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Outsmart BASIC with Programming Tric ks! 

August 
1988 




FOR COMMODORE PERSONAL COMPUTER USERS 



OTmlOTWnmT 



VI 



iVIAGIC! 

Create 

state-of-the-art 
music on your 
64 & 128 

• Setting up your 
instrument and 
computer 

• Pro musician ^(' 
rates MIDI m 

• How to MID- 
by modem "^ 



PLUSl 



■ ihHiiJf^* 



33 Great Mu3^ 
Software Packs 

3-D Sprites 



^p 




Even begin 
get top results 






mm 



L^ ^ 



j| nd Q-Link, the dwamic telecommunications senice for 
/i Commodore* owners, does just thati 
11. As the developer of GEOS, the graphics environment operating 
system for Commodore 64s and 128s. 1 know how good Q-Link is. 
Personally and professionally. Here at my company, we recommend 
Q-Link to all our customers. We use it ourselves, too, for online 
customer senice ... so you can get help when you need it. We've 
also found it's a ver}- efficient way to provide upgrades and patches 
and to announce new GEOS-compatible products. 

With just your Commodore, a modem and Q-Link software, a new 
world of personal computing options opens up: thousands of 
programs you can download and keep; advanced graphics (thanks 
to GEOS); an exclusive help line to experts at Commodore; 
online educational courses taught by real teacfiers; fun: games; 
friendship, you-name-it. Q-Link lets you realize the full potential of 
Commodore computing -right at your fingertips. 

Do I use Q-Link? .Absolutelyl And what's really impressive is that 
when you join Q-Link, you get a modem and Q-Link Software free! To 
my mind that's a tough offer to turn down. But don't lake my word 
for it. Find out for vourselL Call . , . 



I ilO-782-2278 ... 

Call today to get your free modem and software. 



r 











1 


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ttfliMH.. 





BrianDougherh 

Software DesiiinerlCEO 
Berkelev Softworks 




86!ft WeslwoodCeiiter Drive 
-„ Vientia,yA-22l8i) . >■ 



THECOMPUn 

PROGRAMMER Km 
THECOMPUn 
PROGRAMMER. 




If you're thinking about trash- 
ing your proj^ ramming soft- 
ware, we'd like to offer you 
some advice. 

Doit. 

Because we've taken a com- 
pletely new approach to pro- 
gramming software. It's called 
geoProgrammer. The easiest, 
most integrated, most sophis- 
ticated 65U2 development 
package there is for Conuno- 
dore 64's and 128's. 

With geoProgrammer, you 
can toss out your old assem- 
bler. And your old linker. And 
while you're at it, the t)ld 
debugger, too. liecause you 
get all that with geo- 
Programmer. And even more. 

It comes completely 
assembled. 

With geoProgram- 
mer 2.0. you get ail 
the support you 
1^ need, in either 
40 or 80 
column mode, 
starting with three 
basic elements, 
geoAssembler 
reads source 
code 
directly 
fixjm geoWrite 
files, and contains 
enough directives to handle even the 
most complex application— directives 
for conditional assembly, macro 
programming and memory initializa- 
tion, too. It has state-of-the-art 
features you'd never expect, like 
graphics that can be generated by 
simply cutting and pasting the image 
from geoPaint directly into your 
source code. 

geoLinker ties your program mod- 
ules together, generating GEOS SEQ 
and VLIR applications as well as desk 
accessories. You can even use 
geoAssembler and geoLinker 




HfuWritf 



v^t'oAsst^inbk'i" 



iimunimiiK 




j|.ii.f.:t.i 



Ho)l)rbiij;gL-[' 





to create non-GIiOS applications. 
geoDebugger displays your pro- 
gram in memory with full symbolic 
disassembly, and allows patching with 
line assembly. It can single-step, top- 
step or execute your code at full 
speed. It can sto]) a running ])rograni 
with one key, or use up to eight soft- 
ware breakpoints. When your pro- 
gram hits a breakpoint, geoDebugger 
promptly switches to a special overlay 
window, leaving the application 
screen intact. 

You'll be completely amazed. 

There's so much you get with geo- 
Programmer — and so touch you can 
do with it — that we couldn't list it all 
here. But we could put it all on one 
disk. Which is why so many serious 
hackers ask for geoProgrammer by 
name. 

You should, too. Because until you 
do, you just won't be completely 
satisfied. 

H Berkeley 



Ueo.AssL-mbSer 

• 2;i ;isst^nil)lfr diructivt-s 

• iisLT-tiffiiiiibk' macroii wiih up to 
() sirHiiiiieiils 

• wmditioii jisscinbly (.[i'' ,1'XSli, 
,E.NJI)[F, (.-to 

• fikiba! and local labels 

• expression evalualor recoytiizes 
2.") ;iritliniL*tic and logical 
operators 

• automatically reads bitmaps fmm 
gt'uWrite 

• t'xclusivu pass 1 opt i in i nation fliig 

• can iiicludL' t>ther source files (eg. 
constant definitions, etc.) 

• expressions can contain external 
references {resolved by linker) 

• syi7ib()ls may contain up to 2U 
cliiiracters 

geoLinker 

• creates both (il{(lS and standard 
Citniiimdore aptjlicalions 

• up to liiJ overlay modules in a 
VLIK application 

• resolves external references con- 
taining complex expressions 

• up to 3,200 symbols in SEt) and CBM 
applications 

• up to 29,000 .synibob in VLIK a|)plicatioiis 
(3,2(K) in resident module plus 1,.K)0 per 
overlay module) 

iicaDehufiUKT 

• 70 debuf^Ker conimaiids, inclndiiif; inernory 
examination and modification, sitisle-step, 
full- speed executioti, disk block 
examine/modify, breakpoint manipulation 
and more 

■ inde|)endent debuj^cr status window 

• full symljolic disiissembly 

• extensive cotnmand macro language 

■ up to 8 independent breakpoints 

• numeric entry and display in decimal, 
hexadecimal, binary and symkiiic format 

• allows debu^ginf; of non-tlEOS a|)plications 

■ full b;ink-switching support forC-12K 

• takes advantajse oflTfjO and 1764 RAM 
ICxpansion Units 



To order aitl l-HV0-443-<mil cxl. 23-1 
geoProgrammer 2.0 $69.95 

(California residents .idd 7*^ sales tax.) 
$2.50 US/.S5.r)t} ForeiHM for shipping and 
handling. Allow six weeks for delivery. 

L'in>rE1u!.«r, i!.!iiu:ik..y>4f CJ>I ji,d (. I'lL* jl. LrMScnulL. . ■! 1,.^ jn. ,Atf« 
^eul k'tuiijAT And J k^kbi^ b(if[«nif k^ Jte Iradnturks ij^ ^fkpkv ^it[«xjf b, 



GEOPROGRAMMiR 2.0 



Softworks 

rhe brightest minds ivce working witli Berkeley. 




9' 



rflir 



High Seas Adventure 



Belive the 

swashbuckling era 
of the buccaneer 
as a 17th century 



■■' in piRMiiis; iisd 



blend of simula- 

'^ tion, adventure 
: and role-playing. 



?e?''&rchfor.osttreasur.. 
?^e goal; amass a fortune gain a 
PDutation,andretretoalife^of_^ 



EAGLE an 




' ■titHfTffflffTTIfjrifmi^^^ 






i^^^y^ 




;ip,;FnPP "*=■ rnsr^aiX 



^jiillii! ■i'/fi'i'ifimm/iii 







Top Secret Air Strike 

Invisibility is your 
greatest w/eapon 

In PROJECT: 
STEALTH FIGHTER, 
a simulation of 
the Air Force's 
'- unacknowledged 
' super-tech jet 
, fighter of tomor- 

row. You're the 

pilot on top-secret missions to 
world troublespots. — ^ 



wwjBer, ftiftt-Tw rwtinirL 




«A«i«tt 




Available at a Valued Mitroprose Retailer 

(VMB) near you. Call for locations. If not 

(ound locally, call for MCA/ISA orders. 



RRArESI HM (nr Cwmnomre 64 128. ftupls II. lOM.PC XT 
AI f'S2 liindv ,iiid ciirnojtililes Suggeslea reuil S35 95. 
PROJECT; STEALTH fICHTEH (Suggwlcd iparl S39 9i) ind 
AIRBORNE HANGER tSuggeBIBd relml S34 9SI tor 
Commoifcre 64 i;8 Comino soon tor ;8M PC Tandy 
comfialiblcs 



Daring Solo Missions 

Become one of 
America's most 
elite soldiers 

in AIRBORNE 
RANGER. Cunning 
and fast reflexes 
are needed to 
succeed on 12 solo 
missions deep be- 
1 hind enemy lines. 





AJ. 'A 



LMO 



SIUUL*riON • SOFTWARE 



180 Lakelrmt Dfw • Hull VaJtey, MD JltOO ■ 1301) 771-1151 



COMPUTEJ's 



©(Q)[ji]l^©ffi]fe 



August 1988 Vol. 6, No. 8 



features 



MIDI Made Simple Tom Netset 

MIDI and the Musician Larry Cotton 

Talk Is Cheaper Mickey McLean 

Buyer's Guide to Music Composition and Programming Software 



Caroline D. Hanlon 



14 


* 


16 


* 


21 


* 


45 


* 


24 


64 


25 


128/64 


26 


64 


27 


64 


28 


128/64 



reviews 



Zig-Zag and Plasmatron Robert Bixby 

Paperclip III Neil Randall 

Power at Sea Ervin Bobo 

Hodge Podge Robin and David Minnick ..... 
Star NX-1000C Multi-Font Printer Tom Netsel 



games 



BB Barrage Bill Chin 30 64 

Cribbage Bruce Boyles 32 128 

Investor Troy Tucker 36 128/64/+4/16 



programming 



BASIC for Beginners: Rounding Larry Cotton 

Machine Language Programming; Pointer Loops Jim Butterfield 42 

Hints & Tips: 64 and 128 Tricks - 

The Programmer's Page: That Won't Work Randy Thompson 

RAM Expander 64 Peter Lottrup • • ■ 

Power BASIC; Shell Booter David Ockrassa 

3-D Sprites Hubert Cross 

Zoom Robert Bixby 



40 


128/64/ +4/ 16 


42 


128/64 


43 


128/64 


58 


64 


60 


128/64 


61 


128 


65 


64 


64 


128/64 



departments 



The Editor's Notes Keith Ferrelt • 4 

Letters to the Editor 6 

Feedback Editors and Readers B 

Horizons: Computers' Conversations Rhett Anderson 38 

Simple Answers to Common Questions Tom R. Halfhill 39 

Diversions: The Tinkertoy, Tic-Tac-Toe-Playing Computer Fred D'Ignazio 44 

The GEOS Column; GEOS 123 Solutions 57 

Bug-Swatter: Modifications and Corrections -62 

User Group Update Mickey McLean 



128 



63 



program listings 



How to Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 86 

The Automatic Proofreader BB 

MLX: Machine Language Entry Program for Commodore 64 and 128 90 

Advertisers Index "lOO 



Coi't'r art by Rlwtt Andarson 



128/64/ +4/ 16 
128/64 



* " GeneraJ. 64^ Cofflmodars 
64. +4 = Plus/4, 18- 
Comrmodore 15, lafl- 
Commodore 128 



COMPUTEI'S GAZETTE (ISSN 0737-37161 is a COMPUTEf Publication, and is pubiished moninly By ASC Cwisumer Msgajaies, inc. 825 Sevenm Ave., New "torii. NV lOOl 9, a division of 
ABC PuBiistimg inc a Capital Cilios/ABC inc., company. © 1988 ABC COJisumer Magazines. Inc Ail ngno fesBfved. Edilorial offices are located a I Suns 2M. 324 West Wendovor Avo.. 
Gfeenslxno. NC 27408 Domestic sutjseripmns' 12 issues. S24 POSTMASTEi=i, Serd address changes lo COMPUTEi's GAZETTE. P.O. Box 10957. Dos f^omos. lA 60340. Socona doss 
poslago paid al New Vorlt, m and additionai mailing offices. 




It's been a busy few months for Max 
Toy. 

Appointed president nnd chief op- 
erating officer of Commodoro Business 
Machines last October, Toy was 
charged by Commodore Chairman Ir- 
ving Gould with leading "the company 
toward our goal of recapturing our mar- 
ket share in the United States." 

That's no small task. From its hey- 
day in the early eighties, Commodore 
fell upon hard times and loss of domes- 
tic direction. The company walked 
away from its success in the education 
market, and likewise seemed uncertain 
of the proper way of marketing its 64 
and 128 family. For a while things were 
in such disarray that industry pundits 
frequently prepared obituaries for the 
64 and for Commodore itself. 

Those obituaries were premature. 
Once again, Commodore is profitable, 
knows where it is going, and knows 
that the 64 and 128 will play a large 
part in the journey. Max Toy, firmly at 
the helm of the company, has no 
doubts about the directions he ivill pur- 
sue. In a recent interview with COM- 
PUTE!, he held forth on a variety of 
subjects, including the rumors of the 
64/128's imminent demise. 

"The 64 and 128 still welcome 
more first-time users to computers than 
any other product or company in the 
world," Toy said. "That's a tremendous 
opportunity. We've got an installed 
base for the 64 alone of many millions. 

"The software community is con- 
tinuing to write new and better soft- 
ware for the 64. And as long as the 
software community continues to de- 
velop and invest in new software, and 
as long as there are new users coming 
into the marketplace, this warhorse still 
has a significant opportunity, and one 
that's continuing." 

When asked whether whispers of a 
price drop to $99 for the 64 were accu- 
rate. Toy was emphatic: "Absolutely 
not." 

Part of Commodore's marketing 
difficulty may have stemmed from the 
widespread misperception of the 64 and 
1 28 as game machines. Lately, of course, 
game machines such as Nintendo have 
gobbled a large share of the home enter- 
tainment market. As its Amiga and PC- 
compatible lines gain strength, will 
Commodore at last shift the 64 toward 
purely game-oriented marketing? 

4 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1988 



Toy says no. "We are a computer 
company first, and we bring computers 
to the first-time user. One of the attri- 
butes of that is the capability to play 
some of the finest, best-developed 
games, and the largest selection of 
games that exists in the world today — 
and that is on the 64 base. 

"The entertainment category for 
the 64 is still exponentially greater — 
whether quantitatively or qualitative- 
ly — than anything that exists in the 
market today. 

"But it is a computer, first and fore- 
most," he emphasized. "It is still the 
easiest, best tool to learn programming 
on of any computer in the market. But it 
has the plus of being able to have the 
best entertainment out there. We will 
continue to position the 64 and 128 as 
computers first, as an entertainment 
system second." 

But what about Nintendo? "There 
are people who will be buying game 
machines to play games. There are peo- 
ple who will be buying computers that 
can play games, and grow their kids' 
skill sets and get them better prepared 
for the future. 

"There's nothing wrong with 
games. But where the leverage comes 
from, where the leaniiitg comes from, is 
when you take that same tool, teach 
from it, and learn some skills that 
you're going to be able to use through- 
out the rest of your life." 

Just a few months into his tenure at 
Commodore, the former IBM and Com- 
paq executive is exuberant but honest 
about the challenges and opportunities 
facing the company. There is a lot of 
day-by-day work to be done to restore 
Commodore to the levels of success it 
once enjoyed, but not only is Max Toy 
ready to take on the challenge; he's also 
eager to face the future. 

That future should see renewed 
success for Commodore, the coinputer 
company. 

(The complete interview with Max 
Toy can be read in the August COM- 
PUTE!.] 



llJJA -7^ 



Keith Ferrell 
Features Editor 



// 



COMPUTEI'S 

FOP COMMODORE -Er?50NAL COMPUTER USERS 



LBnc« Elko 
Jan lea R, Fary 
Kekth Ferrell 
Patrick Parrfsh 
Rhfltl Anderson 
Dale P/EcBane 
Tom Nfltaol 

David Hem ley 
Mjckey McLean 
Karen Stepak 
Loft Sonoiki 
Tammlfi Taylor 
Karen Uhlendorf 
Troy Tucker 
Jfm Butter field 
(Toronto, CanaOa) 
Fred D'lgnazk) 
(£. Larising, Ml) 



AfiT DEPARTMENT 

MecKanical Artists Scotly Gilllmo< 
Robin Csie 
Kim Polts 



PRODUCTION 

DEPARTMENT 

Assistani Producton Manage^ 

Typeset ling 

Advertsirig Produclion 

Assistant 



Editor 

Senior Art Director 

Features EOitor 

Technical Editor 

Assistant Editor 

Assistant Technical Edilor 

Assistant Features Editor 

Assistant EdilOf. 

Sut>nts3lOTi5 h Disk Products 

Editorial A?srSUnt 

Copy Editors 



Programming Assistarii 
Contritxrting Editors 



Oe Potter 
Carole Dunton 



Anita Armf4eld 



COMPUTE! PUBLICATIONS 
Group Vice President, 

Putitistier/Fdiiorifli Director 

Managing Edit&r 

Senior Editor 

Editonat Operations Director 

Editor. COMPUTE! Books 

Executive Assistant 

Senio<' Admin istrativo 

Assistant 

Admm^sJralive Assistant 



William Tynan 
Kathleen MartmeK 
Lanca Elko 
Tony Roberts 
Stephen Levy 
Sybil Agee 

Julia Flemtno 
Iris Brooks 



ABC CONSUMER ^ 
MAGAZINES 

Senior Vios Prespdent Marc Relsch 
Vice President, Firjance Richard Wiiiis 
Vce Pres#deft[, Productson llena Berton-Wainer 



CIRCULATION 
DEPARTMENT 

Vice President Robarl E. Sur^ha 
CircuLatiCM-i Sutiscription S^a]i' Ora Blackmon-De Brown 
Harold Buckley 
Milch Frank 
Beth Healy 
Thomai D. Slater 
James Jh Smith 
A. Healher Wood 
SuDscfiber Service ^BOO) 727-6937 

One of the .^St^ PiBUSHtS'G ® Companies 

President Robert G- Burton 

1330 Avenue of the Americas 

New York, NY 100^9 

AOVCRTlStNa OFFICES 

N»w Yofh: ABC CtjfilLyne* Maga/ifflju. I'lC. KS Sffvemn Atv , Nff* 
vci-k NY 10019 Tfy\ (2l?|i fBSB360 Prtor T Johnsmaysr, Group 
AdvtKtifltj 0.recT(y, OufnafS J Th*a&wiJ, Jj., Adwtsirg tXthoat 
arMn«bOro; COVir^UTEi F>uUiCAtoin£ , fiurtd 200. 3^4 We«t Wsrv^tt 
A'/e . GfWr.sJxtrO. N'C 37408 Tpi fgi?i] 77^9909 K4ffil«n In^im 
Naw £nalind A Mld-AUanlk: Bernard J Theobald, Jr., (2l2) 

3I5-1I&65; f^e^w Mirfff mT) gSI-SOOO. 

Mldwtit A Soutliwc-it: Jerry Ttiompsort, LiAiHe- E^ffrinis 4312) 

rz^&wr [Cr.«go]. r?l3j 731-2605 (Teias]. (303) 5&5-92W 

[Coloraocl. (415f 143-6222 ICBiiformal. 

Wctl. HoMriwtit. tL Bntiih Cofumbia: J«<Ty TmrptKoni. Unit 

D(^^nnl;415^34El■82^^ 

SAutrmMt 4 initrrLiiufdi: PiFts' H$fiif v&^^} hRi-WXO 



Kjiaicsuon*. loe.. 3:^4 vv«i 

^JC?7405 



nc AMI Arrrvf«ld COMPUTE:i 
Wtnauttr A4.. Su<U KKi. OfMr^iboro. 



Edilorial jnquinet srrouid &e aOUfs^ted iu the Edit&r, COMPuTEi's 
GAZETTE. SLfta 200, :i2i Wesl V^eridover A>re - G^eer^iCorp, NC 
27409 



PfllNTEO IN Tnt U SA- 



Prepare for the ultimate fantasy when the 
first offlcial^jl^^g^l 

Dungeonsl^^iagons 

Game Product comes alive on your computer! 



f 
f 




OOT" proudly presents 
OOX Pool of Radiance, 
the culmination of its collabo- 
ration with TSR to bring the 
legendary ADVANCED 
DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® 
fantasy role-playing system to 
your iiome computer. 



Poor. t)i: Radiance is set in the huge, 
complex world of the Forgotten 
^ Realms, a world brought to life by 
the combined talents and skills of 
top designers and programmers 
from both companies. Its game 
system adheres faithfully to AD&D* 
standards, its state-of-the-art graphics 
push the ver>' limits of the computer's 
capabilities. The only \s'ay to believe it is 
to experience it for yourself — wherever 
game software is sold. 

Look for the entire line of ADScD 
computer products coming soon 
from SSI. 



Rffll iipyonr 

tharatttrs 

and xc their 

pofti-aiu 

and clmrnc- 

tcristia. 

(C-64/128 

screen 

display.) 



Every siajjlt 
monster type 
is individu- 
aliy drawn 
by superb 
computer 
graphics, 
(IBM PC 
screen 
display.) 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS, INC. 
1046 N. Re ngstorlT Avenue 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
(415) 964-1353 



019ASTSR,[ac.C19ia Stntt^c SUnnlillQai, [DC. 
All ri^ti mTrvtd. 







There's More for Your Life at Sears 

Your June feature on Commodore- 
ready printers failed to mention the ex- 
cellent Sears SR 2000 printer. This 
dual-interface, dot-matrix printer 
works in Commodore and Epson 
modes, has a full range of features- 
such as underline, italics, sub- and su- 
perscript, tractor and friction feed, and 
condensed or expanded print — and it 
costs less than $200, 

Michael D. Smith 
Portland, OR 

Thanh for the information. We were un- 
aii>are of this printer utilil your letter 
arrived. We taikeii to a Sears representa- 
tive who verified this and added that the 
SR 2000 is available for $199.99 and is 
compatible with every major brand of 
computer. In draft mode, it prints at 130 
cps, and in NLQ mode, at 30 cps. A print- 
er cable for the 64 and 128D is also avail- 
able for $4.99. 

Thanks All Around 

In the April issue, we printed a letter from 
Joseph Hobart asking for donations of 
VIC-ZOs with accessories for use by s!u- 
deyits of the Apache, Hopi, and Navajo In- 
dian reservations in northern Arizona. 
Here's an update from Mr. Hobart. 

Thank you for printing my request for 
V1C-20S, for sending along the five 
VICs, and for your endorsement of my 
project. The response has been excel- 
lent. We have received computers and 
accessories from all over the country. 

1 was extremely impressed with 
the generosity shown. Several systems 
arrived with computer, cassette, and 
$500 to $1,500 worth of cartridges, pro- 
grams, hooks, and other accessories! 
You have some very dedicated and seri- 
ous computer users reading the GA- 
ZETTE. As of today, we have received: 

40 VIC-20s with power supplies 

38 Datassettes 

•1 printers and plotters 

31 Ri" modulators 

23 R!" switch boxes 

112 books (not including manuals) 

156 program cartridges 

711 programs on cassette 

20 introductions to BASIC 

343 blank cassette tapes 

12 expansion boards 

33 expansion memory cartridges 

6 COMPUWs Gazette August 1988 



8 joysticks and paddles 

13 floppy disks with PD software 

2 modems 

1 printer interface 

We're a little short of RF modula- 
tors and switch boxes — not surprising 
since many who sent equipment were 
probably using monitors. We've re- 
ceived a number of 64 programs, but so 
far have only one promise of a 64 and 
disk drive. All of the equipment is now 
in place and in use. Thank you again, 

Joseph Hobart 

975 Mesa Trail 

Flagstaff. AZ 86002 

And our thanks to all the readers urho re- 
sponded so gencrousii/. Since this project is 
an ongoing program, we'd like to encour- 
age further donations, hi case you missed 
our April issue and would like to contrib- 
ute to a worthy effort, send your donations 
to Joseph Hobart at the address above. 

No Reply 

I am not satisfied with the fact that in 
the past two years I've written two or 
three letters requesting advice on prob- 
lems with the 64 which have not been 
published, 1 would like some feedback 
about your policy on answering letters. 

/, R. Corts 
Oakdale. MN 

Readers zoould probably be amazed at the 
volume of mail we receive regularli/. In 
fact, if we responded to every letter zee re- 
ceive, zoe ivouldn't have the time to pub- 
lish the magazine. (We do, however, read 
every letter.) If we see a number of ques- 
tions on the same topic, we address that 
topic in "Feedback" or schedule an article 
or program on the subject, logic tells us 
that if we answer a question or handle a 
problem for 25 different readers, we're do- 
ing better than answering one sent in by 2 
readers. It's impossible to answer every- 
one, so our attitude is to address as many 
readers as ive can in the time frame and 
space allotted by each monthly issue. 

More Than a Game Machine 

There's been an increasing interest in 
game machines such as the Nintendo 
and Sega, Commodore has been trying 
to attack these by selling the 64 as a 
game machine. I think more emphasis 



should be put on the 64 as a productivi- 
ty machine. 1 understand that many 
people play games on their 64s and so 
do 1, hut f think the 64 should not be 
lowered into the game-machine market, 

Mark Abbott 
London, KY 

We agree. The 64 is a great game machine, 
but it's also much more. When you use a 
Nintendo or Sega, you play games. When 
you use a 64, you can play a game, write a 
letter, create colorful and detailed art, 
write and design a netoslelter, teach math 
or spelling, process data, write a program, 
create and play music, manage a small 
business, and much more. 

Back Issues 

I'd like you to republish "TurboTape, ' 1 
still own a cassette and find it quite bor- 
ing to wait for loading. 

Louis Slice 
Newcastle, CA 

Sorry, but it's hard for us to justify repub- 
lishing nearly six pages of documentation 
and code for a tape utility when more than 
95 percent of our readers HSf disk drives. 
However, you can order the July 1985 is- 
sue, zvhich featured "TurboTape," by 
sending $5 to Gazette Back Issues, P.O. 
Box 5188, Greensboro, NC 27403. A back- 
issue order blank is nozo published regu- 
larly in each issue. 

Plus/4 Support 

You are the only magazine that sup- 
ports the Commodore Plus/4, 1 would 
like to thank you and say it's greatly 
appreciated, 

James K. Medciros 
Newport, RI 

We're aware that there are but a few 
Plus/4s out there compared to the number 
of 64s and J28s, but we decided a few years 
back that with just a little extra effort we 
could make a number of our programs com- 
patible with the Plus/4. In fact, a number 
of them run as is on the Plus/4, Wc receive 
a fair number of letters from Plus/ 4 users, 
so we know that while the number of users 
may be small, they're a dedicated group. 
Also, we're able to offer support of the 
Plus/4 loithout sacrificing the space used 
for 64 and 128 coverage. © 




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Editors and Readers 



Do you have a question or a problem? 
Have you discovered something that 
could help other Commodore users? 
We want to hear from you. Write to 
Gazette Feedback, COMPUTE'.'s Ga- 
zette, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 
27403. We regret that, due to the vol- 
ume of mail received, uv cannot respond 
individually to programming questions. 



Plugging In Peripherals 

Is there any harm in keeping your peri- 
pherals plugged into your computer all 
the time, or should you plug them in as 
you need them? 

John Potter 
New Lexington, OH 

You may safely have your peripherals 
plugged into your computer at all times, 
hi fact, you're likely to save wear and tear 
on the connectors if you do so. And re- 
mcmber~you shotdd never plug in or un- 
plug a peripheral while the power is on. 



A Big Blue 64? 

Recently I received a flyer advertising a 
program that would permit you to run 
IBM programs on the Commodore 64 
and also run 64 programs on the IBM. 1 
misplaced the flyer and both my wife 
and I have been looking for it. 

Can you help? Do you know of this 
program and, if so, do you know where 
it can be purchased? I doubt that there 
would be any reports about it, good or 
bad, since it is a new product. 

Vincent ]. Abroad, Jr. 
Morrisvillo, PA 

We answered a similar question in the 
April 1988 issue of our sister magazine, 
COMPUTE!. The bottom line of the an- 
swer was that there's just no iuch tlung. 

In fact, it's painful to imagine a Com- 
modore 64 emulating an IBM PC. For one 
thing, most PC's have at least 512K of 
memory, while the 64 has only 64K. You 
could emulate the extra memory and a 
hard drive with a huge stack of floppy 
disks, but this would slow down the pro- 
gram to an unbearable crawl— imagine a 
spelling checker that takes three months 
to check a document. 

It's equally painful to imagine an 
IBM PC emulating a 64, The PC does not 
have sprites. It has only four colors in 

B COMPUTEfs Gazette August 1986 



graphics mode. It has poor sound. So for- 
get about playing your fat^orite 64 games 
on an IBM PC. 

There are a number of available pro- 
grams—public domain and commercial— 
that allow text files created on PCs to be 
read by 64s or 128s, and vice versa. In 
fact, the February issue of COMPUTE! 
includes "The 12S/MS-D0S Connec- 
tion," a machine language program xohich 
allows you to read and write to disk in 3 28 
or MS-DOS format. 

End of the Line 

1 own a Commodore 128 with a 1571 
disk drive and a 1670 modem. My 
friend has an IBM clone. When we com- 
municate via modem, we are able to 
"talk" to each other quite satisfactorily. 
However, when I attempt to send him a 
text file, he receives it without line- 
feeds, and the text overwrites itself on 
the same line. If he sends me a text file, I 
receive it in good shape. We both use 
Xmodem protocol. 

The documentation for the termi- 
nal program tells me that Commodore 
computers automatically print a line- 
feed with each carriage return. When I 
examine the text file in the monitor, I 
expect to see eacli SOD (carriage return) 
followed by an $0A (linefeed). Such, 
however, is not the case. 

The only solution 1 have found for 
this problem is to retype the text file, 
pressing the LINEFEED key at the end 
of each line before pressing RETURN, 
which results in an inordinate amount 
of typing. 

John Breckenridge 
Orange, CA 

Prinling a carriage return (CR) to a Com- 
modore screen does two things: it ad- 
vances the cursor to the beginning of the 
line (the carriage return part) and it also 
advances the cursor to the next line (the 
linefeed part). When a Commodore printer 
receives a CHR$n3}—lhe ASCII value of 
CR—il feeds the paper up by one line and 
returns the printer's carriage to the start 
of the line. 

Tints, to Commodore computers, a 
single CHR$(13) marks the end of one line 
and the beginning of the next. Your 
friend's IBM clone obviously wants both a 
CHRSdi) and a CHR$(10) at the end of 
each line. There are several solutions to 



this problem. 

Some terminal programs offer the op- 
tion to automatically add linefeeds (check 
your documentation for details). Wheiwv- 
er they find a CR in the original file, they 
automatically append a lincfeed(LF} char- 
acter. In most cases, you'll have to trans- 
fer the file as text, however, instead of 
uploading it. Uploading via Xmodem pro- 
tocol almost always sends files exactly as 
they exist on disk. You might be able to 
transfer the file from disk or you might 
have to load it into a buffer (a section of 
memory) and then transfer the buffer. 

Some terminal programs allow you to 
load a text file into a buffer and then edit 
it, in which case you might be able to use a 
search-and-replacc command to add line- 
feeds. 

When you create the text file with a 
word processor, you could add linefeeds, 
using search-and'replace lo change CRs 
toCR + LF. Some word processors inter- 
pret CTRL-M as CR and CTRl-f as LF. 

A final possibility is to write a short 
BASIC program that adds LPs to a text file. 
Try this: 

10 OPEN l,8,2,"ORIGINA[,,S,R":R 

EM READ FILE 
2B OPEN 2,8,3,"NEWLF,S,W" :REM 

{SPACEjWRITE FILE 
30 GETltl,A$:S = ST 
40 PRINT*2,A9; :1F A5=CHR$(13) 

ISPACElTHEN PRINTI2 ,CHRS (10 

); 

50 IF 3=0 THEN 30 

60 PRrNTi2:CLOSE2:CLOSEl 

Substitute the original name of the 
file in line 10 and the new filename in line 
20. 



A Noisy Cursor 

1 am interested in programming the SID 
chip on my Commodore 64. 1 have two 
different problems. The first concerns 
using different waveforms and ADSR 
(Attack/Decay/Sustain/Release) en- 
velopes. When I set the attack/decay to 
255 (240 for longest attack, 15 for long- 
est decay), the sustain /release to 255, 
and the waveform to 33, i get a sound 
similar to a saturated guitar. When I try 
different values for waveform, attack/ 
decay, and sustain/release, the com- 
puter is silent. What causes this? 

My second question concerns an 
interesting routine I wrote in machine 
language. My goal was to make a sound 



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I I 



;Noisy cursor 






jFiral, redirect IRQ vector to SOUND 


SEI 




;disable IRQ interrupts 


LDA 


#<SOUND 


;store SOUND address in vector 


STA 


788 




LDA 


#>SOUND 




STA 


789 




;Set SID registers 






LDA 


#0 


;set attack/decay to 


STA 


54277 


;on voice 1 and 


STA 


54284 


;oii voice 2 


LDA 


#240 


;set sustain to 15 


STA 


54278 


;relea5e to on first 


STA 


54285 


;two voices 


CLI 




;reenable IRQ interrupts 


RTS 




;and return 



SOUND IDA 646 

STA 54296 
;Use cursor position for frequencies 



use text color (or volume 



SEC 




JSR 


65520 


TXA 




LSR 




STA 


54273 


TYA 




LSR 




STA 


54280 


LDA 


#16 


STA 


54276 


STA 


542S3 


LDA 


#17 


STA 


54276 


STA 


54283 


JMP 


59953 



;set carry to read cursor location 
;execute PLOT 

;adiust sllglitly 

;usc ,X for high byte In voice 1 



;and ,Y for high byte in voice 2 

;s elect triangle waveform and ungate 

;volce 1 and 

;volce 2 

;gate sound 

;on voice 1 

;and voice 2 

jexecutc normal IRQ interrupts 



that rose and fell with cursor move- 
ment. Can you show me how to do this? 
Bulfon Gabriele 
Italy 

There are a couple of commoft mistakes 
thai cause silent SID chips. These have to 
do with a failure to properl]/ set one or 
more of the chip's registers. Rarely is the 
chip itself defective. 

The SID chip has three voices (1-3). 
You must set the registers that pertain to 
the particular voice or voices you want to 
hear. To create a sound, set the volume, 
location 54296; the ADSR envelope, SV+5 
and SV + 6 wliere SV = 54272 + 7'fyofee 
number— 1); the frequency, SV + l (the 
high frequency) and SV (the low frequen- 
cy): and the waveform, SV + 4. Remember 
to set the frequency and the ADSR enve- 
lope before gating the waveform. Gating 
starts the at tack /decay /sustain cycle and 
is accomplished by storing a 2 in bit of 
the appropriate voice control register. 
Once the waveform has started, ungate it 
(start the release cycle) by storing a to 
this bit. During this process, if you happen 
to store a in the voice control register 
(clearing all eight bits) rather than store to 
the gate bit alone, the sound will stop en- 
tirely. This will also occur if the volume or 
frequency registers are set to 0. 

If you choose a pulse waveform (by 
setting bit 6 of SV+4J, you must also 
POKE locations SV+2 and SV+3 with 

10 COMPUTE'S Gflzeffa August isaa 



the pulse width. This must be done for 
each of tiie three voices you're using. 

With regard to your second question, 
the machine language routine above cre- 
ates a noise-making cursor. 

The first part of this program points 
the IRQ interrupt vector at location 788 to 
itself so that the routine labeled SOUND 
will be called once every 1/60 second. U 
also sets the SID chip registers for Voice I 
and 2. 

Each time SOUND is called, the vol- 
ume for the SID chip is taken from the text 
color in location 646. The Kernal routine 
PLOT returns the current cursor position, 
with .X containing the row number, and 
.Y, the column number. These values, 
with slight tnodification, are stored in the 
frequency registers (high byte only) for the 
two voices, and a triangular waveform is 
initiated. Pushing the cursor down the 
screen thus increases the pitch of Voice 1, 
and moving it to the right results in a 
higher frequency for Voice 2. 

Notice we ungate the waveform here 
prior to gating it. Ordinarily, you ivould 
gale the chip first, follow it with a delay so 
the attack/decay /sustain cycle could fin- 
ish, and then ungate it to start the release 
cycle. In this case, we reverse the gating/ 
ungating sequence and let the interrupt 
itself serve as the delay. 

If you aren't that comfortable with 
machine language, here's the above rou- 
tine in the form of a BASIC loader: 



la FORI=491 
EI ,A:X = X 
28 IFX0781 
OR.":STO 
30 DATA 120 
4 DATA 16 9 
50 DATA 0,1 
60 DATA 212 
70 DATA 141 
80 DATA 134 
90 DATA 32, 
100 DATA 1, 
110 DATA 21 
120 DATA 14 
130 DATA 4, 
140 DATA 4 9 



52T0492 

+A:NEXT 

2THENPR 

P 

,169,29 

,192,14 

41,5,21 

,169,24 

,13,212 

,2,141, 

240,255 

212,152 

2,169,1 

1,11,21 

212, 141 

,234 



19:READA:P0K 

1HT"DATA ERB 

,141,20,3 

1,21,3,169 

2,141,12 

0,141,6,212 

,88,96,173 

24,212,56 

,138,74,141 

,74,141,8 

6,141,4,212 

2,169,17,141 

,11,212,76 



Simply load and run the program to 
POKE the code into memory and then type 
SYS 49152 to activate it. 

If the noisy cursor begins to annoy 
you after using it for a while, you can 
silence it by pressing RUN/STOP-RE- 
STORE. To restart it, type SYS 49152 again. 

128 DOS Shell 

How can I transfer the 128 DOS Shell 
which comes on the Commodore 1571 
Test/Demo Disk to my own disks so 
that it's available when 1 need it? 

C. E. Spurlock 
Millersburg, MI 

Your question — and our answer — come at 
just the right time. This month's Power 
BASIC, "lis Shell Booter" by David 
Ockrassa, provides a solution to your 
problem. 



Switching Out ROM 

1 have a programming problem on my 
64 that I'd really appreciate some help 
with. I am unable to switch out BASIC 
ROM (40960-49151) to access the RAM 
underneath. POKE 1,PEEK(1) AND 
254 doesn't seem to work. After this 
POKE, location 1 remains unchanged 
and BASIC is unaffected. (1 did not 
copy ROM to RAM first.) On the other 
hand, POKE 1,PEEK(1) AND 253 
seems to work. (It hangs up the system, 
so it must be switching out the Kernal 
ROM.) 1 have version 3 of the Kernal. 
Is there something wrong with my 
computer or am I going at this wrong? 
All my software seems to work fine. 

Ron Hoffman 
Dunkirk, NY 

Switching out the BASIC ROM (Read 
Only Memory) to access the RAM (Ran- 
dom Access Memory) underneath is a fair- 
ly common practice among machine 
language programmers. When you switch 
out BASIC ROM frotn within a machine 
language program, the microprocessor 
simply continues with the next command 
within the program. 

BASIC itself is a machine language 
program. As a matter of fact, the BASIC 
interpreter is running as soon as you turn 
on your computer. When you enter a com- 



mand ht direct mode, BASIC interpnis 
the line and executes the machine lan- 
gtisge code for that command. After the 
command has executed, the microproces- 
sor returns to the main loop of the BASIC 
interpreter. 

If yon sit'itch out BASIC ROM while 
in BASIC~i!]/ entering POKE l.PEEm) 
AND 254-— without first cop\/ing this 
ROM to the underlying RAM, the micro- 
processor still tries to go back to the main 
loop of the interpreterwhen it finishes ex- 
ecuting the POKE. The problem here is 
that the main loop of BASIC, which was 
stored in the ROM that you switched out, 
IS no longer visible to the tnicroprocessor. 
Whatever is in the RAM beneath the 
ROM is what gets executed. 

In your case, a happened to be in lo- 
cation 42115 (the beginning of BASIC'S 
main loop). The microprocessor interpreted 
the as a BRK and executed the warm- 
start routine. Since this routine resides in 
Kernal ROM, the microprocessor is Me to 
execute it. 

The warm-start routine resets sever- 
al key memory locations (including loca- 
tion 1) to their default values. Since 
BASIC ROM is visible by default, it was 
turned back on by the warm start. To you 
then, it appears as though BASIC was 
never switched out. 

Entering POKE 1, PEEm)AND 253, 
on the other hand, locked up your ma- 



chine. Since this POKE also turns off the 
Kernal ROM, the warm -start code is no 
longer available to the microprocessor for 
execution. 



Kernal Routines from BASIC 
1 found the following routine on page 
290 in the Commodore 64 Progratnmer's 
Reference Guide. It positions the cursor 
using assembly language: 

LDX #10 
LDY#5 
CLC 
JSR PLOT 

Is there a way to emulate this rou- 
tine in BASIC? 

Mark Timm 
Franklin, WI 

PLOT IS a Kernal routine accessed 
through location 65520 which reads or 
sets the cursor position, depending on the 
condition of the carry flag. If you clear the 
carry flag (usually with a CLC instruc- 
tion — for CLear Carry) prior to calling 
PLOT, it locates the cursor in the screen 
position specified in the XandY registers. 
Screen rows are numbered 0-24, ami col- 
umns arc numbered 0-39. Thus, your ex- 
ample positions the cursor in the sixth 
column of the eleventh roio. 

The same effect can indeed be accom- 
plished from BASIC. Instead of calling 



PLOT loith a jSR instruction (jump to 
SubRoutine), you must use the SYS com- 
matid. BASIC'S SYS command obtains the 
values for the microprocessor's internal 
registers (namely the accumulator (.A), the 
X and Y registers, and the status register 
(.P)) from four memory locations. Location 
780 serves as a storage area for the accu- 
mulator; locations 781 and 782 store val- 
ues for the X and Y registers, respectively; 
and location 783 stores values for the status 
register (.P). The status register contains a 
series of seven flags used by the micro- 
processor. Among these is the carry flag. 

So, to mimic this machine language 
routine in BASIC, run the following short 
program: 

la POKE 781,10 

20 POKE 782,5 

30 POKE 733,0 

40 SVS 65520 

50 PRINTl: REM PRIMT 1 HERE 

Lines 10 and 20 specify the row and 
coltunn position of the cursor. (Try some 
other values in these lines.) The POKE in 
line 30 clears all flags, iyicluding the carry 
flag. The SYS in line 40 causes the PLOT 
routine to execute. And finally, line 50 
prints the number 1 at the specified 
location. 

For an example of a program that 
uses PLOT to locate the cursor, see "A 
Noisy Cursor" on page 8. • 



PART 




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Tom Netsel, Assistant Features liditor 



(Musical Instrument Digital 
Interface) is not a peripheral you 
plug into your 64 or 128. It's not a 
piece of hardware or software you 
order from a computer dealer or 
pick up at your local music shop. 
Rather, MID) is a hardware and 
software coiiimunicatiou slanciard 
that enables computers and synthe- 

U COMPUTEIS Gaictte August 1968 



sizers to communicate with each 
other. This concept can be confus- 
ing since there's no such thing as a 
MIDI, and you can't hold one in 
your hand. This abstract quality 
may have contributed somewhat to 
MIDi's mystique. 

In addition to employing 
standard musical terminology, 



MIDI has its own special glossary of 
buzzwords. Computer owners fa- 
miliar with such terms as mpiicui, 
JQ\jstick, and sprfadihcei may be 
confu-sed when first confronted 
with such MIDI jargon as sei]uencer, 
iibrariau, and patch editor. 

MIDI'S power and flexibility 
can also be intimidating. One 



h/t 




} 



.!u,r 



hi f/u<','>-i 



MlDl-equipped musician can con- 
trol as many as 16 synthesizers and 
drum machines, but you don't have 
lo go out and buy 16 different syn- 
thesizers to get started. Let's take a 
brief look at MIDI, explain some of 
the terms, then see what a 64 or 1 28 
owner actually needs to make music. 

Do You Speak My Brand? 

Until the music industry adopted 
the MIDI standard in the early 
1980s, each brand of synthesizer 
spoke its own language. Connect- 
ing two different brands was almost 
impossible. Musicians recognized a 
need for different instrumeiUs to 
satisfy their artistic requirements, 
so manufacturers of electronic in- 
struments agreed to standardize 
hardware, cables, and sockets, and 
to establish a single protocol for 
transferring musical information. 

Today, as long as an instru- 
ment is MIDI-equipped or MIDI- 
compatible, it can communicate 
with any other MIDI device via a 
five-pin DIN cable. Information can 
be sent over any of 16 MIDI chan- 
nels. Each synthesizer, drum ma- 
chine, or other device can be 
assigned a channel, and that device 
will play only the music assigned it. 

MIDI cables carry requests to 
play individua! notes for a certain 
duration, but they can carry other 
information as well. Almost any 
synthesizer can be programmed to 
produce different sounds, or enve- 
lopes. This data can also be sent via 
MIDI channels. A sjmthesizer can 
be programmed to sound like a flute 
while it plays one portion of a tune, 
and then can be switched to sound 
like a violin a few bars later. Such 



data as timbre, duration, note attack, 
note release, pitch bend, and vibrato 
can be included in a MIDI message. 

Most MIDI devices can be 
daisychained like a disk drive and a 
printer or be connected in other con- 
figurations. The devices have ports 
labeled MIDI IN, MIDI OUT, and 
MIDI THRU. The MIDI OUT port 
transmits musical data to another in- 
strument; a MIDI IN port receives it. 
A MIDI THRU port passes data on 
to other devices in the chain. In this 
fashion one musician can control a 
whole studio of synthesizers from 
one master keyboard. 

The music industry didn't have 
personal computers in mind when it 
established the MIDI standard, but 
computers can easily process MIDI'S 
digital data. A 64 or 128 makes an 
ideal controller for digital musical 
instruments, but a special interface 
is needed to connect the computer to 
a musical keyboard, drum machine, 
or other MIDI instrument. 

MIDI Interface Card 

Technically, MIDI transmits data in 
a serial mode, but you can't use 
normal serial hardware such as a 
modem to handle MIDI infor- 
mation. MIDI sends its musical 
messages at 31.25 kilobaud, consid- 
erably faster than the 300-, 1200-, 
or 240fl-baud rates employed by 
most modems. A MIDI interface 
card, which plugs into the Commo- 
dore expansion port, handles the 
necessary signal conversion. 

Passport Designs makes a fam- 
ily of MIDI products, and its inter- 
face is practically an industry 
standard. One model comes with 
additional input and output ports 




for synchronizing a tape recorder 
and a drum machine, in addition to 
its conventional MIDI IN and MIDI 
OUT sockets. It sells for $199,95. 
Another version, retailing for 
$129,95, has a separate sync port 
for a drum machine only. 

Sonus is another company 
with a full tine of MIDI products for 
the 64 and 128, Its basic interface 
retails for $85, and it comes with 
one !N and two OUT ports. Sonus 
also makes an interface with a tape 
svnc that sells for $149, 



Keyboard/Synthesizer 

Once you have your 64 or 128 con- 
nected to a suitable interface, 
you're ready to plug into the world 
of electronic music. The interface it- 
self, however, is not a stand-alone 
device. It won't let you play a note 
without an external musical syn- 
ihesizer or keyboard. You'll need 
two MIDI cables connecting the 
computer and the keyboard. Musi- 
cal notes are sent on one cable from 
the keyboard to the computer for 
processing, then are returned on 
another for playing. 

While there are only a few MIDI 
interfaces for the 64 or 128, you'll 
find scores of MIDI -compatible key- M 
boards in music stores or music cat- ''■•■^■■«'« 
alogs. Prices range from about $100 
to several thousand dollars. 

"Wo don't really recommend 
[specific] keyboards since there are 
so many manufacturers," says Jean- 
nie Ditter, Passport's director of 
marketing. "Our interface works 
with any MIDI keyboard. Really, the 
keyboard selection depends on the 
person's needs, how much money 
he's willing to spend, and whether 

COMPUTE!s Gaietie AugusM9BB 15 



} (l-^i^ MIDI and the Musician-^; ^}^ 



There's a battle being fought over MIDI, and 
over electronic music in general. Some musi- 
cians think it's ttie tiest thing that's come 
along in ages. Others think that it's the worst. 
Naturally, many musicians are fascinated with 
the latest equipment, alt rack-mounted and in- 
terconnected, but how do those marvelous 
electronic gadgets really sound? 

I am a musician, computer enthusiast, 
and etectronics hobbyist, so it was inevitable 
that I woukJ become interested in fVIIDI. Sev- 
eral years ago, I tiuilt a MIDI interface to con- 
nect my Commocfore 64 to an electronic key- 
board (a Korg DW-8000). mostly to be able to 
urvderstand what MID! was all about. 

From my experience, I can say that MIDI 
is definitely not for all musicians. It is for the 
experimenter, the creator, and the adventur- 
er. If you happen to be a patient, gadget- 
oriented musician, you may find yourself in 
seventh heaven. 

A Matter of Taste 

On the subject of electron ically augmented 
music, musicians can t»e placed into four 
groups. Into the first, put the purists— the 
acoustical addicts— v/ho disdain anything 
electronic, even amplification, tsetween them 
and the ears of the audience. These people 
would no more coddle a Casio than they 
would stj'ck their hand in an alligator's mouth. 

Into the second group, put the electric 
guitarists and like instrumentalists. Their mu- 
sic Is generated acoustically but must be am- 
plified, and is usually modified, electronically. 

The third group consists mostly of those 
people who actually generate sounds elec- 
tronically. They may be the keyboardists in 
rock bands. They can't play a lick until their in- 
struments are rack-mounted, touch sensitive, 
frequency modulated, phase-shitted. Ml Died 
and spirt-ear amplified. 

In the last group are the creative and ad- 
venturous experimentalist musicians. It's well 
documented that interest in computers and 
music (and sometimes mathj go hand-in- 
hand. Since you're reading this magazine, 
you may fall into this category. 

What does MIDI offer the musician? 



Larry Cotton 

What's the first step? Easy: Just look on your 
instrument for a little round jack that says 
MIDI. No, there won't be one on the back of 
your Steinway or at the end of your clarinet. 
And just because it's a Yamaha doesn't mean 
it's a DX7. But if it says Casio or Roland or any 
of a multitude of other names, there's a good 
chance that you already own the biggest pjart 
of your investment in MIDI. 

Although just about every imaginable in- 
strument has been MIDIed (including the hu- 
man voice), the most commonly MIDIed 
instrument is the ^ectronic keyt>oard. The 
older keyboards — synthesizers — had no 
MIDI jacks. Today all but the least expensive 
machines are MIDI -equipped. 

Some keyboards even feature sampling, 
which digitally records a short segment of any 
sound that can then be played back under 
either manual or computer control. At the low 
end are Casio's miniature sampling key- 
twards, which can be bought for less than 
$100. Unfortunately MIDI is not featured. 

The quality of the sampled sounds pro- 
duced by the best machirws tiegins to rival ttiat 
of acoustic insmjments, reflecting ttie irony that 
the closer an electronic instrument can emulate 
the acoustic, tm tetter. In faa, several electron- 
ic grand pianos ckjsely emu^te the expensive 
concert grands from which ttieir sounds were 
recorded. They also have MIDI jacks. 

In this month's feature, Tom Netsel says 
that the music industry never envisioned the 
interfacing of electronic instruments to com- 
puters. But now you can buy keyboardless 
electronic instruments which are designed to 
be controlled by another keyboard or exclu- 
sively by the computer. 

Also MIDIable are reasonably priced 
electronic drum machines, most of which fea- 
ture digitally recorded percussion sounds. 

Let's assume you ovin of othervirise have 
access to a MIDIabte electronic instrument. 
The next thing to do is read an article or two (or 
even a txx>k) on the subject so you'll have a 
better feel for wttat you're atxiul to get into. 
And please give fiiought to whether you're one 
of the purists vrfro can't tolerate the idea of a 
transistor getting in the way of Tchaikovsky, 



If you've succassfuily hurdled all these 
obstacles, turn to your 64 or 128. Just plug an 
interface into the user port, run a cable from it 
to your MIDI keyboard or other instrument, 
stick the appropriate software disk Into the 
drive, and you're in business. 

Must you have a computer to get Into 
MIDI? No. But to enjoy MIDI you must have 
either a stand-alone sequencer [it plays the 
MIDI instrument by itself), another MIDI instru- 
ment (one controls the other), or a computer 
(it can do many things in addition to playing 
the instrurrorrt — see tfm aoiompanying article). 

Beyond Muscle and Brain 

IHow do MIDIed electronic instruments 
sound? The same way they did before MIDI. 
Only faster. Or richer. Of stranger. With MIDI, 
a musician can begin to explore ideas and 
sounds that are impossible to create with hu- 
man muscle and brain cells. 

For instance, the human hand can reach 
only a little over an octave on a keyboard, A 
MIDIed electronic keyboard can often play up 
to eight notes simultaneously, stretching from 
its very lowest to its very highest. It can play 
"The Minute VJattz" in a (ew seconds. The hu- 
man imagination is Its only limit. 

If you liked your keyfcioard or other elec- 
tronic instrument before MIDI, chiarK^es are 
you'll iove it with MIDI. In my opinion, a com- 
puter and electronic instrument MIDIed togelf> 
er go far beyond simple sequencing. A 
computer, properly programmed, is fully capa- 
ble of creating random patches (customized 
sounds) that the musician simply had never 
dreamed of. And the computer is very valuable 
at remembering and storing in its disk library 
these patches for easy and fast refrieval. 

I, for one, don't believe that electronic in- 
struments will ever replace acoustic ones, nor 
do I believe that computers and MIDI inter- 
faces will ever replace musicians. The human 
being must still be there to furnish the creative 
spark, the enthusiastic imagination, and the 
patience to take advantage of wttat MIDI has to 
offer. There will afways be needs for the com- 
plementary technologies, and the human being 
will tie right there to push them all to the limit 



he's going to be performing profes- 
sionally or just in the home." 

Dr. T's Music Software is an- 
other firm that offers a full line of 
software for the electronic musi- 
cian, Dr, T spokesman Jeff Pucci 
says many people getting started 
with MIDI select the Casio CZ-101 
keyboard, 

"That's a pretty good multi- 
timbral synthesizer for under 
$300," he said, "It can play four in- 
strument voices simultaneously, so 
you're getting a lot for your money. 
That's really a good first choice." 

16 COMPUTE! s GazettB August 19&8 



Sonus sales manager Erin Ax- 
tell agrees. "For a first-time u.ser, 
usually Casio gets chosen because 
it's inexpensive and it's MIDI- 
compatible." 

Axtell says any MIDI keyboard 
will work. It just depends on what 
you want, and how much money 
you're willing to spend. Must key- 
board makers offer a wide line of 
products, ranging from entry-level 
to professional-quality, "Yamaha 
and Roland are the hottest-selling 
brands on the market right now, 
Roland's D-50, Yamaha's DX7 II- 



FD, and the ESQ-1 and ESQ-80 
from Ensoniq are all popular," Ax- 
tell said. 

Very few electronic keyboards 
have built-in speakers. Most have a 
jack for headphones, but you'll 
need an external amplifier and 
speaker system for normal listen- 
ing. If you don't need the power to 
rattle the rafters in a concert hall, a 
home stereo system is adequate for 
most amateur musicians. 

You don't necessarily need a 
computer to produce different 
voices — sounds or timbres — on 



some electronic keyboards. These 
voices, mimicking violins, trum- 
pets, oboes, flutes, and other instru- 
ments, may be referred to as presets, 
and they are permanently stored in 
the keyboard's memory, which is 
similar to a computer's ROM. If, 
however, you want to see what 
MIDI can do, hook a keyboard to 
your 64 or 128, and get some soft- 
ware to put all the pieces to work. 

Sequencers 

A glance through the accompany- 
ing "Buyer's Guide" finds more 
than 30 programs that utilize MIDI. 
Selecting the proper software can 
be confusing for someone just start- 
ing. The experts at Dr. T, Sonus, 
and Passport all recommend a se- 
cjueiicer as a beginner's first soft- 
ware purchase. 

A sequencer turns your 64 or 
128 into a multitrack recording stu- 
dio. You can record a melody on 
one track, record a bass line on an- 
other, lay down additional melodic 
lines on still more tracks, then play 
them all back in sync. Most se- 
quencers offer 64 and 128 owners a 



minimum of eight tracks. 

A sequencer is similar to a tape 
recorder in that it offers such fea- 
tures as fast forward, reverse, and 
rewind, but it's much more versa- 
tile. If you make a mistake while re- 
cording with a tape recorder, you 
have to start again from the begin- 
ning. A sequencer lets you correct 
the mistakes, editing individual 
notes. What's more, it lets you 
make other changes that would be 
impossible with a tape recorder. 

Once the composition has been 
recorded, you can play all the tracks 
back together. Music can be played 
faster or slower without altering the 
pitch or key. If you decide your com- 
position would sound better in an- 
other key, you don't have to scrap 
your previous efforts. The sequencer 
can change the key for you. It can 
also change the time signature or 
tempo with just a few keystrokes. 

If your talent on the keyboard 
is limited, you can enter notes one 
at a time, editing the tempo, pitch, 
velocity, and duration of each note. 
Then play back the final mix at any 
speed you like. Most sequencers of- 



fer this step-time form of entering 
notes from the computer keyboard, 
as well as realtime entry from the 
synthesizer keyboard. 

Just like a word processor, mu- 
sic software lets you cut and 
paste — only you're working with 
musical sequences rather than 
words. Copy them, append them to 
themselves, or move them any- 
where in the composition. You can 
even switch sequences from one 
channel to another. 

If your timing is a little off, 
most sequencers can automatically 
correct tracks to any resolution 
from quarter notes to thirty-second 
notes. This is often referred to as 
quantizing. Time signature changes 
can also be inserted anywhere 
within a sequence. 

Now that we've seen ivhat a 
sequencer can do and the musical 
control it can provide, let's take a 
look at some of the popular dtles 
available for the 64 and 128. 

Master Trucks. Passport's Jeannie 
Ditter recommends her company's 
Master Tracks sequencer. "It's our 



MIDI by Modem 



Furttier information about MIDI Is as close as 
your CommodOfe. modem, and teleptione. 
Text files, music files, patches, product re- 
views, answers to MIDI questions, and more 
can be fourtd on bulletin boards. 

The East Coast IvllDI Bulletin Board in 
Coram, New Yori*, was designed wttti the 
MIDt-phile in mind, and it attracts callers from 
Europe and Asia, according to sysop Gene 
DeUbero. This BBS offers online support for 
professional musicians and beginners alike^ 
message centers, expert advice, hints and 
tips, plus hundreds of downloadable text flies, 
programs, and patches for practically all 
synthesizers. 

ECM also offers MIDI software and hard- 
ware for the 64 and 128. There is a yearly 
membership fee for accessing the various 
conferences. Ttie East Coast MIDI Bulletin 
Board supports Commodore. Apple, IBM, 
and Atari computers, and can be reached 24 
hours a day at (516) 928-4986. 

Other MIDI information can be found on 
the Commodore Information Network on 
Quantum Link, A variety of computer/music 
Information is available in the Music Roan, 
which includes a section devoted to MIDI, tt 
supports message boards, libraries, MIDI 
programming packages, text information, and 
daily MIDI conferences, 

OuantumLrnk has a large library of music 
tiles available for downloading. Ttrere is a 
hugs listing dedicated to the Commodore SID 
chip, but the service has a program that af- 



lows you to play these files on MID!. The 
QuantumLInk customer service number is 
(BOO) 392-8200. 

Type MIDI when you log on to GEnie, 
and you'll find yourself at the MIDI/Wodd 
Music Roundtable. Sysop Bob Moore con- 
ducts live conferences from computer trade 
shows and with professional MIDI musicians 
such as Greg Welchel and Mark Bitter, key- 
board players for the Pointer Sisters, 

The library contains public domain 
sequencers and librarians, patches, and song 
and sound files for almost every computer. 
The MIDI 1,0 Specifications are on file for 
downloading, for those interested in the tech- 
nical aspects of MIDI, An accompanying file 
explains many of the technical terms. 

A message base provides a forum tor the 
exchange of musical information, questiCHis 
and answers, and product descriptions In ttie 
forum's 14 specific MIDI categories. Call (800) 
638-9636 for registraSon information and rates. 

CompuServe offers a forum called MCS 
MIDI. Type GO MIDI after logging on to ac- 
cess the data library, message bases, and 
files. Specific message categories include 
general music topics along with topics such 
as computers and music, music and software, 
synthesizers, percussion, recording, and 
performances. 

Sound patches and tianks for different 
formats are avajlable. Live conferences let 
you pick tfie brains of various experts In tTte 
fiekf of music. Also available are highlights of 



articles appearing in Music, Compulsrs. & 
Software magazine, the SlGs organizers. 

The Source recently opened a new spe- 
cial interest group (SIG) for musicians and 
musk: enthusiasts. Music SIG is intended to 
serve as a place to share ideas and interests 
and keep up-tonJate on the world of music. 

Music SIG focuses on top 40/ pop, 
classical, rock and roll, and alternative music. 
I^usic SIG also provides patches for MIDI 
enthusiasts. Rounding out the offerings are 
reviews of new releases and performances, 
ranking charts, and expert advice. To enter 
the forum, type MUSICSIG at Command 
Level. Registering information is available at 
(800) 336-3366, 

Music City is the SIG for MIDI information 
on Delphi, where numerous professionals 
help v/ith live music conferences. Delphi also 
provides message bases and numerous MID) 
fifes for downloading. For more information or 
to register with Delphi, call (800) 544-4005. 

The Performing Artists fjetwork has 
more than 400 megatiytes of MIDI information 
in its files, but membership Is restricted to pro- 
fessional musicians. The network also in- 
cludes txwking information, club and college 
contacts, radio listings, tour support, and 
other services to help promote professional 
musicians and the international MIDI industry. 
The Network's BBS is run by Perry Leopold, 
who also handles the chores at Delphi and 
The Source. Call (215) 584-0300 for Infor- 
mation and rates. 



COMPUTE rs Gaiette August 1983 17 



DON'T SETTLE FOR LESS— 




154HI DISK DRIVE $169.95 

1802C MONITOR $189.00 

64C W/1541II Drl«o S333 

64C w,'SW41 Drive $279 

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COMMODORE. 




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Baseball $24.95 

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Supereiar Hockey $22,95 

UchiMata $17.95 

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SIMON & SHUSTER 

Star Trah: PromethianAdv $24.95 

Typing Tutor IV $24,95 

SPECTRUiM HOLOBYTE 

Falcon $22,35 

tnl rigue .,.. $1 9,95 

PT 109 $24.95 

Soke Ban $17.95 

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Football .,...$19.95 

Purs Slal Sasaball $24.95 

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Elarn 
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Realn 
Rings 
Road 
Shard 
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Flight Simulator II $32.95 

Jel $27.95 

Sleallh Mission S34.9S 



8-24 


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.,..$24.95 


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Wargama Cons) Set.... 


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COMMODORE 

128:: 

SOFTWARE 



WORD PROCESSORS 

Fleet System 4 $49.9$ 

Font Master 12a $39.95 

Paperclip II $54.9$ 

Paperclip ill „„.. „t39.es 

SupefscrqM 128 $44.9$ 

Term Paper Wnter ,SI9.S5 

Wrdnmlsr 126 w/speil,$34.9S 

SPREADSHEETS 
Switlcalc 12S vir/sdwys$39.9! 

DATA BASES 

Data Manager 128 $34.95 

Perfect Filar $44.95 

Superbese 12S $49.95 

MISC. l^K SOFTWAHK 

Accountant Inc $S9.0S 

CMS Acd PUg/iae ,.,$1Z4.SS 

Macti 128 $34.6S 

Partner 128 $39.95 

Sylvia Porter's Personal 
Finance Planner $44.65 



BPYX 




SOOXJ Joystick 


.$14.9S 


Calrlornia Games 


.$24.95 


Champ'ship Wrestling 


$14.95 


Create a Calendar.... 


.$17.95 


Destroyer 


$22.95 


4x4 Ofl-Roaa Racing 


.SCALL 


L. A. Cradidown 


.S24.9S 


Movie Monster 


,512.95 


Straal Sports Baseball $24 .95 | 


St Sports Basketball. 


.$24.95 


Street Sports Soccer 


.$CALL 


Sub Battle 


.$22,95 


Summer Games 


.$14,95 


Summer Games II.,., 


.S14.9S 


WInler Games 


, SI 4.95 


World Games 


,$24.96 





64C BUSINESS AND PRODUCTIVITY 



64C DATAB/\.SES 

Bank Street Fier $24,95 

Data Manager II $19,95 

64 C INTEGIlA'n':D I'KGS 

V'liastaf S4 4K. S24.95 

64C SPREADSHEETS 

Swiftcak: 64 wfikiaways .. $1 7.95 
Sideways $14.95 

64C WORD PROCESSORS 

Bank Street Writer $29.95 

Font Master II $29,95 

Paperclip w/spellpack $32,95 

Paperclip 111 $39,85 

Pocket Writer Diclkmary ,.$12,95 
Word Writer III, $34,95 



FINANCIAI. & ACCT. 
Timawks Elecif. Checkbk.S 17.95 

Timewarks Money Mgr $17.95 

CMS Acct PkB^M $11 9.95 

MISC. HARD W.VRE 
Estes pwr supply for C'64 $54,95 
Navsrone 3 Skji aupdar ..,$24.95 
UTILITIES 

Th Inking Cap $24.95 

Toy Shop $24,95 

Copy II 64/128 $24,09 

Fast Load $24.95 

Bobs Term Pro .,,$32,95 



Abacus Si 



Batteries Inclutietl 

Paperdip Publisher .,,$39.95 

Berkeley Soft works 

GEO Publish $44,95 

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Graphka Library 1,11 or til .$16.95 

Pnnt Shop tZS.SS 

Electronics Arts 

Outrageous Pages $34.95 

Springboard 

Certitk^le Maker $29.95 

Clip Art I or Hi .,.„ $19,95 

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Time works 

Dssktop Publisher ,.,$39.95 

Unison World 
PrinlmastefPlue $24,95 




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...tap SHIPS IT 



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Panasonic^ 

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1080(11 ....$164.95 
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[144 <lfaf!/36 NLQ) ...$169.95 

NX 1000 Rainbow 

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NX-1000C Rainbow 

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Cfjiof P/inter) $229.95 

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SP-180VC ....$139.00 

SP-1200VC....$CALL 

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INTRODUCING ... 



Technologie/ 

Disk Drives 

Commodora S compat^e 

SW41 

■ Commodore® 
1541II compatible 

■ Full 1 year warranty 
Suggested Retail 

SW71 





Commodore® 
1571 compatible 
Full 1 year warranty 
Suggested Retail 
124^95' 



NEW LOWER PRICES H 



SUPER GRAPHIXJR 

Pfirlar Inleilaco 532,95 

w/P rimer from Tussay $29,&S 

SUPER GRAPHIX 
irlartace w/8K buffer 

down loatlablo forts 554,95 

w/Printor from TusEoy S49.9S 

SUPER GRAPHIX GOLD .S94.95 
w/Piintar (ram Tuss»y $B4.9S 




RGB COMPOSITE COLOR MONITORS FOR THE 128 
COMMODORE 1084 




4 Cc*fa:^W3c!*i 



.$299,00 



P^AGNAVOX 8762 

eHt:)ii40flesoii.iiori 

3 f^od*s t yr warranty 

THOMSON 4120 

5&DK240 RewKilion 

4 Modes' 1 yr wairaiYly 



S249.00 



$219.00 

All 3 JTiOrtllQ« Include cab'&slo&jmmodofe iSfl 



n 



Berfseley 
Softworics 



NEWII... GEO PUBLISH (64/1 28) $44.95 



GEOS 1 28 .„ S44.95 GEOS 

Geo Csic 1 £8 $44.9S Geo Calc 

Geo File 128 ..W4.9S Geo File 

Geo Programmer ..$47.95 Geodex 

Dcskpack 1 28 544.95 Deskpack .... 

Geo Writs 128 $44.S5 Fontpeck 

Geo Spell 522.95 Geo Write ... 



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Software orders over $100 and 
Accessories under 6 pounds will 
be shipped Federal Express 

(Even at these prices) You only pay TCP's standard 
shipping charge ot S4.00 per order. Orders arriving 
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day. if part of your order is backordered the retrtain- 
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C64 version $119.95 



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i« 



LtCl 



most popular for the Commodore/' 
she said. "This is a versatile se- 
quencing program that allows you 
to do a lot of different MIDI appli- 
cations. It's easy to learn, but it's 
not something that you'll get bored 
with or quickly outgrow." 

Master Tracks is a 16-channel, 
full-featured sequencer that allows 
you to compose, arrange, and or- 
chestrate with one program. It re- 
tails for $249.95, Master Tracks Pro 
($299.95) is an enhanced version of 
the sequencer for the Commodore 
128 that takes advantage of the 
128's larger memory. 

MIDI/ 8 Plus. Passport also offers 
an eight-channel sequencer called 
MlDJ/8 Plus. It sells for $149.95. 
"It's a very simple program that 
doesn't have the features of Master 
Tracks," Ditter said, "but it costs 
less. If people are seriously interest- 
ed in music, we often suggest they 
get right into Master Tracks, because 
it does allow them to have more 
options." 

Keyboard Coutrolled Sequencer. 

