
such as multiple-choice or 
true-false exercises, or oper- 
ate as foreign-language 
phrase books. While these cer- 
tainly have their legitimate us- 
es — fine-tuning your language 
skills or serving as stopgaps un- 
til you can actually learn tfie lan- 
guage, for example — they are 
of little help in developing a flu- 
ent linguistic ability. They also 
fail to take full advantage of 
the connputer's power to con- 
solidate and present a lot of 
information instantaneously, a 
weakness that Transparent 
Language seems to have over- 
come. 

The Transparent Language 
starter set includes the master 
program and four sample sto- 
ries in German, Spanish, Lat- 
in, and French, along with an 
audio cassette of the stories 
and an easy-to-read User's 
Guide. The accompanying cat- 
alog of other titles currently 
available from the Transparent 
Language company includes 
such worthies as short stories 
by Guy de Maupassant, "The 
Windmill Adventure" from Cer- 
vantes' Don Quixote, a portion 
of Hoffmann's The Nutcracker 
and the Mouse King (the 
source for Tchaikovsky's pop- 
ular ballet), excerpts from 



tronsparente 

langue 

durchsichtig 

sprache 

transpaente 

lengua 

perlucidus 

lingua 

tronsparent 

language 

tronsparente 

langue 

durchsichtig 

sprache 

transparen' 

lengua 

perlucidus 

lingua 




TRANSPARI^NH 
UNCxlACiF 

Bre^ong The Langiage Bainer 




"■*!C' 



Ovid's Metamorphoses, and a 
number of other works you 
probably never imagined your- 
self reading in their original lan- 
guages. The works are availa- 
ble in both 5V4- and 3'/2-inch 
disks, as well as audio cas- 
sette versions to help you with 
hearing and pronouncing the 
language. 

As a complement to the 
classroorm, Transparent Lan- 
guage has a lot to offer in ex- 
tending the student's reading 
skills and building his or her 
self-confidence. For self-moti- 
vated former foreign language 
students, Transparent Lan- 
guage is the best available al- 
ternative to digging out the 
grammar books and dictionar- 
ies. Don't fret over the loca- 
tions of relatives' fountain 
pens: read a work of literature 
in a foreign tongue instead. ~1 



IBM PC and 
compatibles, 512K 
RAM; hard drive 
ODiionai, mouse 
supported— $95 

TRANSPARENT 
UIHGUAGE 
9 Ash St. 
P.O. Box 575 
Hollls, NH 03049 
(800) 752-1767 
(sales and support) 
(800) 244-B952 (in 
New Hampshire) 



93 



PATHWAYS 



Steven Anzovin 



The Wacom 

graphics tablet. 

Will this 

device malte the 

mouse 

obsolete? 



WHO NEEDS A 
KEYBOARD WITH 
THESE GADGETS 
AROUND? 

Carpal tunnel syndrome. Typ- 
ist's neck, Weak back and ab- 
dominal muscles. Ailments of 
the computer age. And there 
in front of you sits the main cul- 
prit: your keyboard. 

Mice aren't much better. 
They're often clumsy, and 
mouse fatigue is increasingly 
common. So ! gave my key- 
board and mouse to my 18- 
month-old daughter, who 
loves to type, and then 
checked out some alterna- 
tives. 

The Wacom SD-510c graph- 
ics tablet for PCs and fvlacs 
(Wacom, Park 80 West, Plaza 
2, Saddle Brook, New/ Jersey 
07662; 201-265-4226; $695) 
is receiving a lot of press as a 
breakthrough tool for graphic 
artists. What's new about the 
Wacom is that the pen is cord- 
less and pressure sensitive. 

With the right paint soft- 





ware, such as Oasis from 
Time Arts (1425 Corporate Cen- 
ter Parkway, Santa Rosa, Cali- 
fornia 95407; 707-576-7722; 
$795; fvlacs only), you can get 
the look and feel of traditional 
media like acrylics, pastels, 
and watercolors. For example, 
you can emulate a watercolor 
brush stroke, with the color 
lightening and brush width thin- 
ning as you reduce pen pres- 
sure. 

The PC version of the tablet 
works with any software that ac- 
cepts a mouse, making it an 
excellent alternative for peo- 
ple more comfortable with a 
pen. It's small enough for your 
lap, and the pen only weighs 
a few grams. 

As a drawing tool, the 
Wacom tablet has no peer, 
but pressure-sensitive input de- 
vices have real potential for 
use in a Mnc/ows-style GUI, 
For example, little gadgets at 
the corners of windows could 
let you page through a docu- 
ment faster or slower by vary- 
ing the pen pressure or let you 
send a window to the back, 
bring it to the front, or even 
park it in the middle. 

And why not adapt the 
Wacom pressure-sensitive 
technology for toot control of 
a computer? I'd like to see a 
"gas pedal" to increase my 
computer's speed when I'm in 
a hurry and a "brake" to keep 
the machine from outrunning 
my thoughts. 

The Mac world offers more 
alternative input devices PC us- 
ers should ask for. One gee- 
whiz tool is the Voice Naviga- 
tor II from Articulate Systems 
(600 West Cummings Park, 
Suite 4500, Woburn, Massachu- 
setts 01801; 617-876-5236; 
$795). Once you've trained it, 
you can speak any command 
or menu option into its micro- 
phone, and your Mac wili obey 
instantly. The Voice Navigator 
has real potential as a mouse 
replacement, especially for 
people who need free hands. 



With this in mind, can verbal 
text entry be far behind? 

If your Mac isn't powerful 
enough, you can really "play 
with power" with Transfinite 
System's Gold Brick (PO. Box 
N, fvllT Branch Post Office, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 
02139-0903; 617-969-9570; 
$169-$245). This tiny inter- 
face lets you connect any Nin- 
tendo controller to a Mac 
through the ADB port. It works 
just like a mouse and even em- 
ulates some keyboard ac- 
tions. 

Hooking up a Nintendo to 
your Mac may sound odd, but 
keep in mind that toys like the 
Power Glove, Broderbund's 
UFORCE, and Nintendo's Pow- 
er Pad are inexpensive and 
built like tanks, perfect for ap- 
plications where ruggedness 
and replaceability are impor- 
tant. 

The Gold Brick already has 
some unusual applications. At 
the Speech-Language Pathol- 
ogy Lab at Northeastern Uni- 
versity, experimenters Linda 
Farrier and Harriet Fell are us- 
ing a Mac, a Gold Brick, and 
a Power Pad to develop a sys- 
tem called the Baby Babble 
Blanket, which allows speech- 
disabled babies to make mean- 
ingful sounds and initiate ver- 
bal interactions. The Mac is- 
sues digitized sounds — bab- 
bling or any other noise, includ- 
ing words — according to how 
and where the baby moves 
around on the Power Pad. Far- 
rier says the system could al- 
so be used as a biofeedback 
device for adults in physical 
therapy. 

Wacom pen in left hand, 
Power Glove on right, and bark- 
ing commands into the Voice 
Navigator, I tried to whte this 
column but found that none of 
these gadgets could do the 
job sufficiently. I managed to 
rescue my keyboard and 
mouse from my daughter, but 
I'll never feel quite the same 
about them again. D 



94 COMPUTE 



"A UNIQUE MINDBOGGLING GAME OF AbUENTURE. ROMANCE AND SALUATEON!" 




PC COMPATIBLE 

AMIGA 

ATARI ST ^ 

(COMING SOON) 

CDTV & MACINTOSH -M 






LEMMINGS^ 

from 




Avaflable from your local 

dealer or call: (617) 739 7478 

PSYGNOSIS 

29 SAINT MARYS COURT 

BROOKLINE MA 02146 



Amiga® & CDTV® are iraiemarks of Commodore Business Machines Inc. Atari ST® is a trademarit of Ihe Atari Corp. Macirvtosti™ is a trademarit of Apple.' 



Ciicle Reader Service Number 168 







Reach 

for the stars 

with 

your personal 

computer. 



BY LAMONT WOOD 




. alileo probably would have 
been Ihe first person to suggest 
a software program for tracking 
ttie heavenly bodies tiad he on- 
ly been born a few centuries lat- 
er. As Galileo. Copernicus, and the 
rest of the stargazing pioneers knew, 
you can easily get lost in the night sky. 
The random spread of stars can de- 
feat any attempt to learn the ever- 
shifting planetary positions and doz- 
ens of star patterns that at first glance 
look nothing like the constellations 
ttiey're supposed to form. 

In the old days, the undaunted 
could venture into the night with star- 
chart wheels showing the stars' nightly 
positions, usually for the wrong latitude 
and with confusing orientations. And 
then there were clouds, mosquitoes, 
jiggling.telescopes, and eventually, an 
urban sky glow to drown out all but 
the brightest stars. 

Now there's a better way—astrono- 
my software that literally lets you ex- 
plore the sky during the day— even in- 
doors. You can learn the sky and solar 
system as if they were your own neigh- 
borhood, which in a way, they are. 

Here we'll take a look at several lead- 
ing astronomy packages for the PC. 
Each package was examined on a 16- 
MHz 386 machine with a VGA monitor. 
No coprocessor was used. First let's 




go over some basic terminology. 

Positions and sizes in ttie sky are 
measured in degrees, where a degree 
is about tlie width (not length) of your 
index finger at arm's length. Brightness 
is measured on a magnitude scale, 
where 1 is about as bright as any star 
gets and 6 is about as faint a star as 



sky), has a clumsier menu-driven inter- 
face, and provides no screen shots of 
celestial objects. According to Zephyr, 
it runs slower because things are cal- 
culated with more precision. The basic 
version comes with stars to magnitude 
6.5, and there's an expanded version, 
for about $30 more and 8MB more of 



the positions of the four Galilean 
moons, a favorite of many backyard as- 
tronomers, (lo. Ganymede, Castillo, 
and Europa, lined up with Jupiter's 
equator and changing positions night- 
ly, can be seen with a small tele- 
scope.) There's even an overhead 
view so you can identify each moon 




Dance of the Planets allows you to view the 
solar system from outer space, as in this 
view of Saturn, January 1991. 

you can see on a very dark night with- 
out a telescope. The programs ask for 
your location in longitude and latitude, 
not only to figure rising and setting 
times, but also to calculate the appear- 
ance of solar and lunar eclipses. 
You're also urged to use a coproces- 
sor to speed up orbital calculations. 

For the beginner, EZCosmos from Fu- 
ture Trends seems like the best bet at 
$69.95, The screen shows the sky as it 
would look if you were on your back 
with your feet to the north. Placing the 
cursor on an object and pressing En- 
ter will bring up identifying information 
about the object. Additionally, there 
are screen graphics (in the Compu- 
Serve GIF format) of 41 objects, includ- 
ing the planets and prominent galaxies 
and nebula you can call up. (Alas, for 
the beginner who might be misled, 
these are time-lapse photos taken 
through a big telescope — more colorful 
and detailed than what you would see 
through a backyard telescope,) 

EZCosmos finds and displays 
named objects and allows you to 
speed up the pace of time and watch 
the planets move against the stars. {At 
intervals, Mars actually stops and 
moves backward.) Also, you can focus 
on the sun and watch for eclipses. 

While this program does make it 
easy to take a grand tour of the uni- 
verse, it isn't for the serious backyard 
astronomer. It doesn't offer stars dim- 
mer than sixth magnitude, and it can't 
zoom in to a field narrower than one de- 
gree — a field twice the diameter of the 
full moon, 

Lodestar Plus II from Zephyr Servic- 
es ($199,95) at first seemed like the 
same thing, only it's slower (taking 
more than a minute to draw the full 
98 COMPUTE 



EZCosmos lets you search the constel- 
lations as if you were on your back with 
your feet facing north. 

disk space, which has an SAO (Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory) 
star catalog of 270,000 stars that 
reach all the way to 12th magnitude. 

As with EZCosmos. you can place 
the cursor on an object, have the sys- 
tem identify it, and then zoom in to a 
specific magnification^this time up to 
999.9 powers, covering a field barely 
one-tenth of a degree in diameter. The 
only way to get a printout is by press- 
ing PrintScreen, and you need a CGA 
monitor for that to work. 

LodeSter^especially the expanded 
version — would seem to be best for the 
serious amateur who wants to plan an 
observation session or perhaps identi- 
fy the contents of an astrophoto, cas- 
es in which precision matters more 
than speed. 

Meanwhile, The_Sky 4.^, from Soft- 
ware Bisque, is meant to be used out- 
doors. Its control menus are shown in 
red so using the computer won't 
wreck your night vision. You can point 
and click your input from an onscreen 
keyboard chart without having to fum- 
ble at the keyboard in the darkness. 

The star field is painted almost in- 
stantly on the screen — no tedious 
waits. You can zoom in on anything with- 
in view by moving the mouse cursor to 
the field you want to see and drawing 
a box and clicking. It was quite a thrill 
to zoom in on clusters like Pleiades. 

The_Sky will take you down to two- 
tenths of a degree, where the moon or 
sun takes up most of the screen. How- 
ever, only an outline disk is shown; no 
attempt is made to show the actual so- 
lar bodies. You're supposed to look for 
those yourself througli your telescope. 

In addition to showing the planets, 
The_Sky has a special display to show 



The_Sky is meant to be used outdoors. The 
retrograde rnotion of Mare is shown with the 
program's time-skip feature. 

and its actual location in orbit, which 
isn't evident from the edge-on view you 
get from Earth, You can also watch 
this miniature solar system in action by 
speeding up the pace — orbital move- 
ment is evident even with five-minute in- 
crements. 

There's also a special eclipse dis- 
play that shows lunar and solar eclips- 
es for your location, You see the way 
the moon and sun will move across 
each other with the times of first and 
last contact and the times of maximum 
coverage. Earth's umbra during a lunar 
eclipse is seen in red — the color the 
moon actually appears during a total lu- 
nar eclipse. 

The_Sky comes in three different 
packages: At $75 for Level I, you'll see 
up to 10,000 stars and deep-sky ob- 
jects at magnitude 5.5; for $99 you can 
get the Level II version and see up to 
45,000 stars and other celestial objects 
at magnitude 7.9; Level III, for $175, 
shows 272,000 stars and objects to 
magnitude 9. 

A telescope-link kit is also available 
for $699, You mount sensors on the 
two axes of your telescope, and after 
you calibrate your telescope's setting 
on two selected stars, your cursor will 
point in exactly the direction of your tel- 
escope. It's pricey but with the link kit, 
you can look at scores of objects in 
one evening with no time lost due to 
endless blind searches. 

If The_Sky is intended for the seri- 
ous amateur astronomer. Dance of the 
Planets from A.R.C. Science Simulation 
is intended for the serious amateur as- 
trophysicist. Priced at $195, it shows 
the celestial globe and stars therein, 
but that's incidental. 

The opening screen shows a 



starfield with an unfamiliar bright star in 
the middle, near the constellation Ori- 
on. That's the sun, seen from your view- 
ing position of about 2.5 billion miles 
out in space. You can zoom in to a max- 
imum magnification of 32,000 and 
look at individual planets and, with an 
accelerated time frame, vk^atch them ro- 




LodeStar Plus II offers precision over 
speed. The expanded version has an SAO 
star catalog of over 270,000 stars. 

tate. The software also includes maps 
of the planetary surfaces. Although 
Earth and Mars are hardly more than 
large dots with crude features, Jupiter 
is big enough for you to watch the 
Great Red Spot slide by. 

You can also switch to an Earth- 
based view to watch eclipses and 
events like the apparent merging of Ju- 
piter and Venus on June 17, 2 B.C. 
The point of Dance, however, is to pull 
back into space, arrange the viewing 
position you like (you can change the 
angle from which you're looking into 
the solar system), invoke the command 
that outlines the orbits, and start the 
dance of the planets. Everything is vis- 
ual and obvious, and by the time 
you're finished with the manual, 
Kepler's Laws and the geometry of el- 
liptical orbits ought to be second na- 
ture. The five parameters it takes to de- 
fine an orbit will no longer be mathemat- 
ical gibberish, but seif-evident state- 
ments. 

Dance comes with orbital data not on- 
ly for our nine planets, but for their 61 
satellites (including Pluto's) and for 
4650 asteroids and 1300 comets. Pick 
out a particular cornel, track it into the 
future, and see if Jupiter ever swallows 
it or vectors it into the sun. You can 
track 20 orbits simultaneously, al- 
though for results anytime soon, you'll 
want to get a coprocessor. 

Dance will even give you a 3-D view 
of the orbits, The package comes with 
red-and-blue goggles like the ones 
used for watching 3-D movies. They 
work best for examining comet orbits, 
which are often rotated away from the 
plane of the planets' orbits. You can 
make up your own comets, input their 
orbit parameters, and watch what hap- 





PRODUCT BOX 


Chartwheels II 

$150.00 

Astrolabe 

350 Underpass Rd. 

Brewster, MA 02631 

(508) 896-5081 


Lodestar Plus II 

$199,95 

$229.95 with SAO Database 

Zephyr Services 

1900 Murray Ave. 

Pitsburgh. PA15217 


Dance of the Planets 

SI 95.00 


(800) 533^6600 
(412)422-6600 


A.R.C. Software 
P.O. Box 1955 
Loveland, CO 80539-1955 
(303) 663-3223 


The Sky 4.1 

$75.00 for Level 1 
$99.00 for Level II 
$175.00 for Level III 


EZCosmos 3.0 

$69 95 


Software Bisque 
912 12th St., Ste. A 


Future Trends Software 
1601 Osprey Dr., Ste. 102 
Desoto. TX 75115 


Golden, CO 80401 
(303) 278-4478 


(214) 224-3279 





pens. The only thing Dance left out is 
a spaceship option so you can figure 
in the results of acceleration and fuel 
consumption. 

For those of you who wonder what 
it's all about, there's also astrological 
software on the market. We looked at 
Chartwheels II ($150 from Astrolabe) 
and found that it does indeed track the 
positions of the planets. You won't 
learn astronomy, though, since it's on- 
ly concerned with the zodiac for cast- 



ing astrological charts and showing the 
influence of the planets at a particular 
moment. 

Planets do, in fact, exert influence — 
gravitationally on each other anyway. 
Gazing at the results with the help of as- 
tronomy software could help open up 
the heavens for you, if that's what 
you're after. At the very least, you'll no 
longe fumble your way through the 
night sky. 

Galileo would approve. □ 




99 



FAST FORWARD 



David English 



Today you can 

have a sound card 

and a SCSI 

interface without 

tlie need tor 

a bus slot, wtilcli 

allows you 

to run CD-ROM 

applications 

such as Campton's 

Mammm 

Encvclapetita 

trom any 

laptop computer. 



YOU CAN MIX 
MULTIMEDIA AND 
LAPTOPS 

Laptop innovation is nnoving 
so fast that the last thing most 
manufacturers want to see is 
a set of standards that will 
lock them into yesterday's tech- 
noiogy. Perhaps in a few 
years, v/hen the size of the lap- 
top has stabilized, manufactur- 
ers will agree on standards 
that will allow you to add vari- 
ous peripherals and upgrade 
your LCD screen or hard 



Stereo (IVIsound International, 
1965 West 4th Avenue, Van- 
couver, British Columbia, Can- 
ada V6J 1M8; 604-732-4849; 
$249.95) is a sound-card-in-a- 
box that plugs into your paral- 
lel port and includes a built-in 
amplifier and stereo head- 
phones. Msound can emulate 
present sound card standards 
and can be upgraded to emu- 
late future standards, Current- 
ly, Msound ships with drivers 
for the Ad Lib sound card and 
the Covox Speech Thing, as 
well as utilities that can con- 
vert fvlacintosh and Tandy 
sounds to f\/lsound's native for- 




drive. But that's the future— 
none of the laptop manufactur- 
ers I've tall<ed to see that sce- 
nario unfolding anytime soon. 

With today's models, once 
you buy your laptop, you loci< 
yourself into today's technolo- 
gy with little chance to 
change with the times. 

What's the answer? Your par- 
allel port. Peripheral manufac- 
turers have discovered how to 
tap into your parallel port and 
still let you use your printer. 
Plug a small box into your par- 
allel port, plug your printer ca- 
ble into the box. and it's in- 
stant expansion. 

How would you like to add 
digital stereo sound to your lap- 
top or desktop PC? Msound 



mat. The company is working 
on drivers for the Sound 
Blaster and Multimedia Win- 
dows. 

Msound provides high- 
quality sound. Msound has a 
dynamic range of 96 dB and 
a signal-to-noise ratio of 60 
dB, and can handle sounds 
with frequencies of 20 Hz to 
20 kHz. Unlike the Sound 
Blaster, Msound doesn't offer 
sound-in (just sound-out), but 
it does offer a built-in expan- 
sion bus for add-on modules. 

The package also includes 
a sample disk of sounds. 
There was a bit of distortion in 
some of them, but the stereo 
effect was terrific. Unfortunate- 
ly, the Ad Lib driver doesn't 



work with all Ad Lib-compati- 
ble games. ( I couldn't get Red 
Baron or Stellar 7to recognize 
Msound's Ad Lib driver.) The 
company is working to line up 
support for Msound's own 
sound format. 

Msound is well worth look- 
ing into, whether for a laptop 
or desktop computer. And 
when Msound releases its Mul- 
timedia Windows drivers, 
you'll be able to use your com- 
puter to hear a flood of new mul- 
timedia titles. 

What's that you say? How 
can you run the new multime- 
dia software without a CD- 
ROM player? And how in the 
world are you going to hook a 
CD-ROM player to a laptop 
computer? Glad you asl<ed. 
For just $179, you can buy the 
T338 MiniSCSI Parallel-to- 
SCSI Host Adapter (Trantor 
Systems. 5415 Randall Place, 
Fremont, California 94538: 
415-770-1400). The MiniSCSI 
plugs into your parallel port 
and instantly adds a SCSI 
port to your computer. It's 
small and lightweight (just 2.5 
ounces) and works with most 
SCSI-based CD-ROM players 
and hard drives. You can dai- 
sychain as many as seven 
SCSI devices together with a 
single MiniSCSI, The MiniSCSI 
draws all of the power it 
needs from the first device in 
your SCSI chain. 

There's a downside. The 
MiniSCSI is rated only about 
half the speed of a high-end 
multimedia CD-ROM player. 
According to Jim Switz, market- 
ing manager at Trantor, that's 
not as bad as It sounds. Be- 
cause it's difficult for any CD- 
ROM player to sustain a high 
speed, the MiniSCSI is gener- 
ally able to keep up. At the 
worst, you'll see about a 30- 
percent reduction in speed. 

With these two new de- 
vices, even If you have a lap- 
top or slotless desktop, you 
can still participate in the multi- 
media revolution. D 



100 COMPUTE 



Take Control Of T he Future 

Paragon Softvuare and GDW PRESEiyr Games On The CumiNG Edge of Technology 



MegaTraveller Z. m i wiliohiy 



Quest For The Ancients 




Uoth featuring scenarios 

written by Marc Miller, 

Adventure Gaming Hall of 

Fanner and creator of the 

Traveller role-playing system. 



l^ 



PARAGG^SOF^E 



Pased on the role-playing classic from Came Designers' 
Workshop, MegaTraveller 2: Quest For The Ancients contains state- 
of-the-art innovations, including a completely re-designed, icon- 
driven interface, combat system and role-playing engine. 

• The sequel to the hit MegaTraveller 1 : The Zhodani Conspiracy 
with over 1 00 of named, detailed wodds to explore 

• New PAL role-playing engine lets you control one character v^'hile 
commanding four others; advanced character generator 
guarantees variety with each game 

• Weapons and starship classes of all 
kinds; a dazzling array of characters with 
whom to interact 

Your mission: save a work! threatened by 
a mysterious artifact 
built by the Ancients, 
a legendary super- 
race thought dead for 
300,000 years. 



Iwilight: 2000 places you 
in the aftermath of World War 111, travelling 
through terrain devastated by high-tech 
weaponry and nuclear radiation. 

• Create your character with the skills 
and abilities you want 

• Command three other party members 
who respond to your orders based on 
ffte/r personalities and objectives 

• State-of-the-art graphics include 3-D 
simulation and 2-D scaled overhead 
sequences 

• Hundreds of weapons and vehicles 
make each encounter unique 

Your mission: rebuild and defend the city 
of Krakow, Poland against an onslaught of 
marauders and military madmen determined 
to win a war the world lost. 






1 IBM screens shown. 
J Actual scre6ns may vary. 





PARAGON SOFmARE 

Marketed by MicroProse Software, Inc. 

For IBM-PC/Tandy/compatibles. Can't find these games? Call 1 -800-879-PLAY for prices and ordering information. 

© 1991 Paragon Software and Game Designers' Workshop. 

Circle Reader Service Number 110 



'_r ' r'^ -r ■» ' ' -^ J^ J'- ^ -r ^ -f ^^ j»^^v^^^ .gz^ 



r r^^^-f* ^^^ jt r f j^ ^J- J J J J»- ^ ^^^■^^■^n' 





The greatest hero for the Hyborean Age was a fierce 
barbarian born of the harsh northlands, 

CONAN THE CIMMERIAN 



ou have heard the tales of Conan's adventures. Only 
now will you have the opportunity to live the life of 
this fierce barbarian from the land of Hyborea. 
Our odyssey begins with murder most foul. When 
Conan's village is massacred by the ravening hordes of Tholh 
Amon, high priest of the vile cult of Set, Conan vows to avenge 
the death of his family and friends. 
In your search for vengeance, you as Conan, will explore 
Hyborea to seek out its hidden secrets and learn of its powers. 
Visit over 200 locations - taverns and inns, crypts and 
dungeons, temples and tombs, lavish homes and poor hovels - 
to learn the mysteries of Hyborea's sorceries to help Conan 
overcome its many natural and supernatural perils. 
Only with luck, courage and constant struggle will Conan have 
the chance to force a reckoning with the powerful Tholh Amon. 



i^ids^J^AMoLA ^^l 




AVAILABLE FOR THE IBM AND AMIGA THIS SUMMER. 
SL=CGESTED RETAIL - S49.99 

T.M and C I99I Conan Propcnitt Inc. 

CovcT illuslratian © 1990 Borw X'allcjo. 

©1991 Virgin Games. Inc. All righls rrwn'cd. 

Virgin^ is a reglslercd ll^dcmjrk of Virgin Enterprises, Ltd. 

Virgin Games, Inc. 18061 Eilch Ave.. Ininc. CalKoriiia 92714 



t'^ J y J J JJJ yj- 




rjr^^ J-Jjj'jjjjjj^j^j yj/ jjjjj j i .i 1 1 1 1 in 1 1 , 



f ^ ^.^ ^ -^ ^ ^ ■r'j' ^ ^ -^ -y^^v ^-?--y7a 





n Spirit of Excalibur, the Knights of the Round Table 
fought to defend medieval Britain from the evil 
sorceress, Morgan Le Fay. Morgan, dabbling in dark 
arts beyond even her ability to control, had summoned 
a great Lord of Demons, the Shadowmaster. 

With Morgan's death, the Shadowmaster was freed to work his 
evil will against the unprepared folk of Britain. Striking in the 
night, he imprisoned the King with a spell, stole the greatest 
treasures of the realm and kidnapped Nineve, the court 
enchantress. With the loss of the sword Excalibur and the newly 
recovered Holy Grail, Britain begins to sicken and die. The 
Shadowmaster must be stopped! 

Command knights and whatever followers they are able to 
recruit to track the Shadowmaster through hazardous, beautiful 
and mysterious medieval Spain. Explore the hundreds of villages 
and cities, fortresses and castles, dungeons and palaces and all 
the secret places where the Shadovraiaster may dwell. 

Seek what aid you can as you acquire and learn the use of the 
sorceries of Moorish Spain, for only with the aid of 
enchantments and the loyalty of strong allies will you stand 
a chance of ridding the world of the demonic Shadowmaster 
once and for all. 



I 
i 






AVAILABLE FOR THE IBM, AMIGA, ATARI ST AND MAC THIS SUMMER. 
SUGGESTED RETAIL -S49.99 

Developed by S^rrgi^iic ^ftware. 

© 1991 Virgin Game*, tnc. 

VtrginSlsittglsicrcdiraclcmirkal: Virgm Enterprise, Lid. 

Vtrigcanctf of Einilibur Is a inidcmark of Virgin Games, Inc. 

VirginGamcs, Inc. IH06I ImicIi Ave., Irvine, CaUrotnia 927M 



y,j j-j.j.y yj-j^j*v J,j-^JJJJ3 3>'j J f j j j jj^ 



Circle Rud«r S«rvic« Number 176 





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BR£ YOU TOUGH ENOUGH TO TAKE ON THE 
21st CENTURY AND SAVE MANKIND FROM 
HIS UNTIMELY DESTRUCTION BY 
A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED 

WAR MACHINE?!? 

Talk about your work-related stress! As a ZODIAC 
special agent, your job is to crack the complex 
security systems of the Universal Cybernetics 
Corporation and track down the mutant robot they 
have designed as the ultimate killing machine. 

You'll arm yourself with a whole arsenal of 
weapons - everything from hologram projectors to 
special vision enhancement visors to thermal 
infra-red image intensifiers. If all else fails - 
you'll have to rely on your own psychic powers! 
FEATURES INCLUDE: *|i|^j^^J[m|4)^ 

■ 16-level 3-dimensional environment complete 
with fast, smooth scrolling 

■ Realistic action control of six characters: 2 male, 
2 female and 2 droid 

■ 360 degree vision 

a Environmental sound effects 

"Tension and unease, with danger lurking around 
every comer.... This Number One European Hit 
will keep you on your toes and coming back. ,. ^ 
for more." 




UWHWnU 



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&VAILSBLE FOR 

TBE IBM , IMIG A AND AT5RI ST THIS SVMMEST 
SUGGESTED RTTAIL - S49.99 

TM and © 1991 Tirgin Games, Inc. and Cone Deitgn. 

All lights reierved. 

Cocporatioii & Tiigiu® axe nglitered Iraduaaiks ot 

Virgin Eateipmes, Ltd. 

Tiigln Games, Inc. 18061 Fitch An., Irriae, Califunia 92114 




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The space flight sixnulator to end all 
simulators, SHUTTLE is the most accurate 
and comprehensive simulation of NASA's 
Space Shuttle ever produced for the home 

computer. 

With the aid of Mission Control, you will master 
such challenges as deploying and repairing 
satellites, launching spy satellites, maneuvering 
your craft in zero gravity, attaining the correct re- 
entry trajectory, and pulling off complicated 
landings. 

Advanced polygon and elliptical graphics, along 
with actual land and star maps were used to create 
the breathtaking 3D panoramas of the Orbiter and 
its environment, which can be viewed from any 
angle at any time. 

Other features include: 

■ Authentic control panel display 

■ Detailed comprehensive training and reference 

manual 

■ Numerous training, scientific and "Star Wars" 
(SDI) Missions 

■ Multiple help levels &om "novice" to "veteran" 

■ Various launch and lajiding sites 

■ Orchestral q[uaUty music 
Foldrout Shuttle flight deck postei 



U 



AT2ILXBLEF0R 

THE IBM, SMtGi. BSD AXJUil ST L&TE SUMMER. 

SUGGESTED RETJUL - 159 .99 

^-.^ JldLJ^™ aod Rslaad™ lotind boards inpputed on IBM 
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Virgin Gsmes, Inc. 1806 1 ritch five, , bvise, Califoniia 92714 

Circle Reader Service Number 179 



III. 




ENTERTAINMENT 



COMPUTE CHOICE. Prove your 
right to the skies by flying the latest 
Yeager flight simulator 

Denny Atkin 



CHUCK YEAGER'S 
AIR COMBAT 

"Bandit on your six! Break!" 
the navigator yelled from the 
rear seat. As tracers sinot past 
the cockpit window, I did a vec- 
tor fol! and pulled away from 
the attacker. ! leveled out my 
F-4E Phantom, wondering if 
every raid against the Viet- 
cong would see this much ac- 
tion. I'd just taken damage 
from the f\/liG'21 I shot down 
over Hanoi, and now I had to 
deal with more bogeys? 

I scanned the horizon look- 
ing for the enemy aircraft. I 
spotted him, locked on a Side- 
winder heat seeker, and 
moved in for the kill. Wait, 
there was something strange 
about this plane. It appeared 
to be ... a piston-engined 
WWII fighter! "That's a Focke- 
Wulf 190," my navigator ex- 
claimed incredulously, I 
glanced around . . . three, no 
four FW-190 fighters and a for- 
mation of Me-262s, the first Ger- 
man jet fighters! 

Humming the "Twilight 
Zone" theme, I closed in on 
the bogey and let go of the Si- 
dewinder; it shot right past 
him. I guess a heat seeker 
isn't the best weapon to use 
against an old prop job. ! did 
a low yo-yo to reposition when 
suddenly a group of tracers 
ripped into my wing. Looking 
over, I saw an Me-163 rocket 
plane! I jinked to the left and 
lit into him with my 20-mm Gat- 
ling gun. He blew up with a 
spectacular explosion. Survey- 
ing my plane, I realized I'd tak- 
en some pretty heavy dam- 
age. One nice thing about 
WWII planes — they were pret- 
ty slow compared to my Phan- 
tom. I lit the afterburners and 
headed for home with growing 
appreciation of antique war- 




planes. 
Chuck 
Yeager 's 
Air Com- 
bat gives 
me a new re- 
spect for the 
programming 
talent of Brent Iv- 
erson. (And he 
wasn't doing too bad- 
ly in my book anyway, 
having created the PC 
version of DeluxePaint.) 
When I saw the spec sheet for 
this program, I thought it 
might be a fun arcade game, 
but I didn't believe there was 
any way a program could re- 
alistioatly simulate aircraft 
from three different wars with- 
out making any compromises. 
I was wrong. The original Yea- 
ger simuiation, Chuck Yea- 
ger's Advanced Flight Trainer, 
is one of the best-selling enter- 
tainment programs for the PC. 
This program lives up to its 
predecessor's flight-model re- 
alism and surpasses it in 
speed, sound, and graphics 
quality. And it provides much 
more challenging gameplay 

Yeager offers three game- 
play options. You can choose 
to fly a historic mission over 
World War II Europe, Korea, or 
Vietnam; create your own mis- 
sion; or test-fly a plane. Fans 
of historical air combat will en- 
joy the first option, which al- 
lows you to fly 16 accurate air- 
combat missions over Korea 
and 17 each over Europe and 



Vietnam. The Create Mission 
option allows you to design 
your own combat scenario, ei- 
ther a realistic encounter be- 
tween planes of the same era 
or a fantasy combat between 
aircraft of different eras. Test 
Flight lets you simply take to 
the skies in your choice of air- 
craft and practice your flying 
skills without having to worry 
about enemy aircraft. 

The program simulates a to- 
tal of 17 different aircraft 
types. You can fly 6 of these 
models, and enemy aircraft 
can be any of the 17. The 
planes available from World 
War II are the North American 
P-51 D f^'lustang and the Focke- 
Wulf 190A-8; from Korea, the 
North American F-86E and the 
fvlikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 Fag- 
ot; and from Vietnam, the 
iVlcDonnell Douglas F-4E Phan- 
tom II and the fvlikoyan-Gure- 
vich rvliG-21MFFishbed. Oth- 
er planes featured in the sim- 
ulation, which you may have to 
defend as allies or face as en- 
emies, are the P-47DThunder- 



106 COMPUTE 



bolt, the Messerschmitt Me- 
109E, the Me-110 twin-prop 
fighter, the Me-163 rocket 
plane, the Me-262 jet, the B- 
17 Flying Fortress, the B-29 Su- 
perfortress, the Yakelov Yak- 
9, the MiG-17F Fresco, the F- 
105D Thunderchlef, and the B- 
52 Stratofortress (known as 
the BUFF to its pilots.) 

As you'd expect from a sim- 
ulation bearing the Yeager 
name, each of these planes is 
simulated very accurately- 
When you choose which 
plane youYe going to fly, you 
aren't forced to use a generic 
cockpit; the program d'Splays 
an instrument panel accurate 
to that type of plane. The 
more modern the plane you're 
flying, the more sophisticated 
the instrument panel. Each 
plane is realistic from a perform- 
ance standpoint as well. For in- 
stance, the Me-1 63 Komet rock- 
et plane will run out of fuel af- 
ter a few minutes of combat 
and have to glide back to 
base, making it a sitting duck, 
just like the actual aircraft. 
You'll find that different fight- 
ers have different climb rates, 
turning radii, and maximum al- 
titudes. No more of the "every 
plane flies about the same" syn- 
drome you've encountered in 
too many other simulations. If 
you're used to less realistic sim- 
ulators, you miight find yourself 
in trouble after trying to do ma- 
neuvers that aren' t actually pos- 
sible in some planes at certain 
altitudes. 

The game presents you 
with an incredible variety of his- 
torical missions. Many are of 
the fighter-escort and ground- 
attack genres, as you'd ex- 
pect, but many others are 
unique and unexpected. In Ko- 
rea, for instance, one mission 
puts you In the role of Lt. Kim 
Sok Ho, the North Korean pi- 
lot who defected with his MiG- 



15 in order to collect a 
$100,000 reward, You've got 
toavoid both Korean and Amer- 
ican pilots in that scenario. Oth- 
er scenarios bring their own sur- 
prises — you may spend most 
of your time in what's sup- 
posed to be a ground-attack 
mission engaging in air-to-air 
combat. Make sure you pay at- 
tention to the mission's goals, 
though. I shot down three Ger- 
man planes in one mission, on- 
ly to be chided by General Yea- 
ger for not destroying enough 
ground targets. 

General Yeager offers help- 
ful hints and warnings during 
combat. If you seek further as- 
sistance, a tutorial videotape 
narrated by Yeager is availa- 
ble from EA. 

Each mission stands alone; 
the program doesn't let you fly 
a campaign or save your pilot 
to disk so you can keep a run- 
ning total of your kills. 

The historical missions are 
thoroughly enjoyable, but I 
had the most fun using the Cre- 
ate fvlission option. If you've 
had a bad day, take a Vietnam- 
era MiG-21 up against four or 
five WWII 8-17 Bombers— it's 
a piece of cake. If you're up 
for a challenge, try to shoot 
down a Mach-2 F-4E Phantom 
in a 500-mph P-51 Mustang, It 
can be done, but it's not easy. 

The game has a nice replay 
option. You can pause the com- 
bat and watch what just hap- 
pened, or you can save the en- 
tire mission to disk and watch 
it later. There are variable play- 
back speeds, and you can 
have the camera follow any of 
the aircraft. 

Yeager's VGA graphics are 
beautiful. Each cockpit is a 
nicely rendered VGA bitmap, 
while the world and other air- 
craft are done using fast filled- 
polygon graphics. Down to 
the ejection seat and canopy 




that fall away from your plane 
after you punch out, Yeager 
misses no detail. A digitized 
Chuck Yeager voice congrat- 
ulating you or chiding you af- 
ter each mission crowns a com- 
plement of well-done sound ef- 
fects. One truly neat feature is 
that the game will actually run 
under Windowsor\ a 386SX or 
higher machine; other than a 
scrambled digitized voice, all 
features work fine under Win- 
dows 3.0. With realistic flying 
characteristics, fast-action 
combat, an infinite variety of 
possible missions, and top- 
notch graphics and sound, it's 
hard to find anything to com- 
plain about. The terrain could 
be a little more detailed and 
less flat, and it would be nice 
if you could keep a running to- 
tal of your pilot's kills. Even with- 
out these features, though. 
Chuck Yeager's Air Combat is 
the most enjoyable combat 
flight simulator I've ever 
played, □ 



IBM PC and 
compatibles, 640K 
RAM; CGA, EGA, 
MCGA, VGA; 
supports Ad Lit), 
Sound Blaster, 
Game Blaster— 
S59.95 

ELECTRONIC ARTS 
1820 Gateway Dr. 
San Mateo, CA 

1415) 571-7171 



107 



GAMEPLAY 



Orson Scott Card 



Combat ability. 

tactics, and 

strategy— every 

step along 

the continuum is 

imuortaat 

But there's another 

continuum, 

too . . . alistraction 

versus 

simulation. 



ABSTRACT WAR 
GAMES 

You don't have to approve of 
war to enjoy playing war 
games, Besides, there are dif- 
ferent kinds of war games. 
Some are combat games — 
those arcade games where 
you kick or blast your way 
through an endless onslaught 
of enemies in order to reach a 
higher level where you have to 
kick or blast your way through 
even more enemies. Victory de- 
pends on the reflexes and 
skills the player develops — by 
playing, you train yourself into 
a perfect "soldier" for that 
game. 

Some war games are stra- 
tegic, like the excellent Com- 
mand H.Q. (Microplay), in 
which you play on a large 
map, manipulating nations 




and armies. The whole war is 
your responsibility. 

Some war games are tacti- 
cal, a sort of middle ground in 
which you maneuver the indi- 
vidual units of a larger force. 
Your game is usually a single 
battle consisting of many en- 
gagements and firefights. 
Your units may be as large as 
divisions or as small as tanks 
or individual soldiers — but 
you, as the player, control 
many of them, not just one or 
two. 

The boundaries between 
these kinds of war games are 
never firmly fixed. Insofar as the 
Ultima games are war games, 
are they combat games be- 
cause you control the individu- 
al combat decisions of a very 
small team? Or tactical, be- 
cause you maneuver and con- 
trol several players? 

Does it matter? Well, it 
does if you're playing war 
games for real. When, at the 
Marine University in Quantico, 
I sat in on a war game session 
led by Captain John Schmitt 
(author of what may be the 
most concisely brilliant book 
of strategy ever written), it re- 
ally mattered whether you 
thought strategically as well as 
tactically — because someday 
v^hat you did in the game 
might show up on the battle- 
field. 

Likewise, the best of the of- 
ficers playing the game took in- 
to account the Individual abili- 
ties of soldiers in their made- 
up squads. "I'd put my two 
best marksmen here and 
have them move very slowly in- 
to position there during the 
night. I know they could get 
there because I trained them 
to do it." Combat ability, tac- 
tics, and strategy — every step 
along the continuum is impor- 
tant. 

But there's another continu- 
um, too, when it comes to war 
games: abstraction versus sim- 
ulation. Chess, for instance, is 
a highly abstracted war 



game. Sure, we speak of 
"knights" and "castling," but 
there's no sense in which our 
use of bishops and queens re- 
flects real warfare! And as for 
moving castles . . . well, 
enough said. 

So when I tell you that Full 
Metal Planet (Infogrames, 
copyrighted and distributed in 
the U.S. by Data East) is a fair- 
ly abstract tactical game, that 
doesn't mean that it isn't a 
good war game. It does mean 
that you won't get the thrill of 
kicking your way through a 
whole bunch of enemies — com- 
bat is only scarcely more graph- 
ic than seeing one piece take 
another in chess. Yet you get 
another kind of thril! — the ex- 
citement of maneuvering your 
forces defensively and offen- 
sively against very tough com- 
puter opponents or other hu- 
man players, under a very 
tight time limit of no more than 
25 moves. 

Unrealistic? No, just ab- 
stract. The graphics are gor- 
geous, somewhat impression- 
istic and yet grittily real. It's a 
bleak alien landscape, where 
your corporation and up to 
four computer opponents and 
three other humans are trying 
to gather as much ore as pos- 
sible, all the while blasting or 
capturing the other corpora- 
tions' equipage and trying to 
keep its men from doing the 
same to you. 

The rules of movement are 
quite abstract, and the battles 
themselves are simple. The 
playing field is a hex grid with 
a sea whose unpredictable 
tides can drastically alter your 
movement capability. It 
sounds simple, but the compli- 
cations are as intricate as 
chess. 

Whether you prefer twitch 
games or games like Full Met- 
al Planet is just a matter of 
whether you want your reflex- 
es to play the game for you or 
you sometimes want the 
game to reach your brain, □ 



lOa COMPUTE 



All the nranhics. all the action, all the stats / 



SSI sets the standard 
with Tony La Russa's 
Ultimate Baseball. 
When the premier 
manager of pro / 
baseball puts his 
name on a game, 
you know it has to 
be the very best: 
State-of-the-art 
graphics and ultra 
realistic action. 
Ballparks with differ- 
ent fence distances, 
, wind 
conditions 
and turf 
surfaces. 
■ And all the 



i^<>tAj^?a^ 







'jj 




^ 



Tony La Russa's Ultimate 

Baseball comes with the 

stats of yesteryears" 

legendary super- 

— stars. You can 

also enter the 

numbers for any 

player on any pro 

team — or even 

those on your 

local feague. 

Choose to play 

^^^^^^ a game with top- 

"'' " ■ notch arcade 

action, or let the computer 

play through a 162-game 

season in a 

few hours! 



batting, 
14 fielding 
and 44 
pitching stat 
categories! 
Sorted any 
way you like. 
You make 



the call. 



WPM5 BUCSCSH07 



SPORTS. iRiomim 

to ORDER: Visit you; retailer. .4 

VISA/MC orders, call 1-800-245-4? 

Canada). By mail, send check or money order to 

Electronic Arts. RO. Box 7530, San Mateo. CA 

94403. To receive SSI's complete 

product catalog, send si .00 

to: SSI.675Almanor >«r|!jk«. /•— 

Ave.. Suite 201. ,. - JrX~' 

Sunnyvale. ~- -■ '>-:.-- 

CA 94086. 



►IBM 
►C-G4/128 

(Not all features 

are available (or 

C-64/1 28 version) 

Watch for 

upcoming 

Data Disks! 




». 



m e m o r a 



The Making of a Com 



When Access Software introduced the 
award-winning Mean Streets two years 
ago, its exciting movie sequences 
were state-of-the-art technology. Now, 
the Access geniuses are taking game 
technology another quantum leap tor- 
ward with Martian Memorandum. 

This time, in what is rightfully called 
full-motion video, Access gives us mov- 
ie sequences with synchronized 
sound. When you play the game, the 
twelve speaking characters talk direct- 
ly to you as you conduct your inter- 
views, even if you don't have a sound 
board. They move as they speak and 
roll their eyes with disgust, shrugging, 
laughing, and blazing with anger. 
They're not animated cartoons or pho- 
tos with dialog boxes; they're people 
you have to deal with to get anywhere 
in the game. 

You won't believe your eyes and 
ears. It's a breakthrough that parallels 
the development of "talkies," when 
soundtracks were added to movies. 

But aside from the programming art- 
istry that represents a giant step for the 
technology, this is a computer game 
good enough to deserve being the first 
computer talkie. 

Martian Memorandum's setting is 
A.D. 2039. You take the role of Tex 
Murphy, a San Francisco gumshoe in 
the Sam Spade tradition (complete 
with the trench coat and 1940-style 
theme music), who is hired by wealthy 

110 COMPUTE 



Marshall Alexander to find his beautiful 
daughter, Alexis, who is missing and 
may have been abducted. 

The faint trail eventually leads 
through her boyfriend's incredible 
South American jungle fortress to the 
seedy back alleys of a casino district on 
Mars. As you meet more people and un- 
ravel the web of intrigue, you find 
there is much more involved than just a 
missing heiress. If you are successful, 
you may save humanity from self-de- 
struction. 

It's a gritty, hard-boiled private eye 
yarn in a futuristic, science fiction set- 
ting. As the macho hero, you mix it up 
with mutant villains, sexy secretaries, 
gamblers, hired muscle, and an eclec- 
tic variety ol characters, each of whom 
is trying in his or her own way to influ- 
ence the fate of the universe. 

There's also a healthy dose of hu- 
mor, particularly in the descriptions of 
the various objects you'll examine as 
you search for clues. 

The story line is unusually deep for a 
game. The game's electronic wizardry — 
after the awe wears off— allows you to 
get caught up with the people, their mo- 
tivations, and the scope of the problem 
you're desperately trying to solve. 

