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Vol. II 
No. 12 


44254 00001 


THE COLOR COMPUTER 


@«epordi,ng Ifp id 
3ja^^o-LS&d 
jro&ramsi- d _ 


An mdex to RainbdB 
First*! wo Years ^ 


A Quicksort For CdCo 






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Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 

(616) 364-4791 or 24 HR. BBS (616) 364-6217 


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DMP-100 

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Model IV 16K 

$849 

DMP-120 

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Model IV 64K 


DM P-200 

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2 Disk & RS232 c 

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Okldata 82A 

399 

Color Computer 16K 

175 

Okldata 92 

510 

Color Computer 16K 


Okldata 83A 

655 

w/extended basic 

255 

Okldata 93 

859 

JColor Computer 32K-64K 


Gemini 10 

319 

w/extended basic 

345 

Prowrlter 

375 

Pocket Computer 2 

165 

DISK DRIVES 


Pocket Computer 4 

59 

Tandon40 Track 

289 

Model 100 8K 

679 

Color DR0 

470 

Model 100 24K 

835 

Color DR1 

299 

Model 12 1 Drive 

2699 

ETC. 


Model 16 1 Drive 

4199 

CCR-81 

52 

MODEMS 


R.S. Joysticks (pair) 

22 

Hayes Smart Modem II 

235 

16K RAM Chips 

25 

R.S. AC-3 

129 

64K RAM Chips 

75 

R.S. Modem 1 

129 

32K Microbuffer Inline 

229 

R.S. Modem II 

199 

Video Plus 

24.95 

PRINTERS 


Kraft Joystick (each) 

49.95 

Smith Corona TPI 

495 

Disk Controller 

199 

Epson 

Call 

Serial to Parallel Conv. 

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CGP-115 

199 

Superpro Keyboard 

69.95 


SOFTWARE 


(Tape Version) 
39.95 



We have the lowest possible 
Fully Warranteed Prices AND 
a full complement of Radio Shack 
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Prices subject to change without notice. 
Not responsible tor typographical errors. 
TRS-80 is a registered trademark ot Tandy Corp. 



Zaxxon 

The King 26.95 

Colorpede 29.95 

Traplall 27.95 

Pac Attack 24.95 

Ghost Gobbler 19.95 

Planet Invasion 21.95 

Color Zap 9.95 

Railrunner 21.95 

Space Shuttle 28.95 

Typing Tutor 19.95 

Color Come 49.95 

Telewriter 64 49.95 

FHL Flex (Disk) 69.95 

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Under the Rainbow 





Snowflakes In July? / Robert Delbourgo 28 

(Graphics) Remember, it’s winter Down Under 

MINI DOS Switches Programs//);-. Laurence Preble 44 

(Utility) Keep two programs in memory at the same time! 

Move Over Walt Disney/Sco// Bain 53 

(Graphics) Now you can do your own animations 

You Spent How Much?// D. Ray 60 

(Home Help) Analyze and graph Home Finance 
information 

A Pot Of Disk /Roger Schrag 71 

(Disk Utility) A host of new utilities for your disk 

Let’s Get Dotto /Daniel W. Phillips 83 

(Game) Good old dot-to-dot hits CoCo 

Baseball Statistics Made Easy / Edward R. Carson 92 

(Sports) This one does everything but buy you the peanuts 
and Crackerjack 

CoC.'o Meets The World/ Dennis Meixsell 106 

(Hardware) Hook CoCo up to all sorts of things 

Not Just A Sorta Sort/C. J. Stearman 112 

(Utility) A quick sorting program (First of two) 

RAINBOWfest Report/,//™ Reed 122 

(Pictorial) A photo essay 

y\H\TZlT!/ Randall Smith 124 

(Word Game) A scrambled word game, that’s what 

The Snails Strike Back / Fred Scerbo 138 

(Game) We turn the tables on SNAIL INVADERS 

Play It Again, Rainbow \/ From AH Of Us 146 

(Anniversary Special) A record of programs 

Direct Disk Directory Directions / Melvin Hefter 152 

(Tutorial) How to use your disk directory 

Shuffle Off In High-Res / Phillip Beistel . 196 

(Game) Move those numbers around 

Game Train/.//™ Schmidt 202 

(Game) A game and a memory trainer 

CoCo To Col Richard Giovanoni 218 

(Construction) Build a portable computer center 

L as Vegas CoC o ?/ Linda Nielson 226 

(Statistics) Probable probability problems proven 
practical 

RA1NBUG III /Dan Downard 234 

(Utility) More on our ML monitor 

Rainbow Memory Map / Bob Russell 254 

(Special) CoCo’s most complete memory map — Part 1 

Printout At PMODE4 / Joseph Kohn 262 

(Printers) Dot graphics for Epson and Microline 

Speak i p, CoCo / John Kelty 275 

(Hardware) Words from a chip 

Rainbow’s Indcx/Lej/ie A. Foster 290 

(Special) A complete index to our first two years 

Due to family illness, Dennis Lewandowski’s Assembly 
Corner does not appear this month. It will return in August. 



THE PIPELINE CONTAINS AN EXCLUSIVE FIRST PREVIEW OF THE NEW 
TRS-80 MC-10 MICRO COLOR COMPUTER 






Departments 


Letters To Rainbow/ Our Readers 6 

PRINT #-2,/ Lawrence C. Falk 13 

Editor’s Notes 

Building July’s Rainbow/ Jim Reed 14 

A many-hued preview to this month’s issue. 

Charlie’s Machine / Charles J. Roslund 18 

How to make ROM calls easily 

About Your Subscription 232 

Back Issue Information 284 

CoCo Counsel/ Tom Nelson 36 

Successful Software Submissions 

Submitting Material To Rainbow 70 

Rainbow Scoreboard 90 

Education Notes / Sieve Blyn 130 

Teaching kids to fill out forms 

Basic Framing/ Joseph Kolar. 148 

Learn by taking programs apart 

The Pipeline/ Staff. 164 

A special look at a new (PoCo) CoCo 

Using Graphics/ Don Inman 168 

Making circles and arcs 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 176 

Making a ROM Port “Y" Adapter 

The Dragon’s Byte / Bill Nolan 178 

Combat and CoCo 

Bits And Bytes Of Basic/ Richard White 183 

Text entry routines 


Received And Certified 


224 


GameMaster’s Apprentice/ Bob Albrecht 248 

A character-finder program 

Greetings From Uncle Bert /Dale Peterson 285 

Our new column on LOGO — for kids and their parents 

Corrections 288 

RAINBOW Info 298 

Advertiser Index 306 


Product Reviews 

64K Disk Utilities 

Alcatraz II 

CoCo Accountant 

Data-Comp FLEX 

Datamail 

Dollars & Sense 

Dungeons of Daggorath 

EPROM Programmer 

Fastape 

FHL FLEX 

Filmastr 

Fraction Math Quiz 

The Frog 

Function Graphing Module . . 
Grafplot 


284 Home Interest Calculator 50 

232 Home Money Manager 42 

.82 Intoduction To Data 

240 Communications 24 

166 McCoCo’s Menu 300 

300 Moneypak 300 

220 Morocco Gran Prix 222 

.70 Planet Invasion 223 

221 Robottack 233 

240 Scramble 43 

231 Spectral FLEXPLUS 240 

167 Stock Option Strategies 201 

233 TRS-80 Programmer’s 

. 16 Sourcebook 297 

158 


NEXT MONTH: Football season starts soon, and the August Rainbow will be in the thick 
of it, with a football game. You can start training early. Also, an excellent new column for 
educators to go with our fine new LOGO offering. 

The memory map will be back — for Part II. It is really a big one and will be with us for a 
couple more months, yet. And, perhaps, a very special report. 

Plus . . . some more music, more games and just more of everything - programs, reviews, 
and information on CoCo than you can possibly find anywhere else. Don’t miss August’s 
Rainbow ! 


The Rainbow 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor 

James E. Reed 
Managing Editor 

Courtney Noe 
Associate Editor 

Dan Downard 
Technical Editor 

Sally Nichols 
Art Director 

Jerry McKiernan 
Assistant Art Director 

Valarie Edwards 
Jutta Kapfhammer 
Suzanne Kurowsky 
Editorial Assistants 

Bob Albrecht 
Steve Blyn 
Tony DiStefano 
Don Inman 
Joseph Kolar 
Dennis Lewandowski 
Bill Nolan 
Dale Peterson 
Charles Roslund 
Dick White 
Contributing Editors 

Charlotte Ford 
Advertising Manager 

Patricia H. Hirsch 

General Manager 

Donna Shuck 
Bookkeeper 

Ivanka Kleier 

Customer Service Manager 

Deidra Henry 
Tanya Holder 
Monica Wheat 
Research Assistants 

Wendy Falk 
Transportation 


The Rainbow is published every month of the year by 
FALSOFT. INC.. 95Z9 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 909. 
Prospect, KY. 40059 Phone (502) 228-4492 The 
RAINBOW and the Rainbow logotypes are ® 
Trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. 

Second class postage pending at Louisville. KY. 
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to ■Retritew; 
P.O. Box 209. Prospect. KY 40059. Fowarding Postage 
Guaranteed. 

Entire contents ® by FALSOFT, Inc., 1983. The 
RAINBOW is intended for the private use and pleasure 
of its subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by 
any means is prohibited. Use of information herein is for 
the single end use ot purchasers and any other use is 
expressly prohibited. All programs harem are 
distributed in an "as Is" basis, without warranty ot any 
kind whatsoever. 

TRS-80. Color Basic, Extended Color Basic, Scripsit 
and Program Pak are ® trademarks of the Tardy Corp. 
CompuServe is a * Trademark of CompuServe Inc. 

Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $22 per year in the 
United Slates. Canadian and Mexican rates are U S, $29. 
Surface mail to other countries is U.S. $57, airmail U.S. 
$85. All subscriptions begin with the next available 
issue. 

Limited back issues are available. Please see notice 
for issues which are in print and costs. Payment 
accepted by VISA, MasterCard, American Express, 
Cash, Check or Money Order in United States currency 
only. 




letters to> 


RAINBOW 


PAINT 15L: NEW 

Editor: 

1 would like toshare with your readers 
a discovery 1 have made. 

1 use and move my computer quite a 
bit. Hence, there are several places on it 
where the paint has worn off. A local 
Radio Shack dealer told me to try an 
automotive touch up paint. 

1 found that General Motors makes a 
color called “Silver Sand,” code I5L. It 
is a perfect match. A company named 
Dupli-Color markets it in spray cans. 
Du pi i -Color’s code is DS-GM 326. Now 
my CoCo looks new again! 

Frank Cerra 
Kansas City, MO 

RAY LIKES HIS ‘K’ 

Editor: 

1 received a CoCo for Christmas and got 
your magazine in January. Your monthly 
editions have helped me a great deal in 
understanding different areas of the ma- 
chine, but what 1 really want to know is how 
to gain full usefulness of the memory in my 
machine. 

I have the new version of the CoCo with 
the ‘F’ board. What 1 want to know is why 
can’t 1 access the full 64K of my chips, and 
would it be possible to piggyback a set of 
64K chips to expand my memory to 64K 
Extended plus 128 with a DOS. Please help. 

Raymond [Vise 
Stuart, FL 

Editor’s Note: The 6809 Processor has 
16 address lines and therefore can 
address 64K bytes. You have to have 
an operating system to tell the proces- 
sor what to do, such as BASIC, This 
operating system occupies memory. 
Therefore the maximum memory 
accessible is = (64K — operating sys- 
tem). In the case of Extended BASIC 
this leaves you 32 K of user memory as 
the BASIC ROMs occupy the top 
32K. 

64K may be better utilized by some 
of the more sophisticated disk systems 
and software such as FLEX but at no 
time can you access more than 64K. 


BENJAMINS BORDER 

Editor: 

1 enjoyed the article by Ray Gauvreau to 
pula border around the CoCo screen. 1 have 
a I6K standard Color BASIC and was dis- 
appointed to read that Ray’s program 
required ECB, 

However, with the help of the instruc- 
tion manual, 1 made the following changes 

6 ihe'KAINBOW July 1983 


and ran the program successfully. 

30 POKE 275,63: POKE 276,224 
110 IF BN>32767 THEN 100 
120 CLS (RND(8)):X=USR(BN) 

140 X=USR(BN) 

160 X=USR(BN-3) 

I had to save the entire program since 
Color BASIC will not save 
machine language. Also, if you 
BREAK alter the first RUN, you need to 
enter RUN 100. Entering RUN will get a SN 
error. 

I spent several hours playing with this 
program and trying different com- 
binations. 

1 would like to see more articles for Color 
BASIC. I do enjoy your magazine. 

Benjamin W. Brunotte 
Beaumont, TX 

LET ME COUNT THE WAYS 

Editor: 

I thought the review of Gazon in your 
April issue was fair, but there arc two things 
I would like to clear up. First, the game does 
not require Extended BASIC. Second, you 
can fire in 32 directions, not eight. 

David A. Sweet 
(Author of Gazon) 
Carmel, IN 

DISCOVERED BY OCCIDENT 

Editor: 

With regard to the letter from Mr. R.W. 
Odlin in your April issue in which he des- 
cribes the apparently accidental discovery of 
Japanese characters while using his CGP 
1 15 with the Telewriter 64 direct printer con- 
trol command: He must have had DIP 
switch 4 set to the special characters position 
and then entered the Hex values for the Jap- 
anese Kana character set directly to the print- 
er buffer via the Direct control code com- 
mand. 

The Japanese Kana character set will be 
selected in the codes AO(Hcx) through 
DF(Hcx). This character set is also imple- 
mented in the Radio Shack LPVI1I if DIP 
switch 8 is set to the closed position. 

I would like to congratulate you on the 
truly excellent quality of your magazine. It is 
marketed locally through Atlantic News, 
which carries the best selection of computer 
publications to be found in Canada. 1 would 
also like to compliment Ms. Sally Nichols 
and Mr. Jerry McKiernan on the outstand- 
ing job they have done in producing your 
new format. It’s absolutely super. 

Wishing you every success with your fine 
publication. 

Andrew Gorman 
Halifax, N.S. Canada 


RAINBOWFEST 

Editor: 

1 am not one to write letters to magazines, 
but I felt compelled to write this one. I want 
to thank Rainbow magazine for the wonder- 
ful time 1 had at RAINBOWfest. 1 didn’t set 
up a booth for the show as I didn’t really 
expect that many people to trek to Chicago 
for a computer show. Boy, was I wrong! If 
anything w'ould be living proof of the solid- 
arity of the CoCo, it was what took place 
April 22-24 in the Hyatt-Rcgcncy Wood field 
in Schammburg. It was great to see the aisles 
packed with fellow CoCo users and a real 
pleasure to meet my fellow CoCo advertis- 
ers. Though RAINBOWfest would have 
been very profitable for my company, that 
would rate a poor second to the experience 
that I will remember from it. I want to thank 
you again and am anxiously awaiting 
RAINBOWfest II. And you can bet that I 
will have a booth at that one! 

Bob Rosen 
President, Spectrum Projects 
Woodhaven, NY 

Editor: 

Congratulations, kudos and a thousand 
thank yous for RAINBOWfest. A success 
and a pleasure for all involved. 

John and Linda Nielsen 
More ton Bay Software 
Santa Barbara, CA 

Editor: 

Just wanted to drop you a short note 
thanking you for sponsoring the RAIN- 
BOWfest. My wife and I learned much . . . 
and had an excellent time doing it. 

We will certainly look forward to the next 
one! 

Again . . . thank you! 

Leu Baas 
Traverse City, MI 

Editor: 

It was really a pleasure meeting you and 
some of the other staff members at RAIN- 
BOWfest. Everyone 1 spoke with thoroughly 
enjoyed it. It’s hard to imagine how many 
people will show up for next year's once they 
find out how much fun they missed. 

Gerry Schechter 
Yonkers, N Y 

Editor: 

Thank you and all of the participants at 
RAINBOWfest who made the show such a 
success. The vendors who were there were all 
very pleasant and most helpful. 1 am writing 
to express my special thanks publicly to Paul 
and Susan Petrocci of Petrocci Freelance. 
Their kindness and consideration to me per- 
sonally far exceeded that which could be 
expected of them to extend to a total 
stranger. 1 look forward to seeing them 
again, together with all of the Rainbow peo- 


pie at next year’s show — wherever the Rain- 
bow touches down again. 

Thomas P. Daly 
Waukegan, IL 


LLIST RONG 

Editor: 

Your reviews of our products Electricity 
Consumption Moniter and LLIST-Rite 
were more than we expected. In both cases, 
the reviewers had done their homework pro- 
grammatically as well as operationally, with 
the result of providing prospective purchas- 
ers very accurate information on which to 
base their buy decision. Well done, and 
thanks to your reviewers for a few compli- 
ments along the way. 

I would like to point out that the sample 
output from the LLIST-Rite utility on page 
204 is not correct. It does represent how 
LLIST-Rite separates complex program state- 
ments, but shows each line break with a new 
line number and '(comment). Apparently, 
eithertheauthororyourstaff used the ROM 
LLIST function to simulate how LLIST- 
Rite works, but forgot to remove the line 
numbers and '. 

Finally, add my name to the growing list 
of folks in this business who view the Rain- 
bow as not just the best Color Computer 
magazine, but the best computer informa- 
tion source of its kind! 

Tom Mardis 
Owner, CoCoDATA Enterprises 
Orlando, FL 


NO TIRARING PIEDRAS, PLEASE 

Editor: 

The Spanish One software reviewer in 
April Rainbow gets an “F” in Spanish. 

In Spanish, they do use “yo,” a nomina- 
tive pronoun as an object of a preposition, 
e.g., “entre usted y yo.” 

The reviewer translates “Buenos Dias" as 
“Hello.” Maybe so, but in actual use it is 
used only in the morning before noon. Does 
she think we only read Rainbow in the morn- 
ing? You might say “Good Morning” in a 
morning newspaper, but not in a monthly 
magazine. 

“Programa" doesn’t end in an “e.” It’s an 
exception to the rules. It’s a masculine noun 
from Greek, not Latin, and ends in an “a.” 

The reviewer should learn this sentence: 
“Los que viven en casas de vidrio, no deben 
tirar piedras.” 

Literal translation: “Those who live in 
houses of glass, should not throw rocks.” 

Conrad Kirksey 
Houston, TX 


HINTS TV’ TIPS 

Editor: 

In the April issue, a letter from Max 
Shank indicated that he was unable to run 
the UNIDA TFL program (June, 1982 issue) 
in the upper 64K section using my program 
(January, 1983 issue) for relocating BASIC 


programs to the upper 64K section of RAM, 
thus allowing for more data to be stored for 
the program. 

In order for UNIDATFL to work in the 
upper 64K section of RAM, you have to 
delete step 1 which has a “GOTO 4000” 
statement. Steps 4000 and 4010 contain a 
subroutine for relocating UNIDA TFL start- 
ing at &H0E18 and since you want the pro- 
gram to remain in the upper section of 
RAM, this subroutine must be avoided by 
deleting step 1 of the program. 

The above correction wili allow you to 
increase the number of records to be stored. 
Therefore, line 60 of UNIDATFL could be 
changed to read: “CLEAR 25000: D=500: 
DIM N$(D).” 

Jorge Mir 
New Berlin, WI 

Editor: 

1 want to thank Roger Schrag for his two 
patches to EDTASM+. That in itself more 
than paid for my subscription to the 
Rainbow. 

I would like to offer a short patch to his 
that will print the disk directory when a L or 
W command is entered. I found myself for- 
getting the files I had on the disk and this 
seems to have solved the problem. 

Insert these lines after line 100 (FNAME 
PSHS U) of the original program. 

PSHS DP,X,Y 
CLRA 

STA >$006F RESET SCREEN- 
PRINTER SWITCH 
TFR A, DP CLEAR DP REGIS- 
TER 

JSR SCBCF DIR ROM ROU- 
TINE 

PULS DP,X,Y 

Reassemble the program following the 
instructions in Roger Schrag’s article. 

Craig Levang 
Anoka, MN 


CHAIRMAN OF D’ BOARD 

Editor: 

As author of the March article “64K Mod- 
ification For ‘D’ Board,” I have been over- 
whelmed with the response from your read- 
ers. Many express thanks for the modi- 
fication described. Unfortunately, a few 
people have had problems getting the con- 
version to work. I’ve attempted to answer all 
questions as rapidly as possible (usually 
within one day). Some difficulties are to be 
expected with any article on hardware modi- 
fications. 

Difficulties experienced fall into three 
general categories: 

1) Using the described D-Board modifica- 
tion or ’E’ or even ‘F’ series CoCo boards. 
The modification can work on these boards 
although not exactly as described. 

2) Not making all the changes indicated. It 
simply won’t work if all the wires are not 
connected or if the jumper blocks haven’t 
been reconfigured. 

3) Simply not understanding the article 
because of no familiarity with the CoCo or 


electronics wiring. I think it’s great that 
some of you tried, even without this know- 
ledge. That’s how progress is made. I’ll cer- 
tainly do what I can to help you out. 

If you’re having difficulty, by all means, 
write me at 113 Boone Road, 15085. Des- 
cribe the problem as completely as you can. 
Include a sketch of the modifications you 
installed. Include a checklist showing that all 
steps described in the article were com- 
pleted. Include a self addressed stamped 
envelope. If you are in a hurry, call me at 
(412) 373-3363 after 6 p.m. EST. Have your 
CoCo open in front of you when you call. 

Brian H. Alsop 
Trafford, PA 


ABUNCHA BBS’S 

Editor: 

Dr. D’s CoCo Corner is a new Bulletin 
Board Service for the Color Computer. I 
would very much appreciate it if you would 
publish my BBS number in your magazine, 
as I do subscribe, and recommend it to all 
my BBS users. This BBS runs 24 hours a 
day; we support upload and download. My 
BBS phone number is (904) 456-7195. 

Gary Dunsford, Sysop 
Pensacola, FL 

Editor: 

Tom Mix Software is pleased to announce 
that we are now running a 24 hour bulletin 
board. The board is a total dedication to the 
Color Computer and will carry programs for 
downloading for the Color Computer. 

We, like most boards, are looking for 
good public domain programs that will be 
uploaded to the system. 

Our 24 hour BBS number is (616) 
364-8217. 

Tom Mix Software 
Grand Rapids, MI 

Editor: 

I have set up a CoCo BBS in Morgan- 
town, W.Va., called the Mountaineer Soft- 
line. It is open 24 hours a day, seven days a 
week. The phone number is (304) 599-0760. 1 
would also like to compliment you on your 
fine magazine and I love how you have 
grown. 

Wallace Co Iyer 
Morgantown, WV 

Editor: 

I would like to use your excellent publica- 
tion to inform everyone of a new Bulletin 
Board Service in Arlington, Mass. 1 am run- 
ning the Color-80 (Silicon Rainbow pro- 
ducts) BBS system on my 64K Color Com- 
puter. It is up 24 hours a day at 300 baud. 
The number is (617) 646-6809. 

Also associated with this, I have formed a 
Color Computer user’s group forthe Boston 
area. Those wishing details can log onto the 
BBS or write to me directly at 3 Acton 
Street, 02174. 

Greg Moore 
Arlington, MA 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 7 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

Has it really been two years? Who would 
believe that the little four page photocopy 
would turn into the finest magazine availa- 
ble for any computer. Just when 1 think 1 
have finally gotten nearly all the way 
through an issue, the next one arrives, even 
better than the last! 

Keep up the great work. I am proud to 
have played some small part in your fine 
efforts. 

Fred B. Scerbo, President 
Illustrated Memory Banks 
Williamstown, MA 

Editor: 

1 want to congratulate you on your new 
look. Rainbow is already a good magazine, 
but now it is also a very professional looking 
magazine. It seems right at home on the 
newsstand. 

Jack Gurner 
Memphis, TN 


ORG! THAT’S CONFUSING 

Editor: 

1 have been experiencing difficulties with 
Radio Shack’s EDTASM+ cartridge. When 
certain assembly language programs are 
entered into the editor, it seems to get the 
labels confused. On assembling the pro- 
gram, the editor returns a “Multiply Defined 
Symbol” error as it reaches every label. 1 
have run into this problem several times, but 
only on three programs. Otherwise, 
EDTASM+ works perfectly. 

Alan A. Farmer 
Charlottesville, V A 

Editor’s Note: The problem you are 
having is due to a double symbol table 
being accessed due to the location of 
your in-memory assembly. Try a dif- 
ferent ORG statement. 


CLUBS, CLUBS, CLUBS 

Editor: 

Those interested in activities of the Alaska 
Color Computer User’s Group should write 
me at 816 N. Pine, #2, Anchorage, Alaska, 
99504 or call (907) 274-5778. 

Rick McDannel 
Anchorage, AK 

Editor: 

1 am interested in forming a Color Com- 
puter user’s group in the Iowa City area. 
Interested people may contact me at R. R. 
#6, The Woods, Iowa City, Iowa, 52240. 

1 think you have a very fine and necessary 
publication, keep it running. 

S.P. Chapter 
Iowa City, I A 

Editor: 

1 have received the Rainbow for several 
months now and each month just gets better 
and better. I am impressed with the quality 
and professionalism of your articles. In 
addition, on the one occasion when I had a 


problem that 1 couldn’t solve and called for 
help, your staff was both courteous and suc- 
cessful in helping me contact the person 1 
needed to talk to. Your magazine is read 
from cover to cover each and every month 
both by myself and by my students at the 
school where I teach. 

1 would like to announce the formation of 
our user’s group here in our area. We are 
called the Mil-O-Bar Color Computer Club. 
We anticipate a turnout of around 35 at our 
next meeting. We meet on the last Thursday 
of each month at Ona Junior High School 
We welcome any and all who are interested. 
In addition, we would like to exchange ideas 
with other clubs on by-laws, newsletters, etc. 
Call me at (304) 743-4752 or Barry Huff- 
stutler at 743-5356. Please call on Wednes- 
day, Thursday or Friday. 

Jim Lemaster 
Milton, WV 

Editor: 

We are calling our user’s group Ogden 
CoCo and Rainbow readers are welcome to 
exchange newsletters or otherwise contact 
us by writing to 4535 S. 2600 W., 84067. 

Kathy Rush 
Roy, UT 

Editor: 

The Color Computer Club of Sarasota 
meets the last Thursday of every month at 
7:30 p.m. at 4047 Bee Ridge Road, Sarasota, 
Fla., 33582. 

Interested CoCo and TDP-100 users are 
welcome to attend or to contact me at (8 1 3) 
921-7510. 

Ernie Bontrager 
Sarasota, FL 

Editor: 

I am pleased to announce the organiza- 
tion of a Color Computer Club in the greater 
Birmingham area. Anyone interested should 
write me at P.O. Box 335, Gardendale, Ala., 
3507 1 , or call (205) 63 1 -3320 or 798-2355. 

1 would also like to compliment you on 
the continuing excellence of your magazine. 

Joseph Bell, Jr. 

Gardendale, AL 

Editor: 

I recently purchased a Signalman modem 
for my CoCo. I also purchased the Color- 
corn/ E software cartridge to accompany the 
modem. My only problem is that the modem 
has a DB-25 male connector and my CoCo 
has a 4 pin serial I/O socket. The man I 
bought the modem from said, “You have to 
buy an adapter to use it on your computer.” 
So I called everywhere 1 could think of and 
everybody said that they never heard of that 
kind of adapter. Can anybody help me find 
one? 

1 also would like to try to start a CoCo 
user’s club in the Linden/ Rahway area. 
Anyone interested please contact me at 73 B 
Wavecrest Avenue, 07036, or call (201) 
925-1827. 

Bud Lavin 
Winfield, NJ 


Editor: 

We are pleased to announce the Metro- 
politan Greenville Color Computer Club 
formed in January of this year and already 
almost 50 members strong. 

The MGCCC serves the interests of pres- 
ent and prospective CoCo owners in the 
entire western South Carolina region. As a 
group, we are totally committed to compu- 
ter literacy among ourselves and within the 
community. Members enjoy a lively ex- 
change of computing information, free lan- 
guage, programming and hardware tutorials 
as well as a biweekly club newsletter. 

Meetings are held every Tuesday at 7:30 
p.m. in the Plain Elementary School, Simp- 
sonville, S.C. 

Anyone wanting more information about 
this dynamic organization may contact me 
at any time at (803) 876-3928 or -3812, or 
write. 

Ed Lowe 
Gray Court, SC 

Editor: 

Any CoCo owners in the Bloomington- 
Normal, 111., area, interested in starting a 
user’s group, SIG, etc., please contact me at 
184 Southgate Estates, Bloomington, 111., or 
phone (309) 828-4671. 

Ray Myers 
Bloomington, IL 

Editor: 

I would like to announce the formation of 
a TRS-80 Computer Club in southwest 
Oklahoma. As of this writing, we have 32 
members. Anyone needing additional infor- 
mation can call me at (405) 355-7254, or the 
Secretary of the group, Cebe Mayse, at (405) 
536-1907. We are currently calling ourselves 
S.L.U.G. (Southern Lawton Users Group). 

Dan Goddard 
Geronimo, OK 

Editor: 

Those in the Louisville and southern Indi- 
ana area who would like to get a Color 
Computer Club started should contact me at 
2603 Garden Lake Lane, 40220, or call (502) 
491-1853. 

Roger Idstrom 
Louisville, KY 

Editor’s Note: Roger, read on. 

Editor: 

We are forming a Color Computer group 
in the Louisville area, and would like very 
much to hear from anyone interested in join- 
ing us. For more information, contact me at 
2820 Del Rio Place #27, 40220. 

Stephen Hess 
Louisville, KY 

Editor: 

I am interested in forming a CoCo Club in 
the Kannapolis/Concord/Salisbury area in 
North Carolina. All CoCo owners interested 
please contact meat 2419 Lane St., 2808 1 or 
call (704) 932-6653. 

Mike Mundv 
Kannapolis, NC 


8 the RAINBOW July 1983 



COLORSOFT GENERAL LEDGER 

COLORSOFT lm General Ledger Is Ideal for the small business man who 
wants to take advantage of the lime saving benefits of computerized account- 
ing procedures. This package is designed for the businessman who Is 
knowledgable of accounting principles and who wants a computerized 
accounting system with greater user control. The features and options of this 
package compare favorably to higher priced software. 

FEATURES 

**• USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN — 

UP TO 96 USER DEFINABLE RECORD CATEGORIES * # * 

•'* USER FLEXIBILITY IN ACCOUNT DESIGN AND ENTRIES — 

**• DETAILED USER’S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS — 

*** APPROXIMATELY 800 ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE FILES — 
•••STYLED FOR THE ACCOUNTANT/BOOKKEEPING ORIENTED USER*** 
*•• MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY. FAST. AND EFFICIENT ••• 
COLORSOFT ,m General Ledger Is an Integrated, journal-type double entry 
accounting package for a small business that Includes General Ledger. 
Accounts Payable, and Accounts Receivable programs. Outputs of the system 
include an Income statement, balance sheet, accounts payable and receivable 
status lists, accounts payable and receivable aging reports, journal reports, 
account listing and a closing summary. During each user established account- 
ing period (monthly, quarterly, annually, etc.), It will handle accounts of up to 
$1,000,000.00 for approximately 800 accounts payable/receivable. Accounts 
are automatically numbered and each transaction Is carried separately so that 
an account number will correspond to a specific purchase rather than a 
specific vendor/customer. 

Requires 16K and a Single Disk Drive. 

PRICE: $129.95 


COLORSOFT SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

The COLORSOFT ,m Small Business Accounting package Is Ideal for the 
small businessman who wants to take advantage of the time saving benefits of 
computerized accounting procedures. This package is designed with this 
person In mind and as such, extensive computer or accounting experience Is 
not required. The feature and options of this package are comparable to much 
higher priced software. 

FEATURES 

•** USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN ••• 

•** USER DOES NOT NEED TO BE AN ACCOUNTANT ••• 

•** UP TO 32 USER DEFINABLE RECORD CATEGORIES *** 

**• DETAILED USER'S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS — 

•** USER IS PROMPTED FOR COMPANION ENTRIES AS REQUIRED — 
*•' APPROXIMATELY 800 ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE FILES *•* 
••* MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT — 
COLORSOFT ,m Small Business Accounting Is an Integrated, ledgerless 
accounting package for a small business that Includes Accounts Payable, 
Accounts Receivable, Sales, and Purchase Order. programs. Outputs of the 
system Include an Income statement, balance sheet, check register, accounts 
payable and receivable status lists, and accounts payable and receivable 
aging reports. During each user established accounting period (monthly, 
quarterly, annually, etc.), It will handle sales of up to $1,000,000.00 and 
approximately 800 accounts payable/recelvable. Accounts are automatically 
numbered and each transaction Is carried separately such that an account 
number will correspond to a specific purchase rather than a specific 
vendor/customer. 

Requires 16K and a Single Disk Drive. 

PRICE: $149.95 


COLORSOFT MANAGEMENT SKILLS 
SERIES I: BEING BOSS 

'BEING BOSS" is a collection of six programs and Is the first in an ongoing 
series of computer assisted management development tools. Those who can 
benefit Include corporate executives, managers, heads of teams, group leaders, 
supervisors, foremans, teachers, and parents. In fact, anyone who must take a 
leadership role can benefit from these programs. 

A. REFLECTIONS - a self evaluation guide 

B. ASSERTIVENESS - taking control as a leader 

C. MANAGEMENT STYLES - how to approach the leadership role 

D. DECISION MAKING - how to handle decision making 

E. COUNSELING - helping others solve personal problems 

F. STRESS CONTROL - taking care of yourself 

Each program Is In a multiple choice questionnaire format where the user Is 
querrled as to a response to a specified management situation. Tutorials help the 
user learn new management skills and Insights. The programs Include voice 
annotation from the author, Mr. Terry Barker. "BEING BOSS" Is based In part on 
his forthcoming management books "BOSS TALK” and "THEORY C. M 
The series, “BEING BOSS".offers to the user the latest In management skill 
development concepts and should prove to be an Invaluable TOOL for anyone 
who wishes to reach their full potential as a leader. The author has condensed 
week long Intensive workshop material Into this outstanding package. The 
accompanying user's manual is very well written and is easily understood by 
anyone. 

Requires 16K and cassette. 

PRICE $89.95 


COLORSOFT 11 " ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

COLORSOFT ,m Accounts Receivable Is a full stand-alone accounts receiva- 
ble system. It Is also suited for Integration Into the COLORSOFT * m Small 
Business Accounting package. Accounts Receivable does not require the user 
to be an accountant; In fact, this Is a highly user friendly system designed for 
dally use by the small businessman. The features and options of this system 
compare favorably with much higher priced software. 

FEATURES 

••* PROVIDES ACCOUNT AUDIT TRAIL *** 

•** ACCOUNTS ARE CARRIED BY CUSTOMER ••• 

**• USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN ••• 

••• PREPARES INVOICES AND MAILING LABELS *** 

•*• USER DOES NOT NEED TO BE AN ACCOUNTANT *** 

••• DETAILED USER S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS ••• 

•** MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT ••• 
COLORSOFT (m Accounts Receivable provides the user with detailed audit 
trails and history files on all transactions by a customer. It also prepares 
Invoices, mailing labels, aging lists, customer history reports, and an alphabet- 
lzed*customer listing. The user can define discount/net terms for commercial 
accounts and finance charge and minimum payments for revolving accounts. 

Requires 16K and a Single Disk Drive. 

PRICE: $89.95 


USER’S MANUALS WITHOUT PROGRAM $20.00 EACH (Refunded on Purchase) 

INCLUDE: $2.25 Handling Per Order WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 


BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTWARE services div. 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE GROUP 
P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 


TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 

COD/VISA/MASTERCARD 


ATTENTION DEALERS: WE OFFER THE BEST DEALER PLANS AVAILABLE 



^ Color Quest 


GAMES 

For The TRS-80 Color 
and TDP System 100 


Fast Machine Code • Hi-res Color Graphics • Exciting Arcade Action and Sound 


Fembcts/^flevenge 



3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Make love not war? Not with these sultry FEMBOTS! What a 
tale you'll tell IF you live to tell it! Cold steel never felt so HOT! 
The color and excitement of ARCADE ACTION combined 
with the sophistication, intellectual challenge and skill of an 
ADVENTURE GAME doesn't fully describe this cosmic 
shoot'em up. 

16K Tape S29.95 32K Disk $34.95 


.. .. 

— — 


i iL 


j • 



by Tom Czarnecki 

The ONLY Ms. game around. A 
must for your PAC-like game 
collection. 

16K Tape $19.95 
16K Disk $24.95 


TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp 



by Kevin Herrboldt & Tim Nelson 
3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 
A dead star ... A derlict vessel ... or is it? Trapped 
within you must venture the corridors; defend yourself 
against the merciless gauntlet of agents of the machine 
mind. A real-time, high-res, 3-D science fiction 
adventure game of mind-blowing magnitude. 

16K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 



3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Clash steel with thy foe in the arena of gore. Proved 
worthy, go in quest of the elusive Eye of Dazmor. If ye 
findest the orb, hast ye the might to ward off skem and 
the fortitude to restore the Eye? The ultimate high-res, 
3-D quest for even the most experienced adventurer! 

16K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 



For Orders 
ONLY Call 
Toll Free 


1-800-328-2737K 


Fast Machine Code • Hi-res Color Graphics • Exciting Arcade Action and Sound 


INTERCEPTOR 


by Scott Snyder 

Goes beyond “DEFENDER" 
and "STARGATE" to offer the 
most realistic ARCADE 
simulation possible. Warp 
speed action, multi-colored 
terrain and long-range viewer 
make this game tops. 

16K Tape $19.95 

32K Disk $24.95 




mJw 




THE 


by Dan Nelson 

Why fly to VEGAS when you can have a 
casino at home! The VEGAS GAMEPAK is 
five action packed games with great 
graphics & sound. SLOT MACHINE - 
BLACKJACK -UP AND DOWN THE RIVER 
- CRAPS & KENO. 

16K Tape $19.95 16K Disk S24.95 



o o 


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by Tom Czarnecki 

Fast paced maze chase game will 16K Tape $19.95 
entertain the entire family. 16K Disk $24.95 


CoIorQuesf 

A Division of Softlaw Corp. 612/881-2777 
9072 Lyndale Ave. So., Minneapolis, MN 55420 

AUTHORS’ SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED 

Available at Dealers everywhere. 

If you Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 




by Tom Czarnecki 

Shades of smartbombs and hurtling comets! Defending 
your planet from invasion was never so challenging. 
Disruptor fire is your main defense against the fierce alien 
attacks. 

16K Tape $19.95 32K Disk S24.95 


ORDERING — 

Customer service and product support call (612) 881-2777 

Make checks or money orders payable to Nelson 
Software Systems. Personal checks allow 3 weeks. 
MAIL ORDERS: 52.00 U.S. Shipping (54.00 CANADA 
510 OVERSEAS) Add 52.00 for C.O.D. 

ORDERS SHIPPED SAME DAY! 


TDP SYSTEM 100* / QUALITY DISCOUNT PRODUCTS / COLOR COMPUTER* 
DISCOUNT PRICES / COMPARE / WE’RE FAST / ORDERS SHIPPED WITHIN 24 HR. 


Software Specials 20% OFF 

PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 


Astrology 

34.95 

27.95 

Fantasy Games (32K) 

24.95 

19.95 

PETROCCI FREELANCE 

Inspector CLUEseau 

17.95 

14.35 

Stress 

17.95 

14.35 

Weather Watch 

17.95 

14.35 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

Space Shuttle (32K) 

28.95 

23.95 

Trap Full 

27.95 

22.95 

SOFT SECTOR MARKETING 

Color Caterpiller 

19.95 

15.95 

Master Control II 

19.95 

15.95 

B-5 SOFTWARE 

Clock 

24.95 

19.95 

Money 

19.95 

15.95 

Math Fact 

16.95 

13.95 

ABCs 

9.95 

7.95 

PRICKLY-PEAR 

SOFTWARE 

15% OFF 





SpeciaU 

64 K RAM S - 

$ 49.95 


RADIO SHACK 

64 K Ext. Mod. 

16K Ext. 

Drive O 

9'/ 2 " Tractor (3000 sh) 
9'/ 2 "Tractor (500 sh) 
Computer Cassettes 


375.00 

279.00 

449.00 
24.95 

5.95 

.99 


Viking' 

Gangbuster 
Football 
1 Ching 
Numerology 
Tarot 

Trilogy (1 Ching, 
Numerology. Tarot) 
Phonics t 


19.95 

16.95 

Great Word Game' 

19.95 

16.95 

Assorted ROM pkg. 




10% Off 

19.95 

16.95 

Household Helper 

19.95 

16.95 

MD Keyboard 




59.95 

19 95 

16.95 

Math Pack 1 

19.95 

16.95 


TOM MIX 




19 95 

16.95 

Pre-Read 

24.95 

21 95' 

King 

(32 

K) 

24 95 

22.95 

19.95 

16.95 

Song Book (w tapesi 

29.95 

25.95 

Katerpiller 

(32 

K) 

24.95 

22.95 

19.95 

16.95 

Fantasy Games Pk 

19.95 

16.95 

Protector 

(32 

K) 

24 95 

22.95 



Las Vegas Weekend 

24.95 

21.95 


MARK DATA 




39.95 

33.95 

Phonics II 

24.95 

21.95 

Astro Blast 



24 95 

22.95 

24 95 

21.95 

8-Bit Bartender 

19.95 

16.95 

Space Rider 



24.95 

22.95 


Aardvark Products 


Spectrul Associates 


Sugar Software 


Haunted House 

9.95 

Cosmic Invaders 

21.95 

19.75 

Silly Syntax 

19.95 

Killer Bot 

13.95 

Meteorites 

21.95 

19.75 

Additional S.S. Tapes 

9.95 

Labyrinth 

14.95 

Space Wars 

21.95 

19.75 

Fairy Tales 


Starship Here. 

14.95 

Ghost Gobbler 

21.95 

19.75 

Sing Along 


Time Trek 

14.95 

Robot Attack 

21.95 

19.75 

X-Rated 


Escape from Mars 

14.95 

Galax Attack 

21.95 

19.75 

Current Events 


Pyramid 

14.95 




Adventure 


Quest 

14.95 

Computer Island 


Potpourri 


Trek Adventure 

14.95 

Circus 


10.00 

Auto Run 

14.95 

Circle World 

14.95 

School Maze 


10.00 

TIMS (32K) 

24.95 

Nuclear Sub 

14.95 

Name That Song 

ea 

10.00 



Venture 

19.95 

(1. II. Ill) 





Tiny Compiler 

24.95 




Eigen Systems 


Tube Frenzy 

19.95 

Silly Sentences 


6.00 

Basic Aid (cart.) 

34.95 

Derelict 

14.95 

Silly Stories 


6.00 

Stripper 

7.95 

Caterpillar 

19.95 

Poetry 


6.00 

Ccead 

6.95 

Space Battler 

12.95 

Wizard 


6.00 



Golf 

9.95 

Apartment House 


6.00 

Cognitec 


Catchem 

19.95 

Mystery 



Telewriter 64 59.95 

54.95 

Terms: Cash, money order, your personal checks welcome. 

Warranty: All hardware products are warranted for a period of 

No waiting to clear on software items. Shipping and C.O.D. 

180 days from date of purchase. We shall not be liable for loss 

please add $2.50, hardware add 5% extra for packing. All pro- 

or damage, alleged or caused indirectly to hardware or soft- 


grams are 16K except where noted. We re open for phone 
orders from 12:00 noon until 9:00 p.m.. 7 days a week. Send 
for our free catalog listings. We accept all foreign orders in 
U.S. funds only. 


ware including interruption of service, business loss, loss of 
expected profits or any damage resulting from use of hard- 
ware or software. 'Trademark of Tandy Corp. 


Desert Software, p.o. Box 502, Cortaro, az 85230 

Call (602) 744-1252 for immediate C.O.D. 



What a fitting way to lead into the beginning of the Rainbow 's third year and 
this Second Anniversary Issue! 

What I am speaking about, of course, is RAINBOWfest, which we held in 
Chicago in late April and on which you will see a report — in both words and 
pictures — in this issue. To quote one of the people who attended, it was a 
“smashing success.” The booths were full, the aisles were even fuller (yes, there 
will be more space next time) and a good, great and wonderful time was had by 
just about everyone! You’ve seen me write often about CoCo Community. Well, 
RAINBOWfest was CoCo Community at its finest. There were thousands and 
thousands of people there — and what they spoke about for three days running 
was CoCo. I can tell you, after all the years of proclaiming time and again that 
CoCo isn’t a toy, of beating down rumors (published by some magazines and 
otherwise) that CoCo was dead, of hearing praises about this computer system 
and that — RAINBOWfest, and all the people there who truly know the power, 
capability and have the sincere love for their CoCos was, indeed, one of the best 
moments in my life. 

We anticipated a couple thousand people would attend RAINBOWfest and, 
from that point of view, figured it would be a success. In all, total attendance was 
somewhere between 10,000 and 1 1 ,000. Our seminars were standing room only, 
the breakfast with Don Inman was a complete sellout. In all it was far, farabove 

any expectations. A veteran show-goer told me 
he had never seen anything like it in his life! Me 
either. 

I am as proud as can be that we were able to 
put on RAINBOWfest! And, for the record, 1 
want to say that we will have another one — 
maybe more than one. Virtually every exhibi- 
tor was asking to be able to participate again. 
And there were a large number of people there 
who didn’t exhibit who plan to be there next 
time. 

I couldn’t talk about RAINBOWfest with- 
out saying how much all of us owe to Dave 
Hooper, the local arrangements chairman. Dave 
truly did it all — and in totally outstanding 
fashion. There are thousands of people, Dave, 
who thank you for everything you did to make 
v the show what it was. 

There should be praise, too, for Don Inman, 
our breakfast speaker, who did a marvelous job, and for all our seminar 
speakers. They included Fred Scerbo of I MB, Tom Nelson ot Nelson Software, 
E. R. Bailey of Micrologic, Dr. Hal Snyder of the Northern Illinois CoCo Club, 
Steve Bjork, the author of Zaxxon, and Charles Roslund of Elite Software. By 
the way, Charles is back in the Rainbow with his popular Charlie’s Machine 
feature. 

And the “gang” from here: General Manager Pat Hirsch; Ad Manager Patty 
King, who was also reponsible for putting things together from this end; Art 
Director Sally Nichols, Research Assistant Monica Wheat; Managing Editor 
(and truck driver) Jim Reed; and our “volunteer,” Willo Falk, my better half. 
Too, a very special thanks to Ted Donhauser of ProMar in Chicago. He came to 
the rescue time and again. 

RAINBOWfest brought people from all over— from Great Britian, from 
Germany, from the Yukon, Hawaii and all across the United States and Canada. 
It certainly seemed every state was represented. It was a fantastic time and I hope 
you will make plans to share some fine CoCo Community with us in the future. 

So, now, it’s Second Anniversary time. 1 hope you like this anniversary issue, 
as the Rainbow enters its third year. Our big surprise is included, too— the 
soundsheet that is bound in every issue. We encourage you to try it out; there are 
some good programs on it! And, then, we would really like to know whetheryou 
like this innovation. If you do, we may consider doing it again— or even on a 

(continued on page 272) 





ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P.O. Box 16842 - Sta. B 
Greenville, South Carolina 29606 
(803) 233 2700 


PRESENTS 



COLOR— STICK 

The ORIGINAL interface for 

the TIT5-80* 
Color Computer to ler 
you use the famous: 

ATARI* JOYSTICK' 


Just plug your Atari or Atari like 
joystick (the Color-Stick enables the 
use of most joysticks made for the 
Atari) into the Color-Stick interface 
and then plug the Color-Stick into an 
empty joystick port. 

The Color-Stick can improve 
scores 50% and more while making 
some games more exciting and fun to 
play. 

Don’t settle for cheap imitations. 
Only the ORIGINAL Color-Stick’s 
small inline design allows you to just 
plug your joystick into it and forget it. 
The Color-Stick becomes a part of 
your joystick so it does not interfere 
with your game playing. In addition 
Color-Stick returns a full value of ’63’ 
for the right and down directions, 
even when using two joysticks and 
even in the diagonal directions, the 
others don’t. 

NOW Color-Stick has a 
new low price 

Color-Stick interface $12.95 each 

two for $22.95 (less joysticks) 
Atari joysticks $9.95 each 


«5 


ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P.O. Box 16842 — Sta. B 
Greenville, South Carolina 29606 
(803) 233-2700 


Don’t miss out order the 
ORIGINAL. Send your check or 
money order or better yet call 
today and order your Color-Stick. 



Add $2.00 per order shipping and handling. Bank cards 
welcomed (please include expiration date). Orders paid 
by cashiers check, money orders, bank cards and 
C.O.D. are shipped within 48 hours. Personal checks 
please allow 1 2 weeks. C.O.D. orders add $1.50 extra. 
S.C. residents add 4% sales tax. *TRS-80 is a registered 
trademark of Tandy Corp. Atari is a registered 
trademark of Atari, Inc. 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 13 



BUILDING JULY’S RAINBOW 

The Second Anniversary issue . . . 

Leaping over the 300-page hurdle . . . 

Introducing the Rainbow Soundsheet . . . 


Partytime at the Rainbow! It’s our 
second birthday. There’s been a bit of 
reverie around here about breaking the 
300-page mark and, in a moment of 
reflection, we made the observation that 
this month's issue of the Rainbow has 
more pages, by eight, than the entire 
first year’s editions combined. To put it 
another way, the very first issue of the 
Rainbow took up both sides of a total of 
50 sheets of paper; this month’s maga- 
zine will use more than two 35-ton box- 
car loads of paper. While we grew up in a 
hurry, we hope to grow old gracefully 
with our birthday resolution being to 
emphasize quality, not size. 

Size does have its advantages, though. 
Thanks to the support of all of you and 
our 203 advertisers, we’re able to offer 
everyone a birthday gift that we’re really 
quite proud of, our Rainbow Sound- 
sheet sampling of programs from our 
birthday issue. If you haven’t already, do 
give it a spin. 

Another birthday special is "Two Years 
of Rainbow," a complete index — by 
subject and by author as well — of all the 
articles, programs, reviews and special 
features appearing in the Rainbow 
between July 1981 and June 1983. Many 


of you have been asking for this refer- 
ence piece, and we plan to make it an 
annual anniversary feature. 

Another index, of sorts, and what we 
hope will become an active, evolving 
reference work, is Bob Russell’s Color 
Memory Map. This valuable compilation 
of "hooks” and "addresses” is being 
presented in installments over the next 
few months. Even if you aren’t among 
those who are excited to get this other- 
wise unavailable information, do hang 
onto it because, as you continue to learn 
more about BASIC, you'll develop a 
need for and appreciation of it. 

Among our many happy returns in this 
anniversary special are Charles J. 
Roslund, who’s back with his popular 
Charlie’s Machine and Fred Scerbo, who 
returns to our pages with Snail’s 
Revenge, the long-awaited sequel to his 
Snail Invaders (February 1982). 

Moving right along, from snails to tur- 
tles, new this issue is Greetings From 
Uncle Bert, with Dale Peterson, our new 
column on LOGO, directed to kids and 
parents, too. 

Also new this issue is the TRS-80 MC- 
10 Micro Color Computer! Editor Lonnie 
Falk provides a preview of this 4K 


“Coquette?" in our Pipeline column. 

And, speaking of our founder/editor/- 
guiding light/driving force, since this is a 
festive occasion for the Rainbow, and 
even though the big get-together and 
celebration took place at RAINBOWfest, 
I want to take this opportunity to salute 
the boss. In speaking of Lonnie Falk dur- 
ing his after-breakfast address at RAIN- 
BOWfest, Don Inman spoke of a man 
“with stars in his eyes and visions of 
rainbows in his mind,” and that’s very 
trueof Lonnie. Laterin his talk, Don said 
he likes to think of himself as, not an 
expert, but a “beginner in each field and 
(I) plan to stay that way forever." He was 
also describing Lonnie Falk, whose creative 
spirit is kindled by an almost childlike 
fascination for the new, the different, the 
unexplored. Nobody is happierthan Lonnie 
Falk when he has a newly-delivered box 
to open and still another set of instruc- 
tions to read. If Lonnie ever found the 
rainbow's end, he wouldn't linger at all, 
but would immediately begin looking for 
another rainbow. Without getting too 
soupy, Lonnie, keep on chasing rain- 
bows, the chase is all the fun. 

—Jim Reed 


RAINBOW 


L)NBE lI 


gVABL-E! 


cnmPLiTER 

DISTRIBUTORS 


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14 the RAINBOW 


July 1983 




CoCo ALBUM 




WORD-PAK 


WORD-PAK 

DISPLAY 


C-C BUS INSTALLED 


PROTO • CoCo 


WORD-PAK 

80 column video board for the Radio Shack Color Com- 
puter. No longer do you have to sacrifice valuable memory 
and strained eyesight to expand the video display of your 
computer. The board features: 

• Full ASCII character set (also supports 
custom character sets for user specific ap- 
plications) 

• Programmable line lengths and cursor formats 

• On-board ROM expansion for future word pro- 
cessor 

• 50/60Hz operation 

• Easy installation-plugs into ROM port 

• Available for cassette or disk based systems 
(disk systems require the use of a ‘Y’ connec- 
tor or expansion bus) 

• Contains it's own video RAM-requires no 
system RAM 

The WORD-PAK produces a composite video signal and 
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umns of text. 

Think of the applications!! 

Price: $169.95 

MEM-PAK 

16K RAM/ROM expansion board. Expand RAM (for un- 
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grams/utilities in ROM for instant loading. Utilizes 24 pin, 
compatible RAM/ROM/EPROM memory devices. 

Price: $114.00 (with 16K RAM) 

P-C PAK 

Parallel printer port and real time clock. Free up your serial 
port by adding this Centronics compatible parallel port to 
your computer. The board also features a real-time clock 
with battery back-up capability (optional). 

Price: $122.95 


C-C BUS 

A fully buffered, six slot expansion bus for your CoCo. 
Each slot is software selectable, allowing up to six car- 
tridges/accessory boards to be installed simultaneously 
with no contention problems. The bus also supports 
boards designed to use the high memory (HFF60-FFBF) 
area as I/O. Simply connect the C-C BUS to the ROM 
port** and you can expand memory (up to 128K for Rev E 
and older computers that can ‘write’ to the ROM port), add 
a parallel port, EPROM programmer, voice synthesizer.... 
you name it, and software select the one you want to use 
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Think of the potential!! 

Price: $125.00 

Option 1. Power supply $24.95 

The C-C BUS can use either the computers 
power supply (this will limit the number of 
devices you can install on the bus) or an on- 
board power supply. 

Option 2. Molded plastic cover $Call 

** Requires S-cable (below) 

PROTO-CoCo 

Prototyping board with all the features. 

• 20 sq. inches of prototyping area 

• All signals identifyed on board 

• Designed to fit inside a disk controller case. Gives 
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• allows either point-to-point wiring or wire-wrap. 

Price: $14.95 

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Y-cable $29.95 

S-cable $19.95 


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Color Computer is a Trademark of Radio Shack 
a Division of Tandy Corp. 








Software Review 


Function Graphing Module 
An Electronic Blackboard 

I teach mathematics and I have often felt sorry for my 
students because of my poor drawings on the blackboard. 1 
have wished for an electronic blackboard, which would 
graph functions at the press of a button. At last, my wish has 
come true, with Function Graphing Module from Calcsoft. 

Function Graphing Module allows you to graph func- 
tions of a single variable on the high resolution graphics 
screen of your Color Computer. Any function you can write 
in Extended BASIC, including those using the trig functions 
and logarithms, can be accurately graphed and analyzed. 

You enter the functions by using the Extended BASIC 
Editor to place the function definitions in specified program 
lines. You then start the program and have a wide range of 
options. Probably, you will first want to graph the function. 
The easiest way to use the graphing mode is to choose the 
range of x-values you want graphed, and allow the program 
to “auto-scale;” that is, to automatically choose the x- and 
y-scales, the placement of the origin, and so forth. The 
function will then be displayed according to these auto- 
scales values. Once you see how the graph looks with these 
values, it’s easy to change any of them to graph the function 
just the way you want. In addition to choosing the graphing 


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parameters, you can mark any x-values you want on the 
graph with a vertical bar. 

In the multiple graphing mode, you can graph up to four 
functions on the screen at once. Y ou have a choice of graph- 
ing them on the same set of axes, or on different axes. This is 
really very useful for solving many kinds of mathematical 
problems — for example, to graph a piecewise continuous 
function. 

The remaining two modes are the Value Mode and the 
Zero Mode. In the Value Mode, the program will find the 
value of the function for any x-value you specify. In the Zero 
Mode, the program finds a root of the function; that is, an 
x-value for which the function equals zero. You input two 
x-values, one where the function is positive, and one where 
it’s negative. (Graphing the function first makes it easy to 
find such x-values.) As long as the function is continuous, a 
root will lie between the two x-values. The program then 
uses the bisection method, also known as the binary chop, to 
find the root to within a tolerance you select. 

The documentation that comes with the program is 
superb! There are over 50 pages of documentation, along 
with a one-page “Handy Reference Guide.” In addition to 
thoroughly describing all the options of the program, the 
manual has lots of examples showing exactly what you 
should type, and what will appear on the screen. These 
examples cover all aspects of the program, including the 
more complicated ones like graphing multiple functions. 
Examples are an important tool in learning, and the exam- 
ples here are a big help in understanding how to get the most 
out of this program. 

An unusual feature of the manual is the chapter titled 
“Crash!” Since you provide part of the program in the lines 
defining the functions, there’s a chance you’ll have a syntax 
error in a function definition, or a function that will require 
a division by zero, or some other illegal operation. The 
manual explains this thoroughly, and helps you avoid 
crashes by giving numerous examples showing correct syn- 
tax. If you crash the program anyhow, the manual gives 
instructions on how to recover. 

One suggestion for improving the manual: a table of 
contents and page numbers would help. 

Function Graphing Module performs flawlessly, and 
clearly has been designed with the user in mind. The func- 
tions have been well-chosen, and the documentation is 
excellent. This is an outstanding product. 

(Calcsoft, P.O. Box 401, St. Ann, MO 63074, 16K ECB, 

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—David Finkel 


Hint . . . 

PCLEARO With a Disk Drive 


While people insist that it is impossible to PCLEARO on 
a disk system, I get that effect by using: POKE 25,6: POKE 
27,6: POKE 29,6: POKE 31,6 

Although you cannot use the disk drive until you again 
PC LEAR 4, it can be acomplished. 

Steve Skrzyniarz 
Tacoma, WA 


16 the RAINBOW July 1983 






KEYBOARDS 

by Macrotron 


The Premium Keyboard 


All the features of our popular 
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CHARLIE’S MACHINE 





• ^ Cr ■* ft Am r .* Qv 


ROM 

CALLS 


THE 

EASY WAY 


By C. J. Roslund 


W hen programming in machine language, there are many 
times when life would be much easier if you could let 
BASIC take care of something for you. A few examples 
that come to mind are: 

♦Writing data files to cassette or disk 
♦Doing real math calculations (ie, SIN, COS) 

♦Drawing complex graphics 

There are, of course, routines in the BASIC ROMs to do all of 
these, since they can be done from a BASIC program. Calling these 
ROM routines from your own machine language program has typi- 
cally taken a lot of studying of the BASIC ROMs to discover exactly 
how to call the routine you need and also what parameters need to be 
initialized prior to calling the ROM routine. Another concern must 
always be if the entry point you use will be the same in all releases of 
the BASIC ROMs. I am going to present a method of making ROM 
calls I have developed that will allow you to call any ROM routine 
that has a BASIC command counterpart. For example: PRINT, 
LINE, CIRCLE, OPEN, CLOSE, CLEAR, etc. You will only need 
to know one ROM entry point (which I will give you) to call any of 
these routines. 

The idea behind this method of making ROM calls is to trick the 
computer into thinking it is running a BASIC program in the middle 
of your machine language program. If you can do this, and point the 
BASIC interpreter to the BASIC command line of your choice, you 
can let the BASIC interpreter do all the work for you. You only need 
to create what looks like a BASIC command line in the middle of 
your program. For example: PRINT'TT WORKS.” The first thing 


18 the RAINBOW July 1983 




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you must know is how BASIC “Token- 
izes” all key words. Key words, such as 
PRINT, OPEN, LINE, etc. are stored 
in memory as a one byte token. This 
conserves memory, and speeds execu- 
tion of a BASIC program. An example 
of this tokenizing follows: 

(Numbers in parentheses represent 
hex token values. All other characters 
represent their equivalent ASCII value.) 

untokenized: PRINT 

“IT WORKS" 

tokenized: (87) “IT WORKS” 

When creating the BASIC command 
line in the middle of your machine lan- 
guage program, you must use the 
TOKENS for all BASIC key words and 
functions. Table 1 provides a key word 
vs. token table for yoUr use in creating a 
tokenized BASIC command line. 
(Token values are listed in hex.) These 
are the values to use in place of key 
words listed. Note that the token for 
PRINT is hex 87 as was used in the 
above example. 

The program listing accompanying 
this article (named ROMCALL) pro- 
vides all initialization required to make 
ROM calls with this technique. It con- 
tains two sample ROM calls to the print 
and real math routines. A line by line 
explanation of the program follows. 
ROMCALL is written in position inde- 
pendent code, and will work with all 
versions of the BASIC ROMs in Color 
BASIC, Extended BASIC, or Disk 
BASIC computers. It uses only one 
ROM entry point in the Color BASIC 
ROM, and this entry point is the same 
in all versions. 

Line numbers are given in the first 
column of the listing. Lines 1 and 2 are 
assembler directives. They indicate the 
program name and start the assembly at 
address $3000. 

Program execution begins at line 3 
with the lable Start. Lines 3 and 4 load 
the X register from the direct page 
address $A6 and push this value on the 
stack. $A6 contains a pointer (actually 
stored in locations S00A6 and S00A7) 
that is used by the BASIC interpreter to 
keep track of its location in a BASIC 
program or direct command line. Later 
in my program I will modify $A6. Just 
to be safe, I am saving the original value 
of this pointer so that I can restore it (see 
lines 9, 10 and 1 1) before the program 
terminates. 

Lines 5 and 6 do all preparation to 
make the first sample call to the ROM 
routine “SIN.” A pointer to the token- 
ized command string “A=SIN(1)” is 
loaded into the X register and a branch 
to the subroutine “BASIC” is made. 


Table 1 

Key-Word vs. Token 


KEYWORD 

TOKEN 

KEY-WORD 

TOKEN 

KEYWORD 

TOKEN 

FOR 

80 

AND 

B0 

PLAY 

C9 

GO 

81 

OR 

B1 

DLOAD 

CA 

REM 

82 

> 

B2 

RENUM 

CB 


83 

= 

B3 

FN 

CC 

ELSE 

84 

< 

B4 

USING 

CD 

IF 

85 

SGN 

FF 80 

ATN 

FF 94 

DATA 

86 

1NT 

FF 81 

COS 

FF 95 

PRINT 

87 

ABS 

FF 82 

TAN 

FF 96 

ON 

88 

USR 

FF 83 

EXP 

FF 97 

INPUT 

89 

RND 

FF 84 

FIX 

FF 98 

END 

8A 

SIN 

FF 85 

LOG 

FF 99 

NEXT 

8B 

PEEK 

FF 86 

POS 

FF 9A 

DIM 

8C 

LEN 

FF 87 

SQR 

FF 9B 

READ 

8D 

STR$ 

FF 88 

HEXS 

FF 9C 

RUN 

8E 

VAL 

FF 89 

VARPTR 

FF 9D 

RESTORE 

8F 

ASC 

FF 8A 

INSTR 

FF 9E 

RETURN 

90 

CHR$ 

FF 8B 

TIMER 

FF 9F 

STOP 

91 

EOF 

FF 8C 

PPOINT 

FF A0 

POKE 

92 

JOYSTK 

FF 8D 

STRINGS 

FF A1 

CONT 

93 

LEFTS 

FF 8E 



LIST 

94 

RIGHTS 

FF 8F 

DISK BASIC 

CLEAR 

95 

MIDS 

FF 90 



NEW 

96 

POINT 

FF 91 

DIR 

CE 

CLOAD 

97 

INKEYS 

FF 92 

DRIVE 

CF 

CSAVE 

98 

MEM 

FF 93 

FIELD 

DO 

OPEN 

99 



FILES 

D1 

CLOSE 

9A 

ENTENDED BASIC 

KILL 

D2 

LLIST 

9B 



LOAD 

D3 

SET 

9C 

DEL 

B5 

LSET 

D4 

RESET 

9D 

EDIT 

B6 

MERGE 

D5 

CLS 

9E 

TRON 

B7 

RENAME 

D6 

MOTOR 

9F 

TROFF 

B8 

RSET 

D7 

SOUND 

A0 

DEF 

B9 

SAVE 

D8 

AUDIO 

A1 

LET 

BA 

WRITE 

D9 

EXEC 

A2 

LINE 

BB 

VERIFY 

DA 

SKIPF 

A3 

PCLS 

BC 

UNLOAD 

DB 

TAB ( 

A4 

PSET 

BD 

DSK1NI 

DC 

TO 

A5 

PRESET 

BE 

BACKUP 

DD 

SUB 

A6 

SCREEN 

BF 

COPY 

DE 

THEN 

A7 

PCLEAR 

CO 

DSKIS 

DF 

NOT 

A8 

COLOR 

Cl 

DSKOS 

E0 

STEP 

A9 

CIRCLE 

C2 

CVN 

FF A2 

OFF 

AA 

PAINT 

C3 

FREE 

FF A3 

+ 

AB 

GET 

C4 

LOC 

FF A4 

- 

AC 

PUT 

C5 

LOF 

FF A5 

* 

AD 

DRAW 

C6 

MKNS 

FF A6 

/ 

AE 

PCOPY 

Cl 

AS 

FF A7 

A 

AF 

PMODE 

C8 




Let me skip to lines 12 through 16 
next. This is where the actual ROM call 
is made. First, line 12 stores the pointer 
to the command string (X register) in 
direct page address $A6. Next the A 
register is loaded with the first byte of 
the command line (LDA ,X). Line 14 
clears the carry flag bit in the condition 
code register. This is required to signal 


the BASIC interpreter that a command 
line to execute follows. The other possi- 
bility is that a BASIC program line, 
with a line number, was being entered 
into memory. In this case, the BASIC 
interpreter would only store the line in 
the BASIC program storage area, not 
execute it. Line 15 makes the ROM call 
to execute the command line pointed to 


20 the RAINBOW July 1983 


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SELECT: Using logical operators (less than, greater than, equal, and. or) you can 
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SORT: 


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MANUAL: 


All or any selected subset or records can be sorted in ascending or 
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by $A6,$A7. This ROM call is a subroutine in the Color 
BASIC ROM that is called by BASIC’s main command 
interpretation loop. The main command interpretation loop 
calls $ADC6 when it is all set to execute the next command 
in a BASIC program, or in a direct command. Upon entry, it 
assumes that $A6,$A7 is pointing to the next BASIC com- 
mand to execute, and that the A register contains the first 
byte of that command. After the ROM call returns, line 16 
of this subroutine returns program control to the calling 
routine with an RTS. This subroutine, named BASIC, is the 
real key to making ROM calls. It may be called from any 
part of your machine language program to make a ROM 
call. The only entry requirement is that the X register must 
point to the tokenized BASIC command line that is to be 
executed. 

Now back to the rest of the program. Lines 7 and 8 make a 
sample call (in the same manner as lines 5 and 6) to the ROM 
routine “PRINT.” 

Lines 9, 10 and 11 restore the original contents of the 
pointer $A6,$A7, and then return to the main calling pro- 
gram. This is the end of my sample program so this RTS will 
return to BASIC and the OK prompt. 

Line 17 is where the tokenized BASIC command string is 
stored. This line was created as follows: 

$41 ASCII value for letter “A” 

$B3 Token for math operator “=” 

$FF,$85 Token for function “SIN” 

$28 ASCII value for left paren. “(” 

$32 ASCII value for number “1” 

$29 ASCII value for right paren. “)” 

$0 Line terminator 

Put them all together they spell A=S1N(1) 

Line 18 stores a similar construction of the BASIC com- 
mand PRINT A: 

$87 Token for PRINT 

$41 ASCII value for letter “A” 

$0 Line terminator 

Line 19 is an assembler directive that ends assembly and 
indicates to the assembler the address of the program entry 
point. 

This completes the description of ROM CALL operation. 
Now I will point out some cautions you should observe 
when making ROM calls with this method. First, 
CLOA DM and CSA VEM cannot be called in this manner. 1 
will describe changes to this program to call these ROM 
routines at the end of the article. Second, BASIC does 
memory available checks during many of these ROM calls. 


BASIC defines available memory as the space from where 
the free memory pointer is pointing up to the stack pointer 
register. (Free memory pointer is located at $1F,$20.) If 
your program has moved the STACK pointer very low in 
memory, BASIC may think you are out of memory (during 
a ROM call) and terminate your program with the familiar 
OM ERROR message. Third, if you define any numeric or 
string variables, BASIC will store them where it thinks 
variable storage and string storage have been allocated. Y ou 
should not have any other important data here or it will be 
written over. Variable space is defined by the pointers 
located at the following addresses: 

$ 1 B,$ 1 C Start of simple variables 
$ I D,$ 1 E Start of array variables 
$! F,$20 Start of free memory 
$21, $22 Bottom of string storage space 

$27, $28 Top of string storage space 

These cautions can be summarized as follows: You must 
make sure your program stays away from memory used by 
BASIC, and be careful not to do anything that will prevent 
BASIC from being able to run (moving stack pointer so low 
that an out of memory error occurs, for example). Y ou may 
make ROM calls to the routines CLEAR, PCLEAR, 
FILES, and DIM to modify the BASIC variable space 
pointers as you wish. 

The two commands CLOA DM and CSA VEM may be 
called with one change to the program given. This change is 
necessary because the BASIC interpreter handles the two 
commands as special cases in the main command interpreta- 
tion loop, mentioned earlier. If BASIC sees a CLOAD or 
CSA VE token to execute, it does not call the ROM routine 
at $ADC6. Instead, it calls a routine at $8C62 for CLOAD, 
or $83 1 A for CSA VE. Therefore, to call CLOA DM you 
must change line 15 to read JSR $8C62. To call CSA VEM 
you must change line 1 5 to read JSR $83 1 A. The command 
string token for CLOA DM or CSA VEM is created with the 
token for CLOA D or CSA FCfollowed by the ADC1I value 
of “M” ($4D). 