Dr. T offers the Keyboard Controlled 
Sequencer for the 64 (SI 49) and for 
the 128 ($225). Both permit editing 
and structuring of music entered by 
computer or synthesizer keyboard 
in realtime and step-time entry. Se- 
quences can then be chained to- 
gether in songs. The 64 version 
holds 3,500 notes and 35 sequences. 
The 128 version stores 12,000 notes 
and 126 sequences. The 128 version 
also allows you to split the synthe- 
sizer keyboard, allowing you to as- 
sign the upper and lower half to 
different MIDI channels. 

GlassTracks. At Sonus, Erin Axtell 
recommends the GlassTracks multi- 
functional sequencer. "GlassTracks 
is easy to understand, but it's a very 
professional program," she said. "I 
suggest it for any beginner. It's per- 
fect for them," GlassTracks offers 
standard controls, with fast forward/ 
reverse, assignable channels, and 
names for each of eight tracks. 
Tracks can be transposed, erased, 
and quantized to the nearest thirty- 
second, sixteenth, or quarter note. 
Its suggested retail price is $69.95, 
Super Sequencer, Sonus also offers 
a Super Sequencer series for the 64 
(5189,95) and the 128 ($229.95). 
This is a multifunctional, profes- 
sional line of MIDI recording soft- 
ware offering 16 sequences, 8 
20 COMPUTEI's Gazelle August 1988 




tracks, and other advanced editing 
features. It also has a built-in librar- 
ian (see below). 

Patch Editor/Librarians 

Many keyboards come with sounds, 
or presets, built in, but MID! soft- 
ware can also create violin, piano, 
flute, or other effects. These pro- 
grams, or librarians, facilitate the 
storage of the synthesizer parame- 
ters so they can be easily and cjuick- 
ly installed. Such MIDI-produced 
sounds are often called patches, a 
term stemming from the early days 
of analog synthesizers, when patch 
cords were needed to program the 
effects. To add to the confusion, 
these same programs are often 
called patch editors or patch 
editor/librarians. 

If you have a Casio, a Yamaha, 
or another papular synthesizer, 
there are specific librarians avail- 
able for your keyboard. They let 
you create, edit, and store patches 
on the C2-101, DX7, or other spe- 
cific keyboards. Some programs in- 
clude hundreds of preprogrammed 
patches. You may want to consider 
a librarian, but it's not required 
software for MIDI beginners. 

Scorers 

Many musicians feel it's important 
to have a hardcopy of their music, 
After entering a composition, edit- 
ing and recording it with a sequenc- 
er, and playing it through a 
synthesizer, they like to have the 
option of sending the final product 
to a printer. Once again, as with li- 
brarians, you don't have to have 
this type of software to get your feet 
wet with MIDI, but it is useful to 
some beginners. 

Passport offers The Music Shop 
for MIDI, retailing for $149,95, It 
lets you compose, edit, and print 
sheet music in piano, single staff, or 
quartet formats. Eight voices can be 
assigned to four different MIDI 
channels or keyboards. The Music 
Shop doesn't have the sequencing 
capabilities of MasterTracks, but 



MasterTracks doesn't have printout 
capabilities. The Music Shop for 
MIDI requires a graphics interface 
and printer that can emulate Com- 
modore graphics. 

Dr. T has Convert a file Plus, a 
utility program that converts Key- 
board Controlled Sei]uencer or 
MIDI/8 Plus files for use with Pass- 
port's Music Shop for MIDI. It han- 
dles transcription for sequencer 
files, automatic transposition of 
parts, and autocorrection. The pro- 
gram retails for $75. 

Determine Your Needs 

MIDI is not a computing activity 
that will interest everyone. To be 
accurate, it's a musical activity that 
uses a computer as a creative tool. 
Related software tends to be more 
expensive than games and other 
forms of computer entertainment, 
and keyboards can be a major pur- 
chase. If you have an interest in 
MIDI, ask yourself a few questions 
before deciding on a keyboard or a 
sophisticated sequencer. 

How much of a beginner are 
you? Are you new to computers, 
music, and MIDI, or are you a 
trained musician who's just starting 
to make electronic music? Do you 
plan to play professionally or just 
for the enjoyment of it? Would you 
be content with a basic, no-frills 
keyboard, or do your skills and 
standards require professional- 
quality instruments? 

Finally, how's your budget? 
You may want a top-of-the-line syn- 
thesizer, but can you justify the ex- 
pense? MIDI software (and hard- 
ware) is specialized and still has a 
hefty price tag compared to other 64 
and 128 software. If you just want to 
plunk out a few tunes, MIDI may be 
musical overkill. Exploring the pos- 
sibilities of Commodore's SID chip 
could be a more economical release 
for your musical talents. 

If you're still determined to 
turn out MIDI masterpieces, you'll 
need, in addition to your 64 or 128, 
a keyboard/synthesizer to produce 
the notes, a sequencer to control 
and record your creations, and a 
MIDI interface to connect the com- 
puter to the keyboard, and that's it. 
Start with this simple setup; then 
check out the accessories. 

Of course, a dash of talent 
doesn't hurt, but you have to sup- 
ply that. 



Talk Is Cheaper 



Even as manufacturers of speech- 
synthesis and voice-recognition 
products debate the future of the 
Commodore 64 market, they con- 
tinue to attempt to improve per- 
formance while low^ering prices. 
Although there have been no recent 
major breakthroughs in technol- 
ogy, most of these companies have 
brought their prices in line with an 
average 64 user's budget. 

Following the introduction of 
the 64, several companies decided 
to take advantage of the computer's 
SID (Sound Interface Chip), which 
was — and, for some purposes, still 
is — considered one of the indus- 
try's best. Commodore itself re- 
leased a voice-synthesis module 
called the Magic Voice, which has 
been discontinued for some time. 
Most of the other speech-synthesis 
companies have either ceased to ex- 
ist, have merged with each other, or 
like Commodore, have discontin- 
ued their products for the 64, Some, 
though, have forged on. 

Three Parts of Speech 

Currently there are three basic 
types of speech technology avail- 
able for microcomputers. Speech 
digitizers convert spoken words 
into a series of numbers, which can 
be read by the computer and then 
sent to the sound chip to be re- 
played. Speech synthesizers divide 
words into phonemes (the smallest 
meaningful sounds in a language). 
The phonemes are then linked to- 
gether to form audible words. Fi- 
nally, there's voice recognition, 
which enables the computer to digi- 
tize the user's voice and then match 
the digital pattern of a word to a 
previously digitized command. The 
computer hears and interprets the 
word, and then it performs the des- 
ignated function. 

Chip Off the Old Block 

Covox has been marketing its Voice 
Master system for several years. 
This speech-digitization and voice- 



Mickey McLean 

Spcech-sifuthesis 

and voice-recognition 

products for the 64 

and 128 are now more 

affordable than ever — 

and there's a lot 

to choose from. 




Voice Mailer junior is a low-cost alter- 
native for 64 users. 



recognition product allows users to 
record and play back speech, to 
train their computer to recognize 
words, and, with Speech Construc- 
tion Set, to edit both the pitch and 
amplitude of digitized voices. The 
Voice Master package (which in- 
cludes Speech Construction Set and a 
headset) has a suggested retail price 
of $89.95. 

Last year, Covox released a 
lower-priced, scaled-down version, 
the Voice Master Junior. It's physi- 
cally smaller than its predecessor, 
but has many of the same func- 
tions. The Jr, doesn't include a 
headset or the Voice Master's fun- 
damental pitch and amplitude ex- 
tractor circuitry, and it won't work 
with Speech Construction Set soft- 
ware, "The suggested retail price is 
539,95, and an optional headset mi- 
crophone can be purchased for $10, 

Covox vice president Brad 
Stewart said that his company real- 
ized that a lower-priced alternative 
was necessary for Commodore users. 

"We wanted to keep the 64 
market open and make it more at- 
tractive, and we did that by tweak- 
ing performance and lowering the 
price. We've now got it down to 
about the same price level as 
games," Stewart notes. 

Another company that has 
been in the voice-technology busi- 
ness for several years is Votrax. 
Their Votalker 64 is a speech syn- 
thesizer that fits into the 64's expan- 
sion port and uses 8K of memory. It 
originally sold for $99,95, but re- 
cently the price was reduced to 
$59.95. Users type in the words they 
want the computer to say. The vol- 
ume, pitch, and the speed of the 
speech can then be altered. 

Educational Speech 

Hearsay has produced most of its 
speech-technology products for 
educational use. The company's 
software is designed to be used 
with the Hearsay 1000, a combina- 
tion speech-syn thesis/ voice-recog- 

COMPUTEI's Ga^ellO August 1988 21 



nition peripheral. The 1000 plugs 
into the 64's expansion slot and 
comes bundled with software that 
allows user-programmed speech. 
The standard Hearsay 1000 is sold 
in mass market stores such as Toys 
"R" Us, and retails for $59.95. The 
Swift Load version, which allows 
users to load the software five times 
faster than the standard version, 
sells for $79.95. 

Two of Hearsay's educational 
programs are Aqua Circus and Think 
Bank; both require the Hearsay 
1000. Hearsay is also planning to 
release this summer The Intelligent 
Talking Terminal, which can be 
used with databases and online and 
bulletin board services. 

Michelle McNamee, regional 
sales director for Hearsay, says that 
they're working with several large 
software publishers on approxi- 
mately ten new voice-interactive 
titles to be released by the end of 
the year. 

In addition to working with its 
own specially designed software, 
the Hearsay 1000 can also work 
with other software. Users are able 
to issue verbal commands in text 
adventures such as Zork instead of 
typing them in. 

Fearn & Music also markets a 
sound-digitizing product. The SFX 
Sound Sampler is manufactured in 
England and was picked up for dis- 
tribution by Fearn & Music last No- 
vember. The sampler allows users 
to edit sounds and shift pitch 
(which can make a male voice 
sound like that of a female, and vice 
versa). Fearn & Music has also 
dropped its price of the Sound Sam- 
pler from $127 to S89. 

Another recent release — and a 
rather unique product — is Access's 
Lip Stik Plus, a headset/mouth- 
piece that detects sounds which ac- 
tivate the fire button used in action 
games. Since the product reacts to 
any sound, it cannot perform voice- 
recognition functions. The original 
Lip Stik is packaged with the 3-D 
space-flight simulator Echelon and 
can be used with that program 
only. The Lip Stik Plus can be used 
with most games that use a fire but- 
ton. It retails for $24.95. 

More Than Entertainment 

Speech-synthesis and voice-recog- 
nition products can provide users 
with more than just software en- 

22 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1988 



hancements. Handicapped users 
can benefit greatly. 

Visually and physically dis- 
abled individuals can make key- 
board entries verbally instead of 
manually. Using software such as 
Covox's Speech Construction Set, 
people with hearing disorders can 
receive visual feedback detailing 
where their voices rise and fall. 

Michelle McNamee of Hearsay 
offers one example of a handi- 
capped individual who uses their 




The Hearsay 1000 is a speech-synthesis/ 
voice-recognition device thai plugs 
directly into the Si's expansion port. 



product. "We know of a gentleman 
in California, who is a paraplegic 
and whose wife is blind, that uses 
our products. He also works with 
schools for the handicapped with 
our unit." 

McNamee adds that the Hear- 
say 1000 is also being used by 
many blind computer enthusiasts 
in Britain. 

Talking Crystal Ball 

The future of voice-synthesis and 
-recognition products for the 64 de- 
pends, of course, on the future of 
the Commodore 64 market, as well 
as whether software developers 
produce programs that require the 
technology or take advantage of it. 

Electronic Speech Systems 
does speech-production work for 
software companies as well as for 
the toy and automotive industry 
and the military. They designed the 
digitized speech for games such as 
Impossible Mission and Ghostbusters. 
They have also worked with manu- 
facturers of Nintendo game car- 
tridges, which, according to 
company president Fred Chan, is a 
growing market for the company. 

"Speech and sound add a lot to 
a game," Chan says. "The Nintendo 
games we've worked on are big sell- 
ers. Software companies should be 



doing the same thing. It could add 
10 to 15 percent in sales." 

Even as speech products be- 
come more affordable for Commo- 
dore users, many companies are 
spending their time developing ad- 
vanced speech technology for IBM 
PCs and compatibles. 

Covox, for instance, has re- 
cently released a new line of voice 
products for the PC and plans sev- 
eral new releases later this year. 

Although the company has not 
abandoned the Commodore mar- 
ket, Covox's Brad Stewart says they 
realize that their future may lie 
elsewhere. "The user base of the 64 
will level off and our sales should 
do the same. 

"Voice recognition for the 64 is 
really just a curiosity," Stewart 
notes. "You really need a bigger 
machine [more memory] to do it 
properly," He adds that PC users 
tend to spend a little more money, 
which is another reason why that 
market may be nvore viable, or at 
least more attractive. 

On the other hand. Hearsay is 
confident in the Commodore 64 
market and continues to develop 
products to take advantage of the 
SID chip. 

"The 64 has just risen again," 
says Michelle McNamee. "I've seen 
it in our sales figures since October 
of last year." 

She adds another reason for 
the renewed success of the 64. 
"There are a large number of peo- 
ple with small children, and the 64 
is easy for children to learn to use." 



For more information on 
products In this article, cont. i 

Access 

#A 2561 Soutti 1560 West 

Woods Cross, UT 84087 

Cavox 

675-D Conger St. 

Eugene. OR 97402 

Electronic Speech Systems 
3216 Scott Blvd. 
Santa Clara, CA 95054 

Fearn & Music 

519 W. Taylor St„ #114 

Santa Maria, CA 93454 

Hearsay 
1823 74th St. 
Brooklyn, NYC 11204 

Votrax Internationa! 
J 394 Rankin 
Troy, MI 48083 



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Zig-Zag and 
Plasmatron 

1 spend most of my waking hours writ- 
ing, thinking, programming, and pray- 
ing for peace, so 1 don't think I have to 
apologize when I break away for a few 
minutes of harmless vicarious violence. 
Second-hand thrills have a healing 
quality. That's why war movies, video- 
games, and pornography are so popu- 
lar. Who's to say whether playing a few 
videogames might have soothed Hit- 
ler's feelings after being rejected from 
art school? He might not have em- 
barked on his second career. A clear ex- 
ample of the benefits of videogames is 
the fact that we have not engaged in a 
major European conflagration since the 
introduction of Pong in the midseven- 
ties. Mere coincidence? 1 think not. 




Zig-Zag 

Thiis review concerns two recently 
released action games. AUen-biasters 
would be a more accurate term. Blast 
the alien in whatever form. Eradicate 
the enemy. Crush the opposition. It's 
better to do it on the computer screens 
than in the streets, 

Tired of the arms race? Politicians 
giving you a pain? Get lost in the Matrix 
of Zog by playing Zig-Zag. To set the re- 
cord straight, the game is Zig-Zag and 
the company is Spectrum Holobyte, al- 
though I found the package labeling a 
little confusing on this point. 

The game itself leaves no room for 
doubt: Creators Antony Crowther and 
David Bishop have produced a fascinat- 
ing alter reality. The Matrix of Zog will 
remind you of a cross between Ver- 
sailles and a 1930s bijou. Colors flood 
the screen. The animation is incredible, 

24 COMPUTED GaietIB August 1988 



and gameplay vriU call upon a unique 
set of skills. 

Flashy graphics wait for you at ev- 
ery turn. The score screen will knock 
your eyes out. And before the game is 
even played, you're treated to a frontis- 
piece screen, a display that is simply 
gratuitous glitz. The aedits crawl as if 
at the beginning of a movie, with men- 
tion of such functions as key grip and 
lighting. And the credits are accompa- 
nied by a catchy techno-rock score. 
What a crew of programmers! My hat is 
off to them. 

The game itself will probably 
sound a mite ridiculous. But don't let 
that dissuade you. This game is special. 

Leave tiresome physics behind 
when you enter the Matrix. Zog plays by 
his own rules. You won't be able to steer 
your spacecraft. You can sidle left and 
right, rise and fall, but you can only go in 
one direction, unless you hit one of the 
prisms helpfully scattered among ran- 
dom nooks and comers, (1 warned you 
this was going to sound a little strange,) 

A prism (they look a little like or- 
ange coal scuttles) allows you to turn at 
a right angle. If you hit a wall, you 
bounce off undamaged and proceed in 
the opposite direction. The hallways 
swarm with zigzags, homers, drifters, 
attracters, bouncers, corkscrews and 
cubes. It sounds like a bar on the water- 
front. But it doesn't matter whtit they're 
called — it's always open season. Exter- 
minate them. 



These two new action 
games produce a 

^fascinating alternate % 
reality. 



As they bite the dust, you'll accrue 
cash (yen, hopefully, in the light of 
worldwide moneymarket trends) with 
which you can purchase helpful items 
like shields, smart bombs, maze maps, 
x-ray vision, and so on. There is so 
much more, 1 could go on for a long, 
long time. 




Zig-Zag is a game that will draw 
your eye from a long distance away. 
You'll find yourself helpless in its grip. 

The second game 1 played recently 
is Plasmatron from Avantage. Plasma- 
tron is a spectacle. As you pilot your jet 
through throngs of attacking fighters 
from the hostile empire, you must fight 
also against the distraction of the fine 
graphics. Nearby buildings, mush- 
rooms, ferns, and the like rush by much 
faster than distant objects (which in- 
clude a Saturn-like ringed planet), lend- 
ing a disturbingly realistic third 
dimension to the game. 




Plasmatron 

If I have any objection to this and 
other similar games (like Sanxion and 
Delta Force), it's that the fighter ought to 
move through this third dimension as 
well. As it is, your fighter and the aliens 
are on a single plane in the foreground, 
which usually seems somewhat re- 
moved from the background. 

The background isn't just pretty 
pictures, though. The factories are on 
fire and their smoke represents a major 
hazard. Call the EPA later — you won't 
have time to think when playing Plas- 
matron (which is probably the highest 
praise that can be given to an action 
game). 

—Robert Bixby 

Zig-Zag 

Spectrum Holobyte 
2061 Challenger Dr. 
Alameda. CA 94501 
$24.95 

Plasmatron 

Avatttage 

20813 Stevens Creek Blvd. 

Cupertino, CA 95014 

$14.95 



Paperclip /// 

The Commodore 64 has never been 
short of quality word processing soft- 
ware. WordPro 3 Plus almost coincided 
with the release of the 64, and it estab- 
lished a surprisingly high initial quality. 
Following WordPro 3 Plus came a host 
of other entries, from Paperback Writer 
through Word Writer through Fkel Sys- 
tem through SpeedScript through Geo- 
Write Workshop. Almost amazingly, all 
were of a very high quality. 

But the best one of all was Paper- 
Ciip. Filled with features and thorough- 
ly professional, PaperClip became the 
main word processor for a great many 
64 users. Omni went so far as to call it 
the Cadillac of word processors. Almost 
by itself, it established the Commodore 
64 as a machine worth using even by 
the serious writer. It couldn't do any- 
thing about the 64's lack of an 80-column 
mode, but it made up for it with a 
wealth of flexibility. Several versions of 
the package, and finally a PaperClip U, 
expanded its initial capabilities. 

WTien Electronic Arts acquired the 
Batteries Included line, 64 owners 
hoped that PaperClip would be among 
the products saved from extinction. It 
was more than just saved; it was injected 
with a new youth. PaperClip J// has now 
been released, and it's still the Cadillac. 

Inside the package are a 200-page 
manual and two double-sided 5 'A -inch 
disks. The two disks are an important 
feature: One contains a version for the 
64, the other a version for the 128. On 
the back of the 64 disk is the Dictionary 
disk (for spell checking), while the 
reverse of the 128 disk holds the dic- 
tionary and the printer files. 

What this means, of course, is that 
former 64 users who have upgraded to 
the 1 28, but who have kept their 64, have 
actually purchased two new products. 

Experienced PaperClip users need 
not fear extensive revisions. Except for 
some useful upgrades, the program 
works exactly as before. For those new 
to the program. Batteries Included has 
added a series of menus, accessible 
through the function keys. These 
menus bring PaperClip 111 up to the 
ease-of-use standards set by menu- 
driven word processors such as Geo- 
Write Workshop and Pocket Writer. 
Menus, of course, have become the sine 
qua )ion of all productivity software. 

There are several menus, but the 
main menu, summoned by the F7 key, 
is typical. When the main menu is on 
the screen, the cursor keys highlight 
one of several options. New Document 
erases the text in memory (PaperClip III 
does not allow multiple windows) and 
lets you start over. Both Load Docu- 
ment and Save Document are self- 
explanatory, while Disk Directory 



brings the directory onto the screen. 

From this menu you can also 
search text, search and replace text, get 
a video preview of the document, print 
the document, invoke the spelling 
checker, and move to the telecommuni- 
cations module. Also, from here you 
control margin settings and justifica- 
tion. When you have everything set, 
you can save the configuration to disk. 

AH of these commands are accessi- 
ble through the keyboard as well. Expe- 
rienced PaperClip users will recognii-.e 
the Save command as Control-S, the 
Directory command as Control-0 {or 
CTRL-1), the Video Preview command 
as Control-V, and so on. None of the 
menu commands replace the old key- 
board commands; they simply make 
learning the system much easier. 

What does PaperClip HI have to of- 
fer? A number of things. First, it's a 
postformatting word processor, which 
means that the document does not ap- 
pear on the screen as it will on the 
printed page. This may seem like a dis- 
advantage, but in fact it allows total 
control over what the document will 
look like. It also doesn't slow down 
your typing fingers, as many WYSIWYG 
word processors do. 



PaperClip HI is still the 

Cadillac of word 

processors for the 64 and 

the 128. 



Second, it offers thorough flexibili- 
ty. Through a series of formatting com- 
mands, all of which follow the check- 
mark symbol, you can control margins, 
page length, pitch, spacing, header and 
footer information (including multiple- 
line headers and footers), page number- 
ing (including upper- and lowercase 
Roman numerals), chapter numbering 
(again vvith Roman numerals), and 
linking several files together to create a 
text longer than memory allows. 

Speaking of this, the price of more 
features is less available memory: Com- 
modore 64 in-memory documents are 
now down to 202 lines (from over 800 
in the earliest PaperClip versions), 
while 80-column 128 documents are 
499 linos. 

Check-mark commands include 
such esoterica as interparagraph spac- 
ing (automatic multiple-spacing be- 
tween paragraphs); alternate page 
printing, which allows you to print first 
the odd-number pages, then turn the 
paper around and print the even-number 



pages on the back; proportional print- 
ing; letter-quality printing; automadc 
paragraph indention; forced paging 
(with conditions); and even outlining. 

What else? PaperClip III lets you 
take the Directory screen and put it into 
text, a useful feature for cataloging 
disks, It has a Global File Copy com- 
mand, available for two-drive owners 
only, which copies all of a document's 
linked files from one disk to another. It 
has one of the most sophisticated col- 
umn manipulation features of any word 
processor for any system, and it allows 
table of contents (but not index) genera- 
tion. The 128 version even has a com- 
mand for stripping hard returns from a 
text file you receive over a modem. 

The telecommunications module 
comes, like the spelling checker and the 
setup and configuration files, by way of 
an overiay that stays out of memory 
until you invoke it. Special features 
here include the recognition of various 
Commodore-based modems (and Hayes 
and other RS-232 modems), dialing 
commands, autolinefeed commands, and 
three transfer protocols, Xmodem CRC, 
XModem, and Punter CI. The Punter 
protocol is used by some Commodore- 
specific bulletin board systems. 

PaperClip III more than holds its 
own in the rather crowded 64/128 
word processing field. It's probably the 
least pretty of all such packages, and 
will therefore not appeal to those who 
want their screens to look as good or 
better than their printed documents. 

But for anyone looking to make 
their 64s — and especially their 128s — 
professional word processing stations, 
PaperClip Ul will satisfy virtually all 
their wishes. I have used word proces- 
sors on mainframes, on the Amiga, on 
the Atari ST, on the Macintosh, and on 
MS-DOS machines, and I still find my- 
self drawn to PaperClip III on the 128D. 

The program's first version has a 
couple of bugs, however. First, the up- 
arrow key (the one beside RESTORE) 
does not operate in the 64 version. 
Functionally, this means that putting 
page and chapter numbers in the text 
will not work (they will still work in the 
headers and footers, though). 

Second, the printer test in the 128 
version causes the program to crash; 
the 64 version seems to work fine, how- 
ever. Finally, less a bug than an annoy- 
ance, the CTRL-O combination for 
printer output does not operate in the 
64 version. Instead, you have to print 
by using the menus in the overlays. 

—Neil Randall 

Batteries Included 
Distributed by Electronic Arts 
1820 Gateway Dr. 
San Maico, CA 94404 
$49.95 



COMPUTErs Gazette August 1968 25 



Power at Sea 

Obviously, the more literary title has al- 
ready been used by Hollywood for the 
still moving, still televised Victory at 
Sea. And there is no doubt that Power at 
Sea has more connotations of arcade 
parlors than it does of history. Yet 
there's no escaping the fact that Power 
ai Sea is a celebration of the gallant 
hours of Admiral William F. "Bull" 
Halsey. Furthermore, I know Accolade 
is feeding me history in small doses — 
and 1 love it. 

This time it's the Battle of Leyte 
Gulf, one of the greatest naval confron- 
tations of all time. Admiral Halsey com- 
manded the U.S. Fleet during this battle 
that opened the way for the liberation 
of the Philippines. He dealt the Japa- 
nese Fleet a crippling blow by sending 
Marine units ashore in a successful land 
invasion. The question in Pmuer at Sea is 
whether you can do the same. 

For all practical purposes, you're 
an admiral, although your fleet is small: 
one battleship, one aircraft carrier, and 
one troop ship. But with these vessels, 
you may do wonders. During the initial 
moments of the game, decide between 
carrying a large number of troops or a 
great amount of fuel. 

You'll also have to decide on the 
ratio of fighter planes to bombers. You 
may have many of one or the other, but 
not both. Striking the proper balance is 
one of the key strategic moves, and yet 
the choices can be based on your own 
arcade talents. If you become adept at 
using the big guns to knock out shore 
installations, you won't need so many 
troops; if you're a good pilot, you won't 
be wasting airplanes. 

Go to your flagship's bridge, which 
is a menu in disguise. At their stations, 
you'll see a radioman, a navigator, and 
damage control and weapons officers. 
When one of them desires your atten- 
tion, he'll turn his head toward you, 
When you query or give orders, use the 
joystick to turn your head (in the fore- 
ground) toward one of them. 

Audible tones alert you to radio 
messages no matter where your atten- 
tion is engaged. Return to the bridge, 
face the radioman, and a summary of 
messages appears on a screen. 

Querying the navigator shifts the 
screen to a map of Leyte Gulf, vvhere 
enemy installations are marked. Since 
you have only 96 hours to break the en- 
emy fleet and successfully invade four 
enemy bases, you'll want to be thought- 
ful about how you set your course. Set 
your rendezvous points, set your speed, 
and the battle is on. 

When danger threatens, you'll 
learn about it from the radioman. Go to 
the weapons specialist, and the screen 
shows several courses of action, with 

26 COMPUTSrs Gazette August 1968 




the proper one highlighted. 

Now you're into the arcade part of 
the game. If an enemy battleship is 
near, launch planes to take it out, fight- 
ers to silence its guns, and bombers to 
finish it off. As each plane embarks on 
the mission, you'll be at the controls. 
When a plane finishes its run, you'll 
switch to the next aircraft in line. 

Kamikaze planes made their first 
appearance in this battle; sometimes 
threats will come at you from the air. 
When this happens, man antiaircraft 
guns and try to shoot down the waves 
of attackers. 



action plus a dose of 
history — the Battle of 
Leyte Gulf, one of the 

greatest naval 
^confrontations of M 

time. ^^^ 



To soften an enemy base for inva- 
sion, man the big guns and try to knock 
out the gun emplacements on shore 
before they knock you out. 

As each offensive or defensive ac- 
tion loads, you're treated to a montage 
of images, much as you've seen in mov- 
ies: sailors running to their stations; 
lookouts observing the enemy through 
binoculars; fliers pulling on flight jackets. 

While the success of your actions 
depends upon your joystick skills, the 
final act — land invasion — relies on 
strategy. You'll be told the relative 
strength of the enemy base. From this 
description, you must decide how 
many troops to commit. By toggling 
your joystick, you can select in multiples 
of 100 up to a maximum of 1200 troops. 

While it probably seems easy 
enough to commit the full force to each 
invasion, bear in mind there are several 
enemy bases to be reduced, and even 



victorious U.S, troops are not to be re- 
turned to ship. They presumably are on 
occupation duty or mopping-up 
operations. 

Once troops are committed, you 
can only wait— as commanders have 
done throughout time. Again, a mon- 
tage of images plays about the screen, 
with appropriate sound effects. Now 
and again short messages appear at the 
bottom of the screen: "Sir, we've se- 
cured the beach." "Sir, we're taking 
heavy casualties," "Sir, we need 
reinforcements," 

If your troops are successful, the fi- 
nal image of the montage will be out of 
context but no less stirring: Marines 
raising the flag on Iwo Jima, an event 
that happened a few months later. 
Their hymn plays in the background, 
and the captured base on the naviga- 
tion map will be reflagged with the 
Stars and Stripes. 

It isn't always victory, however. 
Your aircraft carrier may be too dam- 
aged by Kamikazes to launch any planes; 
your big guns or antiaircraft guns may 
be too damaged to fire; you may be 
hopelessly run aground; you may have 
no more troops, fuel, or time. You were 
given 96 hours to complete your mission. 
If it isn't accomplished, or if you succumb 
to the enemy, you'll be removed from 
command: The familiar scene on the 
bridge is there, but you aren't. 

Whatever the outcome, the score- 
board shows where you succeeded and 
where you didn't. Each element of the 
game is considered separately. The pos- 
itive and negative numbers result in a 
numerical score and a rank on the "Hall 
of Fame" board. (Privately, I wonder 
why a Commander outranks an Admi- 
ral, but that's a matter for Accolade to 
sort out.) 

Documentation is slight but com- 
plete, 1 would have appreciated the 
deeper historical background that Ac- 
colade has traditionally included with 
such games, Graphics and sound, as 
usual, are very good, and the Accolade 
"trademark" of large foreground 
graphics is evident. 

As an arcade/strategy game con- 
trolled by a joysfick. Power at Sea tests 
your mind and reflexes in ways that 
should certainly hold your interest. I 
ask no more of any game. As a means of 
spotlighting a few gallant hours of his- 
tory — reminding us of a time when 
young men in blue dungarees and bag- 
gy khakis held our future in their 
hands — it works. 

Thanks, Accolade, for the memory. 
— Ervvn Bobo 

Accolade 

550 S. Winchester Blvd. 

Suite 200 

Sajilose, CA 95128 

S29.95 



Hodge Podge 

Children are delighted by simple 
things. Blocks, balls, bright colors. They 
like surprises, too. Hodge Podge by 
Artworx has all these things and a little 
bit more. It offers a way to simplify your 
computer and make that magical toy- 
box accessible to your children. 

Hodge Podge's goal is to introduce 
your children to handling the computer 
keyboard, and to educate them a little 
at the same time. Unlike most games 
which require at least rudimentary 
reading skills, Hodge Podge requires 
nothing more than little fingers and ac- 
tive curiosity. You load up the program 
and then let the child take over. 

There is a programmed response 
for nearly every key on the keyboard. 
When a child begins to press the keys, 
the fun begins. The responses are con- 
sistent and bear some relation to the 
keys that prompt them. For example, 
pressing F will call up a picture of a bam 
and the tune to Old Macdonald's Farm 
followed by — at the appropriate mo- 
ment — a randomly selected animal. 
Older children soon develop an aware- 
ness of the relationship between keys 
and screen and are able to call up de- 
sired favorites at will. 

Most of Hodge Podge's graphics are 



extremely simple, but this seems to be 
intentional. The cheerful colors and 
blocky designs have ankle-biter appeal. 
It's this simplicity that makes the pro- 
gram deceptive. It just doesn't look like 
it does as much as it actually does. 

Many of the drawings are animat- 
ed or have musical accompaniment, 
and all have the potential for teaching. 
There are the alphabet and counting 
lines and musical scales, but there are 
others which educate more subtly than 
these. When a song is played, the corre- 
sponding notes appear in the lower 
right comer of the screen. Some keys 
provide thought-provoking pictures 
such as a prism breaking a streak of 
white light into a series of many colors 
or a volcano erupting. When older chil- 
dren play, these kinds of pictures can 
serve to stimulate discussion. 

The short sequences used in Hodge 
Podge are just right for capturing a 
youngster's attention span. They're 
reminiscent of some of the animations 
on "Sesame Street." In fact, Hodge 
Podge is sort of an interactive "Sesame 
Street," where a child can prompt his or 
her own entertainment, be educated, 
and become familiar with the computer 
all at once. 

Hodge Podge fills a niche: It's a 
computer game for the youngest mem- 



bers of the family: 18-month-olds are 
delighted by it. Even sophisticated six- 
year-olds enjoy the music and the sur- 
prise of the random selections. The 
most fun is to turn an older and youn- 
ger child loose on it together. 

The two-page manual gives a com- 
plete run-down of what response each 
key will bring. It refers only to the Ap- 
ple and Atari versions, so there are no 
loading instructions for the Commo- 
dore. Of course, most 64 owners are 
smart enough to figure them out; at the 
same time, this is an unfortunate over- 
sight on the part of Artworx. 

The phrase hodge podge means 
mixture or jumble. Artworx's Hodge 
Podge is exactly that; a jumble of pic- 
tures and sounds designed to please the 
eyes and ears of its audience. With it, 
your computer becomes a magical toy- 
box that your children can open up 
themselves to discover what lies inside. 
And for a child growing up in a com- 
puter-using society, that introduction 
can be the biggest magic of all. 

—Robin and David Minnick 

Artworx 

18i4 Petifield Rd. 

Penfield, NY 14526 

$14.95 



Excellence ... 

for the Commodore 

Lt, Kemal - a 20 or 40 Megabyte Hard Drive which supports 
CP/M, includes enhanced system commands, and is expandable, 
configurable, & FAST! Great for BBS operation. 

Super Graphix GOLD ■ the ultimate printer interface which 
supports 128 FAST serial and includes a 32K buffer, 4 built-in 
fonts, 4 downloadable fonts, and a utility disk with 27 fonU. 
Super Graphix - an enhanced printer interface which has NLQ 
built-in and includes an 8K buffer, 2 downloadable fonts, reset 
button, and a utility disk with 27 fonts. 
Super Graphix jr - an economical printer interface with NLQ 
built-in Mid includes 10 printing modes, graphics, and easy 
operation. 

FontMaster II - a powerful wordprocessor for the C64 with 
30 fonts ready to use, 65 commands, font creator, data merging, 
super and subscripting, italicizing and more. 

FontMaster 128 - a super wordprocessor for the 128 with 56 fonts 
ready to use including foreign language fonts, on screen- font preview, 
4 column printing, a 102,000 word spell checker and much more. 

The Xetec Product Family for the Commodore C64® and 128® 

The name that spells Quality, Affordability, and Reliability 

All Hardware is FCC Certified All Interfaces include a Lifetime Warranty 
,^_ ^=- — — Cominodore CM and 128 are regisiertd trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 

^^ = ^1^ Xetec, Inc. 2804 Arnold Rd. Salina, KS. 67401 (913) 827-0685 




star NX-1000C 
Multi-Font Printer 

I took a cold, hard look at my comput- 
ing requirements some time back and 
decided 1 tweded a daisywhee! printer. 
Of course, what I wanted was a dot- 
matrix printer able to print graphics, 
banners, and other fun things, but my 
business requirements had to come 
first. While it might be fun to dump 
high-resolution screens and print greet- 
ing cards with quadruple-sized letters, I 
feh 1 needed the print quality that only 
a daisywheel could provide. 

Then along came Star's NX-IOOOC 
Multi-Font. 

The print quality of dot-matrix 
printers has improved in the past cou- 
ple of years. Most printers now have a 
near-letter-quality (NLQ) mode, but the 
quality varies from machine to ma- 
chine. (On some printers 1 think NLQ 
means iiol letter quaiily.) I'm impressed, 
however, with the NX-IOOOC and its 
four internal fonts. 

The NX-IOOOC is Commodore- 
ready. You don't need a separate inter- 
face to connect it to your computer. It's 
fully compatible with the 64 and the 
128, and it prints all the Commodore 
graphics and business character sets. 
The lOOOC also has an ASCII operating 
mode which prints the standard ASCII 
character set. 

In draft-quality mode, the nine-pin 
lOOOC prints 144 characters per second 
(cps) at 12 characters per inch (cpi). In 
NLQ mode, it slows down to 36 cps, em- 
ploying a dense matrix of up to 18 X 23 
dots to print well-defined characters. The 
lOOOC has four built-in NLQ type styles. 

Turn on the printer and it defaults 
to draft mode. Press a switch on the 
front of the panel to select one of the 
NLQ type styles: Courier, Sanserif, Or- 
ator with small capital letters, or Italics 
for all styles. Orator with lowercase let- 
ters can be selected by printer control 
commands. Some 24-pin printers offer 
a variety of fonts via plug-in cartridges, 
but to the best of my knowledge, the 
lOOOC is the only nine-pin printer that 
has fonts built in. 

Another switch on the front panel 
selects the print pitch— the spacing be- 
tween the letters. The printer powers 
up in pica pitch, which prints 10 charac- 
ters per inch. Elite is 12 cpi, condensed 
pica is 17 cpi, and condensed elite 
prints 20 cpi. Proportional pica and pro- 
portional elite can also be selected. 
Load a word processor file or spread- 
sheet and then select the print quality 
and number of characters per inch prior 
to printing. 

Should you wish to change styles 
within a document, all of the type styles 
and pitches can be selected by printer 
control commands that you include in 

28 COMPUTED Gazette August 1988 




your document. Orator, for example. Is 
a dot taller than the other styles. You 
may want to use it for a title or a sub- 
heading. Power up in Courier or San- 
serif and then switch to any other font 
or pitch by using an embedded printer 
command. You also have the option to 
lock in a desired font to prevent software 
interference from your word processor. 

Like many printers, the lOOOC 
handles both single sheets and fanfold 
paper, but it utilizes a unique paper 
parking feature that 1 particularly like. 1 
use a cheaper grade of fanfold paper for 
everyday printing needs, but I prefer 
quality stationery for important letters. 
On most printers, you have to remove 
the fanfold paper to print a single sheet. 
Then you have to reload the fanfold, 
making certain the sprockets are 
aligned in the tractor drive and that the 
paper is feeding properly before you 
can start printing again. 

You don't have this hassle with the 
lOOOC. Simply press two switches on 
the front paneL and the fanfold paper 
feeds backward out of the way. The 
printer is now ready to print single 
sheets. When you've finished with the 
single sheets and want to reload the 
fanfold paper, move the bail lever for- 
ward, and the paper automatically 
feeds back into position. 



Tfiis 
This 
This 

This 
This 



15 

is 
is 
IS 
is 



sample 
samp 1 e 
sample 
SAMPLE 

sample 



of 
of 
of 
OF 

of 



bers where they're explained in the 
manual. A chapter on BASIC program- 
ming explains how to create special 
printing effects, how to download cus- 
tom characters, and how to access the 
printer's special control commands. 

In addition to their normal func- 
tions, the four switches on the front 
panel also perform special applications, 
including hex dumps, margin adjust- 
ments, self tests, and forward and 
reverse paper adjustments. If you need 
international character sets, they're ac- 
cessible at the toss of a DIP switch for 
Germany, Denmark, France, Spain, 
Sweden, and Italy, 

i use COMPUTEl's SpeedScript 
word processor, and, in most instances, 
the lODOC works fine with it. Speed- 
Script, however, uses a code for under- 
lining that the lOOOC doesn't recognize. 
Be sure to remove any SpeedScript under- 
line commands, or the printout will be 
ruined. If you need to underline, you can 
define your own printkeys with the prop- 
er codes without too much difficulty. 

The computer did lock up after 
printing single sheets, but it cleared as 
soon as 1 turned the printer off. This 
same lockup occurred after printing a 
GEOS file. Since the lockups occurred 
only when the printing was completed, 
the problem was a minor annoyance. 
Other than that, the printer worked 
fine, printing GEOS graphics and text in 
a variety of fonts. (My version of GEOS 
doesn't have a driver for the lOOOC, but 
the NX- IOC driver does the job.) 

The only other complaint 1 have is 
the three-foot cable that connects the 
printer to the disk drive, 1 would have 
appreciated one a little longer. 

The printer comes with a one-year 
warranty. If you have a technical ques- 
tion, free help is available by calling 
Star's technical support services. 

If you're looking for a good, Com- 
modore-ready printer to fit a modest 

Draft quality. 
Courier, 
Sanser i-F. 

Orator with Small Capitals. 
Orator with Lower Case. 



This is Sansari-f in Proportional Elite Italic. 
Print samples from the NX lOOOC. 

Printing single sheets is also a 
breeze with the printer's semiautomatic 
loading feature. Place a sheet into the 
paper guide and slide it down as far as it 
will go. Move the bail lover forward, 
and the paper foods automatically. 
Close the bail, and you're ready to print. 

The 90-page manual is clear and 
easy to read. It has an index to help you 
find specific information quickly. A 
handy reference card shows DIP switch 
settings and all the functions of the 
front panel switches. It also lists about 
100 control codes and the page num- 



budget, I wouldn't hesitate to recom- 
mend the Star NX-IOOOC, It may be a 
budget-priced printer, but it certainly 
doesn't act like one. It'll turn out graph- 
ic masterpieces you can hang on the re- 
frigerator door with pride, and you 
won't be ashamed of the way it prints 
your resume either. 

— Tom Netsei 
Star Micronics 
200 Park Ave. 
Suite 3510 
New York. NY 10166 
$299 



PRICE & QUALITY 



so»^^!^ The Great ^^^^ 
SA^ Communicator ^^^ 

THE DIRECT-CONNECTH AYES' AND COMMODORE' 1670 
COMPATIBLE 1200 BAUD MODEM FOR ONLY $74. ^^ 

Everything from Electronic Mail(E-mail)tostockquotesand huge 
databases of every imaginable type is now on line to ttie smali 
computer owner. You can even send and receive messages anyw/here 
in the world. All you need isa telephone and a modem which allows 
your computer to communicate with others. 

Almost all modems (and services) are set up to communicate in 
one or more o( three speeds: 300. 1200 and 2400 Baud. Most 
computer users prefer 1200 Baud. (1200 Baud is about A times as 
fast as 300 which means you spend about Vj the time and money 
getting the data you want and more time enjoying it.) 

2400's are great {but quite expensive). Most users can't justify 
the cost difference unless they do a large amount of modem work 
with a service that can handle 2400 baud. 

You will also notice a few very cheap 1200s on the market at "too 
good tobe true prices."They are. Thereasonistfiattheyareusually 
forelgnbuiliandnotlruly Hayes' and Commodore 1670' com- 
patible therefore not usable in all situations and with all serlvces. 

What is Hayes' compatibility? Il's the industry standard and about 
all modem manufacturers have adopted the "AT" (Hayes) command 
set. Virtuallyall software beingwrittennov/ uses Hayescommands. 
Beware of those who don't. 
Let's compare Minimodem-C'" with the 1670' 

Ccpmpariscpn ol Minimodem.C " vs. 1670' vs. Avalsi 



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No 

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No 
Yes 
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7 
■J 



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Number ol Status Indicators 7 

Busy Detect? Yes No 

DTR Signal Support? Yes No 

Higfi Speed Delect Line? Yes No 

tJumber of DIP Switches fl 3 

NumberofStaiusRegistets 16 3 

Guaiamee 1 yr. 90 days 

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BB Barrage 



A 
.^1 




William Chin 





• 




W 



Drive a hockey puck ioward your opponent's goal with BBs shot 
from a rapid-fire gun. Challenge a friend at this maddening and 
addictive action game for the 64. Two joysticks are required. 



Reload your gun! Your opponent 
has knocked the puck nearly into 
your goal. Without some quick 
work, you'll lose the game. 

"BB Barrage" is easy to learn; 
You just aim at the puck and shoot. 
Each BB pu.shes the puck a little 
closer to your opponent's goal. 
There is a complication, of course. 
BBs bounce off the obstacles that in- 
habit the playfield. After a BB 
bounces off a few obstacles, it might 
just knock the puck toward you, 

BB Barrage is customizable. A 
screen editor allows you to change 
the obstacles, friction, and other 
game options. After building your 
ideal version, you can save it to disk 
for later play. 

Typing It In 

BB Barrage consists of two pro- 
grams. The first is the main game 
program. It's written in machine 
language. To enter it, use "MLX," 
the machine language entry pro- 
gram found elsewhere in this issue. 
When MLX prompts you for start- 
ing and ending addresses, respond 
with the following values: 

Starting address: COOO 
Ending address; CBIF 

Carefully enter the data for 
Program 1, When you've finished 
30 coMPUTEt's Gazette August 19B8 



typing, save the program to tape or 
disk. It's important to use the name 
BB when you save the program 
since Program 2 tries to load the file 
by that name. 

If you have a disk drive, you 
can type in and use Program 2, "BB 
Barrage Screen Editor," This pro- 
gram is written in BASIC. Carefully 
type it in and save it to disk. BB Bar- 
rage Screen Editor allows you to 
draw new playfields for BB Barrage, 
It also lets you change certain game 
parameters, including the friction of 
the playing surface and the number 
of BBs. If you have a tape drive, you 
cannot use the BB Barrage Screen 
Editor. 

Program 3 is a sample screen 
for BB Barrage, It's useful only if 
you also type in Program 2, Using 
MLX, type in the program and save 
it to disk. When MLX prompts you, 
use these values: 

starting address: CB02 
Ending address; CBEl 

Be sure to save a copy before exiting 
MLX. 

Man Your Stations 

To play BB Barrage, plug two joy- 
sticks into your computer. Tvpe 
LOAD"BB",8,l (or L0AD"BB"',1,1 
for tape users) and press RETURN. 




'Hh' kjl player hai pushed the blue puck 
nearly far enough to score in "BB 
Barrage." 




SB Barrage's editor can be used to create 
custom screens like this one. 

After the program loads, type SYS 
49152. 

In the center of the screen is a 
light blue puck. The player whose 
joystick is in port 1 controls the 
right side of the field, while the oth- 
er player controls the left. The goals 
run along the left and right edges. 
Your gun is located in the center of 
your goal. To aim, press the joystick 



forward or pull it back. To shoot, 
press the fire button. Holding the 
button down enables rapid fire. 

The goal of the game is to 
knock the puck into your oppo- 
nent's goal. Do this by spraying a 
stream of BBs toward the puck. Sev- 
en goals are needed to win the game. 

Note that there are obstacles — 
known as deflectors — on the screen. 
Although the puck slides right over 
these deflectors, BBs bounce off 
them. Careful use of these deflec- 
tors can give you the edge you need 
to win the game. 

If a minute passes without a 
score being made, the screen border 
turns red, and you go into destruct 
mode. From now on, BBs destroy 
the deflectors instead of bouncing 
off them. 

Designing Custom Games 

BB Barrage Screen Editor {Program 
2) is used to create custom versions 
of BB Barrage. Before you run Screen 
Editor, be sure that a copy of BB Bar- 
rage is on the same disk (it should be 
named BB). To use Screen Editor, 
load and run the program. 

The edit cursor is the small yel- 
low block found in the upper left 
comer of the screen. You can move 
the cursor with the joystick plugged 
into port 2. Press the fire button to 
choose a command. Alternatively, 
you can simply press the key which 
corresponds to the command you 
want. The first five comnnands 
allow you to place various types of 
deflectors on the screen. Besides the 
deflector commands, the following 
commands can also be used: 

Command Action 

P Play the game with the 

current settings 
S Save a screen to disk 

L Load a screen from disk 

C Clear the screen of any 

barriers 
M Toggle symmetry mode 

O Choose options 

H Show help screen 

E Exit the program 

If you choose a deflector, you 
can use the joystick to move it to 
various parts of the screen. Press 
the fire button to place a deflector. 
If you press again, the deflector is 
removed. 

You can also use the keyboard 
to place deflectors. To place a de- 
flector, move your cursor to the de- 
sired screen position and press 



SHIFT-Q, SHIFT-* (asterisk), 
SHIFT-- (minus), SHIFT-N, or 
SHIFT-M. SHlFT-Q is round. It de- 
flects the BBs randomly. The other 
four deflectors are straight lines off 
which the BBs bounce. 

A Weil-Balanced Screen 

The Mirror command (M) creates 
symmetrical screens. When mirror 
mode is on, any deflector placed on 
the screen is mirrored on the 
screen's three other quadrants. This 
makes the process of screen design 
quicker and easier. 

The Option command (O) lets 
you change many important pa- 
rameters of BB Barrage. First, you 
can choose colors for the back- 
ground, border, puck, BBs, and 
guns. Next, you're asked for the 
number of goals needed to win the 
game. You're also prompted for the 
length of time {in seconds) before 
the game enters destruct mode (en- 
ter — 1 to completely disable de- 
struct mode). Next, choose whether 
you want friction to be on or off. If 
friction is on, the puck gradually 
slows down after it's hit. With fric- 
tion off, the puck keeps sliding until 
it's hit again. The next option lets 
you select whether or not players 
take BBs from a common pool. If 
you select 1 Possession, BBs that go 
off your side of the screen cannot be 
used by your opponent. This option 
puts more strategy into the game. 
The number of BBs in play is also 
variable. The default number of BBs 
is 100. Just remember that as the 
number of BBs on the screen rises, 
the speed of the game decreases. 
The final question you're asked is 
whether you'd Uke to save a custom 
version of BB Barrage, If you re- 
spond by pressing Y, you'll be 
asked for the filename of the new 
program. The new version of the 
game can be played just like the 
original. Just type LOAD"/i(t'- 
name", 8,1 and type SYS 49152. 

There are two disk commands: 
L and S. The Load command (L) lets 
you load a screen that you aeated 
earlier. You can use this command to 
load Program 3. The Save command 
(S) saves a screen design to disk. 

The Help command (H) dis- 
plays a help screen which lists the 
commands and describes their uses. 

The Exit command (E) simply 
exits to BASIC. 
See program listings on page 76. • 



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COMPUTErs GazettG August 19B8 31 



Cribbage 
128 



m 

Bruce Boyles 



This venerable card-and-board game is a classic. Now it's here 
in electronic form — and your 128 is a crafty" opponent. A'tiisk 
drive is required. 




"Cribbage 128" is a computer ver- 
sion of one of the oldest known 
card games. The computer takes 
care of the hard part — the scoring. 
You concentrate on the game to try 
to beat the computer opponent. 

If you are unfamiliar with the 
rules of Cribbage, see the accompa- 
nying article, "Cribbage: A Closer 
Look." 

Typing It In 

Cribbage 128 is written partly in 
BASIC and partly in machine 
language. 

Use "128 MLX," the machine 
language entry program found else- 
where in this issue, to enter the pro- 
gram. When you're asked for the 
starting and ending addresses, re- 
spond with the following values: 

stalling address: 1300 
Ending address: 179F 

Type in the data for Program 1, 
When you've finished typing, be 
sure to save the program to disk 
with the name CR128. The BASIC 
program expects to find a file of this 
name when it is run. 

Now type in Program 2, the 
BASIC portion of Cribbage 128. 
When you've finished typing, save 
the program to disk. 

Your First Game 

When you're ready to play a game 
of Cribbage, simply type RUN "file- 

32 COMPUTEt'a Gazette August 1988 



name". Use the filename that you 
used when you saved Program 2. 
Cards are designated by num- 
bers. You must discard two cards at 
the beginning of each hand. Press 
the numbers corresponding to the 
cards. If you're not sure what to dis- 
card, you can ask the computer for 
help by pressing H or the HELP 
key. The computer will offer its 
suggestions. 



mTSiim 










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KO PJJ1BI5 






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COHTUICR 








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Out-think a conipuler opponent in this 
computer version of a classic game. 

After you discard, pegging be- 
gins. The points scored during peg- 
ging are displayed in the upper 
right corner of the screen. The tally 
is also displayed. When it's your 
turn, the computer displays the 
prompt C4KD #. Press the number 
of the card that you wish to play. 

After pegging is over, the com- 
puter shows the hands and their 
scores. The computer also shows 



Cribbage i'oml Scores 


- Points 


Tally combination of 15 


2 


(10, 2, 1, 2) 




Tally total of 31 


2 


(during pegging only) 




Last card pegged 


1 


(one for tbe go) 




Cut card U a Jack 


2 


{two for his heels) 




Jack same suit as cut card 


1 


(one for his nob) 




One pair 


2 


(2, 2, 5, 7) 




Three of a kind 


6 


(2, 2, 2, 5) 




Four of a kind 


12 


(2, 2, 2. 2) 




Run of three cards or more 


Iper 


(5, 6, 7, 8) 


card 


Double three-card run 


8 


(3, 4, 5, 3) 




Double four-card run 


10 


(4, 4, 5, 6) cut 7 




Triple run 


15 


(4, 4, 5, 6) cut 4 




Quadruple run 


16 


(8, 8, 9, 9) cut 10 




Flush (four cards) 


4 


Flush (five cards) 


5 



match points, games won, and a 
breakdown of how the points were 
scored: from the hand, from the 
crib, or from pegging. 

When either you or the com- 
puter scores at least 121 points, the 
game ends. The computers then 
asks if you'd like to play again. 
Press Y for yes or N for no, 

You'll find that the computer 
plays a very good game. The com- 
puter isn't terribly cunning, but it's 
very thorough, it should provide a 
challenge to even expert players. 
See program listings on page 70. IB 




BUUT 

FOK 



WEB> 



J EI0 
000000^000 8 
000000Q0II) ' 
0000000 



Now Get Inside Your Commodore with 
COMPUTEi's Gazette Disk. 



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Subscribe today, and month after month you'll get a new, fully- 
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CQMPUTEVs Gazette Disk brings you all the latest, most chal- 
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RESULT: You have hours more time to enjoy all those great 
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Greensboro, N.G. 27403. 







■liii^'^ 









Cribbage: A Closer Look 



Cribbage is the oldest of all two- 
handed card games. In fact, it's 
among the oldest of all card games. 
Historically, its invention dates 
back to the early 1600s and is most 
often associated with the English 
poet Sir John Suckling. 

Cribbage is a two-player game. 
It's played on a table or large open 
space with a standard 52-card deck 
and a Cribbage board. The board (a 
wooden board with peg holes) is 
used to keep score. 

The reason that pegs are so 
useful in scoring is that there are so 
many different opportunities to 
score during play. The pegs are ad- 
vanced appropriately when a score 
is made. The first player to reach 
the end of the board is the winner. 
The computer version of Cribbage 
conveniently replaces the need for 
a partner, table, cards, and Crib- 
bage board. 

The Rules of Cribbage 

The object of the game is to be the 
first player to obtain a total point 
score of 121 or more. The cards 
rank from the high card (a king) 
down to the low card (an ace). All 
cards are counted at face value. 
Face cards are valued at ten. Aces 
are worth one point. 

At the beginning of a game, the 
computer cuts the cards to deter- 
mine who deals first (low card 
deals). The dealer shuffles and then 
deals six cards to each player {the 
opponent receives the first card). In 
the computer version of the game, 
your cards are located at the bottom 
portion of the screen and your op- 
ponent's cards are at the top. 

After the deal, the remaining 
cards are put away until needed. 
Both players then select two of their 
six cards to discard. These four dis- 
cards are known as the cri'i;. The 
crib is scored as an extra hand con- 
tributing to the dealer's total at the 
end of a game. It is located in the 
center of the screen between the 
players' hands. Whenever both 
players have discarded two cards in 
the crib, it's removed until the end 
of the game. 

When the crib has been put 
away, the dealer cuts the remaining 
cards in the deck. The bottom card 



from the cut is placed face up in the 
lower right portion of the screen. If 
the cut card is a jack, the dealer 
pegs (scores) two points. This is re- 
ferred to as two for his heels in Crib- 
bage jargon. The cut card counts as 
the fifth card for both players 
hands, and it's also the fifth card of 
the dealer's crib. Other than being 
involved in scoring, the cut card is 
not used in the pegging or play por- 
tion of the game. 

Game Play 

Once the cut has been made, play 
begins. Both players alternate play- 
ing the four cards remaining in their 
hands. This is called pegging. The 
dealer is never the first to play. 
Once a card is selected, it's placed 
in the center row on the screen. The 
total of the cards is displayed in the 
tally box. Play continues until the 
total of the cards is 31 or as near to 
31 as possible. 

If, during his or her turn, a 
player cannot play a card without 
exceeding 31, the turn is passed to 
the other player. The opponent 
must play any or all of his or her 
cards until 31 has been reached or 
until no further plays can be made. 
If neither player can play a card 
without exceeding 31, then the last 
player able to play receives one 
point for closing. Tiiis is commonly 
referred to as the go. If your cards 
total exactly 31, you'll receive two 
points for the go. Once a final go or 
31 has been reached, the cards that 
have been played are turned face 
down, and play continues with any 
remaining cards. 

After both opponents have 
played the cards in their hands, the 
remaining cards are revealed. This 
is referred to as the meld. The com- 
puter displays the dealer's hand 
last. This allows the dealer's oppo- 
nent the chance to total 121 or more 
and win the game even if the dealer 
may have scored higher. If the op- 
ponent's total is less than 121, the 
dealer's hand is displayed. Finally, 
the crib (the cards set aside earlier 
in the game) is displayed along 
with the point total. 

Once the hands are shown, a 
scoreboard is displayed. This score- 
board contains the following infor- 



mation: total number of hands 
played, total match points, games 
won, points in hand, points in crib, 
points pegged, and total score. 
These scores can be valuable for 
evaluating game play. 

Scoring 

In addition to the points scored for 
the go and 31, there are several oth- 
er ways to score when playing Crib- 
bage. Keep in mind that points are 
scored in pegging and also in the 
meld. 

Two points may be earned 
whenever the sum of the face value 
of the cards played equals 15. For 
example, if the first player plays a 7 
and the second player plays a 5, 
then the first player could play a 3 
and would receive two points for 
making the tally equal 15. 

Every pair (two cards of the 
same denomination played in suc- 
cession) scores two points. Three of 
a kind scores 6 points, and four of a 
kind scores 12 points. 

Points are awarded for runs. A 
run is similar to a straight in poker. 
The minimum number of cards in a 
run is three. The cards in a run do 
not necessarily have to be played in 
numerical order. However, they do 
have to be grouped together. For 
example, the following are all le- 
gitimate runs: 6-7-8, 8-6-7, 7-8-6. 
Remember, the ace is low in Crib- 
bage, therefore ace-king-queen is 
not considered a run. One point is 
scored for each card in a run. 

In the meld, it's possible to 
have double and triple runs. For ex- 
ample, 3-3-4-5 would be a double 
three-card run (using the 4 and 5 
with each 3), and 3-3-4-5-6 would 
be a double four-card run. 

If all four cards in the hand are 
of the same suit, then four points 
are counted for a flush. If the cut 
card is of the same suit, then five 
points are scored. In the crib, all five 
cards must be the same suit in order 
to score points for a flush. 

If your hand contains a jack 
with the same suit as the cut card, 
you receive one point. This is re- 
ferred to by Cribbage players as one 
for his nobs, 

— David I. Hensley, Jr. 



34 COMPUTErs Gazslte August t9B8 




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Investor 



Troy Tucker 

Buy! Sell! Buy! Buy! Ride the stock market to fortune in this 
one- or two-player simulation of mutual-fund investing. It's 
both educational and fun. For the 64, 128, Plus/i, and 16. 



You've just inherited a thousand 
bucks. Should you invest in art? 
Maybe precious metals is your 
game. Or maybe you like things 
closer to home — coins, stamps, and 
baseball cards. After considering 
several investment options, you 
pick the stock market — and we all 
know the risk that involves. So, to 
minimize your chances of getting 
burned on individual stocks, you 
make mutual funds your invest- 
ment vehicle. 

Mutual funds buy and sell 
groups of stocks. For instance, 
when you buy a share of the Com- 
puters fund, you're really buying 
shares of IBM, Commodore, Cray 
Research, Control Data, Apple, and 
dozens of other related companies 
that make up this fund. You're bet- 
ting that the computer industry as a 
whole will increase in value. 

"Investor" lets you (and, op- 
tionally, a friend) invest in a simu- 
lated market of mutual funds. If 
you're observant {and lucky) you'll 

36 COMPUTE is Gazane August 1988 



take home a million bucks. But if 
you're not careful, you'll lose your 
shirt. 

Typing It In 

Investor is written entirely in 
BASIC. One version works on all of 
the following computers: the Com- 
modore 64, 128, Plus/4, and 16. 
Type in the program and save it to 
disk or tape. If you plan on using 
the program in 128 mode, be sure 
to enter it in that mode. 

To start the game, load the pro- 
gram and type RUN. You'll be 
asked for the number of players 
who wish to play. Enter 1 or 2. 
Next, enter names for the players. 
Finally, decide whether you want 
to play a short, medium, or long 
game. A short game averages about 
15 minutes, a medium game lasts 
about 30, and a long one is about 45. 

The game begins. Each player 
starts with $1,000. You'll see the 
main screen. Eleven different mu- 
tual funds are offered, and five col- 




flUIDHIIItVI 



J! II ll 




Bull low and iell high in "investor," a 
stocii market sinndation. 




Manage your personal portfolio. This 
player owns three shares of gold. 

umns of numbers display important 
information about each fund. 

The first two columns relate to 
the current price of the fund. The 



first value is the actual cost for each 
share of the fund. This is the 
amount you'll pay if you decide to 
buy into that fund. The second 
number shows the change in the 
fund price since the beginning of 
the game. 

The third and fourth columns 
respectively show the record high 
and low prices of the fund since 
trading began. 

The final column shows divi- 
dends. When stocks issue dividends, 
owners of the stocks receive a cer- 
tain amount of money per share of 
stock. In Investor, dividends are 
distributed to the owners of funds 
as a percentage of the current price 
of the fund. When the fund is doing 
well (at or above $100 per share), 
the dividends range from 1-5 per- 
cent. When the fund is doing poorly, 
the dividends are fixed at Vi percent. 

The Smart Trader 

Watch the big board. When you de- 
cide that you want to buy a fund, 
press the space bar. Enter your 
name, and you'll see your portfolio. 
You'll be asked whether you v%'ant 
to buy or sell. Then you'll be asked 
what fund you would like to trade. 
Enter the name of the fund. If 
you're buying, Investor will tell you 
how many shares you can pur- 
chase. Enter the number of shares 
of that fund that you would like to 
sell or purchase. Your portfolio will 
be updated. 

Keep a close eye on the funds 
you own. If a fund goes down near 
0, sell! A fund goes under when it 
hits — everyone holding the fund 
loses all their shares, and the fund's 
price is reset to $100. 

A fund can also go through the 
roof. At $200, the fund "splits" 2 
for 1, The price of the fund is 
halved to $100, and you're award- 
ed twice as many shares. 

The Closing Bell 

When the clock at the top of the 
screen winds down to 0, the market 
closes and the final statistics are 
displayed. Look at your total net 
worth. If you end with a total high- 
er than $1,000, consider yourself a 
budding financial genius. If you 
end up with less, you'll have anoth- 
er chance another time to step out 
onto the trading floor and make 
your million. 
See program listing on page 69. W 



COMPUTEI's Gazette is 
looking for utilities, 
games, applications, 
educational programs, 
and tutorial articles. If 
you've created a pro- 
gram that you think 
other readers might en- 
joy or find useful, send 
it, on tape or disk to: 

Submissions Reviewer 
COMPUTE! Publications 
P.O. Box 5406 
Greensboro, NC 27403 

Please enclose an SASE 
if you v^Jsh to have the 
materials returned. 
Articles are reviewed 
within four weeks of 
submission. 



MAIL TO: 

COMPUTEI'S GAZETTE 
SUBSCRIBER SERVICE 

PO Box 10958. DesMoinos,IAS0340-09Se 

Change of Address: Please advise as early as 

possible. Altaeli label wilh your old address and 

wrtte Jn new address below. 

New Subscriber: Fill in /our name and address 
below Use separate sheet for gift orders 



PLACE LABEL HERE 



Renewal: Aitacli label 

One year SS'l (10 Two years S4S 00 

(Foreign subscribers please add $6.00 per j^ear 

(or poslage) 



CiTv STATE ZIP 

Please bill me Paymerl enclosed 

For other subscriplion questions or prot)loins. 
please wrile a nolo and send entire form to the 
above address. OR CALL TOLL-FREE: 

1 "(800) 727-6937 




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Requires a Commodore 64, 128, or 
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or 1571 drives. 

Sales/lDformation: call 

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COMPUTEIs Gazette August 1908 37 



"fe/r/fe@//z)^ 



Computers' Conversations 



Rhett Anderson 
Assistant Editor 

Computers talk. Ask anybody. 

It's easy on Star Trek. "Com- 
puter/' Captain Kirk might say, 
"cross reference the Klingon flight 
pattern with the dance of the Earth 
worker bee." 

"Working . . .," the computer 
says. And then, "Completed." 

"Estimate the next time that 
the Klingons will pass in front of 
us." 

"Working. . . , Five minutes, 
28 seconds," 

"Scotty, I need full power in 
five minutes," 

Jim Kirk makes it sound easy. 
He just talks to the computer like 
it's a human being. 

In War Games it's more diffi- 
cult, Matthew Broderick ha.s to type 
his questions into a computer. The 
computer talks back, once it's con- 
nected to a speech synthesizer. Of 
course, by the end of the movie, it's 
speaking without a speech synthe- 
sizer, but that's Hollywood for you. 

Making It Talk 

One of this month's features, "Talk 
Is Cheaper," discusses several 
products on the market that can let 
your Commodore 64 talk. To un- 
derstand how this is fundamentally 
possible, we need to turn the clock 
back and look at the first inventions 
that talked — Alexander Graham 
Bell's telephone, Marconi's radio, 
and Edison's phonograph, 

Sound travels through the air 
to our ears. In the telephone, a mi- 
crophone translates the waves that 
pass through the air into electricity. 
The electrons travel through a wire 
and into a speaker. The speaker 
translates the electric pulses back 
into sound by physically moving 
the air. 

In the radio, another step oc- 
curs: The electricity is translated by 
the radio transmitter into another 
38 COMPUTEVs Gazette August 1968 



sort of wave — a radio wave. The re- 
ceiving radio (or radios) translates 
the radio waves back to electricity, 
then back into audio waves. 

In the phonograph, the 
strength of the air waves presses a 
needle into wax. This recording can 
then be played back — the recording 
moves a needle, and the movement 
is translated into sound. 

In a more modem device, the 
CD (Compact Disc) player, the 
sound waves are turned into electri- 
cal impulses, then are translated 
into numerical quantities; the loud- 
er the sound, the bigger the num- 
ber. At the factory, these numbers 
are pressed into discs. When you 
play a CD on a player, the numbers 
are read with a laser, turned into 
electrical pulses, and then sent to 
your speakers to produce sound. 

Computers produce sound in 
much the same way as a CD player: 
Numbers in your computer's mem- 
ory are sent to the sound chip and 
then into your monitor's speaker. 
Any sound can be captured (digi- 
tized) and played back with this 
method, !n fact, a whole sentence 
can be digitized for playback. Alter- 
natively, phonemes (the building 
blocks of speech) can be digitized 
and then strung together to create 
any phrase. 

Making It Listen 

A few years ago on Computer 
Chronicles, a weekly computer 
news show on PBS, co-host Stewart 
Cheifet was trying out a young en- 
treprenuer's computer. On the 
screen was an adventure game. A 
headset on Mr, Cheifet's head let 
him control his onscreen alter ego, 
Mr. Cheifet tried to tell the 
character what to do. But it didn't 
understand him. It just kept asking 
"What, what, what?" After a few 
tries, Mr, Cheifet gave up. He 
turned to ask the flustered young 
man about the computer. Unfortu- 
nately, he didn't take the headset 



off. As the two men talked, the 
computer in the background kept 
asking "What, what, what?" — 
much to the inventor's distress. 

What happened? As difficult as 
it is to make a computer talk, it's 
even more difficult to make a com- 
puter understand speech. Say the 
word ten ten times. It may sound 
the same to you each time you say 
it, but there are subtle differences. If 
a computer's listening, each and ev- 
ery ten sounds unique. 

To teach a computer how to 
understand a word, you have to 
"train" it. You say the same word, 
over and over, into the computer's 
microphone. It listens, and as it lis- 
tens it builds a set of numbers that 
represent the word. Later, when 
you say the word again, it checks 
the word against its composite defi- 
nitions of all the words it knows. 

The Future 

Computer scientists are working on 
many fronts to create computers 
that can hold a conversation with 
you. Perhaps the biggest problem is 
this: How do you make a computer 
understand what you're talking 
about? Some of the most cherished 
of all computer science legends re- 
volve around this problem. 

In one, a computer that's pro- 
grammed to sift through news- 
paper stories for terrorist actions 
gets bogged down in the sports sec- 
tion — "Giants Kill Rams," "Bull- 
dogs Massacre Tigers." It then tries 
to interpret its findings. 

In another, a computer trans- 
lates text from English to Russian 
and back. In its most spectacular 
faux pas, it changes "The spirit is 
willing, but the flesh is weak" to 
"The vodka is strong, but the meat 
is rotten." 