The designers weren't content, how- 
ever, with presenting this richly detailed 
story in graphics and sound that no one 
else can match. They had one more in- 
novation in mind; they guarantee you 



can finish the game. You'll be able to un- 
cover the final solution without a hint 
book and without frantic phone calls to 
customer service. 

How can they guarantee this? 
They've developed a new system to 
give you context-sensitive help at just 
the level you want. If you want minor 
hints at the tough spots, you can get 
them onscreen. But if you aren't playing 
for the thrill of outsmarting the program- 
mers, persist in asking for help, and the 
game will eventually spell out for you ex- 
actly what to do. 

This may be the first adventure/mys- 
tery game some of us have ever fin- 
ished. If you enjoy simple mysteries 
and puzzles but have given up on ad- 
venture games in frustration with their 
seeming impossibility, you'll want to try 
Martian Memorandum. You only have 
to endure as much frustration as you 
choose to accept. 

The Making of Martian 
Nlemoranmim 

Like its predecessors, Countdown and 
Mean Streets, Martian Memorandum is 
the product of a talented team of crea- 
tive technical geniuses hidden away in 
an industrial park near the Salt Lake 
City International Airport. Although 
they're unquestionably brilliant comput- 
er people, they work, talk, and think 
more like moviemakers. 
Martian Memorandum is story and con- 



mM 







um 



How virtual 

can it get before it's 

real? Access 

brings together 

RealSound and live 

action for an 

unprecedented 

adventure experience. 



cept are the joint creation of financial 
vice president Ciiris Jones and program- 
mer Brent Erickson. Jones directs the 
game's movie sequences and acts sev- 
eral parts. 

The visuals are born when the design- 
ers explain the story to their artist, who 
creates a storyboard with a rough 
sketch for each game screen. The re- 
sults of this intensely creative process 
are pinned on the wall of a long hall- 
way, and production begins. 

Videotaping is much like a standard 
movie or television shoot, with makeup 
and sound people, a videographer (cam- 
eraman), the director, and actors shoot- 
ing multiple takes directly onto video- 
tape. The difference is one additional 
person: Erickson lurks in the back- 
ground, mentally digitizing the scene 
and fitting it into his program, making 
sure the degree of detail, motion, and 
position of the actors will work within 
computer memory and program con- 
straints. 

Ninety-five percent of what you see 
onscreen in Martian Memorandum is dig- 
itized video or still photos. Every move 
that Tex Murphy and the other charac- 
ters make was created from digitized vid- 
eo of actors. The derelict train in the 
rail yard murder scene is a photo of an 
abandoned string of rail cars a few hun- 
dred yards from the Access office. Wher- 
ever the appropriate image exists, 
they'll find a way to capture it and fit it 



into the game. 

Like moviemakers, they create futur- 
istic sets in miniature. After lighting the 
model set just as carefully as stage 
directors light a sound stage, they 
videotape it. Jon Clark, a multitalented 
artist with 15 years of experience in thea- 
ter set design, creates the models us- 
ing a surprising variety of toys, balsa 
wood, scraps of plastic models, wires, 
and anything eise that comes to hand. 
Jon also runs the studio's professional 
sound equipment. 

The digitized images of the sets 
then go to Doug Vandegrift, a cartoon- 
ist with a theater background known for 
his work on "The Muppet Babies" car- 
toon series. Vandegrift's PC tool chest 
lets him blend in other images, includ- 
ing his own drawings. He works with 
the lighting, backgrounds, and whatev- 
er else may need touch-up in the origi- 
nal image. 

The detailed exterior scene of the 
Martian casino row, for example, start- 
ed as a colorful, detailed model built by 
Clark. Vandegrift blended in a stark Mar- 
tian mountainscape background and ne- 
on signs that came from photos of Las 
Vegas augmented by his own artwork. 
The result is a movie scene that looks 
real without the flat, uniformly colored 
and lighted look of a cartoon panel. 

The live action sequences and char- 
acters that talk in full-motion video ap- 
pear onscreen in three- to four-inch win- 



By Richard O. Mann 



3S5^: 



dows over the scene's set. They could 
do full-screen video, but it takes so 
much disk space that it isn't practical 
yet. 

In fact, the real technical break- 
through allowing full-motion video with 
sound is not the video or the sound 
technology. It's fast disk decompres- 
sion. Full-motion video is a series of 
frames projected on the screen, just 
like motion pictures. Each frame is 
stored on disk and draw/n on the 
screen at the right speed. 

Images take a vast amount of disk 
storage. To make this game work, 
Erickson invented a system that com- 
presses the video files by approximate- 
ly 87 percent and then decompresses 
them on the fly in a fraction of a sec- 
ond, sending them to the screen as 
needed, right on time, frame by frame, 
synchronized with the sound files. With- 
out the lightning-fast decompression 
routine, this game could not exist. 

The RealSound technology that 
gives us music and voice through ordi- 
nary PC speakers is the brainchild of 
Steve Witzel, vice president of market- 
ing at Access. It's so mature and solid 
at this point that it's easy to record the 
soundtrack on the videotape and dig- 
itize it using the proven RealSound util- 
ity program. If you have expensive 
fVllDI sound equipment, the soundtrack 



of Martian Memorandum will complete 
the illusion of being in a movie. 

All of these diverse elements feed in- 
to Erickson's dimly lit, CD-sound-filled 
office, where the master programmer 
melds them together into a finished 
product, Since the game was created 
in close partnership with Jones from 




Martian Memorandum is your ticket to an 
interplanetary adventure. 

the start, Erickson is qualified to serve 
as the movie's cutter and editor. His 
job is a lot harder, though, because 
he's also writing the computer code 
that causes everything to happen. 

An Entertainment Experience 

The designers of Martian Memoran- 
dum are striving to make it more than 
a game; they see it as an entertain- 
ment experience. The intention is to 



make the player identify with the hero 
and feel surprise, anger, delight, and 
tension as he or she solves the mys- 
tery. The only concession to the fact 
that it's a computer game is your lim- 
ited ability to question and interact 
with the people you meet in the game. 
At each step along the way you are giv- 
en three to five possible things to say 
in these conversations. (Such conver- 
sations may go on for ten or more ex- 
changes; they are not perfunctory inter- 
views.) Sometimes off-the-wall ques- 
tions you'd like to ask aren't among the 
choices, but such occasions are rare. 
As games become more realistic, 
merging full-motion animation and dig- 
itized sound, the gap separating real ex- 
perience from the game action nar- 
rows. Martian Memorandum isn't quite 
virtual reality yet, but it's closer to it 
than any other computer game. Q 



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Requires VGA and hard drive with ap- 
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mended. All sound boards supported 
but none is required. 




112 COMPUTE 



64/1 28 VIEW 



New 64 titles were scarce at the 
Consumer Electronics Show, but there's 
still some fun coming our way. 

Tom Netsel 



The 1991 International 
Summer Consumer Elec- 
tronics Show closed its 
doors recently in Chica- 
go after 55,629 attendees 
logged many extra miles on 
their Nike and Reebok Fre- 
quent Hiker plans. It took a 
lot of shoe leather to visit 
each of the 1,019 exhibits 
that filled a half-million 
square feet of exhibit 
space, and finding new 64 ti- 
tles in this electronic mid- 
way was something of a chal- 
lenge. 

There were plenty of PCs 
and Amigas displaying new 
software, but there were no 
64s, Many companies say 
they no longer get enough re- 
turn on their investment to 
continue producing prod- 
ucts for the 64. 

After much asking, prob- 
ing, and poking around, how- 
ever, I did manage to locate 
some new products. Rea- 
dySoft says its multidisk 
Wrath of the Demon should 
be out in September, but 
look for it on cartridge, too. 
"With the introduction of the 
Commodore Game Console 
in England, cartridge 
games developed for that 
system will work just fine on 
a 64," says ReadySoft Sen- 
ior Vice President Elizabeth 
Arnold. 

This state-of-the-art 
game contains more than 
3MB of graphics data, 600 
screens of action, and 1400 
frames of animation. Look 
for more cartridges and 
disks coming from the U.K., 
since ReadySoft has joined 
Empire Software and will be 
importing some of its prod- 
ucts. Another title due out in 
late fall is Guy Spy. 

At Electronic Arts, affiliat- 
ed labels SSI and Mindcraft 
have new offerings that 



should be exciting. Step up 
to the plate with Strategic 
Simulations' Ultimate Base- 
ball. That's the working title, 
but whatever it's called, this 
simulation lets you play man- 
age, or watch one game or 
a whole 162-game season. 

War game fans haven't 
been forgotten. Look for an 
SSI war game coming soon. 
It's called Medieval Lords. 

Gateway to the Savage 
Frontier is the first of a new 
AD & D series from SSI. It 
takes place in a mysterious 
territory in the world of Forgot- 
ten Realms. Starting in the 
town of Yarter, venture over 
a vast wilderness on a 
quest for four magical statu- 
ettes. 

Later this year, look for 
The Magic Candle, Vol. 2 
from Mindcraft. In this se- 
quel explore the dreaded 
realm of Gurtex in search of 
the dark secrets of black can- 
dles. A new user interface 
lets you capture conversa- 
tions, eliminating the need 
for constant note taking. As- 
tound friend and foe with 
new spells, such as Glam- 
our, Courage, and Terrify. 

The Electronic Zoo is bun- 
dling 20 popular games 
from Great Britain and send- 
ing them to the U.S. as Star 
Collection. These hits 
should be available now. 

Konami is another compa- 
ny supporting the 64— and 
now one of the more active 
ones. Over the next few 
months, look for five new 
games based on popular 
movies and hit television pro- 
grams. Look for such excit- 
ing titles as Bart Simpson's 
Adventure, Simpsons' Ar- 
cade Game, Teenage Mu- 
tant Ninja Turtles: The Ar- 
cade Game, Back to the Fu- 
ture III, and Predator 2. □ 



CONTENTS 



64/128 VIEW G-1 

The 1991 Summer CES had little for the 64, but new 
products are heading our way. By Tom Netsel. 

COMMODORE CLIPS G-2 

Gazette goes online with QuantumLink, Commodore 
earnings are up, and more. By Tom Netsel. 

A GUIDE TO COMMODORE 

USER GROUPS (PART II) G-4 

User group listings for Nevada-Wyoming and around 
the world. By Kandi Sykes and Dana Stoll. 



REVIEWS 



G-10 



Sac/c to the Future tl, Fastfingers, Nightbreed, and 
Power Drift. 



FEEDBACK 

Questions and answers. 



G-1 6 



GEOS G-1 9 

GEOS telecommunicating. By Steve Vander Ark. 



MACHINE LANGUAGE 

Use binary fractions. By Jim Butterfield. 



G-20 



BEGINNER BASIC G-21 

Crashproof your programs. By Larry Cotton. 

PROGRAMMER'S PAGE G-22 

Programming tips for the 64. By Randy Thompson. 

DIVERSIONS G^ 

Has the robot revolution started? By Fred D'Ignazio. 



PROGRAMS 

Spanish Vocabulary Quiz 

SpeedSwap 

Credit Control 

Plotter 

Showdown 

Medium Density Driver 

RapldFormat 128 

MLX 



G-25 

G-25 

G-28 
G-29 
G-31 
G-32 
G-34 
G-35 
G-38 



G-1 



COMMODORE CLIPS 



Tom Netsel 



"Gazette 

Gallery" presents 

Lutanlst, 

by Jack {DqgJM) 

Modjallal of 

Encino, Calllornia, 

as this 

disk's Picture of 

the moniti. 



GAZETTE GALLERY 

Each month Gazette D/s/< fea- 
tures a collection of the best 
64/128 artwork submitted by 
our readers. We pay $50 for 
each piece of art we accept 
for "Gazette Gallery" and an ex- 
tra $50 for the one selected as 
Picture of the Month and fea- 
tured on this page. To submit 
your original artistic creations, 
send them to Gazette Gallery 
GOfvlPUTE Publications, 324 
West Wendover Avenue, 
Suite 200, Greensboro, North 
Carolina 27408. 

Gazette Goes Online 

Two of the biggest names in 
the Commodore world are join- 
ing forces to offer 64 and 128 
users an exciting new dimen- 
sion to their computing activi- 
ties. COMPUTE'S Gazette will 
soon be online at Quantum- 
Link (8619 Westwood Center 
Drive, Vienna, Virginia 22180; 
800-827-8444). 

You've read Gazette for 
years; soon you can access 
Gazette electronically on the 
only Commodore-specific on- 
line service. With your comput- 




er, modem, and Q-Link's free 
terminal software, you'll be 
able to access many of your fa- 
vorite Gazette features. 
Check Gazette and Q-Link as 
details become available 
about our upcoming debut. 

Check This Out 

Sparks Electronics (P.O. Box 
0475, St. Joseph, Missouri 
64504-0475) has released 
S.E.C- Check Register 128 
($16) for the 128 in 80-col- 
umn mode. Designed to man- 
age personal or small busi- 
ness checking accounts, 
S.E.C. Check Register can 
contain up to 750 entries. 

Special emphasis is given 
to data entry, recurring pay- 
ees, check printing, and print- 
ing of register data. Recurring 
payee files can contain up to 
54 names and addresses, but 
users can load others into the 
current register for an unlimit- 
ed number of payees. 

Earnings Up at Commoilore 

Commodore International Lim- 
ited reported $10.6 million in 
income on sales of $246.3 mil- 
lion for the third fiscal quarter 
of 1991, which ended March 
31. This represents a substan- 
tial increase in earnings and 
a 16-percent increase in 
sales compared to the year- 
ago quarter. An extraordinary 
charge of $9.2 million relating 
to a previously announced 
court settlement of litigation 
was recorded in the quarter, 
resulting in net income of 
$1.4 million. 

For the nine months that 
ended March 31, 1991, in- 
come increased tenfold to 
$54.1 million compared with 
$5.0 million in the prior year. 
Sales increased 21 percent to 
$830.7 million, compared 
with $689.2 million in the year- 
ago period. Net income for 
the nine months increased nin- 
efold to $44.9 million, or 
$1.37 per share. 

Every product line contribut- 



ed to revenue growth in the 
quarter, Unit sales of Amiga 
computers increased 30 per- 
cent, while the 64 product 
line registered unit growth of 
48 percent, largely due to ex- 
panded sales in new markets. 

The Krynn Epic Continues 

Strategic Simulations announc- 
es the release of Death 
Knights of Krynn ($39.95) for 
the 64. (SSI products are dis- 
tributed by Electronic Arts, 
1820 Gateway Drive, San 
Mateo, California 94404.) 
This game is the sequel to the 
popular Advanced Dungeons 
& Dragons fantasy role-play- 
ing game Champions of 
Krynn. 

Death Knights of Krynn be- 
gins a year after the conclu- 
sion of Champions of Krynn. 
At a victory party on the anni- 
versary of tfie evil force's de- 
feat, the celebration is inter- 
rupted by an unwelcome par- 
ty crasher. The undead Sir 
Karl sweeps in on a Death 
Dragon and steals a revered 
Dragonlance. The adventure 
begins as the champions set 
out to track Sir Karl and recov- 
er the stolen item. 

Your favorite characters 
from Champions of Krynn can 
be imported to Death Knights 
of Krynn, along with their ac- 
cumulated items and wealth. 
This is a new feature not pre- 
viously offered in AD & D fan- 
tasy role-playing games. 

Big Al and Pals 

Return to Chicago's golden 
age of gangsters and take on 
the Mob in The Untouchables 
($14.95) from Ocean of Amer- 
ica (distributed by Electronic 
Arts, 1820 Gateway Drive, 
San Mateo, California 94404). 
Guide Eliot Ness's band of 
mob-busters through five lev- 
els of arcade action: the Ware- 
house Bust, the Border Raid, 
the Alley Shootouts, the Rail- 
way Station Confrontation, 
and the Rooftop Duels. □ 



G-2 COMPUTE 



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1750 Clone RAM EKpansion $169 Micro C-128 Power Supply $59.95 

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Super SnapshrM 5.0 $59.95 

Xelec S. Graphi« Jr. Interlace......... J29.B5 

Xelec S. Graphix Sr. Interlace $49.95 



Cardco G-Wiz Interlace Si>9.95 

Commoeiore 1650 Modem SU.95 

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Ejicelleraior Plus FS Dl I Power Supply. ...$1 9.95 

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Btj Bkjs Rsader S31.00 MavarickvS.0 529,00 

Canran Time $26.00 ML Bassball II Enhan. $27.00 

Caittwn USA. 529.00 Newsroom. S14.00 

Carmen VforW $25,00 North & South. $20.00 

Death KnighlB Kryinn $40.00 Paperdp III $40.00 

Elemerrtaiy Gni BuWing $25.00 Pccliel Writef. $19,00 

G(M5 Piiilsh $3100 Pocke! Writer II $34,00 

GEOS w2.0 $40.00 Pnnt Master Plis. $24,00 

Jr. High Grade Buikter $19.00 Print Shop „ $32.00 



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SeoBl Silver Blades. $3200 

Sim Cily $21 .00 

Telris $14,00 

Tunican II ...$20.00 

UKma VI $49,00 

Vtad Wrtor VI $34,00 



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(Wide Carriage) $365.95 

200GX $169.M 



KXP-1123 $239.95 

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G-4 COMPUTE 



Here's Pari 2 of the list of 
user groups, concluding 
witli those in New Jersey 
tinrough Wyoming. APOs, 
and otiier countries. 

NEW JERSEY 

Info 64 Commodore User 
Group, c/o Jerry Fieiscfier, 
186 Delmar Ave., Glen 
Rock, NJ 07452 

Hillsdale Commodore 64 Users 
Club, 32 Esplanade Lake 
Dr. Hillsdale, NJ 07642 

Garden State Commodore & 
MS-DOS User's Group, 89 
Stratford Rd., Tinton Falls, NJ 
07724 (BBS# 201-938-3885) 

Commodore User Group of Cen- 
tral New Jersey, 112 Old 
Bridge Rd.. Matawan, NJ 
07747 

Morris Area Commodore User 
Group (MACUG), PO. Box 
492, Mt. Tabor, NJ 07878 

Rancocas Valley Users Group 
(RVUG), c/o G. C. Heatfi, 
806 Windsor Dr., Cinnamin- 
son, NJ 08077 (BBS* 609^ 
267-7945) 

Data Exchange-Beneficial Us- 
ers Group 64/128 (D.E.- 
B.U.G. 64/128), 713 Second 
St., Dunellen, NJ 08812 

Commodore E. Brunswick Us- 
ers Group (CEBUG), P.O. 
Box 314, E. Brunswick. NJ 
08816 

NEW MEXICO 

New Mexico Commodore User 
Group, P.O. Box 37127, Al- 
buquerque, NM 87176 
(BBS# 505-268-4662) 

Los Alamos Commodore Us- 
ers Group, 4214-A Arizona 
St., Los Alamos, NM 87544 
(Voice# 505-662-5934) 

Taos Area Commodore User's 
Group, P.O. Box 5686, 
Taos, NM 87571 

The Southern New Mexico Com- 
modore User's Group, PO 
Box 4437, University Park 
Brancfi, Las Cruces, NM 
88003 

Commodore Users Group of 
Roswell (CUGOR), 1619 N. 
Kansas, Roswell, NM 88201 

NEW YORK 

New York Commodore Interest 



Group (NYC=tg), 115 Essex 
St., Box #146, New York, NY 
10002 

Kids' Computer News, St. 
Hilda's & St. Hugh's School, 
619 W. 114th St., New York, 
NY 10025 

Folklife Terminal Club, Box 555- 
R. Co-op City Station, Bronx, 
NY 10475 

Brooklyn Commodore User's 
Group, c/o Grodman, 1111 
Shore Pkwy., Brooklyn, NY 
11228 (Voice* 718-331- 
3835) 

Queens Commodore Users 
Group (QCUG), P.O. Box 
129, Ozone Park, NY 11417 
(BBS# 718-366-7445) 

Commodore Users Group of 
Greater New York, 190-25 
Woodhull Ave., Hollis, NY 
11423 

N.C.C.C, P.O. Box 233, Sea 
Cliff, NY 11579 

Commodore Lxing Island Club, 
15 Rochelie Ct., Amityville, 
NY 11701 {BBS# 516-489- 
4061) 

Brentwood 64/128 Computer 
Ctub, Public Library, 2nd 
Ave. & 4th St., Brentwood. 
NY 11717 

Moliawk Valley Computer User 
Group, c/o William Nowak. 
3818 Stinson Ave., Tribes 
Hill, NY 12177 

Tri-City Commodore User's 
Group (TCCUG), PO. Box 
12742, Albany, NY 12212- 
2742 

Hudson Valley Commo- 
dore Club, P.O. Box 2190, 
Kingston, NY 12401 

The Commodore Computer 
Club of Syracuse, 233 Wil- 
liams St., Minoa. NY 13116 
(BBS# 315-656-3544) 

Oswego Commodore User 
Group, 402 Mahar Hafl, 
State University College, 
Oswego. NY 13126 

Commodore User Group of Mas- 
sena (COMA), Star Tech, 
280 E. Orvis St., fvlassena, 
NY 13662 

The Niagara Falls Commodore/ 
IBM Club, 2405 Willow Ave., 
Niagara Falls, NY 14305 

Rainbow Computer Users 
Group, c/o St. James United 
Methodist Church, 4661 Por- 



ter Rd,, Niagara Falls, NY 

14305 
Geneva Commodore Users' 

Group, 25 Pine St., Geneva, 

NY 14456 
Commodore Users Group of 

Rochester (CUGOR), P.O. 

Box 23463, Rochester, NY 

14692 (BBS# 716-621-5908) 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Triad Commodore Users 
Group, RO. 10833, Greens- 
boro. NO 27404 

Bailey's User Group (BUG), 

P.O. Box 70, Holly Springs, 

NC 27540 
Commodore Users Group of Lin- 

cointon, Rte. 3, Box 457, Lin- 

colnton, NC 28092 
Salisbury Compute, Charles A 

Huffman. 280 Deal Creek 

Dr.. Salisbury NC 28144 
Asheville-Buncombe User 

Group (A-BUG), RO. Box 

15511, Asheville, NC 28813 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Central Dakota Commodore 

Club, RO, Box 1584. Bis- 
marck, ND 58502-1584 

OHIO 

The Commodore Club of Cen- 
tral Ohio (CCCO), RO. Box 
292392, Columbus, OH 
43229 (BBS# 614-523-3459) 

Ashtabula County Commodore 
Users Group (ACCUG), 
1034 Michigan Ave., Ashtab- 
ula, OH 44004 

Basic Bits Commodore Group 
(BBCG), RO. Box 447, N. 
Ridgeviile, OH 44039 

NorthEast Ohio Computer Us- 
ers Group (NEOCUG), RO, 
Box 196, Wickliffe, OH 
44092 

Portage County Commodore 
Family User Group 
(PCCFUG), RO, Box 901, 
Ravenna. OH 44266 

Akron Area Commodore Users 
Group (AACUG), RO Box 
9293, Akron, OH 44305- 
9293 

Trumbull Commodore Users 
Group (TRUMCUG), RO, 
Box 8632, Warren, OH 
44484 

Mahoning Valley Commodore 
Club, RO. Box 1180, Young- 



G-5 



Stown, OH 44501 

Canton/Alfiance/Massillon Users Group 
(CAMUG), P.O. Box 2423, N, Canton, 
OH 44720 (BBS# 216-453-3319) 

Computer Erie Bay Users Group 
(CEBUG), P,0, Box 1461, Sandusky, OH 
44870 

Shelby Computer User Group, PO. Box 
512, Shelby. OH 44875 

Western Cincinnati Commodore Club 
(WESTCOM), P.O. Box 89, Amelia, OH 
45102-0089 (Voice* 513-753-7387) 

Cincinnati Commodore Computer Club, c/ 
Cure of Ars School, Berwick and Roe 
Streets. Cincinnati, OH 45227 (Voice# 
513-248-0025) 

Southwestern Ohio Commodore Users 
Group (SWOCUG), RO. Box 46644, Cin- 
cinnati, OH 45246 

Dayton Area Commodore Users Group 
(D.A.C.U.G.), 1117 Lavern Ave., Ketter- 
ing, OH 45429 (BBS# 513-878-1408) 

Chillrcothe Commodore Computer Users 
Group (ChllCUG), PO. Box 6014, Chil- 
licothe, OH 45601 

Hancock User's Group (HUG-e4), RO. Box 
632, Findlay, OH 45839-0632 (BBS# 419- 
423-6648) 

OKLAHOMA 

Commodore User's Group of Lawton, RO. 

Box 3392, Lawton, OK 73502 
Commodore Users of Bartlesville, 1920 

SW Santa Fe, Bartlesville, OK 74003 

(BBS# 918-336-3872) 
Tulsa Area Commodore Users Group 

(TACUG), PO, Box 52473, Tulsa, OK 

74169-1842 (BBS# 918-428-2284) 
Osage/Kay Commodore User's Group 

(OKCOM), 317 Woodbury, Ponca City, 

OK 74601 

OREGON 

geoMETRIX, 20224 S. Sprague Rd,, Oregon 

City OR 97045-9641 
Commodore East County {C.E.C.), 1714 SE 

35th Ave,, Portland, OR 97214-5039 
Crash-64 Salem Area's Commodore Us- 
er's Group, RO. Box 241. Salem, OR 

97308 (BBS# 503-585-3092} 
Lane County Commodore User Group 

(LCCUG), P.O. Box 11316, Eugene, OR 

97440 
Coos Computer Club, 2175 Everett St., 

North Bend, OR 97459-2336 (Voice# 

503-756-4408) 

PENNSYLVANIA 

A-K Valley Computer Club, 1762 Fairmont 
St., New Kensington, RA 15068 

Betlis Commodore Users Group, 592 Ar- 
bor Ln., Pittsburgh. RA 15236 

Castle Commodore Computer Club, P.O. 
Box 961, New Castle, PA 16103 

North Coast Commodore Users Group 
Erie, RO. Box 6117. Erie, RA 16512- 
6117 (BBS# 814-459-1947) 

Centre Area Commodore Computer Club, 
c/o Neil Dowlin, 1104 S. Atherton St., 
State College, RA 16801-6001 

Blue Juniata Commodore Users Group, 23 
Oakland Ave., Lewistown, RA 17044 
(BBS* 717-248-4877) 

Huntingdon County Hackers, RO. Box 132, 
Mill Creek, PA 17060 

Harrlsburg Area Computer Group, 721 S, 



29th St., Harrisburg. PA 17111 (BBS# 
717-558-9080) 

White Rose Commodore Users Group, 
PO, Box 7501, York, RA 17404-0501 

Lehigh Valley Commodore User Group, c/ 
Fred Knerr. PO. Box 2, New Tripoli, 
RA 16066 (Voice# 215-298-2516) 

Scranton Commodore Users Group 
(S.C.U.G.), RO, Box 244, Scranton, RA 
18501-0244 (BBS# 717-489-8001) 

EPA Commodore Users Group, Edward H 
Cohen, 1712 Aidenn Lair Rd., Dresher, 
PA 19025 

Horsham Amiga/64, 20-A Lumberjack Cir., 
Horsham, RA 19044 

Main Line Commodore Users Group 
(MLCUG), 1046 General Allen Ln., 'West 
Chester, PA 19382 (BBS* 215-354-9750 
and Voice* 215-388-1581) 

Worldwide Commodore Users Group (In- 
ternational Headquarters and Share- 
ware Registry), RO. Box 337, Blue 
Bell, RA 19422 

Buxmont Commodore and IBM Users 
Group, 1206 Cowpath Rd., Hatfield, PA 
19440 

Antelope Valley Commodore Users 
Group, RO. Box 4436, Lancaster, RA 
17603 (BBS* 805-272-9140) 

RHODE ISUND 

Narragansett Commodore Users Group, 

RO. Box 8707, Cranston. Rl 02920 
(BBS* 401-737-9774) 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Greenville Commodore Users Network 

(GCUN), PO. Box 5272, Station B, 
Greenville, SC 29606 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Amiga and Commodore 64 Users Group, 

RO, Box IS, Vermillion, SD 57069 
{Voice* 605-624-3471) 

TENNESSEE 

Clarksville Commodore Users Group, P.O. 

Box 2171, Clarksville, TN 37042-2171 
Multi-User Computer Club, 213 Holly Ave., 

S. Pittsburg. TN 37380-1313 (BBS* 615- 

837-8352) 
Chattanooga Commodore Users, 1406 

Blackwell Dr., Chattanooga, TN 37412 
East Tennessee Commodore Club, P.O. 

Box 495, Knoxville, TN 37901 
Raleigh-Bartlett Hackers CUG, c/o James 

Patrick, 3457 Gatewood Dr., Memphis, 

TN 38134 

TEXAS 

Society of Computer Owners and P.E.T. 
Enthusiasts (SCOPE), RO, Box 

833095, Richardson, TX 75083-3095 

Texas Commodore User's Group, RO. Box 
623, Royse City TX 75089 

Central Texas Computer Users Group, 902 
Carlisle, Killeen, TX 76541-7321 

Commodore Houston Users Group 
(CHUG), c/o Ben Daily, PO. Box 612, 
Tomball, TX 77375-0612 BBS* 713-445- 
2484 and Voice *713-664-2484 

Southmost In Texas Commodore User's 
Group (SITCOM), c/o Charles Duncan, 
74 Laura Ln., Brovi/nsville, TX 78521 

Amistad Commodore Users Group, RO. 
Box 421212, Del Rio, TX 78842 



Top of Texas Commodore (TOTCOM), Box 

2851, Pampa, TX 79066-2851 
Tri-State Commodore Users Group (Tri- 

CUG), RO, Box 8971, Amarillo, TX 

79114-8971 (BBS* 806-355-3031) 
Commodore Users of Texas (CUT), 7007 

Memphis Ave., Lubbock, TX 79413 

(Voice* 806-792-7121) 
El Paso Commodore User Group, RO. Box 

370934. El Paso, TX 79937 (BBS* 915- 

590-7678) 

UTAH 

Mountain Computer Society, 3898 Cheryl 
SL, West Valley, UT 84119 

Moab Commodore User's Group, 860 S. An- 
tiquity Ln., Moab, UT 84532 

VERMONT 

Springfield Area Computer Club (SACC), 6 

Bellows Rd., Springfield, VT 05156 
Maple Valley Commodore Users Group, c/ 

Dave Swainbank, PO. Box 106, St. Al- 
bans, VT 05478 (BBS* 802-524-9387) 

VIRGINIA 

Washington Area Commodore User 
Group (WAC), RO. Box 3602, Fairfax, 
VA 22038-3602 

Dale City Commodore Users Group, RO. 

Box 2675, Dale City, VA 22193-0265 
(BBS* 703-361-7565) 

Fredericksburg Commodore Club, RO. 
Box 8438, Fredericksburg, VA 22404- 
8438 

Middle Peninsula Commodore User 
Group, PO. Box 391, Gloucester, VA 
23061 (BBS#s 804-642-3697 and 804- 
642-4293) 

CURVE, RO. Box 28284, Riclimond, VA 
23228 (BBS#s 804-266-1763 and 804- 
737-7936) 

The Richmond Area Commodore Enthu- 
siasts (TRACE), 2920 Pinehurst Rd., 
Richmond, VA 23228 

Peninsula Commodore User Group of Vir- 
ginia, 211 Nina Ct., Newport News, VA 
23602 (BBS* 804-638-2118) 

Henry County Commodore Computer 
Club, c/o Doug Wilcox, 1047 Graves St., 
Martinsville, VA 24112 

Lynchburg User Group, Rte. 2, Box 180, Lyn- 
chburg, VA 24501 

Commodore Users of Lynchburg (CUOL), 
RO. Box 3386, Rivermont Station, Lyn- 
chburg, VA 24503 

WASHINGTON 

Renton Computer Group, 11308 SE 269th 
St., Kent, WA 98031 

UT, RO. Box 1767, Bothell, 'WA 98041-1767 

South King County Commodore User 
Group (SKCCUG), RO. Box 5241, 
Kent, WA 98064-5241 

NW Commodore User Group, 2565 Dexter 
N #203, Seattle, WA 98109 (BBS* 206- 
261-7661) 

PSACE, 1313 5th Ave. W Seattle, WA 98119- 
3410 

University of Washington Commodore Us- 
er Group (UWCUG), RO. Box 25878, Se- 
attle, WA 98125 (BBS* 206-281-7661) 

Commodore Belllngham User's Group 
(CBUG), RO. Box 2756, Belllngham, WA 
98227 (BBS* 206-647-7120) 



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COMMODORE 64 and COMMODOiJE i 28 are registered iMdemnrts of CGmmoOore Eleciromci. Ltd. AMIGA is a registered trademark of Commodore Amiga Inc.. NOTE: Due to publishing 
lead-iimes, product prices and specincaiions are subjea to change wiihout notice • APO, FPO, AK. HI, CM. VI, GU. and foreign orders are subject to additional shipping charges. QSQ 

CIrcl* RHdar Service Number 170 



Club 64, 6735 Tracyton Blvd. NW, Bremaer- 
ton, WA 98310 

University Place Commodore Home Users 
Group (UPCHUG), PO. Box 11191. Ta- 
coma, WA 98411-1101 (BBS# 206-565- 
0690) 

Lewis County CBM Users Group, 
c/o Al Kistenmacher, 2476 Pell-Mc- 
Donald Rd., Chehalis, WA 98532 

Tri-Cfty Commodore Computer Club (TC 
CUBED), P.O. Box 224, Richland, WA 
99352-0224 (BBS# 509-588-6822) 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Bluefield User Group (BUG 20/64), RO. 

Box 1190, Bluefield, WV 24701 
Commodore Home User's Group (CHUG), 

81 Lynwood Ave., Wheeling, WV 26003 

WISCONSIN 

Lakeshore Commodore Core, 519 
Westwood Dr., Sheboygan Falls, Wl 
53085 

Computer Hobbyists Involved in Personal 
Systems (CHIPS), PO. Box 1006, West 
Bend, Wl 53095 

Wisconsin Association of Vic/C= Enthu- 
siasts (WAVE), 1020 Kurlis Dr., Elm 
Grove, Wl 53122 

Milwaukee Area Commodore Enthusiasts 
(M.A.C.E.), PO. Box 26216, Milwaukee, 
Wl 53226 

Madison Area Commodore Users Group 
(MACUG), P.O. Box 1305, Madison, Wl 
53701-1305 (BBS# 608-277-9775 and 
Voices 608-831-6995) 

Price County Computer User Group, 630 
Knox St., Prentice, Wl 54556 

WYOMING 

Cheyenne Association of Computer En- 
thusiasts (CACE), RO. Box 1733, Chey- 
enne, WY 82003-1733 

Casper Commodore Users Group 
(CCUG), c/o Crazy Mountain Software, 
511 E. 2nd St., Casper. W/Y 82601 

U.S. ARMED SERVICES ABROAD 

The Muenster Garrison User's Group, c/o 

Mr. Maki, 583rd Ord Co., APO, NY 
09078 

Commodore Computer Users Group — Hei- 
delberg, RO. Box 232 (147th Postal). 
APO, NY 09102 

Chicksands Computer Club (C cubed) — 
England, c/o Erik Pedersen, Sox 148 
6950th ESQ, APO, NY 09193 

USER GROUPS OUTSIDE THE U.S. 
AUSTRALIA 

Commodore Computer Users Group 
(QLD), RO. Box 274, Springwood Old., 
Brisbane, Queensland 4127, Australia 

Commodore Hornsby User Group, PO. 
Box 1578. Hornsby Northgate, N.S.W, 
2077, Australia (BBS# 61-02-484-2874) 

C64 Computer User, RO. Box 826, Young, 
N.S.W. 2594, Australia 

Melbourne Commodore Computer Club, 
RO. Box 177, Box Hill, Victoria 3128, Aus- 
tralia 

Southern Districts Commodore Users 
Club, 186 Elizabeth Rd., Morphett Vale. 
S.A 5162, Australia (BBS* 61-08-322- 
2716) 



BELGIUM 

C64 User Group, Thauvoy Jesabel, Chee. 
De Malines, 3, B-1970 Wezembeek-Op- 
pem, Belgium 

BRAZIL 

Tcs Computer Club, Rua Job Lane 650, 
04639 Santo Amafo, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

CANADA 
Alberto 

Commodore Users of Edmonton (C.U.E.), 

9550 83rd St., Edmonton, AB, Canada 
T6C 3A1 (BBS#S 403-466-7656, 403-454- 
2832, 403-459-7522, and 403-484-9200) 

British Columbio 

Cariboo Commodore 64 User Group, c/o 

Nick Sardy, RO, Box 634, 150 Mile 
House, BC, Canada VOK 2G0 

ChilEiwack Community Computer Club, 
PO. Box 413, Sardis. BC, Canada V2R 
1A7 

Port Coquitlam Computer Club, 1752 Ren- 
ton Way, Port Coquitlam, BC, Canada 
V3B 2R7 (BBS* 604-942-0947) 

New Brunswick 

Moncton Users Group, Box 2984 STN A, 
Moncton, NB, Canada E1C 8T8 (BBS# 
506-387-7963) 

North American Commodore User Group 
Association (NACUGA), 

c/o Dave Quinn, Box 2984, Sta. A, Monc- 
ton, NB. Canada E1C 8T8 

Ontario 

Brampton User's Group (BUG), RO. Box 

384, Brampton, ON, Canada L6V 2L3 

(BBS# 416-455-3610) 
Ottawa Home User Group, RO, Box 4165, 

Sta. C, Ottawa, ON. Canada K1Y 4P3 
TPUG, 5334 Yonge St., Ste, 116, Willowdale, 

ON, Canada M2N 6M2 (BBS* 416-733- 

2933) 

Quebec 

Commodore 64 De I'Estrie, c/o Keith An- 
drews, 805 Belmont, Sherbrooke, RQ, 
Canada J1H 5P4 (Voice* 819-565-8750) 

Saskatchewan 

Commodore User's Group of Sas- 
katchewan (C.U.G.S.), c/ o Barry Birch- 
er. 182 Coidwell Rd.. Regina, SK, Cana- 
da S4R 4K8 (BBS#s 306-543-7683 and 
306-949-8605) 

Saskatoon Commodore Users Group 
(SCUG), c/o O.B. Harvey 2614 A Haul- 
tain Ave., Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7J 
1R6 (BBS* 306-249-4959} 

COLOMBIA 

Commodore Club Medellln, c/o Hector 
ivan Londono, Apartado Aereo 1231, 
Medellin, Colombia 

ComSoft Commodore 64/128/ Amiga User 
Group, c/o D. F. Cardenas or E. Lopez 
de Mesa, Apartado Aereo 9872, Cali. 
Colombia 



COSTA RICA 

Club Commodore de TIbas, Marvin Vega, 
P.O. Box 516, Tibas, San Jose, Costa 
Rica 

EGYPT 

Commodore 64/128 User Group, 15 Dr. Ma- 

hegobe Thabet St., Agoza-Giza, Egypt 
(Voice* 020-347-6149) 

ENGLAND 

Independent Commodore Products User 

Group, RO. Box 1309, London, N3 2UT, 

England 
Independent Commodore Products Users 

Limited, 45 Brookscrofi, Linton Glade. 

Croydon, CRO 9NA, England 

INDIA 

Bombay Commodore Club, c/o Haji Bital 
Malbarwala, Apna Ghar Housing Soci- 
ety, BIdg. No. 46, B Wing, Lokhandwala 
Complex, Versova, Andheri (West), Bom- 
bay 400 058, India 

JAPAN 

Commodore Fan Club, c/o Koji Sugimura, 2- 
1-10-1107 Higasht-Taishi Yao Osaka, Ja- 
pan 581 

MEXICO 

Arcano 17-Commodore Group, Calle Plata 
3307, Villa San Alejandro, Puebia, Rue. 
72090 Mexico (BBS* 91-22-480-722) 

Club Commodore de Juarez, Calle del Man- 
antial #1448, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, 
Mexico 32500 (BBS#s 011-52-16-17- 
3130 and 915-544-5549) 

Club de Usuarios Commodore de Chihua- 
hua (CUCC), R. Calderon *801, Chihua- 
hua, Mexico 31240 (BBS#s 14-13-12-91 
and 011-52-14-13-12-91) 

NEW ZEALAND 

Chrtstchurch Commodore User Group, 

RO. Box 4665, Christchurch. 8000, New 
Zealand (BBS* 0064-03-355-3896) 
Waikato Commodore Computer Users' 
Group (W.C.C.U.G.), RO. Box 787. Ha- 
milton, New Zealand 

PAKISTAN 

RAOASIM Commodore User Group, 465- 
C, Satellite Town. Gujranwala, Pakistan 

TIGLON, c/o Ahmed Jamal, PO. Box 7237, 
A.H. Rd., Karachi-74400, Pakistan 

PERU 

SoftSpa, c/o Diego or Juan Tejero Acha, Av. 
Central mz. AT #5, Los Alamos de Mon- 
terrico. Lima 33, Peru 

SWITZERLAND 

Computer Anwender Club, Rostfach 29, 
8042 Zurich. Switzerland 



If your group is not listed, contact us al this 
address: 

Commodore 64/128 User Group Update 

COMPUTE'S Gazette 

324 W. Wendover Ave., Sle. 200 

Gfeensboro, NC 27408 □ 



G-8 COMPUTE 



GAZETTE 
D\SK L/BRARY 

VALUE-PACKED SOFTWARE 
AT AFFORDABLE PRICES 



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Gazette Index $7.95 

Every article and department from Gazette — July 
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Disk features pull-down menus, help screens, 
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Volleyball, Mosaic, Power Poker, and Scorpion II. 



Gazette's Power Tools $9.95 

Fourteen of the most important utilities for the 
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Special 6-Disk Offer D $49.95 



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REVIEWS 



BACK TO THE 
FUTURE II 

Join Marty McFly as he trav- 
els through time again in 
Back to the Future II. The mov- 
ie tells the comic, disjointed 
story of time travel in Doc's 
DeLorean time machine. The 
software is mostly an arcade 
game w/ith a couple of puz- 
zles added. 

The object of the game is 
to make your way through 
five levels of play to retrieve 
a sports almanac stolen by 
old Biff in 2015 and given to 
young Biff in 1955. Three of 
these five levels are simple 
arcade games, and two are 
logic puzzles. While the idea 
is intriguing, the program 
promises more enjoyment 
than it delivers. The documen- 
tation, which is brief but well 
written, ties the game to the 
movie by describing the 
film's opening scene and 
then provides the user with 
background information 
about each play level. 

The game opens with 
some elegant graphics se- 
quences. On the first level 
you must maneuver a hover- 
board (a flying skateboard) 
through the streets of Hill Val- 
ley in the year 2015. Your mis- 
sion is to reach the town hall 
before running out of time or 
depleting your energy, 

Maneuvering the hover- 
board is simple and fun. You 
can move freely in all direc- 
tions, accelerate, brake, and 
jump. It is essential to learn 
to time these last two maneu- 
vers accurately, since you 
must sometimes wait for pow- 
er points as they drop from 
the sky, Try learning to at- 
tach yourself to the back of 
a passing car for a joyride. 

When you reach the pond 
at the end of the last street, 
you'll know how to get to the 
town hall and complete the 
mission if you've seen the 
movie. Anyone who hasn't 

G-10 COMPUTE 



seen the movie will still quick- 
ly figure out how to complete 
the first task. Running out of 
time never seems to be an ob- 
stacle. Your time is extended 
whenever you reach the end 
of any of seven streets that 
lead to the town hall. 
Maintaining your energy 



um earns you the most 
points. 

To aid you along the way. 
speed, acceleration, and 
power bonuses regularly 
drop from the sky. Do not 
miss an opportunity to gath- 
er power points, as these 
will restore all lost energy. 




Iviarty McFly can hitch a ride through danger-filled streets. 



level, on the other hand, is 
considerably more difficult. 
A roving gang on hover- 
boards, old Biff with his 
cane, stray dogs, cars, mo- 
bile trash cans, and radio- 
controlled hovercraft harass 
you along the way. Coming 
in contact with any of these 
enemies lowers your energy 
level. You can punch your op- 
ponents on the hoverboards, 
but it seems better to avoid 
gang members rather than 
confront them. 

Cars, dogs, and hover- 
craft are sufficiently powerful 
to knock you from your hover- 
board in one shot if you run 
into them head-on. fvlan- 
holes, slick spots, and curbs 
do limited damage. Along 
the way you can pick up 
caps, shoes, soda cans, 
newspapers, or plutonium 
for extra points. Perhaps be- 
cause of the obvious dan- 
ger, scooping up the plutoni- 



The best overall strategy is 
to remain near the middle of 
the screen, pick up all items 
in the street, avoid all items 
on the sidewalks, and use 
quick, lateral movements to 
evade obstacles, Back- 
ground graphics are bnght, 
colorful, and well conceived, 
but sprites are jagged with 
muddy colors. It is fascinat- 
ing, however, to watch the 
coordination of so many 
sprites with the smoothly 
scrolling backgrounds, but 
the program is not without 
flaws. Your hoverboard can 
move faster than the back- 
ground, so when you reach 
the edge of the screen, you 
have to wait for the back- 
ground to catch up. Occa- 
sionally, the action on the 
screen overwhelms the com- 
puter, making the sound- 
track and character move- 
ment erratic. 
The second level is a log- 



ic puzzle in which you must 
get Marty's girlfriend, Jennif- 
er, out of a house without her 
being detected. You control 
both Jennifer and the other 
people in the house by open- 
ing doors two at a time. 
When a door is opened, a 
room's occupant will move to 
an adjoining room. At no 
time should Jenny share a 
room with anyone. 

The house is viewed from 
above, making it difficult at 
first to differentiate the char- 
acters, but Jenny is the one 
on the far left, You are expect- 
ed to race the clock while 
planning your solution, but 
the Run/Stop key turns off 
the clock, so running out of 
time is never a problem. This 
level is a nice change of 
pace because it requires 
more planning than reflex ac- 
tion. The puzzle, however, is 
not very challenging. The 
third level is a return to ar- 
cade action with a special em- 
phasis on violence. The ob- 
ject is to reach the end of the 
street safely, avoiding 
armed villains, flying barrels, 
rocks, and Frisbees. Your var- 
ious karate kicks and punch- 
es can eliminate most ene- 
mies, but the individual with 
the semiautomatic weapon 
is virtually impossible to con- 
quer or pass. This level's use 
of gratuitous violence is a 
disappointment, and its con- 
nection to the movie's story 
line is tenuous. The fourth 
scene also is linked weakly 
to actual movie action, but it 
takes a more imaginative 
turn. Here you are to solve a 
sliding block puzzle while rac- 
ing the clock. One added 
twist is that the block puzzle 
is animated. 

The fifth level is another 
street race in which you 
must retrieve the stolen alma- 
nac. The toughest part of 
this level is reaching it. Sav- 
ing games in progress is not 
a feature of this program, so 
you must complete the first 



The Gazette 

Productivity 

Manager 

(Formerly PowerPak) ^^^ 

Harness the productivity 
power of your 64 or 128! 

Turn your Commodore into 
a powerful workhorse, keep track 
of finances, generate reports 
in a snap, manage your 
money in minutes- 
all with the new 1991 
Gazette Productivity 
Manager! Look at all 
your 64/128 Productivity 
Manager disk contains. 



GemCalc 64 & 128— ^ 

A complete, powerful, user- 
friendly spreadsheet with all 
the features you'd expect 
in an expensive commercial package 

(separate 64 and 128 versions are included). 

Most commands can be performed with a single keypress! 

Memo Card — Unleashes the power of a full-blown 
database without the fuss! Nothing's easier — it's a 
truly simple computerized address file. Just type in 
your data on any one of the index cards. Need to edit? 
Just use the standard Commodore editing keys. 
Finished? Just save the data to floppy What could be 
easier? 

