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The Commodore 64 And 1 28: Marvelous Music Machines 



COMPUTEi's 



$3.00 ■ ^ • '• 

August 1987 gg 

Issue 50, Vol. 5, No. 8 

ISI5N 0737-3716 
02220 $4,25 Canada 




FOR COMMODORE PERSONAL COMPUTER USERS 



^ Sprite Design And Animation 

Our best-ever sprite editor — "Sprite Magic" — plus 
, .?)^citiDg support programs. Your 64 will come eJive 

^_ V- . 80-Column 




'^tr- 



■■* 



mm 




, ..^.'.^Slt 



Front Line 



v 



Board-game strategy plus arcade-style action in this 
two-player combat simulation for tlie 64. A unique, 
fascinating challenge for game players of aii ages. 



Also in This Issue; 

Exploring The SID Chip 

Relative Files: 
Defensive Programming 

RAM Usage On The 128 

Plus Reviews 



08 



Disk Sector Editor 
For The 128 

A powerful program you 
can use to quickly inspect 
and alter anything on 
your disks. 

Dynamusic 

Easily compose music on 
the 64 — and play your . 
creation while another \ 
program is running. 




iVK86"02220 






Bounty l-iunter 

An educational game that's so much fun you 
won't notice you're learning U.S. geography. 
For the 64. 



DUNGEON SLir^ 
NEVER LOOK 
SO GOOD /■ 



In most dungeon fantas. 
games, you can't really . 
see the slime on the | 
dungeon walls. Or watchK%!' 
monsters coming after F t,„ 
you. 

Introducing Legacy of the ^ 
Ancients. It's a new fanta^f\\ 
role-playing adventure ». <? 
that offers the richest 
graphics ever seen in a 
fantasy game. And 
something more, i 




A dangerous quest at a f. 


>g— ^ - "-si;^ 


furious pace. Dungeons^' ' jS; 


jif**^ "^^r^ " -'^^vB 


castles, and towns to ^S& 


vV Jifivik^jr \-y ^-<v 


explore. Puzzles. '^'Pf 


* v? ..• ~ ™*^ 


Gambling. Fighting. 


* ' ■'■ ^i"J*^ 


Magic. In short, 




/ 


everything you 


t-i ■ i 


ej^. .--■.. 


love about 


rj 


f--^- 


fantasy games. 


id 


Ip. 


And tots of new 


Mi 


^•V . 


things you've 




p -""^^ 


never seen 


■^■^^ -' i 


I *^\ 


before. 








^dtT 













-,r-";?S@f^ 



-•- "> 



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Flickering torchlight on moltfy walls 

Blood stains on a monsters teeth. 

Incradibtegmphicctstatl. 



Explore 24 dungeon levels, each with 
a different look and challenge. 



nee nc >i9U> (MC. 



Thedisplaysin the Time-Space 

rwtuseumcanbedoonwaysto 

newwgrkls. 



ciiQi c«Buo>i mw wrni 



rrek through vast wilderness areas. 

Talk to the locals. Some will want 

to help. Sortie are good to eat 




iwJUUBI^ic 



12 different towns. Pick up some 

magic spells. Stock up on weapons 

and armor Hob the bank on your 

way out. 



* BiaiB HCKT ■lU. fa i llOO! 



toaster five different action games 

to wrn. Visit casinos for extra goid- 

or build up your character points 

in the com tiat-tratning centers. 



HOW TO ORDER: VISIT YOUR RETAILER OR CALL 

S00-245-4SS5 FOR DIRECT VISA OR MASTERCARD ORDERS 

(IN CA CALL 800-562-1112). The Direct Price la 529.95 for the C-64 

version. To buy hy mail, send check 

or money order to Etectronic Arts 

Direct Sales, P.O. Box 7S30, 

San Maieo, CA 94403, Add S3 for 

shipping and handiing ($5 Canadian), 

There is a 14-day, money-back 

Ouarantis on direct oideri. ELECTRONIC ARTS 



Exciting & New! 



Commodore 64/128 Books 



from COMPUTE! 



COMMODOPE 

64/128 
POWER 
BASIC 







COMPUTEI'sE 



THIRn BOOK 

Ol' ( :n\!\ K )i ) 6rk m 

GAMES" 




Get more power, education, and relaxation from your Commodore 64 or 128 with thiese 

new books from COMPUTE I. And, as always, ttie programs are thoroughly tested and easy 

to enter using our special program entry system. (Disks are available, too.) 



COMPUTEI's Commodore 64/128 
Powsr BASIC 

Edited 

Collected in this one volume are more 
than two dozen short BASIC programs 
from COMPUTEI's Gazette'^ popular 
monttily column. "Power BASIC." In- 
cluded are utilities that add an 8K RAM 
disk; read and write to disk sectors; 
make programs read joysticks more 
quickly; and automatically generate line 
numbers. There ore also programs such 
OS "Stop and Go," whicti creates a 
pouse button to temporarily halt a pro- 
grom, and "Time Clock." which puts a 
digital clock on your screen. There is a 
companion disk avaiiable for $12.95 
which inciudes ali the programs from 
the book. (W8BDSK) 
$1«.95 ISBN 0-87455-099-8 



COMPUTErt Mor« Machine Languag* 
Games lor th« Commodora 64 

Edited 

Seven of the best machine language 
games for the 64 have been gathered 
into one volume in this follow-up to the 
popular COMPUrf ;''s fviachine Language 
Games for the Commodore 64. Selected 
from recent issues of COMPurE.' and 
COMPUTEI's Gazette, the games range 
from the frantic "Prisonbol!" to the 
delightful "Biker Dave," This is more than 
just a collection of exciting fast-action 
games, though, because complete and 
commented source code for each pro- 
gram is included in the book. Machine 
language programmers con see exactly 
how each gome Is written and what de- 
sign techniques are used, A d/sk is avail- 
abie for $12.95 which includes all the 
programs in the book, including source 
code. C947BDSK). 
$16.95 ISBN 0-87455-094-7 

These books ore now available at your local book or computer store. 

You can also order directly from COMPUTEI by calling toll free 800-346-6767 

(in NY call 212-887-8525) or mailing your order to COMPUTEI Books, P.O. Box 5038, 

F.D.R. Station. New York. NY 10150. 

Please Include S2.00 postage and handling per book or disk. NC residents add 5 percent soles tax and NY residents 

add 8.25 percent soles tax. 
Pleose allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 



COMPUTEI'i Ttiird Book at Commodore 
64 Oamei 

Edited 

COMPUTE! Publications, the leading pub- 
lisher of programs for the Commodore 
64, has brought together another excit- 
ing collection of nerve-tingling games 
that will delight the whole family — from 
preschoolers to teenage arcade fans to 
those who enjoy games of logic. Clearly 
written, with non-technical instructions, 
this book contains hours of challenging 
entertainment for beginning computer 
fans as well as experienced pro- 
grommers. There is a companion disk 
avaiiable tor $12.95 that includes ail the 
programs in the book. (955BDSK). 
$15.95 ISBN 0-87455-095-5 



COMPUTE! Publications Jnc® 

Part of ABC Consume' Magazinas, Inc. ^^^ 



COMPUTE! books ore available outside the United States 
from subsidiaries of McGraw-Hill International Book Company. 



One ol tne ABC PubliSfung Componles 



WE'VE BLOWN THE COMPETITI 



grap^iic teclmotogws icwwtl (nam SubLOGIC 




Up Periscope!, the new state of the 
art in submarine simulation! Blow- 
ing the competition out of the water 
with superior combat strategy and 
tactics courtesy of Captain John 
Patten, USN (Ret.). With true 
animated 3D graphics courtesy of 
SubLOGIC. Up Periscopel, 
generations ahead of the pack! 



- $29.95 - 
Better Engineering at a Better 
Price 



Compare hits for yourself I 



Suggested Retail Price 
3-Dlmen8ional Graphics 
Number of Scenarios 
Splll'Screen Views 
Reality Levels 
Radar Screen 
Accu-Sound" realism 



Torpedo Types 

Auto or Manual Torpedo Launch 
Time-Day-Month- Year Selection Cepablllty 
Zoom Feature 

Submarine Strategy & Tactics Manual by John Patten, Capt. USN 
(Ret.) 

Auto-Load Feature on CI 28 

Joystlcic Required 



Up Periscopel 


Silent Service 


$29.85 


$34.95 


Yes 


No 

n 


fi 

Yes 


a 
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11 


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4 


3 

Yes 


1 

Yet 


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Map or 
Ship Views 


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Only 


, Capt. USN Yea 


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RIGHT but OF THE WATER! 



DamoQ« Report srss 



■BftBft banAH 

HUH »4I1AH 

tllfEL IMatHIl 

rVIl LtAK 
IHTTIItK* 





aKHrosw« 



ITflTUI t 






ThunderChopper 

And don't forget ThunderChopper! 
For true helicopter actiori and 
realism, nothing else even comes 
close. ThunderChopper in- 
corporates the most advanced 
graphics, flight systems, and game- 
playing factors to provide a sensa- 
tional balance of strategy and fun. 



^ 1987 ActionSoft Corporation 

30 graphics and special effects courtesy 

SubLOGIC Corp. 

Commodoro 64 and Commodore 128 are 

tfademarks of Commodore Eloclronics Ltd. 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, 



IBti^ is a registered trademark of International 
Business f^acliines Corp, 




,ewimi>*" 



J, ,5,- CBiHWW* 

— Salt 



See Your Dealer... 
Or writ© or call for more information. 
Up Periscope! and Thunder- 
Chopper are available on disk for 
the Commodore 64/128, Apple II, 
and IBIVI PC line of personal 
computers for the suggested retail 
price of $29.95. For direct orders 
please specify which computer ver- 
sion you want. Include $2.00 for 
shipping (outside U.S. $6.25) and 
specify UPS or first class mail 
delivery. Visa, MasterCard, 
American Express, and Diners Club 
charges accepted. 






OCNEOATIOMS AHEAD IN STBATEOV ACTION SOFTWABr 

201 WEST SPRtNGFIELD AVENUE, SUITE 711 
CHAMPAIGN. IL 61620 (217) 398-8388 



STOPPIAYING 
AROUND WITH YOUR 




III: 






GEOS $59?5 

The Gr;i|)liit ICnvironnKiit 
OperatitiH System thai opL'iis 
up a whole universe of new pos- 
sibilities fir CM sand 128 s. With 
KeoWiite. KeoPaint. fast-Ioadiny 
disk'Iurbo and support fnr all 
GEOS ■ L-oin pat i hie appi ical i( in s. 
•Alsci availahic for 80 col. Cl28s. 




F0HTPACK1 mr 

A tolk'ction of ^0 more fonts 
for use with GKOS applications, 
in various shapes and sizes for 
more expressive and creative 
ddcunients. 





GEODEX $39« 

'["he GEOS-conipalible directory 
that allows you to create lists by 
name, address, phone number, 
etc. Includes ^eoMerRC tocubtotn- 
i^e form letters and invitations. 
♦Also available for Hf) col. C128s. 



wRinifs 

WORKSHOP $49." 

All the Ci EOS- compatible tools a 
writer needs, including geoWrite 
2.0 with headers, footers and 
features to justify, center, search 
and replace text. Includes a Text 
Grabber (for convertinK from 
programs like Paper Clip), Keo- 
Merne and l.aserWriler printiiiR 
capability 
*Also available for fW col. C128's. 




/ 

DESKPACK 1 $34." 

[■bur GEOS -compatible appli- 
cations: (Jraphics tirabber for 
importin« art from Print Shop.'" 
Newsroom'" and Print Master'" 
graphics; Qilendar; [con Editor 
and [ilack Jack Dealer. 
*Alao available for 80 col. C128's. 






GEOCAIC $49< 



The GEOS-com|)atible. number- 
cruricliing spreadsheet for track- 
ing and analyzing numerical 
data. Create your own formulas, 
perform calculations for any- 
thing from simple geometry to 
"what if" cost projections. 
*Also available for 8U col. C128's, 



GEOFILE $49." 

The GEOS-compatible database 
manager that sorts, edits atid 
prioritizes whatever data you 
feed it. You fill out the "input 
form. " specify your connnand, 
and yeol'ile takes it fnim there. 
*Also available for 80 col. CiaS's. 



GEOPRINT 
CABIE $39." 

The six-foot cable that speeds 
up printing localise it's p;iral- 
lel— not serial. Connects easily 
to Ctvl's and C12Ks with fewer 
wires and no interface box. 



Sooner or later, you're going to discover 
that there's more to C64's and C128's than fun 
and games. 

You're going to discover powder. 

Not the kind of power that blasts aliens 
out of the galaxy. But the kind that whips 
through boatloads of data in seconds. The 
kind that crunches numbers and drafts docu- 
ments like child's play. 

The kind you find in GEOS 



Every GEOS application can take C64's 
and Cl28's from "mastering the universe" to a 
university master's degree, with all kinds of 
advanced capabilities that function at hyper- 
speeds you never imagined possible. 

So if you're tired of toying with technology, 
try playing around with GEOS. Once you feel 
its power, you'll know that for anyone who 

nTT* I I still thinks Commodores are toys, 

JtSerkeley the game's over. 
Softworks 



The brightest minds are working at Berkeley. 

To order cani-800-443-0l()0 exL 234 
(California residents add 1% sales tax. ) $2.50 US/$f).5U Eoreign for shipping and handling. Allow aix vn;eks for delivery. 

t.m....Jcjn- uid C.mm-l.,,,. LSI jre lJ»(fnwk.,JO«nTnukm. ElB(ru>»>. IJd. OKI IS. Br.i»rilc. Bn.l'uru. Br,tUl . ur, Jlri, wnMrnir. BroKlf. l)nlu«l 1. hmiMk I W.Bi-r. 
»ufkil«1iinllVrlu-lti, Su(i»iiiksjinrw5nMnMdE«ki-lc;ySj(t»i>rtii I'riniSlinti. I'lini kfiiiir. Ni>w«n. m anj hipri Clip irr lr«)rna™> ijffiimiuriri iilW than Urrtirlrj Si/i i»,tVn 




August 1987 Vol. 5, No. 8 



features 



Commodore's 84 and 128: Marvelous Music Machines 
Exploring the SID Chip Philip I. Nelson 



Setby Bateman 



18 * 
22 * 



reviews 



Cadpak 128 Howard Parnes and Tyrone Adams . . 
FSD-2 Excelerator Plus Disk Drive Scoff Thomas 



40 128 

41 128/64 



games 



Give 'N Take Mark Juttle 

Front Line Georg and Paul ZImmer 



25 64 

26 64 



education/home applications 



Bounty Hunter Dan Aven 

Computing for Families: 
Recreational Computing in Wabash Valley Hospital 



Fred D'Ignazio 



29 64 
34 * 



programming 



Sprite Magic Charles Brannon 

Power BASIC: Sprite Flip Rhett Anderson and David Hensley, Jr 

Sprite Stamp Bennie J. Montoya 

Multisprite John Augustine 

80-Column Disk Sector Editor lor the 128 Matthew Desmond 

Dynamusic Roger Speerschneider 

Commodore Relative Files: Defensive Programming Jim Butterfield 
BASIC for Beginners: READ and DATA — Two of a Kind Larry Cotton . 
Machine Language (or Beginners: Extra Assistance Richard Mansfield 
RAM Usage on the Commodore 128 Ottis R. Cowper 



44 64 

52 64 

53 64 
55 64 
57 128 
62 64 

64 128/64 

66 12a/64/+4/16 

68 128/64 

70 128 



departments 



Richard Mansfield . 
Editors and Readers 



The Editor's Notes 
Gazette Feedback 

User Group Update 

Simple Answers to Common Questions Tom R. Half hill 

Bug-Swatter: Modifications and Corrections 

Horizons: Tricks Worth Remembering Todcf Heimarck . 



6 * 

12 * 

28 * 

36 * 

56 * 

69 128/64 



program listings 

COMPUTEI's Gazette Author's Guide 

How to Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 

The Automatic Proofreader 

MLX: Machine Language Entry Program for Commodore 64 

Advertisers Index 



106 * 

108 * 

109 128/64/ +4/1 6 

110 128/64 

116 * 



= General, 64 -Commodore 64, +4= Plus/4, 1«= Commodore 16, 128- Commodore 128 



COMFUTErs GAZETTE is publiihed monlhlv bv COMMIfH Pubticalions, Inc., 825 7th Avenue, New York, NT 10019 USA. Phone; (212) 265-83M Editorial nlfices are lorited al 334 
West Wcndovcr Avenue, Greemboro, NC :7-*08. Domeslle SubscripHons; 12 issues, $21 J'OSTMASTKR: Send address changes to COMrUTni's GAZETTE. P.O. Bos 10957, Des 
Moines. lA 50340. Second class applicalion pending at Creeiiiboro, NC 17403 and addilional miiting offices. Entire conlents copyrighl ©1987 by COMMrtS Publicaltons, Inc. All 
njOits reMfved, ISSN 0737-3716 

COWWrra PnbUcjUon*, inc. It part o( ABC Conjumer Magazlnni, Int, On* of lh« ABC Publishing Companlei: ABC Publiahing, Pralden^ Robert C, Boilooj 1330 Avenue of Ihe 
America*; New Yi.rli, Nr« Yoik 10015. 



^^^m% 



ffl](o)fe 



Many personal computers use fans to 
keep them cool. This is a clue to the 
intensity of the activity inside: The 
more that's going on, and the faster 
it's going on, the hotter the machine 
gets. After all, there are no fans inside 
TVs or VCRs or other electronic ap- 
pliances, essentially because these 
other appliances aren't as smart as 
computers. There are far fewer elec- 
tronic switches, the switches operate 
at lower speeds, and they are much 
less densely packed. 

Perhaps you've seen pictures of 
the world's most sophisticated com- 
puter, the Cray. It looks like one of 
those circular sofas found in hotel 
lobbys, but the bulk of what you see 
is its massive refrigeration unit. The 
computer's circuits are so dense, so 
much is happening in such a small 
space, that without cooling it would 
soon melt, 

A computer is made up of count- 
less little switches, called gates. Right 
now the main barrier to building 
more powerful computers is the 
speed at which these gates can be 
turned on and off. Since every gate 
delays the information slightly as it 
travels through the machine, there is 
a direct relationship between gate 
speed and the resulting speed and 
power of a computer. 

After all, a computer thinks by 
sending information around inside it- 
self until the data has been processed 
in some predetermined fashion. If 
you want the computer to add 2-1-2, 
it sends the first 2 into an arithmetic 
section; the operation (addition) is 
fetched and registered from the gates 
that control the processor; the second 
2 is then sent; the operation is per- 
formed; and the result is sent to other 
gates in a storage area. If you increase 
the speed of these gates, the com- 
puter does more, faster. 

The electrons which carry the 
information within a computer travel 
at pretty much the same speeds no 
matter what conducting materials are 
used. It wouldn't help much, for ex- 
ample, to substitute silver for copper 
wire. The senif-conducting material 

6 COMPUTEI's Gazetta August 1987 



does, however, matter. Today's gates 
are made of silicon, but there has 
been some interest in replacing sili- 
con with a different semiconducting 
material, gallium arsenide. Although 
more expensive, this material switch- 
es somewhat faster than silicon. 
However, this research may now be 
moot. Recent developments suggest 
that a breakthrough in switching 
speed is upon us. You'll likely hear a 
great deal about superconductivity in 
the coming months; it has many ap- 
plications beyond the world of com- 
puting. But discoveries in this field 
may well lead to supercomputers far 
beyond present capacities. 

Since 1911, scientists have 
known that certain metals, when 
cooled to nearly absolute zero 
{-459,4° Fahrenheit), suddenly 
change into superconductors — their 
crystalline structure abruptly be- 
comes far more orderly. Electricity 
flows through them with no resis- 
tance and therefore with virtually no 
loss of power or buildup of heat. Un- 
fortunately, this spectacular effect 
worked only if you continually 
bathed the metal in rare and expen- 
sive liquid helium to maintain that 
unimaginably low temperature. 

Then, last year, using new ce- 
ramic compounds, researchers were 
able to achieve superconductivity at 
— 424°. This was a great improve- 
ment because cheaper cooling via liq- 
uid hydrogen became possible. In the 
past few months, however, records 
have been broken right and left. A 
compound was developed that went 
superconductive at —320°, which 
could be cooled by liquid nitrogen. 
Then another was found at —240° 
and another at only —57°, As this is- 
sue was going to press, a New York 
company. Energy Conservation De- 
vices, announced the discovery of a 
material which superconducts at an 
astonishing 9° F. At these high tem- 
peratures, superconduction becomes 
inexpensive and practical. You could 
do it in your home freezer. 

For years IBM had been pouring 
hundreds of millions of dollars into 



this technology without much suc- 
cess. In 1983, the giant computer firm 
halted further research and, as a re- 
sult, interest in superconductivity 
cooled in labs worldvride. But now 
money is pouring in and physicists 
everywhere are mixing exotic com- 
pounds in a race to find the thing that 
goes superconductive at room 
temperature. 

Superconducting materials make 
extremely fast electronic switches. 
Ordinary silicon gates switch in 
10-20 nanoseconds (a nanosecond is 
one-thousandth of a microsecond). 
But superconductive gates switch as 
quickly as .05 picosecond {a picosec- 
ond is one-millionth of a microsec- 
ond, a very short amount of time). 
Superconducting gates thus run mil- 
lions of times faster than their silicon 
counterparts. 

If you make a ring of supercon- 
ducting material and send electric 
current into it, the current flows 
around the ring indefinitely. No resis- 
tance also means very low power re- 
quirements and no heat. 
Superconducting compounds prom- 
ise great advances in such diverse ap- 
plications as extremely sensitive 
medical diagnosis equipment, ultra 
high-speed magnetic trains, far more 
efficient electric power, high -resolu- 
tion radar, and many other break- 
throughs not yet conceived. The 
technology may also make possible 
the construction of inexpensively 
powered supercomputers: desktop 
machines far, far more powerful than 
the Cray. 



Z&C^^.^ J^c^^^yk 



<kM^ 



Richard Mansfield 
Editorial Director 




ECHELON 





3-D SPACE FLIGHT SIMULATOR 



ECHELON ... A top secret mililarv facilrty where a 
tew highly skitted pilots will he trained to operale the 
21sl Cenlury's most awesome CDmbat and 
exploration vehicle, Ihe Lockheed C-10<1 Tomahawk. 
The C-t04 spacecratt has the latest In advanced 
instrumenlation, weaponrv, and control systems. 



i'\C\X-.^A' 



Availahle Now For C^4/128. 

Enharrad versions coming soon tof APPLE, IBM, ftMIGfl. ATARI ST. 

and COMMODORE 12B. 




%-i 



ITS IfflPRESSIVE ATTRIBUTES INCLUDE 

- 4 Diftcrenl "State o1 the Art" Weapons Systems 

- Bi-Diiectional Transpflrter Unit 

. Unmanned RPV (Remote Piloted Vehicle) Control 

- Anti- Gravity Braking and Havering 

- Forward and Reverse Thrusts rs 
• Twin 3-D Screens 

- Real-Time Inlrared Ueclor Graphics 

- Non Real-Time Computer Enhanced Graphics 

- Computer Assisted Control Systems 

- Computer Iniormaliorv Data Link 

- Dn Soard Sub-Atomic Analyzed/Decoder 



ECHELOM is a true 3-D space flight simulator that puis you 9l Ihe 
cortrols of Ihe C-lOfl Tomahawk and in INo heart ol iho aclion. You'll 
Dipetietice the eicitEmenl aniJ Ihritl ol teal spacellighl through 
superb three dimensional graphics. But. before you go ciploting on 
your own. it would be wise to go through Ibo carolully ilosigrad 
training simulators. These rigorous courses will develop your skills In 
manuevering the spacecralt. accurate selection and use ol vreapons, 
control ot RPV's, objecl retrieval arid reluct arid decklni) procedures. 
Developing these skins are essential to your survival wticn 
encountering hostile enemy spacecrafl or ciploting unknovun terrain. 
tCUELQfi Is available now and oflers you the Simulahon Adventure 
DliliteHnie for only S39.95!! 



^3^33? 



^ ■ iS software incorporated 



It you can't lind our pre<lucts el your local dealer, you can order 
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St. 00 shipping and handling, and specily mactiino version 
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ftCCtSS SOnWME, INC. ?S6tS5. t560W. WMi(ICrOSS,UTB™7 



COMPUTE! Publications Jnc.® 

One gS the ABC fuoiishmg CtyT>poni*.?^, ^^^F 



Publisher 
Ed i tori.) I I) i rod or 
Mana^in}^ Edilor 
Associate Pulilisher 



James A. Cast'lla 
Richard Mansfield 
K.irhleon Marlini.'k 
Sdby i3.ilem.in 



Editor, COMPUTEl 

& COMPUTEis CAZmE 
Production Director 
Editor, COMPUTERS Atari ST 

Risk & Ma(;a^ine 
Editor, COMPUTEIs Apple 

Applications Mjgafinc 
Features Editor 
Technital Editor 
Assistant Technical Editors 
Assistant Editor, COMPLTTll's 

Atari ST Disk & Maga;dne 
Assistant Editor, COMPUTERS 

GAZnTE 
Assistant Editor 
Assistant Fc.itures Editor 
Programming Supcrvisof 
Editorial Programmprs 

Copy Editors 
Editorial Assistant 
Submissions Reviewer 
Programming Assistant 
Eicculive Assistant 
Admi nisi rat ivc Assistants 

Receptionist 
Associate Editors 



Contributing Editor 



Lance Elko 
Tony Rol>erts 

Tom R. Halrtlill 

Gregg Keizer 

KL'illi Ft^rrell 

Ottis R. Cowper 

George Miller, Dale McBane 

Todd Heimarck 

Rholt Anderson 

)c)hn Shadle 

Kfllhy Yakal 

Patrick I'artish 

Tim Victor, Tim Midkiff, William 

Chin 

Katen Uhlcndorf, Karen Siepak 

Caroline Manlon 

David Henslev 

Troy Tucker 

Debi Nash 

lulia rhiminn. Iris Hfocjks, Mary 

Hunt. Sybil Ague 

Arvila Arm field 

|iiii liutlurfield 

Toronto, Canada 

Trc-d D'Ignazio 

Dirntingliani, AL 

David Ihornburg 

Los Alttis, CA 

mil Wilkinson 



COMPUTEi's Book Division Editor 
AssistanI Editors 
Programming Assistant 
Director of National Sales 



Stephen Li>vy 

Tanimie Taylor, Robert Bixby 

David riorance 

loseph W. Hatcher 



Production Manager 
Art Director 
Assistant Art Director 
Assistant Production Manager 
Artists 

Typesetting 
Illustrator 



Irma Swain 

liinice R. Fary 

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De Totter 

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Billings 

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M'A 




Di CirCulitLCini 



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New books 
from COMPUTE! 



COMPUTE! Books is bringing you a brand new 
line up of books for your Commodore 64 and 
1 28. These recent releases offer you everytining 
from programming hints to exciting games, from 
educational to home and business appiications. 



Pascal for Beginners 

$14,95 0-87455-068-8 

Book/disk combination for the Commodore 64 
S29.95 IS8N O-87465-069-6 

This introductory text to standard Pascal on any computer is 
on ideal tutofiai tor anyone who wants to learn this powerful 
computer language, it includes everything you need. Includ- 
ing on introductory' Pascal interpreter* for the Commodore 64 
and 1 28 in 64 mode, ready to type in ond use. Written in plain 
English and offering numerous program examples, it gently 
and cleoriy exploins standord Pascal ond structured program- 
ming. Latter sections include discussions of advanced topics 
such as files and dynamic data storage. Thare Is also an op- 
tional disk ovaitabtB for $12.95 (or the Commodore 64 which 
Includes most of the programs In ttrn book. 688BDSK. 

•The Commodore 64 Pascal interpreter is not full-featured, 
but still a powerful Implementation of Pascal which suits the 
needs of most beginners. 



coMPunrs 



i y^W 



Sec ond Rnok of 

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COMPUTEI's Music System 

for the Commodore 64 and 128 

Book/disk combination only 

$24,95 ISBN 0-87455-074-2 

Sldptayer, the feotu re-packed, popular music player and edi- 
tor program. Is now more versatile and more impressive than 
before. Entianced Sidplayer for the Commodore 128 and 64 
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the 1 28 and 64) has to offer. Just like the original, Enhonced 
Sidplayer Is easy to learn and use, with many powerful new 
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programs (including o Singolong program), utilities, and som- 
ple music that you can enjoy Immediately or change. The 
new Sidplayer plays any songs created by the original 
Sidplayer for the Commodore 64. 



User's Guide to GEOS: geoPaint and geoWrife 

$18.95 ISBN 0-87455-080-7 

Loom the ins and outs of GEOS, the new icon-based operat- 
ing system for the new Commodore 64C ond the 64. with this 
step-by-step guide. Everything from creating simple letters 
with geoWrite and pictures with geoPoinf to merging text and 
graphics and using desk accessories is clearly and concisely 
explained, 

COMPUTEI's Second Book of the Commodore 128 

516.95 ISBN 0-87455-077-7 

The editors at COMPUTE! Publicotions have collected some of 
the best games, programs, and tutorials for the Commodore 
1 28 (in 1 28 mode) from COMPUTE! mogozine and COMPUJErs 
Gazette. Like COMPUTEI's First Book of ttm Commodore 128, 
this book offers a variety of programs and articles for every 
128 user. Each program has been fully tested ond Is ready to 
type in and use on the Commodore 128 running In 128 mode, 
There is also a disk ovoitable for $12.95 which Includes the pro- 
grams in the txx>k 777BDSK. 

Mapping the Commodore 64, Revised 

316.95 ISBN 0-87455-082-3 

An update of the bestselllng memory map and programming 
guide. It's a necessity for intermediate and advanced pro- 
grammers. This definitive sourcebook has been expanded and 
now covers the new icon-based GEOS (Graphics Environment 
Operating System) with clear descriptions of how to make it 
work for you. For BASIC and machine language programmers 
of both the Commodore 64 and 64C, 



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When you want to talk computers.. 



ATARI COMPUTERS COMMODORE COMPUTERS MS/DOS SYSTEMS 



Atari Computers 

800 XL 64K Computer $63.99 

65Xe 64K Computer 94.99 

130XE 132K Computer 129.00 

520ST Monochrome System 519.00 

520ST Color System 679.00 




Atari 1040 

Color System *859 

Includes: 1040ST, 1 mb RAM with 3'/z" 
drive built-in, ig2K ROM with TOS, Basic, 
Logo, ST language, power supply and 
color monitor. 



ATARI SOFTWARE 



Access 

Leaderboard Golf 25.99 

Accolade 

Fight Night 19.99 

Activlsion 

Music Studio 34.99 

Antic 

Cad 3-D 32.99 

Batteries Included 

Paperclip w/Spellpack 39.99 

Degas Elite 48.99 

Epyx 

Championship Wrestling.,... 25.99 

Infocom 

Zork Trilogy 44.99 

Ml crop rose 

Top Gunner 19.99 

Silent Service , ....24.99 

Origin Systems 

Ultima 4 39,99 

Paradox 

Wanderer (3-0) 27.99 

Psygnosis 

Deep Space 34.99 

Timeworlts 

Wordwriter ST 48 99 

VIP 

Professional (GEM) 144.00 




Amiga 1000 System 

Includes: Amiga 1000 CPU, 51 2K, 1080 
RGB Monitor, Amiga DOS, Mouse, 
Kaleidoscope $ 1 OQQ 

Commodore-64C 64K Computerl 79.00 
Commodore-64C Sys. W/1802C.519.00 
Commodore-128 128K Computer249.00 
Commodore- 128 System Pkg.... 739.00 

Amiga 2000 Computer call 

Amiga 500 Call for pricing 

Activlsion 

Hacker 32.99 

Broderbund 

The Print Shop 29.99 

The Toy Shop 39.99 

Commodore 

Texlcraft w/Graphic Craft 59.99 

Assembler 79.99 

Enhancer DOS 1.2 14.99 

Discovery Software 

Marauder Back-up.. , 32.99 

Electronic Arts 

Deluxe Paint 69.99 

Deluxe Print 74.99 

Instant Music 34.99 

Deluxe Video 69.99 

Infocom 

Hitchhiker's Guide 31.99 

Micro Illusions 

Dynamic-Cad 349.00 

MIndscape 

Halley Project 31.99 

Deja Vu... 34.99 

Micro Systems 

Analyze Version 2.0 119.00 

Scribble 64.99 

On-Line/Comm 49.99 

Sublogic 

Flight Simulator 37.99 

V.l.P. 

V.I.P. Professional .....139.00 



AT&T 6300 from $1299.00 

Compaq from 1699.00 

IBM-XT from 1099.00 

IBM-AT from 2499.00 

Leading Edge from 999.00 

NEC Multispeed... from 1499.00 

Panasonic Business Partnerfrom 799.00 
Toshiba 1100 Plus from 1699.00 




PC-TOO 20 Meg . 
XT-Compatible *999 

AST 

Six Pak Plus PC/XT 169.00 

Hercules 

Color Card 159.00 

Graphics Card Plus 209.00 

Fifth Generation 

Logical Connection 256K 329.00 

Quadram 

Silver Quadboard 129.00 

Video 7 

EGA Video Deluxe 389.00 

Zuckerboard 

Color Card w/Parallel 89.99 



MS/DOS SOFTWARE 



Asiiton-Tate 

d-Base lll-t-.,,. 399.00 

5th Generation 

Fastback Utility..... 89.99 

tMSi 

Optimouse w/Dr. Halo 99.99 

Lotus 

Lotus 1-2-3 ...329.00 

MicroPro 

Professional 4.0 w/GL Demo 239.00 

Microstuf 

Crosstalk XVI 89 99 

P.F.S. 

First Choice 119,00 

Word Perfect Corp, 

Word Perfect 4.2 209.00 




M 




COMPUTER MAIL ORDER 



When you want to talk price. 



DRIVES 



Atari 

AA314 DS/DD Disk (ST) $199.00 

AA354 SS/DD Disk (ST) 129.00 

SHD204 20 Meg ST Hard Drive579.00 
Allied Technology 

Apple Half-Heights 109.00 

Commodore 

Amiga 1010 S'/z" 219.00 

1541C - 179.00 

1571 239.00 

CSI 

10 mb (64-128) ...1099,00 

Indus 

GT Disk Drive Atari XUXE........ 179.00 

Micro botlcs 

20 mb Hard Drive (Amiga) 1299.00 

Racore 

Jr. Expansion Chassis 299.00 

Seagate 

20 mb ST-225 Hard Drive Kit.. ..369.00 

Supra 

20 Meg Hard Drive (ST) 559.00 

Xebec 

20 mb (Amiga) 899.00 



MODEMS 



MONITORS 



Amdek 

Video 300 Amber Comp 139.00 

Commodore 

Commodore 1902 299.00 

Amiga 1080 Hi-Res Color 259.00 




Magnavox 8562 ^^_^ 
RGB/Composite ^279 

Magna vox 

8505 RGB/Composite 199.00 

NEC 

12" TTL Green or Amber 109.00 

JC-1401P3A Multi-Sync ..549.00 

Princeton Graphics 

MAX-12 12" Amber TTL 169.00 

Taxan 

Model 124 12" Amber 119.00 

Zenith 

ZVM 1220/1230 (ea.) 99,99 




Anchor 4rtrkc»Q 

Volksmodem 1200 *yy^^ 

Anchor 

6480 C64/128 1200 Baud $119.00 

VM520 ST520/1040 1200 Baud. 129.00 
Atari 

XM301 300 Baud 42.99 

Best 

1200 Baud External 119.00 

Commodore 

Amiga 1680-1200 BPS 169.00 

CBM 1670 & 0-128) 99.99 

Everex 

Evercom 1200 Baud Internal 109.00 

Hayes 

Smartmodem 300 External 139,00 

Smartmodem 1200 External 389.00 

Novation 

Parrot 1200 119.00 

Practical Peripherals 

1200 BPS External 159.00 

Supra 

MPP-1064 AD/AA 064 69.99 

1200AT 1200 Baud Atari 139.00 

U.S. Robotics 

1200 Baud External 109.00 

2400 Baud Internal $189.00 

Maxell 

MD1-M SS/DD 5W' 9.99 

MD2-DM DS/DD 5Va" 10,99 

MF1-DDM SS/DD SVz" 12.99 

MF2-DDM DS/DD 3Vz" 21.99 

Sony 

MD1D SS/DD 5'A" 8.99 

MD2D DS/DD SV*" 10,99 

MFD-100 SS/DD SVi" 13,99 

MFD-200 DS/DD SVe" 20,99 

Hewlett-Packard Calculators 

280 Scientific Pro 199,99 

180 Business Consultant 139,95 

120 Slim Financial 74,99 



DISKETTES 



PRINTERS 



Atari 

1020 XUXE Plotter $30.99 

1025 XL/XE Dot Matrix 129.00 

XDM121 Letter Quality 209,00 

XMM801 XLiXE Dot Matrix 189,00 

XMM804ST Dot Matrix 179,00 

Brother 

M-1109 100 cps, 9 pin 209,00 

M-1409 180 cps, 9 pin 359.00 

Citizen 

MSP-10 160 cps, 80-Column 299.00 

Premier 35 cps Daisyvt/heel 499,00 

C.ltoh 

8510-SP 180 cps, 80-Column .,.Call 




Epson LX-86 *- qq 

120 cps W/FREE ^189 

Sheet Feeder, while supplies last! 
Epson 

LX-800 150 Cps, Dot Matrix Call 

FX-86E 240 Cps, 80-column 349.00 

FX286E 240 cps, 132-co!umn Call 

EX-800 300 cps, eO-column 429,00 

LQ-800 180 cps, 24-Wire Call 

Hewlett Packard 

Thinkjet 399.00 

NEC 

Pinwriter 660 24 Wire 489,00 

Pinwriter 760 24 Wire 689,00 

Okidata 

Okimate 20 Color Printer 129,00 

ML-182 120 cps, 80-cotumn 239.00 

ML-192+ 200 cps, 80-column ,,,369,00 

ML-193-^ 200 cps, 132-column, 549,00 

Panasonic 

KX-1080i 120 cps, 80-COlumn., ..219.00 

KX-1091i 180 cps, 80-COlumn.... 299,00 

KX.P3131 22 cps Daisywiieel,, ,,289,00 

Star Micronlcs 

NX- 10 120 cps, 80-column 209.00 

NX-10C 120 cps, 064 lnterface,219,00 

NX- 15 120 cps, 132-column 369,00 

Toshiba 

P321SL 216 cps, 24-Pin Head.., 549. 00 



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are subject to a restocking fee. 




Editors and Readers 



Do you have a question or a problem? 
Have you discovered something that 
could help other Commodore users? We 
want to hear from you. Write to 
Gazette Feedback, COMPUTErs Gazette, 
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. 
We regret that due to the volume of 
mail received, we cannot respond indi- 
vidually to programming questions. 

The Rules For Using Numbers 

I have tried for several weeks to find an 
answer to my question by my own re- 
search, but with no luck. It's about to 
drive me up the wall. The attached pro- 
gram printout doesn't make sense to 
me. What do the numbers in the DATA 
statements mean? 1 know there are 73 
data elements and that line 10 POKEs 
them into consecutive bytes of memory 
starting at 49152, but what do the num- 
bers do? If you were writing a program, 
how would you know what numbers to 
put in to do what you wanted? 

Bob Wagner 

The data you tiuestion starts out like this: 
1 DATA 169,254,45,14,220,141,14 

DATA statements can hold many 
types of information. Those numbers 
might be sports scores, stock prices, or 
shoe sizes. 

In this case the data holds a machine 
language program. Later in the program a 
SYS 49152 occurs, and 49152 is where 
these numbers are POKEd at the begin- 
ning of the program. The SYS command 
transfers control from BASIC to a machine 
language routine. To find out what these 
DATA statements mean, you must disas- 
semble them. To do this you need a table 
of opcodes for the 6502 microprocessor. 
First look up 169 in the table. You find 
that 169 is an LDA immediate instruction 
and that it takes a one-byte argument. 
That means that the next byte is the oper- 
and for the LDA instruction. So the actual 
instruction is LDA #254. Following this 
process again, we find that the next num- 
ber represents AND, and it takes a two- 
byte address, which in this case is 
U + 220'256; so. we have AND 56334. Of 
course, you have to know machine lan- 
guage to understand what the routine does 
and how it does it. Disassembling is a pow- 
erful tool for learning how other program- 
mers do the things they do. So how does 
anyone know what numbers to put into the 

12 COMPUTEt's GaiBtia August 1987 



DATA statements? Most machine lan- 
guage programmers use an assembler to 
write their programs. The assembler takes 
source code and converts it into bytes in 
memory. Later, these bytes are copied from 
memory i>tto DATA statements. 



A Light At The End Of The File 

1 am writing a program to read a se- 
quential file on disk and print it on a 
printer, The program below works fine 
except when it comes to the last data 
item in the file, which it keeps printing 
forever: 

10 OPEN 2, 8, 2, "1MP,DATES,S,R" 

20 OPEN 3, 4 

30 INPUT#2, A$ 

40 PRINT#3, A$ 

50 IF ST--0 THEN 30 

60 CU)SE2: CLOSE3 

The problem is the variable ST in 
line 50; it never equals 64. Could you 
please let me know if there is a way to 
/ix this? 

Yousef Eisa Ebrahim 

The variable ST tells you the STatus of the 
last serial bus input/output operation. 
Like Tl and T!$, it's a reserved variable 
which IS automatically updated by the 
computer. 

Your program is almost correct, but 
you're not checkittg ST soon enough. After 
the INPUTtt in line 30, ST equals 64 if the 
program has reached the end of the file. 
Testing the value of ST is one way to find 
the end of a disk file. 

But the PRINTS in line 40 is also a 
serial bus input/output operation. It re- 
sets ST to 0, itidicating that the printer 
didn't return any error codes. To fix the 
program, record the value of ST in another 
variable after the INPUTS from the file, 
hul before the PR1NT# occurs. For your 
example, add a line 35 Q=ST. Then 
change line 50 to IF Q = THEN 30. 
When the last piece of data is read from 
the file, the program will end. 



Hiding Data From The User 

Is there a way to prevent people from 
listing a BASIC program? I'm writing an 
adventure game and want to hide the 
listing. 

Troy Pladson 

There are several tricks ranging from sim- 



ple to complicated that prevent a BASIC 
program from being listed. One is to put a 
colon, a REM, and a shifted L at the end of 
a line (this works on the 64 but not the 
128). The line will list, but the L causes an 
error tnessage to print, and the listing 
stops. You can also add to a line a REM 
and two quotation marks (then delete the 
second one, so you're not in quote mode); 
then add RVS ON and a series of reversed 
Ts, which will act like DELetc characters. 

The problem with these schemes is 
that no matter how clever you are with 
protecting your program from being list- 
ed, there are usually a large number of 
people who can figure out what you did 
and get around it. For example, a tech- 
nique that prevents you from listing to the 
screen doesn't always work on printer 
listings. 

If you've stored in DATA statements 
the tnessages, room descriptions, trea- 
sures, traps, and other miscellany, it's 
possible that someone would list the pro- 
gram to figure it out instead of learning by 
playing tfte game. There are several ways 
to foil nosy users. You could put the infor- 
mation in a sequential file instead of in 
DATA statements. Another possibility is 
to encode the information by using ASC 
and CHR$ to convert characters to ASCII 
numbers and turn them into codes that 
aren't easily read. You could also put in 
some false paths, like a room containing 
huge amounts of gold, but no doors that 
lead to it. Someone who read through the 
listing might spend a lot of time trying to 
find the imaginary treasure trove. 



128 Percussion 

I'm writing a synthesizer program, and 
I'd like to know how to create sounds 
on my 128 like bass drums, snares, and 
cymbals. The percussion sounds soft- 
ware designee come up with sound 
mainly like hand claps. 

Jesse Jack 

The SID (Sound Interface Device) chip 
found in the 128 can make very sophisti- 
cated sounds. The 128's BASIC 7.0 sup- 
ports the SID chip with six music 
commands: VOL, SOUND, ENVELOPE, 
TEMPO, PLAY, and FILTER. To get 
rhythm sounds such as the snare drum, 
bass drum, and cymbal, only a few steps 
are necessary. 

Here's a program for the 1 28 that de- 



fines some percussion sounds and plays a 
rhythm track: 

10 TEMPO 32: ENVELOPE 1,0,4,0,3 
,3:ESVEL0PE 2 , 0, 05 , 2, , 3 :EN 
VELOPE 3,0,0,0, 3, 3: FILTER 9 
36,0,1,0 

20 PLAY "V1X0T1U15V3X0T3U15V2X 
1T2U15" 

30 PLAY "MV2O6HCV3O0HCV2O6QCMV 
3O0QCMV2O6HCV1O6HCV2O6HC" 

40 GOTO 30 

for more about how the SID chip 
works, see "Exploring the SID Chip" else- 
where in this issue. 



Replacement Supplies For The t520 

1 loved the tip in the May issue for turn- 
ing the Commodore 1520 printer/plotter 
from device 6 into device 4. 1 dug mine 
out of the closet and in ten minutes had 
it working. But 1 was out of paper. I've 
looked everywhere, but have had no 
luck. Can you help? 

Harold Wallace 

Commodore no longer makes the 1520 
printer/plotter or supplies for it, but 
there's an alterftate source. Radio Shack 
once sold a printer/ plotter which was 
very similar to the 1520. The pens and pa- 
per for the Radio Shack plotter will fit the 
1520. A local store will either have tbetn 
in stock or be able to order them for you. 



BSAVE For Variables? 

I've found that with my 128, saving 
sprite data or other information directly 
from memory to binary files with 
BSAVE is faster than saving variables tc 
data files. Is it possible to BSAVE vari- 
ables? How would you do it? 

Michael Petracek 

You're right, writing to a sequential file is 
slower than BSAVEing a portion of memo- 
ry. Here's lohy: A program that writes 
variable values to a file (using PRINTS) 
sends ASCJl characters. For example, if 
the variable X holds the number —513.68, 
the command PRINT#1, X would send a 
minus sign, the ASCII character for 5 
(CUR$(53)). the ASCII character for 1, the 
ASCII character for 3, and so on. When the 
program reads such a file, it has to convert 
the individual characters into the five 
bytes that represent a floating-point num- 
ber. Also, a program that reads a file byte 
by byte has some delays between the char- 
acters, partly because it's checking for the 
last character in the variable value. 

Theoretically, it's possible to BSAVE 
variables from bank I and later BWAD 
them into memory, but you'd have to un- 
derstand how variables are stored in 
memory. Simple variables such as A$, 
QQ, or Yl% (string, floating-point, or 
integer variables that are not arrays) use 
two bytes for the variable name and five 
for the variable descriptor, which is either 
a binary representation of a number or (for 



strings) more ittformation about the vari- 
able. With numeric variables (floating- 
point and integer), the binary value is 
self-contained in the five bytes immedi- 
ately following the two bytes for the name. 
String variables use one of the five i'ytes to 
hold the string length and use two more as 
a pointer to high memory where the actual 
string is located (these strings move 
around from time to time, in the process 
called garbage collectionj. On the 128— 
but not on the 64— the strings in high 
memory are immediately followed by a 
tzvo-byte pointer that points back to the 
descriptor in loiv memory. 

What this means is that you can't just 
BSAVE the siring information; you'd have 
to BSAVE at least two portions of memory, 



plus you'd probably have to sacrifice all 
other strings, and you'd have to save a 
large amount of garbage (unless you forced 
garbage collection with the FREd) func- 
tion). You'd need to save the zero-page 
string pointers, too. You'd have to use sev- 
eral BSAVEs, which would take more time 
than it's worth. 

So strings are out of the question, but 
numeric variables could be BSAVEd, To 
find the address of a particular variable, 
use the POINTER function, which returns 
a pointer to the first of the five bytes con- 
taining the value, just past the two bytes 
of the variable name. You'd have to 
BSAVE the byte from the address returned 
by POINTER, plus the following four 
bytes. The best application for BSAVEing 




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•iVoidd tiot be simple iiariabks {only five 
bytes each), but arrays. Floating-point ar- 
rays occupy five bytes per element, while 
integer arrays occupy only two per cle- 
ment. Remember to include the zeroth en- 
try in your caiculations. DIM AVti(50) 
creates an array of 51 elements when you 
include A %(0). If you're interested in 
looking around in memory, the built-in 
machine language monitor is very useful. 
To BSAVE an array, you'd first have 
to calculate the amount of memory it oc- 
cupies. Then, without using any new (pre- 
viously undefined) variables, ask the 
POINTER function for the addretis of the 
initial elcrncnl and BSAVE the array from 
bank 1. To return the array to memory, 
DIM the array first and then find its ad- 
dress. Using that location (which is in 
bank 1), BLOAD the file from disk. 



Carry On, Carry Off 

[ have few questions abuut 6502 ma- 
chine language. What is the difference 
between the instructions ASL and ROL? 
LSR and ROR? Does the carry bit have 
to be set via SEC to subtract (SBC)? 

William Grinolds 

All three ansii'ers involve some aspect of 
the carry bit. The earn/ flag is a single bit 
in the status register that can be either up 
or down (on or off). When if's set (on), it's 
equal to 1. When it's clear (off), it's a 0. 
The machine language instructions 
ASL and ROL shift all eight bits of a byte 
to the left, as illustrated below. Bit 
moves to bit 1, 1 moves to 2, and so on. Bit 
7 falls out of the byte and moves into the 
carry flag. In the example, since hit 7 
holds a 0, the carry will be clear after the 
ASL or ROL. 



BIT 



The difference between ASL and ROL 
IS tfiaf ASL always moves a into bit 0. 
ROL moves the previoiis value from the 
carry flag Into bit (marked as X in the 
ROL example above). The binary number 
01 001 1 01 above is the same as decimal 77. 
After the ASL, the number is 10011010 
(decltnal I54J, After the ROL, it's either 
lOOUOW or lOOllOll (154 or 155), de- 
pending on the status of the carry flag 
before the ROL operation. Note that ASL 
is equivalent to multiplying by 2. To mul- 
tiply a two-byte (or larger) number by 2, 
you'd ASL the low byte and then ROL the 
high byte, because you toant to shift bit 7 
of the low byte into bit of the higher 
byte. If you perform nine ROLs, you end 
up with ike same value you started with. 
After eight ASLs, you always get a zero 
(binary 00000000). 

The LSR and ROR instructions are 
similar to ASL and ROL, except that they 
move bits to the right. In the case of ROR, 
the carry bit moves into position 7 and bit 
moves into the carry flag. With LSR, a 
zero ahvays moves into bit 7. LSR is the 
same as dividing by 2, with the remainder 
of or 1 left in the carry flag. 

When you subtract, the SBC (SuB- 
tract with Carry) instruction can operate 
in two ways. If you're subtracting single- 
byte quantities, you need to set the carry 
(SEC) before using SBC. The calculation 
20 — 5 should give you an answer of 15, 
and it does if the carry is set. But if the 
Carry is clear, the answer is 14, because 
there's a borrow of 1. When you add, you 
can have bits that carry to the next col- 
umn; when you subtract, you can have 
bits that are borrowed from the next col- 
umn. For multiple-byte quantities, use 
SEC before you subtract one low byte from 
the other. After that, the carry takes care 



7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


e 



















BEFORE 



Bioeiioi 



AFTER ASL 



leeiieiB 



AFTER ROL 



i|B|G|l|l|0|l X 



of itself based on ivh ether a borrow is 
necessary. 

Plus/4 And 16 Graphics 
Compatibility With The 128 

I own a Commodore 16 and would like 
to remind you that the 128 has many 
commands that are the same as the 16. 
In your April issue, you printed an arti- 
cle "The Versatile CIRCLE." I haven't 
tried the programs yet, but they look 
like they would run on the 16. 

Henry Hanecak 

Good suggestion. We tried the CIRCLE 
programs on a Commodore 16, and they 
work fine if you make one change. At the 
beginning of each program, the COLOR 
command sets the hi-res colors. You'll 
have to adjust t^ic values after COLOR for 
the Plus/4 or 16. 

As you've noted, tttost of the 128's 
graphics commands work on the Plus/ 4 
and 16, so articles about 128 graphics will 
usually apply to these computers as well. 
One problem you might encounter with a 
Commodore 16 (but not with the Plus/ 4) 
is that the hi-res screen uses 9K of memo- 
ry, which doesn't leave much space for 
BASIC progratns. 

Scratching Comma Files 

When I list the directories of several of 
my disks, 1 find files whose names are 
",", I have no idea how they got on the 
disk and haven't been able to scratch 
them. Is there any way to remove them 
short of copying all the valid files to an- 
other disk? 

C. Robert Budd 

Comma files are usually written by a pro- 
gram that gives you the option of saving 
some information to disk. If you press RE- 
TURN at the input prompt without typing 
a filename, the program adds ,S,W to the 
non-exisient filename and then tries to 
open a file called ,S,W. To prevent this 
from happening, you should check the 
length of filenames entered by the user 
before opening a file. The length should be 
at least one character. 

You can't scratch a comma file di- 
rectly because commas can function as 
separators (for deleting more than one file 
at the same time) in the scratch command. 
But you can get rid of it by using the ques- 
tion-mark wildcard. Try this: 

OPEN 15,8,15; PRINT#I5,"S0;?": 
CLOSEIS 

This litie scratches all one-character 
filenames, including the comma file. If 
you have important one-letter files with 
names like A or Z, rename them tetnporar- 
lly before using the question-mark tech- 
nique. After scratching the one-character 
files, you can then rename the other files 
back to their original one-letter names, a 



16 COAfPUre/'s Gazmia August 1987 



I I 




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W//z//mmM 





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another computer magazine. That's because 
each issue of COMPUTE! 's Gazette comes 
complete with up to 20 all-new, action-packed 
programs. 

Subscribe now and you can depend on a 
steady supply of high quality, fun-filled 
programs for your Commodore computer 
programs like Disk Editor, fvtini-Filer, Arcade 
Baseball, Budget Planner, Sound 
SpeedScript, and hundreds of other eduG 
tional, home finance and game programs the 
entire family can use all year long. 

The superb programs you'll find in each 
issue are worth much, much more than the 
low subscription price. 

And there's more to COMPUTEI's Gazette 
than just exciting new programs. Month after 
month, the superb articles in COMPUTEI's Ga^' 
zette deliver the latest inside word on every- 
thing from languages to interfaces,.. from 
tyyxirog ramming to disk drives. /^ 

W/// Whether you're a novice or an experif* 
' enced user, COMPUTEI's Gazette is the 
magazine for you. So subscribe today. R 
the enclosed card or call 1-800-247-5470 (in 
"■ ra, 1-800-532-1 



cOo it novifc 





iCQMPyi^j 



ACT NOW 
ANDSAQI- 



Publications, Inc. 



///, One of Itie ABC Publishing Compfiriios 

» attached order card is missing, wrilft: COMPUTEI's Gazette i^O. Box 10955, Dos Moines, lA 5095 




Commodore's 64 And 128: 

Marvelous Music Machines 



Selby Bateman, Associate Publisher 



Five years after its introduction, the Commodore 64 can still 
astonish the uninitiated with its music and sound effects. And 
the Commodore 128, thanks to the same remarkable Sound In- 
terface Device (SID) chip, carries on the tradition. At the same 
time, rapid advances in electronic music and digital technology 
are making the 64 and 128 even more versatile, powerful, and 
entertaining music machines. 



Music^and musicians — will ncvur 
be the same again. 

"The computer-music revolu- 
tion is here," says Larry Ullman, 
software products specialist for 
RolandCorp US, a company that 
develops and markets musical in- 
struments and software for a wide 
range of computers. 

"This is just an absolutely 
amazing opportunity to expose 
people to the creativity of music 
who might never otherwise have 
experienced it," adds Al Hospers, 

18 COMPUWs GBzelle August 1987 



vice president of Dr. T's Music Soft- 
ware, another software company 
specializing in computer music. 

"We're opening the ears and 
eyes of musicians out there," says 
Daniel Kantor, merchandising 
manager for Wenger Corporation's 
Music Learning Division, a compa- 
ny heavily involved in music edu- 
cation and software. "With this 
technology, you're learning that 
you can do whatever you want." 

Echoing that enthusiasm are 
musicians, music teachers, compos- 



ers, and even nonmusidans, all of 
whom are experiencing firsthand 
one of the most fundamental 
changes in the way music is heard, 
played, and written. 

Commodore 64 and 128 own- 
ers will not find it surprising that 
their computers have been among 
those in the first wave of machines 
to serve as digital creators and con- 
trollers in this age of new music. 
With the versatile three-voice SID 
chip {see "Exploring the SID Chip" 
elsewhere in this issue), the 64 has 
been used as a musical playground 
and serious tool for five years. Now 
the 128, with twice the memory, is 
also drawing its share of ovations. 

MIDI Miracles 

Even more important during the 
same five-year period, however, 
has been the birth and exhilarating 
growth of MIDI — the Musical In- 
strument Digital Interface that is al- 




tering virtually every aspect of 
music today. 

"Anything you hear coming 
out of a speaker today has been af- 
fected in some way by digitization 
and MIDI," says Ullman, "A Com- 
modore 64, for example, through 
MIDI can run up to 16 different 
synthesizers." 

Even at a time when such new- 
generation computers as the Apple 
Macintosh, Commodore Amiga, and 
Atari ST are further extending the 
boundaries of computer-controlled 
music, the 64 and 128 still serve as 
focal points for a great deal of inter- 
est among musicians and begin- 
ners. And there's a host of music 
software packages and MIDI inter- 
faces as well. 

Those unfamiliar with MIDI 
may at first have difficulty under- 
standing just how important MIDI 
has become to today's music. At its 
simplest level, MIDI is a set of tech- 
nical specifications for connecting 
electronic musical instruments, 
such as synthesizers, drum ma- 
chines, digital keyboards, sequenc- 
ers, reverb units, and — 
importantly — computers. These 
specifications mean that what mu- 
sic you create on your synthesizer 
or computer or drum machine can 
be passed to, and understood by, 
another instrument following the 



MIDI standard. The MIDI specs 
were adopted in 1982 by a core 
group of influential instrument 
makers who realized that the future 
of electronic music would be a lot 
brighter if they worked together 
from the beginning to prepare a 
compatible communications 
standard. 

The results of that agreement 
have been far more successful in a 
much shorter time than anyone 
could have forseen thanks to the 
amazing speed of change in digital 
technology and computers. 

What MIDI means to a Com- 
modore 64 or 128 owner is that, 
through a MIDI interface hooked to 
it and by using the appropriate mu- 
sic software, the computer can con- 
trol up to 16 different MIDI- 
equipped instruments at one time. 
A MIDI interface fits into the Com- 
modore's expansion slot and, at the 
other end, plugs into whatever 
MIDI instrument you want to send 
to and receive from. There are MIDI 
interfaces for the 64 and 128 rang- 
ing in price and optional features 
from about $75 to $200 available 
from RolandCorp US, Dr. T's Music 
Software, Sonus Corporation, and 
Passport Designs. 

The MIDI connection contains 
a MIDI IN port for receiving digital 
data and a MIDI OUT port for send- 



ing data. MIDI THRU ports are 
used to pass data along a line of 
connected instruments. There are 
16 separate MID! channels that can 
be used, which gives you an idea of 
the staggering number of variations 
even the novice musician can create 
and control. So widespread has 
MIDI use become that virtually all 
electronic musical instruments are 
MIDI equipped, and the Atari ST 
computer comes with a MIDI inter- 
face already installed. 

A Mountain Of Music 

Over the past several years, soft- 
ware developers have produced 
music programs for virtually every 
aspect of music creation, per- 
formance, and practice. They range 
from professional-level per- 
formance and composition packages 
to introductory and educational 
programs for youngsters and adults. 

There are many sources for this 
information, but one of the most 
complete and attractively packaged 
music software guides is the Coda 
catalog from Wenger Corporation's 
Music Learning Division. The 1987 
guide contains 160 pages of music 
software information, including 40 
pages on Commodore 64 and 128 
programs alone. The book is illus- 
trated and the listings are well 
annotated. 

COMPurei's Gazelle August 1987 19 



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A MIDI sequencer program can offer sophisticated music composing, editing, 
sequencing, and other features that let the 64 and 128 work tvith a variety of 
digital electronic music instruments. 



There are basically three broad 
categories of music software, al- 
though many programs fall into 
two and sometimes all three of 
these divisions. First, there are the 
professional-level MIDI sequenc- 
ers, editors, music libraries, proces- 
sors, and recording studios which 
are transforming the ways profes- 
sional musicians and talented ama- 
teurs approach both composing 
and playing. 

For example. Dr. T's Music 
Software, Passport Designs, and 
Sonus Corporation all offer a vari- 
ety of sophisticated MIDI packages 
for the 64 and 128. Dr. T's C128 
Keyboard Controlled Sequencer (KCS) 
is an enhanced version of the com- 
pany's popular KCS for the 64. 
Sonus offers its Super Sequencer in 
64 and 128 versions. And Passport 
has, among other programs, the 
MJD//4 Plus and MlDI/8 Phis re- 
cording systems for the 64 and 128. 
Other 64 and 128 MIDI products in- 
clude Roland's MUSE 8-track re- 
cording system and Firebird 
Licensees' Advanced Music System. 

"MIDI is where things are hap- 
pening in music these days," says 
Roland's Ullman. "The MIDI inter- 
face allows musicians to tap the ca- 
pabilities of any MIDl-equipped 
synthesizer, from instruments cost- 
ing a few hundred dollars all the 
way to top-of-the-line digital sam- 



pling keyboards that cost thou- 
sands of dollars, 

"With a computer, the right 
software, and MIDI, the composer 
can run through his compositions 
before committing them to paper, 
much less hiring musicians and 
concert halls," he says. "If you 
don't like the way something ivorks 
out, change it on the computer key- 
board and try it a different way. The 
computer lets the composer reor- 
chestrate at will. In some ways, the 
computer is the greatest musical in- 
vention since the clavier keyboard 
itself." 

Musical Playgrounds 

A second major division of music 
software available today is what 
might be called creativity and en- 
tertainment programs aimed at 
making the computer a musical 
playground. For the 64 and 128, 
there are literally dozens of exam- 
ples of this type of software, rang- 
ing from simple programs that use 
the SID chip to play back songs all 
the way to pro'fessional-level con- 
struction set programs that can he 
used by beginners and experienced 
musicians alike. 

There are a broad range of 
companies that have made 64 and 
128 music programs of this type 
available, including Activision's 
Music Studio, Broderbund's The 



For more information, contact: 

Activision 

2350 Bayskore Frontage Rd. 

Momilain View, CA 94043 

Alfred Publishing 

15335 Morrismi St., Suite 235 

Sherman Oaks, CA 9141i 

AlgO'Rhythm Software 

176 IvJineola Blvd. 
Mitieata, ,W 1150] 

B red er bund 

17 Paul Dr. 

San Rafael, CA 94903 

Dr. T's Music Software 

66 Louise Ril, 

Cheslmit Hill, MA 02167 

Electronic Arts 

1820 Galemay Dr. 
San Mateo, CA 94i04 

Electronic Courseu'iire Systems 

303 Windsor Rd. 
Champaign, IL 61S20 

Firebird Licensees 
P.O. Bm 49 
Ramsi-y, Nj 07446 

Mindscape 
i444 Dundee Rd. 
Norlhbrook, IL 60062 

Passport Designs 

625 Miramonles SI., Suite 103 

Half Mann Bay, CA 94019 

RolandCorp US 

7100 Dominion Circle 
Los Angeles, CA 30040 

Sonus 

21430 Strathern St., Suite H 

Canada Park, CA 91304 

Wenj^er 

Music Learning Division 
1401 East 79lh St. 
Bloomington, MN 55420-1590 



Music Shop, Electronic Arts' Music 
Construction Set, Mindscape's Bank 
Street MusicWriter, and many more. 

These music programs let the 
beginner experiment in an onscreen 
environment that's not as intimi- 
dating as the more advanced MIDI 
programs, but also offer a long list 
of additional features that can be 
used by the more experienced mu- 
sician, and by beginners as their 
abilities grow. There are usually 
preprogrammed musical pieces that 
come with the programs, an easy- 
to-use menu system with recogniz- 
able icons and other symbols, and 
an interactive approach that lets the 
user hear and see in realtime what's 
being composed. 

One of the most innovative 
and interesting of the music creativ- 
ity programs for the 64 continues to 
be Cautus, a program from Algo- 
Rhythm Software that actually 



£0 



COMPUTEfs Gazette August 1987 



composes its own three- voice musi- 
cal improvisations after you decide 
the elements of tempo, tone, har- 
mony, and other ingredients you 
want. The program was created 
several years ago by Michael Ries- 
man, keyboardist and conductor for 
the acclaimed Philip Glass Ensem- 
ble {whose recordings include Songs 
from Liquid Days and the sound- 
track from Ko}/aanisqatsi), and 
there's still nothing quite like it. 
Although a beginner can have a lot 
of fun with this, experienced musi- 
cians have found it fascinating as 
well. 

Classroom Composers 

One of the most promising and fast- 
est growing areas of music software 
is in education. Thousands of music 
educators have been discovering 
that computers can not only unleash 
the creativity of their students, but 
the right software can make music 
instruction less intimidating to be- 
ginners and can offer very specific 
practice environments on virtually 
every aspect of instruction. 

Just how extensively comput- 
ers and software are used in music 
instruction depends on individual 
music departments and how excit- 
ed the teachers are about the new 
technology, says Daniel Kan tor of 
Wenger's Music Learning Division. 

"If the music teacher isn't using 
the technology, then computers are 
not a part [of the instruction], even if 
the school itself has lots of comput- 
ers," he says. "Computers are open- 
ing up worlds of composition and 
experimentation to students who 
either don't have keyboard skills or 
are too young to have them. And 
they're allov^^ng students at the ear- 
ly stages to think globally when it 
comes to composition." 

New music packages aimed at 
the schools are emerging almost 
every day, with topics such as mu- 
sic theory, instrument fingering ex- 
ercises, music appreciation, 
composing fundamentals, play- 
along exercises, ear training, music 
terminology, sight reading, instru- 
ment tuning, keyboard fundamen- 
tals, and many others. 

"Almost unconditionally, the 
most popular type of program is 
that which lets you print your mu- 
sic," says Kantor. "A student 
shouldn't have to know how to no- 
tate music before he or she begins 



experimenting with sound. With 
the technology available, they can 
input examples themselves, or have 
the computer generate random ex- 
amples, and then have the com- 
puter print out those examples." 

Virtually all of the instructional 
music software developed over the 
past several years is available in 
versions for the Commodore 64 
and 128. For example, Wenger of- 
fers a series of wind instrument fin- 
gering programs for almost every 
instrument: flute, oboe, bassoon, 
clarinet, saxophone, trumpet, 
French horn, trombone, tuba, and 
others. Other music software dis- 
tributors such as Alfred Publishing 
and Electronic Courseware Systems 
also have 64 and 128 products on 
dozens of different subjects. 

A Symphony Of Waves 

Despite the recent proliferation of 
music software, everyone agrees 
that the marriage between comput- 
ers and music has just begun. 

"As artificial intelligence finds 
its way into music, we'll be getting 
programs that know something 
about musical style, and can recog- 
nize it," says Roland's Ullman. "So 



that, if you load a jazz composition, 
the machine will display and print 
your music in jazz notation. 

"There's nothing, really, that 
can't be done in the way of control- 
lers, cither," he adds. "Once we 
have controllers for all instruments, 
there's no reason why we can't in- 
vent controllers for things that have 
never really been part of music 
before— a symphony for ocean 
waves beating against rocks, for 
example." 

Al Hospers at Dr. T's concurs: 
"There's going to be software for 
more and more powerful comput- 
ers. Some of the thinking will be 
done for you, as the software learns 
your style, learns your way of 
working and thinking about music, 
and adapts itself to that." 

As more powerful computers 
and more sophisticated music soft- 
ware are developed, the boundaries 
of the possible will be extended in 
remarkable ways. But, for the for- 
seeable future, the versatility and 
low cost of the Commodore 64 and 
128 will continue to make them 
among the most popular of digital 
music machines. w 




BACKUP PBOTECTED 
SOFTWARE FAST. 

From ttie team who brougtit you 
Copy II Plus (Apple), Copy II PC (IBM) 
and Copy II Mac (Macintosti) comes 
a revolutionary new copy program for 
the Commodore 64/128 computers. 

• Copies many protected 
programs— automatically. (We 
update Copy II 64/128 regularly to 
handle new protections; you as a 
registered owner may update at 
any time for $15 plus $3 s/h.) 

• Copies even protected disks in 
under 2 minutes (single drive). 

• Copies even protected disks in 
under 1 minute (dual drive). 

• Maximum of four disk swaps on a 
single drive. 



• Includes fast loader, 12-second 
format. 

Requires a Commodore 64 or 128 
computer with one or two 1541 or 
1571 drives. 

Call 503/244-5782, M-F, 8-5 
(West Coast time) with your ^ ^ 
in hand. Or send a check 
for $39.95 U.S. plus $3 s/h, $8 
overseas. 