But progress is being made. 
Before we know it, the day of the 
talking computer will be upon us. 






te[ji]s 



Tom R. Halfhill 

v/« On occasion, last summer, 
I noticed a bit of funky activity 
with disk operations on my 1541. 1 
took the drive apart just to see if it 
contained so many chips that it 
would be hopeless for me to at- 
tempt to repair it myself. I poked 
around for a while, noting how 
heavily built the drive appears to 
be. While the drive was still 
apart, I tried it out once more. Lo 
and behold, it worked fine. 

The evidence points to an 
overheating problem. Do I have a 
drive with a chip so close to going 
over the edge that a little heat 
makes it go bonkers? Or do 1541s 
in general need lots of fresh air to 
work properly? The air tempera- 
ture in the room was 80 degrees. 1 
have weighed the pros and cons 
of putting a fan on the drive. The 
drive would stay cooler, but more 
dust would be blown in. Just how 
much cooling does a 1541 need? 

f\m You've hit upon a very com- 
mon problem that often leaves peo- 
ple baffled. If mysterious computer 
crashes, lockups, and equipment 
failures seem to happen more fre- 
quently in the summer, it can prob- 
ably be blamed on overheating. 

As you may know, large mini- 
computer systems and mainframes 
are almost always housed in special 
rooms in which temperature and 
humidity are carefully controlled. 
There's a good reason for this, of 
course: Few large computers can 
function in temperatures of 80 de- 
grees Fahrenheit or more. 

Years ago, a daily newspaper 
for which I worked installed its first 
computerized editing/typesetting 
system. At the same time, extra air 
conditioning was installed in the 
newsroom — but not for the report- 
ers and editots. Instead, the air con- 



ditioning was required to keep the 
newsroom cool enough for the vid- 
eo display terminals (VDTs) to op- 
erate. We used to joke about how 
the computer received better treat- 
ment than we did. 

Then, one sweltering summer 
morning, we learned it was no joke. 
The air conditioning broke down 
before the first-edition deadline, 
and the VDTs started going hay- 
wire. To avoid unspeakable disaster 
(the paper had not missed an edi- 
tion in about a century), people 
were dispatched all over town to 
buy bags of dry ice. The bags were 
packed around the VDTs until the 
last edition was put to bed. 

The overheating problem isn't 
quite as acute with personal com- 
puters, but it still exists. These days, 
we tend to equate computers with 
other home appliances that can op- 
erate in almost any temperature, 
even though microprocessors and 
memory chips are much more sen- 
sitive to heat than the simple 
switches, motors, transformers, and 
amplifiers that make up other con- 
sumer electronics devices. 

Your 1541 probably started 
working again when you removed 
the cover because the topless hous- 
ing allowed more heat to escape. So 
why doesn't the drive have more 
ventilation? Because when engi- 
neers design home computers and 
peripherals, they have to compro- 
mise between efficient cooling and 
adequate radio frequency (RF) 
shielding. Without enough shield- 
ing, computing devices may inter- 
fere with nearby TV and radio 
reception. The Federal Communi- 
cations Commission requires home 
computing devices to meet RF stan- 
dards that are even more stringent 
than those for business computers. 
Unfortunately, heavy RF shielding 
leads to overheating problems. 

If overheating is indeed your 
trouble, an add-on fan will almost 



certainly solve it. First, though, you 
might try setting up an ordinary 
household fan to gently waft air 
over your whole computer system. 
This might provide adequate cool- 
ing and also has the advantage of 
keeping you cooler, too. Another 
alternative is to operate your 1541 
during the summer months with 
the top cover removed (unless your 
neighbors or family members com- 
plain about RF interference). Re- 
place the cover between work 
sessions to keep out dust. 

As personal computers grow 
more and more powerful, and as 
memory chips grow increasingly 
dense, it's likely that we'll see more 
built-in fans. Most home computers 
have omitted fans up to now be- 
cause of the added manufacturing 
costs and the extra noise, which is 
more obtrusive in a home environ- 
ment than in a busy office. 

^^» Is it possible to interface 
an Atari 825 printer to a Commo- 
dore 647 I've been told the 825 is 
actually a Centronics 737 printer, 
and it should be possible. What 
kind of interface can handle hi- 
res screen printouts as well as 
word processing chores? 

/»• The Atari 825, first intro- 
duced about eight years ago for the 
old Atari 400/800 computers, is in- 
deed a Centronics printer in dis- 
guise. It therefore works with a 
Centronics-standard parallel inter- 
face. These interfaces are available 
for the Commodore 64; check with 
your local Commodore dealer. 

Graphics screen dumps and 
text output shouldn't be a problem; 
in fact, the Atari 825 supports pro- 
portionally spaced printing, if your 
word processor allows you to ac- 
cess such special features. How- 
ever, remember that the Atari 
printer won't support the special 
Commodore character set. O 

COMPUTEIs Gaietle August 1988 39 




D 






Rounding 



Larry Cotton 

This month we'll learn how to 
round numbers in BASIC. 

There are many reasons for 
rounding off numbers. If you want 
to split a dollar bill with two 
friends, you can't give each of them 
33.33333... cents — you give them 
each 33 cents, and keep 34 cents for 
yourself. 

Another reason to round off 
numbers is to produce a neater dis- 
play. Sometimes we want a number 
to fit into a certain field on the 
screen. If a mathematical calcula- 
tion produces a number such as 
34,36437, for example, we can 
round it to any lesser degree of ac- 
curacy we wish. 

If we want to round a number 
to two decimal places, we look at the 
digit in the third place to the right of 
the decimal point {in this case, it's a 
4). We then compare it to 5, If it's 
equal to or greater than 5, the digit 
to its left (in this case, 6) is increased 
by 1. If the examined digit is less 
than 5, the number to its left is not 
changed. Thus, 34.36437 rounded 
to two decimal places is 34,36. 

If we want to round to one dec- 
imal place, we look at the second 
digit to the right of the decimal — in 
this case, a 6. Comparing it to 5 and 
finding that it's greater, we increase 
the number to the left of the 6 (3) by 
1. Therefore, 34.36437 rounded to 
one decimal place is 34.4. 

Rounding in BASIC 

In BASIC, the general rounding for- 
mula uses two operations we've 
covered recently — finding the inte- 
ger value of a number (INT) and 
raising a number to a power (multi- 
plying a number by itself): 

R = INT(N*10"D + .5)/10"D 

R is the rounded number that you 
seek, N is the number to round, and 
D is the number of decimal places 
you wish, 

40 COMPUTE rs Gazelle August 1988 



Let's write a short rounding 
program which asks the user to en- 
ter numbers to round: 

10 PRINT"{CLR}" 

20 PRINTiPRINT" WHAT NUMBER DO 

YOU WANT TO ROUND?" 
30 PRINT:INPUT" ";N 
40 PRINT:INPUT" TO HOW MANY 

DECIMAL PLACES7";D 
SO R = INT(N*10"D-)-.S>/10'D 
60 PRINT:PR1NTR 
70 PRINT:PRINT" ANOTHER NUMBER 

(Y/N)?" 
80 GETAMF AS<>"Y") AND (A$<>"N") 

THEN 80 
90 IF AS-= "Y" THEN RUN 

Run the program and enter 
453.567552 at the first prompt and 
3 at the second. Below is a descrip- 
tion of how it works. 

Line 10 clears the screen. Lines 
20 and 30 print a blank line and ask 
the user to type in a number, When 
he or she enters 453.567552 and 
presses RETURN, the INPUT state- 
ment assigns that value to N, 

Line 40 gets the number of 
places to which you wish to round 
the number. The 3 that we entered 
becomes the value for D. 

Line 50 is the heart of our pro- 
gram; it calculates a value for R 
using the formula mentioned above: 
R = lNT(N*10'D-l-.5)/10"D 

Let's take a closer look. Recall 
the order of math operations that 
we've covered over the last couple 
of months: 

1. Parentheses 

2. Raising a number to a power 
(multiplying a number by itself) 

3. Multiplication and division 

4. Addition and subtracdon 

Our rounding formula will be 
executed in the above order, so let's 
attack the parentheses first: 
(N*10*D+.5) 

Within the parentheses, the 10 will 
be raised to the power of D (10 will 
be multiplied by itself D times). Since 
the value for D is 3, 10 will be mul- 
tiplied by itself three times; it be- 
comes 10 times 10 times 10, or 1000. 



After that, the multiplication 
within the parentheses takes place. 
Let's multiply N (453.567552) by 
1000. The easiest way to do that is 
to move the decimal in a direction 
that will make the number 1000 
times larger (that's to the right three 
places). The result Is 453567.552. 

We're still inside the parenthe- 
ses. Add .5 to 453567.552 to get 
453568.052. Now take the INT of 
that number. Remember that INT 
simply drops all decimal places to 
leave a whole number. The result is 
453568. 

What's next? Dividing by 10? 
Or dividing by lO'D? Remember: 
powers before multiplication. Raise 
10 to the third power again to get 
1000. Now the formula is reduced to 

R = 453568/1000 

Finally we divide to get an an- 
swer of 453.568, which should have 
been the result of running the pro- 
gram and entering the two suggest- 
ed values. Line 60 prints the answer. 

Line 70 asks the user if he or 
she wants to round other numbers. 
Line 80 waits patiently for either Y 
or N ( Yes or No) to be typed. If Y is 
typed, line 90 is executed and the 
program runs from the beginning. 
If N is typed, the program ends (an 
END statement isn't necessary). 

Try entering various numbers 
to round and different numbers of 
places to which they should be 
rounded. If you type a value for D 
greater than the number of decimal 
places, you may get an overflow 
error. 

Rounding vs. the INT Function 

Please don't confuse rounding a 
number with finding its integer val- 
ue. Finding a number's integer val- 
ue always just drops the digits after 
the decimal, leaving a whole num- 
ber. Rounding can be done for any 
number of decimal places. While 
the INT function always produces a 
number less than or equal to the 
original number, rounding in- 



creases the number half the time and decreases it the 
other half. 

Let's take the number 10.583, Rounded to one deci- 
mal place, the number is 10.6. To zero decimal places, 
the number is U. The integer value of 10.583 is 10. 

Uses for Rounding 

Let's discuss money. In America we usually round to 
two places (hundredths of a dollar, or cents), so we can 
specialize our rounding formula. Start with 
R = lMT(N'10*D + .5)/10*D 

And substitute 2 (two decimal places) for D: 

R-INT(N*10"2 + .5)/tO''2 

Raising 10 to the second power, or squaring 10, 
yields 
R = [NT(NnO0+.5)/tOO 

It's a temptation, but we cannot add 100 and ,5 to 
get R=1NT (N*100.5}/100 because that would violate 
the correct hierarchy of operations — N must be multi- 
plied by 100 before we add .5. 

Since 100 appears twice in the formula, we can as- 
sign a variable name to it first. Let's use H (for Hundred): 
H = 100:R = lNT(N*H + .5)/H 

Here's a program that will compute the average 
price (to the nearest cent) we pay for something when 
we buy a certain quantity. We'll use our specialized 
rounding formula: 

10 PRINT"{CLR}" 

20 INPUT" HOW MANY WILL YOU BUY";Z 

30 PRINT" PRICE FOR"Z"{LEFT}?" 

40 PRINT;INPUT" ";P 

50 N-P/Z:REM ACCURATE PIECE PRICE 

60 H-100:R-lNT{N*H-l-.5)/H:REM THIS IS OUR 

SPECIALIZED ROUNDING FORMULA 
70 PR1NT:PR1NT" AVG. PRICE EA. ="R 
80 PRINT:PR!NT"ANOTHER (Y/N)7" 
90 GETA$:IF (A$<>"Y") AND (AS<>"N'T THEN 90 
100 IF A$-="Y" THEN RUN 

Came Scoring 

Another common use for rounding is in scoring games. 
We can create a specialized formula that uses as the 
value for D, since we want our result rounded to a 
whole number, with no decimal places. 

We start with our general formula: 
R = INT(N*10-D + .5)/]0*D 

And substitute for D: 
R-!NT(N*10*0 + .S)/I0"0 

This yields an interesting result based on a strange 
mathematical rule: Anything raised to the power of is 
1. Thus, X to the power of is 1, 14 to the power of is 
1 — even 1254678 to the power of is 1. Try a few in 
immediate mode: 

PRINTXT) 
PRINT14*0 
PRINT1254678"0 

Accordingly, 10 to the power of is 1: 

R=tNT(N*H-.5)/l or R = INT(N + .5) 

Voila! A new formula for rounding to whole num- 
bers. Let's write a short program to calculate average 
shots per hole in three rounds of golf: 



10 PRINT"{CLR}" 

20 INPUT" FIRST ROUND";Rl 

30 IF R1<>INT(R1) THEN GOSUB200;GOTO20 

40 Z = R1:GOSUB300 

SO INPUT" SECOND ROUND";R2 

60 IF R2<>INT(R2> THEN GOSUB200:GOTOS0 

70Z-R2:GOSUB300 

80 INPUT" THIRD ROUND";R3 

90 IF R3<>INT(R3) THEN GOSUB200:GOTO80 

100 Z = R3:GOSUB300 

110 TS«=RH-R2-I-R3:PRINT" TOTAL SHOTS FOR 3 

ROUNDS;"TS 
120 N~TS/34:REM 54 HOLES IN 3 ROUNDS 
130 R = INT(N + .5):REM SPECIALIZED ROUNDING 

FORMULA 
140 PRINT:PRINT" AVG. SHOTS PER HOLE FOR 3 

ROUNDSf'R 
ISO END 

200 PRINT:PRINT" NO DECIMALS, PLEASE!" 
210 PRINT;RETURN 

300 N-2/18:REM 18 HOLES PER ROUND 
310 R-INT{N-I-.5):REM SPECIALIZED ROUNDING 

FORMULA 
320 PRtNT;PRINT" AVG. SHOTS PER HOLE:"R 
330 PR1NT:RETURN 

Golf scores don't contain fractional values, so lines 
30, 60, and 90 check for this by comparing the INPUT 
numbers with their integer values. If they're not the 
same, a decimal value must have been entered and the 
questions are repeated. 

Lines 40, 70, and 100 make Z equal to Rl, R2, and 
R3 in succession, so one subroutine at lines 300-330 (to 
calculate average shots per hole) can be used repeatedly. 

The rounding formula, custom-tailored for whole 
numbers, is used in line 310 to round scores to values 
which contain no decimals. B 



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COMPUTErs Gazene August 1988 41 




mmm\\m 



Pointer Loops 



Jim Butterfield 
Contributing Editor 

Pointers are important in macliine 
language programming. A pointer 
(sometimes called a vector) is a two- 
byte number that holds an address. 
It points to something — a string, an 
item in a table, or some other sort of 
data. It can even point to another 
pointer. 

Machine language program- 
mers often use pointers as loop con- 
trols. Before the loop, the pointer is 
set up to point to a certain address, 
often the start of a table in memory. 
As the loop repeats, the pointer is 
moved along to succeeding entries 
in the table. Of course, the pointer 
is regularly tested to see if it has 
gone beyond a preset limit. 

System Pointers 

Two examples specific to the Com- 
modore 64 will illustrate the useful- 
ness of pointers. First, to go through 
screen memory, we would initialize 
the pointer to the address of the 
start of the screen: that's S0400 
{1024 decimal). To go to the next 
line, we would add $28 (40 deci- 
mal) to the pointer. We could count 
25 lines or we could test to see 
when the pointer exceeds a value of 
$7C0 (1984 decimal), the address of 
the last line in screen memory. 

Here's another example. To 
look through BASIC'S variables, we 
would set the pointer to match the 
contents of addresses $2D and $2E 
(45 and 46 decimal, the Start of 
Variables pointer). Since each vari- 
able entry occupies seven bytes, we 
add 7 to the pointer to step to the 
next variable. We know we're done 
when the pointer reaches the value 
contained in another pointer found 
at addresses $2F and $30 (47 and 48 
decimal, the End of Variables/Start 
of Arrays pointer). 

As the pointer's value moves 
from address to address, we will 
need to access the contents of these 

42 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1988 



addresses. Two of the 6502's ad- 
dressing modes are perfect for the 
job. Indirect addressing allows us to 
reference an address through a 
pointer, A related mode, indexed 
indirect addressing, uses the Y reg- 
ister to point to a certain byte offset 
from an indirect address. 

The jargon of addressing 
modes can be hard to decipher. An 
example is in order. 

Two-Letter Words 

The program given here asks the 
user to input two-letter words. Each 
time such a word is entered, it's 
checked against all previously en- 
tered words. If a match is found, the 
program terminates, printing aster- 
isks. If no match is found, the new 
word is added to a table of previ- 
ously entered words. 

We build the table and check it 
by means of pointers. One pointer 
shows the last entry in the table — 
it's kept at $20F0 (8432 decimal). 
The other pointer scans through the 
table, looking for a match; it's at 
$FD and $FE (253 and 254 decimal) 
in zero page. There is no limit to 
how large the table may be. 

The program is simple, but it 
shows how pointers are handled. 

Mechanics 

Let's take a look at a few critical 
parts of the program. The pointer at 
$FD and $FE is set up to scan mem- 
ory starting at address $2100 (8448 
decimal). Here's how we set it up: 

2035 A9 00 LDA #SO0 

2037 A2 21 LDX #S21 

2039 85 FD STA SFD 

203B 86 FE STX SFE 

We must test the pointer to see if it 
has gone beyond the table limit, as 
logged in the pointer at $20F0. A 
good way to compare two-byte 
pointers is to compare and subtract: 
20 



2030 AD FO 

2040 C5 FD 

2042 AD Fl 20 

20« E5 FE 



LDA S20F0 
CMP SFD 
LDA S20 
SBC SFE 



2047 BO 19 



BCS $2062 



If the carry flag is clear, the 
pointer at $20F0 is less than the one 
at $FD. In this case, we've passed 
the end of the table, so we will up- 
date the table by storing the new 
data. But if the carry flag is set, we 
continue to search the table. If no 
match is found, we'll increment the 
pointer with 

2073 A5 FD LDA SFD 

2075 A6 FE LDX SFE 

2077 18 CLC 

2078 69 02 ADC #$02 
207A 90 BD BCC S2039 
207C m INX 

207D BO BA BCS $2039 

The BCS above will always 
branch. We'll store the pointer back 
into $FD after we get back to $2039. 

Try It 

This was a simple example, but it 
gives you a chance to see the three 
parts of pointer loops: setup, limit 
test, and incrementing. If you want 
to try the program, you can type in 
and run this BASIC loader. If you 
have a machine language monitor, 
use it to view the entire machine 
language program, 

100 DATA 169,254,162,32,141,240 
110 DATA 32,142,241,32,169,63 
120 DATA 32,210,235,32,207,255 
130 DATA 201,85,144,244,201,91,176 
140 DATA 240,141,244,32,32,207,255 
150 DATA 201,65,144,230,201,91,176 
160 DATA 226,141,245,32,32,207,255 
170 DATA 201,13,208,216,32,210,255 
ISO DATA 169,0,162,33,133,253,134,254 
190 DATA 173,240,32,197,253,173,241 

195 DATA 32,229,254,176,25,160,0 

196 DATA 173,244,32,145,253,173,245 

197 DATA 32,200,145,253,165,253,141,240 

198 DATA 32,165,254,141,241,32,208,168 

199 DATA 160,0,173,244,32,209,253 

200 DATA 208,6,200,173,245,32,209,253 
210 DATA 240,12,165,253,166,254,24,105 
220 DATA 2,144,189,232,176,186,162,0 
230 DATA 169,42,32,210,255 

240 DATA 232,224,16,208,248,96 

300 FOR 1-8192 TO 8331 

310 READ X 

320T-T-FX 

330 POKE J,X 

340 NEXT J 

350 IF TO22019 THEN STOP 

400 REM SYS 8192 • 




64 and 128 Tricks 



Boolean Magic on the 64 

Vincent D. O'Connor 

One of the nicest features of the 
128's BASIC 7.0 is the IF-THEN- 
ELSE statement. If you're unfamil- 
iar with this command, here's an 
example of how it can be used in a 
program: 

HM 100 PRINT "ANSWER (Y/N)"; 
DA 110 GET AS: IF AS="" THEN GO 

TO 110 
QG 120 IF AS="Y" THEN GOTO 140 
:ELSE IF A$="N" THEN G 
OTO 150 
XK 130 GOTO 110 
GE 140 PRINT "[CLRlYOUR ANSWER 

WAS YES": END 
OS 150 PRINT "{CLRlYOUR ANSWER 
WAS NO" 

The advantage of this com- 
mand is that you save memory and 
increase speed by not having to use 
multiple IF-THEN statements. 

Although the 64's BASIC 2.0 
doesn't have an IF-THEN-ELSE 
command, there's a way to simu- 
late it using the ON-GOTO state- 
ment and Boolean, or two-valued, 
logic. Here's how the example pro- 
gram could be written for the 64: 

HM 100 PRINT "ANSWER [Y/N) "; 
DA lie GET AS: IF A$="" THEN GO 

TO 110 
BE 120 ON -({AS="Y") + 2*(AS=" 

N")) GOTO 140, 150 
XK 130 GOTO 110 
GE 140 PRINT "(CLRlYOOR ftNSWER 

WAS YES" : END 
QS 150 PRINT "[CLRlYOUR ANSWER 
WAS NO" 

As you can see, the only 
change is in line 120, where the use 
of the ON-GOTO is substituted for 
the IF-THEN-ELSE used in the first 
example. 

Here's how it works. When 
BASIC evaluates a comparison, it 
determines a value based on 
whether the comparison is true or 
false. If the comparison is true, 
BASIC returns - 1 . If it's false, it re- 
turns 0. In the example program, if 
A$ equals Y, then the expression 
(A$ = "Y") is true and is evaluated 



as —1, while the expression (A$ = 
"N") is false and is evaluated as 0. 
The rest is simple math. BA- 
SIC'S order of operations requires 
that multipUcation and division be 
performed before addition and sub- 
traction, so if the answer is "yes," 
A$ = "Y" will evaluate to —1 and 
A$ = "N" will evaluate to 0. Sub- 
stituting these values in the state- 
ment in line 120, we have 
-((-l)-f- 2*(0)) 

Since multiplication must be 
performed before addition, 2*0 
equals 0, and —1 -I- equals —1. 
The initial minus sign causes this 
— 1 to become +1, and the first 
GOTO is executed, causing a 
branch to line 140. The opposite 
would be true if A$ were equal to 
"N." BASIC would evaluate the ex- 
pression as 
-{(0) + 2'(-l)) 

Performing the multiplication first, 
this is further simplified to —( — 2), 
which is +2, causing the second 
branch following the GOTO to be 
taken. 

BASIC Directory Printer 

Joseph R. Charnetski 

There are so many situations in 
BASIC programs that call for a di- 
rectory listing on the screen. Unfor- 
tunately, on the 64, loading a 
directory erases the program cur- 
rently in memory. With this handy 
utility, you can display a directory 
without altering a byte of your pro- 
gram. And, if you include this short 
routine in your program as a sub- 
routine, you can instantly access 
the directory as often as you like. 

The routine reads the directory 
from the disk and prints it on the 
screen without loading it into the 
computer's memory. If the directory 
scrolls off the screen too quickly, 
press any key to pause or continue. 
You can also exit the routine at any 
time by pressing Q {Quit). 



DM 10 



EE 


20 


FG 


30 


ME 


40 


KS 


50 


MF 


60 


AS 


70 


XB 


30 


XQ 


90 


GA 


10 



OPEN 15, 8, 15,"10":OPENe,a 
,0,"S" 

GET#B,fiS,BS:NS=CHRS(0) 
GET#B,AS,BS:IF B$=""THEN 
100 

GETSS,AS,B$:A=>fiSC(A$ + N$) 
:B=ASC{BS+N5) 
C5=MIDS (3TR5 (A+2 56*B) ,2) 
+CHRS(32) 

PRINT CS; :GETita,CS: IFC$< 
>""THEN60 

PRINT:GETK5: IFKS=""ORK$= 
"Q"THEN90 

GETK5: IFK$=""THEN80 
IFKS<>"Q"TKEN30 
CLOSE8:CLOSE15 



SHIFT-RUN/STOP Disable 
for 128 

Andrew Beltran 

The SHIFT-RUN/STOP key com- 
bination loads the first program on 
the disk in 128 mode. This can be 
useful and time saving, but it can 
also cause problems. It's easy to 
accidentally hit the SHIFT-RUN/ 
STOP key combination, causing the 
first program on the disk to load 
and your program in memory to be 
erased. 

There are three ways to cir- 
cumvent this disaster. The first is to 
simply have the first file on the disk 
be SEQuential, BASIC won't be 
able to load and run this file, so 
your program is safe. Another solu- 
tion is to leave the disk drive door 
open while you're programming 
and close it when it's time to save 
your work. Neither of these solu- 
tions is very appealing, however. 

The following one-line pro- 
gram will disable the SHIFT-RUN/ 
STOP key combination and protect 
you from accidental disaster. 

1 POKE «04,0:FOR 1-4159 TO 4164; 
POKE I,PEEK(I + 9):NEXT 

One easy way to use this short 
program is to put it in an autoboot 
file on the disks you use for pro- 
gramming. That way, the SHIFT- 
RUN/STOP combination will be 
disabled when you need protection, 
and it'll be operative otherwise. V 

COMPUTE! s Gazella AugusMSBa 43 



(^^DWdrgDOffi] 



The Tinkertoy, Tic-Tac-Toe- 
Playing Computer 



Fred D'Ignazio 
Contributing Editor 

At dinner the other night at the 
New Jersey Computer Conference, 
I got to hear a vintage hacker story 
that I'd like to share with you. 

Brian Silverman and Margaret 
Minsky were reminiscing about the 
fun they used to have as grad stu- 
dents in the mid-1970s, living with 
a bunch of crazy computer hackers, 
including Danny Hillis (cofounder 
of Thinking Machines and designer 
of the Connection Machine, per- 
haps the world's fastest super- 
computer). 

The Conversation 

"One day," said Brian, "Danny 
brought home a bunch of Tinker- 
toys. Since we were MIT students, 
we set out to prove you could make 
logic gates out of the Tinkertoys. 
We had built several AND gates 
and OR gates, when someone sug- 
gested we try making an entire 
computer out of Tinkertoys. We 
worked on that idea for quite a 
while but finally gave it up. We had 
decided that we could do it, but a 
Tinkertoy computer as sophisticat- 
ed as a Motorola 6502 would have 
barely fit in the biggest domed sta- 
dium in the world. 

"The same group," continued 
Margaret, "went on to found Terra- 
pin (home to robots and Terrapin 
Logo). Our first project at Terrapin 
was a cute little robot turtle that just 
happened to appear at the same 
time as the first Star Wars movie. 
We got calls from all over the world 
about our robot, including a call 
from Harry Loucks, who wanted us 
to design a robot for his new muse- 
um, the Mid-America Center, in 
Hot Springs, Arkansas. We all re- 
membered the fun we had with the 
Tinkertoys and asked him if he 
wanted a Tinkertoy, tic-tac-toe- 
playing computer instead of a ro- 
I hot. We didn't see any big trouble 

44 COMPUTErs Gazolte August 1988 



going from a few logic gates to a 
computer, Harry said that would be 
great, and would we please deliver 
the computer as soon as possible." 

"There were a few false starts," 
said Brian. "Then we spent a couple 
of all-nighters working on the com- 
puter at MIT's AI Lab. We used tons 
of computer power and came up 
with a ten-page blueprint for a 
computer that used a few logic 
gates but lots of software. After that 
we spent a month building. 

"It had shafts with eccentric 
wheels, several dozen cams, fishing 
sinkers, fishing line, escutcheon 
pins. 1 remember it was about four 
feet long, about three feet wide, and 
three feet high." 

"And it came in two pieces," 
added Margaret. "That was the 
only way it would fit into the U- 
Haul trailer we hitched to a Chevy 
Suburban. Somehow, we squeezed 
in ten people and drove nonstop 
from Cambridge to Hot Springs." 

"Almost nonstop," said Brian. 
"When we got there in the middle 
of the night, we put the two pieces 
together, and our Tinkertoy com- 
puter worked just fine." 

"For one game," said Margaret 
sadly. "Then it stopped and never 
worked again," 

"That's right," said Brian, 
shaking his head. "We went home 
a little disappointed." 

"What happened then?" I in- 
terrupted. "Did they make you take 
the computer home with you?" 

"Nope," said Brian. "They 
kept it. But two years later, in 1979, 
or so, Danny got a call from Harry 
Loucks. He said, 'Your computer 
still doesn't work. Is there anything 
you can do to fix it?' 

"We decided we would have to 
rebuild the computer from scratch. 
The first time 1 had designed the 
computer using the MIT AI Lab 
computers. This time I had a little 
desktop computer with maybe a 
millionth the computational power. 



so I decided I had better take a more 
clever approach." 

"Brian never finished the de- 
sign," said Margaret; "we were all 
so eager to begin the new com- 
puter. We descended on Hot 
Springs and Harry's museum from 
all four points of the compass. We 
rolled up our sleeves as soon as we 
arrived and started building." 

Brian added, "We sat on the 
middle of the floor and were a 'live' 
museum exhibit while we built the 
new computer. This time we 
weren't so purist. Some of the 
Tinkertoys we replaced with wood- 
en dowels which we fashioned with 
a concrete drill in Harry's base- 
ment. We reached the end of the 
part I had designed after only two 
days." 

"So we just kept building," 
said Margaret. "It took us a little 
longer, but we built it right there in 
the middle of the museum. And it 
worked! 1 called them a couple 
years ago, and they said it's stiil 
working." 

"It may even be working yet," 
said Brian. 

Historical Footnote 

A historical footnote: Digital Equip- 
ment Corporation (DEC) tool< the first 
Tinkerto}/, tic-tac-toe-playing com- 
puter and installed it in tiieir Com- 
puter Museum in Boston. 

I placed a call to the Mid- America 
Museum in Hot Springs, and the Ex- 
hibits Director, Lee Sutton, told me 
that the second Tinkertoy computer 
had finally been dismantled. "It 
worked just fine," said Sutton. "In 
fact it was impossible to beat. But 
we're a hands-on rnuseutn, and too 
many hands on the Tinkertoys and it 
would just come apart." 

Do you hear that, Brian? Marga- 
ret? Danny? Maybe it's time for the 
Tinkertoy Gang to reassemble and 
make a third trek to Hot Springs. Stay 
tuned. There may be a sequel to this 
column. ® 



te^sj^js^^i^iisw 



Buyer's Guide to 
Music Composition and 
Programming Software 



I 



I 

^P Caroline D. Hanlon 



t 



Music makes the world go round. It can also soothe the savage breast and lull babies to sleep. 
The Commodore 64 and 1 28 possess the ability to play music and create fascinating sound 
effects — either as stand-alone units or linked to MIDI. Both amateur and professional 
musicians can create their own tunes, or modify existing pieces, with the music composition 
programs found in this buyer's guide. Most of these packages are designed for use with MIDI. 



i 



Product Information 

The products listed here con- 
tain information in the follow- 
ing order: title, publisher, 
additional requirements (if 
any) for program use, and 
suggested retail price. 



Advanced Music System 

Firebird 

(Distributed by Activision) 
$59.95 

A music creation and editing program, M- 
vanced Music System is designed for profes- 
sional musicians. It consists ot six integrated 
modules— editor, keyboafd, synthesizer, 1inl<er, 
printer and iWIDI. The editor can be used to 
compose, edit, and arrange musicai passages 
wiiiie tile iseyboard module permits liie key- 
board to be used as the music entry device. The 
synthesizer moduie allows sonic tailoring of the 
waveform and output of the computer's SID 
chip. The linker feature helps merge and chain 
passages to develop fuil-iength compositions. 
The [VIIOI capability allows control and playback 
through conventional MIDI keyboards and syn- 
thesizers. And with the printer module, music 
files with lyrics can be printed on dot-matrix 
printers. The program contains icons and pull- 
down menus. 



Algorithmic Composer 

Dr. T's Music Software 
$99 

Three programs— Series, Phrase, and SAC 
(Stochastic Algorithm Composer)— a.\e includ- 
ed in this package. With Series, users can enter 
individual series of pitches. Phrase helps users 
generate musical themes using a three-octave 
scale, and SAC allows the creation of foir-part 
harmonies and themes, The programs can play 
the sequences they create or store them in the 
Keyboard Controtled Sequencer format. 

Caged Artist Editors 

Dr. T's Music Software 
$99 

Caged Artist Editors is an assortment of editors 
and librarians to edit patch parameters. The edit 
screen displays tJie patch parameters and high- 
lights the parameter being edited, Patch param- 
eter values can be changed by typing in the new 
value or incremented or decremented using the 
joystick or keyboard input. More than one set of 
patches can be held in memory at one time, and 
the voice parameters can be printed. Individual 
editors include the 4-Op Deluxe, Kawai K3, 
Lexicon PCM-70, Obertieim Matrix 6, and the 
Roland JX-6P, 

Casio Sound Disk 

Sonus 

Casio 02-101, 1000, or 5000 syn- 
thesizer; MIDI interface card 
$49.95 



The Casio Sound Disk contains ten banks of 
sounds to use with the Casio line of . 
synthesizers. M;. 



Convertifite Plus 

Dr. T's Music Software 

Music Sfiop 

$75 

This utility can help the user convert Or T's 
Keyboard Controlled Sequencer or Passport 
MIDI 8+ files to Music Shop format for editing 
and scoring in music notation format. 

CZ-Patch 

Dr. T's Music Software 
Synthesizer 
$99 

With this editor and libranan, musicians can cre- 
ate, edit, and store patches on the Casio CZ- 
101, 1000, 3000, and 5000 synthesizers. Sets 
of 16 patches can be stored on disk or trans- 
ferred between the computer and the Casio 
memory. The Commodore version holds three 
sets of patches at once. Envelope parameters 
can be copied from one envelope to another 
within a patch, rescaled, and copied to other 
patches. The data can be displayed as rates and 
levels. There is a fast edit mode so program- 
mers can experiment with a variety of values 
with a minimum of keystrokes, Sequences from 
the Keyboard Controlled Sequencer can be 
played v/ith the program. 



1 



^ 



i 



I 



i 



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S(i)fTj'\2?(;\aa sapipaa^ [ia^aaa(;Sj[i(Da(;\[L 



CONVENIENCE- 



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During the inception ot Sotlwars Support InternaliGnal, we etamined Ihe customer support 
polictes ol many Commodore mail order houses. One thing became quile evident: MAIL ORDER 
HOUSES ARE NOT ALL THE SAME!! Software Support International has developed cjslomer 
support policies you can relate lo. 

•CONVENIENCE: Our toll (ree order line, for instance, saves you money and adds Itie convenience 
ot linger lip shopping. Alter hours order lines are provided for late nigfit or early morning shopping. 
•FAST SERVICE: 24 hour processing, Insures your purchase vdit be received in a timely manner, 
'RELIABILITY: Policies such as NOT charging your charge card or cashing your check until 
shipping, replacing detective materials as quickly as possible and iellmg you know when an Item 
Is backcrdered, all adds up to policies you can trust. 

'SUPPORT: Our lechnicaE support line is manned by some ol the most knowledgable Commodore 
experts around. 

Our catalog, listing detailed information on our products as well as hundreds ol others, is mailed 
automatjcally to our regular custmers. If you have never ordered frorr> us, but would like to see 
why thousands ot fellow Commodore users tiave chosen us as their main source of soltware and 
accessories, simply pick up the phone and give us a call, or drop us a line requesting out Spring' 
Summer 19B8 catalog. Remember, our business is SOFTWARE SUPPORT! 





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Abacus iS Software Softvvwks 



SuiC ConiF^lflf e4 S4.V7 

Dilie C4(rt^l«i' 12(1 30.97 

Bfckir Bh^ 1iaf 0«oa ^^.97 

C*dP*kM ?4.BT 

CtdPt]k12« 3a.D7 

c^inPtvuonze a^.a? 

Q*os lAidt & Oul took 1S.34 

GKJln&iiJfl&OiMOllk , , , , , 11. 7« 

iS«QiTrtc1(9 ATlpiBoOli 13.20 

a«> Tfict* A Tipj Dilk 1 1 .;« 



^^tC£S5' 



Echtlvi W'lAIIE^ 24 97 

Le 1 Tourn 1 EtK 1 13 97 

UKdS !l »f 

Mich Mi 3Q.97 

Ttnih Fr«ni* . . . 24 S7 

World Cla» L«td*r eoifd .. ?4a; 

Wi'C L'B Faia'Couraai \w1 . . . 12 97 



\rv-v— 41 V rM- 

Act Must 1S.ST 

AfUlolt U97 

eiiM4iatni i!» 

C«4 9<Mt 1»>? 

CBmB mj 

FnimliiBfiM letr 

Kii«iia iitr 

lOMUMItDHd 11(7 

MWputt it.t? 

Pliwniimii , 9.97 

r^ow*r il S«A 1S.&7 

ProiKi SoK« Stauon ^.9? 

T#i1 Orive 18.97 

TMIuIn , 11.97 



OoOi^ 12S *2 07 

G«of)r«7inHii«i 04 ... 47.97 

SHpiitiiltl«4 ... 42.97 

oioHMii nw 

OtOHTfilerlWo'^irioplM :)0.i7 

Oeowiitvr't Worhthop 12a . . 43 B7 



^BfMtertMirfSoftuafB- 

AfuOo Gfttnfl COft« Sil ia &7 

CumMi Santftego £mip4 . ?4.97 

CwTiMfi SanlHaa USA 24.97 

CviwStnWnWoil^ 2197 

CuURml i: 1t.97 

Print Shoo ^.9? 

PnP!t SJiop Co<np»f)«)n 21.97 

P.S Gll^ici 1 Of 2 « ] 1S.97 

p,SMolk«>yOr«(i»«« 1S.97 

AiiudiBl 33.3e 

Moatuvit 2(.aa 

Oon 20.40 

Uliimi 1 2(.M 

Ulllmil ,. . . . M.ag 

UlElma 4 , 3B.fi4 

UBImj 5 a»-M 



CAPCOW 



SKtoAfnn 

1942 



H«7 
t897 
1»97 






T.Bfl7 
H9T 



CINEMAWARE 

Oelender of Ihe Crown 21.97 

KjnoolChicagQ Z1.97 

SOf 21.37 

SlrtJld . 21.S7 

ThfoeSttog«« 21.97 

Wrp SpmO (Cifll 30.17 



Owhal SupOfpah 2 S0.37 

Pocksl Wlitar 2 3e.S7 

r^oCkOI Fll4f 2 ...,.,.,., . 30.97 
Poeiot Planntr ! ..,,,..,. 3«.9r 
OloCionary OiiK S.9T 



EltCTRONJC AHTS- 

AliaflFtfti 1B.3* 

AinrAsia 2S.49 

A/otic Foi 21.40 

BariliTtiel !S*a 
BvifaTilclHin] .... S.ie 

BanfiTatill 2; 'a 

&«rqr> talo IE Hicti 9.16 

SarO'i Tail III 2S.4« 

BaiO') Tata 111 Hima 9.ie 

Gha43nibt«r 20M 2S.43 

Ghuclc YaagH'i AFS 22.42 

Dan Dart . 13.24 

Dflita Palrol 13.24 

Dernon Stalkar 19.3B 

Drancn's Lair t^.ao 

Eartti Orht Stalinn IB 3S 

InHaffl Music 19 3B 

Lagacr or Itw AneMU ...... 19 36 

Uaible IlKinsa 19 3e 

MasItrNinia 19.3« 

U9n$ Saafon Ty^ng 2S 40 

Wonopiihr 19 3« 

Ovtia{)«oua Pagn 3i GO 

Pi4JetCB(i3 31 W 

Papar Cup PuMi^ai 31 30 

Pa^aiua 19 36 

RosJWiii 193e 

Bockrorit IS.Jt 

Sanylon 13.24 

Scrsobli 21.40 

Scmpplaa 2S.4Q 

Shatanr Olt 19.36 

Sliyloi II 19.36 

Slnke Floet 19.3B 

Twilio4il$ hamom . 22.42 

Twilights nation Hiitt 7.12 

WtjrtO Tour Go.1 19.36 



AwIIV.lilON 



^D*2C 



Atani . 21.17 

ei4£i(|ACI( Acadifliy 24.97 

FitryTalaS 30.97 

Fire Power , , , , , 15.97 

Ota Baa Air Ralhr 16.97 

L&$1Mn;a 21.97 

Maniac Majvon 21.97 

Migni 1 Mfjio 24.17 

Po*nar".1»: Enccixitafi 24.97 

snanjnai li.er 



r"r j-:3c:3C r C3 

Softworks 

OaakPakI ID 96 

Datk Pah II 30 97 

FomPkH ; 10.96 

Font Pack II 16.97 

Q«se4 36.97 

Oaos 12S 42.97 

Goo^aicC* .-..,,....,. W.9T 

G««»!c<26 42.97 

Oao!S» 64 . 1096 

Qaosaii'Oaskpak 121 .... . 42.97 

0»nla 64 30.97 



Bfeaklhm 

Commando 

Ikari Warrior? 

Karate Oiiomp 

KldNilu 

Kw^g Fu Uasler ...... 

Sj>a«l Sijgair 

T»g Tearrr Wra&thng . . . . 
Vtdory Rrjad 



16 97 
12 97 
18 87 
12 97 
16.97 
1297 
16 97 
iV97 
16.97 



DATA SOFT 



Ht»itn4tiH4iUtv:CttY ■ • • • 

CMy Hint Book 

Altflrnale Reililv:OunoKn , 

DungeaiT Him Sbcii. 

EL}lll>p DfDidj 

Hum For Red Ocicib*r . , . 

RubJc^Dft Alliance 

Tobnili . 

Vii>eo Title CDmpiruon S 
Vitfe-oTitlt ShppwConpi 





. , 1S.97 


Boukter Oajh Contl. Ktt ... 


, . 15.97 




. . 24.37 




. . 24.97 






Cfeate A CalffndM 


. . 18.97 






DesKoryer 


. . 24.97 


01^ Bomber 


. . tB97 


Fast load C»i1/l»)t 


. , 24 97 


4 K 4 naotij 

7!ieGi™sWinlaiE««j<l . . 


. . 24 B7 


. . 24 97 


Gtati Soiaitioot 1. J«3 


IS 97 


Homa v«»o Pmluir 


30 97 


Imtraia* Motm 11 


24 97 


L A Cratloowi 


. . 24 97 








. , 24 97 


Ran Waniot 


, . 15.97 


SprfarSMt 


. . 17 16 


Sponlog Haws Saaaeall . . 
Stres: Cat 


. 24,97 


. . 12.37 


Street Sports :DJSe1ltll . . . . 


. . 24.97 


street Sports :eas1ieill»ll 


. . 24.97 


Strael ^orlsSoccar .... 


, , 24.97 


Summer Game J 11 , . . 


. . 13 92 




1297 


ttoria Games 


24 97 



C>.arr4] QueC^II 
Charr^ BukettU' 
GFL Fwtfiflli 
Star Rank ^qwx^ W 
Soxif-g L'Tennn 



21.97 
2t.97 
19.97 
IB 97 



iMiCRpJPROSE 

Airbomi FLing«r ,,„„,„,,, 21 97 

F-15 Smki Evgil* .,,,.,... 2l.fl7 

Girnship 21.9'7 

P:ira]eii Z^h^ 

?r?i?c[ Slpia^ F»Jh!ef 2<.S7 

aedSlSftaHiidfig 2*,97 

Si*ntS«f¥ic« . . 21.97 



BAd Stre«1 Grawlbr ia.B7 

fiieckGumr ..,,,.. 10.1^7 

B0{J&WrB&tle 1B.97 

CroiSiAord Magi-c ^.97 

Dm Vu . , .... 21.97 

Caunlifll ... 21-97 

GA^ntlet'DHpir Dun^HO 15.97 

KaiYifv Ciynbal SMnuiaiot lfl.97 

InOwr Sports 36 9? 

Indy JontsTtmpt«etD«(n 21.97 

trft:5»lQif I TB 97 

trMtnlc/ll 21.97 

lrT[o [he Eaijifl' s Na )! T B 9 7 

MijISkcbf 21 97 

Pap«rtMv ?t '97 

Sup«rSUr ktf HtKkay . . . .219? 

SujperSlAf &Dct«r 2) 97 

Kevlou* . 1B.e7 



Fiee! SiftTem JV 



24.97 
J6.97 
4S.97 



^^L 



EterntlDaaur ... ..... 2^97 

&erTi(tC4^ n«il4r . ^ ....... , 



1B.9 

GsmiiQAi Warrtor 9.97 

PhanlMMl ;!4.97 

Ptianta^le It 24.97 

Ph^t^t^le \\\ 24.97 

Ouestrori I 24.97 

OuestrcN^ II , 24.97 

FJEialms ol DarkniU 24 J7 

Rings Ol Zirttn 24.97 

SKas-a or £wina 24.B7 

Waigaina tctf-vSivCtJOn S« . . 18,97 
miaJdfCro*n 24 97 



SHARE .>\TA 



Conetntrafiot^ 
Funi-iy Feud 
Jwjpardy 
WhaqtOr Fg^urin 



SOLUTIONS UNLIMITED 

eil^aro Mlkir 24.117 

GraiixLjr^ . 1297 

Icon FaclOTY 24 97 

Pnelofmift 19 97 

SowoFX 21.97 

SPRINGBOARD 



CeiVtfcWte Mftk«r . ... 26.66 

Certificate Hak«rLit)r. I 20.40 

Ndwrcflri ... ....,..,.. 33 3& 

N«i|irsri:)Dm C'ipirt 1 ,,.,... . 20.40 

NewsnKirT>ClipUt2 - - ?fi.Bfl 

Newsrwrn Cl'pJrt 3 ;W40 

PSGrap^EKpindr 23 64 



©(uMOGIC 

RWnSlmilUKlllI 33.97 

F,^ SCIIIV1.CNI0H 1-6 ... t4.ia 

nam Sun S<:aiiar7 7 17.4S 

F,'SSwrer7 Jl^w 15.97 

F,'S Scananr SanpTIn 15.97 

J812 . . . 2736 

Sleallli Miialon 33.9d 



Iin£lU03|S 

Accounts PayaOia 33.36 

Accounts Raotvabl. 33 36 

DsiaUtugiil 17 <G 

Oa-aHlMH(1M . . 33 36 

D««o«PiMllW. ... . 3964 

E'«!rOI« Cf«*00ll 13.9! 

Ganaral Ledger 33.36 

tnv.frtorv Uana^wiwil 33.36 

Partner 64 33.36 

Parinar 12fl 39.54 

Payroll Managemanl 33.36 

Swin^alC'Sidawayt G4 ...... 17.16 

S.lllcalc.'Siiiavlys 129 33.36 

Sywa Poller F,? M M.3S 

S.ylB Potlet F.'P IM 46.32 

WofOWiilliJ . . 33.36 

WMdWillar 12! 33.36 



IJUl 



j<^ J* «04;.i' pcCDn::KH^ 



PmcmiJlaf Piui 


21.97 


Art Q*ll*T^ 1 Of ? 


. 15-97 


An Gx^lary Amif lun Hut . 




All Q#llef / Firtiiy 


15.97 


MISCELLANEOUS 


Art 


9.99 


B^ib fr teriTv Pro 64 


30.97 


Biibs Tflfm Pro 1 2B 


36 97 


Easj' Worki^^Tji&'Ppak 


12.9; 


B W Sttsin*u Form Sncfl 


24.97 


BW G«os Wvd P^fbbshtr 


24.97 


CSMOmiAhgrtKn 


. 30.12 


CSM Prrtflrton Ucnuii \ 


22 65 


CSMPiutKyOnMifluini 


!«.1S 


Dark Cnll* [3'«C] 


2197 


Owdse 


24.97 


Foni Uiilvr II , 


30.97 


FontM4i1«rl2& 


36.07 




3B.97 


G»nechiogt F»mily Tim 124, . 
H«e Mion S4 jcArt) 


. 36.97 


. . 9.9S 






Hi Tfltti' Print POWtf . , , . . 


. in.97 


KonamhCofllfi ..... , , 


, 19.97 


Konaini:ftu»hN AitiCk 


. 1B.97 


KonamiYtftAf'KKngFuS 


19 97 




30 97 


UfldinAjwmtiiffrlSa 


4297 




35.97 


Mpowagsw wTtr nimvrg 


249S 


iMOOoKwad 


995 


Sonj^ Part Nawi!«w 
Strip Poller 


36.97 


16 97 


Pokaf D414 Oilk 1 2 ot 3 


1297 


Suparb.lff «4 or 125 


48.97 


Suparbasa tha Book 


. 12 46 


Super Sunosv 


. 23.64 


Superscript 64 


30.97 






Wiaiiiry.'SliToch 


. 24.97 



ACCESSORIES 

l£41,'7l Sff'alCabl* 4.35 

1M1^71 Po»v C*b4e 45b 

C^ ColDr Montor Cord 4.9S 

0«4 RtpttftlM POiW Sunsiy 3945 

nS'232turfK* )4» 

MW 3Vt PiM*r )iri*rTKa 49 94 

Apmptnd 04 . 27 95 

Apmbti^d Cifindar Cable i5 95 

j^efc i3«B*6rtiHinimodtm . , 79 w 

Comrflfldore last UouH 37,9-5 

Msuae Mat ,..,.,, . . . B 95 

1441 Dull Cover a.9& 

t571 Dust Cove/ S,95 

C-64 Dwsl Cover S.SS 

C'lSSDusi Cover , , . 0.9S 

Pisk Nolcher-SQuirt Cut 4 95 

5.25' D«iA: Drrvfl CItinar . . 5.9S 

'3.^1* Dnk Drive Clfiner . G.9S 

mCnlDiiekSlorjii^ l 95 

50 Cnl Dtik Stort^ . B95 

toe Cw OtH SiWiije •Loci! i2 95 

90 Dn 3 5' Oiii; Stof w VvA 9 95 

3.V Diik LAb*:i 2& cri t.DO 

^25' Oiik Lib«lt -^VX S . 00 

3S'DSDD0iikttr» 129 

5 25" CS.OD Diike-cai B aci; 33 

5,25* OS DD Dnhe!te»-10 colors . . .79 
ftnta Pri3lfltlj-10C cn[ Blick :.O0 

Tyvg* Steevej-Hign Ouiiity . , . ea 03 

SikSlJk-Je«iick 6.93 

Quick Shotll-JoyittCk 7.95 

Tat; 2' JoysliiCli lO.SS 

Tac 3-Joy4tick 11.95 

&jnKtm Icon. Troll* 22 95 

Sj'ge PfOlffCloripDiMr Ptd . 39. 9S 



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Up until now. fo upgrade Iho C-f 2B [0 &iK of vKIeo RAM you woukj hi4ve 
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Helper is an eKcilitig new type ol Sohwaie tot ine C-12B 

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Graphic Art Disks 

Top quality grapfiics are hard lo find. These will delinilely 
please you 

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Eiiie V3 copies the "impossible." 

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Elite V4.0 

Our Elite Series is second to none lof its copying 
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• Update policy included 

• Free Bonus— The Sholgun I 

ONLY $14.95 



Super Cat 

The greatest disk library calaloger ever produced for the 
Commodore 64 

• Catalogs up lo 640 Disks w/5000 titles per catalog 

• Twice as many with 2 drives 

• Load, save, edit, change any entry 

• Pfihls a variety ol reports and even labels 

• Lightning fast and easy lo use! 

ONLY S24.95 



JI.^<^j|-^..lJhu 'jlK,'i'^.t J.S-<Jl/.;.!-;.'.ll.il 



Projecl Phcwnix. We assembled i 1«tm of the hottesi arctiivBl pn^grsmmflfs In Itie intfustry antf Qave than) the 

chairsnge of thetr carreers: create a profflssiona! utflity $y$ten ihal would set iha torra for iJis ifuEure ot Commodore 
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Hundreds of exped-hours later, that team delivered lo us a iitllity pachape ol soberlrtg power end »cope. A package 
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Renegade lakes t^e very beihi ideas from the past and re-creaies tri«m. cofnbinrng 3i4te ol Ifie art lecfvrajQues wtti i 
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* 200 Farms; For those tough to backup disks 

* Now Parameter updatesonly S9.95 each 

* Compatab1owilhC-54-129wfth 1541/71 Drives 



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1^ Major RENEGADE upgradesonlySS. 95 each 

if Technical support available: of course 



Renegade comes with over 225 parameters, and additional paramelers are available every 2 months^ Also, Fenegade 
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Now nothing can s;op you from taking TOTAL contror of your software' Renegade gives you the rri-osl advar^ed tools 
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Graphic Label Wizard 

Tms IS tne uilinnaie label uiility 

• Daiatiasing with graphics incluned 

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• Printmasier"' Printshop'" Software Soluiions'" 
compatible 

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ONLY $24.95 



C-12e Cannon 

The total copy/ulililies pacNsge created just for Ct23 
owners, 

• Nibblers— Single or Dual 

• Fasi Copers— Single or Dual 

• File Copiers— Single or Dual 

• Scanners— Error and Density 

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• Directory editing 

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• 1541/71/81 Drives Supported— Single or Dual 

ONLY S34.95 



Kracker Jax Revealed I & II 

Our knowledge of protection schemes has rnaoe us 
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books are yout key to REAL knowledge. OTHEflS OtJLV 
GIVE SURFACE INFO— we dig deep— much deeper. We 
can show you exactly how today's copy protecti!}ri 
prevefits ycu Ircm Backing up your software 



Revealed Book I with Reset Button 
$23.50 

Revealed II with Hesmon Cartridge 
S23.50 



FLASH! Kracker Jax 

Earns a 5 Star Rating 

In INFO'S May-June '88 Issue 

Kracksr Jii is the powerful parameler-baseb copying 
system ihal has laken the country by sloim! What IS a 
parameter? It's a custom program that allows youf 1541 
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TOTALLY BROKEN BACKUPS that can even be copied 
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We declare Krackar Jix lo be the oesi system ot its 
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finding one. 

Vols 1-2-3-4 Only $9.95 ea. 
Vols 5-6-7 Still Only $19.95 ea. 



Hacker's Utility Kit 

Slate of the ari tools for tne compuierisi ready lo take 
control of his software library I 

• Whole disk scanners 

• GCR Editor 

• Fast Daia/Nihble copiers 

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Sysres ' Enhanced 

The best— and we mean Best Basic enhancement system 

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95 



COMMODORE colt pc 



• IBM PC Comfwtiblfl 

• 6«0KSId 

• Two SW OrivBS SW. 

• £xparttlon tor Hani 
Drive 

• Tuftx) pToceMor 

• MSOOS + GW BatK 
Indudecj 




• SertaJ * Paraltel Ports 

• MoncTlGB Color Caid 
Indudod 



ll//LASERCOMRftCT XT 

• PC-XT • Parallel Printer 
Compatible Port 

• 4.77 - 8.00 Mhz • Serial RS232 
Super Turtw , Joystick/Game 
Ctock Speed port 

• Buitt-in SV* Drive 

• Built-in RGB 
Video Output 

ONLYd*^^I-95 




COMMODORE 

HARDWARE 

64C Cwnputer St59.95 

CI 280 CoraputBtOnva $439.95 

1541 II Disk Drive S175,95 

1581 Disk Drive S1BB.95 

Eicol 2t)01 C128 Dnvo S199.9S 

Excel FSD-2+ C64 Drive $149.9S 

1802C li^onitor S1B995 

1064 Monitor S299.95 

C1351 Mouse S3995 

1700 HAM S109,95 

1764 RAM C64 1117.85 

Con PC SCALL 



PC 

COIMPATIBLE 

HARDWARE 

La$er Compact XT $475.95 

Laser Compact XTE 640K $549.95 

Laser Desktop Turtw XT 256K . $569.95 
Laser Desktop TurtM XT 640K . $599 95 

Blue Chip PC XT SCALL 

Blue Chip Populai $CALL 

Blue Ctlip 286AT St059.95 

Vendex Headslart Color $1049.95 

Vendei Headslart Mono SCALL 

Sharp PC 4501 $69995 

Sharp PC 4502 $1259.95 

Zuckor CGA ColorCard , $89.95 

BCC CG CotorCard $94.99 

User EGA + 4 Card S129.95 

ATI Grapfiks Solution $129.95 

ATI EGA Wonder 199.95 

Tl»mson GB20O CokirCard ....SI 84.95 

ATI VIP $299.95 

Kralt PC Joystk* Card $27.95 



$475' 

Color System HEADSTART Q}) SBdQdtB 



• Rsady to phjg in and UM 
immocistety 

• Ultra last a Mhz tntsi 6005-2 
Processcr 

<B StZKRAMrmnxxyaxparxIa' 
W»to76SK 

• 2-3G0K dtsic drives Blandard 

• Frat complete systom with 
clock calendur And ttuilt-ln 
ports lor pnnlar, R3232, 2 
joysticks, mouao ar>d U^hlpen 

• Includes 5500 worth FREE 
EKinwara programs 

■ Hi R&s color nx>nftorinckide<d> 




$1049 



95 



HARD DRIVES 
ST 225 20 meg Hard Drive .... $215.95" 
ST 251 40 me^ Hard Drive .... S349.9S' 
•OTC Controller Kil (or PC.'XT ... $39.95 
ST 238 30 meg Hard Drive ... $245.95" 
"OTC RLL Conlrollor Kil lor 

PC/XT $49.95 

ST12S20mBa3.SHardDrl«a. $239.35 

OTC Controller Kit (or PC/XT $39.95 

ST 125 20 nteg Internal Card 

w/Coritrolter $329.95 

AiM $10.00 for Western Digital 
COfi^ierS 




GOMMOIK>llE 64C 



System 
Special 



$479 



95 



• Conmodore G4C 
Compiner 

• Eicel FSD-2 Disk 
Drive 

• SlarNXIOOOC 
Commodore Ready 
Prinler 




PC-4501 Laptop iL 



$699 



95 





CHIP 286AT 
New Release I 



$1059 



95 



Green, Amtier 4 Color 
Monitors Avallatite. 



1-800-233-8760 



Lyco Computer 

Marketing & Consultants 



Since 1981 



Air orders processed within 24 hours. 



©^* 



^c 



«f^ 



% .-.:^iil 



o*' 



sie^ 



e^r«r\ 







Panasonic. 

Office Automatiorij^^'^Vl^ 



r^\ 



10911 Model II 

• 192 cps Draft 

• 32 cps NLQ 



Panasonic. 

Office Auiortwlion/~\#^\ 

3131 ^ U/i 

Daisy Whe«l 
Printer 

• 17 cps Speed 

• Up to 13.5 

PofhOTwiiith 

• Uses Standard 
Diai>]0 Wtioots 

• Z-Yoar 
Warranty 




Panasonic. 




10921 

* 2t0c(i» 

* 4a cpa NLQ 

* AdjusTabk) 
Pyi*i Tractor 



Panasonic. 



Olfire Aijiomn;it 




1592 

• 136 Column 

• 180 cps 

• NLQ in sM 
PrtchBS 

• Pushtractot 

• Z-Ysar 
Warranty 



m I « row 1 1 m 



$179'= \' 




Star NX1000C 

• 1 44 cps Draft 
^,. • 36 cps NLQ 

• EZ Front Pane) Control 

• Commodore Direct Connect 



NEW! NX1000C Rainbow 
S229.95 




Improve your 
image with a Star! 




NX15 

• 1 KO cps Draft 

• 30 cps NLO 

• 136 Column 
Width 

• Aula paper 
FMd 



$309 



95 







NB2410 \ ^ ^ 

• 24 Pin High \ , -'''^ 
Oualtty Prtnting 

• 216 cps Drafl 

• 72 cps Letter 

Quality 



$399 



95 



iiEQlIf 




• 240 cps Dratl 

• 60 cps MLQ 

• E2 Front Panel 
Control 



$339 



95 



=1-800-233-8760 




Lyco Means Total Service 





4^' 

Attention 
Educational 
Institutions: 

If you are not currently using 

our educational service 

program, please cail our 

representatives for details. 



Mark "Mac" Bowser, 
Sales Manager 

I would personally 
like to thank all of our 
past customers for 
helping to make Lyco 
Computer one of the 
largest mall order 
companies and a 
leader In the Industry. 
Also, I would like to 
extend my personal 
Invitation to all computer 
enthusiasts who have 
not experienced the 
services that we provide. 
Ploaso call our trained 

sales staff at our toll free number lo inquire about our 

diverse product line and weekly specials. 

First and foremost our philosophy is to keep abreast 
of the changing market so that we can provide you with 
not only factory-Tresh merchandise but also the newest 
models offered by the manufacturers at the absofute best 
possible prices. And we otter the widest selection of 
computer hardware, software and accessories, 

Feel free to call Lyco if you want to know more about 
a particular item. I can't stress enough that our toll-free 
number is not just for orders. I^any companies have a 
toll-tree number for ordering, tiut it you just want to ask a 
question about a product, you have to make a toll call. Not 
at Lyco. Our trained sales staff is knowledgeable about all 
the products we stock and is happy lo answer any questions 
you may have. We will do our best to make sure that the 
product you select will fit your application, We also have 
Saturday hours — one more reason to call us (or all your 
computer needs. 

Once you've placed your order with Lyco, we don't 
forget about you. Our friendly, professional customer 
service representatives will find answers to your questions 

about the status of an 
order, warranties, 
product availability, or 
prices. 

Lyco Computer 
stocks a muitlmllllon 
dollar Inventory of 
factory-fresh 
merchandise. Chances 
are we have exactly 
what you want right in 
our warehouse. And that 
means you'll get it fast. 
In (act, orders are 
normally shipped within 
24 hours. Free shipping 
on prepaid cash orders 
over S50, and there is 
no deposit required on 
D. orders. Air freight or UPS Blue/Red Label shipping is 
available, too. And all products carry the full manufacturers' 
warranties. 

I can't see why anyone would shop anywhere else. Selec- 
tion from our huge in-stock inventory, best price, service that 
can't be beat — we've got it all here at Lyco Computer. 
TO ORDER, CALL TOLL-FREE: f .800-233.8760 
New PA Wats: 1-800-233-8760 
Outside Continental US Call: 1-717-494-1030 

Hours: 9AM to 8P(vl, Mon. - Thurs. 
9AI^ to ePM, Friday — 10AM to 6PM, Saturday 

For Customer Service, call 1-717-494-1670, 

9AM to 5PM, Mon. - Fri. 

Or write: Lyco Computer, Inc. 

P.O. Box 5088. Jersey Shore, PA 17740 

C.O.D. RIsk-FrM Policy: *tuLI manulacturflrs' warranllos • no sales la^outsidD 
PA • prices show 4% cash discount: acid 4% lor credit cards • APO. FPO. 

intemationgl: add S5 plus 3% for prronty • 4-week cleararxM on per&ortal ct>ecks 
• we check for credit card Ihoft • sorry, compatibility not guaranteed • return 
authorization required • due to new ptoduci guBf anteo. return rpstncthons apply* 
price'avallat}i I ily subject to change ■ prepajtf otdors under S50 in Con ttnental US, 
add S3 DO 



Avatex 1200e 



Hayes Compatible 
Modem 




$69.95* 



' With Purchase ol CaBle Kit 
Direct Connect Cable to Your 
064/128 



Disc 
Storage 



QVS-lOSi/^ S3.9S 

QVS-75 5>/. $14.95 

QVS-i0 3rt S1 1.95 



Printer 
Ribbons 



Save up to 50%l 

We carry a stock of 

ttiousands for most 

applications. 



Printer 
Interfaces 



XetecJr SJS.B5 

Xetec Supergraphics ... S55.S5 

Xstec GokJ S74.95 

PP! S29.95 

Cardco GWhlz S32.95 

Cardoo Super G $44.95 

MW 350 $49.95 

We carry cabios tor moil 

printer sppllcallong lor many 

popular compulan. 



Great 
Bargains 



New 
M-3 Mouse 

• Works with Goos 

• 13SI Coinpatlble 

• Less Expensivs man 1^1t 

$34.95 

Mouse Care 
Kit 

— Includes — 
Mouse Pad 

• S'xirstie 

• Pfovkies Clean, Dusl-Froo 
Surtace lor Your Mouse 

• No-Mar Backing lo Prated 
Your Desk Surface 

Mouse Cleaning 
Ball 

• MainLains Opttmum Mouse 
PerfofmarBel 

Only $19.95 



twms can be purchased ^ 



5-1/4 I 

DIali NMctMr i 
•iaitll: 

3S0O 

DSOO .,.„, 
Somi*: 

SSI>D 

OStJD 



SKC: 

OSDD J 

DSHD 

Qonork; OS DC 
Vertullm: 
S80D „„., 
□6D0 .„.., 

3.5 

IMmsII: 

SSOD 

DSOO 



SSDD . 
DSDE) . 
SKC: 
SSDO . 
OSDO . 



Tac 3 ... 
Tm 2 ,., 

T»o 5 ... 
Tk 1 + IBW 
Stik Slick . 
Black Max ...J 

Bobs ,. 

3-Woy , 

Balhandki ...; 
Winner 909 ., 
Wkm IBM'AP 
Upsl^ Plus 
Kfart KC til ft 
Kralt PC JoyI 

Card J 

Krah Mare M 
I Conirollor ,A 
EpyiSCOXj'l 



IMoitofCoFd 





SORIES 



. $S.9S 
. $7.^ 

. $a.9s 
. *s^ 

.$655 

, S6-95 
S13.95 
. S4.9S 

. SS.99 

{11.50 
SI 7-95 

S10» 
$13^ 

$1Z95 

ste.ss 

. $9.95 
$13.99 



$9.9S 

S10.95 

SI 2.95 

' $26.95 

.„ S6.9S 

S10.95 

_.. S11.99 

$19.99 

„„ S1S.75 

«4.9S 

$29.95 

S14.95 

C S16.9S 

< 

$27.95 

Br $8.95 

$13,95 

$13.95 



Surge 
Suppressors 



PP102.6 oudel S16.95 

PP 106-6 outlet vitth 

EMIflFI ,..„ $2895 

PP 104-6 outlet wtm 

Indicator $19.95 

PP101-6oullsl 

powflrslrip $9.95 

Modom Pfotoctof $10.95 



Drive 
Maintenance 



5Vt DflvD Cleaner 

CMPM2 S7.95 

SVa Dfivo Cloanor 

wilh program S15.9S 

3.5 Drive Cleanor 

CMP 154 S^0,95 



Switch 
Boxes 



Cont -26' AB .-.. $39.95 

Cent -36' AB S39.S5 

RS232 AeC $45.95 

Cent ABC $49.95 

RS232ABCD $49 95 

Cent ABCD $49.95 



Video 
Tape 



SKCT120 VHS 
video Tape: 

each $3.99 

3 pack $10.95 

to pack $35.95 



Bargain 
Basement 



Ham nff opportunftkis to 
mloy bitiatv cost Bavings on 
ttvms cttrronlfy not fn 
productton duo to nower 
Foptscenntnt modpta. CtfW 
tor vpdat9<i product Hat. 