Financial Planner — Answers all of those questions 
concerning interest, investments, and money manage- 
ment that financial analysts charge big bucks for! You 
can plan for your children's education and know 
exactly how much it will cost and how much you need 
to save every month to reach your goal. Or, decide 
whether to buy or lease a new car. Use the compound 
interest and savings function to arrive at accurate 
estimates of how your money vnll work for you. 
Compute the answer at the click of a key! 

DON'T MISS OUT ON THIS 
POWERFUL WORKHORSE! 




(MasterCard and Visa accepted on orders with sublalal over S20). 



Froductimty Manager (lisk(s) 



lJ YES! Please send me . 

(S14.95 each). 

Subtotal 

Sales Tax (Residents of NC and NY please add appro- 
priate sales tax for your area. Canadian orders, add 
7% goods and services tax.) 

Shipping and Handling ($2.00 U.S. and Canada, $3.00 

surface mail, $5.00 airmail per disk.) 

Total Enclosed 

_ Check or Money Order _ MasterCard _ VISA 

Crrfil Card So 



SlIfDalBfp 

Dtylimr Tekphotif No, 
Nmnf 



Cirj 

Pnivinrr _ 



ZIP/ 
_ PoiIkI Codr - 



Send your order to Gazette 1991 Productivity Manager, 
324 W. Wendover Ave,, Sle. 200, Greensboro, NC 27408. 



REVIEWS 



four levels each time you 
play before you get a 
cfiance to tackle the final 
one. As an arcade game the 
program succeeds, but as a 
computer reproduction of 
tfie movie, it falls far short. 
Tfie movie worked because 
the action was supported by 
dialogue wfiich gave the view- 
er a disjointed sense of time 
travel. If Back to the Future 
It included a level that al- 
lowed the player to interact 
with other characters in or- 
der to help Marty find his 
way through time, the game 
would be vastly improved. In- 
stead, the characters and 
time settings add nothing to 
the action, and they seem to 
have been chosen only as a 
vehicle for standard arcade 
fare. If joystick action is your 
thing, you'll enjoy this pro- 
gram. If, however, you're ex- 
pecting to step into Marty 
McFly's shoes and warp 
through time, the game will 
leave you flat. 

JIM SMITH 

Commodore 64 or 128— $29.95 

IMAGE WORKS 
Distributed by Konami 
900 Deerfield Pkwy. 
Buffalo Grove, IL 60089-4510 
(708) 215-5100 

Circle Reader Service Number 316 

FASTFINGERS 

Students of sound, take 
note; If you're interested in 
shaping sounds or learn- 
ing about synthesis and if 
you have access to a Mat- 
tel Intellivision keyboard, 
check out Fastfingers. 

Dan Laskowski devel- 
oped this program (original- 
ly in 1984) with two basic 
thoughts in mind: to ex- 
plore the sound synthesis 
abilities of the 64 SID chip 
and to allow the 64 to act 
as a lead synthesizer 
when attached to a full- 
size external keyboard by 

G-12 COMPUTE 



means of a special connec- 
tor. He is making the pro- 
gram available again on a di- 
rect basis, but it should be 
noted that it is in limited sup- 
ply with even fewer key- 
board connectors. Availabil- 
ity of the Intellivision key- 
board is uncertain. At this 



tain keys on the two bottom 
rows (referred to in the man- 
ual as piano buttons) are re- 
served for playing. Octaves 
are changed by selecting 
them from the Sound 
Shaper menu. Other keys ac- 
cess preset sounds, 
chords, and a sound se- 



fASTFINGERS C0PVRI6HT 1984 DftH LASKOHSKl 
HELODV 



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Learn more about sounds and music with Fastfingers. 



writing, Laskowski has three 
of them and will sell an en- 
tire package for $119. With 
an eye (or is it ear?) toward 
reaching student musicians, 
he offers special rates to mu- 
sic educators. 

Because it is somewhat 
dated, Fasff/ngers' presenta- 
tion is not as slick as those 
of some other programs. Its 
four menus are a bit crowd- 
ed and clunky-looking, but 
you get used to them. The 
sounds, which are the impor- 
tant part, are amazing. 
Fastfingers was written be- 
fore the MIDI explosion, yet 
Laskowski programmed it 
for 256 sounds and even 
coaxed an extra suboctave 
out of the SID chip. 

While developing sounds 
and recording a track on 
disk are clearly easier with 
an external keyboard (not 
tested here), the computer 
keyboard is sufficient. Cer- 



quencer; permit loading and 
saving sounds from disk; 
and allow you to record, 
play back, and control 
sounds you've created. 

This first menu, Play 
Mode, is the default when 
no control keys are 
pressed. Pressing (and hold- 
ing) Shift pulls down the 
Sound Shaper and Effects 
menu, the Control key pulls 
down the Sound Banks, and 
Controi/Shift accesses the 
Sound Shaper. 

The preset sounds are sim- 
ply eight sounds taken from 
the sound bank for easy ac- 
cess. You can use these, re- 
place them with others from 
the bank, or create your 
own and install them. One- 
finger chords are available: 
three major chords, three mi- 
nor ones, and six others. 
The chords can be can- 
celed at the press of a key, 
which causes all three voic- 



es to play the same note in 
unison. The sound se- 
quencer allows you to trig- 
ger arpeggios to play auto- 
matically. 

To simplify things, Laskow- 
ski makes use of the familiar 
style of a cassette record- 
er's buttons to record, re- 
wind, fast-forward, and play 
your works. On playback, 
adjustments can be made 
to speed and sound. With 
this you can create melo- 
dies, arpeggios, and even re- 
cord a "walking bass line" 
by means of the transposer 
function. Once you have 
laid out your sounds the 
way you want them, record- 
ed your melody, and ar- 
ranged your transposer and 
arpeggio, you can save the 
winole arrangement to disk. 
This Save is an old-fash- 
ioned save which dumps eve- 
rything onto a disk under 
the lump title Sounds. This 
limits you to one file per 
disk, and the manual rec- 
ommends dedicating the 
disk to Sounds only, al- 
though you could probably 
use it to save something not 
connected with Fastfingers. 

If this is sounding too tech- 
nical for you, it gets more 
so. Now we come to the 
heart of this program: build- 
ing sounds. While not sophis- 
ticated enough to include 
an on-disk tutorial (this is on- 
ly a one-disk program), the 
Fastfingers manual guides 
you through modifying exist- 
ing sounds and creating 
new ones. One chapter 
shows you how to play with 
such effects as Flang, 
Pulse Width Kick, Glide, 
Thicken, Weow, Swirl, Wah 
(1&2), Tremolo, Pswirl, Vi- 
brato, Phase Shifter, and Dig- 
ital Distortion. Effects are soft- 
ware effects used to simu- 
late or replace hardware ef- 
fects, and they work on all 
three voices. 

Another chapter teaches 
you about building sounds, 



beginning with the selection 
of voice 1, 2, or 3. You learn 
about adjusting the oscilla- 
tors up and down in semi- 
tone increments, selecting 
waveforms, using harmon- 
ics, using (or bypassing) fil- 
ters, and adjusting the 
ADSR (Attack, Decay, Sus- 
tain, and Release}. Students 
of sound with the patience 
to check out each minor ad- 
justment will have a wealth 
of sound to explore. 

The dearth of new soft- 
ware for the 64 has sent de- 
velopers back to their clos- 
ets to have another look at 
older programs to see if 
there's something to dust off 
and reissue. Fastfingers is 
one such program, and the 
question arises, does it still 
stand up? We are com- 
pelled to give a qualified 
Yes. 

There are musical pro- 
grams with far slicker presen- 
tations. The tutorial and ani- 
mation in the Sight and 
Sound 3001 series leap to 
mind. Fastfingers lacks feed- 
back in that it doesn't tel[ 
you what sound (preset or 
sound bank) or even what oc- 
tave is in current use. It 
seems to us, particularly if 
you are using this setup in 
performance as Laskowski 
says you can, you ought to 
have an onscreen reminder 
of what you've selected. On 
the other hand, the range of 
sounds is almost mind-bog- 
gling. Providing for the use 
of a 48-key external key- 
board is a unique touch 
that may send some young 
musicians hunting through 
the classified ads to pick up 
a used one. 

Laskowski is first a musi- 
cian, a fact that becomes ob- 
vious when talking with him 
or reading his manual. Al- 
though certainly not the on- 
ly person to envision the 64 
as a synthesizer, he is the on- 
ly one to take it to this de- 
gree. In Fastfingers he has 



taken an unusual slant on 
the 64 and developed a 64 
oddity, a program that's cer- 
tainly not for everybody, but 
will certainly intrigue those 
with an interest in music. 

DAVE and ROBIN MINNICK 

Commodore 64 or 128— $29.95. 
$69,95 with keyboard conneclor 

DAN LASKOWSKI 
9078 Copperfield Ct. 
Windsor, ON 
Canada N8S 4H3 
(519)948-3915 

Circle Reader Service Number 317 

NIGHTBREED 

From out of the dark shad- 
ows of your mind came the 
mystical thriller Nighitbreed, 
a movie that had people hold- 
ing tightly onto their seats. 
Now, it's your joystick that 
you'll want to grab tightly be- 
cause Nigtitbreed is now an 
arcade game on your 64. 

You assume the role of 
Boone, a guy with some psy- 
chiatric problems, and begin 
your journey at the gates of 
Necropolis, a local grave- 
yard. The object of the 
game is to save the 
Nightbreed from an evit or- 
ganization that calls itself 
Sons of tfie Free. Who are, or 
what is, Nightbreed? 
Nightbreed is a race of be- 
ings older than mankind, 
who possess the power to 
change shape and form. 

Once the game begins, 
you'll constantly be chal- 
lenged with different objec- 
tives. Even though it's an ar- 
cade-type game, you must 
complete many different 
tasks before progressing to 
a different level of play. 

At the bottom of the 
screen is the game's status 
panel. Here you'll find valu- 
able information to help you 
during play, There's a list of 
objects in Boone's posses- 
sion, as well as a power lev- 
el that indicates his injuries, 
life number, and status as ei- 



Call or write for FREE catalog of 
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"1 (6089) C-61 GAM ES 2 ■ Lotio, Anack Force, Siar Trek, Joust, Derby. Delam i more. 

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"I (6099) IN THE MtLL 2 ■ Contains 14 arcade games, [ndudes Moondog, Skiing, & more. 

"1 (6142) IN THE HALL 3-12 more a/cade games including BOULDER DASH and KANGA. 

~i (6100) IN THE PITS 1 - Conains 7 car garr.es. Includes Dragster, Dodge Cars S more. 

~i (6101) LADY LUCK 1 - Contains 10 casino games. Roulette, Craps, BJ. Poker & more. 

:n (6202) LADV LUCK 2 - 10 jambling games including ONE ARMED BANDIT and 21 . 

"1 (6203) LADV LUCK 3 - 17 gambling games including CWDGE CrTY POKEH and KENO. 

"1 (609B) ON THE BOAflDS / 1 - Contains 1 1 board games. Includes Yahlzee, Battleship i. more 

"1 (6119) ON THE BOARDS 2 - 12 board and card games Includinj baltleship and chess. 

n (6120) ON THE BOARDS 3-17 more board and card games including CRIBBAGE and BINGO, 

"l(6116)PUBBOARDGAMES- Darts, eowling, Pool. Checkers. Backgammon. Chess, and more. 

-i (6204) THE FINAL FROTOER 1 ■ 10 arton tilled space games induding METEOR SHOWER. 

"1 (6206) THE FINAL FROHTiER 3 ■ 18 action tilled space games including CANYON RUNNER. 

-1 (6207) THE FINAL FRONTIER 4 . IB action tilled space games ixluding SPACE DEFENDER. 

n (6104) THE SPOR-HNG LIFE - Contains Golf. Miniature 6oll, Baseball 64, Boxing and Trap. 

(6208) THE SPORTING LIFE 2 - !9 games relating to ^rts including BOWLING and BOXING. 
"1 (6108) VICTORY SOFTWARE 1 - The llrst disk of shareware games b/ Victory Software, 



I To 



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ClrcK Rndar Swviea Number 129 



ther monster or man. 

You control Boone with a 
joysticl< to punch, l<ick, or 
shoot your way past the 
many different creatures 
that pursue you. Each con- 
frontation with a monster will 
have different challenges for 
you to overcome. For exam- 
ple, I found the Fatman fairly 
simple to overcome, yet the 



Sons of the Free were chal- 
lenging, using everything 
from rocket launchers to gre- 
nades in an attempt to stop 
me. Also, you'll find each en- 
emy has a unique power 
that makes it dangerous. 
The Fatman moves slowly, 
but he vomits, and the vomit 
is poisonous to the touch. 
Since this is an arcade-type 




Should Boone defeat the grenade tosser, lie still must defuse ttie time 
bomb before he can continue h/s quest to save the Nightbreed. 

G-13 



REVIEWS 



thriller, you can expect other 
gross experiences through- 
out the game. 

In your path you'll encoun- 
ter such graveyard charmers 
as the Snakeman, the Hop- 
per, Flying Teeth, a Head 
Monster, and a Roof Crawl- 
er. This last fellow delights in 
dropping rocks on you. 

One unique feature you 
will find is the passkey which 
allows you to skip certain 
parts of the game. The key is 
a password-type system 
that uses graphics instead of 
text. You create a passkey- 
from various pieces dis- 
played on the game's back- 
ground scenes. Using the cor- 
rect key allows you to skip to 
certain points in the game. 

Making a map of the 
game is also useful. The 
game can be confusing if 



you don't know where you've 
been or where you need to 
go. As with many games of 
this type, you can move in a 
variety of directions and en- 
counter a number of foes as 
your hero attempts to com- 
plete his quest. A map helps 
you avoid many blind alleys. 

At first glance I thought 
that Nightbreed was going 
to be a simple arcade game 
and that completing it would 
be an easy task, I was 
wrong. It provides plenty of 
nonstop action that should 
have you grasping your joy- 
stick for quite a few hours of 
nerve-wracking play. 

The graphics are very 
well done, and the game re- 
mains true to the movie's 
theme. If you're looking for a 
good action-packed game, 
then turn down the lights, 



grab some popcorn, and 
boot up a copy of 
Nightbreed! 

JEFFERY SCOTT HALL 

Commodore 64 or 128— $14.95 

OCEAN OF AMERICA 
Dislributed by Electronic Arts 
1820 Gateway Dr. 
San Mateo, CA 94404 
(415)571-7171 

Circle Reader Service Number 313 

POWER DRIFT 

For a fast-paced, hard- 
edged race through five dif- 
ferent road courses, try Pow- 
er Drift. Pit your skills in this 
arcade-style release from Ac- 
tivision against 12 other rac- 
ers who are out to win at all 
costs. Speed through hairpin 
turns at over 200 kph and 



plunge over hills into steep 
drops, just get to the finish 
line first. 

At the start of the game, 
choose the race terrain you 
want and a driver. Terrains in- 
clude city, beach, desert, 
countryside, and riverside. 
There's also a wide selection 
of male and female drivers 
from which to choose. 

As the starting lights turn 
from red to green and the 
race begins, the other driv- 
ers will leap ahead of you. 
Push forward on your joy- 
stick to accelerate. This will 
take you to about 130 kph. 
Change from low to high 
gear by pressing the firebut- 
ton. In high gear your car 
reaches its maximum speed 
of 224 kph. Pulling back on 
the joystick acts as a brake, 
but with a little practice you'll 



^^TIME 

^\$ AND 

$ MONEY 

Yes, save time and money! Subscribe to the Gazette 
Disk and get all tlie exciting, fun-filled Gazette pro- 
grams for your Commodore 64 or 128— already on 
disk! 

Subscribe today, and month after month you'll 
get all the latest, most challenging, and fascinating 
programs published in the corresponding issue of 
COMPUTE. 

New on the Gazette Disk! In addition to the 
programs that appear in the magazine, you'll also 
get outstanding bonus programs. These programs, 
which are often too large to offer as type-ins, are 
available only on disk— they appear nowhere else. 

As another Gazette Disk extra, check out 



"Gazette Gallery," where each month we present the 
very best in original 64 and 128 artwork. 

So don't waste another moment. Subscribe to- 
day to COMPUTE'S Gazette Disk and get 12 issues 
for only $49.95. You save almost 60% off the single- 
issue price. Clip or photocopy and mail completed 
coupon today. 

Individual issues of the disk are available for 
$9.95 (plus $2.00 shipping and handling) by writing 
to COMPUTE, 324 West Wendover Avenue, Suite 
200, Greensboro, North Carolina 27408. 



G-14 



COMPUTE 



T Cob Start my one-year subscription 
to COMPUTE'S Gazette Disk right away 
for only $49.95.* 

O Payment enclosed (check or money order) 
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Mail to COMPUTES Qazette Disk, P.O. Box 3250, Hartan. lA 51593-2430 

• Residents of NO and NY. please add appropriate sales tax for your area, Canadian 

orders, add 7'/o goods and services tax. 



be able to maintain top 
speed ttirougtiout the entire 
course. Just watcin for ottier 
drivers. 

As you progress around 
thie course, your time, 
speed, position, and lap num- 
ber are posted at ttie top of 
the screen. To advance to 
the next round, you must 
place in the top three finish- 
ers. Racing in the higher 
rounds is more difficult and 
there's a greater possibility 
of ramming other drivers. 
When this happens, the re- 
sult is a dramatic spin-out 
with you hurtling across the 
course. When your car final- 
ly comes to a halt back on 
the road, try to make up lost 
time, Don't overdo it or you'll 
end up in another spin-out. 

As long as you keep plac- 
ing w/ithin the top three, you'll 



continue advancing to high- 
er levels. Finish back in the 
pack and the race is over. 
One of the best features of 
this game is that it restarts 
very quickly. You don't have 
to sit and vt^ait for it to reload 
every time. At the end of a 
game you can try another 
course and change drivers if 
you want. 

Power Drift's graphics are 
colorful and interesting, but 
if you have any Intention of 
placing in the top three, you 
won't have time to notice 
your surroundings or the 
scenery as it files by. One in- 
teresting effect is the road; it 
seems to be suspended in 
air. There are no guard rails 
and on hills the road often 
drops like a rollercoaster. 
Watch out for those blind 
drops though. A car could 



be just over the crest and if 
you bump one at high 
speeds, you could go crash- 
ing off the road. 

There is a steady, pound- 
ing pulse to the background 
music that keeps you racing 
through the turns and hills. 
Even when you're adding 
your name to the list of high 
scorers, the powerful beat 
continues. It complements 
the action as you move 
through the courses. 

The player's guide is easy 
to understand. It explains 
how to load the program and 
how to use the joystick. All 
you have to know is which di- 
rection to push or pull the joy- 
stick and how to change 
gears. It's all clearly ex- 
plained in the manual. 
■ In all. Power Drift is not a 
game to play for hours on 



end, but it is fun. There's plen- 
ty of white-knuckle action as 
you speed around each 
course and drift through the 
corners. Tension builds as 
you progress. The first few 
races are fairly easy and the 
courses somewhat forgiving, 
but accidents become more 
frequent and the amount of 
driving skill needed increas- 
es as you advance to higher 
levels. 

So, wait for the green 
light, happy racing, and 
don't forget to buckle up! 

ALISON CHRISTENSON 

Commodore 64 and 128— $29,95 

ACTIVISION 

3885 Bohannon Dr, 

Menio Park. CA 94025 

(415) 329-0800 □ 

Circle Reader Service Number 319 



COMPUTE'S 



SpeedScrlpt Dish 



A powerful word processing 
package for Commodore 64 
and 1 28 owners 

A Great Deal for Commodore 
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• SpeedScript for the 6i 

• SpeedScript 128 — 80-column version 

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• 80-column preview for the 64 

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• Plus more than a dozen other SpeedScript 
support utilities all on one disk (including 
full documentation) 



Hi 




copies of COMPUTE'S 



■ E3a Send me 

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I've enclosed SI 1.95 plus J 2. 00 postage and handling. (Outside 
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. .Amount 
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ZIP- 



Mail personal check or money order to 

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RcsidctiES or Norih Carolina and New York, add appropriate ux for >-our area, Canadian 
orders, add 7'A, good and services lax 

Piease allow ^-6 weeks for deliver)-. PfO(y^m available only on 5U-inch disks. 



G-15 



FEEDBACK 



Questions and 

answers 

about converting 

programs 

from Commodore 

format to 

tBNt, KoalaPads, 

calendars, 

BBSs, and more 



Three Questions 

Is it possible to convert Com- 
modore type-in programs to 
IBM-compatible format in a rel- 
atively easy way for those 
witfi limited knowledge of GW- 
BASIC or machine language 
programming? 

As I am changing over to a 
PC, am I right in assuming 
that an alternative version of 
COMPUTE thai is PC specific 
and excludes the Gazette sec- 
tion will be available? 

From my current address la- 
bel on my magazine, do I sur- 
mise correctly that my sub- 
scription is current through 
June 1991? 

C. W. M. ANDERSON 
SANDTON. SOUTH AFRICA 

Commodore BASIC and GW- 
BASIC are similar in many re- 
spects, and some elementary 
programs entered in one lan- 
guage will run if entered into 
the other Simple print state- 
ments, mathematical formu- 
las, and commands such as 
GOSUB. GOTO. IF-THEN, 
and FOR-NEXT pose few prob- 
lems when mal<ing the 
change from one version to 
the other Problems arise, how- 
ever, when it comes to colors, 
machine language routines. 
PEEKS and POKEs. and other 
commands that are machine 
specific. Some commands in 
BASIC 7.0 for the 128, for ex- 
ample, would cause a 64 to 
crash. There are ways around 
many of these problems, but 
it usually tal<es a good worl<- 
ing knowledge of BASIC to 
make the conversion work. 

If you are subscribing to 
COMPUTE'S Gazette edition, 
you already are receiving ail 
the PC-related material that 
we publish each month. 
There's no reason to change 
your subscription unless you 
want to drop the 64/128 cov- 
erage: the price is the same. 
Some COMPUTE subscrib- 
ers, however, do not get the 
64/128 material. 



The month and year print- 
ed on address labels indicate 
the final edition of your cur- 
rent subscription. Since the 
June issue was the last one 
you were scheduled to re- 
ceive, I hope you renewed 
your subscription in time to 
read this reply 

What's a Koala? 

I subscribe to Gazette Disk, 
and I enjoy your "Gallery," 
but, forgive me, what is a Ko- 
ala? I gather that it is more 
than a marsupial. Do you 
need light pens or a mouse to 
create graphics with it? 

One more comment. Could 
you explain why your new 
GOS (Gazette Operating Sys- 
tem) menu on Gazette Disk 
will not allow me to directly 
load any previous Gazette 
Disk programs? it gives the 
disk information, but the selec- 
tion turns blue and sits there. 

JOSEPH RUFFINI 
NORANDA. PO 
CANADA 

A KoalaPad is a graphics tab- 
let that connects by cable to 
a 64's joystick port. With its ac- 
companying software, you 
can create colorful pictures on- 
screen by moving your finger 
or a stylus across the pad's 
surface just as if you were 
drawing a picture with pencil 
and paper The pad is no long- 
er in production, but used 
units can often be found. Its 
multicolor format is a popular 
one with Commodore artists. 
The new Gazette Operat- 
ing System is compatible 
with pre-GOS disks, so you 
should be able to run pro- 
grams from them. Load and 
run the menu program that 
contains GOS: then swap 
disks. Now click on the disk 
icon. When the disk menu ap- 
pears, click on Directory. 
GOS will read the current 
disk's directory and print it in 
a window. Scroll through the ti- 
tles and click on the program 



you wish to run. The red 
band highlighting your selec- 
tion wilt turn blue. Click again 
on the disk icon and select 
Run Program when this win- 
dow opens. GOS has been 
streamlined to make it oper- 
ate faster than it did original- 
ly, but you should stilt be able 
to access and run other 
disks. It also lets you copy 
disks and files, delete and re- 
name files, obtain disk and pro- 
gram information, print files, 
and perform numerous other 
applications with joystick or 
cursor keys. 

Wide Open Spaces 

I have recently started typing 
in a few Gazette programs 
with The Automatic Proofread- 
er Since I am not a program- 
mer, my understanding of 
what I am typing is rather lim- 
ited. Because the listings in 
your magazine are printed in 
columns, it is not always 
clear when to leave spaces. 

HANS SPARREBOOM 
TOFIELD. AB 
CANADA 



When entering programs in 
Commodore BASIC, spaces 
are usually optional. Program- 
mers may put spaces be- 
tween words, variables, or 
commands in their listings to 
make them more readable, 
but the computer doesn 't re- 
quire them. Most program- 
mers do not include spaces 
simply because it saves 
space, computer memory, 
and typing time. If they leave 
them in and a column line be- 
gins with a space, our listing 
program will usually print the 
word SPACE within brackets. 
Since most spaces are option- 
al. The Automatic Proofreader 
ignores them also unless 
they fait between quotation 
marks. To illustrate, load and 
run Proofreader; then enter 
the following statement. 

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G.16 COMPUTE 



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In English the line reads, "If A-strIng 
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line 100. " This line could be used in a state- 
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and only the letter Y — on the keyboard is 
pressed. 

Proofreader should print MJ in the up- 
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press Return. Now go back, delete all the 
spaces, and press Return again. You 
should still get MJ, indicating the line is 
still entered correctly Spaces make 
code easier to read, but often they are op- 
tional to the 64. 

Now go back and insert a space after 
the first quotation mark and In front of the 
Y and try it. Proofreader will return a dif- 
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the same thing as "Y" and it would affect 
how the program runs. 

Diary Needed 

I'm an active 14-year-old looking for a 64 
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HAMILTON, OH 

Almost any word processor could be 
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each entry with a filename that repre- 
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a program called Notepad 64 (Novem- 
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G-17 



FEEDBACK 



memory while your computer 
Is working on another BASIC 
program. This means you can 
call it up at the touch of a 
key, jot down some thoughts, 
and then continue with your 
BASIC program. You can also 
save the notes with any file- 
name you like. One limitation 
to the program, however, is 
that each note can be no 
more than 1000 characters in 
length. That's enough to fill 
one screen. Back issues of 
this disk and any other 
Gazette Disk prior to October 
1990 can be ordered from 
our Greensboro, North Caroli- 
na, office for $5, plus $2 for 
shipping and handling. 

Worldwide User Group 

I am working to start a world- 
wide association of Commo- 
dore user groups. As support 
for the 64 dwindles, user 
groups play a more important 
role in supplying users with 
help and information. I be- 
lieve an association of user 
groups would be beneficial, es- 
pecially for smaller groups. 

I would love to hear from us- 
er groups wfio would like to 
help me organize this group 
or who would like to join it. 
Just drop me a line, and I'll 
bring you up-to-date on 
what's happening so far. 

JOSH JACOBY 
98-1639 HAPAKI ST. 
AIEA. HI 96701 



Keep Gazette posted about 
your activities. Josh. User 
groups represent a great re- 
source of Information for Com- 
modore users, and we encour- 
age their growth. In this issue 
we finish our two-part listing 
of user groups in the U.S. and 
other countries, if you are not 
already a member, we recom- 
mend you contact a group in 
your area or see about joining 
one by mail. 

Back fo the Boards 

Rick Lembree's article on 



BBSs (f\^arch 1991) was an ex- 
cellent introduction to what 
has become one of the last 
bastions of dedicated Commo- 
dore users. Using a BBS is 
the best way passible to sup- 
port each other and enjoy the 
potential of the still-powerful 
64s and 128s. 

Volunteering as a sysop is 
a rewarding experience, not 
only for the knowledge 
gained, but tor the enjoyment 
of knowing that you are pro- 
viding others with a medium 
for sharing and communicat- 
ing. If you want to try your 
hand at running a board, 
there still are plenty of poten- 
tial members out there who 
would eagerly join a new 
board. I especially urge Com- 
modore users to participate 
on a local BBS. Any comput- 
er user who doesn't is miss- 
ing out on an excellent re- 
source of knowledge and en- 
tertainment that is easily avail- 
able to anyone with a mo- 
dem. I'm sure many COM- 
PUTE readers would be inter- 
ested in reading more articles 
about operating a BBS, as 
well as about the many fea- 
tures different boards have to 
offer. 

FREDERICK T MERRITT 
ST PAUL. MN 

At the end of your BBS article 
in the March issue, the suppli- 
er of the C-A/ef system was list- 
ed incorrectly. The correct 
name is Perspective Soft- 
ware. The BBS number for sup- 
port of this package is (313) 
981-1524. Also, I feel that 
this system was not given 
enough credit as a commer- 
cial BBS available for the 64. 

JEFF FENSTERMAKER 
NEWBURY. OH 

Thanks for bringing the correc- 
tion to our attention, Jeff. Be- 
cause C-Net was last on our 
list of commercial systems for 
the 64 does not mean it was 
considered the least. We sim- 



ply tried to list as many of the 
current BBS products as we 
could find for our readers' con- 
venience, and on any list 
someone has to be last. The 
listing was not meant to be an 
endorsement by either f^r. 
Lembree or Gazette. 

Bug-Swatter 

Several readers wrote in to 
say that they have experi- 
enced problems with Cross 
Aid {March 1991) when they 
try to use Shift-D to delete mis- 
spelled or unwanted words. 
The documentation was not 
clear in stating that you must 
first enter maintenance mode 
by entering the word that's to 
be deleted, followed by Shift- 
Return. The delete function 
can be invoked by pressing 
Control-D to erase the word. 

Several readers also informed 
us of a problem with Castalia 
(May 1991). We discovered it 
has a peculiarity that affects 
some machines at some 
times. The problem causes 
the screen to go blank when 
you first run the program. If 
you experience this situation, 
there is no danger or program- 
ming fix required; just try run- 
ning the game again. On the 
128, the problem is especial- 
ly easy to fix. If the problem oc- 
curs, it only does so when an 
attempt is made to run the pro- 
gram for the first time after 
powering up. if this happens, 
reset the computer to 64 
mode by holding down the 
Commodore key while press- 
ing the reset button. You 
should have no problem the 
next time the program loads. 



If you have a question, com- 
ment, or problem, we want to 
hear from you. Send your let- 
ters to Gazette Feedback. 
COfvlPUTE Publications, 324 
West Wendover Avenue, 
Suite 200, Greensboro, North 
Carolina 27408. D 



G-18 COMPUTE 



GEOS 



Steve Vander Ark 



Teiecommunicating 

with GEOS 

requires special 

attention. Here 

are some tips to 

mal(e IHe 

process easier. 



GO ONLINE 
WITH GEOS 

This won't come as a big sur- 
prise to many of you. If you 
haven't already discovered it, 
you've certainly read articles 
on the subject or heard com- 
puter users expound about it. 
/f is telecommunicating, and it 
is great. 

It's great, but it's also con- 
fusing, intimidating, and a 
whole lot of other things that 
keep many people from plug- 
ging in a modem and dialing 
up a bulletin board system 
(BBS). I avoided telecommuni- 
cations tor these reasons for a 
long time. 1 was afraid I would 
make a fool of myself trying to 
learn my way around. I 
thought I'd find a hostile world 
full of people who were in the 
know and wouldn't be too hap- 
py dealing with a novice pok- 
ing around at 300 baud. 

Boy, was I wrong. When a 
friend finally convinced me to 
hook up his modem on my 
128 and I timidly dialed a lo- 
cal BBS number, I had no idea 
what a giant leap I was taking. 
Over the next four months, I dis- 
covered a lot of new computer 
friends who didn't give a hoot 
that I needed to call up a 
menu every time or that I ac- 
cidentally logged myself off 
when I meant to upload a file. 
They offered support, advice, 
a little good-natured teasing, 
and friendship. 

Now I'm online all the time. 
This electronic alternative re- 
ality is populated by a wide va- 
riety of users. They call using 
IBMs, Macs, Amigas, and, of 
course, Commodores. 

That's where GEOS comes 
in. It wasn't long before I dis- 
covered a number of people 
on various local BBSs who 
shared my enthusiasm for 
GEOS, and we began compar- 
ing notes. We exchanged ide- 
as, gave each other hints for 
using various applications, 



and swapped utilities down- 
loaded from other BBSs. 

But telecommunicating 
with GEOS requires some spe- 
cial rules. GEOS has its own 
unique way of running a Com- 
modore computer, and termi- 
nal software and bulletin 
boards aren't designed to han- 
dle the differences. The stum- 
bling block is the structure of 
GEOS disk files, A file exists 
on a disk as a scattering of in- 
dividual blocks of data, linked 
together with predefined cod- 
ing. GEOS uses a different 
code from the one built into 
the 64's system, which means 
that if you try to use normal 
Commodore file commands 
on a GEOS file, the system 
won't know how to put the var- 
ious chunks back together. 
That's why you can't copy a 
GEOS file using a normal file 
copier; the same is true for 
uploading or downloading. 

In order to send or receive 
a GEOS file by modem, it 
must be converted temporari- 
ly into Commodore DOS-com- 
patible format. William Cole- 
man has written a conversion 
utility called Convert, which 
has become something of an 
unofficial standard for han- 
dling GEOS files online. This 
utility should be the first 
GEOS file you download. It 
can be loaded and run with BA- 
SIC and will convert a pro- 
gram or sequential file to one 
that can be used by GEOS. 
Once you have Convert, 
you're in business. 

Any GEOS file you down- 
load using your normal termi- 
nal program will be a standard 
sequential or program file un- 
til you switch into GEOS and 
run Convert: the whole proc- 
ess takes a matter of a few sec- 
onds. Convert can work both 
ways. If you have a GEOS file 
that you'd like to upload, you 
can convert it into a sequen- 
tial or program file that your ter- 
minal program can handle. 
Converf can be found on Quan- 



tumLink and on many local 
BBSs. {File Converter is a sim- 
ilar program published in COM- 
PUTERS Gazette, April 1989,) 
If you'd rather stay in GEOS 
without returning to the Com- 
modore DOS, there is one ter- 
minal program available 
which operates within the 
GEOS environment. It in- 
cludes the Convert utility as an 
option, which makes handling 
GEOSfiles a breeze. This pro- 
gram is called geoTerm. It, 
too, was written by Coleman, 
with versions available for the 
64 and the 128, Each version 
includes many features, includ- 
ing a 9K capture buffer for the 
64 and a 30K buffer for the 
128, programmable function 
keys, built-in utilities to convert 
the buffer to and from true AS- 
CII and PET ASCII, as well as 
the above-mentioned Convert 
program. 

The screen can be run in 
40, 53, or 80 columns. You 
can also access either drive 
for uploads or downloads, 
scratch files, and so on. 

Whether you use geoTerm; 
available from flUW magazine, 
or another terminal program, 
you'll find many GEOS users 
out there who are glad to hear 
from you. BBS Post, a bulletin 
board in Michigan, has a 
GEOS file area. The sysop, Bis- 
mark, says he gets more calls 
for the Commodore area on 
his IBM board than for any oth- 
er. I've put many of the public 
domain utilities mentioned in 
this column on BBS Post. If 
you call long distance, you 
may download GEOS files on 
your first call. The number is 
(616)531-1346. 

For the price of a long dis- 
tance call, it's not a bad place 
to start. But there are probably 
people on bulletin boards 
right in your hometown who 
would love to hear from you. 
Why not give them a call? 

Steve Vander Ark can be 
reached on QuantunnUnk. His 
tiandle is SteveVU. n 

G-19 



MACHINE LANGUAGE 



Jim Butterfield 



Move sprites, 

draw lines, nudge 

integers, and 

do other clever 

things with 

tiie lieip of binary 

fractions 



GIVE IT A NUDGE 
WITH BINARY 
FRAQIONS 

BASIC uses a number system 
called floating point (or scien- 
tific notation), which is power- 
ful but complex to code in ma- 
chine language. Often, you 
can accomplish what you 
need through the use of fixed- 
point binary fractions, 

In conventional base 10 
mathematics, if you divide 7 
by 3, the answer is 2 with a re- 
mainder. But if we continue 
the division, we establish that 
7 divided by 3 gives 
2,33333 . . , , 

Exactly the same thing hap- 
pens in binary calculations. In 
binary, we might write 'h as 
7o111 divided by %11; using 
any of several division meth- 
ods, we produce a first result 
of %10 with a remainder of 1. 
But if we don't stop at the "bi- 
nary point" equivalent of a dec- 
imal point and provide some- 
where to store the extra fraction- 
al result, we will generate 
%10. 01010101 . . . and cut 
off the endless fraction. 

In hexadecimal notation, V2 
works out neatly as $.80, but 
Vs is the repeating series 
$.555 .... 

You've noted that you must 
trim an endless value at some 
point. In machine language 
coding, that amounts to decid- 
ing how many bytes you will 
use to hold the fractions. 
Roughly speai<ing, each byte 
gives the equivalent of 2.4 deci- 
mal digits of accuracy. 

Binary fractions fit nicely in- 
to the whole scheme of math 
coding. Such numbers add, 
subtract, multiply and divide 
in the same way as integers. 
For example, you might want 
to multiply a value by 8 and 
then divide by 5 to convert 
miles to kilometers. 

Perhaps the most popular 
use of binary fractions is to 



nudge an integer value high- 
er. For example, suppose you 
started with zero and added a 
value of V3 repeatedly. The in- 
teger part would bump to the 
next higher value every three 
operations. This kind of nudg- 
ing has many applications in 
programming, 

A programmer might be han- 
dling one or more sprites; 
each sprite is expected to 
move from time to time. How 
do we control its speed? Sup- 
pose we want it to move grad- 
ually, without leaping across 
the screen. Let's say we just 
want to nudge its position. By 
repeatedly adding fractional 
values to its location, we will 
eventually cause the sprite's lo- 
cation to move to the next pix- 
el at regular intervals. 

When working in high-reso- 
lution graphics, it's often desir- 
able to draw a line that's not 
quite horizontal (or vertical). 
Binary fractions will help us do 
the job. 

To create a line that's al- 
most horizontal, you want to 
step across the horizontal (x) 
coordinates, but how do we 
plot the vertical (y) coordi- 
nates for each line? Nudge 
the /coordinate value. If the 
line were 50 pixels wide by 10 
pixels high, you'd nudge the y 
coordinate by a value of Vs; as 
you sweep across the 50 x pix- 
els, the y coordinate would trav- 
el exactly the 10 pixels that 
are needed. 

Let's write a small program 
that should be good on almost 
any Commodore 8-bit comput- 
er that will show this kind of cal- 
culation. You'll place a value 
to be nudged at address 
S2100 with a fraction byte at 
S2101. You'll place the nudge 
value at $2102 and $2103, 
then step through and show 
the result. 

For easy display you'll start 
the value at $31 (decimal 49). 
This corresponds to the ASCII 
character 1 ; you can print it to 
show how it changes. 



2000 LDA #$31 
2002 STA $2100 

You will add Va (S80) to your 
starting value; that allows 
easy rounding of the result. A 
hi-res graphics line would 
look better with this kind of 
rounding, for example. 

2005 LDA #$80 
2007 STA $2101 

Now store your nudge value 
in $2102 and $2103. We will 
choose a value of Vs, hex 
$00.55 

200A LDA #$00 

200c STA S2102 

20QF LDA #$55 

2011 STA $21 03 

Now we have our values in 
place. We'll count our loop 
through 16 items (the initial val- 
ue plus 15 steps). 

Since we started at ASCII 
49 (1), we should end up five 
full values further along, at AS- 
Cll 54 (6). We will use X as 
our loop counter. 

2014 LDX #$00 



Foilo 


wing 


is the 


loop 


Print 


first a 


nd then add 


then test to 


see whether the loop should 


be repeated. 






2016 


LDA 


$2100 






2019 


JSR 


$FFD2 






201c 


CLC 








201 D 


LDA 


$2101 






2020 


ADC 


$2103 






2023 


STA 


$2101 






2026 


LDA 


$2100 






2029 


ADC 


$2102 






202c 


STA 


$2100 






202F 


INX 








2030 


CPX 


#$10 






2032 


BNE 


$2016 






2034 


RTS 









That's the whole program. To 
use this routine while in BA- 
SIC, type in SYS 8192 to 
watch ttie character 1 as it's 
nudged through its range. □ 



S-20 COMPUTE 



BEGINNER BASIC 



Larry Cotton 



Make your 
programs so user- 
friendly that 
even beginners will 
iiave no 
trouliie entering 
valid data. 



MAKE YOUR 
DATA ENTRY 
CRASHPROOF 

The following general-purpose 
"crashproof" data entry subrou- 
tine can be inserted into any 
BASIC program in which 
you're asking an inexperi- 
enced user to enter data. 

The first decision is wheth- 
er to use INPUT or GET IN- 
PUT is easier to program, but 
it's vulnerable to errant key- 
board presses, such as cursor 
up/down, Del, CIr, and so on. 
It's also rudely unforgiving of 
unexpected input data. GET re- 
quires more programming 
and is vulnerable to garbage 
collection, a rather nasty habit 
Commodore computers have. 

For a few simple daily en- 
tries, however, garbage collec- 
tion shouldn't be a problem. 
So let's use GET 

First, let's have all keys re- 
peat, It's helpful when testing 
the program, and it can be 
fun. Here's the first line which 
does that and clears the 
screen: 

10 POKE650,128:PRINTCHR$ 
(147) 

Now decide on a cursor. I pre- 
fer a nonblinking one. It im- 
plies more patience. As for its 
appearance, take your pick. 
To determine which cursor 
shape to use, select a charac- 
ter from the front of the key- 
board keys. Then in immedi- 
ate mode, enter 

PRINT ASCC'X") 

This will return the value of 
your preferred character. 
(See 64 Programmer's Refer- 
ence Guide for a complete list- 
ing.) I like a thick horizontal 
line made by pressing the 
Commodore key and P simulta- 
neously. This returns a charac- 
ter string (CHR$) value of 



175. Two keys we want to rec- 
ognize are the Return key (sig- 
naling completion of an entry) 
and the !nst/Del key (for cor- 
recting a typing error). These 
are defined as constants R$ 
and D$ respectively. C$ is 
the cursor. The CHR$ values 
are from Reference Guide. 

20 R$z=CHR$(13):D$=CHR$(20): 
C$=CHR$(175) 

Now we'll write the crash- 
proof data-gathering subrou- 
tine itself, which yields raw 
data in string form which is giv- 
en the arbitrary designation of 
B$. Strings can contain let- 
ters, numbers, punctuation — 
the works. The subroutine 
can begin anywhere, so let's 
use line 100. Then change B$ 
to X$. Using VAL with X$, you 
may extract the whole string 
or just the numbers. You can 
select a portion of XS by us- 
ing RIGHTS, LEFTS, or MID$. 
End the program for now. 

30 GOSUB100:X$=S$:END 

The first thing to do with 
the input routine is clear out 
BS; then reset the line length 
to zero. More on that later. 

100 B$=" ":U0 

Now print your cursor (de- 
fined in line 20). The semico- 
lon ensures that anything af- 
ter the cursor will be printed 
on the same line. 

110 PRINTCS; 

Here's where we use the 
GET statement. 

120 GETA$:IFAS= ' "THEN120 

The computer goes into a 
loop until the user presses a 
key. When any key is 
pressed, that single character 
becomes A$. A$ will be exam- 
ined four times. The first time 
checks for the Return key; 



130 IFAS=R$THENPRmTD$A$;: 
RETURN 

if the Return key is 
pressed, the cursor moves 
back one space, deleting it- 
self, and then moves to the 
next line. The subroutine 
ends with a RETURN state- 
ment. 

The second check is for 
the Del key, which indicates 
that the user is backtracking 
and erasing previously typed 
data, 

140 IFA$=D$THENGOSUB210: 

GOTO110 

At line 210 we start anoth- 
er short subroutine that will do 
the actual deleting. Then we 
want to go back to line 110 to 
print the cursor again. This 
time we're not ready to jump 
out of the subroutine yet; 
we're just deleting characters. 

The third check is impor- 
tant but fairly complicated. 
We want to limit the charac- 
ters which can be typed. 
We'll do that by examining 
their CHR$ values. Luckily, 
the values we need are in the 
range of 32 to 95, inclusive. 
According to the ASCII and 
CHRS code chart in Program- 
mer's Reference Guide, this 
will encompass the space, all 
punctuation, all the numbers, 
all the letters of the alphabet 
(capitals only), and a few odd- 
ball symbols, such as the Brit- 
ish pound sign, brackets, and 
the left- and up-arrow keys. 
You can restrict that further if 
you wish. Here's the check: 

150 IM$<CHR$(32)0RA$>CHR$ 
(95)0RA$=HR$(34)THEN12a 

Next month I'll repeat this 
line with a detailed explana- 
tion of it. Meanwhile, try to fig- 
ure out why we don't want 
CHR$(34) and what we'll do 
next to make your programs 
virtually crashproof in the 
hands of computer novices. □ 

G-21 



PROGRAMMER'S PAGE 



Randy Thompson 



Here's a whole 

page of nifty 

tips for the 64 

submitted 

by one reader. 



GEZA'S PAGE 

Every so often someone 
sends me a tip that really 
sparks my interest, and I may 
center an entire column 
around suchi a tip. Just last 
week I got a letter from Geza 
Lucz of La Jolla, California, 
tfiat contained 16 great tips. 
Unfortunately, we don't fiave 
room for all of them, but fiere 
are 4 of thie best. 

Although the byline at the 
top of this column is mine, the 
credit and the "Programmer's 
Page" award money go to 
Geza. Thanks for the code! 

OCEAN 

This program makes the 64's 
characters roll like the waves 
in the ocean. There are 
sound effects, too. 

JX 100 FOR 1=49152 TO 49 
258:READ D:C=C+D: 
POKE I, D: NEXT 

KX 110 IF C016497 THEN 
{SPACE}PRINT "ERR 
OR IN DATA STATEH 
ENTS":STOP 

CP 120 SYS 49152 

DA 130 POKE 54278, 240:PO 
KE 54276, 129:POKE 
54273, 34:POKE 54 
272,75 

GK 140 FOR 1=1 TO 15 : POK 
E 54296, I:FOR J=l 
TO 50: NEXT: NEXT 

MP 150 FOR 1-15 TO 1 STE 
P -1:P0KE 54296, I 
;FOR J=l TO 200:N 
EXT: NEXT 

SR 160 FOR 1=1 TO 6B0+IN 
T(RND{1)*1000) :NE 
XT 

KR 170 GOTO 130 

XB 180 DATA 120,169,35,1 
62,192,141,20,3,1 
42,21,3,169,1,141 
,18,208,133,251,1 
33,254 

XH 190 DATA 173,17,208,4 
1,127,141,17,208, 
169,129,141,26,20 
8,88,96,173,25,20 
8,141 

JB 230 DATA 25,208,48,7, 
173,13,220,88,76, 
49,234,166,251,23 
2,232,232,232,232 
,232 

EH 210 DATA 232,232,142, 
18,208,134,251,22 
8,254,208,4,230,2 



51,230,254,166,25 
3,232 

CD 2 20 DATA 138,41,15,17 
0,134,253,189,91, 
192,141,22,208,76 
,188,254,200,201, 
202,203 

BS 230 DATA 204,205,206, 
207,207,206,205,2 
04,203,202,201,20 


FREEZE! 

This short machine language 
routine freezes program execu- 
tion whenever you hold down 
the 64's Shift key. You can 
load and run almost any 
program and use Shift as a 
Pause key, If you need to 
pause a program so you can 
go off and answer the phone, 
the Shift Lock key keeps the 
software frozen until you're 
ready for it. This freeze fea- 
ture is also great for program- 
mers who need to pause the 
computer when listing their 
programs to the screen. 