I have not personally tried every possible ROM call using 
this method. If anyone finds one that does not work, I would 
be glad to hear from you, and offer some assistance if I can. 
From studying my disassembly of the BASIC ROMs, this 
method should work with any BASIC command that can be 
executed from within a BASIC program. 

If you EXECUTE the sample program ROMCALL, you 
will be making ROM calls to the following BASIC com 
mands: 


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22 the RAINBOW July 1983 







The listing: 



PAGE 

•Ml 


ROMCALL byi CHARLES J ROSLUND 




* ROM 

CALLS MADE EASY * 

•Ml 

0EM 



NAM ROMCALL 

•M2 

•EM 



ORG *3000 START CODE ANYWHERE (PIC) 




* INITIALIZATION S 

0M3 

3000 

9EA6 

START 

LDX < *A6 

•** 

3002 

3410 


PSHS X SAVE PROGRAM POINTER 




* SAMPLE CALLS * 

0005 

3004 

308D0017 


LEAX MATHS, PCR MATH STRING 

0M6 

3008 

8D0B 


BSR BASIC 

0M7 

300A 

308D0019 


LEAX PRNTS, PCR PRINT STRING 

•MG 

300E 

8D05 


BSR BASIC 




* FIX 

POINTERS BEFORE EXITING * 

0M9 

3010 

3510 


PULS X 

0010 

3012 

9FA6 


STX <*A6 RESTORE POINTER 

0011 

3014 

39 


RTS 




* EXECUTE COMMAND STRING SUBROUTINE * 




t 

X POINTS TO TOKEN START t 

M12 

3015 

9FA6 

BASIC 

STX <*A6 POINT TO STRING 

0013 

3017 

A6>84 


LDA ,X GET TOKEN 

0014 

3019 

1CFE 


ANDCC #*FE FLAG NOT A LINE * 

0015 

30 1 B 

BDADC6 


JSR *ADC£> CALL BASIC 

0016> 

30 IE 

39 


RTS 




t CONSTANT STRING AREA * 




* 

A-SIN(l) t 

0017 

30 1 F 

4 1 B3FF8528 

MATHS 

FCB *41 , *B3, *FF, *85, *28, *31 , *29,0 





a^STnId 




* 

PRINT A * 

0016 

3027 

874100 

PRNTS 

FCB *87, *41,0 





PRINT A 

0019 

302A 



END START 

NO ERRORS 

FOUND 





A=SIN(1) 

PRINT A 

You should see the floating point representation of 
SIN(l) displayed on your screen. Readers with assemblers 
can simply enter the source code from the listing and assem- 
ble it. If you don’t have an assembler, you may POKE the 
hex values from the program listing (third column) into any 
free memory space. A monitor would make this job a lot 
easier. I located this sample program at $3000. If you POKE 
ROMCALL into memory by hand, be sure to poke all eight 
values in line 1 7 (following the FCB) into memory. Only the 
first five are listed in column three due to the column width 
allocated. 




Hint . . . 

I would like to pass on a helpful hint for single disk drive 
owners to use when backing up a disk. Use 

PCLEAR (ENTER) 

FILES (ENTER) 

BACKUP (ENTER) 

This will speed up the process and make fewer disk 
switches necessary. I use this all the time and have never had 
a problem doing so. 

Jim Lemaster 


PARALLEL 

PRINTER 

INTERFACE 

FOR THE RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER 
AND THE TDP 100 

* RUN ANY STANDARD PARALLEL PRINTER 
FROM THE SERIAL (/O PORT 

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* COMPLETE -ALL CABLES AND CONNECTORS 
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Canadian orders add $5 for shipping. Michigan 
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PRINTERS 


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July 1983 the RAINBOW 23 





O O O O F> Ft O 


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CASSETTE DIRECTORY 

List program name, length, start, end and transfer 
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Above programs written in machine language for 16k. 
COCOSLOTS, REVERSI, CASSETTE DIRECTORY and FULL SCREEN 
EDITOR do not require EXTENDED BASIC! ! ! But are 
compatible with EXTENDED or DISK BASIC. 


MASTER DIRECTORY 

1 Master listing by diskette number with description. 

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i Basic for easy costomizing: fast mach lang sort 
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f!0 residents add 5.6257. sales tax. 


Software Review 


Data Communications 
Tutor Does the Job 

In case you’ve ever wondered what magic is involved 
when two computers hold a conversation, the folks at Com- 
puterware have a tutorial program which is designed to 
teach a beginner the basic ideas and terminology involved in 
computer generated data communications. 

Called, appropriately enough, Introduction to Data Com- 
munications, this instructional program, supplied on cas- 
sette or disk, is divided into five lessons so it can be loaded 
into 16K 80Cs. The first four parts are the instructional 
material which is presented one page at a time with about 1 5 
screen pages per “lesson.” 

Colorful graphics are interspersed in the lessons showing 
visual examples of the material. For example, the material 
on acoustic modems has an illustration of a CPU, acoustic 
modem and a telephone handset suspended over the mod- 
em. Very nice use of the CoCo’s graphic capabilities. The 
fifth section is a 10-question exam which determines what 
you have retained from the first four lessons. At the end of 
the test you are graded and to the chagrin of those not 
paying attention — critiqued. Just like my old school marm, 
Mrs. Grundy, nasty comments are given to those under- 
achieving, suggesting a review of the material. 

The lessons are written by Computerware to be specifi- 
cally applicable to transmitting and receiving data over 
telephone lines with the 80C. 

Topics covered are: 

• Definitions of data communications 
•Examples of its uses 

• Block diagram of a simple circuit 
•The RS-232 Interface 

• An explanation of the RS-232 signal 
•Types of modulation 

•Telephone line frequencies and level specs 

• Baud and BPS 

• Start and stop bits 

• Asynchronous data 

The lessons are presented in a concise manner on the 
screen. Each screen is advanced by the user at his own pace. 
U nfortunately, you cannot “back up” to review the material 
from previous pages without rerunning the program. The 
lessons auto-load from one series to another so the separa- 
tion of the material into five parts is not a problem in use. 

While Computerware has done a fine job of summarizing 
the basics of data communications relating to the 80C, I 
can’t help but think that information of this type could be 
more effectively presented in a printed booklet. The student 
would be able to page back and forth to review the data. 

For those who are interested in learning the basics of data 
communications through interaction with their CoCo, 
Introduction to Data Communications is the program. 
(Computerware, Box 668, 4402 Manchester Ave., Suite 102, 
Encinitas, CA 92024, $17.95 on tape, S22.95 on disk) 

— Bruce Rothermel 


RAINBOW 

CERIlf iCAtiON 
St At 


24 the RAINBOW July 1983 



COLORSOFT 


TM 


ESCAPE 

A 3-D GRAPHICS ADVENTURE WITH SOUND 
(Machine Language for Fast Action) 

This is NOT the usual "find the treasure" adventure. In 
ESCAPE, ydu are trapped on the top floor of a 
skyscraper and the only way out is by using a very 
unusual elevator. You must give the elevator the 
correct code or else the ride down is a real killer. The 
maze-like halls seem to come to life due to the fantastic 
3-D graphics. Search the halls for rooms which contain 
clues to the correct code. Clues must be deciphered to 
learn the elevator's secret code. Game times depends 
on the skill of the player, but it is typically 8-10 hours. 
ESCAPE is suitable for group play. A mentally 
stimulating experience. 

16K BASIC $18.95 


RECIPE FILE 

A CASSETTE BASED STORAGE AND 
RETRIEVAL SYSTEM 

This program permits storage of your favorite recipes 
for retrieval by your computer. Once a recipe has been 
recalled, then the computer can adjust the ingredient 
measure for serving the desired number of persons. 
Each recipe can contain special comments on 
preparation as well as the full instructions for using the 
recipe. Included is a line oriented text editor for 
creating and editing the variable length files. 
Completely menu driven and very user friendly. Easily 
modified by the user for use in keeping track of record, 
coin or stamp collections or whatever your interest. 
Screen or printer output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $21.95 

SPECIAL: A collection ot 30 recipies covering main 
meals to snacks. Only $3.95 with program. 



SQUIRE 

SQUIRE is a challenging game of 
asset management. The player must 
manage a country estate and contend 
with crop failure, investment losses, 
taxes and other such headaches. The 
object of the game is to increase the 
estate's value while providing for the 
peasant workers. The starting assets 
are computer selected so that each 
game offers different challenges. 
Great experience for the kids or 
aspiring executives. 


16K Ext. BASIC 


$14.95 


HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE 
MANAGER 

This menu driven program package is 
designed for creating and 
maintaining a data file on cassette of 
30 household expense categories for 
a 12-month period. It also keeps 
cumulative totals and a separate total 
of tax deductable expenses. A 
comparative analysis program 
provides a graphic presentation of 
relative expenses between any two 
months during the year. The user can 
change categories by modifying 
program code. Screen or printer 
output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $19-95 


FLIPPER 

A fun and challenging version of the 
Othello” type board games. This 
version includes options for play 
solely by the computer, one player 
against the computer, or two players 
against each other. The computer 
can play on four skill levels. Very 
colorful with plenty of sound. Fun for 
kids and challenging for adults. Great 
for parties. 


16K Ext. BASIC 


$16.95 


COLOR 

SOFTware 

SERVICES 


INCLUDE $2.25 HANDLING PER ORDER 
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THE TOP-RATED COCO WORD PROCESSOR: 


TELEWRITER-64 


Colorware researched the word 
processors available for the Color 
Computer. We came to the very 
same conclusion that so many re- 
view articles have! Telewriter-64 
is, by far, the superior word pro- 
cessor for the Color Computer 
Why is Telewriter so much bet- 
ter than the others? For one thing, 
it has overcome the 32x1 6 charac- 
ter display limitation of the Color 
Computer. No small feat, Telewri- 
ter accomplishes this by generat- 
ing its own set of characters in 
software. You select 51 x24. 64x24 
or 85x24 character displays by 
merely issuing a format command. 
If you have ever used a word pro- 
cessing system, you know how im- 
portant it is to be able to see a good 
portion of your text on the screen. 



Telewriter-64 also generates 
true lower case characters. This is 
much preferable to the reverse 
characters that merely "represent" 
lower case letters in other co-co 
word processors 
Telewriter-64 is feature packed. 
Besides the standard features 


found in any word processor. Tele- 
writer also includes: user-friendly 
full-screen editing, rapid cursor 
and scrolling control, page jump, 
right justification, menu-driven 
disk or cassette access, compata- 
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as Spell-and-Fix), and a clever 
double check that asks the user 
"Are you sure?"' before executing 
any operation that would kill any 
sizeable amount of your text. 

Telewriter-64 runs on any 16K, 
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any printer It has all of the control 
codes necessary to take full ad- 
vantage of all of the features in any 


printer. There is even a "typewri- 
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With advanced word processing 
software such as this, your color 
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price that makes sense for the per- 
sonal user. 

Beyond impressive capability, 
Telewriter-64 simply makes any 
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Disk .... $59.95 
Cassette . $49.95 


EXTENSION CABLE FOR 
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Place your modem or printer where you 
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QUANTITY PRICE EACH 
2-4 (2 min.) $5.50 

5-9 3.50 

10-99 2.75 

100 & up CALL 

Give a Professional look to your project or product 

• Designed especially for the Color Computer ROM slot. 

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• Same size and specifications as Radio Shack ROMpak 

SUPER-PRO KEYBOARD 

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• Contour molded, full travel keys for fast smooth typing. 

• Custom made to fit precisely. Has same key layout. 

• Complete, easy instructions for any CoCo or TDP-1 00. 

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Note: For computers manufactured after Oct. 1 982, add $4.95 

UPGRADE IN JUST MINUTES! 



$19.95 


QUALITY DISK DRIVE CABLES 



High quality cable and high force, gold plated contacts 
ensure the utmost in connection reliability for your CoCo 
or TDP-1 00. 

(T) Disk pack extender, 3 ft. . . $29.95 

Allows you to move your disk drive 
interface back and out of the way. 

© One Drive Disk cable $19.95 

® Two Drive Disk cable $29.95 



COLORWARE LIGHT PEN 


0NL Y $19.95 

FREEPROGRAM 

CASSETTE 

INCLUDED 


• Plugs directly into your joystick port. 

• Comes with six fun & useful programs on tape. 

• Easy instructions show how to use it with Basic. 

• Comptible with light pen software such as Computer 
Island's “Fun-pak." 


[ COLORWARE 


COLORWARE INC. 
78-03F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(212) 647-2864 


V/SA 


TOLL FREE ORDERING 

800 - 221-0916 


Orders only. NY& Info call (212) 647-2864 





WE PAY 


shipping on any order that includes at least one game 
Use our convenient toll free 800 line. 



GHOSTGOBBLER 

|From Spectral Associates, this 
Pac" theme game is the best of it's 
pe Brilliant color, action and 
iound, just like an arcade gobble 
our way to glory, but watch for 
hose ghosts! Get in on the wild fun 
f this game craze now. Tape: 
21 .95. Disk: $25.95 


GHOSTGOBBLER 


DONKEYKING 


DONKEYKING 


You simply can not buy a more impres- 
sive game lor your color computer than 
this new wonder from Tom Mix The 
graphics, sound, and animation are all 
lust astonishing! There are tour different 

K screens and each is endless 
quires 32K Tape $24 95 Disk: 

$27 95 



I 



PROTECTORS 

There are several good ver- 
sions of the “Defender" theme 
available for the CoCo. None, 
however, rival this one trom 
Tom Mix. No other game 
matches the detailed graphics 
and sheer excitement of this top 
seller Requires 32K Tape 
$24,95, Disk: $27.95 



CREATURE FEATURE 

From Color Software, comes a 
lightening swift shoot & dodge 
the enemy game It's clever 
cross between “Robotron" and 
“Beserk" themes, with bullets 
flying everywhere Solid, shoot- 
em-up-fun Requires 16K 
Tape S17 95 Disk $19 95 



ANDROID ATTACK 

Spectral Associates' very well 
done “Berserk" type game with 
some interesting added fea- 
tures Each cassette contains 
both the 16K and 32K version. 
The 32K version has voice out- 
put! Plenty of action Tape 
$21 95 



FROGGER 

Just released by The Cornsoft 
Group, this is the officially 
licensed version from Sega, the 
arcade manufacturer It has it 
all! 4 lane super highway, 
snakes, turtles, logs, alligators, 
etc Lots of action and laughs' 
Requires 16K Tape: $19 95 



INTERGALACTIC FORCE 

Your space fighter roars into the 
Death Corridor Lock-on and 
blast the enemy fighter from the 
sky. Now try dropping one into 
Death Star's narrow exhaust 
vent It takes skill and guts 
Good luck! With "Star Wars" 
theme song. From Anteco 
Tape: $24 95 


THE COLORCADE.. 

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★ It’s a Joystick Interface - 

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These sticks are extremely rugged & provide very fast response 
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any game. The difference will amaze you ! 

★ It’s a Rapid Fire Module! 

Press the fire button on your joystick and get a great burst of fire 
instead of just a single shot! Adds tremendously to the many 
shooting type games that do not have repeat fire. With variable 
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★ It’s a 6 ft Extender Cord . 


THE ATARI 



A well proven joystick, the Atari is 
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ORDERING 

INFORMATION 

ADD $2.00 PER ORDER 
FOR SHIPPING. 

WE ACCEPT VISA. MASTERCARD, 
CHECKS. M.O 
C O D ADD $3 00 EXTRA 
NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 
OVERSEAS. FPO. APO. ADD 10%. 
DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE. 
IF ONE OR MORE GAMES 
ARE INCLUDED. 

SHIPPING IS FREE 


[ COLORWARE 


COLORWARE INC. 
78-03F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(212) 647-2864 



TOLL FREE ORDERING 
> 800-221-0916 


Orders only. NY& Info call (212) 647-2864 










16K 

1 

the 

1 

GRAPHICS 

ECB 

m 

RAINBOW 

-in ni- 



EASCINATING 
FRACTALS 


Geometry 

of 

Nature 

By Rdtert Delbcxu^o 



A 


D on’t read any further. Just take a long hard look at 
the figure below. It is probably the most famous 
example of a “fractal” shape and is named the 
“Koch Snowflake” after its discovery by von Koch in 1904. 
Notice that each successive stage in the construction of the 
flake involves the addition of equilateral triangles (scaled 
down by 1/3) along every segment of the perimeter; put 
another way, the perimeter is increased self-similarly by an 
extra 1 / 3 at every consecutive stage. We probably agree that 
the fractal flake is a very beautiful shape, but you may be 
surprised to learn that until recently it was regarded as a 
mathematical monstrosity, to be shunned by any self- 
respecting scientist. The change in attitude, from monstros- 
ity to curiosity to conventionality, is largely due to the 
efforts of Benoit Mandelbrot who, more than anyone, has 
put the subject on a respectable basis and showed its signifi- 
cance for describing the real physical world. 

We’ll be drawing some regular fractals shortly on the 80C 
but before we start let us see why fractals are so “odd” and 
therefore so fascinating. If you examine the stages in the 
snowflake construction, you will notice that the perimeter 
increases without limit as (4/3)", where N (which tends to 
infinity) stands for the stage you have reached. Yet the area 
of the flake stays perfectly finite! This is the first queer 
feature of a fractal and you should contrast it with com- 
monplace geometrical figures where the perimeters are finite 
and simply go up as the square root of the enclosed areas. 
The second thing to notice is that more and more corners are 






( Robert Delbourgo, a professor of 
Physics, and his schoolboy sons 
Tino, 13, and Daniel, 1 1, started 
computing as a hobby with the 
purchase last year of a Co Co.) 


introduced with each consecutive stage in the construction; 
in the end so much jaggedness is introduced that it is impos- 
sible to draw a line which grazes the boundary anywhere. In 
the mathematicaljargon, no tangents to the boundary curve 
exist — again this is quite contrary to our experience with 
ordinary geometrical shapes. Summarizing, 

1) Boundaries of true fractals are infinite in extent, 

2) No tangents may be drawn anywhere along a fractal 
boundary. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, Mandelbrot has shown 
that such behavior is quite natural in many physical settings 


28 the RAINBOW July 1983 


(e.g. the shape of a coastline, or the human vascular system) 
and he has put the idea on a firm mathematical foundation. I 
strongly urge you to read his magnificent book. Fractals, 
Form, Chance and Dimension, if you want to delve more 
into the topic. It is written mainly for non-experts and 
contains many striking examples of fractals, both regular 
and random, as well as a complete list of references. 

There are four programs for your delectation. Fractals 0 
to 3. The first is based on circles, the second on spokes, the 
third on cornered polygons and the fourth on edged poly- 
gons. Although they are somewhat different from one 
another, 1 suggest that you start by typing only two of them 
first; say Fractal 1 and Fractal 3. If you like what you see, 
carry on with the other two. Let me describe the main points 
about the programs for those of you who want to under- 
stand them more fully. 

Listing: Fractal 0 


Lines 1-7 provide the Title Card comprising Fractal Trees. 
Lines 8-9 give instructions. 

Lines 10-24 draw the circles in ever smaller radii (ratio of 
PI/N). Note the dimensioned arrays which locate the 
centers. 

Lines 25-20 freeze and paint (if needed) the final fractal 
shape. 

Listing: Fractal I 


Lines 1-7 produce a Fractal Root System as the title card. 

Lines 8-29 give instructions, drawing routine and final 
painting in order. This time the basic shape is a spoked 
figure and for aesthetic reasons the ratio of successive 
radii is 3.3/N. 

Listing: Fractal 2 


Lines 1-8 give a Fractal Cornered Square. 

Lines 12-25 will draw the closed polygons at the corners of 
earlier ones. Here successive ratios are 3/(N+2) to keep 
the shapes within the confines of the screen. 

Lines 26-30 for freezing the picture. 

Listing: Fractal 3 


Lines 1-7 produce a Title Card of a Fractal Edged Square. 
Lines 11-28 draw the polygons, which touch along their 
sides this time. It is necessary to reposition the centers 
in this operation and this is carried out at the end of 
Lines 17, 20 and 24. 

In all of these programs I have assumed that yourcompu- 
ter is 16K ECB, which is why 1 have restricted the ranges of 
N values in the dimensioned arrays. Those of you with 
greater memory may like to relax these ranges. For instance, 
in the first listing, 32K people can change Line 19 to having 
N>12 and Line 22 to having N>6, etc. One last suggestion: 
Try randomizing your fractals by varying the directions 
arbitrarily in the several programs. For instance, changing 
Line 16 in Fractal 0 to 

16 FORI=lTON:E=(RND(99*N))/99:A(I)=128+R*COS 
(2*PI*E/N): U(I)=96+R*S1N(2*P1*E/ N): CIRCLE 
(A(1),U(1)),R*P1/N,1:NEXT1 

and make similar changes to Lines 18, 21, 24. Do you think 
that your final figure resembles a real map of a landscape? 


Listing 0: 



..01C1 

18... 

. . 046 F 

END . 

. . 0604 


1 CLS:PRINT@3, "fractals 0 by r. 
del bourgo" ; : PRINT8480, "15 willow 
dene av, austral i a7005" $ 

2 FOR I *=0TO32STEP32 : FOR J =232T0247 
: POKE 1 024+1 +J , 128: NEXTJ , I : FOR 1=0 
TO 1 : FOR J - 1 34T0358STEP32 : POKE 1 024 
+ I+J, 1 28 : POKE 1 042+ I +J, 128: NEXTJ, 
I : FORI-0TO7: F0RJ-99T0387STEP288: 
POKE 1 024+ 1 +J , 1 28 : POKE 1 042+ 1 + J , 12 
8:NEXTJ, I 

3 FOR I =0TO27STEP9 : FOR J=0TO64STEP 
32 : POKE 1 090+ I + J , 1 28 : POKE 1 378+ I + J 
, 128: NEXTJ, I 

4 FOR I =33T035 : FOR J =0TO288STEP2B8 
: FORK=0TO27STEP9: POKE1024+I+J+K, 
1 40 : POKE 1 1 52+ 1 + J +K , 131 : NEXTK, J, I 

5 FOR I =32T0 1 60STEP 1 28 : FOR J*0TO28 
8STEP288: FORK=0TO27STEP9: POKE 102 
4+I+J+K, 138: POKE 1028+ 1 +J+K, 133: N 
EXTK, J , I 

6 F0RJ=64T0352STEP288: FORK=0TO27 
STEP9 : POKE 1 024+ J +K , 1 39 : POKE 1 028+ 
J+K, 1 35 : POKE 1 088+ J +K , 142:POKE109 



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•Prices shown are tor 6 teet. 
Extra length, add 50 c per ft. 


Terms: Cashiers checks and money orders for immediate 
delivery • Personal checks allow 2 weeks • Orders under $25 
add $2 shipping • C.O.D. add $2 • California residents add 6% 

4418 E. Chapman, Suite 284 
Orange, CA. 92669 



VIDTRON 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 29 




2+J+K, 141 : NEXTK, J 

7 PLAY ” L20O3CE6O4CD3GECP 1 " 

8 P0KE65495, 0: CLS: PRINTS352, “ AF 
TER THE DRAWING IS FINISHED YO 
U WILL HEAR A SOUND. PRESS <P 

> TO PAINT OUT SURROUNDS OR <C 

> TO CONTINUE. PR I NT@0, " ENTER 

MULTIPLICATION RATE OF CIRCLE 

S (ANY INTEGER BETWEEN 4 AND 

16) : INPUTN:PI=3. 14159265 

9 I FN< 40RN > 1 6THEN8 

1 0 PM0DE4 , 1 : SCREEN 1,1: PCLS 

11 I FN< 1 0THENR=N*7 

12 I FN >9ANDN< 1 2THENR=N*5 

13 IFN>11THENR=70 

14 CIRCLE <128, 96) ,R, 1 

15 DIMA (N) , U (N) 

16 FORI=lTON: A(I)=128+R*C0S(2*PI 
*I/N) :U(I)=96+R*SIN(2*PI*I/N) :CI 
RCLE(A(I) ,U(I) ) ,R*PI/N, 1: NEXTI 

17 R=PI*R/N: DIMB (N*N) , V (N*N) 

18 FORI=lTON*N: B ( I ) =A ( 1+INT ( I— 1 ) 
/N) +R*COS <2*PI*I/N) : V ( I ) =U ( 1 + INT 
(1-1) /N)+R*SIN(2*PI*I/N> : CIRCLE ( 
B(I),V(I)>, R*PI /N, 1 : NEXT I 

19 I FN >9THEN25 

20 R=PI*R/N:DIMC(N*N*N> , W(N*N*N) 

21 FOR 1=1 TON*N*N : C ( I ) =B ( 1 + I NT ( ( I 
-1)/N) )+R*C0S(2*PI*I/N) :W(I)=V(1 




Shifter 


NEW 


A talking “munch game” for 1 or 2 simul- 
taneous players. Developed by MIT grad in 
machine language for incredible performance — 
at fastest speed, you can cross the screen in 
about 1 second. Shifting maze adds surprises. 
Players greet each other when meeting. Can 
select computer as opponent for 1 player. 

$ 20 . 


Articulator I 

Add speech to your programs or change dialog 
in Shifter. Digitizes your voice from audio tape; 
sound track may be put on tape as part of other 
programs. Comes with Basic callable interface. 

$ 20 . 


Both available on cassette for 16 or 32K.Ext. 
Basic not required. Sticks required for Shifter. 

29 ENTERPRISES 

1208 Country Ct. * Cary, NC 27511 


+ INT ( (I-l)/N) )+R*SIN(2*PI*I/N) :C 
IRCLE(C(I> ,W(I) ) ,R*PI/N, l'.NEXTI 

22 IFN>4THEN25 

23 R=PI*R/N: DIMD (256) : DIMX (256) 

24 F0RI=1T0256:D(I)=C(1+INT( (1-1 
)/4) )+R*C0S(PI*I/2) :X(I)=W( 1+INT 
( (1-1) /4) )+R*SIN(PI*I/2> : CIRCLE ( 
D(I) , X ( I ) ) , R*PI /4, 1 : NEXT I 

25 SOUND 100,1 

26 I$=I NKE Y* : IFI$=" " THEN26 

27 I F I ♦= " P " THENPA I NT < 253 , 96 > ,1,1 
: PAINT (3, 96) , 1, 1 : SCREEN 1 , 0 

28 I F I $= " C " THENRUN8 

29 G0T026 

19 03DF 

END ...05B0 

Listing 1: 

1 CLS0: R=127+16*RND (8) :F0RI=15T0 
495STEP32: POKE 1024+ 1 , R: NEXTI : FOR 
I =257T0285 : POKE 1 024+ I , R: NEXTI : FO 
RI=104TO1 18: POKE 1024+ I , R: P0KE134 
4+1 , R: NEXTI : POKE 1 484, R: POKE 1490, 
R 

2 DATA44, 50, 105, 117, 172, 178, 197, 
217,258, 264, 278, 284, 325, 345, 364, 
370,425,437 

3 FOR I = 1 TO 1 8 : READD : P0KE992+D , R : P 
OKE 1023+D, R: POKE 1 024+D , R : POKE 1 02 
5+D, R: POKE1056+D, R: NEXTI 

4 PRINT02, "fractals 1 " ; : PRINT016 
, "by"; :PRINT@19, "r . del bourgo" ; : P 
RINTS480, "15, ) wi 1 lowdene av, aust 
ral i a7005" ; 

7 PLAY " L20O3CEGO4CO3GECP 1 " 

8 P0KE65495 , 0 : CLS : PR I NTS352 , " AF 
TER THE DRAWING IS FINISHED YO 
U WILL HEAR A SOUND. PRESS <P 

> TO PAINT OUT SURROUNDS OR <C 

> TO CONTINUE. PR I NT@0, " ENTER 

MULTIPLICATION RATE OF SPIKES 

(ANY INTEGER BETWEEN 4 AND 

16) : INPUTN:PI=3. 14159265 

9 I FN< 40RN > 1 6THEN8 

10 PM0DE4, l: SCREEN 1, l: PCLS: M=P I / 
N 

11 IFN< 10THENR=N*7 

12 I FN >9ANDN< 1 2THENR=N*5 

13 IFN>11THENR=70 

15 DIMA (N) , U (N) 

16 FOR I = 1 TON : A ( I ) = 1 28+R*C0S ( M+2* 
PI*I /N) : U ( I ) =96+R*SIN (M+2*PI*I/N 
) :LINE(128,96)-(A(I) ,U(I) ) ,PSET: 
NEXTI 

17 R=3. 3*R/N: DIMB (N*N) , V (N*N> 

18 F0RI=1T0N*N:B<I)=A(1+INT(I-1) 
/N) +R+COS (2*PI*I /N) : V ( I ) =U ( 1+INT 
(1-1) /N)+R*SIN(2*PI*I/N) :LINE(B( 
I) ,V(I) ) — (A ( 1+INT (I— 1)/N) , U ( 1+IN 
T(I-l) /N) ) ,PSET: NEXTI 

19 I FN > 1 0THEN25 



30 the RAINBOW July 1983 




TO REALIZE THE FULL POWER & PERFORMANCE OF THE 6809, LOOK TO GIMIX. 

GIMIX OFFERS YOU A VARIETY OF SS50 BUS COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS. 


OS-9 GMX ill 

Tte GMX 5809 CPU Ul and Q&4 GMX UL A Multi-user, MulK-taskmg package fer- 
the ultimate m System Performance plus protection of the system and other users 
ton crashes caused by errors in individual users programs ^ m 
#01 (CPU & Software) d fl=IYlP si698.01 

WTEUISENT 1/0 PROCESSOR BOARDS increase system throughput by reducing 
Interrupts to the host, buttering data transfers, and data preprocessing. Prices 
include on board firmware. Requires system drivers. 

#11.3 port RS232 Serial (SS30) ,^1T -iVl# S498.11 

#12 4 port Parallell (SS50) S538.12 

OS-9 GMXIII drivers . . (included when purchased with GMX III package) . . $200.00 
OS-9 Level 2 users -- contact GIMIX for system requirements and avatebity. 

192K GMX ill #79 SYSTEMS: All include GMX 6809 CPU III and OS-9 GMX ill 
(#01); a #11 3 port Intelligent serial I/O & cables; #19 Classy Chassis; 192KB Static 
RAM, #68 DMA controller, all necessary cables, power regulators, and filler plates. 
The OS-9 Editor, Assembler, Debugger, BASIC-09, and RUNB are included. 

#79 with dual 40 track DSDD drives 

#79 with dual 80 track DSDD drives ^Hai#^* 6298 - 79 

#79 with #88 8" Dual Drive Disk System ... $7598.79 

* 7 *l with #90 19MB Winchester subsystem & one 80 track DSDD drive . $8998.79 
UmfLEX for the GMX 6809 CPU III and Intelligent I/O boards is in deveiopement. 

OS-9 GMX I; OS-9 GMX II; FLEX; and UniFLEX 

The #05 GIMIX 6809 PLUS CPU board $578.05 

Options: GMX DAT $35.00 SWTPC DAT $15.00 

951 1 A $312.00 9512 $265.00 

#49 64KB GHOST SYSTEM includes: #05 CPU; #19 Classy Chassis; 64KB static RAM: a #43 2 
port serial card & cables: #68 DMA Controller; all necessary cables, power regulators, and filler 
plates; GMXBUG monitor; FLEX; and OS-9 GMX I. You can software select either FLEX or 
OS-9, The OS-9 Editor, Assembler, Debugger, BASIC-09, and RUNB are also included. 


#49 with dual 40 track DSDD drives $4398.49 

#49 with dual 80 track DSDD drives $4698.49 

#49 with #88 8" Dual Drive Disk System $5998.49 

#49 with #90 19MB Winchester subsystems & one 80 track DSDD drive $7398.49 


#39 128KB SYSTEM includes: #05 CPUwDAT: #19 Classy Chassis; 128KB of static RAM; a 
#43 2 port serial card & cables; #68 DMA Controller; all necessary cables, power regulators, 
and filler plates; GMXBUG monitor; FLEX; and OS-9 GMX II. You can software select either 
FLEX or OS-9. The OS-9 Editor, Assembler, Debugger, BASIC-09, and RUNB, and GMX-VDISK 


for FLEX are included. 

#39 with dual 40 track DSDD drives $4998.39 

#39 with dual 80 track DSDD drives $5298.39 

#39 with #88 8” Dual Drive Disk System $6598.39 

#39 with #90 19MB Winchester subsystem & one 80 track DSDD drive $7998.39 


UniFLEX, available at extra cost, requires 8’ ' or Winchester drives. A signed license agreement 
with TSC is required before shipment. 

You can add to any GIMIX system RAM, I/Os and other options, or 
substitute non-volatile RAM. GIMIX will customize to your needs. 

COMING SOON: Contact GIMIX tor price and availability on 40MB and 72MB Winchester 
(5V) drives, removeable pack Winchesters, 256KB static RAM boards. 

All GIMIX systems are guaranteed for 2MHz operation. GIMIX systems include documentation 
for all boards and software in a GIMIX binder. ALL DRIVES ARE 100% TESTED AND ALIGNED 
BY GIMIX. 

ALL BOARDS AND SYSTEMS ARE ASSEMBLED, BURNED-IN, AND TESTED. GOLD-PLATED 
BUS CONNECTORS ARE USED. 

TO ORDER BY MAIL: SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER OR USE YOUR VISA OR MASTER CHARGE. Please 
allow 3 weeks for personal checks to clear. U.S. orders add $5 handling if order is under $200.00. Foreign 
orders add $10 handling If order Is under $200.00. Foreign orders over $200.00 will be shipped via Emery Air 
Freight COLLECT, and we will charge no handling. All orders must be prepaid in U.S. funds. Please note that 
foreign checks have been taking about 8 weeks tor collection so we would advise wiring money, or checks 
drawn on a hank account in the U.S. Our bank is the Continental Illinois National Bank of Chicago. 231 S. 
LaSalle Street. Chicago. IL 60693, account #73-32033. Visa or Master Charge also accepted. 

EXTORT MODELS: ADD $30 FOR 50Hz. POWER SUPPUES. 

GIMIX Inc. reserves the right to change pricing, terms, and product specifications at any time without 
further notice. 

ALL PRICES ARE F.O.B. CHICAGO 


Choose from GIMIX’ wide variety of system components. 

The GIMIX CLASSY CHASSIS #19 consists of a heavyweight aluminum cabinet, constanl 
voltage ferro-resonant power supply, and SS50 Mother board with baud rate gen- 


erator board $1398.19 

Triple Disk regulator card and cables $88.22 Baud rate generator card $88.93 

Missing cycle detector $38.23 Filler plates $14.92 

Back panel connector plates (specify) . $8.60 50 Hz. option $30.00 

MEMORIES (GIMIX uses only Static RAM) 

#67 64KB NMOS STATIC RAM board $478.67 

#64 64KB CMOS STATIC RAM board w/battery back-up $568.64 

#34 8K PROM board $98.34 

#32 16 socket PROM/ROM/RAM board $238.32 


I/O Boards (see above for Intelligent I/Os) 

#41 Single port serial, RS232/20ma. current loop $88.41 

#43 2 port serial, RS232 $128.43 

#46 8 port serial, RS232 $318.46 

#42 2 port parallel $88.42 

#45 8 port parallel $198.45 

#50 serial, RS232, RS422, RS423 $244.50 

#52 SSDA serial. RS232, RS422, RS423 $254.52 

#54 ADLC serial, RS232, RS422, RS423 $268.54 

Each cable with connectors for back panel mounting (specify board) $24.95 

DISK CONTROLLERS 

#68 DMA (featured in all systems above) $588.68 

#28 dbl. dens, programmed I/O (5” drives only) $298.28 

#58 single dens, programmed I/O (5” and/or 8’ 'drives) $226.58 

#48 same as #58 but for 5" drives only $198.48 

Cable sets: 8” with Back Panel connector $29.25 

for two 8” external drives $44.26 

for two 5” drives $34.96 

SOFTWARE: GIMIX exclusive versions of 0S-9/GMX I, II, III & FLEX are lor GIMIX hardware 
only. All versions of OS-9 require the #68 controller. 

When ordered with any controller, FLEX is $30.00 


GMXBUG PROMs and manual 


Boot or Video boot PROM $30.00 

OS-9 GMX I $200.00 

Editor $125.00 

BASIC-09 $200.00 


$98.65 

UNIFLEX boot PROM $50.00 

OS-9 GMX II $500.00 

Assembler $125.00 

RUNB $100.00 


DISK DRIVES FOR GIMIX SYSTEMS - complete with cables and power regulators. 

5"' DSDD 40 track 2 for $900.00 

5" DSDD 80 track 2 for $1300.00 

#88” Dual 8” DSDD drives, cabinet, power supply, & cables $2698.88 

Cabinet only $848.18 220V 50Hz. Option, add $30.00 

Filler plate $14.83 Cable lor 2 drives $44.82 

Cable for 4 drives $67.84 Cable for cabinet to mainframe $45.81 


WINCHESTER SUBSYSTEMS: for use only in GIMIX systems with #68 


DMA controller. 

#90: includes one 19MB drive, interface, and Software $3588.90 

#91 : includes two 19MB drives, interface and Software $5288.91 


Contact GIMIX for price and availability of other forthcoming subsystems. 


OTHER BOARDS 

#76 GHOST 80X24 VIDEO BOARD 


#66 50 pin Protoboards $56.66 

#03 6800 CPU 

#06 6800 CPU with timers $288.06 


$398.76 

#33 30 pin Protoboards $38.33 

$224.03 

Baud rate option, add $30.00 


#08 RELAY DRIVER (board, bracket, transformer, and 31 relays) $ 3.03 

#86 - #08 (board, bracket, transformer, without relays) $ r ,.i * 

#85 OPTO board 8.85 

WINDRUSH EPROM PROGRAMMER ,.>75.00 

3" Binder 12.00 2" Binder $9.00 

GIMIX DOES NOT GUARANTEE PERFORMANCE OF ANY GIMIX SYSTEMS, BOARDS OR SOFT- 
WARE WHEN USED WITH OTHER MANUFACTURERS PRODUCT. 

DON'T SEE IT??? ASK! OUR BROCHURE HAS MORE COMPLETE DESCRIPTIONS AND SPECS. 
PHONE OR WRITE TODAY FOR YOUR COPY. 


BASIC-09 and OS-9 are trademarks ot Mcrtnvare Systems Cocp and MOTOROLA. Inc. FLEX and UniFLEX are trademarks d 
Techncal Systems Consultants. Inc. GIMIX. GHOST. GMX. CLASSY CHASSIS, are trademarks ot GIMIX. Inc. 



I IRC. 1337 WEST 37th PLACE • CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60609 

■■111 I ||#V (312)927-5510 • TWX 910-221 -4055 


20 R=3. 3*R/N: DIMC <N*N*N) , W <N*N*N 


) 

21 F0RI=1T0N*N*N: C ( I ) =B < 1 + INT ( ( I 
-1)/N) ) +R*C0S(M+2*PI*T/N) : W ( I ) =V 
( 1 + 1 NT <<I— 1)/N>) +R*S I N < M+2*P 1*1/ 
N) :LINE(C(I) , W(I) )- <B( 1+INT (1-1) 

/N) , V < 1 + INT < 1-1 ) /N) > ,pset:nexti 

22 IFN>5THEN25 

23 R=3.3*R/N:DIMD(N*N*N*N) :DIMX ( 


N*N*N*N) 

24 F0RI=1T0N*N*N*N:D<I)=C<1+INT< 
(I-l)/N) )+R*C0S<2*PI*I/N) :X<I)=W 
< 1+INT ( (1-1) /N) )+R*SIN(2*PI*I/N) 
:LINE(D(I) , X (I) >- <C < 1+INT (1-1) /N 
) ,W< 1+INT < 1-1 ) /N) ) ,PSET:NEXTI 

25 SOUND 100, 1 


26 I$=I NKE Y* : IFI$=" " THEN26 

27 I F 1 $= " P " THENP A I NT ( 253 , 96 ) 
: PAINT (3, 96) , 1, 1:SCREEN1,0 

28 I F I $= " C " THENRUN8 

29 G0T026 


1,1 




Listing 2: 



. . 0306 

20 ... . 

. . 0609 

END . 

. . 078B 


1 CLS0 : R= 1 27+ 1 6*RND ( 8 ) : FOR I =0TO6 
: FOR J=0TO480STEP32 : POKE 1 024+ I + J , 
R : POKE 1 049+ 1 + J , R : NEX T J , I : FOR I =7T 
024 : FOR J=0TO32STEP32 : POKE 1 024+1 + 
J,R:P0KE1472+I+J,R: NEXTJ, I 

COLOR 

COMPUTER 
Buyers Club 

• Members enjoy a 30 - 40% savings on software! 

• More being added monthly! 

• Hardware & accessories at substantial savings! 

• Monthly specials and reviews! 

• Special orders service for members! 

• No service charge for VISA or MC! 

• Your savings can far exceed your dues! 

Join Today And Start Saving! 

Dues are $22.50 - We accept 
Personal Checks, M.O. or Charge It! SHE 


ADDRESS 

CITY STATE ZIP 

□ VISA □ MC Exp. Date # 

Mail to: 

Color Computer Buyers Club 

P.O. Box 241 

Eaton Rapids, Ml 48827 



NAME 


2 FOR I =0TO5 : FOR J=0TO32STEP32 : POK 
El 101+I+J,R:POKE1421+I+J,R: NEXTJ 
, I : FORI=0TO1 : FOR J =0TQ96STEP32 : PO 
KE 1 224+ I + J , R : POKE 1 238+1 + J , R : NEXT 
J,I 

3 DATA4, 10, 16,22, 132, 150,260,278 
,388,394,400,406 

4 FORI=1TO12:READD:POKE1024+D,R- 
1 : POKE 1 025+D , R-3 : POKE 1 026+D , R-2 : 
POKE 1 027+D , R- 1 : POKE 1 028+D , R-3 : PO 
KE 1 029+D , R-2 : POKE 1 056+D , R-4 : POKE 
1 057 +D , R- 1 3 : POKE 1 058+D ,128: POKE 1 
059+D ,128: POKE 1 060+D , R- 1 4 : POKE 1 0 
61+D, R— 8 

5 POKE 1 088+D , R- 1 : POKE 1 089+D , R-7 : 
POKE1090+D, 1 28 : POKE 1 09 1 +D , 128: PO 
KE 1 092+D , R- 1 1 : POKE 1 093+D , R-2 : POK 
Ell 20+D , R-4 : POKE 1 1 2 1 +D , R- 1 2 : POKE 
1 1 22+D , R— 8 : POKE 1 1 23+D , R-4 : POKE 1 1 
24+D, R-12: POKE1 125+D, R-8: NEXTI 

6 FOR J =0TO6 : FORK=0TO96STEP32 : POK 
E1095+J+K, 128: POKE 11 07+ J+K, 128: P 
0KE1351+J+K, 128: POKE 1363+ J+K, 128 
: NEXTK, J 

7 PRINTQ203, "fractals 2";:PRINT@ 
239, "by"; :PRINT@267, "r.delbourgo 
"; :PRINT@328, "15,willowdene av"; 
:PRINT0360, "austral i a 7005";: 

8 PLAY " O3L20CEBO4CO3GECP 1 " : P0KE6 
5495,0 

9 CLS : PR I NT0352 , " WHEN YOU THE F 
RACTALS ARE ALL DRAWN YOU WILL 

HEAR A SOUND. PRESS <P> TO P 

A I NT OUT THE SURROUNDS OR < 

C> TO CONTINUE. " 

10 PRINT00," ENTER THE NUMBER OF 
SIDES OF THE FRACTAL POLYGON 
(3 - 8) ";: INPUTN:PI=3. 14159265 

11 I FN >80RN< 3THEN 1 0 

12 R= ( N+4 ) *5 . 6 : PM0DE4 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 
1 : PCLS 

13 DIMA (N) ,U(N> 

14 FORJ=lTON: A(J)=128+R*C0S(2*PI 
*J/N) :U(J)=96+R*SIN(2*PI*J/N) :NE 
XTJ 

15 FORJ=lTON:LINE(A(J) ,U(J) )-(A( 
J+l— N*INT (J/N) ) , U(J+1— N*INT (J/N) 

) ) ,PSET:NEXTJ 

16 R=3*R/ <N+2) :DIMB<N*N) , V(N*N) 

17 FORI=lTON:FORJ=lTON:B(J+(I-l) 
*N) =A ( I ) +R*COS (2*PI*J/N) : V< J+ (I- 
1 > *N) =U < I ) +R*SIN <2*PI*J/N> : NEXTJ 

is forj=iton:k=j+(I-d*n:line<b< 

K) , V (K> ) — (B (K+l-N+INT < J/N) ) , V(K+ 
1-N*INT (J/N) ) > ,PSET: NEXTJ, I 

19 R=3*R/ (N+2) : DIMC <N*N*N) , W (N*N 
*N) 

20 fori=iton*n:forj=iton:c(j+<i- 

1 ) *N) =B < I ) +R*COS <2*PI*J/N) : W ( J+ ( 
1-1 ) *N) =V ( I ) +R*SIN <2*PI*J/N) : NEX 


32 the RAINBOW July 1983 




CoCo HEADQUARTERS 

Looking to unlock the capacity of your Color Computer? 

Search no more 


TOLL FREE 
1 - 800 - 251-5008 



SPECIALS 


DELKIR 

mss 



Extended Basic 

$ 

89 

.00 

Super Pro Keyboard Kit 

$ 

69.95 

32/64k Upgrade 

$ 

69 

.00 

26-3004 Color Computer 16k 

$ 

179.00 

16k Upgrade 

$ 

25 

. 00 

26-3002 Extended 16k CoCo 

$ 

269.00 

R/S Disk Controller 

$189 

.00 

26-3003 32k Extended CoCo 

S 

379.00 

1.1 Basic ROM 

$ 

27 

.00 

26-3003(d) 32/ 6 4k Ext. CoCo 

$ 

349.00 

Amdek Disk Drives 

$ 

Call! 26-1192 CGP-115 Printer 

ACCESSORIES 

$ 

179.00 

Hayes SM1200 Modem 


$ 

599.00 

26-1208 CCR-8L 

$ 

52.00 

USR AL 2 1 2 (300/ 1200) 

$ 

495.00 

26-3008 Joysticks 

$ 

22.00 

Hayes SM 300 Modem 


$ 

239.00 

Kraft Joystick 

$ 

49.95 

R/S D.C. Modem 2 


$ 

215.00 

Wico Track Ball 

$ 

59.95 

USR A L 3 0 0 


$ 

199.00 

Wico Joystick 

$ 

29.00 

R/S D.C. Modem 1 


$ 

129.00 

Wico Adapter 

$ 

19.95 

Hayes/USR Cable 


$ 

19.00 

Verbat im Disks 

s 

2 7.95 

26-3020 Cable 


$ 

5.25 

E 1 e phan t Disks 

$ 

25.00 


Telewriter 64 $ 59 
Telewriter 64 $ 49 
Zaxxon by Sega $ 34 
The King by Tom Mix $ 26 
The Frog by Tom Mix S 27 
Trapfall by Tom Mix $ 27 
The Bar Zapper $ 15 


SOFTWARE 

. 95(Disk) 
,95(Cass) 

, 95 (C or' D) 
,95(Ca9s) 

, 95 (Cass) 

9 5 ( Cas s ) 

95 (Cass ) 


Space Shutt le 
Colorpede 
Mark Data Adventures $ 24 
Ghost Gobbler $ 19 

MS I DATABASE $ 39 

MSI Color Finance $59 

The Graph Zapper $15 


$ 28.95 
$ 29.95 
95 
95 
, 95 
95 
95 


(Cass) 
(Cass) 
( Cas s ) 
(Cass) 
(Disk) 
(Disk) 
(Cass) 


**** All TRS-80 Software 13% off list ***** 


Others include - 
Mark Data, Tom Mix, 

TOLL FREE 
TENNESSEE 
1 - 800 - 545-2502 


All of the above units covered by our 120 
day carry in warranty, (d) denotes "Delker" 
(200ns) memory guaranteed for 1 year. 
TRS-80 Trademark Tandy Corporation. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
Sale prices good through June 30, 1983. 
Write for our FREE newsletter! 


Spectral Associates, Anteco, Prickly Pear, 
Botek Instruments, Intracolor Communications 
Sugar Software, Cognitec, 
and many more! 



TOLL FREE 
1 - 800 - 251-5008 

(DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME) 
DELKER ELECTRONICS, INC. 
P.O. BOX 897 
DEPT D 

SMYRNA, TN 37167 
800-251-5008 
615-459-2636 (TENNESSEE) 





TJ 

21 F0RJ=1T0N:K=J+(I-1)*N:LINE(C( 
K),W(K))-(C (K+1-N*INT (J/N) > ,W(K+ 
1— N*INT ( J/N) ) ) ,PSET: NEXTJ, I 

22 IFN>4THEN26 

23 R=3*R/ (N+2) : DIMD <N*N*N*N) , X (N 
*N*N*N) 

24 fori=iton*n*n:forj=iton:d(j+< 
1-1 ) *N) =C ( I ) +R*COS (2*PI*J/N) : X ( J 
+ ( 1-1 ) *N) =W ( I > +R*SIN (2*PI*J/N) : N 
EXTJ 

25 F0RJ=1T0N:K=J+(I-1)*N:LINE(D( 
K) , X (K) ) - (D (K+1-N*INT (J/N) ) , X (K+ 
1-N*INT(J/N) ) ) ,PSET: NEXTJ, I 

26 SOUND 100, 1 

27 I$=I NKE Y* : IFI$=" " THEN27 

28 IFI$= ,, P"THENPAINT (253, 96) , 1 , 1 
: SCREEN 1,0 

29 I F I $= " C " THENRUN9 

30 G0T027 

21 0680 

END ...08EA 

Listing 3: 

1 R=RND (8) :CLSR:FORJ=0TOll:FORK= 
0TO224STEP32 : POKE 1 1 62+ J +K , 1 28 : NE 
XTK, J : DATA16, 132,278,394 

2 F0RI=1T04: READD: FORJ=0TO5: FORK 
=0TO96STEP32: POKE 1 024+ J+K+D, 128: 
NEXTK, J, I : DAT A 1 3 , 7 1 , 86 , 129,217,2 


wild party 

A naughty, sexy computer game 
for 2 to 6 couples. 

Game varies 
every time you play. 

Your parties will be 
the hit of your neighborhood. 
All prompts from TV screen, 
no need to read 
complicated instructions. 

On cassette tape. 

For 16K Color Computer. 
Extended BASIC not required. 

$35-00 incl postage. 

(PA resid add $2.10) 

Send check to P.0. Box 210, 
Jenkintown, PA 1 9046 



60, 348, 391 , 406, 464 

3 F0RI=5T014: READD: FQRJ=0TO2: FOR 
K=0TO32STEP32 : POKE 1 024+ J +K+D , 1 28 
: NEXTK, J, I : DATA1 1 , 40, 55, 69, 98, 18 
6,215, 258,317, 360, 389, 404,433 

4 FOR I = 1 5T027 : RE ADD : POKE 1 024+D , 1 
22+ 1 6*R : POKE 1 025+D , 1 28 : NEXT I : POK 
El 152, 1 28 : POKE 1 407 , 128 

5 DATA77, 106, 121, 150, 193,252,295 
, 324, 412, 441 , 455, 470, 499: F0RI=28 
TO40 : RE ADD : POKE 1 024+D ,128: POKE 1 0 
25+D, 1 17+16*R: NEXTI 

6 PRINTS203, "fractals 3";:PRINT@ 
239, "by"; :PRINT@267, "r.delbourgo 

:PRINT@299, " 15, wi 1 1 owdene av"; 
:PRINT@331, "austral i a 7005"; 

7 PLAY " O3L20CEGO4CO3BECP 1 " : P0KE6 
5495,0 

8 CLS:PRINT@352, " WHEN THE FRACT 
ALS ARE DRAWN A SOUND WILL BE 
HEARD. PRESS <P> TO PAINT OUT S 
URROUNDS OR <C> TO CONTINUE." 

9 PRINT00, " ENTER THE NUMBER OF 
SIDES OF THE FRACTAL POLYGON 
(3 - 8 ) " ; : I NPUTN : P I =3 .141 59265 : M 
=2/N 

10 I FN >8QRN< 3THEN9 

11 R= (N+4) *5 : PM0DE4, l: SCREEN 1, l: 
PCLS 

12 DIMA(N) , U (N) 

13 F0RJ=1T0N: A(J)=128+R*C0S(2*PI 
*J/N) :U(J)=96+R*SIN(2*PI*J/N) : NE 
XTJ 

14 F0RJ=1T0N: LINE (A(J> ,U(J) ) — <A( 
J+1-N*INT(J/N> ) , U ( J+1-N*INT (J/N) 

) ) ,pset:nextj:forj=iton: A(J)=A(J 
) +M*R*COS (2* ( J + l ) *PI /N) : U ( J ) =U ( J 
) +M*R*SIN (2* ( J+l ) *PI /N) : NEXTJ 

15 R=M*R:DIMB(N*N) , V(N*N) 

16 F0RI=1T0N:F0RJ=1T0N:B(J+(I-1) 
*N)=A(I)+R*C0S(2*PI*(J+2) /N+PI ) : 
V(J+(I-1)*N)=U(I)+R*SIN(2*PI*(J+ 
2) /N+PI) : NEXTJ 

17 forj=iton:k=j+(I-1)*n:line(B( 
K) , V (K) ) - (B (K+1-N*INT (J/N) ) , V(K+ 
1-N+INT (J/N) ) ) ,PSET: NEXTJ: FORJ=l 
TON: K=J+ ( 1-1 ) *N: B (K) =B (K) +M*R*CO 
S (2* ( J+3) *PI /N+PI ) : V (K) =V (K) +M*R 
*SIN(2+(J+3)*PI/N+PI) : NEXTJ, I 

18 R=M*R:DIMC(N*N*N) ,W(N*N*N) 

19 F0RI=1T0N*N:F0RJ=1T0N:C(J+(I- 
1 ) *N) =B ( I ) +R+COS (2+PI* ( J+2) /N+PI 
*2/N) : W(J+(I-1)*N)=V(I>+R*SIN(2* 
P I * ( J +2 ) /N+PI+2/N) :NEXTJ 

20 F0RJ=1T0N:K=J+(I-1)*N:LINE(C( 
K> , W (K) ) - (C (K+1-N*INT (J/N) ) ,W(K+ 
1— N*INT (J/N) ) ) ,PSET: NEXTJ :FORJ=l 

ton: k=j+ ( i-i ) * n: c (K) =c (K) +m*r*co 

S(2*(J+4)*PI/N) : W(K)=W(K>+M*R*SI 
N(2*(J+4)*PI/N> : NEXTJ, I 



34 the RAINBOW July 1983 





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Get Your Very Own Pot O’ Gold! 

Here’s your chance to have a Pol O' Gold full of programs, articles and information about C 0 C 0 
every month of the year! A subscription to the Rainbow is only $22 and you won't miss a single 
chock-full issue. 

As the premier magazine for the TRS-80 Color, TDP-100 and Dragon-32 computers, the 
Rainbow has more of everything — and greater variety, too. Do yourself and your C 0 C 0 a favor 
and subscribe to the Rainbow today! 

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Air mail U S. $85 All subscriptions begin with the current issue. Please 
allow 5-6 weeks for first copy 


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| Tired of spending all your valuable computer time typing in those long, but wonderful. Rainbow 
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I run, thanks to Rainbow On Tape More than 20 programs every month in all! At $60 per year — or 
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| responsibility of the purchaser 




JUST 

THE 

BEST 

.RAINBOW 

THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

It’s called the premier Color Computer magazine for 
good reason. The Rainbow is the biggest, best, 
brightest and most comprehensive publication a 
happy CoCo ever had! Is there any wonder we get 
letters daily which praise the Rainbow, the magazine 
one reader calls A Pot Of Gold" for his Color 
Computer? 

The Rainbow features more programs, more 
information and more in-depth treatment of the TRS- 
80 Color, TDP System-100 and Dragon-32 computers 
than anyone else. 

Each monthly issue is well over 200 pages and 
contains more than two dozen programs and 30 or 
more product reviews. And advertisments: the 
Rainbow is known as the medium for advertisers — 
which means it has a wealth of information about new 
products every month unavailable anywhere else! 
More than 120 companies advertise in its pages every 
month. 


■O TJ 


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But what makes the Rainbow is its people. People 
like Bob Albrecht, the master teacher of computer 
programming. People like Don Inman, the world's 
finest computer graphics writer. People like Dick 
White, one of the most knowledgable writers about 
BASIC going. Or Dennis Lewandowski, who has that 
certain knack of explaining assembly language to 
beginners. And award-winning Steve Blyn, the 
Rainbow’s main educational columnist. These people, 
and others, visit you monthly through columns 
available only in the Rainbow. 

Special programs on using Spectaculator. An 
income tax reporting system. Complete Adventure 
games and Simulations. The Rainbow's unigue 
Scoreboard of arcade games. A column on 
educationally-oriented LOGO. The world’s first four- 
color computer magazine centerfold! And much, 
much more. 

Join the thousands who have found the Rainbow to 
be the absolute necessity for their CoCo. With all this 
going for it, is it surprising that more than 95 percent of 
the Rainbow’s subscribers renew their subscriptions? 

We’re willing to bet that, a year from now. you’tt be 
among them! 



the Rainbow 

9529 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 209 
Prospect, KY 40059 


I 





21 IFN>4THEN29 

22 R=M*R:DIMD<N*N*N*N> , X <N*N*N*N 
) 

23 FORI=lTON*N*N:FORJ=lTON:D(J+< 
1-1 ) *N> =C ( I ) +R*COS <2*PI*J/N+PI ) : 
X ( J + ( 1-1 > *N) =W ( I ) +R*SIN <2*PI*J/N 
+PI) :NEXTJ 

24 F0RJ=1T0N:K=J+(I-1)*N:LINE(D< 
K> , X (K> >-<D(K-H-N*INT(J/N> ) , X(K+ 
1-N*INT(J/N> ) > ,pset:nextj:forj=i 
ton: k=j+ ( i-i ) *n: d <k> =d (k> +m*r*co 

S(2*(J-4)*PI/N+PI/N> : X <K) =X <K) +1* 
*R*SIN (2* ( J— 4 ) *PI /N+PI /N> : NEXTJ , 
I 

25 IFN>3THEN29 

26 R=M*R : D I ME ( N*N*N*N*N ) , Y < N*N*N 
*N*N) 

27 fori=iton*n*n*n:forj=iton:e<j 
+ < 1-1 ) *N) =D ( I ) +R*COS (2*PI* ( J+3) / 
N) : Y(J+(I-1)*N)=X(I)+R*SIN(2*PI* 
(J+3) /N) :NEXTJ 

28 FORJ=lTON:K=J+(I-l)*N:LINE(E( 
K) , Y (K) ) — (E (K+1-N*INT ( J/N) ) , Y(K+ 
1 -N*INT < J/N) ) > ,PSET:NEXTJ, I 

29 SOUND 100,1 

30 I *= I NKE Y* : I F I *= " " THEN30 

31 I F I $= " P " THENPA I NT (253,96) ,1,1 
: SCREEN 1,0 

32 I F I $= " C " THENRUN8 

33 GOTO30 ^ 






Vitlec 
Plus 


connects the Color Computer to 
a composite video monitor. 


you 'll love the crisp, clear picture 
with no RF interference. 


Fully assembled and tested. 

Easy to install - no soldering. 

everything you need is included. 

Guaranteed to work. Tested on many brands, 
so you know you have a quality product. 

Does not disable your TV interface. Change 
from monitor to TV and back or display both! 

Works with color and monochrome monitors 
- any composite video/monitor can be used. 

Easy adjustment optimizes the video signal 
exactly for your monitor and computer. 

Works with every motherboard version! 


Osaier mqj.te* in»iM 


[UTERWARE ® 

Box 668 

Encinitas, Ca. 92024 
(619) 436-3512 


$24.95 

I plus $2 shipping) 


L 


HAPPY ANNIVERSARY, RAINBOW!! 


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$ 21. ^5 

Up K 






^ e>v 

M. J. FREEMAN 


\ 


STANDARD BASIC 


BEAR BONES SOFTWARE 
Suite 108 

G-3117 Corunna Road 
Flint. Michigan 48504 


SOOOPER PAC - BEAR BONES SOFTWARE- SOOOPER PAC - BEAR BONES 


00 

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July 1983 the RAINBOW 35 




CoCo COUNSEL 



S 



RAINBOW CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 


I ndependent software authors face a bewildering 
assortment of problems in trying to present software to 
the software house for marketing, or should 1 say, the 
software industry faces these problems. The problems are 
latent, and many authors, and perhaps even software 
houses, are often not aware of them. 

The problems arise from the ever-present potential for 
one person to misappropriate the ideas or programs of 
another, or for an author to perceive that a software house 
has stolen the author's programs or ideas. There’s always the 
reality that it is much easier to just steal someone’s source 
code, slightly modify it, and then publish it as a “different" 
program without giving the author credit than it would be to 
independently develop the software. It must be said here 
that any company that did this would not last long in the 
industry. On the other hand, since software houses are con- 
tinually developing their own software, misunderstandings 
can easily arise if a company later markets a piece of soft- 
ware with a similar theme to that submitted by an independ- 
ent author at some earlier data. 

This tremendous potential for actual rip-offs or perceived 
rip-offs cries for a solution to clarify the relationship which 
will be entered into between the author and the software 
house. Both sides have legitimate interests which must be 
dealt with before any software is sent or received. Honest 
authors and software houses have no desire or intent to 
cheat one another, but both sides also have legitimate fears 
that they may be cheated or subjected to a frivolous lawsuit. 
To the rescue the software submission agreement. 

Software submission agreements are universally used in 
industries which market products based on “intellectual 
property” such as software. The underlying purpose of the 
agreement is to inform the author that submitted software 
will not be held in confidence, but the author will have all 
protection afforded by the copyright laws. As an example of 
one of these agreements 1 will present here the core language 

(Tom Nelson is a Special Assistant Attorney General 
for the State of Minnesota representing various state 
agencies, and a consultant to Nelson Software 
Systems. He has written almost all the manuals for the 
programs in the Super “Color" Library.) 


of the software submission agreement used by a well-known 
company. This agreement is representative of agreements 
used by many companies. 

This submission agreement is in the form of a letter. It is 
sent in response to inquiries about submitting software, or in 
response to software submitted without first having in- 
quired in advance about the company’s policies. The agree- 
ment first indicates that this agreement must form the basis 
for any submission. It then introduces the company and its 
policies toward outside submissions, and the need for a 
submission agreement. The remainder of the agreement is 



36 the RAINBOW July 1983 




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11 a.m. to9 p.m. EST 



devoted to the terms for submissions. Many companies will 
discuss royalty arrangements and their general philosophy 
of marketing software as well. The operative language of the 
agreement is, of course, the most important. The following 
terms are exemplary: 

In order to protect both your rights and the rights of 
the company we will retain your submission in the 
Legal Department files, and we will consider your 
submission only upon the following conditions: 

1) All sketches, drawings and written disclosures 
must be submitted by way of copy only, and the com- 
pany shall have the right to retain such copies in its 
files. These copies may not be returned to the sub- 
mittor. 

2) The company shall have the right to consult others 
as to the value of and interest in ideas and disclosures 
submitted to it by the outside person. The company 
shall only consult others when, in its sole judgment, it 
deems it necessary and desirable for all parties in- 
volved. The company shall not be placed under any 
obligation whatever to the submittor as a result of 
having consulted or disclosed submitted ideas to oth- 
ers in an attempt to evaluate the idea and disclosures, 
and to determine the commercial interest in such ideas. 

3) If the company should decide not to adopt an idea 
or disclosure, it is understood that the company is not 
required to divulge any reason for not adopting the 
idea or disclosure, it being understood that in doing so, 
the company may be placed in a position of a prema- 


ture disclosure of its future plans. 

4) It is understood that the submittor shall retain all 
rights and remedies afforded him by the patent and 
copyright laws of the United States, and that in no 
event shall the company have any obligation to the 
submittor for the unauthorized use or disclosure to 
others of any disclosure, whether or not patented or 
the subject matter of copyright or trademark pro- 
tection, which the submittor may make, except spe- 
cifically those obligations imposed upon the company 
and its subsidiaries by either the patent laws of the 
United States through the grant of a valid patent in 
which the claims thereof have covered the idea sub- 
mitted or the copyright laws of the United States 
through the grant of a valid copyright registration on 
the material submitted. Further, the submittor hereby 
warrants and represents that the idea submitted by 
him is wholly original with him, and that there are no 
other persons, firms, or organizations made a party to 
this understanding that have any interests or rights in 
the submitted idea or disclosures that may in any way 
affect the company. The submittor further agrees that 
any subsequent submissions or supplements to the 
submission made hereinbefore shall be subject to the 
terms and conditions of this agreement. 

5) The mere receipt of a submitted idea, whether 
solicited or unsolicited, by the company, and whether 
relating to a patentable subject matter, copyright, or 
trademark shall not imply any contractual obligation 



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4401 219th SW 

MOUNTLAKE TERRACE, WASH. 98043 


206 - 778-9826 


ALSO PRESENTING: 

MORROW OE5IGN5 
MICRO DECISION 


38 the RAINBOW July 1983 




whatever on the part of the company except as to the 
obligation of the company to evaluate the idea in a 
manner it deems best and to determine its interest in 
any valid patent, copyright, or trademark right thereun- 
der. 

6) All disclosures, whether solicited or unsolicited, 
submitted by. outsiders and any supplements thereto 
must be in writing. The officers, agents, and employees 
of the company may not make any oral commitments 
of the company with respect to any disclosures. If any 
statements are made by the officers, agents, or em- 


“The problems arise from the ever- 
present potential for one person to 
misappropriate the ideas or programs 
of another, or for an author to perceive 
that a software house has stolen the 
author’s programs or ideas. ” 


ployees of the company to a submittor which the sub- 
mittor intends to rely upon, the submittor shall submit 
a record thereof, in writing, immediately to the com- 
pany. Failure to furnish a supporting statement will 
have the effect of invalidating any oral conversation. 


7) If the subject matter offered to the company is 
know-how, trade secrets, a proposed trademark, adver- 
tising slogan, merchandising plan, business idea, 
whether or not in use or generally known, or whether 
or not susceptible to trademark or copyright protec- 
tion, the company will examine it only under the terms 
set forth in this agreement. 

As you can see, these clauses cover rather completely the 
potential problems and concerns relating to the submission 
of software. The first clause gives the company the right to 
retain submitted copies. This is to protect the company 
against any future claims by giving it evidence of exactly 
what was submitted. The second clause gives the company 
the right to consult with experts and people outside of the 
company to determine the marketability of the submission. 
This allows the company to fairly and completely assess the 
value of the submission before it risks the substantial capital 
investment which must be made regarding the new product. 
The third clause makes it clear that the company does not 
have to give a reason for its rejection of the submission. This 
is necessary since otherwise it may be forced to announce its 
future plans, a highly guarded and valuable trade secret. The 
forth clause provides the limitation on the submittor’s 
remedies. It is a disclaimer of liability for unauthorized 
disclosure of the submitted idea with express recognition of 
any rights the submittor may have under copyright or patent 
law. The clause also contains a statement by the submittor 
that he or she is the sole owner of the submission. This 
protects the company against claims of others that the sub- 


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July 1983 the RAINBOW 


39 



mittor stole their idea and is trying to sell it. The clause 
further binds the submittor to the terms of the agreement for 
any future submissions or supplements. This provision helps 
avoid excessive paperwork, and recognizes an ongoing 
relationship. 

The fifth clause is important. It makes it clear that the 
company is only agreeing to review the submission, not to 
market the submission. The clause helps to avoid misunder- 
standings. The sixth clause is an attempt to avoid unnec- 
essary disputes arising from any telephone calls or the like. It 
merely requires that anything to be a part of the final agree- 
ment must be in writing, and any oral agreements must be 
made a part of the agreement or be considered waived. The 
careful author will be sure to write down the nature of any 
telephone conversation and compare it with the terms of any 
future written contract. The final clause reinforces the fact 
that the submission will be considered only under the terms 
set out in the agreement. 

Okay, now you’ve seen a sample agreement, so how 
should you handle your submissions? First, do not just send 
in your program to a software house without first contacting 
them. Give them a call in advance. They should be willing to 
tell you the general terms of any future agreement, and also 
whether they are even interested in evaluating your pro- 
gram. You can also tell a lot by just bantering with them for 
a while. You can save a lot of valuable time by finding out in 
advance whether the company will even consider marketing 
your program. In fact, I would recommend that you call 
companies even before you begin developing your program 
so that you do not spend a lot of time developing a program 



another "defenders" game! Brilliant 
graphics show wide angle & close-up views of the 
city you protect. You must save your people from 
attacking space creatures who try to capture them. 
Your ship has forward & reverse thrusters, long range 
phasers & quick manueverability. Nerble Force 
requires only one joystick & you'll learn a whole new 
style of joystick control. Several levels of play! 
cassette s 24 95 disk s 29 95 add s 2°° shipping 


COMPUTERWARE 

Box 668 • Encinitas, CA 92024 
Dealer Inquiries Invited (619) 436-3512 



only to later learn that no one wants it or that it is acceptable 
only with significant modifications. If you develop a good 
working relationship early, you can make maximum use of 
the company’s rich marketing experience. 

If the company is interested, ask for a copy of their 
submission agreement, and also feel free to ask to see a 


“The underlying purpose of the agree- 
ment is to inform the author that sub- 
mitted software will not be held in con- 
fidence, but the author will have all 
protection afforded by the copyright 
laws ...” 


sample contract. When you receive the submission agree- 
ment, sign it and send it together with your program. Com- 
panies differ in the form in which they wish to see your 
program. I feel it is inadvisable to submit any source code 
before you have a signed agreement to market your soft- 
ware. Any competent company can evaluate your program 
from a copy of the object code alone. Of course, this does not 
apply to those submitting BASIC programs. 

Some companies will also require that you give them an 
option to market your software. Signing such an option 
agreement will give the company an irrevocable right to 
market your software if they exercise the right within a given 
time period, say 30 days. This agreement will supply all the 
terms of the marketing agreement, and must be read care- 
fully. Option agreements will be discussed more fully in a 
later column. 

Once you have submitted your software, the waiting game 
begins. If you are not under an option agreement, be sure to 
check back with the company after a reasonable period of 
time, say 30 to 60 days. By the way, it is not good practice to 
submit software simultaneously to more than one company. 
If either finds out about the other, and they usually ask you, 
neither will be happy, and probably will reject your program 
out-of-hand. 