Acossi: 

Ecdfilon $as.9S 

Msch S „,.. $19.95 

Matii - 123 ^8.95 

torn Frama $22.95 

TfiplsPsck $11.95 

WM. CI. Lsadot BrO. ... $22.95 
Famous Couraea #1 ... $11.95 
FamouG Cauison #2 ... $11.95 

Leader Board Pac^ S 12.95 

Aclton Soft: 

Up Padsoopo ,. .. $18.95 

Tluimterchoppar SI 8.95 

AcOvtslon: 

Champion. Baskeltiall . $19.95 



MuscStudb $19.95 

leather Goddessos $19.95 

Top Fuel EBmlnalor St 7.95 

BayoryJ2ork $25.95 

QFL Football $19.95 

Ooe Bee Air Rally St 7.95 

Ust KUnja S1S.9S 

Might & Maeic $22-95 

Aliens $19.95 

Maniac Mansjon $19.95 

Ghosttxisters $9.35 

SalUrIm Included: 

PapBfdiplll S31.95 

Outrageous Pages $31.95 

Berkeley Seftworlta; 

GeolileCM S29.95 

Geocalc 064 $29.95 

Qeopi^lsh C64 $39.95 

Seos 64 $35.95 

Geowrite $29.95 

Qeos 128 $33.95 

Geowrite 128 S39.95 

Geocalc 128 S39.95 

GeoMe 128 $28.95 

BerVelev TnPak $29.95 

Brodefbund: 

Bank St. Writer e9.9S 

Cannen San Diego ..... $%.9S 

Graphic Ub. I, II. Ill SH.95 

Print snop , $26.95 

Print snop Compan $20.95 

Cauldron $17,95 

Supertiike Challenge ... $12.35 

Magnetron $15.95 

Electronte Aria: 

Roadwars , Si 3.95 

Hunt tor Fled October .. $25.95 

Pattonvs. Rommel SI 9.95 

Stcytox II S19.95 

Tc^mik-Oash of 

Amior $19.95 

Epyxi 

Fastload S22.95 

Winter Gamei $11.95 

Calllomla Gamet S22.S5 

Stf. Spoils Basl<ottaolt . $22.95 

Summar Gamos II $11.95 

Worid Games S22.95 

Had Warrior $13.95 

Death Sword $11.95 

ImposslWo Mission 2 .. S22,95 

The Games: Winter 

edWon $22,95 

FlreUrd: 

EBle S9,33 

Guild of Thieves S25.95 

Pawn $9.99 

Tracker .,„.........*,,.„«.., $11.95 

Starglldar $18.95 

Sentry $22.35 

Microleague: 

Microtoag. Baseliall $22.95 

Genera] Manager $15.95 

Stat OisK $13.95 

Microteag. WroetUng .... Si 6.95 

■87TeafflDts>i $11.95 

Micro proae: 

Ajrtwme Ranger $22-95 

F-1S Strike Eagle SI 9.95 

Gunship $19.95 

Kennedy Approacti ,,.,., $13.95 

Slleni Service $19,95 

Solo Flight $13,95 

Top Qunnef $13,95 

Pirates S22.95 

Stealth Ftgntet $22,95 

MIndBcape: 

Infiltration SI6.95 

Inlittfatkxi 2 ._ $16 35 

Papertooy 519,95 



SOFTWARE 



G0«flMODOftE 



Origin: 

AutOduel $29.95 

Ultima III $23.95 

UNIma IV $34,95 

Moobius ,. S23.95 

Softwnre Slmulatloni: 

Pure Stat Basetiall $22,95 

Football S1795 

Pure Stat QoHege 

BastetbaU $22.95 

Spring lx»rd: 

Newsroom $19 95 

Certiticale Maker S14 95 

Clip Art Vol. #1 $12,95 

Clip Ari Vol. *2 $12,95 

Clip Art Vol, *3 S12.95 

Graphics Expander $21,95 

Strategic SJmulBlloni: 

Gettysburg $33,35 

Ptantasie II $22,95 

Phantasie III $22,95 

Waards Crown $22,95 

Wargame Consti $16,35 

BattlecruLset $33 35 

Eternal Dagger S2295 

Quesuon II $22.95 

Phamssie $22.95 

SuMogie: 

FHglu Simulator II $30,95 

Jet Simulator $30.95 

Night Mission Pintiall ... S19.9S 

Scenery Disk 1-6 SI 2.95 

StoaHh Mlsstpn $30,95 

TImeworlit: 

P«lner C64 $22,35 

Partner 12S $27,95 

Swift Gate 128 $27,35 

Wofdwrter 128 $27,95 

WordwrilBf 3 64 $22,95 

Silvia Porter Vol. 1-64 . SCAU 

UnlHHi Worid: 

Art GaSery 1 or 2 $14.95 

Print Master St 7.95 

Art Salery Fantasy $13.85 



'^^MiGA 



Access: 

Worid Class Lead. Sd.. SCAU 

Acttvtaion: 

Champ. Ba^etbaH $25,95 

GFL FootbaS $25,95 

Gee Bee Air RaDy $22.35 

Electronic Artt: 

Weaver Baseball S33.95 

Return to Atlantis SCALL 

Ferrari Forrrvula One -. $33,35 
Hunt tor Red October .. $33,95 
Epyx: 

Apshai Tritogy $11,35 

Winter Games $1195 

Worid Games $22,95 

Oestroyer $22.95 

Flrablfd: 

Gi*J 01 Thieves $26,35 

Pawn $13,95 

Starglider $25,35 

Hicropipse: 

Sient Service $22,95 

Sublogic: 

Flight Simulator II $31,49 

Scei^ery Disk $CALL 

Unlaon Worid: 

f¥nt Master $25,93 

AnGaltery 1 or 2 S14,9S 

Fonts & Bortjers ...,, S17,95 

Art Gallery Fantasy ..... S13,95 



■^ 



IBM 



VTO. CI. Uader Board. S27.9S 

tOth Frame S27.95 

Actfvlilon: 

Champ, Baseball ,., $22.95 

Champ, Basketball , S22.95 

Zori( Tnkjgy $27.95 

Leather Goddesses S22.9S 

Beyond Zorii $27.95 

Broderbond: 

Ancient An of War S26.K 

Print Shop $34.95 

Print Stx>p Compan $29.95 

Graphic Ub, 1 or it S19-95 

Arx:ient Art of War 

al Sea , $26,95 

Carmen San Diego 

Worid $23,95 

Supertiike Ch^lenge ,.. $12,95 

Search and Destroy $9.95 

Electronic Arts: 

Yaager'sAFT $26,95 

Hunt for Red October ., $31.95 
Alternaie Reality <Mty ., Sas.95 
Epyx: 

Create A Calendar $15,95 

tJastroyer $22.35 

Winter Games $11,95 

Worid Games $22,35 

Had Warrior $13,95 

Spy vs. Spy III $13,95 

Calilomia Games $22,95 

Death Sword $11,95 

Imposslblo Mlsston 2 ... $22,35 
Rrablrd: 

Knight Ore S25.9S 

Ulcroleasue: 

Mk:roleag. Baseball S22-35 

Genera] Manager SI €-95 

Slat Dtsh $13.95 

Mlcroprose: 

Conflk:l in Vietnam $22.95 

Cnisade in Europe $22.95 

Dacisk)n In Doseri 522.85 

F-15 SIrike Eagle $22,95 

SUent Service $22.95 

Gunstiip S27.95 

Pirales $22.95 

Mln<ti«sp«: 
Hamer Combat 

Simulator $t9.9S 

Gauntlet _ J22,BS 

Origin: 

Udima I S23.95 

Ultima 111 $23.95 

UNima IV 134.95 

Moet>ius $34.95 

Ogre $17.95 

strategic Simulations; 

Slellar Crusade $28.95 

Sons of Liberty $22.95 

Road War Europa $22,95 

Sublogic: 

Jol Simulator S30 35 

Flighl Simulator S34.95 

Timewofks: 

Swiftcalc $22.95 

Wordwrtler $27.95 

Unison Worid: 

Art Gallery 2 $14.95 

Wowsmaster It S39.95 

Prim Master (-i-[ $29.35 

Fonts & Borders .,.,. St 7.85 



g on Prepaid cash orders over $ 50 In the Continental U.S. 



Zy 



Price Guarantee / 

Since 1981, we have led Ihe industry by 
continuing to offer the lowest national 
prices while providing quality service. Many 
companies have come and gone trying to 
imitate our quality and service. I( by some 
oversight we do not have the lowest prices ^ 

advertised on the products you desire, ^ 

then we would appreciate the opportunity ? 

to rectify this oversight. j 



Commodore Ready 



SEIKOSHA 
Sp 180VC 

• 100 cps Draft 

• 20 cps NLQ 

• Direct Connect 
for Commodore 

Quanlilies 
Limited 




$129 



95 



Monitors 



Modems 



Thomson: 

230 AmbeF TTL12' S79.95 

.1120 CGA S2T9.95 

4160 CGA $254,95 

4460 EGA SM9.95 

QB ZOO Super Carel .. StB4.95 
4570.. S39«.95 



Blue Chip: 

BCM 12" Gieen TTL ... £64.95 

BCM 12" Amtjer TTL ... S69.95 



NEC 

Multisync II 



. $539.95 



Commodore Ready 



Magnavox: 

BM7652 S79.95 

BM7622 , S79.95 

7aM.613 S79,96 

7aM-623 $79.95 

CMa502 $179.96 

CMBBOS $199,95 

BCM-063 SCALL 

CMSrSS .,. S245.95 

eClif-515 $259.95 

CM9043 .,.,. $CA1.L 

aCM-e73 $499.95 



Avatex: 

1200O $€9.8S 

12001 PC Card $69.95 

1200hcModam $69.95* 

2400 5179.95 

24001 PC Card S169.95. 

'w.cabl0 purchiisa 

Hayes: 

Smanmodom 300 $139,95 

Smanmodom 1S00 .... $J79,95 
Smanmodem 2400 ,.,. $419 =>■= 



Built-in Tilt Stand 



P 
U 

L 
L 

O 
U 

T 



4120 




• Color Composite for 64 
Mode Operation 

• Color RGB for 01 28 
Mode Operation 

• Plus Switchable in 
Green Monochrome 

• Cables Included 



'Quantity Limited 



$219 



95* 



THOMSON O 



MAGNAVOX 




PRINTERS 



■b^iie 



SEIKOSHA 

SP IBOAi $129.95 

SP leOVC $129.95 

KP lOmVC St39,95 

SP 1000AP $169.95 

SP 1200VC $155.95 

SP 1200Ai S166.95 

SP laooAS RS232 ... $165.95 

SL MAI $329.95 

MP5420FA S1079.95 

SP Sones Rrbbon $7.95 

SK3000 Ai S339.95 

SK3005 Aj S419.95 

SPB 10 SCALL 

SLiaoAi S599.95 



Toshiba 

32iSL $499,95 

341 SL S659.95 

P351 Modal II $899,95 

351 SX 400 cps $1019 95 



NX-IOOO $169.95 

NX-1000C S179.95 

NX-1000 Color $225.95 

NX-1000C Color $229.95 

NX-15 $309,95 

NR-10 ..,. $339,95 

NR-15 $439,95 

N6-15 24Pln.. $699,95 

NO24>10 24 Pin S399,9S 

we'd 16 24 Pin $579.95 

Lasar S SCALL 

#CITIZEN 

120 5169.95 

180 D ...., $189,96 

MSP-10 $259.95 

MSP-40 .,., $309.95 

MSP-15 $349.95 

MSP-50 $399.95 

MSP-4S $469.95 

MSP-5S $539.95 

rrnm-uio 35 S499.95 

TrItjytB 224 $649.95 

TnOute 124 $489,95 



EPSON 

(XnOO $184 95 

FXB6E S27995 

FX2a6£ $424.95 

EX800 5399.95 

LQ500 5339.95 

LQ2500 $819.96 

GQ3500 SLOW 

LQ850 $525.95 

LQ1050 $715.95 

OKIDATA 

OlOfflala 20 , $129.95 

Okimato 20 w can . 5199,95 

120 $189.95 

1B0 $219 95 

182 ,. $209 95 

182+ $225.96 

1B3 $MS)'Ji 

192+ $339 95 

193 ^ $449.95 

292 w'inlartaoe .„,. $449.95 

293 w/inierfaco .......... $585.95 

294 W'^niartaco $819.95 

393 $955,95 

Laser 6 ,. $CALL 



CM8762 



• Color + Green 
Modes 

• Built-in Tilt Stand 

• 1-Year Warranty 
Suggested use C128D 



$239 



95 



Panasonic. 

Ottjcc AlJ('jrli,^{lir,n,; /■;, 

10801 Model II $169.95 

1091i Model II $195.95 

10921 $319.95 

1592 $409.95 

1 596 $459.95 

3131 $299 95 

3)51 $479,95 

KXP44S0La>Of $1649,96 

1524 ?4 I'm 5559 95 

Fa« Partner $589.95 

BROTHER 

Ml 109 SlG-19'i 

Ml 509 $335.95 

M1709 $469.95 

Twrftwrltor 6 Dol A 

Dal.'iy S8!>9,95 

M1724L $519,95 

HR20 $345.95 

HF140 $589.95 

HR60 $689,95 



Join the thousands who shop Lyco and Save 



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-Rider 

■'s Music Software 

CZ-Rider can be controlled by joystick, synth 
keyboard, or computer keyboard. CZ parameters 
can be displayed in the edit screen, while anottier 
screen can show color graphs of the envelope 
level compared to time. The envelopes can be 
drawn by selecting a point to change and then 
moving t The respective sounds are played as 
the graphs are drawn. Cither features include 
naming voices, copying envelopes between two 
voices, inserting or deleting steps into an enve- 
lope, an adjustable time scale, and printing. 

Double-Banked 
Programmer/Librarian 

Sonus 

Casio CZ-101, 1000, and 5000 
series synttiesizer; MIDI interface 
card 
$99.95 

With the Double-Banked Progmmmer/Libman, 
music programmers can create, edit, and store 
sounds from the Casio synthesizer or the com- 
puter. The sound patches can be rearranged and 
joined to form tunes. The patches can also be 
pnnted out, 

DX-Patcti Editor and Librarian 

Dr. T's Music Software 
Syntliesizer 
S99 

Patches tor the Yamaha DX7 can be created 
and stored with this music editor. Ttie program 
also aids in programming the model DX9 and 
the TX7 and 8-1 6 expansion modules. With the 
program, musicians can attach a keyboard con- 
troller or external sequencer to the MIDI in the 
computer to hear the TX sounds. Sound data is 
displayed in DX7 (ormat and can be edited. 
Patch data is displayed on three data screens 
and can be edited or printed. Two sets of patch- 
es can be kept in memory at one time, and over 
800 patches can be stored on a disk. Patches 
can be sent individually or in groups of 32. The 
patch librarian contains 128 patches. The DX 
Patches, Volume 1 disk contains an additional 
288 patches and is sold separately. 

DX-TX Double Banked Librarian 
& Programmer 

Sonus 

Sonus, Passport, Yamaha, or 
Sequential MIDI interface card and 
Yamaha DX or TX instrument 
$149.95 

Programs to use with DX or TX equipment from 
%maha can be created, edited, and saved to 
disk with the DX/TX-LP. This librarian and edit- 
ing program otters three menus— main, edit, 
and disk— with four independent levels plus 
four function keys in each for a total of 48 func- 
tions. The program contains two banks of 
sounds so 64 sounds can be loaded at one 
time. There are also 20 hidden commands. The 
selectable feature allows the programmer 



to see and hear other programs while in the edit 
menu. Programs, patches, and functions can be 
printed ojt. The program disk includes 10 car- 
tridges of 32 patches. 

Echo Plus 

Dr. T's Music Software 
$89 

Two separate programs are provided in this 
package. The first program can operate on one 
output channel and includes an infinite loop. The 
second allows the user to define up to four inde- 
pendent or overlapping ranges, and up to 30 de- 
layed notes can be specified. Both programs can 
start a short sequence for each note played and 
feature four-way keyboard splits, doubling, IWIDI 
echoes, one-finger chords, and arpeggiated 
chords. 

FB01 Design 

Sonus 

FB01 FM Sound Generator from 
Yamaha; Sonus, Passport, or 
Sequential-compatible interface 
cards 
599.95 

FBOt Design \s a double- banked MIDI librarian 
and editor to use w'rth the FB01 FM Sound Gen- 
erator from Yamaha, The program contains two 
independent banks of voices and configurations 
and can get or send full banks o( voices and 
configurations. Library (unctions include swap, 
bank to bank, insert, and delete. The edit mode 
can update parameters, display algorithms 
graphically, swap, copy, and initialize. There is 
also a print-screen feature. 

GlassTracks 

Sonus 
$69.95 

This package helps turn the 64 and 128 into a 
home M\D\ recording studio. It includes studio- 
type controls such as fast forward and reverse, 
live mute or unmute and punch, assignable ve- 
locity, and channel. The sequence edit function 
permits the programmer to set the end of each 
sequence, move the sequence, name or rename 
sequences, append the sequence to itself or an- 
other sequence, erase, transpose, and control 
the MIDI channel assignment and velocity. The 
track modification menu allows the user to de- 
lete pitch and mod wheel information. Tracks 
can also be transposed, erased, or autocorrect- 
ed to the nearest thirty-second, sixteenth, 
eighth, or quarter note. Routines are used to 
store and append sequences. Other features in- 
clude a play-thm function, meter adjustment, 
tempo adjustment by BPM, nondestructive 
bounce, step record and play, and commands 
such as OMNI off, all notes off, zero mod wheel, 
and zero sustain pedal. 

Instant Music 

Electronic Arts 

Joystick optional 

$29,95 

Instant Music uses red, green, and blue color 

bars to represent pitch and duration so even 

no n musicians can create original music. Any 

three instruments— including guitar, bass, 




dmms. piano, and sax— can be played at one 

time, and music can be output to MIDI. Editing 
features include cut, copy, paste, zoom, volume, 
and tempo for songs up to 32 measures long, 
(^ew instrument sounds can be created using 
the synthesizer feature, and MIDI users can add 
a drum machine to the piece. A library of over 
40 songs is also on the disk. MIDI instruments 
aren't included. 

Keyboard Controlled Sequencer 

Dr. T's Music Software 
$149 (64) 
$225 (128) 

This MIDI sequencer offers editing and structur- 
ing of music entered by keyboard or synth key- 
board. Features include realtime recording, 
overdub, step-time entry, sequence editing, cut 
and paste, transposihons, autocorrect, inver- 
sions, and time reversals, plus structured se- 
quencing that allows the user to combine 
different parts or repeat sections of music. A 
play screen displays the sequencing as the mu- 
sic plays. The 64 version holds 3500 notes and 
35 sequences. The 128 version can store 126 
sequences and 1 2,000 notes and contains addi- 
tional features such as splitting the keyboard 
and random transpositions. 

Master Tracks 

Passport 

Passport MIDI Interface Card, 
synthesizers, drum machine, or 
joystick 
$249.95 

Users can compose, arrange, and orchestrate 
music with Master Tracks, which offers real- 
time, step-time, and song-mode sequencing. 
Realtime sequencing features 16-channel track 
recording, master clock synchs to and from 
MIDI sequencers, unlimited amount of tracks 
with track-mix function, independent track loop- 
ing, fast forward and rewind, and an over-8000 
event memory without loops or repeats. The 
step-time sequencer contains the Quikstep edi- 
tor and has cut, copy, and paste options. In the 
song mode, programmers can step-assemble 
songs with 16-channel sequences, build songs 
much like a drum machine, and assemble 256 
different sequences using any of 999 steps. 

IVlaster Tracks Pro 

Passport 

Commodore 128, Passport MIDI 
Interface Card, MIDI-equipped 
instruments 
$299.95 

Master Tracks Pro, the enhanced version of the 
Waster Tracl<s sequencer, is a MIDI recording 
and editing system. The program provides real- 
time, step-time, and song mode sequencing. 
Mullitracli songs can be created in sections or 
as continuous works, and users can record or 
play from any point in the sequence. In addition 
to the same features found in the original Master 
Tracks, this 1 28 version offers an "undo" com- 
mand, an expanded memory capacity, memory- 
resident modules and data, data filters, and the 
ability to append sequences together from the 
disk in recorder moduie. 

COMPUTBI's Gatetw August 1 980 53? 





MIDI/4 Plus 

Passport 

MIDI synthesizer, MIDI Interface 
$99.95 

MIDI/4 Plus is a four-channel recording pro- 
gram that incorporates multitrack tape recorder 
qualities with unlimited overdubbing on four 
separate channels, realtime editing, tempo con- 
troi, and recording of ail controliers including 
key velocity, pitch bend, preset changes, after- 
touch, and modulation. Editing features include 
punch in and punch out, an autocorrect to thirty- 
second note triplets, and the editing of beats in 
24 increments. The sequencer also allows fast 
forward and rewind. 

MIDI/8 Plus 

Passport 

MIDI synthesizer, MIDI Interface 
$149.95 

MIDI/8 Plus is an eight-channel MIDI recording 
program that incorporates multitrack tape re- 
corder qualities with unlimited overdubs to eight 
channels, realtime editing, tempo control, and 
recording of all controllers including key velocity, 
pitch bend, preset changes, aftertouch, and mod- 
ulation. Editing features include fast f^ward and 
rewind, punch in and punch out, single-step play- 
back, and 24-increment editing of beats. A tape 
sync feature requires an external sync box or 
Passport's M\D\ Interface with tape sync. 

MIDI Processor 

Sonus 

Super Sequencer or Studio t data 
files; Sonus, Passport, or 
Sequential MIDI interface card 
$119.95 

Data files created with sequencing software— 
Super Sequencer and Stutiio /—can be loaded 
and edited with MIDI Processor. Single events 
or ranges of events can be edited with the micro 
and macro editing functions. Range edits in- 
clude transposing tracks, velocity level, velocity 
scale, autocorrect. removal of program 
changes, erasing or keeping a track in a range, 
and bouncing a track from one sequence to an- 
other. The program offers other features such 
as viewing individual MIDI events, live punch, 
playback mute controls, disk utilities, and a 
seam manager. 

MidlTech 64 

Sonus 

MIDI interface card, MIDI device 
$99.95 

MidiTech 64 IS a monitor and system-exclusive 
librarian to view, send, receive, manipulate, and 
save MIDI bytes sent from MIDI devices such as 
keyboards, drum machines, and sequencers. It 
features programmable MIDI filters, MIDI trigger 
functions, receive with prefix send capability, 
system-exclusive dump requests, and an over- 
25K receive and send buffer. The monitor edit 
functions include edit, insert, delete, ten pro- 
grammable go-to points, fill, and hunt. Hand- 
shake protocols can be saved to disk. System- 
exclusive dumps can be saved to disk and are 
compatible with the Super Sequencer. MidHech 
64 includes system -ex elusive dump requests 



for tf!e CZ101. RX11, DX/TX. FBOl , KORG 600, 
and LINN drum. 

The Music Shop for MIDI 

Passport 

MIDI Interface Card, MIDI synthe- 
sizer or drum machine, printer 
optional 
$149,95 

Witfi this program, users can compose, edit, 
and print music. The editor allows the user to 
move or erase blocks of music, pick up a note 
once and place it any number of times, and irs- 
put notes from the MIDI keyboard. Eight voices 
can be assigned to four different MIDI channels. 
Sheet music can be printed in piano, single 
staff, or quartet formats. Each musical piece can 
be up to 20 pages in length. The program sup- 
ports all key signatures and uses pull-down 
menus and windows. 

The Music Studio 
Acti vision 
Joystick optional 
$34.95 

Professionals and amateurs can use this pro- 
gram to create their own musical compositions. 
The editor lets users change tempo, duration, 
and volume. New instruments and sound ef- 
fects can be created by modifying the attack, 
sustain, release, and decay features. The paint- 
box provides a place for experimenting with 
new sounds or melodies, and the piece can then 
be copied into the editor. The music can be 
printed in sheet-music form, and the program 
can be used with electronic keyboards. Up to 
three verses can be added to a song, and a li- 
brary of original compositions is included. 

The Music System 

Firebird 

(Distributed by Activision) 
S39.95 

This musical utility package consists of two 
modules. The editor/keyboard module can be 
used to create compositions note by note and 
store the music digitally In this module, notes 
are stored in standard musical notation, and 
three voices are allowed. The synthesizer per- 
mits definition and control of the settings and 
output of the SID chip. The mix, sound, and 
melody can be altered as the piece is played, 
There is also a built-in metronome feature. Pull- 
down menus and documentation are included. 

Passport MIDI Voice Editor 
for FB-01 
Passport 

MIDI Interface Card, Yamaha 
FB-01 synthesizer 
$125 

This package is a voice librarian and editing sys- 
tem for Yamaha's FB-01 synthesizer module. 
The program allows users to organize and edit 
sounds for the FB-01 . create a library of voices 
and configurations, organize setups, and send, 
receive, copy move, name, and pnnt banks of 
voices and configurations. Vbice parameters 
can be edited. Ctiannel assignments are provid- 
ed for both MIDI In and MIDI Out. 



Rock 'N' Roll Studio 

Spinnaker Software 

Joystick 

$6.95 

As owner of a recording studio, the user can 
create a song, store it in the jukebox, and play it 
back with the touch of a lew buttons. 

RX Librarian 

Sonus 

Yamaha RX11 or RX21 drum 
machine, MIDI interface card 
$69.95 

The RX Librarian contains over 150 jazz, Latin, 
and rock dmm patterns to use with the Yamaha 
RX11 or RX21 drum machines. With this pro- 
gram, drum patterns and mixes can be named, 
edited, and stored. Twenty lines of comments 
can also be entered with the files and stored or 
printed out. 

Songwriter 

Thunder Mountain (Mindscape) 
$9.95 

Songwriter cm help students with limited musi- 
cal skills create and save tunes to play on the 
computer. Piano-roil graphics and notations are 
used for composition. A library of songs is in- 
cluded on the disk. For grades 1-8. 

Sonic Editor 

Sonus 

Prophet or Ensoniq Mirage 
sampling keyboard; Sonus, Pass- 
port, Sequential, or compatible 
MIDI interface card 
$99.95 

A graphics waveform editor and sound manage- 
ment system, Sonic Editor consists of three 
main parts— parameter options, edit mode, and 
program library and disk storage. With the pa- 
rameter options, wavesample or program pa- 
rameters from the lovrer or upper half of the 
keyboard can be displayed. Displays include 
loop start and end, loop line adjust, top key val- 
ue, LFO frequency, OSC detune, mix, and filter 
values. The edit mode includes three methods 
for drawing and editing waveforms— scrolling 
the waveform, drawing on the screen, or man- 
ually plotting points. Single-page waveforms 
and preset parameters can be stored on-board 
with the program library to provide 78 sounds. 
Sets of 78 sounds can be stored on disk, and a 
library of 78 preprogrammed sounds is provid- 
ed with the program. The program also includes 
a dot/line mode display and screen print. Sonic 
Editor is available for the Prophet or Ensoniq 
Mirage sampling keyboard. 

Sound File 

Blank Software 

Disk drive, joystick or mouse, 

Ensoniq ESQ-1 2,0 

S69.95 

This sound and sequence librarian program for 

the Ensoniq ESQ-1 Digital Wave Synthesizer 

can use up to four sound banks at one time and 

has two patch libranes, each holding up to 120 

sounds. Musicians can move the patches within 



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and between banks and libraries and can com- 
bine songs to create new song banks. A disk 
can store up to 1600 patches. Ttie program 
uses windows and pull-down menus pius a joy- 
stick- or mouse-driven operating system. 
Sound File requires Passport, Sequential, or 
European MiOl interface, a Commodore joystick 
or mouse, and the Ensoniq ESQ-1 version 2.0 
or higher. 

Super Sequencer Series 

Sonus 

Sonus, Passport, or Sequential 
MIDI interface card 
$189.95 (Commodore 64) 
$229.95 (Commodore 128} 
A series of recording and librarian routines for 
professional music programming, the Super Se- 
quencer Series contains a built-in MIDI system- 
exclusive librarian and studiolike controls such 
as fast forward, live mute, and assignable veloc- 
ity. The programmer can set the tieginning and 
end of each sequence, move the sequence, and 
control MIDI channel assignment and velocity, 
The track modification menu can be used to de- 
lete pitch wheel, mod wtieei, sustain pedal, or 
volume change. Sequences can be arranged 
into songs, and up to four songs can be ar- 
ranged in memory at one time. Additional fea- 
tures include time-base transfer, captive play- 
thru function, autocorrect. and velocity leveling. 
The 128 version has a command to record 
changes in MIDI volume data to convert the 
master keyboard's mod wheel into a MIDI vol- 
ume control. 



VDS Mirage 

Dr. T's fvlusic Software 
Ensoniq Mirage syntfiesizer 
$129 

An editing system for the Ensoniq Mirage syn- 
thesizer, this program can graphically display 
and edit waveforms, waveshaping synthesis, 
Fourier transforms, additive synthesis, and FM 
synthesis. 



Virtuoso 64 

Cfiipmunk 

$29.95 

Virtuoso W is a music editor to help the user 

create sound effects and background music. 

The tnterrupt-d riven music code can be added 

to BASIC or machine language programs. 




Publisher's Information 




Activision 


Firebird Licensees 


3885 I3ohannon Dr. 


c/o Activision 


Men to Park, CA 94025 


3885 Bohannon Dr. 




Menlo Park, CA 94025 


Blank Software 




1034 Natoma St 


Mindscape 


San Franrisco, CA 94103 


3444 Dundee Rd. 




Northbrook, IL 60062 


Chipmunk Software & Systems 




Box 463 


Passport Designs 


Battleground, WA 98604 


625 Miramontes St. 




Suite 103 


Dr. T's Music Software 


Half Moon Bay, CA 94019 


220 Boylston St. 




Suite 306 


Sonus 


Chestnut HUl MA 02167 


21430 Strathem St. 




Suite H 


Electronic Arts 


Canoga Park, CA 91304 


1820 Gateway Dr. 


San Mateo, CA 94404 


Spinnaker 




One Kendall Square 




Cambridge, MA 02139 




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CEOS 128 Solutions 



Helpful Hints 

David Iwanicki 

After purchasing the new GEOS 128 
package, I noticed that some of the 
functions do not work as stated in 
the manual. Here is a Hst of some of 
the problems I've had and the solu- 
tions I've discovered. 

Problem: You are using geoWrite 
or geo Paint on a two-drive system. 
The application, fonts, and accesso- 
ries are all on one disk, and you're 
creating the document on the other 
drive. If you pull-down the GEOS 
menu, you'll see the accessories, 
but when you try to open and use 
one, nothing happens. 

Solution: Place the application and 
the fonts and accessories you think 
you'll use on the disk with your 
documents. 

Problem: You have just purchased 
a new application (Wriicr's Work- 
shop, geoCalc 128, or another). You 
follow the instructions in the man- 
ual, but you get an error message 
stating: " Applicadon may not be in- 
stalled on this disk." 

Solution: This one happened to me 
with Writer's Workshop 128. After a 
lengthy discussion with Berkeley, 
we came up with this step- by -step 
solution. First, click on the file 
CONFIGURE 128 (it's on the 
BOOT disk). Next, click on Drive A: 
No dnvo. When the screen is re- 
drawn, click on Drive A: 1541. 
Choose QUIT from the File menu. 
Now install the application on 
Drive A. When you're finished, you 
can configure the drive back to its 
original setting. Note that GEOS can 
tell what types of drives are in- 
stalled, and, if no configuration has 
been saved, it will use each drive in 
its native configuration. 

Warning; GeoPaint 128 users 
should be aware that lines have a 
habit of remaining on the screen 
after pulling down a menu. This ef- 



fect almost always occurs when you 
have a TEXT window open or when 
you have selected a portion of the 
screen and it's still active. The TEXT 
cursor can become a part of the dis- 
play, but it won't be in the docu- 
ment. It remains undl you exit to 
the deskTop. The best way to avoid 
those unwanted lines is to make 
sure that the PENCIL is the active 
drawing device before you pull 
down Geos or File. 

Problem: You have dozens of fonts, 
but when you try to use them all in a 
document, only some are available. 

Solution: Only the first eight fonts 
on the disk are available for use in a 
document (not including the sys- 
tem fonts BSW and BSW 128.) To 
change the eight fonts available^ 
move them around on the deskTop. 

GEOS 128 and the 1581 

Dale McBane 

There are a variety of disk drives 
and RAM Expansion Units (REUs) 
available for the 64 and 128. GEOS 
and GEOS 128 both support the 
Commodore RAM expanders (the 
1 700, 1 750, and 1 764) and the 1541 
and 1571 disk drives. In addidon, 
GEOS 128 supports the 1581 drive. 

When an REU is used with 
GEOS OT GEOS 128, it can be config- 
ured for direct memory access 
(DMA) data transfer, for disk buff- 
ering, or for simulating a disk drive 
with a ramdisk. Using an REU as a 
ramdisk can cause some GEOS ap- 
plications to execute much faster 
than with a disk drive. The speed of 
a ramdisk makes using GEOS much 
easier, but data stored in a ramdisk 
isn't permanent. When the power is 
turned off, the contents of the ram- 
disk are gone. While real disk 
drives can't match the speed of a 
ramdisk, the data stored on them 
does survive powering down. 

Of the disk drives supported by 
GEOS 128, the 1541 is the oldest and 



the slowest. The 1541 is a single- 
sided drive with the storage capacity 
of 165K. Because it uses both sides of 
the disk, the 1571 can store more 
data on each disk than the 1541. The 
1571 has a storage capacity of 33 IK, 
just over double that of the 1541. The 
1571 not only stores more data per 
disk than the 1541, it also transfers 
that data to and from the computer 
more quickly. The 1571 supports two 
methods of fast transfer. 

The 1581 is fast. While it's not 
as fast as a ramdisk, it is slightly 
faster than the 1571. For most ap- 
plications, the speed difference be- 
tween the 1571 and the 1581 is 
unnoticcable. The 158rs best fea- 
ture is its huge capacity — it can 
store 790K of data on a single disk. 
That's nearly five times the capacity 
of a disk formatted on the 1541. 
With the 1581, you can keep all 
your applications, data, and refer- 
ence files on the same disk. For ex- 
ample, if you're using geo- 
Programmcr to work on a large 
project, you could keep geoWrite, 
geoPaint, the text manager, the 
photo manager, geoAssembler, 
geoLinker, geoDebugger, geosSym, 
geosMac, fonts, the deskTop, any 
desk accessories you might need, 
and your source files on the same 
disk. No more swapping! 

Right now, the GEOS 128 boot 
disk isn't available in SVi-inch for- 
mat, and Berkeley hasn't an- 
nounced that one will be made 
available. If Berkeley does put 
GEOS 128 on 3 V: -inch disks, a pow- 
erful development system could be 
built around it. Just imagine boot- 
ing GEOS 128 from a disk contain- 
ing every application you might 
want to use and having a ramdisk 
to store your data files on. If you 
play around with 128 CONFIGURE 
enough, you can approximate such 
a system, but it takes a while. The 
optimum GEOS environment is 
close at hand, and the REU and 
1581 are major contributors. O 

COMPUTEis Gazette August 1988 57 








That Won't Work 



Randy Thompson 
Contribultng Editor 

"The Programmer's Page" is in- 
terested in your programming tips 
and tricks. Send all submissions to 
The Programmer's Page, COM- 
PUTES's Gazette, P.O. Box 5406, 
Greensboro, NC 27403. We'll pay 
$25 -$50 for each tip ive publish. 

I like to do things with BASIC that 
most people think BASIC can't 
do — use commands for things they 
weren't designed to be used for. I 
get a certain pleasure from writing 
compact, efficient, and often cryptic 
code that people look at and say, 
"That won't work," but it does. 
Sometimes, this is the only way to 
get BASIC to do what you want. 

To see what i mean, take a 
close look at the following pro- 
gramming tricks for the 64, Each 
one makes use of BASIC'S too- 
often-ignored DEF FN statement. 
Don't refer to your BASIC manual 
to see what DEF FN is supposed to 
be used for, because it won't help. 
I'm going to show you how to use 
DEF FN for something entirely dif- 
ferent: to Btort? and execute ma- 
chine language routines. 

Name That Tune 

Here's the first routine. See if you 
can guess what it does. 

BD 10 POKE 784,ie8SPOKE 785,12 
2: POKE 7 6 6,0 

XR ZH DEF PH BP(X)=USR{162)+P0 
S(" tAj fUJlSHIFT-SPACEf ! 
lF8HA}TtF8J{D)T 
IBHIFT-SPACElXlE'SJlFJI 
lSHIFT-SPACE}{0}<5J{F8j 
lXlTtFlH2 U {F3iIJ < 
{Uitf-UFSHXlTLrE") 

HD 30 X=FN BP(0) 

If you answered beep, you're 
right. (As you can see, this isn't ex- 
actly phonetic programming.) This 
command is very similar in func- 
tion to the PRINT CHR$(7) state- 
ment on the 128, except here, an 
X=FN BP(0}— not a PRINT state- 
ment — causes the 51D chip to voice 

SB COMPUTE! s GazBtte August 198B 



its opinion. As long as lines 10 and 
20 have been executed, you can use 
this command to prompt, alert, or 
simply annoy the user. 

Be especially careful when en- 
tering the routines listed in this col- 
umn. A single mistyped character 
in one of the program's DEF FN 
statements can cause the computer 
to lock up when the program is run. 
Please note that there are no spaces 
between the USR function, plus 
sign, or POS statement in line 20. 

To ensure accurate typing, use 
"The Automatic Proofreader" pro- 
gram found elsewhere in this issue. 
It's also important that you read 
"How to Type In COMPUTERS Ga- 
zette Programs," also found in this 
issue, to see how to type in special 
characters. 

You can combine any or all of 
the routines provided in this article. 
The only limitadon is that you must 
execute the DEF FN commands at 
least once before they're used. (In 
the example above, line 20 must be 
executed before line 30.) For this 
reason, it's best to include the DEF 
FN statements at the beginning of a 
program. As with most BASIC com- 
mands, the line numbers may 
change, but not the code. 

You might notice that line 10 is 
the same in each of the following 
programming examples. As long as 
you don't enter NEW, you can avoid 
retyping this line. Just enter lines 
20-250 of each routine while the 
previous program is still in memory. 

Selective RESTORE 

Most versions of BASIC — including 
those found on the 128 and 
Plus/4— have a RESTORE com- 
mand that accepts a line number as 
an argument. Add this feature with 
the following code: 

BD 10 POKE 7e4,108:POKE 785,12 
2:P0KE 786,0 

RC 20 DEF FN RS (LN) =USR (LN ) +P0 
S (" [AjtUJ <TJt2 Sl}F< 

Ji-: 3fl X=FN RS (50): READ SS:PRIN 
T S$ 



HIJ 40 DATA FIRST 
XD 50 DATA SECOND 

As demonstrated in line 30, to 
RESTORE BASIC'S data pointer to 
a selected line number, use the 
command 

X-FN RSmne number) 

where line number is a number, 
variable, or even an expression, 
such as lOOO+I'lO, If you want, 
you can replace X with the variable 
of your choice. When the selective 
RESTORE command is executed, 
this variable is scrambled. 

Super POKE 

I'm sure you're familar with the 
BASIC loader — you know, a FOR- 
NEXT loop that READs in numbers 
from DATA statements and labori- 
ously POKEs them into memory. 
This next trick makes BASIC load- 
ers obsolete. 



BD 


10 


POKE 784,103; POKE 785,12 
Z:POKt; 786,0 


KR 


30 


DEF FN P[X)=USR[X>+POS [" 
fI>D<J}6[Fl] = -tJJ7{Fl}> 
{K}£ >£ lF}{DHXl +iCJ 
{PM,ClL-(R}-tY} (KJ-tYj • 
{(ijelAHFlHGHX) {2J£ 
Y-te}L{P)lCj")+D 


QR 


40 


POKE 53280, 0:POKE 53281, 
0:POKK 646,l!PRINT CfiRS( 
147) 


AD 


50 


V=53248:POKE 2040,11:POK 

E V+21, 1: POKE V,24:POKE 

ISPACE}V+1,53:P0KE V+39, 

7 

PRINT "(2 SPACES) . . . , 


XK 


60 






":P0 




KE 704, FN P(0) 


UK 


10« 


DATA 000,000,000,000,25 
5,000,003,255 


DJ 


lie 


DATA 192,015,255,240,03 
1,231,248,063 


HH 


12C 


DATA 227,252,127,255,24 
8,255,255,224 


MX 


13t 


DATA 255,255,128,255,25 
4,000,255,248 


AS 


14 C 


DATA 000,255,248,000,25 
5,254,000,127 


KS 


ise 


DATA 255,128,063,255,22 
4,031,255,248 


JE 


166 


DATA 015,255,240,003,25 
5,192,000,255 


BD 


176 


DATA 000,000,000,000,00 
0,000,000,-1 



When run, this brief program 
quickly and efficently takes a sprite 



definition stored in DATA state- 
ments, POKEs it into memory, and 
displays the results — all without 
using FOR, NEXT, or READ. 

The syntax for this super POKE 
is 

POKE address, FN P(0) 

where sddress is the starting address 
for the data to be stored. A ~ 1 must 
be used to signify the end of data. 
Otherwise you'll get an ?OUT OF 
DATA ERROR. So, the statement 
POKE 49152, FN P(0); DATA 1, 2, 3, 4, -1 
is equivalent to 

FOR 1=49152 to 49155; READ D;POKE 
I,D: NEXT I: DATA I, 2. 3, 4 

When used to store 1K-3K 
worth of data, the first method is 
not only shorter, it's almost three 
times as fast. 

Note: This routine POKEs a 
zero directly after the last piece of 
data stored in memory. This is im- 
portant to know if you plan on stor- 
ing data directly below a machine 
language routine. Also, after the 
routine is executed, the numeric 
variable D is set equal to the last 
piece of data read. Keep this in mind 
if you use D in your own programs. 

This routine makes a perfect 
complement to the selective RE- 
STORE program above. Together, 
they make a powerful team, To il- 
lustrate their combined use, type in 
and run the following program. 

BD 10 POKE 784,10e:POKE 785,12 

2: POKE 786,0 
BC 20 DEF FN RS (LN) =USR (LN) +P0 

S!" tAjfUJ <TJ<2 £>F-< 

KR 30 DEF FN P (X ) =-USIMX ) +POS [ " 
{IJD<J}6{FlJ=<JJ7{Fli> 
lK]£ >£ [FifDJIXj +fCl 
(PUCjL-fRJ-tYJ (KJfYJ ' 
<UJ£{AHFl}[G]{Xi f2JE 
Y<£)-L{P]tCi")+D 

QR 40 POKE 53280, 0:POKE 53281, 
0:POKE 646,L:PRINT CHRS ( 
147> 

AB 50 V=53Z48;POKE 2040,11: POK 
E V+21,1:P0KE V,24:POKE 
(SPACE}V+l,53:POKE V+39, 
7 

XK 60 PRINT "{2 SPACES}. . . . 

":P0 

KE 704, FN P(0) 

CF 70 FOR 1=24 TO 255 STEP G 

MF 80 X=FN RS(100+10*(I AND 8) 
) :POKE 70 4, FN P(0) : POKE 
ISPACEiV, l! POKE 1061+1/8 
,32 

HM 90 NEXT 

HK 100 DATA 000,000,000,000,25 
5,000,003,255 

DJ 110 DATA 192,015,255,240,03 
1,231,248,063 

HH 120 DATA 227,252,127,255,24 
8,255,255,224 

MX 130 DATA 255,255,128,255,25 



4,000,255,248 
AS 14B DATA 000,255,248,000,25 

5,254,000,127 
KS 150 DATA 255,128,063,255,22 

4,031,255,248 
JE 160 DATA 015,255,240,003,25 

5,192,000,255 
BD 170 DATA 000,000,000,000,00 

0,000,000,-1 
HX 180 DATA 000,000,000,000,25 

5,000,003,255 

DS 190 DATA 192,015,255,240,03 

1,231,243,063 
PS 200 DATA 227,252,127,255,25 

4,255,255,255 
XM 210 DATA 255,255,255,255,25 

5 255 255 249 
MR 220 DATA 000,255,255,255,2 5 

5,255,255,127 
JE 230 DATA 2 55,254,063,255,25 

2,031,255,248 
EP 240 DATA 015,255,240,003,25 

5, 192,000,255 
QH 250 DATA 000,000,000,000,00 

0,000,000,-1 

This animated program moves a 
hungry character across the screen. 

How (and Why) They Work 

Normally, DEF FN is used to DE- 
Fine mathematfcal Fu Net ions 
which are calculated whenever the 
function name is used in an equa- 
tion. {Function names are always 
preceded by the letters FN.) In the 
programs above, however, DEF FN 
is used to store and execute ma- 
chine language subroutines, hi or- 
der to make this work, another 
sorely neglected BASIC command 
is put to use: the USR function. 

Like SYS, USR executes ma- 
chine language subroutines. Notice 
that each of the DEF FN functions 
begins with a USR command. Ev- 
ery time one of these functions is 
used, USR is put into action. 

Normally, memory locations 
785 and 786 hold the address of the 
machine language routine that USR 
executes. It's the responsibility of 
the programmer to set these loca- 
tions. And again, normally, memory 
location 784 contains the 6502 in- 
struction, JMP, So whenever a USR 
command is encountered, the com- 
puter jumps to location 784, from 
there jumping to the address con- 
tained in locations 785 and 786. 

To make these DEF FN rou- 
tines work, the first thing I had to 
do was exceed the norm. Line 10 re- 
moves the JMP command normally 
found at location 784 and replaces 
it with an indirect JMP. Now, in- 
stead of jumping to the address 
contained in 785 and 786, the com- 
puter jumps to the address pointed 
to by the address contained in 785 



and 786. (Don't worry if you don't 
understand any of this. You can still 
use the programs without knowing 
how they work.) 

In every routine listed above, 
USR jumps to the address pointed 
to by locations 122 and 123 ($7A 
and $7B), otherwise known as BA- 
SIC'S text pointer (TXTPTR). These 
two locations point to the current 
character in the current BASIC line. 
In our case, when the USR function 
is executed by BASIC, TXTPTR 
points to the plus sign { + ) that fol- 
lows the USR statement. 

Now it just so happens that the 
plus sign, the POS function, the 
open parenthesis, and the quotation 
mark that follow the USR statement 
make up a series of harmless and 
completely legal 6502 machine lan- 
guage instructions. This is good, 
because when the computer's 
microprocessor finishes with those 
instructions, it reaches the important 
stuff: the strange characters stored 
between quotation marks. 

These characters were not cho- 
sen randomly; they were carefully 
selected machine language instruc- 
tions. If you own a machine lan- 
guage monitor, you can disassemble 
these strings and see exactly what's 
going on, !n most cases, the machine 
code begins at 2105 ($0839), It's 
these ML routines that accomplish 
the actual beeping and POKEing, 

Ifs Your Turn 

Now, I know I'm not the only one 
with a few tricks up my sleeve. So if 
you have a unique use for a neglect- 
ed BASIC command, know of a great 
way to outdo DOS, or have just writ- 
ten a powerful hack that you've been 
dying to confess to, send it to "The 
Programmer's Page," c/o COM- 
PUTE'S Gazette, if we can use it, well 
mention it here and — here's the 
good part — pay you for it. Depend- 
ing on the quality and originality of 
the work, we pay $25 -$50 for each 
published submission. 

Since this is the first install- 
ment of "The Programmer's Page," 
I'm very interested in your com- 
ments. What type of programming 
tips are you most interested in? Do 
you want more tricks and less ex- 
planation, or the other way around? 
I'm open for suggestions, questions, 
or comments. Remember: You're 
the programmer, and this is your 
column. Q 

COMPUTErs QaMtte August 1988 59 



RAM Expander 64 



Peter M. L. Lottrup 



By adding four new commands to BASIC 2,0 — including 
STASH and FETCH— this short utilitii makes accessing RAM 
expansion tnemory a breeze. For the 64 with 1764 RAM expan- 
sion module, or the 128 with 1700 or 1750 module. 



When the Cominodore 64 was intro- 
duced, 64K of RAM was considered a 
groat deal of memory. Times change. 
To satisfy the ever- increasing de- 
mand for RAM, Commodore re- 
leased three expansion modules. 
"Rann Expander 64" adds com- 
mands to BASIC to make it easy to 
access memory in these expanders. 
The RAM expansion modules 
for the 64 (the 1764) and 128 (the 
1700 and 1750) all are driven by a 
chip known as the RAM Expansion 
Controller (REC). This chip is capa- 
ble of performing four data opera- 
tions between main memory and 
expansion memory: storage, re- 
trieval, exchange, and comparison. 
BASIC 7.0 on the Commodore 128 
features built-in commands — 
STASH, FETCH, and SWAP— that 
handle the first three operations. 
"RAM Expander 64" adds identical 
commands to the 64's BASIC 2.0, as 
well as a fourth command (COM- 
PARE). With this program in place, 
you can access any of the expansion 
modules on a 64 or from within 64 
mode on the 128. 

60 COMPUTE'S Gazette August 1998 



Installation 

RAM Expander 64 is a fully relocat- 
able machine language (ML) rou- 
tine in the form of a BASIC loader. 
Only 209 bytes in length, this rou- 
tine is stored in DATA statements 
and POKEd into memory by the 
BASIC program. Type in the loader 
and save a copy to disk or tape. To 
ensure accurate entry, use the 
"Automatic Proofreader" program 
found elsewhere in this issue. 

When you run the program, 
you're asked to choose the memory 
location where the ML program 
will be placed. Enter an address 
that won't conflict with any other 
programs in memory, if you press 
RETURN without specifying an ad- 
dress, RAM Expander 64 is placed 
at location 49152 (SCOOO). After the 
routine is POKEd into memory, the 
program SYSos to the start address 
to activate the new commands. 

Pressing RUN/STOP-RE- 
STORE has no effect on RAM Ex- 
pander 64. Also, if you're in 64 
mode on a 128 and accidentally re- 
set the computer, you haven't lost 



the program. Just reenter 64 mode 
(by typing G064 or by holding 
down the Commodore key while 
pressing the reset switch) and SYS 
to the starting address to reinstall 
the program. In this case, the con- 
tents of the memory expansion 
module should also remain intact. 

Using the Program 

RAM Expander 64 adds four new 
commands to BASIC 2,0: STASH, 
FETCH, SWAP, and COMPARE. 
The first three commands work like 
their counterparts on the 128. The 
fourth command (COMPARE) is 
similar to the VERIFY command for 
disk. It compares the contents of a 
section of the computer's memory 
and a section of the expansion mem- 
ory, reporting a VEKIFY ERROR if 
the data differs. 

To be interpreted properly by 
BASIC, expansion commands must 
be preceded by an exclamation 
point and followed by four parame- 
ters. Each command takes the fol- 
lowing form: 

iCOMMAND ii,h,c,d 

where a is the number of bytes to 
transfer or verify, b is the base ad- 
dress of the memory block on the 
64 (0-65535), c is the base address 
of the expansion memory (0-65535), 



and d is the expander bank number 
(0-1 on the 1700, 0-3 on the 1764, 
and 0-7 on the 1750). 

For example, suppose you 
wanted to use the expansion RAM 
for program storage — much like a 
ramdisk. Assume that a 20(K)-byte 
ML program you need to save is lo- 
cated at 49152. To transfer it to lo- 
cation of bank 1 in the expansion 
RAM module, you'd enter 

iSTASH 2000,49152,0,1 

To later retrieve the program, type 

!FETCH 2000,49152,0,1 

You can also use RAM Expan- 
der 64 's commands from program 
mode. For instance, let's say you 
wanted to exchange the current text 
screen with a screen display previ- 
ously stashed in bank 0, location 0. 
To repeat the switch ten times, run 



the following one-line program: 

10 FORt= 1 TO 10:!SVVA PI 000,1024,0,0: 
FORJ= ]TO500:NEXTJ,I 

COMPARE is just as easy to 
use. Suppose you wanted to com- 
pare an ML program at location 
51000 with one you stored in bank 
1, location 5000. Assuming both 
programs are 1500 bytes long, 
you'd enter 
iCOMPARE 1500,51000,5000,1 

If the two programs differ, a VERIl^ 
ERROR appears. 

How It Works 

When enabled, RAM Expander 64 
redirects BASIC'S GONE routine^ 
which executes the next BASIC 
statement — to point to itself. 
Whenever you enter a line of code, 



the program first checks for an ex- 
clamation point. If one is found, it 
then compares the command which 
follows with each of its own — 
either STASH, FETCH, SWAP, or 
COMPARE. If the command 
matches one of the four RAM Ex- 
pander commands, the program 
uses the four parameters that fol- 
low to set up the appropriate REC 
registers, which are memory- 
mapped at location 57088 ($DFOO). 
Prior to executing the actual ex- 
pander operation, RAM under 
BASIC ROM is switched in, (The 
program requires that Kemal ROM 
remain visible.) Once the expander 
operation has taken place, BASIC 
ROM is switched back hi and BASIC 
continues its normal execution. 

Sec program listing on page 69. fS 




128 Shell Booter 



David F. Ockrassa 

If you've had trouble copying the 
1571 DOS Shell to a double-sided 
disk, you're in luck— "128 Shell 
Booter" does the work for you. 

The DOS Shell is a program found 
on the 1571 Test/ Demo disk, which 
comes with every Commodore 1571 
disk drive. The Shell is designed to 
make it easy for the user to format 
disks, copy files, and perform other 
disk-oriented tasks. Unfortunately, 
it's very difficult to move DOS Shell 
to another disk, especially to a 
double-sided work disk. "Shell 
Booter" makes the chore easy. 

Using the Program 

In 128 mode, type in and save Shell 
Booter. To ensure accurate entry, 
use "The Automatic Proofreader," 
located elsewhere in this issue. Do 
not save the program with the name 
SHELL. BOOTER— the BASIC pro- 
gram will attempt to save a file with 
that name. If you mistakenly enter 
the program in 64 mode, line 30 



will not be properly tokenized. In 
this case, go to 128 mode, load the 
program, list line 30, place the cur- 
sor on the line, and press RETURN, 
The line will now be properly 
tokenized. Save the program to disk. 

Reboot your computer with the 
1571 Test/ Demo disk. Now press 
Fl to enter the DOS Shell. Use the 
COPY file option to copy DOS Shell 
to any disk. Now, use the COPY file 
option to copy Shell Booter to the 
same disk. Exit DOS Shell. 

Load Shell Booter from the 
new disk and type RUN, The pro- 
gram creates a machine language 
program called SHELL. BOOTER. 

Now, whenever you'd like to 
use DOS Shell, just 'type BOOT 
"SHELL.BOOTER". 

How It Works 

The reason DOS Shell is so difficuU 
to transfer is that it requires the 
Bank 12 configuration of the 128, It 
also resides in the BASIC work- 
space. The necessary setup is per- 
formed by the boot sector, w^hich is 
read automatically when you turn 



on your 128, 

Since it is not a file, the boot 
sector is difficult to copy. You could 
use a sector copier to copy the 
whole disk, but then you would 
end up with a single-sided disk. 

The Shell Booter machine lan- 
guage program fills in for the boot 
sector, loading the program, 
switching in the correct bank, and 
altering certain pointers. 
Sec program listing on page 78. ffil 



COMPUTEI's Gazette is looking for 
utilities, games, applications, 
educational programs, and tutorial 
articles. If you've created a pro- 
gram that you think other readers 
riitght enjoy or find usetLiI, send it, 
on tape or disk, to: Submissions 
RevicMvr, COMPUTE! Publications, 
P,0, Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 
27403. I'lease enclose an SASI: if 
you wish to have the materials 
relumed. Articles are reviewed 
within four weeks of submission. 



COMPUTErs GaMte August 1988 61 



hm 




Modifications and Corrections 



• "Ramdisk 64" (June 1988) will 
not load files from the ramdisk cor- 
rectly. The program listing printed 
in the magazine is missing 256 
bytes, which contain the LOAD 
routine. (The disk version is cor- 
rect.) To fix the problem, type in the 
machine language listing below 
using "MLX," the machine lan- 
guage entry program found else- 
where in this issue. When MLX 
prompts you for the starting and 
ending addresses, reply with the 
following values: 

starting address: 0A4E 
Ending address: 0B4D 

After you've saved a copy of 
the correction, turn off your 64 and 
turn it back on. Next, load the de- 
fective copy of Ramdisk 64 {LOAD 
"filename", 8 for disk or L0AD"/i7e- 
tianic",! for tape), Then load the 
correction {lOAD"filenamc" ,8,1 for 
disk or LOAD" filename",!, I for 
tape). Now, save the corrected copy 
of Ramdisk as you would any 
BASIC program. Be sure to use a 
new filename when you save. 



0A4E: 


40 


SB 


AO 


00 


Bl 


BB 


C9 


2A 


93 


0A56: 


F0 


12 


C8 


C8 


Dl 


06 


F0 


07 


9C 


BASE: 


A5 


0A 


A4 


0B 


4C 


3n 


0A 


38 


Fa 


0A66: 


C4 


B7 


D0 


E8 


A5 


06 


48 


AS 


EE 


0A6R: 


07 


48 


Bl 


06 


F0 


3 


C8 


D0 


A4 


0A76: 


F3 


C8 


18 


98 


GS 


06 


85 


0A 


9B 


0A7E 


A 5 


07 


69 


00 


35 


0f! 


Afl 


00 


ED 


0A86: 


38 


Bl 


06 


F9 


0A 


00 


99 


02 


09 


BABE- 


00 


ca 


Cfl 


02 


90 


F3 


A5 


0A 


B6 


0A96 


A4 


3B 


85 


06 


84 


07 


AS 


2a 


87 


0A9E 


A4 


2C 


85 


08 


84 


09 


20 


7A 


44 


0AA6 


09 


Z0 


45 


09 


A 5 


08 


85 


2D 


06 


OAAE 


85 


2F 


85 


31 


A 5 


09 


85 


2E 


9F 


BABG 


85 


30 


85 


32 


20 


74 


09 


68 


BA 


BABE 


85 


09 


80 


30 


09 


68 


85 


08 


89 


0AC6 


Sd 


2F 


09 


A0 


01 


Bl 


08 


99 


11 


0ACE 


06 


00 


83 


10 


F8 


A0 


01 


Bl 


F5 


BADS 


36 


D0 


18 


91 


38 


88 


10 


FB 


BC 


BADE 


:A0 


01 


B9 


08 


00 


99 


04 


00 


A9 


0AE6 


38 


10 


F7 


20 


7A 


09 


4C 


3A 


0F 


0AEE 


0B 


Bl 


06 


99 


0A 


00 


88 


10 


C0 


0AF6 


FS 


38 


A5 


0A 


E5 


06 


85 


02 


3F 


0AFE 


:A5 


0B 


E5 


07 


85 


03 


A 5 


0B 


64 


aBB6 


•C9 


E0 


90 


00 


AS 


07 


C9 


E0 


D9 


0B0E 


:B0 


07 


38 


A5 


03 


E9 


10 


85 


05 


0016 


03 


20 


7A 


09 


20 


45 


09 


20 


DD 


0B1E 


:74 


09 


AD 


2F 


09 


85 


OA 


AD 


79 


0B26 


39 


09 


85 


0B 


A0 


01 


B9 


08 


7C 


0B2E 


:a9 


91 


0A 


99 


2F 


09 


8S 


10 


42 


01)36 


:F5 


4C 


D3 


0A 


20 


31 


09 


4C 


99 


0B3E 


!74 


A 4 


20 


7A 


9 


20 


31 


09 


97 


0B46 


!A2 


04 


4C 


4h 


08 


00 


00 


00 


2D 



• Line 30 of "Key Clicker" (April 
1988) was listed incorrectly. The 64 
version never executes line 30, so it 
may he deleted from that version. 
Below is a replacement line for the 
128 version. 

QP 30 BANK15:A=2816:V=828:T=6a 
:Z-6473:C=2 

• Versions of "128 MLX" printed 
before the version in this issue re- 
turn to BASIC with a FILENAME 
TOO LONG ERROR if the user 
enters a filename longer than 14 
characters when saving. Add the fol- 
lowing line to correct the problem. 

PF 665 IF LEN [F$)>14THEN660 

128 MLX has been corrected in 
this issue and on the August Disk. 

• As we reported last month, there is 
a problem with the print routine in 
"Speed 1-ile" (April 1988). The pro- 
gram doesn't print because an incor- 
rect secondary address is used when 
opening the file to the printer. There 
is also a problem uith some charac- 
ters being invisible on older 64s. The 
characters don't appear on the 
screen because the clear screen rou- 
tine in an older version of the ROMs 
doesn't set color memory correctly. 
The following patch program cor- 
rects both of these problems. 

SP 10 T=828:X=0 

CD 20 READ A: IF A<0 THEN40 

QB 30 .X=X+A:P0KE T, A:T=T + 1 : GOT 

020 
KD 40 IF X019631 THEN?HINT"ER 

ROH IN DATA": STOP 
KS 50 FS="SPEEDFILE":REM IF YO 

iJ USED A DIFFERENT «AME, 
SUBSTITUTE IT HERE 
HG 60 T=LEN(FS) :POKE 972, T 
UA 70 FOR 1=1 TO T 
DM 80 POKE 972+1, ASC(MID$ (F5, [ 

,1-)) 
QC 90 NEXT: POKE7669, 169: POKE76 

70,0:POKE7671,168: P0KE76 

72, 32:POKE7673, 139 
KB 100 POKE7674,255:POKE7675, 1 

69:POKE7676,4:SYSa28 
AA 110 DATA169, 1,162,8,160 
XB 120 DATA0,32,186,255,173 
MS 130 DATAZ04, 3,162,205,160 
AQ 140 DATA3,32,ie9,Z55,169 
JP 150 DATA0,166,43,164,44 



CP 160 

[IQ 170 

MP 180 

JH 190 



XQ 

EE 



200 
210 



CP 220 
BG 230 
RH 240 
AD 250 
JP 260 
GA 27 
HA 280 
FA 2 90 



BS 
FQ 



300 

310 



MG 320 

CS 330 

CS 340 

BE 350 

KC 360 

HS 370 

XG 380 

AF 390 



DATA 32, 
DATA132 
DATA169 
DATPil,! 
DATA 13 3 
DATA2 51 
DATA19, 
DATA252 
DATA 252 
DATA2 0e 
DATA 232 
DATA 162 
DATA2S3 
DATA7 6, 
DATA240 
DATA 2 , 2 
DATA 3,1 
DATA3,3 
DATA0,1 
DATA 153 
DATA218 
DATA 20 8 
DATA204 
DATA255 



213,2 
,46,3 

33,25 

,253 

,221, 

200,21 

,24,1 

,]-33, 

,233, 

,224, 

,3,16 

,1.69, 

116,3 

,6,20 

08,35 

52,72 

2,210 

68,15 

,0,21 

,153, 

,241, 

,3,96 

,32,2 



55,13 
2,51, 
3,252 
1,169 
170,1 
201,3 
08,24 
05,1, 
254,2 
76,13 
3,208 
9,153 
3,145 
,201, 
1,19, 
,141, 
,173, 
,255, 
3,0,2 
7,153 
232,2 
104,1 
,76,2 
10,25 



4,45 

165 

,169 

.0 

68,177 

,240 

6,165 

133 

01,35 

,8 

,232 

,145 

, 251 

147 

240 

204 

204 

169 

16 

,0 

18,136 

68,173 

10 

5,-1 



To use the patch program, sim- 
ply load it and type RUN. It will 
load Speed File (using the filename 
SPEEDFILE), make the corrections, 
and then run the program. Because 
Speed File stores its data immedi- 
ately following the program, the 
patch program and Speed File can't 
easily be merged into one file. Each 
time you use Speed File, load and 
run the patch program, and Speed 
File will automatically load and run 
correctly. ® 



Moving? 

For address 
changes or 
subscription 
information, 
caii toii free 
1-800-727-6937 



62 COMPUTErs Gazslle August 1988 



User Group Update 



Mickey McLean 



The following list includes updated entries to our annual "Guide to 
Comniodore User Groups," which last appeared in the May and June 
1988 issues. 

When writing to a user group for information, please remember to 
enclose a self-addressed envelope with postage that is appropriate for 
the country to which you're writing. 

Send typed additions, corrections^ and deletions for this list to; 

COMPUTE! Publications 
P.O. Box 5406 
Greensboro, NC 27403 
Attn: Commodore User Groups 

User Group Notes 

A Bakersfield Area Commodore Users Society (ABACUS) has a new 

mailing address. All correspondence should now be sent to P.O. Box 
40334, Bakersfield, California 93306. ABACUS also has a bulletin board 
service. The telephone number is {805} 832-7186. 

The Triple Cities Commodore Society has changed its mailing 
address to P.O. Box 476, Binghamton, Now York 13902. 

The Howard S. Bacon, KC4CIQ user group in South Pittsburg, Tennes- 
see, has a bulletin board number that is in operation from 9 p.m. 
Friday to 6 a.m. Monday. The telephone number is (615) 837-8352. 

The third annual Chicagoland Commodore Computerfest is being pre- 
sented by the Fox Valley 64 Users Group on August 28 at the Exposi- 
tion Center on the Kane County Fairgrounds in St, Charles, Illinois. 
The show will feature national speakers, venders, and products for the 
Commodore 64, 128, and Amiga. For more information write to 
Computerfest, P.O. Box 28, North Aurora, Illinois 60542. 



New Listings 



ARIZONA 



Phoenix Arizona Coiiiniinlcirc Club (PACC), 
P.O. Box 34905, rhut'iiix, AZ ti5057 



CAl.rFORNIA 



Pi52dena Commodorv Computer Club, P.O. Box 

1163, Arcadia, C.i| 91006 

AsSDCialion for Sharing Commodore Infor- 
mation (ASCI), 8395 Ninth St., Kancho Cuca- 
monga, CA 91?30 

Victor Valley Commodore Interest Association 
(VVCIA), r.O. iioN 3B,'5, ViiHtrville, CA 92392 

EU Brigade Swipe Swap, I'O. Box 173, Red Bluff, 
CA 96080 



COI.ORADO 



Western Slope CommodoTe User's Grou|i, P.O. 
Box 4142. Grand Junction, CO 81502 



COXN'ECTICU i 



The New London County Commodore User's 
Group (NLCCUG), P.O. Ikix 697, Groton, CT 
06340 



Quest ers of America, 10 Pink Cloud Ln,, Wesion, 
CT B68B3-2702 



nilAWARE 



The Commodore U.S.A. Club, Rt. 2, Dox 329, 
Delmar, DU. 19940 



FLORIDA 



Commodore Connection Computer Club, Inc., 

P.O. BoK 6684, West Palm Beach, FT. 3340S 
Mana Sola Commodore Users Croup (MSCUG), 

915 E. 35th Dr.. Bradenlon. Fl. 34208 
Ram Rom 84 Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box 

3880, Venice, HI. 34293 
Suncoast Commodore Club, P.O. Box 662E, 

Ozona, n. 34650-6628 



II.IINOIS 



Fox Valley 64 Users Group, P.O. Box 28, North 

Aurora, U. 60542 
Commodore 64/128 Computer Pen Pal Clubl, 

P.O. Box 192. Georgetovm, IL 61846 



INDIANA 



Rochester Commodore Computer Club, 428 Clay 
St.. Rochester, IN 46975 



Quad Cities Commodore Computer Club, P.O. 
Box 3994, Davenport, lA 52808 



KANSAS 



High Plains Commodore Users Croup, 1307 
Western Plains, Hays, KS 67601 



KENrUCKY 



Louisville Users of Commodore of Kentucky 
(L.U.CK.Y., Inc.!, P.O. Box 19032. Louisville, 
KY 40219-0032 

Muhlenberg County Commodore Users Group 

(M.r.C-.L-,(,.l. I'D. [5ox IZ.Crccnv::!,- K-i 4:345 

i I I II iiiiiiiBBI^^i^^Mi 

Sixty Four'Um Commodore U^fr'v Croup, P.O^ 
BoK 6481. Meiairie. LA 70009-6481 



MASSACHUSETTS 



USA SX-64 Users Group, 10 Com wall St., Boston. 
MA 02130 



MISSOURI 



McDonnell Douglas Commodore Users Croup, 
c/o Bruce Darrough, 28 Redwood, Horissant, 
MO 63031 

Columbia Commodore User (CCUl, P.O. Box 
7633, Columbia, MO 65205 



NEBRASKA 



McCook Commodore Users Group, 1010 East 
2nd St., McCook, NE 69001 



NEW YORK 



'.O, 



Commodore User Croup of Westchester, 

Box 1280, White Plains, NY 10602 
CatsklU Commodore Users Croup, Box 160 RED, 

VVoodboume. NY 12788 



TEXAS 



Saturday Morning Users Group (S.M.U.C), P.O. 

Box 721357, Corpus Christi. IX 78472-1357 
Amistad Commodore Users Croup, P.O. Sox 

421212, De! Rio, TX 7B842 
El Paso Commodore User Group, P.O. Box 

370934, El Paso, TX 79904 



VIRGINIA 



CURVE, P.O. Box 28284, Richmond, VA 23228 
(BBSM 804-2S8-1439) 



WASHINGTON 



Tacoma Area Commodore Users' Group 
(TACUGI, P.O. Box 9191, Tacoma, WA 98409 
(BBSa 206-475-80B4) 



WISCONSIN 



Milwaukee Area Commodore Enthusiasts 
(M.A.C.E.), P.O. Box 26216, Milwaukee, VVl 
53226 

Yorkiesoft Inc., 100 Arrowhead Dr., Green Bay, 
Wl 54,101 



Outside the U.S. 



tamam 

Beaver Valley Commodore Club, Box 49S, 
Montrose, British Columbia, Canada VOG IPO 

Saskatoon Commodore Users Croup, P.O. Box 
7831, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7K 
4R5 • 

COMPUTE! s Gaietle August 198B 63 



Zoom 



Robert Bixby 



You never had this much co)ifyol over details in your hi-res 
screens. "Zoom" magnifies any specified area by a factor of 64 
and then mal<es pixel editing easy. Versions for both the Com- 
modore 64 and 128 arc included. Joystick retjuired. 



Perfecting a hi-res screen takes 
quite a bit of work. Proportions 
need to be just right. Shading has to 
be appropriate. Details must be ren- 
dered accurately. In the process of 
turning an acceptable picture into a 
masterpiece, a zoom mode is essen- 
tial. "Zoom" adds such a mode. 
With Zoom, you can magnify any 
area of the screen by a factor of 64. 

With Zoom in your toolkit, 
graphics creation becomes much 
more flexible. You can start a pic- 
ture with a paint program that lacks 
a zoom function, then move over to 
Zoom to add details and shading. 
You can even design and program 
your own paint program around 
Zoom. The program works with 
most hi-res screens, but color is not 
supported. 

Or, if you don't own a paint 
program, vou can use Zoom to 
modify pictures that you download 
from bulletin boards. 

Typing It In 

There are two versions of Zoom, 
one for the 64 and one for the 128. 
Both programs are written in ma- 
chine language. Using the appro- 
priate version of "MLX" for your 
computer, type in the data for 
Zoom. If you're typing in the 64 
version, respond with the values in- 
dicated when MLX asks for the 
starting and ending addresses. 

Starting address: COOO 
Ending address: C56F 

After you've typed in all the data for 

Zoom, bo sure to save a copy to disk. 

If you're typing in the 128 ver- 

64 COMPUTE! 's GazeUe August 1988 



sion, respond with the values listed 
below. 

Starting address: 1300 
Ending address; 175F 

Save a copy before exiting MLX. 

The Big Picture 

To use Zoom, load the program 
with a statement of the form LOAD 
"ZOOM", 8,1. Then type SYS 
49152 to start Zoom. On the 128, 
type BLOAD"ZOOM" and then 
SYS 4864. 