$39.95 

Central Point Software, Inc. 
9700 S W. Capitol Hwy. #100 
Portland, OR 97219 

CeniniFbint 



Softwam 



Backup utilities also available for the IBM, Apple II. Macintosh and Atari ST. 

TfJts pr^acl 15 prr?/>de<i for thtjpurpa^p of c^ilbl^ng you to frisks arvhivat copras onty 



Exploring The SID Chip 



Philip I. Nelson, Assistant Editor 

Ever since 1982, when the Commodore 64 arrived on the scene, 
the SID (Sound Interface Device) chip has been making waves. 
Also found in the Commodore 128, the SID chip allows you to 
create' sophisticated, three-part music and sound effects. This 
versatile chip revolutionized microcomputer music when it first 
appeared, and now, some five years after its introduction, it 
still is one of the best sound makers in any personal computer. 
Here's a close-up look at the fascinating world of sound in the 
64 and 128. A demonstration program listing is included. 



This article outlines the capabilities 
of the SID chip and provides a short 
program that shows off some of its 
flashier features. The program 
works on the Commodore 128 and 
the 64. Both of these computers use 
the same SID chip, but the 128's 
BASIC 7.0 offers several sound- 
related commands that are not 
available in the 64's BASIC 2.0. The 
BASIC 7.0 commands add some 
other capabilities^and have cer- 
tain limitations — that are not inher- 
ent to the chip itself. If you control 
the chip directly with POKEs, you 
can use the same techniques on 
either machine; we'll look at basic 
features of the SID chip that are 
common to both computers. You 
can find more information in your 
user's manual and in the many 
books available for programming 
the 128 and 64. 

Three Voices 

The SID chip contains three sepa- 
rate tone generators, usually called 
voices. Each voice can create its own 
sound, completely independent of 
what the other voices are doing. 
Thus, to make a simple beep, for in- 
stance, you might cause voice 1 to 
beep and leave the other two voices 
silent. To emulate a bagpipe, you 

22 COMPUTErs Gazette August 1987 



might play the melody with voice 1 
and use voice 2 to drone in the 
background. Complex sound ef- 
fects or multipart music can use all 
three voices at once. It's a bit like 
having a three-voice choir under 
your personal direction. Depending 
on what you dictate, the singers can 
sing alone, in harmony, or in any 
other combination. 

Most human voices are limited 
to a single range (tenor, soprano, 
and so on), but a SID voice can 
change its character just by switch- 
ing to a different waveform. In this 
way, the 64 can emulate many dif- 
ferent natural sounds and create 
others which don't exist in nature. 

The SID chip makes available 
four different waveforms: triangle, 
sawtooth, pulse, and noise. The fig- 
ure illustrates the four SID chip 
waveforms, all of which are com- 
mon in electronic music. 

Each waveform has its own, 
distinctive character. The triangle 
wave creates a soft, flutelike tone. 
The sawtooth wave is louder and 
somewhat buzzy in comparison to 
the triangle. The shape of the noise 
wave is random (or nearly so), cre- 
ating rushing and hissing tones that 
are useful for sound effects. The 
pulse wave creates a clear tone, like 



the triangle and sawtooth; by 
changing the width of its wave, you 
can make the pulse sound rich and 
full, or thin and reedy. A better 
name for the pulse wave might be 
rectangular wave, since its shape is 
always a rectangle of one sort or an- 
other. Another, somewhat less ac- 
curate name for this waveform is 
square ivave. A square wave is sim- 
ply a symmetrical pulse wave. 

Each SID voice can use any of 
the four waveforms. For example, 
you might choose a triangle wave 
for voice 1, a sawtooth wave for 
voice 2, and a pulse wave for voice 
3. In other cases, you might set all 
three voices to a triangle, and so 
forth. Except for some special ef- 
fects {see below), the waveform set- 
ting for one voice has no effect on 
what other voices produce. 

Envelopes 

The envelope defines the shape of a 
sound over the course of its life, 
from beginning to end. To illus- 
trate, consider the difference be- 
tween two sounds; the sharp tap of 
a drumstick on a wood block, and a 
soft note on a cello. The wood block 
sound begins sharply and fades al- 
most instantly, while the cello tone 
begins and ends more gradually, 
perhaps taking a second or two to 
fade completely into silence. The 
envelope of each instrument deter- 
mines the character of a sound as 
well as how long it lasts. If the cello 
had the sharp, percussive envelope 
of a wood block, its notes would 
sound very different, indeed. 

For the SID chip, as in conven- 
tional electronic music, a sound en- 
velope is broken into four phases: 
attack, decay, sustain, and release. 



Triangle 




Saw tool K 




Pulse 



Noise 




The acronym ADSR represents 
these phases and often is used to 
mean an envelope generally. 

The ADSR settings for a given 
sound describe a set of relations be- 
tween volume (loudness) and time. 
The attack setting describes how 
rapidly a sound rises in loudness 
from silence to its peak volume. The 
attack for the wood block, for in- 
stance, would be very rapid, almost 
instantaneous, while the attack for a 
cello would be more gradual. 

The decay setting describes 
how rapidly a sound fades in loud- 
ness from its peak volume to the 
volume at which it will be held, or 



sustained. This setting is most sig- 
nificant, of course, for sounds that 
will be sustained for an appreciable 
length of time, A sound like the 
click of two colliding billiard balls 
fades so quickly that it has, for prac- 
tical purposes, no decay or sustain. 
A sustained trumpet note, on the 
other hand, lasts long enough so 
that decay is important. 

The sustain setting describes 
how loud a sound will be during the 
period in which it is held at a con- 
stant volume. Not all sounds are 
sustained, of course. It's important 
to note that sustain is a volume set- 
ting, not a duration setting. Sustain 



controls the loudness of a sound 
while it is being held, not the length 
of time it is held. The sustain phase 
of the envelope ends when you wfi- 
gate the voice, as explained below. 

The release setting describes 
how quickly the sound fades from 
its sustained volume to silence. If 
you strum loudly on a guitar, or 
play a piano chord while pressing 
the piano's right pedal, those in- 
struments create tones with a long 
release phase. The notes fade grad- 
ually as the strings of the instru- 
ment lose more and more energy. 
The release phase of an automobile 
horn, on the other hand, is very 
brief or nonexistent; the sound 
fades almost instantly when you re- 
lease the horn. 

You can create many simple 
sounds with the SID chip by using 
only attack and decay, ignoring 
sustain and release. For instance, if 
you set attack at 0, decay some- 
where in the range of 8 to 13, sus- 
tain at 0, and release at 0, the sound 
begins immediately and fades natu- 
rally within a short time period — 
ideal for simple music and arcade- 
style sound effects. With an attack 
of 0, the sound begins instantly, 
with no perceivable delay, and the 
decay value determines how fast it 
fades in volume. If sustain is set at 
0, the sound is not sustained at all: 
The sound decays all the way to 
zero volume, silencing the voice 
without further intervention on 
your part. Before making another 
sound with this voice, however, 
you must ungate the voice. 

Gates 

Closely tied to a sound's envelope 
is the concept of gating, or turning a 
voice on. Garing begins the ADSR 
cycle, which makes a voice produce 
a sound. 

To gate a voice, you set the low 
bit of the voice's waveform control 
register to 1, To ungate the voice, 
you set the same bit to 0. For in- 
stance, the statement POKE 
54276,17 both selects the triangle 
wave for voice 1 and gates the voice, 
causing it to begin its ADSR cycle. 
The statement POKE 54276, 16 un- 
gates the voice. The other two voices 
are controlled with similar POKEs. 

If you choose a nonzero sus- 
tain setting, the sound will be audi- 
ble after its decay phase is 
complete. Once the voice enters its 

COMPUTE! s Gazene August 1987 23 



sustain phase, it remains at the spec- 
ified volume indefinitely until you 
ungate it. At that point, the sound 
enters the release phase, fading into 
silence at the rate specified. 

If you need to specify all four 
ADSR parameters, ungating the 
voice is as important as gating it, al- 
though, as explained above, you 
can sometimes simplify the process 
by leaving sustain and release at 0. 

Volume 

The SID chip's volume control is 
one of its most basic features. To 
make any sound at all, you must set 
the volume to some nonzero value. 
If this isn't done, it doesn't matter 
what else you do with the chip — no 
sounds will be audible. There are 
16 volume settings, ranging from 
(silence) to 15 (loudest). 

filters 

The volume control register, loca- 
tion 54296, also serves as a type se- 
lector for the SID chip filters. By 
setting the appropriate bits in this 
register, you can turn on a band- 
pass, high-pass, or low-pass filter. 
The SID filters are subtractive, 
meaning that they suppress, or at- 
tenuate, a portion of the frequency 
range for a particular sound. 

You can route any of the three 
SID voices through the filter. For 
instance, you might filter voices 2 
and 3, leaving voice 1 unfiltercd. 
However, all fUtered voices are af- 
fected in the same way; you can't 
select a band-pass filter for voice 1, 
for example, and a low-pass filter 
for voice 2. 

A low-pass filter suppresses 
high-frequency tones in a sound, 
"passing through" low-frequency 
tones. A high-pass filter works in 
the opposite way, passing through 
high frequencies and suppressing 
low ones. A band-pass filter passes 
through only those tones within a 
narrow, specified frequency range, 
suppressing tones above and below 
it. You can use more than one kind 
of filter at a time. If you combine 
high-pass and low-pass filters, for 
instance, you get a band reject filter, 
which suppresses tones only within 
a specified range. 

When you're using a filter, it's 
necessary to set the cutoff frequen- 
cy, controlling the point in the fre- 
quency range at which the filter 
takes effect. For instance, if you se- 

24 COMPUTEls Gazotto August 1987 



lect a low-pass filter and set the cut- 
off frequency at the middle of the 
64's frequency range, then tones 
below the middle of the range pass 
through unaltered, while those 
above the cutoff spot are sup- 
pre.ssed. You can also specify the 
resonance, or peaking effect, of the 
filter. A high-resonance setting 
makes the filter more powerful, 
while low resonance tones it down. 
Filtering may sound complex, 
but it's the key to emulating the 
complexity of natural sounds. Un- 
fortunately, because faulty formu- 
las were used in designing the SID 
chip filter, you cannot assume that 
filtering will sound the same on ev- 
ery Commodore 64 or 128, Filtering 
always has some effect, but it will 
be more pronounced on some ma- 
chines than on others. 

Synchronization And 
Ring Modulation 

The SID chip includes several spe- 
cial features that would be difficult 
or impossible to achieve if they 
were not supported in hardware. 
These include ring modulation, 
synchronization, envelope follow- 
ing, and number generation. 

Ring modulation and synchro- 
nization work in similar ways; both 
effects u.se the frequency setting of 
one voice to modulate, or change, 
the output of a second voice. The 
modulation relationships between 
voices are fixed. Voice 1 can modu- 
late voice 2's output, voice 2 can 
modulate voice 3, and voice 3 can 
modulate voice 1. 

Synchronization is the simpler 
of these two effects. It mixes the fre- 
quencies of two voices together, cre- 
ating harmonic overtones which are 
not present if the two voices are not 
synchronized. (The name for this ef- 
fect is somewhat misleading. The 
word synchronization means a mov- 
ing together, or in step. This does 
not mean, however, that the sounds 
for the two synchronized voices be- 
gin and end together. It is the fre- 
quencies of the two voices which are 
combined, not their envelopes.) 

Ring modulafion sums (com- 
bines) the two voices' frequencies, 
but suppresses the basic tones and 
accentuates the harmonic over- 
tones which result from the sum- 
ming. This feature creates strange, 
hollow sounds that can resemble 
the ringing of bells. 



Number Factory 

Envelope following and number 
generarion both use voice 3 in a 
special way — as a "number fac- 
tory" for special effects rather than 
as a sound maker in its own right. 

Location 54299 can generate 
different series of numbers in the 
range 0-255. The type of number 
series is controlled by the wave- 
form chosen for voice 3, and the 
rate of change depends on voice 3's 
frequency. When voice 3 is set to a 
noise wave, this register generates 
random numbers which are very 
useful in game programming. The 
other waveforms generate repefi 
five output in the range 0-255 that 
is useful for vibrato, tremolo, and 
other cyclical effects. For example, 
when the triangle wave is selected, 
the output sweeps up and down be- 
tween and 255, at a rate deter- 
mined by voice 3's frequency. 

Location 54300 also generates 
numbers in the range 0-255, but its 
output mirrors the changing form 
of voice 3's ADSR envelope. By 
reading this location while voice 3's 
ADSR cycle is in progress, you can 
use the envelope output to modu- 
late the output of another voice. 
The term envelope following refers 
to the fact that you follow, or track, 
the envelope of one voice, using it 
to change another voice. Because 
these values change very rapidly, 
envelope following is practical only 
from machine language. 

The example technique uses 
envelope following to make the fil- 
ter's cutoff frequency, as well as 
voice 3's frequency, follow the en- 
velope of voice 3. Of course, you 
can use the envelope output for any 
purpose you like. 

Example Program 

The sample program for the Com- 
modore 64 creates a highly complex 
sound effect with the aid of a short 
machine language routine which it 
POKEs into memory. Since its pur- 
pose is to show off the SID chip, the 
sound takes advantage of several 
special SID features, including ring 
modulation, filtering, and envelope 
following. Not every sound needs 
to be this complex, of course. But in 
sound, as in other area.s, you'll find 
that the time spent teaming pro- 
gramming details is usually we!! 
rewarded. 
See program listings on page 84. m 




Challenge a friend or the computer to a battle of wits in this 
puzzle game for the 64. It's easy to play, but not so easy to win. 



"Give 'N' Take" is a strategy game 
played on a jigsaw-puzzle board. 
The board is empty at first, but it 
quickly fills in as you and your op- 
ponent place your pieces. The game 
sounds simple — and it is — -but 
there's a twist. When you put a 
piece down, all adjacent pieces turn 
to your color. This is beneficial to 
you in the variation called Take, but 
very hazardous indeed in Give. 

You can play Give 'N' Take 
against either the computer or an- 
other player. In Give, try to end the 
game with fewer points than your 
opponent. In Take, try to finish 
with more. 

Typing Jt In 

Give 'N' Take is written in BASIC. 
Since it requires accurate entry, 
type it in with the aid of the "Auto- 
matic Proofreader" located else- 
Vi^here in this issue. When you've 
finished entering the program, save 
it to disk or tape. 

Before you can load and run 
Give 'N' Take, you must modify the 
computer's memory configuration. 
From immediate mode, enter this 
line; 

POKE 43,l:POKE 44,64:POKE 16384,0 

Then load and run the program. 

If you own a disk drive, you 
may want to type in Program 2 and 



save it to disk. This program will 
perform the above POKEs for you 
and then automatically load and 
run Give 'N' Take. For the boot pro- 
gram to work, both programs must 
be on the same disk, and Program 1 
must be saved with the name GIVE 

'N' TAKE. 

\ nmm 




:>^0].#W^P, 



Two players place their pieces on the 
board in "Give 'N' Take," a unique 
strategic game. 

Game Play 

The first step in Give 'N' Take is to 
choose which variation to play: Give 
or Take, In Give, you try to force 
your opponent to capture pieces. In 
Take, you try to capture pieces. 

Next, choose your opponent. 
You may play against a friend or 
against the computer. If you play 
against a friend, choose whether 
you want to use one joystick or two. 
If you use one joystick, plug it into 
port 2. 



If you play against the com- 
puter, you must choose who should 
go first. Plug your joystick into port 
2, 

Give 'N' Take contains 70 
puzzle-like pieces. These pieces are 
randomly divided at the beginning 
of the game — 35 per contestant. 
Each of 18 unique shapes are dis- 
played on both sides of the board — 
player 1 (green) on the left; player 2 
(blue) on the right. Under each 
piece is a number which shows 
how many of that particular piece 
the player has. 

Players alternate placing their 
pieces on the board. Unoccupied 
slots are gray. Move the game cur- 
.sor (a white dot) to any region by 
moving the joystick left or right. 
When the cursor is on the slot 
where you want to move, press the 
fire button to place your piece. All 
occupied regions that share a bor- 
der with the freshly taken space 
will change to your color. A run- 
ning score is displayed at the top of 
the screen (each piece of your color 
is worth one point). 

An attempt at an illegal move 
(such as trying to put a piece down 
on an occupied region, or trying to 
play a piece that you don't have) 
will sound a buzzer. 

When all pieces have been 
played, the computer announces 
the winner. Press the fire button to 
play again. 
See program listings on page 81. • 

COMPUTEfs Gaiette August 1987 25 




Georg and Paul Zimmer 



This addictive two-player combat game for the Commodore 64 
combines high-speed graphics action with board-game strategy. 
A disk drive is required. 



In the near future, two platoons of 
disrupter-equipped men battle for 
control of the last remaining natural 
forest. Since the game begins with 
neither side at an advantage, the 
player with the best strategy and 
the surest reflexes will win "Front 
Une." 

Typing It In 

Front Line is written in both BASIC 
and machine language. Program 1 
adjusts the memory configuration 
of the 64 and loads the main BASIC 
program and the machine language 
program. Type it in and save it to 
disk. Since it tries to load Program 2 
from disk, do not attempt to run it 
at this point. 

Program 2 is the main BASIC 
program. Type it in and save it on 
the same disk that you saved Pro- 
gram 1. You must save Program 2 
with the name FRONT LINE.BAS 
because that's the name Program 1 
looks for. Since the bottom-of- 

26 COMPUTEfs Gazette August 1987 



BASIC pointer must be adjusted 
before this program is loaded. Pro- 
gram 2 should be loaded and run 
only by Program 1. 

Program 3 is the machine lan- 
guage portion of Front Line. Enter it 
using the "MLX" machine lan- 
guage entry - program found else- 
where in this issue. When you run 
MLX, you'll be asked for the start- 
ing and ending addresses for the 
data you'll be entering. In this case, 
use the following values: 

starting address: COOO 
Ending address: C3BF 

Be sure to save a copy of the 
program with the name FRONT 
LINE.ML before leaving MLX. (You 
must use the name FRONT LINE 
.ML because that's the name Pro- 
gram 2 looks for on the disk.) 

Beginning The Battle 

To begin play, plug in two joysticks 
and then load and run Program 1. 
After the title screen is displayed. 




kit 



Two armies battle for a forest in the 
futuristic "Front Line." 




In the game's action scenario, two men 
battle to the death for a strategically 
placed hilltop. Since each soldier has bis 
own unique capabilities, every battle is 
different. 



ti^i deis^aMKw 



Cadpak 




Super Pascal 

Youf complete system for developing 
applications in Pascal. A complete Implemen- 
tation of standard Pascal (Jensen and 
Wirtii). C-64 version has a high-speed DOS 
(3X) for quick and efficient use. The 
exlensive editor (source induded) contains 
added foa lures; append, search and 
replace, tnctudos assembler fof any of your 



Design pictures arid graphics quickly and 
precisely. Unlike other drawing programs, 
you can produce exact scaled output on 
your printer. Design in the units o( your 
drawing problem (feet, miles, motors, etc) 
and send hardcopy to most printers. Uses 
either the keyboard, lighlpen or 1 351 mouse. 
Two separate work screens — transfer 
artwork from one screen to the other. Place 
text in four sizes anywhere in the 
picture — three extra (onts included: Old 
English, 3-D and Tech. "Try Again" allows 
you to undo mistakes. Draw solid or dashed 
lines, circles, ellipses at any angle, rays and 
boxes. Design fill patterns, fonts and 
objects. Cadpak is the full-featured design 
and graphics package for your computer, 
for C-64 $39,95 for C-12B $59.95 




BASIC Compiler 

Now anyone can speed up their BASIC 
programs by 3 to 35 times! Bask;-64 and 
Bask:-128 easily convert your programs into 
fast machine language or speedcode (takes 
up less space yet protects your programs 
from prying eyes) or a mixture of both. You 
can even compile programs written with 
extentions — Simon's Bask;, VICTREE, 
BASIC 4.0, VideoBasK and others. When 
the compiler finds an error, it just doesn't 
stop, txjt continues to find any other errors 
as well. Supports overiays and has many 
other options. 128 version worte in FAST 
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give it the speed to RUN.' 
for C-64 $39.95 for C-128 $59.95 



machine code' requirements. Used in 
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for C-64 $59.95 (or C-128 $59.95 



"^..iviry thing a good compiler should 
be. ..easy to use. ..efficient. ..offers a socd 
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doc:imtrUaiiCn „.ijTdiptf/U( vtf ." 
Tom Benford. CommodorQ Magazine 



Give your 
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luiiy ccnnm*nte<J BASIC 7.0 
ROM lEIxig^ U4.aS 



[ O- O 0) 

■3 "7 c 



you'll see the game's strategy 
board. This is an overhead map of 
the forest. The game begins with 
the Red Fighters lined up on the 
west side (left side of the screen) 
and the Blue Fighters lined up on 
the east. 

Among the trees are three 
Control Mounds. These are strate- 
gic vantage points, hills from which 
the entire forest can be seen. If a 
player takes all three of these 
mounds, the game ends with that 
player declared the victor. 

The Red Fighters make the first 
move. During this turn, you can 
move only one fighter. Use the joy- 
stick to position the cursor over the 
fighter you wish to move. Press the 
fire button to select the fighter. The 
cursor disappears, and you can now 
move the fighter freely within his 
range. Press the fire button again 
once you have chosen his destina- 
tion. 

When a fighter is selected, cru- 
cial information is displayed on a 
status line at the top of the screen, 
including his range, speed, type of 
weapon, and strength. It's impor- 
tant to consider the differences be- 
tween the various fighters when 
choosing an opponent with which 
to do battle. After a while, you'll 
learn to idendfy the types of fight- 
ers by their body shapes. 

The Mechanics Of Movement 

The rules of movement are easy to 
learn: Once a fighter has been se- 
lected to move, he must be moved. 
A fighter cannot be placed on a tree 
or onto another fighter from the 
same team. In order to occupy a 
Control Mound, the fighter must be 
placed directly above the top of the 
hill. 

When a player places his fight- 
er directly on top of an opponent's 
fighter, hand-to-hand combat takes 
place. The two fighters enter an ob- 
stacle-filled arena {a new screen ap- 
pears) and fight to the death. This 
part of the game calls for quick re- 
flexes. Still, there is strategy needed 
even in this facet of the game. Dif- 
ferent abilities and different weap- 
ons call for different tactics, 

The game ends when all the 
fighters from one team have been 
destroyed or when one player takes 
all three Control Mounds. 
See program listings on page 88. o 



28 COMPUTE!' s Gazelle August 1967 



User Group 
Update 



This list includes updated entries to our annual "Guide to Commodore 
User Groups," which last appeared in the May and June 1987 issues. 

When writing to a user group for information, please remember to en- 
close a self-addressed envelope with postage that is appropriate for the 
country to which you're writing. 

Send typed additions, corrections, and deletions for this list to: 

COMPUTE! Publications 
P.O. Box 5406 
Greensboro, NC 27403 
Attn: Commodore User Groups 



New Listings 



CALirORNIA 



Club-64 (San Bernardino), P.O. Box 514, Palton, 

CA 92369 
Lake County Computet Users, Commodore SIG, 

P.O. IJoK :iS,5, Cltwliike, CA 95422 



ILLINOIS 



Computers West, P.D. Box 3357, Glen Ellyn IL 
6013K 

Gateway Computer Club, P.O. Box IB 39, Fair- 
view Heights, H. 62208 



LOUISIANA 



Commodore Users Croup of SlidcU (CUCS), 1 1 1 
M.irche Ulvd., Sliddl, LA 7045 fi 



MARYLAND 



Gaithersburj; C-64 Users Group,- P.O Box 2033, 
Gailhersburj!, MD 20379 



MICHIGAN 



Fellowship of Commodore Users and Supporters 
(FOCUSJ, 3897 Snow Rd., Berrien Springs, MI 
49103 



MISSOURI 



East Central Missouri Commodore Users, RO, 
Box 21, New Haven, MO 63068 



NORTH CAROLINA 



Western Carolina Commodore Beginner User's 
Group (WCCBUG), RL. 2, Box 826, Forest City, 
NC 28043 



OKLAHOMA 



Univisions Users Group, 124 W. Frank St., 
Norman, OK 73069 



1'KNNSYLVA.NIA 



Sub -64 Users Group, P.O. Box 54208, PliibdH- 
phia, PA 19105 



TENNESSEE 



Memphis-East Commodore Organization 
(MECO), 68 70 Sauleme Cove, Memptiis, TN 
38115 



International Association of Commodore User 
Groups (lACUG), PO. Box 890407, Houston, 
TX 772«9-l)407 



VIRGINIA 



South side Vir^nia Commodore Users Group, 
315 Lake view Ave., Colonial Heights, VA 23834 



Outside the U.S. 



BRAZIL 



Associacao de Usuarios de Micro-computadores 
I'essoais, Pedro Faub Koclia, eslr. da Canoa 
401, 22600 Rio de lanciro, Bras^il 



CANADA 



AJ's User Group, 20 Davenport Ctes., Ont., Canada 

L6T 3L6 
Commodore Contepfs Users Group (CCUG>, Box 

783, Steinbach, Manitoba, KOA 2A0 



MFXICO 



Commodore Users Club, Calle Plata 3307, Puebla, 
Pue., Mexico 72090 « 



COMPUTEJ's GAZETTE 

TOLL FREE 
Subscription Order Line 

1-800-247-5470 

In lA t -800-532-1 272 



Bounty Hunter 



Dan Aven 




. '^A^*^ 



Here's an educational game for the 64 that's so enjoyable you 
may not even notice that you're learning US geography. 



A crook is loose, and you're deter- 
mined to collect the bounty. It won't 
be an easy job — you'll have to know 
your way around the country to find 
him. And when you finally track 
him down, you'll have to bring him 
back home to collect the reward. Ru- 
mor has it that his big brother is 
loose, and he probably won't be 
happy to hear that you've appre- 
hended his baby brother. 

"Bounty Hunter" is a game 
that requires knowledge of US ge- 
ography. Don't worry if you're a lit- 
tle rusty, though- — pressing the 
space bar will give you a clue. 
Eventually, when you've learned 
your way around, you won't need 
the clues as often. 

Bounty Hunter has so many 
variations that you may never tire 
of the game. 



Typing It In 

Bounty Hunter is written in BASIC. 
It requires accurate typing, so be 



w 




Pi 

1? 


t 


:.i' 


7§mM 




t*- ■; 






w 


H-'ii 


„,,..■. 




1' 


^: 












s 
f 


1 


^ 






li 



The Bounty Hunter has just crossed 
over into the western half of the US to 
catch the crook (in Idaho) and bring him 
home. 

sure to use the "Automatic Proof- 
reader" program found elsewhere 
in this issue. Pay special attention 
to lines 380-620 and 710-950, 
which draw the maps used in the 
game. Refer to the "How to Type In 
COMPUTEi's Gazette Programs" 
article elsewhere in this issue if you 
have trouble understanding the 
representations of any of the graph- 
ics characters. When you've fin- 



ished typing, be sure to save the 
program to tape or disk. 

When you're ready to play, 
load the program and type RUN. 
You'll be asked to choose between 
Bounty Hunter and Countdown. In 
Bounty Hunter, you chase a crook 
across the country. In Countdown, 
you try to visit as many states as 
possible in the time selected {1-5 
minutes.) It's a good way to warm 
up for Bounty Hunter. 

After selecting a game to play, 
you'll be asked to choose between 
several variations. First, choose be- 
tween States and Capitals. If you se- 
lect States, you'll move by typing in 
the name of a state which has a 
common border with the state you 
are in. If you choose Capitals, you'll 
travel by typing in the names of 
capitals instead of the states they 
are in. 

Next, choose between visible 
and invisible. Choose invisible only 
if you're an expert — -you won't be 
able to see the map. 

Finally, choose a skill level. 
Level 1 is the easiest and 3 is the 
most difficult, 

COMPUTEI'S Gazette August 1987 29 



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spending hours typing in each program, now all you do is insert 
the disk.. .and your programs load in seconds. 

RESULT: You have hours more time to enjoy all those great pro- 
grams which appear in COMPUTEVs fiazeffe— programs like 
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The Hunt 

If you choose the Bounty Hunter 
game, you'll be told the name of the 
state where the crook may be 
found. He probably won't be there 
for long, though, since he knows 
you're after him. The state in which 
you begin the game is the state that 
wants to bring the crook to justice. 
Be sure to remember this home 
state. You'll need to bring the crook 
back here when you catch him. 

Don't rest a moment when 
you've caught the crook; his broth- 
er will be hot on your heels. Get the 
crook back home to claim your 
reward. 

The map of the United States is 
divided into two halves: the East 
and the West, Five central states are 



on both maps {Minnesota, Iowa, 
Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana.) 
If you are in one of these states, 
pressing the cursor-right key will 
display the other map. If you are in 
any other state, this key will have 
no effect. 

If you misspell the name of a 
state or capital, you'll see the mes- 
sage TRY AGAIN. If you enter the 
name of a state or capital which 
does not share a border with the 
state you are currently in, you'll get 
the message NOT A NEIGHBOR. 

Desperate Measures 

If you're really stuck, press the 
space bar. You'll see the name of 
one of the neighbors of the state 
you are in. If that state or capital 



would take you in the wrong direc- 
tion, press the space bar again for 
another choice. Keep pressing until 
you've found the state or capital 
that you want. Type the name in 
when you've found it. 

If you catch the crook, but for- 
get where you're supposed to take 
him, press the RETURN key. You'll 
see the name of the state or its 
capital. 

A $10,000 reward is offered for 
bringing the crook to justice, but this 
amount is reduced by $100 each 
time the crook moves from one state 
to another. The crook moves very 
rapidly at the higher difficulty lev- 
els, so it's possible that the bounty 
amount will become negative. 
Sec prograri! listing on page 78. (Qf 




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Recreational Computing In 
Wabash Valley Hospital 




Fred D'Ignazio 
Associate Editor 

COMPUTE! and COMPUTEt's Gazette 
are proud to be the leading maga- 
zines in "home, educational, and 
recreadonal computing." I used to 
think that recreational computing 
belonged in the home and the class- 
room. Now I've learned that it also 
has a place in the hospital. 

In Wabash Valley Hospital in 
West Lafayette, Indiana, Don Wood 
and his colleagues are pioneers in 
the new field of recreational thera- 
py, and they use Commodore com- 
puters — a 64 and a 128 — in their 
work. Their clients are kids ranging 
in age from 7 to 16. The kids are 
mentally ill, learning disabled, or 
have a variety of problems. Many 
of the children Don works with are 
in the hospital because they are 
substance abusers. 

Three years ago Don and his 
associates at Wabash got a grant 
from the Ray Foundation in Colora- 
do to purchase a Commodore 64, 
some Commodore peripherals, and 
software. Since then, the founda- 
tion has also enabled the hospital to 
purchase a Commodore 128 and 
additional software. 

The Computer As A Tool 

Don says, "Our goal with our 'spe- 
cial population' is not to teach com- 
puter programming, but to teach 
our children how to get along with 
others, using the computer as a 
tool. For us, the process is more im- 
portant than the tool used. If they 
learn some programming at the 
same time they're learning some 
basic social skills, that's fine." 

Although Don's staff has pur- 
chased popular commercial pro- 
grams such as Print Shop and 
Ghostbusters, most of the programs 
the children use are from COM- 
PUTI-I's Gazette and other computer 
magazines. 

34 COMPUTEVs Gazetto August 19B7 



Among the most popular Ga- 
zette programs at Wabash are 
SpeedScripf, "Typing Derby," 
"Aardvark Attack," "The Viper," 
"Arcade Baseball," and "Sea Route 
to India," 

Don's students do very little 
programming on their own. "I'm 
not wasting my time or my students' 
time learning to write programs," 
says Don. "I'd rather spend the time 
figuring out how to adapt what's 
available for the social and emotion- 
al improvement q( my clients." 

Also, Don says, "It's amazing 
what you can do with only a single 
computer. 1 know it's popular these 
days to go out and purchase an ex- 
pensive computer laboratory with 
lots of computers, but it's really not 
necessary. All you need is imagina- 
tion. Imagination is a wonderful 
tool in combination with basic com- 
puter programs, and we try to use 
both to their fullest extent." 

For example, Don's students 
pulled "Clues," a question-and- 
answer program, from the August 
1983 issue of COMPUTE! and 
turned it into the "Substance Abuse 
Quiz" which they gave to each oth- 
er and to incoming Wabash pa- 
tients. According to Don, the quiz is 
a simple set of questions on alcohol 
and drug abuse, with two tries at 
the answers— which clients learn 
through Addiction Services educa- 
tion sessions during a three-week 
inpatient period. Don assisted three 
clients who collected the data, then 
typed it into the program. He and 
his students are currendy revising 
the program to develop pretests 
and posttests for the Addiction Ser- 
vices program, and to gauge incom- 
ing patients' knowledge, reading 
and learning ability, and motiva- 
don. The program has been a big 
hit with Don's students. 

Don found another program 
from an old magazine and extended 
it from pure recreation into recre- 



ational therapy. The program is a 
word search game which hides tar- 
geted words horizontally, vertical- 
ly, and diagonally in a two- 
dimensional matrix. When new 
students arrive at the Substance 
Abuse unit at Wabash, Don has 
them type their names into the pro- 
gram, and then try to find each oth- 
er's names in the find-a-word 
matrix. The program makes an ide- 
al ice breaker at the unit's first so- 
cial event. 

Don has been even more suc- 
cessful in adapting the program 
into both an interview and social 
interaction therapy. He and his stu- 
dents develop a list of words cen- 
tered around a specific topic — for 
example, family, the hospital, their 
feelings, what's fun, the theme of 
the day, or positive words about an- 
other student, and so on. According 
to Don, these lists often reveal atti- 
tudes and values more than a client 
would normally share. He says 
they also provide an impetus to his 
students' "creativity and the neces- 
sity to look beyond the surface, as 
well as using certain social skills, 
such as tact." 

As with all of Don's other com- 
puter activities, the specific goal of 
each program is less important than 
the social and emotional improve- 
ment of his students. He says, 
"Group interaction, learning to get 
along with others, and encouraging 
use of a computer as a hobby are our 
primary goals with this program." 

If you're interested in learning 
more about using Commodore 
computers with programs for recre- 
ational therapy, write Don Wood, 
Acting Assistant Director, Activity 
Therapy Department, Wabash Val- 
ley Hospital, 2900 N. River Rd., 
West Lafayette, IN 47906. • 



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Each month, COMPUTE!'s Gazette 
tackles sonic questions commonly 
asked by Commodore users. If you 
have It question you'd like to see 
attsxvered here, send it to this col- 
umn, c/o COMPUTE!' s Gazette, P.O. 
Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. 

V^« In the April 1987 issue, you 
answered the question "Can a 
Commodore 128 emulate an MS- 
DOS computer?" 1 would like to 
have the answer to this question 
in reverse: Can an MS-DOS (IBM 
PC-compatible) computer emulate 
a Commodore 64? I have recently 
acquired a 640K PC clone and 
would like to have a program that 
would allow me to use my four 
years of Commodore work on my 
new computer. 

/»• The general emulation princi- 
ple stated in the April 1987 column 
applies here as well: Any computer 
can etnulatc amj other computer as 
long as speed is not a consideration. 
You might consider this as the "First 
Law of Emulation." 

The Second Law of Emulation 
might be: Any computer can emulate 
any other computer as long as expense 
IS not a consideration. 

Which brings us to the Third 
Law; In general, therefore, forget 
about emulators. 

Although an MS-DOS com- 
puter is more powerful than a Com- 
modore 64, it is not powerful 
enough for this job. For one com- 
puter to successfully emulate anoth- 
er in software, it probably must be 
several orders of magnitude more 
powerful than the computer it's 
attempting to emulate. Most MS- 
DOS computers use the 8/16-bit 
8088 or 8086 chips, and they simply 
aren't powerful enough to emulate 
the 8-bit Commodore 64 with any- 
thing close to full compatibility and 
full speed. 

If anyone attempted to write a 
64 emulator for the PC, they'd run 

36 COMPUTEi's GazBtle August 1987 



into serious problems right off the 
bat. For one thing, the beeper found 
in most PCs can't come close to imi- 
tating the sounds that are possible 
with the 64's SID chip, which is 
practically a minisynthesizer. 

Graphics are another problem. 
MS-DOS computers have no hard- 
ware to generate sprites like those 
built into the 64. Sprites can be sim- 
ulated in software, but even in ma- 
chine language you'd have trouble 
matching the speed and flicker- free 
animation that 64 programmers take 
for granted. Most MS-DOS comput- 
ers also can't display a screen with 
16 .simultaneous colors, as the 64 
can. 

The result? A 64 emulator that 
would have difficulty with pro- 
grams that use graphics or sound — 
which eliminates about 90 percent 
of all Commodore 64 software. 

Someone could design a plug- 
in board for MS-DOS computers 
that incorporates a SID chip, a VIC- 
II graphics chip, and a 6510 micro- 
processor. But they'd run into 
another problem — emulating the 
64's operating system. The operat- 
ing system (Kernal) is copyrighted, 
so you can't just copy it. Someone 
would have to undertake the same 
project that made PC clones possi- 
ble^a complete rewrite of the oper- 
ating system that performs the same 
functions without using the same 
code. This could easily require a 
year of programming and 
debugging. 

The result would be the func- 
tional equivalent of a Commodore 
64 on a plug-in board. Ideally, it 
would be designed to use the PC's 
keyboard and memory to save the 
expense of duplicating those com- 
ponents. But those aren't particular- 
ly expensive components, so the 
emulator board might cost nearly as 
much as a regular 64 — especially 
since development costs would 
have to be recouped. Is there a large 
enough market of PC owners who 



want to run Commodore 64 soft- 
ware to make this investment profit- 
able? It's doubtful. 

Again, these principles apply to 
emulator schemes in general. Soft- 
ware emulation requires a vast in- 
crease in processing power, and 
most people with that much power 
probably won't want to run the old 
programs on the new machine, any- 
way. Hardware emulation is expen- 
sive to develop, and purists might 
not consider it emulation at all, since 
you're really just bolting one com- 
puter onto another. You could emu- 
late a Cray-XMP supercomputer on 
a VIC-26 with the addition of 
enough hardware. 

Perhaps the best advice for 
someone who buys a new computer 
but doesn't want to part with an ex- 
isting software library is to hold 
onto the old computer, and try to 
find room for both of them on the 
same desktop, 

disk drive which won't save any 
programs or data. It keeps giving 
me a Write-Protection Error. It 
loads programs fine. I have tried 
saving on several disks, but none 
of them works. 

/»• Two possibilities: Either the 
disks you're using are write-protect- 
ed, or the write-protection sensor in 
your drive is faulty, 

A SVi-inch floppy disk should 
have a small notch cut into the right 
edge (as viewed when facing the la- 
bel). If this ivrite-enabie notch is 
missing or covered with a piece of 
tape, the drive won't let you change 
anything on the disk. You can load 
files, but you can't save, delete, or 
even rename files. 

If the notch is there, perhaps 
the sensor inside the drive that 
checks for the notch is malfunction- 
ing. Have the drive examined by a 
qualified technician. ^ 



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expire 8-31-67 



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Complete Apple 
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Cadpak 128 

if y[)u an" looking for n serious Com- 
puter-Aided Design (CAD) software 
package for your Commodore 128, 
Cadpak 128 by Abacus may be the pro- 
gram for you, Cadpak 128 allows the 
user to draw pictures and graphic de- 
signs easily and accurately on the 
screen. Like many other drawing pro- 
grams, functions are provided for draw- 
ing lines, points, boxes, diamonds, 
circles, ellipses and other shapes, but 
there is one feature that makes it stand 
out from other graphics programs: With 
a dot-matrix printer, Cadpak can pro- 
vide accurately scaled printouts — an 
important feature when precise draw- 
ings are necessary. 

Cadpak is a complex, multifaceted 
program, but the logical structure of the 
menus makes it fairly easy to learn and 
use. Most of the functions require you to 
work through several menus before the 
actual funchon is completed. Though 
this may sound tedious, the flow of the 
selection process actually accelerates 
and simplifies your design work. 

Before using Cadpak for the first 
time, it's necessary to configure the pro- 
gram for your printer. The list of sup- 
ported printers includes: Epson MX, FX, 
and JX; Itoh Prowritcr 8510; Okimate 
10; Commodore 1525/801/803 or 
1526/802; or any printer compatible 
with those listed. We used a Star NX- 10 
and configured the program for the Ep- 
son FX, with excellent results. 

The actual size of the printout is 
dependent on the printer you use. 
Using a Commodore 1525/801 or Oki- 
mate 10, there is only one choice for the 
printout size — and the printout will be 
sideways on the paper. Most of the oth- 
er printers enable you to print in two 
different sizes, but using the Epson FX 
configuration, you may select from five 
different sizes {three printed normally, 
two printed sideways). Clearly the pro- 
gram is most flexible with an Epson FX 
compatible printer. Before purchasing 
Cadpak, you should verify that it will 
work with your printer. If in doubt, 
check with your dealer or give Abacus a 
call. If your printer is not supported, the 
program vvill be worthless to you. 

Proper use of Cadpak 128 requires 
that you understand a few basic con- 

40 COMPUTEfs Gazelto August 1987 



cepts. There is the total drawing area 
which has a resolution of 640 points 
wide by 360 points high. Since this area 
is greater than the pixel resolution of 
the computer, you actually view a win- 
dow that is only one-fourth the total 
drawing area. This window may be 
scrolled both horizontally and vertical- 
ly, so you are still able to work over the 
entire drawing area, and a feature 
called "top view" allows you to get a 
condensed picture of the entire draw- 
ing. Though the resolution is lower in 
top view, it is a convenient way to pre- 
view the complete drawing. 



There is one feature that makes 

it stand out from other graphics 

programs: With a dot-matrix 

printer, Cadpak 128 can 

provide accurately scaled 

printouts, an important feature 

when precise drawings are 

necessary. 



The primary purpose of any CAD 
software is to obtain accurately scaled 
printouts. Using Cadpak 128, you must 
always remember that everything on 
the screen is geared to the actual print- 
out. With this in the back of your mind, 
the remaining concepts will follow 
quite naturally. Whenever you start 
working on a drawing, you must set 
three important parameters: the actual 
printing area, the base scale unit, and 
the scale ration. 

Selection of the printing area is de- 
termined by your printer. As noted pre- 
viously, the Epson FX allows you to 
choose one of five sizes. Once you've 
selected a size, you've determined the 
maximum printing area, which must be 
considered when selecting the other pa- 
rameters. For example, let's suppose 
you select an area 8 inches wide by 5 
inches high, which is one of the options 
for an Epson FX printer. 



Now you must select the base scale 
unit. This may be either centimeters or 
inches. Again, let's suppose you select 
inches. The final parameter, the scale 
ration, requires a bit of computation 
before you can actually enter exact fig- 
ures. Let's assume that the maximum 
size of the design will be 300 X 200 
units. You must fit this 300 X 200 de- 
sign into your printing area, which is 
set at 8 X 5 inches. Now, with a little 
calculating, you can choose your scale 
ration. You could choose a ratio of 40 to 
1, which means that every 40 units \vill 
be 1-inch long on the printout. Dividing 
both 300 and 200 by 40, we find that 
this design would be drawn over an 
area 7.5 X 5 inches. That will fit within 
our total 8X5 drawing area, so it is an 
acceptable ratio. When the program 
calls for input as to the number of units 
to the inch, input 40, and you have es- 
tablished a scale of 40 units to the inch. 
If you want the drawing to be a little 
smaller, you can raise the ratio to 50 to 
1; then this same 300 X 200 unit design 
will cover an area 6X4 inches. 

The units we're referring to here 
can represent any unit of measurement: 
miles, feet, yards, inches, millimeters, 
even fathoms. If we choose a ratio of 40 
to 1, the scale will be 40 miles (or feet, 
or whatever we choose) for each inch. 
With this in mind, it should be obvious 
that Cadpak can be used to design any- 
thing from a bridge to an integrated cir- 
cuit — and the printout will be drawn 
accurately to scale. 

Once you determine the basic pa- 
rameters, you're ready to draw the de- 
sign. There are two ways to draiv on the 
screen: You can use a cursor and draw 
freehand, or you can determine lines 
and geometric shapes by setting points. 
The cursor can be controlled either by 
light pen or keyboard. The program re- 
quires frequent input from the key- 
board, so keyboard control of the cursor 
seems to be more convenient than 
using a lightpen. Cursor movement is 
accomplished in two stages. First you 
rapidly move the cursor close to the 
area where you vs'ant to set an exact 
point, and then press RETURN. This 
places you in "Accupoint" mode, 
where you slowly and accurately posi- 
tion the cursor. This system is fast and 
precise, a pleasure to use. 

You may find that the most sensi- 



blc way to use this program is not by 
drawing freehand, but by setting 
points. When you realize that setting a 
point simply means determining the 
placement of the cursor by your own 
exact units of measure, you can begin to 
understand how CAD differs from sim- 
ple drawing programs. For example: 
Let's say you'd like to outline the 300 X 
200 unit area. You select the box option 
and set the first point at the lower left 
comer. Now you have to set the oppo- 
site corner of the box, which should be 
300 units to the right and 200 units up 
from the first point. Cadpak allows you 
to enter points as absolute measure- 
ments from the point of origin, or as rel- 
ative measurements from the last point 
set. In this instance, simply set the op- 
posite comer by moving 300 units over 
and 200 up, relative to your first point, 
and press RETURN — you've created 
your 300 X 200 unit box. If we've cho- 
sen a scale ratio of 40 units to the inch, 
this box, when printed, will be precisely 
7.5 inches wide by 5 inches high. 

Cadpak also allows for precise line 
drawing based on angle and distance. If 
you want to draw a line that's 20 units 
long at an angle of 30 degrees to anoth- 
er line, you can do it easily by sotting 
the first point, the angle, and the dis- 
tance. Circles, arcs, and ellipses can be 
drawn with the same precision. Figures 
that are frequently used can be drawn 
and saved on disk as templates. These 
templates are then readily available and 
can be incorporated in any drawing. 

Provision is made for labeling your 
drawing with one built-in font that can 
be printed In any of four sizes. You can 
even create your own fonts, save them 
on disk, and use them later in any 
drawing. Three additional fonts are in- 
eluded on the program disk. There are 
seven built-in patterns for use in filling 
in solid objects, and here again you can 
create your own fill patterns and save 
them on disk. 

There are so many features in Cad- 
pak that it's impossible to detail them all 
in a relatively short review. A short ex- 
ample, though, may serve to illustrate 
one of the many uses of this compre- 
hensive program, 1 recently had my 
house and property surveyed, and 1 
struck up a conversation with the sur- 
veyor and his assistant. I learned a fair 
amount about the basics of surveying 
from them, and they were kind enough 
to let me copy down their measure- 
ments. They also told mo about the new 
and very expensive computer .system 
their firm had purchased to make the 
actual drawings from their measure- 
ments. After they left, ! rushed inside 
the house, booted Cadpak, and, using 
the measurements they provided, I had 
a perfectly scaled drawing of my house 
and property in less than 20 minutes. 



Surveying is largely a matter of straight 
line measurements and angles, a very 
easy chore for Cadpak. A week later, 
their survey arrived. Their scale was a 
little different than mine (my drawing 
was actually larger), but the drawings 
were perfectly matched in proportion to 
one another. 

Although Cadpak 12S is a wonder- 
ful and versatile package, there are a 
few negative points. While this pro- 
gram is designed on the 1 28, it uses the 
40-column screen rather than the 80- 
column screen. This might have been a 
compromise decision, for use of the 80- 
column screen could have eliminated 
the need to scroll the window horizon- 
tally. Half the drawing area, instead of 
one-fourth, would have been visible in 
the window. The program is also heavi- 
ly copy-protected, thus the rattle of the 
disk drive each time Cadpak is booted is 
quite annoying. Occasionally, the pro- 
gram wouldn't boot properly on the 
first try. 

The Cadpak manual is scanty, not 
adequately explaining some of the basic 
concepts and lacking helpful hints and 
suggestions for using the program to 
solve "real world" design problems. 
The manual is essentially a basic refer- 
ence with a few short tutorials. You'll 
have to experiment with Cadpak to take 
full advantage of all it offers, but the 
program is not only a highly productive 
tool, but also great fun to use. You'll 
thoroughly enjoy exploring its many 
uses, Cadpak 128, then, is highly recom- 
mended, though this review reveals 
only a brief glimpse of its full potential, 
—Howard Parties and Tyrone Adams 

Abacus Sofnuare 
P.O. Box 7219 
Grand Rapids, Ml 49510 
$59.95 



COMPUTE!'s 
GAZETTE 

TOLL FREE 
Subscription 
Order Line 

1-800-247-5470 

In lA 
1-800-532-1272 



FSD-2 Excelerator 
Plus Disk Drive 

The Excelerator Plus is a new 1541- 
compatible disk drive for the Commo- 
doro 64 and 128 from Emerald 
Components International, Its prede- 
cessor, the FSD-l, entered the market 
last year and quickly became one of the 
most popular drives for Commodore 
users. In my opinion, the FSD-1 deliv- 
ered much greater value for the price 
than the 1541, while remaining com- 
pletely compatible with all software de- 
signed to load from a 1541 disk drive 
(see the review of the FSD-1 in the 
October 1986 issue). 

My enthusiasm for the FSD-1 's re- 
liability and performance was exceeded 
only by my enthusiasm for its low price 
(S139). One can imagine, therefore, the 
trepidation I felt when ECl announced 
the discontinuation of the FSD-1 and 
replacement of it with the Excelerator 
Plus. I have used my FSD-1 almost on a 
daily basis for over a year without a sin- 
gle complaint. With the FSD-1 seem- 
ingly having obtained perfection — ■ 
considering the limitations of the drive 
with which it was designed to be com- 
patible — how could ECI possibly top it? 

Much to my surprise, however, I 
found that the Excelerator Plus incor- 
porates noticeable technological im- 
provements on the reliability and 
quality of 1541-style disk drives, in- 
cluding the i'SD-1, while at the same 
timekeeping 1541 compatibility. Addi- 
tionally, the Excelerator Plus is compet- 
itively priced well beiow the 1541C. 

The Excelerator Plus's advance- 
ments over the 1541, the FSD-1, and 
other 1541 -compatible disk drives, are 
basically twofold. First, the power sup- 
ply is a separate unit from the disk 
drive. A chronic problem with the 1541 
and some 1541 -compatibles is that the 
internally held power supply overheats 
with extended usage resulting in drive 
failure. While the FSD-1 had an im- 
proved power supply over the 1541, the 
power supply was still located in the 
drive casing. 

Another advantage of separating 
the power supply from the casing is 
that the Excelerator Plus is much small- 
er than the 1541 and even the PSD-1 
(the footprint of the Excelerator Plus is 
approximately 5Vi X 11 inches with a 
height of only 2 inches). 

The second major improvement 
incorporated in the Excelerator Plus is 
direct drive. The 1541, the FSD-1, and 
most (if not all) 1541-compatible disk 
drives are belt-driven. Audiophiles 
know that direct -drive turntables are 
better than belt-driven turntables be- 
cause of what is known as umv and flut- 
ter (speed fluctuation) in belt-driven 



COMPUTEfs Gazette August 1987 41 




r/ii' Excel era I or Plus Disk Drive from 
Emerald Compotients 

models. Speed fluctuation on turnta- 
bles causes music distortion. Speed 
fluctuation on disk drives, something 
not uncommon on the 1541, causes 
program-loading problems, particularly 
with sophisticated copy-protection 
schemes. Direct drive, however, en- 
ables the Excelerator Plus to turn floppy 
disks at a constant 300 rpm without any 
discernable wow and flutter. 

The Excelerator Plus incorporates 
several other improvements over the 
1541. Like the FSD-1, the Excelerator 
Plus is housed in a durable metal casing 
the same beige color as the new 154 !C. 
Its lock lever has been designed to se- 
curely hold a floppy disk in the drive 
and to prevent breakage of the lever by 
accidently twisting it the wrong way. 

There is a noticeable improvement 
in the stepper motor and pulley on the 
Excelerator Plus, making drive align- 
ment extremely tight and accurate. 
Drive alignment has perhaps been the 
worst problem for the 1541, Many 
Commodore users with two 1541s have 
found, much to their regret, that a copy 
of a program or data files made with 
one disk drive will not run on their oth- 
er 1541 because of alignment discrep- 
ancies between the drives. The 
improvements in the Excelerator Plus 
are designed to prevent any alignment 
problems. Finally, the drive has two 
switches on the bottom of the casing 
that enable users to select the drive's 
device number (number 8, 9, 10, or U 
can be selected). Commodore users 
with two 1541s have to cut and solder 
wires internally to change the 154rs 
device number. With the Excelerator 
Pius, a simple flip of the dip switches 
will do the job. 

The Excelerator Plus is over 99 per- 
cent compatible with the 1541, a state- 
ment that cannot be made of many 
1541 -compatible drives on the market. 
Most compatibility problems for 1541- 
compatible drives stem from the com- 
plex copy -protection schemes used on 
commercial programs. In the never- 
ending battle between copy -protection 
schemers and code busters, the protec- 

42 COMPUrers aaietto August 1987 



tion schemes have become extremely 
complex, and play on the most remote 
and intimate details of the 1541 's inter- 
nals. Any slight deviation in a drive's 
internal operations from those of the 
1541 could cause a copy -pro tec ted pro- 
gram to fail to load properly. 

Many 1541 -compatibles have been 
overly ambitious in trying to incorpo- 
rate performance improvements in 
loading speed, storage capacity, and so 
on. However, those drives get into com- 
patibility problems because such en- 
hancements require significant internal 
modifications to a 1541. The Excelera- 
tor Plus has managed to be compatible 
with software designed to load from the 
1541 drive. 



The Excelerator Plus is over 99 
percent compatible with the 
15il, a statement that cannot 
be made of many 1541- 
compatible drives on the 
market. 



To test the Excelerator Plus's 1541 
compatibility, I used my Commodore 
128, 1571 drive, FSD-1 drive, and two 
cartridges; Fast Load {from Epyx) and 
Mach 128 (from Access). Of the 250- 
plus programs tested on the Excelerator 
Plus, no original program disk failed to 
load. All the programs that would fast 
load using the Fast Load and Mach 128 
cartridges with the FSD-1 and 1571 
drives also loaded properly on the Ex- 
celerator Plus. A parameter copy of 
Gem stone Warrior would not properiy 
load on the Excelerator Plus, but it also 
did not load on my 1571 disk drive. The 
copy of Gemstone Warrior, however, did 
load on my FSD-1. The programs that I 
tested included G£OS (Berkeley 
Softworks), Newsroom (Springboard), 
Pocket Wriier 2 (Digital Solutions), Fast 
Hack'em and Ace of Aces (Accolade), 
World Games (Epyx), Alter Ego (Activi- 
sion), and Fleet System 4 (PSl). 

The only compatibility problem I 
experienced was in a two-drive setup 
with my 1571 drive. While the Exceler- 
ator Plus worked perfectly with pro- 
ductivity software, either as the 
program drive or data drive, 1 did expe- 
rience a problem with Fast Hack'em and 
Copy U 64/128, two popular copy pro- 
grams. Both worked well with the 
Excelerator Plus when copying with a 
single drive, but neither would copy a 



disk correctly in a two-drive configura- 
tion with the Excelerator Plus as the 
destination drive (the drive writing the 
new disk) and the 1571 as the source 
drive (the drive reading the original 
disk). However, if the Excelerator Plus 
was used as the source drive, both copy 
programs worked. These problems 
were not experienced between two Ex- 
celerators or an Excelerator and the 
FSD-1. Also, Super Kit/1541 worked 
well with the Excelerator Plus in tan- 
dem with the 1571, regardless of which 
drive did what. 

The user's manual provided with 
the Excelerator Plus is adequate, but 
will leave the advanced computerist 
with a lot of questions unanswered. 
The manual is essentially the FSD-1 
manual, with few noticeable changes. 

In summary, the Excelerator is a 
very attractive 1541-compatible disk 
drive for the Commodore 64 and oven 
for the Commodore 128. After a thor- 
ough examination of the drive, my skep- 
ticism over ECI's decision to replace the 
FSD-1 with the Excelerator Plus has 
been dispelled. While not having any 
noticeable improvements over the 1541 
in loading speed or storage capacity, the 
drive does have dramatic improvements 
over the 1541 in quality' and reliability. 
As evidence of these improvements, ECI 
provides the Excelerator Plus with a full 
one-year limited warranty. Since the Ex- 
celerator Plus can be mail-ordered at ap- 
proximately $159 — about $30 less than 
the 1541C drive — any Commodore 64 
or 128 user looking for a flrst or second 
disk drive should give the Excelerator 
Plus serious consideration. 

—Scott Thomas 

Emerald Components International 

lUW. 7th Ave. 

Eugene, OR 97401 

$159 fl 



Moving? 

For address 
changes or 
subscription 
information, 
caii toil free 

800-247-5470 
(in iowa 

800-532-1272). 



Modem 
Commotion!!! 



dpre DirecK 



The Best Commodpre Direct^onnect 
Modem for ONLY 

Now that you're able to do all ttiose stand alone applications with 
your Commodore, like word processing, spread sheet analysis, 
etc., you are probably thinking "It would sure be nice if I could ex- 
pand the information I have access to, " Everything from Electronic 
Mail (E-maJi) to stock quotes and huge databases of every imag- 
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"Sprite Magic" makes it easy to design animated sequences. These two screen photos show an atltgator irt two stages of its 
crau>i 



Sprite Magic 



Charles Brannon 

Three years ago this month, the Gazette debuted "Sprite 
Magic," an easy-to-use, full-featured sprite editor for the Com- 
modore 64 that simplifies sprite creation and lets you concen- 
trate on the artistic aspects of design. We're reprinting this 
very popular utility for those who may have missed it in the 
August 1984 issue. Following this article are three new sprite 
utilities— each compatible with Sprite Magic. Together, these 
four programs offer an exciting package that will help you use 
the powerful graphics potential of the 64. 



Most of what you've read about 
sprites covers how to program them; 
setting them up, protecting memory, 
moving and animating them, and 
using them in games. But sprite de- 
sign is usually left up to you. 

A sprite is defined by 63 binary 
numbers. The 1 bits in the values 
represent solid pixels. Zeros repre- 
sent blank areas in which the screen 
background is visible. Normally, you 
sketch a sprite on a grid 24 pixels 
(bits) across and 21 pixels high. This 
is 3 bytes per row (8 bits * 3 bytes = 
24 bits) and 21 rows of bytes (3*21 
= 63 bytes). But after you've drawn 
the sprite, you have to convert the 
squares into binary, and then into 
decimal so that you can put the 
numbers in DATA statements. 

There are utility programs that 
will do the conversion for you, and 

44 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1967 



even editors that let you clear and 
set squares with a joystick. Since 
you're using a computer, other 
functions can be supported to let 
you clear, invert, reflect, reverse, 
shift, and test out your sprite. The 
more work the computer does, the 
less you have to think in terms of 
binary numbers. 

"Sprite Magic" offers the best 
features of most sprite editors, in- 
cluding true multicolor mode, and 
pulls it off with the speed and pow- 
er of an all machine language pro- 
gram. Sprite Magic's style (and 
even some of the coding) is similar 
to that of "Ultrafont -\- ." the cus- 
tom character editor which ap- 
peared originally in the July 1984 
issue. (A revised version was pub- 
lished in the September 1986 is- 
sue.) Many of the commands are 



the same, so you can get up to 
speed quickly. If you've learned 
how to use Ultrafont -h, it won't be 
long before you're comfortable 
with Sprite Magic. 

Typing It In 

Since Sprite Magic is written entire- 
ly in machine language, you'll need 
to use "MLX," the machine lan- 
guage entry program found else- 
where in this issue. Be sure to read 
and understand the instructions for 
MLX before typing in Sprite Magic. 
When you run MLX, you're asked 
for the starting address and ending 
address of the data you'll be enter- 
ing. For Sprite Magic, respond with 
the following values: 

Staiting address; COOO 
Ending address: CASF 

When you've finished typing 
in the data for Sprite Magic, be sure 
to save a copy to tape or disk before 
leaving MLX. 

To load Sprite Magic, type 
LOAD "SPRITE MAG1C",8,1 (for 
disk) or LOAD "SPRITE MAGIC" 
,1,1 (for tape). After the program 
has finished loading, you'll see the 
READY prompt. Type NEW and 
press RETURN. This resets some 
important memory locations, but 
leaves Sprite Magic in its protected 



cubbyhole at address 49152 
($C000). To activate the program, 
type SYS 49152. 

Doodle 

After you've typed the SYS com- 
mand, the main screen should in- 
stantly appear, wfith a large 24 X 21 
grid. The grid is a blowup of the 
sprite you are editing. The actual 
sprite will be seen to the right of the 
grid. The flashing square within the 
large grid is your cursor. Move the 
cursor with either the cursor keys or 
with a joystick plugged into port 2. 
To light up a blank spot (in other 
words, to turn a pixel on), press 
either the space bar or the joystick 
fire button. If the square is already 
lit, it will turn dark. This signifies 
that the pixel has been turned off. 
The button or space bar thus tog- 
gles each point on or off. You can 
draw your sprite quite easily in this 
manner. 

One fine point: With the joy- 
stick, you can hold down the fire 
button and move the cursor. If the 
first point you change was set, then 
the fire button continues to set 
points as you move the joystick, re- 
gardless of the other points' origi- 
nal state. If the first point you 
change was empty, then you can 
hold down the fire button and 
move about, clearing anything the 
cursor passes over. Notice how any 
changes are immediately visible in 
the actual sprite. 

If you've just entered Sprite 
Magic, the grid is probably full of 
garbage pixels. To clear out the grid 
for a new picture, press SHIFT- 
CLR/HOME. You now have an 
empty area- — a fresh canvas, so to 
speak- — to draw on. You can press 
CLR/HOME without holding 
down SHIFT to home the cursor to 
the upper left corner of the grid. 

Does the cursor move too slow 
or too fast? To change the velocity 
of the cursor, press V. Answer the 
prompt with a number key from 
(slow) to 9 (very fast). 

Shift, Expansion, 
And Symmetry 

Sometimes when you're drawing, 
it's necessary to reposition the 
shape within the grid. The first two 
function keys let you shift the sprite 
shape around within the grid. If 
you shift something out of the grid, 
it wraps around to the opposite 



side. The fl key shifts right; f3 shifts 
down. Use the SHIFT key along 
with the function key to move in 
the opposite direction: f2 moves the 
sprite shape left, and f3, up. 

After you've drawn some- 
thing, press F. Instantly, the sprite 
is flipped upside down. Press it 
again to flip it back over. Remem- 
ber F as the command for Flip. Now 
try M (for Mirror). The shape 
you've drawn is mirrored left to 
right. Of course, if you've drawn 
something symmetrical, you may 
not see any change. 

Now try CTRL-R or CTRL-9. 
The sprite will become reversed. 
Every square that was on is now 
turned off, and vice versa. 

A sprite can also be expanded 
or contracted either horizontally or 
vertically, or both horizontally and 
vertically. The X and Y keys on the 
keyboard let you do this. Press X to 
switch from wide to narrow, or vice 
versa. Press Y to switch from tall to 
short, or vice versa. Regardless of 
your choices, the main grid will not 
change size or proportion. 



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The Symmetry option was used to draw 
tins frightful eagle. 

An unusual command is Sym- 
metry. This command was added 
because many shapes are symmet- 
rical from left to right, as if a mirror 
were put in the middle of the grid. 
To enter the Symmetry mode, press 
the back-arrow (-) key in the upper 
left comer of the keyboard. Now, 
every square drawn on one side of 
the design will be instantly mir- 
rored on the other half. Blank 
squares are not copied over, 
though, so you cannot erase in this 
mode. This command is not only 
quite useful, but is also a great deal 
of fun to play with. To return to 
normal editing, press the back- 
arrow key again. 

Nohce the number in the up- 
per right corner of the screen. This 



is the sprite-page number, which 
can range from to 255. You start 
out at the top of the sprite memory. 
The plus and minus keys are used 
to go forward or backward through 
sprite shapes. Press the minus 
key — you immediately have a new 
shape in the grid. 



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X ami Y expansion increases the size of 
the sprite by four times. 

There is a Hmit to how far bacK. 
you can go. If you have no BASIC 
program in memory, you can step 
back to sprite-page number 32. 
However, character information re- 
sides in sprite pages below 128. 
You can still clear the page and 
draw a sprite shape on pages below 
128, but it won't really register. To 
be safe, use only the sprite pages from 
128 up. If you have a program in 
memory. Sprite Magic will not let 
you step back past its end. This pro- 
tects your program from being acci- 
dentally overwritten by a sprite 
shape. If you want maximum space 
available for sprite shapes, use 
NEW to erase any BASIC program 
before you SYS 49152. You'll some- 
times want to keep a program in 
memory, however. We'll show you 
why a bit later, 

A programming note: The 
sprite-page number, when multi- 
plied by 64, gives you the starting 
memory location for the 63 num- 
bers representing the sprite. 

Put It In The Buffer 

You might use Flip to design two 
views of a shape, such as a space- 
ship pointing in two directions. 
Draw one freehand; then create the 
other with Flip, (Mirror can be used 
to design separate left and right 
views as well,) But what you first 
need is a way to copy the original 
shape to another sprite area. One 
way to do this is to copy the sprite 
shape to an area of memory (a buff- 
er). You can use plus or minus to 

COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1987 45 



step to another sprite page, then 
copy the buffer to the sprite. {This, 
you may remember, is the way you 
copy characters with Ultrafont.) 
Press i7 to copy the sprite to the 
buffer. The grid flashes to affirm 
this. Then go to the sprite page 
where you want to put the copy 
and press f8 (SHIFT-f7}. The shape 
in the buffer replaces any shape al- 
ready in the sprite grid. 

You can also use the buffer as a 
fail-safe device. Before modifying 
an existing sprite, press f7 to save it 
in the buffer. Then, if you mangle 
the sprite, or accidentally erase it, 
you can recall the previous shape 
from the buffer. 

Computer Disney? 

Since you can change sprite pages so 
easily, you can use Sprite Magic as 
an animation-design tool. Cartoons 
make only minor changes between 
frames. Too much change makes the 
animation jerky. So put the first 
frame into the buffer, copy it to the 
next area, and then make a change. 
Put the new image into the buffer, 
copy it again to a new area, and 
make another small change. Contin- 
ue in this fashion as you build up a 
whole series of frames. Put different, 
but similar, shapes on adjacent 
pages; then hold down plus or mi- 
nus to step through the shapes. As 
with cartoon animation, you will get 
the illusion of motion. (Use a cursor 
velocity of 9 for maximum speed.) 
So even if you don't care to program 
sprites. Sprite Magic is a fun tool for 
making moving cartoons, 

A Bit Of Color 

The normal drawing mode lets you 
set or clear points, but in only one 
color. If you're willing to give up 
half as many horizontal points, you 
can have four colors to work with. 
Multicolor mode lets any square be 
one of four colors, but gives you 
only 12 pixels across instead of 24. 
This is because two dots are 
grouped together to give four com- 
binations. The colors come from 
four memory locations; 
Pattern Color location 



00 
01 


53281 Background color 

register 

53285 Sprite multicolor 


10 


register 

53287- Sprite color registers 

53294 


11 


53286 Sprite multicolor 




register 1 



Quick Reference Chart 

B Cycle through background colors 

F Flip sprite upside don-n 

J Move sprite with joystick 

L Load sprite patterns from tape or disk 

M Mirror sprite from loft to right 

S Save sprite patterns to tape or disk 

V Set cursor velocity 

X Toggle horizontal expansion on/off 

Y Toggle vertical expansion on/off 

CTRL-D Create DATA statements 

CTRL-R (or CTRL-9) Reverse sprite 
CTRL-X Exit to BASIC 



I'lus key 
Minus key 
CLR/HOME 
SHIFT-CLR/HOME 

Space bar {or fire button) 
CRSR keys (or joystick in port 2) 
Back arrow 
1-4 
SHIFT 1-4 



*Next sprite page 
Previous sprite page 
Home sprite-editing cursor 
Erase grid 
Set/clear points 
Move cursor 
Symmetry mode 

Select drawing color for multicolor mode 
Change a draiving color 



fl 


Shift pattern right 


(2 


Shift pattern left 


f3 


Shift pattern down 


f4 


Shift pattern up 


fS 


Multicolor mode 


f6 


Normal mode 


{7 


Store pattern in buffer 


is 


Recall pattern from buffer 



There are two multicolor sprite 
registers, which are shared among 
all sprites (in programming, but not 
in Sprite Magic, you can have eight 
sprites on the screen at the same 
time). The bit pattern marked 10 is 
unique to each sprite, and comes 
from that sprite's own color regis- 
ter. Pattern 00 is blank, and what- 
ever is underneath the sprite shape 
will show through. 

The reason for this sojourn into 
bits and addresses is that only the 
ten-bit pattern has a unique color 
for that sprite. If you're designing 
several sprites for a game, remem- 
ber that anything drawn in that 
color can be changed individually 
for each sprite. Squares drawn with 
bit pattern 01 or 11 will be colored 
from two locations shared by all 
sprites. 