EX 100 FOR 1=49152 TO 49 

191:READ D:POKE I 

,D:NEXT:SYS 49152 
HF 110 DATA 120,169,26,1 

62,192, 141,20,3 
KG 120 DATA 142,21,3,38, 

96,120,169,234,16 

2 
EF 139 DATA 49,141,21,3, 

142,20,3,88,96,32 
SR 140 DATA 135,234,174, 

141,2,224,1,240,2 

46 
KP 150 DATA 76,49,234,0 

COMMAND HIGHLIGHT 

Another practical utility is this 
program that highlights all of 
the commands in a BASIC list- 
ing. Line numbers and varia- 
bles appear in the usual blue 
color, while BASIC com- 
mands appear in white. 

CC 100 FOR 1=49152 TO 49 
230:READ D:C=C+D: 
POKE 1,0: NEXT 

CH 110 IF C011843 THEN 
(SPACE) PRINT "ERR 
OR IN DATA STATEH 
EHTS" :STOP 

CP 120 SYS 49152 

HG 130 DATA 169,11,162,1 
92,141,6,3,142,7, 
3 



EB 140 DATA 96,16,36,36, 

15,48,32,201,255, 

240 
GP 150 DATA 28,133,251,1 

34,252,132,254,16 

6,253,224 
QB 160 DATA 5,240,7,169, 

5,133,253,32,210, 

255 
DG 170 DATA 165,251,166, 

252,164,254,76,36 

,167,133 
PQ 180 DATA 251,134,252, 

132,254,166,253,2 

24,154,240 
DJ 190 DATA 7,169,154,13 

3,253,32,210,255, 

165,251 
PP 200 DATA 166,252,164, 

254,76,243,166,20 

8,14 

GETTING DIZZY? 

A close relative of the ocean 
trick, this program is definitely 
not recommended for the 64 
owner with a weak stomach. 

RS 100 FOR 1=49152 TO 49 

266:READ D:C»=C+D: 

POKE I, D: NEXT 
EG 110 IF C013471 THEN 

{SPACE}PRINT "ERR 

OR IN DATA STATEM 

ENTS" :STOP 
HK 120 POKE 16383, 0:SYS 

CSPACE}49152 
RJ 130 DATA 120,169,31,1 

62,192,141,20,3,1 

42,21 
BE 140 DATA 3,169,0,141, 

18,208,173,17,208 

,41 
KX 150 DATA 127,141,17,2 

08,169,129,141,26 

,208,88 
AE 160 DATA 96,173,25,20 

8,141,25,208,48,7 

,173 
GS 170 DATA 13,220,88,76 

,49,234,230,254,1 

65,254 
QP 180 DATA 41,3,208,21, 

166,251,232,133,4 

1,15 
KR 190 DATA 133,251,170, 

189,78,192,141,17 

,208,189,94,192 
JC 200 DATA 141,22,208,7 

6,188,254,24,25 
AE 210 DATA 26,27,28,29, 

30,31,31,33,29,28 
EG 220 DATA 27,26,25,24, 

203,204,205,206,2 

07,206 
GG 230 DATA 205,204,203, 

202,201,200,200,2 

01,202,203,0,0,0, 

0.0 — 



G-22 COMPUTE 



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1990 Gazette Index 




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DIVERSIONS 



Fred D'Ignazio 



The robot 

revolution may 

have started 

in a way totaiiy 

dilferent trom 

wliat we imagined. 



ROBOTS 
IN DISGUISE 

I was on my way to Dubuque, 
Iowa, last week to train a 
group of intrepid teachers in 
the art of scavenged multime- 
dia. As 1 left tfie airplane for a 
layover in Chiicago's O'Hare Air- 
port, I felt tfie urge to make a 
brief stop at tfie nearest men's 
room. After I conducted my 
business, I made my custom- 
ary stop at a washroom sink. 
The sink was broken. No han- 
dles on the water faucet. No 
water. I turned to another 
sink. Its handles were also miss- 
ing. I turned to another sink. 
All the handles were missing. 

Suddenly ! heard the 
sound of running water. 1 
turned around. Two men were 
standing in front of two sinks. 
Two water faucets were gush- 
ing gurgling water into two 
sink bowls. The sinks weren't 
broken after all! 

I slipped back into the bath- 
room, quietly placed my bags 
onto the bathroom floor, and 
tried to appear natural and in- 
conspicuous until the two men 
at the sinks had departed. 

OK, I thought, how did they 
make the sinks work? fvly first 
guess was foot pedals. After 
all, there were no faucet han- 
dles, and I hadn't noticed ei- 
ther man touching anything on 
the sink. It hadXo be pedals. 

I crouched in front of one of 
the sinks. No pedal, fvlaybe 
the pedal was tucked under- 
neath the sink bowl. 1 reached 
under the bowl, searching for 
the mysterious device. 

Suddenly a man walked in- 
to the room. He immediately 
halted when he saw me under 
the sink. I'm sure he was won- 
dering what a small, bearded 
man in a raincoat was doing in 
an airport bathroom crawling 
around under a sink. 

"Sink inspector," I said, smil- 
ing and trying to appear non- 
chalant. "We have to do this pe- 



riodically." I kind of mumbled 
the last part because the fel- 
low took a brief, critical look at 
this "sink inspector," smirked, 
and shot out of the bathroom. 

I stood up, still trying to fig- 
ure out how to work the sink's 
faucets, fvlaybe if I stuck my 
foot under the sink it would 
work. I lifted my leg, leaned 
way back, and thrust the toe 
of my shoe across the sink's 
porcelain underbelly. 

Three teenagers entered 
the bathroom, jostling each oth- 
er and laughing. However, af- 
ter they saw me stroking the 
sink with my foot, they sank in- 
to immediate, puzzled silence. 

"It itches," I said, pointing 
at my foot. "This is the only 
way to scratch it." I kept prob- 
ing the fixtures beneath the 
sink with my toes, desperately 
hoping I'd soon see water flow- 
ing into the basin. 

The teenagers did their busi- 
ness and approached a cou- 
ple of sinks. Water instantly 
sprang from their sinks' fau- 
cets into the bowls. 

I rushed over to the teen- 
agers' sinks. "It's a miracle," 
I exclaimed. I dropped to my 
knees and looked under- 
neath. "How'd you do that?" 

"Little sensor right here, 
dude," said one of the teen- 
agers, pointing at a small red 
ovat on the wall that had es- 
caped my acute observation- 
al powers. "It's easy. You 
stand in front of the sink; you 
get water. You move away; 
the water stops." The teen- 
ager stared at me and 
grinned. "You from some oth- 
er country, maybe?" 

When I was growing up in 
the 1950s and 1960s, comput- 
ers were big, new, and fright- 
ening. In those days we were 
afraid that computers would 
one day be turned into spy ma- 
chines. They would spy on us 
average citizens and report to 
"the people in power." fvluch 
of this image came from the 
book 1984 by George Onwell. 



The future turned out to be 
completely different. Comput- 
ers shrank from barn-sized be- 
hemoths into cornflake-sized 
chips. As they shrank, they dis- 
appeared — into washing ma- 
chines, microwaves, automo- 
biles, watches, toaster ovens, 
and bathroom scales. 

Instead of a single big broth- 
er running a single big comput- 
er, we now have zillions and zil- 
lions of little computers acting 
as little brothers. Little comput- 
ers are now quietly watching 
us from inside refrigerators, tell- 
er machines, filling stations, 
vending machines, and bath- 
room sinks. They help us go 
about our business and then 
patiently wait for the next hu- 
man being to come their way 

For years we've been wait- 
ing for the robot revolution. 
We've pictured it as an elec- 
tromechanical second coming 
with robots who look like hu- 
mans, rolling off factory lines 
to rescue human beings from 
the grind and toil of daily life. 

fvlaybe the robot revolution 
has already started. Except 
it's totally different from what 
we imagined. Instead of giv- 
ing robots a human shape, we 
are quietly giving them the 
shape of the comfortable, fa- 
miliar appliances. Remember 
General Electric's motto: We 
bring good things to life. 

Maybe the being ! met in 
that O'Hare bathroom was al- 
most alive, a primitive precur- 
sor on a new evolutionary lad- 
der. Maybe it was a little like 
Australopithecus or Neander- 
thal man, a robot from the 
dawn of a new generation of 
intelligent robots. These ro- 
bots won't have to have legs, 
arms, or hands. They won't 
have to resemble humans. 
That would be too scary! 

Instead they'll just keep 
evolving at a faster rate, while 
retaining the outward appear- 
ance of our familiar, cozy, old 
appliances. Except they won't 
have any handles! CI 



G-24 COMPUTE 



PROGRAMS 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 
QUIZ 

By Christopher M. Stoy 
Learning a foreign language can be dif- 
ficult. Not only do you need to learn a 
new set of grammar rules, but you must 
also learn an entirely new vocabulary. 
The only way to do this is by continually 
repeating the new words until they be- 
come second nature. 

Finding someone to quiz you on 
your new vocabulary can be equally dif- 
ficult. After all. who wants to sit around 
asking you drill questions all day? 
That's the beauty of a computer. Your 
64 is happy to help out, with software 
such as Spanish Vocabulary Quiz. This 
Spanish tutorial will quickly help you 
learn Spanish words, and it'll never com- 
plain about your poor pronunciation or 
your gringo accent. 

Getting Started 

Spanish Vocabulary Quiz is written in 
BASIC with a small machine language 
subroutine. To help avoid typing errors, 
use The Automatic Proofreader when 
entering the BASIC portion; see "Typ- 
ing Aids" elsewhere in this section. 
When you've finished typing, be sure 
to save a copy of the program. 

Enter the machine language routine 
with MLX. our machine language entry 
program; see "Typing Aids" again. 
When MLX prompts, respond with the 
following values. 

Starting address: COOO 
Ending address: COBF 

Save the machine language routine 
with the name SPAN.tvlL before you ex- 
it MLX. Now format a blank disk and 
place Spanish Vocabulary Quiz on it. 
Use this disk to store the word files you 
create. 



Options 



The options menu contains five choic- 
es; 1. English Words 2. Palabras de Es- 
paliol 3, Load a Word File 4. File Op- 
tions 5. Quit 

The first two options quiz you on Eng- 
lish or Spanish words, respectively. If 
there is no word file in memory, you'll 
automatically be taken to option 3, 

To load a file, enter its name at the 



prompt and press Return. To see a list 
of files on the disk, type a dollar sign 
($) and press Return. When a file has 
been loaded, you'll be given a set of 
simple instructions. Press Return to be- 
gin the quiz. 

You'll be given a word in English (or 
Spanish) and asked to translate it. 
Type your answer at the prompt and 
press Return. If you make a mistake, 
use the Inst/Del key to delete a charac- 
ter or press Shift-Clr/Home to erase 
the whole word and start over. To en- 
ter accented letters such as ^, S, i, 6, 
or u, hold down the Commodore key 
and type the letter. Likewise, to get the 
tilde (n) character, hold down the Com- 
modore key and press N. To write an 
upside-down exclamation point (j), 
press the Back Arrow key. Make an up- 
side-down question mark (i) by press- 
ing the slash {/) character. 

You're given three chances to 
guess the word. After three incorrect 
guesses, the program provides the an- 
swer. If you wish to see the answer be- 
fore making three guesses, type a ques- 
tion mark at the prompt and press Re- 
turn. To exit the quiz before all the 
words are asked, enter an asterisk at 
the prompt and press Return. 

Scoring 

After the quiz you'll be given the num- 
ber of words you identified correctly 
and your percentage of correct an- 
swers. Your score depends not only on 
how many words you answered correct- 
ly but also on how many guesses it 
took you. Every incorrect answer will de- 
crease your score. For example, in or- 
der to obtain a perfect score of 100 per- 
cent, you must answer every question 
correctly on the first try. A good way to 
study is by going through the same 
list repeatedly until you can score 100 
percent. 

File Options 

The menu of file options offers several 
choices. 

1, Create a Word File 

2. Append to a Word File 

3. Edit a Word File 

4, Return to Main Menu 

Create a file when starting a new word 
list. First, enter the name of the file. 



Next, enter the English word and then 
the Spanish form. You'll then have a 
chance to make any corrections, enter 
more words, or stop. 

Select Append to add words to the 
current list in memory. It's a good idea 
to limit your list to 20 words or less. 

Edit a Word File lets you make cor- 
rections to the current word file. The 
first word in the list will be displayed in 
English and Spanish. Press E to edit 
the word. When editing, move the flash- 
ing cursor over the English word, 
make your changes, and then press Re- 
turn. Do the same for the Spanish 
word. To move on to the next word, 
press C to continue. The program will 
display the next word in the list. When 
you've finished editing, press Q to quit 
to the options menu and save any 
changes you've made. 



Spanish Vocabulary Quiz 

XE REM COPYRIGHT 1991 - COMP 
UTE PUBLICATIONS INTL LTD 
- ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
RH 10 REM SPANISH VOCABULARY Q 

UIZ VI. 2 
RC 20 REM(8 SPACES )BY CHRIS ST 

OY 
SF 30 ; 

EP 40 GOTO 220B:REM SETUP 
SC 100 T=0:PRINT"{HOHE) (BLK}"A 

NS"{5 D0WN)":P0KE 49153 

,5:P0KE49157,S 
RX 105 PRINT"<6>"AW$;SPC(20-LE 

N(AW$))"CWHT)>"; :LN=i7: 

GOSUB 200 
GB 110 ON -(WD$="?")-2* (WDS="* 

") GOTO 145,700 
MQ 115 SYS 49152 
KH 116 LC=LEN(AN$) :IF LEN(WDS) 

>LEN(AN$) THEN LC=LEN (W 

D$) 
KH 117 PC=INT (PBEK(49212)*100/ 

LC)-INT (PEEK (49213) /2) 
DP 120 IF PO70 THEN PRINT" 

(DOWN) (WHT)<MUY BIEN! C 

ORRECT ! " : SC=SC+ABS (T-3) 

:C=C+l:GOT0145 
PB 125 T=T+1:IF T=3 THEN 145 
DM 126 IF T=l THEN POKE 49157, 

245 
XH 127 IF T=2 THEN POKE 49153, 

6:P0KE 49157,229 
JX 130 IF P033 THEN PRINT" 

{DOWN}il> ALMOST. TRY A 

GAIN.{D0WnT":GOTO 140 
PE 135 PRINT"{D0WN}{2} SORRY, 

{SPACE} WRONG. TRY AGAIN 

.{DOWN}" 
XP 140 GOSUB 4ia:GOTO105 
BX 145 W=W+1:RN% (I)=1:PRINT" 

G-25 



PROGRAMS 



{6>(D0WN]THE ANSWER IS 
{SPACE) {WHT}"ANS"<6}.": 
GOSUB 1000: IF W=X THEN 
{SPACE} 700 

SX 150 FL=1:GOTO 400 

GX 200 WD$="":POKE 198,0:PHINT 
" < " ; 

df 205 get ke$:if ke$="" then 

{spaceJzbs 
xk 206 poke54296, 15:poke54296, 


HQ 210 IF KE$=CHR$(13) THEN PR 

INT: RETURN 
ED 215 IF KE$=CHR$(17) OR KE$= 

CHRS(19) OR KE$=CHR$(14 

5) THEN 205 
FA 217 IF KE$=CHR$(147) THEN F 

OR ZZ=0 TO LEN(WD$);PRI 

NTCHRS (20) ; :NEXT:GOTO 2 

30 
GC 220 IF KE5<>CHR$(20) THEN 2 

3 5 
HF 225 IF LEN(WD3)=0 THEN 205 
AC 23 WD$=LEFT${WD$,LEN (WD$)- 

1) :PRItJT"{2 LEFT}< 

(LEF.T)"; :GOTO 205 
PJ 235 IF LEN(WDS)>I.N THEN 20S 
KR 240 WD$=WDS+KES: PRINT" 

{LEFT)"KES"<"; 
GE 245 GOTO 205 
GM 300 IF X<i THEN 1300 
BP 315 PRINT"{CLR) {WHT){DOWN}" 

TAB{11) "QUJZ "QTS" WORD 

S" 
DX 320 PRINTTAB(ll) 'HIXIS T>" 
HH 325 PRINT"{2 D0WN){6> 

{2 SPACESJI^ WILL GIVE Y 

OU A WORD IN {WHT)"QTS" 

{6>," 

HD 330 PRINT"{DOWN} THEN _I_ WIL 
L ASK YOU TO ENTER THE 
{ S PACE }WORD" : PRI NT " 
{DOWN) I« {WHT}"0TS"i6} 
n 

JM 335 PRINT"{2 DOWN} {WHT } EXAM 

PLS : " : PRI NT " { DOWN 1 "QT S ; 

SPC(13) ;0T$ 
GG 340 PRINT"<3}{7 T}"SPC(13)" 

{7 T>":PRINT"{6>"EQS:PR 

INT "{UP} "TAB (20) ; EOS: GO 

SUB 1000 
XH 345 FOR Z=l TO X:RN%(Z)=0:N 

EXT:W=0:SC=0:C=0 
XF 400 I=INT (X*RND(0) )+l:IF RN 

% (I)=l THEN400 
CF 405 PRINT" {CLR} {DOWN) (YELjT 

YPE YOUR ANSWER, THEN H 

IT [ (WHT} RETURN {YEL} ] . 

{2 DOWN}" 
SF 410 PRINT"{WHT}"QTS;SPC(13) 

;OT$:PRINT"{3H7 T}"SPC 

(13) "{7 T}":RETURN 
HD 500 QTS="ENGLISH":OTS="SPAN 

ISH":EQ$="THE WORD":EOS 

="LA PALABRA" 
PG 505 GOSUB 300:IF X=0 THEN 2 

100 
QX 510 AW5=EN5(I) :AN$=SP$(I) :G 



OSUB 100:IF FL THEN 510 
BB 513 IF F=l THEN 500 
PC 515 GOTO 2100 
HK 600 OTS="ENGLISH":QT$="SPAN 

ISH":EO$="THE WORD":EQ$ 

="LA PALABRA" 
SQ 605 GOSUB 300:IF X=0 THEN 2 

100 
CX 610 AN$=EN$(I) :AW5=SP$(I) :G 

OSUB 100: IF FL THEN 610 
XK 613 IF F=l THEN 600 
SJ 615 GOTO 2100 
DX 700 FL=0:IF W=0 THEN F=0:RE 

TURN 
GR 703 PRINT"{CLR} {11 DOWN} 

CWHT}"TAB(12) "CON^MULA 

TIONSl!" ^-"^ 

JM 705 PRTNT TAB ( 9 ) " f DOWN } { 6 > Y 

OU COMPLETED THE LIST," 
GR 710 FOR Z=1TO192:POKE53280, 

Z:NEXT:F0RZ=1T08: PRINT" 

{DOWN}" :next:print" 

(HOME) {9 DOWN}" 
GJ 715 PRINT"(3 spaces} {YEL}Y0 
UR SCORE : {WHT } " ; I NT ( SC 
/(3*H) *100) ; "%" 
PP 720 PRINT"{DOWN} {3 SPACES} 
UG_ {YEL}YOU GOT{WHT}"C" 
^^~ {YEL}CORRECT OUT OF 

{WHT}"W"{YEL} {LEFT} ." 
KQ 730 PRINT" {2 DOWN} 

{4 SPACES 5 <6}W0ULD YOU 
{SPACE3LIKE TO TRY THIS 
LIST" 
RK 740 PRINT" {DOWN} {4 SPACES )A 
GAIN ({WHT}Vt6} OR 
{WHT}N{6}) ?TWHT} "; 
OS 750 GET KES:IF KES="" THEN 

{SPACE}750 
JA 755 IF KE5="Y" THEN PRINT"Y 

":F=1:RETURN 
KK 760 IF KE$<>"N" THEN 750 
HM 765 PRINT"N":F=0:RETURN 
RF 1000 PRINTTAB(7)"{2 DOWN} 

{YEL}PRESS {{WHT} RETUR 
N{YELT] TO CONTINUE.": 
POKE 198,0 
FM 1005 GET KE$:IF KE$<>CHR$(1 

3) THEN 1005 
DS 1010 RETURN 

XP 1100 POKE 53272, 21:P0KE 532 
80,14:POKE 53281, 6:PRI 
NT"{7}|CLR}":END 
AJ 1200 INPUT#15,ER,ER5,DT,DS: 

FL = 
JC 1205 IF ER=62 THEN PRINT" 

{CLR} {RED} {9 D0WN}"TAB 
(13) "FILE NOT FOUND.": 
FL=1:RETURN 
FB 1210 IF ER>19 THEN PRINT" 

{RED}{2 DOWM} DISK ERRO 
R #"ER;ER$"{8 DOWN } " : F 
L=l 
BQ 1215 RETURN 

RP 1300 PRINT"{CLR} {WHT} {DOWN} 
"TAB (12) "LOAD A WORD F 
ILE" 
XJ 1315 PRINTTAB(12) "<3}{16 T} 



PF 1320 PRINT"{2 D0WN}<6} 

{4 SPACES }ENTER NAME 
F FILE AT THE PROMPT." 

QM 1325 PRINT"{D0WN} {3 SPACES} 
TYPE {{WHT}$<6}] TO VI 
EW DIRECTORY." 

FC 1330 PRINT"{D0WN} {3 SPACES) 
PRESS [{WHT)RETURN{6}j 
ALONE TO RETURN TO" 

RC 1335 PRINT" {DOWN) {3 SPACES} 
{WHT} 0PTI0N5 (6}MENU." 

RP 1340 PRINT:PRINT"{2 DOWN} 

{7JNAME OF FILE:{WHT}> 
"; :LN=15:G0SUB 200 

FX 1345 IF WD$="" THEN 2100 

QJ 1350 IF WD$="$" THEN 1410 

GF 1360 FLS=WD$:0PEN15,8,15:0P 
EN2,'8,2,"0:" + FL$+",S,R 

II 

PA 1365 GOSUB 1200:IF FL=1 THE 

N CL0SE2:CL0SE15:G0SUB 
1000:GOTO 2100 
JJ 1390 INPUT#2,X:F0R S=l TO X 

:INPUT#2,EN$(S) ,SP$(S) 

:NEXT 
CQ 1400 CLOSE2:CLOSE15:GOTO 21 

00 
FP 1410 PRINT" {CLRXejPRESS { 

{WHT) SHIFT {6}1 TO PAUS 

E.":SYS 49250:PRINT:GO 

SUB I000:GOTO 1300 
BB 1600 PRINT"{CLR} {WHT} {DOWN) 

"TAB (11) "WORD FILE OPT 

I0NS":PRINTTAB(11) "i3i 

{17 TV 
MQ 1605 PRINTTAB(16)"{D0WN}<6} 

OPTIONS" IPRINTTAB (16) " 

<2}{7 T}" 
GX 1610 PRINTTAB(8) "{DOWN} 

{WHT)1. CREATE A FILE" 

:PRINTTAB(8) "{DOWN} 2. 

{SPACE}APPEND TO A FIL 

E" 
AB 1615 PRINTTAB(8)"{D0WN}3. E 

DIT A FILE" 
CD 1620 PRINTTAB(B) "{D0WN}4. R 

ETURN TO {WHT}MAIN MEN 

U{2 DOWN}" 
BK 1630 PRINT"<6}{6 SPACES}ENT 

ER YOUR CHOICE{WHT}: 

{4 SPACES) {3 LEFT}"; 
GJ 1635 GET KES:IF KE$<"1" OR 

{SPACE}KE$>"5" THEN 16 

35 
SS 1640 PRINT KES:ON VAL(KE$) 

{SPACE}GOTO 1700,1700, 

1800,2100 
XA 1698 REM CREATE/APPEUD A FI 

LE 
RE 1700 KE=VAL(KE$) :IF KE=2 AN 

D X=0 THEN 1300 
CJE 1705 PRINT"{CLR}{WHT}{DOWN} 

"TAB (12) "MAKE A WORD F 

ILE":PRINTTAB(12) "{3> 

{16 T}" 
JX 1707 IF KE=2 THEN 1720 
FB 1710 PRINT"{D0WN}{4 SPACES) 



6-26 COMPUTE 



-{6JNAME OF FILE{WHT}:" 
; :LN=15:G0SUB 200:IF W 
D$="" THEN 2100 

ES 1715 FL$=WD$+LEFT$ (NL$,16-L 
EN(WD$) ) :F=F+1:F$(F)=F 
L5:X=0:KE=2:GOTO 1705 

HX 1720 X=X+1:PRINT"{H0ME} 

{4 DOWN}"TAB(10) "{YEL} 
FILE: {WHT)";FL$ 

KX 1725 PRINTTAB (7) "{DOWN} 

{YELlNUMBER OF WORDS S 

farTwht} :";X-l 

JQ 1730 PRINT"{6}{2 DOWN) 

{4 SPACES}FIRST, ENTER 
THE {WHT}ENGLISH<6> W 

ORD AT" 
RE 1735 PRINT"(3 SPACES}THE PR 

OMPT, THEN ENTER THE 

{WHT) SPANISH." 
RK 1740 PRINT"(D0WN1{8} E^NGLIS 

H WORD: {WHT}"; :LN=17: 

GOSUB 200:EN$ {X)=WD$:I 

F WD$="" THEN 1763 
KQ 1745 PRINT"{2 D0WN}{8} SPAN 

ISH WORD: {WHT}";:LN=1 

7:G0SUB 200 : SPS (X) =WD$ 

: IF WD$="" THEN 1763 
BF 1750 PRINT"{2 D0WN}fYEL) I_S 
THIS CORRECT ([WHT}Y 

{YEL} OR (WHT}N{yEL}) ? 

{WHT} "; 
QJ 1755 GET KES;IF KES="N" THE 

N PRINT"N":GOT0 1705 
PX 1760 IF KES<>"Y" THEN 1755 
SR 1763 IF WD$="" THEN PRINT" 

{BLK}":X=X-1 
FD 1765 PRINT"Y":PRINT"CRIGHT) 

{YEL} {DOWN} ENTER ANOTH 

er word ({WHT}Y{YEL} 

R iWHT)Kl(YEL}) ?{WHT) " 

} 
PH 1770 GET KE$:IF KE5="Y" THE 

N PRINT"Y":GOTO 1705 
SE 1775 IF KE$<>"N" THEN 1770 
PC 1780 PRINT"N":OPEN15,8,15: I 

F KE=2 THEN PRINTilS," 

S0:"+FL5:GOSUB 1200 
HJ 1785 IF PL THEN CLOSE I5:G0 

SUB 1000:GOTO 2100 
RM 1790 OPEN2,a,2,"0:"+FL5+",S 

,W": GOSUB 1200:IF FL T 

HEN CLOSE 2:G0T0 1785 
XD 1791 PRINT#2,X:F0R S=1 TO X 

: PRINT #2, ENS (S) : PRINT* 

2,SP${S) :NEXT:GOSDB 12 

00 
HE 1792 IF FL THEN CLOSE 2:G0T 

1785 
QB 1793 PRINT"{CLR){6}{9 DOWN) 

"TAB (14) "FILE SAVED. 

{2 DOWN)" 
XA 1794 CLOSE2:CLOSE15:GOSUB10 

00:GOTO 2100 
KP 1800 IF X=0 THEN GOSUB 300: 

GOTO 2100 
GP 1810 S=1:FL=1:PRINT"{CLR} 

(WHT) (DOWN) "TAB (15) "ED 

IT A PILE" 



QJ 1815 PRINTTAB(15) "{3}-tll T} 

II 

QF 1820 PRINT" {DOWN} {YEL} FILE 
: {WHT}";FLS;SPC(17-LE 
N(FL$))"{YEL}# OF WORD 
S: {WHT}";X 

RP 1825 PRINT"{DOWN}{3J'E40 Y}" 

PA 1830 PRINT"{HOME} (8 DOWN} 
i6i ON WORD: [WHT5 
{4 SPACES} {4 LEFT}";S 

AH 1835 PRINT"{2 D0WN}'t8> 

{2 SPACES }ENGLISH WORD 
: {WHT} ", -ENS (S) , -LEFT? ( 
SC$,22-LEN (ENS(S)>) ! PR 
INT 

MS 1840 PRINT"{8}{2 SPACES}SPA 
NISH WORD: {WHT}";SPS( 
S) ; LEFTS {SC$,22-LEN(SP 
S (S) ) ) tPRINT 

GD 1845 PRINT"{2 DOWN} {YEL} { 

{WHT}E{YEL}] TO {WHTjE 
DIT{YEL} WORDS" 

MK 1850 PRINT"{DOWN} ({WHT}C 

{YEL}] TO {WHT)CONTIN0 
E{YEL} LISTING" 

QH 1855 PRINT"{DOWN} {{WHT}Q 
{YEL}] TO {WHT}QUIT 
(YEL) TO {WHT}OPTIONS 
JYEL) MENU{DOWN}" 

GQ 1860 GET KE$:IF KES="" THEN 
1860 

RK 1865 ON -(KE$="E")-2*(KE$=" 
C")-3* (KE$="Q")GOT0189 
0,1870,1880:GOTO1860 

PH 1870 S=S+1:IF S < (X+1) THE 
N1830 

JD 1875 S=1:GOTO1830 

XA 1880 IF FL THEN 2100 

QM 1885 KE=2:PRINT"{BLK}":G0TO 
1780 

DA 1890 PRINT" {HOME} {11 DOWN}" 
TAB (16) ; "{WHT}"; :P0KE1 
9, 65; INPUTTED SPOKE 19,0 
: PRINT 

HS 1891 PRINT"{DOWN}"TAB (16) ; " 
{WHT}"; : POKE 19, 65: INPU 
TTSS:P0KE19,9:PRINT 

RK 1892 IF TE$<>EN5(S) OR TSS< 
>SPS (S) THEN EN5(S)=TE 
5:SPS (S)=TS$:FL = 

BQ 1893 GOTO 1830 

rk 2100 print"{clr} {down}"tab ( 
9) "fwht}spanish vocabu 
lary quiz" 

bs 2105 printtab (9) "<3}{23 t}" 

pr 2110 printtab (16) "{d0wn){6} 
options":printtab (16) " 
Tblu]<7 t}{down}" 

er 2115 printtab (8) "{wht}1. en 
glish words": printtab ( 
8)"{down}2. palabras d 
e espa{n}ol" 

rf 2120 printtab(8) "{d0wn}3. l 
oad a word file": print 

TAB{8) "{D0WN}4, FILE 
PTIONS" 
BP 2125 PRINTTAB (8) "{D0WN}5. Q 
OIT" 



FS 2130 PRINT"{2 D0WN}i6} 

{4 SPACES}ENTER YOUR C 

HO ICE {WHT}: "; 
FC 2135 GET KES:IF KE$<"1" OR 

{SPACE}KES>"5" THEN 21 

35 
XX 2140 PRINT KES:OS VAL(KE$) 

{SPAGE}GOTO 500,600,13 

00, 1600,1100 
XX 2200 POKE53280,0:POKE53281, 


QO 2202 IF LV=1 THEN POKE 56,5 

6:CLR:G0T0 2245 
XR 2205 PRINTCHRS(14) "{6J{CLR} 

"TAB (9) "{2 DOWN} {WHT }£ 

PANISH VOCABULARY QUIZ 

11 

PP 2210 PRINTTAB(9) "<3}{23 T}" 
FX 2215 PRINTTAB(12) "{D0WN}{6} 

COPYRIGHT 1991" 
BG 2216 PRINTTAB (4) "{2 DOWN} 

{WHT}COMPUTE PUBLICATI 

ONS XNTL LTD {2 DOWN}" 
EM 2220 PRINTTAB (10) "{YEL}Ai:.L 

{SPACE }RIGHTS RESERVED 

II 

JM 2230 PRINTTAB (13) "{3 DOWN} 

{WHT}PLEASE WAIT. .." 
GC 2240 IF LV=0 THEN LV=1:L0&D 

"SPAN, ML", 8,1 
XH 2245 DIM EN$ (30) , SP$ (30 ) ,RN 

%(30) ,FS(120) 
DC 2255 POKE 56334, PEEK(56334) 
AND 254:P0KE 1,PEEK(1 

) AND 251:SYS 49217 
CD 2265 POKE 1,PEEK{1) OR 4 : PC 

KE 56334, PEEK(56334) 

R 1 
SF 2270 READ A: IF A=-l THEN228 


FH 2275 FOB 1=0 TO 7: READ B:PO 

KE 14336+A*8+I,B:NEXT: 

GOTO2270 
CD 2280 POKE 53272 , (PEEK (53272 

)AND 240>OR 14 
JC 2285 SCS="{21 SPACES}":GOTO 

2100 
PE 2435 DATA 30,36,0,102,102,1 

02,102,62,0 
EA 2440 DATA 31,0,24,0,0,24,24 

,24,24 
KX 2445 DATA 47,0,24,0,24,48,9 

6,102,60 
BD 2450 DATA 98,6,24,0,56,24,2 

4,60,0 
KA 2455 DATA 106,54,72,124,102 

,102,102,102,0 
HF 2460 DATA 112,6,8,60,6,62,1 

02,62,0 
QK 2465 DATA 113,6,8,60,102,12 

6,96,60,0 
KP 2470 DATA 120,6,8,102,102,1 

02,102,62,0 
GA 2475 DATA 121,6,8,60,102,10 

2,102,60,0 
EJ 2480 DATA 158,219,255,153,1 

53,153,153,193,255 
SG 2485 DATA 159,255,231,255,2 



G-27 



PROGRAMS 



SP 2499 

SA 2495 

QE 2500 

SB 2505 

HJ 2510 

FG 2515 

BP 2520 

GJ 2525 

SPAN.ML 



55,23 

DATA 
31,20 
DATA 
99,23 

DATA 

53,15 

DATA 

49,19 

DATA 

53,12 

DATA 

53,15 

DATA 

53,15 

DATA 



1,231, 

175,25 
7,159, 
226,24 
1,231, 
234,20 
3,153, 
240,24 
3,153, 
241,24 
9,159, 
248,24 
3,153, 
249,24 
3,153, 
-1 



231,2 

5,231 
153,1 
9,231 
195,2 
1,183 
153,2 
9,247 
193,2 
9,247 
195,2 
9,247 
193,2 
9,247 
195,2 



31 

,255,2 

95 

,255,1 

55 

,131,1 

55 

,195,2 

55 

,195,1 

55 

,153,1 

55 

,195,1 

55 



C000 


A9 


05 


85 


FC 


A9 


05 


85 


FB 


80 


C00S 


A0 


00 


3C 


3C 


C0 


3C 


3D 


C0 


A2 


C010 


8C 


3E 


C0 


AE 


3E 


C0 


Bl 


FB 


BE 


C018 


C9 


3C 


D0 


01 


60 


DD 


00 


04 


36 


C020 


F0 


10 


CA 


DD 


00 


04 


F0 


07 


4E 


C02a 


E8 


£8 


DD 


00 


04 


D0 


06 


EE 


72 


C030 


3D 


C0 


EE 


3C 


C0 


EE 


3E 


C0 


21 


C033 


C8 


4C 


U 


C0 


00 


00 


00 


EA 


8A 


ca40 


EA 


A9 


00 


85 


FB 


85 


FD 


A9 


95 


C048 


D8 


83 


FC 


A9 


38 


85 


FE 


A2 


4A 


C050 


08 


A0 


00 


HI 


FB 


91 


FD 


88 


C3 


C058 


D0 


F9 


E6 


FC 


ee 


FE 


CA 


D0 


07 


C06a 


F0 


60 


A9 


01 


A2 


08 


A0 


00 


2E 


C068 


20 


BA 


FF 


A9 


02 


A2 


BC 


A0 


F7 


C070 


C0 


20 


BD 


FF 


20 


C0 


FF 


A2 


B8 


C078 


01 


20 


C6 


FF 


20 


CF 


FF 


20 


BB 


C080 


CF 


FF 


20 


CF 


FF 


85 


FB 


20 


19 


C08a 


CF 


FF 


05 


FB 


F0 


25 


A9 


0D 


CE 


C090 


20 


D2 


FF 


AD 


8D 


02 


29 


01 


79 


C098 


D0 


F9 


20 


CF 


FF 


AA 


20 


CF 


BC 


C0A0 


FF 


20 


CD 


BD 


A9 


20 


20 


02 


A0 


C0A8 


FF 


20 


CF 


FF 


F0 


D4 


20 


D2 


lA 


C0B0 


FF 


D0 


F6 


A9 


01 


20 


C3 


FF 


EF 


C0B8 


20 


CC 


FF 


60 


24 


30 


00 


00 


65 



Christopher M. Stoy lives 
Ebensburg, Pennsylvania. 



m 

a 



SPEEDSWAP 



By Larry Hagney 

ivlost of us don't use SpeedScript to 
write the Great American Novel, Usually 
we confine our efforts to smaller endeav- 
ors such as letters, reports, term pa- 
pers, program documentation, and 
such. As a result much of the text mem- 
ory available to SpeedScript remains 
empty. 

Suppose you're using SpeedScriptXo 
write a term paper. In the midst of your 
efforts, you remember a couple of par- 
agraphs in a document that you wrote 
a couple of months ago and decide 
they would fit perfectly with this paper. 

e-28 COMPUTE 



To incorporate that material takes more 
than a little effort. First, you save your 
paper to disk, load in the old document, 
copy the relevant section into the text 
buffer, erase the old document, load in 
the term paper, and then finally insert 
the saved text in the appropriate area 
of your paper. 

Well, those days are gone forever. 
With SpeedSwap patched into your 
copy of SpeedScript 3.2 for the 64, two 
text documents can coexist in memory. 
The problem mentioned above is now 
simple to solve. Just move to your alter- 
nate screen and load the old document. 
Now both documents are independent- 
ly accessible. Material can be copied 
from one document to the other, or one 
text area can be your workscreen while 
the second serves as a storage area for 
various reference materials. 

Getting Storted 

SpeedSwap is a BASIC program 
which contains a short (227 bytes) ma- 
chine language routine. To avoid typ- 
ing errors, enter the program using The 
Automatic Proofreader; see "Typing 
Aids" elsewhere in this section. When 
you've finished typing, save a copy of 
the program to a disk containing 
SpeedScript. Your copy of 
SpeedScript must be saved with the file- 
name SPEEDSCRIPT because 
SpeedSwap automatically loads and 
runs that filename. 

When you run SpeedSwap, it lets 
you allocate memory for each of two 
text areas, identified onscreen as area 

and area 1. Default sizes of 21,504 
and 21,760 bytes are displayed in 
white text. Pressing CRSR-down de- 
creases the size of text area in 256- 
byte chunks, while increasing text area 

1 by a similar amount. CRSR-up per- 
forms the opposite function. Note that 
the total number of bytes of both text ar- 
eas is always 43,264. This is 256 
bytes less than SpeedScript normally 
makes available because SpeedSwap 
allocates a 256-byte safety zone be- 
tween each text area. 

If you're not sure how many bytes to 
allocate for a file that's already on 
disk, corresponding disk block sizes 
are also displayed. Once the text 
areas are adjusted for your needs, 
press Return to boot SpeedScript. 
SpeedSwap sets up its machine lan- 



guage routine which loads 
SpeedScript, patches itself in, and 
then runs the word processor. 

Only One Command 

Witti SpeedSwap patched into 
SpeedScript, you have complete, inde- 
pendent control over two areas of text 
memory. Only one command is need- 
ed to switch between the two. Press 
the Ctrl key and Commodore logo key 
simultaneously to toggle between text 
area and text area 1. 

When SpeedScript's screen first ap- 
pears, you'll see a in the command 
line, indicating that you are now work- 
ing in text area 0. Press the Ctrl key 
and the = key simultaneously to see 
the amount of memory allotted to this 
area. 

Press Ctrl-Commodore to access 
area 1, indicated by a 1 in the com- 
mand line. Area 1 provides 43,264 
bytes minus the number of bytes in 
area for text storage. 

Each text area is completely inde- 
pendent of the other. Text can be print- 
ed from, loaded into, or saved from 
one area, without disturbing or being af- 
fected by the other. You can erase all 
text in one area while text in the other 
area remains untouched. Each area al- 
so supports its own text and back- 
ground colors. 

!n short, every SpeedScript com- 
mand behaves as though the active 
text area is the only text area. One no- 
table exception is SpeedScript's text 
buffer; text from one area can be cop- 
ied into the buffer and inserted into the 
other text area. Similarly, HUNT and RE- 
PLACE phrases are also portable to 
each area. One handy SpeedSwap fea- 
ture is cursor positioning. When you re- 
turn to a text area, you'll find the cur- 
sor in the same position as you left it. 
This is convenient when using one 
text area for viewing reference materi- 
als and the other for writing. 

Keep in Mind 

The changes SpeedSwap makes to 
SpeedScript are not permanent, so 
load and run SpeedSwap whenever 
you want to use it. There are a few cau- 
tions that you should bear in mind, 
however. Do not attempt to load a docu- 
ment into a text area for which you ha- 
ven't allocated enough space. For in- 



stance, i* area has 21,504 bytes al- 
located and you attempt to load a 100- 
block document, text area will be 
tilled, but the rest of the document will 
spill over into area 1. The text in area 
1, however, cannot be accessed, You 
must erase all text in area 1 before you 
can use that screen. 

This could be avoided by allocating 
25.600 bytes to area prior to loading 
the 100-block document. Also, if you at- 
tempt to load a file too large for area 1, 
SpeedSwap's machine language will 
be overwritten by the text, and 
SpeedScript w\l crash. 

Also, if you plan on using 
SpeedSearch (May 1987) to search 
any SpeedSwap-generated files, be 
aware that documents saved from ar- 
ea will have a normal load address of 
9472. Documents saved from area 1, 
however, will have a load address of X 
* 256 where X = (number of area 1 
bytes / 256) + 37. However, the load ad- 
dress is irrelevant to SpeedScript. any 
SpeedScr/pf enhancement program, or 
any other program designed to proc- 
ess SpeedScript text files. 

If you plan to exit SpeedScript and 
then return from BASIC, be sure that 
text area is active when you quit. Oth- 
erwise, text could be damaged. 

SPEEDSWAP 

db 10 rem copyright 1991 compu 
te publications intl ltd 
- all rights reserved 

gp 20 poke808,234:print"{clr} 
{n){h1{eV';:dimx,q$,a,b, 

C,S,E,ES:X=121:E?="DATA 
{SHIFT-SPACE} ERROR IN LI 
NES" 

AQ 30 S=828:E=934:GOSOB180: IFC 
<>11409THE«PRINTE$190"-" 
250:STOP 

XC 40 SYSS:PRINT"S^PEEDSCRIPT 3 
.2 SPEEDSWAP": PRINT "<4} 
{D0WN}COPYRIGHT 1991" 

MA 50 PRINT " COMPUTE PUBLICATIO 
NS _I_NTL LTD": PRINT "ALL R 
IGHTS RESERVED fOOWNT" 

BH 60 S=53000:E=53226:GOSOB180 
: IFC<>25771THENPRINTE$26 
0"-"39B:SYS906:STOP 

GF 7 PRINT "PRESS CRSR UP/DOWN 
TO SELECT SIZE 
{7 SPACES} tIN BYTES) OF 
{SPACE} EACH TEXT AREA." 

CM 80 PRINT"PRESS RETURN TO LO 
AD SPEEDSCRIPT." 

XG 90 PRINT"PRESS CTRL/C= FROM 



EQ 


100 


MS 


110 


DF 


120 


PK 


130 


SP 


140 


BP 


150 


GB 


160 



QC 170 



GO 


180 


AR 


190 


DM 


200 


MG 


210 


PG 


220 


BM 


230 



EG 24C 



SQ 


250 


BX 


260 


MA 


270 


EB 


280 


HF 


290 


JE 


300 


CF 


310 


DB 


320 



WITHIN S^PEEDSCRIPT 
{3 SPACES )T0 SWAP TEXT A 
RE AS. {DOWN}" 
F0RA=.T01: PRINT "TEXT AR 
EA"ASPC(8) "DISK BLOCKS" 
:NEXT 

PRINT"TOTAL BYTES 43264 
{3 SPACES }TOTAL BLOCKS 
{ SPACE }169TWHT} {UP}" 
PRINT"(2 UP}"SPC(11- (X< 
77) )X*2 5 6-9 4 72SPC(13-. (X 
<137)- (X<47)) " "X-37 
PRINTSPCdl- (X>166) ) 529 
92"(X+1) *2 5 6SPC (13-(X>1 
06)-(X>196)) '■ "206-X 
GETQ$:ON-(Q$="{DOWN}"OR 
QS="{UP}")GOTO170:IFQ$< 
>GHR$(13)THEN140 
POKE 5304 1,X:X=X+1; POKE 5 
320 9, X : PC KE 5321 8, X: POKE 
53224, X:POKE53226,X 
SYS906: PRINT" {CLRH8JL0 
ADING SPEEDSCRIPT. . .":P 
OKE808,237:SYSS:END 
X=X+(Q9="{D0WN}")-(QS=" 
{UP}") :X=X-162*{(X=40)- 
(X=2a3) ) :POKE646,-(X=12 
1) :GOTO120 

C=.:FORA=S TOE:READB:P0 
KEA,B:C=C+B: NEXT: RET URN 
DATA120,169,0,141,14,22 
0,169,27,141,17,208,169 
,91,141,20,3,169 
DATA 3, 14 1,2 1,3, 16 9, 1,14 
1,26,208,141,13,208,83, 
96,169,58,172 
DATA135,3,205,18,208,20 
8,8,169,1,172,136,3,140 
,32,208,140,33 
DAT A208, 14 1,18, 208, 201, 
1,240,8,169,1,141,25,20 
8,76,188,254,169 
DATA1,141,25,208,76,49, 
234,0,12,0,120,169,0,14 
1,26,208,141 
DATA32, 208, 141, 33, 208,1 
69,49,141,20,3,169,234, 
141,21,3,169,1 
DATA141,14,220,88,96 
DATA16 9,5,162,8,168,32, 
186,255,169,11,162,205, 
160,207,32,189,255 
DATA 16 9, 0,1 3 3, 10, 14 1,8, 
32, 32,213,255,169,76,16 
2,207,141,134,10 
DATA142,135,10,142,11,3 
2,169,121,141,177,9,169 
,37,141,9,32,173 
DATA29, 13, 141, 23 5,207,1 
73,44,13,141,236,207,32 
,55,9,76,13,3 
DATA162,49, 14 2, 38, 216,1 
73,11,32,201,207,240,1, 
202,142,38,4,173 
DATA141,2,201,6,20 8,103 
,165,2,160,0,145,57,132 
,162,165,162,41 
DAT A16, 2 4 0,2 50, 162, 3, 18 



9,12,3 

,16,24 

BE 330 DATA19 
02,16, 
32,190 

MC 340 DATA21 
2,136, 
57,188 

EC 350 DATA23 
202,16 
2,235, 

RB 360 DATA14 
13,172 
3,141, 

RS 370 DATA17 
,9,76, 
69,68, 

MM 380 DATA82 
,207,0 
,0 

DK 390 DATA0, 



2,157,220 

7,162,3,1 

,32,157,2 

247,160,1 

,216,207, 

6,207,138 

16,240,16 

,233,207, 

3,207,152 

,242,173, 

207,140,2 

1,235,207 

,236,207, 

236,207,1 

7,57,133, 

228,255,8 

83,67 

,73,80,84 

,0,0,0,40 



,207,202 

89 

27,207,2 

6,135,8, 

153 

,153,8,3 

2,1,181, 

157 

,1.49,57, 

29,13,17 

9,13 

,173,44, 

140,44,1 

60,0 

2,32,246 

3,80,69, 

,0,122,0 
,0,122,0 



1,0,122,0,122 



Larry Hagney lives in Las Cruces. New 
Mexico. O 



CREDIT CONTROL 

By George R. Reid 

When the temptation to use a conven- 
ient credit card becomes too great to 
ignore, a program such as Credit Con- 
trol can be a welcome financial guide 
and advisor. Successful credit card 
management depends on three requi- 
sites: a careful budget, accurate ac- 
counts, and financial discipline. 