When Zoom starts, you'll see 
the hi-res screen located at memory 
location 8192. You can draw on the 
screen by holding down the fire 
button and moving the pixel cursor 
with the joystick. 

When you're ready to go to 
zoom mode, move the pixel cursor 
to the area of the screen that you 
u^ould like to magnify and press Z. 
The region surrounding the cursor 
is magnified. The cursor now ap- 
pears as a cross character. Move the 
cursor with the joystick. To place a 
dot at the position of the cursor, 
press the period key. To remove a 
pixel, press the comma kev. 

To see the entire screen again, 
press RETURN. You can now move 
the cursor to another position on 
the screen that you wish to magnify. 

The 64 version of Zoom in- 
cludes two file commands. Press L 
to load a screen. You'll be prompted 
for a filename. To save a picture, 
press the S key. Then enter the file- 
name with which you wish to save 
the picture. 

Because BASIC 7.0 has BLOAD 



ji in 




W/r//(' "Zoom" aliows you to draw frrc- 
hand iu hi-ws, it really shines in lic- 
lailed louch-up for i/iitir art. 




j»Mf*MMniii\Mnm 



With a single keystroke, "Zoom" tirops 
into magnify mode, giinng you complete 
coiilroi over eiury pixel. 

and B5AVE commands, the save 
and load commands are not imple- 
mented in the 1 28 version of Zoom. 
To load a screen and clear hi-res 
color memory (do this from BASIC, 
before typing SYS 4864), enter a 
statement of the form: 

GRAPHIC l,l:RLOAD"filemime",?Sl92: 
GRAI'HIC 

Now perform the SYS command to 
go to Zoom. 

To exit Zoom and return to 
BASIC, press Q on the 64 or ESC on 
the 128. You'll be in hi-res mode. 
On the 64, carefully type SYS 
49156 {you won't be able to see 
what you're typing) to return to the 
text screen. On the 128, type 
GRAPHIC 0,1, 

If you're using the 128 version 
of Zoom, you can now save your 
screen with the BSAVE command. 
Type the following; 
BSAVE"/i;f»(ij»i>",PS192 TO P16384 

In either version of the pro- 
gram, you are free to move back 
and forth from BASIC to Zoom as 
many times as you like. 

Note that both versions of 
Zoom assume that pictures loaded 
into the program will consist only 
of hi-res pixel data. 
See prognitii f/s//n,s'.'5 on pat^e 74. W 



3-D Sprites 



Hubert Cross 



Design and animate high-resolution sprites on your Commo- 
dore 64 with "3-D Sprites." Since the program adds new 
BASIC comma7ids, even beginning programmers can get excel- 
lent results. 



Turn on your television and you'll 
see a deluge of computer graphics. 
Perhaps it's a local station's news 
logo, a baseball that flies up impos- 
sibly close to the television camera 
before dissolving, or an automobile 
that magically assembles itself from 
its component parts. 

The systems that create these 
graphics cost hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars. Your Commodore 
64 can't match these effects, but 
you may be surprised to find out 
just what it can do with "3-D 
Sprites," a powerful animation 
package that features a CAD-like 
object designer. Spinning space- 
ships, flying paper airplanes, and 
walking robots are but a few of the 
possible objects you can design. 

Typing It In 

3-D Sprites consists of two pro- 
grams — a 5000-byte machine lan- 
guage program and a short BASIC 
program. The BASIC program is 
used to create data tables and code 
for the super-fast screen-copying 
subroutines that are an integral part 
of 3-D Sprites, 

Using "MLX," the machine 
language entry program listed else- 
where in this issue, type in and save 
a copy of Program 1, the machine 
language portion of 3-D Sprites. 
When MLX prompts you for the 
starting and ending addresses of 3- 
D Sprites, enter the following values: 

Starting adclri.>!<!>: 4000 
Ending address: S3EF 

Next, type in Program 2, the 
BASIC portion of 3-D Sprites. Since 
this program creates machine lan- 
guage code, it must be typed in ac- 
curately. Use "The Automatic 



Proofreader" when entering it. Be 
sure to save a copy of the program to 
tape or disk when you've finished. 
To start the program, load Pro- 
gram 1 with a statement of the form 
L0AD"/i/eMame",8,l (for disk) or 
lOAD"f!lename",l,l (for tape). Be 
sure to use the filename that you 
used to save the program. Next, 
type NEW and then load and run 
the BASIC part of the program. Ac- 
tivate 3-D Sprites by typing SYS 
16384. You now have 14 new 
BASIC commands available for de- 
signing and animating 3-D objects. 

Designing Sprites 

The objects in 3-D Sprites have no 
relationship to the 64 's hardware 
sprites. Instead, they are high- 
speed, 3-D wire-frame software 
sprites, It's convenient to think of 
them as sprites, but don't confuse 
them with the 64's built-in sprites. 

The first command that you 
should try is DESIGN. This com- 
mand is a full-featured object de- 
signer. To enter DESIGN mode, 
you must provide the number of 
the object you want to create. The 
range is 1-255. Objects can be de- 
signed in any order; you can DE- 
SIGN object 147 even if you have 
not yet created objects 1-146 yet. 

For now, type DESIGN 1. A 3- 
D Cartesian coordinate system 
(with axes that indicate the x, y, and 
2 dimensions) appears with a blink- 
ing pixel-sized cursor in the center 
position. Use a joystick {plugged 
into port 2) to move the cursor rap- 
idly. The cursor keys move it more 
slowly. At the bottom of the screen, 
you'!! sec the values of the coordi- 
nates. Also displayed are the angles 



of rotation around each axis. Note 
that these angles are not given in 
the normal degrees or radians, but 
rather are in "computer degrees" — 
256 of which make up a circle. The 
center of the object is located at po- 
sition 0,0,0. You can move there in 
one step by pressing the HOME 
key. The maximum value along any 
axis is 63; the minimum is —64. As 
you draw, you normally move in 
the x,y plane. To change the z posi- 
tion, press the Z key (the letter Z ap- 
pears near the bottom of the screen). 
Move the joystick up and down to 
move the cursor rapidly. Use the up 
and down cursor keys to move it 
more slowly. To return to move- 
ment in the x,y plane, press Z again. 

Objects are built from lines. To 
draw a line, place the cursor at the 
starting point. Press the fire button 
or the space bar, and an "elastic" 
line appears. Now move to the end- 
point of the line and press RETURN 
to set it down. If you wish to make a 
sequence of connected lines, press 
the fire button or the space bar at 
the endpoint of each line and then 
press RETURN at the end of the se- 
quence. Although the objects are 
black while you edit, you'll be able 
to change the color later when you 
display the object. 

As you design your object, 
you'll probably want to see what it 
looks like from different angles. Ro- 
tate it with the function keys. Press 
fl to rotate around the ,t-axis, f3 for 
the i/-axis, and f5 for the z-axis. 
Press f2, f4, and f6 to decrement the 
angles, or f7 to reset them all to 0. 
Note again that the program does 
not use a normal scale (256 computer 
degrees = 360 normal degrees). 

When you rotate your object, 
you lose any line still elastic. You 
can add lines to a rotated object, but 
it's more accurate to set all angles 
back to before drawing. 

While designing objects, you'll 
COMPUTErs GazBttB August 1988 65 



find that it's convenient to be able 
to go to a point that you've already 
used. Press the S key to do this. 
With each press of the key, you'll 
move to another endpoint that you 
have placed previously. To draw a 
line between two existing vertices, 
press S repeatedly until the cursor 
moves to one of the vertices; then 
press fire and then S again, until the 
elastic line stretches to the other 
vertex. This considerably shortens 
the process of sprite design. It also 
ensures that the lines join at exactly 
the same point. 




"3-D Spriles" features an easy-to-use 
three-dimensional editor. A jet fighter is 
being constructed here. 

When using the select (S-key) 
option on a rotated object, the cur- 
sor may land on a point outside the 
normal range ( — 64 to 63). If this 
happens, you won't be able to 
move the cursor with the joystick. 
Instead, press S again or press the 
HOME key. 

When you rotate an object, it 
rotates around the HOME position. 
You may center your object at any 
time by pressing the C key. Note 
that the centering process is 
irreversible. 

If you are designing an object 
and want to start over, press the 
CLEAR key. You'll be prompted 
with ERASE ALL ARE YOU 
SURE? (Y/N). 

Using the DELETE key is less 
drastic. It erases lines one at a time, 
beginning with the most recently 
drawn one. 

You may get two error mes- 
sages while in DESIGN mode. 
These errors are displayed at the 
bottom of the screen. The first is 
ONIY 255 LINES ALLOWED, which 
lets you know that you have 
reached the maximum number of 
lines per object. The other is OUT 
OF MEMORY, which tells you that 
you've run out of object storage 
space. These error messages should 

66 COMPUTEt's Gazelto August 1988 



be very rare. 

To leave design mode, press 
STOP. You'll return to BASIC. You 
may repeatedly move in and out of 
DESIGN mode without harm. (Only 
elastic lines are lost). In fact, if you're 
designing a very intricate object, it is 
helpful to exit to BASIC often to pre- 
view the object with the DISPLAY 
command (described later). 

Back in BASIC 

The function keys have different 
roles in BASIC mode. If you press 
f3, hi-res screen 1 is displayed. 
Press f5 to see screen 2. (DESIGN 
mode clears both screens.) Press f 1 
to return to the BASIC text screen. 
You can press the function keys to 
peek at other screens whenever you 
want, even when a program is run- 
ning. But be sure not to press them 
while loading or saving. This could 
cause the load or save to fail. 

Besides the two normal high- 
resolution screens, 3-D Sprites has 
a third high-resolution screen 
which cannot be displayed directly. 
This third screen allows you to 
COPY your objects or drawings to 
the "background." Once you have 
copied something to the back- 
ground, it will not be erased even as 
objects are moved over it. See the 
command COPY below. 

Displaying Objects 

Once you have created a 3-D sprite, 
you can enable it with the com- 
mand DISPLAlf. All the parameters 
listed below are required. The ob- 
ject may appear completely on the 
screen, partially off the screen, or it 
may be located completely off the 
screen. It may also appear as a sin- 
gle dot if you place it too far away. 
Here is the syntax for DISPLAY and 
a list of its parameters: 

D I SPL AY f n, sc, c, b, rx, ry, rz.x,y,i) 

parameter description range 

n object number (1 to 255) 

sc scale (0 to 255) 

c object color (0 to 15) 

b bit pair (0 to 3) 

rx J rotation ( — 32768 to 

32767) 
ry y rotation ( — 32768 to 

32767) 
rz z rotation (-32768 to 

32767) 
X I translation ( — 32768 to 

32767) 
y y translation (-32768 to 

32767) 
z z translation (0 to 32767) 




Use the sprites in your own programs. 
In tltis demo, the letters in COMPUTE! 
spin into place. 

After creating object 1, try this 
command in immediate mode: 
DISPLAY 1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0 

After viewing the object, press fl to 
return to the text screen. 

If you fail to type all 10 param- 
eters, you'll receive a syntax error. 
If you try to display an object that 
doesn't contain any lines, you'll see 
this error message: ?UNDEF'D 
SPRITE ERROR. An object must 
have at least one line to be consid- 
ered defined. 

The best way to animate an ob- 
ject is with a FOR-NEXT loop. This 
loop will move a spaceship from 
the border of the screen to deep into 
outer space: 

1000 SETCOLOR 0,0 
1010 FOR X=OTOSOOOSTEP50 
1020 DISPLAY 1,1,1,1,0,10,0,100, -20,X 
1030 FLIP:NEXT:SETCOLOR14,6: 
LOWRES 

The object is painted Ln white, 
using bit pair 1 . The bit pair used is 
important. If you use bit pair (bi- 
nary 00), the object is drawn in the 
transparent color. If you use bit pair 
3 (binary 11), it will be painted the 
same color your characters were 
when you were in text mode (the 
color number will be ignored). If 
you choose bit pair 1 {binary 01) or 
2 (binary 10), it will be painted with 
the color you specify. 

Due to the 64's hardware limi- 
tations, the object changes the color 
of every character cell it touches; 
that is, everything in that cell which 
is painted with the same bit pair 
will change color. The effect is tem- 
porary, and everything will return 
to its previous color when your ob- 
ject moves off the cell. It is up to 
you to see that this color conflict 
does not occur. 

The other parameters are self- 
explanatory, but there are two de- 
tails which should be mentioned: 
First, when you use DESIGN, the 



positive 2-axis is facing toward the 
screen. But when you use DIS- 
PLAY, it faces the other way. The 
other oddity is that you can specify 
positiveor negative values for X and 
I/, but z accepts only positive values. 
Unlike hardware sprites, you 
can display the same 3-D Sprite ob- 
ject at many different places at the 
same time. 

Other Commands 

The DRAW command allows you 
to draw lines on the screen. Here is 
the syntax for the command; 
DRAW (co!orMtfiair,Xl,Yl,X2,y2) 

The range for the coordinates is 
— 32768 to 32767. The program 
will DRAW only the part of the line 
that is visible. 

The COPY command copies 
the screen that is being displayed to 
the background screen. This com- 
mand is ignored if you're in low- 
resolution mode. The best way to 
use this command (to make sure 
you're copying the screen that actu- 
ally has your paintings and not the 
other one) is to always put it after 
FLIP. What you COPY to the back- 
ground will remain there until you 
ERASE it or until you enter DE- 
SIGN mode, which uses the three 
screens for its own purposes. COPY 
can be used repeatedly without 
harm. By using it with DISPLAY 
and FLIP, you can produce an ani- 
mation that stamps itself to the 
background every now and then. 

The FLIP command allows you 
to animate your 3-D Sprite objects. 
FLIP displays one screen and di- 
rects what you're drawing to the 
other. FLIP automatically erases the 
old screen by copying the back- 
ground screen to it. 

The ERASE command clears 
all three screens: the two drawing 
screens, and the background screen. 

The SETCOLOR command 
changes the screen colors you're 
using. SETCOLOR (border, back- 
ground, bitpair 3, viewer-screen dis- 
tance) changes the border, back- 
ground, and bit pair 3 (binary 11) 
colors. 

The last parameter in the SET- 
COIX)R command has nothing to 
do with colors. It's a constant you 
can set to affect the drawing of all 
objects. This value is set to 256 
when you type SYSI6384. You 
shouldn't change it until you're 



very familiar with the program. If 
you reduce this parameter, objects 
will become smaller and will be- 
come very distorted when close to 
the screen. If you change it to a very 
large value (like 30000), you'll have 
very little r-axis room for your ob- 
jects, and you could get .='OV£R- 
FLOW ERRORS very often. 

The LOWRES command flips 
to the text screen. 

The CLEAR command clears 
the sprite object database. You'll be 
asked if you're sure you want to do 
this. 

The MEMORY command prints 
the number of bytes left in the ob- 
ject database. If you think you may 
be getting close to the limit, you can 
type MEMORY to see how many 
bytes are left. 

To save and load your 3-D 
Sprite objects, four commands are 
included: D5AVE "filename", 
DLOAD "filename". CSAVE, and 
CLOAD. DSAVE and DLOAD are 
for disk, and CSAVE and CLOAD 
are for tape. These commands save 
and load all the objects currently 
stored in the database. 

Always try to visualize what 
you're doing. In a typical 13 -inch 
TV set, each pixel is about L4 milli- 
meters long; thus, 65536 pixels are 
65536*1.4 millimeters, or about 92 
meters. So, the imaginary space for 
your objects is a "box" measuring 
92 X 92 X 46 meters. (Remember 
that the z coordinate is only 32767 
pixels long). A sprite with a scale 
factor of 1 is only 128 X 128 X 128 
pixels at the most; that is only about 
18 X 18 X 18 centimeters. Try to 
visualize that box and imagine your 
TV as a small "window" on the 
box. How deep inside the box is 
your object; how many meters {or 
pixels) to the left or right and how 
many up or down is it? Will you be 
able to see it from the window? 
When you visualize it this way, it 
becomes easy to create Flight-Simuh- 
for-like, 3-D landscapes. Choose a 
fixed y value for the ground (you can 
even paint the ground solid with a 
loop using DRAW) and start placing 
your objects by choosing their appro- 
priate .V- and z-coordinates. 

3-D Sprites, Memory, 
and Errors 

3-D Sprites moves the top of BASIC 
to $4000. The memory from $4000 
up is used for storing the code. 



lookup tables, object data, working 
space, and the three high -resolution 
screens with its three associated 
color screens. Here's a memory map: 

S4000-S5.'iEF" Program code 
S54nD-$57(n Plotting lookup tables 
$5 702-$ 5 AC 1 Screen -copying code 
$5AC2-$5B02 Sinw lookup table 
$5B03-$7CPI- Object database 
$7D00-$87PF Working area for rotating, 
translating, and projecting 
vertices 
$8800-$8[}PP Color for hi-rcs screen 1 
$8C00-$8r!-T Color for background hi- 
res screen 
$9000-$9i-rr First half of background 

hi-res screen 
SA000-$BI-31- l-li-res screen 1 
$BF80-$BFm' Hardware sprite (blinking 

dot mini cursor) 
SCOO0-SC7ED Free for utilities (such as, 

"TurboDisk") 
SC7EE-$C7FF Nonzero page variables 
SC800-$CDFF Color for hi-res screen 2 
SCCOO-$Ci*FF Free space for "DOS 

Wedge" 
SDOnO-$DFFF Second half of back- 
ground hi-res screen 
$E000-$FF3F Hi-res screen 2 
$FFSO-$FF[iF Hardware sprite (blinking 

dot minicursor} 
$FFFA-$FFFB ROM-dis.ililed NMI vector 
$FFFI;-$FFFF ROM-dis.ihled IRQ vector 

3-D Sprites is not compatible with 
programs that open files to cassette 
or with programs that use RS-232 
files. 

While you're using 3-D 
Sprites, you may encounter any of 
the following error messages: 

?ILLEGAL QUANTITY ERROR 
One or more parameters are outside 
the legal range of values. 

?UNDEF'D SPRITE ERROR 
You're trying to display an object 
that does not exist. (Entering DE- 
SIGN mode does not necessarily 
create an object. An object has to 
have at least one line to be consid- 
ered defined.) 
?OVERFLOW ERROR 
If you get this error, you can usually 
assume that it doesn't come from 
BASIC, which can handle very 
large numbers, but from 3-D 
Sprites. Whenever any of your val- 
ues for the DISPLAY parameters 
cause the program's 16/32 bit math 
to overflow, you'll get this error 
message. This usually happens if 
your scale value in the DiSPLAif 
command or your viewer-screen 
distance in the SETCOlJOR com- 
mand is too large. 

3-D Sprites is compatible with 
TurboDisk and with the DOS 
Wedge. 
See program listings on page 79. <B 

COMPUTEt's GazatlB August 1988 67 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 

Before typing in programs, ptease 
refer to "How to Type In 
COMPUTEI's GAZETTE Programs," 
elsewhere in this issue. 



RAM Expander 64 



Article on page 60. 



IIR 1.0 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU 

TEI PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
RH 20 PRItJT"{CLR} (3 SPACESjCOP 

VRIGKT 1988 COMPUTE! PUB 

., INC." 
CA 30 PRINTTAB(ll) "ALL RIGHTS 

(SPACEl RESERVED" 
RP 40 PRINT" {DOWN] START ADORES 

S ? 49152(7 LEFT}"; :INPL1 

TXS:A=VAL[X$) 
CX 50 FOR1=ATOA+20B:READK:CK=C 

K+X:POKEI ,X:NEXT 
CP 6fl IFCK<>2 3132THEtJPRItJT" 

(DOWN) ERROR IN DATA STAT 

EMEMTS.":STOP 
CA 70 B=A+11:X=INT (B/25S) :Y=B- 

X*256 
KB 80 POKEA+1, V:P0KEA+3,X 
D(i 90 B=A+184:X = INT(B/256) :Y = B 

-X*256 
MB 100 POKEA+45,y:POKEA+46,X 
CB 110 POKEA+63,Y:POKEA+64,X 
GJ 120 SYSA;EtOD 
BC 130 DATA 169,11,160,192,141 

,8 
XH 140 DATA 3, 14CI, 9,3,96,32 
HG 150 DATA 115,0,201,3 3,24 0,6 
BA 160 DATA 32,121,0,76,231,16 

7 
JJ 170 DATA 32,115,0,165,122,1 

33 
DJ IBB DATA 250,165,123,133,25 

1,160 
BG 190 DATA 0,162,0,32,121,0 
BD 200 DATA 133,2,185,184,192, 

240 
CQ 210 DATA 38,197,2,208,9,32 
JE 220 DATA 115,0,133,2,200,24 
FC 230 DATA 144,238,185,184,19 

2,240 
HF 240 DATA 3,200,208,248,200, 

165 
SG 250 DATA 250,133,122,165,25 

1,133 
ED 260 DATA 123,232,224,4,144, 

211 
JX 270 DATA 76,8,175,134,2,32 
RB 280 DATA 138,17 3,32,247,183 

,140 
FB 290 DATA 7,223,141,8,223,32 
JX 300 DATA 253,174,32,138,173 

,32 
PS 310 DATA 247,183,140,2,223, 

141 
GX 320 DATA 3,223,32,253,174,3 

2 
EC 330 DATA 138,173,32,247,183 

,140 
SG 340 DATA 4,223,141,5,223,32 
EP 350 DATA 253,174,32,138,173 

,32 
QP 360 DATA 247,183,140,6,223, 

165 
MX 370 DATA 1,41,254,133,1,165 
JF 380 DATA 2,24,105,144,141,1 
AX 390 DATA 223,165,1,9,1,133 

68 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1988 



GM 400 DATA 1,165,2,201,3,2 08 

MH 410 DATA 12,173,0,223,41,32 

OX 420 DATA 240,5,162,28,108,0 

EX 430 DATA 3,76,174,167,83,84 

JE 440 DATA 65,83,72,0,73,69 

CR 450 DATA 84,67,72,0,83,87 

GG 460 DATA 65,80,0,67,79,77 

EJ 470 DATA 80,65,82,69,0 

Investor 

Article on page 36 

HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 19B8 COMPUT 
E! PtllJLICATIONS, INC. - A 
r,[, RU;HTS HKSEHVKD 
PS 20 R=>532a0:S = R + l:H = 646 
SP 30 IF PEEK(6S530)=164 THEN R 

= 65305;S=>65301:H = 1339 
PA 40 IFPBEK[65530)=5THEN={B!15 

:H=241 
JA 50 T=11:H1=1O00:M2=10O0:TIS= 

"000000":X=RNDC-TI) 
MD 60 POKER,0!POKES,0:POKEH,3:P 

RINT"iCLRj" 
SK 70 I'«INTTAB(15> "INVESTOR 

(2 DOWN)":PRINTTAB[12>"C0 
PYRIGHT 198B" 
DX 80 PRINTTAB[7)"C0HPUTE1 PUBL 

ICATIONS, INC." 
CQ 90 PRINTTABdB) "ALL RIGHTS R 
ESERVED":F0HTT=1 TO 2000: 
NEXT 
FX 100 PRINT"ICLR}(3 DOWN) "TAB [ 
Sr'NUMQER OF PLAYERS (1 
{SPACE} OR 2)? "; 
MD 110 GETAS: IFVAL{A5)< 1 OR VA 

L(AS)>2 THEN 110 
SS 120 PRINTAS:FOR D=l TO 750:N 

EXT 
JQ 130 FOR P=l TO VAL(AS) 
QH 140 PHINT"{CLRM3 DOWN)"TAB( 

9)"PLAYER"P"NAHE "; 
PQ 150 INPUTP$<P) :PS (P)=LEFTS {P 
S (P) ,7) : IFPS(P) = ""THEN15 

CP 160 NEXT 

FH 170 PRINT"{CLRj 12 DOWN)"TAB( 
6) "ENTER TIME LIMJT: 
1RVS}S{0FF}H0RT" 
FG 180 PRINTTAB(24) "tRVS]M{OFF} 

EDIUM" 
JE 190 PRINTTAB(24)"{RVS)L{OFF) 

0NG":PRINTTABtl5) ; 
KA 200 GET T$: IFTS=""THEN200 
HJ 210 IFTS="S"THEK TM=3000:GOT 

0250 
QD 220 IFT$="M"THEN TM=5500:GOT 

0250 
FP 230 IFT5="L"THEN TM=8000:GOT 

0250 
QA 240 GOTO200 
DK 250 FORX=BTO100:NEXT 
HG 260 PRINT"ICLR) IHOMEHCYN}": 
PRINT"0"; :FOHX=0TO36:PRI 
NT"fY}"; !NEXT:PRINT"P" 
CM 270 PRINT" (HOME} I DOWN)": FORB 

=0TO2O: PaiNT"{H}":NEXT 
RB 280 PRINT"!,"; :FORB=0TO36:PRI 
NT"tP}"i : NEXT:PRINT"@^ 
{LEFT}}UP]"; :FORB=0TO20: 
PRINT"<H}(LEFT)IUP}"; 
JX 290 NEXT: IFFL=1THEN310 
BS 300 DlMSSdU ,C0L(11) :F0RX = 1 
TOlliREADSS (X) :NEXT:FORX 
=1T011 : READCOL [X) :NEXT 
SX 310 PRINT"tH0ME)(2 DOWN} 
(2 RIGHT} (YEL) FUNDS 
{6 SPACES)":PRINr"{CYN) 
{2 RIGHT}t34 SPACES}" 
RG 320 F0RX=1T011 
JX 330 POKEH,C0L(XJ :PRINT" 

(2 RIGHT}"SS CX) :NEXT 
Pil 340 IF TH<0 THEN TM = 



CP 350 PRINT"[HOME}{CYNJ"; :PRIN 

TTABtl6) "{RVS}"TM"tOFF}" 
BD 360 PRINT" IHOME} 12 DOWN) 

(YEL)"; :PRINTTAB(13)"C0S 

T(3 S?ACES}AT13 SPACES]H 

1(2 SPACES}L0W{2 SPACES} 

DIV(DOWN}" 
KM 370 F0RX=1T011 
EE 3 80 PRINT" i DOWN j ";: NEXT 
DA 390 PRINT" tVEL} (DOWN) "TAB (4) 

"tRVS)!a SPACESjCASH RES 

ERVES(9 SPACES} {OFF]" 
RK 400 IFVAL(AS)=1THENPRINT" 

{DOWN) 14 RIGHT} iRVS] "PS { 

I) "tOFF)":GOTO420 
AP 410 PRINT"{DOWN] (4 RIGHT} 

{RVS)"PSa) : PR I NT "{DOWN) 

{4 RIGHT){RVS)"PS{2)" 

(OFF)" 
HC 420 PRINT" (HOME) [3 DOWN]": IF 

FL = lT)iEN480 
MA 430 DIMA(T) ,D(T) ,C[T) ,CC(T) , 

D(T) ,J [T) ,P1 (T) ,P2 [T) 
SO 440 F0RT=1T011 
GR 450 A(T)=100:B(T)=0:C{T)=100 

:CC(T)=100:D(T)=a:Pl [T)= 

0!P2 (T)=0 
XP 460 PRINT"{CYN)"TAB(13)A!T) " 

(2 RIGHT)"B[T)C{T)CC(T) : 

NEXT 
KG 470 FL-1 
PF 480 PRINT"(HOME]"; :FORB=1T01 

B:PRINT"{DOWN}";:NEXT:FO 

RB=1T012:PRINTTAB [12) " 

(GRN)S"M1 
KG 490 IFVAL(AS)=2 THEN PRINT" 

(DOWN) "TAB [12) "S"M2 
AJ 500 REM "MAIN ROUTINE* 
PQ 510 X=INT[RND [1)*12) 
XK 520 IF X=0 THEN 510 
CJ 530 Y=INT(HND[1)*6) 
FM 540 IFY=0THEN530 
MH 550 PRINT"{H0ME}{CYN]":Z=X+2 
RF 560 F0R(3 = 1T0Z: PRINT" (DOWN)"; 

INEXT 
PA 570 SI-INT {RND[1)*4) : IF S1=0 
OR SI=2THENSI=-l:GOT059 


XX 680 51=1 
GS 590 J [X)=A[X) :K=C(X):A(X) = A( 

X)+Y*SI:B(X)=B(X)+Y*SI:D 
(X) = Y 
EJ 600 PR1NT"(CYN}"TAB(13) ; :IFA 
(X)<=0ORA(X)>=2 00THENB(X 

)=0:C[X)=100:CC[X)=100 
XG 610 IFA(X)<"0 THEN P1[X)=0:P 

2(X)=O:A[X)=100:DS="BRK 
JSPACE}":GOTO630 
QR 620 IFA{X)>-200 THEN P1(X)=P 

1{X)*2:P2(X)-P21X)*2:A(X 
)^100:DS="SPL " 
QK 630 IFA(X)<100 THEH PRINT" " 

MF 640 IFA{X)<ia THEN PRINT" "; 
MH 650 PRINTAtX)"{4 SPACES} 

(4 LEFT)"; 
MJ 660 IFB(X)<0 THEN P0KEH,2:GO 

TO680 
ES 670 GOTO710 
PA 680 IFB(X)>"-9 THEN PRINT" 

(2 SPACES)"; :GOTO730 
GA 690 IFB(X)>=-99 THEN PRINT" 

{SPACE}"; ?:GOTO730 
SB 700 GOTO730 
CF 710 IFB[X)<10 THEN PRINT" 

12 SPACES) ";:GOTO730 
SH 720 IFB(X)<100 THEN PRINT" " 

t 

HX 730 PRINTB(X) ; 

HA 74 IFA[X)>C(X) THEN C(X)=A( 

X) 
KF 750 P0KEH,3:PRINTC(X) ; 
HR 760 IFA(X)<CC(X) THEN CC[X)= 

A(X) 
HX 770 IFCC[X)<10 THEN PRINT" 

(2 SPACES) ";:GOTO800 



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m 



HF 


780 


IFCC{X) 


KF 


790 


PRINT" 


HM 


800 


PRINTCC 


JG 


810 


IFB(X)< 
X) iGOTO 


DC 


820 


PR-lNT ( 


MM 


821 


IF DS=" 
(RIGHT) 
FOR B=l. 
840 


9K 


822 


IF DS=" 
(RIGHT) 
FOR B=l 
840 


PK 


830 


PRINT" t 
B=1TO20 


HC 


84 


PRINT"! 



"100 THEN B00 

tl , 

(X); 

THEN PR=.005*A( 
850 

Y*.01*A(X) ) 
SPL " THEN PRINT" 
(GRN}";dS;:DS="": 
TO 500:NEXT:GOTO 

BRK " THEN PRINT" 

iRED)"!DS;:DS="": 

TO 500! NEXT: GOTO 

RIGHT )%"D(X) ;:FOR 

0SNEXT 

4 LEFT) (3 SPACES) 



GK 850 IFPl(X)>0 THEN Ml-Ml+IHT 

(PR*P1{X) ) 
XX 860 IFP2(X)>0 THEN H2=M2+INT 

{PR*P2 (X)) 
EQ 870 PRINT"(HOME}"; :F0RB=1T01 

a:PRINT"{DOWN)"; :NEXT:FO 

RB=lT012:PRINTTfiB (12) " 

{GRN)S"M1 
HX 880 IFVAL(A$)=2THENPRINT" 

{D0HN)"TftB(12) "S"M2 
KE 890 GETIS:IFIS"" "THEN930 
RP 900 GOStJB1570! PRINT" (HOME} "T 

AB(16)"{I!VS} [CYNJ"TM" 

{OFF} {LEFT)) 3 SPACES}" 
JP 910 IFTM=0THEN1610 
SR 92 GOTO 510 
XH 930 INPUT"ICLR] IHOME) 

{3 D0WH){3 RIGHT] [CVNIEN 

TEF NAME OF PLAYER ";VS: 

V$-LEFT$(V$,7) 
MK 940 IFVS'PS(l) THEM PL=l!MO- 

M1:GOTO990 
CC 950 IFV9=PS(2) THEM PL-JiMO" 

M2:GOTO980 
CS 960 PRINT" (DOWN} {3 BIGHT) 

{RVS)"VS"{OFF) IS NOT A 

{SPACE)PLAYER." 
HC 970 FOR PA=1TO1000!NEXT:GOTO 

930 
FE 980 PRINT"{CLRj {HOME){CYNJ"! 

PRINT"0"; :FORX=0TO36: PRI 

NT"{YJ'^; : NEXT: PRINT"?" 
RA 990 PRINT"{HOHE]{DOWN)":FORX 

=0 TO 12:PRINT"{HJ":NEXT 

RR 1000 PBINT"L";;FORX=0 TO 36: 

PRINT"TpJ"; : NEXT: print" 

|_{LEFT}{UP)"; :FORX"0 TO 

12:PRINT"{N){LEFT) lUP) 

CD 1010 NEXT!PR1NT"{H0ME3{RVS)" 

TAB(12)VS"10FF) 

{2 SPACES ){GRN)S "HO 
AR 1020 PRINT"{2 RIGHT}(D0WN} 

(RVS}{VEL){2 SPACES)FUN 

DS{10 SPACES)QTY 

(8 SPACEE)VALUE 

(2 SPACES) (OFF) (DOWN)" 
GJ 1030 F0RU=1 TO U 
EP 1040 P0KEH,C0L(U) :PRINT" 

{3 RIGHT}"SS(U) :NEXT 
EP 1050 PRINT"lHOMEj (3 DOWN)" 

{21 SPACES) 
KG 1060 IFPL=2THEN1130 
MP 1070 X5="(5 LEFT)"!F0BX=1T01 

I 
QR 1080 PRINT" {CYN) "TAB (19 ) ; 
RD 1090 PRINT LEFTS (X$,LEN (STRS 

CP1(X)))-2)P1(X); 
GD 1103 IFA(X)<10 THEM PRINT" 

{2 SPACES)"; SGOTO1120 
MF 1110 1FA(X)<100 THEN PRINT" 

(SPACE)"; 
AK 1120 PRINTTAB(30)A{X> :NEXT:G 

OTO1200 
KA 1130 F0RX=1T011 
JH 1140 X$="{5 LEFT}"!F0RX=lT01 

1 
CB 1150 PRINT"{CYN)"TAB(19) ; 



BP 1160 PRINTLEFTS(XS,LEN(STR5 ( 

P2(X)))-2)P2(X); 
EQ 1170 IFA(X)<100 THEN PRINT" 

(SPACE)"; : GOTO 11 93 
SP 1180 IFfl{X)<10 THEN PRINT" 

(2 SPACES)"; 
GH 1190 PRINTTAB(30) ;A(X) :NEXT 
AC L200 PRINT" (2 DOWN) (5 RIGHT) 

DO YOU WISH TO ( RVS ) B 

{OFF}UX OR lRVS)S(OFF)E 

LL?"; 
GX 1210 GETTS:IFT$="" THEN 1210 
BH 122 IFT$="S"ORTS="B" THEN 1 

250 
HG 1230 IFTS=" "THEN TM-TM-30:G 

OTO260 
EQ 124 GOTO 1210 
QR 1250 PRINT:PRINT"7{UP) 

(2 RIGHT) {30 SPACES)" 
XS 1260 INPUT" (UP) {3 RIGHT) ENTE 

R FUND";STS 
EK 1270 FOR X"l TO ll:lFSrS=SS( 

X)THEN1330 
GC 1280 NEXT 
MP 1290 PHINT"!3 RIGHT)"STS" IS 

NOT A FOND." 
DX 1300 FORB-1TO1000;NEXT! PRINT 

"(2 UP) (3 RIGHT)" 
CF 1310 F0RB=1T02! PRINT" 

{36 SPACES)"!NEXT 
BP 1320 PRINT"{2 UP) "; : GOTO1260 
AD 1330 PRINT"{UP}{35 SPACES)" 
DD 1340 IFTS="S"THEN1450 
PM 1350 SL-INTCMO/A(X) ) 
QC 1360 PRINT"(3 FIGHT)Y0U MAV 

{SPACEjBUK A MAXIMUM OF 

"SL 
QD 1370 INPUT"{D0WN)(3 RIGHT)HO 

W MANY DO YOU WANT"; AM! 

IFAM<0 THEN PRINT: GOTOl 

410 
KE 1380 IFAM>SL THEN PRINT" 

{3 RIGHTlIOU CAN'T BUY 

{SPACEJTHAT MANY.":GOTO 

1400 
XJ 1390 GOTO1420 
FJ 1400 FOBB-ITO 1000 : NEXT :PRIN 

T"{UP}136 SPACES)" 
CC 1410 PRINT"{3 UPj";:GOTO1370 
CQ 1420 IFPL-1 THEN Pl(Xj=Pl(X) 

+AM:Ml-Ml-INT(AM*AtX)) : 

GOTO94 
JM 1430 P2 tX)"P2 tX) + AM:H2=M2-IN 

T(AM*A(X) ) 
MP 1440 GOTO 940 
RX 1450 INPUT" {3 RIGHT) HOW MANY 

TO SELL";SLS 
SK 1460 IFPL-1 THEN AM-P1(X):G0 

TO14a0 
JB 1470 AM-P2(X) 
JF 1480 SL=VAL(SL$);IFSL<0 THEN 

PRINTEGOTOiS10 
QH 1490 IFSL>AM THEN PRINT" 

(3 RIGHT)VOU DON'T HAVE 
THAT MANY.":GOTO1510 
HB 1500 GOTO 1540 
GK 1510 FORB-1TO1000:NEXT: PRINT 

"{2 OP} {3 BIGHT)"; 
EB 1520 F0RB=1T02: PRINT" 

(35 SPACES)":NEXT 
DM 1530 PRINT"{2 OP ) "; : GOTO1450 
CJ 1540 IFPL=1 THEN M1=M1+SL*A( 

X) !P1(X)"P1(X)-SL!GOT01 

5 60 
KJ 1550 IFPL=2 THEN M2=M2+SL*A[ 

X) :P2{X)=P2 tX)-SL 
KD 1560 GOTO 940 
HG 1570 TM=TM-I 
AK 1580 IFTM=<a THEN TM=0 
AE 1590 RETURN 

XE 1600 REM *** END OF GAME *** 
XJ 1610 PRINT"{CLR){H0ME)(DOWN} 

(CYN)"; :PRINTTAB{12)"MA 

RKET CL0SES(4 SPACES)" 
GC 1620 FORX=1T011 
CD 1630 PA-PA + Pl (X)*A(X) 



RK 1640 NEXT 

CR 1650 PRINT" {3 DOWN) "TAB (10) " 

FINAL(2 SPACES}STATISTI 

CS(2 DOWN)" 
FR 1660 PRINT"(RIGHT)PLAYER 

{2 SPACES}CASH 

(5 SPACESjFUNDS 

(5 SPACES)NET WORTH" 
FM 1670 PRINT" (RIGHT) {6 TJ 

(2 SPACES) {4 T} 

{5 SPACESHS T} 

(5 SPACES) {9 TJ(2 DOWN) 

I* 

KQ 1680 PRINT"{RIGHT)(RVS)"PS(1 

) :PRINT"(OFF)(UP) 

(9 RIGHT)$"H1"{CYN)" 
QK 1690 PH1NTSPC(18) :PRINT"(UP) 

S"PA 
DA 1700 Tl'PA+Ml 
PJ 1710 PRINTSPC(28) "(UP)$"T1 
PM 1720 IFVAL(AS)-2TKENPRINT" 

(D0WN){BIGHT1{RVS)"PS(2 

) JGOTO174 
HS 17 3 GOTO 1810 
GM 1740 FORX'lTOll 
KM 1750 PB-PB + P2 (X)*A(X) 
QB 1760 NEXT 
JQ 1770 PRINTSPC(9) :PRINT"{UP) 

(CYN)$"M2 
JH 1780 PRINTSPC(18) "{UP)S"PB 
DP 1790 T2-PB+M2 
PH 1830 PRINTSPC(28)"(UP)S"T2 
JM 1B10 PRINT"(5 D0WN)"TAB(11) " 

PLAY AGAIN? (!f/N)" 
QG 1820 GETAS:IFAS="" THEN 1820 
DA 1830 IFAS<>"Y" THEN END 
KS 1840 RUN 
BC 1850 DATA LEISURE, AEROS PACE, 

COLD, ENERGY, AGRICULTURE 

, TECHNOLOGY, AUTOMOTIVE 
AR 1860 DATA MINERALS, CHEMICALS 

.COMPUTERS, ELECTRONICS 
FA 1870 DATA 2,6,7,3,9,11,8,12, 

4,1,14 

Cribbage 128 

See insi met ions in article on page 
32 before t])piug in. 

Program 1: Cribbage 128— 
Machine Language 



131(0: 


na 


13 


A 9 


00 


B5 


FE 


85 


FD 


FE 


13GS: 


9D 


AG 


18 


9D 


Al 


18 


9D 


A2 


24 


1310: 


18 


BD 


A3 


IB 


8D 


A4 


18 


A0 


6B 


1318: 


16 


46 


8A 


66 


89 


90 


16 


18 


65 


1320 


A2 


00 


B5 


FA 


70 


AO 


19 


9D 


3A 


1328: 


A0 


18 


03 


EB 


E0 


05 


F0 


04 


35 


1330: 


29 


4C 


22 


13 


28 


18 


06 


FA 


9B 


1338: 


26 


FD 


26 


FC 


26 


FD 


26 


FE 


79 


1340: 


98 


D0 


06 


60 


A9 


00 


A2 


00 


52 


1348! 


95 


FA 


E8 


E0 


05 


D0 


F9 


85 


08 


1350: 


89 


85 


BA 


60 


IB 


A9 


00 


80 


E8 


1358: 


5C 


lA 


8D 


5F 


lA 


BD 


5D 


lA 


b6 


1360: 


9D 


76 


lA 


8D 


77 


lA 


8D 


78 


BE 


1368 


lA 


8D 


79 


lA 


69 


01 


8D 


64 


9E 


1370 


lA 


60 


18 


A9 


06 


EE 


5D 


lA 


lA 


1378 


CD 


5D 


lA 


D0 


IB 


AD 


5C 


lA 


8F 


1380 


18 


69 


01 


C9 


05 


F0 


0C 


90 


5B 


1388 


5C 


lA 


IS 


69 


01 


8D 


5D 


lA 


10 


1390 


4C 


98 


13 


A9 


FF 


8D 


5F 


lA 


0F 


1393 


60 


19 


AB 


00 


8C 


6F 


lA 


A2 


02 


13A0 


00 


EC 


5C 


lA 


F0 


15 


BC 


5D 


42 


13A8 


lA 


F0 


10 


BD 


50 


lA 


99 


60 


74 


13B0 


lA 


BD 


56 


lA 


99 


65 


1ft 


C8 


IF 


13B8 


4C 


D3 


13 


BC 


5E 


lA 


AC 


6F 


49 


13C0 


lA 


BD 


50 


lA 


99 


69 


lA 


BD 


73 


13C8 


56 


lA 


99 


6D 


lA 


EE 


6F 


lA 


10 


1300 


:AC 


5E 


lA 


18 


E8 


E0 


06 


D0 


51 


13D8 


C9 


60 


18 


A0 


04 


A2 


00 


AD 


E0 


13E0 


!64 


lA 


19 


DD 


50 


lA 


D0 


01 


2E 


13E8 


:99 


18 


E8 


E0 


06 


D0 


F3 


8C 


6C 


13F0 


!6D 


lA 


60 


IB 


A2 


00 


8A 


AB 


B4 


13FB 


:C8 


DD 


60 


lA 


D9 


60 


lA 


D0 


FS 



70 COMPUTEIS Qazetts August 1988 



1400:06 


EE 


6E 


lA 


EE 


6E 


lA 


C8 


84 


16A8J13 20 


99 


13 


20 


DA 


13 


20 


70 


SC 


260 


140a:C0 


05 


D0 


ED 


E8 


E0 


04 


00 


6E 


16B0:30 IS 


20 


IF 


16 


20 


32 


16 


DB 


CR 


270 


1410:E5 


60 


13 


A2 


00 


BD 


65 


lA 


4C 


16B8:20 EE 


14 


18 


EE 


64 


lA 


A9 


9B 






141S:E8 


E0 


04 


F0 


03 


DD 


63 


lA 


19 


16C0:0E CD 


64 


lA 


D0 


E3 


13 


AD 


89 






142a!F0 


F3 


4C 


2E 


14 


18 


AD 


6E 


F4 


16C8:77 lA 


CD 


79 


lA 


90 


25 


F0 


06 


BD 


280 


1428: lA 


69 


04 


80 


6e 


lA 


60 


A2 


50 


16D0:02 30 


09 


18 


AD 


76 


lA 


CD 


16 


SM 


290 


1430:00 


BD 


60 


lA 


9D 


80 


lA 


E8 


31 


16D8:78 lA 


90 


13 


AO 


5C 


lA 


80 


FB 


AD 


300 


143e:Ee 


05 


D0 


F5 


A0 


00 


A2 


00 


D5 


16E0;7A lA 


AD 


5D 


lA 


8D 


7B 


lA 


74 


GR 


310 


1440 :BD 


80 


lA 


00 


ai 


lA 


30 


0B 


63 


16E8:A0 77 


lA 


8D 


79 


lA 


AD 


76 


EB 






1448:48 


BD 


81 


lA 


90 


80 


lA 


68 


61 


16F0:1A 8D 


78 


lA 


A9 


00 


8D 


76 


ID 


XQ 


320 


1450:90 


81 


lA 


ES 


E0 


04 


00 


EB 


IB 


16FB:1A 80 


77 


lA 


8D 


64 


lA 


EE 


47 


JP 


330 


1458:08 


C0 


05 


D0 


El 


60 


AD 


69 


18 


1700:64 lA 


18 


EE 


90 


lA 


A9 


10 


29 






1460:1A 


ac 


73 


lA 


AD 


6A 


lA 


8D 


El 


170e:CD 90 


lA 


D0 


99 


58 


60 


A2 


23 






1468:74 


lA 


AD 


64 


lA 


8D 


75 


lA 


59 


1710:01 8A 


•)0 


00 


IB 


E8 


18 


E0 


A2 






1470:60 


IB 


A2 


00 


BD 


73 


lA 


DD 


F0 


1718:35 D0 


F6 


60 


78 


A2 


00 


A9 


Fl 


HP 


340 


1478:74 


lA 


D0 


06 


EE 


7E 


lA 


EE 


70 


1720:00 8D 


00 


FF 


85 


FA 


BA 


43 


27 


PA 


350 


14B3:7E 


lA 


EB 


E0 


02 


00 


ED 


AD 


76 


1728:AD 06 


DC 


6D 


07 


DC 


18 


69 


66 






1488:73 


lA 


CD 


75 


lA 


D0 


06 


EE 


11 


1730:01 29 


0F 


18 


65 


FA 


18 


C9 


90 






1490:7E 


lA 


EE 


7E 


lA 


60 


D0 


OF 


18 


1738:34 90 


02 


A9 


34 


85 


FB 


A6 


05 


BD 


360 


1498:18 


AD 


73 


lA 


6D 


74 


lA 


6D 


27 


1740SFA A9 


34 


38 


E5 


FB 


A8 


E4 


B5 






14A0:75 


lA 


C9 


0F 


D0 


06 


EE 


7E 


2F 


174 8:FB F0 


0B 


EB 


C8 


BO 


00 


IB 


F8 






14A8:IA 


EE 


7E 


lA 


60 


A0 


00 


A2 


33 


1750:99 34 


IB 


4C 


47 


17 


A5 


FB 


5E 


DR 


370 


14B0:00 


BD 


73 


lA 


DD 


74 


lA 


30 


7D 


1758:85 FA 


C9 


34 


D0 


CA 


A2 


34 


AF 


KM 


330 


14BS:0B 


48 


BD 


74 


lA 


9D 


73 


lA 


BF 


1760:BD 34 


IB 


9D 


00 


IB 


CA 


D0 


8A 


JQ 


390 


14C0:e8 


9D 


74 


lA 


E8 


E0 


02 


00 


54 


1768:F7 A9 


00 


85 


FA 


68 


AA 


E8 


0D 


ER 


400 


14ca:EB 


C8 


C0 


03 


D0 


EI 


60 


20 


CE 


1770:00 B4 


58 


60 


78 


A2 


01 


A0 


36 


AG 


410 


14D0:AD 


14 


18 


A2 


00 


BO 


73 


lA 


F9 


1778:01 BD 


00 


IB 


99 


34 


IB 


BD 


D9 


14DB:69 


01 


DD 


74 


lA 


D0 


0E 


ES 


12 


17 30: lA IB 


99 


35 


IB 


CS 


CB 


E8 


7F 






14ES:E0 


02 


00 


Fl 


AD 


7E 


lA 


18 


E6 


173B:E0 IB 


00 


ED 


A2 


34 


BD 


34 


7C 


EA 


420 


14E8:69 


03 


BD 


7E 


lA 


£0 


18 


AO 


50 


17 90; IB 9D 


00 


IB 


CA 


D0 


F7 


58 


47 


14F0:6E 


lA 


AE 


7F 


lA 


E0 


00 


D0 


C9 


1798:60 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


F6 


QQ 
CS 


430 
440 


14F8:0B 


38 


ED 


7A 


lA 


B0 


02 


A9 


5B 




















1500:00 
1508:48 


4C 
20 


08 
44 


15 
13 


13 
63 


6D 
85 


7E 
FA 


lA 
AD 


ID 
15 


Program 2: Cribbage 128- 


- 




L510:6D 


lA 


85 


89 


20 


00 


13 


EA 


D2 


BASIC 
















FC 


450 


1518: EA 


EA 


AO 


A0 


18 


13 


60 


86 


B4 




















1520: lA 


6D 


76 


lA 


BO 


7fi 


lA 


A9 


47 


HE 


10 REM COPYRIGHT 


1988 COMPUT 


AM 


460 


1528:00 


6D 


77 


lA 


8D 


77 


lA 


60 


ID 




El PUBLICATIONS, 


INC 


. - 


^ 


MC 


470 


1530!A2 
1538:C9 
1540:E0 
1548:FA 


90 
0B 
04 
85 


8E 
00 

00 
FB 


86 

03 
Fl 
35 


lA 
EE 
60 
FC 


BD 
86 
A9 
4C 


60 
lA 
00 
5E 


lA 
E8 
85 

15 


88 
03 
44 

14 


DE 


LL RIGHTS RESERVED 
20 GRAPHIC0;SLOW:PRINT' 
[3 SPACES}COPYRIGHT 
ISPACElCOMPUTEJ PUB. 

tl 


{CLRt 
1988 
, INC 


GX 
CX 

BA 


430 
490 

500 


1550:18 
155a:A5 


A5 
FB 


FC 
69 


69 

01 


01 
35 


85 
PA 


FB 
20 


18 
7A 


54 
64 


AQ 


30 PRINTTAB(11)"ALL RIGHTS 
ESERVED" :ar.OftO"CR13R" 


R 


JG 


510 


1560:15 


E6 


FA 


A9 


06 


C5 


FA 


D0 


D6 


BH 


40 TRAP434fi 


















156S:F5 
1570:B6 


E6 
E6 


FB 
FC 


A9 
A9 


05 

04 


C5 
C5 


FB 
FC 


D0 
D0 


69 

04 


GQ 


50 DIHN(13) 


.S(13) 


,NS (13) ,SS ( 


HS 


520 


157B:D7 
1580:F0 
1588:F0 
1590:30 


60 
12 

0A 
02 


A2 

E4 
13 
D0 


01 
FB 

70 
0P 


A9 
F0 

7F 
E3 


00 
0E 
lA 
E0 


E4 
E4 
C9 

06 


FA 
FC 
0F 
D0 


ID 
BA 
SF 
06 


GJ 


L3) ,0$U3),Cg[13) ,PN[4) ,P 
S(4),PNS(4).PSS(4),PCS{4) 
,PR[4) 
60 PRINT"ICLR}"!COLOR0,2:COL 
OR4,14:PRINTCHRSai) 


DG 
XB 


530 

540 


1598:E5 
15A0:EE 


C9 

6E 


0F 
lA 


D0 
60 


06 

18 


EE 
A2 


6E 
00 


lA 

BO 


F9 
30 


RQ 


70 DEFFNV(X)=)( 
10) 


-INT(X/10)*{X- 


BQ 


550 


15A8:80 


lA 


C9 


9B 


30 


05 


A9 


0A 


76 


RA 


80 GC=0: 


GP" 


0:PZ-0 


;CZ 


• 0: 


BB$ 


= " 


SS 


560 


15B0:9D 


80 


lA 


E8 


E0 


05 


00 


EF 


43 




":DL = 


a ■ MMSi 


" A 


2 


3 4 


5 


G 






1588:60 


A2 


00 


3B 


6E 


lA 


BE 


7E 


IC 




1 SPACE) 7 


3 


910 


J 


Q K 


tl 




PR 


570 


15C0:IA 


BD 


60 


lA 


90 


80 


lA 


E8 


21 


FF 


90 Cl-0 


C2- 


0:C3-0 


;C4 


-0: 


Hl- 


0: 






15C8:E0 


05 


D0 


F5 


60 


A2 


00 


18 


C3 




H2-0: 


H3 = 


0:K4=0 


:HD 


=0! 


0V = 


0: 


QB 


580 


15D0:BD 


73 


lA 


7D 


74 


lA 


C9 


0F 


80 




SYS5903 














AP 


590 


15O8:D0 


06 


EE 


7E 


lA 


EE 


7E 


lA 


56 


BF 


100 PRINT" ICLR}": 


REST0RE:FOR 


DC 


600 


15E0!E8 


E0 


02 


D0 


EA 


18 


AD 


73 


SB 




I=1T08: 


SY = 


(I- 


1)* 


2+1 


:SX 


= ( 


DA 


610 


15E8:1A 


6D 


74 


lA 


6D 


75 


lA 


C9 


EA 




I-l) 


*4+2:GOSUB3850: 


GOSUB 






15F0:0F 


D0 


06 


EE 


7E 


lA 


EE 


7E 


3F 




407B 


:NEXT 












QK 


62 


1SF8:1A 


IB 


AD 


73 


lA 


6D 


75 


lA 


AE 


SX 


110 IFBBS-""TKENGOSUB2030 








1600:C9 


0F 


D0 


06 


EE 


7E 


lA 


EE 


E3 


ED 


120 GOSUB300!FOR1 


=1T05! 


SYS59 


KR 


630 


160B:7E 


lA 


60 


A2 


00 


DD 


73 


lA 


23 




16: NEXT 


















1610:C9 


0B 


30 


05 


A9 


0A 


9D 


73 


5E 


MO 


130 GOSUB300:GOSUB380:GOSUB4 


PA 


64 


16ia:lA 


sa 


E3 


03 


D0 


EF 


60 


20 


FE 




60 




















1620:B9 


15 


20 


42 


16 


20 


F3 


13 


C2 


EP 


140 CH=0 


:RH 


-0: 


PC« 


0:TC=0 


:PH 


=0 


PE 


650 


1628:20 


A4 


15 


20 


45 


15 


20 


12 


03 




:PP = 


0:TP=e 


:HD 


=KD+1 










1630:14 


60 


20 


5E 


14 


20 


71 


14 


80 


CG 


150 JFCRTHENPOKE67B3 


,25S:ELS 


QH 


660 


1638:20 


CF 


14 


20 


0B 


16 


20 


CD 


AB 




EPOKE6783, 

















1640:15 


60 


20 


3C 


14 


18 


A2 


00 


10 


AD 


160 GOSUB300!GOSOB350:GOSUB6 


GP 


670 


1648: 8E 


BA 


lA 


A0 


01 


ac 


72 


lA 


E4 




00:GOSOa2370! 


GOSUB77a: 


GO 


XR 


630 


1650:BD 


30 


lA 


DO 


81 


lA 


00 


16 


C8 




SUB1530 


:IFOVTHEN90 






XE 


690 


1658:C8 


C0 


03 


00 


06 


CD 


8A 


lA 


ID 


PM 


170 PRINT'MCLBl": 


GOSOB1040 


:P 






1660:F0 


01 


CB 


80 


BA 


lA 


EB 


E0 


A6 




OKE6756 


,N(13) 














1668:04 


D0 


E5 


4C 


82 


16 


18 


69 


52 


BK 


180 IFCRTHENGOTO210 












1670:01 


DD 


81 


lA 


D0 


0B 


EE 


72 


69 


HG 


190 GOSUB2440: 


IFOVTHEN90 








1678: lA 


E8 


E0 


04 


D0 


02 


4C 


82 


35 


FS 


200 IFCRTHEN230 










MR 


700 


1680:16 


E8 


AD 


72 


lA 


C9 


03 


30 


FC 


FH 


210 GOSUB2640: 


IFOVTHEN90 




FG 


710 


1688:0F 


AD 


6E 


lA 


18 


6D 


72 


lA 


8C 


CE 


220 IFCRTHEN7190 














1690:88 


C0 


00 


00 


F7 


BO 


6E 


lA 


2B 


PH 


230 REM 




















1698:E0 


04 


00 


AF 


60 


18 


D8 


78 


D8 


MB 


240 GOSUB2ei0: 


IFOVTHEN90 








16A0J20 


54 


13 


BD 


90 


lA 


20 


72 


CC 


JC 


2 50 GOSUB4110 

















GOSUB3200 

CHARl,10,23:PRlNT"tBLtJ) 

tBVS}t3 SPACESiHIT A KEY 

(3 SPACES]" 

GETKEYAS 

CR=ABS (CR-1) :GOTO140 

REM SHUFFLE CARDS 

CHARl,10,23:PRI«T"lyEL)S 

HUFFLING CARDS" 

SYS5916:SYS6004 

F0RI=1T013:N [I ) =PEEK (6 91 

2 + 1) :S(n=INT( (N{I)-1)/1 
3)+I:N{I)=N{I)-(INT((N{I 
)-l)/13)*13) :NEXT 
RETURN 

REM SUBROUTINE TO STORE 
{SPACEjVALUES INTO MEMOB 

Y 

FORI =0TO5: POKE (1+67 36) ,N 
(I + l) : POKE {I +6742) ,S(I+1 

) :NEXT 

RETURN 

REM CUT FOR DEAL 

SYS5916 

FORI = 1T02:N II) =PEEK (6912 

+ 1) 

S(I)-INT((N[I)-1)/13)+1: 

N(1)-N(I)-(IMT{(N(I)-1)/ 

13)*13) 

NS(I)=MrDS(NNS,N(I)*2-l, 

2) 

NEXT 

IFN(1)<N(2)THENCR=1:ELSE 
IFN(1)>N(2)THENCR=0:ELS 

EGOT0380 

RETURN 

PRINT" (CLR}" 

F0RI=1T02 

IFS(I)=1THBNS5="IBLKJA": 

CS-"{BLKj" 

IFS(I)=2THENS$="{BLK]X": 

CS="tBLKj" 

IFS(I)=3THENS5="(RED}S": 

CS="{REDj" 

IFS tI)=4THENSS="{RE0}Z": 

CS='MREDj" 

IF KS[I)<>"10"THENN5(I)= 

RIGHTS (NS (I) ,1) 

N5(I)=CS + NS (I) 

SX=8:SY= (I-l) *10+4:NUS=N 

$(I) :SU$=S$:GOSUB3350:GO 

SUB3910:NEXT 

CHAR 1,15,1: PRINT" (IJCUT 

I SPACE J FOR DEAL" 

CHAR 1,1 5, 7: PR I NT" {3 JCOMP 

UTER CUT" 

CHARl,15,17:PHINT"{7r';B 

B5;"'S CUT" 

SYS5916:SKS5916:SYS5916 

RETURN 

PRINT" ICLR}" 

F0RI=1T013!NS {I)-MIDS{NN 

S,N(I)*2-1,2) 

IFS (I )=1THENSS (I)="(BLK) 

A"!CS="IBLK}" 

IFS (I)=2THEKS5 (I)="lBLKl 

X":C9="iBLK}" 

IFS (I)=3THENSS {I)="lRED] 

S":CS="tRED}" 

IFS (I )=4THENSS ( I ) = " [ RED } 

3":C5="IRED}" 

IF NS (I)<>"10"THENNS (I) = 

RIGHTS(NS(I) ,1) 

NS{I)=CS+NS (I) :NEXT 

rORI=7TOl2 

NUS=N? (I) :SUS = SS (I) :NM = I 

-6:SX=(I-7)*5:SY=1:G0SUB 

3 8 50:GOSUB3 960:3Y=15:GOS 
UB3850:GOSUB3910:GOSUB40 
20 

NEXT 

BRS = "{YEL)I.{D0WN) ILEFT}- 

{DOWN}iLEFT}-{DOWN} 

(LEFT}{0}(D0WN} ILEFT}- 

IDOWHJ (LEFT) -(DOWN] 

lLEFT]K(3 UPT" 



COMPUTEVs GazBUe August 1938 71 



KS 720 IFCRTHENCRS="t3>C0MPUTER 
CRIB"; ELS ECR5-"{7>"+BB$ 
+"'S CRIB" 

BD 730 CHARl,3a,l:PBINTBR5+"t3J 
COMPUTER (DOWH) 16 [,EFT)HA 
ND" 

HH 740 CHAH1,30,15:PRINTBRS+" 

{7I";BBS;"'S"!CHAR1,3H-I 
NT(LEN(BB9)/3) ,I9lPRINT" 
HAND" 

FX 750 CHAR1,20,8:PR!NTBRS+CH? 

FH 760 RETURN 

JE 770 REM PLAYER'S DISCARDS 

PA 780 Dl=a:D2-a:HH-54:SX=16:SY 
=2 3:CHARl,4,23:PRmT"{7} 
DISCARD I 1":GOSUB1230:D 
1=VAL(AS) :CHAH1,'1,23;PRI 
MT"{16 SPACES)" 

RB 790 SX- [D1-1)*5:SY-15:GOSOD3 
990:GOSUB4050:SY-8:SX»10 
:NUS = N5 (Dl + 6) :SUS=S$(D1 + 
6) :GOSUB3850:GOSUB3910 

JP 800 SX=16:SY=23:CHAR1,4,23jP 
RINT"{3>DISCARD t 2":G0S 
UB1230:D2=VAL{AS) :CHAR1, 
4, 23: PRINT" (16 SPACES}" 

GS 910 IE'(D1<>D2)THEN830 

HE 82B SX=10:SY=B:GOSUB399a:SY- 
15:SX= (D1-1)*5:KU$=NS(D1 
+6) :SUS-SS(Dl+6) :NM=D1:G 
OSUB3 8 50!GOSUB3910:GOSUB 
40Z0:GOTO7B0 

XG 930 SX- (D2-l)*5:SY=15:GOSUB3 
990:GOSUB4 60:SY=8:SX=1S 
:NUS=NS (D2+G) :SUS = SS {02 + 
6) :GOSUB3850 :GQSUB3910 

DK 840 SYSS916 

HK 850 GOSUB104a:PRINT"tCLR}"!F 
ORI-1T04 

BC 860 SX= {I-D *5:SY-l:GOSUB38S 
0:GOSUB3960:SY=15:NUS=PN 
S (I) :SUS = PSS(I) :NM=I:GOS 
UB3850!GOSUB3910:GOSUB4 
20: NEXT 

QC 870 CHAR1,0,0:PRINT"{6}{RVS] 
{39 SPACES)":POKEie63,16 
0:POKE55335,13 

JA 890 CHAR1,20,L!PRINT"<2JUJ:^ 

MX 890 CHAR1,20,2:PBINT"- (PUR) 
PEGGING P0INTS12 SPACES) 

U>-" 
DP 900 CHAR 1,20, 3: PR I NT" fQJ^^^^ 

MF 910 CHAR 1 , 25- I NT { LEN { BBS ) /2 ) 

,4:PRINT"{7J";BBS; "<2}" 

MD 920 CHAR1,20,4:PRINT"- 

18 RIGHTi-t3JCOMPUTER<2J 
_ ti 

MP 930 CHARl,20,5!PBINT"tQ} **** 

EX 940 CHAR1,20,6:PRINT"- 

18 SPACES)- (8 SPACES)-" 
HP 950 CHARl,20,7;PRINT"tZ} **" 

XB 960 CHAR1,21,1S:PRIHT"{1HA} 
********** r^\" 

MX 970 CHAR1,21,17:PRINT"- 

tlO SPACES)-" 
JK 980 CHAR1,21,1BTprINT"{QJ_^^ 

DX 990 CHARl,2T,19:PRINT"-lEEO} 

iRVSlll0 SPACES) lOFF)-" 
XK 1000 CHAR1,21,20:PRINT"{ZJ;^ 

FK 1010 SY-15 

MC 1020 SX=34:NUS»NStl3) :SUS-S5 

(13) :GOSUB3850!GOSUB391 

0:CHARl,SX+l,SY+5 SPRINT 

"(1}CUT" 
SB 1030 RETURN 
HD 1040 J=1;K=1 
CJ 1050 F0RI=7TO12 
OP 1060 IF(I= (Dl + 6)}OR(I-(D2+6) 

)THEN1100 
SG 1070 PN(J)-N(I) :PS (J)-S (I) :P 



SC{K)=S{I) !H 
:SC5{K)-SSCI 



N5 (J)=NS(I) :PS5 [J)-S5(I 

) 
GC 1080 J=J + 1 
SF 1090 GOTO11Z0 
XC 1100 NC(K)=N(n 

C$ (K)-NS(I 

) 
BD 1110 K-K+1 
PH 1120 NEXT 
AJ 1130 J=l!K-3 
CC 1140 F0RI=1T06 
AR 1150 IF(I=D3)0R(I=D4)THEN119 


RA 1160 CN(J)=N(I) :CS(J)=S (I) :C 

NS tJ)=N${I) :CS5 (J)=SS (I 

) 
XJ 1170 J"J+1 
GP 1180 GOTO1210 
CF 1190 NC(K)»N(I) :SC(K)=SU) :H 

CS(K)=NS(I) !SCS(K)-SS[I 

) 
GK 1200 K»K+1 
AQ 1210 NEXT 
RR 1220 RETURN 
FX 1230 BL-0 
MK 1240 GETAS!BL-ABS(BL-1) :CHAR 

1,SX,SY!PRINT"{6J"; ! IFB 

LTHENPRINT"IBVS}{+J"!EL 

SEPRINT"t+>" 
JG 1250 IFAS=""THEN1240 
CR 1260 IFLEN{AS)>1THENAS="":G0 

TO1240 
FE 1270 IFD2THEN1290 
SE 1280 IFAS="H"THENGOSUB2300:G 

OTO1240 
PH 1290 IF(ASC(AS)<49)0R{ASC<ftS 

) >HH)THEN1240 
XS 1300 CHAR1,SX,SY:PRINTAS:RET 

URN 
GC 1310 CHAR1,0,0!PRINT"{6} 

{RVS)(39 SPACES}":PTS=0 
, iCHARl, 29, 17: PRINT" 

(3 SPACES}":CHAR1,2Z,17 

:PRINT"{5}TfiLLY =";TAL: 

IFSG-SFTHEN2100 
MP 1320 PRINT"t6J"!CHARl,0,0 
BP 1330 IFSF-SG<3THEN1350 
FB 1340 IF{NP{I )"NP(1-1) )AND(NP 

(I)»NP(I-2) )AND (NP {I)=N 

P(I-3))THENPTS-12;PRINT 

"(RVS)FOUR OF A KIND FO 

R 12. (OFF)"; :GOTO13e0 
QX 1350 IFSF-SG<2THEN1370 
ES 1360 IF{NP[n-NP(I-l))AND(NP 

(I)=HP(I-2) )THENPTS=6:P 

RINT"[RVS}THREE OF A KI 

ND FOR 6. lOFF)"; :G0TO13 

60 
AE 1370 IFNP(I)-NP(I-1>THENPTS= 

2:PRINT"{RVS}PAIR FOR 2 

. (OFF)"; 
MS 1380 IFTAL=31THEKPTS=PTS+2;P 

RINT"1BVS) 31 FOR 2. 

(OFF)"; 
GE 139B IFTAL=15THENPTS=PTS+2lP 

RIKT"lRVS) 15 FOR 2. 