Many sprite editors let you see 
how the sprite would look in multi- 
color, but you still have to pair up 
the pixels yourself, and keep track 
of binary bit pairs. Since that's no 
fun. Sprite Magic offers a multicolor 
mode instead. When you press f5, 
the screen instantly changes. Each 
square in the grid is now rectangu- 
lar, two squares wide. The cursor 
has also been enlarged, and can be 



moved about as before in the new 
grid. But the way you set and clear 
points has been changed, since you 
are now working with four colors. 

Multicolor Palette 

The fire button or the space bar al- 
ways sets a point, but you have to 
tell Sprite Magic which color you 
are currently drawing in. The num- 
ber keys 1 to 4 select the drawing 
color. The number you press is one 
number higher than the binary val- 
ue of the bit pairs in the table 
above. The 1 key, for instance, 
chooses the 00 bit pair, which rep- 
resents the background color. In 
practice, you are choosing from a 
palette of four colors. The 1 key can 
be used when you want to erase, al- 
though the fire button can still be 
used to toggle points on and off. 

When you press a number key 
from 1 to 4, the border color 
changes to remind you which color 
you're drawing with. If you want to 
change one of the four colors, hold 
down SHIFT while you type the 
number. The prompt ENTER 
COLOR KEY appears. Now you 
have to enter another key combina- 
tion. Press CTRL and one of the 
number keys from 1 to 8, or hold 



46 COMPUTEls Gazette August 1987 



down thD Commodore key and one 
of the number keys from 1 to 8. 
These are the same key combina- 
tions you use to change the text 
color in BASIC. You can also 
change the screen background 
color by pressing the letter B on the 
keyboard until the color you want 
appears. 

Some Sprite Magic commands 
act strangely in multicolor mode. 
For example, a shift left or shift 
right (done with the fl and f2 keys, 
respectively) moves the sprite over 
by only one bit, which changes the 
color assignments. In general, you 
must press f 1 or f2 twice to preserve 
the same colors. Pressing the M key 
{for Mirror) reverses the bit pairs, so 
that every 01 becomes a 10. The ef- 
fect is that colors 2 and 3 are ex- 
changed. The R (Reverse) key also 
inverts the bits, so that 01 becomes 
10; 10 becomes 01; 00 becomes 11; 
and 11 becomes 00. Colors 2 and 3 
are switched, as well as colors 1 and 
4. 

If you want to go back to nor- 
mal (non-multicolor) mode, press 
the f6 key (SHlFT-f5). There's noth- 
ing to prevent you from designing 
both normal and multicolor sprites 
on different pages. 

If you changed colors in the 
multicolor mode, some of the colors 
in the normal mode may have been 
changed. You can alter these colors 
as in multicolor mode. Press 
SHIFT-1 to change the color of the 
empty pixels, and SHIFT-2 to 
change the color of the pixels that 
are lit. (You'll be prompted to press 
a color-number key after each 
SHIFT-1 or SHIFT-2 combination. 
Remember to press either CTRL or 
Commodore simultaneously with 
the color key.) 

Mobilizing Your Sprite 

If you want to try out your sprite in 
action, press J (for Joystick). You 
can now move the actual sprite 
around with the joystick. The speed 
of movement depends on the cur- 
rent cursor velocity. When you've 
finished putting your sprite 
through its paces, press the fire but- 
ton to return to Sprite Magic. Also, 
if you want to test the animation 
while you are moving about, hold 
down the SHIFT key to step for- 
ward through the pages of your de- 
fined sprites, or the Commodore 
key to step backward. You can use 



the SHIFT LOCK key to keep the 
animation happening while you 
move around. 

Saving Your Sprites 

After all your work, you surely 
want to save your creations on tape 
or disk for future use. You can save 
an individual shape, or all the 
sprites. Press S (for Save), then 
either D (Disk) or T (Tape). Next, 
enter the filename. You'll be asked, 
"Save all from here?" If you press 
N (No), then only the current sprite 
pattern you are working on is 
saved. If you press Y (Yes), then ev- 
ery sprite pattern from the current 
sprite page to sprite 255 will be 
saved. Thus, if you want to save a 
range of sprite patterns, be sure to 
use the minus key to step back to 
the first page you want saved. 

To recall your sprites, press L. 
The Load command loads every- 
thing that was saved. If you're load- 
ing in more than one sprite, be sure 
you step backward far enough with 
the minus key so that all the sprites 
will fit between the current sprite 
page and sprite 255. The sprite pat- 
terns load starting at the current 
sprite-page number. After you've 
pressed L, enter T for Tape or D for 
Disk. 

Making Sprite DATA 

If you're a programmer, you're 
probably more interested in DATA 
statements. That way, you can use 
BASIC to READ and POKE the 
numbers into memory. Using a 
DATA maker program, you can run 
it on the memory used by the sprite 
in Sprite Magic (again, the memory 
location is the sprite number multi- 
plied by 64). But Sprite Magic has a 
special DATA maker of its own. It's 
similar to the Create DATA option 
in Ultrafont, but it's been enhanced. 
Press CTRL-D to create a series 
of DATA statements from the cur- 
rent sprite in memory. Just tap the 
key, or you'll get hundreds of 
DATA statements as the key re- 
peats. Sprite Magic will create eight 
DATA statements, with eight bytes 
per line. The last byte is not strictly 
used. Sprite shapes are made from 
63 bytes, but the sprite areas are 
padded out with one additional 
byte so they will conveniently fall 
in 64-byte groups. To create DATA 
statements for another sprite, use 
the plus or minus key to move to 



the correct sprite page; then press 
CTRL-D again. 

If you have a program already 
in memory, the DATA statements 
are appended to the end of the pro- 
gram, starting with the next avail- 
able line number. To add DATA 
statements to an existing program, 
then, first load Sprite Magic. Type 
NEW. Load your BASIC program, 
and SYS 49152 to enter Sprite Mag- 
ic, You can then load in sprite 
shapes and use CTRL-D to add 
those DATA statements to the end 
of the BASIC program in memory. 

You can check to see that these 
DATA statements were added by 
exiting Sprite Magic (press CTRL-X) 
and typing LIST. Your program 
should have eight new DATA lines 
for each sprite pattern. If there was 
no program in memory, the DATA 
statements form a program all their 
own, starting with line 1. If you 
want, you can save just the DATA 
statements to tape or disk, using the 
normal SAVE command. 

To exit Sprite Magic and return 
to BASIC, press CTRL-X. You can 
also use RUN/STOP-RESTORE. 

See program listing on page 75. m 




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Lyco Means Total Service. 




Mark "Mac" Bowser, 
Sales Manager 

All of us at Lyco 
Computer are grateful 
to the millions of 
customers who have 
helped make Lyco what 
it is today. They have 
come to reiy on the Lyco 
symbol as assurance of 
quality products, the 
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prompt, courteous 
service. 



Our philosophy is to keep abreast of the 
changing market so that we can be ready for any 
customer inquiry. We are continually in contact with 
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with the newest models, and compiiing information to help 
you select the right product for your needs. 
Feel free to call Lyco if you want to know more 
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Everyone on our trained sales staff is very knowledgeable 
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Once you've placed your order with Lyco, we don't 
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or prices. 



Lyco stocks a 
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Chances are we have 
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TO ORDER, CALL TOLL-FREE: 1-800-233-8760 
In PA: 1-717-494-1030 

Hours: 9AtVI to 8PM, Mon, - Thurs. 
9AM to 6PfVI, Friday — lOAl^ to 6PM, Saturday 

For Customer Service, call 1-717-494-1670, 

9AIVI-5PM, fvlon. - Fri. 

Or write: Lyco Computer, Inc. 

P.O. Box 5088. Jersey Shore, PA 17740 

HLsM-Fre« Policy; • full rnqnufEictur^ra' wairanlEes • no sales tax outside PA 
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Accaw: 

Loader Board 124,95 

MachS Sa3,9S 

Mach- 128 S29.BS 

lOthFrama S24.&5 

Exec. Tournament S13,BS 

■Tournament #1 $13.95 

Triple Pack $14.95 

WW. a. Loader Bid ... S24,9S 
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Champton. Baskea^ill . ^2 95 

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eettysburg S35,95 

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Computer Ambush S39.95 

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Flight SimulalOf II 531.95 

Jol Simulalof S31,95 

NIgW Mission Pinball .,, 521.96 

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epyx: 

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^^^SGA 



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epyx! 

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IBM 



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Oecision in Desert $24.95 

F.I 5 Strike Eagte S22.9S 

Silent Servico $22.95 

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General Manager $19,95 

Stat Disk $17.95 

'86 Team Dial* $14.95 

Epyi: 

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Create A Calendar $17,95 

Dostroyef ..,. $24,95 

Karate Champ .,. ,. $19,95 

Movie Monster $14.95 

Rogue 519.95 

St. Sports Basketball ... $24.95 
Sub Battle Slmi^ator ... $24.95 

Winter Games $24,95 

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Kampfgruppo $35.95 

Shard ot Spring ., $24,95 

Battle of Antoliem $35.95 

Computer Baseball $14.95 

Gotr/sburg $35.95 

Knignis in Dasort $27,95 

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Jet Simulswr $32.95 

Scenery Japan ,.. $15,95 

Scenery San Fran 515 95 

Scenery *t-*e $69.95 

Subkigic BassbaH 532.95 

Subkigic Football S32.95 

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Pnnt Shop $37.95 

Print Shop Compan $31.95 

Graphic Lib, I Of 11 $21.95 

Katateka $21.95 

Toy Shop 529.95 

Bank St. Writer r ,. $54.95 

Untaen Wortd: 

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Newa Master ,,. $55.95 

Print Master $36.95 

Firebird: 

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Guild ot Thieves $27.95 




Lyco Computer is one of the oldest and 
most established connputer suppliers in 
Annerica. Because we are dedicated to 
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And, our six years of experience in mail- 
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MP laOOAi $369 

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BP5420Ai $1075 

130O Color Kit $119 

BP5420Ribbon $12.50 

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1080 AP tic S239 

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(retail S299 — save SI 46 1) 



S159 

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^CITIZEN 

120 D 5175 

PramlBfe 35 $469 

MSP-10 S28S 

MSP-15 S385 

MSP-20 $325 

MSP-25 $485 

Tubule 224 S649 

Toshiba 

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P341E ,.5699 

P351 Modal II $1099 

EPSON 

LX 86 SCALL 

LX800 $189 

EX BOO $389 

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LQBOO $459 

LO 100Q $649 

FX 86E $329 

FX 286e $459 

LQ 2500 S949 



Monitors 

TlKHiipson: 

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4160363S2 5279 

MJ-503 $499 

Zentth; 

ZVM 1220 $89 

ZVM 1E30 589 

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TR-1 22 M9P 1 2" Gl TTL , $1 39 

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NEC: 

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Modems 



Avatex 1200hc 
Modem 

* with cable 
purchase 

LImilqd Off or 



AvaldX: 

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I2OO1 599 

2400 5289 

AUri: 

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SX 212 $89.95 

Hayei: 

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Smadmodem 1200 53B9 

Smart modem f200B 5339 

Smart modem 2400 $559 

Mtcromod^jin lie .-.-..., $125 

Smart 300 Apple lie SI 49 

Commodors; 

1670 599 

US Ro4)otlcs: 

Passwoni 1200 5189 

Moolrnk 12M $139 

Moolink 2400 $219 

Courier H ST 9600 $879 

CompuServe 517.95 



y^^ 



Xetec Printer 
Enhancer 

• 64K memory 

• multi-tasking 

• 7 direct available 
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• combines two 
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List price: $249 '\ 



.>li 



IC 




W« slock Interfacing (or AtiN, Commodors. Apple and IBM. 




sprite Flip 



Rhett Anderson 

and David Hensley, )r. 

This handy utility offers a tech- 
nique to let you flip sprites — in- 
cluding those in hi -res or 
multicolor — at machine language 
speed, while conserving memory 
often eaten up by sprite defini- 
tions. It can be used with sprites 
designed by "Sprite Magic" or 
other sprite editors. For the Com- 
modore 64. 

Sprites are a unique and very im- 
portant graphics feature of the 64. 
They allow programmers to 
achieve animation wfith relatively 
littJe work. There are many good 
sprite editors available, including 
"Sprite Magic," found elsewhere in 
this issue. 

Sprite Magic allows you to flip 
sprites both vertically and horizon- 
tally. Thus, it's possible to generate 
four different sprite definitions 
from one pattern. This feature of 
Sprite Magic was used often while 
designing the sprites in "Basketball 
Sam & Ed," which appeared in last 
month's issue. If you watch the bas- 
ketballs closely while they are spin- 
ning in the air, you'll notice that 
there are four different views. Only 
one of them was drawn, and the 
Sprite Magic commands were used 
to generate the rest. 

The problem with using many 
sprite definitions is the amount of 
memory that they consume. Each 
definition consists of 64 bytes (only 
the first 63 bytes actually contain 
sprite data, but the definidons are 
stored in 64-byte blocks because it's 
more convenient for the computer 
to deal with data in groups of 64 
bytes). This means that four defini- 
tions would take up 256 bytes — 
more than can be held in a single 
disk block. It's even worse when 
you store the pattern in BASIC 
DATA statements; in that case, four 
definitions might take up more 

52 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1987 



than four disk blocks. 

"Sprite Flip" allows your pro- 
gram to flip sprite definidons at ma- 
chine language speed. Thus, it gives 
you a nice choice: You can have a 
smaller program or more sprite def- 
initions. Sprite Flip flips both hi-res 
and multicolor sprites. (Sprite Mag- 
ic changes the colors of multicolor 
sprites during horizontal flips.) 

Typing It In 

Program 1, Sprite Flip, is a BASIC 
program which POKEs a machine 
language program into memory. 
Type it in and save a copy to tape or 
disk. To insure accurate entry, use 
the "Automatic Proofreader" pro- 
gram found elsewhere in this issue. 
Program 1 must be loaded and run 
before you use it in your own pro- 
grams. Alternatively, you can 
merge it with your own programs. 

We've included a demo. Pro- 
gram 2, to show how easy it is to 
use Sprite Flip in your programs. 
Type it in and save a copy. Before 
you run it. Sprite Flip must be in- 
stalled by running Program 1. 

The demonstration program 
displays two expanded sprites on 
the screen — one in hi res, and the 
other in multicolor. Press H to flip 
both sprites horizontally. Press V to 
flip them vertically. 

In Your Programs 

To flip a sprite under program con- 
trol, follow this procedure: 

• Make sure that Sprite Flip has 
been installed, 

• POKE the sprite block number 
into location 781. This number can 
range from to 255. In the demo 
program, block numbers 13 and 14 
were used, (The sprite block is the 
memory location where the sprite 
definition begins, divided by 64.) 
Note that Sprite Flip only works on 
sprites in video bank — the VIC 
chip's default setting, 

• For a horizontal flip, SYS 49152, For 



multicolor sprites, use SYS 49155, 
• For a vertical flip — in either hi res 
or muUicolor— use SYS 49158, 

Sprite Flip can be used in two 
ways. First, you can put the same 
sprite definition into four different 
sprite definition blocks and use 
Sprite Flip to flip the second and 
fourth ones horizontally and flip 
the third and fourth ones vertically. 
This allows you to create animation 
by changing sprite pointers — the 
fastest and most versatile way to 
use Sprite Flip, This technique was 
used in Basketball Sam & Ed, 

If you don't have many sprite 
definition blocks available, you can 
use Sprite Flip in realtime, flipping 
the deflnitions whenever you need 
to. The Sprite Flip Demo uses this 
method — there is only one sprite 
definition for each sprite. The sprite 
definitions are flipped upon demand. 

The ML program resides in 
memory from 49152 to 49329. In 
addition, it uses about 70 bytes of 
memory directly after the program 
as a work area. 
See program listings on page 92, • 



All programs 

listed in this 

magazine are 

available on the 

GAZETTE Disk. 

See details 

elsewhere in 

this issue. 



Sprite Stamp 



Bennie J. Montoya 



It's never been easier to draw detailed hi-res pictures. This pro- 
gram lets you "stamp" your own sprite definitions — including 
those designed with "Sprite Magic" — onto the hi-res screen. For 
the Commodore 64 with a disk drive and one joystick. 



"Sprite Stamp" is a computer draw- 
ing program with a new twist — you 
draw with detailed sprite "brushes." 
It's a clever way to create complex 
and detailed hi-res screens. 

Typing It In 

Sprite Stamp (Program 1) is written 
in machine language, so it must be 
entered with the "MLX" machine 
language entry program found else- 
where in this issue. When you run 
MLX, you'll be asked for the start- 
ing and ending addresses for the 
data you'll be entering. For Sprite 
Stamp, respond with these values: 

Starting address: COOO 
Ending address: CA5F 

After you have entered all the 
data from Program 1, be sure to save 
a copy of the program before exiting 
MLX. Don't tr)' to run Sprite Stamp 
yet. You first need some sprite 
shapes to use as stamp patterns. 

Program 2, "Starter," is a 
BASIC program that allows you to 
load and save the high-resolution 
screen images you create with 
Sprite Stamp. You can use Sprite 
Stamp without Program 2, but 
without Program 2 you won't be 
able to save or modify your designs. 

Before you begin working with 
Sprite Stamp, you must create at 
least one set of sprites for stamp 
patterns. You can create them by 
hand if you like, but the easiest way 



to design the patterns is with a 
sprite editor like "Sprite Magic." If 
you use Sprite Magic, create DATA 
statements from your sprites begin- 
ning at line number 50. When 
you've finished making the sprite 
data, exit Sprite Magic and type 
LIST, You should see the DATA 
statements generated by Sprite 
Magic, If there are no DATA state- 
ments, return to Sprite Magic by 
typing SYS 49152 and try again. 
Once you're sure that the DATA 
statements are in memory, add the 
lines shown as Program 3. Then 
save the resulting program to disk. 

If you create your sprites by 
hand, you'll have to create the 
DATA statements yourself. Use 
Program 3 as a, skeleton. Begin 
numbering your DATA lines at 50, 

Designing sprite shapes re- 
quires one special consideration. 
Sprite Stamp includes a Rotate 
command that allows you to turn 
the pattern in 90-degree incre- 
ments. Since sprites are 24 pixels 
wide but only 21 pixels high, you 
should leave the rightmost three 
columns of pixels in the pattern 
blank. (That is, limit your sprites to 
21 X 21 pixels.) If you use the full 
width of the sprite, the rightmost 
columns of the pattern will be lost 
when you use the Rotate command. 

You can make several different 
sets of sprites and save each set to 
disk with a different name. For in- 



stance, you might have a set with 
electronic symbols, and then use 
those symbols to design circuits. 
Another set could be made up of 
clowns and tent sections to make 
circus scenes. 

Getting Started 

Follow this procedure to use Sprite 
Stamp: 

• Load your sprite data program 
(Program 3 with DATA statements 
added), 

• Type RUN to put the sprite pattern 
information into memory; then 
type NEW. 

• Load Sprite Stamp (Program 1) 
with a statement of the form 
LOAD "SPRITE STAMF",8,1 

• Type NEW. 

• To start Sprite Stamp directly, use 
a statement of the form 

SYS 49152,H 

where n is the number of different 
sprite patterns in your sprite data 
program, 

• To use the Starter program, which 
allows the loading and saving of 
Sprite Stamp screens, load Program 
2 with a statement of the form 

LOAD "STARTER",8 

• Replace the variable S in line 100 
with the number of .sprite patterns 
in your sprite data program, 

• Type RUN, You'll be asked if you 
want to load a previously created 
picture file. If you answer Y, you'll 
be asked for the name of the file. If 
you answer N, you'll proceed di- 
rectly to the drawing program. 

COMPUTE! s GazBtto August 1987 53 



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r/iis detailed Commodore 64 hi- res screen was created by the 
18 sprites shown above using "Sprite Stamp." 



Sprite Art 

It's easy to create pictures with 
Sprite Stamp. Use the joystick 
(plugged into port 2) to control the 
rectangular cursor. The following 
keyboard commands are used with 
the program: 

C Clear screen 

B CKange background and drawing 

colors 

X Exit 

S Set stamp mode 

E Set eraie mode 

R Rotate 

space Change sprite patterns 

Unless you loaded a previous- 
ly created screen, you'll probably 
want to begin by pressing C to clear 
the drawing screen. The current 
stamp pattern is shown in a win- 
dow on the right side of the screen. 
Press the space bar to cycle through 
the available shapes. (The program 
cycles through the number of pat- 
terns you specify in the SYS state- 
ment that starts Sprite Stamp, so be 



sure to use the correct number.) 

When you press S (for Stamp), 
the current shape is put down in the 
drawing color at the position indi- 
cated by the drawing cursor. When 
you press E (Erase), the pattern is 
put down in the background color. 
Press R (for Rotate) to rotate the 
pattern by 90 degrees. 

To exit from Sprite Stamp, 
press X (and then RETURN). If you 
entered Sprite Stamp using the 
Starter program, you'll be given the 
opportunity to save the screen you 
just created (you'll be asked to give 
the picture a filename). If you don't 
wish to save your picture, press RE- 
TURN alone to exit the program. 
Otherwise, type a name for the file 
in which your screen image will be 
saved. 

The hi-res screen used by 
Sprite Stamp is located in memory 
at locations 8192-16191, 
See program listings on page 76, a 



Multisprite 



John Augustine 

Easily combine up to eight sprites to make larger, more realis- 
tic images on your 64 with this machine language enhance- 
ment to "Sprite Magic." A disk drive is required. 



Although the "Sprite Magic" sprite 
editor makes sprite design easy, it is 
lacking one potentially useful fea- 
ture: the ability to combine two or 
more sprites to make a larger sprite. 
Many recent commercial games 
have used this technique with great 
success. For example, some games 
use one sprite for a head and torso, 
and another for legs and feet. Drag- 
ons and snakes can be made by put- 
ting two or more sprites together 
horizontally, and hi-res sprites of 
more than one color can be made 
by overlaying two or more sprites. 
"Multisprite" wedges into 
Sprite Magic, providing all the ad- 
ditional tools that you'll need to de- 
sign images made of multiple sprites. 

Typing It In 

Multisprite consists of two pro- 
grams. Program 1, the main pro- 
gram, is written in machine 
language. Type it in with the 
"MLX" machine language entry 
program located elsewhere in this 
issue. When you run MLX, you'll be 
asked for the starting and ending 
addresses of the data you'll be en- 
tering. For Multisprite, respond 
with these values: 

starting address; BOOO 
Ending addicss: &46F 

When you've finished typing 
in the program, be sure to save a 
copy to disk before leaving MLX. 
When saving the program, use the 
name MULTISPRITE. 

A boot program is also includ- 
ed. Type in Program 2 and save it to 



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The sprites liave been moved closer to- 
gether, joining all eight into one 
multisprite. 

disk. This program loads both Multi- 
sprite and Sprite Magic. For every- 
thing to work together, the boot 
program, Multisprite, and Sprite 
Magic must all be on the same disk. 
Program 2 expects the Multisprite 
program file to be named MULTI- 
SPRITE and the Sprite Magic pro- 
gram file to be named SPRITE 
MAGIC. If this is not the case, 
either rename the programs or 
change the names in lines 20 and 40 
of Program 2. 



Getting Started 

Multisprite is an extension of Sprite 
Magic, so if you're familiar with the 
operation of Sprite Magic, you'll feel 
right at home with Multisprite. If 
you're unfamiliar with Sprite Magic, 
it's best to learn how to use all of the 
features of that program before try- 
ing to use Multisprite. All of Sprite 
Magic's features work as intended 
when you're using Multisprite. 

Let's draws a sample multi- 
sprite. First, load and run the boot 
program. Sprite Magic and Multi- 
sprite will be loaded and you'll see 
the familiar Sprite Magic screen. Go 
to sprite definition 150 (travel 
through the definitions by using the 
+ and — keys.) You'll eventually 
want to position your sprites on the 
Sprite Magic screen, and you can 
make this task much easier by turn- 
ing on all the pixels in the sprites. 
This is best done by pressing SHIFT- 
CLR/HOME and then CTRL-R. As 
many as eight sprites may be com- 
bined into one multisprite. You'll 
use two sprites in this example, so 
go to sprite 151 and repeat these 
keystrokes. 

The program must keep track 
of which sprite is the "start" sprite. 
To select sprite 150 as the start 
sprite, move to that pattern and 
press the British pound key (£). 

Your next task is to position 
your sprites on the Sprite Magic 
screen. Sprite Magic normally 
shows only one sprite on the 
screen, so it's natural that it always 
puts it in the same place. But Multi- 
sprite can move its sprites so that 
you can make horizontal multi- 
sprites, vertical multisprites, or 
overlayed sprites. 

When you pressed the £ key, 

COMPUTEI's QazettB August 1987 55 



the screen color should have 
changed to yellow. This means that 
Multisprite is ready for a command. 
To make it easy to reference the 
various sprites, Multisprite num- 
bers its sprites beginning at 0, Since 
you are using two sprites, begin- 
ning at 150, Multisprite refers to 
sprite defmition 150 as and 151 as 
1. When you give Multisprite a 
sprite number as a command, it lets 
you position that sprite. Press 1 and 
use the cursor keys to move sprite 1 
next to sprite 0. The screen turns 
purple to show that you can move 
the sprite. When you're satisfied 
with the relative posidon of the 
sprites, press RETURN. Multisprite 
is ready for another command. If 
you were working with more than 
two sprites, you would position 
them all before continuing. Press 
RETURN to leave Multisprite mode 
and enter Sprite Magic mode. (Your 
screen should turn gray.) 

Now use Sprite Magic's edidng 
features to design your multisprite, 
flipping between sprites 150 and 
151 as needed. Both sprites will be 
displayed at all times. The first 



thing you might want to do is clear 
the sprites with SHIFT-CLR/ 
HOME. 

When you've finished edidng 
your multisprite, go back to the 
start sprite and press E. Then press 
SHIFT-CLR/HOME. This will not 
clear the sprite. It simply resets the 
Multisprite parameters. You are 
now free to go to another sprite def- 
inition area and draw another multi- 
sprite. 

Multisprite also allows hori- 
zontal or vertical expansion of the 
sprites. Simply move to the starting 
sprite in the multisprite and press £ 
and then X (for horizontal expan- 
sion) or Y (for vertical expansion). 
Note that you cannot expand indi- 
vidual sprites within a muldsprite; 
all the constituent sprites will be ex- 
panded, and the expansion com- 
mand should be specified only for 
the stardng sprite of the group. 

Multicolor Multisprites 

Working with multicolor sprites in 
Multisprite is not difficult, but it is 
Important to understand the basics 
of multicolor sprites before at- 



tempting to design one. 

In multicolor, all sprites share 
the same colors. The lone exception 
to this is the color obtained by press- 
ing the 3 key In Sprite Magic (which 
is actually color 2 — binary bit pat- 
tern 10). Each sprite may have a dif- 
ferent color for this bit pattern. 
When working with Multisprite, 
you must set key color 3 separately 
for each sprite in your multisprite. 

Note that you cannot specify 
multicolor for individual sprites 
within a multisprite. When you're 
designing a multicolor multisprite, 
all the constituent sprites must be 
designed in multicolor mode. 

In Your Own Programs 

Once you've designed your multi- 
sprite, you'll want to use it in your 
own programs. If you are familiar 
with programming sprites, this 
should be no problem. The impor- 
tant thing to remember is that each 
multisprite is still made up of more 
than one sprite. Whenever you move 
a multisprite, you must move every 
sprite that comprises the multisprite. 
See program listing on page 84. 41 



o)m 




Modifications and Corrections 



• "Directory Filer Plus" (June) con- 
tains a bug in the Insert Divider 
function. If, for example, your di- 
rectory looks like this: 



PROGRAM 1 
PROGRAM 2 
PROGRAM 3 
PROGRAM 4 



attempting to insert a divider be- 
tween Program 1 and Program 2 
will modify the directory as 
follows: 



PROGRAM 1 



PROGRAM 3 
PROGRAM 4 
PROGRAM 4 

Program 2 is lost and Program 
4 appears twice in the directory. Do 
not save the directory back to disk 
by pressing f 1; doing so effectively 
erases Program 2 from your disk. If 
you do save the corrupted directory 
to the disk, the data from Program 2 



is not removed from the disk — the 
directory entry for the file is simply 
missing. However, without a direc- 
tory entry, the disk drive cannot 
find the file, and therefore you will 
be unable to access the data in that 
file. To correct the Insert Divider 
function, change the STEP value in 
line 1000 from 1 to -1: 

1000 S»N+lfPOR X=N TO F+1 STEP-1 

Retrieving a missing file is 
much more difficult. A file whose 
directory entry has been erased by 
the faulty Insert Divider function 
can be recovered if no other files 
have been saved to the disk since 
the file was lost. The easiest way to 
recover the missing file is to vali- 
date the disk (do not use the normal 
Commodore Validate command on 
a disk that includes GEOS files) and 
use a program like VIEW BAM from 
the 1541 TEST/DEMO disk that 



came with your disk drive to find 
the unused sectors on the corrupted 
disk. Then, using a disk sector edi- 
tor, search the unused sectors on 
your disk for the deleted file. When 
you find the missing file, you must 
rebuild the directory entry manual- 
ly. Make sure you validate the disk 
again when you finish (again, do 
not validate a GEOS disk using the 
regular Validate command). The 
manual that came with your 1541 
contains Information on how direc- 
tories are constructed that will help 
you In rebuilding the entry. This is 
not a procedure that should be at- 
tempted by a novice. If you abso- 
lutely must recover the lost file, 
copy the corrupted disk to another 
disk, and work on the copy. 

The problem with Insert Divid- 
er exists only in the printed maga- 
zine version; the version on the 
Gazette Disk is correct. • 



56 COMPUTED Qarette August 1987 



SO-Column Disk Sector Editor 

For The 1 28 



Matthew Desmond 



Inspect and alter information anywhere on a disk with this ex- 
ceptionally high-quality sector editor. An 80-column monitor is 
required. 



One of the most valuable tools a 
programmer can have is a sector 
editor. With it, he can inspect every 
nook and cranny of a disk and 
change anything he likes — it's even 
possible to peruse the contents of 
files that have been deleted but 
have not yet been overwritten. 

"80-Column Disk Sector Edi- 
tor" is arguably the best disk editor 
we've published to date. Its 80- 
column screen lets you see all the 
information at once — which sector 
and track you're on, the entire sec- 
tor in both hex and character repre- 
sentation, and a menu of commands, 
And it's all color-coded to help you 
find the information you need. In 
addition, all of the available com- 
mands are displayed constantly in a 
menu at the bottom of the screen. 

Typing It In 

Disk Sector Editor is made up of 
three programs. The first is written 
in BASIC. It adjusts BASIC pointers 
to reserve memory for the machine 
language portion of the program. 
Type it in and save a copy to disk. 

The second program is also 
written in BASIC. Type it in and 
save it with the name SECTOR 
.BAS. Since this program tries to 
load Program 3, do not attempt to 
run it at this point. 

Program 3 is written entirely in 
machine language, so you must en- 
ter it using the Commodore 128 
version of the "MLX" machine lan- 
guage entry program found else- 
where in this issue. When you run 
MLX, you'll be asked for the start- 
ing and ending addresses for the 



data you'll be entering. For Pro- 
gram 3, respond with the following 
values: 

Starting address; IDOO 
Ending address: 2127 

When you've finished typing 
in the data, be sure to save a copy to 
disk before leaving MLX. Use SEC- 
TOR. ML as the filename — Program 
2 looks for a file with that name. 

Using The Program 

All three programs must be on the 
same disk in order for 80-Column 
Disk Sector Editor to work. Be sure 
you're in 80-column mode. (Disk 
Sector Editor does not produce a 
display in 40-column mode.) 

Load and run the boot program 
(Program 1). This program loads 
Program 2 {SECTOR. BAS), which 
in turn loads Program 3 (SECTOR 
.ML). The sector editor screen 
should appear. 

A disk block (also known as a 
sector) is made up of 256 bytes. A 
byte can hold an integer value in 
the range 0-255 (00-FF in hexadec- 
imal) or one ASCII character. The 
bulk of Disk Sector Editor's screen 
is made up of two charts. The larg- 
est of these gives the hexadecimal 
equivalent of each number in the 
current block. The other chart holds 
the Commodore ASCII equivalent 
of the number. You can use these 
charts interchangeably. In some 
cases, the textual display is more 
useful. In others, you'll prefer the 
numeric display. 

Several boxes below the charts 
hold useful data, some of which is 



extracted from the current block. 
The first two. Track and Sector, 
hold the track number and sector 
number of the current block. Link 
Track and Link Sector hold the link 
block of the current block. These 
values are valid only within files. A 
file which is longer than one disk 
block may not necessarily go into 
consecutively numbered sectors. 
The link information provides a 
"thread" the system follows when 
it loads or reads a file. The link 
information is stored in the first two 
bytes of the block. 




Examine every sector of your disk with 
this powerful utility written to use the 
80-colutnn capability/ of the 128. 

Other boxes hold the number 
of bytes used in the block, the posi- 
tion of your editing cursor, the val- 
ue of the byte under the cursor 
(given in hex, decimal, and charac- 
ter representations), the disk name 
and ID, the device number, and the 
drive number. 

At the very bottom of the 
screen, in red, is a menu of the com- 
mands. Not all of the commands 
are visible at once. Press N (next 
menu) to see the remaining com- 
mands. If a disk error occurs, the 
menu will disappear and an error 
message will appear. Press any key 
to get back to the menu. 

COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1987 57 



The commands are as follows: 
+ Display the next higher block. 
B Select a new block to display. You 



@ 



will be prompted for the track and 
sector number. 



Enter a new value for the hex number 
at the current cursor location within 
the sector. Note that the change will 
not be saved to disk unless you use 
the W (write sector) command. 

# Select a new drive. 

W Write the current block to disk. Be 
very careful with this command. 

— Display the next lower block, 

L Display block pointed to by the link 
information in the current block. 

T Input new text at the current cursor 
position within the sector. Press RE- 
TURN when you've finished. The 
change will not be saved to disk un- 
less you use the W command, 

D Select a new device number, 

S Send disk command to the drive. 

F Format a disk, 

Q Quit 80-Column Sector Editor. 

C Display a catalog of the disk, 

E Exchange disk. Allows you to inspect 
a different disk. 

M Move block. You will be prompted 
for a new location for the information 
in the block. 

N Display the alternate menu. 

For all commands which 
prompt you for more information. 



such as a track or sector number, 
you can press the ESC key to cancel 
the command and return to the 
main menu. 

Disk Structure 

Sector of track 18 holds the block 
availability map (BAM) for the disk. 
Bytes and 1 of this sector point to 
the first block of directory entries. 
Bytes 144-159 hold the disk name 
padded with shifted spaces. Bytes 4 
through 143 hold the actual BAM, 
Each bit in each byte holds the sta- 
tus of a sector (whether or not it is 
available for use). Interpreting the 
BAM is a difficult and technical 
subject beyond the scope of this ar- 
ticle, so a reference book which 
covers the inner workings of Com- 
modore disk drives is almost a ne- 
cessity when working with a disk at 
this level. 

Let's take a look at the disk di- 
rectory. Go to the first sector of the 
directory {pointed to by bytes and 
1 of track 18, sector 0; normally sec- 
tor 1 of track 18). In the ASCII chart 
for the directory sector, you'il see 
eight filenames (assuming you 
have at least eight files on your 
disk). The two numbers immediate- 



ly preceding the filename give the 
starting track and sector numbers 
for the file. The number preceding 
those numbers gives the file type. 
An $80 represents a deleted file. If 
you've accidentally scratched a file, 
changing this number to $82 (PRG) 
or $81 (SEQ) will recover it, assum- 
ing that you haven't saved any more 
files to the disk since the accidental 
deletion. To permanently protect 
the file, the BAM must be changed 
to reflect the sectors in this file as be- 
ing in use. This is often more trouble 
than it is worth, A better solution is 
to validate the disk at this point. 
This wiJl let the disk drive set up the 
BAM to match the directory. Anoth- 
er solution is to go to BASIC, load 
the newly recovered program, save 
it to another disk, and then go back 
with the sector editor and again 
mark the file for deletion. 

Sector editors can be as dan- 
gerous as they are powerful. The 
safest route to follow is to make 
changes on a duplicate copy of the 
disk. At the very least, make copies 
of all the irreplaceable files on a 
disk before using any sector editor. 
See program listings on page 84. ■ 



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Dynamusic 



Roger Speerschneider 

This set of programs will help you create music that plays in 
the background zvhile a program is running — music that 
sounds as good as the songs played in commercial games. For 
the Commodore 64. A disk drive is required. 



Trying to write music in BASIC can 
be a frustrating experience. There 
are many problems to solve. It is 
nearly impossible to turn the three 
voices on or off at the same time. 
Storing notes in DATA statements 
uses up too much memory. If you 
do manage to get the song to sound 
the way you want it to, you've ex- 
hausted a great deal of time and 
effort. 

"Dynamusic" is a solution to 
this problem. You can create com- 
pact music files that play in the back- 
ground of BASIC or machine 
language programs. All you need to 
do is start the music — the song will 
even play over and over if you 
choose. 

Dynamusic itself is broken up 
into two programs. The first, writ- 
ten in BASIC, is the "Dynamusic 
Translator." This program lets you 
enter the notes, one at a time, into 
the computer. The second program, 
"Dynamusic Player/' is a machine 
language program that plays music 
constantly, even when you edit, 
LIST, or RUN other programs. It 
can be quite eerie to listen to music 
as you type in a program. 

Type in Program 1, Dynamusic 
Translator, and save it to disk. Then 
type in Program 2, Dynamusic 
Player. Since Program 2 is written 
entirely in machine language, you 
must enter it with "MLX," the ma- 
chine language entry program lo- 
cated elsewhere in this issue. When 
you run MLX, you'll be asked for a 
starting address and an ending ad- 
dress for the data you'll be entering. 
For Program 2, respond with the 
following values: 

Starting address: 9E0a 
Ending address: 9F97 

62 COMPUTEI's Gflierte August 1987 



Before leaving MLX, be sure to save 
the program to disk. 

Two other programs have been 
included. Program 3, "Dynamusic 
Customizer" (a BASIC program), 
allows you to change the operating 
parameters of the SID chip to make 
the music sound exacdy as you like. 
Type it in and save it to disk. 

Program 4 isn't really a pro- 
gram; it's a music file of the type cre- 
ated by Program I . This short piece 
will show the potential of Dyna- 
music. The tune, "Elite Demo," is 
adapted from the "Elite Syncopa- 
tions Rag" by Scott Joplin. You must 
enter the data from Program 4 with 
MLX. However, you must make a 
slight modification to MLX before 
you begin to enter this data. 

To conserve memory, Dyna- 
music stores its music data in the 
RAM under BASIC ROM, This area 
of memory is rarely used by BASIC 
programs, and by only a few other 
machine language programs. Be- 
cause of this, MLX was designed to 
reject starting or ending address 
values in this range. To persuade 
MLX to accept the data from Pro- 
gram 4, you must temporarily dis- 
able MLX's address-checking 
feature. Replace the current line 
1040 of the MLX program v«th 
1040 COSUB 1080:F = 0:RETURN 

Remember, this is just a temporary 
patch to enter Program 4; it is not a 
correction to MLX, 

Once you have changed the 
MLX program, run it and enter the 
following address values when 
prompted: 

starting address: AOOO 
Ending address: A17F 

Then enter the data from Program 



4. Be sure to save a copy before exit- 
ing MLX. You'll learn later how to 
play this file and the song files that 
you create. 

Entering A Song 

Load Program 1, the Dynamusic 
Translator. List line 20. It reads 
LN = 8000. The value of LN speci- 
fies the line number where your 
music will be stored in DATA state- 
ments. After you enter your song, 
you'll be able to see the data for 
your song by typing LIST 8000-. 

Type RUN and then sit down 
at the computer with your sheet 
music. Since the SID chip has three 
voices, all of which can produce a 
note at the same time, you must en- 
ter a note or rest for all three voices. 
If you want only one voice to play, 
you must enter a rest for the other 
two voices. As an example of how 
to enter music, let's enter a C-major 
chord made up of three half notes. 
First, give the octave for the first 
note: 4 (the fourth octave of C on a 
piano is middle C). Then, give the 
first note: C. Then the duration: 2, 
for a half note. Press RETURN to 
enter the note. A DATA statement 
will be made and appended to your 
program. 

Enter the next two notes, an E 
and a G, both in octave 4, both half 
notes. Sharps and flats can be speci- 
fied when entering the note value 
by adding an S or F, respectively. 
For example, enter AS for A-sharp, 
BF for B-flat 

Rests can be entered by press- 
ing R. The duration of the rest must 
then be specified. 

It's possible to dot a note when 
you enter the time. Just put a period 
after the time value. For instance, 2. 
is a dotted half note. A dotted note 
in Dynamusic plays half again as 
long as a normal note. 

The D option on the timing , 
screen allows you to handle unusu- 
al note timing. Duration values 



must be whole numbers. 

The review screen allows you 
to review your entry. If you decide 
the note is wrong, press £ to erase 
the note and try again. By typing R 
here you can add a remark. I recom- 
mend that you mark the end of 
each measure to ease later editing. 

It's important to make sure that 
all three voices remain synchro- 
nized with each other. If one voice 
gets ahead of or behind the others, 
they will remain that way for the 
entirety of the song. 

If you become weary, press 
RUN/STOP and save Dynamusic 
Translator {with its new DATA state- 
ments) to disk with a different name. 
Later, to resume music entry, load 
the program and change LN in line 
20 to a value larger than the num- 
ber of the last current DATA line. 

When the music is complete, 
enter Q (for quit). Choose between 
c]/cle and end. Cycle forces the mu- 
sic to play over and over. End 
causes the song to play through 
only once. 

Next, you arc asked to enter a 
number to determine the tempo 
(the rate of play) of the music. Each 
note duration is multiplied by this 
number, which may be a decimal 
value. The smaller the number, the 
faster the music will play. A value 
of 1 always works. Tempo values of 
0.5, 0.75, 1.25, and 1.5 work as long 
as you haven't specified any unusu- 
al durations with the D command. 

Storing Music Data 

Now decide where you would like 
to put the music data. Unless you 
specify another area, the data will 
begin at location 40960. On the 64, 
that is the beginning of a 12K area of 
free RAM. The first 8K of the area 
(locations 40960-49151) is hidden 
beneath BASIC RAM and isn't nor- 
mally used. The last 4K (locations 
49152-53247) is heavily used for 
machine language programs. An- 
other 8K of memory is available be- 
ginning at location 57344, Do rwt 
attempt to store music data in the 4K 
block from 53248-57343. Any cfw- 
sen startirtg location must be a multi- 
ple of 256 and not less than 2048, 

After Dynamusic Translator 
POKEs the music data into memo- 
ry, it asks whether you also want it 
saved to disk. If you do, answer V 
and give a filename. It's a good idea 
to also save a working copy of the 



entire Dynamic Translator pro- 
gram — including your song data. 
That way, you'll be able to change 
the DATA statements if the song 
doesn't sound right. 

The First Performance 

If you've just entered your music, 
and it has been sucessfully POKEd 
into memory, load Dynamusic 
Player (Program 2) with a state- 
ment of the form 
LOAD'TLAYER",8,l 

If you want to listen to music in a 
file which has been saved — for ex- 
ample. Elite Demo (Program 4) or a 
song you created — first load your 
song with a statement of the form 

LOAD "S0NG",8,1 

Then load and run Program 2. 

Type NEW. If your music data 
does not begin at location 40960 
(the default address), Dynamusic 
Player must be informed of the 
change. POKE the value of the new 
starting address divided by 256 into 
location 40780. 

If you're going to run a BASIC 
program, you should protect Dyna- 
music Player from BASIC. Do this 
by starting and stopping the music 
before loading the BASIC program, 
or by typing 

POKE 5S,158:CLR 

(You can also include this as the 
first line of the BASIC program you 
want to run.) You may now load 
your program. 

To start the music, execute the 
statement SYS 40448 either within 
your program or from direct mode. 
To stop it, execute the statement 
POKE 40448,0. Be sure not to re- 
start the music when it's already 
playing, and don't try to turn it off 
when it's already off. Also, do not 
play music during disk access. (If 
your program accesses the disk 
drive, turn off the music before disk 
access. You can restart it after all 
disk operations are completed.) 

Customizing The Sound 

When the music starts (and every 
time it repeats), the registers of the 
SID chip are filled with values from 
a group of shadow registers at loca- 
tions 40809-40833. Each SID regis- 
ter has a shadow in this range. For 
example, the voice 2 attack/decay 
register is located at address 54284, 
the 12 locations beyond the address 



of the first SID register. Thus, the 
shadow voice 2 attack/decay regis- 
ter is located at address 40809 plus 
12 (40821). 

By changing the values in 
these locations, you can change the 
way your songs sound. (You'll need 
a reference book which explains the 
SID chip. Also, if you are new to 
programming music, see "Explor- 
ing the SID Chip" elsewhere in this 
issue.) Just POKE values into the 
shadow registers as your music 
plays. The next time the song re- 
peats, you'll hear the effects of your 
changes. When you're satisfied with 
the sound, you can save the altered 
Dynamusic Player. This modified 
version of the program will play all 
songs with your new parameters. 
When you're ready to save Dyna- 
music Player, stop the music, loed 
and run Dynamusic Customizer. 
When the program asks for a file- 
name, type in the name that you 
would like to use for the custom- 
ized version of Dynamusic Player. 

Selective Deletion 

The SID chip cannot play more than 
three notes at once. If the music caUs 
for more than three notes, you must 
decide which note or notes to leave 
out. Notes exactly one octave up or 
down from another note are good 
candidates for deletion. 

Dynamusic can be tuned 
(changed in pitch) like a musical in- 
strument. Line 400 of Dynamusic 
Translator (Program 1) contains an 
expression that controls the tuning 
of the music. The first value in the 
expression determines the frequen- 
cy (in cycles per second, or hertz) of 
the base note of the tuning scale. 
The current value, 440 hertz, is a 
natural A, If you change the 440 to 
another value, all other notes in the 
scale will be altered correspondingly 
to remain in tune with each other. 

It is possible to change tunes 
while Program 2 is playing. Your 
program can POKE a new value 
into the music pointer address, lo- 
cation 40780. The next time the 
music starts or is cycled, a different 
song will play. The number to 
POKE into this location is the start- 
ing address of the song data divided 
by 256. 
See program listings on page 90. a 



COMPUTEIs GazetlB Augusi 1987 $3 



Commodore Relative Files: 
Defensive Programming 



)im Butterfield, Associate Editor 



Relative files are a good way to store data for fast access. But 
mam/ programmers have trouble using them. Here's how to 
write defensive programs which are likely to give you trouble- 
free relative files. 



The idea behind a relarive file is 
this: If you want to see or change 
record number 12, you go straight 
to that record — no need to plow 
through records 1-11, as you'd 
need to do with a sequential (SEQ) 
data file. Another advantage is that 
you don't have to make a new copy 
of the file when you want to change 
a record; the change is made by re- 
placing the old data with the new. 

How does this work internally? 
First of all, each record in the file 
has a fixed amount of space allocat- 
ed. That way, when you change 
information in a record, the records 
that follow don't need to be moved. 
All the space that is allotted doesn't 
need to he filled. For example, you 
could allocate 120 characters per 
record, but some or all of the rec- 
ords might be smaller than that. 
The remaining unused space is 
padded with O's, 

The second part of the trick in- 
volves the use of an index. Whenever 
you specify a record you wish to ac- 
cess, the drive does some arithmetic 
and then checks the index (called a 
side sector) to see where on the disk 
your information is stored. (You 
don't need to know about the arith- 
metic; it's moderately complex.) If 
you just call for record 15, for in- 
stance, the disk drive calculates that 
for a 100-character record size it 
needs to fetch the sixth block from 
the file. It looks up the address 
(track and sector) of the sixth block 
in the side sector index, and then 
reads the appropriate block from 
64 COMPUTErs Gazetle August 1987 



disk. When the block has been read, 
the same arithmetic tells the drive to 
look at position 130 in that block for 
the start of the desired record. 
Again, you don't need to know how 
the drive does it. Just supply the rec- 
ord number and let it work. 

There are inherent disadvan- 
tages in this scheme. Relative files 
are larger, slower, and more diffi- 
cult to handle than sequential files. 
They are beset by pitfalls— things 
that can go wrong if you don't han- 
dle your coding exacdy right. If you 
need to use relative files, this article 
will help steer you clear of the dan- 
ger spots. 

SEQ vs. REL 

Consider the sequential (SEQ) data 
file. It is much simpler than a rela- 
tive file, and can do most jobs at 
least as well. An old data process- 
ing axiom says; If a session calls for 
more than 15 percent of a file to be 
referenced, use a sequential file; if 
less, use a relative file. The point is 
that if you need to access only a 
small fraction of the file, why wade 
through the whole thing? In this 
case, a relative file will let you use 
only the parts you want. A sequen- 
tial file, in contrast, needs to be read 
from start to finish, and an update 
requires that a new copy of the file 
be made. 

There are other considerations. 
If a sequential file is very large (more 
than half the disk capacity), you 
don't have room to make a copy on 
the same disk, A relative file, which 



can be changed "in place," has a 
definite advantage here. 

Here's one disadvantage of rel- 
ative files that you should consider 
very carefully before deciding to 
use them for a particular task: If you 
change the contents of a record on a 
relative file, the old information is 
irrecoverably lost, A mistake at the 
keyboard could lose important 
informadon permanently. With se- 
quential files, you update by copy- 
ing everything over to a new file. 
The old file can be retained, allow- 
ing you to go back to earlier data 
and reh-ieve lost information. 

Guidelines 

The following guidelines are safety 
rules. You can sometimes get away 
with breaking them. Yet few of us 
like to take a chance of data being 
lost, so you might want to follow 
them religiously. 

The demonstration program 
given below is intended to show 
many of the rules given in these 
guidelines. The program is written 
to run on any eight-bit Commodore 
computer. 

Rule 1: Create enough records. 

When you first create a file, be sure 
to create enough records so that 
more than one block (254 charac- 
ters) is used. For example, the dem- 
onstration program uses a record 
length of 33, and thus must create 8 
or more records (254 / 33), In this 
case I created 10 (see line 140). It's a 
good idea to create a relative file 
with a special program. After a file 
has been been created, all following 
activity is updating. The demo pro- 
gram tests to see if the file exists, 
and if not, it creates it (the test is 
lines 40-70; the file creation is per- 
formed in lines 100-200). Note that 



the program insists that the only ac- 
ceptable error is number 62, File 
Not Found, Anything else is a 
"real" error and the program stops. 
Rule 2: Always set the file pointer 
to the first byte of the record. Al- 
ways position the pointer to the first 
character in the record. The last pa- 
rameter in the P command should 
be CHR$(1). See lines 140, 330, and 
480 of the demonstration program. 
Read or write the whole record each 
time to stay out of trouble. 
Rule 3: Check the drive status. Al- 
ways read the status from the disk 
drive after every positioning com- 
mand. Even if you don't care what 
the drive status message says, read- 
ing the status information insures 
that the drive has had enough time 
to locate the position to the new 
record. 

Lines 150, 340, and 490 of the 
demo program do this. It's interest- 
ing to observe that some errors are 
quite acceptable. For example, line 
150 insists on seeing error 50; at 
that point the program is creating a 
file and knows that the record it has 
just called up does not exist. When 
status is checked at line 340, a No 
Record error tells the program that 
there are no more records to be 
read. And at line 490, the same er- 
ror simply advises the program that 
the next record it writes will be a 
new one. 

The important thing to remem- 
ber is that reading the drive status 
after positioning is not just to check 
errors— it's for pacing the program 
so that data will not be rushed be- 
tween computer and disk drive 
before the drive is ready. 
Rule 4: Add 96 to the secondary 
address. It doesn't hurt to add 96 to 
the secondary address value in the 
P command. Note that the demon- 
stration program opens the relative 
file with a secondary address value 
of 2 (line 50), But in the position 
commands on lines 140, 330, and 
480, the value 96 has been added in 
to make 98. 

Rule 5: Use one PRINT# per rec- 
ord. When you're writing to a file, 
use one PRINT# to write one rec- 
ord; no more, no less. You should 
write all the fields of the record in 
one shot. (If you use the less reli- 
able practice of positioning within 
the record, you can write part of a 
record — but it's preferable not to). 



Note lines 530-610. Even 
though we have several data fields 
within the record, they are concate- 
nated (stuck together) in line 580. 
The various fields are separated by 
RETURN characters, but no RE- 
TURN is needed at the end of the 
record (line 600 trims off the last 
RETURN, and line 610 prints the 
record without adding a RETURN). 

If multiple fields within a rec- 
ord interest you, examine lines 
370-420, where the system status 
variable ST is used to detect wheth- 
er there are more fields to follow 
within a record. 

Large Leaps 

If you are reading or writing records 
in strict sequence (1, 2, 3, 4...), the 
above precautions should be suffi- 
cient. If you're hopping around, 
here are two more rules: 

Rule 6: Position twice for input. If 

your program is reading records out 
of order, give the position (P) com- 
mand twice. Get the drive status 
message each time. 

Here's the problem that neces- 
sitates this strange procedure: To 
position to a new record, the disk 
drive may need to bring in new 
blocks. First, it must check the side 
sector index for the new block de- 
sired. If the new record is far away, 
it may need to read in a new side 
sector. Finally, it must bring in two 
data blocks before it's ready to sup- 
ply data to you. That can take quite 
a while, and a second positioning 
can give the drive a chance to catch 
its breath. 

The demonstration program 
does not do double positioning. It 
doesn't need to, since it reads the 
records in sequence. 
Rule 7: Close and reopen for out- 
put. If your program is writing rec- 
ords out of order, the safest thing to 
do is to close the file after each 
write. You may then immediately 
reopen it (after reading the drive 
status). It may cost over a second in 
running time to close and reopen 
the file, but this procedure offers in- 
creased insurance against corrupt- 
ing data on the disk. 

When writing records, the 
drive has a huge amount of work to 
do. The drive doesn't write to disk 
at the time you give the PRINT# 
command; rather, it waits until a 
position command tells it to move 



somewhere else. The drive must 
then safely store all the changes it 
has made before it can read in the 
new data. This is a ticklish time — 
it's possible that the computer may 
try to pour in more information 
before the drive is ready for it. 

The safest procedure is to close 
and reopen the file, and that's what 
our example program does in lines 
640-670. This is probably overkill 
under these circumstances, since 
the drive will have a lot of time to 
do its work while the user is typing 
in the next record. But when it's 
your data — safety first. 

Other Relative File Anomalies 

Commodore data files shouldn't 
normally contain characters with 
ASCII codes or 255. If you try to 
include these two characters in a 
record, you'll probably cause 
problems. 

Character is used pad out the 
unused part of each record. If you 
write this character to a relative file, 
the drive will not know where the 
record ends, or which part is full. So 
don't write CHR$(0}, 

Character 255 is used by the 
operating system to indicate an 
empty record — one with no data. 
Our demonstration jSrogram used it 
to write an empty record during file 
generation (line 170), and later de- 
tected this value to report an empty 
record (line 380), If you want to use 
this character, be careful. 

You can't generate a relative 
file with record lengths of 42, 58, or 
63 characters. It's just an oddity of 
the disk operating system that these 
values are forbidden. 

The 1571 is one of Commo- 
dore's most recent disk drives, de- 
signed especially to work with the 
Commodore 128, However, for the 
standard double-sided 128 format, 
the operating system code to con- 
trol reading and writing on side 2 is 
currently bug-ridden and almost 
useless. Commodore will be releas- 
ing a new 1571 ROM to correct the 
problems; it should be available by 
the time you read this. Until that 
happens, it's wise to leave two- 
sided disks half-empty when using 
relative files. 

Relative files demand extra 
care. But if you know the rules on 
how to code defensively, you can 
make them behave as they should. 
See program listing on page 78. 8f 

COMPUTED Gazette August 1Mi7 65 




READ And DATA— Two Of A Kind 



w\jm(m 



Larry Cotton 

Last month we wrote a state capi- 
tals drill program which illustrated 
some of the BASIC commands 
we've learned. However, because 
we used only the BASIC commands 
we've covered so far in this column, 
the program wasn't very elegant. 
This month we'll delve into two ex- 
tremely useful statements — READ 
and DATA — which will ultimately 
allow us to modify and greatly 
shorten the program, depending on 
how many drill questions we want 
to ask. In the process, we'll add just 
the touch of elegance we need and, 
as a bonus, make the program easi- 
er to understand. 

Before we modify the program, 
let's go over a few basics, If you un- 
derstand these examples without 
entering and running them, that's 
fine. But if you don't understand a 
certain example, it would be a good 
idea to type it in, run it, and observe 
the results. 

Reading Strings 

READ and DATA work together; if 
you use the READ command, there 
must be some DATA to read. Their 
purpose is best illustrated by study- 
ing a simple case which uses a 
string variable: 

10 READ A$ 

20 DATA RALEIGH 

30 PRINT AS 

If you run this, READ in line 10 
causes the computer to look for a 
DATA line. It finds the data at line 
20— the word Raleigh — and line 30 
prints it out. We could have accom- 
plished the same results with the 
following: 

10 A$ = "RALEIGH" 

20 PRINT A$ 

So why use READ and DATA? 
This simple case, for demonstration 
purposes only, shows how READ 
and DATA work; in actual practice 
these commands are used when 

66 COMPUms Qazetle August 1987 



many pieces of data are to be read. 

Reading Numbers 

READ also works with numeric 
variables: 

10 READ A 
20 DATA 1000 
30 PRINT A 

This time, the variable A is assigned 
the first (and in this case only) 
DATA element, 1000; line 30 prints 
it on the screen. 

Reading More Than One 
Piece of Data 

Now let's illustrate how to read 
more than one piece of data with 
the same command: 

10 READ A$, B$ 

20 DATA RALEIGH, RICHMOND 

30 PRINT A$ 

40 PRINT B$ 

Line 10 READs both pieces of data 
before going to line 30. Punctuation 
is very important when entering 
these statements. Note that the 
variables A$ and B$ — and the data 
that mil be assigned to them — are 
separated by commas. A frequent 
error is to put a comma after the 
word DATA^don't do it. Also be 
sure not to put an extra comma after 
the last data element. And check 
that your commas really aren't peri- 
ods. Because the period and comma 
keys are side by side on the key- 
board, it's easy to mistakenly type 
one for the other. 

It's very important that you 
have enough data to be read. Look 
at this: 

10 READ AS, B$, CS 

20 DATA RALEIGH, RICHMOND 

If you run this, you get one of 
BASIC'S error messages— ?OUT OF 
DATA ERROR IN LINE 10. The 
READ statement in line 10 tries to 
read three pieces of data but finds 
only two. Note that the line men- 
tioned in the error message is the 
line that's reading the data, not the 
DATA line itself. 



Using FOR-NEXT With READ 
And DATA 

Often, a FOR-NEXT loop is used to 
read data: 

10 FOR T=l TO 5: READ X 

20 PRINT X 

30 NEXT 

40 DATA 5, 10,15,20,25 

Now you can begin to appreciate 
the value of READ and DATA. The 
alternative to this would have been 
to make X = 5, then 10, and so on 
to 20, printing out each value. Be 
sure you have as many pieces of 
data as the number of times the 
FOR-NEXT loop increments. 

One of the more common uses 
for reading data is to put values into 
certain memory locations, or regis- 
ters, in the computer that aren't 
normally found there. The BASIC 
command POKE is used to do that: 

10 FOR L"49152 TO 49157 

20 READ D 

30 POKE L, D 

40 NEXT L 

SO DATA 169, 1, 141, 32, 208, 96 

(Type this in only if you have a 
Commodore 64,) This little pro- 
gram demonstrates a very common 
technique for installing machine 
language programs in the com- 
puter. (Machine language programs 
run much faster than BASIC ones 
do; computer games, which usually 
need speed for good playability, are 
often written in machine language.) 
Before this program is run, the 
memory locations could contain 
numbers in the range of 0-255, 
After it's run, the memory locations 
would be loaded with specific nu- 
meric data as shown here: 



LocatiQ] 


1{L) 


DATA (D) 


49152 




169 


49153 




J 


49154 




141 


49155 




32 


49156 




208 


49157 




96 



The FOR-NEXT loop will in- 
crement six times; six memory loca- 
tions will be affected. Again, 



always make sure the number of 
data elements corresponds to the 
number of times the FOR-NEXT 
loop is to be executed. 

Mixing Numeric And 
String Data 

Numeric and string data can be 
mixed; 

10 READ S, S$ 

20 DATA 4, LISA 

30 PRINT "NUMBER";S;'aS ";S$ 

Data is read in the order in which 
it's requested. If a numeric variable 
is requested (READ S), a number 
must be the next piece of data to be 
read. Change line 20 to see what 
happens if they're switched: 

20 DATA LISA, 4 

Now, instead of an OUT OF DATA 
message, we get a SYNTAX ERROR 
message. Line 10 is expecting a 
number (S) as its first piece of data, 
but instead it gets a string. Note that 
the line referred to in the SYNTAX 
ERROR message is the DATA line. 
The line referred to in an OUT OF 
DATA message is the READ line. 

Using GOTO With READ 

And DATA 

GOTO is often used with READ 
and DATA. Later you'll see that this 
is the key to the rewrite of the state 
capitals drill program: 

10 READ N$ 
20 PRINT NS 
30 GOTO 10 

40 DATA DAVID, MICHAEL, VICTOR, 
JIM 

Lines 10 and 20 READ and 
PRINT the data. Line 30 sends con- 
trol back to line 10, which, each 
time executed, READs a new piece 
of data. If you typed this one in and 
ran it, you saw the OUT OF DATA 
message after all the names were 
printed— there was nothing to limit 
how many times the computer exe- 
cuted GOTO 10. 

Here's one way to eliminate 
the OUT OF DATA message when 
GOTO is used: 

10 READ NS: IF N$-"QUir' THEN 

END 
20 PRINT NS 
30 GOTO 10 
40 DATA DAVID, MICHAEL, VICTOR, 

JIM, QUIT 

It would be a good idea to type this 
one in and run it. The computer 
READs (in line 10) the first name 
from DATA line 40 (DAVID) and 



prints it in line 20. Line 30 sends 
control back to line 10 for another 
read (MICHAEL) and so on until all 
four names are read and printed. 
The last time through line 10, the 
word QUIT is read as N$, the IF- 
THEN condition is satisfied, and 
the program ends. The word QUIT 
isn't printed. 

For numbers, you can use a 
value not normally used by the pro- 
gram to stop the reading process: 

10 READ N: IF N--! THEN END 

20 PRINT N 

30 GOTO 10 

40 DATA S, 10, 15, 20, 15, -1 

Modifying The Drill Program 

Now we've covered enough of the 
basics of READ and DATA to see 
how to modify last month's state 
capitals drill program. If you saved 
a copy of last month's program, just 
load it, type LIST, and change lines 
140 and 150 as shown below, (If 
not, a complete listing appears at 
the end of this article.) 

140 READ AS, S$: IF AS™ "QUIT" 

THEN 5000 
ISO FOR 1 = 1 TO 3: PRINT Q$;SS;"7" 

Line 140 now expects to find two 

pieces of string data — A$ (the an- 
swer) and S$ (the state name). 
When it reads the word QUIT, con- 
trol is sent to line 5000, the pro- 
gram-ending routine. 

Line 150 is what will make our 
new program much more efficient 
(and elegant). Compare last 
month's program to this one and 
you'll see why. 

Every time we asked a ques- 
tion we had to repeat a certain rou- 
tine and each state's name, which 
used five lines. Now we simply use 
S$, which is read as the second 
piece of data. 

As we saw in an example 
above, we send control back to 
READ more DATA by using the 
GOTO statement. Leave lines 
160-180 as they are and change 
line 190 to 

190 GOTO 140 

Now erase your old lines 200, 
210, 220 and 230 by typing those 
numbers and pressing RETURN. 
(You may recall that this is the way 
to erase BASIC program lines,) 
Leave the subroutines as they are in 
lines 1000-5000. 

The only thing left to do is to 
add the data for line 1 40 to read: 



SOO DATA RALEIGH, NORTH 
CAROLINA, RICHMOND, 
VIRGINIA, QUIT, QUIT 

Why two QUITs? Remember 
that line 140 expects two pieces of 
string data. The second doesn't 
have to be QUIT; this is just a com- 
mon programming technique. 

Notice now the real value of 
the READ and DATA statements: 
To expand the program to include 
more questions, instead of having 
to type five tines for each quesdon 
and answer, one simply adds more 
data between what's there and the 
two QUITs. When line 500 be- 
comes full, do this: 

1. Remove the two QUITs, and 
the comma before them, at the end 
of line 500, 

2. Add more DATA lines— 510, 
520, and so on, 

3. Put DATA as the first word 
on each Une. 

4. Add the data, starting with 
the capital, then the state, and alter- 
nafing between the two. Separate 
them with commas as in line 500, 

5. Put two QUITS as the last 
two items of data. 

Next month we'll see how and 
when to read data repeatedly, using 
the RESTORE statement. 

Modified Drill Program 

SC 100 PRINT" {CLR!" 

PK 110 POKE53280,ll!POKE53281, 

llsPRINT'iWHT)" 
GJ 120 PRINT: PRINT 
,RH 130 Q5="WHAT IS THE CAPITAL 

OF " 
BC 140 READRS,SSiIFAS-"QUIT"TH 

EH5000 
SX 150 FORI->lTO3tERINT05jSS!"7 

AM 160 GOSUBlBae 

BX 170 IFCS<>ASTHENGOSUB3000iN 

EXT tGOSUB4000! GOTO 1,90 
BQ 180 GOSUB2000 
JX 190 GOTO 140 

XM 500 DATARALEIGH , NORTH CAROL 
INA, RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, 
UIT,OUIT 
AS 1000 CS=""!lNPUTC5«IFCS-""T 

HEN5000 
DS 1010 RETURN 

KA 2000 C=C+1: PRINT "[ DOWN IVERY 
GOOD 1 " jFORT»lTOia00 : N 
EXTsPRINT'tCLRj 
{3 down)" iRETURN 
BS 3000 PRINT" (down) SORRY, THA 
T'S NOT CORRECT. "i FORT 
-1TO1000 iNEXT: PRINT" 

{clr)£3 domn)"sReturn 
xp 4000 print"the answer is "a 

?"." 
XA 4010 PRINT IPRINT'PRESS THE 

{ SPACE )SPACr BAR TO GO 
ON." 
JE 4020 GETSS:IFSS<>" ■THEN402 


SM 4030 PRINT"tCLRH3 D0WN1"«R 

ETURN 
BQ S000 PRINTC"CORRECT.":END V 

COMPUTEIS Gazene August 1987 67 



Din]©©[ri][l[]i] 






Extra Assistance 



Richard Mansfield 
Editorial Director 

When you start learning machine 
language (ML), the first thing you 
need is an assembler program. An 
assembler is to ML what the BASIC 
language is to programming in 
BASIC: It translates your com- 
mands into actions the computer 
can understand and perform when 
a program is run. Many assemblers 
are available commercially; some 
are included in books on ML; and 
some have been published in GA- 
ZETTE and COMPUTE!. 

There are a variety of features 
to look for when deciding which as- 
sembler to use, but one of the most 
important is its complement of 
pseudo-ops, add-ons to the assem- 
bler which make life easier for the 
programmer. Pseudo-ops are the 
equivalent of options sold with 
automobiles, and, as you might ex- 
pect, some such options are more 
accurately described as necessities 
than luxuries. 

Unofficial Commands 

An "op," short for opcode (which it- 
self is short for operation code), is a 
number that describes an action for 
the microprocessor to carry out. For 
example, 96 tells the chip to return 
from a subroutine. An assembler's 
primary job is to translate the set of 
abbreviations programmers use into 
these opcodes. So, when you pro- 
gram in ML and use the command 
RTS (for ReTum from Subroutine), 
the assembler reads this and stores it 
in the computer as 96. 

In other words, the assembler 
takes your list of commands and 
translates them into a list of num- 
bers. These numbers are the execut- 
able ML program. After the 
assembler has stored the numbers, 
you can SYS to them, and your ML 
program will run. 

A pseudo-op, by contrast, is 

68 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1987 



not part of the official list of ML 
abbreviations. Instead, it come.s as 
an addition to an assembler and 
does something to make your pro- 
gramming easier or faster in the 
same way that LIST comes with 
BASIC. One of the most valuable 
pseudo-ops is the BYTE command 
(sometimes called A5C; the names 
of pseudo-ops vary from assembler 
to assembler), BYTE allows you to 
enter a table of numbers directly 
into RAM. These numbers are data, 
not program opcodes. They might 
be the parameters you want POKEd 
into the SID chip registers or a list 
of calorics for various foods, what- 
ever. When programming, you sim- 
ply type BYTE, and the assembler 
knows that this isn't one of the nor- 
mal opcode abbreviations — so it 
handles the information in a special 
way: 

BYTE 112,27,98 

These numbers will be stored in 
RAM exactly as you typed them. If 
this were a list of calories, you could 
create a parallel list of foods by 
using the BYTE pseudo-op: 

BYTE 'TWlNKIE,GUMDROP,DONUT 

where the BYTE pseudo-op tells the 
assembler to translate these charac- 
ters into their proper screen codes. 
(Add a search routine and a few 
hundred more foods and you've got 
an ML calorie counter program.) 
BYTE, then, is a simple way to cre- 
ate tables, lists, and arrays of data in 
ML. You don't want to know how 
cumbersome this can be without 
that pseudo-op. 