With the submission agreement the relationships are 
clearly set out. Doubt should no longer be present. Now you 
are ready to advance to the next step of the process of getting 
your software marketed. Let’s assume your program is 
accepted. Now it’s time to get down to contract negotiations. 
My next column will discuss contract fundamentals to pre- 
pare you for the process of negotiating a contract. Until 
then, good luck with your submissions. 


(The information given in this article is not legal 
advice. If you have legal questions you should 
see competent legal counsel.) 
^ 


40 the RAINBOW July 1983 




COLOR AMDISK-III 
COMPATIBLE. 


The AMDISK-III micro-floppy disk system is an engi- 
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and the extra convenience of the new 3 " hard plastic 
encased diskettes. They fit into a shirt pocket and are 
easy to mail, too. 


The AMDISK-III drive system is ruggedly constructed 
for years of trouble-free operation, and is backed with 
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Just circle the reader service number to receive com- 
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* Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation, 
t Requires recording on both sides 



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Software Review 


Home Money Manager 
Good Transaction Tracker 


Home Money Manager (H.M.M.) is a disk based check- 
book program that will keep track of all transactions asso- 
ciated with your checkbook. It is written in BASIC and will 
run on a 16K system with a printer. H.M.M. is a “menu” 
driven program that will keep track of your checks, deposits, 
automatic transfers, bank charges, etc. To begin using the 
program you first create a new check file. The CoCo will ask 
you for a starting balance and let you name up to 26 
accounts. Now you are ready to start entering information 
from your check register. The CoCo will ask for five pieces 
of information: check number, date, paid to, amount, and 
account number. As you enter each transaction, CoCo 
computes your current balance and displays it on the screen. 
Data entries are easy to change if you make a mistake. 

H.M.M. has one feature I really like. Let’s say you pur- 
chased three different items (gasoline, clothes, and curtains) 
last month with a credit card. Now of course you pay this bill 
with only one check, but if you are trying to run a budget you 
would want the total amount broken down and charged to 
three different accounts. H.M.M. will allow you to distri- 
bute the appropriate amount to each account by re-entering 
the same check number for each account. 

Once you have entered your monthly data, H.M.M. will 
allow you to go back and view any entries you want on the 
screen. At this point you can delete or edit records as neces- 
sary. Two other features probably would not be used often, 
but nevertheless are useful. The first is the ability to change 
account names originally specified when creating the file. 
The other feature allows you to change the current balance. 


You may need this if, for instance, you transposed numbers 
when entering a check or deposit, or do not wish to enter 
bank charges as an expense. 

There are four reports available with H.M.M. The first is 
a “transactions report. ” This report will printout a chrono- 
logical record of all entries made to the checking account. 
The second report is a “deposits report.” It will print out a 
chronological record of all deposits made to the checking 
account. The next report, as you may have guessed by now, 
is the “expenses report.” It will print out a chronological 
record of all withdrawals made from the checking account. 
All three of these reports can be printed for the month just 
completed or for a range of one day to as long as you cover in 
the file. The fourth report prints out the monthly totals for 
each of your accounts and also the year-to-date totals. 

I found H.M.M. to be a user friendly program. The eight 
pages of documentation are excellently written and you will 
have a good understanding of how H.M.M. works after 
reading the documentation just once. There is even a dem- 
onstration file included with the program to familiarize you 
with all the features of H.M.M. before entering your own 
data. 

The only thing you may not like about H.M.M. is that it’s 
a bit slow. I entered two months data into my file which was 
about 95 transactions. When I requested a report to be 
printed, it took two minutes and 40 seconds to sort the 
checks before starting to print. A full year’s data may very 
well take over 1 0 minutes to sort. This is a lot faster than any 
of us could do by hand, but some of you might find it 
irritating. 

With a 16K machine H.M.M. will let you record up to 480 
transactions. Since the program is written in BASIC, I’m 
sure it could be modified fairly easily to handle more if you 
have over 16K. 

If you are looking for a program to organize your income 
and expenses, then 1 recommend Home Money Manager. 

(Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, $19.95) 

—Michael Hunt 



BETTER THAN HIGHER COST 
PACKAGES RUNNING ON 


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42 the RAINBOW July 1983 





Like Word Games? 
Scramble’s For You 


It’s difficult to argue that your typical space games and 
pac-like thrillers don’t challenge the mind, because they 
often do require concentration and mental alertness. It’s 
probably safe to say that they don’t require a lot of intellec- 
tual skills. 

And after a steady diet of arcade games, it is a welcome 
change to be challenged by computer programs that test 
your vocabulary skills. Take Scramble, for example, a new 
creation by Kaleidoscopic Creations of Melrose Park, 111. 
It’s a word game, which can involve up to four players for 
hours in creative activity, competition and just plain fun. 

The participants, after entering their names, can compete 
on four levels. The first level allows only words (with 4 to 1 5 
letters) to be entered, and contestants have two and a half 
minutes to guess the answer. The next level allows words 
and names, but only two minutes are allotted. The third 
requires names and titles, with only a minute and a half for 
answers. The highest level asks for titles and phrases, and 
there is only one minute. 

When a player’s turn comes up, his or her name appears 
on the screen. The opposition types in the word or phrase on 
the screen and then presses the “/ ” key, signaling the compu- 
ters to scramble the terms. (Oh, yes, the player whose turn it 
is is expected to turn his head while the phrase is being 
entered.) The phrase takes about five to 10 seconds to be 
scrambled, which I found a little annoying, but I guess is 
understandable. If a typing error is committed while enter- 
ing a word, pressing the key allows you to make 
corrections. 

In order to unscramble the word(s), you must begin with 
the first position and proceed in order of the word to be 
spelled. If you type in the wrong letter, a beep sound is 
emitted by the computer. If there is a space between words, it 
must be entered or you receive the same signal. This seemed 
to be a kind of contradiction for me, because phrases appear 
on the screen as one continuous line of letters, making it very 
difficult to determine the easier parts of a phrase. All levels 
of play allow for 10 errors before your turn is over. Bonus 
points are given for guessing the word(s) before time runs 
out, but they do not exceed the points awarded for correct 
unscrambling — which makes you wonder why they are 
called bonuses. 

The game requires only 16K and does not require 
Extended BASIC. It is written in machine language. 

If your experience is like mine, in that you’ve still not been 
able to get the female members of the family hooked on the 
computer. Scramble may be the program for which you 
have been looking. That’s assuming, of course, that you do 
want the ladies to share your time on the CoCo. 

(Kaleidoscopic Creations, P.O. Box 1284, Melrose Park, IL 

60160,515.95 tape) 

— Charles Springer 



rTANDON 

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July 1983 the RAINBOW 43 




T he Color Computer offers several alternatives for saving 
and loading programs. There is cassette tape which works 
fine but is very time consuming. For the more fortunate, 
there is floppy disk which is much faster but quite expensive. Some 
experimenters have even managed to interface a hard disk to the 
Color Computer which is extremely fast and extremely expensive. 
There is one more alternative which is even faster than hard disk 
but will fit anybody’s budget. 

It will fit anybody’s budget because 1 am going to give it away to 
each reader. This final method is memory to memory storage. I will 
call this method Minidos because it acts like a Virtual Disk Operat- 
ing System. Of course, there is no physical disk involved. Minidos 
is a software technique which is reproduced below. 

Do not be fooled by the BASIC program listing. Minidos was 
written in machine language. The BASIC program only serves as a 
convenient method to poke the machine language program into 
memory. When the BASIC program has finished its task it will self 
destruct leaving only the machine language code in your computer. 
About Minidos. 

Minidos does have its limitations. This particular version will let 
you save two of your favorite BASIC programs in memory — that is 
all. 1 have also written a much more powerful Virtual Disk Operat- 
ing System (VDOS) which I will tell you about later. Here is how to 
work Minidos. ENTER the supplied listing below. Check very 
carefully for typing errors. If you make a mistake in the machine 



16K 

■ 

the 


UTILITY 

ECB 


RAINBOW 







Minidos: 


Two Ring Circus for CoCo 

Double your pleasure with Minidos , a miniature 
version of a new virtual disk operating system 
which will hold two BASIC programs in memory 
at once. 

By Dr. Laurence D. Preble 


44 the RAINBOW July 1983 



‘FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants Inc. 


Turn your 
color computer on 
to the power of 

FLEX 

NOW FROM THE WORLDS LARGEST SUPPLIER OF SOFTWARE FOR FLEX 
COMES FHL COLOR FLEX. JUST LOOK AT THESE FEATURES: 


IF YOU’RE TIRED OF 
NO DISK SOFTWARE, 

THEN FHL Color FLEX 
IS THE ANSWER! 

FLEX is the world’s most popular operating 
system, for the 6809 and with over 150 
programs, we are the largest supplier 
of software for FLEX. These programs are 
NOT games but serious programs for your 
Color Computer. They range from word 
processors thru business applications to 
software development tools. Many Fortune 
500 companies use our software. 

FHL Color FLEX turns your Color computer 
into a powerful system more capable than 
systems costing several times as much. 

See our NEW 32 page catalog in the 
Jan. ’83 issue of COLOR COMPUTER 
NEWS featuring over 150 products for 
FLEX, or send $3.00 to us and we will 
see that you receive a copy!! 


FLEX NOW ONLY S99 

• NEW - “Tiny Editor” 

• NEW - Interactive Assembler (Tiny ASM) 

• NEW - Machine Language Monitor 
• NEW - Video attributes include status lines, 
protected lines, and inverse video 
• Hi-Res screen formats 
• 16 x 32 and 24 x 51, upper and lower 
case characters 

• 24 x 64 and 32 x 64 upper case 
Full ASCII keyboards 
• Easy start-up— just type “FLEX” 
On-line assistance— Just type HELP 
• Optionally use a standard terminal 
and printer 

• Advance disk I/O and terminal 
capabilities - Supporting 35, 40, 
and 80 track single or double sided, 
single or double density drives 
■ No additional hardware required 
• We have supported FLEX with 
more than any one else in the 
world for more than two years! 

SPECIAL 

1. DBASIC, RS Disk Basic 
under FLEX with a utility to 
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with conditional macro assembler, 
both more powerful than TSC’s and | 
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FHL COLOR FLEX $50. 


THE REGENCY TOWER 
770 JAMES ST. - SYRACUSE, NY 13203 
TELEX 646740 - (31 5) 474-7856 





V 


LIMIT: One order per customer 




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This offer good towards purchase of software/hardware 
with proof of FHL FLEX purchase. 





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D® % 


Save up to $2 00 on your next order when you buy FLEX from Frank Hogg 
Laboratory. That's right, you can save twice as much as you paid for FLEX when 
you order anything from FHL. Here's how it works. If you buy FLEX from us or 
have purchased our FLEX in the last fi months then take a copy of your invoice and 
this coupon and send it in with your order of software and/or hardware from our 
catalog. Everything in our catalog is included! Suppose that your order was for $500. 
You would send in $450 and the copy of your invoice for FLEX and this coupon, 
saving $50. To save the maxium of $200, you order would have to total $2000. This 
special applies whether you bought FHL Flex from us or from one of our dealers, 
however, the 10% discount is only available from us. 

This deal is good for ONE order only per customer. What I mean by that is you can 
only use the coupon ONCE. 

Only FHL, with over 150 products in our catalog can offer you as good a deal as 
this. If you take advantage of some of our other deals in the catalog the savings are 
significant. 

This special 10% promotion will run for at least the next 3 months, and if it works 
out for us, we will make it a permanent thing. 

(EXCEPTIONS: The 10% discount cannot be applied to SPECIAL sale prices. We 
will note these exceptions when they occur.) 


FRANK 

HOGG 

LABORATORY 


THE REGENCY TOWER 
7 70 JAMES ST. . SYRACUSE, NY 13 203 
TELEX 646 7 40 . (3 1 5) 4 74-7 856 


STYLOGRAPH 


6809 WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 

AVAILABLE FOR FLEXJ“ UniFLEX,™ and OS-9™ 


The STYLOGRAPH text processing system is a very easy to use but powerful 
method of creating and printing text. It allows the operator to type text on the CoCo, 
modifying and correcting it as it's typed, and then print it out. The STYLOGRAPH 
SYSTEM is cursor-oriented with dynamic screen formating. Cursor based editing 
means that any portion of the text may be worked on by moving the cursor to that 
point. Dynamic screen formating means that the text is formated on the screen in 
the same way it will appear on the printed copy. The display is continuously up- 
dated to show how the text will appear. This is a very important feature and is nor- 
mally available only on very expensive commercial word processing systems. It 
significantly reduces the time required to produce a finished copy. 


FULL FEATURED TEXT EDITING 

A full array of commands help in the creation and modification of text. The text 
displayed on the screen may be moved up, down, left or right. The cursor can be 
moved to any page or to any specified series of letters or words. The cursor itself 
can be moved left, right, up, down, to any tab position, or to the extreme left or right. 
Any block of text can be moved, copied or deleted. The operator may also do a 
global replace so that all occurrences of a given string will be replaced with or 
without a "prompt” asking if the item should be replaced. 


OPERATOR CONVENIENCE 

Files longer than memory can be edited. The operator can move forward through 
a long text file by selectively dumping text to the disk or filling from the disk. 

The supervisor mode is menu driven and self prompting so that the operator does 
not have to remember the syntax of commands. This makes it easier for new opera- 
tors to use the system. 

An "assist" or “help” function makes it easy to learn the system since it is nor- 
mally not necessary to consult the manual to learn the commands. This function is 
menu driven and lists all of the keyboard functions and the formating commands. 

At the beginning of the text the operator normally types in a few simple com- 
mands indicating the line length, left margin, and so forth, and then enters the 
header and footer as they should appear. After that the operator need not worry 
about formating since it is taken care of automatically. Words that extend beyond 
the end of the line are automatically removed and placed on the next line. Headers 
and footers are automatically inserted so that the operator always knows what por- 
tion of the page is being worked on. Ghost hyphens can be entered so that if the 
word falls at the end of a line, and a ghost hyphen has been inserted, the hyphen 
will automatically be added. 


FLEXIBLE DISPLAY 

Lines longer than the screen width are allowed. STYLOGRAPH can scroll right 
and left on the screen so that tables can be constructed and appear on the screen 
exactly as they will appear on the print out. 

A command allows viewing of the formating commands on the screen. Another 
command allows the operator to see which characters will be modified at print out 
by underlining, superscripting or boldface. A page status command shows the cur- 
rent format values and other useful information. 


COMPLETE FORMATING CONTROL 

The text of individual lines may be centered, left justified, right justified, or right 
and left justified. Tabs can be set or cleared at any point. Spacing of the lines on the 
page is under complete operator control with end of page, spacing and vertical tab 
commands. 

While entering text, it may be specified that the characters have some kind of 
modification when they are printed, such as underlining, superscript, boldface, 
overline, or subscript. These character modifications are done with "control" key 
strokes. For example, to start underlining characters, simply hold down the "CTRL" 
key, hit the "U" key and continue entering text. To stop underlining, hit the "DEL" or 
"RUB" key. 


Control codes may be embedded in the text for special applications. For exam- 
ple, some printers require special control sequences for double width, graphics or 
boldface. These sequences may be embedded in the text for those users that have 
these printers. In conjunction with this, it is possible to cause the printer to stop in 
the middle of a print out for changing printwheels. A backspace feature allows 
overstriking. 


OPERATING SYSTEM COMPATIBILITY 

STYLOGRAPH is compatible with the FLEX, UniFlex, and OS-9 disk operating 
systems. Text files prepared using STYLOGRAPH are directly usable by other soft- 
ware such as BASIC and the assembler. (This significantly aids software develop- 
ment since cursor-based editing allows full viewing of the text being worked on, 
thereby reducing errors and decreasing programming time). File size is limited only 
by the capacity of the disk system. Files may be loaded into the text at any point 
making it possible to rapidly create "boiler plate" documents using portions of text 
that have been previously saved to a text file. Any portion of a text may be saved to 
a text file for use at a later point. The printer output may be directed to a disk file for 
later print spooling. Most operating system commands are directly accessible 
without leaving STYLOGRAPH. 

FULLY ADAPTABLE TO MOST PRINTERS 

STYLOGRAPH is easily configured by the user for most terminals so there is no 
need to send for updates as equipment changes are made. Source code of the ter- 
minal interface is supplied so that users with unusual equipment configurations 
may adapt it to their systems. The source code for all of the "prompts" is also sup- 
plied so that foreign language versions may be easily constructed. 

Printers currently included as standard are: Diablo, Qume, Starwriter, NEC 
5515/25. NEC 5510/20; CENTRONICS 737/739; TTY type printer with backspace func- 
tion; TTY type printer without backspace function. 


COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS 

A special tutorial section is included in the manual so that people with little or no 
computer experience can easily learn to use STYLOGRAPH in a few hours. A text 
file is included which demonstrates most of the features of STYLOGRAPH and 
allows the operator to practice most of the functions. The logical arrangement of 
the commands and the immediate display of the results greatly simplifies the learn- 
ing process. In addition there is an "assistance" command which helps the new 
operator learn the commands. 


STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 

A major option of STYLOGRAPH is the related MAIL MERGE program. This pro- 
gram adds "form letter" capability to STYLOGRAPH. Variables such as names ad- 
dresses. dates, may be taken from a disk file or the keyboard at print out time and 
inserted into the text. Successive letters may be printed out without operator in- 
tervention. 

The second important capability of the MAIL MERGE program allows many 
STYLOGRAPH text files to be appended at print out time. This allows files to be 
edited in smaller, more convenient blocks and then appended at print out time so 
that the page numbers will remain consecutive and the headers and footers will 
automatically be retained through all of the print out. 


STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECKER 

Another major option of STYLOGRAPH is the related SPELLING CHECKER pro- 
gram. This program reads through a text file and compares the words in the file with 
a dictionary. Words that are not found in the dictionary may be marked in the text 
for later editing, corrected on the spot, skipped, or added to the dictionary. Words 
may be added to or deleted from the dictionary to create unique vocabularies for 
particular applications. 


POWERFUL PRINTING OPTIONS 

Underlining is supported on TTY type printers. For those people who have 
specialty printers there are a variety of additional capabilities including: 

1.5 line spacing 
BOLDFACE 
superscript* 
subscript, 
underline, overline, 
or any combination 

Right and left justification of text is accomplished by incremental printing on TTY 
type printers. True proportional spacing is supported on the specialty printers. 


STYLOGRAPH for the Color Computer FLEX 

STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 

STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECK 

STANDARD FLEX Version 




FRANK 

HOGG 

LABORATORY 


195.00 

125.00 

145.00 

295.00 


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language listing, the program will bomb without necessarily 
giving any error message. CSA VE the program to cassette 
before running it. RUN the program. The BASIC listing 
disappears and Minidos is installed. 

Minidos has sectioned your computer memory into two 
halves. If you have a 32K computer, you may now CLOAD 
in a I6K or less BASIC program. If you have a I6K compu- 
ter, you may now CLOAD in an 8K or less BASIC program. 
Now CLOAD in one of your favorite BASIC programs. 
LIST your program or RUN it to make certain it is in 
memory. When you are satisfied your program is all right, 
type EXEC and press the ENTER button. Now try to list 
your program. It is gone! Don’t worry. Your program is 
alive and well, safely tucked away in high user memory. 
Type in EXEC and ENTER again. LIST your program. It 
has returned safely. 

N ow the acid test. Save your program in high memory by 
typing EXEC (ENTER) once more. Next CLOAD in one 
more of your favorite programs. Check to make certain your 
program will RUN. Finally, type EXEC (ENTER) to make 
your newly entered program switch places with the other 
program tucked into high memory. Check to make certain 
the other program still will RUN. Great! Each time you type 
EXEC, your two programs will switch places and you may 
run either of them. 

Minidos has some obvious limitations. First, only BASIC 
programs may be saved with Minidos. Minidos will not 
work with any of your machine language programs. Sec- 
ondly, Minidos does not maintain a directory. There is no 
way for you to tell which program has been saved if you 
forget! Minidos will only save ONE extra program. Even if 


CO CO SERVICE 
from 

Creative Electronics Co. 

64K Upgrades $80.00 Installed 
32k Upgrades $30.00 Installed 
Extended Basic W/Manual (Write) 
Operating Light $10.00 Installed 
Video Interface $20.00 Installed 
Clock Boards $80.00 Installed 
Keyboards $80.00 Installed 
Roms Burned & Installed in 
custom Rom Paks (Write) 

We recommend C ITOH PROWRITER 

printer and Panasonic monitor. 
C ITOH Printer $425. OO+Shipping 
Panasonic CT-1112 Color Mon. $360+ 
shi ppi ng . 

Fast turn around on all items. 
Above prices apply to operating 
D,E,F Boards & TDP Computers. 
INCLUDE $5.00 FOR RETURN SHIPPING 
SEND S.A.S.E. FOR DETAILS AND FOR 
FURTHER OFFERINGS. 

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you have plenty of memory space. Multiple saves are not 
permitted. Finally, once you’ve loaded Minidos, choose the 
PCLEAR that you want, but do not change it while using 
the program or you’ll have problems. 

Minidos has a big brother. I call it VDOS. VDOS is a 
complete Virtual Disk Operating System designed for 64K 
and 32K Color Computers. (By the way, any Color Compu- 
ter can now be upgraded to 64K for as little as $60. See 
Rainbow ads.) VDOS will save as many programs as will fit. 
VDOS will even save machine language programs. VDOS 
has a directory function which displays more information 
than even the normal Radio Shack Disk system. Imple- 
mented functions include, Directory, Save A Basic Pro- 
gram, Save A Machine Program, Load A Basic Program, 
Load A Machine Program, Kill A Basic Program and Kill A 
Machine Program. VDOS incorporates itself into your 
computer by giving you an extra command: You just type 
VDOS to get into VDOS. Unlike Minidos, it is permissible 
to change PCLEAR modes as often as you like with VDOS. 
Even pressing reset will not harm VDOS. 

If you have a 64K computer, it is possible to save from 
32K to 50K of programs, depending on where you tell 
VDOS to locate itself. All memory is dynamically allocated 
and reallocated. I have had as many as 25 short programs 
saved on VDOS at once. In any case, if you like Minidos but 
want more, see our ad in this month’s Rainbow. 


The listing: 


r 


320 0288 

END . . . 0555 


10 ’ MINIDOS - MINI VIRTUAL DISK 
20 ’ ALLOWS USER TO CLOAD UP TO 
30 ’ TWO OTHER BASIC PROGRAMS 
40 ’ AND SWITCH BACK AND FORTH 
50 ” BETWEEN THEM. 

60 ' 

70 ’ SEE RAINBOW ADVERTISEMENTS 
80 ’ FOR A COMPLETE VIRTUAL 
90 " DISK OPERATING SYSTEM 
100 ’ WHICH ALLOWS MULTIPLE 
110 ’ BASIC AND MACHINE LANGUAGE 
120 ’ PROGRAM STORAGE AND EVEN 
130 ' MAINTAINS A DIRECTORY. 

140 ' 

150 PCLEAR 1 
160 CLS 8 

170 PR I NT "STANDBY"; 

180 S1=&H21 
190 S2=&H22 

200 MX=PEEK (SI ) *256+PEEK (S2) -25 

210 RG=MX-1536 

220 SP=INT (RG/2+1536) 

230 CL=SP-1 

240 READ CT 

250 FOR X=SP TO SP+CT 

260 READ PK 

270 POKE X , PK 

280 NEXT X 

290 CLS 

300 CLS 3 

310 PR I NT "ONLY ONE GRAPHICS PAGE 


48 the RAINBOW July 1983 







erful robot, armed with a lethal homing 
missile. 

Zaxxon is the one game that you must see 
to believe. You have to play it to feel its im- 
pact. If you’re ready to face the challenge, 
check with your local software dealer or 
send check or money order with $2.00 post- 
age/handling. California residents add 
6'/a% sales tax. Available on cassette or 
diskette. Suggested retail price $39.95. 

Available in January on Atari*, February on 
Apple* and Radio Shack* Color, and April 
on Tl 99/4A’” and NEC 6000'“. 


home computer entertainment. From the 
daring attack on the enemy’s floating for- 
tress and the blazing battle against the en- 
emy's fighter fleet to the final showdown with 
the deadly armored robot, Zaxxon'" chal- 
lenges the skill and imagination of every 
player at every level of skill. 

Imagine yourself the pilot, attacking the 
enemy fortrdss-climbing, diving, strafing to 
score points and extra fuel. The enemy 
fights back with a barrage of missiles and 
gunfire. Then you face a fleet of enemy fight- 
ers in a gripping dogfight of altitude strategy 
and flying skjill. Survive this battle and the 
enemy’s fortress, defended with laser bar- 
riers, then you've earned the ultimate chal- 
lenge; a blazing confrontation With the pow- Datasofr is a registered trademark ot Datasoft lnc.» 

Sega * and Zaxxon '* are registered trademarks of Sega Enterprises Inc. 


The game that puts space games in 
perspective. Zaxxon one of the most 
popular arcade games of 1 982, is now avail- 
able for use with your home computer 
system. 

Zaxxon'" technology and creativity present 
a 3-dimensional-like playfield which sets 
Zaxxon'" apart from other computer games. 

Zaxxon'” looks and sounds like aircraft 
flight, and players can soar to new levels of 


COMPUTER SOFTWARE 
9421 Winnetka Avenue 
Chatsworth, CA 9131 1 
(213) 701-5161 
©1982 Datasoft* Inc. 




320 PR I NT "HAS BEEN PCLEAR’D." 

330 PR I NT: PR I NT "REMEMBER TO PCLE 
AR MORE" 

340 PRINT" IF DESIRED." 

350 PRINT: PRINT: FOR X=1 TO 2000: 
NEXT X 

360 PRINT@480 

370 PR I NT "TYPE EXEC (ENTER) " 

380 PR I NT "TO SWITCH BETWEEN PROG 
RAMS" 

390 print:print:print 
400 X1=INT (SP/256) 

410 X2=SP-X 1*256 
420 POKE 157, XI 
430 POKE 158, X2 
440 CLEAR 200, CL 
450 NEW 
460 DATA 137 

470 DATA 166,141,0,129,38,20,48, 

141.0. 128. 175. 141.0. 117. 111. 128, 

111.128.108.141.0. 111.175.141.0, 

103.31.64. 147. 10.237. 141.0. 102, 1 

41.52. 174. 141.0. 91.16. 158.25. 166 
, 164,230, 132, 167, 128,231, 160, 16, 

172. 141.0. 80.37.241.220.27, 147,2 

5.227. 141.0. 65.52.6.236 

480 DATA 141,0,57,163,141,0,55,2 

11.25.221.27.53.6.237. 141.0. 43.3 

2.28.220.27. 147.25.237. 141.0. 38, 

236. 141.0. 29. 163. 141.0.27. 16. 163 
, 141,0,25,35,4,237, 141,0,19,57,1 
27,2,221, 127,2,222, 127,2,223,22, 
0,0,57,251,255,255,255,0,0,0,251 


PRO-COLOR-FILE 

If you're through playing games and are ready to 
get serious about software, then PRO-COLOR- 
FILE is for you. Turn your TRS-80 32K Color 
Computer Disk system into a powerful data base 
manager. 

We're serious about PRO-COLOR-FILE. It’s the only 
program of its kind that gives so much flexibility and 
power to your color disk at a price that will fit your 
budget. In fact, it could be the least expensive software 
you'll ever buy. 

PRO-COLOR-FILE is not just one program. It gives you 
the ability to create any application that requires infor- 
mation to be stored, searched, updated, sorted and 
reported. You can custom design your own mailing list, 
inventory, stock investment records, time manager, 
expense records, income records .... anything. 

The best part about PRO-COLOR-FILE is that you don't 
have to be a programmer or even know a lot about disk 
input/output to use it. You design your application 
programs in a way that is easy for you to understand and 
use. In fact, the more you use PRO-COLOR-FILE the 
more you learn about data base development. 

Only $79.95 + $2.00 Shipping and Handling. 

We accept VISA, MASTERCHARGE, Checks or Money Orders. 
No C.O.D.'s please. 

Call or write for more details: 

DERRINGER SOFTWARE, Post Office Box 5300, Florence. S.C. 
29502. Phone: (803) 665-5676 after 6:00 p.m. (EDT). 

PRO-COLOR-FILE ©1983 Dennis Derringer. 

*TRS-80 is a trademark of the Tandy Corp 




44211 ® 


Home Interest Calculator: 
Quick, Accurate Assistance 


Most families would find B.C. Engineering’s INTRST1, 
Home Interest Calculator, quite useful for their software 
library. It’s not a fancy program, no buffer or printout 
capabilities. You simply input the pertinent information 
asked for on loans or money deposited in interest-bearing 
accounts. Home Interest Calculator, in turn, calculates the 
answer quickly and accurately. 

It’s a great little program for finding the difference in 
payments for a 20-year home loan as opposed to a 30-year 
loan. Or, finding the best financing for your next new car. 

On the deposit side, it can help plan for Junior’s college 
education or that vacation you dream about. Just input the 
needed amount of money, the interest rate on the account 
and the number of years in which to accumulate the money. 
Or, plan for your retirement. It will calculate the principal 
needed to receive a desired yearly payment. 

The documentation is short and to the point. Quite easy to 
understand and use. 

To the point, the program will do the following: 

LOANS 

1) Will calculate payment account, 

2) Will calculate principal, 

3) Will calculate balloon to loan payoff amounts, 

4) Will calculate interest rate per period, 

5) Will find interest rate charged per compound period, 

6) Will find the number of payments that have to be made 
on a loan before the balance due is below the amount you 
enter.’ 

DEPOSITS 

1) Will calculate the final amount in an interest bearing 
account if a single payment is made to it, 

2) Will calculate the single original amount that must be 
deposited to get the desired final amount, 

3) Will calculate the final amount in an account after 
equal payments are made to it; payments are assumed 
yearly, 

4) Will calculate the equal payments that can be received 
from a deposit; payments assumed yearly, 

5) Will calculate the principal needed to receive a desired 
yearly payment, 

6) Will calculate the equal payments needed to get the 
final amount desired; payments assumed yearly. 

It may not be as easy to use a TI Business Analyst calcula- 
tor, but it’s somewhat cheaper, and it gives you an excuse to 
play with your CoCo. 

(B.C. Engineering, P.O. Box 768, Manchester, MO 63011, 

$12.95) 


—Pamela Peitsch 


50 the RAINBOW July 1983 




THE GREATEST 

SOFTWARE DEAL 
ON EARTH 



Tame your computer without breaking your wallet's spirit! Quality 
programs on tape for the price of peanuts! 

A subscription to Chromasette Magazine consists of 6 to 8 
ready-to-load useful, practical, and fun programs delivered by First Class 
Mail every month. Programs like Curve Fit, Diggem, Graph Text, List Mod, 
Robot Run, House Adventure, and Keep Text. 

Treat yourself to a greatshow — get a subscription to Chromasette 
Magazine. Or catch a single act and try a back issue. You'll be delighted 
by the tricks your computer will do! 


The Bottom Line: 


I year [12 issues) $50.00 
6 months 

(6 issues) S30.00 
Single Copies $ 6,00 


Calif, residents add 6% to single copies. 
North America — First Class postage 
included. 

Overseas — add $10 to subscriptions and 
$1 to single copies. Sent AO rate. 


The Fine Print: 


All issues from July 1981 available — ask for list. Programs are for the 
Extended BASIC model and occasionally for disks. 



"&i/zoma$ette. 


MAGAZINE 


P.O. Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 (805) 963-1066 Master Card /Visa 




Fly your spaceship through 
enemy Starbases. Avoid 
guided missiles, lasers, and 
firing turrets! Can you reach 
their leader . . . ZAKSUND ? 


COLOR GRAPHICS _ 


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many other fine programs! 

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RAINBOW 



Here's A 120 Frame 'Graphics Pad' 
For easy Animation 

By Scott L. Bain 


T hose interested in computer animation would do well 
to choose the Color Computer. TRS-80C Extended 
BASIC supports a wide range of extremely user- 
friendly graphics commands and allows for page switching, 
making simple, smooth looking animation a relatively easy 
task. But those who want to create lengthy, animated art- 
work without resorting to tedious DRA W commands and 
slow graphics updates will need more than eight pages to 
work with. 

Animator is a full function “graphics pad” program that 
divides each of five graphics pages into 24 miniframes. The 
user is provided with a cursor controlled drawing board, a 
window to the area where the individual “frames"are stored, 
the ability to animate using any or all of the 120 frames, 
commands to edit and duplicate existing frames, and a 
subroutine to save finished frames to tape. 

Displays 

The main display is divided into two smaller displays, 
outlined by white boxes. The display on the left is the user 
“pad” — the flashing cursor there is moved using the arrow 
keys and 1 , 2, W, and Q (for diagonals), and wraps around in 
all four directions. Move (M), Draw (D), Erase (E), Paint, 
(P), Line(L), Circle, (C),and Box (B) are fully supported in 
black and white. The display on the right is a window to the 
current frame position on the storage pages. “F” will 
advance this position one frame and “R” will move it back 
one. Pressing the “clear” key will display the storage page 
currently occupied by the frame cursor(the long white line). 
There are five storage pages, and repeated use of the “clear” 
key will allow you to flip through them (see point 5 under 
“other notes”). “F” and “R” will still work (try them) and 
“G” will advance the frame cursor one full page. 

“#” will clear the user pad. “* ” will clearthe storage pages 
and since on powerup the 80C’s graphics pages are filled 
with random “garbage,” it is important to clear them first. 

Storing and Animating Frames 

Using “D,” put the cursor into DRA W mode, then using 
the arrow keys and 1, 2, W, and Q draw something on the 
pad. When you are finished press “S.” The right screen 
(window) should now contain an exact copy of what you just 
drew, and when you press “clear” you will notice that the 
storage page has a copy of your figure in the upper left hand 
corner (this is what the window is “looking at”). Press “F” 
once — don’t hold it down as it will auto repeat — and the 
frame cursor will advance to the next position. Press the 
space bar to get back to the main display and you will notice 
the window is now blank. The window always displays the 
same frame as the frame cursor is underlining, and vice 
versa. 

Using the pad cursor controls, add something to the draw- 
ing you just made (it is still on the pad, you’ll note), and press 


“S” again. This new version of the drawing will be copied 
into storage at the new frame cursor/ window position. Press 
“clear” and you will see how the two frames are stored. 

Press “A” and the two frame animation will begin. Use the 
“-” key to slow it down and “+” to speed it back up again. 
Pressing the space bar will stop it completely. 

NOTE: Animator's “A” command flips through the 
stored frames, one by one, starting with the first frame and 
ending with the frame currently underlined by the frame 
cursor and displayed in the window. This means that if you 
have stored 50 frames but have left the frame cursor on #5, 
only frames 1 through 5 will be included in the animation 
procedure. Use “G” and “F” to advance the frame cursor to 
the last frame position. 

Specialty Drawing Commands 

Animator’s specialty commands make it easy to draw 
standard figures and erase them. Press “M” to get the pad 
cursor into “move” mode, and “#” and to clear every- 
thing out. Press (shift 7) and a single pixel will be set at 
the current cursor position, accompanied by a “beep.” Move 
the cursor away, preferably toward a corner. This dot you 
have left behind is the “endpoint dot” used by the specialty 
commands. Press “C” and a circle will be drawn using the 
endpoint dot as the center and the cursor as a point on the 
circumference. “X,” which is just to the left of “C” will erase 
the circle if you have not moved the cursor. “B” (erased by 
“V”) and “L” (erased by “K”) will yield interesting results. 
Try them. Pressing again will create a new endpoint dot, 
although the old one will not be erased from the pad. 

Paint (P) works just like it does in Extended BASIC, and 
is mainly intended to be used to fill in closed polygons. “0” 
does the same thing in black, and therefore can be used as an 
eraser. 

Editing and the Command 

Once your animation is finished you may want to change 
or add to it. This is easily done: 

To change an existing frame, merely move the frame 
cursor/ window to the desired position. “T” will transfer 
(copy) the frame to the pad, wiping out anything that was 
there. You can now use the pad controls to alter the frame, 
or you can clear it out and draw something totally new. 
Either way, “S” will replace the stored frame with whatever 
is on the pad. 

Note that this will completely wipe out the old frame and 
insert the new in its place. 

The “&” command will work exactly the same way except 
that the pad frame will be added on top of the existing frame, 
thus combining the two. This can be most useful in complex 
animations. Programmers should note that the OR option 
of the PUT command is at work here. 

There is no edit “mode” because (in effect) you are always 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 53 



editing. When creating animation at first, you are actually 
editing out blank frames and replacing them with filled ones. 
The commands are always the same. 

Command Summary 


P Paints the screen white, stopping at white borders. 
“O” does the same thing in black. 

(The arrow keys and 1 2 W Q control the movement 
of the cursor. They will auto repeat, and wrap 
around.) 


PAD 

D Puts the cursor into “draw” mode. The cursor will 
leave a white trail behind it as it moves. 

E Puts the cursor into “erase” mode. The cursor will 
erase (reset) any pixel it moves through. 

M Puts the cursor into “move” mode. The cursor will 
move through drawings without disturbing them. 
NOTE: will set a single pixel while in this mode, 

and “,” will reset one. 

# Will clear the pad to black. 

shift 7 Will set the endpoint dot. 


WINDOW/FRAME CURSOR 
F Moves position one frame forward. Beeps when last 
frame reached. 

R Moves position one frame back. 

G Moves position one full page forward, wraps 
around page 5 to 1. 

N Returns position to frame #1, page #1. 
clear Display current page, 

space Return to main display. 


C Draws a circle using the endpoint dot as the center 
and the current cursor position as a point on the 
circumference. “X” erases it. 


B Draws a box using the endpoint dot and current 
cursor position as the corners. “V” erases 
it. 


L Draws a line using the endpoint dot and current 
cursor position as the endpoints. “K” erases it. 



eRlON 

presents 


Scf 


MRe 


game ever 1 1 1 


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* Clear all storage. 

TRANSFER/EDIT 

5 Save pad frame to current storage position. 

T Transfer frame at current position to pad for edit- 
ing, etc. (“S” returns frame to storage) 

6 As “S,” but with OR option. Adds the pad frame to 
whatever is stored at the current 

position. 

@ Locks the“F” command on. Every time the “S” key 
is pressed thereafter, the pad frame will be stored 
and the frame position automatically advanced as if 
“F” had subsequently been pressed. A beep will 
sound each time, reminding you that the lock is still 
on. Pressing “@” again will turn the lock off. 

ANIMATING 

A Animate from frame # 1 , page # 1 , up to and includ- 
ing the frame displayed in the window (and under- 
lined by the frame cursor). 

space Stop animating. 

- Slow down the animation. 

+ Speed up the animation (begins at full speed) 

Saving to Tape 

Once an animation is finished, make sure the frame cursor 
is on the last frame you want stored, then press “/ Use the 
“Save” option to create a machine language file that should 
be approximately four tape counts per page saved long, 
under any name you like, up to eight characters in length. 

To load a finished animation back into the program, 
make sure the storage is clear (“*”) then press “/ After the 
file is loaded, note the frame cursor must be advanced to the 
last frame of the animation before using the animate “A ” 
command. Using the “/” option always returns the frame 
cursor to the # 1 frame. If you press “A” while it’s still there, 
you end up looking at a one frame animation! 


54 the RAINBOW July 1983 




Other Notes 

1) Don’t worry if you need to “break. ’’The program will 
never clear out the storage unless you tell it to (“*”). Wha- 
tever was on the pad will be lost, though, unless you take the 
PCLS out of line 12 before running. 

2) Erasing a line using “L” or a box using “V” will also 
erase the endpoint dot. Don’t be fooled — the endpoint is still 
the same until you change it by pressing (shift 7) again. 

3) Copying a frame from one point of the animation to 
another is simple. Just move the frame position to the 
desired frame, transfer (“T”) it to the pad (it won’t be wiped 
out of storage, just copied onto the pad), then move the 
frame position to the new location and save (“S”) it. You can 
duplicate any frame any number of times using this method. 

4) The number of dots in the upper left hand corner of the 
main display indicates which page of the frame cursor it’s 
currently on (each page holds 24 frames, remember). 

5) Repeated use of the “clear” key will flip you through the 
pages in rotation. “G” will actually move the frame cursor 
position through the pages. If you use “clear” to view a page 
other than the one currently occupied by the frame cursor, 
then try to move the frame cursor using“F,”“R,”or“G,”the 
commands will still function, but you will be flipped back to 
the current page first. 

6) Only those commands listed under “Window/ Frame 
Cursor” in the command summary will function while you 
are yiewing the storage page(s). If you press any other com- 
mand key you will be returned to the main display before the 
command is executed. All commands except “-” and “+” 
may be used while viewing the main display, (“-’’and “+”are 
only used during animation — there’s no reason to use them 
any other time.). 


7) The following keys will auto repeat: the arrows, 1 , 2, W, 
Q, F, R, G, +, and -. 

8) Black on white drawing is possible by painting (“P”) the 
screen white, then drawing in black using the erase com- 
mands. Note that will not work properly using this 
method. 

9) If your computer cannot use the standard processor 
speed up, you should remove the POKE 65495,0 from lines 
12 and 19 and the POKE 65494,0 from line 19. 

10) After first loading Animator from tape you must 
PCLEAR 6 before it will RUN. 1 have no idea why, but 
RUNning twice will also work. 1 believe it’s a quirk in the 
ROM. 

11) This program is dedicated to Andrea R. Chartier, 
without whom this entire project would never have come to 
be. 


( Scott Bain is a free-lance 
software author and 
journalist who works out 
of San Diego. He and his 
partner, Andrea Chartier, 
own and operate Scan 
Software Designs .) 

The listing: 


10 PCLEAR6 

11 CLEAR15:DIMM<11, 11 > :dlay=i:vp 




ARCADE GAMES 


Dtilar InquIrlM walaime 
Quality color computer loftware 
All Software on tape only 
All gamee require tl K except 
where noted 




Prism Software 

CHOPPER RESCUE (Extended BASIC) $13.95 

LAS VEGAS (Extended BASIC) $11.95 

THE ALIEN $13 - 95 

RAIDERS “By Prism Software” In this adventure you must 
deal with voodoo curses, alligators, ancient traps and hostile 
natives. This adventure begins in the confusion of a large city 
and ends (maybe too soon if you're not careful) in a dangerous, 
dense jungle in South America. 

(Extended BASIC) $16.95 


★ By Spectral Associates ★ 


GHOST GOBBLER $26.95 


ALCATRAZ II $11.95 

GALAX ATTAX $26.95 

SPACE WAR $26.95 

KEYS OF THE $23.95 

WIZARD 

★ By Mark [ 

BLACK SANCTUM $28.95 
CAVE HUNTER $28.95 

BERSERK $30.95 


ROBOT BATTLE 
PLANET INVASION 


$26.95 

$26.95 


COSMIC INVADERS $26.95 


SPACE RACE 
DEFENSE 


$26.95 

$26.95 


Data Products ★ 

ASTRO-BLAST $30.95 

CALIXTO ISLAND $28.95 
SPACE RAIDERS $30.95 




★ By Computerware ★ 

COLOR PAC ATTACK $30.95 STARSHIP 
DOODLEBUG $30.95 CHAMELEON 

RAIL RUNNER $30.95 STORM 

O 000 ★ By Intracolor ★ 

COLORPEDE $3! 


$30.95 

$30.95 


\ f f vvTQrt 

C cAiaiLior 


$35.95 


Prism Software 

779 Queen St., 

Box 1 360, Kincardine, 
Ontario, Canada. NOG 2G0 
Tel:(51 9)396-8224 


★ By Tom Mix Software ★ 


DONKEY KING 


requires 32 K 


$30.95 


Add 5 for shipping 
No C O D. 

VISA or Mastercard accepted 
Ontario residents add 7° o sales tax. 


i for (Mlvtry 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 55 



AGE=2: LOCK=0: OX-64: OY-99: x=ox : Y= 

oy: pixel=0: pdraw=2: bx=i : by=i 

1 2 PMODE0 , 1 : PCLS : CLS : SCREEN 1 , 1 : L 
I NE ( 42 , 77 ) - ( 86 , 121) , PSET, B: LINE ( 
170, 77) — <214, 121) , PSET, B:GOSUB10 
2: P0KE65495, 0 

13 PMODE0, VPAGE: LINE <BX, BY+42) - ( 
BX+40, BY+42) , PSET: PMODE 0, 1 

14 FOR I — 2TQVPAGE 

15 PSET <1*4, 10,5) :NEXTI 

16 A*=INKEY*:PSET(X, Y,5) 

17 F0RT=1T05: NEXTT: PRESET (X,Y) 

18 I F A*= " D " THEN PDRAW=1 : PSET ( X , Y 
,5) *.G0T014 

1 9 I F A*= " / " THENP0KE65494 , 0 : GOSUB 
114:GOSUB102:RUN 

20 I F A** "B" THEN LINE (OX , OY) - < X , Y 
), PSET, B: PSET (X,Y, 5) : PIXEL-1 

21 I FA*= " V " THENL I NE ( OX , OY > — ( X , Y ) 
, PRESET, B: PRESET ( X, Y) : PIXEL-0 

22 IFA*="N"THEN PMODE 0,VPAGE:LI 
NE (BX , BY+42) - (BX+40, BY+42) , PRESE 
T: PMODE 0, l:LINE(l, 10) -(40, 10) ,P 
RESET : B X= 1 : BY= 1 : VP AGE— 2 : GOSUB 1 0 
2: GOTO 14 

23 IFA*<>"@"THEN25 

24 I FLOCK- 1 THENLOCK-0 : SOUND 100,2 
: ELSELOCK-1 : SOUND 100, 2 


UPLOAD $16.95 

This is the UPLOAD side of DLOAD and 
DLOADM in Extended Color Basic. Send a 
basic or machine program to another ECB 
Color Computer. Programs can be passed 
directly or by phone if both computers are 
hooked to modems. (not supplied). Uploaded 
program arrives at the receiving end ready to 
save, run, or execute. Patch to correct the 
flaw in DLOADM is supplied in public domain. 

INDEXER $14.95 

Program produces a sorted list of variables 
and line numbers used in your basic program. 
Following each variable or line number will 
be a listing of the numbers of the basic lines 
which contain the variable or line number. 
RUNning the basic program is not required. 
Bonus! Global search of basic program for a 
variable, a text string, or a basic keyword. 

Fast machine language 
16K/32K EXTENDED BASIC, Tape or RS Disk 
Add $2.00 for shipping and handling 

ML-US'R SOFTWARE 
115 RISING SUN, Dept R 
FORT MITCHELL, KY 41017 


25 I FA$= ■ E " THENPDR AW-0 : PRESET ( X , 
Y) : A$=" , " 

26 I FA$= " L " THENL I NE ( OX , OY ) — ( X , Y ) 

, PSET: PSET (X, Y, 5) : PIXEL-1 

27 IFA*="K"THENLINE (OX, OY) - ( X , Y) 

, PRESET: PRESET ( X, Y) : PIXEL-0 

28 IF A*= " ' "THEN SOUND 200,1:OX= 

x:oy=y: A*=". " 

29 IFA*-". "THENPSET(X,Y,5) : PIXEL 
=l:GOTO 14 

30 I FA*= " , " THENPRESET ( X , Y) : PI XEL 
=0:GOTO 14 

3 1 I F A*= " M " THENPDR AW-2 : GOTO 1 4 

32 I FA*- " S " THENG0SUB68 : I FLOCK- 1 T 
HEN A*= "F" : SOUND 100,2: ELSEGOTO 1 4 

33 I FA*“ " & " THENG0SUB68 : I FLOCK- 1 T 
HEN A*="F" : SOUND 100,2: ELSEGOTO 1 4 

34 IFA*=" A"THENG0SUB74: G0T016 

35 IFA*= "#"THENPI XEL— 0: G0T012 

36 I FA*= " * " THENG0SUB86 : GOTO 1 3 

37 IF A*="T"THEN GET ( 172, 79) - (21 
2, 119) ,M,G:PUT(44,79)-(84, 119) ,M 
, PSET : I FPPO I NT ( X , Y ) — 0THEN PIXEL- 
0 ELSE PI XEL- 1 

38 IFA*= CHR* (12) THEN GOSUB90:GOT 
017 

39 IFA*= "F" THEN G0SUB98 : GOTO 1 4 

40 IFA*= ,, R"THEN GOSUB 104: GOTO 14 

41 IFA*= "P"THEN PAINT ( X , Y) , 5, 5: P 
SET (X,Y,5) :PI XEL— 1 

42 IFA*= "C"THEN CIRCLE (OX , OY) , SQ 
R(ABS(X-0X)"'2+ABS(Y-0Y)''2) : PSET ( 
X, Y,5> :pixel=i:goto 14 

43 I FA*—" X "THEN CIRCLE (OX , OY) , SQ 
R ( ABS (X-OX ) "'2+ABS ( Y— OY ) ^2 ) , 0: LIN 
E (42, 77) -(86, 121 ), PSET, B: PRESET ( 
X, Y) : PIXEL-0: GOTO 14 

44 IFA*="0"THEN PSET ( X , Y, 5) : PAIN 
T ( X , Y) ,0,0: LINE (42, 77) -( 86 , 121) , 
PSET, B: PRESET (X, Y) : PIXEL-0: 

45 IFA*="G"THEN GOSUB 123 

46 IFCHR* (94) -A*THEN Y1»Y-2:X1=X 
: G0T055 

47 IFCHR* (9) — A*THEN X1=X+2:Y1=Y: 
G0T055 

48 IF CHR* (10) -A* THEN Y1=Y+2:X1 
-X: GOTO 55 

49 IF CHR* ( 8 ) —A* THEN Xl-X-2: Y1- 
Y:GOTO 55 

50 IF A*="l" THEN X l-X-2: Yl-Y-2: 
GOTO 55 

51 IFA*="2"THEN X l-X+2: Yl-Y-2: GO 
T055 

52 IFA*= " W'THEN X l-X+2: Yl-Y+2: GO 
T055 

53 IFA*="Q"THEN X l-X-2: Yl-Y+2: GO 
T055 

54 GOTO 14 

55 IF XI <44 THEN Xl-Xl+42 

56 IFYK79THEN Yl-Yl+42 


56 the RAINBOW July 1983 




Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer 


Software Sale! 




Pinball 

Save s 

0088 R eg 29.95 

£ ■ Cm 26-3052 


Art Gallery 

Save s 10 07 

OQ88 Re 9 39-95 
Cm W 26-3061 


Be a pinball wizard! Hit the circle poppers and knock- 
outs for points. You can even bump and tilt. For fastei 
play, design your own customized playfield. 


Create landscapes, still lifes, cartoons— whatever suits 
your artistic fancy! Special graphics features let you 
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Microbes 

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| 26-3085 



Audio Spectrum 
Analyzer 

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You're the disinfector shooting antibodies at the nasty 
bacteria. Watch out for ‘‘X factor”. This sneaky enemy 
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Test your stereo equipment for maximum performance! 
Color bar graphs show the power distribution over nine 
full octaves in 1 h octave segments. 



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Roman Checkers 

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One to four wheeler-dealers pick drilling sites and fight 
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The classic game of strategic placement— as easy to 
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Tennis 

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| 26-3080 



Shooting Gallery 

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Test your tennis skill against a real pro— your Color 
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The carnival beckons— lights, music, the shooting gal- 
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Radio fhaek 

The biggest name in little computers^ 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 

Retail prices may va - y at individual stores and dealers 


57 IFX 1 >84THEN Xl=Xl-42 

58 IFY1>1 19THEN Yl=Yl-42 

59 I FPDR AW= 1 THEN PIXEL=1 

60 IF PDRAW=0 THEN PIXEL=0 

61 ONPI XEL+1B0T062, 63 

62 PRESET < X , Y > : 60T0 64 

63 PSET < X , Y, 5) 

64 IF PDRAW=1 THEN PSET (XI , Y1 , 5) 
ELSE IF PDRAW *0 THEN PRESET (XI 

,Y1) 

65 IF PPO I NT ( X 1 , Y 1 ) < >0 THEN PIXE 
L =1 ELSE PIXEL =0 

66 X=X1: Y=Yl:GOSUB 67: GOTO 14 

67 FOR N=338 TO 345: POKE N,255:N 
EXT N: RETURN 

68 IFPDRAW=10RPIXEL=1THEN PSET(X 
,V,5> 

69 GET (44, 79) -(84, 119) ,M,G 

70 PMODE 0, VPAGE 

71 IF A*="&" THEN PUT (BX , BY) - (BX 
+40,BY+40) ,M,OR ELSE PUT (BX , BY) 
- (BX+40, BY+40) , M,PSET 

72 PMODE 0,1: IF A*="&" THEN PUT 
( 172, 79) — (212, 119) ,M, OR ELSE PUT 

(172, 79) -(212, 119) ,M,PSET 

73 RETURN 

74 F0RPAGE=2T0VPAGE 

75 IF PAGEOVPAGE THEN FOR 1 = 1 T 
0 161 STEP 44: FOR J=1 TO 241 STE 
P 42: GOTO 78 


76 FOR 1=1 TO BY STEP 44 

77 IF I=BY THEN FOR J=1 TO BX ST 
EP 42 ELSE FOR J=1 TO 246 STEP 4 
2 

7B PMODE 0 , PAGE 

79 SET ( J , I ) — < J +40 , I +40 ) , M , G : PMOD 
E0, 1 

80 PUT (44, 79) -(84, 119) ,M, PSET 

81 FORD=lTODLAY:NEXT D 

82 A*= INKEY*: IF A*="" THEN 84 EL 
SE IF A*="— " OR A*= H +" THEN GOSU 
B 87: GOTO 84 

83 RETURN 

84 NEXT J, I, PAGE 

85 G0T074 

86 BX=l:BY=l:FOR PAGE =2 TO 6: PM 
ODE 0, PAGE: PCLS: NEXT PAGE: PMODE0 
, l:LINE(l, 10)- <40, 10) , PRESET: LIN 
E (173, 79) -(212, 118) .PRESET, BF: VP 
AGE=2: RETURN 

87 IF A*="+" THEN DLAY=DLAY-10: I 
F DLAY< 1 THEN DLAY=1 

88 IF A*="— " TJHEN DLAY=DLAY+10: I 
F DLAY>190 THEN DLAY=190 

89 SOUND200— D , 1 : G0SUB67 : RETURN 

90 CPAGE=VPAGE 

9 1 PMODE0 , CP AGE : SCREEN 1 , 1 

92 A*= INKEY*: IF A*="" THEN 92 

93 IF A*=CHR* (12) THEN CPAGE=CPA 
GE+l:IF CPAGE=7 THEN CPABE=2:G0T 


Find The 

COLOR COMPUTER INFORMATION 

YOU NEED 

COLOR COMPUTER INDEX ft 
COLOR COMPUTER CATALOG © 


American Library and Information Services 

Dept. R, 3705 Mary Ellen NE, Albuquerque. NM 87111 

Gentlemen: 

Yes! Send me COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1980-1981 at $5 (Canada and Mexico $6) 

Z Yes! Sign me up for COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1982 (4 issues) for $16 (Canada and Mexico S20) 

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□ YES! Sign me up for Color Computer Index 1983 (Six issues for $24 — Canada 8i Mexico $30) 

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Single Issues: 

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Color Computer Catalog $12 U.S. 


Name 

Address 

City State Zip 


58 the RAINBOW July 1983 


0 91 ELSE GOTO 91 

94 if A*-"G" THEN GOSUB 123: GOTO 
90 

95 IF A*="F" THEN GOSUB 98: GOTO 
90 

96 IF A*="R" THEN GOSUB 104: GOTO 
90 

97 PMODE0, 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : RETURN 

98 PMODE0, VPAGE: LINE (BX, BY+42) -< 
BX+40, BY+42) , PRESET: PMODE0, 1 

99 BX—BX+42: IFBX<241 THEN 102 

100 IFBY+44>161 AND VPAGE =6 THEN 
SOUND200, 10: BX=BX— 42: GOTO102 

101 IF BY+44M61 THEN VPAGE=VPAG 
E+l:BX=l:BY=l ELSE BY=BY+44: BX=1 

102 PMODE 0, VPAGE: GET (BX,BY)-< 
BX+40, BY+40) , M, G: LINE (BX, BY+42) - 
(BX+40, BY+42) ,PSET: PMODE 0,1: PUT 
<172, 79) -<212, 119) ,M, PSET 

103 GOSUB 67: RETURN 

104 IF BXOl OR BYOl THEN 108 

105 IF VPAGE=2 THEN RETURN 

106 PMODE 0, VPAGE:LINE<BX, BY+42) 
- (BX+40, BY+42) , PRESET 

1 07 PMODE 0,1: PRESET < VPAGE*4 ,10) 

: VPAGE- VPAGE— 1 : BX=21 1 : BY=133: PMO 
DE 0 , VPAGE: GOTO 112 

108 PMODE0, VPAGE 


109 LINE <BX, BY+42) -(BX+40, BY+42) 
, PRESET 

110 BX=BX— 42: IFBX>=1 THEN 112 

111 BX—21 1 : BY— BY— 44 

112 LINE (BX, BY+42) -(BX+40, BY+42) 
, PSET 

113 GET (BX, BY) -(BX+40, BY+40) ,M,G 
: PMODE 0, l: PUT (172, 79) -(212, 119) 
, M, PSET: G0SUB67: RETURN 

114 CLS: INPUT "SAVE OR LOAD"?T*:T 
*=LEFT*<T*, 1) : IFT*=" "THEN 122 

115 CLS: INPUT "FILE NAME" ; F$: IFLE 
N(F*)>8 THEN 115 

116 PR I NT "READY TAPE AND HIT ’ EN 
TER’ ":LINEINPUTA* 

117 PMODE 0,2: SCREEN 1,1 

118 IF T*="S" THEN 120 

119 CLOADM F$:GOTO 122 

120 PMODE 0, VPAGE: LINE (BX, BY+42 
) -(BX+40, BY+42) , PRESET: PMODE 0,2 

1 2 1 CS A VEM F* , 3072 , 1 535+ ( VPAGE* 1 
536) ,44553 

122 PMODE 0,1 .‘SCREEN 1 , 1 : RETURN 

123 PMODE0, VPAGE: LINE (BX, BY+42) - 
(BX+40, BY+42) , PRESET: VPAGE-VPAGE 
+1 : IF VP AGE >6 THEN VP AGE-2: PMODE0 
, l:LINE(l, 10) -(40, 10) , PRESET 

124 GOTO 102 _ 


FILMASTR 


TIME & MONEY 


A powerful DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM for the 
COLOR COMPUTER. If you have been wanting a really 
good data manager at a reasonable price, THIS IS IT! 
FILMASTR combines the best features of the big 
systems to provide a combination of speed, power, and 
simplicity that can’t be beat. 

CUSTOM SCREENS - Oesign input screens with up to 
20 fields. Inverse labels for contrast. 


FORM FILL ENTRY - Non-destructive blinking cursor, 
full screen editing, no garbage collections, copy fields 
from previous record. Keeps up with the fastest 
typist. 

FAST SORT & SEARCH - Machine language sorts the 
entire file in seconds. Sort on any field or fields. Use a 
variety of relational search techniques to select any 
record or group of records that you can define. 

EDIT FILES -Change or delete any record easily. Create 
and save sub-files or append files. 

PRINT FORMAT -Print any field in any order on any line. 
Insert characters or phrases. 

MENU DRIVEN - No special commands to be learned. 
All functions are menu selected and aided by on 
screen instructions. 

CAPACITY - Up to 255 characters per record, 24000 
characters per file. (9000 with 1BK) 

DOCUMENTATION - A thorough manual with 
examples and explanation of every command. 


FILMASTR 


16K or 32K 
EXT BASIC 


TAPE $29.95 
□ ISC 34.95 


A "WHAT IF?" financial planning tool. T & M is used to 
evaluate the time value of money as an aid in planning 
investments, savings plans, retirement plans, leases, 
loans, mortgages or any other situations that involve 
compound interest. 

The program is menu driven with simple on-screen 
instructions. It uses a unique form fill-in for data entry 
with easy editing. It even accepts simple math expres- 
sions as input. 

Calculated results are automatically entered as data and 
can be used for further "WHAT IF?" calculation. All 
factors are always on screen, making it easy to 
understand the relationship between TIME & MONEY. 


TIME & MONEY 


1 6K or 32K TAPE $19.95 

EXT BASIC DISC 24.95 


1 = 1 1= 
i i £ Ls 

COMPUTE 

HOUSE 

P (814)371-4658 

BOX 1051 

, DUBOIS PA, 15801 




Add $2.00 Postage & Handling 
PA Residents Add B°/o Tax 
C.O.D. $2.00 Additional 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 59 






HOME HELP 


O- 


F 

16K 

ECB 

■ 

the 

• H * 

RAINBOW 

IT- -.V 



D T ^ 


x i n □ 

3 

B 

7 

B 

B 

+ 

3 

1 

a 




i 

a 






1 





J 

i 


1 

— p- 

[Xj 


— 1*— 

3 


/ 

_i 


f 

ii 





G R 

c 



H 


n 


WET 


* [««it jii a 


srasSHSa 


i'Wi 


Ik. L V J mm V 







BY J. D. RAY 


/ 


H ome Budget Analysis was developed for my use in 
summarizing year-end income and expense informa- 
tion for my household budget. This is the kind of 
program 1 like to use with my Color Computer because it 
demonstrates its extreme versatility. In the process of closing 
out our household finances for 1982, 1 wanted to be able to 
compare more visually certain categories and see how much 
was spent on a month-by-month basis. 1 use th ^Personal 
Finance program ROM pak developed by Tandy and its 
biggest flaw is not being able to print out data with a printer 
and demonstrate visually what is happening in the various 
categories. 

This program fills that void by allowing you to enter the 
compiled information from the Personal Finance program 
and send the information to a printer. Then you have the 
option to see this data displayed on a high-resolution graph. 
The program not only gives you a month-by-month summary, 
but a year-end total and an average for the year. Please note 
that you do not have to use the Personal Finance program to 
compile information. Any process you use to compile your 
home finances can be used to determine data for this program. 

The best part of all of this is the program’s ability to graph 
the information on a high-resolution graph. The grid is drawn 
with line statements and labeled with alpha-numerics. Then 


J- 


in ii i a 


60 the RAINBOW July 1983 






COLOR COMPUTER FLEX* OS-9f USERS 


DO YOU WANT faster 
running programs (over 
100 times faster than 
BASIC)? A high level 
language that is also a low 
level language? A compiler 
that runs in less than 
32K? Assembly language 
output? Position 
independent code? 
Extensive library 
functions in source 
assembly code? Periodic 
newsletters with new 
library functions? An aid 
in learning assembly 
language? Liberal version 
updates? 

C is the language of the 
eighties; accepted by IBM 
and Bell Labs for system 
development: a compact, 
highly versatile, easy to 
use language, excellent 
to use to build games, 
applications, utilities, 
operating systems, etc. 


DUGGER’S GROWING functions (els, polcat, 

SYSTEMS with over 21 floating point, etc.), 

years of experience in 
computing was first on the 
market with a 6809 C 
compiler. The compiler has 
been extensively tested, 
revised, and proven. 

DUGGER’S GROWING 
SYSTEMS C is a growing 
subset of the standard C. 

Version 1 contains all the 
necessary C commands 
(while, if, if else, int, char, 
etc.). Version 2 contains 
additional features (float, 
long, for, goto, etc.). 

AN EXTENSIVE 
LIBRARY in assembly 
language source is 
provided (char, I/O, 
formatted print, 
filehandling, string 
manipulating, etc.) Color 
Computer version also has 
additional functions which 
use the BASIC ROM 


ORDER NOW 

(new low prices) 

Color Computer C Compiler 
Version 1.2 (disk version) . . $49.95 

Flex C Compiler 

Version 2.3 120.00 


OS-9 C Compiler 
Version 1.2 


C Programming Language 

by Kernighan & Ritchie 

(a must) 19.95 

Computerware 

disk assembler 49.95 

Computerware Scribe 

(Disk editor-text formatter) .49.95 

Shipping add $3.00 
C.O.D. and Foreign handling 
add 15% 

MasterCard and Visa accepted. 


DUGGER’S GROUUinGElSVSTEmS 

Post Office Box 305 • Solana Beach 
California 92075 • (619) 755-4373 


DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

Move up to 
language compiler 

’OS-9 is a trademark of Microware. Inc. 

t FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants. Inc. 





the data is plotted. Not only are monthly 
figures shown, lid blue line indicates the 
yearly average. Then, after you have 
gone but a soto all the trouble to 
compile and enter your data, you can 
send it to a printer for a permanent 
record. Please note that the printer 
subroutine (lines 1495-1640) is optional 
and can be deleted. The printer I use is 
the marvelous DMP-200sold by Tandy 
and the CH R$ codes used are labeled so 
you can adapt to your own printer. 

The high-resolution graph is actually 
one graph with three available measur- 
ing grids. When you compile your infor- 
mation, you will need to decide which 
range you will want to visualize. This is 
important because, as you will discover, 
the larger range you use, the more 
difficult it is to compare small amounts 
and small differences of the monthly 
figures. For example, if you are compar- 
ing figures that are less than $500, to 
plot these figures on the 0-$ 10,000 grid 
would be of little use. However, put 
these figures on the 0-$ 1 ,000 grid or the 
$400 to $600 grid and you really have 
something that you can use. 


Special Programming Techniques 

This program has some interesting 
programming techniques that 1 feel are 
worth mentioning. These hints or sugges- 
tions could be useful to any home 
programmer who has to learn as 1 do — 
THE HARD WAY! 

Line 120 demonstrates a very easy 
way to freeze a visual on your TV 
monitor. The range of the FOR state- 
ment determines how long your pro- 
gram will stall. It is used here to display 
the program credits. 

Lines 290, 350, 630 and 1280 demon- 
strate how you can keep a program 


from crashing when you accidentally hit 
a wrong key. When using INPUT lines, 
you need to determine what specific 
responses you want or need. List these 
with the IF I THEN statements and use 
the ELSE line with the reference back to 
the IN KEYS line (see 630 and 1280). 

Lines 360 and 470 demonstrate how 
you can center a heading at the top of 
your screen and by changing the PRINT 
@ figure, you can center your heading 
anywhere on the screen. I suppose 1 am 
too fussy about my displays in that 1 
want everything neat and systematical. 
Centering those lines can really put 
polish in your programs. 

To Use 

Change the items in line 150 to meet 
your own needs. You need to use ten 
items (or headings) or leave blank spaces 
between commas. You could also 
change line 1 60 to include the number of 
headings you want to use. You need to 
leave “review”as option #10 in the main 
menu or change line 280. “Review” 
allows you to return to see previously 
entered data. IMPORTANT: Once you 


enter new data in any category, all other 
data will be lost! The “Review” option 
can correct a mistaken key being pushed. 

If you do not have a printer, you can 
delete lines 630 and 1495-1640. You also 
have to delete the second half of line 
590. If you delete line 630, change line 
620 to: If R$=“N”then 190 ELSE 600. 
If you do not have a printer, I would 
highly recommend you eliminate these 
lines to prevent the program from hang- 
ing up in the event “P” is typed. If you 
plan to use a printer, the printer codes 
are listed in the program lines so you 
can adapt to your own printer. These 
codes are for the DMP-200. 


When you are prompted to select a 
range for your input data, you will have 
to select one of the following: 

0 — $ 1,000 Range -1- 
0 — $10,000 Range -2- 
$400 — $600 Range -3- 
Once you select a range, if you enter a 
figure outside of this range, you will be 
asked to re-enter the figure. Listen for 
the beep and watch for the new prompt. 
The purpose for the range figures is for 
the high-resolution graph. If you do not 
want to compare dollar figures, change 
the A$ in line 460 and adjust the PRINT 
USING statements in lines 1570 and 
1610. You will also need to adjust lines 
310, 320, 330 and 1350 to eliminate the 
dollar signs. 

When entering figures, you cannot 
use commas to separate thousands or 
you will get an “entry ignored” error 
statement. Also, to enter a 0, just press 
ENTER and you will be prompted for 
the next month. 

When the entered data is displayed, 
you have three options, which are listed 
on the screen: 

Y — to see data on high-resolution graph 
N — to return to Menu Listing for other 
comparisons 

(NOTE: All previously entered data 
will be lost once you begin entering 
new data. If you press “N”acciden 
tally or choose to review previously 
entered data, select option # 1 0 listed 
as“REVIEW”and the old data will 
bedisplayed. UsetheSHIFT,0key 
to type “review” in reverse letters.) 
P — sends list to printer (NOTE: You 
will be prompted with a “PRINTER 
READY?” Press ENTER to begin 
the line feed.) 

When the high-resolution graph is 
used, you also have three options (“L”& 
“R” are listed on screen under the word 
“GRAPH”): 

L — to return to the menu listing (see 
NOTE above) 

R — to return and REVIEW data listing 
display 

N — to END program 

In case you are not familiar with 
alpha-numerics, you need to under- 
stand that on graphic screens 
(PMODE14), you cannot use regular 
type, thus you have to use DRA W 
statements and actually draw the letters 
and numbers on the high-resolution 
screen. If you are using a small TV 
monitor (I use a 19 inch Color TV), the 
alpha-numerics may distort and be un- 
readable. If this is the case for you, then 
you’ll need to adjust the DRA W lines. 
The letter or number being drawn is 
indicated on each DRA W line. 


The Program Summary 

10— 120 

Program Credits 

130— 180 

Data Statement, Read Line 

185— 290 

Menu Loop 

295— 350 

Range of Graph Selection 

355_ 440 

Data Input Loop for Range #2 

445— 630 

Data Display 

635— 650 

Line-Plot Formula 

655—1020 

General Graph Plot — Grid 

1025—1130 

Data Line-Plot 

1135—1290 

Average Line-Plot 

1295—1310 

Line Plot Formula for Range #1 & 3 

1315—1380 

Data Input Loop for Range #1 & 3 

1385—1490 

Graph Plot Change for Range #3 

1495—1640 

Printer Subroutine 

1650—1670 

Variable Map 


62 (he RAINBOW July 1983 




» F.NOICOTT SOFTWARE * 

$0 ANNIVERSARY SPECIAL! $ 

We are 1 year old this month and to celebrate, 

TAKE 15% OFF THE LIST PRICE OF EVERY ITEM WE SELL! 

(Good Until July 10, 1983) 

TAPE CAROUSEL JOYSTICKS 

DEALER & CLUB INQUIRIES INVITED 


$15.00 EACH 


TWO OR MORE 
$13.50 EACH 




Hill 



TWO FOR 
$37.95 


"In use, we found the ENDICOTT "...provided the best feel of all the 


Holds up to 25 cassettes in individual compartments. Units are 
stackable and revolve for easy access. Clear plastic sliding covers 
keep tapes dust-free (tapes not included). 