(OFF)"; 
PH 1400 IFSF-SG<2THEN2100 
SE 1410 F0RAD=1T0[SF-(SG+1)) :G0 

SUBl4a0:CNT=0 
GK 1420 IF(QT(SF)-QT(SG+AD) )> (S 

F- (SG+AO) )THEN1460 
PF 1430 FORH"(SG+AD)TOSF:IF{QT( 

H ) +1 ) -QT (H+1 ) THENCNT-CN 

T + 1 
SQ 1440 NEXT 
HG 1450 IF( (SF+l)-(SG+ADj )=CNTT 

HEN PTS=PTS+CNT+1: PRINT" 

(BVS) HUN F0R";CMT+1;" 

(LEFT). 1 OFF) ''f!GOTO2100 
ER 14 60 NEXT 
SM 1470 GOTO2130 
EX 1480 FORH= (SG+AD)T0SF+1:QT(H 

)=NP(H) INEXT 
CM 1490 FORG= (SG+AD)T0SF+1:F0RH 

=(SG+flD)TOSF 



EK 1500 IFQT (H+1)<0T{H)THENBIG= 

0T{H):QT(H)=QT(H+1) ! QT ( 

H+1)=BIG 
BF 1510 NEXT:NEXT 
SS 1520 RETURN 
JG 1530 REM PEG SUBROUTINE 
AR 1540 PC=0:PP=0!TAL-0!SF"0:SG 

=0:DU-0;l"l:SP-0 
GG 1550 TU=CR: IFN(13)<>11THEN15 

60 :ELSECHAR1,0,0: PRINT" 

{6J(RVS}TW0 FOR HIS HEE 

LS":SYS5916!SYS5916:IFC 

RTHENPC=2:ELSEPP=2 
DH 1560 GOSUB1310 
SJ 1570 DO UNTIL I-9:PL[I)-0 
HD 1580 IFTUTHENGOSUB3740;ELSE1 

600 
AP 1590 IFDUTHENI620!ELSEIFSPTH 

ENI=I-1:SF=SF-1:GOT016 8 

0:ELSESP = 1 
EF 1600 TU=0:GOSUB3670 
EQ 1610 IFDLTHENGOEUB1750:GOTO1 

660:ELSEIFSPTHENI=I-1:S 

F=EF-1:GOTO1680:ELSESP" 

l:TU=l:GOTO15a0 
KX 1620 HH-52:SX-30:Sy=19:CHARl 

,22,19:PRtNT"{GRN} CARD 
H3 SPACES) (2 LEFT)":G 

OSUB1230:NO=VAL(AS) 
EM 1630 PL-FNV(PN(NO) ) :IF(PN (NO 

)=32)0R(TAL+PL>31)THEN1 

620 
KQ 1640 CHAR1,22,19:PRINT"(RED) 

)RVS)(10 SPACES){OFF)"! 
EJ 1650 PL(1 ) = Pt,:NPS (I ) = PNS (NO) 

:SPS(I)=PSS{NO) :CPS(I)- 

PC$ (NO) !NP(I)-PN(NO) :PH 

{NO)=32 
QP 1660 GOSUB1990:TAL=TAL+PL!GO 

SUB1310 
KS 1670 IFTAL=31THEN1700!ELSEIF 

I=8THEm680:ELSE1710 
EH 1680 IFTUTHENPP=PP+l!ELSEPC= 

PC+1 
XE 1690 CHAE1,26,0:PRINT"{6} 

(RVS)l FOR THE GO. lOFFj 

"; !GOSUB2100 
SH 1700 TAL=0:SG=SF+1:GOSUB3810 
AA 1710 I=I+1:TU=ABS{TU-1) :SF=S 

F+1:SP=0: IFOVTHENRETURN 
QP 1720 LOOP 
XJ 1730 SYS5916 
HX 1740 RETURN 
DH 1750 NP(I)=0:PR-0 
KG 1760 FORA=1TO4!PR!A)=0 
AM 1770 IFCN(A)=32THEN1910 
EC 1780 PL = FNV(CN(A) ) ! IF(TAL + PL 

)>31THEN1913 
GE 1790 IFSF=SGTHENGOSUB3430!GO 

TO1900 
DA 1300 IF(NP(I-2)=NPtI-l) jAND( 

CN(A)-NP(I-1) )THENPR(A) 

=PR(A)+30 
CA 1810 IFPR>29THEN1910 
QR 1920 IF((SF-SG)>l)AND(PL+TAi:, 

<32)TKEKGOSUB2150:ELSEG 

OTO1840 
MQ 1830 IFPR>14THEN1900 
PX 1840 IF(PL+TAL=31)THENPR(A)= 

PRCA)+11:GOTO1900 
GA 1850 IFPL+TAL=15THENPB(A)=PR 

(A) 4-ll:GOTO1900 
SD 1860 IFPR>10THEN1910 

DA 1870 IFtCN[A)-NP(l-l))AND(PL 

+TAL<31)THENPR{A)=PR (A) 

+7!GOTO1900 
OH 1880 IFPR>6THEN1910 
FS 1890 GOSUB334a 
DR 1900 IFPR[fi)>PRTHENPB=PR(A) 
KJ 1910 NEXT 
CP 1920 PR=-10 
PE 1930 F0RA=1T04: IFCN[A)=32THE 

N1960 
JX 1940 PL=FNV(CN(A)) : IF(TAL+PL 

)>3lTHEN1960 



72 COMPUTEI's Gazetto August 1988 



SR 1950 IFPR(A)>PRTHENPR=PR(A) : 

B-A:GOSUB3330 
JQ 1960 NEXT 

KS 1970 PL=FNV(CN(B) ) :CN(B)=32 
GX 1980 RETURH 
PK 1990 IFTU=0THEHSi-liSX=(B-l) 

*5!E[.SESY = 15:SX= (NO-D* 

5:GOSUB4050 
GM 2000 COS UB 3 9 90 
XP 2010 SV-a:SX=(I-l)*4:MU$-MP5 

(I) :SUS-SPS [I)5G0SUB385 

0:GOSUB3910 
BX 2 02 RETURN 
SM 2030 REM ENTER NAME 
QC 2040 SX=25:SY-22:PRINT"{7}": 

CHAR1,0,22:PRINT"PLEASE 
ENTER ItOUR NftME: 

12 SPfiCESHRVS} 

t6 SPACES) ":PRINT" (SIX 

isPftCEjLETTERS MAXIMUM) 

1? 

FJ 2050 GETAS:BL»ABS (BL-1) :CHAR 

l,SX,Si!:PRINT"f7J"; :IFB 

[,THENPRINT"(RVS) ":ELSE 

PRINT" " 
HE 2860 IFBBS-""THEH2fl70:ELSEIF 

ASC(A$)-13THEN2030:ELSE 

IFASC{AS)=20THENCHAR1,S 

X,Si;:PRINT"lRVS) ":SX=S 

X-1:BB$"LEFT5 (BBS,LEN (B 

BS)-1) 
RS 2070 IFCASC(A5)<65)0R{ASC(A$ 

)>90)OR(AS="")OR(I,EN{A$ 

)>1)THEHA$-"":GOTO2050: 

ELSEBBS=BB$+-AS:CHAR1,SX 

, S ¥ : SX =SX 4. 1 : PR INT" ( RVS ) 

"jASs IFSXO31THEN2050 
SS 2060 CHAR1,0,Z2:PRINT" 

{39 SPACES)"!CHAH1,0,23 

SPRINT" [21 SPACES}" 
KF 2090 RETURN 
EM 2100 IFTU=lTHENPP=PP+PTS:ELS 

EPC"PC+PTS 
GG 2110 PRINT"?7}":CHAB1,24,6:P 

HINTPP:PRIHT"{3}"!CHfiRl 

,33,6:PRINTPC 
DP 2120 GOSUB3ee0 
HP 213B PTS-0 
SH 214 RETURN 
MR 2150 REM CHECK RUNS 
KB 2160 FORAD = 1TO(SF- (SG+D) :G0 

SUB224S:CNT=0 
RE 2170 IF{RT{SF)-RT(SG+AD) )> (S 

F-(SG+AD))THEN2220 
DS 2180 FORH= (SG+AD)TOSF 
PJ 2190 IF(RT(H)+1)"RT(H+1)THEN 

CNT=CNT+1 
JP 2200 NEXT 
KX 2210 IF( (SF+1)-{SG+AD))-CNTT 

HENPRtA)-PB(A)+ (5*CNT) : 

GOTO22 30 
GR 2220 NEXT 
HM 2230 RETURN 
CH 2240 F0RH=(SG+AD)TOSF:RT(H)= 

HP(H) :NEXT 
PB 2250 RT(SF + 1)-CN{A) 
DH 2260 FORG" (SG+AD)TOSF:FORH-( 

SG+AD)TOSF 
KE 2270 IFHT(H+1)<RT(H)THEHBIG= 

RT{H) :RT(H)«RTtH+l) :RT( 

H+1)=BIG 
AM 2280 NEXT:NEXT 
EB 2290 RETURN 
FP 2300 REM HINT SUBROUTINE 
BP 2310 IFCRTHENPOKE6783,0:ELSE 

POKE67B3,255 
CR 2320 CHAR1,12,0:PRINT"{1}THI 

NKING..." 
SG 2330 F0RI=eT05:P0KE (14-6736) , 

N (1+7) : POKE (1+6742) ,S (I 

+7) I NEXT 
CS 2340 SYS5789:CHAR1,18,0:PRIN 

T"t5 SPACES}" 
QK 2350 CHAR1,12,0:PRINT"{7JHIN 

T: ";PEEK(6778)+1;",";P 

EEK(6779)+1 



FF 2360 RETURN 

MG 2370 SYS57B9 

BC 2380 D3=PEEK(6778)+l!D4=PEEK 

(67779)+l 
JX 2390 SV=l!SX=CD3-l) •5:GOSUB3 

9 90 
PA 2400 SY=8:SX=0:GOSUB3850:GOS 

UB3960 
PS 2410 SY^l:SX=(D4-l)*5:GOSUB3 

990 
SG 242B SY=8:SX=5!GOSUB3850:GOS 

UB3960 
CK 2430 RETURN 
XA 2440 REM COMPUTER HAND 
QJ 2450 FC=l:POKE6757,9 
EJ 24G0 F0RI=lT04:POKE (6761+1) , 

CN (I) :NEXT 
DG 2470 SYS5663 
PD 2480 CH=PEEK(676G) 
CF 2 4 90 F0RI=1T03 
CD 2500 IFCS(I)=CS{1+1)THENFC=F 

C + 1 
DM 2510 IF(CN(I)=11)AND{CS[I)=S 

(13) }THENCH=CH+1 
FS 2 520 NEXT 
DG 2530 IF(CN(4)"11)AND(CS (4)=S 

(13))THENCH=CH+1 
XE 2540 IF(FC=4)AND[S (13)-CS(1) 

)THENCH=CH+5:GOTO2 560 
SF 2550 IFFC=4THENCH=CH+4 
GE 2560 F0RI = 1T04:SX= (I-l) *5:SY 

= 1:NU5=CN5(I) :SUS='CS5(I 

) !GOSUB3B50:GOSUB73910:N 

EXT 
GF 2S7B GOSUBi020 
JP 2580 CHAR1,2,10:PRINT" 

13 3 S PACES } " 
RX 2590 CHARl,5,10:PRINT"i3}COM 

PUTER'S SCORE IS"!CH 
PH 2600 PRINT:PRINT"lRED} 

110 SPACESj [RVS}HIT A K 

EY" 
ED 2610 GETKEYA$ 
DP 2620 GOSUB3600 
RE 2630 RETURN 
SG 264 REM PERSON'S HAND 
XX 2650 FP=l:POKE6757,9!FORl-lT 

04: POKE (6751 +1) , PN (I ) : N 

EXT 
BS 2660 SYS5663!PH=PEEK{6766) 
DM 2670 FORI=1T03: IFPS (I)-PS (1 + 

1)THENFP=FP + 1 
AJ 2680 IF(PN (I)=11)AND{PS (1)=S 

(13) )THENPH=PH+1 
DM 2690 NEXT 
GG 2700 IF(PN [4)=11)AND(PS (4 )=S 

(13) )THENPH-PH+1 
MC 2710 IF(FP-4)AND(S (13) = PS (1) 

)THENPH-PH+5:G0TO273a 
CK 2720 IFFP=4THENPH=PH+4 
RJ 2730 F0RI=1T04:SX= (I-l) *5:SY 

=1;NUS=PNS(I) :SUS=PSS(I 

) :GOSUB3850:GOSUB3910:N 

EXT 
BX 2740 GOSUB1020 
ES 2750 CHAR1,2,10:PRINT" 

{33 SPACES}" 
CJ 2760 CHARl,5,10:PHINT"n}"!B 

BS;"'S SCORE IS"jPH 
SG 2770 PR1NT:PRINT"{BLU) 

{10 SPACESJ iRVS)HIT A K 

EY" 
FX 2780 GETKEYAS 
RE 2790 GOSUB3600 
GS 2800 RETURN 
CX 2810 HEM CRIB HAND 
DP 2820 FR=l:POKE6757,9 
QC 2833 F0RI=1T04:P0KE(6751+I) , 

NC{I) :NEXT 
BX 2840 SYS5663 
SX 2850 RH=PEEK(6766) 
GQ 2860 F0RI=1T03 
SM 2870 IFSC[I)=SC(I+1)THENFR=F 

R + 1 
SM 2880 IF[NC(1)=H)AND(SC(I)=S 

(13) )THENRH-RH+1 



GK 2893 
EP 2900 

KQ 2910 

SA 2920 



fij 2930 

FC 2940 

CJ 2950 

CM 2960 



FF 2970 

JM 2980 
JB 2990 
SH 3000 
FP 3010 
SQ 3020 



NEXT 

IF(NC(4)=11}AND(SC(4)=S 
(13) )THENRH-RH+1 
IF(FR=4)AND(S (13)=SC(1) 
)THENRH=RH+5 
F0RI=1T04:SX=(I-1)*5:SY 
= l!NU5=NC5 (I) :SU5 = SC$(I 
) !GOSUB3850:GOSUB3910!N 
EXT 
GOSUB102 

CHAR1,2,10:PRINT" 

{33 SPACES]" 

CHAR1,2, 10 

IFCRTHENPRINT"f3JCRIB S 

CORE IS";RH;"FOR THE CO 

MPUTER":ELSEPR1NT"{7>CR 

IB SCORE IS";RH;"FOH "; 

B8$ 

PRINT! PRINT" {10 SPACES) 

{RVS) HIT A KEY" 

GETKEYAS 

GOSUB3600 

RETURN 

PRINT"iH0ME){5 DOWN}" 

PRINT"{2 SPACES} tA} *"* 



{R> 



******** 



fS}" 



RP 3030 PRINT"i2 SPACES }-AFTER 
(4 RIGHT} HANDS COMPUTE 
K-{S RIGHT}-" 

AG 3040 PRINT"{2 SPACES } t 2} **** 

******il1ir***{^'L******** 

JC 3050 PRINT"12 SPACES } tA> *** * 
{Rt***'*"'*{S}"' 



PO 3060 
QP 3070 
GH 3080 
DM 30 90 
DA 3100 
AP 3110 
BK 3120 



PRINT" (2 SPACES} -TOTAL 
{SPACE} HATCH PTS- 
{8 RIGHT)-(8 RIGHT)-" 
PRINT"{2 SPACES}fQ}^j^ 



TwT 



PRINT" {2 S 
is PACE} WON 
18 RIGHT)- 
PRINT"{2 S 

********** 



fpv ******* 

PRINT"{2 S 

********** 



PfiCESl-GAHES 
{6 SPACES }- 
18 RIGHT)-^ 
PACES)tg} **** 

* f ^1****** ** 

PACES} {A} ***' 
*f l^\**** **** 



PRINT" 12 S 
IN HAND - 
{8 RIGHT]- 
PRINT"12 S 
********** 



_^^S}" 

PACES} -POINTS 

[8 RIGHT)- 

IT 

PfiCESltQ} **** 

*^.***ilr****^** 



^fwj " 



SA 3130 PRINT"{2 SPACES }-POINTS 
IN CRIB -tS RIGHT)- 
{8 RIGHT}-" 

XX 3140 PRINT"12 SPACES } {Q} "** 
****** *****^********^** 



****** 



iw}' 



BP 3150 PRINT"12 SPACES } -POINTS 
PEGGED 12 SPACEST- 

18 RIGHTJ~(8 RIGHT)-" 
FS 3160 PRINT"12 SPACES} tQJ ^*** 

***********^********^** 

****** {Wj-n— ~*~ 

SG 3170 PRINT"{2 SPACES }-SCORE 

{10 SPACES}-{3 RIGHT}- 

{8 RIGHT}-"" 

MR 3180 PRINT" 12 SPACES } {Z} **** 

***********{gt******** 

tE} ******"^^ tX}" 
RETURN 



QJ 3190 
FD 3200 
Xe 3210 



JA 3220 
CB 3230 
RG 32 4 



REM DISPLAY SCORES 
RESTORE: PRINT" {CLR) ": Si 
=0:FORI=1TO8:SX=(I-1)*4 
+3:GOSUB4070:NEXT 
PRINT"1H0ME} 15 DOWN) 
{PUR)":PRINT 
PR1NTTAB(8);HD;TAB(32-I 
NT(I,EN[BB$)/2) ) ;BBS 
PRINT: PRINT! PR INTTAB{ 22 
) ;CZ;TAB{31) ;PZ 



COMPUTers Gazeao August 1988 73 



BA 3250 PRINT:PRrNTTAB(22) jGCjT 

AB(31) ;GP 
KF 3260 PRINT: PRINT: PRINTTAB(22 

) ;Cl;TftB(31) ;H1 
DA 3270 PRINT: PRINTTAB(22) ;C2;T 

flB(31) ;H2 
RF 3280 PRINT:PRINTTAB[22);C3;T 

flB{31) ;II3 
EK 3290 PRINT:PRINTTAB(22);C4;T 

AB(31) ;H4 

bd 3300 gosub3ql0 

gf 3310 ifhd=1thenchar1,16,7:pr 

:nt" " 
qb 3320 return 

JC 3330 PL(I)=PL:NPS(I )=CfJS{A) : 

SP$ (I!=CSS [A) :CPS (I)=CC 

S(A):NP(I)=CN(A) : RETURN 
AE 3340 REM 
PE 3350 IF(TAL+PL)<15THENPR(A)= 

PRCA)-3!GOTO3130 
AX 3360 IFPL=5THENPR(A)=PR (A)-l 
EF 3370 IF( (PL+TAL)>27)AWD(PL<> 

10)THENPR(A)=PR(A)+2:GO 

TO3460 
OQ 3380 IF(PL+TAL)>27THENPR(A)= 

PR(A)+l:GOTO3460 
FA 3390 IF(PL+TAL<20)AND(PL>6)T 

HEN PR ( A ) - PR ( A ) + 1 : G0TO3 4 

60 
FQ 3400 IF( (PL+TAIj) = 21)THENPR(A 

)=PR(A)-2:GOTO3460 
XR 3410 IF[ (PL+TAL)-26)THENPR(A 

)=PR(A)-1 
QH 3430 GOTO3460 
XS 3430 IFt {TAL+PL)"10)OR(PL=10 

)THENPR{A)-PR(A)-1 
PF 3440 IF( (TAL+PL)=5)0R (PL = 5)T 

HENPR(A)=PR(A)-2 
QJ 3450 IF( (2*PL [I-1)+PL)"15)TH 

ENPR(A)=PR(A)-2 
FR 3460 DFF=ftBS(CN(A)-KP(I-l) ) : 

AVR=(CN(A)+NP (I-1))/2:N 

X=INT(fiVR+l?.5*DFF-3) 
CQ 3470 :F( (CNtA)=NP{I-l)+l)OR( 

CN(A)=NP(I-1)-1))AND( (P 

L+TAL+NX) <32)THENPR(A)= 

PR (A)-3 
AQ 34B0 IF({CN(A)"NP(I-1)+2)0R { 

CN{A)=NP(I-1)-2))AND£(P 

L+TAL+NX) ^32 ITHENPR (A )= 

PR ( A ) "2, 
JQ 3490 FORW=lT04:IF(W=A}OR(CNt 

W)=32)THEN3580 
MB 3500 CUD=FNV(CN(Wj ) :IF( (2*PL 

+CUD)=31)0R{ (2*PL+CUD)= 

15)ANDPL<>STHENPR(A)=PR 

(A)+2 
XS 3510 IF{ (CUD+10+PL)=31)OR( (C 

UD+10+PL)=15)ANDPL<>5TH 

ENPR [A)=PR(A)+3 
EJ 3520 IFSG<>SFTHEN35a0 
CB 3530 IF(CN(A)=CN(W) ) At)D(PL<> 

5}THENPR(A)=PR(A}+4 
CX 3540 IF[PL+CUD3=15THENPR(R)= 

PR (A) +2 
PX 3550 1F[ (CN{A) + 1=CN(W) !OR(CN 
(A)-l"CMtW) ) )ANDCH(A)<> 

5THENPR(A)=PR (A)+3 
DX 3560 IF{(CN{A)+2=CN(W) )OR(CN 
[A)-2=CN (H) ) )ANDCN{fl)<> 

5THENPR(A)=PH(A)+2 
PF 3S70 IFPL<5THENPR (A)=PR(A)+1 
FD 3580 NEXT 
GD 3590 RETURN 
RM 360 TC-C4:TP-H4 
HB 3610 TC=TC+PC+CH 
FM 3620 IFCRTHENTC=TC+RH 
EE 3630 TP=TP+PP+PH 
GR 3640 IFCR=0THENTP"TP+RH 
DF 3650 IFTC>120ORTP>120THENGOS 

UB4170 
KH 3660 RETURN 
AP 3670 REM ROUTINE TO SEE IF C 

OMPUTER CAN PLAY 
CX 3680 DO=0 
DD 3690 F0RE=1T04 



DG 3700 IF{CN(E)=32)OR(TAL+FNV{ 

CN(E) )>31)THEN3720 
BS 3710 DU=1 
DP 3720 NEXT 
JP 3730 RETURN 
HQ 3740 REM ROUTINE TO SEE IF P 

ERSON CAN PLAi 
ED 3750 DU=0 
CH 3760 FORE"1T04 
RX 3770 IF{PN(E)=32)OR (TAL+FNV( 

PN (E) )>31)THEN379a 
FE 3780 DU=1 
XB 3790 NEXT 
PX 3800 RETURN 
MQ 3810 F0RWE=1T0I 
XH 3820 SY-.8:SX=(WE-1) *4:GOSUB3 

960 

HA 3S30 NEXT 

GA 384 RETURN 

CS 38 50 REM DRAW CARD OUTLINE 

KB 3860 PRINT'MBLU}" 

HE 3370 CHAR1,SX,SV:PRIKT" U***1 
II 

SE 3880 F0RHI=1T05:CHAR1,SX,SY+ 

HI:PRINT"-U SPACES)-"! 

NEXT 
AJ 3890 CHARl,SX,SY-»6iPRIHT"J** 

^" 
EF 3900 RETURN 

XA 3910 REM DRAW NUMBER I, SUIT 
MH 3920 CHAR1,SX+1,SY+1:PRINTNU 

S 
KP 3930 CHAR1,SX+2,SY+3:PRINTSU 

$ 
QB 3940 CHRRl,SX+5-LEK(MU5) ,SY+ 

SSPHJNTNUS 
DK 3950 RETURN 
CH 3960 REM DRAW CARD BACKS 
BE 3979 PRINT" i RED} ":FORHI-IT05 

:CHAR1,SX+1,SY+HI:PRINT 

"{3 +}":NEXT 
QM 3980 RETURN 
FE 3990 REM BLANK OUT CARD 
CX 4000 FORHI=0TO6:CHAR1,SX,SY+ 

HI:PRINT"(5 SPACEST'iNE 

XT 
EP 4010 RETURN 
XQ 4020 REM NUMBER CARDS 
DM 4030 PRINT"{1J":CHAR1,SX+1,S 

Y+7SPRINTNM 
RO 4 040 RETURN 
DQ 4050 CHARl,SX+2,SY+7: PRINT" 

is PACE}" 
DX 4060 RETURN 

RC 4070 REM OPENING DISPLAY 
GS 4080 PRINTCHR${14B+I) 
BC 4090 F0RHI=1T05;READNU5:CHAR 

1,SX+1,SY+HI!PRINTCHRS ( 

18)+NU5:NEXT 
EC 4100 RETURN 
RP 4110 C1=C1+CH:H1-H1+PH 
EK 4120 IFCRTHENC2=C2+RH 
SS 4130 IFCR=0THENHZ=H2+RH 
FD 4140 C3-C3+PC:H3=H3+PP 
SM 4150 C4=C3+C2+C1:H4='H3+H2+H1 
CH 4160 RETURN 
FJ 4170 G0SUB41la 
PH 4180 IFH4<61THENCZ=CZ+ t3*(12 

1-H4)) :GC-GC+3:GOTO4230 
GB 4190 1FH4<91THENCZ=CZ+ (2* (12 

1-H4)) :GC=GC+2:GOTO4230 
DC 4200 IFC4<61THENPZ = PZ+ {3*(12 

1-C4)) ;GP=GP+3:GOTO4230 
ED 4210 IFC4<91THENPZ=PZ+ (2*(12 

1-C4) ) !GP=GP+2:GOTO42 30 
CB 4220 IFC4>120THEHCZ-CZ+121-H 

4:GC"'GC + 1:ELSEP2-PZ+121 

-C4:GP=GP+1 
CS 4230 GOSUB3200 
CC 4240 CHARl,B,23:PRINT"(REDi 

15 SPACES }GAME OVER - " 

SJ 4250 IFC4>120THENPRINT"COMPU 
TER HAS WON."!SLEEP5:G0 
TO42a0 

CP 4260 PRINTBD$;" HAS WON 1 M " : 



JQ 4270 



RK 4280 



KG 42 90 



KK 4300 
KF 4310 
SC 4 32 
DC 43 3 

HD 43 4 



PD 43 50 



ME 4360 



SLEEP5 

IF(H4<61)OR(C4<61)THENC 

HAR1,0,23:PRINT" 

{5 SPACES}DOUBLE SKUNK 

(SPACE)- TRIPLE POINTS 

[6 SPACES)"; SLEEPS! GOTO 

4 2 90 

IF(H4<91)OR(C4<91)THENC 

HARl, 0,23 SPRINT" 

{8 SPACBS)SKUNK - DOUBL 

E POINTS (10 SPACES) ":SL 

EEP5 

CHAR1,0,23:PRINT" 

(a SPACES)ANOTHER GAME? 

(2 SPACES) (Y/N) 

{11 SPACES)" 

GETKEYAS 

IFAS- "Y "THENO V-1 : RETURN 

IFA5-'"N"THENEND 

GOTO4300 

IFER=3 0THENRESUME:ELSEP 

RINTERR5 (ER); " ERROR IN 

LINE";EL 
DATA"£ t*>"," (RIGHT) 
(SPACE)"," {2 RIGHT)"," 

(RIGHT) ","tOFF){*} 
(RVE) 10FF)£"," 
12 SPACES) {*>"," 
(RIGHT) tOFF)£"," 
(2 SPACES) f*y"," 
(RIGHT) "," (RIGHT) "," 
(3 SPACES)"," I RIGHT) 
(RIGHT) "/'(RIGHT) 
(RIGHT)", "(RIGHT) 
(RIGHT)","(3 SPACES]"," 
(2 SPACES){*>"," 
(RIGHT) (OFF)£"," 
(2 SPACES) (*T"," 
(RIGHT) ","(2 SPACES) 
)OFF)£" 

DATA" (2 SPACES )<*>"," 
(RIGHT}(OFF)E",'' 
(2 SPACES} {*y"," 
(RIGHT) ","(2 SPACES) 
(OFF)e","£ {*>"," 
(RIGHT} ","(3 SPACES}", 
" (RIGHT) "," (RIGHT} " 
,"£ {*}"," (2 RIGHT}", 
" 1 "," (RIGHT) "," 
(OFF}{*KRVS) (OFF)£", 
"(3 SPACES)"," 
(2 RIGHT) ","(2 SPACES) 
(RIGHT)"," (2 RIGHT}"," 
(3 SPACES)" 



Zoom 

See instructions in article on page 
68 before typing in. 

Program 1: Zoom— 64 Vfersion 



C000: 


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74 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1938 



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18 


69 


38 


85 


FB 


90 


C308 


.FC 


E6 


FC 


60 


A9 


00 


C310 


8D 


B9 


02 


8D 


SA 


02 


C318 


•02 


8D 


65 


C4 


AS 


21 


C320 


:85 


FB 


A9 


04 


85 


PS 


C328 


85 


FC 


A0 


00 


A2 


00 


C330 


•8D 


BB 


02 


A9 


00 


AC 


C338 


•91 


FB 


AC 


B9 


02 


Bl 


C340 


B0 


F0 


0A 


AC 


BA 


02 


C34 8 


0D 


BB 


02 


91 


FB 


AC 


C350 


A5 


FB 


8D 


A9 


02 


20 


C358 


AD 


65 


C4 


C9 


03 


D0 



EE 


62 


EA 


AF 


C0 


A3 


AD 


5F 


9D 


03 


EE 


43 


8D 


63 


A4 


AD 


61 


43 


63 


03 


ED 


62 


03 


36 


03 


A9 


4C 


64 


03 


A7 


65 


03 


68 


8D 


65 


C7 


65 


03 


53 


CI 


8D 


15 


22 


AD 


BB 


Bl 


21 


72 


50 


C2 


62 


09 


A0 


BF 


91 


21 


B4 


01 


SD 


44 


8D 


50 


77 


69 


01 


55 


80 


SO 


D5 


E9 


01 


C6 


5C 


03 


10 


03 


60 


77 


5C 


03 


52 


01 


BO 


41 


8D 


5C 


E5 


03 


C9 


36 


F0 


0S 


52 


20 


28 


3A 


20 


4B 


a6 


A9 


64 


8E 


SB 


03 


5A 


0E 


D0 


E5 


C2 


C9 


18 


4C 


2E 


C2 


91 


CI 


C3 


06 


20 


S2 


06 


D0 


AC 


CI 


4C 


6F 


20 


62 


2C 


C2 


C9 


37 


20 


72 


46 


D0 


06 


A9 


A5 


C5 


F7 


C2 


C9 


07 


D0 


03 


D2 


03 


20 


3D 


D0 


CI 


6D 


FD 


E8 


ID 


A9 


00 


FS 


SA 


02 


33 


A5 


21 


A2 


95 


FE 


A0 


A2 


00 


24 


20 


91 


F0 


02 


Bl 


8D 


02 


F0 


E3 


B3 


C2 


52 


DE 


20 


C4 


0C 


C3 


46 


02 


C0 


65 


BB 


02 


49 


01 


60 


87 


FB 


18 


67 


E6 


FC 


D4 


A2 


00 


39 


FB 


B0 


D5 


AD 


A8 


01 


A9 


00 


D6 


A5 


FB 


24 


02 


E6 


SA 


8 5 


FD 


C3 


8D 


A8 


87 


29 


F8 


F9 


AS 


22 


74 


A9 


80 


AE 


BA 


02 


72 


FD 


29 


b4 


Bl 


FB 


SD 


B9 


02 


A6 


B3 


C2 


B0 


07 


20 


CE 



C3G0 
C368 
C370 
C37B 
C380 
C38a 
C390 
C398 
C3A0 
C3A8 
C3B0 
C3Be 
C3C0 
C3C8 
C3D0 
C3D8 
C3E0 
C3E8 
C3F0 
C3Fa 
C400 
C408 
C410 
C418 
C420 
C428 
C430 
C4 3B 
C440 
C448 
C450 
C458 
C460 
C46B 
C470 
C478 
C480 
C48B 
C490 
C498 
C4A0 
C4A8 
C4B0 
C4B8 
C4C0 
C4C8 
C4D0 
C4D8 
C4E0 
C4E8 
C4F0 
C4F8 
C500 
CS08 
C510 
C518 
C520 
C528 
C530 
C53 8 
C540 
C54 8 
C5S0 
C558 
CS60 
C568 



:2B C0 20 

CO A9 02 

A9 00 20 

:C4 A0 00 

:04 20 50 

:29 0F C9 

:C4 4C 7B 

:20 F0 C3 

:D0 09 20 

:4C 7B C3 

:26 C4 4C 

:09 20 08 

:7B C3 C9 

:C4 4C 7B 

:20 08 C4 

:C3 C9 0B 

:4C 7B C3 

:44 C4 20 

:AS FB 38 

:0B CG FC 

:03 20 5C 

:A5 FB 18 

:02 E6 FC 

:09 A 5 FB 

:5C C4 20 

:18 69 01 

!FC A5 FC 

:FB C9 C0 

:20 67 C4 

:01 85 FB 

SFC C9 03 

:20 67 C4 

:A9 F5 85 

:FB 80 66 

:20 50 C2 

:A5 C5 C9 

:D0 04 A9 

:D0 04 A9 

:04 C0 4C 

;41 4D 4 5 

:52 41 50 

;4F 20 53 

:00 A2 00 

:F0 07 20 

:C4 A0 00 

:07 C8 C9 

:07 A9 08 

:BA FF AD 

:07 20 BD 

;A9 20 85 

:A0 3F 20 

:A9 01 8D 

:60 20 04 

:0E 4e 41 

:20 46 49 

: 20 4C 4F 

:A2 00 86 

:07 20 02 

:A0 00 20 

:Ce C9 0D 

:A9 08 A2 

:FF AD E8 

:20 BD FF 

!A2 FF A0 

:01 BD 03 

: 28 C0 60 



4B C0 60 
F0 CD 4C 
4B C0 60 
A5 C5 C9 
C2 60 AD 
0F 00 06 
C3 C9 0E 
4C 7B C3 
Ffl C3 20 
C9 07 D0 
7B C3 C9 
C4 20 26 
0D D0 06 
CJ C9 09 
20 44 C4 
D0 06 20 
C9 0A D0 
F0 C3 4C 
E9 28 85 
A5 FC C9 
C4 20 67 
69 28 as 
AS FC C9 
C9 C0 90 
67 C4 60 

85 FB 90 
C9 07 90 
90 03 20 
60 AS FB 

B0 0B ce 

D0 3 20 
60 A9 05 
FB 60 00 
C4 A9 5B 
AD 66 C4 

40 F0 10 
A0 91 FB 
20 91 FB 
Bl C4 93 
20 4F 46 
48 49 43 

41 56 45 

86 C6 BD 
D2 FF E8 
20 CF FF 
0D D0 F5 
A2 08 A0 
E8 07 A2 
FF A9 00 
23 A9 22 
08 FF 20 
03 C0 20 
C0 4C 20 
4D 45 20 
4C 45 20 
41 44 3A 
C6 BD 07 
FF E8 4C 
CF FF 99 
D0 F5 8C 
08 A0 FF 
07 A2 EB 
20 28 C0 
FF 20 05 
C0 20 4B 
00 00 00 



AS FB B3 
3 3 C3 SA 
20 5C A9 

01 D0 0D 
00 DC DE 
20 67 08 
D0 06 67 
C9 06 2E 
26 C4 95 
06 20 Fl 

05 D0 DD 
C4 4C 89 
20 08 E7 

D0 09 as 

4C 7B 4E 
44 C4 21 

06 20 42 
7B C3 E0 
FB B0 EF 
03 D0 97 
C4 60 73 
FB 90 DC 

07 90 FB 
03 20 lA 
A5 FB 7 2 

02 E6 9D 
09 AS 10 
SC C4 69 
38 E9 C9 
FC AS SI 
SC C4 4E 
85 FC D3 
00 Bl 61 
91 FB 46 
91 FB B6 
C9 2C 0B 
C9 2F Fl 
60 20 10 
0E 4E CF 
20 4 7 OB 
20 54 IE 
3A 20 BC 
95 C4 68 
4C B5 9F 
99 EB 74 
ac EB 72 
FF 20 56 
EB A0 3F 
85 22 28 
A2 FF 4D 
28 C0 BD 
4B C0 57 
C5 93 52 
4F 46 BA 
S4 4F CD 
20 00 10 
G5 F0 C0 
24 C5 20 
EB 07 52 
E8 07 04 
2 BA 77 
A0 07 D9 
A9 08 F4 
FF A9 4B 
C0 20 0C 
00 00 44 



Program 2: Zoom— 128 \fersion 



13 0: 
130B: 
1310: 
1318: 
1320: 
1328: 
1330; 
1338; 
13 4 0: 
1348: 
1350; 
1358; 
1360; 
136B: 
1370; 
1378; 
1380! 



4C 70 

4C 59 

5 9 SB 

08 85 

00 84 

91 FB 

F4 E6 

08 90 

AE A0 

43 17 

■13 4E 

4B 17 

SD 4D 

80 4E 

80 4F 

F0 15 

80 4F 



14 00 A9 
Gb A9 01 
A 9 01 8D 
FE A9 04 
FB 84 FD 
A9 00 91 
FC E6 FE 
EA 60 D2 
C2 C9 OB 
80 4 9 17 
4 9 17 6A 
AD 4C 17 
17 AD 4C 
17 AE 
17 80 
AD 4F 17 
17 90 03 



4D 
50 



00 85 
85 D8 
21 D0 
85 FC 
AD 3 
FD CB 
AS FC 
AE A0 
C2 D9 
AD 4A 
4A 4A 
4A 4A 
17 29 
17 A9 

17 E0 

18 6 9 
EE 50 



OS 5F 
4C CE 
A9 3F 
A0 57 
13 EE 
D0 32 
G9 EA 
CA 47 
AD 0E 
17 B9 
80 4F 
4A 25 
7 76 
00 00 
00 80 
40 33 
17 B8 



1388; 


1390! 


1398: 


13A0: 


13A8: 


13B0: 


13B8: 


13C0: 


13C8! 


13D0: 


13D8: 


13E0: 


13B8: 


13F0! 


13F8: 


1400: 


140B: 


1410: 


1418: 


1420: 


1428: 


1430: 


1438: 


1440: 


1448: 


1450: 


1458: 


1460: 


1468: 


1470: 


1478: 


1480: 


1488: 


1490: 


1498: 


14A0: 


14A8: 


14B0: 


14B8: 


14C0: 


14C8: 


14D0: 


14D8: 


14E0: 


14E8; 


14F0: 


14F8: 


1500: 


1508: 


1510! 


1518: 


1520: 


1528; 


1530: 


1539: 


1S40: 


1548: 


1550: 


1558: 


1560: 


1568: 


1570! 


1578: 


1580: 


isaa: 


1590: 


1598: 


15A0: 


ISAB! 


15B0: 


15B8: 


1SC0: 


15C8: 


15D0: 


1SD8: 


15E0: 


15E8! 


15F0: 


15F8: 


1600: 


1608: 


1610! 


1618: 


1620: 


1628: 



EE 50 

51 17 

18 0A 

17 18 
90 03 

18 60 
03 EE 
60 52 
18 60 
4A 17 
07 38 
A9 01 

05 0A 
17 AD 
17 85 
54 17 
00 DC 
Bl 21 
AD 4C 
17 B0 
60 AD 
B8 90 
60 AD 
4A 17 

06 A9 
00 80 
AD 4A 

17 90 
4C 7C 

90 0A 
IF 80 
A 9 01 
A9 00 
4C 17 
00 DC 
20 18 
00 06 
C9 07 
F5 14 
14 4C 
20 18 
14 C9 

20 58 
D0 09 
4C F5 

18 14 
0C D0 
D0 01 

14 A2 
Ea D0 
00 85 
17 8D 

21 29 
FE AS 
00 A9 

91 FD 
Bl FB 
F0 04 

15 AD 
20 04 
IS 4C 
C0 00 

17 18 
60 A9 

18 69 
FC EB 
00 A 5 
B0 02 
57 17 
00 80 
FB 18 
E6 FC 
FD 80 
57 17 
F8 85 

22 85 
80 8D 
17 91 
29 80 
FB 0D 
17 A5 
15 AO 
20 0B 
FB CD 
15 A9 



17 CA 
8E 52 

0A 0A 
6D 4E 
EE S2 

51 17 

52 17 
17 8D 
52 17 
29 07 
ED 53 
A2 00 
E8 4C 
52 17 

21 A0 
91 21 
29 10 
4D 34 
17 38 
05 A9 
4C 17 

02 A9 
4A 17 
B0 13 
00 8D 
4A 17 
17 18 
08 A9 
14 AD 
AO 4 8 
4A 17 
BD 3 
8D 48 
A9 A0 
29 0F 
14 4C 
20 29 
D0 06 
C9 0B 
F5 14 
14 20 
5 D0 
14 4C 
20 29 
14 C9 
20 39 

03 4C 
60 20 
CD A0 
FA 60 
FD 8D 
57 17 
F8 85 

22 85 
80 8D 
8C 55 
AC 55 
A 9 A0 
IE 17 
13 20 
97 14 
00 02 
4A SD 
80 3D 
08 85 
E0 5 
FB 38 
C6 FC 
C9 08 

57 17 
69 38 
E6 FC 
5S 17 
80 IE 
FB A9 
FC A0 

58 17 
FB AC 
F0 0A 

58 17 
FB 80 
IE 17 
13 20 

59 17 
00 20 



4C 76 

17 AD 

90 3 
17 80 
17 AD 
8D SI 
AD 50 
5 2 17 
80 52 
80 53 
17 BD 
EC 53 
E4 13 
85 22 
00 Bl 
20 09 
F0 09 

17 91 
E9 01 

00 80 

18 69 
B7 8D 
38 E9 

AD 4 a 

48 17 

BD 48 

69 01 

01 8D 
4A 17 
17 F0 
60 20 

13 20 
17 a9 
80 4A 
C9 0E 
F5 14 

14 4C 
20 58 
00 06 
C9 06 
58 14 
09 20 
FS 14 
14 20 
0A D0 
14 A5 
14 15 
47 13 
00 C8 
20 29 
55 17 
8D IE 
FB A9 
FC A0 
58 17 
17 AC 
17 2D 

91 FD 
C9 03 
2F 16 
C8 8C 
E6 FE 
58 17 

58 17 
FB 90 
F0 01 
E9 27 
EE 57 
F0 01 
EE IE 
35 FB 
60 A9 
8D 56 
17 A5 
04 85 
00 A2 
A9 00 
SS 17 
AC 56 
91 FB 

59 17 
C9 03 
12 13 
F0 CD 
12 13 



13 8E BA 
4B 17 39 
EE 52 EF 
SI 17 93 
4F 17 FF 
n 90 4a 
17 18 CC 
A9 20 50 
17 AD A3 
17 A9 09 
53 17 30 
17 F0 44 
BD 54 08 
AD 51 2B 
21 40 90 

15 AD 5 9 
A0 00 7A 
21 60 E9 
80 4C 4B 
4C 17 21 
01 C9 19 
4C 17 57 

01 BD AF 
17 F0 48 
60 A9 BF 
17 60 B2 
8D 4A 03 
48 17 B9 
C9 20 95 
5 A 9 CD 
0B 13 FA 
12 13 EF 
64 SD 71 
17 AD 55 
00 06 3C 
C9 00 C6 
F5 14 23 

14 4C D0 

2 3 9 E2 
00 09 17 
4C F5 2D 
29 14 52 
C9 09 BB 
39 14 Fl 
06 20 93 
D4 C9 6C 
C9 48 51 
4C 97 97 
D0 FD 6B 

16 A9 C3 
BD 56 B4 

17 A5 4E 
04 85 B8 
00 A2 EC 
A9 20 48 
56 17 C8 
58 17 6A 
20 GC 64 
D0 DE 88 

20 C5 D7 
55 17 9E 
AD 5 8 IC 
B0 01 07 
AS FB 94 
02 E6 7F 
60 A2 CE 
85 FB 22 
17 AD FC 
60 A9 F3 
17 A5 5E 
90 02 06 
00 85 79 
17 8D F2 

21 29 BA 
FE A6 D4 
00 A9 5B 
AC 56 30 
Bl FD BD 
17 Bl 35 
AC 55 15 
2 6C 55 
D0 07 6A 
60 A5 BE 
4C EC 9E 
60 20 09 



COMPUJEl's Gazette August 1988 75 



1630: 


IS 


17 


A0 


00 


AS 


D4 


1633: 


D0 


04 


20 


09 


15 


60 


1643: 


DC 


29 


0F 


C9 


0F 


D0 


1643: 


20 


17 


4C 


34 


16 


C9 


1650: 


06 


20 


ft 9 


16 


4C 


34 


1658: 


06 


D0 


09 


20 


A9 


16 


1660: 


16 


4C 


34 


16 


C9 


07 


1668: 


20 


DF 


16 


4C 


34 


16 


1670 


D0 


09 


20 


CI 


16 


20 


1678- 


4C 


34 


16 


C9 


0D 


D0 


1680 


CI 


16 


4C 


34 


16 


C9 


1688: 


09 


20 


CI 


16 


20 


FD 


1690: 


34 


16 


C9 


0B 


DO 


06 


16 98- 


16 


4C 


34 


16 


C9 


0A 


16A0 


20 


FD 


16 


20 


A9 


16 


16A3 


16 


A5 


FB 


38 


E9 


28 


16B0 


B0 


00 


C6 


FC 


A5 


FC 


16R8 


D0 


03 


20 


15 


17 


20 


16C3 


60 


A5 


FB 


18 


69 


28 


16C8 


90 


02 


E6 


FC 


A5 


FC 


16D0 


90 


09 


AS 


F8 


C9 


C0 


1606 


20 


15 


17 


20 


20 


17 


16E0 


•FB 


18 


69 


01 


35 


FB 


16E8 


E6 


FC 


hS 


FC 


C9 


07 


16F0 


.A5 


FB 


C9 


C0 


90 


03 


16F8 


17 


20 


20 


17 


60 


A5 


1700 


E9 


01 


85 


FD 


B0 


0B 


1708 


A5 


FC 


C9 


03 


D0 


03 


1710 


17 


20 


20 


17 


60 


A9 


1718 


FC 


A9 


F5 


05 


FB 


60 


1720 


:B1 


FB 


8D 


IF 


17 


A9 


1728 


.FB 


20 


09 


IB 


AD 


IF 


1730 


:FB 


A5 


D4 


C9 


40 


F0 


1738 


:2C 


D0 


04 


A9 


A0 


91 


1740 


!2F 


D0 


04 


A9 


20 


91 


1748 


:0S 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


1750 


:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


1758 


:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 



BB Barrage 

See itistructions in article on page 
30 before iypiug in. 

Program 1: BB Barrage 



C000: 

C008; 

C010; 

C018 

C020 

C02 8 

C030 

C038 

C040 

C043 

C050 

C05a 

C060 
C068 
C070 
C078 
C080 
C08 8 
C090 
C09e 
CflA0 
C0fi8 
C0B0 
C0B8 
C0C0 
C0C8 
C0D0 
C0D8 
C0E0 
C0E8 
C0F0 
C0F8 
C100 
C108 
C110 
C113 
C120 



4C 0F 
C7 4C 
93 20 
E3 C7 
11 D0 
IS D0 
;F6 Cft 
00 SD 
;C0 A9 
ca D0 
47 C0 
C2 A2 
99 00 
IE 99 



80 
9D 



!3F A9 

:a3 CA 

:CA 9D 

:01 3D 

:07 A2 

:03 CA 

:07 AD 

:00 A2 

:81 9D 

:F4 CA 

:CA E0 

:9D 7A 

!7C BD 

:56 C9 

:BD 61 

:DC A0 

:C7 A0 

:C7 A2 

:1D 7 9 

:24 C3 

:20 E4 FF C9 



C8 4C 
7F C8 
n2 FF 
AD 11 
AD 18 
A9 00 
85 Al 
46 C0 
80 A0 
FA AE 
E0 4 
3F A0 
IE 9D 
40 IF 
99 C0 
IF C3 
00 9D 
10 F7 
40 03 
15 D0 
31 BD 
10 F7 
FD Cft 
00 9D 
76 7F 
Cft A9 

02 D0 
7B BD 
5E C9 
90 6F 
C9 9D 

00 3C 

01 BC 

03 3E 
A9 19 
20 42 



17 C0 
20 7F 
20 7F 
D0 09 
D0 09 
8D F5 
20 35 
A9 20 
00 99 
47 C0 
00 EF 
00 BD 
30 IF 
20 IE 
IF 9D 
CA 10 
40 03 
A2 19 
CA 10 
A9 0D 
3A CA 
A9 aE 
8D 27 
7C 79 
E8 D0 
80 9D 
F8 BD 
53 C9 
9D 7C 
86 8E 
7B 7A 

18 79 
18 79 
IC 79 
8D D2 
C6 20 
86 D0 



C9 


01 


D5 


AD 


00 


E7 


06 


20 


8B 


0E 


D0 


DB 


16 


C9 


47 


20 


DF 


A4 


D0 


06 


A4 


C9 


05 


B6 


DF 


16 


6E 


06 


20 


0F 


09 


D0 


9A 


16 


4C 


4C 


20 


FD 


2 3 


D0 


06 


E3 


4C 


34 


93 


85 


FB 


43 


C9 


03 


58 


20 


17 


F3 


8S 


FB 


7A 


C9 


07 


26 


90 


03 


71 


60 


A5 


03 


90 


02 


3D 


90 


09 


E0 


20 


15 


LA 


FB 


38 


P7 


ce 


FC 


10 


20 


IS 


99 


05 


85 


80 


00 


00 


A7 


SB 


91 


71 


17 


91 


78 


10 


C9 


AC 


FB 


C9 


D8 


FB 


60 


F4 


00 


00 


76 


00 


00 


7B 


00 


00 


86 


on 


page 


AC 


E3 


90 


ca 


A9 


37 


C8 


20 


6E 


20 


3D 


BC 


03 


3D 


DD 


CA 


8D 


96 


C2 


A9 


F0 


8D 


47 


22 


21 


79 


!33 


E3 


8E 


4ft 


20 


CE 


IB 


AD 


C9 


Fl 


9D 


40 


48 


C3 


99 


F3 


C0 


IE 


08 


DE 


A2 


30 


9D 


80 


AF 


BD 


20 


D4 


F7 


ft9 


47 


SD 


FB 


43 


9D 


80 


09 


8D 


F9 


7ft 


D0 


A9 


El 


9D 


74 


36 


F4 


AE 


54 


74 


31 


50 


50 


C9 


66 


9D 


79 


89 


79 


BD 


08 


18 


79 


CA 


CA 


10 


29 


20 


09 


C9 


20 


09 


68 


ES 


8S 


88 


C3 


20 


ft6 


BB 


CI 


B6 


03 


AD 


BE 



C123: 

C130: 

C138: 

C140; 

C148; 

CI50; 

C1S8: 

C160; 

C168: 

C170: 

C178: 

C180; 

C188i 

C190: 

CI 98: 

C1A0; 

C1A8: 

C1B0; 

C1B8; 

C1C0: 

C1C8; 

C1D0: 

C1D8; 

C1E0: 

C1E8; 

C1F0; 

CIFB: 

C200: 

C208; 

C210; 

C218; 

C220 

C228; 

C230: 

C238: 

C240: 

C248: 

C250 

C2S8; 

C260: 

C268: 

C270; 

C27e: 

C2a0: 

C288; 

C290 

C298: 

C2A0 

C2A9; 

C2B0: 

C2Ba 

C2C0; 

C2C3; 

C2D0 

C 2D 8 ; 

C2E0 

C2E8: 

C2F0; 

C2F3: 

C300 

C308: 

C3I0 

C318 

C320: 

C32e: 

C330: 

C339; 

C340; 

C348: 

C350 

C358; 

C360; 

C368: 

C370; 

C378; 

C380; 

C383; 

C390; 

C398; 

C3A0 

C3A8; 

C3B0; 

C3B8; 

C3C0! 

C3C8; 



SD C9 
5D C9 
D9 CD 
CA CA 
76 7F 
90 9D 
E9 20 
A0 8D 
DO A9 
8D 2 8 
8D ID 
8D 10 
DO F9 
0F C9 
IS D0 
A9 00 
29 F7 
2 9 DF 
D2 FF 
A2 02 
74 81 
70 85 
D0 90 
3D 10 
D0 29 

84 18 
FF CA 
12 BD 
73 7D 
9D 77 

01 C8 
B9 F5 
79 99 
79 29 
A2 3C 
DE C4 
7C 79 
A9 00 
9D 74 
60 4S 
90 16 
79 28 
79 60 
28 68 
F8 CA 
C2 ft9 
8D 7A 
AD FC 
CB 8D 
20 8D 
9D 00 
8D 13 
fi9 90 
C8 A9 
3D 19 
C9 85 

85 FC 

19 79 
AD FB 
DD BB 
8A 91 
CE 19 
10 BC 
18 69 
18 79 
79 E0 
D0 F0 

20 8F 
81 D0 
C3 60 
9D 77 
9D 6F 
9D 7A 
4C BB 
9D 79 

78 7D 
7B 7A 
00 9D 
8E ID 
C3 7D 
12 BD 

79 C9 
DE 74 
17 7D 

2 4 BD 



49 01 
DO EC 
F7 CA 
BD 74 
F0 08 
74 31 

85 C2 

02 D0 

03 8D 
DO ft9 
D0 AD 
D0 20 
20 G4 

59 00 
20 7F 
8D 15 
8D 18 
8D 11 

60 A9 
20 7E 
D0 48 
18 69 
0B AD 
DO 4C 
FE 8D 
69 33 
F0 17 
7 3 7D 
BD 77 
7E 60 
B9 64 
CA IB 
F5 CA 

07 48 
20 01 
ft2 02 
BD 50 
9D 78 
81 A9 

08 20 
4A 4A 
30 06 
68 33 
A9 00 
90 05 
00 8D 
7D AD 
CA 8D 
IE 79 

00 C9 
D4 CA 
D4 A9 
8D 12 
18 8D 
79 AE 
FB 8 5 
38 E9 
Bl FD 
CA 91 
CA F0 
FB 30 
79 10 
60 3B 

01 60 
AE 18 

02 F0 
20 7E 
C4 20 
DF 20 
BD 77 
7E BD 

86 4C 
7B A9 
C3 A9 
7C 4C 
30 ID 
90 2F 
7C 7 9 
79 FE 
7B 7A 
7C 79 
01 B0 

81 la 
79 7C 

7ft 7H 



90 SD 
AD 20 
F0 21 
81 D0 
20 8F 
CA E0 
4C 12 
A9 72 
15 D0 

02 8D 
10 DO 
E4 FF 
FF C9 
FS A9 
CB 4C 
00 AD 

00 AD 
D0 A9 
18 9D 
C3 ft0 
20 B4 
0C 0ft 
10 DO 
EE CI 
10 DO 
8D 01 
AD IB 
20 61 
7E 20 
BD 70 
C9 8D 
6 9 01 
29 0F 
20 B4 
C9 A2 
BD 5E 
C9 90 
7D 9D 
FF 9D 
IB C3 
4ft 4ft 

68 18 
6D 21 
60 AS 
Fa 03 
20 79 
F9 CA 
20 D0 
80 IF 
A2 19 
10 FA 
FF 30 
D4 60 
lA 79 
lA 79 
FD BD 
04 85 
48 AD 
FD 68 
a3 CA 

03 20 
C6 CE 

01 60 
AE F4 
79 CA 
IC BO 
C3 20 
3D CS 
26 C4 
7E 20 
6F 86 
BB C3 
FF 9D 
00 9D 
BB C3 
7D 7B 
BD 7C 
C9 27 
74 81 
90 7B 
E9 00 
06 9E 
BD 77 
9D 7 9 

69 00 



C9 


AD 


29 


79 


FO 


3F 


AE 


F4 


26 


0D 


BD 


02 


C4 


A9 


F7 


02 


D0 


D0 


CI 


ft9 


8D 


8D 


03 


1ft 


A9 


07 


3E 


17 


00 


BE 


29 


FD 


13 


C9 


80 


A5 


4E 


F0 


F9 


01 


8D 


2C 


17 


C0 


3D 


13 


DO 


3A 


11 


D0 


22 


93 


20 


F7 


02 


C3 


AC 


00 


BD 


60 


C4 


BD 


A0 


8D 


00 


2B 


09 


01 


FB 


AD 


10 


F7 


BD 


71 


88 


00 


AD 


DC 


04 


30 


72 


C2 


9D 


BE 


61 


C2 


S2 


85 


10 


E2 


19 


79 


FO 


8D 


20 


65 


8D 


lA 


F6 


C2 


68 


E3 


05 


20 


35 


C9 


90 


73 


7A 


7a 


5C 


77 


7E 


B5 


70 


85 


71 


C9 


02 


A8 


8D 


21 


61 


ED 


21 


C3 


79 


60 


A6 


Al 


CD 


14 


20 


CE 


42 


9S 


Al 


4E 


85 


A2 


B6 


AD 


aa 


0E 


79 


A9 


58 


A9 


00 


0F 


A9 


0A 


IE 


0F 


D4 


71 


20 


7F 


FD 


ft9 


27 


32 


BD 


ED 


AS 


07 


CA 


44 


FE 


AC 


7D 


IB 


D4 


7B 


A2 


04 


Al 


10 


F8 


2A 


DE 


C4 


D6 


lA 


79 


94 


49 


FF 


02 


Cft 


3E 


Al 


8E 


18 


9D 


74 


81 


3E 


B4 


C4 


ID 


BD 


74 


47 


4C 


2A 


C9 


IE 


C3 


75 


49 


7F 


DF 


ft9 


17 


7F 


7A 


7B 


4E 


7A 


7B 


07 


18 


BD 


5C 


7A 


9D 


E7 


79 


69 


AD 


90 


23 


D5 


4C 


BB 


CB 


7A 


B0 


01 


90 


7C 


D6 


IC 


79 


AE 


7E 


30 


77 


7C 

9D 


90 
7A 


86 

09 



C3D0; 

C3De; 

C3E0 

C3E3; 

C3F0; 

C3F3; 

C4a0; 

C408 

C410; 

C418 

C420 

C428 

C430 

C438 

C440 

C448 

C450 

C458 

C460 

C463 

C47a 

C478 

C480 

C433 

C490 

C4 98 

C4ftO 

C4A8 

C4B0 

C4Q8 

C4C0 

C4C8 

C4D0 

C4D8 

C4E0 

C4E8 

C4F0 

C4F8 

C500 

C50 3 

CS10 

C518 

C520 

CS28 

CS30 

C538 

C54fl 

C548 

C550 

C558 

CS60 

C568 

C570 

C578 

csao 

C588 
C590 
C59B 
CSftO 
C5AB 
C5B0 
53 8 
C5C0 
CSC 3 

csoa 

C5Da 
C5E0 
C5E8 
CSF0 
C5F8 
C60O 
C608 
C610 
C618 
C620 
C628 
C630 
C638 
C640 
C648 
C6S0 
C658 
C66B 
C66B 
C670 



;7B C9 
;70 79 
:BD 7A 
;10 03 
:7B A8 
:03 1.8 
:75 80 
:69 
!71 84 
:BD 70 
!C9 11 
:7B AB 
:a8 18 
:7S 80 
:69 00 
;71 94 
;BD 70 
!3D 9D 
:A5 Al 
:09 AE 
!7F 60 
:80 8d 
:31 FB 
:18 79 
:76 7F 
:FE BO 
:83 AB 
:F0 BD 
!9D 76 
:0A OA 
:4A 4A 
:84 BD 
sBD 7B 
:05 02 
:0A 0A 
:0A 08 
:B9 66 
!FB U9 
:O0 3S 
: 91 FB 
:e0 03 
:79 28 
:C9 80 
:79 4C 
:C9 80 
!79 AD 
:38 ED 
:8D 21 
!73 84 
:0A 6D 
:F0 29 
:79 B9 
:7A 70 
:B9 00 
:7E A9 
: 20 C2 
: IC 7 9 
:C9 F0 
:02 FO 
:F0 05 
:01 20 
:81 B9 
:7C 7 9 
: 90 79 
:7B A9 
:86 90 
! 9D 78 
!7E A9 
:01 CB 
:F4 Cft 
:F0 EC 
:60 A9 
:79 8D 
:B0 06 
: 4A B0 
:79 4A 
:19 7 9 
: BE 19 
:79 60 
: 18 79 
:79 49 
:09 C6 
:0D B9 
:99 6F 
:86 IB 



9d 
03 



19 90 18 

7C 9D 79 

7B E9 00 

4C 52 C3 

BD 7C 79 

79 66 C9 

B9 80 C9 

85 FC 9D 

29 07 90 

85 29 07 

FB 91 FB 

BD 7C 79 

79 66 C9 
B9 30 C9 
35 FC 9D 

29 07 
85 29 
C9 F0 IF 
CD F8 CA 

13 79 A9 
A9 02 8D 
00 C9 BD 
10 9D C9 
6 8 9D 73 
F0 IF BD 
75 80 85 
Bl FO 3D 
74 81 F0 
7F 60 BD 

85 02 BD 
4A 4A 5 
7C 79 0A 
7A OA 2ft 
9D 70 85 
AA ftO 19 
8D 21 79 
C9 18 6D 

80 C9 69 
FC A0 00 
Ea C3 C0 
18 6D 22 

30 10 C9 
BB 15 A9 
39 C5 C9 
90 5 A 9 
23 79 60 
72 35 C9 

79 BD 71 
C9 OA Ba 
21 79 A8 
AS AD 7A 
00 IE 20 
AD 7 9 7E 
IF 20 11 

80 90 74 
ce 60 AC 
Aft BD 74 

14 AE F4 
4C BD 74 
D9 9B C9 
C2 C8 ft9 
7B 7A 9D 
9D 7C 7 9 
7C B9 7A 
00 9D 76 
6F 86 A3 
7D B9 00 
FF 9D 70 
DO FA AD 
B0 F2 AA 
B9 9B C9 

00 8D 19 
IB 7 9 B9 
AE 57 C9 
06 ftE 56 
B0 06 AE 
4A B0 a6 
79 4A BO 
AD 18 04 
A3 20 57 

01 80 18 
AD lA 79 
6F 86 18 

86 4C 7B 
79 SB C9 



4C 52 

7C B0 

9D 7ft 

60 BD 

0A 0A 

3 5 FB 

69 00 

70 7F 
72 83 
AA BD 
60 BO 
0A OA 
85 FD 

69 00 
76 7F 

72 83 
Aft Bl 
20 57 
FO 2 
00 9D 

20 DO 
Al C9 
91 FB 

3 2 6a 

76 7F 

FD BD 

73 82 
05 ft9 
7A 7B 
79 7C 

02 9D 
0A 85 
2A 2 9 
60 8ft 
7 9 flA 
AC lA 

21 79 
00 28 
BD CO 

03 DO 

7 9 BD 
60 90 
60 80 
9F BO 
A0 8D 
BD 70 

08 B0 

84 33 
3 5 0A 
B9 6D 

70 So 
11 C5 
8D 22 
C5 80 
81 A9 
18 79 
81 D9 
CA CA 
81 C9 
DO EF 
00 9D 
7B 7A 
B9 79 
7B 90 
7F B9 
B9 00 
IF 90 

85 60 
IB 04 
BO 74 
90 74 
79 80 
00 DC 
8E 1ft 
C9 BE 
57 C9 
ftE 56 
03 EE 
29 01 
C6 AD 
7 9 A8 
F0 33 
79 59 
C6 B9 
99 6F 



C3 
0D 



OF 

13 



78 OA 
7A 7D 
OA Fl 
90 lA 
28 BF 

no 4A 
AB 6F 
ftS E3 
7A C2 
OA 2B 

90 5 3 
2B F7 
DO 82 
AB A7 
FB 3A 
C7 20 
80 3D 

76 BB 
A9 5F 
4 8 92 
AE SA 
BD 87 
85 91 
72 09 

91 7ft 
00 36 
0A 75 
4ft Bl 
71 CC 

02 B0 

03 57 
0ft EC 
OA EE 

79 69 

85 14 
69 ftO 
Cft 09 
FS C2 
23 DC 

19 7B 
23 25 
09 3E 
23 31 
95 48 
43 10 
ED E9 
0A 09 
CA CD 
22 A5 

80 5F 
7 9 CD 
79 FA 
00 9C 
B9 66 
9B B2 
E0 FD 
30 BC 
A9 FD 
74 A6 
B9 14 
7C 86 
7ft 24 
6F F2 
IE ftF 

77 03 
AD FF 
CO 0B 

81 ftO 
Bl 61 
lA EC 
4A BA 
79 01 
lA BB 
8E 70 
C9 SE 

IB Bl 
8D E4 
18 ft0 

20 FO 
30 99 
C9 SC 
6F F5 

86 46 



76 COMPUTErs Gazette August 1988 



C678 


C0 


00 


F0 


0B 


A9 


80 


19 


6F 


26 


C920:8D 


00 D4 


A 9 


10 


BD 


04 


D4 


43 






ceea 


86 


99 


6F 


86 


4C 


8F 


C6 


A9 


E5 


C928:49 


01 8D 


04 


D4 


AD 


24 


79 


Bl 


DM 


30 


C688 


7F 


39 


6F 


86 


99 


6f 


86 


20 


32 


C930:6S 


A2 8D 


26 


79 


A5 


A2 


CD 


AB 






C6 90 


09 


C7 


AD 


IB 


79 


F0 


11 


AE 


5C 


C938:26 


79 D0 


F9 


AC 


25 


79 


60 


44 


FB 


90 


C69e 


18 


79 


DE 


IE 


79 


Da 


09 


AD 


ID 


C94 0:10 


12 15 


16 


19 


IC 


IF 


21 


PC 






C6A0 


00 


CB 


9D 


IE 


79 


4C 


BC 


C5 


92 


C948:C3 


Dl IF 


60 


IE 


31 


A5 


87 


A4 


PG 


100 


ceAS 


60 


A0 


0F 


A9 


00 


99 


88 


2C 


AE 


C950:0C 


0C 0B 


80 


80 


FF 


40 


C0 


9D 






C6B0 


99 


C8 


2D 


99 


08 


ZF 


99 


48 


F4 


C958: 00 


01 FF 


FF 


01 


00 


01 


26 


SC 


SD 


110 


C6BB 


30 


99 


88 


31 


88 


10 


EE 


A0 


BB 


C 960: 13 


00 80 


00 


27 


00 


00 


40 


07 






C6C0 


01 


AD 


FA 


CA 


99 


91 


05 


99 


FC 


C968:80 


C0 00 


40 


80 


C0 


00 


40 


B7 


XS 


120 


C6CB 


B9 


05 


99 


El 


05 


99 


09 


06 


6C 


C970: 80 


C0 00 


40 


80 


C0 


00 


40 


BF 






C6D0 


99 


31 


06 


83 


10 


EE 


60 


C0 


7E 


C97e:80 


C0 00 


40 


80 


C0 


00 


4 


C7 






C6D8 


00 


F0 


CE 


A0 


17 


A9 


00 


99 


7F 


C980:Z3 


21 22 


23 


25 


26 


27 


28 


IB 


HR 


130 


C6E0 


•A8 


2D 


99 


E8 


2E 


99 


28 


30 


28 


C98B!2A 


2B 2C 


2D 


2F 


30 


31 


32 


23 


SJ 


140 


C6E8 


99 


68 


31 


99 


A8 


32 


88 


10 


4C 


C990!34 


35 36 


37 


39 


3A 


3B 


3C 


2B 






C6F0 


EE 


A0 


01 


AD 


FE 


CA 


99 


B5 


25 


C998: 3E 


3F 32 


FF 


01 


G0 


30 


0G 


D8 


OC 


150 


c6fb 


05 


99 


DD 


05 


99 


05 


06 


99 


02 


C9Aa!03 


3F CF 


F3 


FC 


80 


40 


20 


49 




C700 


2D 


06 


99 


55 


06 


88 


10 


EE 


91 


C9A8: 10 


08 04 


02 


01 


40 


40 


40 


B0 


JK 


160 


C708 


60 


20 


D7 


C6 


AE 


18 


7 9 


BD 


BD 


C9B0:43 


4 3F 


3F 


3F 


3E 


3E 


3E 


FD 






C710 


6F 


86 


A8 


B9 


00 


IE 


9D 


78 


D5 


C9B8: 3D 


3D 3C 


3C 


3B 


3A 


3A 


39 


F5 






C718 


7D 


B9 


00 


IF 


9D 


77 


7E 


BD 


4C 


C9C0i38 


38 37 


36 


35 


34 


33 


32 


DB 


KD 


170 


C720 


5E 


C9 


9D 


7C 


79 


BD 


61 


C9 


IC 


C9C8: 31 


30 2F 


2E 


2D 


2C 


2B 


2A 


64 


C728 


9D 


7B 


7A 


BD 


50 


C9 


9D 


7A 


EF 


C9D0:29 


27 26 


25 


24 


22 


21 


20 


E5 






C730 


7B 


BD 


53 


C9 


9D 


79 


7C 


A9 


69 


C9DB: IE 


ID IB 


lA 


18 


17 


16 


14 


25 


SE 


180 


C738 


07 


SD 


21 


79 


20 


B4 


C4 


BD 


85 


C9E0:13 


11 10 


BE 


0C 


0B 


09 


07 


CA 


C7'10 


7B 


7A 


0A 


0A 


0A 


3E 


70 


85 


BD 


C9E8:05 


03 01 


00 


00 


00 


28 


50 


80 




190 


C7<I8 


20 


EE 


C3 


AE 


18 


79 


20 


7E 


6C 


C9F0J78 


A8 CB 


F0 


18 


40 


68 


90 


34 


OJ 


C750 


■C3 


CE 


21 


79 


D0 


Ee 


60 


SB 


A2 


C9FB:BB 


E0 08 


30 


58 


80 


Aa 


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Editor 




















case 


65 


FB 


85 


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69 


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HE 10 REM COPVHIGtIT 


1988 


COMPU 


RB 
KK 


420 
430 


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20 


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TE! PUBLIC AT rows 


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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 








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91 


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E7 


47 


JX 2a IFA-0THENft 


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VRIGHT 


1988 COMPUTEl PUB 


EH 


470 


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01 


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FC 


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MB 50 PRINTTABdD" 


ALL 


RIGHTS 






C8F8: 


92 


60 


60 


64 


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00 


80 


80 


S7 


(SPACE} RESERVED" 


:FORI= 


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G3 


490 


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20 


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GJ 60 DIMC*(255) 


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QD 79 FORI-4T016 


!READG2[I):NEX 







DATAl, 1,1,1, 1,1,3,4,5,6, 
7,8,9 

FORI=0TO63:POKE960+I ,0:N 
EXT 

rORl=0TO23STEP3:READA:P 

OKE960+I,A:NEXT 

DATA255,129, 129, 129,129 

,129,129,255 

FORI=0TO5:READA:H(I)=A: 

CI (A+128 )=1:NEXT:C% (32) 

= 1 

DATA32,81,64,93,77,78 

FORI=4 8T0 53:C% (I ) =2: HEX 

T 

X(5)=1:X(6)=1:X(7)=1:X( 

9)=-I:X E10)=-1:X [11)=-1 

Y {10)=-l:i'[14)=-l:Y(6) = 

-l!Y (9) = 1:Y (13)=1:Y (5) = 

1 

U$=CHR$(145) :D$=CHR${17 

) :RS=CHRS (29) :LS=CHRS (1 

57) :CS=CHR3 (147)+DS+D$ 

C%(145)=-14:C% (17)=-13: 

C%{29)=-7:C%{157)=-11 

K$=CHRS (159) +CHRS (19) +D 

S+DS+DS+D$+DS 

F0RI=1T05:READA:CI [A)=l 

:HS=HS+CHR3 (A)+D$+LS:NE 

XT 

DATA 20 9, 192, 221, 205, 206 

FORI=3TO10:READA5;CI (AS 

C(AS) )=I:HS=HS+A$+DS+I::S 

:NEXT 

DATAP,S,L,C,M,0,K,E 

C%(13)=11 

X=0:Y=4:CH=H (1) :US=5195 

7 

J=56320:V=53248:POKEV+2 

1,1: POKEV+3 9,7: POKEV+2 3 

,0:POKEV+29,0:POKE2040, 

15 

GOSUB560 

POKEV+l,Y*3+50:T=X*a+24 

: IFT>Z55THEMP0KEV + 16,1: 

GOTO300 

POKEV+16,0 

POKEV,255ANDT 

A = 0:T = PEEK(J) :F = 16ANDT: 

JY=15ANDT 

IFF=16THEH380 

IFXTHEN360 

A=C2 (Y) : IFA = ITHENAS=CHR 

$(ii [Y-4)) 

GOTO4 3 

S = Y*40+X<-102'1:T=CH: IFPE 

EK (S)=Ci1THEtJT=32 

P0KES,T:IFMFTHENG0SUB5a 



DX=X (JY) :DY = Y (JY) ; IFDXO 

RDYTHEN530 

GETAS 

A=CI (ASG (AS+"@") ) : 1FA=0 

THEN310 

IFA<0THEHDX=X (-A) :DY=Y { 

-A) : GOTO 5 30 

IFA>2THENPOKE53269,0 

ONAGOTO4 50, 50 0, 6 50,6 60, 

760,820,340,850, 1150, 13 

30,1340 

GOTO 310 

S=X+V*40+1024:CH=ASC [AS 

) -128:T=CH: rFT<0THENT=T 

+12B:CH=T 

IFX-0THEN310 

IFPEEK [S )-CHTHEHT=32 

POKES , T: I FMFTHENGOSUB58 



GOTO310 

S=X+Y*40+1024:CH=H {VflL{ 

AS) ) : 1FX = 0THEN310 

T=CH: POKES, T: IFMFTHE^JGO 

SUD580 



COMPUTEt's Gazette August 1988 77 



FC 520 GOTO310 

SG 530 Y=Y+D'i;:X = X+DX! IfY<0ORV> 

24THENY=Y-DY 
FK 54a irX>380RX<aTHENX=X-DX 
MJ 550 GOTO280 
CK 560 POKE53281,15:PRINTCSlPO 

KE53281,0:PRINTHS:SYS49 

161 
CC 570 POKE1584 ,13+MF*12B; POKE 

53269, 1:RETURN 
DH 530 X1=39-X:Y1=24-Y 
SX 590 SI=X1+Y1'40+1024:POKES1 

,T 
m 600 IFT=77THEHT=7B:GOTO620 
KB 610 irT=73TKENT=77 
PX 620 S1=X1+Y*40+1024;POKES1, 

T 
RQ 633 SL«X+Y1*49+1024:POKES1, 

f 
HS 640 RETURN 

JM 659 SYS491S5:C[,R:GOTO60 
CE 660 SYS49158:PRINTCS"SAVE S 

CREEN TO DISK" 
DR 670 Eft=PEEK (253) +PEEK(254) * 

25e+l:SA=US+13 
PB 680 HE=INT {EA/256) :LE=EA-ME 

*256:HS=1NT {SA/25G) : LS = 

SA-I1S*256 
QX 690 INPUT"ENTER FILENAME "j 

F$: IFF$=""THENPRINT"ABO 

RTED" :GOTO74 
GQ 700 0PEN1,8, l,r$:POKE193,LS 

:POKE194,HS 
JD 710 POKE174,LE: POKE175,ifE 
BH 720 SYS 62957 :CLOS El 
DI3 730 PRINT"SAVE COMPLETE" 
DR 740 FORI =1T0999! NEXT 
JD 750 GOSUB560:GOTO310 
JK 760 PRINTCS"LOAD SCREEN FRO 

M DISK" 
KC 770 1NPUT"ENTER FILENAME "; 

FS! IFFS=""THEHPRINT"AB0 

RTE!i":GOTO810 
BP 780 OPEN1,8,0,F$: POKE185, 1: 

POKE7a0,0 
ES 790 SYS65493:CLOSEl 
AM 800 PRINT"LOAD COMPLETE" 
RA 810 GOSUB560;GOTO310 
XF 820 POKE53281, 15:PRINTCSHS; 

POKES3281,0:X=0:Y=4:CH= 

H(l) 
DJ 830 POKE1584,13+MF*128:GOTO 

280 
DH B40 MF=l-MF:POKE15a4,13+MF* 

12a:GOTO310 
QS 850 SYS49158:PRINTC$"{HOME) 
{RVSl OPTIONS AND COLOR 

S {OFF)" 
BH 860 M9="{D0WN} BACKGROUND":? 