Another useful collection of re- 
lated pseudo-ops gives you control 
over the destination of your pro- 
gram. D or DISK (or a variation 
thereof) entered into your program 
sends the resulting executable ML 
program to the disk drive instead of 
directly into RAM. This is valuable 
when you want your ML to reside 
in memory where the assembler or 



other programming utilities are lo- 
cated, it helps you avoid overwrit- 
ing the resident programs. F or 
PRINTER sends the results to the 
printer for a hardcopy listing, and S 
or SCREEN lists there. 

The = pseudo-op is essential, 
(t allows you to assign values to 
labels and then use the labels 
throughout your program. It's quite 
similar to using variables in BASIC; 
SCREEN - 1024 

can then be used in such situations 
as: 

STA SCREEN (to put whatever is in the 
Atmmulnlor iiitii scrwii mi'mOTy) 
STA SCREEN + 512 (using +, the macro 
for automatic addition) 

Among the benefits of such la- 
bels is that you can more easily read 
your program listing or utilize glob- 
al access via search or replace. 

Macros 

One facility provided by some as- 
semblers is macros, subroutines you 
can import into your program from 
disk. For example, if you frequently 
need to check for keyboard input, 
you could write a general purpose 
routine which PEEKs the keyboard 
for activity and save it as a macro. 
Then, when writing an ML pro- 
gram which needs to accomplish 
this, you could have the assembler 
insert this macro instead of typing 
each instruction by hand. 

Macros have two weaknesses, 
though. First, it's often simply easi- 
er to use a subroutine instead, rath- 
er than inserting a routine 
repetitively throughout your pro- 
gram. Second, you have to spend 
some time passing parameters to 
macros, which means you have to 
remember zobat parameters, in 
which order, and then write them 
in. It's often better just to write the 
routine directly. m 



1 



mrmam. 



Tricks Worth Remembering 



Todd Heimarck 
Assistant Editor 

Every once in a while, you run 
across a trick that's not an enor- 
mously useful programming tool 
but is still worth remembering. 
Here are a few such tricks, which 
are valuable primarily because they 
save you some time. 

Loading And Saving 

Running a BASIC program is a two- 
step process; First you load it into 
memory, then you type RUN. But 
on the 64, you can load and run a 
disk-based program by typing 
LOAD "file name", %: (don't press 
RETURN), and then holding down 
the SHIFT key and pressing RUN/ 
STOP. Make sure you place a colon 
after the 8. On the 128, you can use 
RUN "fiiename" for BASIC, or 
BOOT "filename" for machine lan- 
guage programs. 

When a directory is showing 
on the screen and you see the file 
you want to load, you can save a lit- 
tle typing by moving the cursor up 
to the line that lists the file. Type 
LOAD on top of the number of 
blocks, move the cursor just past 
the closing quotation mark, add ,8: 
(again, the colon is important), and 
press RETURN, On the 128, you 
can replace the LOAD with D 
SHIFT-L (the abbreviation for 
DLOAD) or RUN. Press TAB a cou- 
ple of times to get past the last quo- 
tation mark, then ESC-Q or ESC- 
@, and then RETURN. 

If you put a line like 10 REM 
SAVWOOfilename" ,8 at the begin- 
ning of a program, you can list line 
10, cursor to the version number (to 
change it to 01, 02, 03, and so on) 
and press RETURN. To save the 
program, put the cursor on the line 
number and press the space bar to 
erase the 10 and the REM. Then just 
tap RETURN. When developing 
large, important programs, I usually 
alternate disks, putting the odd- 



numbered versions on one disk and 
the even-numbered versions on the 
other. When the disk begins to fill 
up, erase the old versions with the 
question mark wildcard: OPEN 
15,8,15, "S0:17filename": CLOSE 15. 

Shortcuts 

At times, you'll discover that 
you've put too many commands on 
one line, and, when you want to 
add a few things to the middle of 
the line, the insert key won't allow 
you to go beyond the 64 's 80-char- 
acter limit. Rather than retyping the 
second part of the line, you can split 
it up by listing it twice. Change the 
line number of the second line — 
from 580 to 582, for example. Now 
you have two lines that are exactly 
the same. On the first one (line 
580), use the space bar to erase the 
second part of the line. On the sec- 
ond line (582), move to the middle 
of the line and delete backwards. 

A quick way to escape quote 
mode or insert mode is to press 
SHIFT-RETURN. This also useful if 
you change your mind after chang- 
ing a line. The normal RETURN 
key causes a direct-mode command 
to execute or, if the line starts with a 
number, it adds the line to the pro- 
gram in memory. SHIFT-RETURN 
doesn't do either; it just puts the 
cursor on the beginning of the next 
line and turns off reverse mode, 
quote mode, and insert mode. 

If you use a utility like "Meta- 
BASIC" that lets you define the 
function keys, or if you have a 128, 
it's handy to define the function 
keys to list portions of your pro- 
gram. Change the definition for the 
fl key to LIST-199, the definition 
for f3 to LIST200-399, and so on. 
(Since MetaBASIC limits key defi- 
nition strings to ten characters, you 
may have to abbreviate LIST to L 
SHIFT-l.) You can then press the 
appropriate function key to see a 
specific part of the program. 

To send output to a printer, you 



first open a channel with a line such 
as OPEN 1,4 or OPEN 1,4,7. Don't 
use CMD to divert PRINT state- 
ments to the open channel; CMD 
can be canceled (if the program does 
a GET, for example). Instead, use 
PRINT#. When you're developing a 
program that writes to the printer, 
you can save paper during testing by 
changing the OPEN to route output 
to device 3— OPEN 1,3, for ex- 
ample. Device 3 is the screen, so any 
further PRINT#1 statements would 
send lines to the screen instead of 
the printer. When the program is 
fully debugged and running, you 
can change the device number in the 
OPEN statement back to a 4, 

Debugging 

In programs that contain many 
DATA statements, it's common to 
make a typing error here and there. 
It's not much fun to proofread a list 
of numbers, so here are some sug- 
gestions for pinpointing typing 
mistakes. First, if you get an ILLE- 
GAL QUANTITY error in the line 
that contains a READ followed by a 
POKE, the problem is most likely a 
number in DATA that's larger than 
255 or smaller than 0. When this 
happens, PRINT PEEK(63) + 
PEEK(64)*256 will usually tell you 
which line of DATA contains the 
item that's out of range for POKE- 
ing. The equivalent memory loca- 
tions on the 128 are 65 and 66. 

Another problem is acci- 
dentally separating two numbers 
with a period instead of a comma. 
To find an errant period, use this 
two-line program (substitute mem- 
ory locations 65 and 66 in line 2 on 
the 128): 

1 READ A: IF A-INT(A) THEN 1 

2 PRINT "CHECK LINE"; I'EEK(63) -I- 
PEEK(6*)*2S6: END 

If there aren't any periods, line 
1 will eventually run out of DATA 
to read. If you did accidentally type 
a period, line 2 will tell you which 
line to check, © 



COMPUTEfa GazBUB August 1987 69 



RAM Usage On The 
Commodore 128 



Ottis R. Cowper 

Understajiding and manipulating RAM on the Commodore 128 
can be tricky business. This excerpt from Mapping the Com- 
modore 128 (from COMPUTE! Books) offers a technical over- 
view of key RAM locations, and provides a wealth of useful 
information. Included are various tips and techniques for 128 
programmers. 



The Commodore 128, as its name 
implies, has 128K of primary RAM 
in two 64K blocks. The computer's 
elaborate memory management sys- 
tem can mix RAM from one or both 
blocks together with ROM or I/O 
chip registers to create the configu- 
rations known as banks. In general 
the 128 sees RAM from block in 
even-numbered banks (0, 4, 8, 14) 
and RAM from block 1 in odd- 
numbered banks ( 1 , 5, 9). A notable 
exception is bank 15, where RAM 
from block is seen. Another sig- 
nificant exception is that in every 
bank the system normally sees 
RAM from block in locations 2- 
1023/$0002-$03FF. (Locations 
0-1/$00-$01 are used for the pro- 
cessor's on-chip I/O port and are 
never seen as RAM.) This means 
that the lowest IK of RAM in block 
1 normally remains invisible and 
unused. The common IK block and 
locations 1024-71 67/$0400-$lBFF 
in block have special uses. MMU 
registers, rather than RAM or ROM, 
are seen at addresses 65280-65284/ 
$FF00-$FF04 in every bank con- 
figuration. 

Two pointers in page 10/$0A 
indicate the range of locations in 
block considered free RAM, Loca- 
tions 2565-2566/$0AO5-$0AO6 
point to the lowest free address, 

70 COMPUTEra Gazette August 1987 



and locations 2567-2568/$0A06- 
$0A07 point to one byte beyond the 
highest free address. These pointers 
are initialized during the reset se- 
quence to 7168/$1C00 and 65280/ 
$FF0O, respectively. The pointer 
values can also be changed with the 
Kernal MEMTOP and MEMBOT 
routines. However — unlike earlier 
Commodore computers — the val- 
ues in these pointers have no effect 
on the range of addresses used by 
BASIC. 

BASIC RAM Usage 

For BASIC programming, the areas 
of RAM normally available for stor- 
age of programs and variables are 
locations 7168-65279/SlCOG- 
$FEFF in block and 1024-65279/ 
$0400-$FEFF in block 1. This is a 
total of 122,368 bytes of available 
RAM space (illustrated in Figure 1), 
This explains why part of the mes- 
sage you see when you turn on or 
reset the computer says 122365 
BYTES FREE. (The three missing 
bytes are to account for the zero 
byte required by BASIC before the 
first program line and the two zero 
bytes used to mark the end of the 
program.) 

Actually, it's a bit misleading to 
claim that many free bytes, since 
you can't write a BASIC program 



120,000 bytes long. The free RAM is 
divided into two distinct segments: 
58,112 bytes in block for BASIC 
program text and 64,256 bytes in 
block 1 for variables and strings. 
(For comparison, the Commodore 
64 offers 38,911 bytes for program 
text and variables combined.) 

As noted in Figure 1, there is 
one additional factor which affects 
the amount of memory available 
for program text. When you use a 
GRAPHIC statement to set up a 
high-resolution screen, an addi- 
tional 9K is reserved in block 0: IK 
at 7168-8191/$1C00-$1FFF for 
color information and 8K at 
8192-16383/$2000-$3FFF for the 
screen bitmap. In this case, the 
amount of RAM available for 
BASIC program text is reduced to 
48,896 bytes (locations 16384- 
65279/$4000-$FEFF in block 0). If 
a program is already in memory 
when the GRAPHIC statement is 
executed, program text will be 
moved upward in memory — the 
starting address will be changed 
from 7169/$1C01 to 16385/ 
$4001 — and the program will be re- 
linked to work at the new address- 
es. Once a high-resolution memory 
area is established, it remains allo- 
cated until a GRAPHIC CLR state- 
ment is executed, at which time the 
program text is moved down to 
start at 7169/$1C01 again. 

Pointers in zero page and page 
18/$12 indicate the amount of 
RAM currently used for program 
text and variables. BASIC program 
text is assumed to begin at the ad- 
dress in block specified in loca- 



Figure 1. BASIC RAM Usage 

BankO 
SFFOO - 



Bank 1 



S4000 - 



SICOO - 



$0400 
$0000 



BASIC program 
text 



High-resolution 
screen & color 
(if used) 



BASIC & Kernal 
working storage 



BASIC 
variables 



^ MMU 
registers 



Common 
" area 



tions 45-46/$2D-$2E, That 
pointer is always initialized to 
7169/$1C01 during the BASIC cold 
start routine. Unlike the Commo- 
dore 64, which sets its start-of- 
BASIC pointer according to the 
value in the system's start-of- free- 
memory pointer, the 128 sets the 
address value without regard for 
the value in locations 2565-2566/ 
$0A05-$0A06. Locations 4626- 
4627/$1212-$1213 point to one 
byte beyond the highest address in 
block available for program text. 
That pointer is initialized during 
BASIC cold start to 6528O/$FF00, 



again without regard to the value in 
the Kemal memory pointer at loca- 
tions 2567-2568/SOA07-$OA08. 

The actual ending address of 
the program text currently in mem- 
ory is specified by the value in loca- 
tions 4624-4625/$1210-$1211. 
That pointer is initialized during 
the BASIC CLR routine with an ad- 
dress value that is two bytes be- 
yond the starting address in 
locations 45-46/$2D-$2E. The 
pointer value is updated each time 
a BASIC program line is added or 
deleted. An OUT OF MEMORY er- 
ror occurs if the address in locations 



4624-4625/$1210-$1211 reaches 
the value in locations 4626-4627/ 
$1212-$1213. The ending address 
pointer is set after a LOAD to the 
address of the last byte loaded, and 
the SAVE routine uses the values in 
the starting and ending address 
pointers as the starting and ending 
addresses for the block of memory 
to be saved. 

The address in the pointer at 
locations 47-48/$2F-$30 marks 
the start of scalar (nonarray) vari- 
ables in bank L The pointer is ini- 
tialized to 1024/$0400 during the 
BASIC cold start routine. A pointer 
at locations 49-50/$31-$32 marks 
the end of scalar variables and the 
beginning of arrays; another point- 
er at locations 51-52/$33-$34 
marks the end of arrays and the be- 
ginning of free memory in block 1 . 
The latter two pointers are reset to 
the value in locations 47-48/$2F- 
$30 during the BASIC CLR routine. 

The free memory in block 1 is 
used to hold strings of all types — 
constants, variables, and arrays. A 
pointer at locations 57-58/$39- 
$3A holds an address which is one 
byte beyond the highest address of 
strings in block 1. It is initialized 
during BASIC cold start to point to 
65280/$FFOO. The string pool is 
filled from this address downward 
toward the bottom of free memory 
indicated in locations 51-52/ 
$33-$34. A pointer at locations 
53-54/$35-$36 marks the current 
address of the bottom of the string 
pool. That pointer is reset to the 
value in locations 57-58/$39-$3A 
during the BASIC CLR routine. An 
OUT OF MEMORY error occurs if 
the value in locations 53-54/ 
$35-$36 reaches the value in loca- 
tions 51-52/$33-$34. 

Reserving RAM 

There are occasions when you will 
want to divert an area of RAM from 
its normal usage. For example, you 
may need to set aside space for a 
machine language routine, an alter- 
nate screen display, or a data buff- 
er. For machine language (ML) 
programming, you can use any area 
of RAM if you are willing to learn 
the intricacies of the 128's banking 
scheme. Otherwise, it's best to re- 
strict your programming to certain 
known areas. For a machine lan- 
guage routine to be used in con- 
junction with a BASIC program, 

COMPUTE'S GazBtte August 1987 71 



you'll need to select an area which 
BASIC doesn't normally use, or to 
take away some memory that oth- 
erwise would be used for program 
text or variable storage. 

Locations 4864-7167/$! 300- 
$1BFF in block are currently un- 
used (even though they are called 
"reserved" in some Commodore 
literature). This 2304-byte area is 
the largest segment of unused, pro- 
tected RAM in the 128, and it is be- 
coming extremely popular with 128 
ML programmers — much like the 
$C000 block in the Commodore 64. 
You can expect to see many ML 
programs using this area. 

Other, shorter blocks are also 
available if certain BASIC features 
are not used. If tape is not used, the 
256 bytes at 2816-3O71/$0B00- 
$OBFF are available. However, 
unlike other free blocks, this page 
may be overwritten during a reset 
because disk boot sectors are read 
into this area. Thus, the time- 
honored Commodore tradition of 
using the cassette buffer for short 
ML routines is less suitable in the 
128. (It's annoying to have to reload 
your routine after each reset.) 

If your program doesn't use 
RS-232 communications, the two 
RS-232 buffers at 3072-3583/ 
$0CO0-$ODFF provide a 512-byte 
workspace. This is probably the 
best area for short ML routines that 
you wish to use in conjunction with 
BASIC. (Unlike the cassette buffer, 
this area always survives reset in- 
tact.) If your program doesn't use 
sprites, the 512-byte sprite defini- 
tion area at 3584-4095/$OE0O- 
SOFFF is also available. Of course, if 
your program uses neither tape nor 
RS-232 nor sprites, you can use the 
full 1280 bytes at 2816-4095/ 
$OB00-$0FFF, or any subsection 
thereof. 

To use a large ML program in 
conjunction with BASIC, there is an 
easy way to reserve over IIK of 
protected RAM. However, this 
technique works only if neither the 
BASIC nor ML program requires 
high- resolution graphics. The trick 
is to use the BASIC GRAPHIC 
statement to set aside a high-reso- 
lution screen area at 7168-16383/ 
$1C00-$3FFF. As mentioned 
above, this area remains allocated 
until a GRAPHIC CLR statement is 
executed. Simply begin your BASIC 
program with a line like GRAPHIC 

72 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1987 



liGRAPHIC {or GRAPHIC 
liGRAPHIC 5 if you want to use 
the 80-column display). Then 
BLOAD or POKE the machine lan- 
guage program into the reserved 
area. In addition to the 9K screen 
area, you can also use the contigu- 
ous unused area just below, at 
4864-7167/$1300-$lBFF. If you 
want to use a machine language 
program in conjunction with 
BASIC and high-resolution graph- 
ics, you'll have to resort to bank- 
switching techniques if the 
program is too large to fit in the un- 
used area at 4864/$1300. 

It's possible to reserve space 
above or below either the BASIC or 
variable/string areas. To reserve 
space below BASIC program text, 
increase the value in the start-of- 
BASIC pointer at locations 45-46/ 
$2D-$2E by the number of bytes 
you want to reserve. (To reserve an 
even number of 256-byte pages, 
you need only change the value in 
location 46/$2E.) Two other steps 
are also necessary: BASIC requires 
a zero byte below the first location 
in its program text space, and a 
NEW operation is required to reset 
other important memory pointers. 
For example, to reserve three pages 
(768 bytes) below the normal start 
of BASIC, you would use a state- 
ment like this: 
POKE 46,31:POKE 31*256,0:NEW 

After this statement is executed, the 
area at 7168-7935/$lC00-$lEFF 
is protected from BASIC unril the 
next time the BASIC cold start rou- 
tine is performed (normally during 
the next reset sequence). The point- 
er value is unaffected by RUN/ 
STOP-RESTORE. This technique is 
less useful when a high-resolution 
screen area is allocated. In that case, 
the start of BASIC is moved to 
16384/$4000. The technique for re- 
serving space at the start of BASIC 
still works, but the reserved memo- 
ry will lie above 16383/$3FFF, 
which is the highest address seen as 
RAM in bank 15 — the bank in 
which Kernal ROM is visible and to 
which BASIC defaults. Thus, an ML 
routine above that boundary will be 
invisible unless you tinker with the 
MMU configuration register. 

Space can be reserved at the 
top of the BASIC program area by 
reducing the value in the pointer at 
locaHons 4626-4627/$1212-$1213 



by the desired number of bytes. 
(Again, if you wish to reserve an 
even number of 256-byte pages, 
you can simply reduce the value in 
location 4627/$1213.) No addition- 
al steps are required other than 
changing the pointer value. This 
technique was often used in the 
Commodore 64 to reserve space for 
machine language routines; its use- 
fulness is more limited in the 128 
because of the 16384/$4000 
boundary of RAM visible in bank 
15, which was mentioned above. 
To easily use the reserved area for 
an ML routine in conjunction with 
BASIC, the top of memory must be 
lowered sufficiendy to make at least 
a portion of the reserved area ap- 
pear below the boundary of RAM 
visible in bank 15; this dramatically 
reduces the amount of memory 
available for program text. It's not 
even possible when a high- resolu- 
tion screen area is allocated. The 
technique can, however, be useful 
for setting aside an area in block 
for a buffer, a reserved area of 
memory for data storage. 

You can also reserve space in 
block 1, either above or below the 
variable/string area. To reserve 
space below variables, add a value 
corresponding to the number of 
bytes to be reserved to the address 
in the pointer at locations 47-48/ 
$2F-$30. (As with the other point- 
ers, you can simply increase the 
value in location 48/$30 if you are 
reserving an even number of 256- 
byte pages.) This step must be fol- 
lowed by a BASIC CLR statement 
to reset other variable pointers, so it 
should be performed early in the 
program (CLR erases all current 
variable values). The following line 
reserves an additional IK at the bot- 
tom of variable space, locations 
1024-2047/$0400-$07FFin block 1: 

100 POKE 4S,8:CLR 

Once established, the reserved area 
will remain intact until the next 
time the BASIC cold start routine is 
executed, normally at the next re- 
set. The setting is unaffected by 
RUN/STOP-RESTORE. 

Since this reserved RAM is in 
block 1, it can't be used for ML rou- 
tines as easily as the RAM from 
block 0. There is no standard bank 
configuration that makes BASIC 
and Kernal ROM visible in conjunc- 
tion with block 1 RAM. Of course, it 



is possible to access Kernal or 
BASIC routines indirectly by using 
the JSRFAR or JMPFAR routines. 
One use for a reserved area in block 
1 would be for an alternate 40- 
column screen. 

To reserve space above strings, 
subtract a value corresponding to 
the number of bytes to be reserved 
from the address in the pointer at lo- 
cations 57-58/$39-$3A. (As with 
the other pointers, you can simply 
increase the value in location 58/ 
$3A if you are reserving an even 
number of 256-byte pages.) This 
step must also be followed by a 
BASIC CLR statement to reset other 
string pointers, so it should be per- 
formed early in the program (CLR 
erases all variable values). The fol- 
lowing line reserves 31K at the top 
of string space, locations 32768- 
65279/$8000-$FEFF in block 1; 

100 POKE 58,128:CiR 

Once established, the reserved area 
will remain intact until the next 
time the BASIC cold start routine is 
executed — normally at the next re- 
set. The setting is unaffected by 
RUN/STOP-RESTORE. As men- 
tioned above, this area can't be easily 
used for machine language routines 
since it is in block 1, One appropri- 
ate use for a reserved area here 
would be for a data buffer — to hold 
downloaded text in a telecommuni- 
cations program, for example. 

Using ML Without BASIC 

You have several options when 
using ML programs alone, without 
BASIC. The simplest, if your pro- 
gram is less than 9K (9216 bytes) 
long, is to leave the system in its de- 
fault bank 15 configuration and use 
the visible area of block RAM at 
7168-16383/$1C00-$3FFF. (If you 
need a few more bytes, you can 
stretch the start of the program 
down to the bottom of the reserved 
area at 4864/$1300.) With this set- 
up, you have full access to the I/O 
chip registers and all the routines in 
BASIC and Kernal ROM. 

If you need more space, but 
still want access to Kernal routines, 
you can change the settings of bits 
1-3 of the MMU configuration reg- 
ister to switch out BASIC ROM. 
Storing a value of 14/$0E in the 
register at 65280/$FF00 will set up 
a configuration with block RAM, 
I/O chip registers, and Kernal 



ROM. In this case, you'll have ac- 
cess to over 43 K of contiguous free 
RAM, locations 4864-49151/ 
$1300-$BFFF, If you want to use a 
high-resolution screen in conjunc- 
tion with your ML routine, it's easi- 
est to set up the screen in its normal 
location (7168-16383/$1C00- 
$3FFF). This means that if your pro- 
gram is too long to fit below the 
screen areas you'll need to switch 
out BASIC to have some RAM visi- 
ble with Kernal ROM. (You could 
still use the Kernal JSRFAR routine 
to access BASIC routines — if you 
wanted to use some of the graphics 
drawing routines, for example.) 

Although it is possible to set up 
a custom MMU configuration that 
makes block 1 RAM visible with 
either BASIC or Kernal ROM (or 
both), there's rarely a need for such 
gyrations. It's usually easiest to lo- 
cate your executable machine lan- 
guage in block and use block 1 for 
data storage. 

Several obscure techniques are 
available to squeeze a few more 
bytes out of the 128. For example, 



you can gain access to the lowest IK 
of block 1 RAM, which is normally 
covered by the common area from 
block 0, by changing the value in the 
MMU RAM configuration register 
(54534/$D506). 

Page 255/$FF 

The highest page of memory, loca- 
tions 6528O-65535/$FF00-$FFFF, 
in each RAM block is normally un- 
used by BASIC and contains a few 
bytes of free RAM as well as some 
important routines and vectors. The 
MMU configuration and load con- 
figuration registers always appear in 
the lowest five bytes of this area, lo- 
cations 65280-65284/$FF00- 
$FF04. They should never be dis- 
turbed unless you know the effect of 
the values you are storing there. 

You should also exercise care 
when changing the contents of loca- 
tions 65285-65348/$FF05-$FF44 
in either RAM block. These areas 
contain copies of the interrupt and 
reset handling routines. (These 
areas are initialized by the Kernal 
RESET routine.) If an interrupt or re- 



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COMPUTE fs Gatette August 1937 73 



set occurs while the system is con- 
figured for a bank where Kernal 
ROM is not visible — bank or 1, for 
example— a crash will occur if the 
area in the visible RAM block does 
not contain a routine to redirect the 
reset or interrupt to a proper han- 
dling routine. 

The highest six addresses in 
each RAM block, locations 65530- 
65535/$FFFA-$FFFF, contain 
copies of the processor reset and in- 
terrupt vectors. This area is initial- 
ized during the reset sequence, and, 
Uke the handling routines to which 
these vectors point, these vector ad- 
dresses should be changed with 
care. The system will crash if a RAM 
vector does not contain the address 
of a valid handling routine when an 
interrupt or reset occurs while that 
block is visible. 

Free space in this page includes 
the 181 bytes at locations 65349- 
65529/$FF45-$FFF9 in block and 
the 176 bytes at 65349-65524/ 
$FF45-$FFF4 in block 1. However, 
locations 65488-65519/$FFD0- 
$FFEF in block will be overwritten 
whenever the computer is reset. The 
Z80 microprocessor used by the 
128's CP/M mode has control brief- 
ly after a reset or when the computer 
is first powered on. The initializa- 
tion steps performed by the Z80 in- 
clude copying two routines into 
block RAM. One, at 65488- 
65503/$FFD0-$FFDF, is an 8502 
machine language routine to surren- 
der control to the Z80; the other, at 
65504-65519/$FFEO-$FFEF, is a 
Z80 machine language routine to 
surrender control to the 8502. These 
routines have no use in 128 mode — 
they can be used only in CF/M 
mode — but they are recopied to 
block during each reset. {Actually, 
there is one situation where disturb- 
ing these routines can cause a prob- 
lem. If you overwrite the routine at 
65488/$FFD0 and then attempt to 
start CP/M with a BASIC BOOT 
command, the system will crash. 
The machine language in the CP/M 
disk's boot sector expects that rou- 
tine to be intact.) 

The free areas in this page are 
of somewhat limited usefulness for 
machine language subroutines be- 
cause it is not possible to load data 
into this area. The Kernal LOAD 
routine exits whenever the load ad- 
dress reaches or exceeds 65280/ 
$FF00, so you will have to load any 

74 COMPUTBrs Qaiette August 1987 



code for this area into another area 
and then transfer it into the proper 
addresses. {On the other hand, 
there's nothing in the SAVE routine 
to prevent saving the contents of 
this page.) 

Locations 65525-65529/ 
$FFF5-$FFF9 in block 1 have a spe- 
cial use. The first three bytes, loca- 
tions 655 25-65 527/$FFF5-SFFF7, 
are an initialization signature; after 
the Kernal RESET routine has been 
performed at least once, these loca- 
tions will contain the character 
codes for the letters CBM. As long as 
the signature locations contain these 
codes, the initialization test subrou- 
tine will take an indirect jump to the 
address specified in locations 
65528-65529/$FFF8-$FFF9, called 
the system vector or soft reset vec- 
tor. This vector normally points to 
57892/$E224 in Kernal ROM, a 
routine that does nothing more 
than reinitialize the signature and 
vector. You can change the vector 
to point to a routine of your own to 
add additional steps to the reset se- 
quence or to initiate an entirely new 
reset sequence. One restriction ap- 
plies: The routine you specify in the 
vector must be visible in the bank 
15 configuration, since that is how 
the system is set up when the jump 
through the vector is taken. 

When tapping into the RESET 
routine, you need to be aware of 
what has happened before the vec- 
tor jump is taken and what hasn't 
happened yet. Before entering the 
subroutine that takes the jump 
through the vector, the RESET rou- 
tine resets the stack pointer to the 
top of the stack, configures the sys- 
tem for bank 15, resets the other 
MMU registers to their default val- 
ues, and recopies the common rou- 
tines to locations 65285-65348/ 
$FF05-$FF44, 674-763/$02A2- 
$02FB, and 1008-1020/S03FO- 
$03FC. However, the initialization 
routines lOINIT, RAMTAS, RE- 
STOR, and CINT are normally 
called after the return from the 
jump through this vector. If your 
routine ends with RTS to return to 
the normal reset sequence, you 
can't use the vector diversion to 
change default indirect vector set- 
tings or to alter screen parameters. 
If you use the vector to substitute 
your own reset sequence, you'll 
need to call one or more of these 
subroutines to complete system ini- 



tialization. At least the lOINIT rou- 
tine or some equivalent 
initialization routine is necessary, 
since the reset signal generated by 
pressing the reset button also resets 
the VIC and VDC (80-column) vid- 
eo chips, clearing all chip registers to 
zero. lOINIT initializes the video 
chip registers to their standard 
settings. 

One interesting use of this vec- 
tor is to make a machine language 
program unstoppable by anything 
short of turning off the computer. To 
accomplish this, change the vector 
to point to the initialization routine 
of the program to be made unstop- 
pable. That initialiiation step should 
include calls to at least the lOINIT 
and CINT routines, and it should 
also disable RUN/STOP-RESTORE 
by redirecting the NMI vector. Here 
is a short example, which can be en- 
tered using the 128's built-in ma- 
chine language monitor: 



ocoo 


LDA 


#$FS 


;Use Kemal INDSTA 


0C02 


STA 


SC3 


; routine to change 


OCM 


LDA 


#SFF 


; system reset vector in 


0C06 


STA 


SCI 


; bank 1 to point to the 


0C03 


LDA 


#iC3 


; routine a $0C28 


OCOA 


STA 


$02D? 




OCOD 


LDA 


#$2B 




OCOF 


LDX 


#S01 




OCll 


LDY 


#500 




0C13 


JSR 


SFF77 




0C16 


LDA 


#SOC 




OCIS 


LDX 


#$01 




OCIA 


INY 






OCIB 


JSR 


$FF77 




OCIE 


LDA 


#(33 


;Change the !NMI in- 


0C20 


STA 


$0318 


; direct vector to point 


0C23 


LDA 


#SFF 


; to the interrupt return 


0C2S 


STA 


$0319 


; routine (disables 
; RUN/STOP- 
; RESTORE) 


0C28 


JSR 


$FF84 


; Kernal lOINJT routine 


0C2B 


JSR 


JCOOO 


,Kemal CINT routine 


0C2E 


LDX 


#$00 


;Loop to repeatedly 


0C3O 


LDA 


$0C40,X ; prim the text at $0C40 


0C33 


BEQ 


$0C2E 




0C35 


JSR 


$FFD2 




0C38 


INX 






0C39 


BNE 


$0C30 




.Text for message 




>0C4O 49 20 


43 41 


4E 27 S4 20 


>0C48 42 45 


20 53 


54 4F SO 50 


>0C50 45 44 


21 ODODOO 



Use J FOCOO (from the monitor) 
or BANK 15:SYS 3072 (from BASIC) 
to start the routine. Once started, it 
cannot be stopped with either reset 
or RUN/STOP-RESTORE. 

Obviously, you should make 
sure that your ML program is fully 
debugged — and be sure that you 
have a backup copy, just in case' it 
isn't — before you use this technique 
to make the program unstoppable. 
Once the program starts, the only 
way to stop it is to turn off the 
computer. ^ 





















C220I3B C4 A9 FF 8D 00 00 A9 61 
C22a!00 8D 10 D0 A9 80 80 01 8B 
C230 5D0 4C Bl C2 20 B8 C0 A0 99 


0400:62 49 FF 31 FO A6 61 CA 09 


BEFORE TYPING . . 








C4D8:B5 61 AD 33 02 4A 2 A CA BE 
C4E01D0 FC AE 31 02 00 02 A9 FB 


Before typing in 


proerams. 


please 




C23B:00 9S 91 FD ca C0 3F 00 SE 


C4E8:00 05 61 91 FO 60 8D 32 B7 
C4F0:02 AE 0A 05 DO 0A 05 F0 58 
C4F8:04 CA 00 F6 60 CA SA 0A 2E 
C500:AA BO 33 C5 4B BO 32 C5 76 


refer to "How To Type In 
COMPUTEI's GAZETTE Programs," 




C240!F9 60 00 00 00 00 FF FF DA 
C248:FF 00 01 01 01 00 00 00 06 
C250100 FF FF FF 00 00 00 00 D5 


which appears before the Program 




C25B100 FF 01 00 00 FF 01 00 FF 


0508:48 60 27 85 89 66 BA 4D D5 


Listings. 


















C260I00 FF 01 12 53 50 52 49 F0 
C268i54 45 20 40 41 47 49 43 3F 
C270I92 5F 4S 52 52 4F 52 20 79 


O510I4A 93 12 91 11 9D ID 67 CI 
C518:6B 31 32 33 34 13 88 80 BA 
C520t21 22 23 24 56 53 40 18 10 




















#** * M 




L M 




m 










0278 i4F 4E 20 53 41 56 45 2F 8F 


0526:58 59 42 20 A0 2B 2D 04 90 


SnritP J 


w 


SIS 


;ic 










C2B0!4C 4F 41 44 5F 12 54 92 EA 


C530:5F 46 0A CI EA C0 58 CI 27 


h^lt^l ■ H-T 






"o 


►■*" 










C28B!41 50 45 20 4F 52 20 12 B3 


C53e:2A CI 66 01 CI CI 33 C2 74 


See instructions 


in 


article 


on 


page 


C290I44 92 49 53 4B 3F 5F 46 97 
C298s49 4C 45 4E 41 40 45 3A 67 


C540:D9 C0 7F OS 89 C5 6F 05 70 
0548:90 C5 BF OS F4 C5 06 06 F9 


44 before 


typing in 












C2A015P 45 4E 54 45 52 20 43 2D 


C550;06 C6 06 C6 06 06 17 06 FO 




















C2A8i4F 4C 4F 52 20 4n 45 59 0A 


0558:22 06 3E 06 5E 06 5E C6 60 


C0£!0:4C 


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C008!B8 


C0 


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as 


FC 


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00 


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C2B8iF0 A0 2a A9 20 99 BF 07 7 2 


C568tC3 CB OA C8 AD 05 B6 05 A7 


C010:85 


FB 


85 


A7 


A9 


08 


85 


Afl 


E2 


C2C0:8B D0 FA Bl FB 08 09 5F 2F 


0570:65 C5 50 04 56 C4 EQ 06 F5 


C01S:A9 


15 


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28 


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0570:F6 C6 41 09 51 CA SA CA 2B 


C020:29 


02 


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AA 


AD 


53 


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C560JCE 2D 02 4C A9 05 EE 21 27 


C029:30 


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8A 


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48 


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0588:00 60 EE 2D 02 4C A9 05 9F 


C030:CF 


91 


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Ca4aiD0 


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85 


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C5A8:02 68 68 40 E0 C3 AD ID AF 


C050:FB 


85 


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C058:FC 


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C5D0:33 02 BD 03 00 80 20 00 AB 


C078:85 


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C080:02 


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C5E0:C0 BD 27 D0 AD 06 00 8D B6 


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C0B8:A9 


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O620:4C A9 C5 20 DA 00 20 07 lA 


C0C8:PE 


06 


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FD 


26 


9F 


C378i20 00 BO 2C 02 8D 20 02 SB 


0628:00 20 DA 00 20 07 00 20 44 


C0D0:FE 


06 


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A7 


0380:20 Bl 02 20 3B 04 20 07 13 


O630:Be 00 A0 00 Bl FD 99 8B A2 


C0D8:FE 


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Al 


C390:29 0F 49 0F 8D 2E 02 68 10 


C640:B8 00 A0 00 B9 8B CA 91 91 


ceEasDS 


F5 


60 


20 


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3E 


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0390:29 10 60 2F 02 20 E4 FF B7 


0646 !FD 08 C0 40 00 F6 60 90 06 


C0F0188 


aa 


Bl 


FD 


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ca 


ca 


B9 


C3A01F0 06 20 EE C4 4C 86 C3 3D 


0650:05 10 9F 90 IE IF 9E 61 SI 


C0FS:A2 


03 


Bl 


FD 


28 


2A 


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91 


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C3A8:20 12 C3 AO 2F 02 D0 03 3E 


C656:95 96 97 98 99 9A 9B A9 EA 


C100:FD 


6B 


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D0 


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28 


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FF 


DC 


0380:20 59 C4 20 IE C4 AD 2F C7 


C660:A1 A0 02 20 B5 02 20 65 BF 


C108:D0 


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60 


20 


BB 


C0 


A0 


00 


C5 


C3B8!02 49 10 80 34 02 AO 2E Al 


0668 :CA A2 00 DD 4F 06 P0 06 61 


C110:C8 


ce 


Bl 


FD 


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C3C0;02 F0 03 AE 2E 02 BD 42 20 


C670:E8 E0 10 D0 F6 4C Bl C2 C8 


C118:A2 


03 


Bl 


FD 


28 


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91 


50 


C3C8;C2 AC 30 2 F0 01 0A 18 BA 


0678:38 AD 32 02 E9 21 AS 8A A3 


C120:FD 


C8 


CA 


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28 


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C3D0:6D 20 02 8D 2C 02 18 AD 7A 


C660:99 03 00 AD 30 02 00 09 C2 


C1Z8:D0 


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60 


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C3D8:2D 02 7D 5B C2 80 2D 02 55 


C688:AD 04 00 80 27 00 4C A3 97 


C1301B1 


FD 


99 


CB 


CA 


ca 


C0 


03 


F9 


C3E0:AE 2C 02 10 11 A2 00 6E AD 


C690IC6 AO 04 00 60 25 00 AO C9 


C138:D0 


F6 


Bl 


FD 


88 


88 


88 


91 


01 


C3E8i2C 02 A2 17 AD 30 02 F0 EF 


0698:05 00 6D 27 00 AD 06 00 07 


C140:FD 


ca 


C8 


C8 


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33 


C3F0;02 A2 16 BE 2C 02 AE 2C 00 


C6A0:8D 26 00 AE 33 02 BD 03 A3 


C148!F1 


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CB 


CA 


52 


C3FB:02 E0 18 90 05 A2 00 BE 07 


O6A6:C0 80 20 00 40 Bl C2 A9 63 


C150J91 


PD 


C8 


E8 


E0 


03 


00 


F5 


6E 


C400:2C 02 AC 20 02 10 05 A0 83 


C6B0:O2 A0 C6 20 B5 C2 20 E4 88 


C158I60 


20 


B8 


C0 


A0 


3C 


A2 


00 


72 


0406:14 8C 2D 02 AC 2D 02 C0 63 


C6BB:FF 38 E9 30 30 F8 C9 0A 97 


C160:B1 


FD 


9D 


CB 


CA 


C8 


E8 


E0 


06 


C410:15 90 05 A0 00 80 20 02 81 


C6C0:B0 F4 85 61 36 A9 09 E5 0B 


C168:03 


D0 


F5 


A0 


3C 


Bl 


FO 


C8 


07 


€410:20 IE C4 4C 86 C3 AE 2D 64 


C6C8:61 0A 0A 0A 80 35 02 4C FC 


C170!C8 


ca 


91 


FD 


aa 


88 


88 


88 


9C 


0420 J 02 AC 20 02 20 F0 FF A4 E4 


C6D0:B1 02 43 55 52 53 4P 52 76 


C178!l0 


F3 


A0 


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B9 


CB 


CA 


91 


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0428:03 AD 30 02 D0 05 A9 20 3B 


0600:20 56 45 40 4F 43 49 54 E7 


C1801FD 


CO 


C0 


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00 


F6 


60 


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C430:91 01 60 A9 20 91 Dl 08 51 


C6E0I59 20 28 30 20 39 29 3F 0B 


cisaiss 


C0 


A0 


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98 


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E8 


EB 


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C438:91 01 60 A2 00 A0 IE 18 00 


C6E8:5F AD 2B 02 C9 FF P0 06 4D 


C190:A9 


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0440:20 P0 FF ft9 12 20 02 FF 67 


C6F0:EE 2B 02 20 3B 04 60 OE 7P 


C198:02 


Bl 


FD 


4A 


91 


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0448 :AE 2B 02 BE F8 07 A9 00 54 


C6Fa:2B 02 20 B8 00 AS 2E OS EA 


C1A0!CA 


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37 


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37 


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D0 


63 


C450:20 CD BO A9 20 20 02 FF 06 


C700:FE 90 04 EE 2B 02 60 20 E4 


C1A8:F0 


C8 


CA 


C6 


61 


A5 


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01 


C45a:60 20 B8 00 AD 2D 02 0A 60 


C708:3B 04 60 A0 00 80 37 02 IP 


CX80:E3 


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C460t6D 20 02 65 61 AD 20 02 A0 


C710:A9 A4 20 D2 FF A9 90 20 00 


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0718:02 FF 20 65 CA AC 37 02 E6 


C1C0SF6 


60 


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FF 


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40 


C470:2C 02 29 07 49 07 AA EB CA 


C720:B5 61 A9 20 20 02 FF A9 F7 


C1C8:00 


DC 


85 


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0728:90 20 02 FP AS 61 09 0D 3C 


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C730:F0 2n 09 14 DO 0D 00 00 B9 


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C738:P0 D3 B8 A9 90 20 02 PF F3 


C1E0;C2 


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60 


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C4A6:05 61 91 FD AD 38 02 F0 62 


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C200:29 


02 


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0760:00 02 96 60 20 E7 FF A9 03 


C208:07 


80 


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29 


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0408:05 62 05 62 AE 34 02 D0 4F 


0768:85 A0 02 20 B5 C2 20 65 BB 


C2101D0 


BS 


AD 


00 


DC 


29 


10 


F0 


BO 


C4C0:0E A2 00 BE 31 02 31 FO 04 


C770!CA A2 01 C9 54 F0 0B A2 E9 


C2iaiF9 


AD 


2B 


02 


80 


F8 


07 


20 


0A 


C4C8:O0 05 A9 01 80 31 02 A5 10 


0776:08 09 44 F0 05 68 66 4C FC 



COMPUTEIS GaiBtle August 1987 75 



C7a0:Bl 
C78S:01 


C2 


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36 


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02 


AS 


EA 


CA2E 


tA8 


A2 


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IC 


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80 


B9 


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C2 


20 


0B 


C7 


00 


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26 


CA38:B7 


CI 


AD 


2D 


02 


0A 


60 


20 


CA 


C1A8:28 


00 


BD 


2 A 


D0 


8D 


2B 


00 


AC 


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36 


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06 


BB 
68 

FF 
04 


C7D8:02 
C7E0:Ca 


A9 
C8 


S7 
C8 


99 
C8 


lA 

ca 


02 

4C 


C8 
F6 


C8 
C7 


BB 
09 


CA80 1 FD 
CA88iF0 


88 
FB 


10 
60 


F8 
00 


60 
00 


20 
00 


E4 
00 


FF 
00 


16 
Al 


C1F0:41 
C1F8:E9 


03 
17 


40 
80 


06 
40 


C2 
03 


AO 
38 


8C 
A9 


G7E8:A0 
C7F0:CS 


00 
CC 


B9 
37 


00 
02 


02 
D0 


99 
F4 


14 
98 


02 
A2 


A0 
4D 




















C200:ED 
0208:03 


8E 
69 


02 
32 


80 
8D 


41 

41 


03 
03 


AD 
20 


41 
03 




















El 


C7FB!l4 


AS 


02 


20 


BD 


FF 


A9 


A0 


DE 




BEFORE TYPING . 








C210:C4 


60 


20 


06 


C4 


A9 


00 


8D 


CE 


C800:85 
0809:41 


B2 
4C 


60 

4C 


S3 
20 


41 
46 


56 
52 


45 
4F 


20 

4D 


S0 
40 


Before typing in programs, 


please 




C21Bi96 
0220:02 


CZ 
CD 


20 
BA 


00 
02 


01 
00 


60 
lA 


AD 
A9 


98 
00 
02 


EO 

FA 
A4 


C8X0:20 


48 


45 


52 


45 


3F 


20 


29 


21 


refer to 


How To Type 


In 








0228:80 


90 


C2 


A9 


5F 


BD 


92 


C8ia:59 


2F 


4E 


29 


5F 


20 


64 


C7 


BA 


COMPUTE! 


sGAZFnE 


ProRrams/ 




O230:A9 


00 


80 


98 


02 


A9 


00 


80 


10 


C820:20 


BB 


C0 


A9 


03 


A0 


CB 


20 


EE 


which a 


[jpears 


)cfore the Pronram 




C238;94 


C2 


BO 


48 


03 


8D 


49 


03 


02 


C828:B5 


C2 


20 


85 


CA 


C9 


59 


D0 


A2 


Listings. 












a 






C240;AC 


94 


02 


A9 


00 


8D 


9B 


C2 


64 


C830:07 
C838 J 18 


A2 
A5 


00 
FD 


A0 
69 


40 
40 


4C 
AA 


43 
AS 


C8 
FE 


7A 
8C 


















0248 :A9 


40 


8D 


9A 


02 


18 


AD 


48 


28 






















C250 : 03 


60 


9A 


02 


ao 


48 


03 


AD 


73 


C840:69 


00 


AB 


A5 


FD 


as 


FB 


AS 


99 




















0258:49 


03 


60 


9B 


02 


8D 


49 


03 


BC 


C848:FE 


as 


FC 


20 


El 


CB 


A9 


FB 


DD 


CrYfW 


e 


Ct 














C260:18 


AD 


90 


C2 


60 


48 


03 


85 


B3 


Ca50:20 


Da 


FF 


B0 


0B 


20 


B7 


FF 


7B 


apm 


3l 


SLf 


nc 


> 








C26B:03 


AD 


92 


02 


6D 


49 


03 


85 


05 


C858:D0 


06 


20 


EB 


CB 


4C 


Bl 


C2 


34 










■ 










C270:C4 


A2 


00 


Bl 


C3 


90 


00 


03 


35 


ca60!20 
CB68;02 


EB 
C9 


C8 
44 


20 
F0 


E7 
0D 


FF 
A9 


AD 
72 


36 
A0 


EB 
99 


See insfructioits in 
53 before typing it 


article 


on 


page 


0278:E8 
C280:8O 


C8 
96 


E0 
02 


40 
20 


D0 
CC 


F5 
Cl 


A9 
EE 


00 
98 


76 
B0 


C870:C2 


20 


B5 


C2 


20 


85 


CA 


4C 


47 


_ 










C288:02 


60 


12 


00 


F0 


00 


E5 


00 


ID 


C879:B1 


C2 


A9 


00 


20 


BD 


FF 


A9 


6A 




















0290:00 


00 


SF 


00 


00 


00 


DC 


00 


10 


C880:0F 
Ca88:20 


A2 
C0 


0B 

FF 


A0 
A2 


0F 
0F 


20 
20 


BA 
C6 


FF 

PP 


BB 
0B 


Program 1: Sprite Stamp 






0298 :0A 
O2A0:FO 


00 
80 


40 
00 


00 
04 


00 
80 


00 
00 


FF 
04 


FF 
80 


2B 

91 


C890:A0 


00 


20 


CF 


FF 


C9 


0D 


F0 


A5 


■2000:20 


FD 


AE 


20 


9E 


AD 


20 


AA 


7F 


C2A8:00 


04 


a0 


00 


04 


B0 


00 


04 


65 


C898:07 


99 


00 


02 


CB 


4C 


92 


C8 


99 


G008:B1 


8C 


8A 


C2 


A9 


BF 


80 


15 


7F 


C2B0:80 


00 


04 


80 


00 


04 


90 


00 


10 


CaA0:A9 


5F 


99 


00 


02 


20 


CC 


FF 


3C 


C010:O0 


A9 


7A 


SO 


ec 


C2 


BD 


8E 


AS 


C2BB:04 


80 


00 


04 


80 


00 


04 


80 


20 


CaA8:A9 


00 


A0 


02 


20 


B5 


C2 


A2 


43 


G018:C2 


8D 


05 


DO 


80 


07 


D0 


A9 


DF 


C2O0:00 


04 


80 


00 


04 


80 


00 


04 


70 


CeB0:0F 


20 


C9 


FF 


A9 


49 


20 


D2 


90 


C020:02 


80 


27 


D0 


BD 


29 


00 


A9 


54 


C2C9:80 


00 


04 


B0 


00 


04 


80 


00 


28 


C8Da!FF 


A9 


0D 


20 


D2 


FF 


20 


E7 


17 


C028:0C 


BD 


10 


Dfl 


80 


17 


D0 


80 


lA 


0200:04 


80 


00 


04 


B0 


00 


04 


80 


4S 


C8C0:FF 


4C 


74 


ca 


20 


64 


C7 


20 


C2 


C030:1D 


D0 


A9 


22 


8D 


04 


D0 


80 


77 


O2D8:00 


04 


FF 


FF 


FC 


FE 


00 


00 


43 


cac8:El 


C8 


20 


B8 


C0 


A9 


00 


A6 


60 


C03B:06 


00 


A9 


0E 


80 


F8 


07 


80 


F2 


O2E0;C6 


80 


00 


BA 


B0 


00 


BE 


98 


AF 


C8D0:FD 


A4 


FE 


20 


DS 


FF 


B0 


88 


05 


C040:FA 


07 


A9 


06 


BD 


28 


00 


80 


D2 


02E8:D4 


BE 


A5 


5S 


BE 


BD 


50 


BA 


0B 


C8D8:4C 


EB 


ca 


A9 


04 


8D 


88 


02 


AS 


C048:2A 


D0 


A9 


01 


80 


3F 


03 


20 


E7 


C2F0:A1 


50 


06 


9C 


00 


FE 


00 


00 


80 


C8E0:00 


A9 


00 


8D 


15 


D0 


A9 


93 


88 


C050:09 


04 


A9 


0F 


ao 


FB 


07 


BD 


A5 


02F8:82 


00 


00 


BE 


00 


00 


BE 


00 


29 


C8E8:4C 


D2 


FF 


A9 


01 


8D 


15 


00 


29 


C058:42 


03 


AO 


42 


03 


BD 


F9 


07 


DE 


0300:00 


86 


A6 


66 


BE 


CA 


89 


BE 


57 


C8F0:A9 


93 


20 


D2 


FF 


20 


3B 


C4 


29 


C0601A9 


C0 


80 


90 


C2 


A9 


Sf 


80 


AA 


C308:8A 


CF 


B2 


8A 


28 


FE 


86 


07 


03 


C8Fa:20 


07 


C0 


4C 


Bl 


C2 


F8 


A9 


6D 


C068:92 


02 


A9 


00 


80 


98 


C2 


8D 


FA 


C310:FE 


00 


00 


06 


00 


00 


BA 


B0 


79 


C900!00 


9D 


00 


01 


80 


01 


01 


E0 


5A 


C070:44 


03 


8D 


94 


C2 


80 


48 


03 


AF 


O318;00 


BF 


OD 


B6 


40 


C6 


D5 


55 


D2 


€908:00 


F0 


15 


CA 


18 


AD 


00 


01 


9F 


0078:90 


49 


03 


A0 


00 


B9 


9E 


C2 


64 


C320:FA 


95 


55 


BA 


95 


55 


06 


80 


FD 


C910:69 


01 


BD 


00 


01 


AD 


01 


01 


0C 


C0B0:99 


B0 


03 


OS 


00 


40 


00 


FS 


7A 


03 28:56 


FE 


00 


04 


BA 


00 


20 


BA 


AB 


0918:69 


00 


8D 


01 


01 


4C 


07 


C9 


33 


C0B8:A9 


FO 


8D 


10 


00 


A9 


FC 


80 


85 


C330:00 


04 


06 


64 


AE 


EE 


94 


A4 


D8 


C920:D3 


AD 


01 


01 


09 


30 


8D 


02 


El 


C090:1D 


00 


A0 


00 


B9 


DD 


02 


99 


40 


C338:06 


F3 


24 


BA 


84 


A4 


BA 


74 


FB 


C928:01 


AD 


00 


01 


29 


F0 


4A 


4A 


A3 


0098 1 40 


3F 


08 


00 


40 


00 


FS 


A9 


0A 


C340;A4 


FE 


00 


00 


86 


00 


00 


BA 


08 


C930:4A 


4A 


09 


30 


80 


01 


01 


AD 


BF 


C0A0:21 


BD 


08 


00 


80 


0A 


D0 


80 


E7 


C348:04 


10 


BA 


04 


10 


86 


6E 


FB 


E0 


C938:00 


01 


29 


0F 


09 


30 


80 


00 


46 


C0A810C 


00 


A9 


AS 


BD 


09 


00 


A9 


CF 


C350:AE 


95 


57 


B6 


95 


54 


BA 


64 


C2 


C940:01 


60 


3a 


AS 


20 


E9 


02 


85 


68 


C0B0:FD 


BD 


FC 


07 


A9 


00 


BD 


2B 


38 


C358:03 


FE 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


B9 


C948:2D 


AS 


2E 


E9 


00 


85 


2E 


A9 


5C 


C0B8:D0 


80 


20 


D0 


BD 


20 


00 


A0 


FB 


0360:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


EO 


00 


A9 


C950S01 


95 


61 


A9 


08 


85 


62 


A9 


51 


0000:00 


B9 


ID 


03 


99 


80 


3F 


C8 


A6 


0368:00 


A0 


00 


00 


E6 


EE 


98 


AO 


E8 


C958:00 


85 


39 


85 


3A 


A0 


00 


Bl 


D2 


O0C8:C0 


40 


00 


F5 


A9 


BA 


BD 


0B 


92 


0370 :AA 


B0 


EE 


AA 


BB 


00 


00 


00 


07 


C960:61 


C8 


11 


SI 


F0 


IB 


A0 


02 


46 


C0D0:D0 


A9 


FE 


80 


FD 


07 


A0 


00 


2B 


0378:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


90 


3F 


60 


C96a:Bl 


61 


as 


39 


C8 


Bl 


61 


85 


C6 


C0OB:B9 


5D 


03 


99 


00 


3F 


08 


C0 


FS 


C380:FF 


F0 


04 


00 


F7 


7S 


EA 


95 


OS 


C970;3A 


A0 


00 


Bl 


61 


4B 


C8 


Bl 


D3 


C0E0:40 


D0 


FS 


A9 


DO 


8D 


00 


D0 


18 


0388;SS 


52 


97 


55 


05 


00 


04 


10 


5E 


€978:61 


85 


62 


68 


85 


61 


4C 


50 


98 


O0Ea!A9 


FF 


BO 


FE 


07 


20 


FA 


03 


53 


0390:00 


00 


10 


FF 


FF 


F0 


00 


00 


DD 


C980:C9 


la 


AS 


39 


69 


01 


85 


39 


DA 


O0F0:AD 


00 


DC 


C9 


77 


00 


00 


AO 


48 


C398:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


70 


00 


00 


12 


C988:A5 


3A 


G9 


00 


85 


3A 


20 


B8 


B8 


C0F8 : BO 


02 


09 


FF 


B0 


06 


EE 


ao 


B2 


O3A0:41 


0P 


08 


41 


10 


90 


E2 


98 


C2 


C990JC0 


A0 


00 


84 


62 


A0 


00 


18 


A2 


C1001C2 


4C 


31 


CI 


C9 


7B 


D0 


0A 


22 


O3A8:60 


83 


84 


40 


84 


42 


80 


FC 


01 


C998:AS 


2D 


69 


25 


91 


2D 


ca 


AS 


42 


0108 1 AD 


ac 


C2 


09 


19 


90 


03 


CE 


SA 


O3B0:7E 


80 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


97 


C9A0:2E 


69 


00 


91 


20 


ca 


A5 


39 


CF 


C110:8C 


C2 


09 


7D 


D0 


0D 


AD 


BE 


40 


C3B8:3C 


00 


00 


22 


00 


00 


22 


53 


18 


C9A8:91 


2D 


C8 


A5 


3A 


91 


2D 


C8 


FE 


C118:02 


09 


E5 


B0 


06 


EE 


BE 


02 


03 


0300:44 


44 


65 


54 


44 


85 


54 


78 


C6 


C9B0:A9 


83 


91 


2D 


C8 


84 


61 


A4 


BE 


C120:4C 


31 


CI 


C9 


7E 


D0 


0A 


AD 


E3 


C3C8:83 


3B 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


20 


C9B8!62 


84 


62 


Bl 


FD 


AA 


20 


FE 


DF 


C12B:BE 


C2 


C9 


33 


90 


03 


CE 


8E 


CC 


C3D0:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


58 


C9G0:C8 


A4 


61 


AD 


02 


01 


91 


2D 


4D 


C130:C2 


AO 


80 


C2 


80 


00 


00 


AD 


F9 


C3D8:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


60 


C9C8:AD 


01 


01 


C8 


91 


20 


AD 


00 


BC 


CI 38: BE 


C2 


8D 


01 


D0 


AD 


00 


00 


83 


C3E0:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


68 


C9D0101 


ce 


91 


2D 


C8 


A9 


2C 


91 


F2 


C140 sBn 


02 


D0 


AD 


01 


D0 


8D 


03 


69 


O3EB:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


70 


C9D8:2D 


C8 


84 


61 


A4 


62 


C8 


98 


B4 


0148 


00 


AS 


05 


09 


17 


D0 


0B 


A9 


AS 


O3F0:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


78 


C9E0:29 


07 


D0 


DS 


84 


62 


A4 


61 


9A 


C1S0 


00 


BD 


IS 


00 


4C 


FD 


C3 


09 


92 


C3F8:00 


00 


4C 


0C 


C4 


4C 


3A 


C4 


5B 


C9E8:88 


A9 


00 


91 


2D 


A0 


00 


Bl 


El 


CISB 


14 


D0 


03 


20 


00 


04 


09 


11 


34 


C400:4C 


AE 


C4 


4C 


CA 


C4 


4C 


90 


58 


C9F0:2D 


48 


C8 


Bl 


2D 


85 


2E 


68 


A5 


C160 


00 


03 


20 


12 


02 


09 


3C 


00 


BB 


G40B!C6 


4C 


20 


G4 


AO 


11 


00 


09 


B4 


C9F8:85 


2D 


E6 


39 


D0 


02 


E6 


3A 


Al 


C168 


03 


20 


IE 


02 


AS 


C5 


C9 


0D 


4A 


C410:20 


80 


11 


D0 


AD 


18 


Dfl 


09 


B4 


CA00 !A4 


62 


C0 


40 


D0 


8F 


A0 


00 


A2 


C170 


00 


13 


A9 


01 


8D 


53 


03 


20 


46 


O41B:08 


80 


18 


00 


20 


20 


04 


60 


84 


CA08:9e 


91 


2D 


ca 


91 


2D 


18 


A5 


97 


C178 


DA 


01 


A9 


00 


80 


96 


C2 


20 


7B 


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00 


AD 


3F 


03 


9D 


00 


04 


37 


CA10:2D 


69 


02 


85 


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AS 


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69 


F4 


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CC 


CI 


40 


85 


01 


A5 


05 


09 


B6 


0428:90 


ca 


04 


90 


90 


05 


90 


S8 


39 


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85 


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87 


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10 


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00 


BD 


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03 


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00 


05 


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AD 


lU 


02 


OA 


6D 


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20 


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CI 


A9 


00 


80 


96 


02 


D3 


C438:EC 


60 


AD 


11 


00 


29 


DF 


80 


SF 



76 COMPUTEI's Gazette August 19B7 



C440J 


11 


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AD 


18 


D0 


29 


F7 


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66 


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AA 


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05 


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56 


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32 


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CA 


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55 


CA 


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56 


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92 


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29 


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20 


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ID 


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34 


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20 


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52 


09 


80 


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2D 


CA 


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03 


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03 


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BD 


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34 


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29 


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54 


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55 


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OA 


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57 


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AD 


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85 


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29 


20 


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66 


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85 


04 


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CA 


Bl 


C3 


29 


10 


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2D 


62 


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03 


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06 


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2D 


CA 


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Bl 


03 


60 


55 


CA 


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29 


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03 


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60 


FC 


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62 


09 


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72 


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2D 


CA 


SI 


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29 


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72 


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03 


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06 


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03 


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92 


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CA 


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72 


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03 


73 


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62 


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53 


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40 


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06 


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40 


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CA 


85 


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CA 


ni 


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29 


20 


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6D 


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CA 


Bl 


C3 


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F8 


91 


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CB 


ca 


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29 


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03 


20 


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06 


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BF 


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AD 


B2 


09 


85 


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CA 


Bl 


C3 


29 


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F0 


03 


B7 


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BA 


C9 


85 


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A0 


00 


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20 


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06 


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OA 


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C3 


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09 


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03 


08 


00 


3F 


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04 


F0 


03 


20 


60 


C6 


EE 


04 


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40 


EF 


C6 


A9 


00 


80 


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:2D 


CA 


Bl 


03 


29 


02 


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03 


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42 


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55 


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6D 


06 


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CA 


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C3 


BC 


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55 


CA 


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62 


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01 


F0 


03 


20 


60 


C6 


AD 


EA 


C8F0 


55 


CA 


2E 


62 


C9 


0E 


C6S0 


t05 


CA 


8D 


2D 


CA 


CE 


3D 


CA 


6E 


C8F8 


2E 


62 


C9 


0E 


55 


CA 


06 58 


tCS 


08 


08 


EE 


15 


OA 


AD 


15 


OB 


C900 


iC9 


0E 


55 


OA 


2E 


62 


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iCA 


C9 


15 


F0 


07 


C6 


C3 


C6 


19 


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35 


CA 


2E 


62 


C9 


AD 


C66e 


!C3 


40 


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C5 


60 


80 


ID 


OA 


47 


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B2 


09 


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62 


09 


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■20 


52 


04 


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53 


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C9 


01 


51 


C918 


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60 


C0 


00 


00 


00 


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D0 


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00 


Bl 


FO 


00 


40 


B2 


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00 


00 


CI 


00 


00 


00 


C680 


CA 


91 


FD 


AC 


ID 


CA 


60 


A0 


07 


C92B 


00 


00 


C2 


00 


00 


00 


C688 


00 


38 


A9 


FF 


ED 


4D 


OA 


80 


21 


C930 


00 


00 


D8 


00 


00 


00 


C690 


55 


OA 


Bl 


FD 


2D 


55 


CA 


91 


77 


0938 


00 


00 


D9 


00 


00 


00 


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FD 


AC 


ID 


CA 


60 


20 


DB 


08 


A4 


0940 


00 


00 


DA 


06 


00 


00 


C6A0«AD 


B2 


C9 


8D 


lA 


09 


AD 


B2 


C9 


0948 


00 


00 


F0 


00 


00 


00 


C6A8 


C9 


69 


01 


8D 


22 


09 


AD 


B2 


B4 


0950 


00 


00 


Fl 


00 


00 


00 


C6B0 


C9 


69 


02 


8D 


2A 


09 


AD 


B2 


ID 


0958 


00 


00 


F2 


00 


00 


00 


C6D8 


C9 


69 


18 


BD 


32 


09 


AD 


B2 


28 


0960 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


C6C0 


C9 


69 


19 


8D 


3A 


09 


AD 


B2 


90 


0968 


m 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


C6C8 


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69 


lA 


8D 


42 


09 


AD 


B2 


FB 


C970 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


C6D0 


C9 


69 


30 


8D 


4A 


09 


AD 


B2 


04 


C97e 


00 


00 


F0 


00 


00 


00 


C6De 


C9 


69 


31 


BD 


52 


C9 


AD 


B2 


6C 


C980 


00 


00 


03 


00 


00 


00 


C6E0 


09 


69 


32 


SD 


SA 


09 


AD 


BA 


DC 


C988 


00 


00 


F3 


00 


00 


00 



06 A0 30 

C8 00 52 

8D AA D2 

BC 6A 6F 

AD AA A9 

08 80 31 

09 AD C5 
CA BD A8 
C9 40 D7 
01 00 B4 
A9 18 21 
BD 7A 21 
A9 C9 D3 
AD AA 14 
lA C9 09 
8A 09 CD 
34 CB CA 
ID A9 96 
80 A2 A6 
C9 A9 DS 
ao 92 71 
C9 C9 A0 
9A 09 D9 
3A C9 2A 
8A 09 5D 
34 C8 13 
13 AD DE 
F2 8D 9D 
09 4C 78 
06 00 5F 
A9 0F 99 
8D 7A 83 
A9 C9 D2 
AD AA B4 
01 8D EC 
C9 AD 40 
OB 80 C8 
09 40 01 
33 pa CO 
09 80 FF 
09 A9 Bl 
09 8D Fl 
CA AD AF 
09 85 82 
AD 92 DA 
Bl FB 65 
AO 72 ES 
91 C3 4F 
EE 7 2 CC 
09 CC ID 
CA E8 AB 
09 EE 98 
BA 09 2A 
C4 A9 40 
C9 BD 71 
AA C9 BS 
C3 A9 92 
C3 29 D2 
C0 41 5C 
03 AD 32 
B9 OA 6A 
D0 F6 4C 
6 2 C9 04 
8D C2 06 
09 0E D6 
55 CA C7 
2E 62 E8 
09 0E EF 
55 CA 5F 
8D BA 30 
00 00 00 
00 00 EB 
00 00 14 
00 00 DE 
00 00 07 
00 00 2F 
00 00 F9 
00 00 22 
00 00 4A 
00 00 F3 
00 00 FB 
00 00 04 
00 00 2A 
00 00 74 
00 00 9A 



0990100 



C99B 

C9A0 

C9A8 

:9B0 

09B8 

O9C0t00 

0908:00 

O9D0:00 

C9D8I00 



O9E0 
C9E8 
C9F0 
09F8 
CA00 
OA08 
OA10 
CA18 
CA20 
CA28 
CA30 
CA3a 
CA40 
CA48 
CA50 



OA58 1 00 



00 C9 
00 01 
00 18 
00 09 
00 C0 
00 03 
00 0F 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
08 04 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 



00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
02 01 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 



00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 



00 5D 
00 40 
00 37 
00 SO 
00 50 
00 AC 



00 
00 



36 
50 



00 64 
00 60 



00 
00 



74 
70 



00 84 
00 80 



00 
00 



00 

00 



F2 
6C 



15 00 
3C 00 
80 40 
57 00 
00 00 
9E 00 
00 00 
10 00 
EF 01 
00 00 



00 F9 
00 9E 
20 58 
00 CD 
00 05 
00 48 
00 05 
00 IE 
00 A7 
00 ED 



Program 2: Starter 



KO 10 



XC 20 



RD 30 



REM COPYRIGHT 1987 COMPU 
TEl PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
POKE 53280,0: POKE 53281, 
0:PRINT"{CLR) (CYNl 

[3 spaces) copyright 1987 
compute i pub., inc." 
pbinttab(10)"all rights 
{spaceIreservedU down)" 
if ls<>"" then100 

INPUT"LOAD FILE (Y/N)";A 

? 

IF LEFT$(A$, 1)="N" THENl 

00 

PRINT"{CLR)*** LOAD *** 

(DOWN)" 

INPUT "FILENAME" ;L? 

LOAD L5,8,l 

SYS 49152, S:REM S IS t 

£SPACE)OP SHAPES 

PRINT" [CLR3**« save *** 

{ DOWN ) " 

REM CLEAR BUFFER 

FORI=1TO10 : POKE630+I , : 

NEXT 

INPUT "FILENAME [RETURN 

[space) TO ABORT]" ;FS 

IF F?="" THEN PRINT "STO 

P"jEND 

L=LEN{F5) 

FOR X=l TO L 

POKE 24559+X,ASC(MID$(F 

5,X,1)) 

NEXT 

POKE 760,4 t POKE 781,8:P 

OKE 782,255 

SYS 65466 

POKE 780,L!POKE 781,240 

:POKE 782,95 

SYS 65469 

POKE 251,0:POKE 252,32 

POKE 780, 251: POKE 781,6 

3 

POKE 782, 63: SYS 65496 



Program 3: Sprite Data Skeleton 

DR 10 X=24576 

JG 20 READ A: IF A=-l THEN POKE 

850, 10: END 
OG 30 POKE X,A:X=X+1 :GOTO20 
DE 40 REM 
JK 50000 DATA -1 



XQ 


40 


CA 


50 


DS 


60 


HR 


70 


QR 


80 


BA 


90 


HM 


100 


PF 


110 


QX 


120 


RO 


130 


QE 


140 


AA 


150 


EX 


160 


JP 


170 


KJ 


180 


GR 


190 


DD 


200 


FE 


210 


EC 


220 


SK 


230 


PC 


240 


SM 


250 


QP 


260 



COMPurers Gazette Augus! 1987 77 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 

Before typing in programs, please 
refer to "How To Type In 
COMPUTE! 's GAZEnE Programs," 
which appears before the Program 
Listings. 