Credit Control is a simple program for 
the 64 that can help you plan your ex- 
penditures and alert you against over- 
spending. It also provides some gener- 
al fiscal advice. 

Getting Started 

Credit Control is written entirely in BA- 
SIC. To help avoid typing errors, use 
Ttie Automatic Proofreader: see "Typ- 
ing Aids" elsewhere in this section. Be 
sure to save a copy of the program 
when you've finished typing it in. 

Taking Charge 

Have your monthly credit card state- 
ment and any late purchase receipts 
on hand when you run Credit Control. 
When you first use the program or if 
your financial situation later changes, 
move the highlight cursor to the Statis- 
tics menu option and press Return. A 
series of prompts will guide you. Sim- 
ply enter your card's finance charge 

G-29 



PROGRAMS 



rate, your monthly payment date, your 
self-imposed monthly credit purchase 
limits, and your credit limit. After you 
make these entries, you'll return to the 
main menu. 

To record your credit transactions, se- 
lect the Data Entry option. You'll be 
asked to enter the month and day of 
each transaction and the seller's 
name and description of items pur- 
chased. (Keep the name and descrip- 
tion to 13 characters or less.) For your 
first entry, enter the date and balance 
due from your last monthly credit state- 
ment. Then enter any credit purchases 
or payments made since the statement 
date. 

At the end of each transaction, you'll 
be given several options. You may en- 
ter another transaction, make changes 
to previous entries, return to the main 
menu, or display your current entries. 
After you've entered all of your credit 
card transactions, return to the menu 
and select the Storage option to save 
your data. You may want to save the da- 
ta with a name that is similar to your 
credit card's. Use any valid filename 
up to 12 characters in length. Credit 
Control appends a prefix of CDF to 
each filename for easy identification, 
but omit these letters when loading the 
data back into your program. 

Taking Control 

After you charge an item or make a pay- 
ment on your account, load your file 
from the Storage option, select Data En- 
try, and then enter the transaction. If 
you make a payment, place a minus 
sign immediately before any payment 
amounts or returns. These will appear 
as subtractions from the account bal- 
ance. Save the file when data entry is 
complete. Credit ConJro/ takes care of 
everything else. 

On the menu screen you'll be in- 
formed of your credit card balance. 
You'll also receive some friendly advice 
on credit management, if necessary. A 
listing of transactions and balances 
can be made at any time. Error correc- 
tions can be made easily for the last 
two entries. Earlier errors can be recti- 
fied by making a new entry that adds 
or subtracts the proper amount to cor- 
rect the balance. 

Each credit card's account can be 
maintained in a separate file. However, 

G-3a COMPUTE 



if you begin the system with a realistic 
self-imposed monthly spending limit. 
Credit Control will advise you when to 
get rid of those extra cards. Also, be 
aware that you don't have to accept 
the card company's suggested month- 
ly payment amount. Credit Control will 
advise you on payment size and other 
factors, too. 

Keep all your credit slips handy in 
an envelope or simple file. Then get in- 
to the habit of regularly entering them. 
Follow the program's financial advice, 
enjoy Credit Control, and don't abuse 
your credit with overuse. 

CREDIT CONTROL 



XE e 



EX 


10 


KG 


20 


AK 


30 


ftA 


40 


AJ 


50 



MR 63 



CX 70 



REM COPYRIGHT 1991 - COMP 
UTE PUBLICATIONS ItJTL LTD 

- ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

REM CREDIT CONTROL -BV G 

. RE ID. CC 

MX = 61:X=0:L = 1:OS'="10.5": 

P$="10TH OF HONTH":H=10: 

CL=1000 

DIM D$(MX,4) 

PRINT"{CLR5" 

F0RXX=1T05:PRINT'MD0WN}" 

:NEXT:GOSUB980 

PRINT" {HOME} {2 DOWN}";TA 

B(13) "(GRN} CREDIT 

{SHIFT-SPftCEl C0NTR0L {7>" 

PRINTTRB (13) "*********** 



CP 80 PRINT CHR5{14) 

BP 90 SY$="(RVS) (CYNl":SZ$=" 

{0FF){7}" 
GE 100 N$(1)="DATA ENTRY":N$(2 

) ="DISPLAY" 
AS 110 N$(3)-"ST0RAGE":N$(4) =" 

STATISTICS" 

N9(5)=="EXIT" 

FOR C=1T05:PRINTTAB(13) 

N${C) :NEXT 
PRINT"(6 UP}":C=1:PRINT 
TAB(13)SYSN$(1)SZS 
GETG9: IFGS=""THEN150 
IFG$=CHR9tl3)THEN20O 
IFG$="{DOWN}"THEN PRINT 

"{UP}";TAB(13)N$(C) :C=C 
+ l:PRItJTTAB(13)SYSN$(C) 

szs 

IFC=6THENPRINT"{UP}"; :G 

OTO140 

GOTO150 

ON C GOTO330,570,730,21 

0,1240 

PRINT"fCLR) [2 D0WN5STAT 

ISTICAL DATA ENTRY" :PRI 

NT 

print"enter your new:-" 
print"Tdown)annual FINA 
nce charge rate" 
pri«t"current is — ";0$: 



SM 


120 


er 


130 


GK 


140 


XD 


150 


KR 


160 


CE 


170 


HK 


180 


DX 


190 


AE 


200 



AQ 210 



QE 220 
XS 230 

GA 240 



FS 


250 


AX 


260 


CP 


270 


AQ 


280 


FA 


290 


SJ 


300 


FF 


310 


DH 


320 


GQ 


330 


DE 


340 



HQ 350 



BD 360 



QE 370 



XQ 380 



HX 390 

RS 400 
BO 410 
DR 420 

RG 430 



CB 440 

SE 450 

FG 460 

MG 470 

QQ 480 

DD 490 

BA 500 



JC 510 
JS 520 

EB 530 
QE 540 



XF 550 



KA 560 



INPUT 0$:IFVAL(0S)<1THE 
N210 

PRINT"{DOWN}MONTHLY PAY 
MENT DATE" 

PRINT"CURRENT IS — ";P$: 
INPUT P$ 

PRINT" {D0WN}BUDGETE0 MA 
XIMUM MONTHLY CREDIT" 
PRINT"PURCHASES AMOUNT 
{SPACE )$" 

PRINT"CORREKT IS — ";M:I 
NPUT H:IFM<1THEN270 
PRINT"{D0WN}ASSIGNED CR 
EDIT LIMIT" 

PRINT"CORRENT IS — ";CLt 
INPUT CL 
GOTO40 

X=iX + l;Y = 0:IS = "--":IFX>M 
X-lTHENPRINT" {CLR} 
{D0WN}FULL FILE":X=L:G0 
TO430 

PRINT"{CLR} {2 D0WN)ENTE 
R MONTH & DAY OF PURCHR 
SE":GOSUB420 
PRINT"{CLRl (2 DOWNlENTE 
R SELLER'S NAHE/DESCRIP 
TION":GOSUB420 
PRINT"tCLR} {2 D0WN)ENTE 
R AMOUNT (CHARGED OR PA 
ID) $" 

PRINT" (PAYMENT MUST BE 
{SPACE)HINUS E.G. 
{2 SPACES}-56) {DOWN)":L 
=X:GOSUB420 

B2=B2+VAL(D$(X,3)) :B2=I 
NT (B2*100+.5)/100:DS (X, 
4) =STR$ (82) 

IFVAL(D$ (X,3) ) <0THENB4= 
B3:B3=B2 
IFX=LTHEN430 
X=X+1:GOTO520 
INPUTI$:Y=Y+1:DS(X,Y)=I 
S:l$="--":RETURN 
PRINT"{D0WN1 E=ENTER: C 
=CHANGES: M=MENU: D=DIS 
PLAY" 

GET NS:IFNS=""THEN440 
IF N$-"E"THEN330 
IF N$-="C"THEN500 
IF N$="M"THEN40 
IF N$="D"THEN570 
GOTO440 

PRINT"{CLR5 {DOWNlHIT RE 
TURN AFTER CHANGES OR T 
BY-PASS {2 SPACES) AN E 
NTRY" 

X=X-1:IFX<1THENX=1 
PRINT" {DOWN)ENTER NEW D 
ATA AT CURSOR:-" 
B2=VAL(D$(X-1,4)) : PRINT 
PRINT"#";X;TAB(5) "DATE: 
{3 SPACESl";DS(X,l) ; : IN 
PUT D5(X,1) 

PRINTTAB (5) "SELLER: " ; L 
EFTS(0S(X,2) ,13) ; : INPUT 

DS(X,2) 
PRINTTAB (5) "AMOUNT: ";D 
$ (X,3) ; :INPUT D$(X,3) :P 



R1NT:GOTO380 

HJ 570 G=1:C2=18:C1=C2 

CH 580 PRINT"{CLR} (D0WN)";C$:P 
RINT" NO DATE {2 SPACES} 
SELLER/DETAIL {2 SPACES} 
AMOUNT BALANCE" 

AR 590 PRINT" — 

{2 SPACES) 

{2 SPACES) 



FOR C=GTO L 
PRINTC;TAB{4)LEFT$(D$ (C 

,1) ,6) ;tab(10)leftS{D$C 

C,2) ,13); 

PRINTTAB(23) ; :F$=D$(C,3 

) 

GOSUB640:F$=DS(C,4) :GOS 

UB640:PRINT:GOTO680 

FS="{5 S PACES }*'+F$: FT $ = 

RIGHTS {FS, 3) : I FLEETS (FT 

S,1)="."THEN670 

IFMID$ (FTS,2,1) ="."THEN 

F$=FS+"0":GOTO670 

F$=F5+".00" 

PRINTRIGHT$(FS,8) ; :RETU 

RN 

IF C<ClTHEt]720 

PRINT " ( DOWN } RETURN" 

GET PA$:IFPAS=""THEN700 

C1=C1+C2 

NEXT:PRINT:GOTO430 

PRINT"{CLR) {2 DOWN}":IN 

PUT"ENTER FILE-NAHE";C$ 

PRINT" L=LOAD: 

{2 SPACES}S=SAVE" 

GET X$: IFXS=""THEN750 

IFXS="L"THEN900 

IFXS<>"S"THEN750 

PRINT"WISH TO {YELj SAVE 

{7} ";C$;" ? Y/N" 

GETX$:IFX$=""THEN7 90 

IFX$<>"Y"THEN40 

OPEN 1,8,2,"@0:CDF"+C$+ 

",S,W" 

QS=CHRS(13) 

PRINT#1,P$Q$0$QSH,QSL,Q 

$CL 

C=lrY=l 

IF OLTHEN890 

A$=D$(C,Y) :PRINT#1,A$:Y 

= Y+1 

IF Y>4THEN Y=1:C=C+1 

GOTO850 

CLOSE 1: PRINT" (CLR) 

{DOWN)SAVED "C$:GOTO50 

OPEN 1,8,2,"0:CDF"+CS+" 

,S,R" 

INPUT# 1,P$,0S,H,L,CL 

C=1:Y=1 

IP OLTHEN970 

INPUTtl,A5:D$(C,Y)=A?:y 

=Y+1 

IF Y>4THEN Y=1:C=C+1 

GOTO930 

CLOSE 1:X=L:B2=VAL(DS(C 

-1,4) ) : GOTO 57 

U=VAL{D$(X,4) ) 

UM=INT ( (U-M) *100+.5)/10 



SK 


600 


DM 


610 


FE 


620 


BC 


630 


HF 


640 


XP 


650 


CH 


660 


MM 


670 


MQ 


630 


KG 


690 


ME 


700 


DB 


710 


MP 


720 


JS 


730 


■QD 


740 


HR 


750 


MH 


760 


AF 


770 


AQ 


780 


DG 


790 


MP 


800 


CP 


810 


GS 


820 


CM 


830 


JF 


840 


CX 


850 


HR 


860 


GG 


870 


RX 


830 


DH 


890 


HS 


900 


PK 


910 


FJ 


920 


DO 


930 


BS 


940 


PK 


950 


BC 


960 


JG 


970 


HE 


980 


MG 


990 





XG 1000 PRINT: PRINT" {YEL}S_ELEC 
T{7} WITH CURSOR AND R 
ETURN" 

KQ 1010 PRINT"{2 DOWN ) " ;TAB ( 10 

V M_____^^^^^, ^ 11 

GC 1020 PRINT" {GRN} YOUR CURREN 

T BALANCE IS 5"; 
BR 1030 IFU>MTHENPRINT"{3}"U" 

<7>*':GOTO1050 
BC 1040 PRINTU: IFU=<0THENPRINT 

" CONGRATULATIONS 1":G0 

TO1230 
PH 1050 IF(CL-U) <CL*.2 THEN PR 

INT" YOUR CREDIT LIMIT 
IS $";CL 
AD 1060 IFVAL(D$(X,3) ) <0THEN10 

90 
HD 1070 PRINT" TO AVOID FINANC 

E CHARGE AT ";0$;"% AP 

R," 
JA 1080 PRINT" PLEASE PAY BY " 

• PS ■ " {7 J " 
FA 1090 IFU=<M THEN1230 
DD 1100 PRINT"'{1}BALANCE EXCEE 

DS S";STR$(M) ; "-BUDGET 
BY";UM 
RF 1110 R=VAL(OS)/12/100:IF{a/ 

M*R) >.99999THEN1210 
MF 1120 N=L0G(1/(1-(U/M*R)) )/L 

0G(1+R) 
QE 1130 PRINT" ^F NO FURTHER P 

URCHASES, IT TAKES" 
HE 1140 PRINTINT (N*10+.5)/10; " 

MONTHS TO PAY OFF. {7}" 
KD 1150 IF N<1.15THEN123a 
JK 1160 IF VAL{D$(X,3))< (.25*M 

)THEN IF U<B4THENPRINT 

" GOOD TREND. . .BUT" 
FQ 1170 IF N>2 THEN1220 
KQ 1180 PRINT"<3>I_NCREASE YOUR 
BUDGET TO S";INT(M*N) 

r 

PQ 1190 IF N<1.5THEN1230 

BA 1200 PRINT" OR":GOTO1220 

KD 1210 PRINT"{3J CANNOT BE RE 

PAID. {2 SPACES3BUDGET 

{SPACE}OF $";M;"IS 

(4 SPACES3VERY LOW. 

{2- SPACES) REPEAT I" 
AK 1220 PRINT"{YEL} HIDE " 

(SHIFT-SPACE) ¥OUR 

{SHIFT-SPACE}CARD AWAY 

!<7>" 
CQ 1230 RETURN 
AG 1240 PRINT" {2 DOWNjDID YOU 

(SPACE) SAVE YOUR DATA? 

U SPACES}Y/N" 
JG 1253 GETS?: IF S$=""THEN1250 
MA 1260 IF S$="Y"THEN PRINT" 

{CLR)":END 
HP 1270 GOTO40 



PLOTTER 



George R. Reid is a professor of busi- 
ness. fHe lives in Savannah, Georgia, 
and has excellent credit. D 



By Daniel Lightner 

Have you ever designed a screen on 
the 64 tfiat you would like to use in a 
program that you're writing? Poking 
those character values into the proper 
screen memory locations is a fast and 
efficient way to do it, but determining 
those poke values is another story. Plot- 
ter is just the utility to help you deter- 
mine those values. 

Typing It In 

Plotter is written entirely in machine lan- 
guage. To enter it, use MLX, our ma- 
chine language entry program; see 
"Typing Aids" elsewhere in this sec- 
tion. When MLX prompts, respond 
with the following values. 

Starting address: COOO 
Ending address: C2Q7 

Be sure to save a copy of the program 
before you exit MLX. 

Putting It to Work 

To use the program, enter LOAD"PLOT- 
TER".8,1 and then press Return. 
When it has finished loading, don't run 
it. Instead, type NEW, press Return, 
and then enter SYS49152. If all has 
gone well, the program will announce 
its presence. 

To see how Plotter works, place the 
cursor on any character, anywhere on 
the screen, Press f1. Two numbers 
should appear in the upper left corner 
of the screen. The first number is the 
screen location of the cursor and the 
number following the comma is the 
poke value of the character stored at 
that location. 

If you load Plotter Uom the 64's open- 
ing screen and go through the preced- 
ing steps, you should see that Plotter 
has been enabled and the word 
READY should be near the bottom of 
the screen. Place your cursor over the 
letter R in the word READY and press 
f1. At the top of the screen, you may 
see 1904,18. If your cursor isn't on 
line 24, you may get a different first num- 
ber, but you should get an 18, which is 
the value to poke to the screen to print 
an R. 

Now press the space bar to delete 
the letter R. fvlove the cursor to any 

G-31 



PROGRAMS 



blank line on the screen, enter POKE 
1904,18, and press Return. (Use the 
numbers at the top of your screen if 
they are different.) The R should now 
be back in the word READY. Press f7 
to clear those values; then move the cur- 
sor to another location and press f1 
again. 

How Does It Do Thot? 

Plotter wedges itself into the 64's hard- 
ware interrupt routine and then turns 
control of the 64 back to the BASIC edi- 
tor. The program waits in the back- 
ground, quietly scanning the keyboard 
for f1 to be pressed. When it detects 
f1. it copies the characters and colors 
from the first eight bytes of screen mem- 
ory. P/offer writes the screen location of 
the cursor and the value of the charac- 
ter under the cursor to the top left cor- 
ner of the screen. It then scans f7 for 
a keypress. When the program detects 
that the f7 key has been pressed, Plot- 
ter replaces the characters at the top 
of the screen that may have been over- 
written. 

You can disable Plotter by pressing 
Run/Stop and the Restore key simulta- 
neously. !t would be good practice to 
disable Plotter before using the disk 
drive. You can activate it again with 
SYS49152. 

PLOTTER 



C00fl 


A0 


00 


B9 


B0 


01 


20 


D2 


FF 


48 


ca08 


C8 


00 


54 


D0 


F5 


AD 


14 


03 


47 


C010 


8D 


11 


03 


AD 


15 


03 


8D 


12 


B9 


C018 


03 


78 


A 9 


2B 


8D 


14 


03 


A9 


8D 


C020 


C0 


8D 


15 


03 


58 


A 9 


00 


80 


2F 


C028 


20 


CB 


60 


AE 


20 


CB 


E0 


00 


95 


C030 


D0 


16 


A6 


CB 


E0 


04 


F0 


03 


2D 


C038 


6C 


11 


03 


A2 


01 


8E 


20 


CB 


0D 


C040 


A5 


CE 


8D 


36 


CB 


6C 


11 


03 


92 


C048 


A5 


CF 


C9 


01 


F0 


13 


AE 


20 


2B 


C050 


CB 


E0 


01 


F0 


12 


E0 


02 


F0 


28 


C058 


14 


E0 


04 


F0 


07 


E0 


03 


F0 


5E 


C060 


39 


6C 


11 


03 


4C 


34 


CI 


4C 


D6 


C068 


D4 


C0 


4C 


88 


CI 


A9 


03 


8D 


DE 


C070 


20 


CB 


A5 


Dl 


85 


FB 


A5 


D2 


01 


C078 


85 


FC 


18 


A 5 


D3 


65 


FB 


85 


0B 


C080 


FB 


fl9 


00 


65 


FC 


85 


FC 


A5 


5E 


C083 


FC 


A6 


FB 


8D 


34 


CB 


8E 


33 


AB 


C090 


CB 


A2 


09 


8E 


35 


CB 


A0 


B0 


75 


C098 


AD 


33 


CB 


DD 


A5 


CI 


AD 


34 


08 


C0A0 


CB 


FD 


A6 


CI 


90 


0F 


8D 


34 


38 


C0A8 


CB 


AD 


33 


CB 


FD 


AS 


CI 


80 


36 


C0B0 


33 


CB 


C8 


D0 


E3 


98 


CA 


F0 


EC 


caB8 


10 


C9 


B0 


F0 


03 


8D 


35 


CB 


5E 


C0C0 


2C 


35 


CB 


30 


04 


A9 


00 


F0 


D9 


C0C8 


05 


29 


7F 


20 


7B 


CI 


CA 


10 


91 


C0D0 


C5 


6C 


11 


03 


A9 


02 


8D 


20 


33 


cBoa 


CB 


A0 


00 


A9 


00 


85 


FB 


A9 


BA 


G-32 


COMPUTE 










• 





C0E0 


04 


85 


FC 


A9 


21 


85 


FD 


A9 


C4 


C0E8 


CB 


85 


FE 


Bl 


FB 


91 


FD 


C8 


97 


C0F0 


C0 


08 


00 


F7 


A0 


00 


A9 


00 


06 


C0F8 


85 


FB 


A9 


08 


85 


FO 


A9 


29 


9B 


C100 


85 


FD 


A9 


CB 


85 


FE 


Bl 


FB 


3F 


C108 


91 


FD 


C8 


C0 


08 


00 


F7 


A9 


16 


C110 


03 


BD 


00 


08 


3D 


01 


D8 


80 


B5 


C118 


02 


D8 


8D 


03 


08 


80 


04 


08 


92 


C120 


8D 


05 


08 


80 


06 


D8 


8D 


07 


55 


C128 


D8 


A2 


04 


86 


FE 


A2 


00 


86 


B2 


C130 


FD 


6C 


11 


03 


A5 


CB 


09 


03 


13 


C138 


F0 


03 


6C 


11 


03 


A9 


00 


80 


OF 


C140 


20 


CB 


A0 


00 


A9 


00 


85 


FB 


2F 


C148 


A9 


04 


85 


FC 


A9 


21 


85 


FD 


FC 


C150 


A9 


CB 


85 


FE 


Bl 


FO 


91 


FB 


E0 


C158 


C8 


C0 


03 


00 


F7 


A0 


00 


A9 


en 


C160 


00 


85 


FB 


A9 


08 


85 


FC 


A9 


OF 


C168 


29 


85 


FD 


A9 


CB 


85 


FE 


Bl 


60 


C170 


FD 


91 


FB 


C8 


00 


03 


00 


F7 


23 


C178 


6C 


11 


03 


8C 


31 


CB 


A0 


00 


99 


C180 


91 


FD 


E6 


FD 


AC 


31 


CB 


60 


2B 


ciaa 


A9 


20 


8D 


06 


04 


80 


07 


04 


63 


C190 


fl9 


2C 


20 


7B 


CI 


AD 


36 


CB 


AC 


C198 


85 


FB 


A9 


00 


85 


FC 


A9 


04 


8A 


C1A0 


80 


20 


CB 


4C 


87 


C0 


01 


00 


72 


C1A8 


0A 


00 


64 


00 


E8 


03 


10 


27 


58 


C1B0 


BD 


00 


9A 


43 


4F 


50 


59 


52 


46 


ciaa 


49 


47 


48 


54 


20 


31 


39 


39 


72 


C1C0 


31 


00 


43 


4F 


4D 


50 


55 


54 


28 


C1C8 


45 


20 


50 


55 


42 


4C 


49 


43 


6F 


C1D0 


41 


54 


49 


4F 


4E 


53 


20 


49 


71 


C108 


4E 


54 


40 


20 


4C 


54 


44 


00 


60 


C1E0 


41 


4C 


4C 


20 


52 


49 


47 


43 


32 


C1E8 


54 


53 


20 


52 


45 


53 


45 


52 


EB 


C1F0 


56 


45 


44 


00 


0D 


50 


4C 


4F 


DB 


C1F8 


54 


54 


45 


52 


20 


45 


4E 


41 


7D 


C200 


42 


4C 


45 


44 


00 


00 


00 


00 


Ae 



Daniel Lightner lives in Sidney, fvlon- 
tana. He is the author of Noahs Arc, 
which was published in July 1991. O 



SHOWDOWN 



By Arihant Jain 

Some games are very simple to play, 
but difficult to master. Showdown is 
such a game. 

This board game for one or two play- 
ers resembles Chinese checkers. The 
board has 32 pegs arranged in in a 
cross-shaped grid, with one open po- 
sition in the center. The object is to 
clear the board of as many pegs as pos- 
sible. You remove a peg by jumping it 
with an adjacent peg, but you must 
land in an empty space. If that space 
has a peg in it, you can't jump. 

Typing It In 

Stiowdown is written entirely in BASIC. 
To avoid typing errors, enter the pro- 
gram with The Automatic Proofreader: 
see "Typing Aids" elsewhere in this sec- 



tion. Be sure to save a copy of the pro- 
gram when you've finished typing it in. 

Let's Ploy 

When you run Showdown, you'll be 
asked whether you want to play or 
watch a replay ot an earlier game. 
Since there will be nothing to watch at 
first, press P for play. 

You'll then be asked whether you 
want to play singles or a combined ef- 
fort. If you elect to play alone, make 
sure your joystick is in port 2. When 
two people play, two joysticks are re- 
quired, and players take turns jumping 
pegs. 

Pegs are removed automatically 
when you jump them. Remember that 
you can jump a peg only if you are 
next to it and the space on the other 
side of the jumped peg is vacant. You 
can only jump up, down, left, or right. 
Diagonal moves are not allowed. 

Use the joystick to position your cur- 
sor on any peg you like. To jump, 
press the fire button and then move 
the stick in the direction you want to 
jump. If the move is legal, the comput- 
er will make the move and remove the 
jumped piece. You'll get a message if 
a move is illegal. 

When you have removed as many 
pegs as possible, press the @ key to re- 
ceive your score and a message 
about how well you played. If you are 
sharp and have planned your moves 
carefully, it's possible to remove all the 
pegs but one. 

Watch a Replay 

When you've finished a game, you'll be 
asked if you want to save it. Saving 
games will give you a chance to 
watch each move again and see 
where you went wrong. It'll also give 
you a chance to prove to others how 
brilliantly you played. 

If you decide to save a game. Show- 
down will ask for a filename and then 
your name. The game and each move 
will be saved to disk. 

To see a saved game, press R for re- 
play on the opening screen and supply 
the filename. The game board will ap- 
pear, and Showdown will automatical- 
ly play back every move you made dur- 
ing thai game. You can slow down the 
replay moves by pressing L or make 
them move faster by pressing F. 



SHOWDOWN 



QF 100 

FR 110 

AK 120 

PC 130 



Rft 140 



JA 150 



HB 160 



RX 170 



SP 180 

XS 190 
HX 200 



FA 210 

PX 220 

GQ 230 

KX 240 

SM 250 

MG 260 

HS 270 

FC 280 

SR 290 

JJ 300 

HE 310 

EE 320 
BH 3 30 
DQ 34 9 

DD 350 

BH 360 

AJ 370 

DX 380 

KQ 390 
QS 400 



DIMF(2a00) ,G(2000) 

GOSUB 880 

GOSUB1000 

S = 1475:0=1274:3=1391: 

C=1397:H=0:W=0:F=0:G=0: 

U = 

PRINT" (CLR) {HOME} (BLK)" 

:P0KE 53280, 13:P0KE5328 

1,12 

PRINT" (4 DOWN) 

(10 RIGHT}{RVSJ 

{4 SPACES HDOWN} (LEFT} 

(SPACE} (DOWN} (LEFT} 

{5 LEFT} (UP} (LEFT} 

{UP} (LEFT) " 

PRINT" {HOME} {7 DOWN} 

{7 RIGHT){RVS} 

{3 S PACES} {OFF} WWW (RVS} 

{3 SPACES} {OFF} {UP} 

{6 LEFT} WWW " 

PRINT"(DOWN} {7 RIGHT} 

(RVS} {DOWN} (LEFT} 

{DOWN} {LEFT} {DOWN} 

{LEFT}{3 SPACES} {OFF}W 

{RVS}W{OFF}W{RVS} 

{3 SPACES) {UP}{LEFT} 

{UP5(LEFT} {up} {LEFT} 

{8 LEFT} {OFF}"; 

P R I NT " WWWWVJWW ( DOW N } 

(7 LEFT} WWW~WWW " 

PRINT" {8 RIGHT } WWWWWWW " 

PRINT"{D0WN3 {9 RIGHT} 

{RVS} {0FF} WWW CRVS} 

{OFF}" 

PRINT" (9 RIGHT} (RVS} 

(5 SPACES}" 

IFH=-1THEN 1190 

V=2 

IFV=3THEN V=l 

IFI=0THENV=2 

JO=USR{V) :GETAS 

IF(JOAND15)=1THENW=-40: 

GOTO480 

IF {J0AND15) =4THENW=-1:G 

OTO480 

IF(J0AND15)=8THENW=1:G0 

TO480 

IF(J0AND15) =2THENW=40:G 

OTO480 

IF(JOAND16)=0THEN GOT03 

40 

IF A$ ="@" THEN 610 

GOTO 240 

JO=USR(V) :IF(JOAND15)=0 

THEN GOTO340 

IF(J0AND15) =lTHENW=-40: 

GOTO400 

IF (J0AND15) =4THENW=-1:G 

OTO400 

IF{J0AND15) =8THENW=1:G0 

TO400 

IF{JOAND15)=2THENW=40:G 

OTO400 

GOTO 240 

Y=S+W:R=0;IF PEEK(S)=21 

5THEN R=R+1 



KF 410 IPPEEK(Y)=87THENR=R+1 
GG 420 IFPEEK(S+W+W)=32THENR=R 

+ 1 
KF 430 IFR=3 THEN 450 
BX 440 GOTO 530 
JE 450 M=M+1:POKES,32:POKES+W, 

32:GOSUB560:POKE S+W+W, 

215:S=S+W+W: V=V+l:a=U+l 
XH 460 F(U}=1:G(U)=W 
PB 470 GOTO 240 
JS 480 J=0:Z=PEEK(S) :y=S+W :IF 

PEEK(Y) =87THENQ=87:J=J+ 

1 
AH 490 IFPEEK(Y)=32THENQ=32:J= 

J + 1 
FD 500 IF J=l THEN 520 
SB 510 GOSUB 530 
KH 520 POKES, Z-128:POKES+W,Q+l 

28:S=S+W:U=U+1:F(U)=0:G 

(U)=W:G0TO 240 
QM 530 PRINT"{HOME}{22 D0WN}IL 

LEGAL MOVE": GOSUB 560 
DQ 540 PRINT" {HOME} (22 DOWN} 

{12 SPACES}" 
SG 550 G0T0(2 SPACES} 240 
HR 560 REM 
EE 570 POKE54296,15:POKE54277, 

64:POKE5427 3,162:POKE54 

272,37 
SQ 580 POKE54276,17:FORT=1TO20 

0:NEXT 
HJ 590 POKE54276,16:FORT=1TO50 

:NEXT 
HP 600 RETURN 
MK 610 J=32-M:F(U+1)=-1:G(U+1) 

= 

BX 620 PRINT"(CLR} (2 DOWN)";J; 

"PEGS REMAINING{2 DOWN} 
II 

AR 630 IPJ>10THEN PRINT"POOR!" 

:W=-1:GOTO700 
FG 640 IFJ>7THEN PRINT "SATISFA 

CTORY PLAY !":W=-1:GOT07 

00 
HA 650 IFJ>5THEN PRINT "GOOD !" ; 

W=4:GOTO700 
RH 660 IFJ>3THEN PRINT"GREAT ! " 

:W=5:GOTO700 
BQ 670 IFJ>2THEN PRINT"WELL PL 

AYED ! " :W=1 1 : GOTO700 
FH 680 IFJ>1THEN PRINT"MISSED 1 

":W=6:GOTO700 
BX 690 IFJ>0THEN PRINT"DID IT! 

":W=6:GOTO700 
EB 700 PRINT" {3 D0WN3wANT TO S 

AVE? (Y/N)" 
QF 710 GETK$:IF KS=""THEN710 
JB 720 IF K$<>"N"ANDKS<>"Y"THE 

N 710 
KQ 730 IFKS-"N" THEN 800 

XF 740 INPUT"FILENAHE";N5:INPU 

T"YOUR NAME";M$ 
SR 750 OPEN15,B,15:OPEN2,8,2," 

ia0:"+N9+",S,W" 
HG 760 PRINT#2,M$:F0RV=1T0U+1 
JB 770 PRINT#2,F(V) 
RM 780 PRINT#2,G(V) :NEXT V 
JS 790 CL0SE2:CL0SE15 



AA 800 PRINT" {3 □OWN}WANT TO P 

LAY? (Y/N)" 
FB 810 IFW<0THENGOTO840 
JD 820 QZ=4*40:FORK=QZ+55336TO 
QZ+553 36+W;POKEK,V:V=V+ 
1:IFV>255THENV=0 
QP 830 NEXT K 
AH 840 GET MS: IF M$="" THEN 31 


CG 850 IF H5="S"THENPRINT" 

{CLR}":END 
PB 860 IF M$="Y" THENGOTO 120 
JQ 870 GOTO 840 
MK 880 JJ=49152:JH=INT (JJ/2S6) 
; JL=JJ--JH*256:P0KE785,J 
L;POKE786,JH 
SC 890 FORK=JJTOJJ+67:READ Y:P 

OKEK,Y:NEXT 
RQ 900 DATA 120,70,97,176,21,1 

69,127,141 
FS 910 DATA 0,220, 173, 1;220, 20 

1,255,240 
QE 920 DATA 4,169,31,208,13,17 

3,0,220 
PC 930 DATA 16,8,169,255,141,0 

,220,173 
XC 940 DATA 1,220,41,31,73,15, 

208,4 
HH 950 DATA 133,97,240,23,133, 

98,169,136 
BA 960 DATA 133,97,169,0,133,9 

9,133,100 
CX 970 DATA 133,101,133,102,19 

8,97,6,98 
CF 980 DATA 16,250,88,96 
CE 990 RETURN 

QB 1000 PRINT"(CLR}{2 DOWN}PLA 
Y, WATCH A REPLAY (P/R 
)"CHRS(142) 
ER 1010 GETF$:IFF$=""THEN1010 
RR 1020 IFF$="P" THEN 1050 
KR 1030 IFF$="R"THEN 1120 
HS 1040 GOTO 1010 
JQ 1050 PRIOT"{CLR}{2 D0WN}0NE 
OR TWO PLAYER GAME? ( 
1/2)" 
GR 1060 GET 1$: :IFI$=""THEN106 


PB 1070 IFI$="1"THEN I=0:GOTO1 

100 
DG 1080 IFIS-"2" THENI=1:G0T0 

{SPACE}990 
QH 1090 GOTO 1060 
JQ 1100 H=0:PRINT"{2 DOWN}JOYS 

TICK IN PORT 2" 
SP 1110 PRINT"PRESS "CHR$(34)" 
@"CHRS (34)" TO END":FO 
R E=l TO 900:NEXT:RETU 
RN 
JF 1120 U=0:N=0:INPUT"FILENAME 

"|N$ 
QR 1130 OPEN15,8,15:OPEN2,8,2, 
"0:"+N$+",S,R": INPUT#2 
,M$ 
MK 1140 GOTO 1330 
EA 1150 INPUT#2,F(U) ,G(U) 
DS 1160 IFF(U)=-1 THEN U=U-1;G 
OTO1180 



G-33 



PROGRAMS 



KF 1170 U=U+1:G0T0 1150 

FR 1180 H=-1:PRIKT"{CLR}":G0T0 

150 
XD 1190 S=1475:TIt=200 
XH 1200 FOR V=0TO(J 
GJ 1210 E=S+G(V) :GETA$ 
KR 1220 IF F(V)=0THEN POKES , PE 

EK(S>-128;POKE E,PEEK( 

E) +128:S=S+G(V) 
EG 1238 IF F(V)»1 THENPOKES,32 

:P0KEE,32:POKEE+G(V) ,2 

15 :S=S+G{V) +G{V) :GOSU 

B560 
JP 1240 IFA$="F"THENTI%=TI%-50 
HF 1250 IFA$="L"THENTI%=TI»+50 
CJ 1260 IF TI%>1000THENTI|=100 


RA 1270 IF TI%<0THENTII=0 
HR 1280 F0RA=1T0TI%:NEXT:NEXTV 

:PRINT"BY:";M$ 

QH 1290 PRINT" {2 DOWN HRVS} PRE 

SS SPACE BAR TO CONTIN 

OE" 
HJ 1300 GETA$:IFAS<>" "THEN 13 

00 
JA 1310 CLOSE2:CLOSE15 
SR 1320 RESTORE:GOTO 110 
XM 1330 INPUT|15,EN,EMS,ET,ES 
XQ 1340 IF EN>0THENPRINTEH5:GO 

TO 1360 
AH 1350 GOTO 1150 
XH 1360 CLOSE15:CLOSE2;GOTO 11 

20 



Arihant Jain lives in Ludlniana, a city in 
northwest India. □ 



MEDIUM-DENSITY 
DRIVER 

By Matthew Spinks 

Over the years, I've done a good deal 
of graphics w/ork on my computer that 
has included platting graphs and draw- 
ing pictures. I've always been frustrat- 
ed by the high-resolution graphics sys- 
tem used by the 64. It's generally more 
trouble than it's worth when all you 
want to do is plot a simple graph or pic- 
ture. 

At the other extreme of the graphics 
spectrum, the resolution of the normal 
text screen is usually too low to provide 
the detail required by straightforward 
graphs or pictures. What is needed is 
a graphics mode between the two ex- 
tremes, a mode which offers a reasona- 
ble resolution but avoids the complexi- 
ty associated with bitmapped graphics. 

Such a graphics mode does exist. If 
you enter PRINT CHR$(190): PRINT 
G-a-i COMPUTE 



CHR$(188): PRINT CHR${187): PRINT 
CHR$(172), you'll see four characters 
on the screen. Each one fills one quad- 
rant of a whole text cell. These charac- 
ters enable the normal text screen to be 
turned into a medium-resolution graph- 
ics screen which has twice the resolu- 
tion of the ordinary text screen. This for- 
mat provides new screen dimensions of 
80 points horizontally by 50 points ver- 
tically, an overall resolution of 4000 
plot points. 

This medium-density graphics mode 
has an attractive, chunky feel to it and 
is excellent for plotting graphs and draw- 
ing simple pictures. It also allows text 
and graphics to coexist peacefully. Un- 
like bitmap mode, the medium-density 
graphics mode requires no extra mem- 
ory to store graphics data, and it re- 
quires only a small graphics driver. Per- 
haps best of all, the medium-density 
graphics mode is simple and easy to 
use. 

Entering the Program 

Medium-Densily Driver is a short rou- 
tine written entirely in machine lan- 
guage. To enter it, use MLX. our ma- 
chine language entry program; see 
"Typing Aids" elsewhere in this sec- 
tion. When MLX prompts, respond 
with the following values, 

Starting address: 033C 
Ending address: 03D3 

When you've finished typing, be sure 
to save a copy of the program before 
exiting MLX. 

The driver sits safely in the cassette 
buffer, leaving the overused area at 
49152 (SCOOO) free for your own pro- 
grams. This lets you plot individual 
points to the normal text screen. 

After you've typed in a copy of the 
driver, you can then use it to create 
your own medium-density graphic 
screens. To use it, simply load the ma- 
chine language program with the ,8,1 
extension and type NEW. This NEW 
command is necessary because it re- 
sets some Important BASIC pointers. 

The Plot Thickens 

To plot graphs or pictures, simply use 
the command SY3828, x, y, on/off, col- 
or. Here x and y are the screen coor- 
dinates for points to be plotted. The 



range is 0-79 on the x-axis and 0-49 
along the y-axis. On/off is a flag which 
determines whether or not a point is 
plotted or erased. If on/off = 1, a point 
will be plotted. If on/off = 0, a point 
will be erased. Color, of course, is the 
color of the point to be plotted and 
should be in the range 0-15, represent- 
ing the standard Commodore colors. 

For example, to plot a white point at 
the top left-hand corner of the screen, 
enter the following command: 

SYS828, 0, 0, 1,1 

Similarly, to erase a point at the oppo- 
site corner (the bottom right-hand cor- 
ner), the command SYS828, 79, 49, 0, 
1 would be used. Note that despite the 
fact that we are erasing a point, the col- 
or must still be specified. This is nec- 
essary because the program checks 
all parameters, and if any value falls out- 
side the ranges mentioned or if any 
parameter is missing, you'll get a SYN- 
TAX ERROR. 

Points to Ponder 

Because the medium-density graphics 
mode uses the normal text screen and 
color memories, setting the color of 
one point will also affect the color of 
the neighboring three points. Some 
care must be taken when plotting in 
more than one color to achieve the de- 
sired effect. Although this may seem 
like a drawback at first, it does have 
the advantage of allowing text and stan- 
dard Commodore graphics characters 
to be integrated onto the graphics 
screen. 

Text can be printed and character 
values can be poked to the screen in 
the normal way. Note, however, that 
with the graphics driver you can nei- 
ther erase text or nongraphtcs charac- 
ters nor plot over text or other char- 
acters. This prevents text and other 
graphics from being accidentally 
erased. 

A Demonstration 

Demo is a short demonstration pro- 
gram written entirely in BASIC. It will 
give you some idea of how you can 
use the driver. To help prevent typing 
errors, use The Automatic Proofreader 
to type it in; see "Typing Aids" else- 
where in this section. 



Demo plots Lissajous figures. 
These are a series of curves found by 
combining perpendicular harmonic mo- 
tions. They are commonly exhibited by 
feeding two harmonic frequencies into 
an oscilloscope's X and V input cir- 
cuits. (Don't worry. You don't have to un- 
derstand Lissajous figures to see how 
the program works. They're easier to 
demonstrate than to explain.) 

Before running the demonstration, 
make sure Driver is already in memo- 
ry. When running the demonstration, 
try experimenting with the values the 
program asks for. Entering 1,2 will pro- 
duce entirely different results than will 
2,1. 

The patterns produced will be in mon- 
ochrome, but you can easily add color 
by changing the value of the color var- 
iable, C, in line 270. For a rainbow of 
color, try Demo with these lines added. 

262 C=C+1 

264 IF C°16 THEN C=0 

Now that you have an idea of how Me- 
dium-Density Dr/Verworks, try creating 
some figures or patterns of your own. 

MEDIUM DENSITY DRIVER 



033C 


•A0 


03 


8C 


D2 


03 


20 


00 


E2 


8D 


a34'l 


8A 


AC 


D2 


03 


D9 


BE 


03 


80 


C5 


034C 


6E 


99 


D3 


03 


88 


10 


EB 


A9 


A0 


0354 


02 


SD 


D7 


03 


4E 


D5 


03 


90 


4A 


035C 


06 


as 


D7 


03 


0E 


D7 


03 


4E 


38 


0364 


D6 


03 


90 


03 


4E 


D7 


03 


AE 


5F 


036C 


D5 


03 


20 


F0 


E9 


AD 


D6 


03 


E7 


0374 


18 


65 


Dl 


85 


Dl 


90 


02 


E6 


2E 


037C 


D2 


20 


24 


EA 


A0 


00 


Bl 


Dl 


61 


0384 


A2 


0F 


OD 


C2 


03 


F0 


04 


CA 


36 


038C 


10 


F8 


60 


AD 


D4 


03 


F0 


lA 


6E 


0394 


E0 


0F 


F0 


15 


AD 


D3 


03 


91 


92 


039C 


F3 


SA 


2C 


D7 


03 


D0 


0A 


18 


C9 


03A4 


6D 


D7 


03 


AA 


BD 


C2 


03 


91 


F2 


3 AC 


Dl 


60 


8A 


2C 


D7 


03 


F0 


F9 


6E 


03B4 


38 


ED 


t:7 


03 


4C 


A7 


03 


4C 


D0 


03BC 


08 


AF 


10 


02 


32 


50 


20 


7C 


64 


03C4 


7E 


E2 


6C 


El 


7F 


FB 


7B 


FF 


51 


3CC: 


61 


EC 


62 


FE 


FC 


A0 


00 


00 


65 



DEMO 



ex 100 REM DRIVER DEMONSTRATIO 

N 
BF 110 REM COPYRIGHT 1991 - CO 

MPUTE PUBLICATIONS INTL 
LTD - ALL RIGHTS RESER 

VED 
JB 120 REM MAKE SURE DRIVER IS 

IN MEMORY! 
DK 130 : 
KX 135 PI=3. 14159 



JS 140 

GK 150 

RD 160 

RX 170 

QE 180 

BH 190 

DR 200 

HP 210 

XM 220 

MR 230 

QP 240 

SF 250 

RR 260 



POKE 53280, 11:P0KE 5328 

PRINTCHR$(147)CHRS (5) 
PRINTTAB(ll) "LISSAJOUS 
{SPACE}FIGURES"CHRS (17) 
PRINT"PRESS ANY KEY AFT 
ER VIEWING FIGURE" 
PRINTCHRS (17) "ENTER ANY 

TWO NUMBERS, EACH" 
INPUT"WITH VALUES LESS 
{SPACE}THAN 5";X,Y 
IF X>5 OR Y>5 THEN 180 
PR1NTCHR$ (147) 
FL^lrGOSUB 260 
WAIT 
260 



198,1 



POKE 198,0 

FL=0:GOSUB 

END 

FOR T=l TO 2*PI*100+(10 

*PI* (X+Y) ) 
JK 270 SYS 828, (1+SIN (X*T) ) *40 

, (l+COS (Y*T) )*25,FL,C 
SD 280 NEXT 
SK 290 RETURN 



Matthew Spinks, 
Make/- (May 1991) 
ria, Australia. 



who wrote Loader- 
, lives in Erica, Victo- 

□ 



RAPIDFORMAT128 

By f*/1ahmood Hasan Merchant 
A number of fast formatting programs 
have been around for the 64 ever since 
the 1541 disk drive was introduced by 
Commodore. These programs greatly im- 
prove the performance of the drive in 
terms of time saved. 

Commodore probably took a lesson 
from these programmers and added a 
much more efficient format routine into 
its 1571 disk drive. The drive formats a 
double-sided disk in 41 seconds, but 
wouldn't we all appreciate an even fast- 
er procedure? RapidFormat 128 
should do the trick. 

RapidFormat t28 is an easy-to-use, 
prompt-driven program for the 128 that 
cuts almost in half the time required to 
format all 70 tracks of a double-sided 
disk. II will format a single-sided disk in 
a mere 12 seconds. 

Getting Started 

RapidFormat 128 is written entirely in 
BASIC. To help prevent typing errors, 
use The Automatic Proofreader to 
type it in; see "Typing Aids" elsewhere 
in this section. When you've finished typ- 
ing, be sure to save a copy of the pro- 
gram. When you type RUN, the data 



will be read and written to disk as 
RapidFormat, a machine language pro- 
gram. 

Once RapidFormat has been gener- 
ated, it can be loaded and activated 
with the command RUN "RAPIDFOR- 
MAT". At this point you should remove 
the disk containing the program and in- 
sert the disk which is to be formatted. 
You are prompted to indicate whether 
you wish to format only the top side (for 
1541 use) or both sides of the disk. If 
you frequently need to access your 
files both in the 64 and 128 modes, 
then it may be a good idea to format on- 
ly the top side ol the disk. This will pre- 
vent the annoying Illegal Track or Sec- 
tor error message which results when 
part of the file being accessed lies on 
a disk's second side. 

To V or Not to V? 

Next you have to specify whether you 
wish to verify the format. If verification 
is enabled, each sector on every track 
is read and checked for errors. If any 
are spotted, they are reported by the 
program. However, choosing this op- 
tion will slow down the formatting some- 
what. To format a disk at maximum 
speed, omit the verify option. 

This option is provided to meet the 
needs of various users. Write errors oc- 
cur rarely with the 1571, and if you 
have reasonable faith in the head align- 
ment of your drive (1571s are more 
trustworthy in this regard than older 
1541s), then you may save time by 
choosing not to verify. As long as the 
disk used is at least of average quali- 
ty, there shouldn't be any problems. 

If, however, the idea of not verifying 
makes you nervous, then you have the 
option. I would strongly advise you to 
verify if you are using generic or low- 
quality disks or if you wish to format 
both sides of a disk which is certified 
only for single-side use. In these cas- 
es, the caution and the extra time are 
probably worth it. 