JOYSTICK to be smooth and respon- joysticks tested. ...(a) rugged unit at 
sive. ...built to last, the Endicott an affordable price.” 
model is a solid buy”. • BOmicro, March 1983 

• the RAINBOW, October 1982 

6 Month Warranty. No adaptor • plugs right in! 


EXCELLENT PROGRAMS FROM LEADING SOFTWARE HOUSES 


We now carry disk versions! (Requires 32K unless otherwise noted). 


ELITE SOFTWARE 

★ ZAKSUND Fantastic! $: 

EUTE-CALC (16, 32, 64K) Spreadsheet $- 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

★ LANCER A Jousting good time. 

★ MS. GOBBLER Gobbler's female counterpart. $; 

WHIRLYBIRD RUN Great flying action. $; 

GALAX ATTAX Excellent Galaxian $: 

SPACE RACE Excellent Omega Race $: 

PLANET INVASION Quick action Defender $; 

•SPACE TRADERS Buy stock in universe $ 

companies to become the richest. Like Acquire. 
‘COMPUVOICE A phoneme speech generation $: 
program. 

MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

EL BANDITO Get the food and run. $; 

GLAXXONS Excellent adaptation. $: 

SPACE RAIDERS Not just another Invaders game. $: 
CAVE HUNTER Grab the treasure and outrun the $: 
creatures 

HAYWIRE Will drive you BERZERK! $: 

COMPUTERWARE 

★ GRAN PRIX Test your driving skill. $! 

★ MOON HOPPER Get to moon-base alive $: 

BLOC HEAD Tricky action. $: 

NERBLE FORCE Excellent Defender clone. $1 

MEGAPEDE Most challenging version. $: 

SHARK TREASURE Don't get eaten! $: 

SPACE AMBUSH Action like Galaxian. $: 

DOODLE BUG Like Ladybug $: 

RAIL RUNNER Dodge trains and handcars $; 

PAC ATTACK II Great gobbler. New graphics. $: 

STORM A real Tempest! $: 

COLOR INVADERS Like the original. $ 

SYNTHER ■ 7 Music synthesizer $: 

TOM MIX 

THE FROG $: 

★ GRABBER $: 

★ SPACE SHUTTLE Control the Space Shuttle $: 

★ DONKEY KING 4 Screens - Full action! $: 

★ COLOR GOLF Challenging! Uses full set of $ 

clubs. 

TRAP FALL Many •‘Pitfalls" here! $: 

•ESCAPE FROM S.P.E.C.T.R.E. Graphic Spy Adv. $ 
•KATERPILLAR ATTACK Look out for spiders! $: 
•MOON LANDER 2 games in 1 $ 

THE FIXER Loads 600 hex programs to disk $ 

DISK TO TAPE Dump most disks to tape $ 

TAPE TO DISK Load most tapes to disk $ 

•SPELLING TEST Provides a standard oral quiz. $ 


COLORKIT Full of powerful software development 
tools, aids, bells and whistles. 


D 

$26.95 
$29.95 
$29.95 (16K) 
$29.95 " 
$26.95 " 
$26.95 ’ 
$26.95 * 
$29.95 - 
$26.95 " 
$26.95 * 
$29.95 * 
$24.95 * 
$26.95 * 


ANTECO SOFTWARE 

KATERPILLAR ATTACK 

8-BALL (POOL) All balls shown. Full Cue control. 

INTERGALACTIC FORCE Experience trench 
warfare in your X-Wing fighter. 

•HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE MANAGER Menu-driven 
with 30 household categories. Screen or printer 
output. 

•STOCK ANALYZER AND TREND Track your 
stocks. Disk compatible. Optional printer 
output. 

COGNITEC 

TELEWRITER 64 (For 16, 32, or 64K) 

THE word processor for the CoCo! 


ROM PK 
$26.95 
$29.95 
$29.95 


PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

T D 

SHAFT New arcade game $24.95 $29.95 

•JUNGLE Adventure! $19.95 $24.95 

THE DISK MANAGER A must! $29.95 

THE DISK MASTER Excellent! $24.95 

★ FLIGHT Realistic flight simulator $19.95 $24.95 

★ 8-BIT BARTENDER Party fun 100 + recipes. $19.95 $24.95 

•VIKING Go from peasant to King! $19.95 $24.95 

•GANGBUSTERS Lead a life of crime and win! $19.95 $24.95 

PANDORA'S GAME BOX Includes: "pac" game. $24.95 $29.95 

"defender-type" game, Divebomb, Blockade, 
slot machine, and Squares (like cube). 

•PREREAD I, II & III (Three tapes) $24.95 

Prepare your preschooler to learn to read 

PETROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 

T D 

★ INSPECTOR CLUESEAU Find the murderer in $19.95 
this excellent graphic adaptation of Clue. 

•STAGECOACH Graphic Adventure $19.95 

•STRESS EVALUATOR Measure and manage $24.95 

your stress 

Additional listings in our free catalog - call or write. 

•Requires 16K Ext. Basic Minimum. ★ Requires 32K Ext. Basic Minimum. 
Others 16K Std. Basic Minimum. 

WE PAY SHIPPING! 

Other companies ask you to ADD $1, $2, $3, or more for shipping 
WE NEVER do to U.S.A., Canada, Mexico. 

Add $2.00 for C.O.D. (U.S.A. Only). Allow 2 weeks for checks to clear. 

SHIPPING-ALL OTHER COUNTRIES: Add $2.00 for each software item. Add 
$3.00 for each Joystick, $10.00 for each carousel. Items will be shipped air mail. 

ALL PAYMENTS MUST BE IN U.S. FUNDS. 


ENDICOTT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 12543, Huntsville, AL 35802 
(205) 881-0506 

PHONE OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK! 







This program has been a lot of fun to develop and will 
receive a lot of use in my home and business. This program 
should be bug-proof, however, if you have any problems, 
just contact me and 1 will try to help you. This program is 
available on tape along with another like it to compare 
various yearly figures. J. D. Ray, 5065 France Avenue, 
North Charleston, SC 29406. My phone is 1-803-554-0627. 


Home Budget Analysis is one of 
three programs on the Rainbow 
‘Record.’ See page 146. 

The listing: 


10 ’***HOME BUDGET ANALYSIS*** 
20 ’BY J. D. RAY 

30 ’ 5065 FRANCE AVENUE 

40 ’ N. CHARLESTON, S.C. 29406 

50 ’ 1-803-554-0637 

60 CLS5 : PR I NT@99 , STR I NG* ( 26 , " 7. " ) 

■ 

I 

70 PR I NTS 1 3 1, "7.y. HOME BUDGET ANA 
LYSIS 7.7."? 

80 PRINT® 163, "7.7. 

7.7."? 

90 PR I NTS 195, "7.7. BY J. D. RA 
Y 7.7."? 

100 PRINT6227, "7.7. COPYRIGHT (C) 
1983 7.7."? 


Now a LOGO for the 
COLOR COMPUTER 

***TI NY TURTLE*** 

TINY TURTLE is an affordable, 
fully compatible LOGO language 
with high resolution turtle 
graphics, music, fast processor 
operation, and storing and 
retrieval of user procedures. 
TINY TURTLE comes complete with 
soft-copy reference user manual. 

3-2K/SXTD BASIC/CASSETTE $39.95 
HARD-COPY MANUAL $4.95 

SDS COMPUTERS BOGOTA, N.J. 

POB 450 07603 

N.J. ADD % TAX 



Yf 295.... 

034D 

490 ... . 

05C0 

640.... 

0896 

820. .. . 

0A77 

980.... 

0CF9 

1130 .. 

0F12 

1290 .. 

113C 

1400 .. 

141C 

1560 .. 

1632 

END .. 

1918 


1 10 PR I NT6259 , STRING* <26, ) ? 

120 FOR T=1 TO 1200: NEXTT 
130 DIM T ( 13) 

140 DIM Q* (10) 

145 ’INSERT YOUR OWN HEADING FOR 
THE MENU LISTINB 
150 DATA INCOME, ELECTRICAL USE 
EXPENSE, TELEPHONE EXPENSE, MEDI 
CAL EXPENSE, SAVINGS, CLOTHING E 
XPENSE, GROCERY EXPENSE, MISCELL 
ANEOUS, AUTOMOBILE EXPENSES, revi 
ew 

160 FORX=1TO10 
170 READ Q* ( X) 

180 NEXT X 
185 ’MENU LOOP 
190 CLS 

200 PRINTS67, "WOULD YOU LIKE TO 
COMPARE: " 

210 L=1 30 

220 FORX=1TO10 

230 PRINT0L, X?Q*(X> 

240 L-L+32 
250 NEXT X 

260 PRINT0460, " (1—10) " 

270 INPUT X 

280 IF X=10 THEN 460 

290 IFX<0 OR X>10 THEN 270 

295 ’VARIABLE SELECTION 

300 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT" ALL FIGURE 

S ENTERED MUST BE: 

310 PRINT: PRINT" 0 - * 1,000. 
00 RANGE <1>" 

320 PRINT" 0 - *10,000.00 RA 
NGE <2>" 

330 PRINT" *-400 - *600.00 RA 

NGE <3>" 

340 PRINT: INPUT "SELECT RANGE: " 

;z 

350 IF Z<1 OR Z >3 THEN 340 

355 ’DATA INPUT LOOP 

360 CLS : PR I NT@ 1 5— I NT ( LEN ( Q* ( X ) ) / 

2) ,Q*(X) 

370 T*=Q* ( X ) 

380 PRINT 

390 IF Z=1 OR Z=3 THEN GOSUB 132 
0 

395 ’DATA INPUT LOOP FOR RANGE#2 

400 FOR X=1 TO 12 

410 PRINT "# "?X 

420 INPUT "MONTH "?T(X> 

430 IF T(X) >10000 THEN PRINT "AM 
OUNT IS TOO HIGH. PL 

EASE ENTER NUMBER < 10000" : SOUND 
150, 1 : GOTO410 
440 NEXT X 
445 ’DATA DISPLAY 
450 M=0 

460 L=36 : P=48 : A*= " **## , ### . ## " 

470 CLS: PRINT @ 15-INT (LEN (T*) /2 
>,T* 


64 the RAINBOW July 1983 




GIVE YOUR CHILD 
AN UNFAIR 
ADVANTAGE 
IN MATH 



Help your child gain an advan- 
tage by using one of our 
classroom-tested programs in 
number concepts, addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, 
division, fractions, decimals & 
percent, pre-algebra, or one of 
the 15 math games that teach. 


For students in grades K through 9, on tape or disk. For 
TDP and TRS-80 32K Color Computers with extended 
basic. These professional-quality programs use high res- 
olution graphics with text and sound. They have 
been written by experienced teachers, tested and re- 
vised to provide high-quality and highly motivating 
instruction. And while you are asking, ask to see 
our reading and language programs as well. 


ASK FOR MICRO SCHOOL 
PROGRAMS BY NAME at your 
local computer store. 




© 1982 Bertamax. Inc. • 101 Nickerson St.. ,f 202 • Seattle. WA 98109 • (206)282-6249 



480 F0RX=1 TO 12 

490 PRINTSL, "MONTH # ";X:PRINT@P 
, USING A*;T(X) 

500 L*L+32:P=P+32 
510 NEXT X 

520 T=T(1)+T(2)+T(3)+T(4)+T(5)+T 
(6) +T (7) +T <8> +T <9) +T ( 10) +T ( 1 1 ) +T 
( 12 ) 

530 PR I NT@4 16, "TOTAL: PRINT 

USINGA*;T 

540 T=T / 12 

550 IF Z=1 THEN M= I NT ( T / 20 ) *3 
560 IF Z=2 THEN M= I NT ( T / 200 ) *3 
570 IF Z=3 THEN M=INT (T/20) *3 
580 PR I NT0448 , " AVERAGE : " ; : PR I NT 

usinga*;t 

590 PRINTS437, "GRAPH? Y/N": PRINT 
@469, "PRINT? <P>" 

595 * SELECTION- (Y) TO SEE HIGH 
RESOLUTION GRAPH; (N) TO RETURN 
TO MENU; & (P) TO SEND DATA TO P 
R INTER 

600 R*=INKEY*:IF R*="" THEN 600 

610 IF R*="Y" THEN 640 

620 IF R*="N" THEN 190 

630 IF R*="P" THEN 1500 ELSE 600 

635 'LINE PLOT FORMULA FOR RANGE 


640 A=INT <T ( 1 ) /200) *3: B=INT (T (2) 
/200) *3: C=INT (T (3) /200) *3: D=INT ( 


SUPERIOR ORACLE SOFTWARE 
PRESENTS 

THE C C QUBE 


A MAGIC CUBE SIMULATION FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 


FEATURING: 

• Easy to use commands 

• Fast - uses machine language routines 

• Random mixes 

• Undo moves or random mixes 

• See all 6 faces 

• Save QUBE to tape for later reload 
•Only S 14 95 


Send Check or M.O. to: 
SUPERIOR ORACLE SOFTWARE 

PO Bo* 4505 

Greenwich, Conn. 06830 


Conn, residents add V iS sales tax 
Shipping and handling included 

Personal checks require 
2 weeks to clear 

No C O O.s 

Requires 16K Extended Basic 


T (4) /200) *3: E=INT <T (5) /200> *3: F= 
INT (T (6) /200) *3: G=INT (T <7> /200> * 
3: H=INT <T (8) /200)*3: I = INT <T (9) /2 
00) *3: J=INT (T ( 10) /200)*3:K=INT (T 
(11) /200)*3:L=INT(T<12) /200>*3: 
650 IF Z=1 OR Z=3 THEN GOSUB 130 
0 

655 ’GENERAL GRAPH PLOT - GRID 
660 CLS : PM0DE3 , 1 : COLOR 1,2: PCLS : S 
CREEN1 , 0 

670 FQRY=25T0 1 75STEP 1 5 

680 LINE (35, Y>-(244, Y) , PSET 

690 NEXT Y 

700 COLOR 1,2 

710 F0RX=35T0244 STEP 19 

720 LINE(X,25)-(X, 175) , PSET 

730 NEXT X 

740 DRAW " S2 ; BM35 , 1 85U 1 0G3 " ’ 1 
750 DRAW" BM56, 185L6U5R6U6L6" ’2 
760 DRAW " BM7 1 , 1 85R8U 1 0L8R8D5L7R7 
D5" ’3 

770 DRAW"BM90, 184BU5U5D5R8U5D10" 
’4 

780 DRAW "BM 109, 185R9U6L9U5R9" ’5 
790 DRAW "BM 128, 185U10R10L10D5R10 
D6L10" ’6 

800 DRAW " BM 1 48 , 1 85U5E6L8D 1 " ’7 
810 DRAW "BM 166, 185U10R8D5L8R8D6L 
8" ’8 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

ForTRS80 Color Computer &TDP 100 

PROGRAMERS TOOLKIT 

6 USEFUL TOOLS FOR THE SERIOUS COMPUTER USER 

CHAINRUN - Add a single line to a Basic program and 
subsequent Basic programs load and run auto- 
matically. Allows program chaining. 

HEXEDIT - ML program which gives full screen edit 
capability in Hexadecimal or ASCII for any RAM 
address in memory. Can be used to patch ML routines 
in memory. 

DUMP- Displaysthe memory contents of ML programs. 
CMERGE - ML subroutine which saves the trouble 
of retyping long subroutines. Merge different Basic 
programs into one large program. 

CROSS REFERENCE - ML program which prints line 
location of all variables and sorted cross reference 
list for the source and destination for every GOSUB 
and GOTO statement in a Basic program. 

BASIC FULL SCREEN EDIT - ML program which will 
give full screen edit capability for any Basic program. 
Edit programs with cursor control. 

16K $28.95 postage paid 

includes 10 pages of Documentation. 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A DIVISION OF MORETON BAY LABORATORY 

31 6 Castillo Street 
Santa Barbara, CA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

California residents add 6% sales tax. 


Moreton Bay 



Software 

TRS 80 ® Tandy Corp. 


66 the RAINBOW July 1983 




820 DRAW " BM 1 89 , 1 85U 1 0L8D5R8 " ' 9 

830 DRAW " BM203 , 1 85U 1 0G3 " : DRAW " BM 

207, 185U10R8D10L8" ' 10 

840 DRAW " BM223 , 1 85U 1 063 " : DRAW " BM 

227, 185U 1063" 'll 

850 DRAW " BM24 1 , 1 85U 1 063 " : DRAW " BM 

249, 1 B5L8U5R8U6L8 " ' 12 

860 IF Z=3 THEN 60T0 1390 

870 DRAW " S3 ; BM20 , 1 75U 1 0R 1 0D 1 0L 1 0 

» » 0 

880 DRAW " BM25, 160U10G3" ' 1 
890 DRAW"BM26, 145L8U4R8U6L8" '2 
900 DRAW"BM27, 130U10L8R8D4L6R6D6 
L8" '3 

910 DRAW " BM25 ,11 5U 1 1 66R9 " '4 
920 DRAW" BM20, 100R8U6L8U4R8" '5 
930 DRAW " BM20 , 85U 1 0R8L8D5R8D6LB " 
'6 

940 DRAW " BM23 , 7 0U6E5L7 " '7 
950 DRAW " BM20 , 55U 1 0R8D5L8R8D6L8 " 
'8 

960 DRAW " BM27 , 40U 1 0L8D5R8 " '9 
970 DRAW " S2 ; BM 1 , 28U2E8U2BL8D2F8D 
2 " : DRAW " S2 ; BM9 , 28U 1 063 " : DRAW " BM 1 
2 , 28U 1 0R8D 1 0L8 " : DRAW " BM2 1 , 28U 1 0R 
8D 1 0L8 " : I F Z =2THENDRAW " BM28 , 28U 1 
0R8D10L8" 'X1000 

980 DRAW " S5 ; BM80 , 1 5U 1 0R 1 0D2U2L 1 0 
D10R10U4L4" '6 

990 DRAW " BM 1 00 , 1 5U 1 0R 1 0D5L 1 0R5F5 

11 7 R 

1 000 DRAW " BM 1 20 , 1 5U5E5F5L 1 0R 1 0D5 

.. , A 

1010 DRAW "BM 140, 15U10R10D5L10D5" 
'P 

1 020 DRAW " BM 1 60 , 1 5U 1 0D5R 1 0U5D 1 0 " 
'H 

1025 'DAT A-LINE PLOT 
1030 C0L0R4, 2 
1040 V=175 

1050 IF Z=3 THEN V=115 
1060 LINE <35, V-A)-<54, V-B) ,PSET: 
LINE - < 73 , V— C ) , PSET : L I NE— < 92 , V— D 
) , PSET : L I NE— (111, V— E ) , PSET : L I NE— 

< 130, V-F) , PSET: LINE- <149, V-G) , PS 
ET: LINE- < 168, V-H) , PSET: LINE- <187 
,V-I) , PSET: LINE- <206, V-J) , PSET: L 
I NE- < 225 , V-K ) , PSET : L I NE- < 244 , V-L 
) , PSET 

1070 LINE (5, 10) — <10, 10) , PSET 
1 080 DRAW " S2 ; BM 1 5 , 1 3U 1 0R6F4D5G3L 
6" ' D 

1 090 DRAW " BM25 , 1 3U5E5F5L 1 0R 1 0D5 » 

: DRAW " BM4 1 , 1 3U5E5F5L 1 0R 1 0D5 " ' A 
1100 DRAW"BM35, 13U8L5R8" 'T 
1110 COLOR 3,2 
1120 V=175 

1130 IF Z=3 THEN V=115 

1135 'AVERAGE-LINE PLOT 

1140 LINE <35, V-M>-<244, V-M) , PSE 


T 

1150 LINE <205, 10) -<210, 10) , PSET 
1160 DRAW " S2 J BM2 16,1 3U6E5F5L9R9D 
6" 'A 

1170 DRAW " BM227 , 1 3H5U5D5F5E5U5BD 
10" 'V 

1180 DRAW " BM233 , 1 3U8R8D 1 U 1 L8D8R8 
U4L3R3D4" '6 

1190 L I NE < 24 1 , 1 3 ) — < 242 ,13), PSET : 
LINE <241, 12) -<242, 12) , PSET 
1200 DRAW "Cl; BM 110, 23H5E5 " '< 
1210 DRAW " BM 119, 23U 1 0D 1 0R6 " 'L 
1 220 DRAW " BM 1 33 , 23U 1 0R9D5L9R3F6 " 
'R 

1230 DRAW " BM 1 45 , 23E5H5 " '> 

1240 DRAW " BM 1 26 , 20L2 " '- 
1245 ' SELECTION- <L) TO RETURN TO 
MENU LIST; <R) TO REVIEW DATA E 
NTERED; & (N) TO END PROGRAM. 
1250 R*= I NKE Y * : I FR*= " “ THEN 1 250 
1260 IF R*="L" THEN 190 
1270 IF R*="R" THEN 460 
1280 IF R*="N" THEN END ELSE 125 
0 

1290 END 

1295 'LINE PLOT FORMULA FOR RANG 
E# 1 & 3 

1300 A«=INT(T<1)/20)*3:B-INT<T<2) 
/20) *3: C=INT (T (3) /20) *3: D=INT <T < 


O AUTOTERM 

I TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

< WORLD’S 

SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

= = YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 

WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING. 

V 

EASY TO USE 

ON-THE-SCREEN EDITING via cursor. Full prompting. 
Scrolling. Key Beep & Error Beebop. 

PLEASANTLY POWERFUL 

Total communications ability at 110 to 1200 baud. 
T ransmit text, graphics, BASIC and Machine Language. 
Save & Load cassette/disk files while on line. Scan/Edit 
current data while receiving more data. Use any modem. 
Fully supports D. C. Hayes & others. Use any printer, 
page size, margins, line spacing. Override narrow text 
width of received data. Imbed printer controls. 

TRULY AUTOMATIC 

Automate almost any communications activity. Dial via 
modem, sign-on, interract, sign-off. Perform an entire 
session. Act as a message taker. Keystroke Multipliers 
may include parameter changes, editing, time delays, 
execution of other multipliers, looping, waiting for 
partially specified responses, and branching based 
upon alternative responses. Self-test mode. 

32K MEMORY RECOMMENDED "* ! r™ 

CASSETTE $39.95 DISKETTE (coming soon) $49.95 

Add $3 Shipping & Handling 

MC/VISA/COD 


PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson. TX 75080 


Eves. & Weekends: 214/699-7273 
Weekdays: MICRO CONCEPTS 
214/458-0330 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 67 




4) /20) *3: E*INT <T (5) /20) *3: F-INT ( 
T<6) /20)*3:G=INT(T(7) /20)*3:H=IN 
T<T<8)/20)*3: I-INT(T(9)/20)*3: J= 
INT (T < 10) /20> *3: K-INT (T ( 1 1 ) /20> * 
3: L*=INT (T (12) /20) *3 
1310 RETURN 

1315 ’ DATA INPUT LOOP FOR RANGE 
1 & 3 

1320 FOR X=1 TO 12 
1330 PRINT "# X 
1340 INPUT "MONTH "JT(X) 

1345 IF Z=1 THEN GOTO 1360 
1350 IF Z-3 AND T(X) <-450 OR T< 
X) > 600 THEN PR I NT "AMOUNT IS OU 
T OF RANGE. ": PR I NT "PLEASE ENTER 
NUMBER BETWEEN " : PR I NT " *-400 . 

00 - *600. 00": SOUND 150, 1: GOTO 1 
330 

1360 IF Z=1 AND T (X ) >1000 THEN P 
R I NT "AMOUNT IS TOO HIGH. ": PRINT" 
PLEASE ENTER NUMBER < 1000":SOUN 
D 150,1: GOTO 1330 
1370 NEXT X 
1380 GOTO 460 

1385 'GRAPH PLOT CHANGE FOR RANG 
E #3 

1 390 DRAW " S3 ; BM 1 5 , 1 70L3 " : DRAW " BM 
25, 175U11G6R9" '-4 
1 400 DRAW " BM 1 5 , 1 55L3 " : DRAW " BM27 , 


STOCK & FUND INVESTING 

with the 

TRS-SO* COLOR COMPUTER 

USE FUJIDGR AF & PUMDF1LE 

FUNDGRAF is a stock market analysis program 
that not only graphs and analyzes funds or stocks, 
but also makes decisions on when to BUY and SELL. 

• GRAPHS fund's progress (up to 200 weeks). 

• SUPERIMPOSES for comparison* 

- a line of constant percent growth. 

- a graph of any other fund (or stock). 

• CALCULATES over any given time spam 

- the percent price change. 

- the moving average (any span). 

• INDICATES BUY and SELL signals. 

-FUNDGRAF - 

TAPE @ $49.95 
DISK @ $ 69.95 

- fundfile - 

DISK only @ $ 27.95 

• ADD $2 Handling on 

all orders. 

• Details? SEND SASE 

• 16 K ECB Requir'd. 

-printer optional 

FUNDFILE is a portfolio and account manage- 
ment program for securities. It creates files for 
up to 900 transactions & 50 securities and reports 
asset value, realized & unrealized capital gains, 
adjusted costs (for stock dividends), and MORE! I 

PARSONS SOFTWARE DEPT A 
118 WOODSHIRE DRIVE 
PARKERSBURG, WV 26101 




FUNDGRAF — FI STOCK 
MARKET ANALYSIS 
PROGRAM FOR 1 6K EX 
[TRS — 60 COLOR COMPUTE 



TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER -TM TANDY CORP 

^ - 1 1 l I 1 1 1 I 1 I 


1 60U 1 0L8R8D4L6R6D6L8 " ’ -3 
1410 DRAWBM15, 1 40L3 “ : DRAW " BM26 , 
1 45L8U4R8U6L8 " '-2 
1 420 DRAW " BM 1 5 , 1 25L3 " : DRAW " BM25 , 
130U10G3" '-1 

1430 DRAW"BM20, 1 15U10R10D10L10" 
'0 

1440 DRAW"BM25, 100U10G3" ' 1 
1450 DRAW " BM26 , 85L8U4R8U6L8 " '2 
1 460 DRAW " BM27 , 70U 1 0L8R8D4L6R6D6 
L8" '3 

1470 DRAW " BM25 , 55U 1 1 G6R9 " '4 
1480 DRAW"BM20, 40R8U6L8U4R8" '5 
1490 GOTO 970 
1495 'PRINTER SUB-ROUTINE 
1500 PRINT @ 437, "PRINTER": PRINT 
@ 469, "READY?": SOUND 160,2 
1510 R*= INKEY*: IF R*="" THEN 151 
0: IF R*=" " THEN GOTO 1520 
1520 PR I NT #— 2 , CHR* ( 27 ) $ CHR* < 1 9 ) 
'SELECT STANDARD CHARACTER 
1530 PR I NT #— 2 , CHR* (15) 'START UN 
DERLINE 

1540 PRINT#— 2, T* 

1550 PR I NT #— 2 , CHR* (14) 'END UNDE 
RLINE 

1560 FOR X=1 TO 12 
1570 PRINT #-2, USING"##. "J XJ :PRI 
NT#— 2 , US I NG " **## , ### . ##" ; T (X) 
1580 NEXT X 

1590 PR I NT #— 2 , CHR* (10) ’ LINE FE 
ED 

1600 T=T(1)+T(2)+T(3)+T<4)+T(5)+ 
T ( 6 ) +T ( 7 ) +T ( 8 ) +T ( 9 ) +T (10) +T (11)+ 
T ( 12) 

1610 PRINT#-2, "TOTAL: ";: PRINT 

#-2 , US I NG " **## , ### . ##" ; T 
1620 T=T / 12 

1630 PRINT#— 2, "AVERAGE: ";:PRIN 
T #-2, USING"**##, ###.##" ;T 
1640 GOTO 590 

1650 'VARIABLE MAP: 

1651 ' T < X ) - INPUT DATA FOR MONT 
HS OF YEAR OR 12 PERIODS OF TIME 

1652 ' Q* < X ) - MENU SELECTION 

1653 ' Z - RANGE OF INPUT DATA 

1654 ' T*- HEADINGS FROM MENU 

1655 ' T - TOTAL OF T(X)'S AND A 
VERAGE 

1656 ’ M - VARIABLE FOR AVERAGE 
LINE PLOT 

1657 ' A-L - VARIABLES FOR THE 1 
2 MONTHS OR TWELVE PERIODS 

1658 ' R* - SELECTION STRING: 

1659 ' Y - YES 

1660 ' N - NO (END) 

1661 ' P - PRINTER 

1662 ' L - RETURN TO MENU LIST 

1663 ' R - REVIEW 

1670 'MEMORY AVAILABLE - 2107 


68 the RAINBOW 


July 1983 




PETROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 


(H 


PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT: Computer Software 
Documentation / Graphics / Consultation 


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Inspector CLUEseau 

Sherlock Holmes/Agatha Christie fans-lt's finally here— A murder 
mystery game for the 80-C! Mr. Goodbody has been killed in his 
mansion and you must solve the mystery. WHO committed the 
murder, WHERE did it occur and HOW was it done! Question 
suspects, find the secret passage, and break the code to get clues. 
Hi-Res graphics enhances this excellent game. The computer 
records the clues you obtain on a clue inventory screen and also 
provides suspect descriptions at the touch of a finger. A fast, fun 
game that will sharpen your deductive skills. Every game is 
different! 

32K Extended $19.95 

Stress Evaluator 

Assess your present level of stress and how it affects your 
potential for illness. Evaluate the amount of life change you can 
effectively handle in the future. The Stress Evaluator is a valuable 
tool for recognizing, measuring and managing stress. The 
program also provides a Coping Ability Test which shows your 
ability to handle stress in general. Provides goal setting exercises 
and meditation graphic screens to help achieve stress-alleviating 
goals. All results output to printer. 

16K Extended $24.95 


Weather Watch 

If you really care about the weather, this program is for you. Three 
programs provide you with National Weather Service approved 
statistics in a monthly report format. Input of daily high and low 
temp, and rainfall outputs a report of monthly average temps, and 
range; high and low averages; high and low temp, for month; total 
rainfall; days rain > .1 in.; heating and cooling degree days; days 
high > 90; days low < 32; days low temp. < 32 and > 0; days low < 
0; day of highest range. Also retrieves a single day from data file 
for review. All data outputs to printer. Well documented. 

16K Extended $24.95 

Forecaster & Weather Watch (Disk) 

Forecast general weather conditions with 80% accuracy with this 
fun, simple to use program. Although not meant to replace 
National Weather Service forecasts, this program is informative 
and enjoyable to use. You can even create your own weather by 
setting the variables!! Provides general forecast including pre- 
cipitation probabilities. Includes Weather Watch program also all 
on one easy to use disk. 

32K Extended Disk $49.95 

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Stagecoach 


Enter the Wild West Days as you try to carry gold across the 
desert in a stagecoach. Hot in pursuit are the James Gang and of 
course, Indians!! To make matters worse you are responsible for 
the safe journey of Annabelle, the judge’s daughter. Hi-Res 
graphic screen plots your progress. Lots of fun surprises await 
you in this game -shootouts, kidnappings and more. Don't miss 
the fun! 

16 K Extended $19.95 

Heart-Lung-Circulatory Systems 

Hl-Res Graphic Education 

A difficult subject becomes fun and easy to learn. Programmed 
learning approach divides subject content into concise frames j 
of information. Hi-res graphic display with labelled anatomical 
structures follows text frames for added clarity. Visually high- 
lights keywords and concepts. Self test questions follow each 
section. Provides immediate feedback to user response and ! 
displays correct answers before moving to new subject matter. 
Excellent for school or home use. 

32KEXT Cassette $34 95 I.‘ 

32KEXT Disk $39,95 jt 


Bowling Secretary 


Save hours of tedious work with this efficient program. Calcu- 
lates individual player average, high game and total pins, as 
well as team games won/lost, high series, and cumulative total 
team pins. Also calculates team standings for each week in 
order from 1st to last! All data stores to tape and outputs to 
printer to provide professional, easy to read copy. After initial 
input of league and player names all you have to do is input 
each week's scores - the computer does the rest!! 

16KEXT Cassette $24.95 

32KEXT Disk $29.95 

Astrology Chart Print 

A Must for the Serious Astrologer 

Bothered by not having a professional easy to read hard copy 
of your chart? Want to see comparison charts around the Natal 
Chart? Look no more! Input of planetary positions and house 
cusps outputs a 6"x5" graphic printout of chart and will also 
plot a comparison chart (transit, progressed or compatibility) 
around perimeter of the natal chart. NOT A SCREEN DUMP 
ROUTINE. The program uses dot addressable graphics to 
draw chart with accurate planetary positioning. Top of form 
lists Name, Birthdate, Birthtime, Birthplace from user input. 
Accomodates Placidean, Equal House or Modified Equal 
House. AVAILABLE NOW FOR EPSON MX80 with Graftrax. 

32KEXT Cassette $21.95 

Medical Terminology 

If you’ve ever wondered what your doctor was talking about, 
this program can help! Includes most common terminology as 
well as abbreviations used in hospital charting. Menu Driven 
-allows choice of study, definition readout or self test. Study 
suffix, prefix or abbreviation in alphabetical groups. Input 
prefix, suffix or abbreviation and computer reads out definition 
(not meant to be an all inclusive dictionary). Provides multiple 
choice self tests with immediate reinforcement and correct 
answer displayed. Suffix/Prefix on one program. Abbreviations 
on 2nd Program. Both included. 

16KEXT Cassette $19.95 



Software Review 


New EPROM Programmer 
Is Impressive And Affordable 

How would you like to have your favorite monitor or 
other machine language programs on instant recall, pro- 
tected against resets and other inevitable bombouts? 1 guess 
at one time or another any computer hobbyist has wished 
for an EPROM progrmmer but the outlay of several 
hundred dollars didn’t seem worthwhile. A commercial 
EPROM burner can cost from $500-$ 1000, with personality 
modules and a Radio Shack 232 interface as extras. Intron- 
ics has come to our rescue. Now for less than $90 you can 
buy an EPROM Programmer that, in my opinion, is better 
than the expensive models. How about you brave souls who 
have been thinking about changing some of the routines in 
the Extended BASIC ROMS? 

Intronics EPROM Programmer is a TRS-80 compatible 
board that plugs into the expansion port. The 4” x 4i4” 
circuit is not in a housing since you need access to the 
low-insertion force socket on the board. Also, the board 
contains a power-on indicator and an off/ on switch along 
with the necessary ICs. A 24 volt DC to DC converter is 
self-contained as this voltage is necessary for programming. 
I am very pleased with the appearance of the circuit board 
and construction. By the way, the EPROM socket has 28 
pins for future state of the art changes. Different EPROMs 
are selected by means of a personality module. Five modules 
come with the unit and cover the normal range of EPROMs 



from 1 to 8K.. Other personality modules are available for $5 
each, such as a 68764, the EPROM replacement for the 
BASIC ROM. 

Software for the programmer is supplied on cassette tape 
and uses addresses $2000-$3FFF for program memory. 
Commands are as follows: 

ERASED — Checks for $FF in all EPROM memory loca- 
tions, the normal erased state. 

PROGRAM — Memory from the buffer is programmed 
into the EPROM. 

VERIFY — Compare the data in the EPROM and in the 
memory buffer. 

SLIDE ROM — Moves the data from the EPROM to the 
memory buffer. 

SLIDE MEMORY — Moves memory from one location to 
another. 

EXAMINE/CHANGE MEMORY — Modify buffer, or 
other memory. 

RETURN TO BASIC — Return to BASIC. 

The menu is well prompted and user friendly. All of the 
functions worked flawlessly. The memory examine/ change 
command could use a few bells and whistles, but works as 
intended. The beauty of this system is in the fact that any 
program that will load into the CoCo can be moved into the 
buffer, modified if necessary, and burnt into an EPROM. 

As you can tell I was impressed by the EPROM Pro- 
grammer, especially after using units that cost ten times as 
much and having to manipulate disk files, edit programs, 
etc., just to enter data into the programmer. I tried assem- 
bling a program in memory, moving it to the buffer, and 
burning an EPROM. Each step worked without a hitch. The 
documentation leaves a little bit to be desired but due to 
prompts in the software it is adequate. 1 would suggest that 
instructions be included for the uninitiated to explain how 
to modify a ROM pack to accept different EPROMs, and 
for that matter, a short explanation of the different types. I 
would recommend this unit for both hobby and commercial 
use. You may be better off buying a CoCo and this unit than 
a Pro-Log — it certainly would be cheaper. 

(Intronics, P.O. Box 13723, Edwardsville, KS 66113, $85) 

—Dan Downard 

Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 

Contributions to the RAIN BOW are welcome from everyone. 
We like to run a variety of programs which will be useful/ helpful/ - 
fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best to 
make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII format. We’re 
sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All programs 
should be supported by some editorial commentary, explaining 
how the program works. We’re much more interested in how your 
submission works and runs than how you developed it. Programs 
should be learning experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of criteria. Those 
wishing remuneration should so state when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed infor-mation on 
making submissions, please send a SASE to: Submissions Editor, 
the RAIN BOW, P.O. Box 209, Prospect, K.Y 40059. We will send 
you some more comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently submitted to 
another publication. 



DISK UTILITY 


Disk Operator Reveals 
Powerful New Routines 

By Roger Schrag 


R adio Shack thoughtfully included a technical infor- 
mation section in their Color Computer disk system 
manual. This section was designed for machine lan- 
guage programmers who wanted to incorporate disk I/O 
into their programs. 

Unfortunately, the information provided is in most cases 
perfectly useless. The one routine within the disk ROM that 
they show you how to use will merely read or write an 
individual sector on the diskette. The programmer must 
write his own routines to locate a file on the diskette, allocate 
disk space, create new files, delete old files, shut off the disk 
drive motor when it is not in use. ..and the list of responsibili- 
ties left for the poor programmer to take care of goes on and 
on. 


Code 

Abbr 

Description 

19 

AO 

File already open 

20 

DN 

Bad device or drive number 

21 

IO 

Input/output error 

22 

FM 

Bad file mode 

23 

NO 

File not open 

24 

IE 

Input past end of file 

27 

NE 

File not found 

29 

DF 

Disk space full 

30 

OB 

Out of buffer space 

31 

WP 

Diskette write protected 

32 

FN 

Bad filename 

33 

FS 

Bad file structure 

37 

VF 

Verification error 


Table 1: Error Codes 


What I would like to present here is a program that will 
perform a potpourri of disk-oriented operations. I have 
carefully scrutinized the disk ROM, and come up with some 
powerful routines that Radio Shack never told you about. 
The program contains seven routines that are analogous to 
the BASIC statements Files, Open, Close, Print#, Input#, 
Kill and Verify. Each routine does a complete job. Your 
program will need to do a minimal amount of work, such as 
supplying a filename or device number. 

Please have a thorough understanding of the BASIC 
statements mentioned above before proceeding onward. 
Also please note that only the sequential input and output 


modes are supported; the direct access mode is not sup- 
ported. Neither is cassette I/O. I hope to cover both of these 
topics in a future article. 


$000 

Basic program 

$OFF 

Basic program in ASCII format 

$IOO 

Data stored in binary 

$ 1 FF 

Data stored in ASCII 

$200 

Machine language program 

$300 

Text stored in binary 

$3FF 

Text stored in ASCII 


Table 2: File Types 



Cassette $19.95 Disk $24.95 


Send check or money order to: 

COCOHUT 
P. O. Box 24451 
Houston, TX 77015 


RAINBOW 

cwrmcATKjM 

SUl 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 71 



The source code shown in Listing 1 may be appended onto 
your program to give it disk I/O capabilities. Now let’s look 
at each of the seven routines and see how they are used. 

The Files routine organizes the disk system’s area of 
memory by dividing it into smaller segments called buffers. 
Each buffer is 281 bytes, and is used by the disk system to 
work with a file while it is open. 


For this many 

Don’t use any 

buffers 

memory below 

0 

$OBA2 

1 

$OCBB 

2 

$ODD4 

3 

$OEED 

4 

$1006 

5 

IMF 

6 

$1238 

7 

1351 

8 

146 A 

9 

1583 

10 

$I69C 

11 

I7B5 

12 

$I8CE 


Table 3: Reserved Memory 

You should use the Files routine at the beginning of your 
program in order to initialize and organize the disk system’s 
memory. Decide on the maximum number of files you will 
want to have open at any given time; this is the number of 


buffers you will need. Put this figure into the B register and 
call the Files routine. Be sure that the buffer area won’t 
overlap your program. Table 3 lists the boundary lines. This 
example would allocate space for six files, thus allowing 
your program to use device numbers of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6: 

LDB #$6 WE WANT SIX BUFFERS 

JSR FILES GO SET UP MEMORY 


The Open routine works in much the same way that the 
BASIC statement works. You will need to prepare the X,Y, 
A, and B registers with certain data before calling the rou- 
tine. The X register must be loaded with the starting address 
of where in memory the filename is stored. Any filename 
that is valid in BASIC is valid here. Don’t put quotes around 
the name, and if you don’t specify an extension, then none 
will be used. Place a zero or SOD (ASCII code for a carriage 
return) after the last character in the filename, so that the 
routine will be able to tell how many characters long the 
name is. 

Next, the Y register must be loaded with the file type. A 
list of file types is shown in Table 2. A file’s type will appear 
in a directory generated by the DIR statement from BASIC. 

The A register must be loaded with the mode you would 
like to use. Use $49 (ASCII code for I) for the input mode, 
and $4F (ASCII code for O) for the output mode. Finally, 
you will need to load the B register with the device number 
you wish to assign to this file. Be sure that you have set aside 
enough buffer space with the Files routine. 

When you have all four registers set up properly, you are 


™TRS80 color 

From the January 1981 issue ol the CSRA Computer 

Club newsletter: 

There was some amusement at the Novem- 
ber meeting when the Radio Shack repre- 
sentatives stated that the software in the 
ROM cartridges could not be copied. This 
month's 68 Micro Journal reported they had 
disassembled the programs on ROM by 
covering some of the connector pins with 
tape. They promise details next month. Never 
tell a hobbyist something can't be done! This 
magazine seems to be the only source so far 
of technical informations on the TRS-80 color 
computer" 3 . Devoted to SS-50 6800 and 
6809 machines up to now, 68 Micro Journal 
plans to include the TRS-80 6809 unit in 
future issues. 



NOTE: This and other interesting and needed articles 
for the Radio Shack TRS-80 color computer - are being 
included monthly in 68 Micro Journal— The Largest 
specialty computer magazine in the world! 

68 MICRO JOURNAL 

5900 Cassandra Smith Road 
Hixson, Tennessee 37343 
615 842-4600 



Subscription Rates 

USA: 1-year S24.50; 2-year $42.50; 3-year $64.50 
CANADA and MEXICO: Add $5.50 per year to USA Price 
Foreign Surface: Add $12.00 per year to USA Price 

Foreign AIRMAIL: Add $36.00 per year to USA Price 

** Sample issue - $3.50 


68 Micro Journal" was established with one objective In 
mind; to provide a Magazine FOR 68xx Users BY 68xx 
Users. Because of a strict advertiser policy, 68 Micro 
Journal" has gained a strong following WORLDWIDE 
because the reader KNOWS what he is getting when 
purchasing from a 68 Micro Journal* Advertiser. It has 
gained a strong User following because most of the 
material published Is contributed BY USERS, and, 
therefore. Is relevant to the Users needs. 

Currently, and even before the Color Computer" hit the 
stores, 68 Micro Journal" was devoting more space to 
the TRS-80C Color Computer" and information concerning 
the Motorola 6809 (which is the CPU in the Color 
Computer") than ANY OTHER Computer Magazine . Examples 
include: 

REVIEWS of the three major Disk Control Systems for 
the Color Computer", most of the Monitors, 
Assemblers, and Disassemblers, Word Processors and 
Editors, "Terminal" Programs (for use with Modems, 
Communications with other Computers, etc.), and of 
course. Games. 

HINTS for Expanding Memory, Power Supply Cooling, re- 
pairing sticky keyboards, disabling the ROM PAK 'Take 
Over", hooking up to Printers, etc. 

DISCUSSIONS of the 6883 Synchronous Address 
Multiplexer, using the Color Computer" with 64K and 
96K memory (which it is ALREADY capable of handling), 
thoughts on Programming, etc. 

I suggest that you subscribe to 68 Micro Journal", SOON, 
as many back issues are sold-out. 

We still, and will continue to, lead in the type 
information you need to FULLY UTILIZE the POWER of the 
6809 In the R^dio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer". 


Bob Nay tC' 

Color Computer Editor 


72 the RAINBOW July 1983 


ready to call the Open routine to open the file. This example 
will open an ASCII data file for output. The filename will be 
CHECKS/ DAT:I, and device number two will be used. 
Note that the quote marks are used here as delimiters for the 
FCC instruction: 


LDX #NAME 
LDY #$IFF 
LDA #$4F 
LDB #$2 

JSR OPEN 
JMP MORE 
NAME FCC “CHECK 
FCB $0 


ADDRESS OF FILENAME 
FILE TYPE: ASCII DATA 
OUTPUT MODE 
USE DEVICE NUMBER 
TWO 

GO OPEN THE FILE 
PROGRAM CONTINUES... 
/ DAT:I” 

TERMINATOR 


The Close routine will close a particular file and update 
the diskette f necessary. To close a file, load the device 
number into the B register and call the Close routine. Note 
that no error will occur if you try to close an already closed 
file. This example will close device number three: 

LDB #$ 3 DEVICENUMBERTHREE 

JSR CLOSE GO CLOSE THE FILE 

The Print routine will write a byte of data to a file which is 
open in the output mode. To use the routine, put the device 
number of the file you wish to write to in the B register, and 
the ASCII code of the character you wish to write in the A 
register. Then call the Print routine. Note that this routine 
will only write to one character at a time; you will need a 
simple loop to write groups of characters, or entire mes- 
sages. This example will write the message “Accounts paya- 
ble” to device number one: 



LDX 

#MESAGE 

START OF MESSAGE 

LOOP 

LDA 

TSTA 

>x+ 

GET CHARACTER 
CHECK FOR END 


BEQ 

MORE 

GO ON IF ALL DONE 


LDB 

#$I 

TO DEVICE NUMBER 
ONE 


JSR 

PRINT 

GO WRITE CHARACTER 


BRA 

LOOP 

LOOP BACK FOR AN- 
OTHER 

MESAGE 

FCC 

“ACCOUNTS PAYABLE” 


FCB 

$o 

TERMINATOR 


The Input routine will read a byte of data from a file open 
in the input mode. To use the routine, place the device 
number of the file you wish to read from into the B register 
and call the Input routine. The A register will now contain 
the ASCII code of the character read from the file. Note 
that, once again, you will need a simple loop to deal with 
entire groups of characters. This example will read a charac- 
ter from device number four and display it in the upper left 
corner of the screen: 

LDB #$4 FROM DEVICE NUMBER 

FOUR 

JSR INPUT READ A CHARACTER 

STA $400 DISPLAY ON SCREEN 


The Kill routine will delete a file from the directory and 


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July 1983 the RAINBOW 73 



free up any diskette space that was allocated to it. To kill a 
file, load the X register with the address of the filename and 
call the Kill routine. This example will delete a file named 
STOCKS/ FEB: 

LDX #NAME ADDRESS OF FILENAME 
JSR KILL DELETE THE FILE 

JMP MORE PROGRAM CONTINUES 
NAME FCC “STOCKS/ FEB” 

FCB SO TERMINATOR 

The Verify routine will either activate or deactivate the 
verification system. With this system turned on, the disk 
system will automatically verify all write 
operations. To use the routine, load the status code into the 
B register and call the Verify routine. One means on, zero 
means off. This example will turn the verification system on: 

LDB #$1 ONE MEANS TURN IT ON 

JSR VERIFY ACTIVATE VERIFY SYS- 

TEM 

Each of the seven routines will handle reasonable error 
conditions — such as a write protected diskette, an improp- 
erly mounted diskette, or a file not found in the directory. 
However, the routines are not thoroughly bomb-proof. If, 
for example, you try to write data to device number 47, 
strange things will surely happen. 

After calling a routine, the B register will contain zero and 
the Z flag in the condition code register will be set if the 
operation was performed successfully. If an error has 
occurred, then the Z flag will be reset, and the value in the B 
register will be the error code. Table 1 contains a listing of 
various error codes. This program uses the error vector at 
SI8E to handle error conditions. However, no problems 
should arise if your program also uses this vector, unless you 
are working with interrupt driven software. 

The routines will preserve all registers except for B and 
CC. The one exception to this rule is the Input routine which 
will replace the previous contents of the A register with the 
ASCII code of the character read in from the file. Note that 
your program may redefine the Direct Page register. The 
register will be temporarily reset to zero so that the ROM 
routines will function properly, and then it will be reset to its 
previous value. 

If you don’t specify a drive number in the filename, drive 
zero will be used as the default. To change the default, store 


the desired drive number at memory location $95A. This 
example will make drive one the default drive: 

LDB #$1 SELECT DRIVE ONE 

STB $95A AS THE DEFAULT DRIVE 

Also remember that interrupts must be enabled whenever 
the disk system is being used. Otherwise, the disk drive 
motor will not shut off after two seconds 
of non-use. Most of the routines will automatically enable 
interrupts. 

Listing 2 is a demonstration program, showing how the 
seven routines may be used. The program will allow you to 
type words on the screen. Press the Break key when you are 
done. The computer will now save the contents of the screen 
to disk under the name of DEMO/ DAT. When you press 
Break again, the image will be loaded back in and put on the 
screen backwards. Press Break again, and the file DEMO/- 
DAT will be killed and you will be returned to BASIC. Of 
course, this program has no real applications, but it does 
show the essential techniques for using the seven routines. I 
have included lots of comments to make it easier to 
understand. 

If you have any questions, comments, or requests for 
future article topics, feel free to drop me a line at 2054 
Manning Avenue, Los Angeles, Calif., 90025. Please include 
a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope. The source code for both listings is available from 
the author for five dollars at the above address. I’ll supply it 
on tape to ease mailing, but it is readily transferable to disk. 

Good luck, and may you input a character for each that 
you output. 

(Roger Schrag, a highschool senior, enjoys working 
with the CoCo and writing for the Rainbow. He also 
designs and translates programs for Adventure 
International.) 

Listing 1 

62000 ***************************** 

62010 * MACHINE LANGUAGE DISK I/O * 

62020 ***************************** 

62030 * 

62040 * VERSION 1.0 - MARCH 1, 1983 

62050 * 

62060 * ROGER SCHRAG 
62070 * 2054 MANNING AVENUE 
62080 * LOS ANGELES, CA 90025 
62090 * 

62100 * 

62110 *THIS CODE IS INTENDED TO BE 
62120 * APPENDED ON TO YOUR OWN 
62130 * PROGRAM, SO YOU MUST SUPPLY 
62140 *THE ORG STATEMENT. IT MAY 
62150 *RESIDE ANYWHERE IN RAM 



o 

□ 

Ifejj 

m 


16K EXT. COLOR BASIC & 
PRINTER REQUIRED 

WORD 8EARCH PUZZLE MAKER 


STANDARD 

DEFINITIONS 

WIDE 

BIG LETTERS 


S^rrirock 

boftware sequence drill 

J4J82 NORTON ROAD 

IRADNOR OHIO 43066 OHIO RES. ADD 3.5% SALES TAX 
614-494-2277 

ANY 3 10% OFF ANY 5 15% OFF 


MATH WORKSHEET-QUIZ MAKER 
WHOLE NUMBERS *6.99 
FRACTIONS *6.99 

DECIMALS *6.99 

PERCENTS *6.99 

LENGTH *6.99 

AREA *6.99 

VOLUME *6.99 

CAPACITY *6.99 

WEIGHT *6.99 

TIME *6.99 

SPEED *6.99 

ANY 8 20% OFF ANY 10 25% OFF 


*6.99 

*6.99 

*6.99 

*6.99 

*6.99 


74 the RAINBOW July 1983 




J'ftware 



AUTO DUN d<? o © 

Auto Run is a utility program for the TRS-80* 
Extended Basic Color Computer. It is used to add 
convenience and professionalism to your software. 

Auto Run will help you create your title screen 
with the graphics editor. The graphics editor allows 
you to choose a background color and border style. 
Using the arrow keys and several other commands 
you can draw pictures, block letters and also include 
text. 

Auto Run will generate a machine language load- 
er program to preceed your program on the tape. 
Then, to start up your program, simply type 
CLOADM to load in the Auto Run loader program, 
which will then automatically start itself up, display 
your title screen, load your program and then RUN 
or EXEC it. 

Also you may record a vocal or musical introduc- 
tion preceding your program. The Auto Run loader 
will control the audio on/off. 

Basic programs can be set to load anywhere in 
memory above $600 (the PCLEAR 0 page). 

Software authors: The Auto Run prefix may be 
appended to your software products. 

Auto Run is $14.95 and includes complete docu- 
mentation and an assembly source listing. 

Requires 16K Extended Basic. 


Galactic Hangman 


nil tm 


FREE 



u u n k 

A great new twist to the popular, educational word 
guessing game for the Color Computer. Large (700 
words) and sophisticated vocabulary. Or enter your 
own words, your child’s spelling list, foreign 
language vocabulary, etc. 

Outstanding high resolution graphics, animation 
and sound effects. 

For $14.95 you get both the 16K and 32K versions 
of Galactic Hangman. 



1 Tape Information 

Management System 

A user-oriented, easy to use personal database 
management system for the TRS-80* Color Com- 
puter with these outstanding features: 

'keeps files of programs, names, addresses, birth- 
days, recipes, class or club rosters, anything 
'variable record and field lengths 
'phrase substitution editor 
'up to 8 user-definable fields 
* ML sort (up to 3 fields), search and delete functions 
*2 search modes — range and item 
'user-definable printer format, for any printer 
'up to 230 characters per record 
For $24.95 you get the database management 
system, our full documentation which includes a 
reference guide and a programmer’s guide, and our 

1981 Bibliography of articles relating to the Color 
Computer. Requires 16K Extended Basic. 32K 
recommended. 

1982 TIMS Bibliography — $9.95 


SAl 


S\nt ;t\ 


( ter" TMM* \ 

\® T 


loaoo qooOQ 


A sensational and educational version of a popular 
party game for the TRS-80* Color Computer . . . 

For 1 to 10 players. Load a story into the com- 
puter. The players are asked to supply a noun, verb, 
part of body, celebrity, etc. which the program uses 
to complete the story. The story, which is displayed 
when all words are entered, will be hilarious. Silly 
Syntax requires 16K Extended Basic (32K for disk 
version). For $19.95, you get a user guide and a 
tape containing the Silly Syntax game and 2 stories. 
You can create your own stories or order story tapes 
from the selection below. 

Silly Syntax stories — Ten stories per tape. 
SS-001 - Fairy Tales SS-004 - Current Events 

SS-002 - Sing Along SS-006 - Adventure/Sci-Fi 

SS-003 - X-Rated SS-007 - Potpourri 

Each story tape is $9.95. 10% off for 3 or more story 
tapes. Disk is $24.95 for Silly Syntax and 2 stories or 
$49.95 for Silly Syntax and all 62 stories. 


RAINBOW 

CfAtlfCATlOH 

MAI 



*TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 


SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
(614) 861-0565 

CIS orders EMAIL to 70405, 1374 


Add $1 .00 per tape or disk for 
postage and handling. Ohio- 
ans add 5.5% sales tax. COD 
orders are welcome. Dealer 
inquiries invited. 



62160 

* 





62580 

* 



62170 

* 





62590 

♦ROUTINE TO CLOSE A FILE 

62180 

SAVE 

FCB 


$0 

3 BYTE STORAGE 

62600 

« B-DEVICE 

NUMBER 


62190 


FCB 


so 

AREA FOR THE 

62610 

* 



62200 


FCB 


so 

ERROR VECTOR 

62620 

CLOSE LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

62210 

STACK 

FCB 


so 

2 BYTE STORAGE 

62630 

STB 

*6F 

STORE DEVICE NUMBER 

62220 


FCB 


so 

AREA FOR STACK POINTER 

62640 

JSR 

*CA53 

80 CLOSE FILE 

62230 

# 





62650 

LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

62240 

* 





62660 

* 



62250 

♦ ROUTINE TO : 

INITIALIZE 

D I st: 

62670 

* 



62260 

* SYSTEM’S MEMORY 


62680 

♦ROUTINE TO WRITE TO A 

FILE 

62270 

* B : 

=NUMBER 

OF 

BUFFERS 


62690 

* A=CHARACTER TO WRITE 

62280 

* 





62700 

* B=DEVICE 

NUMBER 


62290 

FILES 

LBSR 


BEGIN 

PREPARE 

62710 

* 



62300 


PSHS 


B 

SAVE it OF BUFFERS 

62720 

PRINT LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

62310 


JSR 


SCA3B 

CLOSE ALL FILES 

62730 

STB 

*6F 

STORE DEVICE NUMBER 

62320 


PULS 


B 

RESTORE # OF BUFFERS 

62740 

JSR 

*A2B2 

WRITE CHARACTER 

62330 


STB 


S95B 

STORE tt OF FILES 

62750 

LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

62340 


LDU 


#S928 

START OF DUFFER TABLE 

62760 

* 



62350 


l_DX 


#*989 

START OF BUFFER AREA 

62770 

* 



62360 

DQBUF 

CL.R 


, x 

CLEAR STATUS FLAG 

62780 

♦ROUTINE TO READ A CHARACTER 

62370 


STX 



PUT ENTRY IN TABLE 

62790 

♦FROM A FILE 



62380 


LEAX 


S 1 1 9 , X 

GO TO NEXT BUFFER 

62800 

♦ B=DEVICE 

NUMBER 


62390 


DECB 



DECREMENT COUNT 

62810 

♦ A RETURNS WITH INPUT CHARACTER 

62400 


BH I 


DOBUF 

LOOP BACK UNTIL DONE 

62820 

* 



62410 


LBRA 


DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

62B30 

INPUT LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

62420 

* 





62840 

STB 

46F 

STORE DEVICE NUMBER 

62430 

* 





62850 

JSR 

*A176 

GO INPUT CHARACTER 

62440 

* ROUTINE TO OPEN A FILE 


62860 

STA 

,s 

PUT IT ON STACK 

62450 

* X 

=ADDR OF FILENAME 


62870 

LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

62460 

* Y 

=F I LE TYPE 



62880 

* 



62470 

* A 

=F I L.E MODE 



62890 

* 



62480 

* B 

=DEV I CE 

NUMBER 


62900 

♦ROUTINE TO KILL A FILE 

62490 

* 





62910 

♦ X=ADDR OF FILENAME 


62500 

□PEN 

LBSR 


BEGIN 

PREPARE 

62920 

♦ 



625 1 0 


STY 


S957 

STORE TYPE 

62930 

KILL LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

62520 


PSHS 


D 

SAVE MODE S< DEVICE 

62940 

LBSR 

FNAME 

PROCESS FILENAME 

62530 


LBSR 


FNAME 

PROCESS FILENAME 

62950 

JSR 

*C6C5 

GO KILL FILE 

62540 


PULS 


D 

RESTORE MODE S< DEVICE 

62960 

LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

62550 


JSR 


SC468 

GO OPEN FILE 

62970 

♦ 



62560 


LBRA 


DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

629B0 

♦ 



62570 

* 





62990 

♦ROUTINE TO I 

ACTIVATE/DEACTIVE 


ENTER THE FASCINATING WORLD OF 

GAME WRITER™ 

A SIMPLE TO USE PROGRAM FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 


For writing super-action video games with 
motion and sound 

For creating high resolution animated 
graphics scenes 

For experimenting with color, shapes, 
motion and sound 

For amateur or professional cartooning or 
commercial game authoring 
For the absolute beginner and for the 
expert programmer 



GAME WRITER is a programming language with all the 
features you need to write great VIDEO GAMES. It includes a 
built-in screen oriented text editor, high resolution color 
graphics support, any number of player-shapes (SPRITES), a 
shape pattern editor, full TURTLE GRAPHICS, sound effects, 
support for joy sticks and much, much more. Each player- 
shape can be given a program to run which tells it what to do. 
All the player programs run simultaneously to create fan- 
tastic game effects. GAME WRITER IS GUARANTEED EASY 
TO USE. Even if you have never written a program of any kind 
you will amaze your family, your friends and yourself with the 
fantastic things you can do with it. The package includes a 
GAME WRITER rom pak, a complete easy to read manual and 
a set of sample programs ready to run. GAME WRITER is a 
great programming language for a child or an adult. GAME 
WRITER requires a minimum of 16K. Extended BASIC is not 
required. 


PRICE $89 

Orders must be prepaid via check, 
money order or major bank card. Phone 
orders accepted for bank cards only— 
COD orders not accepted. Quantity dis- 
counts available. Orders outside U S. 
add $5 shipping. WA state residents 
add 6.3% sales tax. Add 2 weeks for 
delivery if paid by personal check. 


WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 
BELLINGHAM, WA 98226 /gSv 
1 (206) 734-8248 mV» 5? 


76 the RAINBOW July 1983 




63000 *THE VERIFICATION SYSTEM 
63010 * B=1 (ACTIVATE) 

63020 * B=0 (DEACTIVATE) 

63030 * 

63040 VERIFY LBSR BEGIN PREPARE 

63050 STB *987 STORE STATUS 

63060 LBRA DONE FUNCTION COMPLETE 

63070 * 

63080 * 

63090 *THE ROUTINES BELOW ARE FOR 
63100 * INTERNAL USE ONLY, AND ARE NOT 
63110 CTO BE CALLED BY YOUR PROGRAM 
63120 CDIRECTLY ! 

63130 * 

63140 ♦ 

63150 ♦ROUTINE TO PROCESS FILENAME 
63160 * 


63170 FNAME 

LDB 

#*FF 

CLEAR COUNTER 

63180 GETLEN 

INCB 


CALCULATE HOW 

63190 

LDA 

B,X 

MANY LETTERS 

63200 

CMPA 

#*20 

ARE IN THE 

63210 

BCC 

GETLEN 

FILENAME 

63220 

CLR 

,-s 

MAKE SPACE ON STACK 

63230 

LDA 

*95A 

GET DEFAULT DRIVE # IN 

63240 

STA 

*EB 

CASE NONE IS SPECIFIED 

63250 

LDU 

#*94C 

NAME STORAGE AREA 

63260 

LDA 

#*20 

ASCII CODE FOR BLANK 

63270 CLEAR 

STA 

,U + 

CLEAR OUT 

63280 

CMPU 

#*957 

FILENAME 

63290 

BNE 

CLEAR 

STORAGE AREA 

63300 

JMP 

*C8A4 

GO PROCESS FILENAME 


63310 

63320 

63330 

63340 

63350 

63360 

63370 

63380 

63390 

63400 


* 

* 

♦ROUTINE TO PREPARE EVERYTHING 
* PRESERVE REGISTERS, SET UP 
♦ERROR TRAP, ETC 
* 

BEGIN PSHS X , Y, U, DP, A SAVE REGISTERS 

CLRA TEMPORARILY SET 

TFR A, DP DP TO ZERO 

LDA *18E GET CONTENTS OF 


63410 


LDU 

*18F 

ERROR VECTOR 

63420 


STA 

SAVE , PCR AND SAVE IT 

63430 


STU 

SAVE+1 , PCR FOR NOW 

63440 


LDA 

#47E 

NOW SET UP 

63450 


LEAU 

ERROR, 

PCR ERROR VECTOR 

63460 


STA 

$18E 

WITH OUR OWN 

63470 


STU 

*18F 

HANDLING ROUTINE 

63480 


LDA 

, S 

RESTORE A REGISTER 

63490 


STS 

STACK j, 

PCR SAVE STACK POINTER 

63500 

63510 

* 

JMP 

C8,SJ 

RETURN 

63520 

* 




63530 

*IF AN 

ERROR 

OCCURS, CONTROL 

63540 

*WILL 

PASS TO 

ERROR ROUTINE 

63550 

* 




63560 

ERROR 

LSRB 


B=ERROR CODE 

63570 


INCB 


DIVIDE BY 2, ADD 1 

63580 

63590 

* 

BRA 

EXIT 

GO TO EXIT ROUTINE 

63600 

* 




63610 

* IF ROUTINE FINISHES PROPERLY, 

63620 

♦CONTROL WILL 

PASS TO 

DONE 

63630 

* 




63640 

DONE 

CLRB 


0=N0 ERROR 

63650 

63660 

* 

BRA 

EXIT 

GO TO EXIT ROUTINE 

63670 

* 




63680 

♦ROUTINE TO RESTORE REGISTERS AND 

63690 

♦ERROR 

VECTOR. 

, AND RETURN TO 

63700 

♦CALLING PROGRAM 


63710 

* 




63720 

EXIT 

LDA 

SAVE, PCR RESTORE THE 

63730 


LDU 

SAVE+1 

, PCR ERROR VECTOR 

63741? 


STA 

S18E 

TO ITS ORIGINAL 

63750 


STU 

* 1 8F 

VALUE 

63760 


LDS 

STACK, 

PCR RESTORE STACK POINTER 

63770 


PULS 

A, DP, U 

, Y,X RESTORE REGISTERS 

63780 


LEAS 

2, S 

CLEAN UP STACK 

63790 


TSTB 


SET Z FLAG IF NO ERROR 

63800 


RTS 


RETURN TO CALLER 

63810 


END 

START 




P. O. Box 14806 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 
904 777-1543 

Prices on All games 
include shipping. Florida 
Resident add 5% tax. 

All Programs require Color 
Computer™ (Tandy Corp) or 
TDP System 100 ComPuter™ 
(RCA) 


ACROSS THE RUBICON 16K EXT or NON EXT — The popular 
WWII wargame. Break thru the Huertgen Forrest using infantry, 
heavy and light tanks, air & artillery strikes, Paratroops. Graphics, 
terrain modifiers, unit designators and 5 minute conversion instruc- 
tions for 16K NON EXT. State system when ordering. 

These games do not require EXTENDED BASIC. 

RUBICON II 32K EXT Everything ATR has and more! Mortar units, 
Patrols, German Artillery, Platoon movement, realistic supply and in- 
telligence, spotting rounds, unit merge, GAME SAVE $24.95 

MISSION EMPIRE! A strategic wargame/strategy game. Starting 
with one planet, incomplete intelligence and limited resources, you 
must conquer the rest of your galaxy. Play takes 2-5 hours and is 
DIFFERENT EVERY TIME! All versions offer GAME SAVE option. 
Specify 32K disc or 16K-The 32K versions require Extended Basic, 
the 16K does not. 

GALACTIC TAIPAN 16K EXT — The merchant’s of space, battle 
storms, pirates and high taxes in their search for trade and profit. 
These games do not require EXTENDED BASIC. 

ROMPAC BACKUP — Can’t run your ROMPACS with your disk in or 
just want backup? This program makes it easy. Requires 64K. 


Shipped on tape. 

Cassette $19.95 

All games available on Disk Add $3.00 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 77 



Listing 2: 


OOIOO < DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM 
OOllO IMACHINE LANGUAGE DI8K I/O 
00120 *BY ROGER SCHRAG 
00130 * 

00140 * 


00150 


ORG 

*1000 

START ABOVE BUFFER AREA 

00160 

START 

LDB 

#•1 

WE WANT 1 BUFFER 

00170 


JSR 

FILES 

SET UP MEMORY 

00180 


LDB 

#*1 

ACTIVATE THE 

00190 


JSR 

VERIFY 

VERIFICATION SYSTEM 

00200 


JSR 

*A928 

CLEAR SCREEN 

00210 

WAIT 

LDA 

#*FF 

RED GRAPHIC BLOCK 

00220 


STA 

C*88] 

SHOW CURSOR 

00230 


JSR 

C *A000D 

SCAN KEYBOARD 

00240 


BEG 

WAIT 

WAIT UNTIL KEY PRESSED 

00250 


CMPA 

#*3 

BREAK PRESSED? 

00260 


BED 

SAVE IT 

GO SAVE SCREEN IF SO 

00270 


LDB 

#*60 

ERASE THE 

00280 


STB 

C *88 D 

CURSOR 

00290 


JSR 

$A30A 

PRINT CHARACTER 

00300 


BRA 

WAIT 

LOOP BACK 

00310 

SAVE IT 

LDA 

#*60 

ERASE THE 

00320 


STA 

C *88 D 

CURSOR 

00330 


LDX 

#NAME 

ADDR OF NAME 

00340 


LDY 

#* IFF 

FILE TYPE: ASCII DATA 

00350 


LDA 

#*4F 

OUTPUT MODE 

00360 


LDB 

#*1 

DEVICE NUMBER ONE 

00370 


JSR 

OPEN 

GO OPEN FILE 

003B0 


BNE 

GOOFED 

GO IF ERROR 

00390 


LDX 

#*400 

TOP OF SCREEN 

00400 

WRITE 

LDA 

,X + 

GET CHARACTER 

00410 


LDB 

#*1 

DEVICE NUMBER ONE 

00420 


JSR 

PRINT 

WRITE CHARACTER 

00430 


BNE 

GOOFED 

GO IF ERROR 


PAY WHAT YOU WANT 

for home and business software 
R5 CoCo and TDP-100 

1 6/32K Disk or Cassette 
Extended Color Basic Required 


BUDGET RECORD 

Income 6 outlay by W categories. Great for taxes. 32k. 

MAILING LIST 

Mokes labels, printouts ond alphabetized lists. M/L sort. 

APPOINTMENT BOOK 

Print a calendar with any number of memos/day. (32k. Requires 
printer with compressed characters) 

GRADE BOOK 

Make rolls G grade sheets, complete with stats and totals. 

ALSO AVAILABLE 

Phone Book, Soles Record, Cor Repairs, Diet Delight, Grocery List. 

The Fine Print: 

Order two programs maximum. Send shipping/handling in odvance 
(1— $4.00; 2— $6.00). After using the program, pay only whot the program 
is worth to you. Let's try applying right livelihood to the software industry! 

Specify 1 6/ 32K and type of printer. 

Bruck Associates 
6609 Westmoreland Ave. 

Takoma Park, MD 20912 
(301) 270-5822 

Free cotologue on request 



00440 

CMPX 

#*600 

END OF SCREEN? 