Commodore 
Relative Files 

Article on page 64. 
Relative File Demo 



BE 10 



SB 20 



MA 30 



DM 


40 


JE 


50 


PF 


60 


JD 


70 


AQ 


80 


FD 


90 


RQ 


100 


AM 


110 


XM 


120 


EH 


130 


PK 


140 


PJ 


150 


EG 


160 


RC 


170 


HR 


180 


FH 


190 


FP 


200 


HE 


210 


AA 


220 


XG 


230 


DP 


240 


MH 


250 


QK 


260 


JE 


270 


GH 


280 


QG 


290 


RS 


300 


SE 


310 


SE 


320 


QD 


330 


CE 


340 


GP 


350 


HM 


360 


BJ 


370 


GM 


380 


FP 


390 


AD 


400 


JS 


410 


SH 


420 


XR 


430 



REM COPYRIGHT 1907 COMPU 

TEl PUBLICATIONS INC, - 

{SPACE 5 ALL RIGHTS RESERV 

ED 

PRINT" (CLR) [2 SPACESjCOP 

YRIGHT 1987 COMPUTE! PUB 

. , I NC . " 

PRINTTAB(9)"ALL RIGHTS R 

ESERVED(2 DOWNj" 

OPEN 15,8,15 

OPEN 1,8,2,"0:TESTREL" 

INPUT#1S,E,E$,E1,E2 

IF E=0 GOTO230 

CLOSE 1 

IF E<^62 THEN PRINT E;E$ 

;El;E2:STOP 
PRINT "CREATING FILE" 
OPEN 1,8,2,"0!TESTREL,L 

,"+ctms(33) 

INPUT#15,E,ES,E1,E2 

IF E<>0 THEN CLOSE 1:PR 

INT E,E?,El,E2:STOP 

PRINTS! 5, "P"+CHR$(98)+C 

HR5 ( 10 )+CHR$ (0 ) +CHR? ( 1 ) 

INPUT#15,E,E5,E1,E2 

IF E<>50 THEN CLOSE 1:P 

RINT ErES;El;E2jST0P 

PRINT#1,CHR?(2S5) ; 

INPUT#15,E,E$,E1,E2 

CLOSE 1 

IF E<>0 THEN PRINT ErE5 

;E1;E2:ST0P 

OPEN 1,8,2, "0!TESTREL" 

GOTO240 

PRINT "FILE ALREADY EXIS 

TS" 

PRINT" {2 DOWN)!. READ A 

LL RECORDS" 

PRINT" 2. WRITE RECORD" 

PRINT" 3. QUIT" 

INPUT" (DOWN)WHICH (1, 2 

OR 3)";X:PRINT 
ON X GOTO300,440,710 
GOTO240 
R=0 

R=R4-l:F=0sX=0 
H=INT(R/256):L«R-H*256 
PRINT*15, "P"+CHR$(9B)+C 
HR5(L)+CHR5(H)+CHR?(1) 
INPUT#15,E,E$,E!,E2 
IF E=50 GOTO 240 
IF E<>0 THEN PRINT E ; E^ 
;E1;E2:GOTO710 
INPUT! 1,X5:SW=ST 
IF X$=CHR$(25S) THEN PR 
INT"RECORD";R; "<EMPTY>" 
:GOTO3I0 

IF F«=0 THEN PRINT "RECOR 
D";R;":" 

F=F+1:IF SW=0 THEN X=l 
PRINT" (5 S PACES J FIELD "; 
F;": ";X5 
IF SW=0 GOTO370 
GOTO310 



FIG 440 INPUT "WRITE TO RECORD N 

UMQER"fE 
JC 450 IF R<1 OR R<>INT(R) GOT 

O440 
AK 460 IF R>40 THEN PRINT "TOO 

BIGI":GOTO570 
RS 470 H=INT(R/256) tL=R-H*256 
OK 480 PRINT#15, "P"+CHR5(98}+C 

HR5(L)+CHRS(H)+CHR?C!) 
CC 490 INPUT*1S,E,E5,E1,E2 
ES 500 IF E=50 THEN ['RINT "A NE 

W ONE I" 
PM 510 INPUT"HOW MANY FIELDS ( 

1-3)";N 
BK 520 IF N<1 OR N>3 GOTO510 
KG 530 A?"""" 

JH 540 PRINT"ENTER DATA:" 
HX 550 FOR J=l TO N 
FH 560 IF Nol THEN PRINT "FIEL 

D";J; 
EP 570 INPUT B5 
FJ SB0 A5=AS+B?+CHRS(13) 
SO 590 NEXT J 

PK 600 A5=LEFT5<A5,LEN{A5>-1) 
GS 610 PRINT#!,A5; 
JM 620 INPUT#15,E,E?,E1,E2 
MF 630 IF E<>0 THEN PRINT E; E? 

;E1;E2 
JD 640 CLOSE 1 
QJ 650 INPUT#15,E,E$,E!,E2 
SO 660 IF E<>0 THEN PRINT E;E5 

rEl;E2 
FH 670 OPEN 1,8,2, "0:TESTREL" 
AS 680 INPUT#15,E,ES,E!,E2 
CB 690 IF EO0 THEN PRINT E;E? 

;E!;E2 
AS 700 GOTO240 
KH 710 CLOSE 1 
FJ 720 CLOSE 15 

Bounty Hunter 

Article on page 29, 

BE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1987 COMPU 

TEl PUBLICATIONS INC. - 

{SPACElALL RIGHTS RESERV 

ED 
DJ 20 POKE53269,0!SP=S3248!N=5 

4272:SP$="U5 SPACES)":? 

0KES3 28 1,6: POKE 53290, 10 
AM 30 PRINT" tCLRj 133 (RVS) 

(4 SPACES )COPYRIGHT 1967 
COMPUTE 1 PUB., INC. 

[2 SPACES)"; 
RX 40 PRINT" {RVSHll SPACESJAL 

L RIGHTS RESERVED 

{10 SPACES] f OFF) 683"; 
SB 50 DIMSTS(50) ,CA?(50),NB5(5 

0),AD(50),PK{50),A5(50), 

SX<50),SY(50),CP(50),ST( 

50) 
OA 60 C=!C+liIFC=49THEN80 
AJ 70 READST5(C) :READCA5(C) iRE 

ADSX(C) !READSY(C) :READNB 

S(C) JGOTO60 
QP 80 FORX=B42T088l!READA:POKE 

X , A : NEXTX 
EK 90 FORX=906TO94S:READA:POKE 

X.AjNEXTX 
KS 100 FORX=970TO1009:READA:PO 

KEX,A£NEXTX 
XA 110 POKE2040,13:PDKE2041,14 

iPOKESP+28,3 
PR 120 POKE53285,10:POKE53288, 
2 ! POKE53287 , 9 s POKESP+16 
.0 
SK 130 POKES P, 120 I POKES P+1, 170 
: POKESP+2 , 240 t POKESP+3 , 
170jPOKE53269,3iXZ=-l 
SA 140 PRINTTAB( 214) "CHOOSE ON 



Ei"SPC(68)"l - BOUNTY H 

UNTER"SPC(63)"2 - COUNT 
DOWN 
QD 150 PRINTTAB( 247) "BOUNTY HU 

NTER"SPC(6) "CROOK" 
HX 160 GETA$:R=RND(!) :IFA$<"1" 

ORA5>"2"THEN!60 
BR 170 F=VAL{A5) :IFF=1THEN210 
AA 180 POKESP+3, 250; PRINT" 

ECLR) "TAB (253) "MINUTES 

{SPACE) (1-5)" 
MF 190 GETA5;IFAS<"l"ORA5>"5"T 

HEW190 
FQ 200 SC=VAL(A$) :SC»=SC*60+1 
GE 210 PRINT"{CLR)"TA8(215)"CH 

OOSE ONE:"SPC(69)"l - S 

TATES"SPC(70)"2 - CAPIT 

ALS" 
HE 220 GETAS!lFA5<"l"ORAS>"2"T 

HEN220 
GM 230 IFAS="1"THEN250 
JF 240 F0RX=1T048!ST5(X)=CA?(X 

) :NEXTX 
KS 250 PRINT" [CLR) "SPC( 214 )"1 

{SPACE}- VISIBLE "SPC(6 

8) "2 - INVISIBLE 
PM 260 GETA5!lFAS<"l"ORA?>"2"T 

HEN260 
XP 2 70 E=VAL(A$):IFF=.2THEN1480 
PJ 280 PRINTTAB( 93) "DIFFICULTY 

(1-3) 
GM 290 RC=INT(48*RND(1) )+l:RR= 

RC 
CA 300 GETAS:IFAS<"l"ORAS>-"3"T 

HEN 3 00 
DM 310 B=VAL(A5) !a"4-B!P0KESP+ 

1,250! POKESP+3, 250 
JD 320 PRINT"{CLR} [CYN)"TAB(20 

5) "THE CROOK IS IN "ST$ 

(RC) :FORX=1TO2000:NEXTX 
HQ 330 GOTO1480 
MJ 340 PRINT"{CLR) {CYN)"; :POKE 

SP+3,250 
HF 350 SX(18)=290tSY(18)=173:S 

X(!9)=275:SY(19)=70:SX( 

20)=290tSY(20)=140 
XH 360 SX(21)=2a0tSY(21)=106i5 

X(22)=28S:SY(22)=200 
HM 370 IFE=2THEN630 
SG 380 PRINT" {RVS)0g6 YSOO 

E12 Y30E6 Y3Pg4 Y3l^3 
HJ 390 PRINT"TRVS)0T0FF}i*i 

{rvs3{6 spaces) Eh3m 

{12 SPACES)§H3 
{6 SPACES3gNi(6 SPACES) 
{ OFF } £ 
JQ 400 PRINT'^[RVS)|H3 

{7 SPACES)|Hi |Hi 
(11 SPACES) 6H§ 

{6 spaces3|n3{5 spaces) 

i OFF ) £ 
DA 410 PRINT'^{RVS)OMg3 P^N 

§2 yIBh^ m|ii P3oi7 Yi 

§Hi{4 SPACES) {off! 
QG 420 PRINT" {RVS)|Hi 

{7 SPACES) Bi!3 {4 SPACES) 

EH3{8 SPACEsiiHi 

{7 SPACES )gHi (4 SPACES) 

i*i 

AE 430 PRINT" {RVS)gH8 

{7 SPACES) iH8 {4 SPACES) 

imie SPACES )EH3 

{7 SPACES)gHi{5 SPACES) 

AK 440 PRINT"{RVS)Li7 PiLi4 Pi 
IhUb SPACES)L|6 P3 'o 
E6 y3 

RC 450 PRINT" {RVSjiHi 

{2 SPACES) IN? {6 SPACES) 
iH3{2 SPACES) Bh3 
{8 SPACES )BHE( 6 SPACES) 
MEH3(6 SPACES )P 



78 COMPUTErs Gazette August 1987 



KD 4C0 PRINT" IRVS)|h3 

(2 SPACES )|n3( 6 SPACES] 
BH^{2 SPACESJL^S P3LgP3 
{6 SPACES) M (6 SPACES) 

KC 470 PRINT" (RVS)EH3 

£2 spaces)|k8(6 spaces) 
§hH4 spaces }iH3 

(8 SPACES )iHi( 5 spaces) 
iNilG SPACES ]{ OFF) 
JP 480 PRINT" Uvs]Bh3 

[2 SPACES )|N§t 6 SPACES} 
^H^{4 SPACES )in| 

{8 spACEs}Li5 Pi^ie Yi 
RC 490 print"{rvsT^h3 

(3 SPACES )Mt 5 spaces) 
imlA SPACES )E 113 
{B SPACES)gH3l6 SPACES) 
M(5 SPACES) (OFF) 

KM 500 PRINT"E*i(RVS) 

(4 SPACES )m£ 4 SPACES) 
iHg[4 SPACESJgHi 
[8 SPACES )BH3( 6 SPACES) 
EN3(6 SPACES) (off) 

AR 510 PRINT" E*3[RVS3 

(4 SPACES )Mt 3 SPACES) 
EH3£4 SPACES)BF1i 
(8 SPACES) Etlil 6 SPACES) 
iN3{6 SPACES)|*3 

MM 520 PRINT"l2 SPACES)B*I 

(RVS)£4 SPACES)M066 Y30 
g6 Y3PE9 YiLie P^ 

GM 530 PRINT" [3 SPACES) E*3 
JRVS) (4 S PACES )M 
[6 SPACES )iH3 [6 SPACES) 
BN3|3 Y3|HH5 SPACES) 
EHi[5 SPACES) fOFF)£ 

cs 540 print"[4 spaces5s*i 
[rvs){3 spaces )N 

{6 SPACES )BH3 [6 spaces) 

Bn3[3 spaces }m 

{5 SPACES )§h3T5 spaces! 

GE 550 PRINT" (8 SPACES) 6*3 
(RVS) (6 SPACES )EH§ 
[6 SPACES 3 gNi 1 4 SPACES) 
g5 Y3EH3{5 SPACES) (off) 

KX 560 PRINT"(9 SPACES)!*! 

tRVS){5 SPACES)EHii6 Pi 
£{9 SPACES)0E5 y3 

HK 570 PRINT" tWHT)M0VE7{CYN) 
{5 SPACES )g*i[RVS) 

i4 spaces}l!off) i*i 

iRVS){l4 SPACES )gHi 

is SPACES) J OFF 3 
GX 580 PRINT" [18 SPACES )6*§ 

[RVS) J13 spaces3Eh3 

(2 spaces) (RVS) 

{2 SPACES) [off)je; 
xp 590 PRINT" i3toE 10 yIp£cyn3 

[ SPACE Hyel) score J Jcyn) 

i*3£Rvs}(ii spaces 3 N 

{7 spaces) (off) 
RG 600 PRINT" §33|h3£ 10 SPACES) 
gNUCYNlte SPACES )i* 3 i 

i*|[Rvs)£4 spaces3[off3 

£(9 SPACES) g*H RVS )E* 3 
EX 610 PRINT"E33Bh3[10 SPACES) 
EN3[CYN){11 SPACES)g*| 
(RVS) (2 SPACES) £ OFF) £ 

(11 SPACES )g*3£ RVS 3 6"^3 
E off 3 " ; 
BQ 620 PRINT"|33LE10 p3@[cyn) 
[12 spaces )E*3£"; 

JM 630 IFF"2THENGOSUB2740!PRIN 

TLA; 
KE 640 IFF=2ORRC>22THEN670 
PC 650 IFSX(RC)>25STHENK=255iP 

OKESP+16,3jCX=2 
AD 660 POKESP+2,SX(RC}-K: POKES 

P+3,SY<RCj :K=0 
QD 670 GOSUB1590SGOTO1010 



DJ 680 PRINT"(CLR)"; sPOKESP+3, 
250 

HM 690 SX(18)=S7:SY(18)=174!SX 
{19)=40:SY(19)=55:SX(20 
)=60!SY{20)=138 

DF 700 SX(21)=44:SY(21)=93:SX( 
22)=57:SY(22)=205:IFE=2 
THEN960 

FQ 710 PRINT" [RVS) [7 SPACES} 
(OFF) £(28 SPACES) (RVS) 
OgYi 

GS 720 PRINT" (RVS) (6 SPACES )N 
[SPACEJMBPJia SPACES) 
i * 3 ( OFFTI WHT } MOVE [ CYN } 
[16 SPACES ){ RVS )£ 
£2 SPACES) (OFF) 

EH 730 PRINT" (RVS) (6 SPACES) 
lHf[3 SPACES)MN[OFF} 
(RVS)££2 SPACES) 1*3 
£OFF)Tll SPACES) (RVS) 
BH3(2 SPACES)EHi EH3EN3 
[3 SPACES) 1*1 

DM 740 PRINT"£RVS) £6 SPACES )M 
[5 SPACES) (OFF) (RVS)"" 
[3 SPACES) £ off) £ 

(11 SPACES} £rvsTBh 3 
(2 spages)Bh3 iH3BN3 

(OFF)£ 

GQ 750 PRINT" [RVS} 17 Y38h3 

14 spaces) {OFF) (RVS) 
[4 spaces) (OFF) 
(7 SPACES) (RVS) £ 
£6 SPACES 3 gH3N N 

QA 760 PRINT" [ RVS ) [7 SPACES )L 
(4 SPACES) [OFF) (RVS) 
{4 SPACES) (OFF) 
(6 SPACES) £ RVS) £ 
(7 SPACES)oi2 yT £off3 

px 770 print"|*3£rvs3 

(7 SPACES )0E 3 y3£off) 
{RVS 3 82 y3oEy3E*3{off3 
(space) [RVS)£BY3oi7 y3 

M o§y3pmB*3(off)Tg| 

MK 780 PRINT"~rRVS) (7 SPACES) 
iH3(3 SPACES) iH3 
[2 SPACES) BH3 £5 SPACES) 

§h3{7 spaces )kmBhI mi 
(space) (off) 

AB 790 PRINT" (RVS} §6 PjO 

[4 SPACES )iH3{ 2 spaces) 
BH3[4 SPACES3KLE7 P3L 

PF 800 PRINT" i*3[RVST 

(5 SPACES )M( 4 SPACES) 

BH3(2 SPACES )L 

(3 SPACES )n[ 2 SPACES )L 

E3 p3{z spaces) Bn3 1*1 

HG 810 PRINT" £2 SPACES )B*i 
£RVS) (5 SPACES 5 M 

(3 spaces)Bh3 n mBp3n 
£4 SPACES 3n£ 2 spacesJmn 
Bh8By3p 
xc 820 print"T3 spaces3[rvs3 

(6 spaces )Bh3[ 2 spaces) 

LNf4 SPAGES)Mi2 P3nBy3 
TS SPACES} §2 Y3PfOFF) 

£2 SPACES) (yelSscorei 

{CYH} 
XS 830 PRINT" [3 SPACES) {RVS 3 
[6 SPACES )MiP3N 

[6 spacesjn e@i 
[9 spaces)Tn3 
fk 840 print" [3 spaces) (rvs) 

[6 SPACES )N[ 2 SPACES) 

gi3iu3l6 yTnB10 y3 

FJ 850 PRINT" [3 SPACES )[ RVS )RR 
RRRR0B2 y3{7 SPACES )N 
£ll SPACES ) { OFF ) 

DH 860 PRINT" {3 SPACES) [ RVS } 

(5 SPACES )Ni4 Y30B4 Y30 

B2 Y30B2 yTmB4 pT 

(2 SPACES) {OFF) 
CF 870 PRINT" [3 SPACES) £RVS) 



[S SPACES) |H3( 4 SPACES) 
BH3[4 SPACES )EH3 
[2 SPACES )m£ 7 SPACES 3 M 
£ OFF ) £ 
GR 880 PRINT'^£3 SPACES) ( RVS 3 

[5 SPACES )BH3( 4 SPACES) 
BH3£4 SPACES)gH3 

{3 spaces)By3mBp3 

£4 SPACES] (OFf3£ 
JQ 890 PRINT"{3 SPACEST(RVS) 

B5 p3Eh3[4 spaces3§h3 
£4 spaces)Bh3{6 spaces) 
m[2 spaces) £ off) £ 

XF 900 PRINT"£3 SPACES3TRVS) 
Bh3£4 SPACES)gH3 
£4 SPACES )§H3 [4 SPACES) 

Bh3{7 spaces }m{off)£ 

B33OB10 Y3P£CYN}"f 
HS 910 PRINT" (3 spaces) (RVS) 
BHi£3 spaces )N 

(5 SPACES) gH3 §3 P3L 

B7 p3£off]£ i33BH3 

£10 SPACEST§N3£CYN)"r 
EB 920 PRINT" [2 SPACES }( RVS }£ 
[4 SPACES)i3 Y3P 

{2 spaces)Bh3 IhE 

{10 SPACES )i*3£OFF) B33 
in3[l0 SPACES )Bn3 [CYN )" 

HK 930 PRINT" [2 SPACES) (RVS) 
£7 SPACES } i* 3 £ OFF) 
(8 SPACES )B*3£ RVS ) 

£4 SPACES) (off) E*3 

(RVS) (2 SPACES) £0FF) 

B33LE10 p3@(cyn3"? 

CS 940 PRINT" £9 SPACES) 1*3 
[RVS)B*3£0FF) 
[14 SPACES )g*?£ RVS) B*3 
SQ 950 PRINT" {10 SPACES) 1*3 

[15 SPACES) i*3£ RVS) B*3 
[ OFF ) " ; 
GC 960 CX=0:POKESP+16,0:IFF=2T 

HENGOSUB2740:PRINTLAr 
XM 970 IFF=2ORRC<18THEN1000 
EX 980 IFSX(RC)>25STHENK=255!P 

0KESP+16,2!CX=2 
DJ 990 POKESP+2,SX(RC)-KiP0KES 

P+3,SY(RC) !K=0 
PJ 1000 GOSUB1590 
DE 1010 IFMP=lTHENYY=20:XX=0tG 

OSUB2450:PRINTSP$:PRIN 

T"{UP)"; 
XA 1020 IFMP=2THENPRINT"(H0ME) 

"TAB(60)SP$:PRINT" 

(HOME)"TAB(60); 
KG 1030 Y=0:R1=R 
EP 1040 IFAN?<>""THENDA=1 
PM 1050 IFG=1THENG=0:GOTO1360 
EK 1060 AN$="" 
DJ 1070 IFDA=lTHENRETaRN 
GM 1080 IFF=2THEN2610 
HE 1090 GOTO2120 
FJ 1100 IFY>0THEN1200 
JC 1110 IFA$<>" "THEN1180 
DS 1120 IFXZ>LEN(NB5(R))-2THEN 

XZ= — 1 
QQ 1130 XZ=XZ+2:NM5=MID5£NB5CR 

),XZ,2) jKM=VAL(NMS) :PR 

INTST5(NM) :X=0 
RA 1140 X=X+1 
CH 1150 GETA5!lFA$=CHR$(13)THE 

NAH?=ST$(NM) :G=l sGOSUB 

2810 iGOTOl 170 
JC 1160 IFX<30THEN1140 
FF 1170 DA=1:GOTO1010 
DF 1180 IFAS<>CHR$(13)THEN1200 
MB 1190 PRINT" [RVS} "ST9 (HM) :F0 

RX=1TO200 iNEXTXi GOTO10 

10 
CK 1200 IFA5=" "ANDA5(Y)=" "TH 

ENRETURN 
HF 1210 IFA5<>" [RIGHT) "THEN127 



COMPUTEIs GazBlle Atjgust 1987 79 



DH 1220 IFR<18ORR>22THEN1270 
AQ 1230 POKESP+l,250:POKESP+3, 

250:DA=1 
AG 1240 IFMP=lTHENMP-2tGOT0126 


HG 1250 MP=1 
GS 1260 ONMPGOTO340,680 
MX 1270 IFA5=GHR$(13)THEN1330 
FM 1280 IFAS=CHR5(20}ANDY=0THE 

NRETURN 

qp 1290 ifa5schr?(20)thenprint 
"[left) [left!"; !AS(y) 

="":Y=Y-1 
SH 1300 IF(AS<"A"0RA5>"Z"}ANDA 

$<>" "ANDAS<>"."THENRE 

TURN 
RJ 1310 I FY»= 14 THEN RETURN 
FS 1320 PRINTASr !Y=Y+1:A5(Y)=A 

$ : RETURN 
QM 1330 GOSUB2810 

Hi-: 134U IFA?(Y) = " "THENY=Y-1 
PF 1350 FORX=lTOY:ANS=AN$+A5(X 

) !A5{X)=""!NEXTX 
GE 1360 ZY=LENtEJ85(R) ) 
AH 1370 ZZ=-1 
QM 1380 ZZ=ZZ+2 
KR 1390 MI5=MIDS(NBS(R),ZZ,2) ! 

MI=VAL(MI5) 
KH 1400 IFAtJ5 = ST5(MI)THENR=Ml! 

GOTO1500 
RM 1410 IFZZ<ZY+1THEK1380 
CQ 1420 P=0 
SA 1430 FORZX=lT04e:IFANS=ST5( 

7,X}TUENP=1 
RE 1440 NEXTZX 
EM 1450 U=2!W=10 
JJ 1460 IFP=1THEKGOSUB2810jPRI 

NT"{YEL)(3 spaces) HOT 

[SPACE) A (down) 

[8 left]keighbor[cyn)" 

,- ;GOSUB284g:GOTO1010 
HJ 1470 GOSUB2ei0 SPRINT" {YEL)T 

RY AGAIN[CYN)"; !G0SUB2 

84O:GOTO1O10 
JX 1480 R=INT(48*RND(1) )+l:Rl= 

R:IFR=RCTHEN1480 
BX 1490 nM=H:TE=INT(Tl/60) 
MF 1500 1FMP=1A»DR<23THEN670 
AE 1510 IFMP=2ANDR>17T[1EN1000 
FJ 1520 POKESF+1,250:POKESP+3, 

250 
JS 1530 IFR<18ORR>22THEN1560 
SP 1540 IFRC>22THENMP=2!GOT068 


RP 1550 MP=1:GOTO340 
RJ 1560 IFR>22THENMP=2!GOTO680 
GF 1570 IFR<23THENMP=l!GOT034a 
BC 1580 1F(MP=:aNDRC>22)OR(MP= 

2ANDRC<18)THENP0KESP+3 

,2 50 
KX 1599 IFSX(R)<256THENBX=0 
MJ 1600 IFSX(R)>255THENBX=1 
MX 1610 IFF=1THEN1660 
BM 1620 IFST(R)=0TJJENST(R)=1:L 

A=LA+1 JGOSUB2740 ! PRINT 

LA; :GOTO1660 
CF 1630 IFMP=1THENXX=2iYY=22 
MS 1640 IFMP=2THENXX=29:YY=20 
DF 1650 GOSUB2450!PRIKT"(YEL}A 

LREADY[D0WN) {7 LEFT)CH 

OSEN{CYN)"r :U=3!W=13:G 

OSUB2840 
XP 1660 IFSX(R)>255THENX2=255 
XE 1670 POKESP+1,250 
FJ 1680 POKESP,SX(R)-X2:X2=0!P 

OKESP+i6 , BX+CX : POKESP+ 

1,SY(R) 
SK 1690 IFF=1THENGOSUB2740:PRI 

NT" (6 SPACES) [7 LEFT) 5 

"10000-J; 
DB 1700 IFEA°.1AHDR=HMTHENG0SUB 

2S20 

80 COMPUTErs GazBlte August 1987 



RJ 1710 IFSA=>10RR<>RGTHENRETUR 

N 
QC 1720 GOSUB281 0: PRINT "(YEL) 

[SPACE) GOT HIMI":U=5:W 

=80 :GOSUB2840 i FORL=1TO 

190:NEXTL 
CS 1730 GOSUB2810:PRINT"[WiIT} 

[ SPACE )G0 HOMEI [CYNJ "; 
QF 1740 PQKE2041, 15:EA=1:RQ=1 : 

R9=1:MA=1:SA=1 sPOKESP+ 

3, 2 50: RETURN 
FA 1750 DATAWASHINGTON,0LYMPIA 

,45,55,0702, IDAHO, BOIS 

E, 95, 83, 010705041009 
KD 17G0 DATASOUTH DAKOTA, PIERR 

E, 223,80,061904122105 
QP 1770 DATAWY0MING,CHEYENNE,1 

55, 93, 020503121110, MON 

TANA, HELENA, 140, 58,020 

40603 
CB 1780 UATAHORTH DAKOTA, B I SMA 

RCK,220, 5 5,051903,OREG 

0>3, SALEM, 45, 83, 0108090 

2 
XD 1790 DATACALIFORNIA,SACRAME 

NTO,30, 125,070913 
KA 1800 DATANEVADA, CARSON CITY 

,70, 125,0807021013 
JS 1810 DATAUTAH,SALT LAKE CIT 

Y, 113, 125,090204111413 
BR 1820 DATACOLORADO, DENVER, 17 

0,135, 10131417161204 
CE 1830 DATANEBRASKA, LINCOLN, 2 

30,112,040321201611 
BK 1840 DATAARIZONA, PHOENIX, 10 

5,175,0809101114 
HP 1850 DATANEW MEXICO, SANTA F 

E, 165, 175, 1310111715, T 

EXAS,AUSTIN,226,195, 14 

171822 
AB 1860 DATAKANSAS,TOPEKA,23 5, 

140,11122017 
DS 1870 DAT AOKLAHOMA, OKLAHOMA 

(SPACE) CITY, 24 7, 165, 11 

1620181514 
RG 1880 DATAARKANSAS, LITTLE RO 

CK, 57, 174, 172042442215 
BA 1890 DATAMINNESOTA,ST. PAUL 

,40,55,06032124 
XH 1900 DAT AM I SSOUR I, JEFFERSON 
CITY, 60, 138, 161221274 

1421817 
AP 1910 DATAI0V;A,DES MOINES, 44 

,93, 120319242720, LOUIS 

IANA, BATON ROUGE, 57, 20 

5, 151B44 
SE 1920 DATAMICHIGAN, LANSING, 1 

32 , 75 , 242 526 , WISCONSIN 

.MADISON, 50, 75,1923272 

1 
HB 1930 DATAINDIANA, INDIANAPOL 

IS, 122, 11 0,23272641, OH 

10 , COLUMBUS ,153,110,25 

4140232R 
EX 1940 DATAILLINOIS.SPRINGFIE 

LD, 92, 115, 2124254120 
BJ 1950 DATAPENNSYLVANIA.HARRI 

SBURG,215, 100, 26403836 

2937 
MB 1960 DATANEW YORK, ALBANY, 2 

38,80, 283635 33 30, VERMO 

NT,MONTPELIER, 267, 70, 2 

93331 
CQ 1970 DATANEW HAMPSHIRE, CONC 
ORD, 285. 65, 33 3032, MAIN 

E.AUGUSTA, 305, 55, 31 
PS 1980 DATAMASSACHUSETTS,BOST 

ON, 287, 85, 2930313534 
SP 1990 DATARHODE ISLAND, PROVI 

DENCE, 290, 100, 3335 
GK 2000 DATACOHNECTICUT.HARTFO 

RD. 270, 97, 293334, NEW J 



ERSEY, TRENTON, 255, 105, 

292837 
PD 2010 DATADELAWARE, DOVER, 252 

. 118.382836 
GA 2020 DAT AMARYLAND, ANNAPOLIS 

,228,118,37284039 
RJ 2030 DATAVIRGINIA, RICHMOND, 

218,133,3840414243 
MR 2040 DATAWEST VIRGINIA, CHAR 

LESTON, 178, 125, 2626383 

941 
HQ 2050 DATAKENTUCKY, FRANKFORT 

,138,13 5,2027 25 2640394 

2 
JJ 2060 DATATENNESSEE,NASHVILL 

E, 140, 153, 182041394347 

4644 
AJ 2070 DATANORTH CAROLINA, RAL 

EIGH, 218, 156,42394547 
JQ 2080 DATAMISSISSIPPI,JACKSO 

N, 98, 185,22184246 
FJ 2090 DATASOUTH CAROLINA, COL 

UMBIA. 228. 180,4743 
EE 2100 DAT AALABAMA, MONTGOMERY 

,138,185,44424748 
AS 2110 DAT AGEORGI A, ATLANTA, 18 

5,190,464 2434 54a,FLORI 

DA, TALLAHASSEE, 180 , 216 

,4746 
BM 2120 RR=RC!lFSA-lTHENV3=200 


GM 2130 F0RX1=1T0LEN(NB$(RR))S 

TEP2 
PM 2140 GETA5:IFA5<>""THENPRIN 

T" (LEFT)"; ;GOSUB1100 
CG 2150 M5=MID$(Nn5(RR),Xl,2) ! 

H=VAL(M5) jRa=l!R9=l 
MA 2160 V1=ABS(SY(R)-SY(M)) 
AD 2170 IFEA=0AND(RC<18ORRC>22 

)THENR8=INT( 3*RND(1 ) )+ 

1:R9=INT(2*RND(1) ) +1 
AD 2180 IFMP=1ANDM?22THENV=25S 

-SX(R)+SX(M) :GOTO2210 
SE 2190 IFMP=2ANDM<18THENV=SX( 

R)+255-SX(M) :GOTO2210 
RR 2200 V-ABS(SX(R)*R8-SXtM)*R 

9) 
KB 2210 F0RXY=1T0LEN(NB?(R) )ST 

EP2 
XG 2220 MN?=MID?(NB$(R) ,XY,2): 

MN=VAL<MN$) 
BB 2230 IFMN=MTHENV=V-1000 
BE 2240 GETA5;IFA9<>""THENPRIK 

T" (left)"; tGOSUB1100 
EG 2250 NEXTXY 
RR 2260 PRINT" [RVS) {OFF) 

(LEFT)"; 
RB 2270 V2=V+V1:IFV2<0THENV2=I 

NT(4*RND(1)) 
GF 2280 IFEA=0THEN2310 
FG 2 290 IFV2<V3THENV3=V2:RD=M 
AB 2300 GOTO2320 
FH 2310 IFV2>V3THENV3=V2:RD=M 
ED 2320 NEXTXl 
DH 2330 D=D+l!lFD<BTHEN2120 
OX 2340 GETA5:IFA?<>""THENPRIN 

T" (LEFT)": :GOSUB1100 
HE 2350 D=0:RC=RD!pRINT" 

(left)"; :V3='0 
HB 2360 IFMA=1ANDEA=1THENRC=IN 

T ( 48*RND [ 1 ) ) +1 1 KC^RC ! M 

A=S 
BB 2370 POKESP+3, 250 
BA 2380 IFEA=0THENJ=J+100!U=ll 

W«=40:GOSUB2840 
SO 2390 IF(MP=lANDRC>22)OR(MP- 

2ANDRC<18)THEN2120 
EM 2400 IFSX(RC)<256THENCX=0 
KM 2410 IFSX(RC)>255THENCX=2:X 

3=255 
SA 2420 P0KESP+16,BX+CX:POKESP 
+2 . SX ( RC ) -X3 : X3=0 : POKE 

SP+3,SY(RC) 



HS 2430 IFSA"lANDRC-RTHENGOSUB 

2570 
MJ 2440 GOTO2120 
KM 2450 POKE781,YY:POKE782,XX! 

POKE783,48:SYS65520:XX 

=0:YY=0: RETURN 
PA 2460 DATA168, 0,2, 170,0, 10,1 

70,128,042,170,160,41, 

35,160,41,221,160,101, 

17,100 
CA 2470 DATA101,101,100,21,101 

,80,21,85,80,21,1,80,5 

,69,64,1,85,0,0,84,252 

,0,3, 255 
ES 2480 DAT A0, 15,223,19^,61,85 

,240,61,85,240,63,223, 

240, 127,255,244,117,23 

7,116,53 
JJ 2490 DATA101, 112, 52.204, 112 

,7,3,64,3,87,0,0,84,0, 

0, 16, 84, 0,1, 85,0, 13, B5 

,192,61 
FB 2500 DATA85, 240,61,85, 240,6 

3,223,240,127,255,244, 

117,237,116,53,101,112 

,61 
FX 2510 DATA221, 240, 15,3, 192,1 

5,84,192,3,223,0,0,252 
FP 2520 GOSU!32810:PRIHT"{yEL) 

{space} YOU WINl";;X=X+ 

1 :U=1 !W=70 :GOSUB2840 ! I 

FX<20THEN2520 
KA 2530 GOSUB2810:PRINT"(GRN]P 

RESS ANY{ DOWN 1(7 LEFT} 

KEY"; 
AE 2540 POKE198,0 
AG 2550 GETA5!lFAS=""THEN2550 
KM 2560 RUM 
GP 2570 GOSUB2810S PRINT" tYEL] 

{space} GOT Y0U1";:U=3: 

W=l 5 ! GOSUB2840 ; POKESP+ 

21,2 
GC 2580 IFJ<10000THENGOSUB2740 

!PRINT"{6 SPACES} 
{6 LEFT} 0"; 
JX 2590 FORX=lTO1500tNEXTX 
AE 2600 GOTO2530 
ED 2610 POKESP+3,250 
GP 2620 GETA$:TM=SC-(INT(Tl/60 

)-TE) 
SS 2630 IFMP=1THENPRINT"[H0ME} 

{23 DOWN} "TAB (28); 
JE 2640 IFMP=2THENPBINT"{HOME} 

{17 DOWN} "TAB ( 30 ) f 
KD 2650 PRINT"TIME!"TM"{LEFT} 

{space}"; 
HH 2660 IFTM=0THEN2760 
HK 2670 IFMP=1THENPRINT"{H0ME} 

{20 DOWN] "TAB (Y); 
DD 26G0 IPMP=2THEKPRINT"EhoME) 

{down} "TAB (20+Y) ; 
QJ 2690 IFRA<4THENPRINT"{RVS} 
( SPACE } { OFF } { LEFT } " ; i R 

A=RA+1 :GOTO2710 
PC 2700 PRINT" { LEFT } " ; t RA=0 
XB 2710 IFA5«"""THEW2620 
DP 27 20 PRINT" {LEFT } " ; iGOSUBl 

100 
BQ 2730 GOTO2610 
AB 2740 IFMP=1THENXX=13:YY=23j 

GOSUB24S0 ! RETURN 
QA 2750 XX=33:YY=13iGOSUB2450; 

RETURN 
CD 2760 IFMP^lTHENXX-liYY-2 2 
HE 2770 IFMP=2THENXX-29eYY=20 
EH 2780 GOSUB2810:PRINT"{YEL}T 

IME IS UP" 
JM 2790 WX=WX+l:U=liW=15:G0SUB 

2840!lFWX<15THEN27e0 
FD 2B00 GOTO2530 
CJ 2810 IFMP^lTHENXX-l tYY=22iG 
OTO2a30 



AQ 2820 XX=29!YY=20 

GJ 2830 GOSUB2450!PRINT" 
{10 SPACES} {down} 
{10 LEFT} {10 SPACES} 
{up} {10 LEFT]"; :RETURN 

MQ 2840 FORS=lTOU:POKEN+24, 15: 
POKEN+6 , 247 : POKEN+4 , 1 7 
; POKEN+1 , W 

SB 2850 FORQ=lTO30:NEXTOtPOKEN 
+4,16:NEXTSsRETURN 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 

Before typing in programs, please 
refer to "How To Type In 
COMPUTERS CAZOTE Programs," 
which appears before the Program 

Listings. 



Give 'N' Take 

Article on page 25. 
Program 1 : Give 'N' Take 

BE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1987 COMPU 
TEl PUBLICATIONS INC. - 
{SPACE} ALL RIGHTS RESERV 
ED 
CA 20 PRINT" (CLR}g8iCHECKING D 
ATA" t FORI =0 TO 10 : READA$ :N 
EXT 
MR 30 FORI=lT0772iREADAtX-X+A: 
NEXT tIFXo 504 10THENPRINT 
"DATA STATEMENT ERROR.": 
STOP 
KP 40 50=54272 !FORI=SDTOSD+23! 
POKEI,0!NEXT:POKESD+24,1 
5 
CM 50 DIMA$(18),P{70),OFF(70), 
XX(70),YY(70).NP(70).CP( 
70,7),PI(2,18),TEMP(70) 
XS 60 DIMHO{70) ,OH(70) 
PR 70 RESTORE ! POKES 3 2 80, 6 t POKE 
53281,6!GOSUB1560jGOSUB1 
260 :TX»12 tTy=14!GOSUB123 

CA 80 PRINT "{ RVS } 1 { OFF } OR 
tRVS)2{0FF} PLAYERS 
{HOME}"iGOSUB1240eC64-C! 
IFC=2THEN110 
PK 90 F2=0tTX=6iTY»16tGOSUB123 
0iPRINT"COMPUTER FIRST 
{RVS} 1 {OFF} OR SECOND 
{RVS} 2 {off} {home}" 
AF 100 GOSUB1240:CP=C-llGOTO12 


PE 110 TX-lltTY=16:GOSUB1230iP 
RINT"{RVS)l{OFF} OR 
{RVS] 2 {off) JOYSTICKS 
(HOME} " :GOSUB1240iF2-C- 
1 
BS 120 TX-6:TY=24:GOSUB1230jPR 
INT" (4 SPACES]DEFINING 
{ SPACE ] CHARACTERS 
{5 SPACES) {HOME}" 
DQ 130 CL(0)=3!CL(1)=14:PL=0!M 
ES5(3 }="[RVS}1{0FF) OR 
(SPACE] {RVS] 2 (OFF) JOYS 
TICKS" 
AQ 140 AN-43iPORI=0TO10:READN$ 
(I) [NEXT 3 DATA " ",1,2,3 
,4,5,6,6,8,9,10 
CS 150 MESS(l)«"f2 SPACES )DESI 
GNING board {3 SPACES)"! 
MESS(2}="{2 SPACES}DIVI 
DING PIECES" 
SD 160 WI9(0)="[RVS)683 

(9 SPACES] PLAYER 1")WIS 



(l)='"fRVS)^83(9 SPACES] 

PLAYER 2" 
HJ 170 FORI=1TO70!READNP{I) :NE 

XT 
JR 180 DATA 2,5,3,4,4,3,4,4,3, 

4,2,5,5,7,5, 5,5,6,5, 5,4 

,5,7,6,4,6,5,4,6,4,7,5, 

5,6,5 
MJ 190 DATA 4,4,4,4,5,6,6,7,6, 

6,5,3,5,4,6,5,5,6,5,6,6 

,5,6,3,2,4,4,5,7,3,4,6, 

4,5,1 
KF 200 FORI-1TO70:FORX=1TONP(I 

) !READCP(I,X] iNEXTX.I 
KQ 210 DATA 2,12,1,3,12,13,14, 

2,4,14,3,5,14,15,4,6,15 

,16,5,7,16,6,8,17,18 
GJ 220 DATA 7,9,10,19,8,10,19, 

8,9,11,20,10,20,1,2,13, 

21,22,12,14,2,22,23 
BD 2 30 DATA 2,3,4,13,15,23,24, 

4,5,14,16,24,5,6,15,17, 

26,7,16,18,26,27 
PA 240 DATA 7,17,19,27,28,34,8 

,9,18,20,28,10,11,19,28 

,36,12,22,29,37 
JM 250 DATA 12,13,21,23,29,13, 

14,22, 24,30,31,41,14,15 

,23,25,26,31,24,26,31,3 

2 
PC 260 DATA 25,24,17,16,27,32, 

26,17,18,33,34,18,19,20 

,35,21,22,30,37,38,40 
ED 270 DATA 23,29,40,41,23,24, 

25,32,41,42,43,25,26,31 

,33,43 
DK 280 DATA 27,32,34,43,44,18, 

27,33,35,44,45.28,34,36 

,45,46 
DR 290 DATA 20,35,46,47,21,29, 

38,48,29,37,39,48,38,40 

,49,50,29,30,39,41,50 
HG 300 DATA 23,30,31,40,42,52, 

31,41,43,52,53,54,31,32 

,33,42,44,54.55 
QB 310 DATA 33,34,43,45,55,56, 

34,35,44,46,56,58,35,36 

,45,47,58,36,46,59,37,3 

8,49 
SK 320 DATA 60.61,39,48,50,61, 

39,40,49,51,52,62,50,52 

,53,62,63,41,42,50,51,5 

3,42 
BH 330 DATA 52,51,54,63,64,42, 

43,53.55,64,513,44,54,56 

,64,67 
BK 340 DATA 44,45,55,57,58,67. 

56,58,67,68,69,45,46,56 

,57,59,69,47.58,69 
DX 350 DATA 48,61,48,49,60,62, 

50,51,61,63,51,53,62,64 

,65 
GP 360 DATA 53,54,55,63,65,66, 

67,63,64,66,64,65,67,68 

,55,56,64,66,57,68 
RM 370 DATA 66,67,57,69,57.58, 

59,68,70,69 
JM 380 TY=24iTX=10:GOSOB1230!P 

RINTMES5(1)"{H0ME]" 
JC 390 ML5="gl3"+CHR$(8)+"|X3< 

"+CHRS(3)+"|2iXJ"+CHR5( 

16)+CHRS(248)+"LEBiET3" 
iPOKE83S,0 
AQ 400 POKE53272,PEEK{ 53272) AN 

D240OR12 
EP 410 POKE836,208:POKE830,0:P 

OKE831 , 216 :P0KE828 , : PO 

KE829, 56i POKE56334,0 

AJ 420 P0KEl,51iMLS=ML$:SYS(PE 
EK(51)+256*PEEK(52)) : PO 
KEl,55!POKE56334,l 

KE 430 FORI=12568T012663:READa 

COMPUTE'S Gazette August 1987 81 



iPOKEl, JjBEXT 

EP 440 DATA 0,126,126,126,126, 
126,126,126,126,126,126 
,126,126,126,126,0 

QM 450 DATA 0,254,254,2 54.254, 
254,254,0,0,127,127,127 
,127,127,127,0 

BM 460 DATA 126,126,126,126,12 
6,126,126, 126,0,2 55,255 
,255,255,255,255,0 

PR 470 DATA 0,127,127,127,127, 
12 7,127,127,0,254,254,2 
54,254,254,254,254 

BM 480 DATA 254,254,254,254,25 
4,254,254,0,127,12 7,127 
,127,127,127,127,0 

XX 490 DATA 127,127,127,127,12 
7,127,127,12 7,254,2 54,2 
54,254,254,254, 254,254 

JJ 500 AS(1)-")%(D0WNJE2 LEFT} 
5":AS(2) = "S,*{DOWNj 
i LEFT 3 5 " : A5 ( 3 ) = " # ( POWN ) 
{LEFT3,%"iA5(4)="t 
(DOWNJ [2 LEFTJ&+" 

RS 510 A$(5}="t(D0WN) [2 LEFTjS 
(RVS) {OFF) » I DOWN) 
12 LEFT]S",AS(6)='")* 
{D0WN)t2 LEFT),+":A5(7) 
= "#{DOVfN) [LEFTJ ' (DOWN) 
(LEFT)?";AS(B) = "t,{%" 

DQ 520 A5(9)=.'*#{do™){2 LEFT)& 

{rvs3E@^Ioff3i"!A$(10)= 

" & t RVS ) 6 T 3 { OFF ] % ( DOWN ) 
(2 LEFT}5"!A5{11)='"* 
i DOWN ) ( LEFT } -% f DOWN ) 
[2 LEFT)?"iA$tl2}="# 
f DOWN ) { 2 LEFT ) & . [ DOWN ) 

IleftJ5" 

JH 530 A5(13H")!*(DOWN) 

t3 LEFT)siRIGHT)S"tA5(l 
4)="*{D0WN} ElEFT) , (+ 
(LEFTJ [UP}#"!A$(15)=")* 
(D0WNH2 LEFT) '[down] 
[LEFTJ,%" 

RX 540 AS(16) = "£.*{D0WN){LEFT)* 
[DOWN) [2 LEFT36+"tAS(17 
)-"#JDOWN) [left)-* 
[DOWN) [2 LEFT),[RVS)Ee3 
[0FF)%";A5(ia)=")(RVS} 
iT3£0FFj«[D0WN) [3 LEFT] 
-+{D0WN3{2 LEFTJS" 

FS 550 FORI =lTO70i OFF (I)=2!NEX 
T;FORI=lTO70sREADP(I) jN 
EXT 

XD 560 DATA 1,5,8,4,1,1,9,10,1 
,16,7,6,4,7,8,3,2,7,3,1 
0,11,2,13,10,1,10,2,8 

QX 570 DATA 5,4,17,6,7,5,10,12 
,7,1,4,2,7,10,7,9,6,15, 
2,15,9,12,7,2,12,3,6,2, 
7 

PF 580 DATA 10,4,8,2,3,14,0,3, 
2,5,9,16,4 

AS 590 FORI-lTO70:READXX(l),yy 
(I) rNEXT 

MC 600 DATA 101,86,117,86,125, 
36,149,86,157,86,173,86 
,189,86,197,86,213,94,2 
21,86 

RS 610 DATA 237,86,101,102,125 
,102,133,94,141,102,165 
, 94 , 181 , 102 , 197 , 102 , 205 
,102 

PC 620 DATA 221,110 

JH 630 DATA 101,118,109,118,12 
5,118,141,110,157,118,1 
65,110 

MC 640 DATA 181,118,205,118,10 
9,134,13 3,126,149,126,1 
65,126 
AG 650 DATA 181,126,197,126,20 
5,126,237,118,101,142,1 
09,150,125, 150 

ea COMPUTEra Gaielte August 1987 



MD 660 DATA 125,142,141,134 

RE 670 DATA 149,150,17 3,142,18 
9,142,205,142,221,134,2 
29,142,101,166,117,166 

MM 680 DATA 133,158,141,166,14 
1,158,157,166,165,158,1 
81,158,197,158,213,166 

SB 690 DATA 213,158,237,158,10 
1,190,117,182,133,182,1 
49,182,165,174,173,182 

JB 700 DATA 181,182,197,166,20 
5,182,221,174,236,182 

qb 710 gosub1230!printmes$(2)" 
{home}" 

XX 720 FORr=lTO70:TEMP(l)=l:NE 

XTiFORX=0TOl JFORZ-1T035 
SK 730 I=INTt70*RND(l))+ltIFTE 

MP(I)=0THEN730 
FB 740 TEMP{I)=>0iPI(X,P(I>) = PI 

(X,P(I) )+ltNEXTZ,X 
RR 750 POKE532e0, lS!POKE53281, 

15:GOSUB1290 
XB 760 V=53248:POKEV+21,4:POKE 

2042,13 
AP 770 FORN=0TO62tREADSPiPOKE8 

32+N, SPiNEXTi POKEV+41 , 1 
XA 780 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,3, 192, 0,7 

,224,0,15,240,0,15,240 
GE 790 DATA 0,15,240,0,7,224,0 

,3,192,0,0,0,0,0 ,0,0,0 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 


RS 800 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,237 
HR 810 PRINT"[H0ME} [D0WN)"SPC( 

17)MES?(6) :GOSUB1200iGO 

SUB1070 
JB 820 IFC64=1ANDPL=CPTHEN1590 
SS 830 JY=15-( PEEK ( 563 20+PL*F2 

)AND1 5 > :FR=PEEK(56320+P 

L*F2)AND16 
AG 840 IFJY=8THENAH=AN+1 
SF 850 IFJY=4THENAN=AN-1 
FX 860 IPAN=0THENAN=.70 
KF 870 IFAN='71THENAN=1 
BA 880 IFFR='0THEN900 
JM 890 POKEV+4,XX(AN)iPOKEV+5, 

YY(AN)iGOTO630 
DQ 900 IF0FF(AN)<>20RPI(PL,P(A 

N) )=0THENGOSUB1670 :GOTO 

830 
MH 910 PI(PL,PCAN) )=PI(PL,P(AN 

)}-ltTU=TU+l 
XQ 920 POKE646,CL(PL) :OFF(AN)= 

PL!QQ=AN!GOSUB1190tSC(P 

L ) -SC ( PL) +1 I PRINTA$ ( P ( A 

N)> 
HA 930 F0RI=1T0NP[AN}:QQ=CP(AN 

,1) ;IF0FF(QQ)=20R0FF(0Q 

)'=PLTHEN960 
FQ 940 LP=-PL+l!GOSUB1190!SC(L 

P)=SC<LP)-1 jSC(PL)=SC(P 

L)+1!PRINTAS(P(QQ)) 
Se 950 0FF(QQ)=PL 
DP 960 NEXTiPLe!-PL+1iGOSUB1690 

:GOSUB1200 i IFTU-70THENG 

OSUB1070tGOTO980 
DD 970 GOTO810 
EP 960 GOSU81710:TY=22:POKEV+2 

i , : PL=1 ! IFSC ( ) > SC ( 1 )T 

HENPL=0 
SD 990 IFGT='0THENPL— PL+1 
RH 1000 WI5{PL)=WI5(PL)+" IS T 

HE WINNER " 
EJ 1010 IFSC(0)=SC(l)THENWr5(P 
L)°"g83(RVS} 
[15 SPACES) IT'S A TIE 
[7 SPACES)" 
AF 1020 TX=0iGOSUB1230: PRINT" 
§83" WlS(PL) :FORI=lT05 
: GOSUB1050 t NEXT s TXs8 
XD 1030 GOSUB1230:PRINT"[RVS)P 
RESS FIRE TO PLAY AGAI 



N"tFORI-lTO50tGOSUB105 
0:NEXT 

JS 1040 GOTO1020 

XA 1050 FR=PEEK( 56320 )AND16:RF 
=PEEK(56321)AND16:IFFR 
=0ORRF=8THENRUN 

FC 1060 RETURN 

XH 1070 PRINT"(H0ME} [6 DOWN) 

[RVS}i8 3[RIGHT)"N5(PI( 
0,13) )"{3 RIGHT}"N5(PI 
(0,14))"[2 RIGHT)"K?(P 
I(0,7))SPC(23); 

QJ 1080 PRINTN$(Plil,13) }" 

{3 RIGHT}"N$(PI(1,14)) 
"[2 RIGHT)"K5(PI(1,7)) 

ED 1090 PRINT" {3 DOWN) (RVS ) "N? 
{PI{0,16) )"{2 RIGHT)"N 
$(PI(0,15))"[3 RIGHT) 
( UP ) "N5 { PI ( , 10 ) ) SPC ( 2 
3) "(down)"; 

PC 1100 PRINTN5(PI(1,16) )■• 

[2 RIGHT}"N5(PI(1, 15)) 
"(3 RIGHT) [UP]"N5(PI{1 
,10)) 

RD 1110 PRINT"(3 D0WN3{RVS)"N? 
(PI (0,1)) "{3 RIGHT} "N$ 
(PI(0,2) )"{2 RIGHT) 
[UP)"NS<PI(0,9))SPC(23 
)"{DOWN)"i 

CC 1120 PRINTNS(PI{1,1))" 

[3 RIGHT) "N$(PI(1,2))" 
J2 RIGHT3{UP}"N?(PI(1, 
9)} 

QA 1130 PRINT" [3 DOWN) [RVS) "NS 
(PI(0,3))"{2 RIGHT3"N? 
(PI(0,4))"{2 RIGHT)"NS 
(PI(0,18))SPC(24); 

PF 1140 PRINTNS(PI(1,3))" 

{2 RIGHT)"N5(PI<1,4) )" 
[2 RIGHT)"NS(PI(1,18)) 

JE 1150 PRINT" [4 DOWN) ERVS)''N? 
(Pl(0,ll))"[3 RIGHTJ-H 
5tPI(0,12)); 

FG 1160 PRINT"[2 RIGHT)"N${PI( 
0,17)) "(3 RIGHT} "NS (PI 
(0,5})"{3 RIGHT}"N5(PI 
(0,8) )" JUP) (2 RIGHT)"N 
?(PI{0,6)); 

DX 1170 PRINT" [RIGHT)"NS (PI (1, 
6)) "[DOWN} (2 RIGHT )"N? 
(PI{1,8))"[3 RIGHT) "NS 
(PI{1,5))"E2 RIGHT)"? 

DX 1180 PRINTN5(PI(1,11))" 

[4 RIGHT} "N5( PI (1,12)) 
"[2 RIGHT)"N5(PI(1, 17) 
)" [HOME) "i RETURN 

SP 1190 TX=INT(XX(QQ)/8)-l:TY= 
INT ( YY (QQ)/e) -5 iGOSUBl 
230 s RETURN 

QK 1200 PC=lrIFPL=<0THENPC=3 

DE 1210 POKE 646, PC: PRINT" 
{HOME) [down} [RVS] 
[2 RIGHT} PLAYER 1[RVS} 
i83{2 RIGHT)[2 SPACES} 
[3 LEFT}"SC(0) lPC=llIF 
PL=1THENPC-14 

PP 1220 P0KE646,PCiPRINTTAB(26 
)" (UP) [RVS) PLAYER 2 
{RVS) §83(2 RIGHT) 
{2 SPACES) [3 LEFT)"SC{ 
1 ) " " I RETURN 

QP 1230 POKE783,0!POKE761,TY:P 
OKE7e2,TXiSYS655 20iRET 
URN 

OS 1240 POKE198,0!WAlT198,ltGE 
TCS<C=«VAL(C$) iIFC<10RC 
>2THEN1240 

ES 1250 RETURN 

KP 1260 POKE198,0:WAIT19a,lsGE 

TC$:IFC$<>"G"ANDC?<>-"T 

"THEN1260 

HG 1270 MES(6)-"(RVS}TAKE"iGT" 

1 ! IFC?-"G"THENMES {6}-" 



tRVS!GlVE"sGT=0 

CA 1280 RETURN 

KH 1290 PRINT" (CLRHRVS]|83 
{63 spaces}"; 

KS 1300 PRINT" J6S SPACES)"; 

HH 1310 PRINT" fCYNHOFF] #683 
{RVsJ (30 SPACES) i7i 
[0FF]#(CYN))(*E8g[RVS) 

tCYN) tOFF3#gaa{RVS) 
JCYN)i0FF]#E8g[RVS) 
icYN) [OFF] '§eg[RVS) 
[PURH2 SPACES)"; 

EB 1320 PRINT" f 18 SPACES) §83 

^73(0FF)) (*geg[Rvs) 

i73tOFF)#E83{RVS) B73 
fOFF)#E8alRVS) Vi 
(off) ' (CYN)5ESg[RVS) 
{CYN)[OFF)$g83[RVS) 
{CYN)(0FF),(+E83£RVS} 
JSPACE5 ICYN) (OFF)¥g83" 

DQ 1330 PRIKT"lRVS) J PUR) gSi 
[0FF))%#(.{%#)%>%#& 
{RVSJiTi {OFF )%&*#( PUR) 
(RVS) §83 §73{0FF)5E88 
{RVS) E73£OFF)5i8a 
[RVSJ g73£OFF) , (+£83 
(RVsJ g73fOFF)S{RVS) 
§83 {10 SPACES)"; 

xp 1340 print" {pur) e53[off)s& 
Ervs) {off}%#&+5#$& 

(RVS)i@3£0FF)%?)%' ' 

[pur] {RVS) §8 3 

(20 SPACES) (PUR) §5i 

{0FF))*5#'t(s,%&*": 
JB 1350 PRINT" #i5&+? (PUR) {RVS) 
183(10 SPACES) (CYN) 
{0FF)&*B8i(RVS} (CYW) 
{OFF3)%?8g{RVE) {CYN) 
{ OFF J E, { RVS ] iT3 I OFF J % 
§83£RVS) {PUR) §53 
{ OFF ) , +&+$ & { RVS ) §T3 

{off)%&(rvs3§t3{off)%$ 

SJ 1360 PRINT " i& { RVS )§T3{ OFF )% 
{PUR)(RVS3 §83 §73 
{oFFU*|83{RVS} §71 

{offJ)iE83{rvs) §73 

{off J t ( RVS ) §t3 ( OFF 3 * 
§83{RVS3 (cynHoff) ' 

IsiiRVsi {CYN) (off) ' 
§83{RVSj "; 
BJ 1370 PRINT"[2 SPACES}{CYN) 

(off) ¥§83 {RVS 3 

(2 SPACES H PUR) §53 

(oFF)#&*) t*5)%5e.*S&{«5 

»(pur3(rvs3 §8i 

{2 SPACES 3 §71 (off) '§83 

{RVS) §73[OFF) '§83 
(RVS) (3 SPACES3§73 
{OFF)$i83(RVS) (CYW) 
{0FF)&+E83{RVS3 (CYN) 
( OFF ) " ; 
MR 13B0 PRINT",%§8 3fRVS3 

[5 SPACES) (PUR) §53 
(OFF3-*S5#Si5)*#S#S 
[RVS]§Ti(0FF3%£>- {PUR) 
(RVS) §83 |73(OFF)&+ 

§S3{RVS) i73{0FF3,%i83 

(RVS) (4 SPACES)"; 
JR 1390 PRINT" (10 SPACES) (PUR) 
§53{OFF)5)*t+t-*, + 'S. 
{RVsi (OFF}%"; 

mm 1400 print"? )%${ pur) (rvs ) 
§83(17 spaces){cyn) 
(off) i §83 (RVS) 
(2 SPACES) {pur) §53 

(off)#,+&*',{rvs)§@3 
{off)%#?#5)*'&*{pur} 
(rvs) §83(5 spaces)"; 
bq 1410 print"{3 spaces)§73 
{off) #§83 (rvs) {cyn) 



{0FF3)%§83{RVS3 (CYN) 

(off)&*e83(rvs3 (cyn) 
(off)6(rvs)§@3{off)* 
§S3(rvs3 (pur) §53 
£off) • )%#S56{rvs) 

(off)*"; 
HD 1420 PRINT" '6(RVS)§@3{OFF)% 

,+,%5(pur3 (RVS) §83 

§7S{OFF))%§83(RVS) §73 

{off)6.*E83(rvs3 §73 

{offU(Rvs)§93{off}% 

(cyn}?§83{RVs3 

{3 SPACES) (CYN) (off) 5" 

SG 1430 PRINT"§83(RVS) 

(5 SPACES) (PUR) §53 
(OFF)5S&+f6*5#$)*!.*t. 

(rvs3§t3{off)%#(pur) 

(RVS] §83 §73(0FF35§83 
{RVS} (3 SPACES) §73 
{OFF)$i83(RVS) 
(14 SPACES) (PUR) §53"; 
EX 1440 PRINT" (OFF) )%#&.#$#,%, 

+#5#S&+(pur) (Rvs3 §83 

(16 SPACES) (CYN) {OFF}) 

{RVS)|T3(oFF)s§e3(RVs3 
(pur) §53{0FF) 'S,(RVSJ 
§e3{0FF)%S'fl.S(S"! 
AR 1450 PRINT"s(RVS) (0FF3%') 

{rvs3§t3{off)%{pur) 

(rVS) §83(7 SPACES)§73 

(off) ){rvs}§t3{off)% 

{cyn)#§83(rvs) 

[3 spaces) (cyn) {off) # 

§83{rvs) (cyn)(off)-+ 

§83 (rvs) (2 spaces)"; 

PK 1460 PRINT" (pur) §53 {off), % 
&*#$#$##£.*5#S-+*(PUR) 
(rVs) §83 §73(OFF)#i83 
fRVS){3 SPACES)"; 

MK 1470 PRINT"§73(0FF]#§8g 
{RVS) E73{OFF}-+§83 
{RVS) IcYN) fOFF},%§8a 

{RVS) {cyn) {off)s+§83 

(RVS) (CYN){0FF}S§a3 
(RVS) (3 SPACES) (PUR) 
§5i{OFF)£,(S5, *,( + "; 

EG 1480 PRINT", *S&lRVS)§e3 
(0FF)%55.+ {PUR3 (RVS) 
§83 §73£OFF) ,%§83{RVS) 

§73£OFF}&+§83{RVS) 
§73{OFF3?i83{RVS) 
(7 SPACES)"; 

EB 1490 PRINT" (5 SPACES) (PUR) 
(20 5PACES)§B3 
(39 SPACES)"; 

XC 1500 PRINT" (11 SPACES) (CYN) 
(0FF)#§ai{RVS} 
{3 SPACES) (CYN) (OFF) # 
§83 (RVS) (CYN) {off] # 
§83 ( RVS H 4 SPACES) 
{CYN) (0FF)#§B3(RVS) 
{5 SPACES] (cyn) {off})* 

§83{Rvs3 §7g(oFF))*§e3 

(RVS) (3 SPACES)"; 

RG 1510 PRINT" J 2 SPACES) §73 
(OFF) #§83 (RVS) 
(2 SPACES)§73(OFF)#§83 
(RVS) (4 SPACES) §73 
(OFF}#§83{RVS3 §73 
(OFF) #§83 (RVS] 
{2 SPACES) (CYN] (OFF) -% 
§83 (RVS) tCYN) (OFF)t.• 
i83(RVS) |CYN){0FF)-* 
§83(RVSJ{2 SPACES)"; 

BB 1520 PRINT" (CYN) {0FF)&{RVS} 
(OFF) I §83 {RVS) 
{4 SPACES} I CYN) (off), + 
§83(RVS) §73(0FF),+|83 
(RVS) (4 SPACES) §73 
(0FF)&{RVS) {OFF) S §8 3 
{RVS) §73(OFF)-%§83 
(rVS]{2 spaces I §73 



tOFFj6") 
XP 1530 PRINT". §83tRVS} §73 

{0FF)-*§83{RVS) {CYN) 

{OFF}?§83(RVS) 

[3 spaces} (CYN) (off) S 

§83{RVS) {cyn)(off), 
(RVS)§@3{OFF3%i83{RVS3 

(2 spaces) {cyn) (off)? 
§8g(Rvs) (2 spaces) 

(cyn) (0FF)£,(%§83(RVS) 
(3 spaces]"; 
SC 1540 PRINT"{2 SPACES}g73 
(0FF]&(%§83(RVS} 
(2 SPACES]§73(OFF]5§8i 

(rvs3{2 spaces) §73 

(off)5§83{RVS} 

(4 spaces) §73 (off) ?§83 

(rvs) §73{off} , (rvs) 

§@3(off}«§83{rvs) 

(24 spaces]"; 
SK 1550 PRINT"{15 spaces) 

(HOME]"!POKE2023, 160:P 

OKE56295,15:POKE53281, 

: RETURN 
DP 1560 PRINT"{CLR){2 SPACES }C 

OPYRIGHT 1987 COMPUTE I 
PUBLICATIONS" 
SJ 1570 PRINTTAB(9)"ALL RIGHTS 

RESERVED" 
DG 1580 TY=12:TX=13:GOSUB1230s 

PRINT" {RVS )G (off) IVE O 

R (rvs3t(off]ake(home) 

" : RETURN 
GS 1590 MT=0:FORI=1TO70:HO(I)= 

0!NEXT!FORI=1TO70 
KG 1600 IF0FF(I)<>20RPI(PL, P(I 

))=0THEN1620 
HK 1610 HO(I)=liMT=MT+l 
DG 1620 NEXT 
CE 1630 MV=0:FORZ=1TO70:IFHO<2 

)=lTHENMV=«MV+l!OH{MV) = 

Z 
RK 1640 NEXT 
JS 1650 NA=INT(HT*RND(l))+l!AN 

=OU(NA) iIFOFF[AN) 20R 

PI (PL,,P(AN) )=0THEN1650 
EE 1660 POKEV+4 , XX < AN } : POKEV+5 

,YY(AH) :GOTO910 
XK 1670 POKESD+5,31:POKESD+6,2 

08 : POKESD, 240 : POKESD+1 

,4!pOKESD+4,33 
HQ 1680 FORS-1TO100: NEXT t GOTO 1 

700 
XQ 1690 POKESD+5,eiPOKESD+6,24 

! POKESD, 0: POKESD+1 , 90 

! POKESD+4 , i 7 
CX 1700 FORS=lTO100tNEXTtPOKES 

D+4 , : POKESD , : POKESD+ 

1,0! RETURN 
PQ 1710 PRINT" {HOME} (3 DOWN) 

(RVS) §8 3(40 SPACESS";: 

F0RI=1T016 
AB 17 20 PRINT" {rvs) (9 SPACES}" 

SPC(22)"(9 SPACES}"; :N 

EXT 
QP 1730 F0RI»1T04:PRINT"(RVS) 

{40 SPACES)"; tNEXT 
PP 1740 PRINT" (RVS) (39 SPACES) 

(HOME) {DOWN) (2 RIGHT} 

§83PIAYER i(bLK]"!RETU 

RN 

Program 2: Give 'N' Take Loader 



"(CLR)(3 D0WN)POKE4 
POKE16384,0:NEW" 

(2 DOWN]LOAD"CHR5( 
IVE 'N' TAKE"CHR$t3 



CB 10 PRINT 
4,64: 

PF 20 PRINT 

34)"G 

4)", 8" 
KQ 30 PRINT" (4 DOWN] RUN" 
PK 40 PRINT" (home]" 
KC 50 POKE198,3:POKE631, 13:P0K 

E632,13:POKE633,13 

COMPUTEI's Gazette August 1987 83 





















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^3 


20 


73 


83701A9 


FF 


80 


IC 


00 


AO 


6E 


84 


5E 


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FF 


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01 


(,0 


C9 


5C 


F0 


42 


8378!C9 


33 


00 


06 


AO 


27 


D0 


8D 


E4 


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C9 


2B 


F0 


28 


C9 


2D 


F0 


9B 


8380120 


00 


60 


A9 


00 


80 


IC 


00 


Bl 


30E0:24 


C9 


87 


D0 


06 


A9 


87 


8D 


07 


8388:60 


AO 


67 


84 


49 


28 


80 


67 


CD 


80E8i6D 


84 


60 


C9 


8B 


00 


08 


A9 


C3 


8390:84 


F0 


06 


A9 


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80 


17 


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A6 


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8D 


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84 


A9 


BD 


60 


C9 


51 


8398:60 


A9 


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80 


17 


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60 


AD 


70 


80FB:31 


90 


09 


C9 


35 


B0 


05 


80 


78 


83A0:68 


84 


49 


2B 


80 


68 


84 


F0 


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8100 :6E 


84 


4B 


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60 


48 


AE 


6A 


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ID 


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A9 


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8108:84 


D0 


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68 


60 


AE 


FB 


07 


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83B0:00 


SD 


ID 


00 


60 


AD 


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D0 


98 


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2B 


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06 


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FF 


D0 


0A 


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02 


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21 


D0 


A2 


00 


A0 


27 


8118iF0 


04 


E0 


24 


00 


04 


68 


4C 


A6 


83C0:00 


C8 


D0 


FD 


E8 


00 


FA 


8D 


02 


8120:CF 


30 


20 


72 


82 


68 


60 


A9 


76 


B3CB!21 


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60 


A9 


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80 


10 


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62 


8128:07 


8D 


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6A 


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34 


83O0:A2 


00 


A9 


E6 


9D 


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44 


8130:03 


20 


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83 


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84 


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18 


69 


15 


E8 


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81 


20 


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21 


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10 


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F4 


8E 


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8148 :0D 


D0 


08 


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0C 


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21 


D0 


4B 


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F8 


07 


8D 


62 


B4 


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01 


32 


8150:A9 


00 


60 


20 


59 


81 


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m 


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00 


8A 


9D 


41 


D0 


ei60:C9 


30 


90 


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83 


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Program 2: Multisprite Boot 




8108:69 


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Program 


















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AE 


69 


84 


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81Ee:BD 


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63 


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QH 10 PRINT 


"{CLR 


(WHTj [DOWN]LO 


81F0:D0 


0E 


A9 


FE 


2D 


10 


D0 


8D 


OD 


AD INC 


MULTISPRITE. . 