Enter a name for the disk as you 
would in a conventional format routine. 
Be sure it is no longer than 16 charac- 
ters and is followed by a 2-character 
ID, This ID is written as a sort of signa- 
ture to every sector on the disk, and its 
main purpose is to indicate to the 
drive when a disk has been changed. 

Once you press Return, the disk will 

35 



PROGRAMS 



start to format. Make sure that the disk 
containing RapidFormat is not in the 
dnve. To be safe, put write-protect 
tabs on disks that contain programs or 
valuable data. RapidFormat checks for 
write-protect tabs. If it finds one, the 
disk will not be formatted, and an error 
message will be displayed. Using write- 
protect tabs on all valuable disks is a 
good practice to follow. 

How It Works 

RapidFormat works by reprogramming 
the disk drive. It transfers a section of 
code to the buffer at address $0500. 
Once activated, the program copies 
the standard format routine from the 
drive ROM to the internal RAM and 
makes a few changes to it. 

If the verify option is not chosen, 
these routines are bypassed. Addition- 
al time is saved by using a fixed value 
to space out sectors on all tracks. The 
standard format routine writes and re- 
writes on each track to calculate the in- 
dividual length of gaps between sec- 
tors. 

This modification, coupled with fast- 
er changing of tracks, brings about the 
speed improvement of RapidFormat. 
Disks formatted with this program 
work just as well as those formatted us- 
ing the standard routine. 

RAPIDFORMAT 128 

SH 10 BANK1:SCNCLR:COLOR0,15:C 

0L0B4,15:C0L0R5,2 
EC 20 PRINTCHR$(18) " 

(16 SPACES}786/1I0 

{17 SPACES}"; 
PC 33 PRINT" [11 SPACES }RAPIDFO 

RMAT - 1571(11 SPACES}"; 
MQ 40 PRINT" COPYRIGHT 1991 - 

(SPACE }C0MPUTE PUBS INTL 
LTD "; 
DE 50 PRINT"{11 SPACES}ALL RIG 

HTS RESERVED (10 SPACES}" 

AG 70 SA=7169:EA=8153:DT=16 
DA 80 PRINTCHRS (17)SPC(14) "REA 
DING ML!"CHR$ (17)CKRS(17 

) 
PF 90 FOR1=0TODT-2:READ DS:D=D 

EC{DS) 
GS 100 CHARl,ll,ia:PRINT"LOADI 
NG AT:(2 SPACES}";HEX$( 
SA + I) 

QM 110 pokesa+i,d:ck«CK+d;next 

:READ DS:D=DEC{D$) :CK=C 

KAND255 
DB 120 IFDOCKTHENBEGIN 
QK 130 :PRINTCHR$(17)"DATA ERR 

G-36 COMPUTE 



OR IN LINE"; 

KD 140 :PRINTPEEK(65)+256*PEEK 

(66) :STOP 
FR 150 BEND 
PR 160 SA=SA+DT-I:CK=0:IFSA<=E 

AGOTO90 
JK 170 PRINTCHRS (17)CHRS(17) "P 
RESS "CHR$(18)" RETURN 
(SPACE}"; 
XA 180 PRINTCHRS (146) " TO SAVE 

' RAPIDFORMAT ' " ; : INPUTD 
$ 
XA 190 BSAVE"RAPIDFORMAT",Bl,P 
(7169) TO P(EA+1) :PRINT 
DS5 
MB 200 END 
QR 210 : 
JS 220 : 
FC 1000 DATA 49,1C,0A,00,99,22 

,93, 22, A3, 35, 29, 22, 12, 

20,52,86 
BH 1010 DATA 20,41,20,50,20,49 

, 20, 44, 20, 46, 20, 4F, 20, 

52,20,05 
HM 1020 DATA 40,20,41,20,54,20 

,20,20,31,35,37,31,20, 

92,22,31 
HK 1030 DATA 3A, 20, 4E , 24 ,B2, 22 

,22,3A,56,24,B2,22,22, 

3A,49,EF 
QK 1040 DATA 44 , 24 ,B2, 22 , 22, 3A 

, 53, 24, B2, 22, 22, 00, 74, 

1C,14,A9 
XE 1050 DATA 00, 99, A3, 35, 29, 22 

,12,20,20,20,28,31,39, 

39,30,29 
XM 1060 DATA 29,20,20,40,41,48 

,4D,4F,4F, 44, 20,40,45, 

52,43,B5 
XE 1070 DATA 48, 41, 4E, 54, 20, 20 

,20,92,22,00,9E,1C,1E, 

00,99,80 
KF 1080 DATA 22, 11, 11, 46, 4F, 52 

,40,41,54,20,54,59,50, 

45,3A,A9 
BS 1090 DATA 20,20,12,20,31,20 

, 92, 20, 20, 42, 4F, 54, 48, 

20,53,35 
FG 1100 DATA 49,44,45,53,11,22 

, 00, BE, IC, 28, 00, 99, A3, 

31,34,FB 
SX 1110 DATA 29,22,12,20,32,20 

, 92, 20, 20, 54, 4F, 50, 20, 

53,49,50 
PQ 1120 DATA 44,45,20,4F,4E,4C 

,59, 22, 00,04,10,32,00, 

99,A3,6B 
XC 1130 DATA 31,35,29,22,11,31 

,9D,9D,9D,22,3B,3A,85, 

53,24,50 
XB 1140 DATA 00,EC,1C,3C,00,8B 

,A8, 53, 24,62,22,31,22, 

AF,A8,6C 
PX 1150 DATA 53, 24, B2, 22, 32, 22 

,89,35,30,00,FF,1C,41, 

00,88,74 
PH 1160 DATA 53,24,B2,22,32,22 

,A7,53,24,B2,22,30,22, 



00,12,F5 

AJ 1170 DATA ID, 43, 00, 53,24,82 

,C7,28,C6,28,53,24,29, 

AB,34,E5 
X8 1180 DATA 38,29,30,38,10,46 

,00,99,22,11,11,56,45, 

52,49,0F 
EJ 1190 DATA 46, 59, 3F, 20, 28, 59 

,2F,4E,29,22,A3,31,3S, 

29,22,98 
GS 1200 DATA 4E,9D,9D,9D,22,3B 

,3A,85,4E,24,00,50,1D, 

50,00,70 
AB 1210 DATA 88 , A8 , 4E , 24 ,B2 , 22 

,59,22,AF,A8,4E,24,B2, 

22,4E,DF 
EX 1220 DATA 22 , 39 , 3 1 , 30 , 00 , 6A 

,10,55,00,56,24,82,22, 

30,22,88 
BB 1230 DATA 3A,8B,4E, 24,82,22 

,59, 22, A7, 56,24,82,22, 

31,22,CE 
XR 1240 DATA 00 , 7D, ID, 57 , 00 , 56 

,24,B2,C7,2a,C6,28,56, 

24,29,90 
MX 1250 DATA AB , 34 , 38 , 29 , 00 , 94 

, ID, 5A, 00, 99, 22, 11, 11, 

4E,41,B7 
XX 1260 DATA 40,45, 22 , A3, 31 , 33 

,29,38,3A,85,4E,24,00, 

AD, ID, 1 A 
PK 1270 DATA 64 , 00 , 8B,C3 , 28 , 4E 

,24,29,B2,3O,B0,C3,28, 

4E,24,64 
HD 1280 DATA 29,81,31,36,89,31 

,30,00,C2,1D,6E,00,99, 

22,11,44 
BB 1290 DATA 49 , 44 , 22, A3, 31 , 33 

, 29, 38, 3A, 85, 49, 44, 24, 

00,D4,5E 
PM 1300 DATA 10,78,00,38,03,28 

,49,44,24,29,33,81,32, 

8 9,31,3 5 
AX 1310 DATA 30,0a,DE, 10,82, 00 

,9E,37,37,32,30,00,FB, 

1D,8C,BF 
EH 1320 DATA 00 , 99 , A3 , 31 , 34 , 29 

,22,11,11,11,12,20,46, 

4F,52,38 
RK 1330 DATA 4D , 41 , 54 , 54 , 49 , 4E 

,47, 20, 92, 22, 00, 26, IE, 

96,00,C2 
EK 1340 DATA 9F , 31 , 35 , 20, 38 , 2C 

,31,35,3A,98,31,35,2C, 

22,55,06 
GA 1350 DATA 34,22,53,24,56,24 

,49,44,24,22,2C,22,4E, 

24,3A,14 
FE 1360 DATA A0, 31 , 35 , 3A, 99 , 44 

,53,24,00,00,00,A6,BA, 

A0,0F,A3 
XD 1370 DATA A9 , 00 , 20 , 38 , F7 , 8 5 

,87,20,C0,FF,A6,B8,20, 

C9,FF, 59 
«E 1380 DATA 20 , 7D,FF, 55 , 30 , 3E 

,52,01,00,20,CC,FF,A9, 

05,A0,E8 
RB 1390 DATA 00 ,85,FB, 84 ,FA, A2 



XA 


uee 


BH 


1410 


DH 


1420 


EF 


1430 


BE 


1440 


RR 


1450 


CO 


1460 


BD 


1470 


CR 


1480 


HG 


1490 


RR 


1500 


SM 


1510 


MG 


1520 


BR 


1530 


AG 


1540 


PG 


1550 


GP 


1560 


HJ 


1570 


JC 


1580 


RC 


1590 


HQ 


1600 


PX 


1610 



,aA,8 6,FE,A9,AF,85,FC, 

A9,1E,CE 

DATA 85,FD,A5,BA,20,3E 

,E3,A9,6F,20,D2,E4,A9, 

40,20,26 

DATA 03,E5,A9,2D,20,03 

,E5,fl9,57,20,03,E5,A5, 

FA, 20,80 

DATA 03,E5,A5,FB,20,03 

,E5,A9,20,20,03,E5,A0, 

00,Bl,B2 

DATA FC,20,03,E5,C8,C0 

,20,90,F6,20,26,E5,18, 

A5,FC,16 

DATA 69, 20, 85, FC, 90, 02 

,E6,FD,13,R5,FA,69,20, 

8 5,FA,3E 

DATA 90,02,S6,FB,C6,FE 

,D0,AF,4C,E7,FF,4C,46, 

05,20,9F 

DATA C2,05,20,7C,87,A2 

,00,8e,0B,A2,24,8e,0A, 

AD, 02, 22 

DATA 02,85,1F,F0,08,A9 

, 80,85,02, AS, 02, 30, FC, 

A2,01,F4 

DATA 86,0A,A9,E0,85,02 

,A5,02,30,FC,C9,02,90, 

03,4C,1D 

DATA 0A,E6,20,05,F0,A9 

,24,A6,1F,F0,02,A9,47, 

A0,07,20 

DATA 8C,7A,02,4C,73,A7 

,AD,00,1C,29,I0,D0,05, 

A9,08,F6 

DATA 4C,B5,99,A9,60,85 

,20,A5,0A,a5,51,85,67, 

20,4B,24 

DATA F2, 85, 43, 20, 50, 06 

,A5,1F,F0,10,20,F8,93, 

1B,A5,5C 

DATA 51,69,23,85,51,20 

,50,06,20,F5,9 3,A6,0A, 

E8,E0,49 

DATA 24,00,12,86,14,20 

,E7,87,C6,14,D0,F9,A2, 

12,86,08 

DATA 0A,A9,01,4C,B5,99 

,86,0A,BD,08,94,85,44, 

AD, 00, AD 

DATA IC, 29, 9F, 05,44,80 

,00,1C,20,DF,87,20,DF, 

87,A5,87 

DATA IF, 00,03,40,46,05 

,C6,64,C6,64,20,F8,93, 

20,DF,87 

DATA a7,20,DF,87,20,F5 

,93,4C,46,05,20,FE,05, 

A9,E9,01 

DATA A0,06,8D,77,07,8C 

,78,07,A9,01,8D,CD,06, 

A9,0A,79 

DATA 80, 20, 06, A9, 08, 80 

,26,06,A9,C5,A0,0 7,8D, 

B9,07,7F 

DATA 8C,BA,07,A9,60,8D 

,EE, 07, AD, 03, 02, 00,05, 

A9,4C,54 



KX 1620 DATA 8D, 9A, 07 , 60,B1, 14 

,91,2C,C8,60,AD,04,02, 

AC,05,9C 
1630 DATA 02, 85, 12, 84, 13, A9 

, 93, A0, 98,85, 14, 84, 15, 

A9,06,88 
1640 DATA A0,50,85,2O,84,2C 

,A0,00,20,F3,05,D0,FB, 

E6,15,05 
FF 1650 DATA E6 , 2D , 20 ,F8 , 05 ,C0 

,9E,D0,F9,60,00,00,00, 

00,00,87 



AM 



DC 



Mahmood Hasan Merchant is an ec- 
onomics student at the London School 
of Economics and Political Science. He 
is from Pakistan. a 



TYPING AIDS 

MLX, the machine language entry program 
for the 64 and 128, and The Aiiiomaric 
Proofreader are utilities that help you type 
in Gazette programs withoui making mis- 
takes.These labor-saving utilities are on each 
Gazette Disk and printed in issues of Gazette 
through June 1990. 

If you don't have access to a back issue or to 
oneof ourdisks. write and we'll send you free 
copies of both of the.se handy utilities. We'll 
also include iastructions on how to type in 
Gazette programs. Please enclose a self-ad- 
dre.s.s. stamped envelope. Write to Typing 
Aids, compute's Gazelte, 324 West Wen- 
dover Avenue, Greensboro, North 
Carolina 27408. 



Gazette is looking for utilities, 
games, applications, educa- 
tional programs, and tutorial ar- 
ticles. If you've created a 
program that you think other 
readers might enjoy or find 
useful, send it on disk to 

Gazette Submissions Reviewer 
COMPUTE Publications 
324 W. Wendover Ave. 
Ste. 200 
Greensboro, NC 27408 

Please enclose an SASE if you 
wish to have the materials 
returned. 



ONLY 
ON DISK 

in addition to the type-in programs 
found in each issue of the maga- 
zine, Gazette Disk offers bonus 
programs and original 64 and 1 28 
artwork. Here are the programs 
featured this month. 

Super Cataloguer 128 

Diego Martin Zamboni 
Mexico City, Mexico 

Catalogue all of your software (up to 
2500 titles) quickly and easily with 
this outstanding utility for the 1 28. An 
80-column monitor is required. 

Read a disk directory, select which 
files you wish to add to the list, and 
then save them, sort them, search 
through them, and delete names at 
the touch of a key. If you can't recall 
the contents of a file, the program will 
list it to the screen. It even works with 
sequential, user, and relative files. 

Super Cataloguer 128 is also a 
great disk manager. You can edit 
filenames and delete files, whole 
disks, or even portions of disks. The 
program provides memory informa- 
tion, prints lists in several modes, 
and much more. This is one utility all 
128 users should have. 

Spanish Vocabulary Quiz 

Christopher M. Stoy 
Edensburg, PA 

To help you use Spanish Vocabulary 
Quiz, one of this issue's type-in pro- 
grams, see page G-25, we have 
included ten vocabulary files, con- 
taining dozens of English words and 
their Spanish equivalents. Load and 
use any of these files from the 
program's main menu. 



37 



MLX 



Machine Language Entry Program for Commodore 64 
Ottis R. Cowper 



Type in and save some copies of 
MLX — you'll want lo use it to enter fu- 
ture ML programs from Gazette. When 
you're ready to enter an ML program, 
load and run MLX. It asks you for a start- 
ing address and an ending address. 
Tfiese addresses appear in tfie article 
accompanying thie MLX-tormal pro- 
gram listing you're typing. 

If you're unfamiliar with machine lan- 
guage, the addresses (and all other val- 
ues you enter in MLX) may appear 
strange. Instead of the usual decimal 
numbers you're accustomed to. these 
numbers are in hexadecimal^a base 
16 numbering system commonly used 
by ML programmers. Hexadecimal — 
hex for short— includes the numerals 0- 
9 and the letters A-F, But even if you 
know nothing about ML or hex, you 
should have no trouble using MLX. 

Affer you've entered the starting and 
ending addresses, you'll be offered the 
option of clearing the w/orkspace. 
Choose this option if you're starting to 
enter a new listing. If you're continuing 
a listing that's partially typed from a pre- 
vious session, don't choose this option. 
A functions menu w\\\ appear. The first 
option in the menu is Enter Data. If 
you're just starting to type in a pro- 
gram, pick this. Press tfie E key and 
type the first number in the first line of 
the program listing. If you've already 
typed in part of a program, type the 
line number where you stopped typing 
at the end of the previous session (be 
sure to load the partially completed pro- 
gram before you resume entry). In any 
case, make sure the address you en- 
ter corresponds to the address of a 
line in the listing you are entering. Oth- 
erwise, you'll be unable to enter the da- 
ta correctly. If you pressed E by mis- 
take, you can return to the command 
menu by pressing Return alone when 
asked for the address. (You can get 
back to the menu from most options in 
the program by pressing Return with 
no other input.) 

Entering a Listing 

Once you're in Enter mode, MLX 
prints the address for each program 
line for you. You then type in all nine 
numbers on that line, beginning with 
the first two-digit number after the co- 
lon (:). Each line represents eight data 
bytes and a checksum. Although an 

G-38 COMPUTE 



/MLX-format listing appears similar to 
the "hex dump" listings from a ma- 
chine language monitor program, the 
extra checksum number on the end al- 
lows MLX to check your typing. 

When you enter a line, MLX recalcu- 
lates the checksum from the eight 
bytes and the address and compares 
this value to the number from the ninth 
column. If the values match, you'll 
hear a bel! tone, the data will be add- 
ed to the workspace area, and the 
prompt for the next line of data will ap- 
pear. But if /WLX detects a typing error, 
you'll hear a low buzz and see an er- 
ror message. The line will then be re- 
displayed for editing. 

Invalid Characters Banned 

Only a few keys are active while you're 
entering data, so you may have to un- 
learn some habits. You do not type 
spaces between the columns; /WLX au- 
tomatically inserts these for you. You 
do not press Return after typing the 
last number in a line; MLY automatical- 
ly enters and checks the line after you 
type the last digit. 



64 MLX Keypod 



7 


8 


9 













-1 
U 


5 

1 


6 



F 
P 










1 
J 


2 
K 


3 
L 


E 








A 
M 


B 


C 


D 

/ 




4 



Space 







Only the numerals 0-9 and the let- 
ters A-F can be entered. If you press 
any other key (with some exceptions 
noted below), you'll hear a warning 
buzz. To simplify typing, a numeric key- 
pad function is included. The keypad 
is active only while entering data. Ad- 
dresses must be entered with the nor- 
mal letter and number keys. The figure 
below shows the keypad configuration. 
MLX checks for transposed charac- 



ters. If you're supposed to type in AO 
and instead enter OA, MLX will catch 
your mistake. There is one error that 
can slip past MLX: Because of the 
checksum formula used, MLX won't no- 
tice if you accidentally type FF in 
place of 00, and vice versa. And 
there's a very slim chance that you 
could garble a line and still end up 
with a combination of characters that 
adds up to the proper checksum. How- 
ever. tfie.se mistakes should not occur 
if you take care while entering data. 

Editing Feotures 

To correct typing mistakes before fin- 
ishing a line, use the tnst/Del key to de- 
lete the character to the left of the cur- 
sor. If you mess up a line badly, press 
Ctr/Home to start the line over. The Re- 
turn key is also active, but only before 
any data is typed on a line. Pressing Re- 
turn at this point returns you to the com- 
mand menu. After you type a charac- 
ter, MLX disables Return until the cur- 
sor returns to the start of a line. Remem- 
ber, press CIr/Home to quickly get to a 
line-number prompt. To make correc- 
tions in a line that MLX has redisplayed 
for editing, compare the line on the 
screen with the one printed in the list- 
ing and then move the cursor to the mis- 
take and type the correct key. The cur- 
sor-left and -right keys provide the nor- 
mal cursor controls. (The Inst/Del key 
now works as an alternative cursor-left 
key.) You cannot move left beyond the 
first character in the line. If you try to 
move beyond the rightmost character, 
you'll reenter the line. During editing, Re- 
turn is active; pressing it tells MLX to re- 
check the line. You can press the CIr/ 
Home key to clear the entire line if you 
want to start from scratch or if you 
want to get to a iine-number prompt to 
use Return to get back to the menu. 

Display Data 

The second menu choice, Display Da- 
ta, examines memory and shows the 
contents in the same format as the pro- 
gram listing (including the checksum). 
When you press D, MLX asks you for a 
starting address. Be sure that the start- 
ing address you give corresponds to a 
line number in the listing. Otherwise, 
the checksum display will be meaning- 
less. MLX displays program lines until 
it reaches the end of the program, at 



which point tine menu is redisplayed, 
You can pause the display by pressing 
the space bar. {MLX finishes printing 
the current line before halting.) Press 
the space bar again to restart the dis- 
play. To break out of the display and 
get back to the menu before the end- 
ing address is reached, press Return. 

Other Menu Options 

Two more menu selections let you 
save programs and load them back in- 
to the computer. These are Save File 
and Load File. When you press S or L, 
MLX asks you for the filename. You'll 
then be asked to press either D or T to 
select disk or tape. 

You'll notice the disk drive starting 
and stopping several times during a 
load or save, This is normal behavior. 
MLX opens and reads from or writes to 
the file instead of using the usual 
LOAD and SAVE commands. Also 
note that the drive prefix 0: is added to 
the filename (tine 750), so this should 
not be included when entering the 
name. This also precludes the use of 
@ for save-with-replace, so be sure to 
give each version saved a different 
name. 

Remember that MLX saves the en- 
tire workspace area from the starting ad- 
dress to the ending address, so the 
save or load may take longer than you 
might expect if you've entered only a 
small amount of data from a long list- 
ing. When you're saving a partially com- 
pleted listing, make sure to note the ad- 
dress where you stopped typing, 

/WLX reports the standard disk or 
tape error messages if any problems 
are detected dunng the save or load. 
It also has three special load error mes- 
sages: INCORRECT STARTING AD- 
DRESS, which means the file you're try- 
ing to load does not have the starting 
address you specified when you ran 
MLX: LOAD ENDED AT address. 
which means the file you're trying to 
load ends before the ending address 
you specified when you started MLX: 
and TRUNCATED AT ENDING AD- 
DRESS, which means the file you're try- 
ing to load extends beyond the ending 
address you specified when you start- 
ed MLX. If you see one of these mes- 
sages and feel certain that you've load- 
ed the right file, exit and rerun MLX. be- 
ing careful to enter the correct starting 



and ending addresses. 

The Quit menu option has the obvi- 
ous effect— it stops MLX and enters BA- 
SIC. The Run/Stop key is disabled, so 
the Q option lets you exit the program 
without turning off the computer. (Of 
course, Run/Stop-Restore also gets 
you out,) You'll be asked for verifica- 
tion; press Y to exit to BASIC, or press 
any other key to return to the menu. Af- 
ter quitting, you can type RUN again 
and reenter /WLY without losing your da- 
ta, as long as you don't use the Clear 
Workspace option. 

The Finished Product 

When you've finished typing all the da- 
ta for an ML program and saved your 
work, you're ready for the results. Re- 
fer to the corresponding article for 
details on loading and running the 
program. 

An Ounce of Prevention 

Don't take chances — use The Automat- 
ic Proofreader to type the new MLX, 
and then test your copy thoroughly be- 
fore first using it to enter any significant 
amount of data, fvlake sure all the 
menu options work as they should. En- 
ter fragments of the program starting at 
several different addresses; then use 
the display option to verify that the da- 
ta has been entered correctly. Test the 
save and load options to ensure that 
you can recall your work from disk. 



64 MLX 

SS 10 REM VERSION 
30,950 MODIF 
85-487 ADDED 
EK 100 POKE 56,50: 

I,J,A,B,A$, 
DM 110 C4=48:C6=16 

4=254:25=25 

127 
CJ 120 FA=PEEK{45 

:BS=PEEK(55 

) :H$="01234 
SB 130 R$=CHRS(13) 

:S$=" ":D$= 

CHRS(0) :T$= 
CQ 140 SD=54272:F0 

+23:P0KE I, 

( SPACE )SD+2 

8,52 
FC 150 PRINT"{CLR} 

R5 (8) :POKE 

E 53281,15 
EJ 160 PRINT T$" { 

{2 SPACESX 



1.1: LINES 8 
lED, LINES 4 

CLR:DIM IN$, 
BS,A(7) ,N$ 
:C7=7:Z2=2:Z 
5:Z6=256:Z7= 

+Z6*PEEK(46) 
) +Z6*PEEK(56 
56789ABCDEF" 
:L5="{LEFT}" 
CHR$(20) :ZS= 
{13 RIGHT}" 
R I=SD TO SD 
0: NEXT: POKE 
4,15:P0KE 78 

"CHR${142)CH 

53280, 15:P0K 

RED} {RVS} 
8 @} 



{2 SPRCES}"SPC{28)" 

{2 SPACES} fOFF} (BLU} ML 

X II {REDHRVS} 

{2 SPACES }"SPC( 28 ) " 

(12 SPACES} !BLU}" 

FR 170 PRINT"{3 DOWN} 

{3 SPACES}COHPUTE! 'S MA 
CHINE LANGUAGE EDITOR 
(3 DOWN}" 

JB 180 PRINT"(BLK)STARTING ADD 
RESS't4J"; :GOSUB300:SA = A 
D:GOSUB1040:IF F THENlS 


GF 190 PRINT"(BLK) {2 SPACES}EN 
DING ADDRESS{4J''; :GOS[JB 
30 0;EA=AD:GOSUB1030:IF 
{SPACE}F THEN190 

KR 200 INPUT" (3 DOWN} {BLK}CLEA 
R WORKSPACE (Y/N]<4>";A 
$:IF LEFTS(A$,1) <>"Y"TH 
EN220 

PG 210 PRINT"{2 DOWN} {BLU}W0RK 
ING. . ."; :FORI=BS TO BS+ 
EA-SA+7:P0KE 1,0: NEXT:? 
R I NT "DONE" 

OR 220 PRINTTAB{10) "{2 DOWN} 
{BLK}{RVS} MLX COMMAND 
{SPACE}MENU {D0WN}<4}": 
PRINT T$"{RVS}E{OFF}NTE 
R DATA" 

BD 230 PRINT T$"CRVS}D{0FF}ISP 

lay data": print t?" 
{rvs}l{off)oad file" 

JS 240 PRINT TS"{RVS}S{0FF}AVE 
FILE":PRINT TS"{RVS}Q 

{0FF}UIT{2 D0WN){BLK}" 
JH 250 GET AS: IF A5=NS THEN250 
HK 260 A=0:FOR 1=1 TO 5: IF A$= 

MIDS ("EDLSQ",I,1)THEN A 

=1:1=5 
FD 270 NEXT:ON A GOTO420, 610 , 6 

90,700,2B0:GOSUB1060:GO 

TO250 
EJ 280 PRINT"{RVS} quit ":INPU 

T"{D0WN}{4}ARE YOU SURE 
[Y/N]";AS:IF LEFTS(A$, 

1)<>"Y"THEN220 
EH 290 POKE SD+24,3:END 
JX 300 IN$-NS:AD='0: INPUTINS: IF 

LEN (INS) 04THENRETUBN 
KF 310 B$=IN$:GOSUB320:AO=A:BS 

=M IDS (INS, 3) :GOSUB320:A 

D=AD*256+A:RETURN 
PP 320 A=0:FOR J=1 TO 2:A5=MID 

$ (BS, J,l) :B=ASC (A$) -C4+ 

(AS>"@")*C7:A=A*C6+B 
JA 330 IF B<0 OR B>15 THEN AD= 

0:A=-1:J=2 
GX 340 NEXT: RETURN 
CH 350 B=INT CA/C6) : PRINT MID$( 

HS,B+1,1) ; :B=A-B*C6:Pai 

NT HIDS (HS,B+1,1) ; :RETU 

RN 
RR 360 A=INT(AD/Z6) :GOSUB350:A 

=AD-A*Z6:GOSUB350: PRINT 

II # l( ■ 

• / 

BE 370 CK=INT (AD/Z6) :CK=AD-Z4* 

G-39 



m 



CK+Z5*(CK>Z7) :GOTO390 
PX 380 CK=CK*Z2+Z5* (CK>Z7)+A 
JC 390 CK=CK+Z5*(CK>Z5) tRETURN 
QS 400 PRINT"{DOWN)STARTING AT 

{4J"; :GOSUB300:IF IH5<> 

MS THEN GOSUB1030:IF F 

{SPACE}THEN40a 
EX 410 RETURN 
HD 420 PRINT"{RVS) ENTER DATA 

{SPACE)":GOSUB400:IF IN 

$=N$ THEN220 
JK 430 OPEN3,3:PRINT 
SK 440 POKE198,a:GOSUB360:IF F 
THEN PRINT INS: PRINT" 

{0P}{5 RIGHT}"; 
GC 450 FOR 1=0 TO 24 STEP 3:B$ 

=S$:FOR J=l TO 2:IF F T 

HEN BS=MIDS (INS, I+J,l) 
HA 460 PRINT"{RVS}"B5LS;:IF I< 

24THEN PRINT"{OFF)"; 
HD 470 GET A$:IF A$=NS THEN470 
FK 480 IF{A$>"/"ANDAS<":")0R(A 

5>"@"ANDAS<"G")THEN540 
GS 485 A=-(AS="«")-2*(AS=",")- 

3*(AS=".")-4*(A$="/")-5 

*{A$="J")-6*{AS="K") 
FX 486 A=A-7*(A?="L")-8*(AS=": 

")-9* (AS="U")~10*(AS="I 

■M-11*(A$ = "0")-12*(A$ = " 

P") 
CM 4B7 A=A-13*(AS=SS) JIF A THE 

N A$=HIDS{"ABCD123E456F 

0",A,1) :GOT0 54 
HP 490 IF AS'RS AND( (I=0)AND (J 

=1)0R F)THEN PRINT B$;: 

j= 2: NEXT: 1 = 24: GOTO 550 
KC 500 IF A$-"|HOME}" THEN PRI 

NT BS:J=2:NEXT:I=24:HEX 

T:F=0:GOTO440 
MX 510 IF(A5="{RIGHT3")ANDF TH 

ENPRINT B$L$; :GOTO540 
GK 520 IF ASOLS AND ASODS OR 

( (1=0) AND (J=1))THEN COS 

UB1060:GOTO470 
KG 530 AS = I-S+SS + L$:PRINT B$L5; 

:J=2-J:IF J THEN PRINT 

{SPACE}LS; :I=I-3 
QS 540 PRINT AS;:NEXT J:PRINT 

{SPACE}SS; 
PM 550 NEXT I:PRINT:PRINT"{UP) 

{5 RIGHT}"; :INPUT#3,IN$ 

:IF INS=NS THEN CL0SE3: 

GOTO220 
QC 560 FOR 1=1 TO 25 STEP3:B5= 

MID$ tIN$,I) :GOSUB320:IF 
K25 THEN GOSUB380:A(I 

/3)=A 
PK 579 NEXT: IF AOCK THEN GOSU 

B1060: PRINT "{BLK}{EVS} 

(SPACE}ERROR: REENTER L 

INE {4}":F=1:GOTO440 
HJ 580 GOSUB1080:B=BS+AD-SA:FO 

R 1=0 TO 7:P0KE B+I,A(I 

) :NEXT 
QQ 590 AD=AD+8:IF AD>EA THEN C 

L0SE3: PRINT" (DOWN} {BLU} 

** END OF ENTRY **{BLK} 

[2 DOWN}":GOTO700 

G-40 COMPUTE 



GQ 600 F=0:GOTO440 

QA 610 PRINT"{CLR} {DOWN} {RVS} 
{SPACEJDISPLAY DATA ";G 
OSUB400:IF IN$=NS THEN2 
20 

rj 620 print"{down} {blu}press: 
(rvs}space{off3 to pad 
SE, {rvs}return[off} to 
break{4Hdown}" 

KS 630 GOSUB360:B=BS+AD-SA:FOR 
I=BT0 B+7:A=PEEK(I) :G0S 
UB350;GOSOB380:PRINT SS 



NEXT : PRI NT " { RVS } " ; : A=CK 
:GOSUB350:PRINT 
F=1:AD=AD+8:IF AD>EA TH 
ENPRINT"{DOWN} {BLU}** E 
ND OF DATA **":GOTO220 
GET AS: IF AS=RS THEN GO 
SUB1080:GOTO220 
IF AS=SS THEN F=F+1:G0S 
UB1080 

ONFGOTO630,660,630 
PRINT"{DOWN} {RVS} LOAD 
{SPACE}DATA ":0P=1:G0T0 
710 

PRINT"{D0WN}{RVS} SAVE 
{SPACE}FILE ":OP=0 
IN$=NS: INPUT" {DOWN} FILE 
NAME<4)-";IN5:1F IN$ = N$ 
{SPACE}THEN220 
F=0:PRINT"{DOWN}{BLK} 
{RVS}T(0FF}APE OR {RVS} 
0{OFF}ISK: {4}"; 
GET AS: IF A$="T"THEN PR 
INT"T{DOWN}":GOTO8 8 
IF A$<>"D"THEN730 
PRINT"D{DOWN}":OPEN15,8 
,15,"I0:":B=EA-SA: INS=" 
0:"+IN$:IF OP THEN810 
OPEN 1,8,8,INS+",P,W":G 
OSUB860:IF A THEN220 
AH=INT (SA/2S6) :AL=SA-(A 
H*256) :PRIST#1,CHR${AL) 
;CHRS(AH) ; 

FOR 1=0 TO B:PRINT#1,CH 
R$ (PEEK(BS+I) ) ; : IF ST T 
HEN800 

NEXT :CL0SEl:CL0SE15: GOT 
0940 

GOSUB1060: PRINT" {DOWN} 
£BLK}ERR0R DURING SAVE: 
{4}":GOSUB860:GOTO220 
OPEN 1,8,8,INS+",P,R":G 
OSUB860;IF A THEN220 
GET#1,AS,B$:AD=ASC(AS+Z 
S)+256*ASC(B$+Z$) : IF AD 
OSA THEN F = 1:GOTO850 
FOR 1=0 TO B:GETtl,AS:P 
OKE BS+I,ASC (AS+ZS) :IF( 
I<>B)AND ST THEN F=2:AD 
=I:I=B 

NEXT:IF ST064 THEN F = 3 
CL0SE1:CL0SE15:0N ABS(F 
>0)+l GOTO960,970 
INPUT#15,A,A$:IF A THEN 
CLOSE 1;CL0SE 15 :GOSUB10 
60: PRI NT" {RVS} ERROR: "A 



cc 


640 


KH 


650 


KC 


660 


EQ 


670 


AD 


680 


CM 


690 


PC 


700 


RX 


710 


PR 


720 


FP 


730 


HQ 


740 


HH 


750 


SQ 


760 


FJ 


770 



PE 780 

FC 790 

GS 800 

MA 810 

GE 820 

RX 83 



FA 840 
FQ 850 

SA 860 



GQ 870 RETURN 

EJ 880 POKEl83,PEEK(FA+2) :POKE 
137,PEEK(FA+3) :P0KE188, 
PEEK (FA+4) : IFOP=0THEN92 

HJ 890 SYS 63466:IF(PEEK(733)A 
ND1)THEN GOSUB1060:PRIN 
T" {DOWN} {RVS} FILE NOT 
{SPACE} FOUND ":GOTO690 
CS 900 AD=PEEK(829)+256*PEEK(8 
30):IF ADOSA THEN F = l: 
GOTO970 
SC 910 A=PEEK(831)+256*PEEK{a3 
2)-l:P=F-2* (A<EA)-3*(A> 
EA) :AD=A-AD:GOTO930 
KH 920 A=SA:B=EA+1:GOSUB1010:P 

OKE780,3:SYS 63338 
JF 930 A=BS:B=BS+(EA-SA)+1:G0S 
UB1010:ON OP GOTO950:SY 
S 63591 
AE 940 GOSUB1080:PRINT"{BLU}** 
SAVE COMPLETED **":GOT 
0220 
XP 950 POKE147,0:SYS 63562:IF 

{SPRCE}ST>0 THEN970 
FR 960 GOSUB10B0:PRINT"{BLU}** 
LOAD COHPLETED **":GOT 
0220 
DP 970 GOSUB1060:PRINT"{BLK} 

{RVS) ERROR DURING LOAD: 
{D0WN}<4>":0N F GOSUB98 
0,990,1000:GOTO220 
PP 980 PRINT" INCORRECT STARTIN 
G ADDRESS { " ; : GOSUB360 : 
PRINT") ": RETURN 
GR 990 PRINT"LOAD ENDED AT ";: 
AD=SA+AD: GOSUB360 : PRINT 
D$: RETURN 
FD 1000 PRINT"TRUNCATED AT END 

ING ADDRESS": RETURN 
RX 1010 AH=INT (A/256) :AL=A- (AH 
*256) :P0KE193,AL:P0KE1 
94, AH 
FF 1020 AH=INT (B/256) :AL=B-(AH 
*256) :POKE174,AL:POKEl 
75,AH:RETURN 
FX 1030 IF AD<SA OR AD>EA THEN 

1050 
CR 1040 IF (AD>511 AND AD<6528 
0) THEN GOSUB1080: F=0 
: RETURN 
HC 1050 GOSUB1060;PRINT"{RVS5 
{SPACE}INVALID ADDRESS 
(DOWS} {BLK} " :F=1 : RETU 
RN 
AR 1060 POKE SD+5,31:P0KE SD+6 
,208:POKE SD,240:POKE 
{SPACE}SD+1,4:P0KE SD+ 
4,33 
DX 1070 FOR S=l TO 100:NEXT:GO 

TO1090 
PF 1080 POKE SD+5,8:POKE SD+6 , 
240:POKE SD,0:POKE SD+ 
1,90:POKE SD+4,17 
AC 1090 FOR S=l TO 100: NEXT: PO 
KE SD+4,0iPOKE SD,0:PO 
KE SD+I,0:RETURN -J 



REVIEWS 



Take a sneak peek at what's up in The Treehouse, gel the jump on 
Reader Rabbit II, and peruse in-depth reviews of many more. 



THE TREEHOUSE 

Once your child encounters 
The Treehouse, Brederbund 
Software's excellent follow- 
up to the award-winning Play- 
room, the fun and learning 
start right away. An interac- 
tive chalkboard boasts six- 
color click-and-drag drawing 
capability. A small clock 
tells time. But besides these 
surprises, you get four de- 
tailed games. 

Unlike anything else for 
kids, Tree/iouse's music syn- 
thesizer screen displays an 
orchestra pit with illustrations 
and simple descriptions of 
the instruments. The pro- 
gram also plays a sample 
note from each instrument. 
But this is no simple play- 
back machine. It's truly inter- 
active and inspired. Children 
can store songs in a song- 
book and print them out, 
look at a few notes, or read 
two lines of music. They can 
choose which instrunnent will 
play their music, with such ex- 
otic choices as bottles and ka- 
zoos. Best of all, children 
can write music by selecting 
note and rest length and 
then clicking on a piano key- 
In addition. Treehouse in- 
cludes a very clever music 
maze game that plays sim- 
ple musical phrases (two or 
three notes) and then re- 
quires you to pick the correct 
one out of four options. A cor- 
rect choice earns a note, 
and completion of the maze 
is rewarded with a song. 

Another Treehouse game 
teaches counting, with 
chips or cash as options. 
The third part consists of an 
animal guessing game, 
which teaches deductive rea- 
soning, and an animated pup- 
pet theater that encourages 
storytelling. All of the games 
boast excellent graphics 
and sound- The synthesized 
music especially is very true 
to life, provided you have an 



Ad Lib or Sound Blaster 
card. 

The Treehouse should be 
on store shelves by early au- 
tumn. Get your copy before 
the leaves begin to falL 

BETH ANN MUflRAY 



READER RABBIT [l 

This excellent successor to 
Reader Rabbit combines 
whimsy and word skills in 
just the right measure to 
keep your child interested 




imSBMM"'*^ 




Give your child an educational boost with an entertaining visit to 
this arboreal playroom. 




Reader Rabbit II playfully teaches youngsters word association. 



Scheduled Release: Oclober 1991 
IBM PC and compatibles. 512K RAM 
for C(3A, 64QK lor VGA; hard drive op- 
tional, supports mouse, supports Ad 
Lib, Sound Blaster, Sound Master, 
and Tandy 3-voice sound— $59.95 

BR0DERBUND SOFTWARE 
17 Paul Dr. 

San Rafael, CA 94903-2101 
(415) 492-3500 

Circle Reader Service Number 350 



and learning. The entire 
game has fantastic graphics 
appeal, and its fanciful de- 
meanor hides, but doesn't de- 
tract from, its educational con- 
tent. 

Reader Rabbit It consists 
of four games, all designed 
for early readers. The first, 
Word Mine, teaches the for- 
mation of compound words 



and words that begin or end 
with two-letter blends (like 
match). Help your bunny pat 
and his mole miner friends 
put together words and fill a 
rail car with word crystals. 
Youngsters will enjoy the re- 
wards of collecting the crys- 
tals, and they will begin to rec- 
ognize the relationships that 
lead to a more complex vo- 
cabulary- 

A second game. Vowel 
Pond, teaches long and 
short vowel sounds in the 
guise of a happy fishing trip. 
Help Reader Rabbit net a 
day's catch by identifying 
words that match a particu- 
lar vowel sound. For extra as- 
sistance, children will also 
see a word that matches the 
appropriate vowel sound. 
For instance, if they are look- 
ing for words that contain a 
short u, they'll see the word 
stuff. As a parade of fish 
swim by, the player must se- 
lect the ones that carry the ap- 
propriate-sounding words em- 
blazoned on their sides. 
Pick the correct fish, and it 
goes into the net; pick the 
wrong fish, and it's the one 
that gets away. 

Another word sound 
game. Match Patch, asks 
kids to identify word patterns 
and associations. These in- 
clude simple rhymes among 
words that share the same let- 
ters (like pat and fat), word 
opposites (like find and 
lose), homonyms (like to and 
too), and harder rhymes 
among words that share the 
same sound but not the 
same letters (like time and 
rhyme). Each of these levels 
draws upon different vocab- 
ulary and pattern recognition 
skills. 

Rounding out this rollick- 
ing rabbity foursome is Alpha- 
bet Dance, which teaches 
word order. This is an essen- 
tial skill necessary for sorting 
and for working with alphabet- 
ized lists and references like 
113 



REVIEWS 



dictionaries. Tiie game 
takes place at a barn dance. 
Tlie object is to line up. the 
dancing partners as direct- 
ed. Start out witin simple first- 
letter ordering among words 
that directly follow one anoth- 
er {like Frank, Gertrude. Har- 
vey, and Ismelda). and 
move on to harder groups 
that don't follow in direct se- 
quence (like Alfred. Karen, 
Paul, and Yolanda). For 
more of a challenge, kids 
can order names according 
to the second letter in the 
name, and by the first and 
second letters in the name. 
Each successive level 
builds upon the skill learned 
from the level before. For as- 
sistance, a list of the alpha- 
bet appears at the top of the 
screen disguised as a ban- 
ner above the dance floor. 

Aimed at a slightly older au- 
dience (from five to eight 
years of age) than its prede- 
cessor, Reader Rabbit II 
promises to be as much a 
classic as the original Read- 
er Rabbit. Even in this video 
age, word skills are as impor- 
tant as ever. Here's a 
chance to give your kids a 
head start or to reinforce 
what they're learning in the 
classroom. 

PETER SCiSCO 



Scheduled Release; August 1991 
IBM PC and compatibles. 512K RAM 
{640K required for Tandy 16-color 
graphics)— S59.95 

THE LEARNING COMPANY 
6493 Kaiser Dr. 
Fremont, CA 94555 
(BOO) 852-2255 

Circle Reader Servfce Number 351 



HIJAAK 



Tame the Tower of Babel 
that PC graphics formats 
have become — that's the 
goal of HiJaak, an all-pur- 
pose graphics-translation pro- 
gram and unparalleled 

114 COMPUTE 



screen-capture utility. De- 
spite a buggy user interface 
and lack of a screen-preview 
program, its reasonable 
price and encyclopedic list 
of both raster and vector for- 
mats make it a formidable 
product. 

HiJaak's installation pro- 
gram is a little terse, with no 
options and no explanation 
of its functions. It doesn't tell 



TSR mode requires three oth- 
er programs: RPM.EXE, 
L0ADRPM.COM, FREERPM 
.COM, as well as HiJaak it- 
self. RPM is the Resident 
Process Manager, which 
serves as a sort of master 
menu to save screens, print 
them, or run HiJaak. 
LOADRPM turns RPM and Hi- 
Jaak into memory-resident 
programs. FREERPM re- 




Through myriad options. HiJaak renders almost a!! graphics 
formats accessible. 



you that an installation is suc- 
cessful, and it doesn't start Hi- 
Jaak or mention that you 
must choose a configuration 
from the main menu the first 
time that you run it (although 
the manual's instructions 
make this very clear). The pro- 
gram takes up about 1.5 
megs of disk space and re- 
quires 320K of free RAM, or 
5K of RAM if run in TSR 
mode, which uses the hard 
disk to hold the foreground 
application at bay temporar- 
ily. HiJaak loses no features 
in TSR mode, so actually on- 
ly 5K of RAM is needed to 
run it, albeit with a perform- 
ance penalty exacted in 
more disk accesses. 

HiJaak can be run com- 
pletely in TSR mode and is 
not limited to the screen-cap- 
ture utility in this mode. 
That's the good news. The 
bad news is that running in 



moves everything from mem- 
ory. I'd much prefer that all 
of these functions be rolled 
into HiJaak itself. And I'm 
sure inexperienced users 
would prefer that RPM be de- 
scribed in better detail; the 
manual gives it short shrilt. I 
had many more problems 
with RPM than with other 
TSRs, but it was still useful. 
I'm. especially fond of its abil- 
ity to save the state of HiJaak 
at any moment, even in the 
middle of a dialog; I never 
lost my place when I 
popped back from the fore- 
ground application 

Discussion of RPM is 
about the only thing the man- 
ual stints on, except perhaps 
for the index (for example, nei- 
ther Windows nor BMP 
could be found there, even 
though the program sup- 
ports Windows bitmap files). 
Otherwise, the manual is a 



model of its kind, blessedly 
covering even the most chal- 
lenging topics with dogged 
thoroughness, never under- 
estimating the reader's expe- 
rience or intelligence. Two 
other unusual aspects of the 
manual deserve mention 
here. An initial chapter titled 
"Condensed Instructions" al- 
lows power users to be up 
and running quickly and com- 
pletely explains the support 
policy. And because of the 
wild profusion of PC graph- 
ics formats, the manual's 
more-the-merrier approach 
is welcome; it covers every 
detail. The section for each 
graphics format, for exam- 
ple, starts with a box giving 
the address of the organiza- 
tion that developed it and a 
Vital Statistics box summariz- 
ing answers to the most fre- 
quently asked questions 
about the format. 