00450 

BNE 

WRITE 

LOOP BACK IF NOT 

00460 

LDB 

#*1 

DEVICE NUMBER ONE 

00470 

JSR 

CLOSE 

CLOSE FILE 

00480 

BNE 

GOOFED 

GO IF ERROR 

00490 

JSR 

*A928 

CLEAR SCREEN 

00500 

JSR 

BREAK 

WAIT FOR BREAK PRESSED 

00510 

LDX 

#NAME 

ADDR OF FILENAME 

00520 

LDY 

#*1FF 

FILE TYPE: ASCII DATA 

00530 

LDA 

#*49 

INPUT MODE 

00540 

LDB 

#*1 

DEVICE NUMBER DNE 

00550 

JSR 

OPEN 

GO OPEN FILE 

00560 

BNE 

GOOFED 

GO IF ERROR 

00570 

LDX 

#*600 

END OF SCREEN 

00580 READ 

LDB 

#*1 

DEVICE NUMBER ONE 

00590 

JSR 

INPUT 

READ CHARACTER 

00600 

BNE 

GOOFED 

GO IF ERROR 

00610 

STA 

,-x 

PUT ON SCREEN 

00620 

CMPX 

#*400 

TOP OF SCREEN? 

00630 

BNE 

READ 

LOOP BACK IF NOT 

00640 

LDB 

#*1 

DEVICE NUMBER ONE 

00650 

JSR 

CLOSE 

GO CLOSE FILE 

00660 

BNE 

GOOFED 

GO IF ERROR 

00670 

JSR 

BREAK 

WAIT FOR BREAK PRESSED 

00680 

JSR 

•A92S 

CLEAR SCREEN 

00690 

LDX 

•NAME 

ADDR OF FILENAME 

00700 

JSR 

KILL 

DELETE FILE 

00710 

BNE 

GOOFED 

GO IF ERROR 

00720 

JSR 

•A92B 

CLEAR SCREEN 

00730 

JMP 

*A0F3 

RETURN TO BASIC 

00740 BREAK 

JSR 

C4A000I 

SCAN KEYBOARD 

00750 

CMPA 

#•3 

BREAK KEY PRESSED? 

00760 

BNE 

BREAK 

WAIT MORE IF NOT 

00770 

RTS 


RETURN TO PROGRAM 

00780 GOOFED 

LDX 

•ERRMSG 

MESSAGE "ERROR #" 

00790 ERR1 

LDA 

,X + 

GET CHARACTER 

OOBOO 

BEG 

ERR2 

GO IF DONE 

00810 

JSR 

*A30A 

PRINT CHARACTER 

00820 

BRA 

ERR1 

LOOP BACK 

00830 ERR2 

LDA 

#*2F 

PRINT ERROR CODE 

00840 ERR3 

INCA 


NUMBER ON SCREEN 

00850 

SUBB 

#*0A 

IN TWO DIGIT 

00860 

BCC 

ERR3 

DECIMAL FORMAT 

00870 

ADDB 

#*3A 

A=TENS B=ONES 

00880 

JSR 

*A30A 

PRINT TENS 

00890 

TFR 

B, A 

GET ONES 

00900 

JSR 

*A30A 

PRINT ONES 

00910 

JMP 

*A0F3 

RETURN TO BASIC 

00920 NAME 

FCC 

"DEMO/DAT" 

00930 

FCB 

*0 

TERMINATOR 

00940 ERRMSG 

FCC 

"ERROR 

#" 

00950 

FCB 

*0 

TERMINATOR 

00960 * 




00970 * 




00980 *THE DISK I/O PROGRAM HAS 

00990 UBEEN APPENDED 

BELOW 


01000 * 




01010 * 




01020 SAVE 

FCB 

*0 

3 BYTE STORAGE 

01030 

FCB 

*0 

AREA FOR THE 

01040 

FCB 

*0 

ERROR VECTOR 

01050 STACK 

FCB 

*0 

2 BYTE STORAGE 

01060 

FCB 

*0 

AREA FOR STACK POINTER 

01070 * 




01080 * 




01090 *ROUTINE TO INITIALIZE I 

DISK 

01100 * SYSTEM 

? S MEMORY 


OHIO * B=NUMBER OF 

BUFFERS 


01120 * 




01130 FILES 

LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

01140 

PSHS 

B 

SAVE # OF BUFFERS 

01 150 

JSR 

*CA3B 

CLOSE ALL FILES 

01160 

PULS 

B 

RESTORE # OF BUFFERS 

01170 

STB 

*95B 

STORE # OF FILES 

01 1B0 

LDU 

#*928 

START OF BUFFER TABLE 

01190 

LDX 

#*989 

START OF BUFFER AREA 

01200 DOBUF 

CLR 

,x 

CLEAR STATUS FLAG 

01210 

STX 

, U++ 

PUT ENTRY IN TABLE 

01220 

LEAX 

*119, X 

GO TO NEXT BUFFER 

01230 

DECB 


DECREMENT COUNT 

01240 

BHI 

DOBUF 

LOOP BACK UNTIL DONE 

01250 

LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 


01260 * 

01270 * 

01 280 ^ROUTINE TO OPEN A FILE 
01290 * X=ADDR OF FILENAME 

01300 * Y-FILE TYPE 

01310 * A=FILE MODE 


78 the RAINBOW July 1983 







Expansion 


for your 

COLOR 

COMPUTER 


Is Here 


CoCo HAS A COMPANION!! 

GOOD NEWS Switch over to more versatility with the new 

BT-2000 COMPANION. Save CoCo's connector with the best 

COMPANION it will ever have. 

• Load 5 cartridges into the COMPANION and avoid the hassles 
while enjoying the benefits of push-button selection. 

• Push a Button or select from your keyboard to turn on one of your 
5 selections. Handy indicator lights let you know at a glance which 
cartridge is connected. 

• No More Turn-Offs. Just switch to the next cartridge in your 
COMPANION. Push a button to Restart without turning off the 
power. 

• Plug-in. Fill one to five slots for flexible programming, game 
playing or both. Choose ROM Packs, serial ports, parallel ports, or 
disk drives. Then do what you like to do best. The most powerful 
and cost effective expansion you will find for just $249.95. 


ALSO NEW FROM BASIC TECHNOLOGY!! 

• BT-I010 PPI Parallel Printer Interface. Free-up CoCo's serial 
port. Run your printer at top speed. Five foot cable with Centronics 
compatible connector and machine language printer driver are 
included. $79 95. 

• BT-1020 Real Time Clock/Calendar. Let CoCo keep the time and 
date for your programs and files. Day-light savings time and leap 
year keep you on time. Save data or program memory even when 
power is off with 50 bytes of battery backed memory. Alarm 
capability to turn on the coffee pot. All for only $109.00. 

• BT-1030 VIP Versatile Interface Port. Connect CoCo to the 
outside world with two 8-bit parallel ports, two 16-bit 
timer/counters and a serial shift register. All user programmable. 
$69.95. 

• WRITE FOR FREE BROCHURE. 


FOR THE ADVANCED USER OR 
EXPERIMENTER 


The utmost in expansion power and versatility is the BT-1000 
Expansion Interface Unit. $270.00. 

Large Built-in power supply /^\ 

to power your peripherals rainbow 

* ' 11 ccnnricATiON 

and experimenter circuits. 

Space for your ML utilities with optional 8K of RAM. $300.00 


hasic Dept. Q P.O. Box 511 Ortonville, Ml 48462 

IECHNOLOGY <313)627-6146 


For years of trouble-free enjoyment all Basic Technology products use 
top quality components and are backed by a full 180 day parts and 
labor warranty. We service what we sell!!! 

Add $5 shipping & handling for BT-1000, $2.50 for BT-1020. 
Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. Shipping & handling for 
residents of Canada, Hawaii, Alaska is $10. Overseas orders add 15%. 
Check, money order, VISA, MC (give account no., expiration date, 
phone no ). Personal checks allow 2-3 weeks to clear. COD charge $2 
(requires certified check or money order). 

" Watch for more peripherals from 
Basic Technology.” 


01320 

* B=DEVICE 

NUMBER 


01800 


LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

01330 

* 



01810 

* 




01340 

OPEN LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

0 1 820 

* 




01350 

STY 

<957 

STORE TYPE 

01830 

♦ROUTINE TO ACTIVATE/DEACTIVE 

01360 

PSHS 

D 

SAVE MODE & DEVICE 

01840 

♦THE VERIFICATION SYSTEM 

01370 

LBSR 

FNAME 

PROCESS FILENAME 

01850 

♦ B=1 

(ACTIVATE) 


01380 

PULS 

D 

RESTORE MODE S< DEVICE 

01860 

♦ B=0 

(DEACTIVATE) 


01390 

JSR 

♦ C468 

GO OPEN FILE 

01870 

i 




01400 

LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

01B80 

VERIFY 

LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

01410 

* 



01890 


STB 

•9B7 

STORE STATUS 

01420 

* 



01900 


LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

01430 

♦ ROUTINE TO CLOSE A FILE 

01910 

♦ 




01440 

♦ B=DEVICE 

NUMBER 


01920 

* 




01450 

* 



01930 

♦THE ROUTINES 

BELOW ARE 

FOR 

01460 

CLOSE LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

01940 

♦INTERNAL USE 

ONLY, AND 

ARE NOT 

01470 

STB 

S6F 

STORE DEVICE NUMBER 

01950 

♦ TO BE 

CALLED 

BY YOUR PROGRAM 

01480 

JSR 

*CA53 

GO CLOSE FILE 

01960 

♦DIRECTLY! 



01490 

LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

01970 

♦ 




01500 

* 



019B0 

♦ 




01510 

* 



01990 

♦ROUTINE TO PROCESS FILENAME 

01520 

♦ROUTINE TO WRITE TO A 

FILE 

02000 

* 




01530 

* A=CHARACTER TO WRITE 

02010 

FNAME 

LDB 

#$FF 

CLEAR COUNTER 

01540 

♦ B=DEVICE 

NUMBER 


02020 

GETLEN 

INCB 


CALCULATE HOW 

01550 

* 



02030 


LDA 

B, X 

MANY LETTERS 

0 1 560 

PRINT LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

02040 


CMPA 

#<20 

ARE IN THE 

01570 

STB 

$6F 

STORE DEVICE NUMBER 

02050 


BCC 

GETLEN 

FILENAME 

01580 

JSR 

$A282 

WRITE CHARACTER 

02060 


CLR 

,-s 

MAKE SPACE ON STACK 

01590 

LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

02070 


LDA 

<95 A 

GET DEFAULT DRIVE # IN 

01600 

* 



02080 


STA 

$EB 

CASE NONE IS SPECIFIED 

01610 

* 



02090 


LDU 

#S94C 

NAME STORAGE AREA 

01620 

♦ROUTINE TO READ A CHARACTER 

02100 


LDA 

#$20 

ASCII CODE FOR BLANK 

01630 

♦ FROM A FILE 



021 10 

CLEAR 

STA 

,u+ 

CLEAR OUT 

01640 

♦ B=DEVICE 

NUMBER 


02120 


CMPU 

#♦957 

FILENAME 

01650 

* A RETURNS 

i WITH INPUT CHARACTER 

02130 


BNE 

CLEAR 

STORAGE AREA 

01660 

* 



02140 


JMP 

$C8A4 

GO PROCESS FILENAME 

01670 

INPUT LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

02150 

* 




01680 

STB 

$6F 

STORE DEVICE NUMBER 

02 1 60 

* 




01690 

JSR 

$A176 

GO INPUT CHARACTER 

02170 

♦ROUTINE TO PREPARE EVERYTHING 

01700 

STA 

,S 

PUT IT ON STACK 

021 BO 

♦PRESERVE REGISTERS, SET UP 

01710 

LBRA 

DONE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 

02190 

♦ERROR 

TRAP, 1 

ETC 


01720 

* 



02200 

♦ 




01730 

* 



02210 

BEGIN 

PSHS 

X,Y,U,DP,A SAVE REGISTERS 

01740 

♦ROUTINE TO KILL A FILE 


02220 


CLRA 


TEMPORARILY SET 

01750 

♦ X=ADDR OF 

FILENAME 


02230 


TFR 

A, DP 

DP TO ZERO 

01760 

♦ 



02240 


LDA 

$ 1 8E 

GET CONTENTS OF 

01770 

KILL LBSR 

BEGIN 

PREPARE 

02250 


LDU 

$ 18F 

ERROR VECTOR 

01780 

LBSR 

FNAME 

PROCESS FILENAME 

02260 


STA 

SAVE, PCR AND SAVE IT 

01790 

JSR 

»C6C5 

GO KILL FILE 

02270 


STU 

SAVE+1 ,1 

PCR FOR NOW 





02280 


LDA 

#$7E 

NOW SET UP 



C.C. DIALER 


Let your Co. Co. do the "walking" 


Turn your computer into an automatic 
telephone dialer. 

Generate touch tones from C.C.'s keyboard 
or stored directory. 

Save, load and modify directories on tape 
or disk. 

Requires Extended Basic and Touch Tone 
phone service. 


CASSETTE VERSION - $ 29.95 
DISK VERSION - $34 . 95 


Send cheque or money order to: 

CHRIS COMPUTERS 
6299 Alderwood Lane 
Delta, B.C. Canada V4E 3E7 

(8.C. Re.ude.nti include 6% Sales Tax ) 


02290 

02300 

02310 

02320 

02330 

02340 

02350 

02360 


LEAU ERROR, PCR ERROR VECTOR 

ST A $ 1 BE WITH OUR OWN 

STU $ 18F HANDLING ROUTINE 

LDA ,S RESTORE A REGISTER 

STS STACK, PCR SAVE STACK POINTER 

JMP CB, SI RETURN 


02370 *IF AN ERROR OCCURS, CONTROL 
023B0 *W ILL PASS TO ERROR ROUTINE 
02390 * 

02400 ERROR LSRB 

02410 INCB 

02420 BRA EXIT 

02430 * 

02440 * 

02450 * IF ROUTINE FINISHES PROPERLY, 
02460 ^CONTROL WILL PASS TO DONE 
02470 * 

02480 DONE CLRB 

02490 BRA EXIT 

02500 * 

02510 * 

02520 * ROUTINE TO RESTORE REGISTERS AND 
02530 * ERROR VECTOR, AND RETURN TO 
02540 ♦CALLING PROGRAM 
02550 * 


B=ERROR CODE 
DIVIDE BY 2, ADD 1 
GO TO EXIT ROUTINE 


0=N0 ERROR 

GO TO EXIT ROUTINE 


02560 EXIT 

LDA 

SAVE, PCR 

RESTORE THE 

02570 

LDU 

SAVE+1, PCR 

ERROR VECTOR 

02580 

STA 

$ 18E 

TO ITS ORIGINAL 

02590 

STU 

$18F 

VALUE 

02600 

LDS 

STACK, PCR 

RESTORE STACK POINTER 

02610 

PULS 

A, DP, U, Y, X 

RESTORE REGISTERS 

02620 

LEAS 

2,S CLEAN UP STACK 

02630 

TSTB 

SET 

Z FLAG IF NO ERROR 

02640 

RTS 

RETURN TO CALLER 

02650 

END 

START 



80 the RAINBOW July 1983 



DO YOU HAVE A BASIC OR ASSEMBLY PROGRAM TO SELL? 

. . . avoid unreliable cassette tapes and recorders 
and EPROM your program! 


With EPACK, BASIC and assembly routines for color computer can be read from cassette tape and stored onto 2516. 2716 (single supply), 2732, 2532, 2564 1 
and 2764 styled EPROM (21 and 25 volt). These EPROM are then inserted into MMB, a game packlike cartridge that automatically executes your program 
when it's inserted into the color computer just like the game packs 


EPACK is an excellent alternative to cassettes tor programs you want to sell and for personal programs you would like to execute quickly and conveniently 
from a more reliable medium. 


NOTE: 2732, 2764 and 21 volt capability are available optionally and are not included in the standard EPACK. 

EPACK consists of EPG, BROM and MMB for 

The units in EPACK are sold individually as follows 


$150.00 


BROM 


Utility fits any memory size color computer Its function is to process 
BASIC source files into a format that can be written out to EPROM by Con- 
trol Craft Inc.'s EPROM programmer (EPG) and still be executed by the 
BASIC interpreter - but from EPROM, not RAM' 

BROM $25.00 


EPROM PROGRAMMER (EPG) 


• Jumpers configure the memory type used on the board. Provisions for 
inserting DIP switches in place of the jumpers 

> Gold plated edge connector 

> Each 1C or 1C socket has decoupling cap installed 

> Plastic case is available extra, at $7.50 (pricing is subject to change 
without notice) (case included in EPACK) 


• Zero insertion force socket 

• Personality plugs configure programmer to accept 2716 (5 volt supply). 
2532 and 2564 style EPROM. 

• Programmer's software is included on the programmer board as firmware 

• Program sources: 

* read cassette tape files into memory and then write file to EPROM 
(files are in Radio Shack format) 

■ write color computer RAM to EPROM 

* read EPROM inserted in programmer into RAM 

* write color computer ROM to EPROM 

• Functions: 

* test EPROM to see if it’s unprogrammed 

* read an EPROM into color computer RAM 

* write RAM buffer out to EPROM 

* redefine the location of the RAM buffer 
‘ verify the programming of an EPROM 

* compare the contents of RAM buffer against an EPROM 

* edit the RAM buffer 

1. Examine/change memory locations 

2. Examine/change start buffer address 

3. Fill RAM buffer with FF hex 

* read blocks from a cassette file into RAM 

• Menu driven operation allows easy use 

• Plastic case enclosed circuitry 

• Gold plated edge connectors 

• Self-contained unit ... no external power supplies are used 

• Unit operates on any memory sized TRS-80 color computer 

EPG $105.00 


" RAM may not work with series E or later color computers. 

MMB $30.00 


MULTI MEMORY BOARD (MMB) 


• Complete with support 1C. sockets and decoupling capacitors 

• Accepts 2516. 2716, 2532, 2732, 2564 EPROM (included in EPACK) 

• Accepts 2016. 4016, 6116 static RAM* 

• Max capacity of 6 memory chips 

• Runs on any size TRS-80 color computer 

• Board is jumper addressable to either $C000 or S8000 

• Provisions for write protect switch , or can jumper the board to write 
protect RAM 


** UPGRADE (optional for EPACK or EPG) 


2732-25 volt . . . 

SI 5.00 2732-21 volt .. . 

SI 5.00 

2764-25 volt ... 

SI 5.00 2764-21 volt .. . 

... SI5.00 


SOUMP 


0KIDATA owners know that in order to print graphics they lose their 
serial interface . . . 


NOT ANY MORE! 


Now you can print Hi-res Pmode 4 graphics images, full size and detail, 
on your OKIDATA, EPSON and other printers, without dot addressable 
capacity 


Features 

• Callable from BASIC routine 

• Runs stand alone with a menu 

• Relocatable 

• Automatically finds the start 
of graphics pages 

• Configurable for several printers 

• Fast 

• Useable on 16 or 32 or 64 K 
machines with or without 
Extended BASIC 

• Documented 



I OKIDATA , EPSON and RS are trademarks I 

Actual graphics printed on an OKIDATA printer (shown reduced) 

soump $20.00 

All prices subject to change without notice. 


Control "Craft Inc. 


19270 North Hills Drive • Brookfield, Wl 53005 • (414) 784-9027 
Name 


Company . 
Address _ 


Order Form: EPACK 
BROM 
EPG 
MMB 

SDUMP 

UPGRADE NO.. 


.@ 

@ 

@ 

@ 

.@ 

.@ 


$150.00 = 
$ 25.00 = 
$105.00 = 
$ 30.00 = 
$ 25.00 = 
$ 15.00 = 


City /State. 


.Zip. 


Wis. residents add 5% sales tax _ 
Shipping & Handling: ff of items x $2.00/item = . 

TOTAL ORDER: $ 


Shipping address (if different from above) 


TO ORDER BY MAIL: SEND MONEY ORDER, CERTIFIED CHECK, CASHIERS 
CHECK MASTERCARD /VISA (include card number, inter-bank number, 
expiration date and signature). 


OEALER INQUIRIES WANTED {minimum dealer order Is 10 units) 




Software Review 


Accounting Program Has 
Uses Beyond Tax Preparations 

CoCo- Accountant is an inexpensive home accounting 
program from Federal Hill Software that allows the user to 
keep track of checks written. The object of the program is to 
allow for easy retrieval and sorting of this information at tax 
time from the files that may be kept on casette or disk, 
depending on the version purchased. The cassette version 
comes in both 16K or 32K while the disk version may only be 
used with 32K. 

1 have had no training in accounting and thus I would 
have no idea how close this program adheres to regular 
accounting practices. Since 1 do take care of the finances for 
my family as well as the yearly chore of income tax, I do see 
how useful the information that may be generated from this 
program would be. The program will list and total each 
month’s checks, list and total checks by account for a given 
month or year, and display all information on the screen or 
printer. In addition, the 32K versions will flag tax deductible 
expenses and checks subject to sales tax. In the latter case, 
the user need only type in the state’s sales tax and the 
program will calculate the total amount of sales tax spent 
within these flagged purchases. 

Getting the program set up and operating is easy due to 
very complete and well-written documentation (nine pages) 


INSIM Instruction Simulator 

Simulates the complete 6809 instruction set. 

Use it to quickly debug assembly programs. 

Use it to find out how other programs work. 

Use it to find out how the basic roms work. 
Output to screen or printer. 

Includes commands to examine and change memory. 


Even has a mini-disassembler 

16k STANDARD/EXTENDED 839.95 

COMPRESS Reduce basic program size. 

Removes spaces and comments. 

4k OP 16k 8 7.95 


INTRSTIThe interest calculator 
Calculates home mortgage payments or any 
loan payments. 

Calculates interest, total interest, total 
paid, amount due. 

Calculates how much to invest now to retire 
in style in 30 years. 

This program will calculate future values, 
oresent values and much more! 

16k STANDARD 812.95 

DEPREC Calculate depreciation using: 

Strait line, production unit, working hours, 
declining balance, sum-of-the-years digits. 

16k ECTFUDED 810.95 

B.C. ENGINEERING 

P.O.BOX 768 
MANCHESTER, MO. 6301 1 

SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER. 

MO. RESIDENTS ADD 5.625 % SALES TAX. 


and a menu/ prompt system built into the program itself. 
After loading the program for the first time, the user may 
define up to 24 accounts and a two-letter account code. The 
user may then enter check information from the keyboard or 
the storage medium. It is very important to remember each 
account’s code or the program will not operate correctly. 
There is an option on the main menu that will list accounts 
and codes if the user forgets, but unfortunately you can’t 
make a printed copy of this list. Other options from the main 
menu allow the user to list checks by month, account or 
payee, to make a year-to-date summary, to sort by date, 
correct an error, and list all checks. The printer routine 
supports a 45-column printout of any information wanted 
from most of the various “list” options. 

1 did find some limitations in the program that may limit 
the usefulness of the system for some users. The 32K disk 
version allows for up to 400 checks to be entered. I was 
surprised to discover that 1 write about 480 checks a year 
and that 1 would have to split the program into half-years to 
be able to use it. The cassette 32K version will take up to 450 
checks and the 16K cassette version has a capacity of 200. 
This program is not a checkbook balancer as there is no way 
to enter credits or deposits. The documentation plainly 
states that the program is a way to organize cancelled checks 
only. If you like to balance your checkbook with your Color 
Computer, you will thus be obligated to enter your check 
information twice — once for your checkbook program and 
again for this program. Finally, the program is based 
around check writing only, and thus the reality of credit card 
or cash spending is not taken into account. 1 would suspect 
that organizing credit spending would be as important to 
some people as watching the checks. 

Despite the limitations mentioned, I can see some ex- 
cellent uses for a program such as CoCo-Accountant. 
Besides the obvious tax preparation advantages, an easily 
accessed record of, say, gasoline, energy or computer 
expenses would be useful for many people to watch where 
the money is going. When you measure the very reasonable 
price of this program against value received, 1 think value is 
the winner. 

(Federal Hill Software, 825 William Street, Baltimore, MD 

21230, 16K/32K cassette S15.95, 32K disk $21.95) 

—Brian James 


Graphics Hint . . . 

To ‘B’ or Not to B’ 

That is the Option 

The Extended BASIC book tells us to always use the B 
option directly before the M motion command when mov- 
ing the draw position. Their reasoning is that you may get 
unwanted lines. My point here is that you may be able to 
omit the B option and get WANTED lines a lot easier than 
with any other method. I have used this method on several 
occasions and it can be of great help. It is useful anytime you 
need to draw a line from a point to another point that does 
not fall on one of the standard angles (U E R F D G L H). 
The N (no update) option also seems to work well with this 
method. I’m sure many people are aware of this ability, but I 
have never seen anything about it and it can be very helpful. 

Harvey R. Hall 
Inola, OK 


82 the RAINBOW July 1983 




16K 

■ 

the 

■ 


ECB 


RAINBOW 




From 




By Daniel W. Phillips 


H ere’s a beginner strategy game that most everyone 
has played at one time or another. It’s a change of 
pace from the outer space craze, and easy to play for 
even the younger kids. The computer allows no ‘extra’ 
moves or ‘missed’ captures. A nice feature of this electronic 
version of Dots is that the computer will start the game for 
you with 60 random lines. Of course, you can start from 
scratch if you like. Instructions for the game are in the 
program. 

I’ve included a liberal sprinkling of REMarks on the flow 
and control of the game in the listing, however, a little 
background information may be helpful if you want to make 
any changes or additions to the game. 

The numbering scheme 1 used for this game appeared in a 
November 1982 Popular Computing article by George 
Stewart, titled Making Mazes. Values for the sides and box 
are as follows: 

i 8 1 

I I 

4 1 

I i 

I 2 1 

The value of the box is stored in the game array A(C.R). 
where “C” is the column and “R” is the row. 

I used only two lines to make a box. \ he top and left side 
are the two lines used for computing values. 

As you can see, the side of 

■ — — — ' one box is also the oppo- 

• • site side of its adjacent 

• — — — • box. 


0 — No Lines 

1 Right Side 

2 — Bottom 

4 Left Side 
8 — Top 

16 Captured Box 


A complete box 
will total 15. 


That is, the top of box ‘A’ 
is the same line as the bot- 
tom of box ‘B’. 


The value of both boxes must be revised when one line is 
drawn. 

Although we are concerned only with values of the ten by 
ten boxes on the board, we need eleven columns and rows 
for drawing lines. Column eleven will draw' the right side on 
the far right, and row eleven will draw the bottom line for the 
bottom boxes. 


A 

B 


The search routines are simply a series of comparisons. 
The values chosen for comparison are sums of the line values 
for partially completed boxes. The order of comparison was 
arranged to equalize the time used for all searches. That is, 
instead of having a ‘north’ search zip along and a ‘south’ 
search barely crawl, both should take approximately the 
same length of time. 

And that’s about it! 


Variable List 


LP.LH.LV 

RP.RH.RV 

H.V 

C.R 

B 

D 

F 

FP 

X.Y 

SR.SL.ST 
A( 11,11) 
N$( 10) 


The listing: 


Left Joystick 
Right Joystick 
Gameboard Locations 
Column and Row 
Flag — Color of Player 
Return Dot to Original Color Counter for 
Random Lines 
Flag to Indicate Capture 
Flag for Joystick Control 
Flag for Subroutine Returns 
Work Variables 


Scores 


Game Array — Column Row 

Work INKEYS — Store Number Strings (not 


dimensioned) 


^ 


370. . . 

. . 0EA9 

79... 

. . . 0389 

559. . . 

. . 127A 

169. . 

. . . 0758 

739. . . 

. . 1641 

289 . . 

. . OAAD 

END . 

. . 1A16 


10 CLS:PMODEl, 1: COLOR 1,2: PCLS: PR 
INT0205, "DOTS":PRINT@234, "WRITTE 
N F0R":PRINT@263, "COLOR COMPUTER 
BY " : PR I NT@297 , " DAN PH I LL I PS " : PR 
INT@451, "FOR INSTRUCTIONS PRESS 
' I ’ ANY OTHER KEY TO PLAY 

H a 

20 N*=*INKEY*: IFN*=" "THEN20 ELSE 
IF N*="I" GOSUB740 ELSE CLS 
30 PR I NTS323 , CHR* <175)" OR " CHR* 
<239)" WILL BE RIGHT PLAYER" :PRI 
NT0355 , CHR* < 1 9 1 ) " OR " CHR* < 255 ) " 
WILL BE LEFT PLAYER" 

39 REM STRINGS FOR NUMBERS 

ORIGINALLY IN A PROGRAM BY 


July 1983 


the RAINBOW 83 



RON VAN DYKE IN THE APRIL 82 
TRS 80 MICROCOMPUTER NEWS 
40 N* (0) =" BM+1 , 05 H1U4E1R2F1D4G1L 
2; BM+6, 0" : N* ( 1 ) ="BM+1 , 0; R1NR1U6G 
1 ; BM+6, +5" : N$ (2) = " NR4U 1 E 1 R 1 E2U 1 H 
lL2Bl;BM+7,+5" 

50 N* ( 3 ) = " BM+0 , - 1 ; F 1 R2E 1 H2E2H 1 L3 
; BM+7, 6" : N$ (4) =" BM+3 , 0 ; U2NR 1 L3U 1 
E3D3; BM+4, 3" : N* (5) ="BM+0, -1 ; F1R2 
E 1 U2H 1 L3U2R4 5 BM+3 , +6 " 

60 N* (6) ="BM+4, -5; H1L2G1D4F1R2E1 
U1H1L3; BM+7, +3" : N* <7) ="U1E4U1L4; 
BM+7, +6" : N* (8> ="BM+1 , -05 H1U1E1H1 
U 1 E 1 R2F 1 D 1 G 1 NL2F 1 D 1 G 1 L2 5 BM+6 , 0 " 
70 N* (9) *"BM+0, -1 5 F1R2E1U4H1L2G1 
D1F1R2; BM+4, +3" : N* ( 10) =''D18R36U1 
8" 

79 REM LIST ALL VARIABLES IN 
ORDER OF MOST USE.. SET ARRAY 
TO ZERO 

80 DIM A(ll, ll) : x=0: Y=0:RH=0:RV= 

0 : rp=0 : LH=0 : lv=0 : lp= 0 : H=0 : v=0 : fp 
= 0: D=0: c=i : R=i : B=4 : st=0: sl=0: SR= 
0: F=1 : FOR R=1T01 1 : FOR C=1T011:A< 
c,R)=0:next c,r 

89 REM DRAW GAMEBOARD 

90 DRAW " BM46 , 0 " +N* < 10) : DRAW'BMl 1 
0, 0"+N* ( 10) : DRAW"BM174, 0"+N* < 10) 
: PAINT (1, 1) , 1, l:GOSUB150:GOSUB16 
0." C0L0R2, 1 : FORX=48TO208 STEP16: F 



. 3D TIC-TAC-TOE . 

NEW!! Over 150 possible ways to win . A real challenge. Just 
when you think you won. coco beats you to it. A first lor the 
coco 

Cassette: 32K E.C.B $14.9 5 

Disc: 32K E.C.B $19.95 

. TIC-TAC-TOE . 

II you thought Tic-Tac-Toe is an easy game, try matching your 
wits against this version. Play it with or without joysticks. A 
special "SMALL FRY" level of difficulty is provided. 

Cassette: 16K C.B $10.95 

. JUMPS . 

Q-SOFT's challenging version of a very old European solitaire 
game. An ADDICTIVE board game in FII-RES graphics. 
Reviewed in Jan. 1983 issue of the "RAINBOW" on page 164. 

Cassette: 16K E.C.B $10.95 

Cassette: 4K C.B $8.95 

. THE SPIDER . 

By: CHROMATIC SOFTWARE". All machine language. 
Annihilate the spider before he destroys you. Arcade action. 
Joysticks needed. Reviewed in Jan. 1983 issue of the 
"RAINBOW" on page 160. 

Cassette: 16K $19.95 

. ONE CHECK . 

48 "CHECKERS" are placed on the two outside rows of a 
standard checkerboard. Remove as many "checkers" as 
possible, jumping diagonally. Play with or without joysticks. 
HI-RES graphics. 

Cassette: 16K E.C.B $10.9 5 

O-SOFT 

1006 ROBINHOOD DRIVE • PAINESVILLE, OHIO 44077 KInbov? 

C. O D orders add $3 00 Call 216-352-2675 


84 the RAINBOW July 1983 


ORY=20TO 1 80 STEP16:PSET(X, Y,2) IN 
EXTY X 

1 00 FORX = 1 T05 : N*= I NKEY* : NEXT : PR I 
NT@4 19, "WOULD YOU LIKE SOME RAND 
OM LINES TO GET STARTED?" 

: PR I NT0493 , " < Y-N > " 5 
1 1 0 N*= I NKEY* : I FN$= " " THEN 1 1 0ELSE 
X=RND (2) -1 : SCREEN 1 , X 
120 IFN*="Y"THENFP=-i: X=RND(-TIM 
ER ) : GOSUB650 : FP= 1 : GOTO 1 80 5 ELSE 1 
80 

129 REM DRAW HORIZONTAL LINES 

130 H= ( C* 16) +32 : V= ( R* 16) +4 5 FOR X 
=H TO (H+16) : PSET < X , V, 2) : NEXTX : R 
ETURN 

139 REM DRAW VERTICAL LINES 

140 H= ( C* 1 6 ) +32 : V= ( R* 1 6 ) +4 5 FOR X 
=v TO ( V+16) : PSET (H,X,2): NEXTX 1 R 
ETURN 

149 REM COMPUTE AND DISPLAY 
SCORE FOR RIGHT PLAYER 

150 X=INT(SR/10> : Y=SR-(X*10> :PAI 
NT (178, 2) , 3, 1 : DRAW"C25 S105 BM180, 
14"+N*(X)+N*<Y> : RETURN 

159 REM COMPUTE AND DISPLAY 
SCORE FOR LEFT PLAYER 

160 X=INT(SL/10) S Y=SL-(X*10) :PAI 
NT (50, 2) , 4, 1 : DRAW " C2 ; S 1 0 5 BM52 , 14 
" +N* ( X ) +N$ ( Y ) : RETURN 

169 REM ANY CHANGE IN SCORE -DO 
ANOTHER SEARCH 

170 IF ST< > (SR+SL) THEN 560 

179 REM FLAGS TO START SEARCHES, 
CHANGE PLAYERS - DISPLAY 
NEW SCORES 

180 IF F=— 1 AND B=3 GOSUB150 ELS 
E IF F=— 1 AND B=4 GOSUB160 

190 IF F= 1 THEN IF B=3 THEN B=4 
ELSE B=3 

200 F=1 : PAINT (116,8) ,B, 1: SOUND20 
0,5: IF ST=100 GOTO790 

209 REM JOYSTICK INPUT 

210 RH=INT(JOYSTK(0)/3)*8+40:RV= 
INT ( JOYSTK < 1 ) /3) *8+12: RP=PEEK (65 
280) 

220 LH=INT (JOYSTK (2) /3) *8+40: LV= 
I NT (JOYSTK ( 3 ) /3 ) *8+ 1 2 : LP=PEEK ( 65 
280) 

230 IF B=3 THEN H=RH: V=RV: FP=RP: 
IF FP=125 OR FP=253 THEN FP=255: 
GOTO250 ELSE GOTO250 
240 H=LH: V=LV:FP=LP: IF FP=126 OR 
FP=254 THEN FP=255 

249 REM SET LOWER LIMIT FOR DOT 

250 IF H< 48 THEN H=48 
260 IF V<20 THEN V=20 

269 REM FLASH DOT AND SET TO 
ORIGINAL COLOR BEFORE LEAVING 

270 D=PPOINT (H, V) : PSET (H,V,2) : FO 
RX=1TO40: NEXT: PRESET (H, V) : FORX=l 




Sale — Sale — Sale 



SOLUTION ON CARTRIDGE 


LARGE CHARACTERS 
FDR SMALL CHILDREN 
OR THE VISUALLY 
IMPAIRED 

1 234567899 1 234567890 1 

ABCDEFGH I FKLMNDPQRSTU 
VMXYZabcde f 3h i Jk 1 rinop 
qrstuvwxyzl 


LIST 

l iff ’ of ?$•«» tOLUT ION i 

i case cfcar -asters Per l ir>e» 

hr*>3 r, t ;/r« fv ar*i 
29 FOR I -9 TO ^ r EP i 
29 CIRCLE 1 >*• • I • 0 

*5 real : 

59 FOP I • TO 1 8." 

ra ie<ri V,'/ 

t> 7:^^- 



t U V M < a X 

0 

1 


-t i a h 

’InJC JEf G H I 

r u v u :< i' z £ '. I t 

1 jt 1 »» n O P q r 3 


(Eortgratulaitmts 


The cartridge version of THE SOLUTION has all of the 
features of the tape version and more. It works with all 
of the graphic modes (including 4 colors). It includes a 
51 characters per line feature and the ability to define a 
text window on the screen. All of this and much more 
at the low price of — $34 95 
ROM-PAKS -S&Sy $ 7.50 

This is an empty Rom-Pak with a PC board. It will hold 
either a 271 6, 2732 or a 2764. The case looks very simi- 
lar to Radio Shack's Rom-Pak. Comes complete with 
instructions. 

CUSTOM PROGRAMING 

We will put your program in a Rom-Pak for you for a 

very reasonable fee. The program can be either Basic 
or machine language. Prices start at $19.95 for pro- 
grams up to 4K in length. $29.95 for programs up to 8 K. 
Volume discounts are available. Send for a free sub- 
mittal form. 


• C 0 L 0 t 

. 1 : » 1 P I ' 

• 

* < c J R. G. “I LOUS : ?8t 

• licenses T n TMfOr a p p . 


1 c l ? 3 r * * O r * 

2 edit text 

3 save on t a p e 

4 load iron tape 

5 print 

6 chan3« standards 
(select 1-6) 

J 


SCRIPTFX $9r9S $ 4.95 

Are you tired of the upper case display of Color Scrip- 
sit? Well then SCRIPTFX is for you. This is a program 
which converts the display of Color Scripsit over to a 
real display of upper and lower case letters with des- 
cenders. The program allows all of the features of 
Scripsit to function and comes with a money back 
guarantee if it does not work. Please specify machine 
type when ordering. Extended Basic is not required. 


SUPER PILOT $9^5 $ 7.95 

An enhanced version of Pilot for use with Extended Basic. 
Includes features for math, graphics, and sound. Has a 
feature that makes it easy to create flash card type drill 
programs. Programs are pseudo compiled for faster 
execution. Comes with as 24 page tutorial manual and demo 
programs. Sample program included on tape to get you 
started. 

All programs for 16K, 32K Extended Basic machines unless 
otherwise noted. All programs on cassette. Add $4.00 per 
order for disk. 

DISCOUNT — order 10 or more programs (you may mix 
types) and you will receive a 30% discount on the order. 
Dealer discounts are also available. 


SNAKE MOUNTAIN SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 5722 
RALEIGH, NC 27650 

919-828-6669 


24 hour phone COD ordering service. 


you made the right choice when you purchased a 
Color Computer. It is a very powerful machine. 
However the standard display format does not do the 
machine justice. The machine is capable of much more than 
16 lines of 32 all capital characters. Now you can give your 
Color Computer the display it deserves. THE SOLUTION 
gives the Color Computer a much better display than it nor- 
mally has, and really makes the machine shine. Its features 
include: 

• provides a screen of 42 characters by 21 lines displayed 

• linked directly to basic — program is transparent to the 
user 

• prints all 96 ASCII characters, lowercase characters 
have descenders, has a slashed zero to avoid 
confusion when programing 

• prints characters on any two-color graphic screen 

• graphics and text may be intermixed on the same screen 

• special mode with 4 lines of text at the bottom of the 
screen (just like some other famous color machines) — 
great for working with graphics 

• large character mode for small children or the visually 
impaired 

• character set may be reversed 

• written in machine language, program is relocatable 

• fast — prints at over 600 characters per second 

• works with both cassette and disk 

• includes a 20 page manual with demo programs (a lunar 
lander program is included) 

SOLUTION J$49dJ5 $14.95 


EXTENDER 5 $ 4.95 

Still want more than 42 characters per line from your 
computer. Then the EXTENDER is for you. This program 
when used with THE SOLUTION will give a display of 51 
characters per line by 21 lines displayed. Please include your 
program serial number when ordering. 

GRAPH LABEL S8r9S $ 5.95 

Have you ever wanted to place characters on a graphic 
screen but couldn’t find an easy way to do it. Well then 
GRAPH LABEL is for you. This program will enable you to 
place characters anywhere on a graphic screen. It will place 
any of 96 ASCII characters on the screen or you may create 
your own characters. It features a cursor that may be moved 
anywhere around the screen with out rubbing out what it 
goes over. Superscripts and subscripts may be used since 
the cursor may be moved vertically and horizontally in steps 
as small as one pixel. Lowercase characters have descend- 
ers. GRAPH LABEL is written in Basic and is therefore easy 
to modify. It may be used by itself or as a subroutine. 

SCREEN PRINT PACKAGE 38^5 $ 5.95 

A package of 2 programs for use with the LPVII, LPVill, 
DMP100, DMP200, DMP400, DMP500. The programs will 
print an image of what is on a graphic screen to the printer. 
Both programs work with all the standard PMODEs. The 
programs are written in machine language and may be 
moved anywhere in memory. The two programs are: 

1) SCREEN PRINT — will produce a regular size print. The 
image may be located anywhere on a page. 

2) DOUBLE SIZE SCREEN PRINT — this program will 
produce a full size image that will fill up a sheet of paper. The 
finished product is 8 by 6.5 inches in size. Your computer 
graphics look really good when they are printed out with this 
program. 

SHIPPING — add $2.00 for orders less than $20.00. Shipping 
is free on orders of more than $ 20 . 00 . 

Canadians — please send money orders only. 

All orders shipped within 5 working days. 






TO30: NEXT: PSET (H, V, B) : FORX=1TO50 
: NEXT: PSET (H, V, D) : IF FP=255 OR F 
P=127 THEN210 

279 REM GET NUMBER OF COLUMN 
AND ROW FROM DOT LOCATION 

280 C= I NT ( ( H— 32 > / 1 6 ) : R= I NT ( ( V— 4 ) 
/ 16) : IF C=0 THEN C=1 

289 REM SET COLUMN AND ROW TO 
LOW LIMIT 

290 IF R=0 THEN R=1 : REM NOV 1982 
WRITTEN BY 

DANIEL W. PHILLIPS 
289 S. SHERIDAN ST. 

W I LKES-BARRE , PA . 1 8702 

299 REM CHECK FOR LEGAL MOVE 
IN HORIZONTAL -IF NO LEGAL 
MOVE CHECK VERTICAL 

300 I F < H— 40 ) / 1 6= I NT ( ( H— 40 ) / 1 6 ) A 
ND ( V- 12) / 1 6< > I NT ( ( V— 1 2 ) / 1 6 ) AND 

(PPOINT (H— 3, V) =1 OR PPOINT (H-3, 
V) =5) THEN F0RX=(H-8) TO (H+8):P 
SET (X,V, 2) : NEXT: ELSE GOTO320 

309 REM ADD VALUE TO BOXES 
ADJACENT TO HORIZONTAL LINE 

310 A ( C , R ) =A ( C , R ) +8 : A ( C , R- 1 ) =A ( C 
, R-l) +2: IF FP=— 1 THEN RETURN ELS 
E GOTO340 

319 REM CHECK FOR LEGAL MOVE 
IN VERTICAL - IF NO LEGAL 


COMPUTER 
BUSINESS FORMS 

Continuous forms, lobels, paper, checks, 
invoices, statements— all with your 
imprint. Continuous letterhead with a 
perf so fine that you need a magnifying 
glass to tell it's a fan fold sheet. 
Matching envelopes. 

Regular letterhead, business forms and 
cards also. 

Send sample for quote. Send $3.00 
(refundable on first order) for our 
catalog. 

Catalog also includes computer 
furniture. 


DCSCRT PRESS, INC. 

P. O. Soil 51 28 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89114 


MOVE, MAKE NOISE AND GO 
BACK TO JOYSTICKS 
320 I F ( H-40 ) / 1 6< > I NT ( < H— 40 ) / 1 6 ) 
AND ( V-12) / 16= I NT < ( V-12) / 16) AND 
( PPO I NT < H , V-3 > = 1 OR PPOINT (H, V— 
3) =5) THEN FOR X»(V-B) TO (V+8) : 
PSET (H, X , 2) : NEXTELSE SOUND100,5: 
GOTO210 

329 REM ADD VALUE TO BOXES 
ADJACENT TO VERTICAL LINE 

330 A(C,R)=A(C,R)+4:A(C-1,R)=A(C 
-l,R)+l: IF FP=-1 THEN RETURN 

339 REM CHECK THE ONLY THREE 
BOXES THAT COULD BE CAPTURED 

340 IF A (C, R) =15 GOTO380 

350 IF A (C, R-l ) =15 THEN R=R-l*.GO 
TO380 

360 IF A (C— 1 , R) =15 THEN C=C-l:GO 
TO380 

369 REM NO CAPTURES 

370 GOTO 180 

379 REM COLOR BOX WITH PLAYERS’ 
COLOR - PROTECT BOX FROM 
BEING REUSED - ADD ONE TO 
SCORE 

380 X=(C*16)+40:Y=(R*16)+12:PAIN 
T(X,Y),B,2: SOUND 144,3:A(C,R)=16: 
IF B=4 THEN SL=SL+1 ELSE SR=SR+1 
390 IF FP=— 1 THEN RETURN 

399 REM FIND CONTINUED CAPTURES 

400 IF A (C, R-l) =7 THEN R=R-l:GOS 
UB130:GOTO310 

410 IF A (C+l , R) =14 THEN C=C+2:G0 
SUB 1 40 : FP=- 1 : GOSUB330 : FP= 1 : I F A < 
C-l , R) =15 THEN C=C~1 : GOTO380 
420 IF A (C , R+l > =13 THEN R=R+2:G0 
SUB130 : fp=-i : GOSUB310: fp=i : if a< 
C, R-l) =15 THEN R=R— 1 : GOTO380 
430 IF A (C-l, R) =11 THEN C=C-l:GO 
SUB 1 40 : GOTO330 

440 IF A ( C , R— 1 ) = 1 1 THEN R=R-l:GOS 
UB 1 40 : GOTO330 

450 IF A (C, R-l) =14 THEN C=C+1:R= 
R-l : GOSUB140: GOTO330 
460 IF A (C+l, R) =7 THEN C=C+l:GOS 
UB 1 30 : G0T03 1 0 

470 IF A (C+l, R) =13 THEN R=R+1:C= 
C+ 1 : GOSUB 1 30 : G0T03 1 0 
480 IF A (C, R+l) =11 THEN R=R+l:GO 
SUB140: GOTO330 

490 IF A (C, R+l) =14 THEN C=C+1:R= 
R+ 1 : GOSUB 1 40 : GOTO330 
500 IF A (C-l, R) =7 THEN C=C-i:GOS 
UB130: GOTO310 

510 IF A (C-l, R) =13 THEN C=C-1:R= 

R+ 1 : GOSUB 1 30 : G0T03 1 0 

520 IF A (C, R-l) =15 THEN R=R-l:GO 

TO380 

530 IF A (C+l, R) =15 THEN C=C+l:GO 


86 the RAINBOW July 1983 




★ COLOR COMPUTER WORKSHEET ★ 


Elite*Calc 


NOW . . . The worksheet calculator program you’ve maintain records and perform other tasks that, until 

been waiting for is waiting to work for you. now, required sophisticated business computers. 

ELITE* CALC ' is a powerful, full featured worksheet ELITE* CALC is a serious tool for those who want to 

calculator designed especially for the Color Com- do more than play games with their Color Computer, 

puter. Answer “what if" questions, prepare reports, 


Features include: 


■ Log Functions: LOG, EXP, SQR. 


■ Single character commands 

■ Help Displays 

■ Enter text or formulas to 255 
characters long 

■ Repeat text entries 

■ 255 maximum rows 

■ 255 maximum columns 

■ Available memory always displayed 

■ Rapid Entry modes for text and 
data 

■ Selectable Automatic Cursor 
movement 

■ Insert, Delete, Move entire rows or 
columns 

■ Replicate one cell to fill a row or 
column with selectable formula 
adjustment 

■ All machine language for speed 

■ Extended BASIC required for ROM 
routine calls 

■ Automatic memory size detection 
for 16K, 32K or 64K 

■ >20K bytes, storage available in 
32K systems 

■ BASIC style formulas 

■ Math Operators: +. — .X, /,],(,),= 

■ Relation Operators: 

= ,>,<,< =,> =,< > 

■ Logic Operations: AND, OR, NOT 

■ Conditional Formula: IF . . . 

THEN . . . ELSE 

■ Trig Functions: SIN, COS, TAN, 

ATN 


* Easy to use 

* Individual cell formulas 

* Copy blocks of cells 

* Full cell-edit capability 

* Compatible with all printers 

* Graph format for bar charts 

* Sort in ascending or descending 
order 

* Comprehensive manual included 


THE BEST FOR ONLY 



Disk or Tape 

— Shipping from stock NOW 

— Dealer Inquiries Invited. 

Add $2 Postage & Handling 
PA residents add 6% sales tax 



• Misc. Functions: INT, FX, ABS, 
SGN. 

■ Range Functions: SUM, AVERAGE, 
COUNT, MIN, MAX, LOOKUP 

■ Nine digit precision 

■ Definable constant table 

■ User definable printer set-up 
commands 

■ Individual column width settings 

■ Adjustable row height to insert 
blank lines without wasting 
memory 

■ Hide colmns or rows 

■ Alternate print font selectable on 
cell by cell basis 

■ Display/Print formats set by cell, 
row, or column 

■ Dollar format, comma grouping; 
prefix or postfix sign 

■ Scientific notation, fixed point and 
integer formats 

■ Left and Right cell contents 
justification 

■ Full page formatting 

■ All formats stored with worksheet 
on disk(tape) 

■ Save & Load Disk(tape) files in 
compact memory form 

■ Scan disk directories 

■ Output ASCII file for word 
processor input compatibility 

■ Memory resident code ... no 
repeated disk calls 
Sample worksheets included 


Ullte ^oftuscite 


Box 11224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412) 795-8492 


From the creators Of: ZAKSUND * COLOR TEXTSET I * COLOR TEXTSET It • INTER- 

GALACTIC FORCE * TEXT EDITOR • PARTY PAK • COLOR MONITOR * TREK-16 * WARKINGS * 
DISK & TAPE COPY * ANIMALS * BODY PARTS * TAPE COPY and many other line programs 






TO380 

540 IF A (C, R+l ) =15 THEN R-R+l:GO 
TO380 

550 IF A (C-l , R) =15 THEN C=C-l:GO 
TO380 

559 REM SET FLAGS TO GIVE THE 
CURRENT PLAYER ANOTHER TURN 

560 ST= ( SR+SL ) : F=- 1 

569 REM SEARCH OF ENTIRE BOARD 

570 FOR Y=1TO10: FOR X=1TO10 

580 IF A < X , Y> =16 THEN NEXT X,Y:G 
OTO170 

590 IF A (X , Y) =7 THEN C=X:R=Y:GOS 
UB130: 6OTO310 

600 IF A ( X , Y) =14 THEN C=X+l:R=Y: 
60SUB 1 40 : GOTO330 

610 IF A(X,Y)=13 THEN C=X:R=Y+l: 
BOSUB 1 30 : G0T03 1 0 

620 IF A(X,Y>=11 THEN C=X:R=Y:GO 
SUB 1 40 : GOTO330 

630 IF A < X , Y) =15 THEN C=X:R=Y:FP 
=-l : GOSUB380: FP=i : x=c: Y=R 
640 NEXT X,Y:GOTO170 

649 REM PUT RANDOM LINES ON THE 
BOARD 

650 Y=RND ( 10) : X=RND (10) 

660 FOR R=Y TOll: FOR C=X T01l:IF 
R=1 1 AND C=U THEN NEXTC,R:X=1: 
Y=1 : GOTO660 

670 IF A (C, R) =0 AND A(C,R-1)=0 A 


SOFTWARE -HARDWARE 

FOR RADIO SHACK’S TRS-0O MODEL 1/3 
TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

•SEND FOR FREE CATALOG • 
UTILITY PROGRAMS ON CASSETTE 

SU-l CASSETTE COPY k 10M III SPECIFY l|| 
SU-Z CASSETTE DUMP $10= I COMPUTER I 


Y- PAK I RECORDER STAND 



TURN YOUR COMPUTER INTO A MADE OF STURDY PLASTIC 
2 - SLOT SYSTEM. SWITCH HOLDS RECORDER AT A 

BETWEEN THE TWO WITH EASE. PERFECT ANGLE. 


RAM/ROM USER-PAK FOR TRS-80 COLOR $30 

•GAMES ALSO AVAILABLE • 

B. ERICKSON SOFTWARE- PO.BOX 11099 CHICAGO ILfeOfcll 

CALL (312)276-9712i> INFORMATION 


ND A (C-l , R) =0 THEN IF C=>R G0T07 
10 ELSE GOTO720 

680 IF A (C, R) =0 THEN LP=A(C,R-1> 
:LP=LP+l:ON LP GOTO 710,710,690, 
690, 710, 700, 690, 700,710, 700, 690, 
700,700 

690 IF A (C, R> =8 THEN LP=A(C-1,R) 
:LP=LP+l:ON LP GOTO 720,700,720, 
700, 720, 700, 700,700, 720,700, 700, 
700,700 

700 NEXTC, R: X=1 : Y=1 : GOTO660 
710 IF C=ll THEN 715 ELSE G0SUB1 
30 : G0SUB3 1 0 : GOTO730 

714 REM SPECIAL CASE * VERTICAL 
LINE FOR RIGHT SIDE OF BOARD 

715 LP=A (C— 1 , R) : IFLP=2 OR LP=4 O 
R LP=8 THEN 720 ELSE 700 

720 IF R=1 1 THEN 700 ELSE G0SUB1 
40: GOSUB330 

730 D=D+l: SOUND D,1:IF D=60 THEN 
RETURN ELSE 650 

739 REM PRINT INSTRUCTIONS 

740 CLS : PR I NT@46 , " DOT " : PR I NT " TH 

E OBJECT OF THE GAME IS TO CO 
NNECT THE DOTS TO FORM AS MA 

NY BOXES AS POSSIBLE WITHOUT LE 
TTING YOUR OPPONENT CAPTURE AN 
Y BOXES. THE PLAYER WHO COM- PL 
ETES A BOX CAPTURES THAT BOX."; 
750 PRINT" THE COMPUTER WILL THE 

N SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL CAPTUR 

ES. EACH BOX COUNTS FOR ONE PO 

I NT. WHEN ALL CAPTURES ARE 

MADE FOR A TURN, THE SCORE IS 
UPDATED, AND THE PLAYER WILL D 

RAW ONE MORE LINE. " : PRINT0483 

, "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTIN 
760 N$=INKEY$: IF N*=" "THEN760 EL 
SE CLS 

770 PRINTS35, "A TONE WILL SOUND 
WHEN . . . " : PR I NT@97 , " A- AN I LLEGAL 
MOVE IS ATTEMPTED B- THE DOT IS 
BACK ON THE BOARD AFTER A SE 
ARCH C- AS EACH CA 

PTURED BOX IS FILLED WIT 

H THE PLAYERS COLOR" : PR I 

NTQ489, "PRESS ANY KEY"; 

780 N*=INKEY$:IF N$=" "THEN 780 E 
LSE PR I NT@489 , STR I NG* (13, CHR* ( 32 
) ) ; : RETURN 

789 REM SHOW BOARD AFTER FINAL 
CAPTURE - THEN PLAY AGAIN 
OR QUIT 

790 FOR X=1TO2500:NEXTX:CLS:PRIN 

T@205 , " DOTS " : PR I NT045 1 , " FOR ANOT 
HER GAME PRESS 'A’ TO END 

PRESS ANY KEY" 

800 N$=INKEY*:IF N$=" "THEN S00EL 
SE IF N$="A" THEN RUN: ELSE END 


88 the RAINBOW July 1983 




Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 


■ 3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

■ True lower case characters 

■ User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

■ Right justification 

■ Easy hyphenation 

■ Drives any printer 

■ Embedded format and 
control codes 

■ Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

■ Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

■ No hardware modifications 
required 


THE ORIGINAL 


Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
tower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you’d get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter’s chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter’s 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer 1 have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 


TELEWRITER-64 


But now we’ve added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 


64K COMPATIBLE 


Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don’t need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 


64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 


Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 241! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 

The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
“windows” that show you only fragments at a 
time and don’t even allow editing. 


RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 


One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that “what you see is what 
you get.” This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 


FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 


Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVI1/VIII, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 

Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. “Typewriter” feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 

ifFSs 

RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 

SEAL 


File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell ’n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing “modes.” This fast “free-form” editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



. . . truly a state of the art word processor . . . 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 


PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 


You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 

To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 
704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM -4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Californians add 6°/o state tax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell ’n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 













Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world 
your high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the Rainbow’s 
Scoreboard column. All entries must be received by the first of the month to be eligible for the following 
month’s Scoreboard. 

★ New Number One ☆ Last Month’s Number One 


SCORE PLAYER 


SCORE PLAYER 


SCORE PLAYER 


ASTRO BLAST 

158,000 

92.000 
79,914 
75,314 

71.000 

64.000 
63,025 

AVENGER 

14,075 ★ Stephen Lai, Palatine, IL 
11,560 if Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
5,345 Craig Schubert, Newfoundland, NJ 

5,000 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

BERSERK 

22,050 ★ 

10,250 if 
10,070 
7,800 
6,150 
BUSTOUT 
34,700 ★ 

28,720 , 

25,510 ☆ 

5,942 


Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 
Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 
Jim Baker. Florissant, MO 
Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 
Emil Hayek, State College, PA 
Robert R. Franks, Jr., Toledo, OH 
Russell Wronski, Palatine, IL 


Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 
Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 
Mike Hall, Harland, Wl 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 


COLOR SCARFMAN 


Sara Hennessey, Golden Valley, MN 
Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 
Norbert Berenyi, Northvale, NJ 

CANYON CLIMBER 

23,400 if Craig M. Arnold, Dallas, TX 

CATCH ’EM 

91,000 if Dean Bouchard, Kingston, Nova Scotie 
65,768 Laura Sandman, Louisville, KY 

CATERPILLAR 

30,029 if Ron Rhead, Willowdale, Ontario 

CAVE HUNTER 

42,600 if Gary Ritchie, Bellevue, Alberta 
26,300 Mike Hughey, King George, VA 

21,150 Jim Baker. Florissant, MO 

CLOWNS & BALLOONS 

65,050 if Brian Gould, Basking Ridge, NJ 

61.700 § Dan Dowling, San Bruno, CA 

46,930 Stephen Shotts, Blacksburg, VA 

42,430 Joanne Ledson, North Bay, Ontario 

25,450 Norbert Berenyi. Northvale, NJ 

22.700 Shelley Partridge, Warkworth, Ontario 

COLOR HAYWIRE 


14,650 

14,350 

10,900 

10,450 

10,250 


Todd C. Hauschildt, Red Wing, MN 
Mike Hughey, King George. VA 
John Cole, King City, Ontario 
Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 
Pat Downard, Louisville. KY 

COLOR INVADERS 

166,425 if Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
126,350 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 

101,240 Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 

83,000 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

COLOR METEOROIDS 

Larry Plaxton, Medley. Alberta 
Peter Johnson, Chino, CA 
John Scannell, Renton, WA 
Steve Lewallen, Centerville, OH 
149,000 if Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 


252,050 

★ 

206,000 


197,400 


153,000 


149.000 

☆ 


976,520 
539,100 

523.340 
506,560 
488,730 
417,740 
401,990 

COLORPEDE 

2,139,248 ★ 
2,005,227 if 
1,329,868 
1,104,029 
684,117 
539,941 
469,142 
386,506 
323,946 
317.361 

287.341 
206,558 
173,904 


Bruce Thornhill, Barrhead, Alberta 
Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 
Fred K. Herrman, Flemington, NJ 
Russ Eubanks, Jay. ME 
Del Alexander, San Antonio, TX 
Danny Eldridge. Fair Oaks, CA 
Cynthia Eldridge, Fair Oaks. CA 


Mike Hall, Hartland. Wl 
Jennifer Maxey, Kalamazoo, Ml 
Russ Eubanks, Jay, ME 
Gary Ritchie, Bellevue, Alberta 
David Blyn, Staten Island, NY 
Brian Hsu, Holmdel, NJ 
Michael Rader. Hardtner, KS 
Robert Rahmes, Silver Spring, MD 
Herbert Ponder, Jacksonville, FL 
Lyman Green. Jr„ Ballouville, CT 
Robert Denton, New Baden, IL 
Kim A. Cook, High Point, NC 
Andrew Herron, High Point, NC 

COLOR ZAP 

227,330 if Ron Rhead, Willowdale, Ontario 
COLOUR PAC ATTACK 
472,465 if Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
193,000 ■& Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
51,150 Emil Hayek. State College, PA 

27,500 David Rosicky, Pittsburgh, PA 

CONQUEST OF KZIRGLA 

10,399 if Scott Sehlhorst, Columbia, SC 


DEFENSE 

58,900 

if Greg Scott. Orlando, FL 

12,100 

9,137 


DOODLEBUG 

THE KING 


825,000 

if John Cole, King City, Ontario 

1,858,000 

★ 

355,440 

Bette Munitz. Bellerose, NY 

1,000,000 


343,000 

Mike Hughey, King George. VA 

805,700 

☆ 

338,590 

Joanne Ledson, North Bay, Ontario 

486.500 


294,930 

Stephen Lai, Palatine, IL 

448,900 


260,000 

Jeff Pyne. Pori Mouton, Nova Scotia 

388,500 


45,580 

Mrs. Sandy Nierste, Clio, Ml 

332,100 



DOUBLEBACK 

89,840 it Craig M. Arnold, Dallas. TX 
50,110 if Mary H. Thomas, Louisville. KY 
43,660 Ron Moore. Wellsville, OH 

27,680 Andrea L. Herron, High Point, NC 

DUNKEY MUNKEY 

1,618,800 ★ Bryan Bloodworth, Federal Way, WA 
1,099,400 if Andrew Herron, High Point, NC 

1.000. 500 Wendy Johnson, San Jose, CA 

1.000. 001 Grant Gillott, Calgary, Alberta 

626,400 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

508.000 Robert Denton, New Baden, IL 

333,300 Rob Uriano, Framingham, MA 

308.000 Mitch Cohen, Framingham, MA 

THE FROG 

15,400 ★ Debbie Purdy, Dearborn, Ml 

FROG TREK 

10,370 if Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
7,160 Mike Anheluk. Fall Creek, OR 


GALACTIC ATTACK 

54,200 ★ Mike Hughey. King George, VA 
48,320 John Cole. King City, Ontario 
43,010 Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 
39,140 Greg Onlotsky, Ridgefield Park, NY 
25,210 John & Krista McCallum, 

Woodburn, OR 

23.600 John McCallum, Woodburn, OR 

22,240 Daniel Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 

21,260 Brian Caulley, Reynoldsburg, OH 
18,120 Lenny Munitz, Bellerose, NY 
17,310 Tyler Bolen, Wheaton, IL 

16,660 Jeff Willard, Chireno, TX 

GALAX ATTAX 

46,450 if Robert Rahmes, Silver Spring, MD 

33.350 Aaron Cundiff, Livermore, KY 

33.000 Todd Zuehl, Livermore, KY 

30.350 Mark Raphael, Englishtown, NJ 

GHOST GOBBLER 

825,250 if Randy Gerber, Wilmette, IL 
103,590 Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 
58,270 Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 

49.880 Steven Picone, Leomister, MA 
INVADERS REVENGE 

32.600 if Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 
INVASION 

82.000 if Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 

KATERPILLAR ATTACK 

14,375 ★ Norbert Berenyi, Northvale, NJ 
12,703 if Warren Schubert, Newfoundland, NJ 
12,544 Todd C. Hauschildt, Red Wing, MN 
Peter Stumpfi, McHenry, IL 
Ron Rhead, Willowdale. Ontario 

Mike Hughey, King George, VA 
Debbie Purdy, Dearborn, Ml 
Dave Mercer, Marissa, IL 
Frank Bottino, St. Louis, MO 
Alan Mack, Penn Yan, NY 
Carl Castillo, Yorktown Heights. NY 
Candy Harden, Birmingham, AL 
Ben Lattin, Cosmopolis, WA 
Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
Bill Schultz, High Bridge, NJ 
Tom Schultz, High Bridge, NJ 
James Whitt, San Antonio, TX 
John Ottesen, E. Hanover, NJ 
Brian Rugges, Dayton, OH 
Robert R. Franks, Jr„ Toledo, OH 
KOSMIC KAMIKAZE 

49,900 if Mark Raphael. Englishtown, NJ 

MEGA-BUG 

13,783 ★ 

12,236 if 
11,886 
10,628 
10,250 
9,049 
9,019 
8.535 
8,313 
7,973 
5,991 


319,500 

239.100 

238.100 
231,400 

167.200 

131.200 
118,800 
110,000 


Donald Habben, Morrison, IL 
Claude Malepart, Montreal, Quebec 
John Tiffany, Washington, D.C. 
John Yapp, Park Forest, IL 
Benjy Nicholls, Lincoln, NE 
Sheri Louis, Streator, IL 
Scott Little. Somers, IA 
Pete McCallum, Woodburn, OR 
Chizuru Gannon, Eilson AFB, AK 
Christine Hoff, Decatur, IL 
Shizuka Gannon, Eilson AFB, AK 





SCORE PLAYER 


SCORE PLAYER 


SCORE PLAYER 


METEORS 

17,810 ★ Lenny Munitz, Bellerose, NY 

MICROBES 

259,700 "tfr Sheila Coleman, Griffin, GA 
88,120 Kevin Little, Somers, IA 
80,400 Ken Miller, Yardley, PA 
63,570 Greg Scott & Greg Shields, Orlando, FL 
59,330 Cathie Habben, Morrison, IL 
44,750 Daniel Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 
MR MUNCH 

24,680 fa Alan Mack, Penn Yan, NY 


MONKEY KONG 

1,028 ★ Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 
963 w Mark Dowling, San Bruno, CA 

MONSTER MAZE 

60.000 fa Brian Austin. Rotterdam, NY 

53,130 Michael Partridge, Warkworth, Ontario 

30.000 fa Claude Malepart, Montreal, Quebec 
9,590 John Tiffany, Washington, D.C. 


NIBBLER 

14,910 ★ Christal Glovinsky, Staten Island, NY 

OFFENDER 

965,400 ★ Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 


PAC ATTACK 

88,450 fa Matthew Brenengen, Lake Elmo, MN 
31,635 Tyler Bolen, Wheaton, IL 

30,650 fa Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 


PAC-DROIDS 

577,140 ★ Richard Cochrane, Wayne, NJ 

140,300 John Yapp, Park Forest, IL 

48,640 ☆ Murray Schechter, New York, NY 

47.000 Robert M. Russo, Marriotsville, MD 

41,380 Benjy Nicholls, Lincoln, NE 

38,060 Percy 8utler, Canton, ME 

36,900 Jack Rains, Montreal, Quebec 

36.000 Wayne G. Perry, Charlottesville, VA 

29.500 Richard D. Gordley, Castleton, IL 

PACET-MAN 

5,000 fa Cameron Amick, Reisterstown. MD 
3,392 ★ Norbert Berenyi, Northvale, NJ 

PHANTOM SLAYER 

180 fa Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 

PINBALL 

66.650 ☆ Ken Miller, Yardley, PA 

PLANET INVASION 

286,075 Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 

257,900 Ron Rhead, Willowdale, Ontario 

221,350 John Cole, King City. Ontario 

207,150 Mike Hughey, King George, VA 

74,350 Benjy Nicholls, Lincoln, NE 

69.500 Jeff Pyne, Port Mouton, Nova Scotia 

68.650 Robert Rahmes, Silver Spring, MD 


POLARIS 

151,154 fa Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 

101,000 fa James Quadarella, Brooklyn, NY 

98.500 John Cole, King City, Ontario 

59,522 John Yapp, Park Forest, IL 

57.500 Scott Little, Somers, IA 

49,737 Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 

49,247 Ron Rhead, Willowdale, Ontario 

45,541 Brad Behrendt, Vermillion, OH 

POLTERGEIST 

4,956 ■jir Mark Dowling, San Bruno, CA 
4,745 Bette Munitz, Bellerose, NY 

4,455 Ken Miller, Yardley, PA 

POPCORN 

110,570 fa Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

56.000 James Quadarella, Brooklyn, NY 

PROTECTORS 

358,514 -fr Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
154,967 Frankie Jimenez, Mesa, AZ 

94.000 Gerry Schechter, Yonkers, NY 

RAIL RUNNER 

38,360 fa Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
13,195 Lenny Munitz, Bellerose. NY 

ROBOTTACK 

1,197,800 fa Brian Austin, Rotterdam. NY 

939.300 Robert Kiser, Monticello, MS 

702,200 Stephen Lai, Palatine, IL 

527,700 Richard Slapp, Lake Elmo.MN 

523,010 Steve Lewallen, Centerville, OH 

358.300 Emil Hayek, State College, PA 

255,800 Sam Heitz, Chicago, IL 

213,870 Carol Wierzba, Southgate, Ml 

SHOOTING GALLERY 

28.500 fa Kenneth Partridge, Warkworth, Ontario 

16,370 Saul Munitz, Bellerose, NY 


SHUTTLE SIMULATOR 

565 fa John W. Fraysse, Dahlgren, VA 


SKIING 

40.10 ★ 
49.43 
52.22 
1 : 12.11 
1:13.13 
1:13.17 
1:13.40 


Fred K. Herrmann, Flemington, NJ 
John Scanlan, Prairie Village, KS 
Peter Johnson, Chino, CA 
Benjy Nicholls, Lincoln, NE 
Norbert Berenyi, Northvale, NJ 
Donald Habben, Morrison, IL 
Daniel Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 


SKY DEFENSE 

6,700 Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 

6,120 Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 

5,200 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

SOLO POOL 

103 John W. Fraysse, Dahlgren, VA 



SPACE ASSAULT 

238,580 John Cole, King City, Ontario 
157,140 David Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 

156,650 fa Nathan Miller, Portland, OR 
135,080 Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 

122,230 Robert Lightheart, Ellwood City, PA 

105,000 Rodney Garner, Denton, NC 

66,870 Fred K. Herrmann, Flemington, NJ 

54,280 John Yapp, Park Forest, IL 

36,930 Tyler Bolen, Wheaton, IL 

33.100 Brian Gould, Basking Ridge, NJ 

29,270 Todd Little, Somers, IA 

SPACE INVADERS 

62,300 fa Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

SPACE RACE 

59,825 fa Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 

58.100 John Cole, King City, Ontario 
31,525 fa Gregg Scott, Orlando, FL 

4,000 Danielle Gardner, Louisville, KY 


SPACE SHUTTLE 

594 fa Steve Schweitzer, Sewell, NJ 
511 Larry Reitz, Toledo, OH 

SPACE WAR 

400,190 * Mark Felps, Bedford, TX 

116,000 fa Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
52,380 Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 

STARBASE ATTACK 

21,628 fa Mark Raphael, Englishtown, NJ 

STARBLASTER 

408,245 fa Mark Dowling, San Bruno, CA 
325,790 Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 
126,135 Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 
80,001 Alan Lewis, Ridgefield, CT 


STARFIRE 

2,102,450 fa 
1,320,150 
1 , 120,000 

698.200 
618,400 

563.200 


Dean Bouchard, Kingston, Nova Scotia 
Joy Bailey, Lexington, NC 
Emil Hayek, State College, PA 
Robert E. Courts, Batonia, OH 
Peter Stumpfi, McHenry, IL 
Daniel Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 


STARSHIP CHAMELEON 

72,600 fa Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 

68,500 fa Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

64,800 David Rosicky, Pittsburgh, PA 


STORM 

723,335 fa Chris Sweet, Harvard, MA 
472,320 John Jaworski, Nashua, NH 

380,000 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

240,745 Todd C. Hauschildt, Red Wing, MN 

193,965 Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 


VENTURER 

2,152,150 fa 
1,769,400 
1,526,200 
803,100 
344,550 


Greg Scott, Orlando, FL 
Todd C. Hauschildt, Red Wing, MN 
Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
Emil Hayek, State College, PA 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 


ZAXXON 

401,900 "fa Mike Hughey, King George, VA 

81.800 fa Matt Cox, Roseville, CA 
78,190 Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 

74,136 Rod Moore, Wellsville, OH 

65,600 Debbie Purdy, Dearborn, Ml 

57,200 John Scannell, Renton, WA 





SPORTS 


16K 

ECB I II RAINBOW 


STATS 


By Edward R. Carson 


T his program was written to assist all of us Little League 
coaches who have spent hours after each game writing 
down each players’ at bats, hits, runs, etc., trying to figure 
out all the averages. Well, here is a program to do it for you. 