" 




81F8:16 


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4C 


BC 


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SX 20 IFA=0THENA= 


=1:L0AD"MULTIS 


B200:AE 


63 


84 


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CA 


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8208 :FC 


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69 


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AC 


BH 30 Pf 


IINI 


"{[ 


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(JLC 


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U 



TE MAGIC. .." 
GO 40 IFA=1THENA=2:L0AD"SPRITE 

MAGIC", 6,1 
FC 50 PRINT" [2 DOl«l}SYS32768 

{3 UP J" 
OB 60 POKE631,13!POKE198,1:NEW 

Exploring The SID 
Chip 

Article on page 22, 
Complex Sound 

BE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1987 COMPU 
TEI PUBLICATIONS INC. - 
[SPACE) ALL RIGHTS RESERV 
ED 
SS 20 AOR=49152 :CHK=0:C=0 
GM 30 READ BYT t IF BYT=999 THEN 

60 
AR 40 POKE ADR, BYT!C=C+1:ADR=A 

DR+1 
EG 50 CHK='C+BYT+CHK:GOTO30 
KP 60 IF CHKO 12604 THEM100 
FX 70 SYS 49152 
FF 80 FOR J=l TO 5000:NEXT 
GJ 90 POKE 54276, 0:POKE 54263, 

0:POKE 54290,0: END 
FJ 100 PRINT" [CLR) ERROR IN DAT 

A STATEMENTS. CHECK TYP 

ING . " 
PH 110 DATA 162,024,169,000,15 

7,000 
DH 120 DATA 212,202,016,250,16 

2,024 
rtJ 130 DATA 189,064,192,157,00 

0,212 
RK 140 DATA 202,016,247,120,16 

9,038 
SF 150 DATA 141,020,003,169,19 

2,141 
DJ 160 DATA 021,003,088,169,00 

0,133 
AA 170 DATA 00 3,096,165,003,05 

6,233 
XQ 180 DATA 029,133,003,141,00 

1,212 
KG 190 DATA 173,028,212,141,02 

2,212 
DA 200 DATA 074,074,074,074,14 

1,015 
FM 210 DATA 212,076,049,234,00 

0,000 
MJ 220 DATA 000,000,129,013,00 

0,001 
RQ 230 DATA 036,000,000,021,01 

3,000 
XP 240 DATA 000,004,000,007,06 

5,012 
HP 250 DATA 000,000,000,24 7,06 

3,065 
CH 260 DATA 012,000,000,000,24 

7,063 
PF 270 DATA 999 

80-Column Sector 
Editor 

Article on page 57. 

Program 1: Sector Editor Boot 
Program 

CA 1000 REM" [3 SPACES) LOADER F 

OR SECTOR-128 
CC 1010 REM 
AC 1020 GRAPHICS 
MH 1030 AS="RUN"+CHRS(13) 



84 COMPUTEI's Gamie August 1987 



CG 1040 WINDOW0,0,79,2'), I 
EG 1050 PRINTCHR5(147) ;CIiR5(28 
);CHRS{ 14); "LOADING SE 
CTOR-128, PLEASE WAIT. 

PQ 1060 POKE46,34;POKE8704,0 
RA 1070 DLOAD" SECTOR. BAS",U(PE 

EK(186) ) 
HK 10B0 FORA=1TOLEN(A5) 
XR 1090 P0KE841+A,ASC{MID${AS, 

A,l)) 
EP 1100 NEXTA 
DM 1110 POKE208,LEM(AS) 
FQ 1120 NEW 

Program 2: Sector Editor— BASIC 

BQ 10 REM"COPYRIGHT 1987 COMPU 

TEl PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
KR 20 TRAP 4720 
JB 30 FAST 
KC 40 IFPEEK(46)<>34 THEN BEGI 

N 
HQ 50 PRINTCHR? ( 14) r "BASIC TOO 
LOWl — USE THE ' SECTOR 

' PROGRAM AS A BOOfT" 

END 

BEND 



KC 60 
AR 70 
AM 80 



IFPEEK{186 ) <80RPEEK( 186 ) 
>11THENP0KE186,8 
JA 90 IFP£EK(7424)<>7eORPEEK(7 
494)<>32THENBLOAD"SECTOR 
.ML",D0,U<PEEK(ie6) ) 
JQ 100 RD256=DEC("1D00") !WT256 

-=DEC( "1009") 
EB 110 DEF FN SC(X) = 16+UANDX- 

(35ANDX>35)<31 >+(lANDX- 

(35ANDX>35)(25)+(2ANDX- 

(35ANDX>35)<ia) 
HE 120 DEF FN T(X)=35+ ( 35ANDX= 

2) 
FD 130 DIM KP(18) 
AF 140 F0RA=1T018:READ KP(A)tN 

EXTA 
HQ 1S0 FORA=4096TO410StPOKEA,0 

: NEXTA 
MB 160 ESC5=CHR5(27) :CL5=CHR5( 

147 ) !CH5=CHR5 (19) :GRS=C 

HRSt30) ! RD9=CHR5 ( 26 ) 
RE 170 BL?=CHR$(31>:UL5=CHRS(2 

) ; U05=CHR? ( 130 ) : PK$=C!1R 

S(1S0) :LG5="i8g":MG5=" 

OS 180 YL5="[YEL)"!pPS="gli":L 

D5="E73" !UC5=CHR5( 142 ) J 

LC5=CHR?{14) 
QJ 190 HXS="0123456789ABCDEF" 
QG 200 WINDOW0, 0,79, 24,0 
BE 210 PRINTESC?"N";CL$;ESCS"L 

";CHR5(ll)rCHR$(14); 
aC 220 C0LOR6, l!COLOR5,3 
MK 230 TR=18:SE=0:DEV=PEEK(186 

}:DRV=0:X=0:Y=0:NS='1:NM 

=0 
XG 240 PRINTGRS;UL 5; "SECTOR ED 

ITOR COPYRIGHT 1987 COM 

PUTE l PUBLICATIONS, INC 

FJ 250 PRINT" - ALL RIGHTS RES 

ERVED";U05; 
XE 260 GOSUB3410 
QM 270 GOSUB3580 
OE 280 GOSUB3300 
FX 290 DO 
DD 300 GOSUB4570!lPDF"0THEN BE 

GIN 
MC 310 GOSUB3910:IFDF=0THEN BE 



JG 320 

CJ 330 

JK 340 

EK 350 



GIN 

GOSUB4200 

GOSUB4300 

BEND 

BEND 



SP 360 
PD 370 
KC 380 



EE 390 
ME 400 
ME 410 
DM 420 
KP 430 
MC 440 



DD 450 
KC 460 
RJ 470 
GG 480 
KB 490 
MH 500 
RD 510 
GC 520 
HE 530 
OJ 540 
KD 550 
QB 560 
AB 570 
XF 580 
XS 590 
HP 600 
GH 610 
CA 620 
DH 630 
EK 640 
OB 650 
AC 660 
DG 670 
EP 680 
AK 690 
RX 700 
MA 710 
DP 720 
BF 730 
XX 740 
AH 750 
JS 760 
GC 770 
MB 780 
DB 790 
EM 800 
HQ 810 
PH 820 
QG 830 
DJ 840 
KD 850 
MR 860 
BJ 870 
QF 830 
AG 890 
XE 900 
OC 910 



HO 920 



PE 930 

XH 940 

RF 950 



BS 960 

JK 970 
CX 980 

KD 990 

KS 1000 
QQ 1010 
SS 1020 



LOOPUNTILDF=0 

DO 

SYSDEC("1D0F") ,X,Y:X=PE 

EK(7579) :Y=PEEK(7580):K 

=PEEK(213) 

L=l 

DO 

IFK=KP(L)THENEXIT 

L=L+1 

L00PUNTILL=19 

ONLGOSUB630,630, 760,760 

,890,1050,1110,1260,405 

0,570,1700,1810,1390,15 

40,2300,2180,2610,480 

LOOP UNTILL=iaANDOK=l 

END 

REM END OF SECTOR 

GOSUB2920 

IF 0K=»1 THEN BEGIN 

WINDOW0,0,79, 24,1 

PRINTRDg; " BASIC V7.0" 

POKE 208,0 

BEND 

RETURN 

REM SWAP MENUS 
MN=1-(MN) 

OKMN+1GOEUB3410 , 3500 
WINDOW0,18,79,22 
RETURN 

REM NEXT BLOCK 

T1=TR:S1=SE 

SE^SE+1 

IFSE>FNSC(TR)THENBEGrN 

SE=0 

TR=TR+1 

IFTR>FNT(NS)THENBEGIN 

TR=1 

BEND 

BEND 

GOSUB2990 

RETURN 

REM LAST BLOCK 

T1=TR:S1=SE 

SE=SE-1 

IFSE<0THENBEGIN 

TR=TR-1 

IFTR=0THENBEGIN 

TR=FNT(NS) 

BEND 

SE=FNSC(TR) 

BEND 

GOSUB2990 

RETURN 

REM NEW BLOCK 

T1=TR:S1=SE 

DO 

ML=2:PRS="Km/ TRACK ( 1- 

"+MID$(STRS(FNT(NS)),2) 

+ " ) : " 

GOSUB3060tIFIP?=ESCSTHE 

NTR=Tl!ELSE TR=INT(VAL( 

IPS)) 

LOOPUNTILTR>0AKDTR»<FNT 

(NS) 

DO 

ML=2:PR5="NEW SECTOR (0 

-"+MID5(STR?(FNSC{TR) ) , 

2)+") :" 

GOSUB30601IFIPS-ESC5THE 

NBEGIN 

SE=SliTR=Tl 

BEND: ELSE SE=INT (VAL( IP 

?)) 

LOOPUNTILSE>=0ANDSS<-=FN 

SC{TR} 

GOSUB580 

GOSUB2990 

RETURN 



FB 1030 

DR 1040 

DX 1050 

AX 1060 

KD 1070 

XF 1080 

HG 1090 

CD 1100 

DG 1110 

SH 1130 

DX 1130 



MP 1140 
MQ 1150 

MD 1160 



ER 1170 

MK 1180 

SE 1190 

CP 1200 

XQ 1210 

AX 12 20 

CO 1230 

QS 1240 

FP 1250 

AJ 1260 



SO 1270 

XR 1280 

FJ 1290 

KX 1300 

RM 1310 

SR 1320 

MG 1330 

HF 1340 

QG 1350 

GH 1360 

AH 1370 

CG 1380 

DB 1390 

FJ 1400 

SG 1410 

ED 1420 

PF 1430 

AX 1440 

AQ 1450 

FG 1460 

SH 1470 

JD 1480 

AC 1490 

DR 1500 

PX 1510 

MA 1520 

GD 1530 

GM 1540 

RD 1550 

QQ 1560 

CQ 1570 



CS 1580 

DQ 1590 

BC 1500 

KG 1610 

MA 1620 

GS 1630 

AM 1640 

JQ 1650 



REM LINK SECTOR 

T1=TR!S1=SE 

TR=LT:SE='I^ 

GOSUB2990 

RETURN 

REM ENTER HEX 

DO 

DO 

ML=2jPR$=»"NEW hex VALU 

E :":GOSUB3060!lF IP9= 

ESCS THEN IP9="FFFF" 

H15=LEFT5(IPS,1}!H2S=M 

IDS (IP?, 2) 

LOOPUNTILIP5-"FFFF"OR( 

INSTR(HXS,H1S)*INSTRCH 

XS.H2S)<>0) 

L00PUNTILIPS="FFFF"0R( 

DECtIP5)>=0ANDDEC{IPS) 

<=255) 

IFIPS<>"FFFF"THENBEG1N 

POKE7168+X+16*Y,DEC{IP 

$) 

X=X+1 !IFX=.16THENX=0:Y= 

Y+liIFY'=16TiIENY=0 

BEND 

GOSUB580 

GOSUB3000 

RETURN 

REM ENTER TEXT 

IL=0:ML=148!PRS-"NEW T 

EXT ;"!GOSUB3060:IFIP5 

=ESC?THENIPS="" 

GOSUn580 

IFLEN(IP5) O0THENBEGIN 

FORZ=1TOI-EN(IPS) 

PC=ASC(MID5(IPS,Z,1) } 

POKE7168+X+16*Y,PC 

X=X+1:1FX=16THENX=0jY= 

Y+1 ; IFY=16THENY=0 

NEXTZ 

BEND 

GOSUB3000 

RETURN 

REM NEW DRIVE NO 

T1=TR:S1=SE 

DO 

ML=l:PR$="(j[EW DRIVE (0 

/I) :":GOSUB3060 

LOOPUNTILIPS="0"ORIPS= 

"1"0RIPS=ESC5 

IFIP?<>ESC5THENBEGIN 

PRINTIP$ ! DRV-ASC ( IP? ) - 

48 

GOSUBS80 

GOSUB45 70 

GOSUB3910 

GOSUB4200 

GOSUB4300 

BEND: ELSE GOSUB580 

RETURN 

REM NEW DEVICE NO 

OD=DEV 

DO 

ML=2:PR5="NEW DEVICE ( 

8-11) !"!GOSUB3060 

LOOPUNTIL ( VAL( IP? ) >7AN 

DVAL(IP?)<12)0RIP?=ESC 

5 

IFIP?<>ESC?THENBEG1N 

DEV=VAL(IP?) 

0PEN1,DEV, 1 jCLOSEIiIFS 

T<»0THENDEV=OD 

GOSUB580 

GOSUB4570 

GOSUB3910 

GOSUB4200 

GOSUB4300 



COMPUTEfs Gaaettg August 1987 85 



GA 1660 

EP 1670 

SP 1680 

GS 1690 

CH 1700 

CH 1710 

DG 1720 

BG 1730 

MC 1740 

AB 1750 

QX 1760 

PX 1770 

CA 178fl 

AC 1790 

KA 1800 

BM 1810 

HC 1820 

XP 1830 

EP 1840 

FC 1850 

XG 1860 

RS 1870 

CE 1880 

QJ 1890 

KF 1900 



RC 1910 

AS 1920 

PR 1930 

MO 1940 

DA 1950 



XM 1960 

DF 1970 

BH 19S0 

GP 1990 

QQ 2000 

KB 2010 

AF 2020 

BA 2030 
SK 2040 

BS 2050 
RG 2060 
HP 2070 
FF 2080 
MQ 2090 
FA 2100 
QJ 2110 
PJ 2120 
DJ 2130 

PK 2140 
PG 2150 
DJ 2160 
DS 2170 
FP 2180 
JG 2190 
AS 2200 



SJ 2210 

PR 2220 

AF 2230 

CB 2240 

AK 2250 

XC 2260 

PS 2270 

EA 22B0 

PC 2290 

QB 2300 

GE 2310 



BEND:ELSEGOSUB580 
RETURN 

REM SEND DISK COMMAND 

ML=58:PR$="DISK COMMAN 

Dt"tGOSUB3060 

IFIP? OESC5THENBEGIN 

OPEN15,DEV,15,IP5 

GOSUB3750 

CL0SE15 

GOSUB560 

GOSUB2990 

BENDJELSEGOSUB580 

RETURN 

REM DISPLAY DISK CATAL 

OG 

PRINTESC5"M"; 

POKE20a,0 

WINDOW0, 1,79, 24,1 

PRINTRD? t "DIRECTORY: " ; 

SYS DEC ( "1D12"),DEVAND3 

+(DRV*4) 

SYSDEC("1D15") 

WINDOW0,3,79,24,1 

CT=0!TC=1 

DO WHILE ST064 

PRINTTAB ( 40- { 40ANDCT < 2 

2)) ;RD$; RIGHTS ( "00"+MI 

D?(STR5(TC) ,2),3);" ": 

PRINTBL?; sSYSDEC ( "1D15 

'■) 

CT=>CT+1 :TC=TC+1 

IFCT=44THENBEGIN 

WINDOW43, 1,79, 1,1 

PRINTRD5; "PRESS ANY KE 

Y TO CONTINUE, Q TO QU 
IT," 

GETKEYAS 
PRINTCL9:BL5 
WINDOW0,3,79,24,1 
CT=0 
BEND 

IFST=64THENBEGIN 
PRINT" (4 LEFT J 
[4 SPACES)" 
W1NDOW43, 1,79,1,1 
PRINTRD5;"PRESS ANY KE 

Y TO CONTINUE." 
GETKEYA5 
PRINTCL5 

WINDOW0,3,79,24,1 
BEND 

1FAS-"Q"THENEXIT 
LOOP 

CL0SE8 

PRINTESC5"L"; 

GOSUB3410 SGOSUB3580 :GG 

SUB3300 

GOSUa3000 

RETURN 

REM EXCHANGE DISKS 
POKE208,0 

WINDOW0,23,79,24,1 
PRINT "INSERT NEW DISK, 
PRESS ANY WHEN DONE.. 

*l 

GETKEYA5 

GOSUB580 

GOSUB3910 

GOSUB4200 

GOSUB4S70 

GOSUB4300 

RETURN 



REM FORMAT DISKS 
DO 

ML=1:PR5= "SINGLE OR DO 
UBLE SIDED (S/D) !":GO 
SUB 3 060 
RS 2320 LOOPUNTILIPS-"S"ORIP$= 
"D"ORIP5=ESC5 



KQ 2330 IFIPSOESCSTHENBEGIN 
HS 2340 IFIP5="S"THENCM$="0"!E 

LSE CM5="1" 
CP 2350 OPEN15,DEV,15,"U0>M"+C 

M5 
PS 2360 GOSUB3750 
QM 2370 CLOSE! 5 
RD 2380 IFDF=0THENBEGIN 
SF 2390 ML=16:PR5="DISK NAME : 

":GOSUB3060 
GK 2400 IFIP50ESC5THENBEGIN 
MQ 2410 NNS=IP5 
CJ 2420 IL=0:ML=2:PRS="1D ('RE 

TURN' FOR QUICK FORMAT 

) :":GOSUB3060 
XM 2430 IFIP5<>ESC5THENBEGIN 
QP 2440 ID?=IP5 
KC 2450 GOSUB2920 
GX 2460 IF0K»=1THENBEGIN 
GJ 2470 0PEN15,DEV,15,"N"+STRS 

(DRV)+":"+NN5+", "+ID9 
MG 2480 GOSUB3 750 
XC 2490 CLOSEIS 
JQ 2500 BEND 
FX 25 10 BEND 
GS 2520 BEND 
CB 2530 BEND 
RB 2540 BEND 

ME 2550 GOSUB5a0iGOSUB2230 
PD 2560 BEND 
QF 2570 GOSUB580 
JC 2580 RETURN 
ME 2590 ! 

SX 2600 REM MOVE BLOCK 
DK 2610 Tl=TRiSl=SE!Dl»DEViD2= 

DRV 
BF 2620 DO 
RA 2630 PR? = "MOVE TO TRACK (1- 

■'+MId1'{STR5(FNT(NS)) ,2 

)+"> j":ML=2iGOSUB3060 
KH 2640 LOOPUNTIL(lNT(VAL(IP$) 

)>0ANDINT(VAL(IP5 )<=FN 

T(NS)))0RIP5=ESC? 
GJ 2650 IFIP50ESC5THENBEGIN 
RB 2660 TR=INT(VAL(IP$)) 
AK 2670 DO 
AX 2600 PR?="M0VE TO SECTOR (0 

- " +MID? ( STRS ( FNSC ( TR ) ) 

,2)+") :"jML=2!GOSUB30 

60 
FK 2690 LOOPUNTIL(INTtVAL(IP$) 

) > =0ANDINT ( VAL ( I P5 ) ) <= 

FNSC(TR) )0RIP5=ESC5 
MF 2700 IFIPS<>ESC$THENBEGIN 
JQ 2710 SE=INT(VAL(IP5)) 
PQ 2720 DO 
GK 2730 PR5="MOVE TO DRIVE (0/ 

1) !":ML=1:GOSUB3060 
DS 2740 LOOPUNTILIPS='"0"ORIP5= 

"l"ORIP5=ESC5 
KB 2750 IFIP5<>ESC?THEKBEGIN 
MS 2760 DRV=VALCIP5J 
FB 2770 DO 
EK 2780 PR5="M0VE TO DEVICE (8 

-11) :"!ML=2!GOSUB3060 
JJ 2790 L0OPUNTIL(VAL(IP$)>7AN 

DVAL(IPS)<12)0RIP5=ESC 

5 
QD 2800 IFIP5 0ESCSTHENBEGIN 
DP 2810 DEV=VAL(IPS) 
QF 2820 GOSUB40S0 
A J 2830 TR=TliSE=Sl!DEV"Dl:DRV 

3D2 
EF 2840 BEND 
KF 2850 BEND 
SE 2860 BEND 
DH 2870 BEND 
SK 2880 GOSUB5S0 
MG 2890 RETURN 
EG 2900 : 

BR 2910 REM ASK ARE YOU SURE? 
KO 2920 OK-0 



GM 2930 PRS="ARE YOU SURE (Y/N 

) t "!ML=l!GOSUB3060 
JC 2940 IFIP?="Y"0RIP5="Y"THEN 

0K=1 

GOSUB580 

RETURN 



BM 2950 
PM 2960 
PQ 2970 
HB 2980 



HE 2990 

FR 3000 

QC 3010 

PF 3020 

HQ 3030 
XX 3040 
CK 3050 
GP 3060 
XD 3070 
RJ 3080 
FJ 3090 

FR 3100 
RC 3110 
DB 3120 
QH 3130 

ac 3140 
KJ 3150 

QG 3160 
DS 3170 

DP 3180 
FP 3190 
EP 3200 
MD 3210 



KK 3220 

GE 3230 

AR 3240 

CR 3250 



XO 3260 

AQ 3270 
SX 3280 
FF 3290 
FG 3300 
PP 3310 
MB 3320 



REM DISPLAY NE^-f DETAIL 

S 

GOSUB3910 

GOSUB4200 

GOSUB4300 

IFDF=1THENTR=T1 : SE=S1 t 

DF=0 

RETURN 

I 

REM GENERAL INPUT 

IPS="" 

POKE208,0 

WINDOW0, 23, 79,24, 1 

CSS''CHR${15) + "g@i 

{left} "+CHR?( 143) 

PRINTPR5;CS?; 

DO 

GETK5 

IFK5=CHR5 ( 20 ) ANDLEN ( IP 

5)>0THENBEGIN 

PRINTK5;CS5f 

IP?=LEFT?{IPS,LEN{IPS) 

-1) 

BEND 

IFK5=CHR$(13)ANDLEN(IP 

5)='>ILTHENBEGIN 

PRINT" "; 

BEND 

K=ASCtK$) 

IF((K>31ANDK<127)0RK>1 

59 ) ANDLEN { IPS )<MLANDK< 

>34THENBEGIN 

IP?=IPS+K? 

PRINTK$;CS?; 

BEND 

LOOP UNTILK5=ESCSOR(K5 

=CHR5 ( 13 )ANDLEN ( IPS )=> 

ID 

IL-l!lPK$=ESCSTHENIP5- 

KS 

RETURN 



REM DISPLAY 
WINDOW0,1,79 
PRINTESCS"M" 
PRINTRDS;"[3 
[2 SPACES )H 
{2 SPACES} 3 t 
12 SPACES)5( 
!2 SPACES} 7 t 
[2 SPACES) 9! 
[2 spaces)b£ 
£2 spaces3d[ 
{2 spaces)f{ 



HEX GRID 

,17,1 

rUCS; 
SPACES 30 

2 spaces} 2 
SPACES} 4 
SPACES) 6 
SPACES) 8 
SPACES) A 
SPACES )C 
SPACES )E 



12 SPACES) 



KD 3330 

AS 3340 

GA 3350 

KJ 3360 

GR 3370 

CF 3380 

EH 3390 

SH 3400 

ME 3410 

AS 3420 

AP 3430 



PE 3440 
CS 3450 



PRINTHX5 

PORA'=0TO15 

PRINTMIDS {HXS . A+1 , 1 ) ; S 

PC(5B);MrD5(HXS,A+l,l) 

NEXTA 

PRINTESC5"L";LC5; 

RETURN 

REM DISPLAY OPTIONS »1 
WINDOW0, 23, 79,24,1 
PRINTESC5"M"; 
PRINTRDS;"+s next BLOC 
K(2 SPACES )Bi NEW BLOC 
K[3 SPACES3@: HEX INPU 
T{3 SPACES)*: NEW DRIV 
E{3 SPACES}"; 
PRINT"Wi WRITE BLOCK" 
PRINT"-: LAST BLOCK 
[2 SPACES JLs LINK BLOC 
K(2 SPACES}Ti TEXT INP 



BS COMPUTEfs Gazette August 1987 



UT[2 SPACES )Di NEW DEV 
ICE[2 spaces!"; 
GF 3460 PRINT "N: NEXT MENl]"rES 
C5"L"; 
RETURN 



FP 3470 
RM 3480 
MS 3490 
BC 3500 
JB 3510 
XM 3520 



#2 



REM DISPLAY OPTIONS 

WINDOWS, 23, 79, 24, 1 

PRINTESC$"M"f 

PRINTRD5;"S! SEND COMM 

AND {2 SPACES )F: FORMAT 
DISK{4 SPACES)N! NEXT 
MENuis SPACEsio: QUIT 
PROG . " 
AE 3530 PRINT"C: CATALOG DISK 

{2 SPACES )Et EXCHANGE 

fSPACE)DISKf2 SPACES )M 

1 MOVE BLOCK"; 

PR1NTESC$;"L"; 

RETURN 



BH 3540 
KS 3550 
JB 3560 
GK 3570 
JK 3580 
AM 3590 
GF 3600 



REM DISPLAY DISK INFO 
WINDOWS, 18, 79, 22,1 
PRINTESC5"M"; 
PRINTBLgf "EAj ********* 

***gi^3 ****** *'ir**v**T^ 
TTT* * *'¥TTTTTmnnFr^i * # 

CP 3610 PRINT "**^R^ *********** 
_***gS3^^;GR$; "TRACK; 
T2"SPACES),${2 SPACES) 
"fBL?; "-";GR5; "SECTOR: 
[2 SPACES5,5(2 SPACES J 
" ; 

CF 3620 PRINTBL5; "-";GRS;"LINK 

TRACK: (2 SPACES J ,? 

tl SPACES) "!BLS;"-"rGR 

$f"LIKK SECTOR: 

[2 SPACES], 5 12 SPACES} 
I* , 

DG 3630 PRINTBL5; "2"fGR?r"BYTE 
S USED: {3 SPACES} ";BLS 

BG 3640 PR7NT"gOJ **** ********■»■ 

*************gg^«*tj^34 
*****<Ht***i**g£gT¥«**TF 
«*** **** *gRg". 

rJTITg-E I ****** g R| * * 



CG 3650 

FB 3660 

AM 3670 

MF 3680 

QS 3690 



PRINT' 

*****ewi'" 



PRINT"-" ;GR5 ; "POSITION 

: (3 SPACES}" ;BL??"-"! 

PRINTGR5; "BYTE! 

{3 SPACES 3,5 {2 SPACES} 

, ' ";CHR$(5);" "fGRS;"' 

";BL5;"-";GRSj 

PRINT"DISKi ' 

1 1 6 SPACES ) ■ , ' 

{2 SPACES} ' "; 

PRINTS L$; "~";GR$s "DEVI 

CE:{2 SPACES} " r BLS J "-" 

;GR$r "DRIVE: "rBL??"-" 



JX 3700 PRINT" EZj ************ 
Eg|******iA4ilr<bV****gg^ 

********************** 

**t***** }iEJ"; 

PRINT" *********§E|**** 



PD 3710 

HJ 3720 
XP 3730 
MS 3740 
XR 3750 
CM 3760 

KJ 3770 
CR 3780 
RG 3790 
JO 3800 

GC 3810 

KG 3820 



***Exj'^ 

RETURN 



.ESC?"L" 



REM CHECK ERROR 

DF-0 

INPUT*15,DN,DE5,DT5,DB 

S 

IFDN>19THENBEGIN 

WINDOW0,23,79,24,1 

PRINTESCS"M"f 

PRINT"DISK ERROR ! " ; DE 

S;", ";DT?f ","!DBS 

PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO 

CONTINUE."; 
PRINTESC9"L"; 



JD 3830 

FC 3940 

AG 3850 

OF 3860 

JE 3870 

CF 3880 

AH 3890 

SJ 3900 

ED 3910 

FH 3920 

QQ 3930 

GH 3940 

AB 3950 

AH 3960 

SB 3970 

KH 3980 

JQ 3990 

E5 4000 

HC 4010 

HM 4020 

XR 4030 

SF 4040 

PP 4050 

BE 4060 

QF 4070 

ER 40B0 

QM 4090 

JC 4100 

EE 4110 

EC 4120 

BX 4130 

RJ 4140 

BJ 4150 

PH 4160 

Xil 4170 

HG 4180 

HF 4190 

AE 4200 

CR 4210 

FH 4220 

EX 4230 

CC 4240 

XF 4250 

BR 4260 

FS 4270 

KQ 4280 

FQ 4290 

SC 4300 

CH 4310 

GS 4320 

CF 4330 



CD 4340 

PK 4350 

MX 4360 
SX 4370 

KQ 4380 
ES 4390 



EM 4400 
KE 4410 
BH 4420 
BH 4430 
KR 4440 



POKE20B,0 

GETKEYA5 

GOSUB580 

DF=1 

BEND 

RETURN 

REM GENERAL READ 

P0KE2SI , J POKE252 , 28 

OPEN15,DEV,15 

OPENS, DEV, 8, "#" 

PRINT#15,"U1:8"+STR$(D 

RV)+STR5<TR)+STR5(SE) 

GOSUB3750 

IFDF=0THENBEGIN 

SYS RD2S6 

GOSUB3750 

BEND 

CLOSES 

CLOSE15 

RETURN 

REM GENERAL WRITE 

GOSUB2920 

IF 0K=1 THEN BEGIN 

POKE251,0:POKE252,28 

OPENIB.DEV, 15 

OPENS, DEV, 8, "#" 

PRINT#15, "B-P:8 0" 

SYS WT256 

PRIHT#15, "U2:a"+STR$(D 

RV)+STR5 (TR)+STR$ (SE) 

GOSUB3750 

CLOSES 

CLOSE 15 

BEND 

RETURN 

REM DISPLAY BOTH SETS 

J SPACE} OF BYTES 

IFDF=0THENBEGIN 

POKE251 , : POKE2S2 , 28 

WINDOW0,0,79,24 

PRINTLB$; 

SYSDECC "1D0C") ,2,2 

SYSDEC("1D03"),140,221 

,0 

BEND 

RETURN 

REM FILL-IN INFO 

IFDF=0THENBEGIN 

PRINTESCS"M"r 

WINDOVra, 18,79,22 

B-TR : PRI NT PK 5 ; " { DOWN ] 

[7 RIGHT}"; :GOSUB4450: 

PRINT" fa RIGHT}"; :B-=SE 

tGOSUB4450 

B=PEEK(7168) :PRINTLGS; 

"{12 RIGHT}"; :GOSUB445 

0:PRINT"[13 right}"; 

B=PEEKt7169)!GOSUB4450 

sLT=PEEK(7168) :LS=PEEK 

(7169) 

NB-2 56:IFLT>FNT(SD)ORL 

T-0THENN8-LS 

PRINTMG5; "{12 RIGHT}"; 

: B=NB ! GOSUB4490 : PRINT " 

{down} {14 RIGHT)"; 

PRINTYL?r"{24 RIGHT)"; 

LEFT?(DDS,16); " 

[4 RIGHT)"; RIGHTS (DD5, 

2); 

PRINTPP9"[10 RIGHT)"?: 

B-DEViGOSUB4S30: PRINT': 

[7 RIGHT) ";MID$(STR5(D 

RV ) , 2 ) ; 

PRINTESC5"L"; 

BEND 

RETURN 

I 

REM DISPLAY DEC, HEX 



CJ 4450 PRINTRIGHT5( "00"+MIDS( 
STR5(B),2),2);" 
{2 right) ";RIGHT$ (HEX? 
U),2); 
RETURN 



FM 4460 

RJ 4470 

FQ 4480 

FS 4490 

RP 4500 
FM 4510 
SQ 4S20 
DM 4530 

BX 4540 
BX 4550 
SM 4560 

CK 4570 
EE 4580 
CD 4590 
GP 4600 
ME 4610 
JB 4620 
MJ 4630 

EG 4640 

MS 4650 
PX 4660 
GB 4670 

PR 4680 
FF 4690 
FG 4700 
MG 4710 
PP 4720 
QX 4730 
HC 4740 
BD 4750 



KS 4760 
ED 4770 

HE 47S0 

FR 4790 
FQ 4800 
CQ 4810 
PS 4820 
BM 4830 
EH 4840 



REM DISPLAY 3 BYTE NO 
PRINTRIGHT? ( "00"+MID5 ( 
STR?(B),2>,3); 
RETURN 

REM DISPLAY 2 BYTE NO 
PRINTRIGHT5 ( "0"+HID?{S 
TR$(B),2},2); 
RETURN 

REM GET NAME OF NEW DI 

SK 

Tl=TR:Sl=iSE 

TR=lStSE=0 

DO 

GOSUB3910 

LOOPUNTILDS=0 

TR=T1:SE=S1 

DD5="" :FORA=0TO19iDD=P 

EEK(7312+A) 

IFDD<320RDD=340R(DD>12 

7ANDDD<160)THENDD=32 

DD$=DD$+CHR5(DD) 

NS=1 

IFPEEK(7171 }=128THENNS 

=2 

NEXT A 

RETURN 

REM TliAP ROUTINE 

TRAP 4 7 20 

IF ERO30 THEN BEGIN 

PRINT" {2 HOME) {CLR)A"; 

IFINSTR( "AEIOU", LEFTS ( 

ERR5 ( ER ) , 1 ) ) <> 0THENPRI 

NT"N"; 

PRINT" ";ERRS(ER}; 

PRINT" ERROR HAS OCCUR 

RED IN LINE " ; EL 

PRINT "PROGRAM ABORTED. 

H 

END 

BEND 

RESUME NEXT 

REM DATA FOR KEYS 
DATA 40,73,43,74,28,42 
,46,2 2,9, 39, 13,20,8,18 
,21,14,36,62 



Program 3: Sector Editor— ml 

See instructions in article on page 
57 before typing in. 



1D00:4C 
lD08ilD 
1D10:5D 
lDia:A2 
lDa0lCF 
lD2a:CC 
1D30:1D 
1D38:FB 
1D40:20 
1D48:1D 
1D5011D 
IDSSiEB 
1D60:68 
1D68:E6 
ID7O:D0 
1D7B:D6 
1080:98 
lD8a:FD 
1D90:00 
1D98!00 
1DA0:92 
lDAa:8E 
1DB0!AE 



18 ID 4C 

4C FC ID 

IF 4C 0E 

08 20 C6 

FF 91 FU 

FF 00 00 

86 FD 84 

48 A2 12 

73 ID Ea 

A2 IF AD 

A2 12 A5 

AS FD 20 

20 73 ID 

FE CB 20 

C5 60 8E 

10 FB 8D 

48 29 0F 

69 40 85 

85 FE 68 

00 00 00 

83 8C 00 

9A ID A0 

9A ID AC 



2E ID 
4C A5 
IE 4C 
FF A0 
C8 D0 
00 00 
FE A0 
A5 FE 
A5 FD 
97 ID 
FE 20 
73 ID 
E6 FD 
7F ID 

00 D6 

01 D6 
D0 0D 
FD A5 
A8 68 
00 00 
00 8D 
00 BC 
99 ID 



4C E7 35 
ID 4C D4 
4D IE 06 
00 20 BB 
F8 4C FB 
BD 97 7b 
00 Bl CE 
69 08 FB 
20 73 72 
20 73 5D 
73 ID DA 
A2 IF A6 
D0 02 E9 
88 Ca 3B 
2C 00 2D 
60 48 E6 
18 A5 BF 
FE 69 6A 
60 00 3A 
FF DA AD 
99 ID ID 
98 ID FE 
20 F0 G9 



COMPUTEf's GBiBtte August 1987 87 



1DC0:C2 
1DC8:98 
1DD0:D0 
lDDa:D0 
1DE0:AC 
IDES: 98 
IDFBiEB 
1DF8j20 
1E00;FF 
1E08:C8 
1E10!03 
1E13:4A 
1E20:BB 
1E28!A9 
1E30:DA 
lE3e:20 
lE<ja:20 
lE48iFF 
1E50SC6 
1ES8:D0 
1E60:C3 
1E68:21 
lE70t72 
1E78:E4 
1E80:F6 
lEaSiFF 
1.E9011D 
lEBBslD 
1 EA0 : AE 
lEASsAD 
1EB0:1D 
1EB8:B9 
1EC0!1F 
1 ECS ! AC 
1ED0!FB 
lEDBtFC 
IEE0!FD 
lEEBiFC 
1EE'0:FB 
lEFBilD 
1F00:73 
1F08!ID 

1F10!00 

1F18:02 
1F20!03 
1F28104 
1F30!0A 
lF3Bi22 
1F40S01 
1F48:02 
1F50:03 
1F5BI04 
1F60!BE 
1 F68 : 8D 
lF70:aD 
lF78iA3 
1FB0SA5 
1F88:F0 
1F90:F0 
1F98:F0 
1FA0:F0 
1 FAS: IF 
1FB0:EA 
lFB8i20 
1FC0! IF 
lFC8i63 
lFD0t9E 
1FDB:A5 
1FE0:1F 
IFEBiBB 
1FF0:8E 
1 FFG ; 9E 
2000 :0A 
2008i9D 
2010tFa 
2018 :9D 
2020: ID 
2028:9D 
2030:20 
2038: ID 
2040:00 
2048:1D 
2050:03 
2058:38 



AC 98 

B8 A9 

ID 20 

E7 60 

0C EE 

99 ID 

48 8A 

68 20 
73 ID 
A0 00 
D0 F8 

69 08 
4A 29 
IE A9 

08 AE 
FF A9 
BD FF 
C6 FF 
20 CC 
FF 20 

09 20 
FF 60 
20 E4 
20 A9 
FF 20 
A9 0D 
60 24 
F0 0F 
AD 9F 
IE AD 
Al ID 
0A A8 
3D IF 
85 FC 
9B ID 
83 FB 
AD 9B 
AS FE 
A2 12 
20 73 
20 73 
ID A6 
20 E7 
40 01 
80 02 
C0 03 
00 03 
00 10 
23 28 
7D 01 
BD 02 
FD 03 
3D 05 
9C ID 
9B ID 
9C ID 
00 CA 
D5 C9 
IC C9 
26 C9 
30 C9 
3F 20 
CE 9C 
IF EE 
EA IF 
20 EA 
IF 20 
ID 8D 
D3 29 
A5 D3 
IF A9 
IE 20 
ID 40 
0A 0A 

ID la 

FF A9 
ID 20 
ID ID 

ID B9 
17 FA 
B9 00 
IC A2 
60 A0 
C8 BO 
E9 0A 



ID 

IF 



ID B9 00 

20 20 D2 
D3 ID AD 

AD 98 ID 
9A ID AE 

20 F0 FF 

A2 12 20 

73 ID A2 

60 A2 06 

Bl FB 20 

4C CC FF 

8D 2C ID 

01 18 69 
00 AB 20 
2C ID A0 

02 A2 8A 
20 C0 FF 
20 E4 FF 
FF 60 A2 
E4 FF 20 
CC FF A9 
20 E4 FF 
FF 8D 15 
20 20 D2 
D2 FF C9 
20 D2 FF 
30 00 00 
AD A0 ID 
ID 8D A3 
A2 ID SD 
8D A3 ID 
B9 0D IF 
85 FD C8 
B9 3D IF 
B9 2D IF 
AS FC 69 
ID 18 65 
69 08 85 
20 73 
ID A2 
ID CA A9 
FE A4 FD 
ID 60 A0 
90 01 E0 
D0 02 20 
10 04 60 
50 05 01 
13 16 19 
2B 2E DD 
CD 01 ID 

00 03 50 
4D 04 9D 
80 05 8D 
AD 9E ID 
AD 9C ID 
20 F2 IF 
n0 FD 88 
58 F0 FA 
54 F0 21 
56 F0 2B 
07 F0 3A 
EA IF 60 
ID 4C 63 
9C ID 4C 
CE 9B ID 
IF EE 9B 
EA IF A9 
9C ID 4C 

01 F0 Dl 

29 01 F0 
00 8D 9E 
FD IF A9 
8E IE AD 
0A 0D 9B 
A2 03 A0 

05 20 D2 
4A 20 20 
ID ID ID 
00 IC 20 
10 ID 00 
IC 20 C2 

06 A0 AC 

30 38 E9 
F9 A2 3S 
90 03 EB 



00 
A0 



IC 20 29 
FF EE FC 
98 ID C5 

29 0F EE 
9A ID FB 
60 48 0E 
73 ID 12 
IF 68 0F 
20 C9 09 
D2 FF 85 
4S 29 E0 
6a 4A F2 

30 8D 95 

68 FF 75 
20 5F 
IE BD 

A2 08 49 

20 E4 8C 
08 20 E3 
E4 FF ac 
08 20 E6 
8D 14 E2 

21 20 FC 
FF 20 91 
00 D0 50 
20 CC E9 
AD 9E 5E 
8D A4 BD 
ID 4C 16 
A4 ID 21 
AD 9C 2A 
85 FB 9A 
B9 0D F0 
83 FE 99 
18 6 5 FC 
0B 85 69 
FD 85 IC 
FE A5 F5 
EB A5 18 
AD A3 04 
03 20 2F 
AD A4 21 

00 F0 22 

01 30 45 

03 70 CB 

04 B0 CB 
04 07 49 
IC IF 56 
00 2D 9E 

02 6D 49 
3 AD 49 
04 ED 51 
9B ID 14 
29 0F 3E 
29 0F 8D 
A0 80 18 
D0 F8 IB 
C9 53 20 
C9 5 5 B9 
C9 33 6A 
C9 02 0B 
20 EA 7F 
IF 20 DD 
63 IF D3 
4C 63 DF 
ID 4C 52 
00 8D 60 

63 IF 9F 
4C A6 22 
DA 4C F2 
ID 4C ED 
FF 80 0F 
9C ID 3E 
ID BD 48 
0A 20 5A 
FF AD 48 
17 FA CI 
00 AC BS 
4A 20 CB 
AC 9D 57 
B8 B9 SE 
20 E7 IC 

64 90 09 

69 64 07 
D0 F9 90 



2060:69 
2068 tFF 
2070:FF 
2078:E9 
2080 !E9 
2088 :B0 
2090:14 
2098:15 
20A0:AD 
20Aa:AD 
20B0:90 
20B8:69 
20C0:69 
20C8:A2 
20D0:8D 
20D8:8D 
20E0:8E 
20E8:3e 
20F0:B0 
20F8j1A 
2100:30 
2108:B9 
2110:05 
2118:00 
2120:00 



3A 48 
68 20 
60 A2 
10 8D 
27 3D 
EB AD 
21 AD 
21 BE 

14 21 

15 21 
03 ES 
E8 SD 
03 BD 
30 38 

14 21 

15 21 
18 21 
A2 30 
F9 BE 
21 A0 
00 05 

16 21 
00 F5 
00 00 
60 00 



8A 48 
D2 FF 
30 38 

14 21 

15 21 

14 21 

15 21 

16 21 
E9 E8 
E9 03 
B0 EB 

14 21 

15 21 
AD 14 
AD 15 
90 03 
AD 14 
E9 0A 

19 21 
00 B9 
CB C0 

20 D2 
60 00 
00 00 
00 00 



98 20 

68 20 
AD 14 
AD 15 
90 03 

69 10 
69 27 
A2 30 
BD 14 
8D 13 
AD 14 
AD 15 
BE 17 
21 E9 
21 E9 
EB B0 
21 69 
90 03 
69 3A 
16 21 
04 D0 

FF ca 

00 00 
00 00 
00 00 



D2 4D 
02 AB 
21 El 
21 AF 
E8 BC 
8D 6F 
8D B4 
38 0B 
21 46 
21 61 
21 Bl 
21 ES 
21 0C 
64 AS 
00 DC 
EB 5B 
64 C9 
E8 14 
8D IC 
C9 D4 
F4 68 
C0 BB 
00 CD 
00 5A 
00 7A 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 

Before typing in programs, please 
refer to "How To Type In 
COMPUTEl's GAZETTE Programs," 
wKich appears before the Program 
Listings. 



Front Line 

Article on page 26. 

Program 1: Front Line Loader 

JD 10 POKE 53280, 0;POKE 53281, 

0:PRINT"{CLR)" 
QF 20 REM COPYRIGHT 19B7 COMPU 

TEI PUBLICATIONS INC. - 

{space) ALL RIGHTS RESERV 

ED 
FF 30 FOR D=1T08: PRINT"! DOWN? " 

:NEXT 
BM 40 PRINT" E8 3 {DOWN) {6 RIGHT} 

... LOADING PLEASE WAIT.. 

. {6 down)" 
SB 50 PRINT"(GRN){2 SPACES ) COP 

YRIGHT 1987 COMPUTE 1 PUB 

. , I NC . " 
CP 60 PRINTTAB(9)"ALL RIGHTS R 

ESERVED ( HOME } { DOWN } " 
BC 70 POKE19B,8:POKE631,19:POK 

E632 , 17 :POKE633, 17:F0RN= 

0TO4:POKE634+K, 13 :NEXT 
RS 80 PRINT"{BLK5pOKE44,S6;POK 

E43, 1:POKE56*256,0:NEW" 
RD 90 PRINT" {2 DOWN} LOAD"CHR5 ( 

34) "FRONT LINE.BAS"CHRS( 

34) ",8" 
XM 100 PRINT" (4 DOWN) RUN" 

Program 2: Main Program— 
BASIC 

ER 10 POKE 53280, 11 :P0KE532B1, 


EP 20 L=L+1 tIFL=lTHENPRINT" 

{CLr}"CHRS(8)CHRS(142) :L 

0AD"FR0NT LINE. ML", 8, I 
PX 30 SYS49155,12,10, "E73F R 

N T{4 SPACES)L I N E" 
QX 40 CLRtDIM HP( 55 ) , PO ( 55 ) , SP 

{55),AM(255),FS( 55) 
BD 50 FORN=40TO47 
MJ 60 READPO(N) :P0(N+8)=P0(N) 
MX 70 READFiP(N) :fiP(N+8)-HP(N) 



AM 



MJ 



MQ 80 READSP(N) iSP(N+a)=SP(N) 

CP 90 READFS(N) iFS(N+8)=FS(N) 

KG 100 READAM(N) :AM<N+8)=AM(N) 

GH 110 NEXT 

HX 120 IFPEEK(78e)<>-49THEN180 

RB 130 GOSUBUao 

KQ 140 FORN=0TO111 : READS sPOKEl 

2560+N,S:NEXT 
QB 150 GOSUB15S0 
RK 160 FORN=0TO63: READS :POKEN+ 

83 2, S: NEXT 
170 FORN=0TO6:READCO:POKE53 

287+N,CO:NEXT:FORN=0TO2 

:POKE2044+N,13:NEXT 
180 PO=49158 
HC 190 HP=49160 
GH 200 SP=49164 
DJ 210 FS=4916B 
BC 220 AM=49172 
CF 230 31=1024 
AG 240 32=2023 
QJ 250 C=54272 
JH 260 JY=56320 
SG 270 W=34 

HR 280 AR=49152:REM ARENA 
MS 290 LP=49155:REM LOCATE AND 

PRINT 
BO 300 C5(0)="lRED)":C5<l>=" 

|7|" 
SC 310 PC(0)=B:PC(1)=8 
RC 320 WL(0)=40:WH(0)=47:WL(1) 

=48:WHtl)=55 
MK 330 AM?(0)="AUTO":AMS(1)="S 

EMI" 
PX 340 AM(0)=80:AM(I)=255 
SQ 350 T5=" (CRN) #S[ DOWN) 

(2 LEFT)%£," 
GS 360 BS="|5i64 +3(D0V™} 

|4 LEFT)E+3(RVS} 

{2 SPACES) [OFF) E+3 

(down) (4 left) 1+3 [RVS} 

{2 SPACES) {OFF] E+3 

{00WN)(4 LEFT}g4 +i" 
EC 370 POKE53269,I12:POKE53271 

,15iPOKE53272,29:POKE53 

275,112!POKES3277, 15 
KX 380 POKE53256,57:POKE5325S, 

169:POKE53260,32 
AS 390 POKE53257,138:POKE53259 

,154:POKES3 261,138:POKE 

53264,64 
KS 400 S=RND(-7) :PRINT"!CLR}" : 

FORN=1T015 :SYSLP, RND(1 ) 

*2H-2,RND(1>*36+2,TS:NE 

XT 
MP 410 S=RND{-TI/t) :FORN=i40TO4 

7 
QC 420 R=RND{ 1 )*5:IFPE^K(2*(K" 
38)*40+1030+R) 032THEN4 

20 
CH 430 POKE2*(N-38}*40+1030+R, 

N:POKE2*(N-3O)*40+1030+ 

R+C,10:NEXT 
EH 440 FORN=4BT055 
KH 450 R=RND(1)*5:IFPEKK(2*(N- 

46)*40+1053+R)<>32THEN4 

50 
JX 460 POKE2*(N-46)*40+1053+R, 

N: POKE2* ( K-46 )*40+ie53+ 

R+C,14:NEXT 
CP 470 REM MAIN LOOP 
AF 480 GOSUnl2S0 
KF 490 Y=12jX=19!L=lS23iCO=2tG 

OSUQ830 
XA 500 GOSUB650 
XC 510 F1=(F1+1>AND1:IFF1-1THE 

N600 
MG 520 IFOG<>32TJ1ENGOSUB890:IF 

F1=1THENS00 
MP 530 OG=W:W=34:OC=2:F1=0:D=1 

:GOSUB820 
CC 540 H1=PEEK(1509) :H2=PEEK(1 

603) :H3=PEEK(153a) 



8B COMPUTEl's Sazelta August 19B7 



SK 550 rPHl=32ORH2=320RH3"32TH 

EN580 
RX 560 IFHl<WL(l)THEKIFH2<Wm 

) THENIFH3 <WL( 1 )THENPCt 1 

}=fl 
RO 570 IFH1>WH(0)THENIFH2>WH(0 

) THENI FH3 >WH ( ) THENPC ( 

)=0 
QM 580 IFPC(0)=0ORPC(1)=0THBN1 

270 
MM 590 P=P+1AND1:GOTO480 
KX 600 IFOG<WL(P)0ROG>WH(P)THE 

NF1=0!GOTOS00 
CJ 610 W=OG:OG=32:CO=OC:CX=0:C 

y=0 

KP 620 primtcs(p)"{home){rvs} 

140 SPACES)" 
FG 630 PRINTCS(P)"{H0ME] ErVS) 

{space 5 MOVEMENT" 10-SP(W 

) "WEAPON: "AM$(AM(W)) " , " 

np{W)" STRENGTH" PO(W); 
BJ 640 GOSUBB40:GOTOS00 
RM 650 J=PEEK(JY+P) :IF(JAND31) 

=31THENIFOG=3 2THEN6 50 
EE 660 IFPEEK(jy+P)AND16THENGO 

SUB710SGOTO650 
KS 670 IFN0TPEEK(JY+P)AND16THE 

H670 
QS 660 IFFl=0THENIFOGa32THEN65 


ED 690 RETURN 
PE 700 REM MOVE PIECE ONTIL FI 

RE BUTTON IS PRESSED 
BM 710 0X=X:OY=Y:PX=CX:PY=CY 
EM 720 IFN0TJAND8THENX=X+1;CX= 

CX+1 
KG 730 IFN0TJAND4THENX=X-1 sCXa 

CX-1 
BJ 740 IFNOTJAND2THENY=Y+i :CY= 

CY+1 
RB 750 IFNOTJANDlTHENy=Y-l:Cy= 

CY-1 
CK 760 IFY>240RY<1THENY=0Y:CY= 

PY 
XR 770 IFX>39ORX<0THENX=OX!CX= 

PX 
MX 780 IFF1«0THEN810 
DF 790 IFABS(CY)>10-SP(W)THENY 

=OY:CY=PY 
HS 800 IFABS(CX)>10-SP(W)THENX 

=OX:CX=PX 
RJ 810 L=S1+Y*40+X 
BJ 820 P0KE0L,0G:POKEOL+C,0C 
SH 630 OL=L:OG=PEEK(L) :OC=PEEK 

(C+L) 
GE 840 IFF1=1THENP0KEL+C, 1 
MJ 850 POKEL+C,CO:1FD=1THEND=0 

!GOTOa70 
AE 860 POKEL.W 
GQ 870 RETURN 
AK 880 REM CHECK CHARACTER THA 

T PLAYER LANDED OK 
CC 890 IF(OG>=WL(P))AND(OG<=Wil 

(P))THENF 1=1: RETURN 
FE 900 1FNOT(OG>=WL(P+1AND1})A 

ND(0G<=WH(P+1AND1 ) )THEN 

Fl=l: RETURN 
EC 910 REM PUT PLAYERS IN AREN 

A 
QG 920 POKE53269,0 
PR 930 F1=0:GOSUB1440: PRINT" 

{CLR}" 
DP 940 SYSLP,5,6,B9:SYSLP,5,20 

,B? 
JC 9S0 SYSLP,16,6,BS:SYSLP, 16. 

20, B$ 
RF 960 SYSLP,10,13,B5 
AP 970 PRINT" (HOME} "; :FORN=1TO 

1 2 : PRINTSPC ( 30 ) " [ RVS ) 

(RED) {10 SPACES)"; :NEXT 
FK 980 FORN=1TO12:PRINTSPC{30) 

"[RVS! tBLUHl0 SPACES)" 

; :NEXT 



FA 990 FORN=2014TO2023:POKEN,1 

60:POKEN+C,6:NEXT 
SC 1000 SYSLP,2,31, " (RVSl [RED) 
STRENGTH " : SYSLP ,15,31, 

"[RVS 3 [blu)strehgth" 

RD 1010 SYSLP,3, 31, " (RVS}§5i: : 
::!::: ":SYSLP, 16,31, " 
( RVS ) : : 1 : : ! ! : " 

MA 1020 POKEHP+P,HP(W) !PO(W)='P 
O(W)+10!lFPO(W}>31THEN 
PO(W}=31 

XC 1030 P0KEPO+P,PO{W) :POKESP+ 
P,SP(W)iPOKEAM+P,AH(AM 
(W) ):POKEFS+P,FB(W) 

ER 10'.:! P=P+1AND1 

PX 1050 POKEHP+P,HP(0G) iPOKEPO 
+P,PO{OG) 1 POKES P+P,SP( 
OG) :POKEAM+P,AM(AM{OG) 
) 

PJ 1060 P0KEFS+P,FS(OG) 

RS 1070 P=P+1AND1 

QF 1080 SYSLP,5,31, "[RVS){RED) 
MOVE :"10-PEEK(SP) 

QX 1090 SYSLP, 16, 31, "{RVS) 

[ BLU ) MOVE ! "10-PEEK{SP+ 
1) 

PH 1100 SYSLP, 7, 31," [RVS i [RED) 
WEAPON:"; : SYSLP, 9, 31 , A 
M5(-1*(PEEK(AM)=255))" 
, "PEEK (HP) 

XQ 1110 SYSLP, 20, 31, "[RVS) 

( BLU ) WEAPON : " ; : SYSLP , 2 
2,31,AM5(-1*(PEEK(AM+1 
)=255))","PEEK(HP+1 J 

XF 1120 SYS ARENA 

OS 1130 POKE54296,0:WI-l!lFPEE 
K(PO)'=0THENWI"2 

BQ 1140 FORN=1TO30 

PP 1150 PRINT" [HOME) {RVS] {WHT} 
[9 SPACES)PLAYER"STR5( 
WD" WINS THE FIGHT 
(8 SPACES)" 

AM 1150 PRINTC5(WI-1 )"[H0ME3 

[RVS){9 spaces) PLAYER" 
STRSiwiJ" WINS THE FIG 

HT{a spaces)" 

CG 1170 FOBT = lTO50:NEXT:tlEXT 

CQ 1180 POKE 53269,0 

EG 1190 PRINT" [CLR)":GOSUB1400 

:POKE53269,112 
GB 1200 PO(H)=PEEK(P0+P) :P0(OG 

)=PEEK{P0+{P+1AND1)) 
XD 1210 1FPEEK(PO+P)=0THENW=OG 

! CO=OC : PC C P ) = PC [ P ) -1 s R 

ETURN 
BK 1220 P=P-HANDlsPC{P)=PC(P)- 

1 
CQ 1230 RETURN 
QS 1240 : 
MB 1250 PRINTC?(P) "[HOME} (RVS) 

[15 SPACES)FRONT LINE 

[15 SPACES)": RETURN 
BH 1260 REM GAME OVER 
SB 1270 POKE53269,112tWI=l:IFP 

C(0}=0THENWI=2! 
OH 12B0 FORN=1TO20 
SF 1290 PRINT" [HOME) [RVS) [WMT) 

(10 SPACES} PLAYER" STR$ 

(WI)" WINS THE BATTLE 

[6 SPACES)" 
BD 1300 FORT=lTO50:tJEXT 
JE 1310 PRINTC?(WI-1)"{H0ME) 

(RVS) {10 SPACES)PLAYER 

"STR5(WI)" WINS THE BA 

TTLE{6 SPACES)" 
MA 13 20 FORT=1TO100:NEXT 
BE 1330 NEXT 
CM 1340 PRINT" (CLR) ":POKE53272 

,2! :POKE53269,0 
RP 13 50 POKE 198,0: INPUT" (BLU) 

WANT TO PLAY AGAIN 

(3 SPACES} (Y/N)";CH$ 
KK 1360 IFCE)S = "Y"THENPRINT" 







{CLR)":POKE53272,29:GO 






TO30 


HA 


1370 


IFCHS="N"THENEND 


AJ 


1380 


GOTO 1340 


CQ 


1390 


REM RETRIEVE SCREEN 


SP 


1400 


POKE761 , 4 :POKE782 , 255 : 
POKE86 , : P0KE39 , 7 : POKE 
90,0:POKE91,207!SYS419 
60 


EX 


1410 


P0KE7B1 , 4 : POKE782 , 255 : 
POKE88 , : POKE89 , 2 1 9 : PO 
KE90 , : POKE91 , 203 : SYS4 
1960 


AJ 


1420 


RETURN 


SG 


1430 


REM SAVE SCREEN 


AM 


1440 


P0KE781 , 4 : POKE782 , 255 : 
POKE88 , : P0KE89, 207 : PO 
KE90,0:POKE91,7iSYS419 
60 


FP 


1450 


POKE781 ,4:POKE782, 255: 
POKEBB , : POKE89 , 203 : PO 
KE90,0:POKE91,219:SYS4 
1960 


QR 


1460 


RETURN 


DX 


1470 


REM CHAR ROM 


MR 


1480 


POKE5&334, PEEK( 56334)A 
ND254 


XE 


1490 


POKEl,PEEKtl)AND251 


QG 


1500 


POKE7Bl,8:POKE7B2,25 5! 
POKEBB , : P0KEB9 , 55 : POK 
E90 , : P0KE91 ,215: SYS41 
960 


KD 


1510 


P0KE1,PEEK(1)0R4 


QD 


1520 


P0KE56334, PEEK (563 34)0 
Rl 


SB 


1530 


RETURN 


CC 


1540 


REM CREATE SPRITE SHAP 
ES FROM CHARS 


EH 


1550 


FORN=2048TO2048+S76tPO 
KEN, 0: NEXT 


GD 


1560 


FORN=0TOe 


GG 


1570 


FORX=0TO7 


PM 


1580 


POKE 2048+X*3+N«64,PEE 
K(12600+N*8+X) 


KX 


1590 


NEXT: NEXT 


HJ 


1600 


REM COPY CHARS 


DF 


1610 


FORN=12640TO12671 SPOKE 
N+32,PEEK(N) :P0KEN+64, 
PEEK(N):NEXT 


MK 


1620 


FORN=12608TO12639:POKE 
N-f32,PEEK(N) :NEXT 


JH 


1630 


RETURN 


MJ 


1640 


RpM PLAYER DATA 


BM 


16 50 


DATA31,1 ,2 ,3 ,0 


AQ 


1660 


DATA30,5 ,4 ,4 ,0 


AA 


1670 


DATA10,6 ,4 ,5 ,1 


PB 


1680 


DATA 8,14,5 ,2 ,1 


ER 


1690 


DATA27,2 ,2 ,3 ,0 


SB 


X700 


DATA25,6 ,3 ,5 ,0 


QE 


1710 


DATA16,9 ,6 ,1 ,1 


JE 


1720 


DATA10,10,5 ,2 ,1 


DE 


1730 


REM SHAPE DATA-14 CHAR 
S, 10 SPRITES 


BP 


1740 


DATA231, 129, 129,0,0,12 
9,129,231 


KA 


1750 


DATA0, 1,20,43,4,27,45, 
58 


GG 


1760 


DATA0,0,144,112,172,21 
6,108,186 


AD 


1770 


DATA75,52,47,9,1,1,1,0 


HA 


1780 


DATA200, 116, 236, 152,0, 
0,128,0 


EA 


1790 


DATA0, 0,0, 24,0,0,0,0 


PH 


1800 


DATA24, 16, 56,63,30, 17, 
34,64 


JR 


1810 


DATA24,16,56,63,24,20, 
114,2 


FM 


1820 


DATA24,16,56,63,24,12, 
24,8 


CM 


1830 


DATA24, 16, 56, 63,28,18, 
20,32 


JD 


1840 


DATA24,B,2e,252,120,13 
6,68,2 



COMPUT£fs Gazefte August 1967 89 



GK 


1850 


DATA24 ,8,28,252,24,40, 
78,64 


QS 


1860 


DATA24,8, 28, 252,24,48, 
24,16 


GC 


1870 


DATA24, 8,28,252,56. 72, 
40,4 


KH 


1880 


REM HILL SPRITE 


H5 


1890 


DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


GX 


1900 


DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


BS 


1910 


DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


QR 


19213 


DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


XQ 


1930 


DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


BP 


1940 


DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,126,0 


QJ 


1950 


DATA 3,255,128,7,191,2 
24,30,237 


BM 


1960 


DATA 240,27,191,216,3, 
38,128,0 


ED 


1970 


REM COLOR DATA 


FG 


1980 


DATA 2,6,8,8,9,9,9 



Program 3: Main Program— ML 

See instructions in article on page 
26 before typing in. 



C000J 

C00B: 

C010S 

C01B: 

C020: 

C02B: 

C030: 

C038: 

C040: 

C048: 

C050 ! 

C058: 

C060! 

0068: 

C070: 

C07B: 

C080 

0088: 

C090: 

C09ei 

C0A0J 

C0AB: 

C0Q0: 

C0C0: 

C0C8s 

C0D0: 

C0D8: 

C0E0; 

C0Ee: 

C0F01 

C0F8: 

C100: 

C108i 

C110: 

C119; 

C120: 

C128s 

C130: 

C138i 

C140: 

C148j 

C150: 

CISS: 

C160: 

C168: 

C170: 

C178: 

Cie0t 

C188 

C190I 

cigai 

C1A0I 
C1A8: 
C1B0: 
CIBB: 
C1C0: 
C1C8: 
ClD0t 

cioai 



4C 49 

01 01 

02 07 
21 26 
00 00 
04 9P 
0A 01 
06 00 
00 00 
00 A9 
8D F9 
BD FB 
3A C0 
33 8D 
D0 A9 
8D 02 
AD 27 
D0 8D 
C2 E6 

78 A9 
SD 15 

04 20 
44 C0 

03 815 
27 C2 
20 EA 
4C A4 
A0 00 
4A B0 
4A B0 
C3 68 
C0 D9 
C0 00 
2F C0 
D0 09 
4C 3F 
60 A6 
BD 0C 
C3 20 
06 B9 
00 8D 
20 C0 
90 62 
C0 AC 

79 00 
18 90 
14 4A 
38 E9 
A8 18 
A0 F0 
F0 22 
Dl C9 
C9 A0 
3D C0 
99 00 
C0 60 
00 64 

05 DE 
DC 29 
99 04 



C0 4C 
01 01 



20 
00 



IC 
02 

01 01 64 

06 00 04 

00 01 00 

06 65 47 
00 FF 00 
00 00 00 

00 00 00 
21 8D F8 

07 A9 
07 A9 
A9 03 8D 

01 D0 A9 
EA 8D 03 
D0 A9 0F 
D0 8D 37 

38 C0 A2 
04 A2 00 
86 8D 14 

03 59 20 
D3 C0 20 
CE 3B C0 
3B C0 20 
20 85 C2 
CI A0 02 
C0 A4 04 
A2 00 4A 
01 C8 4A 
01 E8 98 
99 20 C0 
31 C0 F9 
07 A9 01 
60 A6 04 
BD 10 C0 
CI A9 00 

04 DE 0A 
C0 9D 0A 
0B C3 B9 
IF C0 99 

39 C0 AC 
18 79 01 
C9 EB D0 
44 C0 B9 
D0 C9 F8 
49 99 3C 
4A 4A 48 
30 4A 4A 
20 F0 FF 

29 ca Bl 

98 18 69 
A0 F0 17 
F0 10 AC 

99 01 Dfl 
D0 60 A9 
20 0B C3 
A6 04 BD 
12 C0 D0 
10 00 51 
D0 B9 01 



C3 20 
04 01 
FF 00 
00 08 
FF 00 
4B 67 
80 3F 
00 00 

00 00 
07 A9 
8D FA 
85 04 
15 D0 

19 8D 
D0 A9 
8D 18 
C0 AD 

01 20 

20 DE 
03 A9 
10 C3 
0B C3 

00 08 

21 CI 
90 01 
20 15 
B9 00 
B0 01 
B0 01 
48 20 
BA 99 
0C B9 
A6 04 
DE 0E 
9D 0E 
BD 39 
C0 D0 
C0 20 
IF C0 
31 C0 
44 C0 
D0 C9 
5E 99 
IF C0 
F0 4D 
C0 38 
B9 3D 
4A AA 
Bl 01 
Dl C9 
27 AS 
C8 Bl 
44 C0 
B9 3C 

01 80 
B9 IB 
12 C0 
58 BO 
B9 00 
D0 99 



20 2 7 

01 9D 
07 AE 
00 A4 
97 49 
0A DE 

02 79 
00 BC 
00 CI 
25 80 
07 C6 
80 C6 
A9 AO 

00 E0 
F6 A0 

04 A9 
28 D5 
DE 21 
C2 08 
C3 2E 
85 62 
ac FB 
A9 15 
20 BB 
60 90 
C3 C9 
DC E7 
ea 9E 
CA 42 
0B 9B 
IF 26 
20 CE 
90 DO 
C0 42 
C0 50 
C0 CD 
E2 C3 
37 4A 
F0 F7 
A9 D9 
B9 0C 
32 B7 
3D IC 
18 DF 
C9 47 
E9 IE 
C0 E2 
68 76 
C9 AS 
A0 53 
Bl 94 

01 AB 
B9 02 
C0 E4 
39 C6 
C0 65 
P0 83 
00 38 
D0 SE 

05 63 



C1E0:D0 
ClEa;C0 
C1F0!24 
C1FB:8D 
C200:A6 
C208!BD 
C210:O4 
C218:9D 
C220:99 
CZ2ai0D 
C230:04 
C238:45 
C240:04 
C24aE20 
C250:20 
C258:2D 
C260:99 
C26a:D0 
C270tBl 
C278:D4 
C280:0A 
C2B8:B9 
C290:0A 
C298:38 
C2A0:C9 
C2A8:69 
C2B0!49 
C2B8iC2 
C2C0:47 
C2ce:3A 
C2D0:A9 
C2D8!0E 



C3 
B9 
4A 



C2E0 

C2E8: 

C2F0 

C2F8I06 

C300!4A 

C308:AA 

C310:AS 

C318:88 

C32a:48 

C328!l8 

C330:20 

C338504 

C340:C0 

C348ilF 

C350:2E 

C3 58:C0 

C360:C9 

C368;C0 

C370:18 

C378:90 

C3B0:18 

C3BB:C0 

C390:46 

C39BsAD 

C3A0JC0 

C3Afl:C0 

C3B0:48 

C3BBt48 



B9 IF 
99 23 
C0 B9 

15 00 

04 BD 

16 C0 
A9 11 

05 D4 
45 C0 
C3 B9 
BD 16 
C0 4A 
C8 C8 
0B CI 
0B C3 
15 00 
IB C0 
A6 04 
9D 04 
A9 05 
20 15 
IB C0 
AA B9 
FD 01 
0F B0 
07 38 
00 C9 
20 10 
C0 A4 
C0 38 
00 90 
C2 38 
0A A8 
28 C0 
4A A8 
C0 48 
Aa BD 
18 60 

04 49 
D0 FA 
20 9B 
20 F0 
F0 03 
DE 2F 
9D 2F 
C0 00 
B9 31 
BO 18 
25 90 
4C 7F 
C0 C9 

05 A9 
C0 9D 
38 E9 
C0 38 
37 C0 
F0 06 
AD 38 
C0 F0 
C0 4C 



ca 00 03 

C0 B9 20 

IC C0 00 

A9 01 99 

14 C0 9D 

AA A9 10 

90 04 04 

A4 04 B9 

90 01 04 

IB C0 F0 

C0 AA A4 

4A 9D 01 

98 0A 8D 
AD 39 C0 
B9 IC C3 
BD 15 D0 

99 05 D0 
BD 16 C0 

04 A9 02 
9D 05 04 
C3 60 20 
FB 4F 20 

05 D0 la 
D0 10 02 
38 B9 04 
FD 00 00 
0F B0 26 
C3 AA A9 
04 BO 06 
F9 08 C0 

06 C0 D0 
60 18 60 
B9 27 C0 
85 AB AO 
A9 BA 91 
29 03 AA 
2B C0 09 
AS 04 0A 
01 60 A2 
60 20 9B 
B7 8A A8 
FF 20 73 
4C A0 AA 
C0 00 41 
C0 20 0B 
0B B9 20 
C0 30 16 
C0 C9 21 
ID A9 21 
C3 FE 18 
25 90 04 
25 9D 18 
F8 07 60 
4A 80 45 
E9 4A BD 
8D 27 00 
80 27 D0 
C0 8D 28 
06 BO 28 
31 EA 00 



34 
61 



B9 31 62 

C0 99 0D 

15 00 E4 

IB C0 A2 
12 C0 
9D 04 

A9 OA 37 

3 5 C0 C4 
60 20 Fl 
50 A6 IE 

04 B9 9F 
D4 A4 BO 
44 00 6C 
F0 06 39 
4^ FF 33 
Ay 00 EB 
99 04 CD 
AA A9 0F 
9D 01 7D 
60 A0 2A 
0B C3 4F 
10 C3 B7 
69 07 0E 
49 00 02 
D0 18 FF 
10 02 F0 
20 50 B3 

19 9D Bl 
C0 80 04 
B0 02 EB 
07 20 B6 

20 10 IE 
85 AA 60 
3A C0 0F 
AA BD 0D 
6B 4A 2B 
80 91 FD 
A8 60 4B 
00 CA FC 
37 8A E6 
6B AA 35 
00 C9 7A 
60 A6 40 
AD lA 6C 
C3 B9 EF 
C0 F0 ?CA 
FE IB 7F 
90 04 B6 
9D 18 FE 
C0 BD 27 
C9 29 11 
C0 SD 9D 
AD 4 5 El 
C0 AD 11 
46 C0 E6 
AD 47 D4 
CE 47 BF 
D0 AD 6B 
D0 CE BB 
00 00 88 



BEFORE TYPING . . . 