HiJaak stands out for 
both its wide variety of sup- 
ported formats and its world- 
class screen-capture/print 
abilities. If you need to pro- 
duce screen shots for publi- 
cation or in-house documen- 
tation on laser printers, Hi- 
Jaak is the way to go. If you 
need support for literally eve- 
ry popular graphics format 
used on the PC, HiJaak will 
do the trick. A partial list of 
supported formats includes 
Amiga IFF, ASCII text, Au- 
toCAD DXF, CompuServe 
GIF. GEM metafile and im- 
age files, HPGL plotter files, 
Lotus PIC, MacPaint. 
MacDraw. Windows met- 
afiles, TIFF WordPerfect, 
and about 20 fax formats. Hi- 
Jaak oiiers solid support for 
translating a large number of 
files at once. Use the point- 
and-click interface to queue 
up several files chosen from 
a directory list (a mouse is rea- 
sonably well supported) or 
run HiJaak from the com- 
mand line. I found the latter 
option to be much quicker 



•^^ ^yjNis 



'«4' 



l^V^ 



Congratulations - it's 1995 and you've been selected for the hottest seat 
in helicopter history: the cockpit of the Pentagon's new AH-73IVI ^ 

Thunderhawk": So zip up your flight suit, adjust your sunglasses, and 1| 
control your nerves 'cause this one makes Nam ^^^sdr 

look like a day at the beach! AH-73I\/I .mu- ^ ""M^ 

Thunderhawk is the most advanced ^"^ 

helicopter combat simulation ^ 

ever brought to ^ ^ 

the computer 





A vailable soon for IBM and Amiga. 

Thunderhawk is a trademark of 

Virgin Games, Inc. 

Virgin is a registered trademark of 

Virgin Enterprises, Ltd. 

©1991 Virgin Games and -^"^ 

Core Design. All rights reserv 

Virgin Games, inc. 18061 Fitch Ave. 

Irvine, CA 82714 1(800|VRG-INO7 



mr 



e Read«r SenriM Ni^ber 105 



■ A helicopter armed with ti, 
latest in weaponry, .v 

|electronic countermeasures, 
fuiictionjng displays and 
^^^t^puter-aided targeting 
s,^^ systems. 

\ J Realistic missions involving 
\ actual military conflicts and 
\ contingency plans. 

^ jpyfCirue interactive "world" 
^ outside your cockpit, with 
. other locations and 
^^characters that respond to 
\ your actions. 

\ □ Campaign scenarios with 
i; a multitude of missions. 



REVIEWS 



than the new mousing inter- 
face — the command line 
seemed more flexible. Run- 
ning HiJaak from the com- 
mand line allows you to cre- 
ate a text file containing exe- 
cution options, but, notably, 
neither the point-and-click 
method nor the command 
line method lets you change 
settings for different files of 
the same type. In other 
words, if you have a group of 
DXF files you want to convert 
to CGM format and you want 
some of them to be translat- 
ed with gray scaling, others 
to be translated using full col- 
ors, and others to black-and- 
white only, you must run 
three separate batches. (In- 
set promises to address this 
shortcoming, and HUaak 
may have these abilities be- 
fore this review sees print.) 
Oddly, you can't see any of 
the files you convert; unlike 
ImPort by Zenographics, Hi- 
Jaak offers no way to see ei- 
ther the input or the output 
file without firing up a graph- 
ics program that can accept 
that file format. 

HiJaak has the rare ability 
to convert from vector files 
(such as those produced by 
CAD and draw programs) to 
raster format, although not 
the reverse {by nature, raster- 
to-vector conversions are ex- 
ceedingly tricky). This 
means you can effortlessly 
move, say, an /AutoCAD or Lo- 
tus 1-2-3 image into a paint 
program, such as the Paint- 
brush program that comes 
with Windows. I experienced 
no problems with such con- 
versions, although I suppose 
there are some potentially 
nasty problems with shaded 
or 3-D AutoCAD images. 

If you're among the grow- 
ing number of LaserJet us- 
ers who have a fax card in- 
stalled in your PC, you'll ap- 
preciate the inclusion of 
fonts designed for just this 
purpose. You can mimic or 

116 COMPUTE 



replace the basic fonts HP 
supplies on its LaserJets, 
and the default font is 300 
dpi, the same resolution as 
that of HP laser printers. Las- 
erJet users will also appreci- 
ate its brilliant handling of Las- 
erJet soft fonts. You can con- 
vert HP soft fonts into a for- 
mat usable by HiJaak for a 
perfect rendering of the im- 
age. I've never seen this abil- 
ity in any other conversion 
program, even though HP's 
font format is well known. Hi- 
Jaak is indispensable for the 
true LaserJet power user. 

A simple Windows cap- 
ture utility lets you snag Win- 
dows 3.0 images in HiJaak's, 
own file format, which can 
then be translated into any of 
the supported output for- 
mats. The utility's interface is 
a bit confusing, and there's 
no help file, but the manual 
explains its use well. To acti- 
vate the utility, choose its In- 
stall item, which puts up a di- 
alog box explaining what 
keys to press. The icon then 
courteously disappears until 
you've pressed the hot keys 
to capture the screen, at 
which time the capture utility 
reappears with a request for 
a filename. That's all there is 
to it. 

However, the conversion 
process terms both Win- 
dows and OS/2 Presentation 
Manager BMP files as PM 
Bitmaps, which isn't very 
clear. You must choose PM 
Bitmaps, then select the Win- 
dows option to get Windows 
bitmap files. Another side 
note is that Microsoft Paint- 
brush is one of the output op- 
tions but it doesn't work for 
the version of Paintbrush 
that comes with Windows 
3.0. Inset plans a fix. It 
doesn't matter, though, be- 
cause the Paintbrush in Win- 
dows 3.0 imports PCX files di- 
rectly, and HiJaak performs 
flav/lessly on PCX files. 

HiJaak has a mountain of 



options. The conversion dia- 
logs hide them artfully, and 
the defaults are usually well 
chosen, so you may never 
need them. Nonetheless, eve- 
ry input and output option 
comes with a screenful (or 
more) of options whenever 
they're necessary. For exam- 
ple, vector file formats sel- 
dom have consistent han- 
dling of fonts and typefaces, 
and HiJaak allows you to re- 
map (change) your typefac- 
es. CGM files, for example, 
contain only font numbers. 
Since one person's font 1 
might be a Times Roman 
while another person's 
might be a Dingbat, font re- 
mapping can prove useful. 

Colors are another source 
of disparity. HiJaak not only 
maps color schemes to your 
satisfaction, but it also has 
automatic conversions to 
black-and-white or gray 
scale — useful shortcuts for 
owners of fax machines or la- 
ser printers. 

I called Inset's tech sup- 
port with a number of prob- 
lems and was dealt with 
quickly and reasonably — 
even on f\/londay morning, a 
notoriously difficult lime to 
reach support lines. It's a toll- 
free call, and Inset charges 
nothing for its support. The 
manual promises that, 
should you call while all tech- 
nicians are busy, at least one 
attempt will be made to re- 
turn your call within an hour. 
At least three attempts to 
reach you will be made with- 
in "a reasonable period," Fur- 
ther, a ten-page booklet of re- 
lease notes details shortcom- 
ings in both HiJaak and the 
products it supports. This in- 
cludes work-arounds where 
the other product is at fault 
and common pilot errors 
with CompuServe GIF files. 
This all amounts to the best 
support you can get for 
$199. I'm very impressed. Hi- 
Jaak is flawed, but neverthe- 



less a major achievement. Its 
features are comprehensive, 
its uses myriad, and its sup- 
port so good that even the 
worst problems I encoun- 
tered had a satisfactory work- 
around. That's the sign of a 
mature and well-developed 
product, even if it does have 
a few minor failings. 

TOM CAMPBELL 

IBM PC and compatibles; 480K RAM: 
CGA, EGA, MCGA, VGA, or Hercu- 
les; hard drive~S199 

INSET SYSTEMS 
71 Commerce Dr. 
Brookfield, CT 06804-3405 
(203) 740-2400 (U.S.) 
(800) 828-8088 (OUlside U.S.) 

Circle Reader Service Number 352 

THE SECRET OF 
MONKEY ISLAND 

Obviously, The Secret of Mon- 
key Island was designed as 
much for fun as for nail-biting 
adventure. That it manages 
to provide a healthy amount 
of both is testament to the re- 
sounding success of its de- 
sign. 

"We believe that you buy 
games to be entertained, not 
to be whacked over the 
head every time you make a 
mistake," reads the manual 
to Lucasfilm Games' The Se- 
cret of Monkey Island. "We 
think you'd prefer to solve 
the game's mysteries by ex- 
ploring and discovering, not 
by dying a thousand 
deaths." 

They got that right, 
Blessed forgiveness is only 
one of several virtues that 
make The Secret of Monkey 
Island such a thoroughly de- 
lightful adventure game. It los- 
es none of its edge in excite- 
ment or challenge by offer- 
ing multiple chances at suc- 
cess, and in doing so it 
gains a friendly accessibility 
that keeps it from becoming 
frustrating and irritating the 



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STEVEN SCHWARTZ 



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COMPUTEfs 

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GAMES 



CONQUERING 

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STEVEN 



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REVIEWS 



way other adventure games 
can sometimes be. 

The game begins on Me- 
lee Island, where amiable 
goof Guybrush Threepwood 
has come to seek his fortune 
by becoming a pirate. The 
first stop is the Scumm Bar, 
where Threepwood endures 
the first of many cracks 
about his silly name and 
learns firsthand from three im- 
portant-looking pirates what 
he must do to begin a life of 
robbing and pillaging. In 
very satisfying detail, the ad- 
venture-game hero gets to 
dish out as many wisecracks 
as he takes. "You're a 
bunch of foul-smelling, grog- 
swilling pigs!" Threepwood 
can bark at his pirate men- 
tors. 

Initially, Threepwood 
must learn about and com- 
plete a series of tasks de- 
signed to acquaint him with 
pirating. These tasks include 
sword fighting and treasure 
hunting. Ultimately, he must 
assemble a crew, obtain a 
ship, and embark for fvlon- 
key Island in search of the se- 
cret that gives the game its 
title. Among other frightfui en- 
counters, Threepwood has 
to outfight Melee Island's hot- 
test sword slinger, outwit a 
pack of frothing piranha poo- 
dles, and navigate a dark, 
dangerous forest. 

Controlled by arrow keys, 
joystick, or mouse. Threep- 
wood moves briskly through 
an impressively cinematic 
graphic landscape. Melee Is- 
land's village looks cartoon- 
ishly ominous beneath a love- 
ly, star-strewn sky, with 
shady pirates and their pet 
rats hanging out or roaming 
the streets. Back in the is- 
land's inner recesses, 
there's an impressive circus 
tent glowing with inner light 
and a dimly lit shipyard 
called Stan's Previously 
Used Vessels. Unexpected 
and humorous touches 

118 COMPUTE 



abound, some cornier than 
others: "If there's one type of 
piracy I don't like," says one 
character, "it's CONS-pira- 
cy!" 

The Secret of Monkey Is- 
land is good fun and may 
have you laughing as you 
study to become a high- 
seas terror so hoist the main- 



essed words found immedi- 
ate and effective applica- 
tions for the new technology, 
composers and performers 
exploited the artistic power 
of the new machines just as 
quickly. Amateurs, too, 
found that these electronic 
tools offered them inexpen- 
sive ways to pursue music 



Walk to 

Open Wall* to Use {) 

Close Pick! up Look at 
Push Talk to Turn on 
Pull Giye Turn off n 



K.-r 



A pirate's life means more than grog and doubloons. 



sail and post a lookout. For 
cutlass-swinging adventure, 
Monl<ey Island is somewhere 
on your horizon. 

EDDIE HUFFMAN 

IBM PC and compatibles. 640K RAM. 
CGA, EGA. MCGA, VGA; hard drive 
recommended, joystick and mouse 
optional, supports Roland, Ad Lib. 
and Sound Blaster sound cards— 
$69.95 for VGA. $59.95 for ottier ver- 
sions 

LUCASFILM GAMES 

Distributed by Electronic Arts 

1820 Gateway Dr. 

San Mateo, CA 94404-2499 

(415)571-7171 

Circle Reader Service Number 353 

PLAY IT BY EAR 

Few professions have em- 
braced the arrival of the per- 
sonal computer as eagerly 
and as creatively as musi- 
cians. While people who 
crunched numbers and proc- 



as a hobby or to prepare for 
at least a part-time career. 

Three features of person- 
al computers make them 
good tools for musicians: 
their sound capabilities, 
their connections to real mu- 
sical instruments through 
MIDI interfaces, and their un- 
limited patience. A human 
music teacher can tire quick- 
ly of the repetitive drills neces- 
sary to train a musician in 
some of the more ele- 
mentary aspects of composi- 
tion and performance; a com- 
puter exists to serve the stu- 
dent. 

Ibis Software's Play It by 
Ear is an effective training 
tool for both amateurs and 
professionals who need to ei- 
ther develop or hone their 
skills in ear training. The in- 
cluded exercises help you 
recognize and play back mel- 
odies, chords, scales, and in- 



tervals, using graphic repre- 
sentations of either a piano 
keyboard or a guitar. You se- 
lect the desired exercise, lis- 
ten to the series of notes, 
and play them back using ei- 
ther the mouse (no option for 
keyboard control is availa- 
ble) or an actual instrument 
(if you're connected through 
a MIDI interface). Or you can 
identify the chord or interval 
played from the list of sever- 
al displayed. 

The main screen is divided 
into several different work ar- 
eas; pull-down menus pre- 
sent options available for 
choosing the desired exer- 
cise, difficulty level, volume, 
duration and range of notes, 
and type of scale or chord 
played. Once you've chosen 
an exercise and the combi- 
nation of musical notes to be 
classified or repeated has 
been played, you can 
choose to hear the phrase 
again, skip over it, or display 
the correct answer. Good 
note/bad note icons track 
your correct and incorrect an- 
swers as you go along, and 
progress charts can be 
pulled up at any time to 
show how you're doing. 

Play It by Ear's user inter- 
face is sleek. While crowd- 
ed, the main working screen 
isn't difficult to navigate. Min- 
imal written documentation 
is provided, though you like- 
ly won't need it if you just 
take a few minutes to ex- 
plore the menus and control 
settings. 

Ibis recommends a MIDI in- 
terface, but if you're using 
the program strictly for ear 
training, it's unnecessary. I 
tested the program on a 
bare-bones XT clone with no 
special sound capabilities, 
and the notes were clear 
and recognizable. 

At $99.95, Play It by Ear 
may be more appealing to 
the aspiring professional 
than to the novice. If you 



want a simple drill-and-prac- 
tice program that helps you 
recognize and play back 
notes on a guitar or piano, 
though, Ear's just right. For 
more advanced music stu- 
dents who want to train their 
ears to discern the differ- 
ence between varying mode 
scales (Dorian, Phrygian, 
and so on) or to be able to 
tell what interval is being 
played in a chord (triads, 
9ths, llths), Play It by Ear os- 
iers this more sophisticated 
capability too. 

Serious musicians would 
most likely want to be able to 
use the program by connect- 
ing their computers to an ac- 
tual instrument through a 
MIDI interface or to at least 
broaden the program's use- 
fulness with more enhanced 
sound capabilities. For peo- 
ple with such aspirations, 
this program facilitates a ba- 
sic element of music educa- 
tion and offers a bridge to 
their real-life musical tools, 

KATHY YAKAL 



IBM PC and compalibies. 64QK RAM. 
CGA, EGA. or VGA; supports Roland 
or 100-percent compatibie MPU-401 
MIDI cards, Ad Lib, Sound Blaster— 
$99.95 

IBIS SOFTWAFIE 

90 New Montgomery St., Ste. 20 

San Francisco. CA 94105 

(415)546-1917 

Circle Reader Service Number 354 



WORD FOR 
WINDOWS 

Imagine the ultimate word- 
processing software. It 
would be easy to use, with In- 
tuitive commands. It would 
be so powerful that you'd nev- 
er run up against a wall cre- 
ating a complicated docu- 
ment. It would allow you to 
use graphics and multiple 
fonts, like your desktop pub- 
lishing program, but would al- 
so keep up with your fastest 



typing, like your text editor. 
A dream word processor? 
No, it's Microsoft Word for 
Windows. 

The original version of 
Word was always respected 
as a powerfui program, but 
its quirky menu interface 
gave it something in com- 
mon with WordStar: You ei- 



anyone away from this as- 
tounding progrann. You'll 
need at least a 12-MHz 286 
with 2MB RAM to get decent 
performance from the pro- 
gram, but that's true of all Win- 
dows applications. You'll al- 
so need Windows 2. 1 1 or lat- 
er (if you're not using version 
3.0 yet, upgrade now) and 




Play it By Ear nurtures musical talent. 



ther loved it or hated it. 
When I first tried Word back 
in early 1984, I was amazed 
at the program's power, but 
the user interface kept get- 
ting in my way, and I eventu- 
ally fell back to a simpler 
word processor. 

After seven years of devel- 
opment, the program has 
grown even more powerful, 
but it wasn't the new features 
that drew me back to it — it 
was Microsoft's announce- 
ment of a Windows version 
of 14'ord. 

Wjrdfor Windov/s 1 . 1 (Win- 
Word) is an amazing pro- 
gram. Its titanic suite of fea- 
tures will please the college 
student, tfie professional writ- 
er, and the home office user 
alike. Yet its simplicity af- 
fords pleasurable ease of 
use to the novice computer 
user or the keyboard-wary ex- 
ecutive. In fact, only the 
steep price and hardware re- 
quirements should keep 



about 4.5MB of free hard 
disk space to use the pro- 
gram. 

No matter how many fea- 
tures a word processor has, 
the most important character- 
istic is ease of basic text ed- 
iting. WinWord e)^ce\s in this 
aspect. The program han- 
dles even the speediest typ- 
ing with no discernible lag. 
Scrolling through documents 
is faster than I thought pos- 
sible in a graphics-based 
word processor; the speed 
is especially surprising on a 
286. You can highlight 
blocks of text in a snap with 
the mouse; click once with 
the left mouse button to start 
selecting text or twice to se- 
lect the word under the cur- 
sor. Use the right button for 
columnar operations. 

All commands can be ac- 
cessed using the keyboard 
or mouse. While I found the 
program quite usable sans 
pointing device on my Grid 



laptop, I was much more pro- 
ductive using the program 
with a mouse. 

A row of menu items tops 
the screen, with a control bar 
called the ribbon and a ruler 
betow that. At the bottom of 
the screen, a status bar 
keeps you informed of your 
current page, line, and col- 
umn number. You can tog- 
gle the ribbon, ruler, and stat- 
us bar off if you prefer to 
have the entire screen avail- 
able for editing text. 

Fonts, point sizes, styles, 
tabs, and spacing can all be 
adjusted with single opera- 
tions on the ribbon or ruler. 
You'll find keyboard equiva- 
lents for all icon and menu 
items, but there are so many 
choices in WinWord that 
you'll appreciate having rare- 
ly used commands on the 
menu bar. (In fact, there are 
so many choices that the in- 
cluded keyboard template 
wouldn't fit above my PC's 
function keys!) If you do 
have trouble finding a func- 
tion, WinWord's, comprehen- 
sive context-sensitive online 
help is only a keypress 
away. 

WinWord has a plenitude 
of features to simplify docu- 
ment creation. The one I've 
used most is the glossary, 
which lets you abbreviate of- 
ten-used text. For instance, 
for this review, 1 created a 
glossary item called ww, 
standing for WinWord. When- 
ever I needed WinWord in 
my text, I just typed w/wand 
hit F3. The abbreviation ex- 
panded out to the full word, 
complete with italics. You 
can also store longer blocks 
of boilerplate text as glossa- 
ry items, such as addresses 
or standard greetings. 

Style sheets let you record 
a group of character and par- 
agraph characteristics, as- 
sign them a name, and save 
them. For instance, consider 
using WinWord to create a 

119 



REVIEWS 



newsletter. You could create 
styles for headlines, sub- 
heads, body copy, and side- 
bar text. When you create a 
new element, you can 
change font, spacing, style, 
size, and justification -with 
one operation instead of 
five. Style sheets can be 
stored for use in other docu- 
ments. 

Even more comprehen- 
sive is Win\Aford's document 
template feature. Each tem- 
plate can store boiler plate 
text, style sheets, glossary 
items, macros, and custom 
menu and key configura- 
tions. The 20-H sample tem- 
plates included with W/n- 
Word simplify the creation of 
articles, legal briefs, bro- 
chures, contracts, disserta- 
tions, envelopes, form let- 
ters, mailing labels, memos, 
and other documents. They 
also sen/e as excellent exam- 
ples for creating your own 
glossary items and macros. 

WinWord has the most so- 
phisticated macro facility I've 
seen in an application pro- 
gram. You can create mac- 
ros by recording keypresses 
and menu selections, as in 
most other programs. Howev- 
er, WinWord a\so has a built- 
in programming language 
called WordBASIC that lets 
you create truly potent mac- 
ros. You can automate even 
the most sophisticated oper- 
ations. For instance, you 
could create a macro for de- 
veloping a resume; that mac- 
ro would bring up dialog-box 
requesters asking for each 
piece of information individ- 
ually and then assemble 
them into a formatted 
resume. You'll need some pro- 
gramming background to 
take full advantage of Win- 
Word's macro facility, but if 
you've ever used Microsoft 
QuickBASIC, you'll feel right 
at home using WordBASIC. 
Unfortunately, the documen- 
tation for WordBASIC isn't in 

120 COIVIPUTE 



the manual — you must either 
print a 77-page document in- 
cluded with the program to 
get basic documentation or 
purchase the heipful Micro- 
soft Word Tecfinical Refer- 
ence for Windows and OS/2 
for $22.95. 

If your needs are fairly sim- 
ple, you can use WinWord 
as a desktop publishing pro- 
gram. It supports multiple col- 
umns (side-by-side or news- 
paper-style snaking col- 
umns) and can insert pic- 
tures within your text. Manu- 
al kerning gives you DTP- 
style control over letter spac- 
ing. You can directly load 
TIFF-format graphics or 
paste them from the clip- 
board. WinWord also sup- 
ports the DDE {Dynamic Da- 
ta Exchange) feature of Win- 
dows 3.0, so you can link a 
graphic from another DDE- 
capable program into your 
document. 

If you're using WinWord to 
create documents that will 
be seen and modified by 
more than one author, you'll 
appreciate the program's red- 
lining and annotation fea- 
tures. Redlining allows you 
to make changes in a docu- 
ment while keeping the orig- 
inal text around for reference 
(the old text is shown with a 
line through it). Alternately, 
you can use the document- 
compare feature, which will 
mark any paragraphs that 
change between two ver- 
sions of a document. Anno- 
tations let you attach com- 
ments or suggestions to any 
block of text. The comment 
author's initials appear in the 
text, and the annotation in a 
window below. You can lock 
documents so that annota- 
tions can be added but no 
changes can be made in the 
text. 

WinWord has just about 
every other feature you 
could want in a word proces- 
sor. You can automate the 




Feature-packed, 
Word tor 
Windows will 
satisfy 
casual and 
professional 
writers. 



creation of columnar tables, 
outlines, indexes, and tables 
of contents. Students and re- 
searchers will appreciate the 
program's footnote and 
endnote capabilities. Win- 
WordwiW perform math oper- 
ations on groups of numbers 
within your text, and you can 
type mathematical and scien- 
tific equations and see them 
onscreen as they'll look 
when printed. Other stan- 
dard functions, such as 
search and replace, spelling 
check, and mail merge, 
work as expected. 

Writers will find the online 
thesaurus invaluable. It not 
only provides synonyms for 
the selected word, but it al- 
so gives you a choice of def- 
initions for the word in differ- 
ent contexts and lists the 
part of speech. For instance, 
different synonyms are given 
for the word clear, depend- 
ing upon v/hether you're us- 
ing it to mean "transparent" 
or "to remove obstructions 
from." 

If you're moving up to Win- 
Vlfcirdfrom another word proc- 
essor or if you share docu- 
ments with users of other 
word processors, you'll appre- 
ciate its file-conversion fea- 
tures. You can load and 
save files in OCA, Display- 
Write. MultiMate, RTF, Win- 
dows Write. Word for DOS, 



Word for Macintosfi, Word- 
Star. WordPerfect, and 
Works formats. All but the 
most esoteric formatting 
codes are supported, so you 
should lose little or nothing in 
the translation. 

WinWord uses the stan- 
dard Windows printer driv- 
ers, so the quality of its out- 
put is excellent overall, but at 
the same time, dependent up- 
on your printer. Generally, 
your printer's built-in fonts 
will look quite good, but the 
Windows system fonts will 
look rough. If you need to 
use fonts not resident in 
your printer, pick up a copy 
of Adobe Type Manager. 
The print-preview function 
lets you view single or facing 
pages before printing. You 
can choose whether or not to 
include summary info, anno- 
tations, and hidden text in 
your printed document. 

WinWord's documenta- 
tion lives up to the high stan- 
dards set by other Microsoft 
products. A 25-page Getting 
Started booklet will walk you 
through installing the pro- 
gram. The 126-page Pocket 
Guide is a tutorial that will in- 
troduce you to WinV\brd's ma- 
jor features. The 475-page Us- 
er Reference tome lists all 
the program's functions in al- 
phabetical order, making it a 
snap to find any feature, Al- 



so included is a 90-page Print- 
er Reference Guide and a 
keyboard template. All the 
texts are extremely well writ- 
ten—simple enough for the 
novice but not condescend- 
ing to the knowledgeable. 

I couldn't find anything to 
complain about in Word for 
Windows, except perhaps 
the fact that the company 
doesn't make a version for 
the Amiga, the other platform 
I spend much of my time us- 
ing. Once you've used Win- 
Word, other word proces- 
sors seem like simple text ed- 
itors in comparison. The only 
negative aspects are the pro- 
gram's hunger for memory 
and its sluggish perform- 
ance on machines slower 
than 12 MHz. However, 
those are more the fault of 
Windows than Win Word and 
a small price to pay for ver- 
satility and power. 

If you're looking for a no- 
compromise word processor 
and have the hardware to 
handle it. Word for Windows' 
herculean features and con- 
nectivity with other programs 
make it the obvious choice 
for ail your text-editing 
needs. 

DENNY ATKIN 



IBM PC and compatibles; 1MB RAM 
(2MB recommended); EGA, VGA, 
XGA, or 8514; hard drive; 80286 or 
higher processor — $495 

MICROSOFT 
16011 NE36lh Way 
Redmond, WA 98073-9717 
(800) 426-9400 

Circle Reader Service Number 355 



AIR STRIKE USA 

Armchair pilots looking for a 
simple tactical flight simula- 
tor may want to strap them- 
selves into Cinemaware's Air 
Strii^e USA. In this action/strat- 
egy air-combat contest, you 
concentrate on making the 
world safe for the allies, rath- 




For straightforward Ivgii-speed air combat, fly Air Strike USA. 



^^ tfAm.rirmrm 



Elltot'B Logo ProJL-cf 
Mn 1991 



Gen^t. r--^ 




Useful calendars are simple to make with Calendar Creator Plus. 



er than memorizing a key- 
board-load of esoteric flight 
commands. But while your 
jet is a breeze to fly, the mis- 
sions, which have you taking 
out both ground and air tar- 
gets, require quick reflexes 
and careful planning. 

The EGA/VGA graphics 
feature solid, 3-D scenery 
and an assortment of 16-col- 
or battle maps and instru- 
ment panels. Unfortunately, 
no sound cards are support- 
ed. Although Air Stril<e USA 
won't teach you to fly a jet, 



it'll provide hours of missile- 
pounding, machine gun- 
biasting action. 

CLAYTON WALNUM 

IBM PC and compatibles; 3e4K RAM 
for CGA. 640K RAM for EGA. VGA, 
or Tandy 16-color; floppy or hard 
drive; mouse or ioystick optional — 
S39.95 

Also available for Amiga— S39.95 

CINEMAWARE 

Distributed by Electronic Arts 
1820 Gateway Dr. 
San Mateo. CA 94404 
(800) 245-4525 

Circle Reader Service Number 3S6 



CALENDAR 
CREATOR PLUS 

Many of today's mainstream 
applications are overkill 
when it comes to doing the 
smaller jobs we want our sili- 
con partners to accomplish. 
Power Up has managed to 
create a product that not on- 
ly fills a much needed niche 
but can help you organize 
the daily events in your life 
without giving you a learning- 
curve heart attack. 

Calendar Creator Plus cre- 
ates customized calendars 
to help you organize both 
your personal and business 
activities. The program al-' 
lows you to set up event lists 
for all your activities, incorpo- 
rating them into the calen- 
dar. What's more, the pro- 
gram includes clip art and 
gives you the ability to high- 
light special events using al- 
ternative fonts and shading, 
When ready to print, you can 
preview the calendar, graph- 
ics and all. Calendars may 
be printed in eleven different 
formats and in varying sizes, 
from a giant one-year calen- 
dar to miniatures small 
enough to fit in your pocket 
organizer. I found the docu- 
mentation, tutorial, and 
quick reference card well writ- 
ten, concise, and easy to fol- 
low. The installation process 
was user-friendly. 

Calendar Creator Is a qual- 
ity product. The only disap- 
pointments are the lack of 
mouse support and the 
lengthy printing times for the 
calendars themselves. Us- 
ing a print spooler alleviates 
the latter problem, though 
there's no excuse for over- 
looking mice. Despite these 
minor problems, for those of 
you who need this type of 
product, I can recommend it 
without reservation. If you 
pay Calendar Creator the 
least attention, you'll always 
121 




you know the incredible 
learning a foreign 



whether for travel, 
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;n language simpler. Pain- 
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They Ye tried and proven 
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teaching. concepts liter- 



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courses in one . . . 



the 



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SPANISH 

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»^ 


II 


GERMAN' 

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1TALI.4N 

ill OiKtlti 

fins Inple tonus 

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BREAKTHROUGHS in language technology 

by European learning researcher Dr. Georgi 
Lozanov mv [Ik* basis of the remarkahle 

Accelerated Learning 
Umguage Series. 
The series is so effective, 
we guarantee you'll be 
hearing, reading, iinder- 



"Amcrican managers with 
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Will Slreel punml EtSlmal 
Julv 35, I98S 



slanc-iing and beginning lo converse in your 
new language in 30 days - or your money back. 
Tliis unique new system links the left side 
of the brain (language and logic) with the 
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with little or no effort. 
Accelerated Learning 

uses Baroque music 

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the learning process. 

Boost your memory 
with music. 




"(the supcrlearnini; method 
is) fascinating . . . Ilie resulU 
are extraordinary." 

Pitif- ijs^TencE Hall 
Han^ t'nisierste 



Hive you ever wondered why you can re- 
member the words to a song with little or no 
conscious effort? Music stimulates right brain 

i ii i i I J I I I ' J I ' ' ^ 

A - loU'Cl - tc Ccn.Ule A-lou-cl - le. A - tou-et -ic je ie ptu-me-i^ 

activity Speech is a left brain activity. When the 
two are combined, as in a song, you have left/ 
right brain linkage. You've 
used your whole brain, so 
youi^jnemory is much 
strotlger. Accelerated learning 
uses the same technique. You 
will learn the language as 
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"Atnerican ignorance of 
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7U:Nttr)brt -Times 
Seplembo- 5. 19S8 



rewards of 
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t 



JAPANESE 

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mm 

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S26S.00 S265.00 



I 



"I'ni 52 years old, and if 
someone had lold me I 
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late in a foreign language In 
four weeks, I would have 
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JiBcpb K Kradidi 
Fofii Motor Cqnjpimy 



Two language courses in one. 

Utilizing these untapped mental capacities of your 
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To correctly converse in a 
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Indiuulilisi 




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REVIEWS 



know where you have to be. 

GORDON OWENS 

IBM PC and compatibles; 512K RAM; 
CGA, EGA, MCGA, VGA, or Hercu- 
les; two floppy drives or a hard drive — 
$69.95 

POWER UP 
2929 Campus Dr. 
San Mateo, CA 94403 
(800) 851-2917 (orders) 
(415) 345-1356 

Circle Reader Service Number 357 

HOVERFORCE 

Lord DarkenilL the slime who 
controls the streets of Meta- 
City, is making another run, 
selling Aftershock, a hideous 
bioserum. But this tinne the 
mayor is determined to termi- 
nate the flow of drugs and re- 
claim his city. He's commis- 
sioned you to pilot technolo- 
gy's perfect crime preven- 
tion weapon — the HoverKill 
1000. 

In this sleek craft, you'll 
sweep through the city at 
breakneck speed and real- 
ize why Accolade calls Hover- 
Force the fastest game you'll 
ever play. It'll have you zip- 
ping around corners and mak- 
ing 180-degree turns, and 
you perform all these brilliant 
maneuvers with a mouse. 
Mastering wrist gymnastics 
may seem impossible at 
first, but soon you'll wonder 
why games ever used key- 
boards. 

The HoverKill comes with 
several weapons, shields, 
and various detection de- 
vices that keep you informed 
of what your drug-running 
opponents are up to. But 
cleaning the streets of MetaC- 
ity is no easy task, even with 
the help of topnotch gadget- 
ry. Four mutant criminals, or 
Alterants, control different 
sections of the city. You take 
them on one by one, interfer- 
ing with their drug runs when- 
ever possible. 

These masterminds have 

124 COMPUTE 




Drug lords meet their match when you pilot the deadly HoverKill. 



help; henchmen lurk in the 
shadows ready to attack in 
what scientists call neoster- 
oldal rage, a result of the Af- 
tershock that turned them in- 
to mindless automatons. 
Fighting these street thugs 
makes up most of the action 
in HoverForce. 

At night the Alterants 
move on to the next drop. 
Waste no time going after 
them, or it's back to face 
your boss, gruff Sheriff 
Stone, empty-handed. Watch- 
ing the drug runner's large 
vessel go up in smoke only 
once is not enough. As Alter- 
ants, your foes have taken 
enough Aftershock to sur- 
vive three lethal assaults. If 
you manage to beat them 
three times, though, you sim- 
ply move on to the next quad- 
rant of the city until finally 
you meet Lord Darkenill him- 
self. 

The designers graced 
HoverForce with clean, swift 
graphics, and fair, but serv- 
iceable sound effects. Fast- 
paced, full of bad guys, and 
insidiously playable, Hover- 
Force deserves a place on 
the hard drives of action 
fans everywhere. You need 
only take the controls of the 



HoverKill, and you'll be 
hooked. Hunting down Alter- 
ants is a hard habit to break, 

JONATHAN BELL 

IBM PC and compatibles, 640K RAM, 
EGA or VGA; mouse or joystick op- 
tional. Ad Lib. Sound Blaster, Roland 
MT-32, LAPC-1, and Tandy 3-voice 
sound supported— $49.95 

Also available (or Amiga— $49.95 

ACCOLADE 

550 S. Wincriester Blvd., Ste. 200 

San Jose, CA 95128 

(800) 245-7744 

Circle Reader Service Number 358 



DESIGNCAD 2-D 

Many professional CAD pro- 
grams come with so many 
bells and whistles attached 
that they seem unnavigable. 
Lightweight or stripped- 
down versions may be easi- 
er to use, but they usually 
lack the power professional 
designers demand. Enter De- 
signCAD 2-D from American 
Small Business Computers. 
With this CAD package a 
casual user can turn graph- 
ic ideas into finished draw- 
ings in minutes, yet profes- 
sionals will find that the pro- 
gram can easily handle 



most design challenges. The 
features packed into De- 
s;fifnC,4Dare especially amaz- 
ing when weighed against 
the program's low price. 

Easy to install and config- 
ure for your computer, print- 
er, plotter, or digitizer, De- 
signCAD sets your units of 
nneasure in either English or 
metric units. Files can be di- 
rected to any output device 
or port. If you use a mouse 
or digitizing tablet, these de- 
vices can easily be included 
dunng the initial installation 
process. You can also spec- 
ify aspect ratios of screen dis- 
plays and a preferred back- 
ground color for EGA or VGA 
displays. 

Once you've installed the 
program, a 60-page tutorial 
takes you through the ba- 
sics. This manual guides the 
new user through many com- 
monly used commands: 
lines, curves, arcs, circles, 
boxes, and polygons. 

Drawing commands in De- 
signCAD use points as refer- 
ences. To draw a line, 
curve, or polygon, for exam- 
ple, set a number of points 
and then select the appropri- 
ate command, A line ap- 
pears and connects the 
points. 

You can set points in a va- 
riety of ways, most common- 
ly by pressing a mouse but- 
ton. Points can also be select- 
ed by more sophisticated 
methods. Various com- 
mands set points at the near- 
est existing point on a draw- 
ing, at specified ('x.yj coordi- 
nates, or at a specified dis- 
tance and angle from the 
last point set. 

When drawing perpendic- 
ular lines for a blueprint, a 
mouse or digitizing tablet 
may be convenient, but not 
necessarily the best choice. 
Sometimes it's easier and 
more accurate to position 
the cursor with the comput- 
er's arrow keys. Regardless 



of which input device you 
use, it's a simple matter to 
set a point on one line and in- 
voke a command to create a 
perpendicular line, Another 
command adjusts lines to 
make them exactly vertical 
or horizontal. 

Should you create several 
variations of a drawing, you 
can display them simultane- 
ously on the screen. A View 
command lets you open win- 
dows to display any three 
files. You can also zoom in to 
show different details of the 
same drawing if you prefer. 
Other features include a user- 
definable icon menu that 
lets you customize your 
screen or digitizer tablet. De- 
slgnCAD supports high-res- 
olution printing on dot matrix 
and laser printers. Further- 
more, it also has its own pro- 
gramming language that 
lets advanced users create 
their own custom commands 
in a format similar to BA- 
SIC'S. Frequently used sym- 
bols can be saved as mac- 
ros and inserted with a click 
of a mouse, fvlore than 500 
symbols are supplied with 
the package. Extended mem- 
ory and a math coprocessor 
are supported but not re- 
quired, and a 360-page man- 
ual puts all Des/gnCAD com- 
mands at your fingertips in 
an easy-to-reference alpha- 
betical listing 

Version 5 of DesignCAD, 
which should be available by 
press time, will support even 
more printers, plotters, and 
digitizers and offer improved 
dimensioning techniques, 
multiple file handling, the abil- 
ity to run external programs 
from within DesignCAD, and 
many new commands. Own- 
ers of the previous version of 
DesignCAD may upgrade 
for $50. 

Fucked with powerful com- 
mands and features, De- 
signCAD's power neverthe- 
less proves easy for any us- 




mmmmmmmrm^ 



DesignCAD 2-D delivers high-end blueprints lor a low-end price. 




Freakin' Funky Fuzzballs could be the f^ifRper hit of the year 



er to harness. Its system of 
menus, keyboard com- 
mands, and shortcut key- 
strokes makes the program 
immediately accessible. For 
anyone looking for a power- 
ful yet low-cost CAD pro- 
gram, DesignCAD is an ex- 
cellent choice. 

TOM NETSEL 

IBM PC and compatibles, 640K RAM. 
graphics display, hard drive— S349 

AMERICAN SMALL BUSINESS COM- 
PUTERS 

One American Way 
Pryor. OK 74361 
(918) 825-4844 

Circle Reader Service Number 359 



FREAKIN' FUNKY 
FUZZBALLS 

Tired of shooting everything in 
sight or flying cross-country to 
blast some MiGs to their eter- 
nal rest? Try Frea/c/n' Furyky 
Fuzzballs, a refreshing 
change from most of the 
games on the shelves today. 
The idea is simple: Collect 
enough keys or cards to be 
able to get out of the level 
you're in. And every so often, 
when you reach a new level, 
you'll find yourself in a differ- 
ent world. If you're good 
enough to conquer level 15, 



you may qualify for the 
Fuzzball fHall of Fame, 

Along the way, though, 
you'llneedtoreplenishyouren- 
ergy by scarfing shakes, bur- 
gers. sundaes, andothergood- 
iesthatappear. Shields andar- 
mor can go far to further your 
progress. Numerous magical 
spells, including spellsfor con- 
fusion, invisibility, blindness, 
and enlightenment add varie- 

ty- 

Once you get started, you'll 
find it hard to quit playing this 
game. Unique and enjoyable, 
Freal<in ' Funky Fuzzballs gets 
my highest recommendation. 

RICK LEINECKER 

IBM PC and compalibles, 384K RAM 
for CGA. 512K RAM (or EGA. 640K 
RAM for VGA— $29.95 

SIR-TECH SORWARE 
RO, Box 245 
Ogdensburg, NY 13669 
(315)393-6451 

Circle Reader Service Numljer 360 



COLLEGE COST 
EXPLORER 

High school students who 
think they can't afford a col- 
lege education should take 
a look at College Cost Explor- 
er. With it you create a list of 
colleges and calculate the 
amount of aid available from 
those colleges and the 
amount you'll need to contrib- 
ute toward your expenses. 
The results could surprise 
you. 

Details on the types of 
forms you need to complete, 
deadlines for requesting aid, 
and the total costs including 
tuition, out-of-state fees (if ap- 
plicable), room and board, 
and transportation are dis- 
played along with the nanne 
of the college and its loca- 
tion. The introduction, pop- 
up menu, and online help 

125 



REVIEWS 



and glossary offer all the in- 
formation you need to apply 
for financial aid to 2900 col- 
leges and universities nation- 
wide, and all information is up- 
dated annually. Thougfi the 
process of choosing a col- 
lege remains a daunting 
one, College Cost Explorer 
promises matter-of-fact assis- 
tance. 

JOYCE SIDES 

IBM PC and compatibles, 256K 
RAM— $59.95 (1992 edition— 
$89.95) 

Also available for Apple II series — 
59.95 (1992 edition— S89,95) 

THE COLLEGE BOARD 
45 Columbus Ave. 
New York, NY 10023-6992 
(212)713-8118 

Circle Reader Service Number 361 



AFTER DARK/ 
INTERMISSION 

Screen burnout occurs 
when a bright, unchanging 
image— like the typical Win- 
dows screen — is left too 
long on the monitor. The 
bright areas "burn in," and 
the phosphors gradually die. 
Screen-saver programs pro- 
tect your monitor's display 
by blanking the screen 
when tfie computer is idle or 
when you move the cursor to 
one corner of the screen. But 
most people reaily buy a 
screen saver for the amusing 
animated graphics the pro- 
grams display during blank- 
ing. 

Two screen savers for Win- 
dows, After Darkand Intermis- 
sion, offer similar features — 
with more than thirty sets of 
screen animations between 
the two, plus password pro- 
tection. With mobile clocks, 
dragon kites, a choice of 
moire patterns, and a swarm 
of bees and wasps. Intermis- 
sion has a slight edge in 
graphic cleverness, but I did 
126 COMPUTE 




After Dark's humorous flying toasters won't permit screen burnout. 




Ot the many screens that come with Intermission, this is perhaps 
the most mesmerizing. 



like After Dark's flying toast- 
ers. After Dark's stormy city- 
scape is eye-catching, too. 
Both programs offer simple 
blanking to a black screen 
for those times when you 
don't need visual distrac- 
tions, and either of these pro- 
grams will do a satisfactory 
job of saving your screen 
from the specter of burnout. 

STEVEN Ar4Z0VIN 

After Dark 

IBM PC and compatibles. Wirydows 

3,0 or higtier- S49.95 

BERKELEY SYSTEMS 
170O Shattuck Ave. 
Berkeley. CA 94709 
(415) 540-5535 



Intermission 

IBM PC and compatibles. Windows 

3.0 or higher— $49.95 

ICOM SIMULATIONS 
648 S. Wheeling Rd. 
Wheeling, IL 60090 
(708) 520-4440 

Circle Reader Service Number 362 

PAM: PROGRAM 

AUTOMATED 

METHOD 

Despite the generic name. 
PAM is a lightning-fast rela- 
tional database with industri- 
al-strength capabilities. 
PAM consists of an appli- 



cation generator and a run 
module. Use the application 
generator to design your da- 
tabase through its associat- 
ed screens and reports. Com- 
pile it (with just a few simple 
keystrokes); then move to 
the run module to run it. At 
no time do you write a single 
line of program code. It's all 
done for you by the applica- 
tion generator. 

Application generators 
are not new. The ones includ- 
ed with the big-name data- 
bases are definitely more in- 
tuitive to use, but they usual- 
ly carry with them a hefty over- 
head that slows things 
down, fills up your hard disk, 
and empties your pocket- 
bool<. This is where RAM 
earns its market share, by be- 
ing faster, leaner, and less ex- 
pensive than other relational 
databases with comparable 
power. 

A curious but welcome 
throwback to earlier days of 
programming, PAM favors 
speed and program efficien- 
cy over glitzy, no-brainer in- 
terfaces. The code is lean 
and direct, leaving out the 
high overhead associated 
with holding the user's hand 
every step of the way to pro- 
ductivity. 

To learn PAM, set aside a 
good four- to six-hour block 
of time to work through the ex- 
cellent tutorial— 250 of the 
manual's 355 clearly written 
pages. As you progress 
through the lessons, you'll 
learn PAM's arcane key- 
strokes, and while there's 
nothing intuitive about them, 
they are definitely learnable. 
And a word of advice: Don't 
skip the tutorial— you'll only 
frustrate yourself. 

I do have a few com- 
plaints. In text fields, you 
can't use the backspace 
key. You're stuck with the 
left arrow and delete combi- 
nation. A fast typist or data en- 
try operator hits the back- 



GET THE 

OmCIAL CLUES TO THE 

HOTTEST GAMES! 



,\S' THE OFFICIAL BOOK OF 

' KING'S 



THE OFFICIAL GUIDE TO 




ConlAim tiUl hints and sttatcgiKfoi^uIving 
A'w.t's Qntft i-V a«d Iht llli=A i>n Sierr^V 
CD-ROM ikv^i>E>] 



THE OFFICIAL BOOK OF 

KING'S QUEST, 

SECOND EBITION 

Here's the source for hints, 
tips, and background for the newest 

adventure, King's Quest V. 

This new volume includes more clues, 

maps, and inside details, 

along with more ways to add even 

more fun to all five of the 

best-selling King's Quest games. 

Covers King's Quest I ■ V. 



THE OFnClAL GUIDE TD 

SID MEIER'S 

RAILROAD TYCOON 

This is the book that makes 
railroading and the game come alive. 

Inside players will find interviews 

with Sid Meier, the designer of Railroad 

Tycoon, along with facts 

on how the product was conceived 

and developed. Also 

includes formulas the program uses to 

determine income and expense. 




THE OFnCIAL GUIDE TD 

ROGER WILCffS 

SPACE ADVENTURES 

For the first time. 
Space Questers can learn what goes 

on in the mind oi the most 
legendary janitor in the universe. Inside, 

you'll find complete maps for every 
Space Quest scenario, point values for 

every reaction, and Roger's 

walk-through to the finish of all the games. 

Covers Space Quest I ■ IV. 



ri 



YES! 



I I I want more hints and tips! Please 

send me the books checked below. 

□ The Oflicial Book of King's Quest, Second Edition (2452) S12.95 
G The Oniclal Guide lo Roger Wllco's Space Adventures (237) S14.95 
D The Oflicial Guide lo Sid Meier's Railroad Tycoon (2443) S12.95 



Tolel Numb«r of Books 
Total Cost of Books Ordered 



^ 



Sales Tax (Residents of NY, NC, and NJ add appropriate sates lax for 
your area. Cai^adian orders add 7% goods and services tax.) 

Shipping and Handling: S2 per txxik U.S.; S4 Canada; 

S6 foreign 

Total Enclosed 



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Signature 



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Exp. Date . 



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Street Address . 
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All orders must be paid in U,S. (unds drawn on a U.S. bank. 

Mail this entire coupon lo: 

COMPUTE Books 
CO CCC 

2500 McCleilan Ave. 
Pennsauken, NJ 08109 

Offer good while supplies last. 




BUY BETTER-SCORE HIGHER 

WITH COMPUTE'S GUIDE TD SEGA GENESIS 




The author of 
the best-sell- > 
ing COM- 
PUTEI's Guide 
to Nintendo 
Games rates 
each game's 
features, chal- 
lenge, and 
playability, 
and includes actual play- 
ing screens so you can 
find out about the best 




TOMPUTE's 

Guide to 

SEGA 
GENESIS 



Se*v«n A. Schttnrti 



'. games before 
you buy Also 
includes strat- 
egies and su- 
per secrets to 
boost your 
scores. Sneak 
peeks at fu- 
ture games 
let you see 
what's under develop- 
ment Includes 33 reviews 
and over 60 screen shots. 