Stats will keep track of at bats, hits, runs, walks, strike 
outs and batting average. For the pitchers it tracks innings 
pitched, earned runs, hits, strikeouts, walks and earned run 
average. 

There is space for 15 players. In the pitching program 
there is space for seven pitchers. 

The program is easy to use and the menus are self-explan- 
atory. But, you must input all players’ names first or 7.eros 
will be entered in place of the name. 

As you are entering the statistics, you will hear a warning 
tone as you go from one set of statistics to the next. I found 
this helpful as I went through the scorebook with my head 
down. 

On a 16K, ECB, CLOA D “STAT" then PC LEAR I and 
RUN. 

I am looking forward to having Stats help me this year; I 
hope it can help you, also. 


The listing: 






9100 . 

. 118E 

1020 . 

. . 02B1 

9370 . 

. 1339 

3080 . 

. . 0441 

9640 . 

. 14E2 

3340 . 

. . 0623 

9890 . 

. 1689 

5010 . 

. . 07C5 

10060 

. 1926 

5086 . 

. . 0A27 

10215 

1ACF 

7095 . 

. . 0C34 

10370 

. 1C3F 

8230 . 

. .0E0E 

10540 

1DCD 

8530 . 

. 0FFC 

END . 

. 1F65 


5 CLEAR 1500: CLS 

10 : DIM PL* ( 20 ) , AB* ( 20 ) , HT * ( 20 ) 

, R* (30) , K* (20) , BB* (20) , AV (20) 

12 : : 

15 ’LITTLE LEAGUE STATS 
20 ’BY ED CARSON, 3/ 15/S3 
22 : 

30 CLS:PRINTTAB(8) "BASEBALL ST A 
TS“ 

35 PRINT STRING* (32, ) 

( Mr. Carson is a chief operator and instructor for the 
Tinken Company in Columbus, Ohio. He and his wife, 
Marilyn, have three sons. Mr. Carson has spent the 
last 16 years of his spare time coaching baseball, was 
president of the Centerburg Little League, and is now 
secretary-treasurer of the Tri- County Babe Ruth 
league.) 



50 PRINT @ 102, " (1) INPUT PLAYERS 

II 

60 PRINT @134, " (2) ADD TO LIST" 

70 PRINT @166, " (3) INPUT STATS" 

80 PRINT @198, " (4) PRINT ALL PLAY 
ERS" 

90 PRINT @230, " (5) PRINT STATS" 
100 PRINT0262, " (6) SAVE TO TAPE" 
110 PRINT@294, " (7) LOAD FROM TAPE 

II 

120 PRINT@326, " (8) ADD TO STATS" 

121 PRINT@358, " (9) PITCHERS 
130 PRINT @427, "WHICH" 

135 PRINT@459, " (1-9) " 

140 INPUT M 

150 IF M<0 OR M>9 THEN 30 
160 ON M GOSUB 1000,1055, 3000,4 
000, 5000, 6000,7000, 8000, 9000 
170 GOTO 30 
190 : 

995 REM: INPUT PLAYERS 

1000 CLS:Y=1 

1010 CLS: PRINT @ 8, "INPUT/ADD PL 
AYERS" 

1020 PRINT @34, "PRESS< ENTER >WHEN 


92 the RAINBOW July 1983 





THE ORGANIZER 
ALBUMS TO HOLD YOUR CASSETTES 

Store and organize your cassette library. The Organizer Is 
constructed of black vinyl with rigid molded plastic frame to 
prevent crushing. Label holder welded on the spine for quick 
identification of contents. Order albums filled with BASF- 
DPS, C-IO tapes and get an even better deal! 


Item 

Price 

Organizer-12 with Tapes 

$12.95 

Organizer- 12 without Tapes 

$6.95 

Organlzer-6 with Tapes 

$8.95 

Organizer-6 without Tapes 

$4.95 

Shipping: $2.00 for first item .+ $.50 for each additional item. 


THE COCO-SWITCHER 

A QUALITY PIECE OF HARDWARE 

The CoCo Switcher allows you to hook up three peripherals 
to your RS-232 jack. Connect your modem, printer and any 
other RS-232 compatible perlpherial to the CoCo Switcher. 
Select among these peripherals at the flick of a switch on the 
front of the CoCo Switcher or turn them all off. No more 
scrambling around behind your computer. No more risk of 
harming your computer's RS-232 port. An LED on the CoCo 
Switcher shows if your computer is on or off at a glance. 
The CoCo Switcher is contained in a sturdy black anodized 
steel box which sits firmly on rubber feet. 

Dimensions: IVi" (64mm) x 4" (102mm) x5 7 /s” (150mm) 
S39.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay Laboratory 

316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 


THE COCO-WRITER 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE’S NEW 
WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 

(For the TRS-80 and TDP-100 Color Computers) 

EDITING FEATURES 

Pleasant green, white and black display. Full screen editing 
with cursor control. All keys repeat automatically. Tne word 
wrap-around eliminates split words on the screen. Edit any 
ASCII file, including Basic programs. Use the calculator 
functions of your computer without losing your document in 
memory. 

Insert, delete or type over characters. 

Insert, split, delete or copy lines. 

Insert, copy, move or delete blocks of text. 

All insert, delete, move and copy commands are completed 
virtually instantaneously. Instantaneous response to keyboard 
input. Even the fastest typist is not likely to out pace the CoCo- 
Writer. Find any word or character string in the document. 
Memory count and status indicators show on the edit screen. 
All 128 ASCII characters can be entered from the keyboard. 
PRINTING FEATURES 

Justify text at right or left margin. Justify text at both margins 
simultaneously for a professional looking document (such as 
this text) . Automatically center text for titles and letter heads. 
Automatically number pages beginning at any number 
between 0 and 255. Print part or all of a document. Repeat 
printing of all or any portion of a document up to a 100 times. 
Select single sheet or continuous form printing. Embedded 
printer controls. Change Justification, print font, and line 
spacing with commands in the text which do not print in the 
document. Print in upper/lower case or ail capital letters. 
TAPE FEATURES 

Document memory space with I6K: 7424 characters. 
Memory space with 32K: 23,808 characters. The CoCo- 
Writer has the same features on either a 1 6 K or 32K system 
and automatically adjusts to memory upgrade. Load and save 
files in ASCII or binary format. Load and edit the ASCII files 
produced by other word processors. Save part or all of a 
document on tape. Merge tape file into existing document in 
memory. 

ADDITIONAL FEATURES OF DISK VERSION 

Spool printing feature allows simultaneous editing and 
printing. Menu selections simply and quickly controlled with 
cursor. Control I to 4 disk drives. Load and save files on disks in 
any one of these drives. Split screen disk directory for all disk 
input and output menus. Improved directory scrolling. File 
names do not disappear off the top of the screen. Error 
trapping for all disk file names. If you enter an invalid 
command, the command will be terminated and the system 
will report the type of error. 

CoCo-Writer comes with excellent documentation. The 
clearly written manual includes a table of contents and an 
index. A separate, sturdy, laminated card contains a summary 
of all commands for quick reference. 

CASSETTE VERSION I6K OR 32K EXTENDED BASIC 
$34.95 

DISK VERSION ON CASSETTE I6K OR 32K 
EXTENDED BASIC 
$44.95 

(Protect your investment! Quick and automatic cassette load 
onto disk providing a dependable disk backup.) 





California Residents, Add 6% Sales Tax to Orders 



FINISHED" 

1030 PR I NT -.PRINT " PLAYER "Y 5 
1040 INPUT PL*(Y> 

1045 IF LEN (PL* (Y> > >7 THEN 1046 
ELSE 1050 

1046 Y=Y: PR I NT: PR I NT" RE< ENTER > 
PLAYERS NAME USE (7) LETTERS 0 
NLY" 

1047 FORT=1TO920: NEXT T:GOTO1030 
1050 IF PL*(Y)=" "GOTO 30ELSE 106 
0 

1055 Y=Y : GOTO 1010 
1060 Y=Y+1 
1070 GOTO 1030 
1080 : 

1090 : 

2999 REM: INPUT HITS 

3000 CLS: SOUND200, 5: FOR Y=1 TO 1 
5 

3010 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FIN I 
SHED" 

3020 PR I NT "ENTER HITS FOR " ; PL* ( 
Y) : 

3030 INPUT HT*(Y> 

3040 IF HT* ( Y) =" " THEN 3100 
3050 Y=Y+1 
3060 GOTO 3020 
3080 : 

3099 REM: INPUT AT BATS 

3100 CLS : SOUND 200, 5: FORY=l TO 1 
5 



3110 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 
SHED" 

3120 : PR I NT "ENTER AT BATS FOR "P 
L* ( Y) 

3130 INPUT AB* ( Y) 

3140 IF AB*(Y)=" "THEN 3200 
3150 Y=Y+1 
3160 GOTO 3120 
3180 : 

3199 REM: INPUT RUNS 

3200 CLS : SOUND 200,5: FOR Y= 1 T 

0 15 

3210 PRINT "PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FIN 
I SHED" 

3220 PR I NT "ENTER RUNS FOR " PL* 

< Y) 

3230 INPUT R*(Y> 

3240 IF R*(Y)=" "THEN 3300 
3250 Y=Y+1 
3260 GOTO 3220 
3280 : 

3299 REM: INPUT STRIKE OUTS 

3300 CLS: SOUND 200,5: FOR Y=1 TO 
15 

3310 PR I NT "ENTER STRIKE OUTS FOR 
"PL* (Y) 

3320 INPUT K* ( Y) 

3330 IF K* ( Y) =" "THEN 3400 
3340 Y=Y+1 

1 NORTH WEST DATA 


15% to 20% OFF 


Donkey King 

TM 

NOW JUST: 
$21.20 

Colorpede 

Int 

$25.45 

Astro Blast 

MD 

$19.96 

Doodle Bug 

CW 

$19.96 

Space Race 

Sp 

$18.65 

Planet Invasion 

Sp 

$18.65 

Pacdroids 

PG 

$15.96 

Starfire 

Int 

$18.65 

Haywire 

MD 

$19.96 

PRINTERS 

GEMINI 10 

Serial Card for GEMINI 

$339.95 

$74.95 


Special prices in our news letter 
that only our customers 
will know about!! 


Write or call for catalog. 

NORTH WEST DATA 

P. O. Box 7175 Spokane, Wa. 99207-0175 
(509) 489-5133 

Add 5% for postage and handling 
Add $3.00 for C.O.D. orders 
No C.O.D. on PRINTERS 


94 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Complete Personal Accountant: 
we've made the best 
much more friendly. 



If you have any doubts that we offer the best and 
most complete personal financial package available, 
look over the features listed below. Now we have 
the only package with full screen editing for Atari 
400/800? TRS-80 COLOR, Commodore 64* and 
VIC-20; the ability to move the cursor in any direc- 
tion makes our accountant-designed package 
even more friendly than before. No one else 
offers all of these: 

1. CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE— 
automatically balances your checkbook 
with each entry; manages checks, 
charges, deposits, and interest quick- 
ly and accurately. 

2. CHART OF ACCOUNTS- 
maximum of user flexibilty with 
up to 99 accounts plus 9 sub- 
categories may be defined. 

3. CHECK SEARCH— mul- 
ti-reference; tracks items 
on every field including 
tax deductibles. 

4. NET WORTH/ 

INCOME/EXPENSE 
STATE ME NT - 
know-exactly- 
where-you-stand 
program generates 
statements with the 
touch of a key. 

5. DETAIL & SUMMARY 
BUDGET ANALYSIS-an 
absolute necessity in financial 
planning. 

6. CHECK WRITER-prints 
personalized checks** 


7. PAYMENTS/APPOINTMENTS CALENDAR- 
monthly displays of up to 250 bills and 200 
appointments. 

8. COLOR GRAPH DESIGN PACKAGE -graphs 
all monthly files. 

9. MAILING LIST— maintains all records, sorts by 
name or zip, allows add/change/delete. 

10. FRIENDLY USER MANUAL— complete 
with indexing, flow charts and diagrams; the 
most thorough documentation on the 
market. 

This all adds up to the finest personal 
financial system available— compre- 
hensive enough for a small business. 
Less than one hour of data input 
per month will allow this menu- 
driven package to help you 
handle your finances with a 
lot more fun than drudgery. 
Plus, ours is the only 
expandable system; pur- 
chase the package in 
sections and add on 
as your financial 
needs grow. Fea- 
tures 1,2, 3 and 6: 
$39.95 diskette, 
$36.95 cassette; Fea- 
tures 4 and 5: $29.95 
diskette, $26.95 cassette; 
Features 7, 8 and 9: $29.95 
diskette, $26.95 cassette; or 
save $19.90 or $15.90 
respectively by buying the 
entire system for $79.95 dii 
kette, $74.95 cassette. 


•Random Access available for disk. **32K only. 


Prices subject to change without notice. See your local dealer or order direct. New catalog available. 
Add $3.00 for postage and handling. Credit card orders call toll free: 


1-800-334-SOFT 


DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 


programirier’ateifi’il’raws 

a division of FUTUREHOUSE) INC* 

p.o. box 3470, dept. R, chapel hill, north Carolina 27514, 919-967-0861 



3350 GOTO 3310 
3360 : 

3399 REM: INPUT WALKS 

3400 CLS: SOUND 200,5: FOR Y=1 TO 
15 

3410 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 
SHED" 

3420 PRINT"ENTER WALKS FOR "PL$< 
Y) 

3430 INPUT BB$(Y> 

3440 IF BB$ ( Y > = " " THEN 30 
3450 Y=Y+1 
3460 GOTO 3420 
3570 : 

3900 REM PRINT PLAYERS 
4000 FOR X= 1 TO Y -1 STEP 15 
4010 FOR Z=X TO X + 14 
4020 PRINT Z;PL$(Z) 

4030 NEXT Z 
4040 NEXT X 

4100 I NPUT " PRESS< ENTER >TO CONTIN 
UE";C$ 

4110 RETURN 
4130 : 

4990 REM: PRINT STATS 

5000 CLS: FOR Y=1 TO 15: GOTO 5010 

5005 Y=Y 

5010 V=40:I*="AB HT R K B 
B AV" 


C a TaCoMb! 

The best features of many games packed in- 
to one! Avoid enemy patrols while getting 
fuel for your escape from the CATACOMB! 
Then travel the hyperspace corridor to your 
mothership as you dodge space mines and 
enemy ships. Hi-Res, Multi-Screen, Multi- 
Color, Machine Language, Fast Action!! 

16K Tape $19.95 Disk $23.95 

Joystick Required 

PEEK COPY 

Copies machine language tape programs, 
even most autostart! Displays start, end, ex- 
ecute addresses and memory! Allows you to 
change or Insert machine code! The copy 
program with a difference! Written in 
machine language. 

16K Tape $11.95 
please add $2.00 for each order 
postage/handling. 

(extended basic not required) 

Oregon Color Computer 

PO Box 11468 Eugene Or 97440 


* I 


5020 PRINT08, I $ 

5030 y=y:let ht=val<ht$(y> ) :let 

AB= VAL<AB$(Y>> 

5035 IF AB=0 THEN AB=1 
5040 AV=HT/AB*1000 

5045 F=FI X ( AV) 

5046 LN=LEN(AB*<Y> ) : MB=4— LN 

5047 I F LEN ( AB$ ( Y) ) < >4THENAB$ < Y > 
=AB$ ( Y ) +STR I NG$ ( MB , " "> 

5048 AN=LEN (HT$ ( Y) > : CB=5-AN 

5049 IF LEN(HT*(Y> ) < >5THENHT$ < Y> 
=HT$<Y)+STRING*(CB, " " ) 

5050 BN=LEN(R* <Y> ) : DB=4— BN 

5051 IF LEN<R* <Y) > <4THENR* < Y> =R$ 

( Y ) +STR I NG$ ( DB , " " ) ELSE 5052 

5052 CN=LEN(K$(Y) > :EB=4-CN 

5053 IF LEN<K$<Y> > <4THENK$ < Y) =K$ 
(Y) +STRING* (EB, " " ) 

5054 EN=LEN <BB* (Y) ) : DB=3-EN 

5055 IF LEN(BB*(Y) )<3THENBB*(Y)= 
BB*(Y)+STRING$(DB, " ") 

5065 PRINTPL$(Y) :PRINT@V, AB$<Y)H 
T$(Y)R$(Y>K$<Y>BB$(Y>F 
5081 Y=Y+l:IF Y=16 THEN 5100 
5083 V=V+64:IF Y=60R Y=12 THEN 5 
085 ELSE 5030 

5085 I NPUT "PRESS ENTER TO CONTIN 
UE";C* 

5086 CLS: GOTO 5005 

5100 I NPUT "PRESS< ENTER >T0 CONTIN 
UE"5 C$ 

5110 GOTO 30 

6000 CLS: PRINT© 135, "SAVE STATS 0 
N TAPE" 

6010 PRINT0235, "REWIND TAPE" 

6020 PRINT0300, "PRESS PLAY AND R 
ECORD" 

6030 PRINT0388, "PRESS< ENTER > WHEN 
READY" 

6040 INPUT C* 

6050 OPEN " 0 " , 1 , " STATS " 

6060 FOR Y=1T015-1 

6070 PRINT #-l,PL$<Y) , AB$(Y> ,HT$ 

<Y> ,R$<Y> ,K*<Y> , BB*<Y) ,F 

6080 NEXT Y 

6090 CLOSE#- 1: RETURN 

7000 CLS: PR I NT© 136, "LOAD STATS F 

ROM TAPE" 

7010 PRINT0235, "REWIND TAPE" 

7020 PRINT@300, "PRESS PLAY" 

7030 PRINT0388, "PRESS< ENTER >WHEN 
READY" 

7040 INPUT C$ 

7050 OPEN" I", #-l, "STATS" 

7060 Y=1 

7070 IF EOF (— 1 ) THEN 7097 
7080 INPUT #-l,PL«(Y), AB$(Y),HT 
*<Y) ,R*(Y> ,K* <Y) , BB*<Y> ,F 
7095 Y=Y+1 


96 the RAINBOW July 1983 




JiJitSOFT CITY 


Your largest single source of programs and products for the COLOR COMPUTER / TDP 100 


THE GEMINI-10 

AN ASTRONOMICAL ARRAY 
OF FEATURES 

FOR A DOWN-TO-EARTH PRICE 




warn 


SAVE $80.00 

Our incredible Gemini-10 package - a 
PRINTING SYSTEM ready to plug in to 
your Color Computer NOTHING MORE 
TO BUY. Includes serial to parallel 
converter, graphic screen print software, 
deluxe user manual, and 5 minute setup 
instructions! A $479.00 value. Complete 
package ONLY $399*. 

Parallel printer only, $319.' Order yours 
today! 


" ' 'WT / GEMINI-10 
/ DOT MATRIX PRINTER 

MORE QUALITY: 100 cps • thruput time of 48 Ipm • high resolution 
(120x144) bit image & block (6x6) graphics • extra fast forms feed 
MORE FLEXIBILITY: super/subscript • underlining • backspacing 

• double strike mode • emphasized print mode • 2.3K buffer 

• compatible with most software supporting leading printers • 10" 
carriage • 15" carriage Gemini-15 available 

MORE RELIABILITY: 180 day warranty (90 days for head & ribbon) 

• mtbf rate of more than 5 million lines • print head life of more 
than 100 million characters 

THE POWER BEHIND THE PRINTED WORD. 


SAVE $130.00!!! 

The perfect business 
printer at the perfect 
price! 

Wide 15" carriage 
handles any accounting 
report or spreadsheet 
assignment. Same great 
features as Gemini-10. 
Complete package as 
described above. A 
$729.00 value for 
ONLY $599.* 

Printer only, $519.' 


SKYLINE 64K Memory Upgrade Kits 

8 guaranteed 200 n.s. 64K memory chips, solderless installation instructions, 
Skyline's 64K BOOT and PAGER progams (a $19.95 value). All for the super 
low price of $59.00! Order yours today! 


IL 



micronics-inc 

/ordering 

INFORMATION 

ALL ITEMS SHIPPED 
FROM STOCK 
Phone orders 
may be placed at: 

(312) 260-0929 
(Our voice line), 
or with your 
computer at: 

(312) 260-0640 
(Our MODEM line) 

C.O.D. orders gladly accepted, 
$2.00 additional. 

Mail orders 

and requests for catalogs 
should be sent to: 

SOFT CITY 
442 Sunnyside 
Wheaton, IL 
60187 

*10 shipping & handling fee on 
all printers. 





Exciting fast paced arcade 
game that looks and plays like 
the popular arcade game 
“DEFENDER", 

Wave after wave of enemy 
fighters drop bombs on your 
city. Destroy them before they 


•FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505.(616) 364-4791* 


“THE FROG” 

(C) 1983 


•“ARCADE ACTION*** 

This one will give you 
hours of exciting play. . . 
Cross the busy highway 
to the safety of the me- 
dian and rest awhile 
before you set out across 
thes swollen river team- 
ing with hidden hazards. 
Outstanding sound and 
graphics. 


THE 

f R P< 


V s ' \A ft 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
$27.95 TAPE 
$30.95 DISK 


THE 

KING 


1982 

32K Machine Language 

$26.95 tape 
$29.95 disk 


ARCADE ACTION - How high can you climb? Four full graphic 
screens. Exciting Sound - Realistic graphics. Never before has 
the color computer seen a game like this. Early reviews say: 
Just like the arcade - Simply outstanding! 


“YAAZEE” 

(C) 1983 

$19.95 


-r~c- 16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
EXT. BASIC 


Yaazee is a 2 player game using five dice to get the 
best poker hand. After game is loaded flashing 
digit below player number determines which 
player rolls dice at the start of the game. 




SPACE 

SHUTTLE 

1983 

32 K Ext. Basic 


$28.95 

TAPE 

ONLY 


This program gives you the real 
feeling of flight. Full instrumenta- 
tion complete to the max. Actual 
simulation of space flight. 32K 

Ext. Basic 


‘TRAPFALL” 

By KEN KALISH 
(C) 1983 


•“ARCADE ACTION*** 

The "Pitfalls” in this 
game are many. Hidden 
treasures, jump over the 
pits, swing on the vine, 
watch out for alligators, 
beware of the scorpion. 
Another game for the 
Color Computer with the 
same high resolution 
graphics as "The King.” 


16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 
DISK $30.95 


KATERPILLAR 


wwwtl w; JWUI VIIJ. UUUII U 1 V 

mother ships appear firing laser blasts at you. Watch for the 
heat seeking mines. 

$24.95 TAPE $27.95 DISK 32K MACHINE CODE 


COLOR GOLF 1 

Now sit at your computer and play 
nine or eighteen holes. Outstanding l 
graphics in the fairway or on the I 
green. Helps your game. 

32K EXTENDED BASIC $17.95 

ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX 


ATTACK 

Outstanding graphics and sound will 5>J 

end all of those trips to the arcade. So }P ? t 

much like the arcade you have to see it V / 

to believe it. Requires Ext. Basic. cr 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE $21.95 

DISK $24.95 

OTHER GREAT GAMES 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K 

BIRD ATTACK-A fast paced machine language arcade game. 
Shoot the birdmen before they descend upon you. Watch out 
for their bombs! 16K Machine Language $21.95 

MAZE RACE-Maze race is a one or two player game. Play either 
against the built in timer or against your favorite opponent. 16K 

Machine Code $17.95 

SOLO POOL-Now play pool with your color computer. Two 
players. Plays like machine language. Super color. High resolu- 
tion graphics. 16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

ADVENTURES 

TREK-16-Travel thru space with Spock and Capt. Kirk. Adven- 
ture. Tough! Ext. Basic. $17.95 

SHIPWRECK-Escape from a desert isle if you can. Great 
Adventure! Ext. Basic. $ 14.95 

ESCAPE FROM SPECTRE (Graphic Adventure)-You are a 

secret agent for British Intelligence sent on a mission to obtain 
the secret nerve gas formula being developed by S.P.E.C.T.R.E. 
to destroy the world. 16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

Call our BBS Number 616-364-8217 24 Hours a Day 

3 • TOP ROYALTIES PAID 
: • LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 




I 









•FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-4791* 


UTILITIES 


COLOR MONITOR-Written in position independent code. (May 
be located in any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 
1174 bytes of memory. Full Featured. Includes Break-Pointing 
of machine language programs, register display and modify, 
memory display and modify, and block memory move com- 
mands. Displays memory in hex and ascii format on one line 8 
bytes long. MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 

ROM-This program is a utility that will move “most" 8K Rom- 
Packs to disk and allow you to run them from disk. Easy to use. 
Requires 64K. $17.95 

SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE-Using your Epson or Microline 
Printer. Print the screen contents on a full size 8 Vi x 11 sheet. 
16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

TAPE DUPE Now — an all new Tape Backup Program. Even 
copies those hard to copy Auto-Execute Programs. Protect 
your software by making a backup copy. Probably the finest 
tape copier program ever. 16K Maching Language. TAPE $21.95 

DISK $25.95 


DISK TO TAPE-, Dump the contents of most disk, to tape 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

TAPE TO DISK - Load the contents of most tapes to disk 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

MAIL LIST-Maintain a complete mailing list with phone 
numbers etc. Ext. Basic. DISK BASED $17.95 

THE FIXER-Having trouble moving those 600 Hex progams to 
disk? The fixer will help. Completely automatic. $17.95 

TAPE CAT-All new machine language program lists contents of 
tapes to printer. Make a catalog of your tapes. $17.95 

PROGRAM PRINTER UTILITY -This program will list basic pro- 
grams to your printer in two column format. Saves paper and 
makes your listing look professional. Disk based. $17.95 


EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE For The Color Computer and TDP 100 


STORY PROBLEMS is a program that is designed to give practice in 
solving STORY PROBLEMS (sometimes called STATEMENT, THOUGHT 
or WORD PROBLEMS) on the COLOR COMPUTER. It Is suitable for use 
in either a home or school environment. It is also a tool that will allow 
you to create new story problems to suit your children's needs and abili- 
ty levels. It has many features that make it particularly attractive: Story 
problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division or a 
combination of the four are presented to the student by slowly scrolling 
each letter of each problem onto the screen. Up to 5 students may use 
the program at the same time. There are 4, user modifiabale, skill levels. 
16K Ext. Basic TAPE $19.95 

CLOCK-With the ever increasing use of digital clocks, more and more 
young people are unpracticed in the use of the "ANALOG" clocks. You 
remember those, the ones with the hands. This program will attempt to 
teach the relationship between the two types of clocks. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $14.95 

SPELLING TEST is designed to give a standard oral spelling test using 
the audio track of the computer’s tape recorder to dictate test words and 
sample sentences. Student responses are typed on the keyboard qnd 
checked by the computer. Results are displayed on the screen and (if 
connected) on a printer. REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

MATH DRILL is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication, and division skills on the COLOR COM- 
PUTER. It has several features that make its use particularly attractive. 

• Up to 6 students may use the program at the same time. 

• Answers for addition, subtraction and multiplication are entered 
from right to left, just as they are written on paper. 

•Commas may be included in the answers. 

• Partial products for the multiplication problems may be com- 
puted on the screen. 

•Division answers that have a remainder are entered as a whole 
number followed by the letter “R" and the remainder. 

•There are ten, user modifiable, skill levels. 

• A "SMILEY FACE" is used for motivation and reward. Its size in- 
creases relative to the skill level. 

•Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability. 

•A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 
total time used for a series of problems. 

•After a problem has been answered incorrectly the correct answer 
appears under (above in division) the incorrect answer. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT BASIC $19.95 

WORD DRILL is designed to give a multiple choice vocabulary quiz. 
Words and definitions are entered into the program from the keyboard or 
from a tape file. The computer displays a randomly chosen definition 
and eight word choices. The student must enter his response before a 
built in timer reaches zero. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 


SEARCH-A-WORD This Program generates a word search puzzle to your 
specifications. You specify the size of the puzzle and the number of 
words that it is to hide within the puzzle. 16K or 32K Ext. Basic. 

TAPE $17.95 FLEX VERSION $27.95 

EDUCATIONAL PACKAGE - SPELLING TEST - 
WORD DRILL - MATH DRILL - ESTIMATE - 
ALL FOR — $69.95 

ESTIMATE is a program designed to help children to practice estimating 
the answers to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division 
problems on the COLOR COMPUTER. It has many features that make Its 


th! use of 9 he '^ANALOG" clocks You *Up to 5 students may use the program at the same time. 

p hands Thit nronram wilf a^emoUo • There are 5 ' user modifiable, skill levels. 

ie two types of P c°ockT W a,,ernpt 0 ‘The acceptable percent error may be changed as a student's skill 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $14.95 P mer measures the number of seconds used to answer each 

problem and the total time used for a series of problems. 

ive a standard oral spelling test using «|f a problem has been answered incorrectly, the student Is told the 

tape recorder to dictate test words and percent error and asked to try again. 

onses are typed on the keyboard qnd .|f a problem is answered incorrectly a second time, the student is 

ts are displayed on the screen and (if told the correct answer and the range of acceptable answers is 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 displayed. 

•A report is given at the end of each set of problems that Includes the 
. -hhi number of problems done, the number of problems answered cor- 

nH d H SiM « nnthp PS? ‘fS ’pom rectly on the first try and the average percent error. 

at d make Us use particularly aUracdve’ * The (BREAK > ke V has been disabled so that a child will not in- 

: program a. the £ame time" advertentl * 5,09 ,he P r °9 ram ,rom runnm9 16K EXT BASIC $19 95 

iction and multiplication are entered 

are written on paper. TEACHERS’ DATABASE is a program designed to allow a teacher to 

the answers. keep a computerized file of information about his/her students. There 

■implication problems may be com- ar e many features that make this program particularly attractive. 

• Information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be in the 

a remainder are entered as a whole computer at one time. 

• "R" and the remainder. . Each student may have as many as 20 (or more) individual 

3 , skill levels. items of data in his/her record, 

or motivation and reward. Its size in- • The program will run from cassette or disk. 

!vel. • Cassette and disk files are completely compatable. 

jst to the student's ability. • The program is menu driven. 

ised to answer each problem and the • Records may be easily changed, deleted, combined or 

f problems. added. 

swered incorrectly the correct answer • Information about students may be numerical or text, 

ion) the incorrect answer. • Records may be quickly alphabetized. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT BASIC $19.95 • Records may be sorted by various criteria. 

• Records may be reordered (ranked) based on test scores or 

ve a multiple choice vocabulary quiz. other data. 

i into the program from the keyboard or • Data displayed during a sort may be printed on a printer or 

lisplays a randomly chosen definition saved on disk or cassette as a new file. 

lent must enter his response before a • A full statistical analysis of data may be done and sent to the 

printer. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 • Student test scores may be weighted. 32K EXT BASIC TAPE $39.95 

DISC $42.95 

Call our BBS Number 616-364-8217 24 Hours a Day 

• ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING • TOP ROYALTIES PAID • 

MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX • LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 



7096 GOTO 7070 

7097 CLOSE#- l: RETURN 
7200 : 

7900 REM: ADD STATS 

8000 CLS: SOUND 1,5: FOR Y=1 TO 15 

8010 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8100 

8020 PRINT PL$ (Y) "S" " HITS THIS 

GAME" 

8030 INPUT H2: 

8040 HT=VAL<HT*(Y> ) 

8050 HT* < Y ) =STR$ ( HT +H2 ) 

8060 Y=Y+l: GOTO 8010 
8080 : 

8090 : REM: ADD AT BATS 

8100 SOUND1 , 5: FOR Y=1 TO 15 
8110 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8200 
8120 PRINT PL$<Y)"S" " AT BATS TH 
IS GAME" 

8130 INPUT H3: 

8140 AB=VAL(AB$(Y) ) 

8150 AB$ ( Y ) =STR$ ( AB+H3 ) 

8160 Y=Y+l: GOTO 8110 
8180 : 

8190 : REM: ADD RUNS 
8200 SOUND 1,5: FOR Y=1 TO 15 
8210 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8300 
8220 PRINT PL$(Y)"S"" RUNS THIS 
GAME" 

8230 INPUT R2: 


8240 R=VAL<R*<Y)) 

8250 R$ <Y)=STR$<R+R2) 

8260 Y=Y+1 : GOTO 8210 
8280 : 

8290 : REM: ADD STRIKE OUTS 
8300 SOUND 1,5: FOR Y=1 TO 15 
8310 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8400 
8320 PRINT PL$<Y)"S ""STRIKE OUT 
S THIS GAME" 

8330 INPUT K2: 

8340 K=VAL<K$(Y)) 

8350 K*(Y)=STR*(K+K2> 

8360 Y=Y+1 : GOTO 8310 
8380 : 

8390 : REM: ADD WALKS 
8400 SOUND 1,5: FOR Y=1 TO 15 
8410 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8500 
8420 PRINT PL$(Y) "S"" WALKS THIS 
GAME" 

8430 INPUT B2: 

8440 B=VAL <BB$ (Y) ) 

8450 BB$ < Y) =STR$ (B2+B) 

8460 Y=Y+1 : GOTO 8410 
8480 : 

8490 : REM NEW AVERAGES 

8500 FOR Y= 1 TO 15 

8510 CLS: IF Y= 16 THEN30 

8530 LET HT=VAL<HT$ <Y) ) : LET AB=V 

AL<AB$<Y> ) 


COLOR COMPUTER and TDP— lOO OWNERS ! « ! 

00 YOU HAVE A 32K SYSTEM WITH 64K MEMORY CHIPS?? ARE YOU STILL BEING TOLD YOU CAN ONLY USE 32K FROM BASIC?? 

DON'T BELIEVE IT! - KEY COLOR SOFTWARE brings you the KEY-264K. An exciting NEW SOFTWARE utility that allows any 
STANDARD 32K COLOR COMPUTER TO ACCESS 64K R&l FROM BASIC, and with NO HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS REQUIRED!!! 

The KEY-264K divides the 64K ram memory into two 32K banks or sides, each of which can be utilized independently 
by the BASIC interpreter, with the ability to switch instantly from one side to the other. IT'S LIKE HAVING TWO 
CDMPLTERS IN ONE!! Have your BASIC program on one side and keep your variables on the other side, or have your 
main program on one side and your subroutines on the other side, or have your program on one side and use the 
other side for 4 additional Hi -RES pages, or any combination you like. The possibilities are endless because the 
KEY-264K allows full communication between sides plus the ability to switch back and forth at will, all from 
within BASIC. You could also have different programs in each side and switch back and forth between them using 
simple keystrokes, even while the programs are running!! Or run them both at the same time in the 
FOREGROIJND/BACKGRuUND MULTI-TASKING mode. Don't buy that printer buffer yet! With the KEY-264K you can be printing 
in the background side while utilizing your computer normally in the foreground side AT THE SAME TIME!!! Debugging 
a program? Use either a BASIC command or simple keystrokes to instantly duplicate your program, in it's present 
status, onto the opposite side. Switch to the opposite side later and pick up exactly where you were before! 

For DISK users, the KEY-264K allows you to alternate between DISK and EXTENDED BASIC on the same side with simple 
keystrokes. No need to pull your disk controller or power down. You can be in EXTENDED BASIC on one side and in 
DISK BASIC on the other side and still switch back and forth and have full communications between the two sides. 

The KEY-264K does all this and MORE thru extensions to the BASIC interpreter, No need to learn a new language!!! 

In total the KEY-264K adds 15 NEW CCWANDS and 1 function to BASIC, including powerful new BLOCK MEMORY MOVE and 
GRAPHICS VIEWING commands. 

NOTHING ELSE LIKE IT - YOU MVE TO SEE IT TO BELIEVE IT !!!!!! 

The KEY-264K works on 32K systems with “E*. ’F", or even modified "D* boards and requires EXTENDED or DISK BASIC 
with GOOD 64K MEMORY CHIPS! Systems with piggy-back 32K or half-good 64K memory chips WILL NOT WORK!!! 

ORDER YOUR KEY-264K CASSETTE TODAY by sending check or money order for $39.35 plus $2.00 shipping and handlinq 
(Mass, residents add 5 % sales tax) to: 

KEY COLOR SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 360 
HARVARD MA. 01451 


100 the RAINBOW July 1983 




8535 IF AB=0THEN AB=1 
8540 AV=HT/AB*1000 
8550 GOTO 30 
8900 CLEAR 500 
9000 CLS 

9006 PR I NTTAB < 9 > " P I TCH I NG STATS " 

9007 PRINT STRING* (32, "*"> 

9010 PR I NTTAB <7> "WHICH DO YOU W 
ANT" 

9015 PRINT STRING* <32, 

9020 PR I NTTAB (8) "(1) LIST PITCH 
ERS" 

9030 PR I NTTAB <8) "(2) ADD TO LIS 

T" 

9040 PR I NTTAB <8) " <3) INPUT STAT 

S" 

9050 PR I NTTAB (8) " <4) PRINT STAT 

S" 

9060 PR I NTTAB (8) " (5) ADD TO STAT 
S" 

9070 PR I NTTAB (8) "(6) SAVE TO TA 
PE" 

9080 PR I NTTAB <8) "(7) LOAD FROM 
TAPE" 

9085 PR I NTTAB (8) "(8) RETURN TO 

MENU 

9090 PR I NTTAB < 13) "(1-7) ?" 

9100 INPUT W 


9110 ON W GOSUB 9190,9200,9310,9 
820, 10000, 10500, 10600, 30 
9120 IF W*=" "THEN 9110 
9130 : 

9160 REM: INPUT PITCHERS 
9180 : 

9190 CLS:FORY=lTO 7 
9200 y=y:cls 

9210 PR I NTTAB < 1 1 ) " I NPUT P I TCHERS 

II 

9220 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 
SHED" 

9230 PR I NT "PITCHER" Y; 

9240 INPUT PT* < Y) 

9250 IF PT* ( Y> = " " THEN 9000 
9260 Y=Y+1 
9270 GOTO 9230 
9290 : 

9300 REM: INPUT STATS 

9310 CLS:F0RY=1T07 

9320 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 

SHED" 

9330 PRINT: PRINT"HITS GIVEN UP B 
Y "PT* ( Y) 

9340 INPUT HG* ( Y) 

9350 IF HG* <Y) ="" THEN 9410 
9360 Y=Y+1 
9370 GOTO 9330 


DATABASE / MAILER - 'CC-DBM' $49.95 

LETTER WRITER - ' CC - LW' $39.95 

introductory offer - FREE! CC-LW purchase of CC-DBM 


Database/ Mailer "CC - DBM" 16K or 32K 

• Simple to use even for the novice 

• Active Main Menu guides user to valid operations. 

• 32K disk (or tape) allows 59, (61) to 338, (351) records. 

• 16K disk (or tape) allows 12, (15) to 72, (86) records. 

• 4 to 10 fields, 5 to 27 widths, 20 to 270 char. /record. 

• All user definable with default values for ease of use. 

• Automatic memory sense adjusts to the size of your system. 

• Fast Basic sort by any field with "Percent Sorted" display. 

• Automatically adjusts for empty address lines - no gaps. 

• Print up to 9 line labels on envelopes or mailing labels. 

• Optional special printer codes for customized labels. 

• Master printout with 2 column format including field name. 

• Automatically prints header with date, paging and filename. 

• Works with any printer, use friction or tractor feed. 

• Selective printing by any field or field range. 

• Optional multiple copies of mailing labels. 

• Single screen 10 record display by user defined field. 

• Single key entry provides hard copy of screen data. 

• Comprehensive 25 page users manual with flow diagrams. 

• Includes detailed instructions for user modification. 

• Compatible with CC-LW for mail-merge, form letters, etc. 


Letter Writer "CC - LW " 16K or 32K 

• Much easier to use than a 'word processor. 

• Allows fast single page letter writing. 

• Embedded commands for centering, multiple line skip, 
tabbing and optional indent new paragraph. 

• 16K or 32K tape or disk. 

• Edit mode allows you to delete or insert text. 

• Uses CC-DBM data files for form letter capability. 

• Works with any printer and standard paper. 

• Excellent users manual. 

CC-DBM 16K, 32K disk or tape 849.95 

RAINBOW VfCA 

CC-LW 1 6K, 32K disk or tape 839.95 
PLEASE SPECIFY TAPE OR DISK - 

To order, send check or money order to: ttjj 

EVS Engineering 

9528 Suite 35, Miramar Road 
San Diego, CA 92126 

Or check your local software dealer. For questions, credit card 
orders, call (619) 695-1385 or (619) 566-6013 on weekdays 
8 A M. to 4 P.M. PST. We will be glad to help. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 

California residents please add sales tax - 6%. 

Allow 2 weeks for personal checks. 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 101 








9390 : 

9400 : REM: INNINGS PITCHED 

9410 CLS:F0RY=1T07 

9420 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 

SHED" 

9430 PRINT" INNINGS PITCHED FOR " 

; PT* ( Y) 

9440 INPUT IP* ( Y) 

9450 IF IP*(Y)=" "THEN 9520 
9460 Y=Y+1 
9470 GOTO 9430 
9500 : 

9510 REM: STRIKE OUTS 

9520 CLS:F0RY=1T07 

9530 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 

SHED" 

9540 PR I NT "STRIKE OUTS FOR "PT*< 

Y) 

9550 INPUT SO* ( Y) 

9560 IF SO* < Y ) = " " THEN 9620 
9570 Y=Y+1 
9580 GOTO 9540 
9600 : 

9610 REM: WALKS 

9620 CLS:F0RY=1T07 

9630 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 

SHED" 

9640 PR I NT "WALKS GIVEN UP BY "PT 
* ( Y) 

COLOR-FORTH 
| Including SEMI GRAPHIC-8 EDITOR 
! + UTILITIES 

-Disk and Tape utilities 
-Boot from disk or tape 
— Graphics and Sound commands 
“Printer commands 
-Auto-repeat and Control keys 
“Past task multiplexing 
-Unique TRACE function in kernal 
i —Clean INTERRUPT handling 
in HIGH-LEVEL FORTH 
-CPU CARRY FLAG accessible 
—Game of L I FE demo 
-ULTRA FAST: written in assembler 
-Directions included for 
installing optional ROM in 
disk controller or cartridge 
-Free Basic game "RATMAZE" 

*5e _ «75 

FORTH 

Hoyt Stearns Electronics 

4131 E. CANNON DR PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85028 

602 - 996-1717 


9650 INPUT W* ( Y) 

9660 IF W* ( Y> = " "THEN 9720 
9670 Y=Y+1 
9680 GOTO 9640 
9700 : 

9710 REM: EARNED RUNS 

9720 CLS:F0RY=1T07 

9730 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 

SHED" 

9740 PR I NT "EARNED RUNS ALLOWED B 
Y "PT* ( Y) 

9750 INPUT ER*(Y) 

9760 IF ER* ( Y) =" " THEN 9000 
9770 Y=Y+1 
9780 GOTO 9740 
9800 : 

9810 : REM: PRINT STATS 
9820 CLS: FOR Y=1 TO 7 
9830 PRINTS10, "HT" : PRINT@13, " IP" 
9840 PRINT617, "K" : PRINT020, "BB" 
9850 PR I NT024 , " R " : PR I NT627 , " ERA " 
9860 LET ER=VAL (ER* ( Y) ) 

9870 LET I P=VAL ( I P* ( Y ) ) 

9880 I FER=0THENE V=0 

9881 IF ER=0THEN 9897 

9890 EV=ER/IP*7 

9891 IF LEN ( HG* ( Y ) ) < 3THENHG* ( Y ) = 
HG*(Y>+" ":G0T09891 

9892 IFLEN(IP*(Y> ><4THENIP*(Y>=I 
P*(Y)+" ":GOTO 9892 

9893 IFLEN (SO* < Y) > <3THENS0* ( Y) =S 
0* ( Y) +" ":GOTO 9893 

9894 I FLEN ( W* < Y) ) < 4THENW* ( Y ) =W* ( 
Y) +" " : G0T09894 

9895 IFLEN (ER* (Y) )<3THENER*(Y)=E 
r*(Y)+" ":GOTO 9895 

9896 IF LEN < PT * ( Y ) ) < 8THENPT * ( Y ) = 

PT* ( Y) GOTO 9896 

9897 EV*=STR* (EV) 

9898 IF LEN ( E V* ( Y ) ) < 5THENE V* ( Y ) = 
EV* (Y> +" " : G0T09898 

9900 PRINT PT * ( Y > T AB (10) HG* ( Y ) I 
P* ( Y) SO* ( Y) W* ( Y) ER* ( Y) EV 
9910 Y=Y+1 

9920 IF Y=8 THEN 9930 ELSE 9860 
9930 PRINT" PRESS< ENTER >T0 CONTIN 
UE": INPUT C* 

9940 GOTO 9000 
9960 : 

9970 : REM: ADD STATS 
10000 CLS: FOR Y=1 TO 7 
10010 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10070 
10020 PRINTTAB(7) "ADD TO PITCHIN 
G STATS" 

10030 PRINTlPRINT PT*(Y>"S" 

10035 PRINT: PRINT" INNINGS PITCHE 
D THIS GAME" 

10040 INPUT 12: IP=VAL ( IP* ( Y) ) 
10050 IP* ( Y) =STR* ( I P+12) 

10060 Y=Y+1 : GOTO 10010 


102 the RAINBOW July 1983 




SELECTED SOFTWARE 

gr»R THE color computer 

All programs are in 1 6K machine language unless noted. 


MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

** SPACE RAIDERS New Invader-type game. $24.95 
Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. You'll love it. 

* ASTRO BLAST Excellent space shooting $24.95 
game. Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

* COLOR HAYWIRE Classic arcade game, $19.95 
rated A+ by Color Computer magazines. 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

* ANDROID ATTACK Excellent berserk-type $21.95 
game. Comes with 1 6K and 32K. 32K version 

will talk. 

* MS. GOBBLER (32K) Outstanding Pac Man- $21.95 
type game with 4 different mazes and 1 6 skill 

levels. 

* WHIRLYBIRD RUN Pilot a chopper over a $21.95 
varying terrain while dropping bombs and firing 

missiles to destroy enemy bases, ships and 
missiles. 

* GALAX ATTAX Protect your base by $21.95 

shooting alien fighter in formation. Excellent 

Graphics and Sound. 

* * SPACE RACE Maneuver yourself in space $21 .95 
but alien ships appear and must be destroyed. 

Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

* PLANET INVASION Excellent Defender-type $21.95 
game. Highest-Res Graphics and Sound. 

* DEFENSE Defend your spaceships from $21.95 

enemy laser beams. 

* SPACE WAR You must break through the $21 .95 
enemy fighters and the defenses of Death Star. 

Super fast. 

** SPACE INVADERS Fast action Invader $17.95 
game. Excellent Graphics and Sound. 

* GHOST GOBBLER Highly rated Pac Man- $19.95 
type game. 1 6 skill levels and lots of action. 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD Super adventure $19.95 

game! Great sound! You never play the same 

twice. 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

* DONKEY KING (32K) Just Outstanding! $24.95 

* KATERPILLAR Excellent Centipede-type $24.95 
game. Highly rated by Color Computer 

magazines! 

* WAR KINGS Battle to save your castle and $ 1 9.95 
king. Hi-Res Graphics with Outstanding Sound. 

* PROTECTORS (32K) Excellent Graphics and $24.95 
Sound. 

MED SYSTEMS 

INVADER'S REVENGE You are the last sur- $ 1 9.95 
vived space invader. You must revenge! 

PHANTOM SLAYER Enter the deadly cata- $ 1 9.95 
combs and destroy the phantoms, 3-D Graphics. 

INTELLECTRONICS 

* DUNKEY MUNKEY (32K) Absolutely excel- $21 .95 
lent Donkey Kong-type game. You'll love it! 

STAR FIRE One of the best Defender-type $19.95 
game. Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

INTRACOLOR 

** COLORPEDE Just like the arcade. $29.95 

* ROBOTTACK Just like the arcade. $24.95 

THE PROGRAMMER'S GUILD 
** PACDROIDS The most challenging Pac Man- $19.95 
type. Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

CHROMATIC SOFTWARE 

* THE SPIDER Travel the channels destroying $ 1 9.95 
the spiders before they get you. Super action. 

Excellent Graphics and Sound. 


DATA SOFT 
Top Notch Games 

* ZAXXON (32K) Maneuver your ship through a $39.95 
battlefield of state-of-the-art missiles, anti-aircraft 

tanks and enemy planes. Survive all that and 
you'll meet the deadly ZAXXON Robot! 

** MOON SHUTTLE Pilot your moon shuttle $34.95 
through outerspace avoiding man-o-wars, 
meteors, bomb launchers and expandos to meet 
the prince of darkness. But watch out for his 
darkest side. 

COMPUTERWARE 

* DOODLE BUG Just like ladybug in the $21 .95 

arcade. 

THE CORNSOFT GROUP 

* * FROGGER Just like the arcade. $ 1 9.95 

ELITE SOFTWARE 

* ZAKSUND (32K) Fly your spaceship through $24.95 
enemy star bases. Avoid guided missiles, lasers 

and firing turrets. Can you reach their leader? 

SOFT SECTOR MARKETING 
MASTER CONTROL II Comes with plastic $ 1 9.95 
keyboard overlay and complete easy to 
understand manual. 

COLOR GRAPHIC EDITOR This program $ 1 9.95 
permits the creation of graphic pictures on the 
screen that can be saved to disk for later use. 

Requires extended BASIC or DISK BASIC. 

COLOR BONANZA 50 programs on 6 $39.95 

cassettes stored in an attractive package. Some 
require extended BASIC. 

SUGAR SOFTWARE 
Extended BASIC Programs 

TIMS Excellent personal database management $24.95 

system. 

GALACTIC-HANGMAN Top-rated Hang $14.95 

man game. Can you find a better one? 

NELSON SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 
SUPER COLOR WRITER II Version 3.0. 

64K Compatible Tape $69.95 

Rompak $89.95 

SUPER COLOR TERMINAL Version 3.0. 

64K Compatible Tape $49.95 

Rompak $59.95 



* Requires Joystick ** Joystick Optional 

ORDER 2 ITEMS AND GET 1 0% OFF! 

We pay postage on all orders in the United States 
and Canada. Overseas please add $3.00 
We accept check or money order. 

U.S. funds only for foreign orders. 

Send to: g ELECTED SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 32228, Fridley, MN 55421 

(MN Residents add 6J4> sales tax.) 



10070 INPUT "PRESS ENTER TO CONTI 
NUE"5G* 

10075 ON G GOTO 10110 
10080 GOTO 10110 
10090 I REM: ADD HITS 
10100 : 

10110 CLS: FOR Y=1 TO 7 
10112 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10160 
10115 PRINT PT*(Y> 

10120 PRINT:PRINT"HITS GIVEN UP 
THIS GAME" 

10130 INPUT H2:HT=VAL(HG*(Y> ) 
10140 HG* ( Y ) =STR* ( H2+HT ) 

10150 Y=Y+l:IF Y=8 THEN 10160 EL 
SE 10112 

10160 I NPUT " PRESS< ENTER >TO CONTI 
NUE";G* 

10165 GOTO 10200 
10190 : 

10195 : REM ADD STRIKE OUTS 
10200 CLS: FOR Y=1 TO 7 
10205 CLS: IF Y=8THEN 10260 
10207 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10250 
10210 PRINT PT*(Y> 

10215 PRINT: PRINT"STRIKE OUTS TH 
IS GAME" 

1 0220 I NPUT S2 : LETSO= VAL ( SO* (Y) ) 
10230 S0*<Y)=STR*<S2+S0) 

10240 Y=Y+l:IFY=8 THEN 10250 ELS 
E 10205 

10250 I NPUT "PRESS< ENTER >TO CONTI 
NUE";G* 

10260 GOTO 10300 
10280 : REM: ADD WALKS 
10300 CLS: FOR Y=1 TO 7 
10305 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10370 
10307 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10360 
10310 PRINT PT*(Y) 

10320 PRINT: PR I NT" WALKS GIVEN UP 
THIS GAME " 

10330 INPUT W2:LET W=VAL<W*<Y>> 
10340 W* <Y)=STRt (W2+W) 

10350 Y=Y+l:IFY=8 THEN 10360 ELS 
E 10305 

10360 I NPUT "PRESS< ENTER >TO CONTI 
NUE" ; G* 

10370 GOTO 10400 


*************************'**’*'*'************£ 


★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

★ 

* 

★ 


★ ★★ 


BASIC Compiler 


★ ★★ 


Now everyone can have a compiler for their Color Computer. 
Maximize the capabilities of your computer by converting 
BASIC programs to machine language. 

Specifications: 

Integer compiler 4 strings, 2D arrays .DATA, PMODE ,PC0PY, 

I BSHFT, RESTORE and more 

Fast H.L. code produces relocatable .EXECutable 6809 code 
Automatically links main program with a library of assembly 
language subroutines 

Produces code smaller, and 50x faster than origlonal BASIC 
Allows the use of entire 64k RAM 4 entire 32k ROM ! 

CLOADH from tape and EXECute "In Memory" - NO DISK NEEDED ! 
Uses Color Basic syntax. No Extended Color Basic needed ! 
Versions available for 16,32 or 64k RAM systems - specify 
**** Introductory offer - Now only S34.95 


Send check or 
money order. 
No C.O.D. 


Utah residents ★ 
add 5% tax. * 
★ 
* 
★ 
★ 
★ 
★ 
* 
* 
★ 
* 


Nasatcfwa»-e 
P0 Box 510371 
SLC.Utah 
84151-0371 


****************************************** 


10380 : 

10390 : REM: ADD EARNED RUNS 
10400 CLS : FOR Y=1 TO 8 
10405 CLS : IF Y=8 THEN 10470 
10410 PRINT PT*(Y> 

10420 PR I NT: PR I NT "EARNED RUNS TH 
IS GAME" 

1 0430 I NPUT E2 : ER=VAL < ER* < Y > ) 

1 0440 ER* ( Y ) =STR* ( E2+ER ) 

10450 Y=Y+l:IFY=8 THEN 10460 ELS 
E 10405 

10460 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >TO CONTI 
NUE" 

10470 GOTO 9000 

10495 : REM: SAVE TO TAPE 

10496 : 

10500 CLS: PRINT @135, "SAVE ITEM 
S ON TAPE" 

10510 PRINT@234, "POSITION TAPE" 
10520 PRINT@294, "PRESS PLAY AND 
RECORD" 

10530 PRINT0388, "PRESS< ENTER >WHE 
N READY" 

10540 INPUT Q* 

10550 OPEN "0",#-l, "STATS" 

10560 FOR Y=1 TO 8-1 
10570 PRINT#— 1 , PT* ( Y) , HG* < Y) , IP* 
(Y) ,SO*(Y> ,W*(Y) ,ER* (Y) ,EV(Y) 
10580 NEXT Y 

10590 CLOSE #-i: GOTO 9000 

10593 : 

10594 : REM: LOAD FROM TAPE 
10600 CLS: PRINT0235, "REWIND TAP 
E" 

10610 PRINT@300, "PRESS PLAY" 
10620 PRINT@388, "PRESS< ENTER >WHE 
N READY" 

10630 INPUT Q* 

1 0640 OPEN " I" , - 1 , " STATS " 

10650 Y=1 

10660 IF EOF ( -1 ) THEN 10695 
10670 INPUT #-l,PT*(Y) ,HT*<Y> , IP 
*<Y) , SO* (Y) , W*(Y> ,ER*(Y) ,EV(Y) 
10680 PRINT PT*(Y> 

10685 Y=Y+1 

10690 GOTO 10660 

10695 CLOSE #-l: GOTO 9000 




Formerly distributed only by ZETA" 
SOFTWARE, we hove the original FOOTBALL 
FORECASTER with 1983 data base 
Available for 1 6K ZX-81 , T/S 1000 or 16K TRS-80 
Color Computer Specify NFL or College Only 
$19.95 each or $29.95 tor both Add SI .00 
P&H. Ark residents add 4% Tax. 

HAWG WILD SOFTWARE 

P.O Box 7668 

Little Rock, Arkansas 7221 7 


104 the RAINBOW July 1983 




UABU 1AT BASF-DPS 

■ WORLD STANDARD 


TAPE 



COMPUTER GRADE BLANK CASSETTES 

PREMIUM 5-SCREW SHELL WITH LEADER FITS ALL STANDARD RECORDERS 
PREFERRED BY SOFTWARE PRODUCERS, SCHOOLS AND BUSINESSES NATIONWIDE 



DATA TRAC /C-05, C-10, C-20 

v- . ✓ 

CASSETTE STORAGE CADDY 

0' 

ORGANIZE 
YOUR TAPES! 

$2 95 EACH 


HER o^AV A ABOUT YORK 10 CASSETTES: 
USERS SA n 100% of 

... fs n/ce to have a ,a P e s SquaW And the fast, 

■■we ^SSSSSS SSSi no 

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FINEST QUALITY 
PHILIPS (NORELCO) 
TYPE HARD BOXES 


TRACTOR FEED 
DIE-CUT BLANK 
CASSETTE LABELS 


^ — - 

INTRODUCTORY OFFER^ 


INDEX CARD 



ORDER NOW 
Mail To ... 


Zf&tiP, RES AUGUST t. '583 


Call: 21 3/710-1 430 

FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT / 

on Credit Card Orders. 

YORK lO “Computer ware 

24573 Kitlridge St., #R Canoga Park, CA 91307 


ITEM 

1 DOZEN 

2 DOZEN 

C-05 

□ 7.50 

□ 13.50 

C-10 

□ 8.00 

□ 14.40 

C-20 

□ 10.00 

□ 18.00 

Hard Box 

□ 2.50 

□ 4.00 

Storage Caddy @ $2.95 ea.: Quantity: 


TOTAL 


FREE: Quantity: 


Blank labels □ 4.00/100 □ 30.00/1000 


SUB TOTAL 


Calif, residents add 6% sales tax 


Shipping/handling 1 doz. $2; 2 doz. $3.50; 
3 doz. $4.50; each additional doz. $.50. 


For Parcel Post instead of UPS $1 additional 


Outside Continental USA, $2 additional 


TOTAL 



Each cassette includes two YORK 10 labels only. Boxes are sold separately. 
Shipments are by U.P.S. unless Parcel Post requested. Boxes, caddies, and 
blank labels are free of shipping charges when ordered with cassettes. When 
ordered without cassettes, shipping charges: Boxes — $1 ,00/doz. , Caddies 
$1.00 each. MINIMUM SHIPPING/HANDLING ON ANY ORDER— $2.00. 
Check or M.O. Charge to 

enclosed □ Credit Card: □ VISA □ MASTERCARD 

Card No. Exp 


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Signature 


State/Zip 


Computer make & mod el Disk?(y/n) 

□ CHECK HERE FOR QUANTITY DISCOUNTS PRICE LIST 













HARDWARE 


g l Jll D THIS BCARP ) 
' FOR EASY 

NTERFAC NG 

MIEEEVC MG 


By Dennis Meixsell 


I ’m sure most Color Computer owners would love to be 
able to hook up devices such as a real time clock, voice 
synthesizer, complex sound generators, keypads, etc. 
Even though these modifications are not that complicated 
or expensive, it seems the thought of getting a soldering gun 
within 10 feet of our precious CoCo is enough to leave most 
of us lying awake staring at the ceiling. Also, such words and 
phrases as address lines, data bus, interrupt, read/ write and 
clock begin to totally overwhelm us. 

Well, I have some good news. In this article you will learn 
the basic steps of interfacing without taking the back off 
your CoCo. All the connecting will be done through the 
cartridge port using inexpensive and readily available parts 
(most coming from “Mama” Radio Shack herself). For the 
experienced hobbiest this may be all you need to get over the 
hump and into some serious projects. For the newcomer 
there is plenty to learn about interfacing, but this first step 
will give you what you need to begin experimenting. 

The standard device used for interfacing is the Motorola 
6921, called the Peripheral Interface Adapter. The PI A, as 
we will refer to it, decodes specific addresses, incorporates 
timing and provides memory port addressing. It provides 
two eight bit ports with each bit selectable as an output or 
input port. This will be explained in more detail later in this 
article. 

Our project is to build an experimenter’s board and hook 
up a PI A. This board will be versatile and the foundation of 
future experiments. Once this project is finished, most addi- 
tional interfacing will be a snap. So hang in there and the 
rewards will be great. The construction will involve three 
steps; making a ribbon connector, building the experimen- 
ter’s board and interfacing the PIA. 

Parts to be used are as follows: 

*276-165 computer PC board 


*276-174 modular l.C. breadboard (solderless) 
*64-2346 self-sticking cushion feet 
*276-1558 edge connector — 40 pin solderless 
*64-2343 double-sided foam tape 
*22 or 24 gauge solid connection wire 
*Motorola 6821 PIA (not available at Radio Shack) 
*wire ribbon, 2 feet (discontinued at Radio Shack but 
still might have it) 

If you are a wise shopper, these items can be purchased at 
a lower price elsewhere. If you don’t want the grief and have 
a few extra bucks, you can purchase experimenter boards 
and pre-made extension cables from several companies 
found in this magazine. 

The first step is for convenience and to protect the edge 
connector inside the CoCo. What we will make is simply a 
connector extender; that is, a 40-pin extension cord. You 
may want to leave this in the CoCo permanently and plug all 
cartridges into the ribbon connector. Take the 276-165 
computer connecting board and cut it in half along the 
dotted line marked A (Figure 1). Put the bottom half aside, 
it will be used later. Then cut along the two dotted lines 
marked B. With the CoCo off, plug this board into the 
cartridge port to see if you did a good job cutting. Be sure to 
keep it level with the CoCo. If it is raised too high or low it 
may damage the CoCo’s internal connector. Be sure to keep 
the printed side up and the copper side down in all steps. 
Remove the board from the CoCo. The next step is to solder 
the 40-wire ribbon to this board. 

From one end of a two-foot section of 40-wire ribbon 
cable, separate each wire back about 3” with a knife. Then 
strip 14 ” of insulation from the end of each of the 40 wires. 
This is a tedious and difficult job. 1 usually roll a knife over 
each wire on a hard surface. Be very careful. This may take 
some practice. Next, slightly enlarge the holes marked C 


106 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Figure 1 



(Figure 1). There are 20 of these and they need to be large 
enough to allow a strand of the 40-wire cable to pass 
through, insulation and all. Now thread every other wire 
from the ribbon cable through the holes marked C. Start on 
the right and put wire # 1 through that hole. Be sure that pin 
#1 on this edge connector will line up with pin #1 on the 
solderless connector that will be placed on the other end of 
the cable. If in doubt, use a volt-ohm meter and check it out. 
Now you must solder each of the wires to the base of the 
corresponding prong on the 40-pin edge connector. After 
this is accomplished tape the ribbon to the PC board to act 
as a strain release. On the bottom of the PC board tape a !4” 
thick piece of plastic or wood to insure that the edge connec- 
tor stays parallel with the CoCo’s connector. Put the solder- 
less 40-pin connector on the free end of the cable. A small 
hammer will help to lightly tap the back piece in place. Now 
mark in large, clear letters “TOP” and “BOTTOM” on both 
the edge card and the 40-pin connector (this will save much 
frustration later). Put this aside — the hard part is over. 

The second phase will use the bottom half of the PC 
board, the 40-pin socket and connecting wire. Place the 
40-pin socket on the printed side of the PC board in the 
location shown on Figure 2. Look at the copper side of the 
board and make sure each leg is going through an individual 
copper pad. Solder the socket into place. Now solder a wire 
from each pin of the edge card to the appropriate pin of the 


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Send Check Or Money Order To: 

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Box 193, First Avenue 
East Brady, PA 16028 
(412) 526-5781 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 107 





COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

★ UNIVERSAL PROGRAM 1 (UP-1 ) + 

Known as the Program Stacker, UP-1 allows several 
programs to be loaded until the memory is filled. Quickly 
jump from one program to another or compose new 
programs while retaining the old ones. Programs are 
included for patching damaged programs. Allows data or 
machine language programs to be stored and retrieved 
from a cassette. Programs are included for writing values 
or characters to memory, and displaying memory con- 
tents. Blocks of memory can be relocated. UP-1 can be 
used as a Word Processor by allowing text to be stored in 
memory and printed on the screen or an external printer. 
UP-1 Cassette $14.95. 

* DISASSEMBLER-ASSEMBLER (DISASM) ★ 
Using English mnemonics and Decimal Locations, 

DISASM is an easy way to learn to assemble machine 
Language Programs or Subroutines. Subroutines can be 
used with Basic Programs and called by either USR or 
EXEC commands. For CC compatibility, all locations are 
given in Decimal Values eliminating the confusion asso- 
ciated with using HEX. All commands are Menue 
oriented and the user provides the particulars for the 
commands without having to remember command for- 
mats. The Disassembler can be used to Analyze Machine 
Language Programs as well as the Basic and Extended 
CC ROMS. Example programs are included. Cassette 
$19.95. 

★ TERMINAL PROGRAM (DYTERM) * new 
DYTERM is designed to convert a Color Computer into 

a terminal. Use it to send and receive information from 
another computer, another terminal, or use it to provide 
the software needed for sending and receiving informa- 
tion over telephone lines with a MODEM. DYTERM is a 
BASIC program with Machine Languate Subroutines. 
Cassette $14.95. 

EXTENDED BASIC is not REQUIRED. All programs 
require a 16K Computer and are DISC compatible. 

HARDWARE ITEMS 

Increase your computer’s memory with the following 
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your waranty will be voided by removing the cover. The 


kits carry a one year warranty. 

ME-1 upgrades 4K to 16K $19.95 

ME-2 upgrades 4K to 32K $59.95 

ME-3 upgrades 16K to 32K $39.95 

ME-4 upgrades all CC to 64K $99.95 

Note: A 1.1 ROM is required for ME-4 
6809E Microprocessor Chip $19.95 

6821 Peripheral Interface Adapter $6.95 


WE REPAIR COMPUTERS 

★ PUT YOUR PROGRAMS IN A PROM PACK ★ 
We will put your Machine Language and/or BASIC 
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up to 8K. Add $2 for shipping. 

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looking for good original programs and are willing to pay 
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Checks, VISA & MC Cards Add $1 shipping 

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P.O. Box 896 (205) 773-2758 

Hartselle, AL 35640 


40-pin socket. Pin 1 , 3, 5, 7, 9, ... are on top of the PC board. 
Pins 2, 4, 6, 8, . . . are on the bottom. The dip socket is 
numbered 1-20 on the left side and 21-40 on the right side. 
You should mark the dip socket and edge connector with the 
appropriate numbers to help as you solder. 1 tried to make 
this look nice by running all the wires on the bottom side and 
then coming up in front of the top pins. Be sure that this is 
exact. Use a VOM and be positive that each wire goes from 
the edge card pin number to the same number on the dip 
socket. Now with double-sided tape secure the solderless 
breadboard to the lower section of the PC board. Put four 
cushion footies on the bottom side and BINGO! You are 
now the proud owner of an experimenter’s board! 

Finally, in part three, 1 will show how to connect the PI A 
to the experimenter’s board. Get the package that contains 
the PI A. Use proper handling technique, or static electricity 
could damage the PIA. Without interruption, pick up the 
P1A in both hands. Use one hand to straighten any bent 
pins. Now place the chip on the left end of the solderless 
breadboard. Make sure that pin #1, which is identified by 
the circle or notch is to the left (Figure 2). Now connect 
jumper wires between the socket and the PIA as shown in 
Figure 3. The circled numbers refer to the pin number of the 
low profile socket. Make certain this is exact. 

This finishes construction. Now, to explain the PIA in 
more detail. Actually, an entire article could easily be dedi- 
cated to understanding the PIA, but I’ll do what I can. The 
PIA is made of six registers, three for side A and three for 
side B. Side B and side A perform exactly the same, so we 
will just look at side A. In our experiments, the PIA will be 
addressed at memory locations SFF40 and SFF41. Most 
numbers will be listed in hexadecimal as indicated by the $. 
The PIA must first be told which direction the data will flow 
for each bit. This is done by use of the Data Direction 
Register A, or abbreviated, the “DDR A.” As you can see by 
Figure 4 the DDR A and the Output/ Input Register A, or 
abbreviated, “ORA” are both addressed by memory loca- 
tion SFF40. The way to select which one is determined by bit 
#2 of the Control Register A, or abbreviated, “CRA,” 
located at SFF41 . If a “0” is put in bit #2 of Control Register 
A then location SFF40 will be addressing the DDRA. If a 
“I ” is in bit #2 of CRA then address SFF40 will be address- 
ing the ORA. Now, if we put a “1 ” in a bit of the DDRA, 



108 the RAINBOW July 1983 







The TRS-80* Color-Computer 

DATABASE 

ENHANCED 


Database Management, Word Processing and Spread Sheet Calculations in One 

Business Applications Custom Report Writer For Data Management Files 

• Real Estate 

• Ledgers • Merge data management files with text files 

• Mailing Lists • Print one document per data record. 

• Single Letters • Print one document for multiple data records by using a 

• Memos data field as a key for matching records. 

• Phone Lists • Use all printer control options. 