Before typing in programs, ple^e 
refer to "How To Type In 
COMPUTE! 's CAZEHE Programs," 
vvhicfi appears before the Program 
Listings. 



Dynamusic 

Article on page 62. 

Program 1 : Dynamusic Translator 

KC 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1967 COMPU 
TEl PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
MQ 20 LN-8000 
RQ 30 GOTO100 
DE 40 POKES+1,70jPOKES+5,7>POK 



ES+4 , 17 tGOSUB60 sRETURM 
XK 50 POKES+1,6;POKES+S,9:POKE 

S+4 , 33 :GOSUB60 i RETURN 
MC 60 FORJ=1T025:NEXT!FORJ=STO 

S+5:P0KEJ, 01 NEXT: RETURN 
BR 70 GETX?:IFXS«""THEN70 
KE 80 RETURN 
MX 90 TS=STR5(T) iT?»RIGHTS(TS, 

LEN(TS)-l) I RETURN 
JC 100 POKE532ai,0iPOKE53280,0 
iPRINTCHR5(14)"[2 DOWN} 
FC 110 PRINT" JCLR) §83 

J 2 SPACES JCOPYRIGHT 198 
7 COMPUTE 1 PUB., I^NC." 
XH 120 PRINTTAB[9)'^ALL RIGHTS 
(SPACE) reserved! 2 DOWN) 

AG 130 PRINT" ^ 3 WHAT IS THE OC 
TAVE7":S=54272!POKES+24 
,15:Z?="[5 down)" 

EF 140 PRINT" (2 D0WN)HIT" , "B 5§ 
THRU 7i73","TO INDICA 
TE" £ PRINT, , "OCTAVE NUMB 
ER." 

HD 150 PRINT, "(DOWN) 153 RETURN 
§73", "TO INDICATE A RES 
T.":PRINT,"tDOWN)g53Q 
B73", "TO QUIT, " 

QQ 160 PRINTZS" J GRN) MIDDLE C B 
EG INS OCTAVE 4, WHICH R 
UNS(4 SPACES ) UPWARD TO 
(SPACE) INCLUDE "r 

FK 170 PRINT"THE B ABOVE HIDDL 
E G, THE OCTAVE ABOVE I 
S 5 AND THE OCTAVE " 

FQ 180 PRINT "BELOW MIDDLE C IS 
3, ETC.E7a 

BA 190 GOSUB70jC5»X5iIFCS<>'"Q" 
THEN280 

EJ 200 PRINT "(CLR) ENTER i53Y 
g73 IF YOU REALLY WANT 
{gPACE)TO QUIT." 

CH 210 GOSUB70:IFX?<>"Y"THENPR 
INT"{CLR)"sGOTO130 

CC 220 PRINT" (CLR) THE ENTRY ST 
AGE IS COMPLETE. " 

BQ 230 PRINT" (DOira) HIT B5iCE73 
TO CYCLE THE MUSIC OVE 
R AND OVER. 

CM 240 PRINT" (DOWN) ANY OTHER K 
EY TO PLAY THE MUSIC ON 
CE(4 SPACES) EACH TIME I 
T IS CALLED." 

RA 250 GOSUB70!LS-"0"tHS="0":U 
$ = "0" 

DE 260 IFX5="C"THENL9="1" 

DB 270 GOSUB40tGOTO830 

KX 280 C=VAL(CS) jIFCSoCHRSdS) 
THEN I C5 = " REST " i L=0 :H=0 : 
GOSUB40:GOTO410 

CX 290 IFC5<"0"ORC9>"7"THENGOS 
UBS0:GOTO190 

AM 300 GOSUB40: PRINT" (CLR) "Z5" 
(UP) OCTAVE IS[RED)"C 

FX 310 PRINT" (2 DOWN) i 73 ENTER 
(SPACE) THE LETTER NAME 
(SPACE) OF THE NOTE 

PX 320 PRINT "FOLLOWED BY AN 

i53Si73' FOR A SHARP OR 
AN 'E53F|73'F0R a FLAT 

JM 330 PRINT" JDOWNJkEEP ALL EN 
TRIES LOWER CASE. 

EM 340 INPUT" {2 00WN)WHAT IS T 
HE NOTE";NS 

AF 350 FORJ=0TO16;REAOA5,NiIFN 
$=ASTHEN390 

AM 360 NEXT: RESTORE tGOSUB50 

GE 370 PRINT" (down) PLEASE ENTE 
R:", "ES3C,CS,DF,D,DS,EF 
,E,F", , ,"FS,G,GS,AF,A,B 
F,OR Bf7g" 

RQ 380 GOTO340 



90 COMPUTEVs Gazeaa August 1967 



QM 390 GOSUB40iX=ASC(LEFT5(N5, 

D) tX=X+12eiWS=CHRS(X) ! 

N5=W$+MID5(N5,2,1) 
AH 400 0=440*1. 05946309T(N-10} 

*2t(C-4) ;V=Q/.06096!H=I 

NT(V/256)iL-I»T(V-(H*25 

6)} 
J<3 410 PRINT" tCLR5"Z? "VALID EN 

TRIES ARE: gSU. 2/4,8,1 

6, 32, OR 64173" 
SK 420 PRINT" [DOWN] |5il§73 

{2 SPACES) FOR A WHOLE N 

OTE OR REST. " 
DS 430 PRINT"|514|73{2 SPACES) 

FOR A QUARTER ROTE OR R 

EST . " 
SD 440 PRINT"i5§32i73 FOR A 32 

ND NOTE OR REST, ETC." 
ED 450 PRINT"(D0WNJPLAGE A PKR 

lOD AFTER THE NUMBER TO 

(6 SPACES) DOT IT. 

[2 SPACES) (GRN) DOTTED N 

OTES"; 
ER 460 PRINT" ARE HELD HALF 

{5 SPACES] AGAIN AS LONG 

AS UNDOTTED NOTES. E7i" 

MB 470 PR INTZ$ "ENTER gS3DE7E T 

BYPASS THE ABOVE PROC 

ESS, SO YOU CALCULATE T 

HE " ; 
HA 480 PRINT" g5iD|73URATION A 

ND PLACE IT DIRECTLY IN 
THE CREATED DATA STATE 

MENT." 
QC 490 PRINT"(HOMElf DOWN} 

{13_SPACESJ iHDME 5 PLEASE 
ENTER THE NOTE OR REST 
VALUE . " 
FG 500 INPUT U5:U-VAL(US) 
KP 510 IFU?><"D"THEN570 
RF 520 PRINT" ICLR} ENTER YOUR C 

ALCULATED DURATION." 
RQ 530 INPUTDR? 
XQ 540 DR=VALtDR$} 
EF 550 IFDR<0ORDR>255THENGOSUB 

50!GOTO520 
EH 560 GOTO620 
GA 570 FORJ=0TO6!lF2TJ=-UTHEN60 


QG 580 NEXT 
EH 590 GOSUB50:GOTO490!HEM RE J 

ECT 
CC 600 U"128/U;REM ACCEPT 
EG 610 IFRlGHT5(U5,l)-"-"THENU 

-U*1.5 
XP 620 GOSUB401 PRINT" [CLR) HERE 
IS YOUR N0TEi{4 DOWN)" 
JC 630 PRINT "OCTAVE {RED) "CS" 

[RIGHTT67iNOTE (RED) "MS 

"E73(2 RIGHT) VALUE 

{RED)"; 
DF 640 IFDRTHENPRINT"i7i 

(6 left)durationIred!"d 

RiGOTO670 
QK 650 IPUS="1"THENPRINT"1"!G0 

TO670 
AA 660 PRINT"1/"U5 
KP 670 PRINT"i7i(3 DOWNJHIT"," 

E53 RETURM g7 3","TO ADD T 

HE DATA LINE",, "TO THE 

E SPACE ) PROGRAM . 
RM 680 PRINT, "t2 DOWN) i53Eg73 " 

, "TO ERASE THIS DATA. 
MM 690 PRINT" {2 DOWN) 151 ","R 

173", "TO ADD A REMARK T 

O", , , "THE DATA LINE, 
00 700 GOSUB701D5-XS 
DG 710 IFD?="R"ORDS=CHR5(13)TH 

EN740 
EP 720 IFD5="E"THEKGOSUB40!PRI 

NT " i CLR ) " 2 S I RESTORE i GOT 

DA 730 GOSUB501 PRINT" ENTER i5i 



RETURN , E, OR R673"tGOT 

0700 
EC 740 GOSUB40jGOSUB40:T=LtGOS 

UB90:L5-TS 
BD 750 T=H!GOSUB90:H5=T$ 
HH 760 IFDRTHENU=DR 
MA 770 T=UtGOSUB90iU$=T5 
KX 780 IFD5<>"R"THEN830 
GR 790 PRINT" I CLR } "25 "MAXIMUM 

[SPACE) REMARK LENGTH 50 
CHARACTERS. 
JH 800 INPUT" [2 DOWN)WHAT IS Y 

OUR REMARK" ;R5 
GE 810 IFLEN(R5)>49THENGOSUB50 

:GOTO800 
SM 820 GOSUB40iR5="sREM "+R5 
DG 830 PRINT" [CLE) [RED) 

[3 D0WN)"LN"DATA"L5"."H 

5","U5jR5 

PE 840 PRINT"iBLK3LN="LN+l; 
HB 650 IFC5="Q"THEN PRINT" .GOT 

0880 [HOME ) " ( GOTOa70 
HS 660 PRINT" !GOTO130 [HOME)" 
FP 870 POKE631, 13;POKE632,13:P 

OKE198,2:END 
FP 860 S-54272iPRINT"§73VALUE 
I SPACE) TO MULTIPLY EACH 

NOTE DURATION BY 
f2 SPACES) 1 {3 LEFT]"; 
GX 890 INPUTM 
PR 900 PRINT" [DOWN) WANT MUSIC 

(SPACE) POKED TO RAM ?" 
QD 910 GOSUB70!lFX5="Y"THENGOS 

UB960 
FX 920 PRINT" (DOWS)WANT MUSIC 
{SPACE JFILE SAVED?" iGOS 
UH70 ! IFX$-"Y"THENG0SUB1 
020 
MA 930 END 

KA 940 DATAC,1,CS,2,DP,2,D,3,D 
S,4,EP,4,E,5,ES,6,F,6,P 
S,7,G,B 
XE 950 DRTAGS,9,AF,9,A, 10,AS,1 

1,BP,11,B,12 
KR 960 INPUT "E7S[ down! ADDRESS 
(space) TO POKE MUSIC 
{2 SPACES] 40960 (7 LEFT) 
"fBSiB=VAL(B$) 
HF 970 IFB<820ORB>65535THENGOS 

UB50!GOTO960 
PS 980 PRINT"|73(2 DOWN) DATA 1 
S BEING POKED"iPRINT"ST 
ARTING AT LINE"Bt J=B:GO 
SUB1090 
RJ 990 GOSUB1010iPOKEJ,LiPOKEJ 
4'l,HiPOKEJ+2,UiJ-J+3iIF 
U>0THEN990 
SO 1000 PRINT" {2 DOWN) ENDING A 
DDRESS I S"J; PRINT "MUSI 
C IS IN MEMORY .": RESTO 
RE I RETURN 
SR 1010 READL,H,U:U=U*M: RETURN 
OR 1020 INPUT" [DOWN] NAME OF SA 

VED FILE"; NT? 
HB 1030 PRINT" (CLR) (DOWN 3 ADDRE 
SS YOU WANT THIS FILE 
(space) TO LOAD AT 
[3 spaces) LATER 
(2 spaces) 40960 
(7 left!"; 
QE 1040 INPUT AD5!AD'-VAL(ADS) : 
IFAD<ai90RAD>55536THEN 
GOSUB50 ! GOTO1040 
KD 1050 HB"INT(AD/256) iLB''AD-2 
56*[lBiOPEN2,8,2,"0i"+N 
F$+" P W" 
PS 1060 PRINT#2,CHR5(LB);CHR5( 

HB);!GOSUB1090 
XP 1070 GOSUB1010tPRINT#2,CHR$ 
(L) ;CHR${H) ;CHR5{U); :I 
FU>0THEN1070 
DF 1080 CLOSE2 I PRINT "SAVE COMP 
LETE."! RETURN 



PM 1090 FORI=1T034!READU5!NEXT 
: RET URN 

Program 2: Dynamusic Player 

See instructions in article on page 
62 before typing in. 



9E0Si20 


2D 


9F 


AD 


14 


03 


8D 


85 


B4 


9E09t9F 


AD 


15 


03 


6D 


86 


9F 


78 


91 


9E10 1A9 


2D 


BD 


14 


03 


A9 


9E 


8D 


E9 


9E18!l5 


03 


58 


60 


7a 


AD 


85 


9P 


D6 


9E20S8D 


14 


03 


AD 


86 


9F 


BD 


15 


47 


9E28:03 


58 


6C 


14 


03 


AD 


00 


9E 


39 


9E301C9 


00 


D0 


08 


A9 


20 


6D 


00 


D5 


9E38:9E 


4C 


20 


9F 


EE 


6A 


9F 


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A5 


9E40!8E 


9F 


EE 


92 


9F 


AD 


SB 


9F 


IE 


9E48jCD 


8A 


9F 


D0 


2B 


20 


El 


9E 


4C 


9E50IAD 


6D 


9F 


29 


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8D 


04 


D4 


51 


9E58IAE 


88 


9F 


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8E 


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9660 101 


D4 


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87 


9F 


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8D 


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8D 


37 


9E70S8A 


9F 


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9F 


8D 


8B 


9F 


13 


9E78:AD 


SD 


9F 


CD 


as 


9P 


D0 


2B 


80 


9E80J20 


El 


9E 


AD 


74 


9F 


29 


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68 


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0B 


D4 


AE 


88 


9F 


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00 


59 


9E90IF0 


0E 


8E 


06 


D4 


AE 


87 


9F 


2C 


9E98t8E 


07 


D4 


09 


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8D 


0B 


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33 


9EA0SA9 


00 


8D 


aE 


9F 


AD 


89 


9F 


B3 


9EAe;8D 


8D 


9F 


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91 


9P 


CD 


92 


18 


9EB0S9F 


D0 


2B 


20 


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9E 


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7B 


B9 


9ES8:9F 


29 


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8D 


12 


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88 


92 


9EC0:9F 


E0 


00 


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0E 


8E 


0F 


D4 


B2 


9EC8jAE 


87 


9F 


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09 


01 


F2 


9ED0iaD 


12 


D4 


A9 


00 


aD 


92 


9F 


89 


9ED8iAD 


09 


9F 


aD 


91 


9F 


6C 


85 


85 


9EE0I9F 


A0 


00 


AS 


01 


29 


PC 


85 


9C 


9EE8I01 


B9 


00 


A0 


99 


87 


9F 


C8 


12 


9EF0tCa 


03 


D0 


F5 


AS 


A5 


01 


09 


AF 


9EFet03 


85 


01 


C0 


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F0 


12 


AD 


DA 


9F00:EA 


9E 


IB 


69 


03 


8D 


EA 


9E 


B8 


9F08:AD 


EB 


9E 


69 


00 


8D 


EB 


9£ 


30 


9F10:60 


63 


68 


AD 


87 


9F 


C9 


00 


CF 


9F18!P0 


06 


20 


2D 


9F 


6C 


B5 


9P 


81 


9F20SA0 


00 


99 


00 


D4 


C8 


C0 


19 


47 


9P281D0 


F8 


4C 


IC 


9E 


20 


SB 


9P 


25 


9F301A& 


00 


AB 


99 


87 


9F 


CB 


C0 


FF 


9F38.10 


D0 


F8 


A9 


02 


8D 


8B 


9F 


6A 


9F4018D 


60 


9F 


SD 


91 


9P 


A9 


00 


D4 


9F4a;8D 


EA 


9E 


A9 


A0 


8D 


EB 


9E 


29 


9F50:A5 


36 


C9 


A0 


D0 


04 


A9 


9D 


3B 


9F58j85 


38 


60 


A0 


00 


B9 


69 


9F 


D7 


9F60:99 


m 


D4 


CB 


C0 


19 


D0 


F5 


95 


9F685 60 


00 


00 


PP 


00 


40 


09 


00 


EA 


9P70!00 


00 


FF 


00 


40 


09 


00 


00 


D5 


9F78t00 


FF 


00 


40 


09 


00 


00 


00 


04 


9F80I00 


0F 


60 


31 


EA 


FF 


FB 


A8 


9A 


9F88t00 


FF 


00 


FF 


00 


FF 


00 


FF 


C7 


9F90I00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


CF 



Program 3: Dynamusic 
Customizer 

JJ 10 print"(clr3 [rvs){blk)dyn 

AMUSIC CUSTOMIZER (down)" 
PQ 20 INPUT "NAME OF FILE TO BE 

SAVED" ;N$ 
XJ 30 A"40448[S="AiEa40833 
KC 40 H-INT(A/256) iL=A-256*H!0 

PEN2,8,2,"0i"+N5+",P,W"i 

PRINT! 2 , CHR5 ( L ) ; CHR$ ( H ) ; 
GC 50 FORJ=STOEiPRINTf2,CHR5(P 

EEK{J)); 
FE 60 IFST>0THENPRINT"SAVE ERR 

OR. " : PRINT#2 tCL0SE2 i END 
AS 70 NEXT! CLOSE 2 I PRINT "SAVE C 

OMPLETE." 

Program 4: Elite Demo 

See instructiotts in article on page 
62 before typing in. 

A000:00 00 2D 00 00 2D 77 07 91 
A008il2 61 08 12 68 09 12 BE 17 
A010I3Q 12 DF ID 12 F7 09 12 D5 

COMPUTEIs Gazette August 1987 91 



A01BiDF 


27 


09 


00 


00 


09 


0F 


43 


B9 


A020:09 


EF 


13 


12 


EF 


0E 


12 


DF 


21 


A028:27 


09 


3C 


32 


09 


EF 


13 


12 


2A 


A030:BF 


0C 


12 


BE 


3B 


12 


68 


09 


66 


A038!l2 


68 


09 


12 


DF 


27 


09 


0F 


9B 


A040!43 


09 


87 


21 


09 


F7 


09 


12 


B4 


A04S:00 


00 


09 


DP 


27 


09 


3C 


32 


B0 


A050:09 


00 


00 


09 


30 


0B 


12 


BE 


37 


A058:3B 


12 


DF 


ID 


12 


e? 


0C 


12 


82 


A060:0F 


43 


12 


87 


21 


12 


18 


0E 


44 


A068:12 


BE 


3B 


09 


DF 


ID 


09 


CI 


Al 


A070:2C 


09 


60 


16 


09 


77 


07 


12 


BD 


A078:DF 


ID 


09 


EF 


0E 


09 


3C 


32 


50 


A0B0:09 


Dl 


12 


12 


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0E 


12 


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D9 


A088:1D 


09 


A2 


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09 


92 


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67 


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19 


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59 


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91 


A110:09 


87 


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Dl 


12 


09 


68 


BF 


A118:09 


12 


A2 


25 


12 


60 


16 


12 


SB 


A120:77 


07 


12 


A2 


25 


12 


60 


16 


95 


A12a:I2 


98 


05 


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12 


60 


9F 


Al 30:16 


12 


61 


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87 


21 


09 


A9 


A138:C3 


10 


09 


3C 


32 


09 


EF 


13 


EE 


A140:12 


18 


0E 


12 


C3 


10 


09 


DF 


C5 


A148:27 


09 


30 


0B 


12 


98 


05 


12 


27 


A150:63 


38 


12 


EF 


13 


12 


30 


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58 


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COMPUTE!' 


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Sprite Flip 

Article on page 52. 
Program 1: Sprite Flip 

CH 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1987 COMPU 
TEl PUBLICATIONS, INC. A 
LL RIGHTS RESERVED 
SE 20 POKE 532B0,0:POKE 53281, 
0:PRINTCHR5(14)"{CLR] 
(DOHNj^eiCREATING ML..." 
DF 30 FORT=491S2T049329:READH: 

POKET , H : CK=CK+H : NEXT 
CP 40 IF CK025249 THEN PRINT 
{SPACi;}"^RROR IN DATA." 
SE 50 DATA76,68, 192, 76,65, 192 
EA ,60 DATA165,251,72,165,252,7 

2 
DE 70 DATA32, 145, 192,32,54, 192 
XF 80 DATA160, 0,162, 60, 32,46 
ME 90 DATA192,32,46,192,32,46 
EE 100 DATA192,202,202,202,202 

,202 
SM 110 DATA202,16,239,104,133, 

252 
BR 120 DATA104, 133,251, 96, 189, 

180 
MR 130 DATA192,145,251,200,232 

,96 
CK 140 DATA160,63,17_,7,2Si,lS3, 

180 
KF 150 DATA192,136,16,248,96,5 

6 
OM 160 DATA176, 1,24,169,0,105 
ilR 170 DATA0,141,178,192,165,2 

51 
PK 180 DATA72,165,252,72,32,14 

5 
FP 190 DATA192, 32, 54, 192,160,0 
PJ 200 DATA185,180,192,72,185, 

1 fl7 
CC 210 DATA192,153,180,192,104 

,153 
PD 220 DATAl 82, 192,200,200,200 

,192 
CF 230 DATA66,208,235,160,63,1 

85 
EF 240 DATA180, 192, 174,178, 192 

,208 
BF 250 DATA39, 162,7,74,46,179 
GA 260 DATA192,202, 16, 249,173, 

179 
GJ 270 DATA192,145, 251, 136, 16, 

231 
HM 280 DATA104, 133, 252, 104, 133 

,251 
SE 290 DATA96, 169, 0,133, 251, 13 

4 
FK 300 DATA252, 70, 252, 102,251, 

70 
XC 310 DATA252, 102,251,96, 162, 

7 
CC 320 DATA74,8, 74,46, 179, 192 
GA 330 DATA40,46,179,192,202, 2 

02 
BA 340 DATA16, 242, 48,208 

Program 2: Sprite Flip Demo 

BQ 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1987 - COM 

PUTEl PUBLICATIONS, INC. 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
XH 20 DATA 0,0,0,127,192,0,127 

,192 
DE 30 DATA 0,126,0,0,127,0,0,1 

19 
XX 40 DATA 128,0,115,192,0,113 

,224,0 
EK 50 DATA 0,240,0,0,120,0,0,6 


SP 60 DATA 0,0,30,0,0,15,0,0 
FQ 70 DATA 7,128,0,3,192,0,1,2 



24 
SK 80 DATA 0,0,240,0,0,120,0,0 
MK 90 DATA 60,0,0,30,0,0,12,25 

5 
KB 100 DATA 102,102,100,102,10 

2, 100,102,102 
BX 110 DATA 100,102,102,100,10 

2,102,100,102 
RX 120 DATA 102,100,102,102,10 

0,102,102,100 
FD 130 DATA 102,102,100,102,10 

2, 100,102, 102 
PG 140 DATA 100,102,102,100,25 

5,254,100,238 
SR 150 DATA 238,100,251,190,10 

0,236,238,100 
PE 160 DATA 251,190,100,238,23 

8, 100,251,190 
JO 170 DATA 100,238,238,100,25 

5,254,100,250 
PX 180 POKES3280,0:POKE53281,0 
KB 190 PRINTCHR5(142)"[CLR)":F 

ORD=1T024: PRINT" [DOWN)" 

:NEXT 
EA 200 PRINTSPC(5)"{WHT3UDI^ CO 

PYRIGHT 1987" 
PP 210 PRINTS PC(5)"GCH COMPUTE 

I PUBLICATIONS INC." 
JX 220 PRINTSPC(5)"JFK ALL RIG 

HTS reserved"" 
JF 230 F0RX=lT015iPRIHT"[UP}"j 

:NEXT 
GD 240 PRINTSPC(ll)"i73SPRITE 

{space} FLIP DEM0(0FF}" 
AC 250 FORD=1TO2S00:NEXT 
JK 260 POKE53280,0:POKE53281,0 

:PRINT"{CLR)" 
KA 27e PRINTCflR5(14}"§8a":V=.53 

248 ; FORS=B32T0958 : READX 

: POKES, X: NEXT 
BA 280 POKE2040, 14:POKE2041, 13 
GX 290 POKEV+21 ,7 
SR 300 POKEV+40,5 
MK 310 POKE53277, 3:POKE53271,3 
CX 320 POKEV,240:POKEV+1,202 
PR 330 POKE53276,l;POKE53287,l 

!POKE53286,6:POKE53285, 

2 
JH 340 POKEV+2,70!POKEV+3,202 
PX 350 PRINTCHR5(14)"{CLR}E83 

{DOWN}" 
MB 360 PRINT" (RIGHT]THIS MACHI 

NE LANGUAGE ROUTINE WIL 

L" 
QG 370 PRINT"! DOWN) { RIGHT }MAXI 

MIZE THE POTENTIAL OF Y 

OUR SPRITE" 
PE 380 PRINT" (DOWN) {RIGHT) DATA 

. I^T ALLOWS YOU TO FLIP 
SPRITES" 
AF 390 PRINT" (DOWN) {RIGHT) VERT 

ICALLY OR HORIZONTALLY. 
THEREFORE, " 
AR 400 PRINT" (down) {RIGHT )Y0U 

(space) CAN PRODUCE FOUR 
SPRITES FROM ONLY" 
HQ 410 PRINT" {down) (RIGilT) ONE 

{SPACE) DEFINITION. ANIM 

ATED SPRITES ARE" 
GS 420 PRINT" (DOtrtj) (RIGHT }POSS 

IBLE WITHOUT USING VALU 

ABLE MEMORY." 
HP 430 PRINT" {down} (RVS) PRESS 

(SPACE) (H)ORIZONTAL OR 

{SPACE) (y)ERTICAL TO FL 
IP" 

JB 440 GETA$:IFAS=""THEN440 
PE 450 IFA5="H"THENPOKE7ei,13: 

SYS49152 : P0KE781 , 14 ! SYS 

491SS:GOTO440 
PH 460 IFA5="V"THENPOKE781,13: 

SYS49158:POKE7ei , 14tSYS 

4 9158:GOTO440 
PC 4 70 GOTO440 



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r 



ATTENTION C-128 OWNERS! 



FEEL NEGLECTED? 

NO 80-COLUMN GRAPHICS 

SOFTWARE? 

The Commodore C-128 is Ihe most powerful and (lexible 8-bit 
microcomputer yet released to the public. Unfortunately, tfiere is 
little software available (or its native 80-Column mode: and most o( 
that is Productivity software using only the Text Character Display, 
not the true 80-Column Hi-Res Graphic Display wfiich the 
machine is capable of producing, 

Commodore originally intended the C-128's 8563 Video Display 
Chip to support eO-Columns only in Text mode, not Graphics, 
While standard C-128 Baslctakes full advantage of the'tO-Column 
graphics capability of the machine, there is almost nothing which 
allows the Basic programmer access to the 80-Cotumn Graphics 
mode {Yes, there is an 80-Column Graphics mode!). 

TIRED OF WAITING FOR YOUR 128 TO 
COME ALIVE? WAIT NO MORE. 
BASIC 8 IS HERE! 

Patech Software is proud to introduce Basic 8 with Basic Paint, 
the first C-128 software package specifically designed to unleash 
the hidden graphics potential of your Commodore C-12e. Using a 
special wedge technique. Basic 8 achieves performance rivaling 
that of 16-bit micros' Imagine your 128 producing resolution of 
640 X 200 in monochrome and 640 x 192 in 16 colors without 
additional hardware! Basic 8 provides the Basic programmer with 
the most powerful and productive graphics system ever devel- 
oped for an 8-bit microcomputer! 

A NEW HI-RES 3-D GRAPHICS 
LANGUAGE FOR THE C-128 

Basic 8 adds over 50 Hi- Res graphics commands to Basic 7.0 and 
is completely compatible with its advanced non-graphic com- 
mands. You work in a true 3-Dimensional environment, control- 
ling such parameters as perspective, viewing angles and the 
origin & deplh of the view. Just select one of many graphics 
modes and draw 3-D lines, dots, circles, boxes, variable arcs and 
a multitude of complex solid shapes with a single command. 
Switch easily between any of the 32 pre-defined graphic screens, 
scroll a screen, save and load multiple screens as brushes, define 
a logo, paint with exotic color patterns of your own design and 
print hard copy of your screens in various sizes and in color! 
We've even added commands for graphic cut & paste functions, 
brushes, windows and fonts along with ultra-sophisticated con- 
cepts tike multidraw, grow, shearing, scaling and much, much, more. 
Ivlore than a mere extension of Basic 7.0 - Basic 8 is a total 
Development System which provides a whole new and exciting 
programming environment. Chances are that if your graphic 
imagination can see it, Basic 8 will let you do IB. 



UNHEARD-OF RESOLUTION AND 
STUNNING COLOR DISPLAYS ON YOUR 
C-128! 

Pixel Resolution (screen size) and Color Resolution (color cell 
size) are determined by available Video RAIvl. The C-128 has 16K. 
This can be upgraded to the 64K of the C-128D. 
The unexpanded C-128 produces a full 640 x 200 screen in 
monochrome and a maximum of 640 x 192 in color with an 8 x 16 
dot cell. Increasing color resolution {smaller cell) decreases 
screen height (Dot size remains the same throughout.) The most 
useful screen is 640 x 176 with an 8 x 8 cell, That's still pretty 
impressivel (The C-64 has 320 x 200 with thesame cell.) If you use 
a 640 X 152, you can double the color resolution to 8 x 4. The 
resulting displays are absolutely stunning! 
The 64K Video RAI^I allows the full 640 x 200 screen with an 8 x 2 
cell (we doubled it again, this time with a full screen!) Several such 
screens can reside in Video RAM simultaneously, each with dif- 
ferent resolutions. You can view one screen while working on 
another and create Virtual Screens {larger than the displayable 
640 X 200} in Video RAM, 

BASIC PAINT - AN 80-COLUMN COLOR 
DRAWING PROGRAM! 

To demonstrate the power and versatility of this new graphics 
language, we have created Basic Paint, a flexible icon-based, 
mouse driven, 80-Column color drawing application with menus, 
fonts, brushes, patterns and requestors. Basle Palnl is written in 
Basic 8, so that screens you create with it may be saved for use in 
your programs. 

BASIC 8 GROWS WITH YOUR SYSTEM 

Basic 8 supports all C-128 hardware upgrades and expanders. 
Each ti me you up-grade your system. Basic 8 is ready and waiting 
with even more graphic power than ever! 

Special printing features include color printing, 90° rotatable 
screens and variable dot density selection. The 64K Video HAf^ adds 
printing of entire Virtual Screens with the full page being dot address- 
able. Resullsare limited only by the capabilities of your printer. 

•• ALL THIS GRAPHICS POTENTIAL •• 

IS YOURS AT THE INTRODUCTORY 

PRICE OF S39.95 

Includes: A 180-page Users tvlanual, the unprotected Basic B 

Program Disk which creates Basic 8 Work Disks (with complete 

Editor System), Basic Paint Work Disks and Basic 8 RunTime 

Disks {letsyou load and run your creations independent of Basic 8 

using the included WORKBENCH utility). 

Requites: C-1 28 or 1 28D, 80-Col umn RG B Monitor & at least one 

Commodore compatible Disk Drive. 

Supports: Expanded Video RAM (to 64K), Both RAI^ Expanders, 

Thei351ProponionalMouse,JoysticksandmostDotfWatrixPri nters 



BECOIWE A PUBLISHED SOFTWARE DEVEL0PER1 ENTER THE BASIC 8 
PROGRAfVIMING CONTEST WIN THE GRAND PftIZE OF $1,000.00 AND 
PATECH SOFTWARE WILL PUBLISH YOUR PROGRAM! Three Other Cash 
Prizes To Be Awarded. Details Included In The Basic 8 Package. 



\- 



Mall your order to: 

Computer Mart, Depl S • Z70O NE Androser fload • Vancouver, WA 98661 

Phone orders welcome: 206-695-1393 

Same day shipping /tvlo C.CD. orders outside U.S 

CHECKS, HflONEVOflOERS OR V(SA/MASTERCAHD. 

PLEASE NOTE: Free sliippirtg & haiulling on alt otdets • C.O.O. add $3,00 

to total order • Atl oiden must be paid In U.S. funds. 



^^^^ft 




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extra I".' depth! 



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• TWO Factory New. First Quality Cases 
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Large Case. Ifs 13" H x mVt" W x 4'A" D 
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Shop and compare! You'll discover this is a 
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«229.00 

$59 



Liquidation Price 
For Set of TWO . . 

Burgundy: Itsm H-25a8-7037-Sta S/M: SS.TS/iet 
Black: Itam H -2 53 B- 7072-648 S/K: $5.75/ial 

B Credit c.i/ri cuslorne'a can ofdBf t>¥ ' 

I pl>ane. 2A hours a dnsy. 7 ddys s vteeit- 

I Toll-Free: 1-800-328-0609 

■ ^pecrdl conditlo-nt. Please can or w^^le Ea inquiri:> 



SEND TO; Item H'253fi 

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n Wy .c^pc)«; oi money order ■! enclosed (Wo de'^ys m 
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1541 Physical TiiTn Sample Screen 



"I Saved Time & Money with 
PHYSICAL EXAM" 

Disk drive read errors arc a 
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datii base to keep records for our 
club. Last week I experienced 
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Luckily 1 have a 1541 Physical 
Exam program. The alignment 
test confirmed what I had 
suspected, my drive was out of 
alignment. 1 am happy to report 
that 1 aligned my drive 
MYSELF. I avoided the wait for 
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cost. 




Package includes: • True digital alignment disk with offset tracks. 
• Mechanical Stop Test • Speed Test • Illustrated manual with 
instructions for performing alignment, adjusting speed and stop 
position. • Print test results for future reference. 

Physical Exam is available for these drives; 1541, 1571, 8050, 8250, 
4040, SFD 1001. Please Specify Drive! 139.95 EA. + SHIP. 
See Reviewt in: Run Special Issue K3. 1/87, p.83; Info #11. Aug/Sept 86, p.46 Mid- 
nite Gazette, April 19B6, p. 19. ^ 

"■^ Order Toll Free 10-4 MON-SAT Q 

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ABACUi SOFTWAdE 
Afsemblrr Monifi>r , , $35 

Bilk Hi 

iitiCllt 13? 

Od Pill ... , »3S 

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Cobol «S 

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forth »35 

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PPM US 

PPM 12* «9 

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Hirdbill S19 

Killed Until Ot J d .119 
ACTION iOn 

Thurvder Chopper .119 

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ACTIVISION 

Aliem 1J3 

Cross Crigntry 

Raid l«iie 19 B« 

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Cimtmiker Ubriry Disks 

Sports 114 

Science I Itllon. 114 

H«(ker .J9BB 

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Music Studio 133 

Portal 115 

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Trinsformeri 119 

ARTWORK 
Beich guinkel 

Vollevbill 1«.BB 

Bridie 4.0 lib 

Eiiuesliiin Show 

Jumper - . . .19.BB 

HIiblindClFnei . 19 BS 
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llnkHrorii French lib 

Linkworil Gernun ....116 
Llnkword Splnifh . lib 
Police Cidel S9.U 

StrlpPoker 131 

□jliDlsk 't Femtle 114 
Dili Pilk 'IMlte 114 

D All Dilk fj Ferrule .114 
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Super lundjy 131 

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ILirlWirrlors. 13} 

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Alietrliiler 1}] 

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Archon3: Adept . . 19.B8 
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HeirlolAtrici 19.88 

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Mind Mirror 19.8B 

Movie Maker I9.8B 

M.U.LI 19.BB 

Music Const. Set . . . t9.«B 
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PinbjII Const. Set 19.Ba 
Riclni Deit. Set . .19.Ba 
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Super Boulder D4sh .19.88 
Touchdown Footbj 19. S9.Ba 
Ultirrute Wlurd 19.88 

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Ante ricj'i Cup Si Mini .131 
Arctic Fni 131 



Bird's Tjle1 136 

Sitd'i Tite I: The 

Destiny KnrBht . .136 
Chessnuster 3tlCKI 136 

lords of Conquest . .133 
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Deilrover , 123 

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GitevyiytoApshil 16.88 
ImpdfsibleMissinn . .16.88 
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Koron'ts Rlfl IB.SB 

Mt>viF Monster 114 

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• 1: Sctionl . 116 
ReKue on Erictitus .19.88 
Street Sports: 

Bliebill 131 

Bisketbill Call 

Sub Bittle Slmulitor . .13S 
Summer Girnej 114 

Suntintr Cimes 3 . . . .123 
SuperCycle 114 

Temple Apfhil TriloBV 114 



19 B8 
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114 



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World Gimes . . . 
WorM'l Creileil 

SlKbitl 
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tllle Hint Book 16 

SUrglider 125 

ThePlwn 125 

The Sentry . 125 

Tricker 12! 

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Chanrp Bistbill 119 

Chimp. Basketbill 131 

Ors.Coiir1 Tennis . . 119 
Stir Rink BDiIni 119 

CELChrootbitl S21 

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CirdWire 16J8 

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Love Note Miller . 19.88 
Party Wire 19.88 

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MrwnmisI 13} 

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Aclton Biker . . 16 88 

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font Mailer 128 1)9 

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Pen w/Soflwire 1)9 

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Supertt>i|tt128 144 

115 A Iphi Mission . 119 
ORIGIN 

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Moebius 126 

0|re t2b 

KllinuJ 136 



UI1lmi4 1)9 

PtRlDNAl CHOICE 
liml1ieC138 . 113 
I •mlheC64 , . 119 

lermPapetWrller 138 125 
PROtESSlONAL 
F1rellilcrb4i,118. .. 12S 

Fleet System 3 139 

Fleet System 1138 ... ,141 

Fleet System 4 128 149 

RELEVANT 

BillboirdMiker I2S 

Icon FaclQry . , ,12S 

Photo tinish 119 

SHARE DATA 
Familv feud 17,88 

leopirdv . 17.8B 

Whee[ of Fortune . ,17.88 
S IMON t SCHUSTER 
Chem. Lib 125 

Crelt Intl. Paper 

AJrpUne Const 9.8S 

Sllr Trek: Promelhein 

Prophecy , . ,119 

T yp In) Tutor ) 125 

50TT5VNC 

Desk Mir,64& 12B 125 

Model Dtel 119 

PersorulAccounlint 121 
Trio 128 14J 

S PINNAKER 

FlcemaberfR] 16 88 

friction Fever IR] 16,88 
LetterScramblerlR) .UBS 

Ranch (Rl 16,88 

Story Machine (R) . tbM 
S PRINGBOARD 
CerlMlilte Maker 133 

CM.llbriry Vol, I , 12) 
NewsrcKtm. 132 

N,R.CIIpAr1Vnl, 1 , 119 
NR. Clip Art Vol, 2 125 

NR. Clip Art Vul ) 119 

Print Shop Gripbici 

Eipanifrr 123 

SSI 

BaltleCruiler 1)7 

Battle 111 Anlietim 113 

B 24 133 

Gellysburi 137 

Phaniai*e 135 

Pbinlisle 2 135 

Phintasle 1 . .125 

Realms [il Dirkness . . . 125 
Rings nflilfin ,, ,125 
Rnadwar 3000 125 

Shardol Spring 125 

War Gime 

Conslruclion Set ..119 

Wir in 5. Padlie 1)7 

Warship, 117 

Wieard't Crown 135 

lUBLOCIC 

Batebill 133 

Fhghl Slmulitor 2, . ,1)1 
F,S. Scenery Dills Cill 

rt)Dtbill 12b 

Jet 12b 

TELARIUM 

Amijon 19.B8 

Dragon World 19BS 

Fahrenheit 451 ..19,88 

Nine Princes 19.88 

Perry Mason ...... .19.88 

Rendezvous w/Rjmi 19,88 



THUNDER MOUHTAIN 

Cyrus Chess 16.88 

MiilCotf 16,88 

Rambo 16.M 

IheEtimlnilor 16 88 

TopGun . - . 16.88 

TI Mt WORK S 

Accts. Payible 1)3 

Acels. Receivable 113 

Dill Miruger 3 131 

Dill Manager 128 143 

General Ledger 113 

Inventory Mgml 1)3 

Partner HtRl , , ,J19 

Pirlner 13B(BJ 143 

SwjflcalcJSidewlyilD) 125 
SwiflcilcfSidewayi 128 143 
SyUil Porter's PerSfinal 

Flo. Planner 64 ,131 
Sylvia Purler's Permixal 
Fin. Planner 13B .141 

Word Writer 3 131 

Word Writer 12S 141 

UNICORN 

Animal Kingdom . .,119 

Decinul Dungeon .119 

Fraclinn Aclion 119 

Percentage Panic ., ,119 

Race Car Rithmelic .119 

Ten lillle Robots .119 

UNISON WORLD 

Art Gallery I or 2 Sibta, 

Print Master Plui 121 

V ALUE TIM E 

Art Library 1 or 2 . .16.88 

Calendars & 

Stationery . . .16.88 
Greeting Cards . .16.88 
Signs & Banners. 16.88 

WUKtr READER 
Sllrhybear Series: 

ABCl 116 

Math lib 

Numbers lib 

Opposiics Sib 

Rearming .lib 

Shapes lib 

Spellgrabber lib 

Typing Sib 

WINDHAM CLASSIC S 
Alice in 

Wondetlind 16.88 

Below the H{»Tt 16.88 

Swill t'arnily 

Robimon $6.88 

Treisure tslind 16.88 

WilirdolOi 16.88 

ACCESSORIES 

Anchor 6480 w/ioflware 

130DBaudMDilem 1119 
Bonus 5S, DO ,. 14.99 Bi 
Bonus D5. DD 16.99 B> 

CompuServe Starter Kit 

fa 125 usage Creilll) .133 
Dlik Case [Holds 751 . , ,19 
DiyI Drive Cleaner 19 

Dilk Noliher lb88 

Epyi 500X1 Inylticli , 114 
Hot Shot Printer Inl Call 
Messenger Modem ill 
Wtco Bat Handle 117 

WicoBoii .112 

XETEC Super Graphii 159 
KtllC Super Graphii |r. 119 
*all programi on idisl 
unless otherwise noled^ 



P.O. BOX in327-DEPT. CG-BLAWNOX, PA 15238 



■plMsw XmiI The f i>llDwJni Ordering Jrtmt & CorKttlioni Cjrrfutly Before PUcJn| Vou» Ofdiff Order* wilh ejthicfi check or morwv order shipped imm^dijtelv on in %\at:i. Hemi. 
Per»oRfl A Con>p«nv checki. jIIoh 3 weeki cleimice. No C.O.D.'i! Shipping: Continentjl U^SrA,- Orden under )100 jdd %y. free ihipping on ofderi over S100. AK, Hi, FPO, 
APD— iddSSon jltorderi Cirudi A Puerto Rico-- idd $10 on *tl Drden. ^orry, rw other Internitiond! crde rt icceplrdt PA rrsidenu Jidd b% ule^t Ui on the lotjl jmounlol order 
including lhippinitchjrg»1 REASONS FOR CALIINC CLfSTOMER SIRVICE- 41 2 3*1-5391 [tjStiim of order or back order (2) If ^ny merchindiie pufchiied within 60 diyi from S.D, 
oi A, it deTeeMve, please cjM for j return Aulhorizjimn number Defective n>ercKiindije will be replaced wiih theume merchjndiie onlvr Olher returrti iubicct lu* 1S% rttioctmg 
chjFge, After 60 djMple**T refer to lh*manuiicliireriiwjrFinfy i nc luded with the me rrKjixJite A return directly to the manufacturer. Cuilomer »rvice will not iccept coliect cjlU or 
ejlUonS.Dr Or Ar'i BOO' order \'tnc\\ Have you >een our on Un« ciiilait ol lOOOtoftwjre titWt forComrnodorep Atari, Apple. IBM and Amlg^r tf lanCampuierve's Electfonic Mtll- 
jutt type CO SDA and >h>ppinR for software will never be fhe mmt laainE HOLTJISt Mon.-FrL 9AM-S:]0 fM, S«l. lOAM^PM tailem Time. Bfcauw ttil» ad had to be written 2-1 moi. 
before it Mat pubhihed. prkei A availabHitv are tubject to (Kinie! New tiilen are arrtvSni dtWyi Pteaie call (or rnoie informatioi^i 



POWERFUL LOW COST CONTROL 

Data acquisition and control interfaces. 

C64 & CI 28. 

80Line Simplified Digilal I/O Board. 40TTL input lines. 40 
high current Switched output lines. ROM cartridge socket. 
Order Model SSIOO Plus, S1 19. Additional boards $109. 

Original Ultimate Interlace. Dual 6522 VIA Board. Four 8- 

bit ports with handshake, timers, IRQ, etc. Expandabie, 
Order Model 54iF22. S1B9. Additional boards S149. 

AfD Conversion Module. 16 channels, 8-bits. Requires 
above. Order Model 641F/ADC0816, S69. 

Manuals on above available separately for examination. 
Call or write for detailed brochure. 

• ••••* 

SERIOUS ABOUT PROGRAMMING? 

Symbol Master Multi-Pass Symbolic Disassembler. Learn 
to program like the experts! For both C64 and native C128. 
".. .unmatched by simpler monitor disassembiers. . ,a real 
goid mine for theestpehenced ML prog rammer, "Computer 
Shopper. April '87. S49.95. 

PTD6510 Symbolic Debugger. An extremely powerful tool 
with capabilities far beyond a machine language monitor. 
ForC64,S49.95. 

MAE64 Assembler. Fully professional 6502/65C02 
macro editor assembler. S29,95. 

064 Source Code Book. Most complete available 
reconstructed and commented assembly language 
source code listing for Basic and Kemal ROMS. 529,95, 



SCHNEDLER SYSTEMS 

1501 N, Ivanhoe St., DcptGS, Arlington, VA 22205 
Information/ To lephoneOrders(703)237-4796. 
All prices Include shipping prepaid USA &Ai 



I ~ — 

I FACTORY AUTHORIZED 

COMMODORE REPAIR CENTER 

1-800-772-7289 



(3 i 2) 879-2888 IL 



C64 Repair ik>d»^ti . 42.95 
CI 28 Repair iKtwri. 64.95 
1S4) Permanent 

ANgnmem 29.95 

1541 Repair 79.95 

1S7T Repair 79.95 



Amiga Repair 

Amiga Drive 

Repair 149.95 

Prlmeri CALL 

Monitors CALL 

Other Equipment . , CALL 



CALL BEFORE SHIPPING 

PARTS AMD LABOR fWCLUDED 

FREE RETURW SHIPPING 

(AFO, FPO, AIR ADD 110.0OJ 

24-48 HR. TURIMAROUND 

(Subjpct lo Pjru Aviilabllltyl 

30 DAY WARRANTY ON ALL REPAIRS 



COMMODORE PARTS 

C-64 Power Supply 34. 95 

128 Power Supply 59.95 

C-64 Over Voltage Sensor 19.95 

Other Parti CALL 

IPIui 13.00 Shipping/Handling I 

All partj for Commodore equipment usually In stock 

For Parts Call (3t2J 879-2350 

Dealer Discounts Available 



g< 



TEKTONICS PLUS, IMC. 

1 50 HOUSTON STREET 
BATAVIA, IL 60510 



vtSA- 



Cl.i'P AND V^V! 




Handicappers! 

Football Horse Racing Dog Racing 

Pro Football 

Tired of wrestling with 
Sunday point spreads? Let 
your Commodore 64/128 do 
it for you! Pigskin Predic- 
tions, tfie pro football fiandi- 
capper, takes the fiassle out 
of rating NFL games. Forget 
about dealing with reams of 
arcane statistics. Just spend 
a few minutes typing in each 
week's scores and let our 
point-spread software go to 
work. Here's what it does: 

■ Calculates point spreads and projected won-lost 
records for all games, for any week of the season. 

■ Gives you menu-driven selection of schedules, 
ratings, division races, predictions or results by team or 
week. 

■ Seven different reports on screen or printer. 

■ Maintains home field advantage and power ratings 
for al! teams. 

The 1987 schedule and data file are included, all for 
only S44.95. Yearly updates available. You'll be amazed 
by the speed and power of Pigskin Predictions. Get 
yours now and be ready for the season! 



The Handicapper 



Use your Commodore 64/128 to improve your per- 
formance at tfie track! Programs for Thoroughbred, 
Harness and Greyhound racing rank the horses or 
dogs in each race quickly and easily. All the information 
is readily available from the Racing Form, harness or 
dog track program. 

Thoroughbred factors include speed, distance, past 
performance, weight, class, jockey's record, beaten fa- 
vorite and post position. Harness factors include 
speed, post position, driver's record, breaking tenden- 
cies, class, parked-out signs and beaten favorite. Grey- 
hound factors include speed, past performance, ma- 
neuvering ability, favorite box, class, kennel record, 
beaten favorite and breaking ability. 

Complete instructions and wagering guide included. 
Thoroughbred, Harness or Greyhound Handicappers, 
$39.95 each on tape or disk. Any two for £59,95 or all 
three for $79.95, 



Federal Hill Software 
8134 Scotts Level Rd. 
Baltimore, Md. 21208 



Toll-free Orders 800-628-2828 Ext. 850 
Information 301-521-4885 







I I* 



rv 






.^ft^^a^.4yA-JbdBBBiBBiiBB! 

■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■I 



ABBY'S SUPER BUYS 




ATARISOFT 

Defender (R) $4.99 

COMMODORE 
EDUCATION b LEARNING 

A Bee C's (B) $2.99 

Easv MatcWEasy Count 2.99 

What's Next? 2.99 

Fish-Melic 2,99 

Science III 2,99 

VIDEO ARCADE GAMES 

Frogmaster (R) S3.49 

Solar Fox (R) 3.49 

Tooth Invaders (R) 3.49 

Clowns (R) 3.49 

Kickman IRI 3.49 

Laiatian IR) 3.49 

Satan's HoitQw 3.49 

Rally Speedway 3.49 

VIduzzles IRI 3.49 

Chess 3.49 

Gortek & The 

Microchips ICI 1 .95 



INFQCOM MIND GAMES 

Zork II S4.99 

Zork III 4.99 

Suspended 4.99 

Staioross 4.99 

Deadline 4.99 

MASTERTRONICS 

Captive S4.99 

Big Mac 4,99 

Finders Keepers 4,99 

Vegas Jackpot 4.99 

Golden Talisman 4.99 

Quest For Holy Grail 4.99 

Se-Kah Of Assiah 4.99 

Black Crystal 4.99 

1 985 ■ The Day After 4,99 

Ant Attack 4,99 

Challenger 4,99 

Spooks 4,99 



ABACUS SOFTWARE 

ADA Traininv] Coutse $29.00 

AswmbfpciMofiilOf 29.tX) 

Bjuc Compilci C64 29 00 

Biiyc CompilM C128 42,00 

Codpok C 64 29.00 

C»dpakC-12a 42.00 

Cti*tpak C 64 or C-12a 29.00 

Cobol64of 128 29.00 

Foith language 29,00 

Persor^al Portfolio 

Managoi C 64 29 00 

Personal Porlloiio 

Manager C 1 28 42.00 

Super C/M w 128 .,..,' 42.00 

Super Pascal B4 or 128 42.00 

Tochnk:al Analysis 

System C 64 . 29.00 

Teehricol Analvsis 

System C123 . . 42 00 

ABSOLUTE ENTERTAIiyUENT 

X,15 Alpha Mission 521.96 

ACCESS 

Leader Bona Goll 129.00 

LB- Touinnmont (1 . M 95 

LB. iiecutivo Disk 11 14.95 

Mach 5 24.95 

Macti 128 3S.9B 

Tenth Frame 29 00 

World Class Leader Board 29.00 

ACCOLADE 

Ace ot Aces 21.95 

Comics 21. 9S 

Fiflht Night 21.95 

Hardball 21.95 

UwotThe wm 21.9S 

PSI5 Trading Company 21.95 

ACTION SOFT 

up Periscope S21 .95 

ACnVISION 

Aliens S24.95 

Gamemaker 29.00 

Ghostbusteri 1 0.95 

Graeting Cad Maker 24.95 

Mackor 10.95 

Little Compuier People 1 0.95 

Music Studk) 24.95 



Shangt™ 21.95 

Translcrm^rs . 21.95 

ARTWORX 

Boaeh Blanket Vollny)»ll »t0.95 

Equeslrian Show Jumper 10.95 

Highland Games 10.96 

Holi! In One-+ Si« 10.95 

Police Cartel 10.95 

Thai Boxing 10.95 

BASEMENT BOYS 

Fast Hackem M9.00 



BflODERBUND 

Carmen San Diego lUSA 

or Woildl 125,95 

Karatokj) 21,95 

ftinlShop . 32.95 

Print Shop Companion 24.95 

P.S. Graph "ts Litvary 

M,2 Et3 ea. 17.K 

Toy Shop 42.00 

CENTRAL POINT 

Copy II 641128 S29 00 

DATA EAST 

Comman((o U4,95 

Express Raider 24,9S 

Karate Champ 10.95 

Kung Fu Master 10.95 

Tag Team Wrestling . . * , 24.95 

DATASOR 

Alternate Reality 

"The City" 521.95 

221 B Baker St 21,95 

Black Magic ■, . 14,50 

Meicenary 21,95 

NovL't Ending Story 1 4,50 

Polo Position 1 0.95 

TheGoofiles 14.50 

Zorro 14.50 

DIGITAL SOLUTIONS 

Super Pack 2 $65.00 

Pockol Filer 2 42.00 

Pocket Ptannot 2 42,00 

Pocket Writer 2 42,00 

Pocket Writer Dktionny 10,95 



ELECTRONIC ARTS 

Arctic Fo« $26 95 

Auto Duel 39 00 

Bard's Tale 29,95 

Bards Tale 2 29.96 

Hint Book Bard's Taie 1 or 2 9.95 

Battle From 29 95 

Chess Master 2000 29.95 

Ono On One 1 1 .35 

Marille Madnrijj , , 24.00 

Movie Maker . . -...,.,.,.,,.,.. 1 1 .55 

Music Cohstrt>clk)n Set .....,..,. 11.95 

Pintail Conslructioh 11.95 

Pegasus: Hydrofoil 24.00 

Skyloi 11.95 

Touchdown Football 1 1 .95 

Ultimate Wii* d 1 1 96 

RREBIRD 

Elite S24 00 

The Pawn 29.00 

The Sentry , 29.00 

Slarglider 2900 

Tracker 29 00 

GAMESTAR 

Champlonshif) Oaseball , , . .$20-95 

GF.L Fooltiall 24 96 

On-Court Tennis 20 95 

Star Rank Boiing , . , , 20.95 

Two On TvrtJ Basketball 24.95 

H&P 

Final Cartridge $44,95 

MICRGPROSE 

Conliicl in V.elnsm *29 00 

F IB strike Eagle 24.96 

Gunship 24.96 

Silent Service 24.95 

Top Gunner , 1 7.95 

MINDSCAPE 

Bop 'N Wrestle , S20.95 

Uchi Mata 20.96 

Fist '. 20.95 

Trail Blaior , 20.96 

High Roller 20 95 

Indltriior 20.95 

Indoor Sports 20.95 

PROGRESSIVE 

Bob's Term Pro 64J128 CALL 

Super Base 64,'12B CALL 

Sop« Script 64J] 2 B CALL 

SSI 

Battle Cruiser S42.00 

BatllB Group , . . 42.00 

Computer Baseball 1 95 

G(.'mstonc Warrior , . , 1 0.95 

Gemstone Hnalor 20.95 

Kampfgruppo 42.00 

Ptiantasie 27 95 

Ptianasie II 27 95 

OuesITO^ 27.95 

Boadwar 2000 27 95 

U.S,A.A.F 42.00 

Waigame Construction Sat 20.95 

War In The South Pacific 42 00 

Worship 42 00 

SPfllNGBOARD 

Ccrlificale Maker 534.00 

CM. Litjrary Diik 24.96 

Newsroom 34.00 

Graphics Expander , 24.95 

Clip Art *1 Et 3 ea. 20.95 

Clip Art n 27.95 

SUBL06IC 

Boseball 539.00 

Stadium Disk 14.95 

Flight Simulator II 39 00 

F.S. Scenery Dr$k 1.7 , «a. 14.95 

F.S. Western Set (l-Sl 79.00 



T.K. COMPUTER PRQOUCTS 

Monday Morning Managef S29.&0 

M.M.M. 128 Team Disk' Ifi.OQ 

Money Spin 12.95 

Crypto Mania 12 95 

UNISON WORLD 

Prim Master Plus i24 96 

Art Gnllery I Et II i;3. 1 7.95 

THUNDER MOUNTAIN 

Demolition Mission . 57.50 

Dolphin's Rune 7.50 

EliminalOr 7.50 

Rambo 7.50 

Top Gun 7.50 

XETEC 

Font Master II $35 00 

Font Master 1 28 42 00 

COMMODORE HARDWARE 

612K RGOSyslpm CALL 

A1080RGB Monitor CALL 

A1010 31'." Disk Drive CALL 

A1050 256K Expansion CALL 

AieeO 1200 Baud Modem CALL 

C-12e Computer CALL 

Vic 1571 Disk Drive CALL 

Vk: 1581 Disk Drive CALL 

D64C Computer CALL 

D1541C Computer CALL 

Vic 1760 Enpansion CALL 

Vic 1764 Enpansion CALL 

Vic 1361 Mouse CALL 

DUST COVERS 

Amiga System Pack 515.00 

ArTiiga Computer (w/0 Monitor) .... 5 5.00 

Amiga Keyboard , , , $ G.50 

Amiga 1 0BO Color Monitor $1 2 00 

Amiga 1010 Disk Drive » 7.00 

C-12a Computer * 7.00 

Viq 20.'64 Computer 5 7.00 

1671 Disk Drive I 7.00 

1541 Disk Drive » 7.00 

1625 Printer t 5 00 

1626 Printer , I 900 

MPS1000WofW«5 

Tractor ea. 5 9.00 

MPS 801 1802 Printer ea. 5 9.00 

MPSM)3WorWi'0 

Tractor ea $ 7.00 

RIBBONS 

Commodore 1525 , . 57,60 

Commodore 1526/802 57.00 

Commodore MPS 801 $7 50 

Commodore MPS eC3 . .$9.00 

Epson MXiFXrBX 80 OB 55 OO 

Panasonic 1 080/1091 n092 oa. 58.60 

Okimalo 10 Black/Color , , . , ea. 56.00 

Star Gemini Black 5250 

Star Gemini Color* . $3.50 

'Please Slate Choice of Color 

NASHUA DISKS 

DS/DD n" WKh Stem 

Per Hundred S 39 

Per Thousand . 5310 

BULK DISKS 

(Sold Stat 314" DSIDD oa 51.79 

Sony 3M " DS/DD oa. 52,05 



CALL ON THESE AND 

OTHER PRODUCTS. 

WE CARRY A COMPLETE 

LINE OF SOFTWARE 

AND HARDWARE. 



ALL TITLES ON DISK UNLESS MARKED (R) FOR ROM CARTRIDGE & (C) FOR CASSETTE TAPE 

Order Line WE CHECK FOR STOLEN CHARGE CARDS Customer Service 

l-Rnn-^H^-mT? & Ohio Residents 

I OUU ZOZ UJJi ^ P ^Q g a p.m.; Sat. 10-3 ET i c^ 070 qroq 

ORDERS ONLY! Sales Personnel Do *^ 1-Ol J-0/a-3D5l3 

Ntjt Ha«e Information on 27 S. Broad Street, Falrbom, OH 45324 fir" 

Prewioiis Orders or Product Specs. ImoiiuCoi 



!iOFTWARE ONLy Pre[].iiif rjrdi'i^ oyer 5S0 fnceive free stiiprimq vt,i LtPS m 
iirili'r^ ri'iiLjiriiiu '»lit|iiin'nl vi.i II S PoM Office are «llt>|UCI 111 urlditmruil frtiitjhl 
iHilj'rv ,itl[i i? lir^rvH (r uhiutji;. Ohm re'^irfents ^idtl 6".'.. Siites In*. Pnrfion.il iJiiitk^ 
c»iiil. ti.rritlpri rl>i?i:li ur liujiliry lirilr^r All ilcfni'i niili|n{:l lu .ivmljillllily .inil [>rii:in 
MUST U[ ACCOMPfllMllO Ry AN flUrH0m,;AIION fUUMOER IVI.B'IJ 



nrineill.il U.S Plniise aiM $7 nrrlcit unite r SM) HARDWARE .iild .ill 
i.irt|c4. C.O.D. orderi iirirfur J 100 00 .ic;cr|>tfril .idif %b. Cti.iri|i< u.ird 
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■i<tn. PHASE CITE AD NUMBER WHEN ORDrniND. AIL RETURIMS 



imm 



\JZL£. ^hhiiik iSoftwart, One. 



538 S. Edgewood 

La Grange. IL 60525 

(312) 352-7323 

Super Disk Utilities 

[he ultimal! uti>Uits disk lor tliE CITSS 1571. InMed jmonq 
its many lea lutes i\t 

• Two drive cO[ry program 1m th! 1571 

• Single inm copy iirogiam for t^ 1571 

• Fife psciatcl) utility 

• Create auto-boot utility 

• Lock h unlocli liles utility 

• File topiw lot nne or i«d 157t's 

• Utility lo format in 1541. 1571 or IBM syslern Jt totfliat 

• CP/M Pto [fisk copier 

• O'tett DOS commands 

• Analyse disk lormat utility (including Commodore i aliin 
disk formats) 

• Write piolKt utilily 

• Oisli [ditcr - Inilividiially trace Ills, edit in fiu or ASCII 
sirffljllaneausly. piiiil in hex and ASCII lo any secioi on disk 

• CP/M Plus disk editor 

• RAM Writer - Head S write lo drive RAM 

• ROM Reader • Read drive K)M 

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• Eiaw a tiacli or bulk erase a disk 

• Most utilities also work on 1541 

• And muciL much mort^ 

A complete utilities disk for only S39.9S! 

1541/1571 Orlwe flligrnnent 

1541/1571 Drive Alignment lepotts Pie alignment condilion ol 
t'lie disk drive as you ptrform adjustments On screen help is 
available while the program is running Works on the 1541. 1571 
In either 1H1 or 1571 mode. C54. SX64, Cl2a in eilhtt Moi l?S 
mods' AulahoDts to all modes' Manual iiKludesinstmclions on 
how to load alignraeni piogram even when ttie drive is so 
misaligneil that it will nol load anything else. Eliminate 
downlime 4 caslty rtpairs' Only 134.951 

Super Disk Librarian 

Full featured dak cataloging t library system lor the C1?fi m 
128 mode Catalogs up to 1000 disks and 15200 program names' 
Operates in last mode with SO colm display Reads I catalogs 
1541. 1571 I CP/M Plus disk direttoiies Deads heavily 
protected disks. Catalog up to 25 programs on a disk with a 
single keyprKs or selKtively catalog programs Stores in seven 
calegorles: Games. Education. CP/M. Archival, 
relecommiini cations. [Ililitities or Ptoifuctivity. ftecall by 
category, piofram name, disk name or localei number Pinter 
output inclvdes library indei, full library report, master program 
list, category ptogtam list S disk latiels. A second drive can he 
addressed as a data disk. Only S29.95I 

Super 64 Librarian 

Complete disk cataloging and library system for tbeC64. Reads 
S files disk directories in 15 user-delined categories. Individual 
selection ol program names lo be filed. Includes space for user 
comments about progiams Recall by calegoiy. program name, 
etc Punier oulpul includes disii labels Catalogs approiimalely 
200 disks dependant upon number of programs and length of 
user csmments. Organize your C54 disk library for only 
129.951 

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sales la>. Send checfor money order lo 



Free Spirit Sollware, Inc. 

538 5 Edgewood 

La Grange, IL 60525 



DISCOUNT SOFTWARE and 
fREE Leroy's Cheatsheet 



Wfi cnrry ^i con^pjale lire ot 
FREE 


COMMODORE 64 




ABACUS 
0aiiicC^Tnpilor64 

ChjiPak64 
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130 
130 


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BERKELEY SOFTWORKS 

OEOS $ « 

OniXoaCli 1 i 25 

FonlpacK 1 S SI 

Gw^Calc S 36 

G«iFi:« $ 3S 

GeoDex % 2S 

Writer's Workshop $ 3& 

BOOKS CW CEOS 

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GeosinskJeAokJt S 19 

lltyGEOSpfo 1.^ 

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ATTENTION 

ALL COMMODORE 64/64C, 

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A complete self-tutoring BASIC programming course 
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COMPUTEl's GAZETTE 
Author's Guide 



Here are some suggestions which serve to improve 
the speed and accuracy of publication for prospective 
authors. COMPUTEJ's GAZETTE is primarily interested 
in new and timely articles on the Commodore 128, 
64, Plus/4, and 16. We are much more concerned 
with the content of an article than with its style, but 
articles should as be clear and well-explained as 
possible. 

The guidelines below will permit your good ideas 
and programs to be more easily edited and published: 

1. The upper left comer of the first page should 
contain your name, address, telephone number, and 
the date of submission. 