1 1 I 1 1 want to 

'• Conquer Sega! 



Copies at COMPUTE'S Guide to 

Sega Genesis at S9.95each. (2389) 

Suhtolal 

Sales Tax (Residents of NC, NV. 

and NJ add appropriate sales tax 
for your area. Canadian orders 
add 7% ooods and services tax.) 

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MAIL TO Compute Books 

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2S0D McClellan Avenue 

Pennsaukei, NJ 06109 

Please allow four lo Six weeks tor deliveiy. Offer eaod 
wliilc supplies las!. 7091 C 



space key automatically; it 
should be supported by 
PAM. And a few editing func- 
tions don't work as de- 
scribed in the manual. 

PAM packs a rich feature 
set. Fields can be set to be 
all upper- or lowercase or to 
automatically capitalize the 
first letter of each word. 
Fields can have required en- 
try or be set to accept only 
full fields. Automatic field du- 
plication, incrementing, and 
skipping are supported. Fur- 
thermore, PAM offers a ma- 
trix-table function that allows 
spreadsheetlike "what if" cal- 
culations — only much faster. 
PAM imports and exports 
standard Lotus and dBase 
files, as well as other com- 
mon formats, making your da- 
ta extremely portable. 

After the initial learning 
phase, you can easily build 
complex databases that com- 
pare well in functionality with 
the well-known database pro- 
grams. Your databases may 
not look as elegant, but 
they'll do the job. And at 
PAM's price, that's afforda- 

128 COMPUTE 




PAM puis you in direct conSrol of your database without a GUI. 



ble dependability. 

RICHARD MANN 



IBt^ PC and compatibles, 256K RAM. 
hard drive and floppy drive— S65 for 
single database (flat file), S145 lor 3 
relational databases, S245 for 6 rela- 
tional databases, S345 for 28 relation- 
al databases 

SOFTWARE COMPOSERS 
4500 Newcombe Dr. 
Piano, TX 75093-3913 
(214) 985-8018 

Circle Reader Service Number 363 



IMPERIUM 

Control of the Throygon Em- 
pire rests in your hands. As 
Emperor Amarillus, you ex- 
pand your empire from its pit- 
iful beginnings to galactic 
dominance. Accomplish this 
by colonizing productive 
worlds, some of which will, 
hopefully, produce nostrum, 
a drug that extends your life 
span and that of your com- 
patriots. Nostrum means 



life — humans usually live 
less than a century, but you 
want to rule for 1000 years. 

Competing empires are 
led by the same motives as 
yours, which means you 
face a constant struggle. 
And law requires that an elec- 
tion be held every 50 years. 
So stay sharp and don't do 
anything rash, or your peo- 
ple will vote you out, and 
you'll be emperor no more. 

Impenum requires more 
than just military prowess 
and political charm; several 
economic and diplomatic fac- 
tors must be taken into ac- 
count. Your predecessor, 
though, has left an intelli- 
gence report describing the 
responsibilities of an emper- 
or at every game turn. 

Within a single turn you 
make decisions about eco- 
nomic factors that will affect 
the wealth of your empire, as 
well as oversee the military 
and handle diplomatic af- 
fairs. You face decisions 
about which planets to sub- 
sidize so they will become 
more productive, which em- 



REVIEWS 



pires to attack and wtiich to 
befriend, and how high: or 
low import taxes should be. 

Balancing all those fac- 
tors is daunting at first, but 
you can delegate day-to-day 
control to subordinates, leav- 
ing you with the responsibili- 
ties of initiative and interven- 
tion. Do be careful; some of 
your subordinates are incom- 
petent or even disloyal, 
though they may improve 
with awards and promotion. 

You'll need to intervene of- 
ten anyway if you expect to 
win the game. Assuming 
your empire isn't destroyed 
(or you don't die from a lack 
of nostrum), Imperium lasts 
for 1000 years or until you 
conquer all other empires. 
Both veteran game players 
and novices should find /m- 
per/um addictive, but master- 
ing the game will take time 
and effort no matter what 
your level of experience. Ex- 
pect to spend several week- 
ends mastering the subtle- 
ties of dictatorship. The de- 
velopers help you out here 
by including a complete ref- 
erence to every game func- 
tion in ttie /mper/urr? manual. 
Read the italicized hints and 
save your game often as you 
try different strategies. 

Control your empire using 
the icon bar at the top of the 
screen. From this bar you 
pull down menus that pro- 
vide access to areas of con- 
cern — the military, economy, 
alliances, colony ships, sub- 
ordinates, and so on. This gra- 
phical user interface is a 
long way from the ease of 
use proclaimed by its pro- 
grammers. In a world witfi Mi- 
crosoft Windows and the Ap- 
ple fvlacintosh, Imperium's 
GtJI is frustrating by compar- 
ison. It requires too many key- 
Strokes and mouse clicks to 
navigate, For example, Impe- 
rium demands at least six key- 
strokes to enter the copy pro- 
tection information. 



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: IS Enldci: 



BeckerToois is a repiaccmant hi Wi/idows' File Manager. 



Unfortunately, Imperium 
has another major failing in 
the way of graphics. Almost 
everything appears in mono- 
chrome no matter what the vid- 
eo mode is. Does gray scale 
interest you when you have a 
VGA card? Probably not. 

I will give credit, however, 
to the sound and graphics of 
the title screen. The color 
graphic is a fair reproduction 
of the package art. And if 
you have a sound card in- 
stalled, Beethoven's Moon- 
light Sonata comes across 
well, too. Despite its outward 
appearances, Imperium 



should keep anyone who ap- 
preciates a challenge addict- 
ed — especially those with ga- 
lactic ambitions. 



„0NATHAN BELL 



IBM PC and compatibles. 512K RAM 
{640K for Tandy), CGA. EGA, VGA, 
Tandy 16-color, or Hercules; sup- 
ports Ad Lib, Sound Blaster, and Ro- 
land MT-32 sound cards: mouse op- 
tonal— $39.95 

Also available for Amiga — $39.95 

ELECTRONIC ARTS 
1620 Gateway Dr 
San Mateo. CA 94404 
(BOO) 245-4525 

Circle Reader Service Number 364 



BECKERTOOLS 
FOR WINDOWS 

Some computing enthusi- 
asts regard Windows 3.0 
with near reverence. Yet re- 
cent converts have been 
quick to point out that Wir)- 
dows' File Manager leaves 
much to be desired. Sure, 
you get conventional file and 
disk management options 
such as Copy, Move, Delete, 
Rename, Find flies. Edit text, 
and Format. Windows' File 
Manager also launches appli- 
cations. However, it handles 
these tasks in a less than el- 
egant way. Even fviicrosoft ac- 
knowledges there is room for 
improvement in File Manag- 
er, and the company prom- 
ises a performance upgrade 
by year's end, when Win- 
dows 3.1 ships. 

If you seek file manager re- 
lief now, don't despair. Beck- 
erToois may be just what you 
need to overcome File Man- 
ager's deficiencies. Once in- 
stalled, it offers dozens of 
disk and file options previous- 
ly unavailable under Win- 
dows. For example, you can 
undelete files and directo- 
ries, read disks in a single 
pass to make multiple cop- 
ies, do selective backups, 
pack (compress) or unpack 
specified files and directo- 
ries, find duplicate files, cre- 
ate a bootable System disk, 
and much more. Advanced 
users will appreciate the spe- 
cialized hexadecimal, sec- 
tor, and file editors. Any one 
of these options may be se- 
lected with the point and 
click of a mouse. 

Setup is a breeze! Becker- 
Tools installs directly from 
File Manager or from the 
DOS prompt. The applica- 
tion {along with an aestheti- 
cally pleasing screen saver 
called STARUTE)can be con- 
figured to load automatically 
with Windows. Alternatively, 

129 



REVIEWS 



you can disable automatic 
loading and elect to have 
BeckerTools and its screen 
saver sidekick added to the 
Accessories or Applications 
group. 

The first time you view the 
BeckerTools window, you 
may experience a bit of a 
shock. The screen could be 
a clip from a movie titled 
Nightmare on Icon Street. I 
counted 65 3-D icons, not in- 
cluding scroll arrows and box- 
es and title bar boxes. Luck- 
ily, whenever the cursor 
points at an icon in the Tool- 
box area, the program dis- 
plays a brief description of 
that icon at the bottom of the 
screen. For example, aim at 
the icon labeled Info, and 
the bottom line message 
reads Display directory infor- 
mation. Zero in on the icon 
with the large red X, and the 
bottom line discloses Unse- 
lect all files and directories. 
Toolbox options can also be 
invoked from pull-down men- 
us (on the menu bar) or with 
keyboard command short- 
cuts. 

The BeckerTools work- 
space is divided into five ar- 
eas. The icon-rich Toolbox 
and two windows depicting 
the contents of Source and 
Target directories occupy 
most of the screen. A menu 
bar and two additional infor- 
mation fields (one showing 
current source and target 
paths, the other displaying us- 
er and system messages or 
icon descriptions) complete 
the lineup. Unfortunately, the 
information line at the bottom 
of the screen displays icon 
descriptions only for the Tool- 
box area and not for the 
Source or Target window ar- 
eas. 

Spend some time with 
BeckerTools, and navigating 
the workspace presents little 
difficulty. To complete a 
task, you must first set up a 
Source directory. This tells 

130 COMPUTE 



the program where to iook 
when you click on a Toolbox 
icon. 

Next, establish a target 
path. Then select an icon 
(tool) from the Toolbox win- 
dow. In this way, copying or 
moving files and directories 
from one disk or directory to 
another is reduced to a few 
simple mouse clicks. Sever- 
al tools — such as Delete or 
Rename files and directo- 
ries. Create new subdirecto- 
ry. Display directory tree, 
and Format disks — do not re- 
quire a target path. 

BeckerTools offers online 
help and a choice of three 
menu displays. To minimize 
confusion, new users should 
select Beginner. Seasoned 
veterans of Wlndows-^pe in- 
terfaces may opt for the In- 
termediate feature level or Ad- 
vanced (complete) menu dis- 
play. Whatever option you 
run Seckerroo/s under, it per- 
forms flawlessly 

You can launch an appli- 
cation by selecting execut- 
able programs from a 
Source directory, double- 
clicking to pull up the Quick 
menu, and pressing 
Launch. Alternatively, you 
can launch as many as ten 
applications via a user-con- 
figurable list available from 
the Applications menu. 

As a substitute for Win- 
dows' File Manager, Becker- 
Tools offers a host of differ- 
ent utilities designed to 
please novices as well as 
techies. And since it does 
such a nice job of launching 
applications, you might even 
prefer it to Windows' Pro- 
gram Manager. 

CAROL HOL2BERG 



IBM AT and compatibles, Windows 
S.Oor later— $129,95 

ABACUS 

5370 52nd SI. SE 

Grand Rapids. Ml 49512 

(800)451-4319 

Circle Reader Service Number 355 



WILL BUILDER 

Few of us welcome the pros- 
pect of writing a will, and of- 
ten the document remains un- 
written until it's too late. 
While the average person 
probably has some hazy ide- 
as about what's required, the 
specifics are a problem, and 
people are reluctant to pay 
a lawyer for advice. 

Will Builder offers a partial 
solution. It educates, and it 
helps you prepare docu- 
ments that you might other- 
wise dread preparing, wheth- 
er for their supposed com- 
plexity or simply for their 
gloomy nature. A 240-page 
companion book (prepared 
by two attorneys) explains 
the processes of creating a 
will, assigning power of attor- 
ney appointing an executor, 
and writing a living will. You'll 
find further explanations in 
the program itself, along 
with a rather lengthy index. 
The user interface looks and 
feels a tad primitive, devoid 
of many of the visual niceties 
we've grown to expect from 
software. But since the pro- 
gram doesn't have a lot of 
functional depth, it doesn't 
require much operational 
assistance. 

Will Builder meets its sim- 
ple goal and takes you by 
the hand to walk you 
through the process of pre- 
paring legal documents relat- 
ing to the handling of your es- 
tate after your death. You 
can also put together docu- 
ments that give other individ- 
uals named by you power to 
make certain decisions on 
your behalf about your right 
to die, should you become se- 
riously incapacitated. 

Will Builder will tailor your 
documents to meet the re- 
quirements of your home 
state's laws and is equipped 
to address many of the spe- 
cial issues that have be- 
come commonplace in late 



twentieth-century life in this 
country — personal affairs 
like single parenthood, step- 
parenting, and unmarried 
life partners. 

Done simply, this process 
requires answers to a few per- 
sonal questions, explains 
what the law requires in each 
matter discussed, and then 
fills in the blanks of prede- 
signed legal documents 
based on your responses. As 
with any software of this sort, 
a disclaimer in the program 
suggests that you employ le- 
gal assistance if you're at all 
unsure of anything. 

If you follow the steps care- 
fully and thoroughly read 
and understand the refer- 
ence material provided, 
your documents should be 
as legal as those prepared 
by an attorney, though the 
software designers cannot 
take responsibility for any 
problems that might arise. 
You are, in essence, choos- 
ing to act as your own law- 
yer by taking on this task us- 
ing a software package 
alone. 

Costing less than the av- 
erage 60-minute period in an 
attorney's office. Will Builder 
contains more general infor- 
mation than a lawyer could 
easily dispense in that period 
of time. For savings like that, 
many of us would brave the 
difficulty of completing our 
own legal paperwork. If you're 
willing to be your own coun- 
sel in one area of your legal 
affairs or if you want to be bet- 
ter informed when you do con- 
sult an attorney, Will Builder's 
worth a look. 

KATHY YAKAL 



IBM PC and compatibles, 512K RAM, 
hard disk— $59.95 

SYBAR 

2021 Challenger Dr. 
Alameda, CA 94501 
(800) 227-2346 



Circle Reader Service Number 366 



ABC 
FLOWCHARTER 

I've never liked flow charts 
and never thought I would. 
Roykore's ABC Flowcharter, 
however, has changed my 
mind. Drawing upon Micro- 
soft Windows' advanced 
graphics capabilities, the at- 
tractive and flexible ABC 
Flowcharter receives high 
marks for functionality. 

Programmers use flow 
charts to chart out a pro- 
gram before writing a single 
line of code. A visual repre- 
sentation of a program, flow 
charts depict certain actions 
with different shapes; a call 
for user input might appear 
in the form of a blue circular 
box, while a message written 
to the screen may be placed 
in a rectangular red box. 
Lines denote relationships be- 
tween the shapes, and text 
within a shape further ex- 
plains that shape's function. 

If you find traditional out- 
liners too confining. ABC 
Flowcharter provides a gra- 
phical approach to structur- 
ing information; you just 
move shapes around with 
your mouse naturally and eas- 
ily. Programmers will find 
that this program has the pow- 
er to accommodate today's 
complex software design — 
a single chart can hold over 
32,000 shapes. Office man- 
agers can use ABC Flowchar- 
ferto map office procedures; 
because it's essentially a 
minihypertext system, ABC 
Flowcharter could assist in 
creating training exercises. 

Say you want to create a 
simple training exercise. You 
create a series of shapes sig- 
nifying the various steps 
needed to perform a task, 
along with iines denoting the 
logical procedure. Highlight- 
ed by red shapes, important 
tasks stand out; explanatory 
notes, denoted by blue 



shapes, don't clamor for at- 
tention but wait in the wings. 
(Since ABC Flowcharter 
ships with 30 different 
shapes built in, you 
shouldn't run out soon.) 

But wait — you realize that 
the user could take an entire- 
ly different course of action, 
and you don't want to clutter 
up your main chart with the 
new branch. No problem: Be- 
cause ABC Flowcharter of- 
fers a three-dimensional ef- 
fect, you can link the main 
chart with a subchart. You 
can uncover any shape 
linked to another shape with 
a simple click of the mouse 
button, Subcharts can link to 
subcharts, and thanks to a 
command that shows every 
aspect of your flow chart, 
you'll never lose track of 
your logic. 

However, a few inconven- 
iences and inconsistencies 
in ABC Flowcharter w'\\\ drive 
you to distraction, especially 
if you work exclusively within 
the Windows environment. 
Written for earlier versions of 
the program, the manual 
doesn't reflect the changes 
made for Windows 3.0. The 
failure to place the Close com- 
mand under the File menu 
may have been technically 
correct, but its omission still 
annoys the end user. 

Otherwise well presented, 
ABC Flowcharter should 
serve the needs of virtually 
any computer user. Flow 
charts can prove more use- 
ful than you might expect, 
and if you need to create 
lots of them, you'll want to 
use ABC Flowcharter 

KEVIN REICHARD 



IBM PC AT and compatibles, Win- 
dows 2,11 or later, hard disk with at 
east 1MB of free space— $295 

ROYKORE 

22 IS Filbert St. 

San Francisco. CA 94123-3413 

(415) 563-9175 

Circle Reader Service Number 367 



*Enter ^notfier WoHd 
Wfiere the Living 

art 
Among the ^exv 

CRUSADERS 

of the 
DARK SAVANT 

The Sequel to Bane of the Cosmic Forge 

CIrcte Reader Servtce Number 192 



FINAL ORBIT 

Fans of vertically scrolling 
shoot-'em-ups will enjoy Fi- 
nal Orbit, even though its 
plot is a variation on an old 
theme. Stranded on a plan- 
et, you must battle your way 
through nine levels to its 
core and destroy it before gar- 
bage bags and other intelli- 
gent waste destroy you. 

Due to awkward steering 
controls and the sheer num- 
ber of adversaries, the 
game is difficult even in its 
easiest mode. Fortunately, 



you can pick up more pow- 
erful weapons and play simul- 
taneously with a friend. The 
graphics and animation are 
stupendous — this one will 
put you in orbit. 

LEN POGGIALI 

IBM PC and connpatibles, 640K RAM, 
CGA. EGA, VGA, or Tandy 16-color; 
joystick optional, supports Ad Lib 
sound card— S34.9S 

INNERPRISE SOFTWARE 
128 Cockeysville Rd. 
Hunt Valley, MD 21030 
(301)785-2266 

Circle Reader Service Number 368 




Final Orbit pits you against a planetlul of animate garbage. 



131 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 

FOR 

COMPUTE DISK 

SUBSCRIBERS 

COMPUTE Offers two different disk 
products for PC readers: tlie 
SharePak disk and PC Disk. SharePak 
is monthly and ties a subscription 
price of $59.95 for 5Va-incti disks 
and $64.95 for 3'/2-inch disks. A 
subscription to SharePak does not 
include a subscription to ttie maga- 
zine. PC Disk appears in even- 
numbered monttis and tias a sub- 
scription price of $49.95, wtiichi 
includes a subscription to ttie PC 
edition of COMPUTE. You can sub- 
scribe to eithier disk or to botti, but a 
subscription to one does not include 
a subscription to ttie ottier. 



REVIEWS 



aBERGENIC 
RANGER 

A massive, state-of-the-art ar- 
cade game, Cybergenic 
Ranger consumes almost 
five megabytes of disk 
space, requires at least a 12- 
MHz macfiine with EGA vid- 
eo (VGA is infinitely better), 
and deserves every bit of the 
pampering you give it. 



The story is lovingly de- 
tailed in a professionally pro- 
duced comic book, a comic 
that also serves as copy pro- 
tection (you have to enter a 
randomly chosen word from 
the book before you can 
start). While the plot is pulp, 
the graphics are (dare I say 
it?) out of this world. If you've 
been waiting for a game 
whose makers had the guts 
to leave CGA behind, wait 




Cybergenic Ranger's striking advanced graphics bring arcade 
standards home to your PC. 

132 COMPUTE 



no longer. Cybergenic Rang- 
er features scrolling back- 
grounds for a true arcade 3- 
D effect. As you move the 
character through scenery, 
objects further back move 
more slowly than objects 
near the front. Digitized mu- 
sic plays remarkably well 
through the PC speaker, 
though of course the Sound 
Blaster and Ad Lib boards of- 
fer superior sound. 

While there are some ho- 
hum space battles, interest- 
ing travel on the surface of 
seven different moons and 
planets more than compen- 
sates. Quick-moving, 256- 
color monsters left me with 
the impression that I should 
have been feeding quarters 
into my 386; Cybergenic 
Ranger pushes the machine 
to the limit and is every bit as 
exciting as a visit to your 
neighborhood arcade. 

TOM CAMPBELL 

IBM PC and compatibles. 640K RAM. 
EGA or VGA, 4.9M8 disk space; 
Sound Blaster and Ad Lib sound 
cards supporled— $49.95 

{Editor's note — Owners of earlier ver- 
sions of Cytxrgenic Ranger receive 
a free upgrade supporting sound 
cards and a joystick. Call the toll-free 
number listed below.) 

SYMTUS 
RO. Box 912 
Palacios, TX 77465 
(800) 255-2374 

Circle Reader Service Number 369 

STUDYWARE FOR 
THE GRE 

Some friends of mine took 
the Graduate Record Exam 
when they were fresh out of 
undergraduate school. 
Smart move. Not only do you 
start to lose test-taking skills 
shortly after graduation, but 
that mass of knowledge that 
you built up for a diploma 
starts to fade away pretty 
quickly, too. Depending on 
what kind of higher degree 



you're after, those GRE 
scores can be quite impor- 
tant. And whenever you take 
the test, some studying may 
be in order. Based on actual 
current exams. StudyWare 
for the GRE allows your prep- 
aration time to be focused 
and well used. If you're com- 
fortable using the computer, 
then SiudyWare may be an 
appealing study tutor 

The program is broken 
down into two main areas of 
preparation: the StudyWare 
test preparations and 
course reviews, and an elec- 
tronic version of Cliffs GRE 
Preparation Guide. (Remem- 
ber Cliffs Wofes? Those inor- 
dinately helpful little booklets 
with yellow and black 
stripes?) 

You can take the Stu- 
dyWare tests in either Test 
mode (which operates like a 
real examination, only allow- 
ing you to answer questions) 
or Tutor mode (which gives 
you immediate feedback, tell- 
ing you whether you an- 
swered a question correctly 
and supplying the right one 
if you didn't, along with a 
brief explanation). 

In many cases, Stu- 
dyWare can supply addition- 
al information before you an- 
swer a question, to help you 
make the correct choice. If 
you're in Tutor mode and 
don't know the definition of a 
word, you can look it up in 
the built-in glossary. In math- 
ematical areas, you can pe- 
ruse online charts and 
graphs as study aids. 

Available tests gauge and 
sharpen your quantitative, ver- 
bal, and analytical abilities. 
In the verbal area, for exam- 
ple, choose to test yourself 
in areas like sentence com- 
pletion, analogies, and read- 
ing comprehension. Quanti- 
tative exams analyze your 
abilities in standard mathe- 
matical subjects. 

StudyWare for itie GRE 



comes with a paper copy 
of Cliffs GRE Preparation 
Guide; it is awkward to use 
this portion of thie program — 
you must read tfie test ques- 
tions out of tliat document 
and answer ttnem on tfie elec- 
tronic answer form witfiin tfie 
software. 

You can operate ttie pro- 



IBW PC and compatibles. 256K 
RAM— $49.95 

Also available for Apple II— S49.95 
and Macinlosh— S49.95 

STUDYWARE 

4760 Murphy Canyon Rd., Ste. A 

San Diego. CA 92123 

(619)495-0190 

Circle Reader Service Number 370 




Through dash and daring, the lead in the Space Ace space opera 
saves the day and gets the girl 



gram ttirougti eitlier tfie 
mouse or tfie keyboard, and 
tfie user interface is ele- 
mentary enougfi tfiat little 
use of the accompanying 
brief manuals is required. Stu- 
dyWare monitors your pro- 
gress and reports on your lev- 
el of success at the end of 
each section. 

Gloomy projections regard- 
ing the job market for this 
year'sgraduatingcoliegesen- 
iors may prompt many of 
them to remain in academia 
instead of job-hunting imme- 
diately, in the hopes that a 
higher degree may help 
them nab a better position in 
the real world. If you're one 
of these seniors or if you're 
trying to return to school af- 
ter being out in the work 
force for a few years, invest 
in StudyWare for the GRE 
and give yourself a decided 
edge. 

KATHY YAKAL 



SPACE ACE 

In this interactive cartoon 
loosely derived from the pop- 
ular Dragon's Lair series, you 
take on the persona of 
Space Ace as he struggles 
to stop Commander Borf 
fromtransformingEarth'spop- 
ulation into infants. Space 
Ace has already been mildly 
affected by Borf's infanto ray 
and so keeps metamorphos- 
ing into a weakling kid 
named Dexter. Reverse ag- 
ing sure doesn't make his mis- 
sion any easier! 

Before you reach the end 
of your quest, you'll ma- 
neuver Space Ace/Dexter 
through dozens of colorful 
scenes. The animation is 
smooth and cartoonlike, and 
the digitized sounds, voices, 
and music are clear and 
crisp. {A sound card is re- 
quired.) Dragon's Lair fans 
will not want to miss this 



^nd the visions 

Appeared 

as they never had 

before 

CRUSADERS 

of the 
DARK SAVANT 

Now with 256-color VGA Graphics 

circle Ftsodtr Service Number 192 



engaging space epic. 

CLAYTON WALr^JUM 

IBM PC and compatibles: 640K RAM; 
CGA, EGA, VGA, or Tandy 16-colar; 
floppy or hard drive: supports Ad Lib 
and Sound Blaster sound cards; 
ioystick oplional— S59.95 

Also available for Amiga— $59.95, Ap- 
ple llGS-$59.95, Atari ST— $5995, 
and Macintosh-"S59-95 

READYSOFT 
30WertheimCt., Unit 2 
Richmond Hill, ON 
Canada L4B 189 
(416) 731-4175 

Circle Reader Service Number 371 



ARACHNOPHOBIA 

On a dark and bug-infested 
night, deep in the steamy jun- 
gles of South America, an 
arachnid steals passage on 
a plane headed for the 
United States. Immediately 
upon arrival, it mates with 
harmless domestic spiders. 
Hordes of oversize, poison- 
ous offspring result, ready to 
take on the world, 

The deadly new species re- 
produces at an alarming 
rate. One town after another 
falls prey to the infestation. Bit- 



ten humans drop like flies. On- 
ly Delbert McClintock, ace ex- 
terminator, and his Spider In- 
festation Control Team can 
eradicate the poisonous 
threat. Loosely based on the 
plot of a movie by the same 
title, Disney's Arachnopho- 
bia weaves a web of arcade 
action that's sure to keep 
you busy for several hours. 

As Delbert, you maneuver 
your truck through seven spi- 
der-infested towns on life- 
threatening arachnid search- 
and-destroy missions. Your 
goal: Locate and terminate 
the Queen, mother of all spi- 
ders. Only when the Queen 
has been throttled can you 
proceed to the next town. 
But every town has several 
buildings to explore, and 
each building has loads of 
surprises — mostly of the 
eight-legged variety Obliter- 
ate all the bugs in a building 
and save defenseless hu- 
man victims along the way to 
earn extra bug bombs. Ter- 
minate every Queen on the 
home front, and you can clob- 
ber critters in the heart of the 
Amazon rain forest. 

Realistic bug-crunching 

133 



REVIEWS 



sound effects, digitized hu- 
man speecfi, and an eerie 
musical score really give you 
thie creeps wfnen you plug Dis- 
ney's inexpensive ($34.95) 
Sound Source periptieral in- 
to your computer's parallel 
port. Don't go on a bug raid 
without it! Arachnophobia's 
animation is so well de- 
signed and the sound ef- 
fects so authentic that you'll 
be watching where you 
plant your feet long after you 
shut down your computer, 

Easy to play, Arachnopho- 
bia nevertheless proves dif- 
ficult to win. While carrying 
out your mission, you must 
avoid the menacing little mon- 
sters, each intent on biting 
you. Use your Toxi-fvlax insec- 
ticide to fumigate every spi- 
der and egg sac. Domestic 
Soldiers succumb easily to a 
single spray of the bug gun. 
They also squish underfoot if 
you stomp them. 

Heavy-footed boot tech- 
niques won't work on Queen 
spiders and South American 
beasties. These bugs re- 
quire massive doses of Toxi- 
Max or the firepower availa- 
ble from an aerosol flame- 
thrower. Be prepared to 
meet your maker if you run 
out of Toxi-fvlax at an inoppor- 
tune moment. Delbert's com- 
pany vehicle has a never- 
ending supply, but when you 
leave a house before locat- 
ing the Queen, the building 
repopulates with spiders! 
You'll need that unlimited in- 
secticide. 

Delbert can sustain up to 
four Soldier spider bites be- 
iore dying. He can suffer on- 
ly two bites from a Queen 
and merely a single chomp 
from the macho South Amer- 
ican menace. Restore his 
health with a quick shot of an- 
tivenin, if you can locate the 
first-aid kit. Pummel an egg 
sac, and the directional ar- 
row on the Bugometer com- 
pass will point you in the di- 



rection of the Queen. 

Follow Delbert's tech- 
niques, and you will live long 
and profit. Slip up once too 
often, and your days as an 
Arachnid Abatement Techni- 
cian are numbered. Arachno- 
phobia may not offer many in- 
tellectual challenges, but ac- 
tion games don't necessarily 



EGA, MCGA, VGA, or Tandy 16-col- 
or: joyslick optional— $49,95 

Also available for Amiga — 49.95 and 
Commodore 64/128— S29.95 

DISNEY SOFTWARE 
SOO S. Buena Vista St. 
Burbank, CA 91521 
{818)841-3326 



Circle Reader Service Number 372 




Spiders make themselves at home in Arachnophobia. 




Automate your card file with YourWay. 



require tedious puzzles. 
Grab your Toxi-ivlax and go 
on a bug hunt! 

CAROL HOLZBERG 



IBI\/1 PC and compatibles. 512K RAM 
(640K with Sound Source), CGA, 



YOURWAY 

Though YourWay is often re- 
viewed as a personal informa- 
tion manager (PIM), Prisma 
Software prefers to call it a 
Personal Productivity Worksta- 



tion. What's that? It turns out 
to be a contact manage- 
ment-based program that 
handles schedules, phones, 
to-do lists, and basic written 
communication centered on 
the personal information da- 
tabase that's the hub of an of- 
fice worker's day. 

Viewed as traditional PIM, 
YourWay has shortcomings. 
Once you understand its ob- 
jectives, however, you'll find 
that it's right on target. 

YourWay is designed to au- 
tomate an office worker's 
card file of contacts, with au- 
tomatic dialing, scheduling, 
letter writing, and a historical 
record of all contacts. 

It all revolves around a sim- 
ple card file. {As a Windows 
3,0 program, YourWay pre- 
sents the cards graphically 
onscreen.) Simply label the 
fields you want on each 
card; thereafter the field 
names appear on every 
card. In the word processor, 
you can design letter tem- 
plates that pull address data 
from the cards, or you can 
simply write a letter while the 
addressee's card is on top of 
the pile. In either case, the let- 
ter will be logged into the 
card's note field, which 
could be thought of as a 
large piece of paper folded 
and stapled to the back of 
the index card. 

To call someone, pull up 
that card and have the com- 
puter dial lor you. As you 
talk, add directly to the note 
field. The call and certain ba- 
sic information about it will 
be logged into the note field 
automatically. 

To schedule time, pull up 
the calendar; put the card 
for the person involved on 
top of the pile. Enter the 
event on the calendar, and 
an automatic notation ap- 
pears in the card's note 
space. 

Use the to-do list— present- 
ed as a drawing of a clip- 



134 



COMPUTE 



board with four lists in priori- 
ty order — to track tasks witti- 
out specific deadlines. 
Again, entries post to ttie 
note field of the top card. 

Launch applications direct- 
ly from YourWay by putting 
the associated filename on 
an index card. If you need a 
certain spreadsheet when 
you talk to the boss on the 
phone, fof example, put the 
filename on his or her card. 
Click on it, and VourM/ay sum- 
mons the spreadsheet. 

For any serious word proc- 
essing, you'll want to launch 
your regular word processor. 
VourlVay automatically pass- 
es your text to the Windows 
clipboard; just paste it into 
your mainline word proces- 
sor and continue. While less 
versatile than \NrHe (the pro- 
gram that comes with Wm- 



vidual cards and type extra- 
neous material anywhere on 
a card- While useful, this fea- 
ture sometimes proves dis- 
concerting. 

YourWay provides tightly 
integrated contact manage- 
ment and history, with basic 
functions that are easily aug- 
mented by fulf-function appli- 
cations. While this clever pro- 
gram isn't exactly my way, it 
could easily be yours. 

RICHARD MANN 

IBM PC and compalibtes, hard disk 
wilti 2MB available, 286 or higher mi- 
croprocessor, Windows 3.0 or high- 
er, mouse — $199 

PRISMA SOFTWARE 

2301 Clay Sl- 

Cedar Falls, lA 50613-9990 

(800) 747-0319 

(319) 266-7141 

Circle Reader Service Number 373 




Miami's no placa to go on vacation in Fountain of Dreams. 



dows), YourWay's word proc- 
essor possesses a surprising- 
ly robust spelling checker 
and thesaurus that might 
prove useful. 

Some may find the index 
cards themselves confusing. 
The field names are there, 
but they're not like those in 
any other database you've 
used before. You can enter 
as much text as you'd fike in 
each field — they're all free- 
form text fields. You can 
even delete fields from indi- 



FOUNTAIN OF 
DREAMS 

Mutant rats? Homicidal beach- 
combers? Killer clowns? In 
the nuclear war-ravaged en- 
virons of fvliami that serve as 
the setting for Fountain of 
Dreams, radiation levels 
may be high, but the silli- 
ness indicator jumps off the 
meter. 

The plot calls for you to lo- 
cate the source of the pre- 



/ fiave died 

of untoCd guiCt 

and horror f 

but my secret is safe— 

for now 

CRUSADERS 

of the 
DARK SAVANT 

As rich a tale as ever fold 



Clrele Reader Service Number 1 92 



clous Dream Water, the only 
known curative for the horri- 
ble mutations threatening to 
overwhelm the remaining 
pockets of "civilization." Fac- 
tional strife among the differ- 
ent groups vying for control 
of Miami adds a bit of in- 
trigue to the story line, but 
this is an adventure where 
brawn rather than brains will 
carry the day. Combat oc- 
curs frequently, whether 
you're spoiling for a fight or 
not. And if one of the bizarre 
beasties or bad guys 
doesn't get you, the tedium 
of resolving the interminable 
battles might. 

Not for the gun-shy, Foun- 
tain of Dreams is for players 
who prefer to approach the 
unknown with one eye glued 
to the sights of an M-16 as- 
sault rifle. 

JEFF SEIKEN 

IBM PC and compalibles, 512K RAM, 
EGA, MCGA, or VGA— S49.95 

ELECTRONIC ARTS 
1820 Gateway Dr. 
San Mateo, CA 94404 
(8m) 245-4525 



Circle Reader Service Number 374 



NEGOTIATOR PRO 

Scads of books, audiotapes, 
and training sessions have 
been dedicated to the deli- 
cate art of negotiating. Now 
there's a software program 
that promises to provide ex- 
pert advice molded to fit 
your negotiating style and, 
moreover, to propose strate- 
gies that will help you work 
effectively to reach a mutual- 
ly agreeable solution. 

Negotiator Pro is based 
on 15 leading books, includ- 
ing the best-selling Getting 
to Yes, and draws on such no- 
table experts as Roger 
Dawson, author of several 
helpful audiotape programs 
and books. One of the pro- 
gram's strengths is its hy- 
pertext system, an online 
help tool that lets you see def- 
initions of highlighted terms. 
If another term in the defini- 
tion is highlighted, you can 
read that explanation as 
well. Hypertext allows you to 
perform research by free as- 
sociation, a very pleasant ex- 
perience that stimulates cre- 
ative thinking. You'll find re- 
lated terms, definitions, strat- 
135 



REVIEWS 



egies, and tips that you 
might not otherwise unearth 
using a printed text. You'll 
find the information when 
you need it so you can use 
it for maximum effect. 

First, categorize your nego- 
tiating style. Negotiator Pro 
asks ten questions concern- 
ing your style of time manage- 
ment, use of threats, meth- 
ods of revealing information, 
and likelihood of giving con- 
cessions, The results lell you 
whether you are cooperative 
or competitive. You repeat 
the process for your oppo- 
nent. 

How well does this system 
work? I left one question 
blank because 1 couldn't de- 
cide how to answer Howev- 
er, when Negotiator Pro 
read my other answers, it sug- 



gested how 1 would have an- 
swered that question — a 
nice touch that makes me be- 
lieve that you can get a fairly 
good idea of personality 
styles based on just a few 
questions. However, I had lim- 
ited information for my oppo- 
nent and can't believe that 
Negotiator Pro could have 
made an intelligent guess on 
answers that I really wasn't 
sure of. Still, if you have 
some knowledge of your op- 
ponent, this tool could pro- 
vide further useful insights. 
The computer selects the 
most effective negotiating 
style and displays sugges- 
tions on the screen. For in- 
stance, I have an amiable 
style, as does my opponent. 
The computer advised this 
strategy: Be somewhat like 



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• 1 mb memory (exp to 4) 

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■ Optional VGA monitor 




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14- S-VGA monitor 

Send/receive fax machine 

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Largest 
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136 




them: be friendly and infor- 
mal. Ask personal questions. 
Be nonthreatening, consis- 
tent, and professional. Don't 
push too hard, but gently 
use objective criteria and 
time limits to help the amia- 
ble reach closure. Be reassur- 
ing and stress the benefits to 
alt the people that would 
flow if your interests are ful- 
filled. Show how everyone 
benefits in a win-win out- 
come. This paragraph con- 
tains a lot of practical ad- 
vice. 

The next step involves the 
creation of an action plan 
and briefing book to guide 
your team through the nego- 
tiating process. The program 
presents an outline of 35 stag- 
es of negotiating, such as 
opening gambits, midpoint 
tactics, and approaches to 
closing. After you select a top- 
ic, the computer takes you to 
a small word processor, 
which allows you type your 
ideas, goals, and strategies. 

If you're strapped for 
time. Negotiator Pro v/Wl pre- 
sent you with the top ten out- 
line topics. Whichever meth- 
od you choose, you can also 
import text from other pro- 
grams, so if you assign part 
of the plan to others, you 
won't fnave to reenter the 
text — merely integrate their 
work with yours. When 
you've finished, you can 
print the document and pre- 
sent il to each member of 
your team. The publisher 
stresses this feature be- 
cause if participants enter 
the negotiating sessions in lat- 
ter stages, they will have the 
benefit of reading this mas- 
ter plan to gain insight into 
the other side's negotiating 
character and your side's 
goals and strategies. 

While clear, the manual 
could be better organized. It 
includes 35 pages of defini- 
tions and negotiating tips, 
but not all the hypertext 



terms are listed. Why were 
some terms and strategies in- 
cluded but not others? What 
was the distinction? The man- 
ual does contain a wealth of 
information, but it is present- 
ed in alphabetical order, rath- 
er than categorized by strat- 
egies or skills, In short, the 
material is interesting, but 
not as valuable as it would 
be with more logical organi- 
zation. 

Each time you use the pro- 
gram, you must specify the 
appropriate batch file to 
load your computer's mon- 
itor type. This is a minor flaw, 
but a dated process. You al- 
so must unload all TSRs as 
the program uses all 640K 
memory I failed to do this in- 
itially and found myself wait- 
ing literally 15 minutes as the 
computer displayed a collect- 
ing memo/'y message on the 
screen, which led me to be- 
lieve the computer was work- 
ing. In reality, the computer 
was hung up, A toll call to 
the company for support re- 
sulted in a phone message 
and the promise of a return 
call the next day The cour- 
teous chief programmer 
called with the answer the 
next morning. Despite the 
flaws with the manual and in- 
stallation, Negotiator Pro w\\ 
help you organize your 
thoughts, brainstorm, and 
gain insight into your own 
needs and wants as well as 
those of your opponents. 
That's a pretty good compro- 
mise. 

DANIEL JANAL 

IBM AT and compatibles; 640K RAfvl; 
hard disk; CGA, EGA, VGA, or Her- 
cules -$299, Library of Negotia- 
tions— $49 

Also available for fvlacintosti Plus or 
better— $299 

BEACON EXPERT SYSTEIVIS 
35 Gardner Rd. 
Brookllne. MA 02146 
(617) 738-9300 

Circle Reader Service Number 375 



Advertisers Index 



Readsr Service Kumber/Advertlser Page 

159 900 Software 140 

175 Access Software 91 

142 AclJon Management 140 

153 AV Disfributors 136 

162 Bare Bones Software A-13 

112 BOBCO G-17 

207 CH Products 59 

166 Citizen American Cotp 13 

182 Commodore 69 

161 Compsult G-17 

103 CompuServe ...- - 17 

124 Computer Book Club 73 

230 Computer Business Services 141 

114 Computer Direct 52, 53 

137 Covox 138 

Damark 79 

120 DCS Industries 67 

202 Delptii 64 

131 DemoSource 140 

171 Dipital Micronics A-19 

Disk-Count Software 141 

189 Franklin Electronic 7 

205 GEnie 3 

149 GFXBase A-15 

123 Gold Hill 61 

155 GQSch Productions A-18 

197 The Grapevine Group G-17 

128 The Grapevine Group G-17 

104 The Grapevine Group 139 

164 Great Cover-Ups A-19 

156 Heme Data Systems 142 

117 Holosoft Technologies A-27 

190 I. Leonard Co 142 

183 Lucky Computer ..141 

127 LWS Software 138 

Mark Williams 75 

106 McGee Software IBC 



Reader Service Number/Advertiser Page 

146 Meggido A-7 

MicroLogic 25 

155 MicroLytics 63 

138 MicroMlga A-29 

140 MicroProse 23 

110 MicroProse 101 

150 Micro-Tech USA 142 

160 Modern Language 21 

186 Montgomery Grant A-3 

187 Montgomery Grant G-3 

133 Motion Blur Publishing A-18 

113 Mutual of New York 138 

National Videotex Network 85 

135 Natural Graphics A-27 

147 NSI Computer Products 42, 43 

181 Origin 15 

129 Pardise Software G-13 

194 Parsons Technology 5 

143 Prodigy 34 

Professionat Cassette 122, 123 

151 Professor Jones 139 

168 Psygnosis 95 

116 SeXXy Software 142 

167 Shark Byte Software A-IB 

144 Sierra OnLlne BC 

192 Sir-Tech 131. 133. 135 

109 Sman Luck 142 

241 Software olthe Month CluS 142 

126 SoftShoppe, Inc 142 

163 Softv/are Excitement A-5 

SOGWAP G-23 

152 Spectrum HoloDyle 11 

SSI ...109 

130 Stanware Publishlna 142 

170 Tenex G-9 

134 The Krueger Company A-29 

132 The Other Guys A-11 



Reader Service Number/Advertiser Pagd 

195 Universal Memory 38.39 

198 Villa Crespo 139 

105 Virgin Games 115 

179 Virgin Games 104, 105 

178 Virgin Games 102. 103 

172 Wedgewood Computer A-21 

smP9 WOUNational Learning Systems 9 

s«P3i WOL'LearninQ Adventure 31 

206 WOUInternational Schools 81 

145 ZEDS International IPC, 1 



Amiga Resource Disk Subscription A-21 

Amiga Resource Subscription 137 

COMPUTE Books 117, 127 

Gazette Disk Library G-9 

Gazette Disk Subscription G-14 

Gazette Index G-23 

Gazette Productivity Manager G-11 

PC Power Disk Subscription 77 

PC Productivity Manager 89 

SharePak Disk Subscription 27 

SpeedScript Disk G-15 



Available exclusively by subscriptionl 

COMPUTE'S Amiga Resource edition 

Your authoritative source for Amiga information 



Amiga owners: Each month, the Amiga Resource edition of COMPUTE 

brings you all the news, reviews, and home office information found in the 

regular newsstand edition of COMPUTE, plus a special section devoted 

exclusively to Commodore's 

multitasking marvel— the Amiga Resource includes: 

Amiga. Whether you use 

your Amiga for multimedia, 

games, video, desktop 

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141 



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143 



CONVERSATIONS 



Peter Scisco 



GAMES ARE US 

COMPUTE: What's in store for 
computer games in the next 
three years? 

Trip Hawkins: 1 think what 
tlie consumer cares about is 
ttie audiovisual realism of the 
experience, There's a big 
leap from 8-bit to 16-bit. On 
the Sega Genesis and the Su- 
per Nintendo, tfie grapfiics 
look as good as EGA graphics 
and even better, because the 
animation is very good. 

C: Will we see the same 
kind of explosion we saw with 
the 8-bit NES happening with 
these 16-bit systems? 

Hawkins: Yes, in fact it's hap- 
pening right now. It's related 
to two factors. The smaller fac- 
tor .. . is the growth of the 
home office market. A lot of 
consumers who are home of- 



At the Consumer 

Eiectronjcs 

Show COMPUTE'S 

Edilor In Chief 

Peter Scisco caught 

up with Trip 

Hawldns, ctialrman 

of Electronic 

Alls, for some gamy 

conversation. 




fice workers are going to buy 
an IBfvl compatible, and once 
they make ttie decision to get 
one, they can do a lot of differ- 
ent things with it, including 
entertainment. Videogames 
have a far more dramatic 
growth pattern because of the 
price point of the hardware. 
Plus, you've got 30 million 
households that were brought 
up on the 8-bit videogame sys- 
tems. You only need a fraction 
of those to switch over to the 
16-bit [market] that's already 
as big as the IBfvl floppy disk 
market. 

C; If 16-bit videogame sys- 
tems become that successful, 
will developers abandon the 
personal computer? 

Hawkins: A high-end flight 
simulator like Chuck Yeager's 
Air Combat — you can't do 
that kind of a product on a vid- 
eogame system. It needs to 
have bitmapped graphics and 
a lot of memory space. You 
can't do really fast polygon ren- 
dering, which is the technique 
used in flight simulators. We're 
still going to bring some of our 
simulations technology down 
to the videogames, but we 
can't do it at the same level. 
Other than that, if you have a 
good game, you're going to 
put it on all of the machines. 
C: Define multimedia and 
its role in entertainment. 

Hawkins: Here's what it 
means to me. It has to be in- 
teractive, If it's not inter- 
active, then why both- 
er? There are all kinds 
of digital technology 
being brought to au- 
dio and video, which 
is fine. But to call it 
multimedia and say 
it's a new business — 
well, what's new 
about it? It has to be in- 
teractive to really be 
new. 
C: Define interactive. 
Hawkins: It's to be con- 
trasted with passive, if 1 
am watching television 



and the information is all one 
way, the oniy way I interact 
with my TV is by pressing but- 
tons on my remote. 

C: How is that different 
from an arcade game? Just 
pressing a fire button — / 
wouldn't call that interactive. 

Hawkins: There's a lot more 
going on than that, though the 
control may be simplistic. The 
thing about the TV remote is 
that's a real strong indication 
of people's desire to interact. 
Television is passive, and the 
passivity is brain numbing. Peo- 
ple need to be stimulated so 
they're constantly changing 
what's on the screen. 

0: I see arcade games as 
a linear experience. 

Hawkins: That may be a 
function of the environment 
more than anything else. In a 
coin-op situation, you're trying 
to get a couple more quarters 
out of somebody every couple 
of minutes. So that influences 
the way the games are de- 
signed. But there's nothing 
intrinsic about the technology 
that makes it have to be that 
way. 

C: Can entertainment soft- 
ware play a role in education? 

Hawkins: Absolutely. The 
brain research that's been 
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kid lounging around watching 
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he's not being stimulated, 
that there's not as much brain 
activity going on. □ 



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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, SOFIWARE ENGINEERING, OR COMPUTER PROGRAMMING 



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