• Form Letters • Print multiple copies. 

• charts • Print selected data records. 

• Business Reports • Store multiple formats on a single TEXT file. 

• Inventories • Alter formats while using the REPORT WRITER or TEXT 

• Income Tax Preparation PROCESSING program. 

• Property Maintenance _ * ■■ _ 

• Property Rentals Data Management formatting with options to 

• Receivables • Define 50 data fields, in- print report titles, a report 

• Payables eluding a comment field, in a date, page numbers, record 

• Order Entry single record. Dates, time of names, and data field 

• Business Contacts day, phone numbers and names. Print all or selected 

• Appointments dollar amounts are data fields or records. 

• Client Profiles automatically formatted. You Enhancements: 

• Document/ Article Indexing may also define 24 scratch- . variable length alpha/text 

• Lab Reports pad data fields not contained data fields. 

• Personnel Records within your data records. • use 1 or 2 disk drives. 

• Student Grades • Reorganize records by mov- . R ange searC h for alpha/text 

• Budgets ing data fields within records data fields and record 

Homebase is Easy to Use or ( .“? y ™ ving recor ? s witt !! n names 

y uoo a f| , e You may sort records . Ca | CU | ator mod6 (or entering 

• No programming required. In ascending or descending new data field values while 

All options are displayed in order US j n g record names performing calculations and 

menus. HOMEBASE automa- you assign or data values. automatically displaying the 

tically requests all required • Manage files by searching, results of calculations. 

data and edits every entry. deleting, clearing, duplicat- • Extended sort which permits 

• All commands are single key ing . and displaying any data sorting on any position 

stroke. or record. Add, subtract, within a comment alpha/text 

• Full screen editing for text multiply, divide, or sum- data field. 

entry. marize any data field . Use • Separate printer drivers for 

• Complete curosr control for any command on a single NEC and OKIDATA printers, 

entering names, titles, record or selected group of 

notes, comments and all records. You may also selec- Text/Word Processing 

other data. tively process any single • Define 250 screens of text 

• Over 100 pages of well data field or group of data you can search, sort, 

organized and easy to use fields. display, or print. Reference 

documentation with complete • print files using automatic or select records using 

descriptions every com- 

mand, and examples. 

• Requires 32K of memory, 

DISK BASIC and only one Credit card holders call toll free: 800-334-0854, extension 887 

disk drive No eauiDment in North Carolina call: 800-672-0101, extension 887 or send a 

s&Z'Ssr - * -ass susftsa 

• Fast response to all com- p 0 Box 344B Durham N C . 27702 

mands including search and 90 day warranty 

Sort. N.C. residents add 4% lor sales tax. Allow 1 to 3 weeks delivery. 

Enhancement: HOMEBASE™ is a trademark of HOMEBASE ™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS, 

• A tutorial/demonstration file a subsidiary of Small Business Systems, Durham, N.C. (919) 544-5408. 

L „. . . . . . -TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Radio Shack, Inc. 

L with step-by-step instructions. — — 


Data Management 

• Define 50 data fields, in- 
cluding a comment field, in a 
single record, Dates, time of 
day, phone numbers and 
dollar amounts are 
automatically formatted. You 
may also define 24 scratch- 
pad data fields not contained 
within your data records. 

• Reorganize records by mov- 
ing data fields within records 
or by moving records within 
a file. You may sort records 
in ascending or descending 
order using record names 
you assign or data values. 

• Manage files by searching, 
deleting, clearing, duplicat- 
ing, and displaying any data 
or record. Add, subtract, 
multiply, divide, or sum- 
marize any data field . Use 
any command on a single 
record or selected group of 
records. You may also selec- 
tively process any single 
data field or group of data 
fields. 

• Print files using automatic 


formatting with options to 
print report titles, a report 
date, page numbers, record 
names, and data field 
names. Print all or selected 
data fields or records. 

Enhancements: 

• Variable length alpha/text 
data fields. 

• Use 1 or 2 disk drives. 

• Range search for alpha/text 
data fields and record 
names. 

• Calculator mode for entering 
new data field values while 
performing calculations and 
automatically displaying the 
results of calculations. 

• Extended sort which permits 
sorting on any position 
within a comment alpha/text 
data field. 

• Separate printer drivers for 
NEC and OKIDATA printers. 

Text/ Word Processing 

• Define 250 screens of text 
you can search, sort, 
display, or print. Reference 
or select records using 


Credit card holders call toll tree: 800-334-0854, extension 887 
In North Carolina call: 800-672-0101, extension 887 or send a 
check or money order lor S75 + $5 for handling charges to: 
HOMEBASF" COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
P.0. Box 3448, Durham, N.C. 27702 
90 day warranty 

N.C. residents add 4% lor sales tax. Allow 1 to 3 weeks delivery. 
HOMEBASE™ is a trademark of HOMEBASE ™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS, 
a subsidiary of Small Business Systems, Durham, N.C. (919) 544-5408. 
•TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Radio Shack, Inc. 


Integrated Package 

record names you assign or 
by searching for any word or 
phrase within text records. 

• Edit text by duplicating, 
moving, clearing, searching 
and replacing, deleting, or 
reordering entire records of 
text or portions of text 
records. Print the text record 
appearing on the screen to 
review before final print. 

• Format labels, memos, let- 
ters, and other documents 
for printing with embeded 
printer controls for paging, 
skipping lines, and changing 
character fonts. Program 
controls provide for setting; 
right and left margins, lines 
per page, page width, 
horizontal tabs, and line 
spacing. Reuse control set- 
tings or change when 
desired. Print multiple 
copies. Merge text records 
to produce a form letter for 
an address file. 

Enhancements: 

• Use 1 or 2 disk drives. 

• A separate printer driver for 
NEC and OKIDATA printers. 

• Page numbering. 

• Print page headings. 

• Page backwards or for- 
wards. 

Utilities for Data 
Management and 
Word Processing 

• Generating new files from old 
files. 

• Merging files. 

• Duplicating files. 

• Moving data between files. 

• Summarizing files. 

• Moving files from diskette to 
diskette using a single drive. 

• Saving files to cassette and 
reloading from cassette. 

• File synchronizing. 

• Print disk directory 

Enhancements: 

• Rename flies. 

• Extended summarize and 

update. A 






then the corresponding bit of the ORA 
will be set for output. Put a “0” in a bit 
of DDRA and the corresponding bit of 
ORA will be set for input. Okay, got all 
that? I’m sure that all is about as clear as 
mud! Let me go on; an example should 
help. If we want to set all the ORA to 
output we should do as follows: 

POKE SFF40.SFF ’SELECT DATA DIREC 
TION REG. A 

POKE SFF40.SFF ’PUT A "1”1N EACH BIT 
OF DDRA 

POKE $FF41,04 ’CHANGE TO OUTPUT 
REG. A 

Now any byte poked into $FF40 will 
show up at pins 2-9 of the PI A. To set all 
bits as inputs we must: 

POKE SFF41 ,00 ’SELECT DATA DIREC 
TION REG. A 

POKE $FF40,00 ’PUT A "0” IN EACH BIT 
OF DDRA 

POKE SFF41.04 ’CHANGE TO OUTPUT/ 

INPUT/INPUT REG. A 
Now anytime pins 2-9 have a logic 0 
or 1 this will show up when we peek 
(SFF40). 

Run this next program with the PIA 
hooked up. Register A should be equal 
to zero, as shown on the screen. Use a 
jumper wire and connect pin #2 to pin 
#1 . Pin # 1 is ground and pin #2 is bit 0 of 
DDRA. Register A should now read 
“I .” Ground pins 2-9, one at a time and 
watch the screen. 

1 ’ ***** THIS PROGRAM WILL READ SIDE A OF 
THE PIA 

5 CLS 

80 A=&HFF40 ’LOCATION OF PIA 

200 POKE A+1,00 ’SELECT DATA DIRECTION 

REG. A 

210 POKE A,00 ’PUT A “0” IN EACH BIT 
220 POKE A+1,04 ’CHANGE TO OUTPUT/INPUT 

REG. A 

230 P=PEEK(A) ’READ THE PIA 

300 R=255-P ’LITTLE CONVERSION 

310 PRINT@ 1 10, R ’SHOW US THE VALUE 
330 GOTO 230 ’READ IT AGAIN SAM 


I can see the wheels starting to turn already . . . buttons . . . 
switches ... a keypad . . . maybe I could build an alarm 
system . . . just maybe I could? Welcome to the world of 
interfacing. In part two 1 will show how to interface a 
calculator keyboard. This should only take about one hour. 
Then I’ll explain more about the PIA and the different lines 
coming out of the CoCo. I know there has been quite a large 
amount of material presented here. Don’t worry if you 
didn’t understand it all — just have fun and play with the 
PIA. It’s not necessary to understand every detail to build 
these projects. Just stick in there and before you know it 
you’ll be interfacing like an old pro. 


Figure 4 

Side A 

Side B 


PIA’s Internal Registers 


$FF40 

SFF41 

$FF42 

$FF43 



Output Register A (ORA) 

Data Direction Register A (DDRA) 
Control Register A (CRA) 

Output Register B (ORB) 

Data Direction Register B (DDRB) 
Control Register B (CRB) 


110 the RAINBOW July 1983 





YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST GOT WHEELS! 



REVOLUTION! 


You accelerate hard down a long straightaway, 
braking heavily at the end for a hard corner. 
You slice smoothly through the esses, and then 
boldly keep the power on for a fast sweeper. 
The Ferrari drifts dangerously near the edge, 
but you make a tiny correction in the steering, 
and you are through. 

The finish line flashes by, and suddenly you 
are in the pits. The car falls silent. You see your 
lap times being held up. Your final lap was a 
new lap record! At last, you permit yourself 
a small smile. 

You have mastered this powerful car on a 
difficult track, driving with the assurance and 
precision that comes only from long hours of 
practice. 

You are driving an authentic race car. You are 
playing Revolution! 

FANTASTIC ACTION 


Revolution uses high resolution, machine language graphics 
for action that is smooth and fast. The emphasis is on 
authenticity in the control and motion of your car. As in 
driving a real race car, accuracy and precision in your driving 
are what counts. Frills and non-essentials have been left out. 

PURE COMPETITION 


Like a real race driver in practice and qualifying sessions, you 
compete against the clock and against the existing lap record 
for that track. Revolution records the lap records and the 
name of the person who set the record, so you always know 
who reigns supreme on your favorite track! 

DESIGNED WITH YOU IN MIND 

Revolution is menu-driven, and self explanatory. Informa- 
tion screens tell you what you need to know. When you’re 
ready to play, a menu of the names of all your tracks is 
displayed, along with the lap record for each track and the 
name of the person who set that lap record. You select a track 
with a single keystroke, and Revolution takes you there. 


A NEW CONCEPT 

Revolution is a unique game, because it allows you to create 
the most important part of any race game: the track itself. 

The first time you run Revolution, you will be able to choose 
from several tracks and cars which are included with the 
game. 

But, with Revolution, this is only the beginning! You can 
create as many tracks as you like. You can make each new 
track as difficult or as easy as you wish. You can make easy 
ones to begin with, and tougher ones as you become more 
skilled. You may find creating tracks to be almost as much 
fun as driving on them! 

You can save your favorite tracks to run on again whenever 
you wish. Revolution will automatically add these new tracks 
to the menu. And you can exchange your favorite tracks with 
other Revolution owners. 

Be careful, though, about letting your friends play this game. 
They may not want to let you have your computer back! 

THE EARLY REVOLUTION 


A prototype version of Revolution was published in the 
September, 1982 issue of Rainbow magazine, under the 
name The Track. The response to The Track has been terrific. 

Revolution has all the features that have made The TYack a 
favorite, and Revolution's fast, high-resolution machine 
language graphics are dramatically improved over the 
prototype’s. 

RE VOL UTION NOW! 


The original Revolution for the TRS-80™ Color Computer 
requires 32K and one disk drive. A new cassette version has 
action just like the disk version, and similar track-saving 
features excluding a menu of available tracks. The cassette 
version will run on a32KColor Computer or TDP-100. You 
can upgrade to the disk version later, too, for a nominal fee. 


REVOLUTION 
For 32K Disk 

. $24.95 

Requires Joysticks 

For 32 K Cassette . . 

. $21.95 

Extended BASIC 


Connecticut residents add 7 Vi % sales tax. 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 


Inter Action 

113 Ward Street • Dept. R • New Haven, CT 06519 • (203) 562-5748 


RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 

SEAL 



1 DISK 

i T 

f the I 

BASIC 

— 


j: i :« 


UTILITY 


QSORT For The 
TRS-80 Color Computer 

By C. J. Stearman 


This two part article brings to the Color Computer the fast and versatile 
number and string sorting routine, QSORT. In addition, we will explore the 
way numbers and strings are represented by Microsoft BASIC. 


S ooner or later the need arises in BASIC programs to 
sort large amounts of data. If you’ve arrived at this 
point and written BASIC routines to perform bubble 
sorts and the like, you know they can be painfully slow. Even 
a sort of tens of items can take upwards of a minute. There- 
fore, a machine code routine, callable from BASIC, would 
make a very useful addition to our utility program library. 

Sorting is a complex science and much research has been 
done to discover fast, efficient methods. Unfortunately I 
know little of the subject and was always on the lookout for 
articles describing sort methods. I finally came across one 
describing an implementation of Quicksort for the TRS-80 
Model 1 by Don Brumm (80 Micro, November, 1982). It 


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boasted some impressive sorting times; eight seconds to sort 
1000 strings, 23 seconds to sort 3000! 

I wanted this capability for my Color Computer and felt it 
worth the effort to develop a similar program. The result of 
this will be described in this and the next issue. I learned 
much about the way strings and numbers are handled by 
Microsoft BASIC and this knowledge is generally useful. 1 
also discovered ways of using BASIC functions (such as 
RND) from machine code. 

In this issue we will look at these subjects and implement 
the final algorithm in BASIC. The next issue will list the 
assembly language version and describe its operation in 
detail. 

Program Requirements 

If the final sort program was to be really useful, it would 
have to be versatile, as well as fast. Probably it would be 
necessary to trade off some speed to ensure that versatility. 1 
felt that it should be able to: 

*Sort string and number arrays 
*Sort in ascending and descending order 
*Sort strings in any character order 
*Sort parts of the array only 
*Contain thorough call error detection 
*Sort 1 and 2 dimensioned arrays 

^Include or exclude the second dimension in 2 dimension 
sorts 

*Sort either dimension in 2 dimension arrays 

The desirability of some of these features will become 

obvious as we get into this further. 

If we are to sort numbers and strings using a machine code 
routine it is going to be necessary to understand how these 
are stored by BASIC, so let’s explore that next. 

Inside BASIC 

BASIC used 5 bytes of storage to describe a number or 
string of characters. Numbers are stored in a floating point 
format within these 5 bytes. In the case of strings, the 5 bytes 
contain details of where the string is and how long it is. The 
string itself is elsewhere in memory. It is important to note 
that the Color Computer has no capability to store numbers 
as integers. This fact will figure in some decisions later. 


(Mr. St ear mart is Field Engineering Manager for Bos- 
ton Digital Corp., a manufacturer of precision, 
computer-controlled milling machines. He was horn 
and educated in England and has lived in the U.S.A. 
since 1970.) 


112 the RAINBOW July 1983 





FINALLY! 

A REAL SPREAD-SHEET PROGRAM FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

DYNACALC™ 


Business people use spread-sheets to organize columns and rows of figures. 
DYNACALC simulates the operation of a spread-sheet without the mess of paper and 
pencil. Of course, corrections and changes are a snap. Changing any entered 
value causes the whole spread-sheet to be re-calculated based on the new 
constants. This means that you can play, 'what if?' to your heart's content. 

But DYNACALC isn't just for accountants. DYNACALC can be used for just 
about any type of job. Not only numbers, but alphanumeric messages can be 
handled. Engineers and other technical users will love DYNACALC's sixteen-digit 
math and built-in scientific functions. There's even a built-in sort command, 
so you can use DYNACALC to manage small data bases - up to 256 records. 

DYNACALC will let your computer do just about anything you can imagine. 
Ask your friends who have VisiCalc, or a similar program, just how useful an 
electronic spread-sheet program can be for all types of household, business, 
engineering, and scientific applications. 

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Strings 

Looking at the 5 byte descriptor for a string, we find that 
the first byte contains a count of the number of characters in 
the string, and the third and fourth contain a 16 bit address 
of the first character. With these two pieces of information 
the whole string can be accessed. The second and fifth bytes 
are "reserved for the computer” to quote the manual, and 
seem to always be zero. So string desciptors are simple to 
understand. 


Numbers 

By comparison, numbers are much more complex. These 
5 bytes must store a decimal number in the range +/ -10 A 38! 
To do this, the number must be stored as a binary value in 
the form: 

MANTISSA x 2AEXPONENT 
where the mantissa is a 32 bit, signed binary number in the 
range: 

1 .0000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 (Base 2) 
to 

1.1111111 11111111 llllllll 11111111 (Base 2) 
and the exponent is an 8 bit, signed binary number in the 
range: 

-126 to +126 (Base 10) 

No doubt this looks pretty confusing! However, it is akin 
to the practice of representing numbers in scientific nota- 
tion. For example, the decimal value 123.456 can be repres- 
ented as 1.23456 x 10A2. Or the decimal number -0.00123 
becomes -1 .23 x 10 A -3. This action is called normalizing. In 
binary normalized numbers the mantissa is always in the 
signed range of 1 to 2 (inclusive of 1 but exclusive of 2). 

Looking at the way BASIC actually stores this, the first 



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byte contains the exponent. If the Most Significant Bit 
(MSB) is a zero the exponent is negative, if a 1 it’s positive. 
The remaining 7 bits describe the value of the exponent 
“plus one.” This “wrinkle” is needed because the number 
“zero” is a special case. It is represented by the exponent byte 
being zero. In this case, the 4 mantissa bytes are immaterial. 
However, an exponent of zero is a valid value, so the expo- 
nent must be “offset” by one to allow for its representation. 
This also explains why the exponent range is 126, not 127. 
Exponent 126 is stored as 127, the highest value which can 
be contained in 7 bits. 

As the mantissa is always “one point something,” this 1 
can be assumed, and the MSB of the most significant byte 
can be used to store its sign. This time a I indicates negative, 
and a 0 positive. 

If you’re thoroughly confused now, let’s look at a couple 
of examples. Take the decimal number 9.625 and “code” it 
first. It is represented in binary by 1001.101 (goingfrom the 
binary point right, the 1 represents U/ 2 ; then %; l'/ 8 etc.). 
Normalizing this, it becomes 1.001 101 x 2A3 (2A3 shown 
in decimal). The mantissa is positive, as is the exponent so 
the result is: 

Byte 1 : 10000100 (exponent+1) 

Byte 2 : 0001 1010 (sign + fraction) 

Byte 3 : 00000000 
Byte 4 : 00000000 
Byte 5 : 00000000 

As a second example, take the value -0.09375 (decimal). 
This is -0.0001 1 in binary. Normalizing it becomes -1.1 x 
2A-4 (mantissa in base 2, rest in base 10). Converting 
according to the rules above: 

Byte 1 : 01 1 1 1 101 (negative, ^4+1 in 7 bit 2’s 
complement) 

Byte 2 : 1 1000000 (negative and fraction part) 

Byte 3 : 00000000 
Byte 4 : 00000000 
Byte 5 : 00000000 

Having nearly 32 bits to represent the mantissa provides 
the ability to handle decimal numbers with 9 significant 
digits. Using the normalized format with an exponent of 7 
bits allows the large value range. 

Floating Point Accumulator 

Numbers are stored in memory as described above. How- 
ever, when a BASIC function uses them they are passed 
through the Floating Point Accumulator (FAC). This is six 
bytes in memory starting at 6F( Hexadecimal). Note it is six, 
not five. Numbers are represented in it slightly differently 
from in memory. Bytes 1,3,4 and 5 are the same. Byte 6 in 
the FAC is the same as byte 2 in memory. Byte 2 in the FAC 
is the same as byte 2 in memory, except that the MSB is 
always 1 . This arrangement allows byte 6 to represent the 
mantissa sign, while bytes 2 through 5 represent the true 
absolute value of it. 

Arrays 

When a string or number array is dimensioned in BASIC, 
a section of memory is used to represent it. The section 
comprises a header and then groups of 5 byte descriptors. 
This is true for either number or string arrays. In the former 
the 5 bytes contain the array element value; in strings, the 
length and pointer to the string. 

The header provides general details of the array. In the 
order of storage, the header contains: 

Byte 1 = First letter of name 

Byte 2 = Second letter of name (+128 if a string array) 


114 the RAINBOW July 1983 





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Byte 3 & 4 = 1 6 bit count of total bytes used by the array, 
including the header 
Byte 5 = Number of dimensions 
Byte 6 & 7 = 16 bit count of elements in last dimension 
Byte 7 & 8 = Ditto for next to last dimension 
Byte 9 & 10 = Ditto for first dimension 
Byte 1 1 = First byte of 5 byte descriptor of “zeroth” 
element 

This is for an array with 3 dimensions. If more or less, then 
more or less byte pairs are needed to detail the number of 
elements in each dimension. So it is immediately obvious 
that the number of bytes in the header is dependent upon the 
number of dimensions. 

The elements of the array itself are stored in an order with 
the leftmost dimension varying most rapidly. The array 
A(3,2,l) will be stored in ascending memory in the order: 
A(0,0,0) 

A( 1,0,0) 

A(2,0,0) 

A(3,0,0) 

A(0,1,0) 

A( 1,1,0) 

A(2, 1 ,0) 

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Knowing the address of the “zeroth” element thus enables 
us to locate any subscript descriptor in the array. 

The VARPTR Function 

Extended BASIC provides this function which returns the 
address of the variable descriptor supplied as its argument. 
This can be used to pass an array pointer from BASIC to a 
machine code routine. For example, the call X=USR 
(VARPTR(A(0,0))) will pass the address of the first byte of 
the 5 byte descriptor for that subscript variable. The 
machine code function INTCNV will put this value in regis- 
ter D of the microprocessor. Knowing the address of the 
“zeroth” element also provides us with the location of the 
array header. 

A word of caution is needed! BASIC moves the variables 
around in memory when a new one is introduced. So a new 
variable must not be created after a call to VARPTR before 
the result is used, as the value will no longer be valid. This 
can best be avoided by pre-assigning the variables at the 
beginning of the program. 

Using BASIC Functions 

As we will see later, one of the requirements of the Quick- 
sort Routine is the generation of a random number. Another 
is the conversion of a floating point number in the FAC to a 
16 bit integer. The second requirement is already available 
through a routine documented in the BASIC manual. It is 
called INTCNV and its address is B3ED (hexadecimal). 

However, the function which performs the RND function 
is not documented. Fortunately there’s a book called “The 
Facts for the TRS-80 Color Computer” published by Spec- 
tral Associates, which provides a considerable amount of 
information about the routines in BASIC. Amongst other 
data, it provides the dispatch table for the BASIC functions. 
The RND function happens to beat BF1F (hexadecimal). 1 
speculated that this probably took the argument from the 
FAC and returned a random number from 1 to the argu- 
ment to the FAC. Experimentation showed this to be so. 
Tests on other functions such as MEM, which returns the 
available memory, worked in a similar manner. 

With access to these functions, all that was required was a 
method of getting the FAC value into register D as a 16 bit 
integer (the INTCNV routine mentioned earlier), and 
another to do the reverse. This proved more difficult. 
BASIC does have a documented routine called GIVABF(at 
B4F4 hexadecimal) but this does too much and is really only 
useful for returning an integer value to a variable in BASIC. 
So I was forced to write my own for the QSORT program. 
This has limited capability but does adequately for the needs 
here. 

Quicksort 

We now have the tools to proceed with the sort routine. 
The general principle will be to exchange descriptors in the 
array so that it becomes ordered. This will conveniently 
handle both strings and number arrays. In the case of strings 
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The Algorithm 

Quicksort is a fast and simple process, but does entail 
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The general procedure involves the ordering of a parti- 
tion. Initially the whole array is taken as a partition. An 
element is selected from this partition and designated the 


116 theRAINBOW July 1983 



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comparand. Then each element is compared with this, start- 
ing from the low end. When one is found which is equal to or 
greater than the comparand, its subscript is noted. The scan 
is then started from the high end, looking for an element 
which is equal or lower than the comparand. When one is 
found, it is swapped with the element found on the upward 
scan. This is only done however, if the upward scan element 
was originally below the downward scan one. If so, then the 
upward and downward scan continues from where it left off, 
performing similar swaps. 

Eventually the selected element on the upward scan will 
not be below the one on the downward. At this point the 
selected elements will either be the same one, or the upward 
higher than the downward. The result is an array with all the 
elements below the upward scan selected element being 
equal or less than the comparand. All elements above the 
downward scan selected element will be equal to or higher 
than it. 

The partition must now'be split into two separate parti- 
tions. Then each partition has the same action peformed on 
it, until every partition is reduced to one element. When all 
partitions have been so reduced, the array is sorted. 

The partition to be divided is split into one with all ele- 
ments up to but not including the upward scan selected 
element. The other is made up of those elements from the 
downward scan, in a similar fashion. It is apparent from this 
that the data defining one partition must be saved while the 
other is further scanned. If the original array is limited to 
4096 elements and the data on the larger of the two resulting 
partitions is saved while the other is scanned, then the divid- 


ing process cannot result in more than 12 lots of data being 
stored at any one time. This is due to the fact that 4096 
cannot be divided by two more than 12 times before the 
result is unity. This is verified by the fact that 4096 is 2 A 1 2. 

This seemingly complex process is in fact extremely fast. 
Also its speed varies roughly linearly with number of ele- 
ments. Bubble sort times, in contrast, increase as the square 
of the number of elements. 

Selecting The Comparand 

The comparand is ideally chosen so that there are approx- 
imately equal numbers of elements in the resulting two 
partitions. To obtain this a median value should be chosen, 
as this will have as many elements lower than it as higher. 
Unfortunately, the process of calculating median values is 
itself time consuming. To avoid this problem, the compa- 
rand element is chosen at random from the partition. With 
larger enough partitions, the average result will be satisfa- 
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118 theRAINBOW July 1983 


ingly quick, sorting 100 numbers in around 18 seconds. This 
is significantly faster than a bubble sort. Listing 1 is by way 
of a demonstration program. You select the size of the array 
to sort. It then generates a random number array and sorts 
it. A display is given of the time taken to sort and the number 
of times Easysort was called. The program is easily con- 
verted to sort strings by changing array “N" to "N$” 
throughout and modifying the random array filling routine. 

The Quicksort routine itself is from line 200 through 990. 
Line 230 determines the size the partition below which Easy- 
sort is used. The Easysort routine is from line 1200 to the 
end. The remaining lines are involved with test set-up (10- 
140) and result display (1000-1 120). 

In the Quicksort routine the following variables perform 
these functions: 

SIZE sort array size 

N sorted array 

LS partition left end stack array 

RS partition right end stack array 
B current partition left end subscript 
E current partition right end subscript 

LI left scan pointer 

RI right scan pointer 

PTR partition stack pointer 
LSZ size of left section of split partition 
RSZ size of right section of split partition 
CMP subscript of selected random element 

The Quicksort routine breaks down into various sections. 
These sections will generally be duplicated in the machine 
code version later. Lines 200-220 initialize the pointers. Line 
230 selects either Quicksort or Easysort, depending on the 


size of the partition. Lines 300-380 determines which side of 
the divided partition to stack. Also tests are done to ensure a 
remaining partition has something in it. 

The left and right stacking is performed by lines 750-810 
and lines 850-910 respectively. Line 380 checks to see if the 
stack is empty. If so, the sorting is complete. If not, then lines 
950-990 unstack the next partition for sorting. Line 500 
selects the comparand at random. Lines 550-570 scan 
upward and 600-620 scan down. Finally line 700 tests the 
scan pointer for crossing. If not, the elements are swapped; if 
so, the scanning stops. 

Armed with this information it should be easy to follow 
the operation of both Quicksort and Easysort. 

The next issue will wrap this up with the complete assem- 
bly language listing and details on the features and uses of 
the routine. 


'^^20o' . . 


The listing: 


600. 

1000 

END 


0108 
0265 
03C5 
. 0593 


10 INPUT" ARRAY SIZE";SIZE 
20 IF SI ZE=0 THEN END 
30 IF SI ZE>4095 THEN 10 
40 INPUT "RESULTS TO PRINTER" ; A$ 
50 IF A$="Y" THEN DV=-2 ELSE DV= 
0 

60 DIM N (SI ZE> , LS ( 12) „ RS (12) 

70 FOR 1=0 TO SIZE 
80 N ( I ) =RND ( 1 000 ) 


B ear 
ones 


CASSETTE SOFTWARE 

(16-K NON-EXTENDED BASIC UNLESS NOTED BY* ) 


B ear 
ones 


SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES: 

GHOST GOBBLER NOW *19.95 

PLANET INVASION *21.95 

GALAX ATTAXX *21.95 

SPACE WAR *21.95 

DEFENSE *21.95 

SPACE RACE *21.95 

ANDROID ATTACK *21.95 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD *19.95 

SPACE INVADERS *14.95 

CCTHELLO *14.95 

COLOR ZAP *9.95 

MED SYSTEMS: 

MONKEY KONG *24.95 

PHANTOM SLAYER *19.95 

INVADER'S REVENGE *19.95 

TUTOR TAPES: 

VOWEL FUN-1 st GRADE *14.95 

MATH CHALLENGE-2nd GRADE . *14.95 
WORD MATCH-2nd GRADE . *14.95 

•SPECIAL-MOTOROLA ASSEMBLY 

PROGRAMMING CARD 

FOR 6809E *1.95 


COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE f 

£1 NEW RELEASES 


SOOPER PAC 
$2195 


BEAR 

BONES 


EXCITING ■ PROGRAMMABLE 
SELECT 3 SCREENS. SPEED & 
COLOR CHANGES. BONUS 
SHAPES. FANTASTIC ACTION 
- 30 SKILL LEVELS. 


WUIDIV RIDH D| IM command your chopper and 
VVnlKLT DIKU KUIN fight through the tunnel of 

DOOM! 


$2195 SPECTRAL 

LANCER 

$2195 SPECTRAL 

MS. GOBBLER* 

S21 .95 SPECTRAL 

PT/ ^ n . . a nn/MA/r MANUEVER YOUR SPEEDING CAR 

STORM ARROWo through THE CITY STREETS & 

' — ALLEYS WHILE AVOIDING STORM 

$21 .95 SPECTRAL gggWS & THE DREADED IMPERIAL 


1 OR 2 PLAYERS ■ MEDIEVAL 
COMBAT INCLUDES FLYING YOUR 
OSTRICH BETWEEN FLOATING 
ISLANDS. 


4 SCREENS. INVISO-MAZE AND 
MOVING BONUS FRUIT. 1 OR 2 
PLAYERS. 


SPACE SENTRY 

$14.95 SPECTRAL 

ALPHA SEARCH 
$10.95 


YOUR MISSION AS THE SENTRY IS TO 
DEFEND YOUR PATROL SECTOR 
FROM INCOMING INVADERS. 
30-TYPE WITH RADAR SEARCH 
PANELS. 

EDUCATIONAL - A CHALLENGING 
RACE TO GATHER THE ALPHABET 


MAIL TO: BEAR BONES SOFTWARE, INC. 

G-3117 CORUNNA RD„ SUITE 108 
FLINT, MICHIGAN 48504 


SPECTRAL EARLY ELEMENTARY GRADES. 

■ 

1 

1 

SHIP TO: 


Enclose Check or Money Order, Allow 

1 

NAME 


Two Weeks for Check to Clear. 

1 

1 

ADDRESS 


Money Orders Shipped Immediately. 

1 

CITY STATE 

ZIP 


ORDER FORM 


QTY. 

GHOST GOBBLER 

PLANET INVASION 

GALAX ATTAXX 

SPACE WAR 

DEFENSE 

SPACE RACE 

ANDROID ATTACK 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD 

SPACE INVADERS 

CC THELLO 

COLOR ZAP 

MONKEY KONG 

PHANTOM SLAYER 

INVADERS REVENGE 

SOOPER PAC 

__ WHIRLY BIRD RUN 

LANCER 

_ _ MS. GOBBLER ‘32K 

STORM ARROWS 

SPACE SENTRY 

ALPHA SEARCH 

VOWEL FUN 

MATH CHALLENGE 

WORD MATCH 

MOTOROLA PROG. CARD 

ORDER TOTAL: $ 
MICH. RES. ADD 4% TAX: _ 
TOTAL ENCLOSED: $ 


PRICE 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 119 


90 NEXT I 

100 PR I NT "SORT BEGINS" 

110 TIMER=0 
120 GOSUB 200 
130 GOSUB 1000 
140 RUN 

200 B=0:E=SIZE 
210 LI=0: RI=SI ZE 
220 PTR=0 

230 IF E-B>10THEN GOSUB 500ELSE 
GOSUB 1200: GOTO380 
300 LSZ= (LI-1 ) -B 
310 RSZ=E- (RI+1 ) 

320 IF LSZ=RSZ THEN 350 

330 IF LSZ >RSZ GOSUB 750 ELSE GO 

SUB 850 

340 GOTO 370 

350 IF LSZ<=0 THEN 380 

360 GOSUB 760 

370 I F < E-B ) < =0THEN 380 ELSE 230 
380 IF (PTR) =0 THEN RETURN 
390 GOSUB 950 
400 GOTO 230 

500 CMP=N ( RND ( E-B+ 1 ) +B- 1 ) 

550 FOR LI=LI TO E 

560 IF N (LI ) = >CMP THEN 600 

570 NEXT LI 



NEST 

SOFTWARE 

' WE GIVE A HOOT ' 


16K EXTENDED BASIC UNLESS NOTED. 

LABEL III — develop and maintain a mailing list 
Print lists or labels in your choice of 1, 2, or 3 wide. 


Supports 3 or 4 line addresses 


phone optional. e 
$19 95 


PROGRAM FILE — organize your cassette files 
Create and maintain a four field file Search, sort, 
modify, delete, and display on screen or printer 

$14 95 


DISASSEMBLER - ASSEMBLER (by Dynamic 
Electronics) Designed tor the beginner who wants to 
learn to write machine language programs 

(EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED) 

$19.95 


CASSETTE TAPES C-05 
$7.50 Dozen $9.50 - DOZEN WITH BOXES 
PLEASE ADD $1.50 PER DOZEN 
SHIPPING HANDLING 

VISA 7 

OWLS NEST SOFTWARE 
P O. BOX 579 
OOLTEWAH, TN 37363 



600 FOR RI=RI TO B STEP-1 
610 IF N (RI ) <=CMP THEN 700 
620 NEXT RI 

700 IF LKRI THEN T=N (LI ) : N (LI ) = 
n (R i ) :N(RI>= t:li=li+i:ri=ri-i:go 
TO550 

710 RETURN 

750 IF LSZ<=0THEN 790 

760 LS (PTR) =B 

770 RS (PTR) =LI-1 

780 PTR=PTR+1 

790 B=RI+1 

800 RI=E 

810 RETURN 

850 IF RSZ<=0 THEN 890 

860 LS (PTR) =RI + 1 

870 RS (PTR) =E 

880 PTR=PTR+1 

890 E=LI— 1 

900 LI=B 

910 RETURN 

950 PTR=PTR— 1 

960 B=LS (PTR) 

970 E=RS (PTR) 

980 LI=B: RI=E 
990 RETURN 
1000 T=TIMER 

1010 PRINT#DV, STRING* (30, "*"> 
1020 PRINT#DV, "ARRAY SIZE WAS "5 
SIZE 

1030 PRINT#DV, USING "SORT TIME WA 
S ###.## SECONDS" 5T/60 
1040 PRINT#DV, "CALLS TO EASISORT 
= ";CL 

1050 FOR 1=0 TO SIZE-1 

1060 IF N(I> >N(I + 1) THEN 1100 

1070 NEXT I 

1080 PRINT#DV, "SORT WAS SUCCESSF 
UL" 

1090 GOTO 1110 

1100 PRINT#DV, "SORT WAS UNSUCCES 
SFUL" 

1 1 10 PRINT#DV, STRINGS (30, > 

1120 RETURN 

1200 K=B 

1210 CL=CL+1 

1220 K=K+1 

1230 IF K>E THENRETURN 

1240 IF N (K) >=N (K— 1 ) THEN1220 

1250 TN=N (K) 

1260 I=K 

1270 N ( I ) =N ( I -1 ) 

1280 1=1-1 

1290 IF I=B THEN 1310 
1300 IF TN<N ( 1-1 ) THEN 1270 
1310 N ( I ) =TN 
1320 GOTO 1220 


120 the RAINBOW July 1983 




A WORD FROM THE SPONSOR 

Number five in these chats, and it is still too early to judge the 
results in our Name the Column contest. But I have received some 
excellent entries, and will have the winner next month. Stay tuned. 

At this point, I'd like to thank a few more magazines for giving our 
products great reviews in the past few months — in March, Color 
Computer News reviewed NEWTALK and Rainbow reviewed 
REMOTERM, while in April 80 Micro reviewed STAR-DOS. They 
all loved them . . . naturally. 

This month I thought you might be interested in some of my 
cassette procedures. 

While a number of outfits make leaderless computer cassettes, I 
distrust them. From my audio days, 1 know that the beginning and 
end of a reel-to-reel or cassette tape tend to get crinkled and 
develop dropouts. This can destroy a program copy, and so I 
wouldn’t use the beginning of a leaderless tape anyway. In that case, 
why pay extra for leaderless tape when you don’t use it? 

Instead, I buy 10-minute C-10 cassettes. These cassettes are 
available from a variety of sources, and cost about 50 to 80 cents 
each. I prefer to use one cassette per program, rather than put 
many programs on one tape and then have to search for them. 

All of these tapes have a leader, and so when you use them you 
must be careful not to record your program on the leader instead of 
the tape. Using fast forward to get past the leader may leave a bit of 
an old program on the tape just before the new one, and CoCo will 
have trouble separating them. Instead, my method is to do the 
following: First, make sure the tape is fully rewound. Then place 
the recorder in RECORD, and type the command MOTOR ON on 
the computer. This starts the recorder motor, so that you are 
recording although the computer is not yet writing anything to tape. 
This erases the beginning of the tape. In the meantime, type your 
CSAVE or CSAVEM command, but do not hit ENTER until you 
see that the tape is well past the leader. I usually give it about ten 
seconds before typing ENTER. This procedure not only makes sure 
that I get past the leader, but also guarantees that there is blank 
space before the program to make reading it easier. Works every 
time. 

For the disk users among you, I would like to announce two new 
products: STAR-DOS 64 and STAR FLEX. Both are disk 
operating systems for 64K computers. STAR FLEX is the famous 
FLEX system by Technical Systems Consultants, adapted for the 
CoCo, while STAR-DOS 64 is our own STAR-DOS, but modified 
for 64K computers. Both come with high resolution screens and 
have many features for the more advanced disk user. STAR FLEX 
is, of course, compatible with the large amount of software 
developed over the years for FLEX systems. STAR-DOS 64 will 
also run much of that software, but its big advantage (besides the 
fact that it is cheaper) is that its disk format is the same as Radio 
Shack’s. 

If you do not have a 64K system, then by all means consider the 
original STAR DOS. The upgrade from STAR DOS to STAR DOS 
64 is just the price difference between the two, so you can upgrade 
at any time. (But before getting any DOS for your CoCo, read our 
February advertisement!) 

That's it for this month. Until June, just remember: On a Clear 
Disk, You Can Seek Forever. 


SPELL ’N FIX 

Regardless of whose text processor you use, let SPELL 'N FIX find 
and fix your spelling and typing mistakes. It reads text faster than 
you can, and spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. It is compatible with all Color Computer text 
processors. $69.29 in the Radio Shack disk or cassette versions; 
$89.29 in the Flex version. (20,000 word dictionary is standard; 
optional 75,000 word Super Dictionary costs $50 additional.) 

HUMBUG - THE SUPER MONITOR 

A complete monitor and debugging system which lets you input 
programs and data into memory, list memory contents, insert 
multiple breakpoints, single-step, test, checksum, and compare 
memory contents, find data in memory, start and stop programs, 
upload and download, save to tape, connect the Color Computer to 
a terminal, printer, or remote computer, and more. HUMBUG on 
disk or cassette costs just $39.95, special 64K version for FLEX or 
STAR-DOS 64 costs $49.95. 

STAR-DOS 

A Disk Operating System specially designed for the Color 
Computer, STAR-DOS is fully compatible with your present Color 
Computer disk format — it reads disks written by Extended Disk 
Basic and vice versa. STAR-DOS for 16K or 32K systems costs 
$49.90; STAR-DOS 64 for 64K systems costs $74.90. 

STAR FLEX 

The best implementation of FLEX for the Color Computer. 
Complete with all utilities, text editor, macro assembler, and 
HUMBUG debug monitor, $250.00. 

ALL IN ONE — Editor Etc. 

Three programs in one — a full function Editor, a Text Processor 
and a Mailing List/Label program. All this for just $50. Requires 
STAR-DOS and 32K, or STAR-DOS 64, or FLEX, specify which. 

DBLS for Data Bases 

DBLS stands for Data Base Lookup System. A super-fast system 
for searching for a selected record in a sequential disk file. Supplied 
with SPELL 'N FIX’s 20,000 word dictionary as a sample data file — 
lets you look up the spelling of any word in under FOUR seconds. 
Priced at $29.95. Requires STAR-DOS. 

CHECK ’N TAX 

Home accounting package combines checkbook maintenance and 
income tax data collection. Written in Basic for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM 

REMOTERM — makes your CoCo into a host computer, operated 
from a remote terminal. $19.95. 

NEWTALK 

NEWTALK — a memory examine utility for machine language 
programmers which reads out memory contents through the TV 
set speaker. $20. 

SHRINK 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and 
extremely fast. $15. 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

Introduction to Numerical Methods — college level course on 
computer math, $75.00. 


Tj6_£a_-c 


We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State 
residents please add appropriate sales tax. 


Star-Kits 


P.O. BOX 209 - R 
MT. KISCO, N.Y. 10£49 
(914) 241-0287 


I 


PHOTOfest 

A Brief Pictorial of RAINBOWfest 



Had a wonderful time. Wish you were 
there. Fact is, several thousand of us were 
at RAINBOWfest and, by all accounts, it 
was a huge success. From Don Inman’s 
insightful breakfast address to the infor- 
mative seminars by Fred Scerbo, Dr. Hal 
Snyder, Charlie Roslund, E. R. Bailey, 
Lonnie Falk, Tom Nelson and Steve Bjork, 
to all the activities in the crowded Mayoral 
Ballroom exhibit hall, CoCo’s very first 
show was a time to learn, a time to explore 
and, perhaps most of all, a time to meet 
people. When will the next one be, and 
where? Stay tuned. We don’t think we can 
wait a year. 


122 the RAINBOW July 1983 


<<>•'** n J 




July 1983 the RAINBOW 123 





— 

16K 

L 


GAME 

ECB 


RAINBOW 1 


— 

WBMKBm 


Whatzit? 

Itz A Scrambled 
Word Game 


By Randall Smith 


Whatzit is a one or two player scrambled word game using 
PMODE 3 to generate the screen format and character set. 
The game requires 16K and Extended BASIC. I’m sorry to 
say that it doesn’t seem to want to run in a 1 6K machine with 
the disk drive attached. 

The game, as written, is geared toward the older child or 
adult. The word list can be easily changed to fit any age 
group. One thing I ’ve noticed in writing this game is the need 
to choose your list carefully, so as to reduce the number of 
words that consist of letters that would form a different 
word, when rearranged, to a minimum; e.g. BAT-TAB, 
KEEP-PEEK. I tried to use a word list that kept this prob- 
lem to a minimum, but I don’t think it’s possible to com- 
pletely eliminate the problem. The word list contains 232 
words. If you change it to a different number of words, the 
contents of lines 90 and 270 will have to be changed to match 
the number of words used. 

On running the program you are greeted with options to 
see the directions or bypass them, and to choose the number 
of players. The input is error trapped throughout, and 
screen and sound prompts will guide you through the game. 

The score given for each correct guess is a result of the 
formula in line 630 and is a function of both the time 
required and length of the word. You are given approxi- 
mately 30 seconds to enter the correct answer. If you mistype 
a letter the entry can be erased and started over by pressing 
the left arrow key. If you fail to guess the word the correct 
response will be displayed at the expiration of time. 

Enough about the playing directions; they’re well-docu- 
mented in the internal documentation. Let’s take a look at 
some of the logic of the program: 

LINES 

10-140 Sets up title screen, initializes variables 
150-260 Sets up the graphic screen 
270-370 Chooses word and scrambles it 

380 Determines placement of word on the screen 
390-420 Puts scrambled word on the screen 
430-490 Timing loop for answer 

500-550 Erases scrambled word and displays correct 
answer 


(Mr. Smith is a supervisor at a state training center for 
retarded citizens. He is an avid “Co Co Hacker” and is 
also pursuing a degree in computer technology.) 


560-570 

580-620 

630-650 

660-750 

760-820 

830-880 

890-1240 

1250-1320 


Sets up placement of keyboard entry on 
screen 

Reads and error traps keyboard entries, 

displays it on the screen 

Calculates score and gets the next word 

Displays end of game message 

Updates and displays scores after each word 

Word list 

Data for font set 

Directions for playing game 


The use of an incrementing scale value in the DRA W 
command, when displaying the scrambled word, results in 
the letters appearing to grow on the screen. Because of the 
varying lengths of the words, the beginning point for each 
word had to be figured to keep them centered. This was 
accomplished by the formula in line 560. The algorithm to 
scramble the word is in lines 280-340. Each word is checked 
in line 340 to be sure it is scrambled. 

The font set used to generate the characters in the game is 
of my own design and is made with a 5 x 7 matrix. I tried to 
make it resemble the screen character set as much as possi- 
ble. The font set can be utilized in your own programs by 
deleting all the lines in this program except lines 890-1240. 
These lines can then be saved to tape or disk and loaded back 
in memory before you begin writing the program. The size of 
the characters can be controlled by use of the scale factor in 
the DRA W command. 

Clearing the screen of the previous entries was done by 
using the PAINT command to fill in the box at the bottom 
of the screen with the background color. This method works 
well if you are clearing out an area completely enclosed by 
the same color. To clear out the center of the screen it was 
necessary to use the LINE, BF command with the back- 
ground color. These methods are both utilized in line 640. 

I feel the program is quite flexible for different situations. 
By customizing the word list it can be made suitable for all 
age groups or for special occasions like bridal or baby 
showers or to challenge people in different vocabulary areas; 
such as specialized technical field words, states, countries — 
well, you get the idea. We’ve played with it for over a year 
and I hope you get as much enjoyment out of it as we have. If 
you get a score of 8000 or greater you’ve done real well. So, 
get those thinking caps on and let’s play Whatzit! 


124 the RAINBOW July 1983 




The listing: 


7/ 

130.. 

. . 0271 

830.. 

870.. 

.. 0EC7 
...12A2 

240. . 

. . 04BF 

960.. 

... 1513 

410. . 

. . 074B 

1110 

... 1754 

590. . 

. . 097F 

1250 

.. 1A0C 

680.. 

. 0BAA 

END 

. . . 1D00 


10 ’ *#*WHATZ IT A WORD GAME*** 

20 ’ ***BY RANDALL A. SMITH*** 

30 ’ IF YOU CHANGE OR ADD TO THE 
40 ’WORD LIST, YOU WILL HAVE TO 
50 ’DETERMINE HOW MANY WORDS YOU 
60 ’HAVE AND ADJUST THE COUNT IN 
70 ’LINES 90 & 270 ACCORDINGLY 
80 CLS : SOUND200 , 1 : PCLEAR4 : PM0DE3 
, 1 : PCLSRND <4) : SCREEN 1 , RND (2) -1 : C 
LEAR350: DIM CH* (35) , U ( 10) , B < 12) , 
SC* (2) :T=RND< -TIMER) 

90 FOR X=1 TO 232: READ X*:NEXT:F 
OR X=0 TO 35: READ CH* ( X > : NEXT: RE 
STORE 

100 SOUND200, 2: FORX=1024 TO 1055 
:POKEX, 134: NEXT: FORX=1056 TO 147 
2 STEP32: POKEX , 134: POKEX+31 , 134: 
NEXT:FORX=1504 TO 1535: POKEX , 134 
: NEXT 

110 PRINTS225, "DO YOU WANT INSTR 
UCTIONS ( Y/N> ?" $ 

115 PRINT6170, "w h a t z i t"; 
120 IN*=INKEY*: IF IN*= ,, Y"THEN GO 
SUB 1250 ELSE IF IN*= ,,U THEN 120 
130 PRINT0225, " HOW MANY PLAYER 
S <1 OR 2)? 

140 PL*=INKEY*: IF PL*<>"1" AND P 
L*<>"2" THEN 140 ELSE PL=VAL(PL* 
> :SOUND200, 1 

1 50 PCLS : DRAW " BM0 , 1 2 ? C8 ; S8 " +CH* < 
30) +CH* (25) : GET (0, 0) - <28, 14) , U, G 
: GET <128, 96) -(156, 110) ,B 
1 60 PCLS : DRAW " BM83 , 1 2 ; SB ; C7 " +CH* 
(32) +CH* < 17) +CH* (10) 

170 DRAW CH* (29) +CH* (35) +CH* < 18) 
+CH* (29) 

1 80 DRAW " BM0 , 30 " +CH* ( 25 ) +CH* (21) 
+CH* (10) 

190 DRAW CH* ( 34 ) +CH* (14) +CH* ( 27 ) 
+CH* ( 1 ) 

200 DRAW “ BM0 , 48 " +CH* ( 28 ) +CH* (12) 
+CH* < 24 ) +CH* ( 27 > +CH* (14): COLORS , 
5: LINE <69, 33) -(126, 51) ,PSET,B 
210 IF PL=1 THEN 240 ELSE C0L0R7 
, 5: DRAW "BM 163, 30"+CH* (25) +CH* (21 
) +CH* (10) 

220 DRAW CH* ( 34 ) +CH* (14) +CH* ( 27 ) 
+CH* (2) 

230 DRAW " BM 1 9 1 , 48 " +CH* ( 28 ) +CH* ( 1 
2) +CH* (24) +CH* (27) +CH* ( 14) : COLOR 
8, 5: LINE (128, 33) -(185, 51) , PSET, B 
240 LINE (52, 171) -(200, 190) , PSET, 
B 


250 IF PL=2 THEN LP=2:PL=PL-1 
260 PUT (0,52) -(28, 66) ,U, PSET: SCR 
EEN1 , 1 

270 FOR WORD=l TO 10: FOR X=1 TO 
RND (232) : READ W*:NEXT X: RESTORE 
280 L=LEN(W*) 

290 W < 1 ) =RND ( L— 1 ) + 1 
300 FOR X=2 TO L 
310 W ( X ) =RND (L) 

320 FOR XX=1 TO X-1:IF W(XX)=W(X 
) THEN310 ELSE NEXT XX: NEXT X 
330 FOR X=1 TO L:W*(W(X) )=MID*(W 

*,x, 1 ):next x 

340 J*= ,,n :FOR X=1 TO l:j*=j*+w*( 
X ) : NEXT X:IF J*=W* THEN 290 
350 DRAW " BM65 , 1 87 ; C6 ; S8 " +CH* (17) 
+CH* (18) +CH* ( 29 ) 

360 DRAW " BM+ 1 0 , +0 " +CH* (14) +CH* ( 2 
3) +CH* (29) +CH* ( 14) +CH* (27) 

370 IF I NKEY*< >CHR* (13) THEN 370 
ELSE PAINT (128, 175) ,5,8 
380 L=LEN < J*) : M=INT ( 132- (21* (LEN 
(J*) /2) ) —21 ) 

390 FOR X=1 TO l:m=m+21:for S=1 
TO 10 STEP 3 

400 DRAW " BM " +STR* < M ) + " , 100;C6;S" 
+STR* ( S ) +CH* ( ASC (MI D* ( J* , X , 1 ) ) -5 
5) 

4 1 0 PLAY " V3 1 5 T230 ; L230 ; 03 ; A " : DR A 
W " BM " +STR* (M) +" , 100; C5j S" +STR* < S 
) +CH* ( ASC (MI D* ( J * , X , 1) ) —55) 



GUARDIAN 





by 

WILLIAMS® 


You've played "DEFENDER" at the arcade, but 
you've only seen the "attempted copies" for your 
Color Computer! Now get the real thing! 

Stunning sounds and explosions good enough to 
be approved by Williams Electronics (Makers of 
"DEFENDER"), 

Order now by check, M.O., C.O.D., or see your 
dealer ... (If he doesn't have it yet, send him to us!) 

$27.95 - Tape 
$29.95 - Disk 

Add $1.50 per order for postage and handling. 

California residents add 6%. 

QUASAR ANIMATIONS 
1520 Pacific Beach Drive 
San Diego, CA 92109 
(619) 274-2202 

WILLIAMS is a registered trademark of Williams Electronics. 

V J 



420 NEXT S:DRAW"BM"+STR*(M)+", 10 
0;C6;S12"+CH*(ASC(MID*(J*,X, 1) )- 
55): NEXT X 
430 T =2000 
440 GOSUB560 

450 T=T-l:IF T=0 THEN GOSUB470:G 

OTO650 

460 GOTQ580 

470 PLAY " T3 ; L3 ; V3 1 ; 0 1 ; B ; L2 ; A " 

480 PAINT (128, 175) ,5,8 

490 IF T>0 THEN GOSUB560: RETURN 

500 LINE (0,79) -<255, 100) , PRESET, 

BF 

510 M=INT ( 132— (21* (LEN (J*)/2)) —2 
1) 

520 FOR X=1 TO LEN(W*> :M=M+21 
530 DRAW " BM " +STR* (M) +" , 100; C8; SI 
2"+CH*(ASC(MID*<W*, X,2) )-55) :NEX 
T X 

540 FOR X=1 TO 1000: NEXT: LINE (0, 
79) - <255, 100) , PRESET, BF 
550 RETURN 

560 WW*= " " : M= I NT ( 1 30- ( 1 4*LEN ( W* ) 
/ 2 ) ) 

570 DRAW " BM " +STR* (M) + " , 187; C6; S8 
" : RETURN 

580 IN*=INKEY*: IF IN*=" "THEN GO 
TO450 

590 IF ASC (IN*) =8 THEN WW*= GO 

TO 610 ELSE IF ASC (IN*) =13 THEN 


START 

T ‘ 1! 


COMPUTER PROGRAMS 
TRS-B0 MODEL 1/3 16K LEVEL II 
TRS-B0 16K COLOR 


*3 FROG PACE *3 

DEMO PROGRAM FROG RACE COMES ON CASSETTE WITH A 
REFUND COUPON TO USE ON YOUR NEXT ORDER. 


FROG RRCE CRSSETTE *3. 


WITH CATALOG 


DUO-PRKS ARE 

*10 

EACH. 

PRK HO. 

PROGRAM SIDE 1 

/ 

PROGRAM SIDE 2 

DUO-PAK-1 

GONE FISHING 

/ 

CONCENTRATION 

DUO-PAK-2 

CRAPS 

/ 

SLOT-MACHINE 

DUO-PRK-3 

STARSHIP 

s 

SHERLOCK HOLMES 

DUO-PPK-4 

TANK ATTACK 

/ 

ASSOCIATION 

DUO-PRK-3 

NUMBER GUESS 

/ 

DICE ROLL 

DUO-PRK-6 

IN-BETWEEN 

/ 

SHELL GAME 

DUO-PAK-7 

SAFARI 

/ 

STARSHIP-2 

DUO-PAK-8 

MORTAR BATTLE 

s 

PUZZLE 

DUO-PRK-9 

TEASERS 

/ 

MOUSE 

DUO-PRK-10 

PT BOAT 

/ 

TURTLE RACE 

DUO-PRK-1 1 

CHEK-CHES 

/ 

STARSHIP-3 

DUO-PRK-12 

THINK 

/ 

LUCK l LOGIC 

DUO-PRK-1 3 

TREASURE ISLANO 

/ 

RESCUE 

DUO-PRK-300 

DC-OHMS LAW 

/ 

FLC-FRC 

DUO-PRK-301 

IC-TIMER-1 

/ 

IC-TIMER 2 

$*t*txt*$:t*i:t*x***xx*t***x**x***t**$*xx**t***.x* 

SYSTEM PROGRAMS 


*10 EACH 

SU1 

CASSETTE COPY 

/ 

CASSETTE COPY 


*********************************************** 
ORDERS WILL BE SENT BY FIRST CLASS MAIL PPD. 
SORRY NO COD'S 

BE SURE TO SPECIFY WHICH COMPUTER YOU HAVE. 

B. ERICKSON P.O. BOX 11099 

CHICAGO, IL. 6061 1 


620 ELSE IF ASC (IN*) <65 OR ASC(I 
N*)>90 THEN GOTO450 
600 IF LEN(WW*)=LEN(W$) THEN 450 
ELSE DRAW CH* ( ASC ( IN*) -55) : WW$= 
WW*+IN*:GOTO450 

610 PAINT (128, 175) ,5,8: GOSUB560: 
GOTO450 

620 IF WW*=W* THEN PLAY" V31 ; L10; 
T100;O3;A;B;C;D;E;F;G" ELSE GOSU 
B470: IF T>0 THEN 450 ELSE G0T065 
0 

630 SC*(PL)=STR*( <INT< <LEN<W*)*3 
0)+T/2.86) )+VAL(SC*(PL) ) ) : GOSUB7 
60 

640 FOR X=1 TO 500: NEXT: LINE (0,7 
9) -(255, 100) , PRESET, BF: PAINT (128 
, 175) ,5,8 

650 NEXT WORD: IF LP=2 THEN PL=PL 
+1 : LP=0: PUT (0, 52) - (28, 66) , B: PUT ( 
227,52)- (255,66) , U, PSET : PLAY " T3 ; 
L3; 03; V31 ; g; L3; 02; G" : GOTO270 
660 IF PL=2 THEN PUT (227, 52) - <25 
5, 66) , B ELSE PUT (0, 52) - (28, 66) , B 
670 DRAW"BM13, 100; C7; S16"+CH* ( 16 
) +CH* ( 10) +CH* (22) +CH* (14) 

680 DRAW " BM 1 45 , 1 00 " +CH* ( 24 ) +CH* < 
31) +CH* (14) +CH* ( 27 ) 

690 DRAW " BM65 , 1 87 ; C6 ; S8 " +CH* (17) 
+CH*(18)+CH*(29) 

700 DRAW "BM+10, +0" +CH* (14) +CH* ( 2 
3 ) +CH* ( 29 ) +CH* (14) +CH* ( 27 ) 

710 IF VAL(SC*<1) ) >VAL(SC*(2) ) T 
HEN DRAW " BM 1 07 , 25 " ELSE DRAW"BM1 
49,25" 

720 DRAW " S4 ; C8 ; NU5 ; NE5; NR5 ; NF5 ; N 
D5; NG5; NL5; NH5" : FOR X=1 TO 100: N 
EXT 

730 DRAW " C5 ; NU5 ; NE5; NR5 ; NF5 ; ND5 ; 
NG5; NL5; NH5" : FOR X=1TO100: NEXT 
740 IF INKEY*OCHR*<13) THEN 720 
750 SC* ( 1 ) = " 0 " : SC* ( 2 ) = " 0 " : SCREEN 
0,0: GOTO 130 

760 L=LEN (SC* (PL) ) — 1 : ON PL G0T07 
70,780 

770 PA I NT ( 98 ,36) ,5,8: M= I NT < 1 0 1 — ( 

14*L/2) -14) : GOTO790 

780 PAINT ( 158, 36) ,5,8: M=INT < 160- 

<14*L/2)-14> 

790 FOR SC=2 TO L+l : M=M+14: DRAW" 
BM"+STR* (M) +" , 48; C6; S8" 

800 DRAW CH* (ASC (MID* (SC* (PL) , SC 
, 1) )-48) 

810 NEXT SC 
820 RETURN 

830 DATA SIRLOIN, HELP, ASSIST, DON 
E, REMEMBER, WORK, LADY, NAME, PROGRA 
M , NUMBER , C I GAR , GRAPH , D I SH , MOTOR , 
ENGINE, BODY, AUTOMOBILE, TRUCK, SWE 
EP , LAMP , L I GHT , D I SPLAY , REC I PE , AUT 
OMATIC, FEATURE, ADVENTURE, CONTEST 




126 the RAINBOW July 1983 




, MEMORY , QU I CK , MACH I NE , ANNUAL , HUN 
DRED, THOUSAND, SUGAR, BECAU 
840 DATA BOOK, PAPER, AUTHOR, COAL, 
FUEL, STOVE, BUCKET, PAIL, LAZY, QUIT 
, CHURCH , CHAPEL , STAR , SH I P , COMET , P 
LANET, ROCK, ROCKET, INDEX, EQUAL, EV 
EN , S A I L , SHELL , OYSTER , LOBSTER , PLE 
ASE , RELEASE , ED I TOR , WR I TE , POWERFU 
L, SCREEN, ALLOW, SAMPLE, THROUGH, MA 
NY , PURSUE , EACH , COPY , BOMB 
850 DATA FACE, NOSE, CHEEK, BONE, FA 
T, MUSIC, TELEVISION, RADIO, LAW, SEN 
I OR , J UN I OR , FRESH , SCHOOL , L I FT , R A I 
SE , LOWER , MED I UM , PL A I N , H I LL , F ARME 
R , RANCH , W I NG , SOME , OTHER , BEL I EVE , 
THIS, JUST , W I LD , MOTHER , FATHER , UNC 
LE , AUNT , SHOCK , E X ACT , GENEROUS , BRO 
WN , BLUE , GREEN , PURPLE , E I GH 
860 DATA INDIAN, STATE, COUNTRY, TH 
AT , POL I CE , PECAN , WALNUT , BROOM , SAG 
E, PEPPER, MALT, DRUG, STAMP, ENVELOP 
E, HEAT, CLEAN, DIRTY, CARPET, SOFA, C 
OUCH, TABLE, FLOWER, SHACK, LOOK, SHO 
E , PANTS , DRESS , SH I RT , SOCK , M I TTEN , 
GLOVE , STRANGE , C I T Y , TOWN , BR I GHT , B 
EAUT I FUL , NOVEL , SW I NG , FORM 
870 DATA CABINET, DRIFT, FLOAT, PRE 
TEND , AUD I O , DOCTOR , DENT I ST , NURSE , 
RENT , LEASE , SK I LLET , BRO I L , BAKE , FR 


Y , HAMMER , MOVE , CH I CKEN , DUCK , GOOSE 
, HORSE , PONY , COLT , KN I GHT , R I DE , PAN 
, POT , MORTGAGE , PRETEND , PLAY , TENT , 
KNOW , TEACH , DR I NK , DARK , VO I CE , HOTE 
L , MOTEL , I NT I MATE , STORY , ST 
880 DATA SIZE, CENTER, FORWARD, GUA 
RD , TACKLE , GOAL , BACK , GROUND , PRESE 
NT , G I FT , LOCKER , C I RCLE , FLOWER , CRY 
STAL, JEWEL, COFFEE, FLEA, CRIME, MUR 
DER, HOLD, UGLY, PRETTY, MILD, GENTLE 
, HAMMER , BALL , THE I R , THEY , WERE , G I R 
L , WARM , SOFT , Y I ELD , CREATURE , FAST , 
SLOW, EVERYONE, SUCH, END 
890 DATA "BUl;U4;Ei;R2;Fl;D4;Gi; 
L2; Hi ; BD1 ; M+4, -6; BD6; BR3" 

900 data "BU5;BRi5Ei;D6;NLl;Ri;B 
M+4, +0" 

910 DATA "NR4;Ul;BU3;Ul;El;R2;Fl 
;Dl;Gl;Ll; G2; BM+7, +1 " 

920 DATA ”BU5;El;R2;Fl;Dl;Gl;NL2 
; F l ; D l ; G 1 ; L2 ; NH l ; BM+7, +0" 

930 DATA "BU3;NR4;M+3,-3;D6;BM+4 

,+ 0 " 

940 DATA "BU4;NR3;U2;R4;BD2;BLl; 
Fl ; D2; Gl ; L2; Hi ; BM+7, +1 " 

950 data "BU6;BR3;NFi;L2;Gl;D2;N 
R3; D25 Fl ; R2; El ; ui ; Hi ; BM+4, +3" 

960 DATA "Ul;BU5;R4;Dl;M-4,+4;BM 
+7, +1 " 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 127 





970 DATA "BU1?U1;E1;R2;E1;U1?H1; 
L2;gi?di;fi?R2;F1;di;gi;L2;hi;bm 
+7, +1 " 

9B0 DATA "BUl;Fl;R2;El5U4iHl;L2; 
Gi ? Dl ; Fl ? R3? BM+3, +3" 

990 DATA "U5;E1;R2?F1;D3;NL4?D2; 
BR3" 

1000 DATA "U6;R3;Fl;Dl;Gl?NL3;Fl 
; D l ; G 1 ; L3 ; BR7 " 

1010 DATA "BUI ; U4; El ; R2? Fl ; BD4 ; g 
i;L2;Hl;BR7;BDi" 

1020 DATA "R1;U6;NL1;R2;F1;D4?G1 
?L2?BR6" 

1030 DATA "U3;NR3?U3;R4;BD6;L4?B 
R7" 

1040 DATA " U3 ; NR3 ; U3 ; R4 ; BD6 ; BR3 " 
1050 DATA "BU1;U4;E1?R3;BD4;NL1; 
D2;L3?H1?BR7;BD1" 

1060 DATA “U3; NR4; U3; BR4? D6; BR3" 
1070 data "BU6;bri;ri?nd6;ri?bri 
?BD6;BL1;L2?BR6" 

1080 DATA "BU2; Dl ; Fl ; R2? El ? U5? BD 
6;BR3" 

1090 DATA "U6?BR4?M-4,+3?M+4,+3; 
BR3" 

1100 DATA "NU6? R4? BR3" 

1110 DATA" "U6; M+2, +3; M+2, -3; D6; B 
R3" 



UPSET 

ABOUT POOR 
VIDEO QUALITY? 
We can fix it ! 



Designed] 
by 

Oennis B. 

KitsgJLl. 


ASSEMBLED LOWER CASE MODULE $69.95 
Easy to install - No software changes 
-Adds lower case with true descenders. 
BOARD ONLY $12.00 



TV Buff 

will give standard NTSC 
video output for virtually 
any monitor $ 9 96 


send $1.00 for our 
complete catalog 


dealers call (212) 499 -5400 


WORLD ELECTRONICS 

177 27th Street 
Brooklyn , N.y. 11232 


1120 DATA ,, U6?M+4,+6;U6;BD6?BR3" 
1130 DATA " U6 ; R4 ; D6 ? L4 ? BR7 " 

1140 DATA "U6;R3;Fl;Dl;Gl;L3SD35 
BR7" 

1150 DATA "BU1;U4;ei;R2;fi;D4;gi 
? L25 HI ; BE1 ; BR1 ; F2; BR3" 

1160 DATA "U6;R3;Fl;Dl;Gl JL3;R1; 
M+3, +3? BR3" 

1170 DATA "BUl;Fl5R2;El;Ul;BU35H 
l ; L2; Gi ; Dl ; M+4, +2; BR3; BD2" 

1180 DATA "BU6;R2;ND6;R2;BD6jBR3 

II 

1190 data m bui;U5;br4;D5;gi;L2;h 
1 ; BD1 ; BR7" 

1200 DATA "BU6?M+2,+6;M+2,-6?BD6 
; BR3" 

1210 DATA "U6;BR4;D6;m-2,-2;nui; 
m-2,+2?br7" 

1220 DATA "Ul;M+4,-4;Ul?BL4;Dl;M 
+4,+4?Di?BR3" 

1230 DATA "BR2;U3;M-2,-2;Ul;BR4; 
Dl ; M— 2, +2; BD3; BR5" 

1240 DATA "BU6; R4; M-4, +6; R4; BR3" 
1250 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" IN whatz 
it A SCRAMBLED GROUPDF LETTERS 
WILL APPEAR. YOU WILLHAVE APPROX 
IMATELY THIRTY SEC- ONDS IN WHI 
CH TO FIGURE OUT THE CORRECT WOR 
D THESE LETTERS FORM AND ENTER T 
HEM ON THE KEYBOARD. " 

1260 PR I NT "IF YOU MAKE A TYPING 
ERROR, YOU MAY HIT THE KEY A 

ND START OVER. IF YOU < ENTER > 
THE WRONG ANSWER, IT WILL BE ER 
ASED AND YOU MAY RE-ENTER IT A 
S TIME AL-" 

1270 PR I NT "LOWS. THE GAME MAY BE 
PLAYED BY EITHER ONE OR TWO PEO 
PLE. PRINT: PRINT" HIT ANY KE 
Y TO CONTINUE"? 

1280 IF INKEY$=" "THEN 1280 
1290 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT" EACH PL A 

YER GETS TEN RANDOM- LY CHOSEN W 
ORDS IN EACH ROUND. YOUR SCORE 
IS BASED ON BOTH THE AMOUNT OF T 
I ME YOU USE AND THE LENGTH OF T 
HE SCRAMBLED WORD. " 

1300 PR I NT "PLEASE NOTE THAT YOUR 
ANSWER IS NOT COMPLETE UNTIL YO 
U PRESS < ENTER >. THE TIMER DO 

ES NOT START UNTIL ALL THE S 

CRAMBLED LETTERS ARE ON THE SC 
REEN. FOL- LOW THE PROMPTS AS TH 
EY APPEAR ON THE SCREEN AND GOO 
D LUCK ! ! " 

1310 PRINT: PRINT" HIT ANY KEY TO 
BEGIN THE GAME" 

1320 IF I NKE Y $= " " THEN 1320 ELSE 
CLSRND (8) : GOTO 130 

/f^\ 


128 the RAINBOW July 1983 





WORKSAVER RECEIVES 
RAVE REVIEWS 

FROM COLOR COMPUTER NEWS AND RAINBOW 


• Fast Entry of 
Basic Programs 

• Over 100 user 
definable keys 

• Enhances all Coco’s , 
from 16K Non Extended 
Basic to Extended, 64K, 
Disk 

• Available on Disk or 
cassette 

• Built in cassette merge 

• User’s Support Service 


L m CLOSE in p E EI(l 

IHijg 

= IKYS [71 LIST 171 RNI 

QDI 


TAN( Q USING 0 RUN 


ERASE LST KEY 


"There are a number of 
products on the Coco 
market. ..the WORKSAVER 
ranks up there with the 
best of them" 

— Rainbow Dec. '82 

"...undoubtedly the best 
''program I have ever 
bought for my color 
computer" 

—Color Computer News 
Jan. ’83 

"the main function of the 
program seems to be mak- 
ing things easier and more 
functional for the user. It 
succeeds extremely well" 
—Color Computer News 
Jan. ’83 


u 

p 

G 

R 

A 

D 

E 

Y 

O 

U 

R 


THE WORKSAVER WILL SAVE YOU HOURS OF WORK...WRITING AND DEBUGGING YOUR PROGRAMS ” 

— Rainbow Dec. '82 


FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

I "WANT TO CHANGE the line a 
I couple lines up? Simple. Use the I 
I arrow keys to the appropriate 
I place and make the change. This is 
| not only a lot easier, but it is vastly I 
faster, too. ..changing line 
I numbers, joining lines together, 

I breaking them apart, duplicating I 
I them elsewhere — heady stuff — is 
very easy to do with the I 
| Worksaver" (Rainbow) 


DYNAMIC EDITING 

This is one of our users’ favorite 
features: When the computer halts 
due to an error, or you want to 
make an improvement while run- 
ning, you can make changes 
without losing data: “This is a ma- 
jor plus in debugging. ..it can save I 
a lot of time in data loads. ..(and) | 
the generation of data through in- 
puts. ' ‘ Rainbow Dec. '82 | 


"The things that this program 
add to the color computer... 