2. The following information should appear in the 
upper right comer of the first page: If your ardcle is 
specifically directed to one model of computer, please 
state the model name. In addition, please indicate the 
memory requirements of programs. 

3. The underlined title of the article should be 
placed about % of the way down the first page. 

4. Following pages should be typed normally, 
except that in the upper right comer there should be 
an abbreviation of the title, your last name, and the 
page number — for example: Memory Map/Smith/2. 

5. All lines within the text of the article must be 
double- or triple-spaced. A one-inch margin should be 
left at the right, left, top, and bottom of each page. No 
words should be divided at the ends of lines. And 
please do not right-justify. Leave the lines ragged. 

6. Standard typing or computer paper should be 
used (no erasable, onionskin, or other thin paper), and 
typing should be on one side of the paper only 
(upper- and lowercase). 

7. If you are submitring more than one article, 
send each one in a separate mailer with its own tape 
or disk. 

8. Short programs (under 20 lines) can easily be 
included within the text. Longer programs should be 
separate listings. It is essential thai we have a copy of 
the program, recorded twice, on a tape or disk. If your 
article was written with a word processor, we request 
that you include a copy of the text file on the tape or 
disk. If you include a copy of your article on disk, 
please save the article as plain text, without any spe- 
cial formatting characters or control codes. Most word 
processors provide an option for saving a document as 
plain ASCII text or in unformatted form. Please use 
high-quality 10- or 30-minute tapes with the program 
recorded on both sides. The tape or disk should be 
labeled with your name and the tide of the article. 
Tapes are fairly sturdy, but disks need to be enclosed 
within plastic or cardboard mailers (available at 

106 COMPUTE! s Gazette August 1967 



photography, stationery, or computer supply stores). If 
possible, programs written in machine language or a 
compiled language should include source code (or an 
annotated disassembly if the program was written 
with a machine language monitor). 

9. A good general rule is to spell out the numbers 
zero through ten in your article and write higher 
numbers as numerals (1024). The exceptions to this 
are: Figure 5, Table 3, TAB(4), and so on. Within ordi- 
nary text, however, the zero through ten should ap- 
pear as words, not numbers. Also, symbols and 
abbreviations should not be used within text: Use and 
(not &), reference (not ref.), through (not thru). 

10. For greater clarity, use all capitals when refer- 
ring to keys (RETURN, CTRL, SHIFT), BASIC words 
(LIST, RND, GOTO), and the language BASIC. Head- 
lines and subheads should, however, be initial caps 
only, and emphasized words are not capitalized. If 
you wish to emphasize, underline the word; then it 
will be italicized during typesetting. 

11. Articles can be of any length — from a single- 
line routine to a multiple-issue series. The average 
article is about four to eight double-spaced, typed 
pages. 

12. We do not consider articles which are submit- 
ted simultaneously to other publishers. If you wish to 
send an article to another magazine for consideration, 
please do not submit it to us. 

13. COMPUTEl's GAZETTE pays between $70 and 
$800 for published articles. In general, the rate reflects 
the length and quality of the article. Payment is made 
upon acceptance. Following submission (to Editorial 
Department, COMPUTE!'s GAZETTE, P.O. Box 5406, 
Greensboro, NC 27403), it will take from four to eight 
weeks for us to reply. If your work is accepted, you 
will be notified by a letter which will include a con- 
tract for you to sign and return. Rejected manuscripts 
are returned fo authors who enclose a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope. 

14. If your article is accepted and you subsequent- 
ly make improvements to the program, please submit 
an entirely new tape or disk and a new copy of the 
article reflecting the update. We cannot easily make 
revisions to programs and articles. It is necessary that 
you send the revised version as if it were a new sub- 
mission entirely, but be sure to indicate that your sub- 
mission is a revised version by writing Revision on the 
envelope and the article. 

15. COMPUTEI's GAZETTE does not accept unsolic- 
ited product reviews. If you are interested in serving 
on our panel of reviewers, contact the Features Editor 
for details. 



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How To Type In 
COMPUTEVs GAZETTE Programs 



Each month, COMPUTEI's GAZETTE 
publishes programs for the Com- 
modore 128, 64, Plus/4, and 16. 
Each program is clearly marked by 
title and version. Be sure to type in 
the correct version for your ma- 
chine. All 64 programs run on the 
128 in 64 mode. Be sure to read the 
instructions in the corresponding 
article. This can save rime and elim- 
inate any questions which might 
arise after you begin typing. 

We frequently publish two 
programs designed to make typing 
easier: The Automatic Proofreader, 
and MLX, designed for entering 
machine language programs. 

When entering a BASIC pro- 
gram, be especially careful with 
DATA statements as they are ex- 
tremely sensitive to errors. A mis- 
typed number in a DATA statement 
can cause your machine to "lock 
up" {you'll have no control over the 
computer). If this happens, the only 
recourse is to turn your computer 
off then on, erasing u^hat was in 
memory. So be sure to save a pro- 
gram before you run it. If your com- 
puter crashes, you can always 
reload the program and look for the 
error. 



Special Characters 

Most of the programs listed in each 
issue contain special control charac- 
ters. To facilitate typing in any pro- 
grams from the GAZETTE, use the 
following listing conventions. 

The most common type of con- 
trol characters in our listings appear 
as words within braces: {DOWN} 
means to press the cursor down 
key; {5 SPACES} means to press 
the space bar five times. 

To indicate that a key should 
be shifted (hold down the SHIFT 
key while pressing another key), 
the character is underlined. For ex- 
ample, A means hold down the 
SHIFT key and press A. You may 
see strange characters on your 
screen, but that's to be expected. If 
you find a number followed by an 
underlined key enclosed in braces 
(for example, {8 A}), type the key 
as many times as indicated (in our 
exanrtple, enter eight SHIFTed A's). 

If a key is enclosed in special 
brackets, g |, hold down the 
Commodore key (at the lower left 
corner of the keyboard) and press 
the indicated character. 

Rarely, you'll see a single letter 
of the alphabet enclosed in braces. 



This can be entered on the Commo- 
dore 64 by pressing the CTRL key 
while typing the letter in braces. For 
example, {A} means to press 
CTRL-A. 



The Quote Mode 

Although you can move the cursor 
around the screen with the CRSR 
keys, often a programmer will want 
to move the cursor under program 
control. This is seen in examples 
such as (LEFT}, and {HOME} in 
the program listings. The only way 
the computer can tell the difference 
between direct and programmed 
cursor control is the quote mode. 

Once you press the quote key, 
you're in quote mode. This mode 
can be confusing if you mistype a 
character and cursor left to change 
it. You'll see a reverse video charac- 
ter (a graphics symbol for cursor 
left). In this case, you can use the 
DELete key to back up and edit the 
line. Type another quote and you're 
out of quote mode. If things really 
get confusing, you can exit quote 
mode simply by pressing RETIJRN. 
Then just cursor up to the mistyped 
line and fix it. 



When You 

{CLR) 

(HOME! 

(UP) 
) DOWN I 
{LEFT) 
(RIGHT) 

(RVS! 

{orF) 

(BLKJ 
(WHT) 
(RED) 
{CYN} 



Read: 



Press: 



See: 



shift] [clr/home] 
[clrj home i 



SHOT ]pf CRSR { I 



Lii^E^EIli 

]«— CRS R-*} 
CTRL] [ "» I 



EI 



[ctr['|["V I 



CTRL 



CTRL I 



When You Read: 

(FUR) 
jGRNl 
(BLU) 
(YEL) 
( Fl 1 

: F2 1 

{ F3 ) 

( H ! 

( F5 ) 

1 F6 j 

\ F7 } 

{ FB S 



Press: 



See: 



CTRL 



CTRL 



When You Read: 

r 



Pres§; 



See: 



SHIFT 



CTRl 



][ 



For Commodore 64 Only 





H 






SHIFT 


fl 




n 






SHIFT 


n 








fS 



SHIFT 



SHIFT 



§8§ 



' COM.MODORE [ [^ 1 



El 



COMMODORE 



: COMMODORE I 



I COMMODORE I 

[commodore j 
[commodore \ 

fcOMMODORE • 
icOMMOodRE i 



''■'] EI 



S08 COMPUTEIs GazBtia August 1987 



The Automatic Proofreader 



Philip I. Nelson, Assistant Editor 

"The Automatic Proofreader" helps 
you type in program listings for the 
128, 64, Plus/ 4, and 16 and prevents 
nearly every kind of typing mistake. 

Type in the Proofreader exactly as 
listed. Since the program can't check it- 
seif, type carefully to avoid mistakes. 
Don't omit any lines, even if they con- 
tain unfamiliar commands. After finish- 
ing, save a copy or two on disk or tape 
before running it. This is important he- 
cause the Proofreader erases the BASIC 
portion of itself when you run it, leav- 
ing only the machine language portion 
in memory. 

Next, type RUN and press RE- 
TURN. After announcing which com- 
puter it's running on, the Proofreader 
displays the message "Proofreader 
Active". Now you're ready to type in a 
BASIC program. 

Every time you finish typing a line 
and press RETURN, the Proofreader 
displays a two-letter checksum in the 
upper-left comer of the screen. Com- 
pare this result with the two-letter 
checksum printed to the left of the line 
in the program listing. If the letters 
match, it's almost certain the line was 
typed correctly. If the letters don't 
match, check for your mistake and cor- 
rect the line. 

The Proofreader ignores spaces not 
enclosed in quotes, so you can omit or 
add spaces between keywords and still 
see a matching checksum. However, 
since spaces inside quotes are almost al- 
ways significant, the Proofreader pays 
attention to them. For example, 10 
PRINT'THIS IS BASIC" will generate 
a different checksum than 10 
PRINT'THIS ISBA SIC". 

A common typing error is transpo- 
sition—typing two successive charac- 
ters in the wrong order, like PIRNT 
instead of PRINT or 64378 instead of 
64738. The Proofreader is sensitive to 
the position of each character within the 
line and thus catches transposition 
errors. 

The Proofreader does uoi accept 
keyword abbreviations (for example, ? 
instead of PRINT), If you prefer to use 
abbreviations, you can still check the 
line by LISTing it after typing it in, 
moving the cursor back to the line, and 
pressing RETURN. LiSTing the line 



substitutes the full keyword for the ab- 
breviation and allows the Proofreader 
to work properly. The same technique 
works for rechecking programs you've 
already typed in. 

If you're using the Proofreader on 
the Commodore 128, Plus/4, or 16, do 
not perform any GRAPHIC commands 
while the Proofreader is active. When 
you perform a command like GRAPH- 
IC 1, the computer moves everything at 
the start of BASIC program space — in- 
cluding the Proofreader — to another 
memory area, causing the Proofreader 
to crash. The same thing happens if you 
run any program with a GRAPHIC 
command while the Proofreader is in 
memory. 

Though the Proofreader doesn't 
interfere with other BASIC operations, 
it's a good idea to disable it before run- 
ning another program. However, the 
Proofreader is purposely difficult to dis- 
lodge: It's not affected by tape or disk 
operations, or by pressing RUN/ 
STOP- RESTORE. The simplest way to 
disable it is to turn the computer off 
then on. A gentler method is to SYS to 
the computer's built-in reset routine 
(SYS 65341 for the 128, 64738 for the 
64, and 65526 for the Plus/4 and 16). 
These reset routines erase any program 
in mem or)', so be sure to save the pro- 
gram you're typing in before entering 
the SYS command. 

If you own a Commodore 64, you 
may already have wondered whether 
the Proofreader works with other pro- 
gramming urilities like "Meta BASIC." 
The answer is generally yes, if you're 
using a 64 and activate the Proofreader 
after installing the other utility. For ex- 
ample, first load and activate Meta- 
BASIC, then load and run the 
Proofreader. 

When using the Proofreader with 
another utility, you should disable both 
programs before running a BASIC pro- 
gram. While the Proofreader seems un- 
affected by most utilities, there's no 
way to promise that it will work with 
any and every combination of utilities 
you might want to use. The more utili- 
ties activated, the more fragile the sys- 
tem becomes. 

The New Automatic Proofreader 

10 VEC=PEEK(772)+25<i*PEEK(773) 
:LO=43:HI=44 



20 PRINT "AUTOMATIC PROOFREADE 

R FOR ";:li- VEC=42364 THEN 
(SPACE} PRINT "C-64" 
30 IF VECB50556 THEN PRINT "VI 

C-20" 
40 IF VEC=3515B THEN GRAPillC C 

LR: PRINT "PLUS/4 & 16" 
50 IF VEC=I7165 THEN LO=45iHI= 

46:GRAPHIC CLR; PRINT"128" 
60 SA=tPEEK(LOl+256*PEEK(HI))+ 

6:ADR=SA 
70 FOR J=0 TO leCiREAD BYTiPOK 

E ADR, nYT!ADR=ADR+I :CHK=CHK 

+BYTiNEXT 
80 IF CHKo 205 70 TUMN PRINT "* 

ERROR* CHECK TYPING IN DATA 
STATEMENTS " ; et4D 
90 FOR J=i TO 5: READ RF,LF,HF; 

RS=SA+RF:HB=rNT(RS/2S6) :LB= 

RS-(256*HB) 
100 CHK=CHK+RF+LF+HF:POKE SA+L 

F, LB SPOKE SA+HF,HBjNEXT 
U0 IF CHKO 22054 THEN PRINT " 

* ERROR* RELOAD PROGRAM AND 

JSPACElCHECK FINAL LINE": EN 

D 
120 POKE SA+149,PEEK(772) :POKE 

SA+150,PEEK(773) 
130 IF VEC=17165 THEN POKE SA+ 

14, 22 I POKE SA+18,23:POKESA+ 

29,2 24:POKESA+139,224 
140 PRINT CHR$(147) rCHR5{17); " 

PROOFREADER ACTIVE"! SYS SA 
150 POKE Hl.PEEKIHD-HsPOKE (P 

EEK(LO)+256*PEEK(HI))-i,0:N 

EW 
160 DATA 120,169,73,141,4,3,16 

9,3,141,5,3 
170 DATA 68,96,16 5,20,133,16 7, 

165,21,133,168,169 
180 DATA 0,141,0,255,162,31,19 

1,199,157,227,3 
190 DATA 202,16,248,169,19,32, 

210,255,169,19,32 
200 DATA 210,255,160,0,132,180 

,132,176,136,230,190 
210 DATA 200,185,0,2,240,46,20 

1,34,208,8,72 
220 DATA 165,176,73,255,133,17 

6,104,72,201 , 32,208 
230 DATA 7,165,176,208,3,104,2 

06,226,104, 166,180 
240 DATA 24,165,167,121,0,2,13 

3,167, 165, 168,105 
250 DATA 0,133,168,202,208,239 

,240,202,165, 167,69 
260 DATA 168,72,41,15,168,185, 

211,3,32,210,255 
270 DATA 104,74,74,74,74,168,1 

85,211,3,32,210 
280 DATA 2=55,162,31,183,227,3, 

149,199,202, 16,248 
290 DATA 169,146,32,210,255,76 

,86,137,65,66,67 
300 DATA 68,69,70,71,72,74,75, 

77,80,81,82,83,88 
310 DATA 13,2,7,167,31.32,151, 

116,117,151,128,129,167,136 
,137 „ 



COMPUTSrs Gazette August 1987 109 



IkAt Y M^^chine Language Entry Program 
fVlLAk For Commodfore 64 and 128 



Ottis R. Cowper, Technical Editor "^ 

"MLX" i8 a labor-Baving utility that 
allows almost fail-safe entry of 
machine language programs. Included 
are versions for the Commodore 64 
and 128. 

Type in and save some copies of which- 
ever version of MLX is appropriate for 
your computer (you'll want to use it to 
enter future ML programs from COM- 
PUTEfs GAZETTE). Program 1 is for the 
Commodore 64, and Program 2 is for 
the 128 (128 MLX can also be used to 
enter Commodore 64 ML programs for 
use in 64 mode). When you're ready to 
enter an ML program, load and run 
MLX. It asks you for a starting address 
and an ending address. These addresses 
appear in the article accompanying the 
MLX-format program listing you're 
typing. 

if you're unfamiliar with machine 
language, the addresses (and all other 
values you enter in MLX) may appear 
strange. Instead of the usual decimal 
numbers you're accustomed to, these 
numbers are in he:cadecimal — a base 16 
numbering system commonly used by 
ML programmers. Hexadecimal — hex 
for short — includes the numerals 0-9 
and the letters A-F. But don't worry — 
even if you know nothing about ML or 
hex, you should have no trouble using 
MLX. 

After you enter the starting and 
ending addresses, you'll be offered the 
option of clearing the workspace. 
Choose this option if you're starting to 
enter a new listing. If you're continuing 
a listing that's partially typed from a 
previous session, don't choose this 
option. 

A functions menu will appear. The 
first option in the menu is ENTER 
DATA. If you're just starting to type in 
a program, pick this. Press the E key, 
and type the first number in the first 
line of the program listing. If you've al- 
ready typed in part of a program, type 
the line number where you left off typ- 
ing at the end of the previous session 
(be sure to load the partially completed 
program before you resume entry). In 
any case, make sure the address you en- 
ter corresponds to the address of a line 
in the listing you are entering, Other- 
wise, you'll be unable to enter the data 
correctly. If you pressed E by mistake, 
you can return to the command menu 
by pressing RETURN alone when 
asked for the address. (You can get back 
to the menu from most options by 
pressing RETURN with no other input.) 



Entering A Listing 

Once you're in Enter mode, MLX prints 
the address for each program line for 
you. You then type in all nine numbers 
on that line, beginning with the first 
two-digit number after the colon (:). 
Each line represents eight data bytes 
and a checksum. Although an MLX- 
format lisHng appears similar to the 
"hex dump" listings from a machine 
language monitor program, the extra 
checksum number on the end allows 
MLX to check your typing. (Commo- 
dore 128 users can enter the data from 
an MLX listing using the built-in moni- 
tor if the rightmost column of data is 
omitted, but we recommend against it. 
It's much easier to let MLX do the proof- 
reading and error checking for you.) 

When you enter a line, MLX recal- 
culates the checksum from the eight 
bytes and the address and compares 
this value to the number from the ninth 
column. If the values match, you'll hear 
a bell tone, the data will be added to the 
workspace area, and the prompt for the 
next line of data will appear. But if MLX 
detects a typing error, you'll hear a low 
buzz and see an error message. The line 
will then be redisplayed for editing. 

Invalid Characters Banned 

Only a few keys are active while you're 
entering data, so you may have to un- 
learn some habits. You do not type 
spaces between the columns; MLX 
automatically inserts these for you. You 
do mt press RETURN after typing the 
last number in a line; MLX automatical- 
ly enters and checks the line after you 
type the last digit. 

Only the numerals 0-9 and the let- 
ters A-F can be typed in. If you press 
any other key (with some exceptions 
noted below), you'll hear a warning 
buzz. To simplify typing, 128 MLX re- 
defines the function keys and + and — 
keys on the numeric keypad so that you 
can enter data one-handed. (The 64 
version incorporates the keypad modi- 
fication from the March 1966 "Bug- 
Swatter" column, lines 485-487.) In 
either case, the keypad is active only 
while entering data, Addresses must be 
entered with the normal letter and 
number keys. The figures above show 
the keypad configurations for each 
version. 

MLX checits for transposed charac- 
ters. If you're supposed to type in AO 
and instead enter OA, MLX will catch 
your mistake. There is one error that 



64 MLX 


Keypad 






7 


8 


9 











4 

U 


s 
I 


6 
O 


F 
P 










1 
J 


2 
K 


3 

L 


E 




■M 


J; 


A 

M 


B 


C 


D 

/ 





^ Space 





128 MLX Keypad 



A 
(Fl) 


B 
(F3> 


C 
(F5) 


D 

(t7) 



7 


8 


9 


E 
(+) 


4 


5 


6 


V 
<-) 


1 


2 


3 


E 
N 
T 
E 
R 





• 



can slip past MLX; Because of the 
checksum formula used, MLX won't 
notice if you accidentally type FF in 
place of 00, and vice versa. And there's 
a very slim chance that you could gar- 
ble a line and still end up with a combi- 
nation of characters that adds up to the 
proper checksum. However, these mis- 
takes should not occur if you take rea- 
sonable care while entering data. 

Editing Features 

To correct typing mistakes before fin- 
ishing a line, use the INST/DEL key to 
delete the character to the left of the 
cursor. (The cursor-left key also de- 
letes.) If you mess up a line really badly, 
press CLR/HOME to start the line over, 
The RETURN key is also active, but 
only before any data is typed on a line. 
Pressing RETURN at this point returns 
you to the command menu. After you 
type a character of data, MLX disables 
RETURN until the cursor remms to the 
start of a line. Remember, you can press 
CLR/HOME to quickly get to a line 



110 COMPUTErs Gazette August 19fl7 



number prompt. 

More editing features are available 
when correcting lines in which MLX 
has detected an error. To make correc- 
tions in a line that MLX has redisplayed 
for editing, compare the line on the 
screen with the one printed in the list- 
ing, then move the cursor to the mis- 
take and type the correct key, The 
cursor left and right keys provide the 
normal cursor controls. (The INST/ 
DEL key now works as an alternative 
cursor-left key.) You cannot move left 
beyond the first character in the line. If 
you try to move beyond the rightmost 
character, you'll reenter the line. Dur- 
ing editing, RETURN is active; pressing 
it tells MLX to recheck the line. You can 
press the CLR/HOME key to clear the 
entire line if you want to start from 
scratch, or if you want to get to a line 
number prompt to use RETURN to get 
back to the menu. 

Display Data 

The second menu choice, DISPLAY 
DATA, examines memory and shows 
the contents in the same format as the 
program listing (including the check- 
sum). When you press D, MLX asks you 
for a starting address. Be sure that the 
starting address you give conesponds 
to a line number in the listing. Other- 
wise, the checksum display wil! be 
meaningless. MLX displays program 
lines until it reaches the end of the pro- 
gram, at which point the menu is redis- 
played. You can pause the display by 
pressing the space bar. (MLX finishes 
printing the current line before halting.) 
Press space again to restart the display. 
To break out of the display and get back 
to the menu before the ending address 
b reached, press RETURN. 

Other Menu Options 

Two more menu selections let you save 
programs and load them back into the 
computer. These are SAVE FILE and 
LOAD FILE; their operation is quite 
straightfonvard. When you press S or L, 
MLX asks you for the filename. You'll 
then be asked to press either D or T to 
select disk or tape. 

You'll notice the disk drive starting 
and stopping several times during a 
load or save (save only for the 128 ver- 
sion). Don't panic; this is normal be- 
havior. MLX opens and reads from or 
writes to the file instead of using the 
usual LOAD and SAVE commands 
(128 MLX makes use of BLOAD). Disk 
users should also note that the drive 
prefix 0: is automatically added to the 
filename (line 750 in 64 MLX), so this 
should not be included when entering 
the name. This also precludes the use of 
@ for Save-with-Replace, so remember 
to give each version you save a different 



name. The 128 version makes up for 
this by giving you the option of scratch- 
ing the existing file if you want to reuse 
a filename. 

Remember that MLX saves the en- 
tire workspace area from the starting 
address to the ending address, so the 
save or load may take longer than you 
might expect if you've entered only a 
small amount of data from a long list- 
ing. When saving a partially completed 
listing, make sure to note the address 
where you stopped typing so you'll 
know where to resume entry when you 
reload. 

MLX reports the standard disk or 
tape error messages if any problems are 
detected during the save or load. (Tape 
users should bear in mind that Commo- 
dore computers are never able to detect 
errors during a save to tape.) MLX also 
has three special load error messages: 
INCORRECT STARTING ADDRESS, 
which means the file you're trying to 
load does not have the starting address 
you specified when you ran MLX; 
LOAD ENDED AT address, which 
means the file you're trying to load 
ends before the ending address you 
specified when you started MLX; and 
TRUNCATED AT ENDING AD- 
DRESS, which means the file you're 
trying to load extends beyond the end- 
ing address you specified when you 
started MLX. If you see one of these 
messages and feel certain that you've 
loaded the right file, exit and rerun 
MLX, being careful to enter the correct 
starting and ending addresses. 

Tlie 128 version also has a CATA- 
LOG DISK option so you can view the 
contents of the disk directory before 
saving or loading. 

The QUIT menu option has the ob- 
vious effect — it stops MLX and enters 
BASIC. The RUN/STOP key is dis- 
abled, so the Q option lets you exit the 
program without turning off the com- 
puter. (Of course, RUN/STOP-RE- 
STORE also gets you out.) You'll be 
asked for verification; press Y to exit to 
BASIC, or any other key to return to the 
menu. After quitting, you can type 
RUN again and reenter MLX without 
losing your data, as long as you don't 
use the clear workspace option. 

The Finished Product 

When you've finished typing all the 
data for an ML program and saved your 
work, you're ready to see the results. 
The instructions for loading and using 
the finished product vary from program 
to program. Some ML programs are de- 
signed to be loaded and run like BASIC 
programs, so all you need to type is 
LOAD "fUename" ,B for disk (DLOAD 
"fikname" on the 128) or LOAD "file- 
name" for tape, and then RUN. Such 



programs will usually have a starting 
address of 0801 for the 64 or ICO 1 for 
the 128. Other programs must be re- 
loaded to specific addresses with a com- 
mand such as LOAD "filename",^, 1 for 
disk (BLOAD "filename" on the 128) or 
LOAD "filename",!, 1 for tape, then 
started with a SYS to a particular mem- 
ory address. On the Commodore 64, 
the most common starting address for 
such programs is 49152, which corre- 
sponds to MLX address COOO. In either 
case, you should always refer to the ar- 
ticle which accompanies the ML listing 
for information on loading and running 
the program. 

An Ounce Of Prevention 

By the time you finish typing in the data 
for a long ML program, you may have 
several hours invested in the project. 
Don't take chances — use our "Auto- 
matic Proofreader" to type the new 
MLX, and then test your copy tborough- 
ty before first using it to enter any sig- 
nificant amount of data. Make sure all 
the menu options work as they should. 
Enter fragments of the program starting 
at several different addresses, then use 
the Display option to verify that the 
data has been entered correctly. And be 
sure to test the Save and Load options 
several times to ensure that you can re- 
call your work from disk or tape. Don't 
let a simple typing error in the new 
MLX cost you several nights of hard 
work. 



Program 1: 

64 



MLX For Commodore 



SS 10 REM VERSION 1.1: LINES 8 
30,950 MODIFIED, LINES 4 
85-48 7 ADDED 
POKE 56,50tCLRtDIM INS, 
I,J,A,B,A5,B5,A(7),N$ 
C4 -48 J C6= 16 1 C7=7 1 22-2 i Z 
4-254 ! 25=255 tZ6=256 iZ7" 
127 

FA=.pEEK(45)+Z6*PEEK(4e) 
! BS-PEEK ( 55 } +26 *PEEK ( 56 
) jH5="01234567S9ABCDEF" 
R?=CHR5 ( 13 ) :LS=" [LEFT } " 
:S?=" ":D5-CHR9(20) jZS- 
CHRSCB) JT5-'M13 RIGHT 1" 
SD-54272SFOR 1=SD TO SD 
+23: POKE I,0iNEXTtPOKE 
£SPACE)SD+24,15:POKE 78 
8,52 

PRINT" {CLR!"CHRS {142 )CH 
R?(8)jP0KE 53Z80,15!POK 
E 53281,15 
PRINT T5" (RED) (RVS) 
{2 SPACES )E8 ?| 
[2 SPACEsi"SPC(2B)" 
(2 SPACES) f OFF HBLU] ML 
X II I RED H RVS 1 
(2 SPACES }"SPCt 28)" 
112 SPACES HBLUI" 

FR 170 PRINT" {3 DOWN) 

[3 SPACES JCOMPUTEl 'S MA 
CHINE LANGUAGE EDITOR 
(3 DOWN)" 

JD 180 PRINT" fBLK} STARTING ADD 



EK 


100 


DM 


110 


CJ 


120 


SB 


130 


CQ 


140 


PC 


150 


EJ 


160 



COMPUTERS Gaielto August 19B7 1H 



RESSi4i"; !GOSUB300!Sft=A 
DiGOSUB1040:IF F THEK18 

GF 190 PRINT"fBLKK2 SPACES)EN 
DING ADDRESS i4|" t :GOSUB 
300tEA=ADiGOSUB1030sIF 
( SPACE}? THEN! 90 

KR 200 INPUT"i3 DOWN) {BLK)CLEA 
R WORKSPACE [Y/N]|43";A 
Si IF LEFT5(A5,lJ<>"Y"TH 
EN 2 20 

PG 210 PRINT" [2 DOWN 3 [ BLU ) WORK 
ING. . ."; :FORI=BS TO BS+ 
EA-SA+7iP0KE I,0iNEXTiP 
RI NT "DONE" 

DR 220 PRINTTAB(10)" J2 DOWN) 
(BLKltRVS] MLX COMMAND 
i SPACE JmENU {D0WN)|4i"! 
PRINT T9"[RVS)e{0PF)NTE 
R DATA" 

BD 230 PRINT T$"{RVSJd{OFF)ISP 

lay data";pr1nt t5" 
(rvs]l{off1oad file" 

JS 240 PRINT TS"{RVS)s£oFF)AVE 
FILE":PRINT TS"{HVSJQ 

(off3uit{2 downJ[blk1" 
jh 2s0 get a$!lf as-'ns then250 

HK 260 A-0tFOR 1=1 TO 5: IF A?=: 

MID5C"EDLSQ",I,1)THEN A 

a 1 1 1=5 
FD 270 NEXTiON A GOTO420 , 610, 6 

90, 700, 260 :GOSUB1060 jGO 

TO2S0 
EJ 280 PRINT"(RVSj QUIT "tlNPU 

T"(D0WNH43ARE YOU SORE 
Cy/N]";A$:IF LEFTS(A5. 

1)<>"Y"THEN220 
EM 290 POKE SD424,0tEND 
JX 300 INS»N5:AD=0:INPUTIN$tXF 

LEN ( 1H5 ) < >4THENRETURN 
KF 310 BS=IN$:GOSUB320:AD=A:BS 

=MIDS(IN$,3) !GOSUB320;A 

D=AD*256+AiRETURN 
PP 320 A=0!FOB JBj TO 2tA$=MID 

S(B5,J,1) iQ=ASC(A5)-C4+ 

(AS>"@")*C7fA-A*C6+B 
JA 330 IP B<0 OR B>15 THEN AD= 

0:A=-l!j=2 
GX 340 NEXTiRETURN 
CH 350 B=INT(A/C6) 1 PRINT MID$( 

H$,B+1,1) f iB=A-B*C6jPRI 

NT MID5(HS,B+1,1); tRETU 

RN 
RR 360 A=INT(AD/Z6)jGOSUB350!A 

-AD-A*Z6 !GOSUB350 t PRINT 

BE 370 CK=INT{AD/Z6) iCK=AD-Z4* 

CK+Z5*(CK>27)iGOTO390 
PX 3S0 CK=CK*Z2+Z5*(CK>Z7)+A 
JC 390 CK=CK+Z5*{CK>Z5) J RETURN 
QS 400 PRINT "[DOWN} STARTING AT 

!4i";!GOSUB300:IF IN$<> 

N? THEN GOSUB10301IF F 

[ SPACE )THEN400 
EX 410 RETURN 
HD 420 PRINT"{RVSj ENTER DATA 

(SPACE)"!GOSUB400iIF IN 

5=N5 THEN220 
JK 430 OPEN3,3:PRINT 
SK 440 POKE19B,0:GOSUB360iIF F 
THEN PRINT 1N$;PRINT" 

[up} (5 RIGHT}"; 
GC 450 FOR 1=0 TO 24 STEP 3 tBS 

=SS!FOR J=l TO 2: IF P T 

HEN B?=MIDS(IN?,I+J,1) 
HA 460 PRINT " (RVS ) "B?L5 ;! IF I< 

24THEN PRINT" (OFF)"; 
HD 470 GET A?!lF A?=N5 THEN470 
FK 480 IF(AS>"/"ANDA5<"!")0R(A 

S>"@"aNDA5t"G")THENS40 
GS 485 A=-(A5="M")-2*(AS=", ")- 



3*(AS=".")-4*(AS="/")-5 

*(AS="J")-6*(A?="K") 
FX 486 A=A-7»(A5="L")-8*(A5=": 

")-9*(A?="U")-10*(AS="I 

")-ll*(A5="0")-12*(A5=" 

P") 
CM 487 A=A-13*{A$=S$) iIF A THE 

N ASbMIDS("ABCD123E456F 

0",A, 1):GOTO 540 
MP 490 IF A5=RS AND((I=0)AND( J 

=1)0R F)THEN PRINT B$ ; : 

J=2!NEXTil=24:GOTOS50 
KC 500 IF AS="[H0ME)" then PRI 

NT B$;J=2:NEXTiI=24!KEX 

T!F=0iGOTO440 

MX 510 IF (A5="{ RIGHT }")ANDF TH 

ENPRINT B5LS; 1GOTO540 
GK 520 IP ASOLS AND A$<>D$ OR 

( (1=0) AND ( J-!l )) THEN GOS 

UB10601GOTO470 
HG 530 AS=L5+S5+L5jPRINT B$L?; 

jJ'^2-J:IF J THEN PRINT 

[ SPACE ]L$; ! 1=1-3 
QS 540 PRINT A5:jNEXT J: PRINT 

[SPACE 3 S5; 
PM 550 NEXT IiPRINTiPRINT"{UP3 

tS RIGHT]"; iINPUT»3,IN5 

!IF IN5=K5 THEN CLOSES: 

GOTO220 
QC 560 FOR 1=1 TO 25 STEP3iB$= 

MIDS(IN9,I) !GOSUB320:1F 
I<25 THEN GOSUB3B0iA(I 

/3)»A 
PK 570 NEXTiIF A<>CK THEN GOSU 

B1060 1 PRINT "(BLK}[RVS) 

[SPACE} ERROR! REENTER L 

INE i4i"iF-l:GOTO440 
HJ 580 GOSUB1080:BwBS+AD-SA!FO 

R 1=0 TO 7: POKE B+I,A(I 

):NE)(T 
QQ S90 AD=Ar>+-e!lF AD>EA THEN C 

L0SE3 ! PRINT "[ DOWN } f BLU } 

** END OF ENTRY •*[BLK} 

(2 DOWN) "jGOTO700 
GQ 600 F-»0:GOTO440 
QA 610 PRINT "!CLR) [DOWN) (RVS) 

[SPACE] DISPLAY DATA "tG 

OSUB400!lF IN?=N5 THEN2 

20 
RJ 620 P RI NT " {DOWN} {BLU 3 PRESS s 
(RVS 3 SPACE (off] to PAU 

SE, [ RVS ) RETURN (off) TO 
BREAKB4i{D0WN)" 
KS 630 GOSUB360 !B=BS+AD-SAiFOR 

I=BT0 B+7iA=PEEK(I) tGOS 

UB350iGOSUB3e0iPRINT S? 

CC 640 NEXTiPRINT"ERVS]"; iA=CK 

:GOSUB350!PRINT 
KH 650 F=1jAD=AD+BiIF AD>EA TH 

ENPRINT "{DOWN} {BLU J** E 

MD OP DATA **"iGOTO220 
KC 660 GET AStIF A5-R5 THEM GO 

SUB10e0:GOTO220 
EQ 670 IF A5-S9 THEN F=F+liGOS 

UB10B0 
AD 680 ONFGOTO630,660,630 
CM 690 PRINT"{D0WN]{HVS] LOAD 

(SPACE) DATA "iOP=l(G0TO 

710 

PC 700 print"{ix)Wn3(rvs) save 

(SPACE) FILE "!OP'-0 
RX 710 IN5-NS < INPUT" (DOWN }F1LE 

NAMEB4l";IN5iIF 1NS-M$ 

[SPACE] THEN 2 20 
PR 7 20 F=0 I PRINT "{ DOWN ](BLK} 

{RVS}T{OFF)aPE or (RVS) 

D{OFF)lSKi E4i"; 
FP 730 GET A? I IF A5»"T"THEN PR 

INT "T i DOWN }" tGOTOeSO 
HQ 740 IP A5<>"D"THEN7 30 



HH 750 PRINT "D[ DOWN )"iOPEN15, 8 
,15, "10t "iB-EA-SA:IN5-" 
0:"+IN?:IF OP THEN810 
SQ 760 OPEN 1,8,8,IN$+",P,W"!G 

OSUBB601IF A THEN220 
FJ 770 AH=«INT(SA/256) [At^SA-tA 
H*256) 5PRINT»l,CHR$tAL) 
;CHR$(AH); 
PE 780 FOR 1-0 TO Bi PRINT* 1,CH 
R5(PEEK(BS+I)) r iIF ST T 
HEN800 
FC 790 NEXTiCLOSElsCLOSElSiGOT 

0940 
GS 800 GOSUB1060! PRINT "(DOWN) 
(BLK) ERROR DURING SAVEi 
i43"iGOSUB860tGOTO220 
MA 810 OPEN l,8,8,INS+",P,R"iG 

OSUBB60JIF A THEN220 
GE 820 GET#1,A$,BS!AD-ASC(AS+Z 
S)+256*ASC(B$+Z$) tIF AD 
OSA THEN F=ltGOTO850 
RX 830 FOR 1=0 TO BsGETfl.AJtP 
OKE BS+I,ASC(A5+Z5) !IF( 
I<>B)AND ST THEN F=2iAD 
sllI-B 
FA 840 NEXTiIF ST<>64 THEN F"3 
FQ 850 CLOSEl!CL0SE15:0N ABS(F 

>0)+l GOTO960,970 
SA 860 INPUT#15,A,A$!lF A THEN 
CLOSEl iCLOSElS :GOSUB10 
60!PRINT"[RVS3ERROR: "A 
S 
GQ 870 RETURN 

EJ 880 POKE183,PEEK(FA+2):POKE 
187, PEEK {FA+3) sPOKElSS, 
PEEK{FA+4) jIFOP=0THEN92 

HJ 890 SYS 63466tIF(PEEK(783)A 
NDDTHEN GOSUB1060:PRIN 
T " ( DOWN 3 ( RVS ) FILE NOT 
{SPACE) FOUND ":GOTO690 
CS 900 AD=PEEK(829J+2 56*PEEK(6 
30): IF ADOSA THEN F=l : 
GOTO970 
SC 910 A=PEEK(831)+256*PEEK(B3 
2)-l !P=F-2*{A<EA)-3*(A> 
EA) tAD=A-AD!GOTO930 
KM 920 A=SA:B=EA+l!GOSUB1010:P 

OKE780,3rSYB 63338 
JF 930 A=BStB=BS+<EA-SA)+l!GOS 
UB101C!ON OP GOTO950!SY 
S 63591 
AE 940 GOSUB1080tPRINT"(BLU}** 
SAVE COMPLETED **":GOT 
0220 
XP 950 POKE147,0:SYS 63562jIP 

{ SPACE )ST>0 THEN970 
FR 960 GOSUB1080:PRINT"{BLU) ** 
LOAD COMPLETED **"5GOT 

0220 
DP 970 GOSUBl 060! PRINT" (BLK! 

(RVS) ERROR DURING LOADi 
(down) 143" SON F G0S0B9B 
0,990, 1000 1GOTO220 
PP 960 PRI NT "INCORRECT START IN 
G ADDRESS ( " ; iGOSUB360 : 
PRINT" )":RETURN 
GR 990 PRINT"LOAD ENDED AT ";J 
AD='SA+ADiGOSUB360:PRINT 
DS ! RETURN 
FD 1000 PRINT "TRUNCATED AT END 

ING ADDRESS"! RETURN 
RX 1010 AH=INT(A/256) 5AL3A-(AH 
*256) tPOKE193,AL:P0KEl 
94, AH 
FF 1020 AH=INT(B/256) !AL=B-(AH 
•256) !POKE174,AL:POKE1 
75, AH: RETURN 
FX 1030 IF AD<SA OR AD>EA THEN 

1050 
HA 1040 IF(AD>511 AND AD< 40960 



t12 COMPUTE! S Gazette August 19 B7 



HC 1050 ( 


Wk 


AR 1060 


DX 1070 


PF 1080 


AC 1090 


y ■rr.yy.l 


^iw^0f^- 



)OR{AD>49151 AND AD<53 
248) THEN GOSUB1080-.F=0 
! RETURN 

GOSUBl 060 : PRI NT " £ HVS ) 
E SPACE UNVALI D ADDRESS 
f DOWN] [BLKl"iP*l!RETU 
RN 

POKE SD+5,31iPOKE SD+6 
,208!POKE SD,240!POKE 
( SPACE ) SD+l, 4 1 POKE SD-I- 
4,33 

FOR S=l TO 100!NEXT:GO 
TO1090 

POKE SD+5,8:POKE SD4-6r 
240! POKE SD, 01 POKE SD+ 
1,90 I POKE SD+4,17 
FOR S-l TO 100iNEXTiPO 
KE SD+4,0:POKE SD,0iPO 
KE SD+ 1,0: RETURN 



y/ 



'y 



Prbgraiti 2: MLX For Commodore 
128 

AE 100 TRAP 960IPOKE 4627,128: 
DIM NLS,A(7) 

XP 110 Z2-2:Z4»2S4jZ5a25StZ6=2 
56iZ7=127!BS='256*PEEK(4 
627) :EA=65280 

FB 120 BE5=CHR5(7)5RTS=CHR5(13 
) t DLS=CHRS ( 20 ) ! SP$=CHR9 
(32)iLFS=CHR5(157) 

KE 130 DEF FNHB(A)=IHT( A/256)! 
DEF FNLaCA)=A-FNHB(A)*2 
56iDEF FNAD(A)-PEEK(A)+ 
2S6*PEEK(A+1) 

JB 140 KEY l,"A":KEy 3,"B"iKEY 
5,"C"iKEy 7,"D"iV0L IS 
slF RGR(0)=5 then PAST 

FJ 150 PRINT '■{ CLR } "CHRS( 142 },-C 
HR9(8);C0L0R 0,15:COLOR 
4, IS [COLOR 6,15 

GQ 160 PRINT TAB(12)"{RED3 
lRVSl{2 SPACES)i9 ?! 
{2 SPACES )"RTS)TAB( 12)" 
tRVS)f2 SPACES) [OFF) 
{BLui 128 MLX [red) 
t RVS } f 2 SPACES ) " RT 5 ; TAB 
(12)"[RVSH13 SPACES} 
( BLU 3 " 
PRINT" J 2 DOWNj 

(3 spaces )compute t 's ma 
chime language editor 
[2 down)" 

DK 180 PRINT" (bLK J STARTING ADD 
RESSi4i"j sGOSUB 260tIF 
I SPACE) AD THEN SA^-ADiEL 
SE 180 

FH 190 PRINT"fBLK){2 SPACES ) EN 
DING ADDRESS|4i"; jGOSUB 
260 j IP AD THEN EA=ADtE 
LSE 190 

MF 200 PRINT" [DOWN] [BLK} CLEAR 
(SPACE) WORKSPACE [Y/N]7 
i43"rGETKEY ASiIF AS<>" 
Y" THEN 220 

QH 210 PRINT "( DOWN }( BLU} WORK IN 
G . . . " ; t BANK : FOR A=BS 
[SPACE] TO BS+(EA-SA}+7! 
POKE A,0jNEXT AiPRINT"D 
ONE" 

DC 220 PRINT TAB(10)"[DOWN} 

[ BLK) [RVS) MLX COMMAND 
(SPACE) MENU 143 [DOWN)": 
PRINT TAB{13)"£RVS}E 
^///Y//, E0FF}NTER DATA"RT5;TAa( 

y//M' 13)"(rvs3d{off)isplay d 
ata "rt? ', tab { 1 3 ) " [ rvs ] l 
[offJoad file" 
hb 230 print tab( 13 ) " [ rvs )s 




[OFF J AVE FILE" RT?; TAB (1 
3 j " { RVS } C [ OFF ) ATALOG DI 
SK"RT5;TAB{13)"{RVS)Q 
[ OFF )UIT[ DOWN} [BLK}" 

AP 24fl GETKEY A? tA=IHSTR( "EDLS 
CQ",AS)!ON A GOTO 340,5 
50,640,6 50,930, 940 1 GOSU 
B 950!GOTO 240 

SX 250 PRINT"STARTING AT"j IGOS 
UB 260:IF(AD<>0}OR(A$=N 
L5)THEN RETURN -.ELSE 250 

BG 260 AS=NL$:1NPUT AS: IF LEN( 
A5)=4 THEN AD=DEC(A?) 

PP 270 IF AD=0 THEN BEGIN: IF A 
S<>NL5 TtlEN 300! ELSE RE 
TURK! BEND 

MA 280 IF AD<SA OR AD>EA THEN 
{SPACE} 300 

PM 290 IF AD>S11 AND AD<652e0 
[SPACE)THEN print be?;: 
RETURN 

SQ 300 GOSUB 950! PRINT "(RVS) I 
HVALID ADDRESS [DOWN] 
(BLK3"jAD=0! RETURN 

RD 310 CK'-PNHBCAD) :CKt=AD-Z4*CK 
+ZS*(CK>Z7) :GOTO 330 

DD 320 CK-CK*Z2+Z5*(CK>Z7)+A 

AH 330 CK>'CK+25*(CK>Z5) t RETURN 

QD 340 PRINT BE5;"[RVS) ENTER 
(SPACE) DATA ": GOSUB 250 
:IF A$=NL5 THEN 220 

JA 350 BANK tPRINT : F=0:OPEN 3 
,3 

BR 360 GOSUB 310 SPRINT HEX? (AD 
)+"i";iIF F THEN PRINT 
[SPACE)LSiPRINT"(UPj 
[5 RIGHT) "f 

QA 370 FOR 1=0 TO 24 STEP 3iB5 
=SP9:F0R J=l TO 2iIF F 
{space} THEN B9=MID5(L5, 
I+J,l) 

PS 3B0 PRINT"[RVSj"a?+LF$fiIF 

[SPACE}I<24 THEN PRINT" 

( OFF ) " f 
RC 390 GETKEY A5tIF (A?*"/" AN 

D AS<"i") OR(A5>"e" AND 
A5<''G") THEM 470 
AC 400 IF A5=" + '' THEN A5="E":G 

OTO 470 
QB 410 IF A5="-" THEN A5="F"iG 

OTO 470 
FB 420 IF A$=RTS AND { (I^ ) AN 

D (J=l) OR F> THEN PRIN 

T B?!iJ-2iNEXT:I=24:GOT 

O 480 
RD 430 IF AS="{H0ME]" THEN PRI 

NT BSiJ-2!NEXTiI=24iNEX 

TjF»0:GOTO 360 
XB 440 IF (AS=" (RIGHT]") AND F 
THEN PRINT BS+LP5r:G0T 

470 
JP 450 IF A$<>LF5 AND A$<>DL5 

(SPACE )0R ((I=«) AND (J 

=1)) THEN GOSUB 950iGOT 

O 390 
PS 460 A5=LF5+SP$+LF5 SPRINT B? 

+ LF$;!ji=2-JtIF J THEN P 

RIHT LF5; tI=I-3 
GB 470 PRINT A5;sNEXT JsPRIKT 

( SPACE ) SP5 ; 
HA 480 NEXT I:PRINT!PRINT"[UP) 

[5 RIGHT)"; !LS«=" 

[27 SPACES)" 
DP 490 FOR 1*1 TO 25 STEP 3iGE 

T#3,A5,B5!lP A5-SPS THE 

N I=25rNEXTiCLOSE SiGOT 

O 220 
BA 500 A9=A9+BS!A-DEC(A$) !MIDS 

(L5,I,2)-A5:IF K25 THE 

N GOSUB 320;A{l/3)-AsGE 
T#3,A? 



AR 510 NEXT 1 1 IF A<>CK THEN GO 
SUB 9501 PRINT! PRINT" 
(RVSl ERROR! REENTER LI 
NE "!F=l!GOTO 360 
DX 520 PRINT BE?!B=BS+AD-SA!FO 
R 1-0 TO 7: POKE B+I,A(I 
) I NEXT I 
XB 530 F-0!AD-AD+8iIP AD<"EA T 

HEN 360 
CA 540 CLOSE 3: PRINT" (DOWN J 

{BLU}** END OF ENTRY ** 
[BLK) [2 DOWNj"!GOT0 650 
MC 550 PRINT BE$;"(CLR} [DOWN} 
(RVS} DISPLAY DATA "iGO 
SUB 250! IF A$=NL$ THEN 
[SPACE) 220 

JP 560 BANK 0! PRINT "[DOWN} 

[BLU] PRESS! (SVSj SPACE 
[OFF] TO PAUSE, I RVS ) RE 
/y///}'/ TURN [OFF 3 TO BREAK|4i 
[DOWN]" 

PRINT HEX5(AD)+":"; :GOS 
UB 310!B=BS+AD-SA 
FOR I=B TO B+7iA=PEEK(I 
): PRINT RIGHT? (HEX? (A), 
2);SP?; iGOSUB 320!NEXT 
[SPACE] I 

PRINT " ( RVS ) " ; RIGHT? ( HEX 
?(CK),2) 

F=liAD=AD+8:IF AD>EA TH 
EN PRINT"[BLU)** END OF 

DATA **":GOTO 220 
GET ASiIF AS^RT? THEN P 
RINT BE?: GOTO 220 
IF A5=SPS THEN F=F+liPR 
INT BE?; 

ON F GOTO 570,610,570 
PRINT BE?" (DOWN) [RVS] L 
OAD DATA "lOP-liGOTO 66 


PRINT BE? "(DOWN} [RVS) S 
AVE FILE ":OP=0 
F=0;F?=NL?: INPUT "FILENA 
MEi4i";FS!lF F?=«NL? THE 
H 220 

PRINT" (DOWN) {BLK} [RVS)T 
(0PF}APE OR [RVS)D{OrF) 
rSK! 143"; 

SQ 680 GETKEY A?: IF A?="T" THE 
N 850:ELSE IF A?<>"D" T 
HEN 680 

SP 690 PR1NT"DISK[D0WN)":IF OP 
THEN 760 

EG 700 DOPENIl, (F?+",P"),WtIF 
(SPACE)DS THEN A?-DS5iG 
OTO 740 

JH 710 BANK 0:POKE BS-2,FHLB(S 
A)!POKE BS-1 ,FNHB(SA) :P 
RINT "SAVING ";F5! PRINT 

MC 720 FOR A=BS-2 TO BS+EA-SA: 
PRINT»1,CHR?(PEEK(A}); : 
IF ST THEN A?«"DISK WRI 
TE ERROR": GOTO 750 

GC 730 NEXT A: CLOSE liPRINT" 
[BLU}** SAVE COMPLETED 
( SPACE )WITHOUT ERRORS * 
*":GOTO 220 

RA 740 IF DS=63 THEN BEGIN:CLO 
SE l! INPUT "(BLK) REPLACE 
EXISTING FILE [Y/N}g43 
",'A?:IF A?="Y" THEN SCR 
ATCH(F?>iPRINTiGOTO 700 
!ELSE PRINT" [BLK) "iGOTO 
660 I BEND 

GA 750 CLOSE li GOSUB 950: PRINT 
"[BLK] [RVS) ERROR DURIN 
G SAVE: g4i": PRINT A? :G 
OTO 2 20 

FD 760 DOPEN#l, (F?+",P"}:IF DS 
THEN A?=DS?:F=4! CLOSE 
( SPACE )liGOTO 790 



XA 


■^70 


DJ 


580 


XB 


590 


GR 


600 


EB 


610 


QK 


620 


XS 


630 


RF 


640 


BP 


650 


DM 


660 


RF 


670 



COMPUTE.' sGszBftfl Augusl 1987 113 



PX 7 70 GET #1,A$.BS! CLOSE 1:AD= 
ASC(A?)+356*ASC(B5):rF 
{SPACEJADOSA then F=1: 
GOTO 790 
KB 780 PRINT "LOADING ";P5;PRIN 
T!aLOADCF5),B0,P{8S) tAD 
=SA+FNAD( 174>-BS-1 iF=-2 
*(A[J<EA)-3*(AD>EA) 
RQ 790 IF F THEN 800tELSE PRIN 
T"tBLU)** LOAD COMPLETE 
D WITHOUT ERRORS **":G0 
TO 2 20 
BR 800 GOSUB 950 : PRINT "(BLK) 

{RVS) ERROR DURING LOAD 
t i4i":0N P GOSUB 610,6 
20,830,840tGOTO220 
QJ 810 PRINT "INCORRECT STARTIN 
G ADDRESS ( " [ HEX$ ( AD) r " 
) " : RETURN 
DP S20 PRINT"LOAD ENDED AT ";H 

EX|(AD):RETURN 
EB 830 PRINT "TRUNCATED AT ENDI 
NG ADDRESS ("HEXS(EA)") 
" : RETURN 
FP 840 PRINT "DISK ERROR ";A$£R 

ETURN 
KS 850 PRINT"TAPE":AD=POIKTER( 
F5)iBANK 1;A=PEEK(AD) lA 
L=PEEK[AD+1 ) jAH=PEEK(AD 
+2) 
XX 360 BANK ISiSYS DEC("FF6a") 
,0,1:SYS DEC("FFBA"),1, 
1,0!SYS DEC("FFBD"),A,A 
L.AHjSYS DEC{ "FF90"),12 
8: IP OP THEN 890 
EG 670 PRINTiA='SA:B=EA+ltGOS08 
9201SYS DECl"E919"),3i 
PRINT "SAVING "rFS 
AB 360 A=BSiB-BS+(EA-SA}+ltGOS 
UB 920!SYS DECC'EAia"): 
PRINT" i DOWU] [BLUJ** TAP 
E SAVE COMPLETED **":G0 
TO 2 20 
CP 890 SYS DEC{"E99A") sPRINTil 
F PEEK (261 6) =5 THEN GOS 
UB 9501 PRINT "(DOWN J 
{BLKHRVS} PILE NOT FOU 
ND "tGOTO 220 
GQ 900 PRINT"LOADING ...iOOWN) 
"!AD=FNAD(2817) IIP ADO 
SA THEN F=liGOTO 800:EL 
SE AD=PNAD(2819)-l!F=-2 
*(AD<EA)-3*(AD>EA) 
JD 910 A=«BS!B=BS+(EA-SA)+1:G0S 
UB 920 1 SYS DEC{"E9FB")j 
IF ST>0 THEN 808 1 ELSE 7 
90 
XB 920 POKE193,FNLB{A) !POKE194 
,PNHB(A}tPOKE 174,FNLB( 
B):POKE 175,FNHB(B):RET 
URN 
CP 930 CATALOG SPRINT "{DOWN} 

(BLU)** PRESS ANY KEY F 
OR MENU *«"iGETKEY A5iG 
OTO 220 
MM 940 PRINT BE?" {RVS] QUIT 

i43";RT$;"ARE YOU SURE 
[SPACE )[Y/N3?"iGETKEY A 
?:IF A?<>"Y" THEN 220 sE 
LSE PRINT" {CLR3"i BANK 1 
5: END 
JE 950 SOUND 1,500, 10 -.RETURN 
AF 9&0 IF ER-14 AND EL-260 THE 

N RESUME 300 
MK 970 IF ERal4 AND EL-500 THE 

N RESUME NEXT 
KJ 980 IF ER=4 AND EL=7B0 THEN 

F=4:AS=DS5: RESUME 800 
DQ 990 IF ER=30 THEN RESUME! EL 
SE PRINT ERR$(ER)!" ERR 
OR IN LINE"; EL « 



LANDMARK vl.O 

The Computer Study Bible 

LANDMARK v1 .0 consists of the Qntire 

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INDIVIDUAL VERSE REFERENCES 

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a 3300+ word CONCORDANCE. 

RUfdMARYof I ANHMARK 1 .0 features' 



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1 14 COMPUTEI's Gaielte August 1987 



Classified 



SOFTWARE 



ARE 1541 DISK DRIVE ALIGNMENT PROGRAM 
Easy to use. No special ttxils r«j'd! Includes detail 
diagrams & Instr's. Do it younii'lf. SAVE! Onlv 
$9.95. L&S Comp,, Box 392, Bklyn, NY 1 1229 

COMMODORE: TRY BErORi; YOU iiUY, 
B<?st selling gnmt's, Litilitto!^, ediicatiaral + 
classics and new rdeasfs. lOd's of tides. 
Visa/MC. Free bmchua., RENT-A-DISC, Frederick 
BIdg. «345, Hunt'n, VVV 25701 (304) 529-3232 

FREE SOFTWARE for C6i, C12S, IBM & CFM 
Send SASE for info (specify computer) to; 
PUBLIC DOMAIN USERS GROUP 
PO Bos I442-A2, Omnse Park, El. 32067 

New PIU3/4 and C 128 Softwara (dtak only] 

Games, Educational, Finance Statistics. 

Write for info. CARDINAL SOFTWARE, 14340 

Build America Dr., Woodbridge, VA 22191 

DARKSTAR SYSTEMS SOFTWARE CBBS 

V3;S49.95...OverI.ink:$29,9,5...i!(itli:$79.90. 24 hr 
BBS 416-445-6788 Cert Chk/MO US Funds. 113 
Valleywoods Rd S95, Dnn Mills Onl, Can M3A 
2R8 

C64 FINEST PUBLIC DOMAIN PROGRAMS 

•On Disk* Most SI. 51) "On Disk* 

Y'OU pick the programs that you want!!! 

For a list and description, SEND SASE to: 

]LH Co., Depl. G, Box 67021, Topeka, KS 66667 

'*•• BBS CONSTRUCTION KIT 138 & 64 *"* 

Design and m,tki.' yinir own fiistomi?.ed BBS 
i'or more Info write: Powersyslems, I'OB 
822, Coventry, Rl 02816 ■ BBS 40 1 -822-4605 

Micro Detective: The Intelllgsnt Debugger 
for BASIC on Commodore 64 (soon for 128) 
Error Detection - solves the my.stery! 
Advanced Trace Routine. For info write: 
A MS, Dept. G, POB 323, Loomis, CA 95650 

100 NEW PUBLIC DOMAIN ['HOGRAMS! 
100 superb games or^ dr.k \nj 5-^. Spt^cify 
C64 or C12S, PD-SOI 1, 22? Redwood Rd., 
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PROGRAMMERS ■ MENU MAQIC 128/80 Prof 

look w/pull-down windtnvs for your applic pgm. 
4 time-saving pgms $25 "other softwar" 505 
Timmons St., Nashville, TN 37211 



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lUeTch. 1 ttnuh pDiiliani, ProFQOtCjall Svito^ri .i39 9} Pto Bdihcf' 
boir SvifVFTi .UV.fi Sp«cltv aiU/lapfl: COM 6i/ 1 lA. Add $7pAn 
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S3«3.CG,W&IODrnlieid.MI4A013.(^13)d26-77DaOrdori:1.aoo. 



FREE PUBLIC DOMAIN SOFTWARE - Request 
free catalog or send S2 for sample disk 
,ind catalog (relundaWe). Commodore 64-128 
CAI.OKE IND., Box 1B477, KC. MO 64133 

BIORHYTHMS CHART PROGRAM: This 
program prints numerical Bio-rhythm charts for 
any month: C64:Di5k:Printer. Send SI 0.00 to: 
Peck's, POB 5341, Greeley, CO 80631 

50 GREAT ARCADE GAMES ON ONE DISK OR 
Cassette! For the C64/12S and VIC- 20! Quality 
graphics, fully menu-driven. Just $34.95 
fKjstpaid from R. M. Harris, P.O. Box 12303, 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 46863. Plus/4 
software ,ind accessories also available! 
Send self-addressed, stamped envelope 
for free price list. 

SOFTWARE EXTRAVAGANZA! 20-i- QUALITY 
prog's for C64/1541. Everything from arcade to 
LOTTO busting. Cat ind! Send S5 to: JL Soft- 
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MODF.M OWNERS! 

Please c.ill these numbers IMMEDIATELY! 
(300/1200 BAUD) l-fllS-842-3322 
(.100 OAUD) l-81f!-fi40-SO66 

COMPREHENSIVE GOLF PACKAGE - C64 
Disk, USGA HANDICAP SYSTEM, GOLF 
STATS PROG, 9-HOl.E LEAGUE, COURSE 
RATING, MORE 1 SEND 539,95 TO 
McCONNELL SOFTWARE, POB 652, 
MARATHON, NY 13803 

Mure than 200 great ML routines for 64 .ind 
128, rrady to add to your own programs, in 
COMPUTE! Books' MACHINE LANGUAGE. 
ROUHNES FOR THE COMMODORE 64/12S, 
Explanatitins, uses, commented source code. 585 
pages, $18.95. Check vour local bookstore or call 
<800> 346-6767, 



COMPUTEl's Gazette Classified is a low-cost way to tell over 
275,000 microcomputer owners about your product or service. 

Rates: S25 per line, minimum of four lines. Any or all of the first line set in capital 
letters at no charge. Add $15 per line for boldface words, or $50 for the entire ad set 
in boldface (any number of lines.) Inquire about display rates. 

Terms: Prepayment is required. Check, money order, American Express, Visa, or 
MasterCard is accepted. Make checks payable to COMPUTE! Publications. 

Form; Ads are subject to publisher's approval and mtist be either typed or legibly 
printed. One line equals 40 letters and spaces between words. Please underline 
words to be set in boldface. 

General Information: Advertisers using post office box numbers irt their ads must 
supply permanent address and telephone numbers. Orders will not be acknowl- 
edged. Ad will appear in next available issue after receipt. 

Closing: 10th of the third month preceding cover date (e.g., June issue closes March 
10th), Send order and remittance to: Harry Blair, Classified Manager, COMPUTEl's 
Gazette, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. To place an ad bv phone, call Harry 
Blair at (919) 275-9809. 

Notice: COMPUTE! Publications cannot be responsible for offers or claims of 
advertisers, but will attempt to screen out misleading or questionable copy, 



Nearly 400 EXTREMELY INEXPENSIVE C64 PD 
programs await you. Send S5 lor two DS disks 
with 90-t- programs, a listing and information. 
Erie Richardsun, Box 681 208, San Antonio, 
Texas 78268-1208 ["AST SERVICE. 

LOSE, GAIN OR MAINTAIN Wt-IIGHT WITH 
DIET PLANNER. MO t servint's, up to 7 days! 
C64/disk: $33 + $2 s/h. Stevens Software, 
203 Thomas Dr., LiCrangc, GA 30240 



HARDWARE 



COMPUTER REPAIR - C64;$45, 1541:S50 
Parts available. (816) 872-631 1 
Mom & Pops Computer Shop, RK»2, Box 119 
Cainsville, MO 64632 MO/COD 

•• COMMODORE REPAIR " 

C64:$45, SX64:$75, 1541:150, 1571 :$65 

Will buy used units. Repairs warranted 30 days, 

DaveTavlor, 5106 Davenlry PL, Midland, Tx' 

79705 ' {915)6B3-8398 Visa/MC 



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COMPUTEVs GazGUe August 1987 115 



THE ULTIMATE MUSIC PROGRAMS! 

Ouf cuitomef* call them 'eeST OH.TME MAHKETr 

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own with thsTull ptiwirr Ol Iha CornnniHlcr*^''' IDUnd Chip, 
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prpgnm catrwis with Eirpnc^ny Mui>C CoMecttons 1,2 tnd 3- 

CLASSICAL MUSIC DISKS S19.95 '*"*'"' 



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EUPHONY VERSION 3D $39.95 plu* S? U »MptHna 

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EUPHONY* SutM «a Euphony war i lUui pfLnl* mmte a ^or** on 

tEmHiT" and SHr UlcroiMCn^" plw+fi. t44.Q9 *^f}« u-wtwg 



FREEI MUSK COLLECTION 4 With purehia*»ol EUPHONY 
ot ELJPHONYt recelvud bttlota T Ocr. 'EtTr Ovar 40 miriuia* d 

frddlllonal mui^, UD^nUgM aon-tia. Ba? h Erourrtai, mot* pl*c*> ty 
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TCO SOFTWARE 

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102 Abacus 27 

103 Abby s Discount Software 99 

1 04 Access Software Inc 7 

1 05 Acorn o[ Indiana 115 

106 ActionSoft Corp 2-3 

107 Aprotek . . , , 43 

108 Borkolay Sofhvorks 4 

109 Bible Bytes 114 

Brantford Educational Services 104 

1 10 Cardinal Software 96 

111 Central Point Software 21 

112 Cheatsheet Products, Ina 100 

113 C-More Products 1 1B 

C.OM.B. Direct Martoattng Corp 96 

114 Complete Data A utorration. Inc 13 

115Compurned 104 

116 CompuServe BC 

117 CompulAbillty 107 

110 Computer Direct 37-39 

1 18 Computer Mail Order 10-11 

120 Computer Mart 93 

121 Computer Mart 94 

122 Computer Mart 95 

1 23 Computer Place 114 

124 Covox. Inc 93 

CtOMX Custoni Covers 114 

125 Electronic Arts IFC 

126 Bectronic One 96 

127 Emerald Components International 93 

12S Emerald Components International 35 

129 Federal Hill Software 98 

130 Free Spirit Software, Inc , 100 



131 In ConTrol 104 

Intelligent Software 118 

132 Lyco Computer 48-51 

133 Marathon Software 58 

134 M.C.S 102-103 

135 MicroProse IBC 

136 Montgorrwry Grant 101 

NRI Schools SO-61 

137 Omnitronix, Inc 54 

130 Precision Data 47 

S a S Wholesaters, Inc 30-31 

Schnedler Systems 98 

139 Software Discounters of America 97 

140 Superrar Micro Systems, Inc 114 

141 TCO Software 116 

Tektonics Plus. Inc 98 

142 Tenex Computer Express 105 

143 Triad Computers 33 

144 Tussay Computer Products 14-16 

145 Unitech 92 

146 Xetec, Inc 73 



Classified Ads 131 

COMPUTE! Books' Commodore 64 & 128 

Collection 1 

COMPUTE! Books' Comnwdore 64 S 128 

Programming Books 59 

COMPUTEI Books' Commodore 64 & 128 

Selections 9 

COJvlPLiTEI's Gazette Disk Subscription . . 32 
COM PUT El's Gazette Sut>scription 17 



C^A" ' V\C- • BX-B4' • C -128 ■ ■ Plui «■- 



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Why spend $150 on software 
for a $200 computer? 

TTm incstllgent Scftware Package: Ona itisk, 25 businau prograrra, S1S.95 

The Incelligant Softwaro Pucka go is the one product for ytxir Commodore that 

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Cuatomers writs: "Wfiaca bargain! ' 

"/ am amazsd at all there is in these programs. " 

' ' This letter is to tell you thec your package is absducaly the best I have found. 

"At last! Something to make my computer do reel work. ' ' 

There ere no hidden fees for shipping or documentation, and no clubs to join . The 

package is not putilic domain software, end is sold only direct to customers by mail: 

It supports all available pnnters, and wll run on any Commodore computer (except 

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What you get when you order the Package: 

Databaaa— A ci>mp^Eiti li&t^a^s mari- DBSt^t, DBStstE—ansfyfe D/Q files. 



eger. All ftekJs compieLet/ user-dfifnable. 

Cen be ussd for any rvuvbee of tasi^s. ndui' 

rg eccQuitirg, checkbcok and iaj( records, 

rnaing tets. "rventcry ccntrol, caLalog niaiv 

tetiance . or as an electronic ro»odi?x . A cus. 

tofner wntes: "i am espGOolly iniprcssGd 

with DsisbBse. and Hbvb used it to rBf)iBCe 

ttf)i]if.<SQjien other 'daiBbBS8'.typoprtj^0m3 

ttunihren using." 

Word PraCBMor—A lutl-fGiiturad manu- 

tfrivcn word prflcesfior. Atltywe full control 

over margins, spacma, pa^mp, indentatico. 

and fusufcatJor, "Highfy'recorrimcfxkxi. " - 

Midnite Software Gazette. "Pro\'idss good 

baste features." — Compute's il^a»tt«- 

Copycalc — An eiectrDnK: spreadsheet. 

"EJ^ceSenlfl^og^a^^ far budget^, esisnat' 

ing. or sny irsch-oriented \&e . . . vvel 

worth the fTKney. Hghfyrearrmertied." — 

Midnite Software Gazatta. 

RapertGan— creates form letters, waknQ 

\dtih^. otc. 

RaportMarBa—creatas acatamentH 

invn.'Ocn, 

DflBBball Stata— compikse team batting 

ati3tislk:a. 

Index— indaxea W/P's text fites. 

WPConvart— converts files to other WP 

formots. 

DBIMBrga— facilitates relational D/B 



ASCII— cofTvBTts teit files riio procfam 

tiles. 

Chackbook— reconciles checkbook. 

Inventory — Mamveins mvencory records. 

Pa par Pauta — A/P for paper- roLrte. 

Loan Analyela— coniputes finance terms. 

prints scliedulea. 

Bnukuvan- conputea tjreakavan ana^Bis. 

OaprBclntlDn—createa depreclBtlon 

schedules. 

Labalsr- creates labala. 

Flla Caplar— copies sequentiul, program 

files. 

Cdrralaclan- calculatea stBtistK;al cor- 

reLaton. 

Also other Database and Word Processor 

utities. 



Td ordar* send r^me, address, and 
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