=0:MN=a:MX=15 
SH 870 GOSUB1110:BA-T 
AE 880 M5»"B0RDER":T=ll!G0SUBl 

110iPOKEUS+7,T 
AB 8 90 MS="PUCK COLOR" !T-14: GO 

SUB1110! P0KEUS+8,T 
KD 900 M$="QB COLOR" !T=15:G0SU 

B1110:POKEUS+6,T*16+BA 
QA 910 M$="RIGHT GUN COLOR" :T= 

l:GOSUBlll0:POKEi;S+9,T* 

16+BA 
HX 920 MS='"LEFT GUN COLOR" !T = 1 
!GOSUB1110:POKEl[S + 5,T*l 

6+BA 
CB 930 H5<="G0ALS NEEDED TO WIN 

":T=7:MN=1:GOSUB1110! PO 

KEUS+2,T 
SQ 940 PRINT"HOW MANY SECONDS 
{SPACE}UNTIL DESTRUCT M 

ODE?" 
SP 950 M5="(-l FOR NO DESTRUCT 
) ":T=G0:MN=-l!MX=900;GO 

SUDllla 



1060 
1070 
1080 



XM 9G0 IFT<3THENPOKEUS+3,255:G 

OTO980 
PF 970 SE=T*60:T1=INT (SE/25S) : 
POKEUS+3,Tl!T2=2 56-SE+T 
1*256: POKEUS+4,T2 
HC 980 MS="FRICTIONr 1=0N, 0=0 
FF" :T=1:MN=0:MX=1:GOSUB 
1U0:POKEUS + 10,T 
FG 990 PRINT"CHOOSE FOR SHAR 

ED BB'S" 
EF 1000 MS = "{7 SPACESH FOR PO 
SSESSIVE":T=0:GOSUB111 
0:POKEUS+12,T 
KB 1010 PRINT"HAXIMUM NUMBER 
F BB'S IN PLAY" 
1020 H$="(3 SPACES}":T=100: 
MN=10:MX=250:GOSUB1110 
: P0KEUS-l,T+3 
1030 M5="RAPID FIRE DELAY": 
MN=1:MX=I00:T=7:GOSUB1 
110:POKEUS+11,T 
BD 1040 PRINT:PRINT"{DOWN}SAVE 
NEW VERSION TO DISK ( 
Y/N)?" 
1050 GETA$:IFA$="N"THEK1100 
IFA$<>"Y"THEN1050 
F0RI=US+13TO53248 
IF PEEK (I) = 2 55THENSA = 49 
152:EA=I+1: 1=53248 
1090 NEXT:GOTO680 
1100 GOSUB560:GOTO310 
1110 PRINTM5"{3 SPACES }"T; 
1120 FORI=0TOLEN{STRS [T) )+l 
;PRINTL$;:NEXT: INPUTU 
IFU<MN0RU>MXTHENPRINTU 
$; : PRINTM5"["MN"-"MX") 
{3 SPACES } "T; :GOTO1120 
BB 1140 T=U:RETURN 
HP 1150 SYS49158: POKEV+21,0: PR 
INTC$TAB(11) "{RVS) COM 
MAND SUMMARY" 
CE 1160 PRINT:PRINT" THE FIRST 
FIVE MENU ITEMS CHANG 
E THE" 
MD 1170 PRINT" DEFLECTOR TYPE, 

PQ 1180 PRINT: PRINT" THE LETTE 

R COMMANDS ARE: {DOWN}" 
GJ 1190 PRINT" (2 SPACES)? - PL 

AY WITH CURRENT SETTIN 

GS" 
PP 1200 PRINT" (2 SPACES) S - SA 

VE A SCREEN TO DISK" 
JE 1210 PRINT"{2 SPACESjL - LO 

AD A SCREEN FROM DISK" 
GR 1220 PRINT"{2 SPACES)C - CL 

BAR SCREEN OF ANY BARR 

lERS" 
BX 1230 PRINT"{2 SPACES}M - TO 

GGLE. SYMMETRY MODE" 
EP 1240 PRINT"(2 SPACES)0 - CH 

OOSE OPTIONS" 
FO 1250 PRINT"(2 SPACES)H - SK 

OW HELP SCREEN" 
FS 1260 PRINT" (2 SPACES) E - EX 

IT THE PROGRAM" 
SJ 1270 PRINT: PRINT" COMMANDS 
CAN BE INVOKED BY PRE 

SSING" 



HM 



CP 



AX 
SG 
BP 
PE 

KS 

EA 
DH 
AS 



SF 1130 



KEY, OR BY 
CURSOR OVE 

TH 



RD 1280 PRINT" THAT 
MOVING THE 

R" 
BM 1290 PRINT" AND PRESSING 

E FIRE BUTTON." 
QE 1300 PRINTlPRINT TAB(8)" 

(RVS) SPACE BAR TO CON 

TINUE " 
XF 1310 GETA$:IFA$<>" "THEN131 


BB 1320 GOTO2 6 
ED 1330 POKES3269,0: PRINTCHRS{ 

147) :BND 



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12 


FC 


CB6A 


0E 


FC 


lA 


FC 


0A 


FC 


CB7 2 


0A 


FC 


lA 


FC 


0E 


FC 


CB7A 


12 


FC 


12 


FC 


16 


FC 


CB82 


0A 


FB 


14 


FB 


FB 


FB 


CB8A 


FB 


FB 


02 


FD 


08 


FD 


CB92 


!FB 


FB 


FB 


FB 


FB 


FB 


CB9A 


02 


FB 


06 


FB 


02 


FB 


CBA2 


02 


FB 


04 


FB 


02 


FB 


CBAA 


FA 


FA 


FA 


FA 


FA 


03 


CBB2 


:FB 


02 


FB 


02 


FB 


03 


CBBA 


■FA 


FA 


FA 


FA 


0C 


FA 


CBC2 


:FA 


FA 


FA 


04 


FB 


06 


CBCA 


FA 


FA 


FA 


FA 


FA 


FA 


CBD2 


:FB 


FB 


FD 


FB 


FB 


12 


CBDA 


FE 


20 


FD 


01 


FE 


FF 



GR 1340 IFX=0THENF=0:GOTO340 
H8 1350 GOTO310 

Program 3: Sampie Screen 

See instructions in article on page 
30 before typing in. 

FD 12 25 

17 FA D6 

FB 06 DA 

FA FA 74 

FA 03 4 A 

FB 03 C2 

14 FB FC 

IB FB 44 

13 FB 7C 

02 FB ED 

FB FB B0 

16 FC 9A 

16 FC 04 

44 FC 25 

16 FC EE 

16 FB 39 
FB FB 24 
02 FB 4F 

13 FB 58 
IB FB E4 

14 FA 9D 
FB 02 6B 
FA FA 4 5 
FA FA DA 
FB 04 2A 

17 FB 9B 
FD 01 CD 
00 00 CI 



Shell Booter 

Article on page 61. 



HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 198B COMPU 

TEl PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

EM 20 PRINT"{CLRK3 SPACESJCOP 

YRIGHT 1988 COMPUTE! PUB 

., INC.":PRINTTAB(11) "AL 

L RIGHTS RESERVED" 

MG 30 FORI=3072TO3252:READA:PO 

KEI,A:X=X+A:NEXT 
DR 40 IFX<>1681STHENPRINT"ERRO 
R IN DATA STATEMENTS. ":S 
TOP 
EX 50 BSAVE"SHELL. BOOTER", D0,U 

8,B0,P3072 TO P32S2 
DE 60 DATA 169,8,170,160,1,32, 

186,255 
GM 70 DATA 169,9,162,154,160,1 

2 32 189 
XB 80 DATa'255,169,0,170,32,10 

4,255,169 
EP 90 DATA 0,32,213,255,176,94 

,169,163 
XK 100 DATA 133,45,169,12,133, 

46,169,15 
GS 110 DATA 133,47,169,45,162, 

1,160,17 
PX 120 DATA 32,101,255,160,3,1 

69,0,141 
DK 130 DATA 0,91,136,15,250,16 

9,1,133 
XR 140 DATA 45,169,91,133,46,1 

62,3,142 
DS 150 DATA 16,18,141,17,18,16 

9,147,32 
GS 160 DATA 210,255,24,162,1,1 

60,29,36 
JD 170 DATA 215,48,2,160,9,32, 

240,255 
HM 180 DATA 32,125,255,68,46,7 
9,46,83 



78 COMPUTEIS Gazeffe August 1908 



EM 190 DATA 46,32,83,72,69,76, 

76,32 
OX 200 DATA 79,78,32,70,45,49, 

32,7 5 
SA 210 DATA 69,39,3,96,169,11, 

133,208 
JK 22B DATA 160,0,185,142,12,1 

53,74,3 
MX 230 DATA 200, 192, 11, 20B, 245 

,96,80,82 
KO 240 DATA 73,78,84,32,68,83, 

36,13 
PE 250 DATA 0,0,68,79,83,32,83 

,72 
GJ 260 DATA 59,76,76,66,65,78, 

75,32 
CG 270 DATA 49,50,58,83,89,83, 

32,54 
GC 280 DATA 54,53,54,13,0,0,0, 



3-D Sprites 

See instruclmts in article on page 
64 before typing its. 

Program 1 : 3-D Sprites- 
Machine Language 



4000 


A 2 


30 


A0 


40 


98 


E4 


33 


E5 


8E 


4003: 


34 


!}0 


04 


36 


33 


84 


34 


93 


64 


4010 


Ei 


37 


E5 


38 


B0 


04 


86 


37 


EA 


4t!lB: 


84 


38 


A9 


99 


8D 


FE 


FF 


A9 


C9 


4020- 


49 


8D 


FF 


FF 


A9 


45 


CD 


03 


A9 


4028 


5B 


F0 


09 


8D 


03 


5B 


20 


23 


75 


4030: 


45 


20 


Al 


4F 


20 


Fl 


40 


A9 


77 


4038 


09 


8D 


00 


03 


A9 


41 


8D 


01 


3F 


4040 


03 


A9 


D8 


8D 


FC 


C7 


A9 


00 


FA 


4048. 


8D 


FE 


C7 


A9 


01 


8D 


FF 


C7 


E8 


4050 


A9 


45 


8D 


04 


03 


A9 


41 


8D 


B7 


4058 


05 


03 


A9 


05 


8D 


06 


03 


A9 


D5 


4060 


42 


8D 


07 


03 


A9 


86 


8D 


08 


01 


4068 


03 


A9 


42 


8D 


09 


03 


A9 


75 


13 


4070 


A0 


40 


4C 


IE 


AB 


98 


93 


12 


Q5 


4078 


20 


2A 


2A 


2A 


2A 


20 


20 


20 


AD 


4080 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


33 


14 


40 B 8 


44 


20 


S3 


50 


52 


49 


54 


45 


48 


4090 


53 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


AA 


4098 


20 


20 


20 


2A 


2A 


2A 


2A 


20 


46 


40A0 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


21 


40A8 


43 


4F 


50 


59 


52 


49 


47 


48 


CC 


40B0 


54 


20 


31 


39 


38 


38 


20 


20 


20 


40B8 


43 


4F 


4D 


50 


55 


54 


45 


21 


05 


40C0 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


41 


40C8 


20 


50 


55 


42 


4C 


49 


43 


41 


88 


40D0 


54 


49 


4F 


4E 


53 


2C 


20 


49 


71 


40D8 


4r: 


43 


2E 


20 


41 


4C 


4C 


20 


0D 


40E0 


52 


49 


47 


48 


54 


53 


20 


52 


CC 


40E8 


45 


53 


45 


52 


56 


45 


44 


20 


IF 


40F0 


00 


A9 


15 


8D 


18 


03 


A9 


41 


H8 


40Fa 


8D 


19 


03 


08 


78 


A9 


62 


8D 


24 


4100 


14 


03 


A9 


4F 


8D 


15 


03 


23 


66 


4108 


60 


8A 


48 


30 


03 


20 


7B 


4F 


48 


4110 


68 


AA 


4C 


8B 


E3 


48 


8A 


43 


51 


4118 


98 


48 


A5 


01 


8D 


41 


41 


09 


BA 


4120 


07 


85 


01 


A9 


7F 


8D 


BD 


DD 


6C 


4128 


AC 


0D 


DO 


30 


13 


20 


02 


FD 


IE 


4130 


00 


03 


6C 


02 


80 


20 


BC 


F6 


7E 


4138 


:20 


El 


FF 


D0 


03 


4C 


69 


FE 


6B 


4140 


:A9 


00 


4C 


F6 


49 


A6 


7A 


A0 


OB 


4148 


:04 


84 


0F 


QD 


00 


02 


10 


07 


DA 


4150 


:C9 


FF 


F0 


3E 


E8 


D0 


F4 


C9 


F7 


4158 


•20 


F0 


37 


85 


08 


C9 


22 


F0 


03 


4160 


56 


24 


0F 


70 


2D 


C9 


3F 


00 


DF 


4168 


•04 


A9 


99 


D0 


25 


C9 


30 


90 


D3 


4170 


04 


C9 


3C 


90 


ID 


84 


71 


A0 


76 


4178 


00 


84 


0B 


88 


86 


7A 


CA 


C3 


82 


4180 


:E8 


BD 


00 


02 


38 


F9 


9E 


A3 


BE 


4188 


F0 


F5 


C9 


80 


D0 


30 


05 


0B 


9E 


4190 


:A4 


71 


E8 


C8 


99 


FB 


01 


B9 


E3 


4198 


FD 


01 


F0 


38 


38 


E9 


3A 


F0 


C9 


41A0 


.04 


C9 


49 


D0 


02 


85 


0F 


38 


4A 



41A3:E9 
41B0:02 
4188:99 
41C0:E6 
41C8:B9 
41D0S00 
41D8:7B 
41B0!CA 
41EB: 3A 
41F0:05 
41F3:Ce 
4200:42 
4208:F3 
4210:30 
4213:A7 
4220!FF 
4223: 10 
4230:30 
4 2 3 3 : EF 
4240: 4C 
4248:C5 
4250:49 
4258:41 
4260:52 
4268:45 
4270:D0 
4278:45 
4280:43 
4288:00 
4290:CC 
4298:E9 
42A0:B9 
42A8:79 
42B0: 42 
420B:44 
42C0:4F 
42C8:43 
42D0:20 
42D3:A2 
42E0:0C 
42R8:C6 
42F0:ft2 
4 2F8:BA 
4300:FB 
4308:02 
4310SDB 
4318:A9 
4320:20 
4328:43 
4330:20 
4338 :B1 
4340:43 
4348:85 
4350:FF 
4358:03 
4360:9A 
4 3 68: 20 
4 370:E2 
4378:00 
4380:00 
4388:20 
4390:80 
4 3 98SFD 
4 3A0:BB 
43A3:60 
43B0;60 
43B8:A5 
4 3C0:D0 
43C8:Fa 
4 3D0;AS 
43DB:A5 
43E0:20 
43E8:43 
4 3F0:8E 
43Fe!45 
4400:61 
440a;F3 
4410;D0 
4418:.e6 
4420:A5 
4423:91 
4430:85 
4438:85 
4440!BB 
4448:60 



55 D0 

F0 DF 
FB 01 
0B C8 
9E A0 

02 10 
A9 FF 
C8 E8 

42 F0 
0B D0 
B9 39 
00 E0 
A6 C9 
F5 C9 
38 E9 
GA F0 
FA 30 

05 20 
A6 4 3 
4F 41 

43 4F 
4 7 CE 
D9 44 
41 D7 
52 41 
4C 4F 
40 4F 
4F 4C 
20 8F 
90 14 
CC 0A 
AD 42 

00 4C 
EF 42 
CB 42 
10 4F 
A2 01 
BA FF 
04 A0 
36 02 

03 C6 

01 2C 
FF 20 
A9 5B 
A4 03 
FF B0 
00 20 
57 E2 
85 al 
Bl 43 
43 85 
85 F9 
FD 86 
38 ES 
4C CD 
43 BD 
97 43 
20 97 
9D 00 
DA 9D 

06 E2 
FE C7 
AE 20 
60 20 
20 CA 
20 DD 
63 F0 
9 A AS 
0E 20 

62 05 
65 A6 
8A AD 
85 06 
FA 43 
A2 00 
20 DC 
IC Bl 

02 FA 
51 A 5 

63 C5 
63 A5 

03 18 

04 85 
A5 04 
A5 03 



9F 6 5 
C5 08 
E8 00 

B9 9D 

D0 B4 

BC 99 

85 7A 

BD 00 

rs C9 

9C A6 

42 10 

F0 CA 

FF F0 

CC B0 

CB AA 

08 C8 

F5 C8 

4 7 AB 

4C 4 5 

C4 43 

50 D9 

44 49 

4C 4F 

44 53 
53 C5 
57 52 
52 D9 
4F D2 

42 4C 
C9 DA 
A8 S9 

4 3 4C 
ED A7 
49 4F 
25 43 
7A 4F 
2C A2 
20 18 
5B 20 

84 03 
02 60 
A2 08 
IB 43 
8 5 FC 
E8 D0 

01 60 
BD FF 
4C BO 
20 A9 

85 F7 
FB 86 

86 FA 
FE 4C 

02 AA 
BD 4C 
20 D0 
80 21 

43 sa 
D8 9D 
00 DB 
20 Bl 
8e FF 
CD 43 
CD 4 3 
43 C9 
43 A5 
IC A5 
63 C9 
FD AE 

63 05 

64 60 
4C 9B 
20 36 
80 FC 
A9 00 

45 A0 

62 91 

63 E6 
62 C5 

03 D0 
60 85 
4C 3 3 

05 4C 
F0 21 
85 61 



08 BD 
F0 DB 
F0 A6 
A0 10 
F0 0F 
FD 01 
60 A0 

02 38 
80 D0 
7A E6 
FA B9 
30 03 
F9 24 

03 4G 
34 49 
B9 3A 
B9 3A 
D0 F5 
41 02 
53 41 

44 45 
53 50 
41 C4 
41 56 
46 4C 

45 D3 
53 45 

00 20 
AE A? 
B0 10 
AE 42 
73 00 
10 4 5 
E5 43 
F2 42 
4E 43 
08 A0 
43 A9 
05 FF 
98 D0 
4C al 

A0 01 
A9 04 
A9 FB 

01 C8 
4C F9 
20 06 
FF 20 
43 35 
86 F8 
FC 20 
20 Bl 
0B 50 
A9 7C 
43 B2 
20 06 
D0 2 
86 02 
00 09 
E8 D0 
43 30 
C7 60 
C9 10 
A8 F0 

04 B0 
62 D0 
62 C9 
FF D0 
20 EO 
64 00 
23 FD 
BC 20 

45 30 
43 20 
36 60 
00 Bl 
60 E6 
60 00 

02 00 
E4 A9 
02 A5 

46 A9 
33 46 
A5 02 
A0 02 



00 SI 
C8 40 
7a C7 
FA B8 
BD 36 
C6 2F 
FF 72 
F9 66 

04 8C 
0B 94 
3A B3 
4C 6E 
0F 30 
24 7E 
Ag 13 
42 09 

42 BC 
4C 5F 

43 A3 
56 73 

5 3 20 
4C EO 

44 8E 
C5 AF 
49 AA 
4D 6C 

54 FC 
73 43 
C9 61 
38 B0 
48 66 
20 8A 
CB 23 
6B 3 3 
A0 F7 

55 IB 

01 Fl 
00 37 
B0 8 2 

02 B3 
El 44 
20 9B 
85 AE 
A6 DF 
20 E3 
E0 32 
E2 C2 
9A 76 
FF 4F 
20 DF 
Bl F2 
43 70 
A9 AA 
E3 9C 
20 12 
E2 AE 

06 B8 
A2 C4 
90 32 
Fl 87 
CC C6 
20 7F 
B0 BC 
B4 51 
AC 61 
6 QD 
FF 15 
94 C 5 
43 2A 

84 79 
AE D4 
A2 4 7 
46 A3 
64 58 
35 C5 
62 FB 
62 AA 
32 F0 
EA 0A 

03 AA 
61 2D 
00 0A 
46 87 

85 4A 
B9 6E 



;98 

:60 



4450:04 

4 4 58: DC 

4460: 

4468: 

4470:20 

4478:97 

4480tFF 

4488:B1 

4 4 90:80 

4498:36 

4 4A0:AB 

44A8:86 

4 4B0:BB 

44B8:64 

44C0:DD 

44C8;1C 

44D0:4C 

44D8:85 

44E3!A4 

4 4Ea:20 

44F0;4C 

44F8;49 

4500:20 

4508:45 

4510:00 

4518:20 

4520:59 

4528:35 

4530:04 

4533:45 

4540:38 

4548:03 

4550:36 

455B:B1 

4560:A5 

4568:99 

4S73:P0 

4578:FD 

4530:BD 

4 5 B B : A 5 

4590:02 

4 598:A9 

45A0:A9 

45A8: 20 

45B0:6S 

4SB8:CA 

45C0:4 5 

4SC8:B1 

45D0:88 

4503:60 

45e0:ca 

45E8: 18 
45F0:65 
45F8:65 
4600:69 
4638:61 
4610:A0 
4613:0A 
4620: 90 
4628; 38 
4630:85 
4638:03 
4640:20 
4648:20 
4650:C8 
4653: 11 
4e60:8C 
4668:03 
4670:10 
467a:4C 
4680:84 
4688: 4A 
4690:27 
4698: 9C 
4eA0:B5 
46A8:99 
46B0:FF 
46B8:CA 
4 6C0: 94 
46C8:48 
46D0!O9 
46D8:4C 
46E0:8B 
4 6Ee:90 
46F0:48 



00 91 
45 86 
91 62 

4C 5C 
Bl 43 
43 35 
20 Bl 

43 8D 
F9 C7 
A9 20 
20 Bl 
B0 68 

44 20 

45 A9 

29 FE 
4F 20 
17 4F3 
22 A9 
55 4E 

53 50 
45 41 

54 4 5 

59 4F 
3F 20 
A 9 EF 
E4 FF 
08 F5 

03 A9 

8 5 05 
20 2 A 
F0 20 
F0 0C 

60 85 

60 99 

61 18 
34 00 

02 A9 

45 A2 

09 45 
64 18 
E6 65 
00 85 
00 35 
BC 4 5 

04 95 
CA F0 
A4 05 
64 91 
Bl 66 
7F 30 
Bl 60 
71 60 
64 85 
85 63 

03 80 
69 03 
00 84 
90 03 
03 E6 

60 A2 

61 60 
A9 49 
D0 80 
00 A9 
80 FC 
4F A9 
64 46 
B9 7B 
F7 8C 
63 46 
6F 84 
4F A9 
00 A9 
4A 20 
A8 99 

30 37 
A2 14 

10 F3 
43 24 
8A 0A 

46 BD 
FF FF 
88 13 
ID 20 
7 4 8 



60 8 8 

02 85 
4C 72 
43 20 
08 F4 
Bl 20 
43 8d 
F3 C7 
20 Bl 
Bl 43 

43 30 
C5 06 
36 45 
00 85 
C9 94 
85 4C 
20 7B 
14 85 

44 45 
52 49 

52 20 

53 0D 
55 20 
28 59 
A0 44 
C9 4E 
20 2A 
00 A 8 
85 6 
46 A0 
A0 02 
20 DC 

61 4C 
04 00 
60 A0 
88 10 

80 80 
30 A9 
85 67 

65 05 
E8 E0 
64 A9 

66 A9 
A2 02 

64 90 
Fl A4 
A9 00 
66 98 
91 64 

81 20 
0A 90 
90 03 

62 AA 
28 60 
99 45 
80 9D 

63 Bl 
E6 65 

65 18 
04 36 
78 A9 
3d 15 
FD C7 
80 8D 
C7 20 

03 85 
A0 00 
46 95 

64 46 
30 84 
30 34 

00 ao 

01 80 
FF 48 
00 83 
C8 D0 
DD DB 
24 35 
B4 10 
AA DD 
F0 46 
85 36 
93 14 
53 5A 
00 48 



10 F8 
03 AO 

45 85 
A2 43 
85 CA 
A9 43 
F7 C7 
20 Bl 
43 85 
85 A A 
C3 85 
FO 0F 
B0 IC 
06 AD 
FO 03 
20 4C 
4F A9 
2 3 4C 

46 27 
54 C5 



20 A9 

00 0B 
06 64 
48 4E 
20 5E 



53 
41 



S3 55 
2F 4E 
20 IE 
FO 16 
46 86 
91 60 
60 80 
00 Bl 
Bl 60 
45 B0 
3C 4S 
88 F0 

02 Bl 
F8 A9 
C4 45 
00 85 
20 CI 
85 64 

03 DO 
00 85 
7D 85 
B5 64 

02 Fe 

04 4C 
30 09 
00 FB 

98 00 
FD 45 

03 E6 
E6 63 
A5 63 
AS 60 
35 64 

45 85 
60 F0 
18 65 
85 64 
60 A9 
9E 80 
03 58 
A9 01 
8A 02 
Al 4F 
FF A0 
30 20 
F7 88 
20 E7 
30 25 
11 A3 
10 00 
15 00 
85 BF 

99 00 
F4 20 

46 F0 
10 03 
E8 4C 
EF 4 6 
3D DA 
37 3 9 
00 91 
03 43 
13 48 



35 


ID 


20 


77 


43 


61 


A8 


A 7 


86 


F9 


A5 


B2 


3D 


A9 


20 


D4 


00 


99 


20 


80 


52 


50 


El 


FE 


47 


BE 


44 


F4 


43 


EF 


52 


7F 


45 


70 


52 


7B 


29 


DB 


AB 


97 


C9 


B4 


02 


C5 


85 


3D 


48 


2C 


60 


OF 


C9 


92 


13 


03 


38 


63 


F8 


44 


60 


EF 


00 


01 


20 


5B 


66 


66 


45 


E5 


93 


EF 


E4 


AA 


65 


AC 


67 


CC 


13 


00 


65 


C7 


C3 


2A 


88 


AD 


60 


38 


F8 


12 


03 


27 


63 


AA 


13 


83 


65 


36 


13 


F3 


A5 


FB 


65 


EA 


10 


B4 


64 


57 


60 


E8 


5B 


El 


14 


62 


AD 


C5 


8D 


17 


A9 


9A 


20 


07 


0B 


IF 


A2 


C2 


CA 


21 


50 


AD 


30 


2F 


20 


8B 


80 


IF 


20 


AC 


85 


67 


85 


60 


E4 


FE 


11 


31 


4C 


50 


CO 


04 


BO 


CF 


46 


07 


BA 


03 


11 


F9 


01 


2B 


19 


75 



COMPUTEI's Gaiette August 1988 79 



46^8 


48 


IF 


48 


Dl 


47 


F8 


47 


DC 


21 


49A0: 


80 


E2 


49 


A9 


37 


8 5 


01 


AD 


F5 


4C4B: 


F5 


A2 


06 


A 9 


C7 


85 


27 


85 


08 


4700: 


47 


53 


47 


3F 


47 


2A 


48 


31 


88 


49A8: 


14 


03 


C9 


62 


F3 


33 


AD 


27 


3C 


4C50: 


29 


BO 


7B 


4C 


85 


26 


BO 


70 


3F 


4708 


43 


38 


48 


3F 


48 


94 


48 


A3 


SE 


4 980: 


00 


49 


01 


BD 


27 


00 


4 6 


85 


B5 


4CSa: 


4C 


85 


28 


8E 


71 


4G 


8A 


29 


61 


4710: 


47 


17 


47 


23 


47 


46 


48 


A5 


AC 


4 9B8: 


AD 


00 


DC 


49 


IF 


4A 


90 


03 


98 


4C60: 


03 


AA 


a9 


00 


38 


FD 


F7 


C7 


CB 


4718: 


BE 


49 


80 


85 


BE 


20 


B7 


4B 


Fl 


49C0: 


20 


38 


4A 


4A 


90 


03 


20 


38 


6B 


4C68: 


20 


23 


4D 


A0 


00 


20 


DC 


4C 


14 


4720: 


4C 


AE 


46 


A9 


00 


80 


15 


D0 


15 


49C8: 


4A 


4A 


93 


03 


20 


61 


4A 


4A 


BA 


4C70: 


A2 


00 


CA 


30 


07 


E0 


03 


00 


49 


4728- 


flD 


FD 


C7 


8D 


20 


00 


A9 


D8 


4F 


4 9D0: 


90 


03 


20 


SE 


4A 


4A 


90 


02 


F4 


4C78: 


08 


CA 


00 


05 


60 


EF 


F0 


EE 


3B 


4730! 


80 


FC 


C7 


20 


FQ 


40 


20 


Al 


32 


4 908: 


66 


B5 


24 


Q4 


10 


03 


20 


FE 


A7 


4C80: 


EF 


F2 


F3 


Fl 


F2 


A9 


30 


85 


2F 


4738 


4F 


20 


7B 


4F 


4C 


3F 


44 


24 


E6 


49E0: 


49 


A9 


00 


29 


07 


F0 


03 


4C 


63 


4ca8: 


26 


85 


28 


a9 


81 


85 


27 


A9 


4F 


4740 


BF 


10 


0D 


20 


E2 


4B 


46 


BF 


Ee 


49E8, 


31 


EA 


20 


EA 


FF 


20 


87 


EA 


FB 


4C90! 


86 


85 


29 


A2 


33 


A4 


05 


F0 


C2 


4748 


20 


82 


49 


F0 


03 


20 


0B 


49 


B7 


4 9F0 


AO 


00 


DC 


AD 


E2 


49 


85 


01 


5C 


4C98: 


E3 


88 


Bl 


26 


91 


28 


38 


C0 


DC 


4750 


4C 


AS 


46 


24 


BF 


10 


07 


46 


4G 


4 9P8 


63 


A3 


68 


AA 


68 


40 


AD 


F6 


38 


4CA0 


FF 


00 


F7 


C6 


27 


C6 


29 


C6 


46 


4758 


BF 


20 


82 


49 


D0 


23 


A5 


04 


16 


4A00 


C7 


18 


69 


80 


4A 


80 


14 


4A 


AE 


4CA8: 


29 


CA 


00 


E9 


A9 


00 


35 


26 


BF 


4760 


F0 


22 


C6 


04 


F0 


17 


20 


92 


BF 


4A08- 


4A 


80 


33 


4A 


AD 


F4 


C7 


18 


19 


4CB0: 


35 


28 


A0 


00 


B9 


09 


4C 


85 


70 


4768 


4b 


Bl 


9E 


48 


C8 


Bl 


9E 


88 


34 


4A10 


69 


80 


39 


E9 


00 


18 


69 


4C 


9E 


4088: 


27 


69 


08 


4C 


85 


29 


BC 


Dl 


EE 


4770 


20 


87 


47 


20 


92 


4B 


68 


20 


8B 


4A18 


3D 


00 


00 


AD 


F5 


C7 


18 


69 


00 


4CC0; 


4C 


B9 


F7 


C7 


20 


23 


40 


A4 


36 


4778 


87 


47 


4C 


81 


47 


A 9 


00 


85 


A4 


4A2 


80 


3D 


27 


4A 


4A 


18 


69 


30 


67 


4CC8' 


05 


88 


20 


DC 


4C 


98 


D0 


F9 


38 


47Q0 


05 


20 


7C 


49 


4C 


AE 


46 


C5 


2D 


4A28 


SA 


80 


30 


4A 


A9 


CC 


38 


E9 


DA 


4CD0 


A0 


00 


ca 


C0 


03 


D3 


DO 


60 


56 


4788 


05 


F0 


02 


B0 


12 


80 


9C 


47 


68 


4A30 


00 


18 


69 


03 


8D 


01 


D0 


60 


6A 


4C0 8 


84 


86 


82 


84 


Bl 


26 


35 


52 


Bl 


4790 


98 


D0 


05 


CA 


30 


0A 


C6 


9F 


C3 


4A33 


A2 


01 


2C 


A2 


FF 


43 


SA 


66 


AA 


4CE0 


Bl 


28 


85 


61 


8C 


IB 


40 


20 


AE 


4 7 98 


88 


Bl 


9E 


C9 


00 


00 


Fl 


60 


CF 


4A40 


B4 


18 


24 


BE 


30 


0B 


6D 


F5 


24 


4CE8 


59 


4D 


8D 


F7 


4C 


BE 


FD 


4C 


97 


47A0 


:C6 


05 


60 


A5 


05 


F0 


DD 


EE 


D0 


4A43 


C7 


20 


77 


4A 


80 


F5 


C7 


68 


98 


4CF0 


AS 


62 


20 


3C 


4D 


IB 


69 


00 


5A 


4 7A8 


FB 


C7 


AE 


FB 


C7 


E4 


05 


90 


29 


4AS0 


60 


49 


FE 


SD 


F6 


C7 


20 


77 


AC 


4CF8 


10 


01 


E8 


SA 


69 


33 


8D 


IF 


25 


47B0 


05 


A2 


00 


8E 


FB 


C7 


BO 


00 


CO 


4A58 


4A 


8D 


F6 


C7 


68 


60 


A2 


01 


DB 


4000 


40 


A5 


61 


20 


3C 


4d 


80 


13 


IE 


47B8 


7F 


8D 


F4 


C7 


BD 


00 


80 


8D 


02 


4Ae0 


2C 


A2 


FF 


24 


BE 


30 


0F 


48 


13 


4D08 


40 


8E 


19 


40 


A5 


62 


20 


59 


35 


47C0 


:F5 


C7 


BD 


00 


81 


8D 


F6 


C7 


EB 


4A68 


8A 


66 


84 


18 


60 


F4 


C7 


20 


E2 


4D10 


40 


38 


E9 


03 


10 


01 


E8 


8A 


70 


4 7C8 


29 


ID 


4C 


20 


A7 


4A 


4C 


AE 


E7 


4A70 


77 


4A 


80 


F4 


C7 


63 


60 


48 


3D 


4018 


E9 


03 


A0 


00 


91 


26 


A9 


00 


34 


4 700 


46 


20 


FF 


48 


46 


BF 


20 


9C 


ID 


4A78 


A2 


02 


BD 


F4 


C7 


20 


95 


4A 


lA 


4020 


91 


28 


60 


48 


20 


B2 


40 


35 


0A 


47D8 


4A 


4C 


AE 


46 


A9 


02 


20 


A6 


16 


4A80 


B0 


00 


CA 


13 


F5 


68 


48 


C9 


b6 


4028 


63 


66 


64 


AS 


6B 


85 


65 


S3 


99 


47E0 


4B 


20 


E4 


FF 


C9 


4E 


F0 


16 


39 


4A33 


BF 


FS 


34 


C9 


40 


00 


03 


68 


3A 


4030 


20 


B5 


40 


85 


66 


66 


67 


A5 


8B 


47EB 


C9 


59 


D0 


F5 


20 


FF 


48 


85 


43 


4A9a 


63 


Sd 


63 


18 


S3 


C9 


C0 


33 


5E 


4D38 


6B 


35 


S9 


60 


24 


67 


30 


37 


43 


47F0 


04 


85 


05 


85 


BF 


23 


7C 


49 


9C 


4A93 


FA 


C9 


43 


e<3 


A9 


00 


80 


F4 


83 


4040 


;A6 


66 


A4 


69 


4C 


61 


40 


24 


99 


4 7Pa 


20 


9C 


4A 


4C 


AE 


46 


4C 


CD 


CI 


4AA0 


C7 


3D 


F5 


C7 


BD 


F6 


C7 


78 


38 


4048 


69 


10 


05 


49 


FF 


18 


69 


01 


05 


4800 


48 


EE 


F7 


C7 


4C 


22 


48 


EE 


56 


4AA8 


20 


FE 


49 


58 


A9 


80 


85 


B4 


CA 


4050 


AA 


A9 


00 


60 


24 


65 


4C 


49 


49 


48t)B 


F3 


C7 


4C 


22 


48 


EE 


F9 


C7 


6C 


4AB0 


60 


A4 


05 


88 


B9 


00 


36 


80 


30 


4D5B 


40 


24 


64 


30 


F7 


A6 


63 


A4 


F7 


4810 


4C 


22 


43 


CE 


F7 


C7 


4C 


22 


DE 


4AD8 


C5 


4A 


B9 


03 


34 


AA 


B9 


30 


3C 


4063 


65 


85 


6F 


86 


6C 


84 


68 


A9 


SB 


laia 


43 


CE 


F8 


C7 


4C 


22 


48 


CE 


66 


4AC0 


82 


8C 


CB 


4A 


A0 


00 


20 


in 


K4 


4068 


00 


85 


6D 


85 


6E 


A5 


6F 


10 


63 


4820 


F9 


C7 


46 


BF 


20 


7C 


49 


4C 


36 


4AC8 


4A 


98 


A0 


33 


99 


00 


84 


8A 


ID 


4070 


00 


49 


FF 


18 


69 


31 


35 


6F 


2F 


4828 


AE 


46 


78 


20 


38 


4A 


4C 


CB 


02 


4AD0 


99 


00 


32 


98 


03 


DD 


60 


48 


13 


4D78 


A5 


6B 


49 


30 


85 


68 


06 


6F 


47 


4830 


47 


78 


20 


3B 


4A 


4C 


CB 


47 


9C 


4AD8 


93 


IB 


69 


80 


4A 


4A 


3D 


EE 


7A 


4D80 


:A2 


06 


06 


60 


26 


6E 


06 


6F 


EB 


4838 


78 


20 


61 


4A 


4C 


CB 


47 


78 


76 


4AE0 


4A 


BD 


08 


4B 


68 


18 


69 


80 


AA 


4D3B 


93 


0B 


A5 


60 


IB 


65 


6C 


85 


eE 


4340 


20 


5E 


4A 


4C 


CB 


47 


46 


BF 


4E 


4AE8 


4A 


18 


69 


20 


33 


E9 


00 


8D 


CE 


4D90 


60 


90 


02 


E6 


6E 


CA 


10 


EA 


5E 


4848 


A 9 


33 


85 


9E 


A2 


02 


BD 


91 


72 


4AF0 


0B 


48 


aft 


18 


69 


30 


4A 


8D 


23 


4D98 


24 


6B 


10 


11 


A5 


6D 


49 


FF 


A8 


4850 


48 


85 


9F 


A0 


00 


84 


61 


88 


CI 


4AF8 


FD 


4A 


4A 


18 


69 


03 


80 


35 


55 


4DA0 


13 


69 


31 


85 


6d 


A5 


6E 


49 


42 


4858 


84 


62 


A4 


05 


83 


Bl 


9E 


49 


3A 


4B00 


48 


A9 


A4 


38 


E9 


00 


18 


69 


A7 


4DA8 


FF 


69 


00 


85 


6E 


AS 


SD 


AS 


81 


4360 


80 


CS 


62 


B0 


02 


85 


62 


C5 


AA 


4B08 


00 


A8 


A2 


00 


S0 


A5 


35 


F3 


Bl 


4DB0 


6E 


60 


IB 


69 


40 


C9 


C0 


B0 


BF 


4868 


SI 


90 


02 


85 


SI 


98 


D0 


EC 


62 


4B10 


:FB 


20 


85 


4C 


20 


Bl 


4A 


23 


9E 


4DB8 


IE 


C9 


80 


B0 


09 


C9 


40 


B0 


90 


4870 


A5 


62 


38 


65 


61 


6A 


49 


80 


91 


4B18 


92 


4B 


98 


D0 


05 


CA 


33 


47 


E5 


4DC0 


0C 


46 


6B 


4C 


El 


40 


E9 


80 


BO 


4878 


8D 


82 


48 


A4 


05 


88 


Bl 


9E 


10 


4B20 


:C6 


9F 


88 


88 


as 


61 


48 


8C 


B8 


4DC8 


66 


6B 


4C 


El 


40 


46 


6B 


3D 


01 


4830 


38 


E9 


00 


91 


9E 


98 


00 


F5 


AF 


4B23 


63 


4B 


Bl 


9E 


80 


43 


4B 


C8 


50 


4DD0 


E0 


4D 


A9 


80 


4C 


DE 


40 


66 


4B 


4888 


CA 


10 


C3 


20 


9C 


4A 


4C 


AE 


52 


4B30 


:B1 


9E 


A8 


B9 


00 


32 


85 


F9 


07 


4DD8 


EB 


80 


E0 


40 


A9 


00 


33 


E9 


25 


4390 


46 


7F 


80 


81 


20 


E2 


4B 


A5 


15 


4833 


B9 


03 


33 


85 


FA 


39 


33 


84 


B7 


4OE0 


00 


AA 


18 


BD 


C2 


5A 


F0 


32 


68 


4898 


04 


C9 


FE 


93 


0A 


46 


BF 


A9 


19 


4B40 


85 


FD 


B9 


03 


35 


35 


FE 


fl0 


31 


4DE8 


69 


01 


60 


A9 


00 


20 


22 


4E 


32 


48A0 


03 


20 


AS 


4B 


4C 


AS 


46 


78 


66 


4B48 


30 


3 9 


00 


82 


35 


F7 


B9 


33 


F4 


4DF0 


:A0 


00 


B9 


98 


4E 


20 


82 


4E 


E2 


4 SAB 


24 


aF 


10 


03 


20 


0B 


49 


AD 


DA 


4B50 


83 


85 


FB 


39 


00 


84 


85 


FB 


OLI 


4DF8 


A2 


00 


B9 


F4 


C7 


10 


01 


CA 


86 


48B0 


•F4 


C7 


8D 


BE 


C7 


AD 


F5 


C7 


F6 


4B58 


B9 


00 


85 


85 


FC 


20 


0B 


50 


A3 


4E30 


23 


39 


4E 


C3 


C0 


06 


D3 


EA 


EF 


48Q8 


3D 


EF 


C7 


AD 


F6 


C7 


8D 


F0 


C2 


4B60 


:A2 


00 


A0 


00 


4C 


18 


48 


60 


22 


4E08 


63 


8C 


20 


4E 


36 


62 


35 


63 


00 


48C0 


•C7 


58 


A9 


80 


85 


BF 


24 


85 


Bl 


4B68 


80 


7F 


4B 


8E 


86 


4B 


8C 


80 


FF 


4E10 


20 


99 


B3 


20 


DD 


BD 


85 


9B 


2B 


48C8 


30 


FC 


4C 


AE 


46 


46 


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20 


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4B70 


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00 


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77 


48 


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84 


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36 


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24 


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10 


23 


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92 


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33 


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30 


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60 


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48 


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86 


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84 


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93 


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82 


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20 


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18 


63 


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33 


73 


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41 


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15 


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86 


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84 


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33 


35 


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78 


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91 


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46 


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80 


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11 


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67 


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93 


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43 


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24 


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30 


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67 


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92 


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85 


31 


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37 


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30 


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00 


86 


31 


28 


98 


18 


65 


78 


4928 


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AC 


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20 


90 


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03 


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50 


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53 


FA 


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26 


85 


26 


93 


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56 


27 


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68 


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91 


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39 


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10 


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31 


39 


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85 


31 


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60 


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68 


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52 


58 


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68 


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59 


20 


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52 


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27 


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29 


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46 


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55 


54 


20 


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84 


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CD 


F4 


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BA 


4C28 


85 


26 


B9 


45 


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85 


28 


3C 


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4EO0 


46 


20 


40 


45 


40 


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52 


59 


3C 


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BE 


AD 


EF 


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CD 


F5 


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3E 


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F7 


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20 


23 


40 


04 


4ED8 


00 


05 


45 


52 


41 


53 


45 


20 


86 


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06 


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F0 


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C7 


FC 


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20 


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41 


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52 


45 


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60 


43 


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43 


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55 


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53 


55 


52 


76 



80 COMPUTEI's Gai«ttB August 1988 



4eP0;45 


3F 


20 


28 


59 


2F 


4E 


29 


03 


5198:03 


AA 


BD 


11 


52 


8D 


CC 


51 


E3 


4EF8:00 


09 


4F 


4E 


4C 


59 


20 


32 


E3 


51A0:49 


FF 


A6 


FF 


3D 


IS 


52 


3D 


20 


4F00:35 


35 


20 


4C 


49 


4E 


45 


53 


B0 


51A3:CE 


51 


A5 


01 


43 


A9 


00 


85 


3A 


4F08:20 


41 


4C 


4C 


4f 


57 


45 


44 


FB 


51B0: 01 


A6 


F8 


BD 


40 


55 


18 


79 


79 


4F10;0a 


AD 


00 


DO 


C9 


95 


F3 


3F 


80 


51B8:03 


54 


85 


60 


BD 


08 


56 


79 


2C 


4F18:C9 


94 


F0 


23 


A9 


A0 


8D 


FA 


F6 


51ca;A0 


54 


60 


FA 


C7 


85 


6E 


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F7 


4F20JC7 


20 


02 


57 


4C 


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4F 


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20 


51C8:O0 


Bl 


6D 


29 


30 


39 


00 


91 


CD 


4F28:E0 


CD 


FA 


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06 


80 


FA 


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5100:60 


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88 


96 


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57 


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68 


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91 


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44 


5210:60 


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55 


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19 


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90 


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77 


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90 


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5283:52 


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67 


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10 


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5288:85 


66 


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52 


79 


06 


30 


28 


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99 


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5293:34 


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65 


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93 


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5298:20 


35 


53 


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6D 


18 


69 


50 


42 


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15 


80 


FA 


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41 


80 


CS 


52Aa:99 


90 


B2 


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6E 


69 


00 


99 


6F 


5000 :FB 


OF 


68 


85 


01 


20 


02 


57 


OF 


52A8!00 


83 


70 


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00 


84 


A6 


58 


5008;4C 


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57 


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98 


29 


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20 


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52 


18 


65 


AA 


85 


73 


5010:0A 


AA 


8E 


76 


50 


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09 


BC 


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8A 


65 


AB 


85 


62 


79 


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84 


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50 


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87 


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30 


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65 


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35 


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50 


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FA 


98 


52C8:20 


05 


53 


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6E 


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6E 


59 


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30 


8D 


7D 


50 


49 


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13 


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BD 


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S2 


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6d 


6A 


18 


BE 


5030:69 


8E 


3E 


53 


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07 


BS 


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5208:65 


60 


85 


60 


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03 


65 


6E 


99 


5038: 95 


57 


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10 


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98 


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B3 


35 


6E 


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64 


38 


E5 


77 


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90 


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69 


57 


85 


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99 


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B4 


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00 


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534 8:50 


A9 


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85 


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50 


84 


52F0:99 


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98 


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58 


21 


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32 


99 


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63 


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86 


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00 


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38 


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91 


6D 


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5390:85 


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67 


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53 


FD 


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60 


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91 


60 


24 


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10 


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85 


67 


85 


68 


75 


5068:89 


38 


88 


F0 


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30 


20 


91 


5310:85 


69 


85 


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55 


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44 


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50 


20 


19 


52 


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98 


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04 


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62 


10 


12 


49 


FF 


49 


5078:29 


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49 


00 


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CA 


5320:95 


62 


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61 


49 


FF 


95 


61 


CO 


5080:90 


03 


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53 


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532a:F6 


61 


00 


32 


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62 


06 


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95 


5088:95 


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F8 


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49 


16 


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CA 


10 


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36 


67 


24 


5090:04 


AA 


A5 


60 


95 


F7 


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HA 40 PRINT"(2 OOWN}PLEASE HAI 
T ABOUT 40 SECONDS." :AD= 
21504 
RH 50 F0RI=1T0161:REA0A:Z=Z+A: 
NEXT: IFZ017628THENPRINT 
"(DOWN)DATA STATEMENT ER 
ROR":STOP 
BC 60 RESTORE;DEFFNLO(X)=X-256 
*INT[X/256) :DEFFNHI (X)=I 
NT(X/256) 
JM 70 DEFPNXT{X)=2*(XAN0252) :D 
EFFNlfT (Y)= (YAND7) +40* (VA 
ND248) 
FX 80 FORX=0TO159:POKEAD,FNLO( 

FNXT{X) ) :AD=AD + 1;NEXT 
KQ 90 FORX=0TO159: POKEAD.FNHI ( 

FNXT(X) ) :AD=AD + 1;NEXT 
EJ 100 FORY=0TO199: POKEAD,FHLO 

(FNYT(Y) ) :AD=AD + 1:NEXT 
XS 110 FORY=0TO199:POKEAD,FHHI 

(FNYT (Y) ) :AD = AD + l:NEXT 
QR 120 FORX='0TO24:POKEAD,FNLO ( 

59392-t-40*X) :AD"AD + l!lJEX 

T 
RK 130 FORX = 0TO24:POKEAO,FNHr { 

59392+40*X) :AD-AD+1:NEX 

T:fiEADP(0) ,P[1) ,P(3) ,P( 

4) 
MJ 140 REAOC:IFC=99THEN190 
DF 150 GOS[JB210:READP (2) ,P (5) , 

E 
KR 160 FORX=0TO5:POKEAD+X,P(X) 

:NEXT 
JP 170 AD=AD+6:P(2)«P(2)+l!P(5 

)=P (5)+l! 1FP(2) <: = ETHEM1 

60 
QA 189 READC:GOSUB210:GOTO140 
QQ 190 FORX=0TO64:Q=INT (SIH(X* 

X/12B)*256+.5)-l:IFQ=-l 

THEtJQ = 
PS 200 P0KEAD,Q:AD=AD+1:NEXT:E 

ND 
AJ 210 IFC=0THENRETURN 
RD 220 FORX=lTOC:REA0V: POKEAD+ 

X-1,V:NEXT:AD=AD+C:RETU 

RN 
SP 230 DATA 189,3,157,0,3,165, 

1,41,248,133 
PD 240 DATA 1,162,0,144,160,15 

9,0,0,208 
HE 250 DATA 176,223,6,232,240, 

3,76,10,87,3 
SF 260 DATA 140,136,143,10,232 

,203,229,165 
XD 270 DATA 1,9,7,133,1,96,8,1 

65,1,41,248 
EG 280 DATA 133,1,162,0,144,22 

4,159,3,0 
EG 290 DATA 208,240,223,6,232, 

240,3,76,250 
PD 300 DATA 87,0,140,200,143,1 

0,232,208 
XF 310 DATA 229,165,1,9,7,133, 

1,96,8,165,1 
GM 320 DATA 41,248,133,1,162,0 

,169,144,175 
JB 330 DATA 0,9,176,298,191,6, 

232,243,3,76 
HD 340 DATA 234,38,0,136,140,1 

39,10,232 
BA 350 DATA 208,229,165,1,9,7, 

133,1,96,8 
XB 360 DATA 165,1,41,248,133,1 

,162,0,224 
PP 370 DATA 144,239,3,0,240,20 

8,255,6,232 
FA 380 DATA 249,3,76,218,89,0, 

200,149,203 
EP 390 DATA 10,232,208,229,165 

,1,9,7,133,1 
SF 400 OATA 96,99 



COMPUTErs Gazette August 1988 81 



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Our Discount Price $9.88 




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Our Discount Price $9.68 



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Top Gun'" puts 
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Our Discount Price $6.88 




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A game of 

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detailed play is 
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interactions. 



Eliminator 


.$638 


Etiutno^ 


.S&BB 


Great Escape 


.$638 


Gun Runnet 


.$6J8B 




.$938 


Leviathan ........ 


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$638 


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.$688 


Murder by the Doien $638 


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.S938 


Pac Man 


.$6.88 


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.$688 


Pole PostliOfl 


.$638 


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Part II 


.$638 


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.$638 


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.$938 


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..$938 


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$683 


Winter Challenge.. 


..$938 


Wiiball 


..tSM 


VALUE VWSE 




Artist 


..$436 


Educator ........ 


..$438 


Entertainer 


..$438 


Home Banker 


..$438 


Home Manager . . . 


.$438 




,.$438 



*AH programs on disk 
unless ufherwise noted] 




Nine Princes in Amber 
Our DiscountPrice $9.88 



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The Train: Escape to 

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ACTION SOFT 

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US History $12 

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Watld Ifistorv $12 



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Bridge 5.0 $19 

Cycle Knighl , , . ^ . . , . $14 
Inlernalional Flockcy . .$14 

Linkword French $16 

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Linkusord Russian $16 

linkword Spanish ....$16 

Slrip Poker $21 

Data Disk #1 Female . .114 
Data Disk H2 Male . . .$14 
Data Disk #3 Female.. S14 
AVAION HILL 

NBA Basketball $25 

NBA 'B5'86 Season Disk$14 

Spillire '40 $23 

Super Sunday S21 

S8S 1985 Team DIsSi ..$14 
SBS 19B6 Team Otilt ..$14 
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Under Fire.: $13 

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Paperclip 3 $33 

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Video Wijjs $19 

BERKELEY 50FTWORK5 

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CectCalc I2B $44 

Ceo-File 118 $44 

Ceo^Wte VStarlshop 128$44 

Geos 64 $39 

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'Font Pack Plus 519 

'Ceo-Calc »3J 

•Ceo File $33 

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Business Form< Shop . .$25 
BRODERBUND 
Carrtteft Sandiego: 
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USA $15 

V\*>Hd .,...$23 

Magnetron $16 

Print Shop $16 

r.S, Companion $23 

P.S, Craplilci Library 

#1, 42, or #3 ..,$16Ea, 
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Huliday Edition . . . .$16 

Toy Shop 119 

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Ghosts & Goblins $19 

Gurtsmoke $19 

Side Arms - $19 

5pe«l Rumbler $19 

CM 

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Success w.^Math: 

Addition a, SlAt $19 

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Fractiorti! Mull. 4 Div,$t9 



Multiplication St 

Division $19 

CINEMAWARE 

Defender of the CnMn$23 

Sinbad: Throne of 

the Falcon $1] 

The Three Stooges $13 

Warp Speed (R) $J3 

CMS 

General Atct. 118 ...$119 

Inventory 12A ....... S49 

tMTA EAST 

Break! hru , $19 

Commando $14 

Ikarl Warriors $19 

Karnov. Call 

KidNlkl $19 

lock On Call 

Speed Buggy $19 

lag Team Wrestling... $14 
Victory Road ........ Call 

[lATASOFT 
Alternate Realhy: 

TlwCity $19 

The Dungeon ...... $26 

Battle Dmidi $19 

Bismarck $19 

Dark lord $14 

Global Commander , . ,$19 
Hunt fur Red October $16 

Rubicon Alliance $14 

Tohruk $21 

Tomahawk .$11 

Video Title Shop w^ 

Graphics Companion $21 
DAVIOSON 

Algcblasler $31 

Math Blaster $31 

Spell It $32 

Wbrd Attack $32 

DESIGN WARE 

Bod^ Transparent $19 

Oesignasaurus Call 

Euro^an Nations ... .$19 

Mission Algebra $19 

Spelljcopter $19 

States S. Traits $19 

DIGITAL SOLLJTIONS 

Pocket Filer 1 .,$31 

Pocket Planner 2 $31 

Pocket Writer 2 $33 

•all 1 In 1 Super Pack. $59 
ELECTRONIC ARTS 

Allen Fires $19 

American Civil War ..$26 

Arctic Foi $21 

Bard's Tale 1 or 2 .$26 Ea. 
Bard's Tale 1 or 2 H tnts$9 Ea. 
Bards Tale 3: 

The Thief of Fate ...$26 

Chessmjster 2000 $26 

Chuck Yaeger's AFT...$21 

Demon SlalUf ..Sit 

Drajion's Lair $19 

Earth Orbit Station ... $21 
Halls of Monteaunu . .$26 

Instant Mu^c $21 

legacy of Ancienti ... $21 

Marble Madness $11 

Master Ninja $19 

Morto^ly , . , , $11 

Parton vs. Ronunel. . . .511 

Pegasus $11 

Hoadw4rs $11 

Bocliford ill 

Scrabble $23 

Scruples $2} 

Skyfoi 2 $21 

Skate or Die $11 



Star Fleet f $26 

Strike Fleet $21 

Twilights Ransom . , , ,$31 

Wasteland Call 

World Tour Golf . $21 

EPYic 
Boulder Dash 

Construction Kit , , , ,$14 
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Champ. Wrestling $14 

Create A tialendar, , , ,$19 

E)eath Sword , $14 

Deilroyer $14 

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Fast load IR) $24 

4 ( 4 Off Road Racing $24 
Impoiilble Mission 2 .$24 

L.A. Crackdown S24 

Metrocross $16 

Street Cat .$16 

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Basketball $24 

Soccer $24 

The Games: 

Winter Edition $24 

Rad Warrior $14 

Spiderbot .,..,...,, ,$14 
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Arctic Arctics $14 

Sub Battle Simulator. ,$14 

Summer Games $14 

Summer Games 1 $14 

Temple Apshai Trilogy - $14 

Winter Games $14 

World Games $34 

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Champ. Bd^etball $13 

CFLCh. Football $23 

Star Rank Boting 2 . . .$19 
Top Fuel Eliminator , , .$19 
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Sargon 1 $14 

SAT Complete $2S 

INFOCOM 

Beyond Zork 123 $29 

Border Zone .$23 

leather Goddesses ...$2} 
Nord & 8ert Couldn't Make 

Head or Tail of It,,, $23 
Sherlock: The Riddle of the 

Crown Jewels $13 

Stlllonfall $23 

The Lu riling Honor... $2] 

lork Trilogy $29 

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(170 l>eluieL.P $69 

<184C Light Pen $44 

Fle&idraw 5.S $23 

Graphics Intregralor 2 $19 
KONAMIfACTlON CITY 

Boot Camp Call 

Contra Call 

lackal Call 

Rush 'n Attack/Yie 

Ar Kung Fu Call 

Lt)CICAL DESIGN 

Club Bacligamnuin . . .Call 

\^s Craps $19 

Vegas Gambler $19 

MICROLEACUE 

Baseball $25 

Boii Score Stats $16 

General Maruger $19 

1986 Team DaU Disk ,$14 

1987 Team Data Disk .$14 

WWF Wrestling $19 

MICHOPROSE 

Acrolet $16 



Airborne Ranger $23 

Conflict in Vietnam.,. $25 
Crusade in Europe. - - .$35 

F-tS Strike Eagle $23 

Gunshlp $23 

Kennedy Approach . . .$16 

Pirates $2S 

Protect Stealth Fighter $25 
Red Storm Rising. . . . .S2S 

Silent Service $23 

MINDSCAPE 

Bad Street Brawler ...$19 

Blockbuster $19 

Bop A Wrestle $19 

Color Met The Computer 

Coloring Kit $23 

•Deeper Dungeons ...$16 

De li V!u $21 

Gauntlet .$13 

Harrier Combat Sim. . .$19 
IrKloor Sports ....,,,. $19 
Infiltrator 1 or 2 . .S19 Ea. 
Intn the Eagle's Nest , .$19 

Living Daylights $19 

MISL Soccer $23 

Paperboy $21 

Perfect Scum SAT $44 

Road Runner $23 

Super Slar 

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Super Star Soccer . . . .$23 
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Bob's Term Pro $19 

Bob's Term Pro 12B . . . $19 

r.P. Copy 2 S31 

Doodle $1S 

Final Cartridge 3 $47 

Foni Master 2 $29 

font IVtaster 138 $15 

Suprrbase 64 $29 

Superbase 128 $39 

Superscript 64 $25 

Superscript 128 $29 

Super Snapshot (R) . . .$47 
ORjCIN 

Auloduel $11 

Mocfaius. $25 

Ogre $19 

Uhima 1 or 3 $25 Ea. 

UMinu4 $39 

Uhima 5 $39 

PROFESSIONAL 

Fleet Filer $19 

fleet System 2 Plus. . .$33 
fleet System 4 128 ...$43 
SIMON g, SCHUST8R 
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Typing Tutor 4 $25 

SIR lECFf 

Deep Space $25 

WiHrdry: Proving 

Grounds $25 

SOFTVWRt SIMUIATIONS 

fwolball $19 

Pure Stat Baseball $25 

Pure Stat College 

Sasketbalt $25 

•Data Disks Available Call 
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Certificilc Mater $14 

CM. Library Vbl. 1. .$9^ 

Neivsn>om $14 

N.R. Clip Art Vo\. 1 $948 
N.R. Clip Art Vol.1 .$9*8 
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P.S. Graphics Eipander $23 
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Battle of Antietam $32 

B.24 $23 



Eternal Dagger $25 

Cettyihurg $37 

Kampfgruppe $37 

Panier Strikel $29 

Phanlaije 1, 2 or 3 $25 Ea, 
P resilient Elect 1988 . . $16 

Questran 2 $25 

Realms ol Darkness. . ,$25 

Rings of Zilfin $15 

Roadwar 2000 $25 

Roadway Europa .... .$15 

Shand of Spring ...... $25 

Shilnh: Grant's Trial . .$15 

Sons of liberty $33 

War Game Const. Set .$19 

War in S. Pacific $17 

Warship $17 

Wirard's Crown $35 

SUBIOCIC 

Flight Simulator 2 $31 

F.S. Scenery Disks Call 

lei $16 

Stealth Mission $32 

1HR66 SIXTY 

DarkCJSlle $13 

TIMEWORKS 

Acct). Payable $33 

Accts Receivable $13 

Data Manager 3 $14 

Data Manager 138 ...$31 
[velyn Wood Reader . ,S14 

General ledger $33 

Partner 64 (R) $15 

Partner 12B (Rl $31 

Swiftcalc 'Sideways (D1 . $19 
Swihcalc'Siileways 128 $31 
Sylvia Porter's Pergonal 

Fin. Planner 64 $25 

Sylvia Porter's Personal 

Fin. Planner 138 $33 

Word Writer 3 .$15 

Word Writer 13B $31 

UNICORN 

Decimal Dungeon . . . .$19 

Fraction Action ..... .$19 

Percentage Panic $19 

Race Car Rilhmelic . . .$19 

Ten Linle Robots $19 

UNISON WORLD 
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Contriver Mouse $39 

Disk (Case (Holds 75)$&,88 
Disk Drive Cleaner.. $6J8 
Epyi 500 XI joystick , ,$14 
Icontroller ,,.....,, ,$14 

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How To Type In 
COMPUTErs Gazette Programs 



Each month, COMPUTEI's Gazette 
pubhshes programs for the Com- 
modore 128, 64, Plus/4, and 16. 
Each program is clearly marked by 
title and version, Be sure to type in 
the correct version for your ma- 
chine. All 64 programs run on the 
128 in 64 mode. Be sure to read the 
instructions in the corresponding 
article. This can save time and elim- 
inate any questions which might 
arise after you begin typing. 

We frequently publish tw^o 
programs designed to make typing 
easier: The Automatic Proofreader, 
and MLX, designed for entering 
machine language programs. 

When entering a BASIC pro- 
gram, be especially careful with 
DATA statements as they are ex- 
tremely sensitive to errors. A mis- 
typed number in a DATA statement 
can cause your machine to "lock 
up" (you'll have no control over the 
computer). If this happens, the only 
recourse is to turn your computer 
off then on, erasing what was in 
memory. So be sure to save a pro- 
gram before you run it. If your com- 
puter crashes, you can always 
reload the program and look for the 
error. 



Special Characters 

Most of the programs listed in each 
issue contain special control charac- 
ters, To facilitate typing in any pro- 
grams from the GAZETTE, use the 
following listing conventions. 

The most common type of con- 
trol characters in our listings appear 
as words within braces: {DOWN} 
means to press the cursor down 
key; {5 SPACES} means to press 
the space bar five times. 

To indicate that a key should 
be shifted (hold down the SHIFT 
key while pressing another key), 
the character is underlined. For ex- 
ample, A means hold down the 
SHIFT key and press A, You may 
see strange characters on your 
screen, but that's to be expected. If 
you find a number followed by an 
underlined key enclosed in braces 
(for example, {8 A}), type the key 
as many times as indicated (in our 
example, enter eight SHIITed A's). 

If a key is enclosed in special 
brackets, % |, hold down the 
Commodore key (at the lower left 
comer of the keyboard) and press 
the indicated character. 

Rarely, you'll see a single letter 
of the alphabet enclosed in braces. 



This can be entered on the Commo- 
dore 64 by pressing the CTRL key 
while typing the letter in braces. For 
example, {A} means to press 
CTRL-A. 



The Quote Mode 

Although you can move the cursor 
around the screen with the CRSR 
keys, often a programmer will want 
to move the cursor under program 
control. This is seen in examples 
such as {LEFT}, and {HOME} in 
the program listings. The only way 
the computer can tell the difference 
between direct and programmed 
cursor control is the quote mode. 

Once you press the quote key, 
you're in quote mode. This mode 
can be confusing if you mistype a 
character and cursor left to change 
it. You'll see a reverse video charac- 
ter (a graphics symbol for cursor 
left). In this case, you can use the 
DELete key to back up and edit the 
line. Type another quote and you're 
out of quote mode. If things really 
get confusing, you can exit quote 
mode simply by pressing RETURN. 
Then just cursor up to the mistyped 
line and fix it. 



When You Read: 

{CLR} 
{HOME} 

(DOWN} 

{LEFT} 

(RIGHT] 

{KVS} 

{OFF) 

{BLK) 

{WHT} 

{RED} 

(CYN} 



PresK 



See: 



SHIFT 



aWHOME 



CLRJHOME 



SHIFT 



T CRSR I 





t CRSR 1 


SHIFT 


— CRSR — 








^CRSR — 



CTRI. 


9 


CTRL 


a 



CTRL 


1 


aRL 


2 


CTRL 


3 




CTRL 


4 



When You Read: 

jPUR} 
(CRN} 
IBLU) 
{YEL} 
{ Fl } 
( K 1 
( F3 } 
1 R ( 
{ B I 
{ F6 ( 
( F7 ) 
I F8 I 



Press: 



See: 



CTRL 


S 




CTRL 


t 






CTRL 1 


7 



When You Read: 

t 



Press: 



See: 



[T 



CTRL 



][ 



SHlFt 



For Commodore 64 Only 

[ COMMODORE I [T] 



SHIFT 



][]D 



SHIFT 



SHIFT 



i si 



I c ommodore] j~2 j 
comm odore] j"3 I 



□ 



COMMOiMREJ [T] [BJ 

comm opom] [T] m 



commodore] [fr ] m 



com modore] [ 7_] n 



COMMODORE 



:ii 



86 COMPUTErs GazBlta August 13S8 




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\yll Y^ Machine Language Entry Program 
iVlLyV For Commodore 64 and 128 



Ottis R. Cowper ■^^■^^^■■M 

"MIX" Is a labor-saving utility that 
allows almost fail-safe entry of 
machine language programs. Included 
are versions for the Commodore 64 

and 128. 

Type in and save some copies of which- 
ever version of MLX is appropriate for 
your computer (you'll want to use it to 
enter future ML programs from COM- 
PUTEI's GAZETTE). Program 1 is for the 
Commodore 64, and Program 2 is for 
the 128 (128 MLX can also be used to 
enter Commodore 64 ML programs for 
use in 64 mode), When you're ready to 
enter an ML program, load and run 
MLX. It asks you for a starting address 
and an ending address. These addresses 
appear in the article accompanying the 
MLX-format program listing you're 
typing. 

If you're unfamiliar with machine 
language, the addresses (and all other 
values you enter in MLX) may appear 
strange. Instead of the usual decimal 
numbers you're accustomed to, these 
numbers are in hexadecimal — a base 16 
numbering system commonly used by 
ML programmers. Hexadecimal — hex 
for short — includes the numerals 0-9 
and the letters A-F. But don't worry- 
even if you know nothing about ML or 
hex, you should have no trouble using 
MLX. 

After you enter the starting and 
ending addresses, you'll be offered the 
option of clearing the workspace. 
Choose this option if you're starting to 
enter a new listing. If you're continuing 
a listing that's partially typed from a 
previous session, don't choose this 
option. 

A functions menu will appear. The 
first option in the menu is ENTER 
DATA. If you're just starting to type in 
a program, pick this. Press the E key, 
and type the first number in the first 
line of the program listing. If you've al- 
ready typed in part of a program, type 
the line number where you left off typ- 
ing at the end of the previous session 
(be sure to load the partially completed 
program before you resume entry). In 
any case, make sure the address you en- 
ter corresponds to the address of a line 
in the listing you are entering. Other- 
wise, you'll be unable to enter the data 
correctly. If you pressed E by mistake, 
you can return to the command menu 
by pressing RETURN alone when 
asked for the address. (You can get back 
to the menu from most options by 
pressing RETURN with no other input.) 



Entering A listing 

Once you're in Enter mode, MLX prints 
the address for each program line for 
you. You then type in all nine numbers 
on that line, beginning with the first 
two-digit number after the colon (:). 
Each line represents eight data bytes 
and a checksum. Although an MLX- 
format listing appears similar to the 
"hex dump" listings from a machine 
language monitor program, the extra 
checksum number on the end allows 
MLX to check your typing. (Commo- 
dore 1 28 users can enter the data from 
an MLX listing using the built-in moni- 
tor if the rightmost column of data is 
omitted, but we recommend against it. 
It's much easier to let MLX do the proof- 
reading and error checking for you.) 

When you enter a line, MLX recal- 
culates the checksum from the eight 
bytes and the address and compares 
this value to the number from the ninth 
column. If the values match, you'll hear 
a bell tone, the data will be added to the 
workspace area, and the prompt for the 
next line of data will appear. But if MLX 
detects a typing error, you'll hear a low 
buzz and see an error message. The line 
will then be redisplayed for editing. 

Invalid Characters Banned 

Only a few keys are active while you're 
entering data, so you may have to un- 
learn some habits. You do not type 
spaces between the columns; MLX 
automatically inserts these for you. You 
do not press RETURN after typing the 
last number in a line; MLX automatical- 
ly enters and checks the line after you 
type the last digit. 

Only the numerals 0-9 and the let- 
ters A-F can be typed in. If you press 
any other key (with some exceptions 
noted below), you'll hear a warning 
buzz. To simplify typing, 128 MLX re- 
defines the function keys and + and — 
keys on the numeric keypad so that you 
can enter data one-handed. (The 64 
version incorporates the keypad modi- 
fication from the March 1986 "Bug- 
Swatter" column, lines 485-487,) In 
either case, the keypad is active only 
while entering data. Addresses must be 
entered with the normal letter and 
number keys. The figures above show 
the keypad configurations for each 
version. 

MLX checks for transposed charac- 
ters. If you're supposed to type in AO 
and instead enter OA, MLX will catch 
your mistake. There is one error that 



64 MLX Keypad 



4 

u 



6 
O 



2 
K 



M 



c 



D 

/ 




Space 



128 MLX Keypad 



A 

fFl) 


B 
(F3) 


C 

(FS) 


D 

(t7) 



7 


8 


9 


E 
(+) 


4 


S 


6 


F 
(-) 


1 


2 


3 


E 

N 
T 
E 
R 





• 



can slip past MLX: Because of the 
checksum formula used, MLX won't 
notice if you accidentally type FF in 
place of 00, and vice versa. And there's 
a very slim chance that you could gar- 
ble a line and still end up with a combi- 
nation of characters that adds up to the 
proper checksum. However, these mis- 
takes should not occur if you take rea- 
sonable care while entering data. 

Editing Features 

To correct typing mistakes before fin- 
ishing a line, use the INST/DEL key to 
delete the character to the left of the 
cursor, (The cursor-left key also de- 
letes,) If you mess up a line really badly, 
press CLR/HOME to start the line over. 
The RETURN key is also active, but 
only before any data is typed on a line. 
Pressing RETURN at this point returns 
you to the command menu. After you 
type a character of data, MLX disables 
RETURN until the cursor returns to the 
start of a line. Remember, you can press 
CLR/HOME to quickly get to a line 



90 COMPUTE!' t Gazette August 1988 



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number prompt. 

More editing features are available 
when coirectmg lines in which MLX 
has detected an error. To make correc- 
tions in a line that MLX has redisplayed 
for editing, compare the line or the 
screen with the one printed in the list- 
ing, then move the cursor to the mis- 
take and type the correct key. The 
cursor left and right keys provide the 
normal cursor controls, (The INST/ 
DEL key now works as an alternative 
cursor-left key.) You cannot move left 
beyond the first character in the line. If 
you try to move beyond the rightmost 
character, you'll reenter the line. Dur- 
ing editing, RETURN is active; pressing 
it tells MLX to recheck the line. You can 
press the CLR/HOME key to clear the 
entire line if you want to start from 
scratch, or if you want to get to a line 
number prompt to use RETURN to get 
back to the menu. 

Display Data 

The second menu choice, DISPLAY 
DATA, examines memory and shows 
the contents in the same format as the 
program listing (including the check- 
sum). When you press D, MLX asks you 
for a starting address. Be sure that the 
starting address you give corresponds 
to a line number in the listing. Other- 
wise, the checksum display will be 
meaningless. MLX displays program 
lines until it reaches the end of the pro- 
gram, at which point the menu is redis- 
played. You can pause the display by 
pressing the space bar. (MLX finishes 
printing the current line before halting.) 
Press space again to restart the display. 
To break out of the display and get back 
to the menu before the ending address 
is reached, press RETURN. 

Other Menu Options 

Two more menu selections let you save 
programs and load them back into the 
computer. These are SAVE FILE and 
LOAD FILE; their operation is quite 
straightforward. When you press S or L, 
MLX asks you for the filename. You'll 
then be asked to press either D or T to 
select disk or tape. 

You'll nodce the disk drive starting 
and stopping several times during a 
load or save (save only for the 128 ver- 
sion). Don't panic; this is normal be- 
havior. MLX opens and reads from or 
writes to the file instead of using the 
usual LOAD and SAVE commands 
(128 MLX makes use of BLOAD). Disk 
users should also note that the drive 
prefix 0: is automatically added to the 
filename (line 750 in 64 MLX), so this 
should not be included when entering 
the name. This also precludes the use of 
@ for Save-with-Replace, so remember 
to give each version you save a different 



name. The 128 version makes up for 
this by giving you the option of scratch- 
ing the existing file if you want to reuse 
a filename. 

Remember that MLX saves the en- 
tire workspace area from the starting 
address to the ending address, so the 
save or load may take longer than you 
might expect if you've entered only a 
small amount of data from a long list- 
ing. When saving a partially completed 
listing, make sure to note the address 
where you stopped typing so you'll 
know where to resume entry when you 
reload. 

MLX reports the standard disk or 
tape error messages if any problems are 
detected during the save or load. (Tape 
users should bear in mind that Commo- 
dore computers are never able to detect 
errors during a save to tape.) MLX also 
has three special load error messages: 
INCORRECT STARTING ADDRESS, 
which means the file you're trying to 
load does not have the starting address 
you specified when you ran MLX; 
LOAD ENDED AT address, which 
means the file you're trying to load 
ends before the ending address you 
specified when you started MLX; and 
TRUNCATED AT ENDING AD- 
DRESS, which means the file you're 
trying to load extends beyond the end- 
ing address you specified when you 
started MLX. If you see one of these 
messages and feel certain that you've 
loaded the right file, exit and rerun 
MLX, being careful to enter the correct 
starting and ending addresses. 

The 128 version also has a CATA- 
LOG DISK option so you can view the 
contents of the disk directory before 
saving or loading. 

The QUIT menu option has the ob- 
vious effect — it stops MLX and enters 
BASIC. The RUN/STOP key is dis- 
abled, so the Q option lets you exit the 
program without turning off the com- 
puter. (Of course, RUN/STOP-RE- 
STORE also gets you out.) You'll be 
asked for verification; press Y to exit to 
BASIC, or any other key to return to the 
menu. After quitting, you can type 
RUN again and reenter MLX without 
losing your data, as long as you don't 
use the clear workspace option. 

The Finished Product 

When you've finished typing all the 
data for an ML pr<>gram and saved your 
work, you're ready to see the results. 
The instructions for loading and using 
the finished product vary from program 
to program. Some ML programs are de- 
signed to be loaded and run like BASIC 
programs, so all you need to type is 
LOAD "fikname",8 for disk (DLOAD 
"filename" on the 128) or LOAD "file- 
name" for tape, and then RUN. Such 



programs will usually have a starting 
address of 0801 for the 64 or ICO 1 for 
the 128, Other programs must be re- 
loaded to specific addresses with a com- 
mand such as LOAD "filetwme",SA for 
disk {BLOAD "filename" on the 128) or 
LOAD "filename", lA for tape, then 
started with a SYS to a particular mem- 
ory address. On the Commodore 64, 
the most common starting address for 
such programs is 49152, which corre- 
sponds to MLX address COOO. In either 
case, you should always refer to the ar- 
ticle which accompanies the ML listing 
for information on loading and running 
the program. 

An Ounce Of Prevention 

By the time you finish typing in the data 
for a long ML program, you may have 
several houre Invested in the project. 
Don't take chances — use our "Auto- 
matic Proofreader" to type the new 
MLX, and then test your copy thorough- 
ly before first using it to enter any sig- 
nificant amount of data. Make sure all 
the menu options work as they should. 
Enter fragments of the program starting 
at several different addresses, then use 
the Display option to verify that the 
data has been entered correctly. And be 
sure to test the Save and Load options 
several times to ensure that you can re- 
call your work from disk or tape. Don't 
let a simple typing error in the new 
MLX cost you several nights of hard 
work. 



MLX For Commodore 



Program 1 

64 

SS 10 REM VERSION l.lt LIMES 8 
30,930 MODIFIED, LINES 4 
85-487 ADDED 

EK 100 POKE 56,50jCLRjDIM IN?, 
I,J,A,B,AS,B$,A(7),NS 

DM 110 C4=48;C6=16iC7=7iZ2-2iZ 
4-254 1 25=255:26=256 1 27- 
127 

CJ 120 FA=PEEK(45>+Z6*PEEK(46) 
! BS-PEEK ( 55 ) +Z6 *PEEK ( 56 
) :H?="01234S6789ABCDEF" 

SB 130 R5=CHRS(13}!L?="lLEFT)" 
iSS«" " tD?=CHR5(20) :Z5= 
CHB$(0)iT?="ll3 RIGHT 1" 

CQ 140 SD=54272iFOR I=SD TO SD 
+23iPOKE I,0!NEXTiPOKE 
£SPACE1SD+24,1SiPOKE 78 
8 52 

PC 150 PRINT"tCLRl"CHR5(142)CH 
R5(8}!POKE 53280,15 sPOK 
E 53281,15 

EJ 160 PRINT T?" [REDHRVS) 
[2 SPACES }E8 @i 
{2 SPACES) "SPC( 28)" 
(2 SPACES) I OFF HBLU) ML 
X II [REDJlRVS) 
(2 SPACESj"SPC(2e)" 
112 SPACES) I BLU}" 

FR 170 PRINT" {3 DOWN J 

{3 SPACES ICOMPUTEl 'S MA 
CHINE LANGUAGE EDITOR 
13 DOWNl" 

JB 180 PRINT" (BLK) STARTING ADD 



92 COMPUTE!' s Gaz&tW August IS 



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A 



RESSNr' f iGOSUB300iSAi=A 
D:GOSUB1040jIF F THEN18 


GP 190 PRINT " [ BLK 1 ( 2 SPACES) EN 
DING ADDRESS |4|"; I GOSUB 
300iEA»ADiGOSUB1030MF 
( SPACE }P THEN! 90 

KR 200 INPUT"{3 DOWN) (BLK)CLEA 
R WORKSPACE EY/N]i4i";A 
S:IF LEFT^CA^jDo'lfTH 
EN220 

PG 210 PRINT"{2 D0WN}(BLU1W0RK 
IHG . . . " ; s FORIoBS TO BS+ 
EA-SA4-7iPOKE I,0iKEXT:P 

rint"done" 
db 220 printtab(10)"{2 down) 
(blkKrvs) hlx command 

[space) MENU (DOWN}E4i"! 

PRINT TS"[RVSJe{OPFJNTE 

R DATA" 
BD 230 PRINT T5" {RVS jDtOFF llSP 

LAY DATA" SPRINT T?" 

[RVS)L{OFF)OAD FILE" 
JS 240 PRINT T$"[RVS)S{0PPJAVE 
PILE"tPRINT T5"(RVS}Q 

{0FF)UIT{2 DOWNlfflLK)" 
JH 250 GET A5iIF A?-N? THEN2S0 
UK 260 A=0iFOR 1=1 TO 5iIF AS= 

MID? ("EDLSQ", 1,1) THEN A 

=IiI=5 
FD 270 NEXT I ON A GOTO420, 610 ,6 

90,700, 2S0:GOSUB1060:GO 

TO250 
EJ 280 PRINT" [RVS} QUIT "tINPU 

T"tD0WNli4|ARE YOU SURE 
[Y/N]"fASiIP LEPT$(AS, 

1)<>"Y"THEN220 
EM 290 POKE S[>-)-24,0:END 
JX 300 IN$=N9iAD=0:INPUTlN5!lF 

LEN{ IN$ ) 4THENRETURN 
KF 310 B$~IN$iGOSUB320:AO=AtB$ 

=MID?(IN9,3)iGOSUB320iA 

D=AD*2 56+A!RETURN 
PP 320 A=0iFOR J»l TO 2iASbM1D 

$ ( B$ , J , 1 h BhASC { A5 ) -C4+ 

[A5>"@")*C7iA=A*C6+B 
JA 330 IF B<0 OR B>1S THEN AD= 

0:A=-1jJ=2 
GX 340 NEXTiRETURN 
CH 350 B=INT(A/C6) t PRINT MID$ C 

H$,B+1,1) f !B=A-B*C6iPRI 

NT MID5{HS,B+1,1); jRETU 

RN 
RR 360 A>INT(AD/Z6) tGOSUB350EA 

»AD-A*Z6 tGOSUB350 : PRINT 

BE 370 CK=INT{AD/Z6) iCK=AD-Z4* 

CK+Z5*(CK>Z7) 1GOTO390 
PX 300 CK=CK*Z2+ZS*{CK>Z7)+A 
JC 390 CK=CK+Z5*(CK>Z5) ! RETURN 
QS 400 PRINT "{DOWN 3 STARTING AT 

|4l"j iGOSUB300tIF INS<> 

NS THEN GOSUB1030IIP P 

[ SPACE }THEN400 
EX 410 RETURN 
HD 420 PRINT" [RVS) ENTER DATA 

tSPACEj"!GOSOa400!lF IN 

S»N$ THEN220 
JK 430 OPEN3,3tPRINT 
SK 440 POKE198,0:GOSUB360:IF F 
THEN PRINT 1N$«PRINT" 

(UP) {S RIGHT)"f 
GC 450 FOR 1-0 TO 24 STEP 3iB$ 

=S$tPOR J»l TO 2iIF F T 

HEN B$=MIDS(IN9,I+J,1) 
HA 460 PRINT"(RVS)"B5L5; )IF 1< 

24THEN PRINT "{ OFF )" ; 
HD 470 GET AS: IF A5=N5 THEN470 
FK 460 IF(AS>"/"ANDA$<":")OR{A 

$> "@"ANDA5<"G" ) THEN 540 
GS 485 A^-{AS="M")-2*{AS=",")- 



3*(A5="".")-4*(A?-'7")-5 

*{AS="J")-6*(A5-"K") 

FX 486 A=A-7*(a5="L")-e*{A5="! 

" )-9* (A5="U" )-10« (A$ = "I 

")-ll*{A$="0")-12*(AS=" 
p.. J 

CM 487 A=A-13*(A$-S$) tIF A THE 
N A$"MIDS("ABCD123E456F 
0",A, DsGOTO 540 

MP 490 IF A5-RS AND((I=0)AND(J 
"1)0R FjTHEN PRINT B? ; : 
J=2 iNEXTi 1=24 :GOTOSS0 

KC 500 IF AS="(H0ME]" then PR! 
NT B5!J=2!NEXT:I=24:NEX 
T!F=0iGOTO440 

MX 510 IP (A5=" (RIGHT) ")ANDF TH 
ENPRINT B5L5 ; tGOTO540 

GK 520 IF AS<>-L$ AND AS<>D5 OR 
((Iii"0jAND(J=l))THEN GOS 
UB1060JGOTO470 

HG 530 A5=L5+S5+L$tPRINT B5L?i 
iJ=2-JiIF J THEN PRINT 
I SPACE 3 L$ J s 1=1-3 

QS 540 PRINT A5riNEXT J s PRINT 
{ SPACE )S$f 

PM 550 NEXT IiPRINTiPRrNT"[UPJ 
tS RIGHT) "riINPUT#3,IN$ 
iIF INS^N? THEN CLOSES: 
GOTO220 

QC 560 FOR I-l TO 25 STEP3 tB5= 
MID5(IN?,I) !GOSUB320tIF 
K25 TI3EN GOSUB3e0tA(I 
/3)-A 

PK 570 NEXTjIF AoCK THEN GOSU 
B1060iPRINT"ULK) (RVS) 
(SPACE) ERROR > REENTER L 
INE i4i"iF=l!GOTO440 

HJ 580 GOSUB10a0!B=BS+AD-SA!FO 
R 1=0 TO 7iP0KE B+I,A(I 
JiNEXT 

QQ 590 AD-AD+SjIP AD>EA THEN C 
"LOSES jPRI NT" (DOWN ) {BLU3 
** END OF ENTRY **(BLK} 
(2 DOWNj"iGOTO700 

GQ 600 P«0jGOTO440 

QA 610 PRINT "(CLR 3 (DOWN J (RVS} 
[space! DISPLAY DATA "iG 
OSUB40atIF INS=NS THEN2 
20 

RJ 620 PRINT"[DOWN}(BLU)PRESSi 
(RVS) SPACE {OFF 3 TO PAU 

SE, (rvs}return(opf} to 

BREAK! 4i [down)" 
KS 630 GOSUfl36a!B-BS+AD-SAiPOR 
I-BTO B+7tA=PEEK(I)tGOS 
UB3 50 !GOSUB380t PRINT SS 

CC 640 NEXT)PRINT"(RVS)"r:A-CK 

!GOSUB350iPRINT 
VM 650 P»lsAD-AD+8!lF AD>EA TH 

ENPRINT"{D0WN3{BLUJ** E 

ND OF DATA **"iGOTO220 
KC 660 GET A$iIF A$~R; THEN GO 

SUB10e0;GOTO2 20 
EQ 670 IF A$«SS THEN F-P+ltGOS 

UB1080 
AD 680 {MFG0T06 30, 660,630 
CM 690 PRINT "(DOWN 3 (KVSl LOAD 

(SPACE 3 DATA "lOP-ltGOTO 

710 
PC 700 PRINT "{DOWN} (RVS) SAVE 

{SPACEJPILE "iOP-0 
RX 710 IN5-NS! INPUT "(DOWN) FILE 

NA«E|4|";IN9ilP INS-N? 

( SPACE ) THEH220 
PR 720 P*"0 (PRINT" (DOWN) (BLK) 

(RVS)T{0FP}APE OR [RVS) 

D(0FF3lSKt |4i"! 
FP 730 GET ASiIP A$-"T"THEN PR 

int-tE DOWN) " iGOToaea 

HQ 740 IF A$<>"D"THEN730 



HH 750 PRINT"D[DOWN)"iOPEN15,8 
,15, "I0r'iB=EA-SAiIN5=" 
0!"+IN?*IF OP THEN810 
SQ 760 OPEN l,e,8,IN$+",P,W":G 

OSOBB601IP A THEN220 
FJ 770 AH'"INT(SA/256> tAL"SA-(A 
H*256) iPRINT#l,CHR5(AL) 
;CHR$(AH); 
PE 780 FOR 1-0 TO BiPRINTil,CH 
RS(PE£K(BS+I)) f liF ST T 
HENB00 
FC 790 NEXTiCLOSEIsCLOSEISjGOT 

0940 
GS 800 GOSUB1060jPRINT"[DOWN3 
(BLK) ERROR DURING SAVE: 
§43" IGOSUB860 SGOTO220 
MA 810 OPEN l,8,8,lH$ + '',P,R"tG 

OSUB860aF A THEN220 
GE 820 GET#l,AS,B5tAD=ASC(A?+Z 
5)+256*ASC(B5+Z5) tIF AD 
<>SA THEN F=liGOTO850 
RX 830 FOR 1-0 TO B:GET#1 ,A$ sP 
OKE BS+I,ASCtAS+Z5) sIFt 
K^BjAND ST THEN F-2SAD 
a.IiI-B 
FA 840 NEXT t IF ST<>64 THEN F!=3 
FQ 850 CLOSEl iCLOSElSiON ABS(F 

>0>+l GOTO960,970 
SA 860 INPUT* 15, A, AS iIF A THEN 
CLOSEl I CLOSEl 5 :GOSUB10 
60 SPRINT" (RVS 3 ERROR; "A 
$ 
GQ 870 RETURN 

EJ 880 POKElB3,PEEK(FA+2) jPOKE 
187,PEEK(FA+3) jPOKElSB, 
PEEK{FA+4) !lFOP»0THEN92 

HJ 890 SYS 63466!lPtPEEK(783)A 
ND1)THEN GOSU Bl 060 :PRIN 
T" [DOWN) (RVS) FILE NOT 
{space 3 FOUND ":GOTO690 
CS 900 AD=PEEK(829)+2S6*PEEK{8 
30)!lF ADOSA THEN F=l! 
GOTO970 
SC 910 A=PEEK(831)+256*PEEK(83 
2)-l !p-F-2*{A<EA)-3*(A> 
EA) tAD-A-AD;GOTO930 
KM 920 A=SA!B=EA+l!GOSUB1010:P 

OKE780,3:SYS 633 38 
JF 930 A=BSiB=BS+(EA-SA>+l!GOS 
UB10101ON OP GOTO950!SY 
S 63591 
AE 940 GOSUB1080!PRINT"[BLU}** 
SAVE COMPLETED **"!GOT 
0220 
XP 950 POKE147,0iSYS 63562iIF 

( SPACE )ST>0 THEH970 
FR 960 GOSUB1080sPRINT"{BLU3** 
LOAD COMPLETED **":GOT 
0220 
DP 970 GOSUB1060:PBINT"{BLK3 

[RVS) ERROR DURING LOAD: 
[DOWN3|43":ON F G0SUB9a 
0,990, 1000 1GOTO220 
PP 980 PRINT "INCORRECT START IN 
G ADDRESS ( " ; !GOSUB360 : 
PRINT")"!RETURN 
GR 990 PRIMT"LOAD ENDED AT ";: 
AD=SA+AD: G0SUB3 60 : PRINT 
05 I RETURN 
FD 1000 PRINT "TRUNCATED AT END 

ING ADDRESS": RETURN 
RX 101^ AH=INT(A/256l sAL-A-lAH 
*256)!pOKE193,ALiPOKEl 
94, AH 
FF 1020 AH=lNT(B/256) :AL=B-(AH 
*256) :POKE174,AL!POKEl 
75, AH: RETURN 
FX 1030 IF AD<SA OR AD>EA THEN 

1050 
HA 1040 IF(AD>511 AND AD<40960 



94 COMPUTEfa Gaietto August 1988 







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Convert your C64/C1 28 to a raal synthesizer with the "L 


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Stats ■— Accumtilated & Average 

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)0R(AD>49151 AND AD<53 

24B)THEN GOSUB1080JF-0 

: RETURN 
HC 1050 GOSUB1060rPRINT"tRVS) 

(SPACE) INVALID ADDRESS 
(D0WN}[BLKJ"jF=1 sRETU 

RN 
AR 1060 POKE SD+5,31tPOKE SD+6 

,208tPOKE SD,240iPOKE 

{SPACE )SD+ 1,4 J POKE SD+ 

4,33 
DX 1070 FOR Sal TO 100!NEXTtGO 

TO1090 
PP 1080 POKE SD+5,B!P0KE SD+6, 

240 [POKE SD,0tPOKE SD-I- 

1,90 1 POKE SD+4,17 
AC 1090 FOR S=l TO 100(NEXT!PO 

KE SD44,0tPOKE SD,0tPO 

KE SD41,0iRETURN 

Program 2: MLX For Commodore 
128 

\E 100 TRftP 960:POKE 4627,128; 

DIM NL$,A(7) 
XP 110 22='2!Z4=>254;Z5-25S:Z6"2 
S6!Z7=127:BS-256*PEEK (4 
627):EA=652ae 
FB 120 BES=CHR5 (7) :RT$=CHRSU3 
) :DL$=CHrS(20) :SP5=CHft$ 
(32>:LF?=CHRS(157) 
KB 130 DEF FNHB(A)-INT(A/256) : 
DEF FNLBlA)»ft-FNHB(A)*2 
56: DEF FNftD {A J -PEEK (A) + 
256*PEEK(A+1) 
JB 140 KEi 1,"A";KEY Sj-'B^'sKElf 
5,"C";KEY 7,"D":V0[> IS 
: IF RGR(0)=5 THEN FAST 
FJ 150 PRINT" ICLR)''CHR$ (142 );C 
HR5(8):COL0B e,15;C0LOR 
4,15:COLOB 6,15 
GQ 160 PRINT TAB(12> "{RED) 
(RVS)12 SPACES )<9 @> 
U SPACESrRTSjTAB(12) " 
{RVSH2 SPACES) lOFF) 
tBLUj 128 MLX [RED} 
{RVsiU SPACES] "RT?; TAB 
(12) 'MRVS}(13 SPACES) 
IBLU)" 
FE 170 PRINT"12 DOWNl 

(3 SPACES)C0MPUTE1 "S MA 
CHINE LANGUAGE EDITOR 
12 DOWN)" 
DK 160 PRINT" tBLK} STARTING ADD 
RESS{4}";:G0SUB 260 : IF 
{SPACElAD THEN SA=AD!Et. 
SE 180 
FH 190 PRINT"{BLK){2 SPACES) EN 
DING ADDRESS-t4}"; SGOSUB 
260: IF AD THEN EA=AD:E 
LSE 190 
HF 200 PRINT" (DOWN) IBLK)CLEAB 
{SPACE)WORKSPACE (K/NJ? 
{4J":GETKEy A$:IF A5C>" 
Y" THEN 220 
QH 210 PRINT" (DOWN )lBLO)WORKIN 
G-. .";:BANK 0:FOR A=BS 
{SPACE)TO BS+ (EA-SA)+7: 
POKE A,0:NEXT A;PRINT"0 
ONE" 
DC 220 PRINT TAB (10) "{DOWN) 

1BLK){RVS] MLX COMMAND 
ISPACE)MENU (4 J (DOWN) "; 
PRINT TAB (13) "IRVS)E 
iOFFjNTER DATA"RTS;TAB( 
13) "{RVS)DlOFF}ISPLAY D 
ATA"RTS;TAB(13) "iRVSiL 
10FF)0AD FILE" 
HB 230 PRINT TAB (13 ) " IRVS ) S 

lOFF)AVE FILE"RT5;TAB(1 



RD 



DD 
AH 



3)"IRVSJC{0FF}ATAL0G DI 

SK"RTS;TAB{13) "[RVS)Q 

{OFF)tJITlDOWN) (BLK)" 
AP 240 GETKEY A5;A=INSTR ("EDLS 

CO", AS)! ON A GOTO 340,5 

S0,640,550,930,940:GOSO 

B 9S0:GOTO 240 
SX 250 PR1NT"STARTING AT"; :G0S 

UB 260:!F(AD<>0)OR(A$«N 

L$)THEN RETURN:ELSE 250 
BG 260 A$=NL$: INPUT A9:IF LEN ( 

A5)=4 THEN AD=DEC(A$} 
PP 270 IF AD=0 THEN BEGIN: IF A 

5<>NL$ THEN 300: ELSE RE 

TURN:BBfJD 
MA 280 IF AD<SA OR AD>EA THEN 

(SPACE)300 
PM 290 IF AD>S11 AND AD<65280 

[SPACEjTHEN PRINT BES; : 

RETURN 
SQ 300 GOSUB 950:PRINT"{RVS} I 

NVALID ADDRESS (DOWN) 

(BLK)":AD=0: RETURN 
310 CK=FNHB(AD) :CK=AD-Z4*CK 

+Z5«(CK>37) :GOTO 330 
320 CK-CK*Z2+Z5*(CK>Z7)+A 
330 CK=CK+aS*(CK>Z5) [RETURN 
QD 340 PRINT BES!"{RVS) ENTER 

(SPACEjDATA ";GOSUB 250 

:IF A$=KLS THEN 220 
JA 350 BANK 0;PRINT:F=0:OPEN 3 

,3 

BR 360 GOSUB 310: PRINT HEX? (AD 

)+":";: IF F THEM PRINT 

lSPACE)LSlPRIMT"(UPi 

15 RIGHT}"; 
QA 370 FOR 1=0 TO 24 STEP 3:BS 

-SP5:F0R J=l TO 2: IF F 

(SPACE)THEN B9='MID$(L$, 

I+J,l) 
PS 3B0 PRINT"IRVS)"BS+LFS;:IF 

(SPACE) I<24 THEN PRINT" 

(OFF)"; 
RC 390 GETKEY ASsIF (A$>"/" AN 

D A5<"!") OR(A5>"9" AND 
A$<"C") THEN 470 
AC 400 IF A$="+" THEN A$""E":G 

OTO 479 
QB 410 IF A?="-" THEN A$="F":G 

OTO 4 70 
FB 420 IF AS=RT5 AND ((1=0) AN 

D (J=l> OR F) THEN PRIN 

T B$; !J«2:NEXT!l"24!GOT 

480 
RD 430 IF A5="IH0ME)" THEN PRl 

NT B5:J = 2:NEXT:l'=24:NEX 

T:F=a:G0T0 360 
XB 440 IF (AS="{R1GHT)"J AND F 
THEN PRINT B$+LF5; :G0T 

470 
JP 450 IF A$<>LF$ AND A50DL9 
(SPACE)OR ((1=0) AND (J 

=1)) THEN GOSUB 950: GOT 

390 
PS 460 A$ = LF5 + SP5^-LF9: PRINT B$ 
+LF5?:J-2-J:IF J THEN P 

RINT LfS;:I=i-3 

GB 470 PRINT AS;:NEXT JlPRINT 

(SPACE) SP$; 
HA 480 NEXT I : PRINT: PRINT" (UP ) 

[5 RIGHT)"; :L5»" 

(27 SPACES)" 
DP 490 FOR 1=1 TO 25 STEP 3:GE 

T»3,AS,BStIF AS-SPS the 

N I=2 5:NEXT:CLOSE 3: GOT 

220 
BA 500 A$=A5+B$:A=DEC(A$) !MID$ 

(LS, I, 2) ■'AS: IF K2S THE 

N GOSUB 320:A(I/3)-A:GE 

TI3,A$ 
AR 510 NEXT I! IF AOCK THEN GO 



SUB 950;PRINT: PRINT" 

IRVS) ERROR: REENTER LI 

NE ":F=l:GOTO 360 
DX 520 PRINT BES:B«BS+AD-SAsFO 

R 1=0 TO 7SP0KE B+I,A(I 

) :NEXT I 
XB 530 F-OsAD-AD+asir AD<-EA T 

HEN 360 
CA 540 CLOSE 3: PRINT" (DOWN) 

(BLUJ** END OF ENTRY ** 

(BLK){2 DOWN)"!GOTO 650 
MC 550 PRINT BES; "(CLR) (DOWN) 

(RVS) DISPLAY DATA " :G0 

SUB 250:IF A$=NL$ THEN 

(SPACEJ220 
JF 560 BANK 0: PRINT" (DOWN) 

(B LU ) PRESS : I RVS ) S PAC E 

(OFF) TO PAUSE, (RVS)RE 

TURN (OFF) TO BREAK<4J 

( DOWN ) " 
XA 570 PRINT HEX$(AD)+":";:GOS 

UB 310:B=BS+AD-SA 
DJ 580 FOR I=B TO B+7:A=PEEK(I 

): PRINT RIGHTS (HEX? (A) , 

2) ;SPS; sGOSUB 320:NEXT 

{ S PAC E } I 
XB 590 PRINT" (RVS)"; RIGHTS (HEX 

$(CK},2) 
GR 600 F=l:AD=AD+8:IF AD>EA TH 

EN PRINT" IBLU)** END OF 
DATA **":GOTO 220 
EB 610 GET AS: IF AS=BT$ THEN P 

BINT BESsGOTO 220 
QK 620 IF a$-sp5 then F»F+1;PR 

INT BES; 
XS 630 ON F GOTO 570,610,570 
RF 640 PRINT BES" (DOWN) ( RVS ) L 

OAD DATA "j0P«X:G0T0 66 


BP 650 PRINT BES "I DOWN) (RVS) S 

AVE FILE ":OP=-0 
DM 660 F = 0:FS=NLS: INPUT"FILEIIA 

MBt4J";FS:IF FS=NL$ THE 

N 220 
PF 665 IF LEN(F$)>14 THEN 660 
RF 670 PRINT"lDOWN)[BLK)lRVS)T 

(OFF)APE OR {RVS)DiOFF) 

ISK: i4J"; 
SQ 680 GETKEY AS: IF A$="T" THE 

N S50:ELSE IF A$<>"D" T 

HEN 680 
SP 690 PRINT"DiSKlDOWN)";IF OP 

THEN 760 
EH 700 DOPENIl, (FS+",P") ,W:IF 
1SPACE)DS THEN AS=DS:GO 

TO 740 
JH 710 BANK 0:POKE BS-2,FNLB(S 

A):POKE BS-1,FNHB(SA):P 

rint"saving ";f5:pr1nt 
mc 720 for a=bs-2 to bs+ea-sa: 
print#1,chrS(peek(a) ) ; : 

IF ST THEN AS="DISK WRI 
TE ERROR" :GOTO 750 

GC 730 NEXT A:CLOSE 1:PRINT" 
(BLU)** SAVE COMPLETED 
{SPACE)WITH0UT ERRORS * 
*":GOTO 220 

RA 740 IF DS=63 THEN BEGIN:CLO 
SE 1: INPUT" I BLK) REPLACE 
EXISTING FILE [Y/N){4J 
";A$:IF AS""Y" then SCR 
ATCH(F$) [PRINT: GOTO 700 
[ELSE PRINT"(BLK)":GOTO 
660:BEND 

GA 750 CLOSE 1: GOSUB 950: PRINT 
"1BLK}(RVS) ERROR DURIN 
G SAVE: i4}":PRINT AS:G 
OTO 220 

FD 760 D0PEN#1,(FS+",P") :IF DS 
THEN A$=0S5:F=4:CL0SE 
(SPACEJ1:G0T0 790 



96 COMPUTE! s Gazette August 1988 



PX 770 

KB 7B0 

RQ 790 

ER 800 

QJ 610 

DP 820 

EB 830 

FP 840 

KS 850 

XX 860 

FG S70 

AS 860 

Cp 890 

CQ 90 e 

JD 9ia 

XB 929 

CP 930 

KM 94 Q 



JE 950 

AF 960 

MK 970 

KJ 980 

DO 990 



GET#l,A5,B5iCLOSE I:AD= 
ASC(A5)+256*ASCtB$>:rF 
(SPACE) AD <>SA THEN F=l : 
GOTO 790 

PRINT"LOADIKG ";FS!PRIN 
TiBLOAD(FS),B0,P(BS}:AD 
-SA+FNAD (174) -BS-I i F— 2 
*{AD<EA)-3*{AD>EA) 
IF F THEN 8001 ELSE PRIN 
T"ULU]** LOAD COMPLETE 
D WITHOUT ERRORS **"iGO 
TO 220 

GOSUB 9S0:PRIKT"iBLK) 
tRVS3 ERROR DURING LOAD 
( i4|"!0tJ F GOSUB 810,8 
20,830,840iGOTO220 
PRINT "INCORRECT START IN 
G ADDRESS ( " rHEX5 ( AD) ; " 
)"iRETURN 

PRINT"LOAD ENDED AT ";H 
EXS(AD) :RETURK 
PRINT "TRUNCATED AT END! 
NG ADDRESS ("HEX$(EA)") 
" 1 RETURN 

PRINT "DISK ERROR ";A?!R 
ETURN 

PRINT "TAPE ": AD= POINTER t 
r$}:BANK 1:A-PEEK(AD} lA 
L«PEEK(AD+1)5AH-PEEK(AD 
+2) 

BANK IS:SYS DEC{"FF68'*) 
,0,1: SYS DEC("FFBA"),1, 
1,0! SYS DEC("FFBD"),A,A 
L.AHiSYS DEC( "FF90">, 12 
8iIF OP THEN 890 
PRINT I A=SAi B-EA-t- 1 ! GOSUB 
9201SYS DEC("E919"},3! 
PRINT "SAVING "fP? 
A=BS ! B=BS+ ( EA-SA ) +1 sGOS 
UB 920tSYS DEC{"EA18")t 
PRINT" (DOWNHBLU}** TAP 
E SAVE COMPLETED **"!G0 
TO 220 

SYS DEC("E99A")!PRINT!I 
P PEEK (2816) =5 THEN GOS 
UB 950 tPRINT" {down} 
{BLKjfRVSt FILE NOT FOU 
ND "iGOTO 220 

print"loading ...{down} 

"tAD-FNaD(2817) :IF ADO 

SA THEN F=1:GOTO 8 00: EL 

SE AD=FNftD{2819)-l!F=-2 

*(AD<Eft)-3*(AD>EA) 

A=aS:B=BS+(EA-SA)+l:GOS 

UB 920:SYS DEC["E9FB"): 

IF ST>0 THEN e00:ELSE 7 

90 

P0KE193,FNLB(A) :POKE194 

,FNHB(A) SPOKE 174,FNL3( 

B):POKE 175,FNHB(B) :RET 

URN 

CATALOG! PR IMT"t DOWN} 

IBLUJ** PRESS ANY KEY F 

OR MENU **":GETKEY A$:G 

OTO 22 

PRINT BE$"lHVS} QUIT 

i4J";RT$; "ARE YOU SURE 

jSPfiCE} [Y/N]?":GETKEy A 

$:IF Ae<>"Y" THEN 220! E 

LSE PRINT"ICLR}":BANK 1 

5: END 

SOUND 1,500,10:RETURN 

IF ER-14 AND EL=260 THE 

N RESUME 300 

IF ER=14 AND EL=S00 THE 

N RESUME NEXT 

IF ER-4 AND EL=783 THEN 

F=4:A5=DS5:RESUME 800 
IF ER=30 THEN 8ESUME!EL 
SE PRINT EBR5(ER);" ERR 
OR IN LINE";EL O 



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1-800-522-6922 • IILI 1-800-356-9981 

81&-46a-B0B1 



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madia^tO'bOACl alignmofl, 
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SAVE 35% on U11 ftjcfl 




SS.,.47C,. |DS.,.49r.. I HD...S1.10.. 
{ta'8o»} Mn too tifSkM Oftcouni ml 300 Atkt 
&«H--C«nemftnlil USA M 00. Inl 100 qt )*Aar 

d'ik.s, p1kJi $3 00 aach iucc*^*r\'^ tOO or f*iH*r 
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danu «d4} 4% tax COD (id^fl M 00). paymant *tnih 
ca»h, canifiad c*i«ii or rrenty ord*f, 

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Complele line of quality luppliei; 
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Order Toll Free 1-800-256-0028 
In Michigan 1-B00-632-246S 

Rusti by FAX (616) 452-3457 

Foreign Inquiries lr\ vlted 



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Precision Dala Producls- 

16161 45S-3*i' • r=*X (6t6l«S!''»1' 
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GREENSBORO 

COMPUTER 

CENTER 



AN AUTHORIZED 
COMMODORE REPAIR CENTER 

72'HOUR TURNAROUND 
FOR MOST COMPUTERS 

C64 $55.00 

C12a $87.50 

1541 $65.00 

1541 and 1571 $27.95 

Perm-alignment only 

t571 $75.00 

A1000 $45.00 hr. 

(plus parts) 
CBM PRINTERS $45.00 hr. 

(plus parts) 

FOR OTHER PRICING CALU 
Please enctose $7.50 for return shipping. 

Alt repairs come with a 30-day warranty 
and we guarantee the entire keyboard to 
work property not just the repaired section. 
POWER SUPPLIES ARE NOT INCLUDED 
IN THE ABOVE PRICING AND ARE PUR- 
CHASED SEWRATELY. 

I( you have any questions about our 
services, please call me at 919-855-5792. 
Tliank you. 

1 1 09 S. Chapman St. 
Greensboro, NO 27403 



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UGUNA HIUS, CA 93«]3 
(7M) «71.6I63 



V5.0 



ULTRABYTE 

DISK 

NIBBLER 



NIBBLE COPiER WITH 205 PARAMETERS 
FOR COMMODORE 64 AND 128 

Copies most protected disks in 2 minutes without 
need for parameters jnciudlng rapld-iocksd 

205 parameters to make unprotected copies of recent 
programs inciuding Vi^AX protection. 
Send stamped envelope for list 

Copies up to 40 tracks using 1 or 2 1541 or 1571 
drives. Copies bolli sides on 1571 

Copies itself (for this reason, no refunds given) 



V5.0 $29.95 PLUS $4.00 SHIPPING 



Also available: 

1. Disk Surgeon V2.0 •■ new disk utility $10.00 

2. Uliramail -- mail list and labels 1 both for 

Handy-Capper - race handicapper i $10.00 

3. McMurphy's Mansion '• text adventure. ... 1 both for 
Soluware - solutions to 10 adventures . . . , | £10.00 

4. 150 older parameters and file copier $10.00 

Add S4.00 shippitig (covers up to 5 items) 

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UPDATES . Return original Ultrabyle disk with $15.00 plus $4.00 
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To order, write or call 24 hr. order line. For Info, write. 

ULTRABYTE (818) 796-0576 
P.O. Box 789 LaCanada, CA 91011 USA 



COMMODORE <= => IBM MS-DOS 

File Transfer Utility 

BIG BLUE READER 128/64 

if you have the Commodore 128 or 64. and the 
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• BBR 1 28 transfers files between Commodore 1 28f64, MS-DOS 
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• BBR 61 requires the CommodBre 1571 and transfers iile,s bet 

ween Commodore 64/128 anrJ IBM MS'OOS diskettes 

• Oplional Commodore ASCII lo siandard ASCII translation. 

• Boih programs are easy to use and folly menu dnven. 

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fmmmmmi 

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SOGWAP Software 

115 Bellmont Road; Decatur IN 46733; (219) 724-3900 



COMPLETE SPEEDUP SOLUTION 
FOR YOUR C64! 




TURBO MASTER CPU'" 

4.09 MHz Accelerator Cartridge for C64 

• Fouf limes faster processing speed combined with five times 
faster disk Load and Save. 

• Easy-to-use cartridge simply plugs In. 

• Software actually runs four times as fast. Basic, wordprocessor 
scrolling, other productivity, assemblers, graphics, 6E0S, etc. 
Conn pat ibie with mosl software. 

• On-board 65C02 microprocessor, 64K RAI^, 32K EPROM. 

• Introductorv price oniy $179 Including shipping in USA. Visa and 
f/asiercard accepted. 

SCHNEDLER SYSTEMS 

25 Eastwood Road, Dept. G8, P.O. Box 5964 

Astieviile.NC 28813 
Information/Telephone Orders (704) 274-4646 

Dt^dler inguire^^iriivit&d. 



POWERFUL LOW COST CONTROL 

Data acquisition and control Interfaces. 
C84&C128 

80-Line Simplified Digital IfO Board 40 TTL Input lines. 40 
higti current sviiitchea output lines. ROM cartridge socket. 
Order model SS10O Plus, S129. Additional boards S119. 

Original Ultimate Interface. Dual 6522 VIA Board. Four 8-bit 
ports with handshake, timers, IRQ. etc. Expandable. Order 
Model 64IF22, $169. Additional boards SI 49. 

AID Conversion Module, 16 channels. 8-bits. requires above. 
Order Model 64IRADCO0fi16. S69. 

Manuals on above available seperately for examirallon, 
Cal I or write for detailed broctiure. 

• ••••• 

SERIOUS ABOUT PROGRAMMING? 

Symtml Hflaster IWulti-Pass Symbolic Dissembler. Learn to 

program like the experts! For both C54 and native CI 28. ". . . 

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PTD 8510 Symbolic Debugger. An extremely powerful tool 

with capabilities far beyond a machine language monitor. 

For C64, $49.95 

MAE64 Assembler. Fully Professional 6502/ 65C02 macro 

editor assembler $29.95 

C64 Source Code Book. Most complete available 

reconstructed and commented assembly language source 

code listing tor Basic and Kernal ROMS. $29.95. 

SCHNEDLER SYSTEMS 

25 Eastwood Rd., Dept. G8, P.O. Box 5964 

A3fieville,NC 28813 

Information/Telephone Orders (704) 274-4646 

All prices include shipping prepaid USA 



So you can code circles around the pros, 
eh? Well, here's your chance to prove it. Its 
the GEOS ProjirammiriH Contest. And all it 
takes to win is a Commodore and your skill 
at programming under GEOS to win in any 
four categories and walk away with all kinds 
of prizes. 

Including a check for $1,000. 

Just send us the CJiiOS-based ijrogram 



applications from Berkeley Soft works 

• Connnodore peripherals: 1670 1200 Hand 
Modem, 1351 Mouse and 17t>4 or 1750 RAM 
Expansion Module 

• Six month subscription to Q-Link, the tele- 
communications service and C)-Link's Pub- 
lic Domain Software Library fmm 
<}uantum Computer Services 

• 'Iwelve month subscription to Compute! 's 



eJiKlKini; will he jK-Tformtd by tht sUiff r>[ 
• Ciimputtl's ("riizetteMiiKazine. 'ViK 
tltcisioivs (if ihe judiJL's are final in nil rtspt'Cts. Tliis 
includes (kcibiotis regarding creativity, similarity 
amond cntrk'S and general suitability. 

7Enlries txKiime the propcny of tkrlitley 
• Sdftworks, which reserv'ts the right tu 
adapt, 11 9e or publisli all entries received. Enlrifs may 
iH-'Comc p;irt of a "sliarewarc" llhrar>' to be distributed 
Ijy tSertieley Snttworks, Compuiel's Gazette and 
(^11,1 n turn Couiptiler Services. Aii jjiirt oteiieh 



YOU WRmiHE PROGRAM, 

WEiivwamw OKKS. 

The GEOS Programming Contest. 



you're most proud of — on 

disk— by August 31, 1988. 

There are four categories, 

each with an Applications' and Desk Accesso 

ries-' winner. Which me.ins that there are 

eight first priiieK. ICight second prizes. And 

eight thirds. 

.And each prize consists of lots more 
prizes. 

We may not be the only 
ones writing checks. 

And that's only where the bucks start. 
Because if your program makes it into a 
GEOS Shareware Library, all kinds of satis- 
fied users may be writing you checks. 

So boot up and got down to puniping out 
your most pnjfessional tiROS program. 
Then send it in with the information required 
below. Who knows? We could be sending a 
check right back to yon. 

1. Applications are identified by the GEOS 
Application File 'type, are entered froni and 
exit to the deskTop and conform to tiie 
GEOS user interface, 

2, Desk Accessories are defined as pro- 
grams which are less complex than applica- 
tions, are identified by the GEOS Desk 
Accessory File Tj'pe, may be entered and 
pop-up within any application and upon exit- 
ing return the application to its prior state. 

Categories 

ENTKKTALMMENT— Includes enter- 
tainment and Rames. For example, a Chess 
game (Applications Division) or a trivia 
game (Desk Accessories Division). 
EDUCATiON — Primarily educational and 
instructional. For example, a world geogra- 
phy program (Applications Division) or a 
flash card program (Desk Accessories 
Division). 

PHODIICTIVITY- Designs (hat improve 
personal productivity. Ivxaniples include an 
"outline processor" (A[)plications Division) 
or a scientific or financial calculator (Desk 
Accessories Division). 
OPEN PROGRAMMING— Open design 
category that includes programs not covered 
in other categories. Examples include disk 
utilities, printer and input drivers and tele- 
communications pnsgrams. 

Over $25,000 in 
cash and prizes! 

Eight ['irst Prizes! 

• $l,Ot)0 cash 

• Announcement in Computers (jazette 
Magazine 

• Con^plete library of C64 or C128 GEOS 



(jaKette magazine 
Eight Second Prizes! 

• Announcement in Compute! 's Gazette 
Magazine 

• Complete library of Cfi-1 or CI28 GEOS 
applications from Berkeley Softworks 

• Commodore peripherals: 1670 1200 Baud 
Modem and your choice of a 1764 or 1750 
RAM Expansion Module or 1351 Mouse 

• Three miinth subscription to Q-Link, the 
telecommunications service and (^-Link's 
Public Domain Software Library from 
Quantum Computer Services 

« Twelve month subscription to Compute! 's 

Gazette magazine 
Eight Third Prizes! 

• Announcement in Compute! 's Gazette 
Magazine 

• Your choice of any five C64 or C128 GEOS 
applications frorti fierkeley Softworks 

• C<nnmodore peripherals: lf)70 1200 ISaud 
Modem and your choice of a 17()4 or 1750 
RAM Expansion Module or 1351 Mouse 

• Three month subscription to Q-Link, the 
telecommunications service and Q- Link's 
Public Domain Software Library from 
Quantum Computer Services 

• Twelve month subscription to Compute! 's 
Gazette magazine 

Official Rules 

IKmployees of tkTkdcy Suftworks. Quantum 
• Cuiiipiiter Services, Laser Direet, CoiiiputeS's 
(laiette Magazine, iheir advertising and proniolional 
agencies and llteir immediile families arc not eligible 
tu enier the contest. 

2 Each entry must be your (>ris^Ji.;il work, 
* previdiisly unpublished in any fitnn. 
AH thiise prdgr^ims acccpt«3 will be required to affirm 
Ihis in wntin),!. 

SLVmlestanls may enter inulti|)!i' catenories, Imt 
• may only subiiiil inie entry jN'r caiegory |)er 
division (e.g. one entry in ihe Knltrrtainmenl c,ileg[iry 
.■\pt>l'i''''l'"lK lliviiion. (JHrf one entry in ihe 
Kntcrtainmeni Desk Accessories fJivision), 
Uegiirdless of die number of categories you enter, ynu 
will (inly be eligible to win one pri^e. 

Iteadiine tor entries is August Itl, 1988, Mail 
entries to Compute! '$ tlazelle, P.O. iiii\ fVll^. 

(Irccnsborii, NC, 274{K) 

Attn: {jliOS l'roKrannimi)j Contesl, 

5Acceptam.e of ,in entry shsdl imt ire.ile any 
> implii'ii t ii in t ha 1 1 he en 1 ry )kis bee n recei V ed and 
reviewed t>y Merkeley So it works i 
any way in product devt'loprnent. 

H Berkeley 



sutjmission. contestantij .should 
intiude in the program their name, 
address and a "user fee" amount fur 
satisfied users to send a discrclioniiry paymeiil. 

8flntries nuiy l>e written m any progranmung 
• language iHit must be a (itCOS b;ised program 
sup[H]rtiT]g the (il'^ttS file struciure and Im- executable 
horn llie tiliOS drsk'I'ii|i or a tili(.)S application. 
Whichever language is ctiosen. Ihe code musl be a 
sielf-standijig program that can Ije run by sonK-one 
who dues not own the language. We must Ih> able tn 
tegally distribute the program without incurring 
licensing fees or any other obligations to llie maker of 
the language. 

9 Entries must be submitted on S.2S" fki[^y 
• disks in IS'tt.'lfiTt format. The following 
should be ctearly marked on hotli the printout and 
the disk: 

A. Conlesiam's amie, .iddrcss and phone number. 
It. tJategory and (iivisi<in fur the entry. 
C. !nten<led use fur the i)rograni. 
[ f\ I'jil ries must be acconi|):inied by a 
X W . description which explains how to i 
jirostrani :ind what il dtws, 

n'I'his contest is void where prohibiled by law. 
* All federal, slate and lix'al taxes are ttie sok: 
rcsponsitiilily of the winners. 

Genernl Conditions 

■ Entries will Ijejuilfjecloncrenlii'ily. origimlily, interface 
cunsisiency witliotlu-r tiKOS prcNgTanis and error-^ee 
(luatiiy ipf iheajd*-. 

• Make liitre yiiur niailtT will protect your disk trom 
dam,'jge. Affix sufficiinil first class [Mjsiagt. M:alyour 
printout, disk and official enlrv' blank to tlie alH>te 
address in lime to reach CnnipuU'Ts Gazette Magazine 
before ilu- August 31. IMIM. ik-adtittc. 

• Winners will tie announced byOcttitier, t»S!i. 

SponHored by Berkeley Softworks 
and Computcl's Gazette. 



use the 



I 
I 



I'l.KASK PlilN-f 



4. 



ir has l>een used in 



Name 

Phone 

Address . 



City- 
state. 
Age- 



.Zip. 



E\i:k^ U »VI KM KMkV MU^ ISLIArilETIlIS 

SEiiSt-.jtKIKM: 

t w.trTjrii ih;inhf|n<i(prjini(Wii*tu.'inEl!f cirtUkTj wiiiy fwrmnp- 
Hul wi,^!!* ikiMl itLii EhL- w£Hk ^lafl iujI lnK'ii 'nubmrtti'd Ntr i-<in>t»il- 
crdEhin iHlai'M'tHTi'. mr han IE tht-n |U''i'VH.iuil'y [utilliihi'fl in anf 
tutti. If my i*firt init-ii-jjlt^by jirij, I hndi,<f hjjiKi Elui y^Kt 

1^ (umI .i«h1 M^Ehiut i!i,Hiuri4.' i>n ni<f |kirt I tmhrnUiBl IM 

by i-|iEi'i)ii|^ ihi-^ t'linlL'"'':, iii> vivlry ht-\»jr\<n.-%thi; fxinn-rly lA 
l-U-rki'tfy Si(E'iA'inki<, itihl ut (ht- twnl my iimiffiMin h imliiik'il m 
it s3hi i-wwni bbnry , I wijl V- rwpuirs'ij It t M>gi 4t sOiriAsnl rn-^ast' 
.3)?tviiirril. *W ym »u- wviL-t is, -^iHjf lurr-m itrk-^ lAMdi^n 



Signature . 



Softworks L-----««j 



The brightest minds ^ire working witli Berkeley. 



Classified 



SOFTWARE 



I KtE son VVARK fur C-M, C-128. IBM i; CPM 

si'iid SASI! for info (specify computer) lor 
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ro BOX uj;-a:. Or^mi^o r.uk. ri. 320&7 

FREE PUBLIC DOMAIN SOFTWARE Ki'quL'sl 
ht'i; Ch^UiIoj; tir sviui $2 tor s.intpU' disls (itul 
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COMMODOKlf: TKV BHFOKF YOU BUV. 
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"222, Hunin, VVV 2571H (30.1) 529-3232 

C64/12S HM;ST rUBMC DOMAIN I'KOGRAMS 
Prclesti'tl qUitiilv pro^r^ims * Mi^sl $1,50 * 
• On Disl^ • VO'U pitii ilu' progMms lh,ii YOU 
xv^int!!! I'riH^ diskfull of progr.ims with firnr 

order! For l1 list -r Dt'stTiplion send SASE to: 
Jl.H Co, Dept. G. Box 67021, Topcka. KS (i6fifi7 

C64/128 EDUCATIONAL P.O. SOFTWAHE 

\W ^radc tevel Lind stJbfvct. ie K'3 math. 
K-3 Rnglisli, 4-6 mMh. etc, Tree Catalog 
I'SL Inc.. Box 750 A, Old Bridj;o, NJ 08857 



ENJOY THE POWER 

Take control wiin TyPINO TEACHER. Totjch Typino tor 
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• ■••OuantitY Prices Available**** 
FUTURE AGE COMPUTERS 
3 McCraiy Ol. SW, Rome, GA 30161, 404,Z3S'4948 



PUBLIC DOMAIN SOFTUAKL I OR CM/ 128 
100 programs only SU) or 260 ptugrdms 
for $25 or 2 stamps for catalog. 
MERIT, Box 114 A, Spotswood. N) 088B4 

IHEE SOnVVARH fur C64. Send 1 stamp for 
Catalog. CartteS'Educ-Home-Business-Mttsii' 
Utilities. RVll Publications, 42'»1 Holland 
Ro.id, =5fi2-G. Virginia Beach. VA 2-34^2 

WordStar'"- V2,Z6 For C-128 $39.35+$4.50 
p/h. Public Domain Software Copying Co, 
33 Gold Sl. Ste, L3, New York, NY 1G038 

•'^'MicroPro" 800-221-7372 

M BASIC'"' or FORTRAN 80'"* $39,95 + $4,S0 
p/li. Public: Domain Software Copying Co, 
33 Gold St.. Ste, L3, New York, NY 10033 

'"'Microvolt!*' 800.221-7372 

ACQUlRr; ■great finance board gante notv on 
authentic elegant full-fe.itured CM disk 
1-4 pla^'ers, computer plays well. $7 to: 
Jimison^ 2274 I:. 15lh St. ff6, Okind, CA 'I4(.06 




C-64 FREE PUBLIC DOIVtAIN SOFTWARE 

Free membership & list - Send long 
S.A.S.i;. to: NORTHLAND, P.O. Box 2413 

Homer. ALiska, WhOS 

COD- How a sinner is k-ad to COD ll»e bible 
way, Evervthing you need lo know, m get 
rigiit witli'COD, Send S',>.y5 (or disk. 
tiro. Meeks, 82.TJ E, Korest, Detroit, Ml 48214 



WIN LOnO KIIUONS! 
LOTTO PICKEn PLUS v2.1 

Lotto Picker Plus, the origina; loltery 
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lire MONEY tVlAKEfl; .1 complete financial 
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borrowitig and investing money. More than 
amorli/atkin formulas, the menu-driven 
MONEY MAKER also has unique features 
such as loan consolidation and total 
retirement planning, C64, $19,95 
B & J Enterprises, P,0. Box 4^276 
Colorado Springs, CO 80949-9276 

C-NET BULLETIN BOARD FOR THE 64 & 12B. 

4hi' imisi u-idel\' u'-ed and respected HUS 
available. 300/1200/24110 Bl'b, 10110 
aL■count^, 49 message/file transfer SIGS. 
X-modcm, Ponter, a EAST Ml. EDITOR, on-line 
games, AND MUCH MORE! 

-py-f^l SOFTECH 
V (-1 COMPUTER SYSTEMS, INC, 

(J / POST OFFICE BOX 23397 

I LEXINGTON, KY 40523 



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New Comm S1M> 1001 1 Meg Eloppies Slfi9.95 
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MISCELLANEOUS 



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1S41:S50, SX64:S6S, C12a:$S0, 1S71;S55, Buy 
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wrvtyl Mom & Pop's Computer Shop, RR2, Box 
119, C alnavllle. 1^0 64632 (816) 872-6311 

huentumv ideas, technology wanted tor 
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innovation eispo, Call free 1-H00-288-IDEA 
ISC-COM, 903 Liberty, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 



COMPUTEl's Gazette Classified is a low-cost way to tell over 225,000 
microcomputer owoers about your product or service. 

Ratei; S2t prr tine, nteilmum ol teur litn-s. Any or alL til tin? ttr»i lim- st-i in deital li-tt^r-* at iin I'hjrKc. AitJ Sl^ 
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Termst rn'p.n'iiieni i*, remitreil, Chefk, niene^- order, Anu'ritan EHpr*?*s, Visa, or Ma*.tcrCjid l^ .lici^pii-d, M,iki' 

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lrnL-r> ai-d sii,iL-es K'OMi'n wordi Please underltne words to be iel in ty^ldlafe'. 



General InfOrrfiation; ,\^iu-nisi-T> U'-inc pcrtl oIIht box numtn-fS in their ads inusl supply p-rmanenl addri-^-, and 
telephone numbers. Drders mil not be acknowleii^ed. Ad will ap|XMr in ne\l a^'ailable issue after receipl. 



Closing: ,1rii of tht^ ttiird nionlh iHect-ding cover d,lte (e.g.. |une issue closes M,irch 3rd). Send order and n-mitlsnce 
to: K.ithk'i-ii Ingram. ClassitieJ Managet, COMPUTE!^ Ca/ette, T.O Bo< 540(>. Crei-nsbiiro, NC 274(13, To plairc 
,m jj tn phone. tM Kjthteen Insiam at (119) 275-9«W 



Notice: fOMPLTIil Publlcalion'- (.jnnol be responsible for offers or claims o* adveTll««-rs. bill ivlll anem|' 

i>ul niifclejjin^ or i|i!e*<l lenalil e ci^i^y 



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J 



ADVERTISERS INDEX 



Reader Service Number/Advertiser 



Page 



1 1)2 Abacus 9 

1 03 Abacus BC 

HVtADrotek . . . M 

Berkeley S<JfrvvOfKs . ... 1 

105 BRiWALL 23 

106 Central Point Software . 37 

10T Computer Direct 55 

10B Compuler Ropoats 93 

Crown Cu^twn Covers 97 

toe Dalel 1Z-t3 

110 Foarn & Music 95 

1 1 1 Greensboro Computers 97 

iiaLycoConHJsiier 48-S2 

1 13 Maiatfion Sottware - - 9S 

1 14 tit C.S 82-83 

IISMIDnOCo.. Inc , 91 

116 MicioProsa 2 

117 Montgomery Grant 87 
urn Schools 69 

11 B Oceanic America ... IBC 

1 1B Precision Psta ProAicts 97 

iaOO-L.nl< IFC 

121 Renco Computer Pnnler Suppt/ 97 
Sctinealer Systems 98 

122 Software Discounters of America 84-85 

123 Software Simulations 7 

Sottware Support internatonal . 46-47 

Sofr*vare Support Internaltonal 5S 

SOGWAP ■ 98 

124 Stralegic Singulations, Inc . . . .5 
123sutiU0ClC II 

TeWoniC^ 95 

128 Tenejt Computer Express .... S9 

127 TEVEX 41 

128 Tu^sey Ctomputer Products ... 18-19 

129 UltraB/le ... 98 

19D Uiiliiies UnlimiteO 35 

131 Xelec 27 



ClaSSiliet) Ads 

COMPUTE' Gaiolio Suljsciiplon 
COtdPUTEls Amiga Games Disk 



too 

33 

. . 7 



100 COMPUTE? j Gazolle August 1988 



Believe in Magic? 




^XCBLERATOR PLUS 



We Do. 



Plug in the Excelerator Plus compatible drive to your 

Commodore 64 or 64C and you'll believe too. 

That's because an advanced technology breakthrough has 

enabled us to create a drive that's quieter, smaller, 

faster, and more reliable than the 1541 and 1541C. 

100% compatible. Dependable. Guaranteed. 

It^ Magic. 
It's the Excelerator Plus compatible disk drive. 



distributed by 



M.C.S. 800-433-7756 



Computer Direct 3 12-382-5050 



Surfside Components Intl. 800-548-9669 / Ten nex Computer Express 800-348-2778 
N.W.C.L 800-553-9344 /Montgomery Grant 800-759-6565 / E.C.I. 800-356-5178 



Maiiufnt:turi.'(.t bv 




Oceanic America co. n<>\ umi. K^l^<c■!R•, or 97401 .w;i-74M222 / f;lx 503-74 M5r, 



l'^uIlTl^I lr,i;<.(rnuiirl^ iifCmiiiiiii^iJnrL,* EtrctrDni^^i^TU 






lmip)m^§S(Q)in]l 



with proven software and books from Abacus. 






Super Pascal — Get tfie fastest and 
complete Pascal for your computer. 
Super Pascal is a full implementation of 
standard Pascal. Extensive editor 
features search, replace, etc. Even 
add machine language routines with 
the built-in assembler. Fast graphics 
library. C-64 version tias high-speed 
DOS (or faster access. More tlian just a 
compiler-Super Pascal gives you 
programmina results. 
C-64 $59.95 C-1 28 $59.95 



Cadpak — The pfofessiona! design 
tool. Enter simple or intricate drawings 
with the keyboard, lightpen or 1531 
mouse. With the flexible object editor 
you can create libraries of furniture, 
electronics, etc, as intricate as screen 
resolution permits. Zoom in lo do 
detailed work, Produce exact seated 
output to most printers in inches, feet. 
C-64 $39.95 C-128 $59.95 



Super C— You can r»ow develop 

software or just learn C on your 
computer. Easy-to-use and takes full 
advantage ot this versatile language. 
Produces 6502 machine code and is 
many times faster than BASIC. Includes 
full-screen editor (search, replace and 
block operations), compiler, linker and 
handbook. Libraries for graphics and 
advanced math are included. 
C-64 $59.95 C-128 $59.95 



BASIC 








SASIC Compiler- 
No w anyone can make 
their BASIC programs 
run faster! Easily 
converts your programs 
Into fast machine 
language or speed 
code. 

c-1 28 $58.95 C-e4 S39.S5 



BeckerBASIC— for 

writing your own GEOS 
applications. Adds 
270+ commands. Dialog 
boxes, buttons, pull 
down menus, hi-res 
graphics and more. 

C-e4 $49.95 







^/VbacusH 






Dept. M8 • 5370 52nd Street SE - Grand Rapids, Ml 49508 

Call 1-800-451-431 9 for the name of your nearest dealer or to order 
direct using your MC, VISA or Amex card. For technical support 
call 1-616-698-0330 • Telefax 1-616-698-0325 ■ Telex 709-101 
Call or write today for your frae catalog. Add $4.00 per order for 
shipping and handling. Foreign ordere add $12.00 per item.