INCREASE ITS 
CAPABILITIES MANIFOLD 

...it should have been incor- 
porated into the original 
MICROSOFT programming (or) 
given out with every color com- 
puter." 

—Color Computer News Jan '83 


THE PLATINUM WORKSAVER 
INCLUDES: 

• Enhancement program, including a 
sample array editor on a high-quality 
Agfa cassette. 

• Fully labeled acetate keyboard over- 
lay, not a cheap stick-on. 

• Complete instructions 

• Loads in seconds, takes 2.2 K 


WORKSAVER A1-A3 OWNERS: 

Contact us regarding return policy for 
our New A-4 version. 


The PLATINUM WORKSAVER costs 
$35.00 plus $3.00 S&H (NY residents 
add appropriate tax). To order write: 

PLATINUM SOFTWARE 
P.O. Box 833 

™ Plattsburgh, N.Y. 12901 

Phone orders: (518) 643-2650 9-5 EST 

VISA, MASTERCARD ACCEPTED PERSONAL CHECKS 
TAKE 2-3 WEEKS TO PROCESS 


DYNAMIC INPUT 

Perform numeric calculations, 
and check the contents of ar- 
rays and variables, WITHOUT in- 
terrupting the running of BASIC 
programs: "An EXTREMELY \ 
valuable feature that I use ALL 
the time. ” 

—Color Computer News Jan. '83 


NUMERIC KEYPAD 
CONVERSION 

"The keys JKLUIOP are defined \ 
as the numbers t-7. respective 
ly...this mode is a Godsend for \ 
long data statements." 

—Color Computer News Jan. '83 


FULL FEATURED 
4 COLOR 

KEYBOARD OVERLAY 

"TRUTH: The WORKSAVER 
overlay is the best we have 
seen lor this type of program . " 
—The Rainbow Dec. '82 

"A well designed keyboard 
overlay (NOT a sticker... " 

— Color Computer News Jan. 

'83 


c 

0 

L 

O 

R 

C 

O 

M 

P 

U 

T 

E 

R 







the 


RAINBOW 


16K 

KCB 


To Create 


EDUCATION NOTES 


Learning 


Forms of Sub 




By Steve BI^q, 
Rainb9p€oattibuting Editor 


_ •- . • -■> 


W hen was the last time you filled out a form? 1 
sometimes feel that I am constantly asked to fill out 
a form of one kind or another. 

A surprising number of students are unable to independ- 
ently complete many forms and applications. In a world full of 
forms, it is essential to have the ability to fill them out 
properly. Too often, mistakes are made by handlers of these 
forms even after we have completed them correctly. Let’s at 
least learn to do our part right. 

We have all had experiences filling out charge, employ- 
ment, school, social security, motor vehicle, bank account, 
health insurance, and innumerable other forms and applica- 
tions. Yet, this is not a subject often taught in our schools. It 
really should be taught as part of a “survival education” or 
“life preparation” course. Too frequently, children encounter 
these legalistic looking papers for the first time when they 
actually have to fill them out for a real purpose. 

This month’s program offers practice and some teaching of 
a few of the common elements of applications. It is by no 
means a comprehensive course in filling out forms. It is merely 
a start on this path. 

You may be surprised to find which items confuse certain 
children. 1 am constantly surprised by this. My own 10 year 
old was totally baffled on whether his borough or city should 
go into the “city” space. (The borough is usually the expected 
correct response in New York City.) Many children who are 
well aware of the answer are confused about exactly how they 
should enter their date of birth. Don’t be surprised when 
unusual answers occur. A common answer to the questions of 






130 the RAINBOW July 1983 



“sex” for many children is “yes” or “no” rather than “male" 
or “female.” This is the time and place for the kids to learn 
the correct responses. 

Much effort went into anticipating the various possible 
mistakes that children may make on the individual items. 
For example, line 250 will automatically insert a comma 
after the name of the city. Lines 310 and 340 will similarly 
place parentheses around the area code in a telephone 
number. 

Some items on applications have variable lengths. As 
much room as possible was left to accommodate names of 
persons and cities. Other items, however, have definite 
lengths. This program coaxes the child to use only the 
correct number of entries. For example, the L) .S. Post Office 
has two letter abbreviations for all of the 50 states. No 
periods are used anymore. Line 260 checks to see if two 
letters were used for the state’s entry. If other than two 
letters are used, the program goes to line 520 where the 
message “all states use two letters" is flashed. Then the child 
is always given another chance to enter the item correctly. 
Area codes, zip codes, and telephone numbers have similar 
error trapping and messages. Of course, if you live in an area 
that has different rules, then change the values in the 
appropriate places to reflect your needs. 

Most applications expect two digit answers for data of 
birth questions. February 20, I960, usually appears as 
02/ 20/60. This program reinforces the use of two digits and 
cheats on lines 430 and 450 for improper month or date 

f Mr. Blyn, who teaches both exceptional and gifted children, holds 
two Master 's degrees in the field of education and has won an award 
for the design of a computer program to aid handicapped children. 

He and his wife, Cheryl, own Computer Island.) 


entries. Line 630 prints the error message for these re- 
sponses. 


After the last entry is completed, the message “your appli- 
cation is accepted" is scrolled across the bottom of the 
screen. Other possible items that you may wish to include in 
an enlarged version are sex, date, height, weight, hair and 
eye color, references, etc. 

We welcome your comments as well as the opinion of any 
youngsters who make use of this program. Let’s hear from 


you. 

The listing: 


\ 


Y 

120. . 

. . 01B9 

430.. . 

560.. . 

. . 0590 
. . 0858 

260. . 

. . 036C 

END . 

. 0AC7 


10 REM*STEVE BLYN, COMPUTER ISLAN 
D 

20 CLEAR500 

30 CLS:PRINT@96, "DO YOU HAVE A P 
R INTER TURNED ON": INPUT PR*: IF L 
EFT* ( PR* , 1 ) =" Y" THEN PR= 1 
40 P0KE359, 57: SCREEN0, 1 : REM***# 
♦LET’S USE A DIFFERENT COLORED 
SCREEN FOR A WELCOME CHANGE 
50 CLS 

60 PRINT06, "*appl ication form*"; 
70 PRINT032, "NAME: "; 

80 PRINT069, " 


90 PRINT® 102, "LAST FI 

RST" ; 

100 PRINT037, "" » : LINE INPUTL*:SO 




Of Course! And Educational Too! 


"Hello, I'm Merlapple™ Ihe Wizard. My friends and I from Foiled Library Book Company are helping grade school 
children all over the United Slates build logic, math and language skills through six unique programs designed for Ihe 
Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer. 

These widely acclaimed, award winning games from The Learning Company capture the fancy and test the reasoning pro- 
cesses of boys and girls ages preschool through thirteen. Using both high and low resolution graphics, the games range from easy to "mind-boggling", each offering a 
distinct challenge to its players. "How-to-play" enadmenls contribute to program understanding, while noth graphic and musical feedback enhance learning. 


The six outstanding programs offered include Juggles Rainbow™, Bumble Plot™, Bumble Games™, Magic Spells™, and Moplown Hotel™. To order 
any or all of the above programs, please return the order form below. 


I 

I PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANCE 


SOFTWARE ORDER FORM 


RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER (16K EXTENDED BASIC) 



CASSETTES 

DISKETTES 

PROGRAM 

TITLE 

0R0ER 

NUMBER 

PRICE 

QUANTITY 

ORDER 

NUMBER 

PRICE 

QUANTITY 

Juggle s Rainbow 

90202C 

$37 


902020 

$50 


Bumble Games 

90200C 

S45 


902000 

$65 


Bumble Plot 

9020 1C 

S45 


902010 

$65 


Magic Spells 

90203C 

$40 


90203D 

$55 


Moplown Hotel 
(3 programs) 

90204C 

S30 


90204D 

$35 


Moplown Parade 
(8 programs) 

9020SC 

$40 


9020SD 

$45 



TOTAL 


TOTAL 



CHECK ENCLOSED □ <jg$l □ □ EXP. DATE 


CHARGE CARD # 


Name 

School/Library Disl. # 

Address 

City State Zip 

Phone No of Person Originating Order 

Your FLB Acct. # P.O. # 



FOLLETT LIBRARY BOOK CO. 

4506 Northwest Highway, Crystal Lake. IL 60014 

TOLL-FREE 800-435-6170 

In Illinois. Hawaii. Alaska call collect: 815-455-1100 


J 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 131 




UND170, 3 

110 PRINTS52, " " : PRINT052, " " ; : LI 
NE INPUTF*: SOUND200, 3 

120 PRINT@64, " " : PRINT096, * 

♦♦REMOVES LAST AND FIRST 
130 PR I NT@96, "ADDRESS: "; 

140 PRINT® 136, " 

II ■ 

150 PR I NT® 169, "STREET AND NUMBER 

II ■ 

J 

160 pr i nt@ 104, ""; : line inputs*: so 

UND100, 3 

170 IF LEN(S*)>24 THEN PRINT0104 
, LEFT* (S*, 24)+" 

180 PR I NT® 132, " " :PRINT@160, " " 
190 GOSUB200: GOTO210 

200 PRINTQ160, " 

" ; : RETURN 

210 PRINTTAB < 10) "CITY"TAB (22) "ST 
ATE " TAB (28) "ZIP" 

220 PR I NT® 128, " " ; : LINEINPUTC*: SO 
UND 1 25 , 3 

230 CC=LEN(C*> : IF CC>22 THEN PR I 
NT® 128, " " : PR I NT® 128, LEFT* (C*, 22 
) 

240 IFCC>22 THEN CC=22 

250 PR I NT® 1 28+CC , " , " 5 

260 PR I NT® 152, : LINEINPUTST*: I 

F LEN (ST*) < >2 THEN GOTO 520 



The pyramids of brightly colored cubes would be a simple 
challenge for your little Bloc Head - IT it weren’t for the 
dispicable characters after him, who try to push him off 
the cubes before he can change their colored surfaces! 
Bloc Head must dodge the sinister springs, bad eggs, & 
other evils. Luckily the good guys give him points and 
two elevators help him escape to the top of the pyramid, 
leaving the evil pursuers behind. Bloc Head knows that if 
he can just clear the pyramid of cubes, he goes to the next 
level of play, always adding up points, 
cassette I 26 l)5 disk *29 9S add *2°° shipping 

RAINBOW 

CA 92024 

Dealer Inquiries Invited (619) 436-3512 



COMPUTERWARE 


Box 668 • Encinitas, 


270 SOUND 150,3 

280 PR I NT® 1 55 , " " j ! L I NE I NPUT Z*: 
IF LEN (Z*) 05 THEN GOTO 530 
290 SOUND 180,3 

300 PR I NT® 160, " " : PRINT6192, " " 
310 PR I NT® 192, "TELEPHONE #: ( ) 

II 

320 PRINTS236, " "S 

330 PR I NT@205 , " " S : L I NE I NPUTT* : I F 
LEN (T*) 03 THEN 540 
340 PRINT@208, "> "? 

350 PRINT@210, " ":PRINT@210, : 
LINE INPUT TT* : I FLEN ( TT* ) < >8 THE 
N 550 

360 IF M I D* ( TT *,4, 1><>"—" THEN 55 
0 

370 PR I NT0224 , " " : PR I NT6256 , " AGE 
: "; :PRINT@292, " — "; 

380 PR I NTS260 , " " : PR I NT0260 , " " 5 : 
LINE I NPUT AG* 

390 IF VAL (AG*) < 1 OR VAL(AG*)>99 
THEN GOTO 560 

400 PRINTS264, "DATE OF BIRTH:";: 

PRINT@310, " "; 

410 PRINT0342, "MO.DA. YR. "5 
420 NN= 1 2 PR I NT0278 , " " : PR I NT@27 
8, " " j : L I NE I NPUTMO* : I FLEN (MO*) < >2 
THEN GOTO 570 

430 IF VAL (MO*) <0 OR VAL (MO*) >12 
THEN GOTO 580 

440 NN=3 1 : PR I NT@28 1 , " ":PRINT@28 
1, " " ; : L I NE I NPUTDA* : I FLEN (DA*) < >2 
THEN GOTO 590 

450 IF VAL (DA*) <0 OR VAL (DA*) >31 
THEN GOTO 600 

460 PR I NT0284 , " " : PR I NT0284 , " " ; : 
L I NE I NPUT YR* : I FLEN ( YR* ) < >2 THENG 
OTO 610 

470 PRINT6288, " " 

480 AP*="yoar application is acc 
epted" 

490 F0RT=1T029: PRINT@447— T , LEFT* 
(AP*, T) : SOUND230, 1 : NEXTT 
500 IF PR=1THEN 640 ELSE 710 
510 '♦ 

520 F0RT=1T03: PRINT@420, "ALL ST A 
TES USE 2 LETTERS"; :SOUND40, 8*. NE 
xtt:print@152, " ":print@416, " ": 
GOSUB200: GOTO260 

530 FORT = 1 T03 : PR I NT@4 16," ALL ZIP 
CODES HAVE 5 DIGITS. ": SOUND70, 8 
:PRINT@155," ".’NEXTT: PR 

I NT@4 16," " : GOSUB200 : GOTO280 
540 FORT= 1 T03 : PR I NT@4 16," AREA CO 
DES HAVE 3 DIGITS. ": SOUND70, 8: NE 

GOTO310 

550 F0RT=1T03:PRINT@416, " TELEPH 
ONE #’S HAVE 7 DIGITS WITH A 
DASH AFTER THE FIRST 3.":SOUND70 
, 8 : NEXTT : PR I NT@4 16," " : PR I NT@448 


132 the RAINBOW July 1983 




* Computers produced after ap- 
proximately October, 1982 require 
an additional keyboard plug 
adapter — please add $4.95. 


• Affordable Price— Only $69.95. 

• A must have for all serious computerists. 

• Highest quality — U.S. made. 

• Direct replacement— same key layout 

• Professional appearance and operation. 

• Fast, simple installation. 

• Complete instructions included. 

• In stock now. 

AT YOUR FAVORITE DEALER OR DIRECT FROM 


Mark Data Products 


24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 226, MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 

We pay shipping on all orders in the continental U.S. and Canada. Overseas add S5.00 for ship ping and handling. Foreign orders 
please remit U.S. funds. California residents, please add 6% sales tax. We accept MasterCard and VISA. We are always looking 
for quality machine language programs. Contact us for details. 






APPRAISAL & FINANCIAL 
SOFTWARE 


INCOME APPROACH PRINTOUT USING 
MORTGAGE-EQUITY CAPITALIZATION 


It provides a report ready page, listing all 
significant details of the cap. rate construc- 
tion, capitalization of the net income, round- 
ing and comments, if any. Select any 
interest or yield rate, and terms within 
normal parameters. User friendly; just 
answer the questions as to rates, terms, net 
appreciation/depreciation, net income and 
out comes the Income Approach page. It 
takes so little time, you can do it overquickly 
if you wish to amend the computation. 
Printer required. Tapes $85. Disk $95. •■■■ 


COMPOUND INTEREST & ANNUITY TABLES, 


WITH LEASEHOLD AND SUBLEASEHOLD 


COMPUTATION PROGRAMS 


Have the big book and more for your 
assistance at computer speed. Computes 
any rate, and terms within normal para- 
meters. This alone is worth the price. The 
lease program is of inestimable value. User 
friendly and menu driven for ease of use. 
Printer desireable. Tape $85. Disk $95. 


INVESTMENT ADVISOR PROGRAM 


Provides practical usage of all six functions 
of compound interest: (1) What a fixed 
amount left at compound interest will grow 
to, (2) What a fixed amount deposited 
periodically will grow to, (3) The periodic 
deposit required to grow to a fixed amount 
by a future date, (4) What a fixed amount due 
in the future is worth today, (5) What a fixed 
periodic payment for a fixed period of time is 
worth today, (6) Fixed periodic payment 
required to repay a loan at compound 
interest. THESE COMPOUND FUNCTIONS 
ARE THE BASIC REQUIREMENTS TO 
COMPUTE MOST FINANCIAL PROBLEMS. 
Printer desirable. Tape $85. Disk $95. 


OTHER COMPUTER SYSTEMS 


The programs are being made available 
for TRS 80 II & III, Apple, and IBM, PC. 
Ask for price. 


IN EXTENDED BASIC FOR TRS80CC & TDYIOO 


ORDERING: Include $3. for shipping in 
U.S. & Canada; others $6.00. Add $2.00 for 
C.O.D. Texas Residents add 5% for sales 
tax. 713/780-4566 (9 to 5 C.T.) All pro- 
grams prepared by M.A.I. with over 20 
years experience. WINSTEAD CO., INC., 
Box 31489, Houston, TX 77231 


, " " : GOTO 350 

560 F0RT=1T03: PRINTQ417, "THAT’S 
NOT YOUR REAL AGE. . . " : SOUND70, 8: 
NEXTT:PRINT@416, " ":GOTO 380 
570 GOSUB620: GOTO 420 
580 GOSUB630: GOTO420 
590 GOSUB620: GOTO440 
600 GOSUB630: GOTO440 
610 GOSUB620: GOTO460 
620 FORT = 1 T03 : PR I NTS422 , " USE 2 D 
IGITS, PLEASE" : SOUND70, 8: NEXTT: PR 
INT@416," RETURN 
630 FORT= 1 T03 : PR I NT@4 17," ONLY US 
E NUMBERS FROM 1 TO" ; NN: SOUND200 
, 6: NEXTT: PRINT@416, " ": RETURN 
640 PR I NT#-2 , TAB < 30 > " APPL I CAT I ON 
FORM" : GOSUB720: GOSUB720 
650 PR I NT#-2 , TAB ( 5 ) " NAME : " TAB < 20 

>l*tab(40>f$:gosub 730 

660 PR I NT#-2 , TAB ( 20 > " LAST " TAB ( 40 

) "FIRST" :GOSUB720 

670 PR I NT#— 2 , TAB ( 5 > " ADDRESS : " TAB 

(20>S*:GOSUB730 

680 PR I NT #— 2 , T AB ( 20 ) C* " , "ST*" " 

Z*: GOSUB730: GOSUB720 

690 PR I NT#— 2 , TAB ( 5 ) " TELEPHONE # : 

"TAB (20) " < "T*" ) "TT*: GOSUB730 : GO 

SUB720 

700 PRINT#— 2, TAB (5) "AGE: "TAB ( 12) 
AG*TAB(20) "DATE OF BIRTH: "MO*"/ 
" DA* " / " YR* : GOSUB730 
710 END 

720 FORT=l TO 2:PRINT#-2," ":NEX 
TT: RETURN 

730 PR I NT#— 2 , TAB (20) " 


: RETURN 

RAINBOWfest Seminar 
Talks Available On Tape 

Copies of all seminars given at RAINBOWfest are now 
available on audio tape. 

In addition, a tape is available of the keynote breakfast 
speech given by Don Inman. Seminars were given by 
Fred Scerbo of IMB on educational software; E.R. 
Bailey of Micrologic on faster Basic; Dr. Hal Snyder of 
the Northern Illinois Color Computer Club on assembly 
language techniques; Tom Nelson of Nelson Software on 
legal aspects of software marketing; Steve Bjork of 
Datasoft on assembly language graphics; Charles 
Roslund of Elite Software on machine language utilities 
and a cooperative session for CoCo clubs with Lonnie 
Falk of the Rainbow. Each session lasted over an hour. 

Tapes are $5 each, or all eight for $35. There is a $1.50 
shipping and handling charge, whether you buy one or all 
of them. 

Orders should be sent to Seminar Tapes, Prickly-Pear 
Software, 9234 E. 30th Street, Tucson, AZ 85710. Do not 
send orders directly to the Rainbow , it will just delay your 
order. 


134 theRAINBOW July 1983 








PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 


ALL NEW THIS MONTH 

Disk Zapper!!! 

This great utility is unique in the Color Computer field. It gives you the ability to format and copy disks 
with up to 40 tracks, instead of the usual 35. In addition?, \fhen copying a disk it will not crash when it 
encounters a bad sector. Instead, it tries to read the sector five times and then continues, so you can 
retrieve most of the data from even a worst case disk, where the directory track is physically damaged. 
These features alone make this program invaluable, but it will also copy any track and sector to any other 
(Make a copy of your directory up on track36 where BASIC can’t get to it!!!) and allows you to display the 
contents of any part of the disk on the screen, where you can examine the information directly and make 
any changes you want using a full screen editor. Your changes are automatically made on the disk as you 
scan thru the sector There are also many other applications of this powerful utility which are fully 
described in the extensive documentation. This is both a programmer’s tool and a means to protect your 
expensive disk software collection by backing up your disks and your disk directories. DISK ZAPPER!!! 
requires 64K and one disk drive. Copy procedure requires two drives. $34.95 

Music Box 

A 1 00% machine language program that lets you EASILY compose (or type in from sheet music) your 
favorite song in FOUR PART HARMONY, and assign a different instrument to each voice. Hearthe flute 
on the high parts, the bass on the low, and the cello and clarinet on the others. Or, if you prefer, use one 
instrument for several voices. This program makes it easy to key in your songs, and they sound great!! 
You can play them either backward or forward when you get them done, and you can save them on tape 
to be loaded in later. You can easily write pieces that will run for several minutes. The program comes 
with a song by BACH, and when you hear it I think you will agree that this song alone is just about worth 
the price. You won’t believe the music coming out of your TV'! The program comes with lots of 
instructions to help you along, and you will find yourself playing your first masterpiece in a very short 
time. Requires 16K with any BASIC. Cassette - $24.95 

Prickly-Pear Mailing List 

We hope you waited for this mailing list program, ’cause you’ll be mad at yourself if you didn’t!! This 
program has six fields for Name, Address, City and State, Phone number, Zip code, and Code. You can 
sort alphabetically by last name whether you type your entries with the first name or last name first. You 
can sort in Zip Code order. You can search your file on any field you like. You can easily add or delete 
entries. You can print any entry — or all entries — or all entries meeting your search criteria. You can print 
a phone number list. You can print your labels either one or two across the page. And best of all, you can 
do all these things with up to 1 500 records on a single drive system. Oh yes, all screen display is in full 
upper and lowercase letters on your choice of a green or white background with no adaptors needed. To 
use this mailing list you need 32 K Disk Basic and one diskdrive. It comes with very complete instructions 
and is a truly “User Friendly” program. $49.95 



FOR DISK VERSIONS ON AMDEK CARTRIDGES, ADD $5. 


Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 


Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 
on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 6% sales 
tax. Orders shipped within two days. 


Send Order To 
* 


PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9234 E. 30th Street 
Tucson, Arizona 85710 
(602) 886-1505 


y 



Super “Color” Library™ 

For the TRS-80 Color and TDP System 100 Personal Computers 



No matter what kind of problem you are trying to solve with the 
Color Computer, there is a program in the ever-expanding 
integrated, Super “Color” Library that will give you the solution; 
Faster, Better, Smarter! 

Every Library program features MEMORY-SENSE to 
determine your computer’s memory, from 16 to 64K, and adjusts 
automatically to maximize work space. All programs, except the 
Super "Color” Speller and Super “Color” Disk-ZAP, feature a true 
lowercase display with below line descenders. Each program has 
been written specifically for the Color Computer in fast machine 
code to be totally compatible for optimum performance — 
Something a motley assortment of programs from diverse 
sources or a passel of overpriced, wallet-FLEXing software from 
a bygone era simply can not achieve. 

The Super “Color” Library has all the power, speed, 
dependability and compatibility you will ever need so build your 
library a volume at a time or put the full power of the complete 
library of problem solvers to work right away. 



— NEW! — 


Super “Color” Writer II 

VERSION 3.0 By Tim Nelson 

THE INTELLIGENT WORD PROCESSOR 


TM 



The Super “Color” Writer II is for those who desire the best. It is 
the most powerful, fastest, most dependable and versatile word 
processor available for the Color Computer, from 16 to 64K. The 
Super "Color” Writer II has features for the most demanding 
professional, yet it is easy enough for newcomers to master. 

Of course the Super “Color" Writer II has all the features you 
would expect from the highest quality word processor, such as a 
clear, crisp and readable professional display with your choice of 
display colors, 9 display formats; standard 32x16 & 51-64-85x21 
&24 with real lowercase descenders; full 4-way cursor control, 
sophisticated edit commands, the ability to edit any BASIC 
program or ASCII textfile, seven delete functions, locate and 
change, wild card locate, a real block move & copy, word wrap- 
around, programmable tabs, display memory used and left, non- 
breakable space, multiple headers and footers, dynamic text 
formatting, comprehensive format parameters, use with ANY 
printer at any baud rate from 1 1 0 to 9600 baud, automatic justifi- 
cation, automatic pagination, automatic centering, automatic 
flush right, underlining, superscripts, subscripts, pause print, 
single-sheet pause, optionally print comments, append text files, 
available in a ROMPAK cartridge for maximum work space, but 
that's only half of the story. No other program can even begin to 
compare in features with the Super "Color” Writer II. 


Check These Exclusive Features 

MEMORY-SENSE adjusts to computer's memory (16-64K) for 
maximum work space; TYPE-AHEAD, TYPAMATIC KEY 
REPEAT and KEY BEEP for the pros; 3 PROGRAMMABLE 
FUNCTIONS; AUTO PHRASE INSERT; COLUMN CREATION; 
TEXT FILE LINKING; HELP MENU; A TRUE EDITING WINDOW 
IN ALL 9 DISPLAY MODES; TRUE FORMAT WINDOW to 
display line lengths up to 255 characters, with horizontal and 
vertical scrolling to replicate the printed page including centered 
lines, headers, footers, page breaks, page numbers, margins, 
giving a perfect printed document every time. Also makes 
hyphenation a snap; TRUE AUTOMATIC JUSTIFICATION for 
neat, even left and right hand margins; Ability to use 
CHARACTER CODES for printing special characters available 
with your printer; freedom to embed as many PRINTER 
CONTROL CODES as desired anywhere in the text, EVEN 
WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT; 90-plus page tutorial manual. 

ADDITIONAL DISK FEATURES: Read a directory, Display free 
granules, Save with Automatic Verification, Load and Append 
ASCII files, and BASIC programs, Kill files, and Link files from 
disk for continuous printing. 54K bytes of workspace available 
with a 64 K system. Only the best offers all of these features. 


TAPE $69.95 


ROMPAK $89.95 


DISK $99.95 


Tutorial only $15.00 (Refundable with purchase) 

Tape & Disk require 32K for lowercase display 
Previous Super “Color" Writer II owners call for upgrade policy. 


Super “Color” Mailer™ 



Super “Color” Speller 

By Peter A. Stark 


TM 


By Tim Nelson 

The Super “Color” Mailer is a powerful multi-purpose mailing 
list merging arid sorting program including lowercase display 
that uses files created by the Super “Color” Writer II. Combine 
files, sort and print mailing lists, print "Boilerplate" documents, 
automatically insert text in standardized forms, address 
envelopes, the list is endless. 

TAPE $39.95 DISK $59.95 

Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 


The Super "Color" Speller is a fast machine-code proofreading 
program to correct Super "Color” Writer files. Automatically 
proofreads your documents against a 20,000 word stock 
dictionary, plus your own customized dictionary and corrects 
typos or marks them for special attention. 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $69.95 

Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 


NELSON SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 9072 Lyndale Avenue So., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 612/881-2777 


32x16 & 51 -64-85x21 &24 Display ^ /j CA 1/ 

With Lowercase Descenders And 1 D Thru O^iXToo! 

“Color” Calc™ Super “Color” Terminal 



ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEET By Kevin Herrboldt 
Now you can answer those "What if?" financial projection, 
forecasting, budgeting, engineering and calculating questions 
with precision, speed and power using the Super “Color” Calc, 
truly the finest electronic worksheet and financial modeling 
program available for the Color Computer, from 16 to 64K. Now 
every Color Computer owner has access , to a calculating and 
planning tool rivaling VisiCalcT containing all its features and 
commands and then some. You need only change one variable 
and you instantly see how that change affects yourassumptions. 
You can even use VisiCalc templates freely with Super “Color” 
Calc! Combine spread sheet tables with Super “Color" Writer II 
documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and 
financial reports and budgets. 

Features include: 9 display formats: standard 32x16 & 51-64- 
85x21 &24 with real lowercase descenders ' MEMORY-SENSE to 
adjust to computer's memory (16-64K) formaximum workspace; 
Full-size 63x256 worksheet * Easy to use ' HELP Menus to make 
learning faster ' Machine code speed and high precision * Total 
flexibility in calculating * Up to FOUR VIDEO DISPLAY 
WINDOWS to compare and contrast results of changes * Sine 
and Cosine functions, Averaging, Exponents, Algebraic 
functions, and base 10 or 16 entry ‘ Multi-layered Column and 
Row Ascending and Descending sorts " Locate formulas or titles 
in fields ‘ Easy entry, replication and block moving of frames * 
Global or Local column width control up to 81 characters each * 
Create titles of up to 255 characters * Typamatic Key Repeat * 
Key beep * Type-ahead * Print up to 132 column worksheet * 
Prints at any baud rate from 110 to 9600 * Print formats savable 
along with worksheet * Enter control codes for customized 
printing. 

DISK FEATURES: Read a directory; Display free granules; Kill 
files, Save with Automatic Verification; Load files; Append disk 
files for complete worksheet printing. 54K bytes of worksheet 
space available with a 64K system. 

Tutorial and sample templates are supplied with the program. 

ROMPAK $89.95 DISK $99.95 

Tutorial only S15.00 (Refundable with purchase) 

Disk requires 32K for lowercase display 


TM 


THE FINEST TERMINAL PROGRAM ANYWHERE! 

Version 3.0 By Dan Nelson 

The best has become even better, with many new features 
including 9 display formats; 32x16 & 51-64-85x21 &24 with real 
lowercase descenders, plus compatibility with the 64K Color 
Computer. This user-friendly program makes communicating 
with ANY computer a breeze even fora newcomer. Communicate 
using your modem with all the popular information services such 
as Dow Jones, CompuServe, The Source, and local BBS's, clubs, 
friends, or the main-frame at work. You can also communicate 
directly with other microcomputers, such as the TRS-80 I/Ill, II, 
other Color Computers, Apples, IBM PCs, etc., via RS-232 
without using a modem. Save the information or PRINT IT! 
FEATURES: MEMORY-SENSE to adjust to computer's memory 
(1 6-64K) for maximum work space; Selectively print data at baud 
rates from 1 10 to 9600 ‘ 54K of data storage with 64K disk system. 
128 character ASCII keyboard * Automatic graphics mode ' 
Word mode (word wrap) for unbroken words ‘ Send & receive 
Super “Color" Writer II, Database & Calc files, ASCII files, 
Machine Language & BASIC programs * Set communications 
baud rate from 110 to 9600, Duplex: Half/Full/Echo, Word length: 
5 6 7 or 8, Parity: Odd/Even or None, Stop Bits: 1-9 ' Local 
linefeeds to screen ' Save and load ASCII files, Machine Code & 
BASIC programs * Unique CLONE feature for copying any tape ‘ 
Lower case masking * 10 Keystroke Multiplier (MACRO) buffers 
to perform repetitive pre-entry log-on tasks and send short 
messages ' Programmable prompt or delay for send next line " 
Selectable character trapping ‘ Files compatible with other 
Library programs, 

ADDITIONAL DISK FEATURES: Works with up to four Disk 
Drives; Call a directory, Print free space, Kill disk files, Save with 
Automatic Verication and Load textfiles or BASIC programs; 
Save and Load KSM'S to the disk. 

TAPE $49.95 ROMPAK $59.95 DISK $69.95 

Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 
Previous Super "Color" Terminal owners call for upgrade policy. 


ITM 


Super “Color” Disk-ZAP 

By Tim Nelson 

Now the dreamed-of repair of 1/0 errors is a reality. The Super 
“Color" Disk-ZAP™ is the ultimate repair utility for simple and 
quick repair of all repairable disk errors. Designed with the non- 
programmer in mind, the Super “Color" Disk-ZAP™ will let you 
retrieve all types of bashed files, including BASIC and Machine 
Code programs. 

This high-speed machine code disk utility has a special dual 
cursor screen display to show HEXIDECIMAL and ASCII 
displays simultaneously. You are able to: Verify or modify disk 
sectors at will * Type right onto the disk to change unwanted 
program names or prompts * Send sector contents to the printer 
or any other RS-232 device * Search the entire disk for any 
grouping of characters * Copy sectors * Backup tracks or entire 
disks * Repair directory tracks and smashed disks ' Full 
prompting to help you every step of the way * 50-plus page 
Operators Manual which helps you simply and quickly fix the vast 
majority of disk errors, and teaches the rudiments of disk 
structure and repair. 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $49.95 

Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 


(^) SU P er “ 

>S *— - — Thic; hinh ma 


Color” Database 


TM 


NELSON 

SOFTWARE 

SYSTEMS 




9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 612/881-2777 


A Division of Softlaw Corporation Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 U. S. A. 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. Visicalc is a trademark of VisiCorp. 

WE TAKE THE COLOR COMPUTER SERIOUSLY. 

AUTHORS’ SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED. 


By Dan Nelson 

'This high speed machine language program including true 
lowercase displays fills all your information management needs, 
be they for your business or home. Inventory, accounts, mailing, 
lists, family histories, you name it, the Super “Color” Database 
will keep track of all your data. 

The Super "Color” Database features MEMORY-SENSE to 
adjust to computer's memory (16-64K) formaximum workspace. 
It is structured in a simple and easy to understand menu system 
with full prompting for easy operation. Your data is stored in 
records of your own design, each divided into as many fields as 
you need. All files are fully indexed for speed and efficiency. Full 
sort of records is provided for easy listing of names, figures, 
addresses, etc., in ascending or descending order. The math 
package performs arithmetic operations and updates other fields 
which is especially useful when used as an order entry and 
invoicing system. You can create reports, or lists for mailings, or 
whatever. Create files compatible with the Super“Color" Writer II 
and Terminal. Up to five different print formats are available, and 
control codes may be imbedded for customized printing. 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $79.95 
Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 

For Orders ONLY Call Toll Free 

1 - 800 - 328-2737 

Customer service and product support call (612) 881-2777. 
MAILORDERS: $3 U.S. Shipping ($4 CANADA, $10 OVERSEAS) 
Personal checks allow 3 weeks. ORDERS SHIPPED SAME DAY! 
Available at Dealers everywhere. 

If your Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 



Just when you thought 
it was safe to go back 
to your CoCo . . . 

Mi Tt* i , ■*. A**. ' j ^ e 

SNAILS 

REVENGE 

By Fred B. Scerbo 


S ome of you may recall a program which 
appeared in the Rainbow over a year ago 
called Snail Invaders which was written 
with the help of Dale ‘Snail' Haggerty. Since the 
publication of that game, many CoCo users have 
been asking if and when a follow-up to that game 
would appear. Well, the wait is finally over. With 
a little graphic help from Dale, we have an even 
better graphic game now called Snail’s Revenge. 

Dale, a Junior at Drury Senior High School in 
North Adams, Massachusetts, has not had as 
much time available to devote to the CoCo this 
year as he did in the past. Still, we were able to find 
the time for him to design a new Snail graphic and 
a more impressive title card which appears at the 
top of the screen. The animation and actual game 
mechanics are my own. A number of 1 M B graphic 
techniques have been further sharpened to milk 
the maximum speed available from Extended 
Color BASIC. Originally, this game was written 
on a 32K machine. However, since a greater 
number of CoCo owners are still at the 16K level, 
a little extra time was spent cramming the same 
graphics into 16K. The result was an even more 
efficient, structured program. 

Now, for a few words about how Snail’s 
Revenge works. 




138 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Snail is written in PMODE 
1 .’SCREEN 1,0. Thechoice ofPMODE I 
over PMODE 3 was for several reasons. 

First, there is not too great a differ- 
ence in the resolution between PMODE 
3 and I. PMODE 3 uses graphic pixels 
which are rectangular in shape. If we go 
to PMODE 1, our pixels are twice as 
wide, and we can obtain a smoother 


graphic since our pixel settings are not 
irregular, but perfect squares. 

Secondly, PMODE I uses half as 
much memory as PMODE 3. Since this 
program will use the PCOPY command, 
we need to copy only one page for our 
animation. The graphics also execute 
more rapidly since less graphic memory 
must be relocated by the PCOPY com- 
mand. Of equal advantage is the addi- 
tional memory this gives us for actual 
program operation. 

The actual execution of this game 
takes place in only one graphic page 
which occupies half of the viewing 
screen. The top half of the screen (page 
1) is reserved for the title card and scor- 
ing mechanisms. Our game action takes 
place on page 3 which is PCOPY to 
page 2 which occupies the bottom half 
of the screen. Since all animation is tak- 
ing place on page 3 which remains out of 
view, our movement becomes virtually 
“flicker-free." 

While Snail Invaders received its in- 
spiration from other Invader style 
games. Snail's Revenge is a distant cous- 
in of the many Pac or Dig games found 
on the market or in the arcades. The 
plot is relatively simple, but game play is 
far from a breeze. 

Y ou are The Snail. You are trying to 
work your way out of a four-level maze. 



The listing: 


54 1867 

5 0F0B 69 1A99 

17 1102 95 1D89 

26 .1354 109 1F78 

45 15A6 END ...218A 


1 PCLEAR3:POKE65495,0:CLEAR190:D 
I MW (12) , Z (12) ,U(9) , D ( 9 ) ,L(9) , R ( 9 
) ,N<9> ,AE(12> ,BE(14) ,CE(17) , V(9) 
,0(4) 

2 CLS0 : R*=CHR* (128): FORS=- 1 6TO80 
STEP 1 6 : FOR I =258T0387STEP32 : PR I NT 
8I-K, STRING* (5, 159+S) ; :NEXT:PRIN 
TS418-K, STRING* (5, 156+S) ; : PRINT® 
450-K, STRING* (5, 128) ; 

3 FORY=0TO6STEP6 : PR I NT0264+Y— K , C 
HR* ( 1 45+S ) +CHR* ( 1 59+S ) +CHR* ( 1 59+ 
S) +CHR* ( 159+S) +CHR* ( 146+S) 5 

4 FOR I =296T0392STEP32 : PR I NT® I +Y- 
K, STRING* (5, 159+S) ; : NEXTI : PRINT® 
424+ Y-K , STR I NG* ( 5 , 1 56+S ) ; : PR I NT® 
456+Y-K, STRING* (5, 128) ; : NEXTY 

5 FOR Y=0TO96STEP96 : PR I NT0276+Y-K 
, STRING* (9, 159+S) ;CHR*(155+S) ; R* 
; : PR I NT0308+ Y-K , STR I NG* (10,1 59+S 
) ; CHR* ( 152+S) ; R*; : PRINT@340+Y-K, 
STRING* (9, 156+S) ; CHR* (152+S) ;R*; 
:print@372+y-k, string* ( li, 128) ; : 
NEXTY: K=K+32:NEXTS 

6 PMODE1 , 1 : PCLS: C0L0R2, 3: LINE (0, 
160) -(256, 192) ,PSET,BF:LINE(0, 16 
0) - (256, 160) , PRESET 

7 DRAW "S8BM 120, 1 76C3F3DLRDR5E3UH 
2L3G2DFR2EHL" 

8 DRAW " BM6 1 , 1 76C3G3DRLDL5H3UE2R3 
F2DGL2HER" : PAINT (20, 170) , 1 , 3 

9 COLOR 1,1: GET ( 1 20 , 1 74 ) — ( 1 44 , 1 86 
),W,G 

10 GET (39, 174) — (63, 186) , Z, G: L*=C 
HR* (129) : Q*= " DPMPS " +L*+" DPNQVUFS 
"+L*+"HBNF"+L*+"CZ " 

11 FORI=0TO160STEP40: CIRCLE (20+1 
,20) , 12,3, .9 

12 PAINT (20+1, 20) ,3,3 

13 LINE (8+1 , 10) - (32+1 , 30) , PRESET 

14 PSET (20+1 , 16,2) 

15 NEXTI 

16 LINE (32, 10) — ( 22, 20) , PRESET : LI 
NE— (32,30) , PRESET: PAINT (24, 20) , 1 

1 

F0RS=1T022: F=ASC (MID* (Q*, S, 1 ) 


9 

17 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 139 


> +31 : PRINT0324+S, CHR* (F) ; : NEXTS: 
Q*= » 6SFE " +L*+ " TDFSCP " 

18 FORS= 1 TO 1 1 I F= ASC (MI D* ( Q* , S , 1 ) 
) +31 : PRINT0394+S, CHR* <F) ? : NEXTS 

1 9 L*=CHR* < 209 ) : Q*= " TOB JM " +L*+ " E 
FT JHOFE " +L*+ " C Z " +L*+ " EBMF " +L*+ " I 
BHHFSUZ " 

20 FORDH= 1 T03 1 : ZL=ASC ( M I D* ( Q* , DH 
, 1 > > : POKE 1 472+DH , ZL-65: NEXTDH 

2 1 Q*= " BRC 1 NU4RU4RD4RU4RD4RU4RNL 
4D2NL4D2L6C4 " : FOR I =0TO9 : READZ* ( I 

) :next 

22 DATA BR2U4R3D4NL3, BR4NU4BR, BR 
2U2R3U2NL3BD4NL3 , BR2R3U2NL2U2NL3 
BD4, BR2BU2NU2R3U2D4 , BR2R3U2L3U2R 
3BD4, BR2U4NR3D2R3D2NL3 , BR2BU4R3D 
4, BR2U4R3D2NL3D2NL3 , BR2BU2NR3U2R 
3D4 

23 E X *= "01 L255BC " : 1=0: FORI 1 = 1 1T0 
227STEP27: 1=1+1 : V ( I ) =1 I : NEXTI I 

24 1=0: FOR I I =7T077STEP22 : I = I + 1 : 0 
<I)=ii+96:nextii: 1=0 

25 LINE <70, 32)- <60, 22) , PRESET: LI 
NE- <50, 32) , PRESET: PAINT <60, 24) , 1 

> 1 

26 LINE <88, 30) -(98, 20) , PRESET: LI 
NE- <88", 10) , PRESET: PAINT <96, 20) , 1 

27 L I NE ( 1 30 ,8) — <140, 18) , PRESET : L 
INE- <150, 8) , PRESET 

28 PAINT ( 140, 16) , 1, 1 

29 C0L0R2 , 3 : L I NE < 26 , 16) — <22, 20 ) , 
PSET : L I NE— < 26 , 24 ) , PSET 

30 L I NE < 64 , 26 ) - < 60 , 22 ) , PSET : L I NE 
- <56, 26) , PSET 

31 LINE <94, 24)- <98, 20) , PSET: LINE 
— (94, 16) , PSET 

32 L I NE < i 44 , 1 4 ) — ( 1 40 ,18), PSET : L I 
NE— ( 136, 14) , PSET 

33 FOR I =0TO80STEP40 : C I RCLE < 20+ 1 , 
80) , 14+LL, 2, . 9 

34 C0L0R2 , 1 : L I NE ( 6+ I — LL , 68— LL ) — ( 
34+I+LL, 92+LL) , PRESET, B 

35 PAINT <20+1, 80) ,2,2 

36 CIRCLE (20+1 , 76— LL) , 2+LL, 2, . 9: 
LL=LL+2:NEXT 

37 FORYP=0TO40STEP40: FORKP=1TO40 
+YP : PSET < RND < 40 ) +20+YP , RND < 20 ) +7 
0,3) :NEXTKP, YP 

38 GET ( 6 , 68 ) - ( 34 , 92 ) , AE , G 

39 GET <44, 66)- <78, 94) , BE, G 

40 GET <82, 64) -<122, 96) ,CE,G 

41 C0L0R3, 1 

42 GET <10, 12) — (30, 28) , R, G 

43 GET (50, 12) — (70, 28) , D, G 

44 GET ( 90 , 12) — <110, 28 ) , L , G 

45 GET ( 1 30 , 1 2 ) — < 1 50 , 28 ) , U , G 


Unfortunately, the corridors of the maze are stalked by a 
hungry Pac-person with sharp teeth and glassy eyes. You 
must cautiously work your way through the maze, while 
your adversary can pass through walls at will. If he attacks 
you, he will swallow you after rapidly grinding you to snail 
pulp with his sharp teeth. (Pay particular attention to this 
gobbling sequence which you do not often find in other 
games.) 

Fortunately, you do have a means of defense. Whenever 
the small box below the snail at the top of the screen turns 
red, you will obtain the ability to fire a hose into the Pac- 
fiend and inflate him to twice his size before he bursts open. 
Unfortunately, you must be on the same level as your foe. 
You cannot pass through walls as he can. If you “blow-up” 
your opponent, you will gain 10 points. If you make it to the 
end of the maze, you will gain 50 points. Thus, it will take 
some skill to work your way out of the maze while remaining 
close enough to blast your hunter. Once you have been eaten 
eight times, the game ends. (A reverse Pac-opponent will 
appear at the top of the screen whenever you become his 
meal.) 

Carefully type in the listing. Be sure to POKE 65494,0 
before trying to CSA VE this program. Also, do not try to 
run the game until you have entered all the lines. We have 
done some fancy encoding to keep you guessing what will 
happen with each line. I have also included a new IMB 
introduction which appears in text while the graphics are 
drawn on the graphics’ screen. Your right joystick operates 
the snail while the fire button controls your shooting. 

With a little typing, you will have an arcade game which 
rivals machine language in speed while using the special 
features found in Extended BASIC. When trying to reload 
this program, be sure to PC LEA R 3 or the program will not 
fit in memory. (Only about 200 bytes remain when running 
the game.) If your machine cannot handle the POKE65495.0 
then leave it out. The game still has impressive speed without 
it. This game will work with disk, but you will need 32K. 

Enjoy Snail’s Revenge ! While you do, I’ll see if I can 
motivate “Snail” to come up with some ideas for Snail 111. 
(Maybe Donkey Snail or Snail- A-Pede. Who knows? Only 
time at the CoCo will tell! 



140 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Setting 

The Standards 

WHAT THEY ARE SAYING ABOUT COLORPEDE 

forefront of the pack, the Rainbow, Dec 82 an outstanding offer N. Vernon. IN the best graphics I have seen to date Erie. PA 
"It is great! Dayton. OH - the best graphics and playability of any color computer game McKeesport. PA 



INTRODUCING 


coLORpeoe 

n 

This truly outstanding engineer designed, 100% 
machine language game with multi-colored high 
resolution characters and fast action will chal- 
lenge the most avid arcade buff. Can be played 
by 1 or 2 players controlled with joy sticks or key 
board. Joy stick control is fast, smooth and ac- 
curate. As COLORPEDE slithers through the toad 
stools, you attempt to destroy the COLORPEDE, 
knock out the menacing Bouncing Bug and elim- 
inate toad stools while accumulating higher and 
higher scores. Demonstration mode with top 5 
scores. Pause feature. For 16K Color Computer 
and TDP-100. 

Cassette-$29.95 Disk $34.95 


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MfflTIHCK 

Ultra fast arcade action with colorful high resolu- 
tion graphics. You are the super human who must 
fight off the attacking robots and save the remain- 
ing humans from destruction. You have super 
powers, can shoot in any direction and move 
anywhere on the screen to accomplish your vital 
mission. 

Engineer designed, 100% machine language. 
Can be played by 1 or 2 players with joy stick con- 
trol. Top 5 scores displayed. Pause feature For 
16K Color Computer and TDP-100 with joy sticks. 

Cassette-$24.95 


TO ORDER: 

VISA, MASTERCARD, Money Order. 
Please allow 2 weeks for checks. Add 
$1 .50 for shipping, $3.00 outside U.S. 4% 
tax in Mich. 


intracolor 


P.O. Box 1035, East Lansing, Ml 48823 
(517) 351-8537 


COMMUNICATIONS 


DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 


FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP-100 


HflRMDNYCS - 

P.O. BOX 1573 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84110 

PREMIUM SOFTWARE 


RAINBOW 


DISK MONEY MINDER is a family budget tool It allows you to set up a 
family budget with as many as 56 user definable categories You may print 
but balances, change category names, search a year (or a month or whatever) 
of records (for tax purposes for example) DISK MONEY MINDER allows 
24 sets of entries and 56 user definable categories at one time You may 
break checks and deposits into any number of categories DISK MONE# 
MINDER is menu driven and easy to use. Excellent manual with plenty of 
examples 

Requires 32K plus DISK S19.95 

MONEY MINDER II is the cassette version of DISK MONEY MINDER Reviewed 
in April 1982 Rainbow and improved since then! 

Requires 16K but does NOT require Extended Basic $14.95 

PIE-CHART is a unique graphing program It allows you to enter data such 
as monthly bills, yearly expenditures etc This data may be entered as per- 
centages or in its "raw" state Data entered raw will be converted to percent- 
ages by the program The resulting PIE-CHART can be saved to tape or 
the data itself can be saved to tape for later use By using a screen print 
program (not supplied) you can make printouts of the pie-charts One unique 
feature of the program allows you to save a large number of pie-charts or 
other hi-resolution screens to tape and reload and display them one at a 
time by "flipping" through them quickly much as you might do with a slide 
show presentation. This feature would be great for a sales presentation, 
club meeting or retail display Other features— automatic screen writing i e 
designations-up to 20 entries possible per pie-chart-keyboard toggle of 
raw" vs percentage data entry 

PIE-CHART needs 16K arid Extended Basic $10.95 

AMORT asks you to input the amount of a loan the term of the loan and it's 
interest rate The program will print to screen and or to your printer and will 
give you 1— a running total of principal still to be paid 2— The amount of the 
monthly payment applied to principal 3— The amount of the monthly payment 
applied to interest 4-The total monthly payment 5-The total amount paid into 
principal to date 6— The total amount paid into interest to date 7-The total r 
amount payed out to date 

Requires 16K and Extended Basic $11.95 

COLORHYTHM is a biorhythm program for your Color Computer It plots in 
High-Resolution graphics (PMODE3) and color a 15 day biorhythm chart 
displaying your Intellectual. Emotional & Physical biorhythms Reviewed in 
August 1982 Rainbow 

Requires 16K & Extended Basic $9.95 

★ * * EDUCATIONAL * * * 

MATCH & SPELL combines a game similar to the familiar TV game of CON- 
CENTRATION and a spelling drill to provide a truely unique and fun program 
You may load a spelling list (up to 32 words of up to 11 letters each) from 
tape or keyboard The program then allows you to study th#4ist formas long 
as you like After that the game begins One of your words is presented 
to you either correctly or misspelled with a common spelling error You are 
asked if it is spelled right. Then the correctly spelled word is displayed for 
a brief time and you are then asked to spell the word The CONCENTRATION 
type game is played by one or two players during the spelling drill 
A lot of fun for 16K and Extended Basic $11.95 

PRESCHOOL PAK consists of two programs for preschooler learning fun 
ALPHABET drills the child in alphabet recognition and rewards a correct 
answer COUNTER drill the child in counting to 10 Both use Hi-Resolution 
graphics and sound Reviewed in September 1982 Rainbow S8.95 

MATHWAR is an educational game In the game the player must jump one 
space-fighter over another checkers style, until only one fighter remains 
Each time a move is selected the program will not complete the move until 
a math problem is answered correctly' The player selects addition of subtrac- 
tion and one of four difficulty levels Level 1 is problems with numbers up to 
19 but no carrying or borrowing is required. Level 2 is the same as Level 1 
but numbers up to 99 are allowed Level 3 uses numbers up to 19 but allows 
carrying and borrowing problems Level 4 is the same as Level 3 with numbers 
up to 99 No negative responses to wrong answers and the math score is 
displayed at the end of the game 

Requires 16K and Extended Basic $11.95 




We pay postage on all orders 


V7S4* 

r- i 



46 GET ( 170, 12) — ( 190, 28) , N, G 

47 PMODE 1,1: PCLS : SP=9 : L V=4 : GOSUB 
48: GOTO50 

48 i=40:J=40:zz=8: oo=6 : K=40 : m=40 
: a=4 : b=3 : PMODE0 , 3 : pcls : pmode l , 2 : 
C0LQR2, l: LINE (2, 100) -(252, 186) ,P 
SET, B: LINE (0,98) -(256, 188) ,PSET, 
B:LINE(30, 120) - (256, 122) ,PSET,B 

49 LINE (0, 142) — (226, 144) , PSET , B: 
LINE (30, 164) — (256, 166) ,PSET,B*.LI 
NE (228, 98) -(250, 100) , PRESET, B: RE 
TURN 

50 PMODE 1,1: PCLS : SCREEN0 , 0 : DRAW " 
S16BM0, 32; C4E4L3E4R3G3R3G5NL3BR2 
E5R2F2E2R2G5L2H2G2L2BR 1 0E5R3D5L2 
UBUL2ERDBDL36L2BR 1 0U5R3D5L3BR5U5 
R2D3RF2NL5BRBU5RDBD4BR3E2L3E3R3G 
2R3G3L3" 

5 1 FOR I U= 1 T06 : RE ADP A : PA I NT ( PA , 26 
) ,4,4:NEXTIU 

52 DATA10, 50, 88, 106, 130, 170 

53 DRAW " BM28 , 66C3L2H3BUU2RD2LBDD 
3L2U7R4FD2GF3BRU7R4DL2D2RDLD2R2D 
NL4BR4H3U4R2D3FREU3R2D4G3NLBR4U7 
R4DL2D2RDLD2R2DNL4BR8L2H3D3L2U7R 
2F3U3R2D7BR7L4H2U3E2R3FD2L2UL2D3 
FRULURR3DLD2BR2U7R4DL2D2RDLD2R2D 
L4 “ 

54 F0RFL=1T07:READ KL: PAINT (KL, 4 
6) ,3,3: NEXTFL 

55 DATA6, 38, 58, 90, 110, 142, 172 

56 PUT (212, 16) -(236, 28) , Z, PSET 

57 LINE (208, 38) -(236, 48) , PSET, B: 
GOSUB 1 19: GOTO60 

58 p=i-2:q=j:s=k+2:t=m: i=V(A) : J= 
O(B): K=I+20: M=j+16: COLOR1 , 1 

59 PM0DE1,2:PUT(I, J)-(K,M) ,N,PSE 
T: PC0PY3T02: LINE ( I , J ) - (K, M) , PRES 
ET,BF:LINE(V(SP) ,0(LV) )-(V(SP)+2 
4, O(LV) +12) , PRESET, BF: RETURN 

60 PMODE 1,1: SCREEN 1,0: QR=RND (TIM 
ER) : RV=RND ( 10) : I FR V >3THEN62 

61 LINE(212, 42)-(232, 44) , PRESET, 
B:RG=0:GOTO63 

62 L I NE (212, 42 ) — ( 232 , 44 ) , PSET , B : 
RG=1 

63 PMODE 1,2: QR=RND (10): ONQR GOTO 
64, 67, 70, 73,67, 67, 67, 73, 73, 73 

64 B=B- 1 : I FB< 1 THEN66 

65 G0SUB58 : PUT (I,J)— (K,M) ,U, PSET 
: G0T076 

66 B= 1 : E=RND ( 2 ) : I FE= 1 THEN67ELSE7 

3 

67 A=A+1 : IFA>9THEN69 

68 G0SUB58:PUT(I, J)-(K,M) ,R,PSET 
: G0T076 

69 A=9 : E=RND (2) : I FE= 1 THEN64ELSE7 
0 


142 the RAINBOW July 1983 



70 B=B+1 : IFB>4THEN72 

71 G0SUB58:PUT<I, J)-(K,M) ,D,PSET 
: G0T076 

72 B=4 : E=RND ( 2 ) : I FE= 1 THEN67ELSE7 
3 

73 A=A-1 : IFA< 1THEN75 

74 G0SUB58:PUT<I, J)-<K,M) ,L,PSET 
: G0T076 

75 A=1 : E=RND (2) : I FE= 1 THEN64ELSE7 
0 

76 PLAY " L2550 1 C04CD " : I F SP=A AND 
LV=B THEN77ELSE78 

77 PM0DE1,2:LINE(V<SP> ,0<LV) )-<V 
(SP) +24, 0 (LV) +12) , PRESET, BF: PUT ( 

I , J ) - <K, M) ,N, PSET: GOTO 108 

78 JH=JOYSTK(0) : IFJH>32THEN90 

79 SP=SP-1 : IFSPC 1THENSP=1 

80 I FL V=4 ANDSP= 1 THEN83 

81 I FL V=2ANDSP= 1 THEN83 

82 G0T085 



83 JV=JOYSTK < 1 ) : IFJVC 16THENLV=LV 
-1 

84 G0T089 

85 I FL V=3ANDSP= 1 THEN 88 

86 I FL V= 1 ANDSP= 1 THEN 88 

87 GDT089 

88 JV=JOYSTK < 1 ) I IFJV>46THENLV=LV 
+ 1 

89 PUT ( V ( SP ) , 0 ( LV ) ) — ( V ( SP ) +24 , 0 < 
LV) +12) , W, PSET: GOTO101 

90 SP=SP+l: IFSP>9THENSP=9 

91 I FL V=3ANDSP=9THEN95 

92 IFLV=1ANDSP=9THEN93ELSE97 

93 PMODE 1,2: PUT ( V < 9 ) , 0 < L V ) ) — ( V ( 9 
) +24, 0 (LV) +12) , Z,PSET:PC0PY3T02: 
LINE (V (9) , 0 (LV) ) — ( V (9) +24, 0 (LV) + 
12), PRESET , BF : PMODE 1,1: FORPC= 1 TO 
5 : M2=M2+ 1 : GOSUB 119: SOUND200 , 1 : NE 
XT 

94 LV=4 : SP=9 : G0T097 

95 JV=JOYSTK ( 1 ) : IFJV< 16THENLV=LV 


Genesis Software 

presents 

Color Computer Programs 

.\>>- 

* Secret Of The Crypt ^ 

The BIG adventure continues. The sequel 
to the popular “Enchanted Forest " is here! 
You'll move in more than 50 hi-res, 3-D 
graphic scenes searching for clues in an 
attempt to enter the crypt. But beware, the 
trail to the crypt is beset with puzzlements. 

In fact, the crypt’s secret will remain a 
mystery to all but the most adventuresome. 
Bequires 32K extended basic. 

Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

+ Bigfoot 

Hunt Bigfoot in a hidden maze of caverns 
and twisting tunnels that arc displayed in 
hi-res graphics as you move. Seek out the 
lair of Bigfoot while avoiding perils along 
the way. Features multiple levels and many 
options of play. Each hunt takes place in a 
new, randomly generated maze. Challeng- 
ing and fun. Bequires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

it The Enchanted Forest 

The BIG adventure in hi-res graphics. 
Move through more than 50 scenes on a 
quest to rescue the captive princess. Deci- 
sions are made according to visual clues, 
not text. There are many inhabitants in the 
Enchanted Forest — some are friendly, 
some are not. This is a sophisticated com- 
puter adventure — a real challenge. A 
must for your adventure library. Bequires 
32K extended basic. 

Tape cassette (postage paid) $21 . 95 

(The Enchanted Forest was reviewed in the Dec. 1982 
issue of Fain bow). 

it The Game Show 

Now a lively party game where two teams 
compete against the clock to name several 
items in a category. Includes 60 rounds 
with color graphics and sound. Machine 
language routine for fast response. Re- 
quires 16K extended basic and joysticks. 

Tape cassette (postage paid) $19.95 

(The Game Show was reviewed in the Jan. 19S3 issue 
of Rainbow). 

Genesis Software 

P.O. Box 936, Manchester, Mo. 63011 

Personal checks welcome - no delay. 

Missouri residents add 5.625 percent sales tax. 


July 1983 


the RAINBOW 143 



-1 

9 6 GOTO 100 

97 IFLV=2ANDSP=9THEN99 

98 GOTO 100 

99 JV=JOYSTK ( 1 ) : I F J V >46THENL V=L V 
+ 1 

100 PUT ( V < SP ) , 0 ( L V ) ) — ( V ( SP ) +24 , 0 
( L V )+12),Z, PSET 

101 IF SP=A AND LV=B THEN 1 08ELSE 
PCOP Y3T02 : PMODE 1,1: SCREEN 1,0: PMO 
DE1,2:LINE(I,J)-(K,M) , PRESET , BF 

102 IF PEEK ( 339 )=255THEN60 

103 IF RG=0THEN60 

104 IF LVOB THEN60 

105 PMODE 1 , 1 : L I NE ( V ( SP ) + 1 2 , 0 ( L V ) 
+6)— (1+10, J+6) ,PSET 

106 GOTOl 15 

107 GOTO60 

108 L I NE ( V ( SP ) , 0 ( LV ) > — ( V ( SP > +24 , 
0 ( L V ) + 1 2 ) , PRESET , BF : FOREM= 1 T05 : P 
UT ( I , J ) - (K, M) , N, PSET: PLAYEX* : PCO 
PY3T02: PUT ( I , J ) - (K, M) , D, PSET: PLA 
YEXS109 PCOPY3T02:NEXTEM:PMODE1, 
1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : PMODE 1 , 2: LINE ( I , J ) - ( 
K, M) , PRESET, BF: LINE (V (SP) , 0 (LV) ) 
- (V(SP) +24, O(LV) +12) , PRESET, BF:P 


MODE1 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 0: SP=9 
:LV=4 

110 MS=MS+ 1 : PUT ( MS*24-24 , 74 ) - ( MS 
*24-4 , 90 ) , R , PRESET : I FMS= >8THEN 1 1 
2 

111 GOTO60 

112 fori=itoi 000 :next 

113 X*=INKEY$: IFX$= m,, THEN113 

114 RUN 

115 PM0DEl,2:PUT(I-4, J-3)-(K+4,M 
+5) , AE, OR: PC0PY3T02: PLAYEXS+EX* 

116 PUT ( I -6 , J —5 ) — ( K+8 , M+7 ) , BE , OR 
: PC0PY3T02: PLAYEX$+EX* 

117 PUT ( I— 10, J— 7) — (K+10, M+9) , CE, 
OR: PC0PY3T02: PLAYEX*+EX$ 

118 M2=M2+l:G0SUBU9:G0SUB48:G0T 
060 

119 IFM2>9THENM3=M3+l:M2=0 

1 20 I FM3 >9THENM4=M4+ 1 : M3=0 

121 I FM4 >9THENM5=M5+ 1 : M4=0 

122 I FM5= > 1 0THENM5=0 

1 23 PMODE 1 , 1 : DR AW " C4S8BM 188,64"+ 
Q*+Z$ (M5) +Q$: DRAWZ* (M4) +Q*+Z* (M3 
) +Q$: DRAWZ* (M2) +QS+Z* (Ml ) : RETURN 

124 'SNAIL’S REVENGE BY F.SCERBO 
&D. HAGGERTY, (C) 1983, I MB, P.O.BOX 
289 , W I LL I AMSTOWM , MA , 0 1 267 


NEW KODOMO-NO-GO 

Get 5 in a row before your opponent. 19x19 playing 
matrix. This is the favorite relaxation game for Japanese Go 
players. Two-player version and 4 computer skill levels for 
one player: also Tic-Tac-Toe on the same tape. 

$19.95 32K Ext. Basic cassette only. 

$14.95 1 6K Ext. Basic. Three skill levels plus Tic-Tac-Toe. 
$ 8.95 1 6K Ext. Basic Tic-Tac-Toe only. 

ALSO CO-EXISTENCE 

Successfully develop your country in a resource-limited 
world. Form a world government, sign treaties, go to war: 
anything goes. This is a two - to six - player game which 
combines computer and board play (board and pieces 
provided). 

$24.95 1 6K Ext. Basic cassette only. 

AND 5 EXCITING GAMES 

Be a Cosmic Trash Collector, fight a mighty space battle, or 
surround your opponent in Trap’em — all this and more on 
one tape. The RAINBOW says, “Great fare for the family 
with young children.” 

$15.95 1 6K Ext. Basic cassette. 






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P. 0. Box VO 1 6 
Cherry Hill, NJ 0803V 



COLOR TERM + PLUS + 

An Intelligent Terminal Program For The Color 
Computer or TDP 100. 

Features: AAl j , 

BAUD RATE - 110 to 19200 \J\VyU4v 
Half or Full Duplex 
One or two Stop Bits 

Odd, Even or No Parity 0/ ^ 

Word WRAP •0^- 

Turn off Lowercase Letters A VrC 

Send All Control Characters F 

Print Buffer ' ' 

Examine Buffer 

Send & Receive BASIC or Machine Language Programs 
or Files. 

Editor allows entry of text into Buffer as well as 
Editing of Buffer. 

(Disk Version Has more powerful Editor) 

Special Feature: 

Code & Decode ANYTHING in the Buffer for Secure 
Transmission or Storage Using a User defined key word 

PRICE $29.95 (Tape) $39.95 (Disk) 16k or 32k Req. 


COLOR KEY COMMAND 

Looking for a powerful programmer's aid, but you don't 
have a fortune to spend? This program is for you! Look 
at these features: two keystroke entry of more than 80 
Basic, Extend Basic, and Disk Basic commands. Select 
the color of your cursor. Select the prompt you want — 
no more "OK” when a program bombs! Automatic line 
numbering — you select the start line and increment! 4 
custom programmable keys for a total of 64 characters 
each — enter whole lines with two key presses! Copy 
any line with the copy command. Merge tape programs 
together automatically. Redefine any or all keys with a 
short basic program we supply. How can you get all this 
and more for so little? Because you make the keyboard 
overlay! We give you a template with all commands 
printed on it — you cut it out and use it. That is all there 
is to it! Note: Not all features are available on every 
machine; some require Extended or Disk Basic to work 
properly. 16K or 32K Req. PRICE $18.95 (tape)" D 



m 


UNDERGROUND 

Tired of playing adventure games that have a limited 
vocabulary? Underground gives a detailed description 
of your surroundings, just like a main-frame adventure! 
There are over 90 separate rooms, passageways, etc. 
Discover what the mysterious machine does, what lies in 
the Egyptian sarcophagus, how do you tame the guard- 
ian of Hell's Gate, where is the fabled golden apple? 
Everything is up to you. You give the orders, you are the 
hero. This adventure is not for the faint of heart! You 
can suspend your game at any time and continue later. 
Takes from 5 to 20 hours to play. 

32K ext. BASIC Req. PRICE $26.95 Disk only 




TAPENAME 

Tapename searches lain- anil stores tlu* name of any 
program or file You ran print the information to the 
screen, printer or ta|H*. Also checks for load errors. 

4k. llik, or :12k Ken. or Ext. BASIC. 

PRICK 17.95 (tape)' D 

COLOR DISK SAVER 

Saves a disk to ta|»c. Unloads disk from saved tape. Also 
has ta|H‘ verify command! :12k Ext. BASIC Uei|. 

PRICK 112.95 (tape)** I) 


GALACTIC MATH 

Load this game into your computer and start playing! 
This is a math tutor that is really an arcade game! Keep 
those saucers from landing! There are no “happy faces" 
or "funny clowns” in this math program. This is a multi- 
level addition and multiplication quiz. You select the dif- 
ficulty level. This program uses high resolution color 
graphics and shows the score, elapsed time, number of 
hits, number of misses and number of "bases” left to the 
player. Adults may start this game, but the kids will 
finish it! This program has been teacher and kid tested. 
Realistic explosions and laser fire sounds make this pro- 
gram a winner! This program rates an A + . For grades 1 
and up. 16Kor 32 Ext BASIC Req. PRICE $15.95(tape)D 

p UHi CLONE ATTACK 

Blast those nasties as they appear! 3 skill levels and 9 
levels of difficulty. Uses* high res color graphics. 
ianic of any Joysticks required. 1 6k or 32k Ext. BASIC only, 

at ion to l he PRICE S 15.95 (tape) (Disk 32k only) 

il errors. _ — — 

Fasti moon base invasion 

Nuclear Inunhs are nearing your cities! Can you stop 
them Itefore they reach you? High res graphics. 

>d tape. Also 16k or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. 

Req. PRICE S 12.95 (tape) D 


COLOR DOCTOR 

Discuss your problems with your computer. Color Doc- 
tor will discuss your problems with you. This is a great 
party program! Your friends will not believe that your 
computer is talking Imrk tu them! Is it intelligent? It sure 
seems like it! 

1GK ext. BASIC Keq. PRICE *15.95 (tape) 1) 

Use your MODEM for something other 
than a dust catcher— play games! 

Two tapes and two sets of instructions are includ- 
ed with each MODEM game. 

MODEM CHESS Use your Modem and your Color Com- 
puter to play chess oner the phone! Has high res color 
graphics l>oard and pieces. Make your move, select a 
message to send, press a button— seconds later your op- 
ponent's board is updated automatically. Has audio 
alerts, let’s you know when a move is being made. 

16k or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. 

PRICE *39.95 (tape)** D 

MODEM CHECKERS Play checkers over the phone! Pro- 
gram allows up to 4 jumps to be made at a time, crown 
pieces, etc. 16k or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. 

PRICE *39.95 (tape)'* D 

MODEM IAGO Play our version of Othello over the 
phone! Make your move, press a key, your opponent's 
board is updated seconds later! Has a takehack key if 
you decide you don't like the move you made. 16k or 
32k Ext. BASIC Req. 

PRICE *39.95 (tape)** D 


CURSOR II 

I lat «• that blinking cursor? Tired of seeing the computer 
print "OK" after your program just laimhed? Cursor 11 
changes the cursor to a solid, non-flashing red. Enter 
any message up to 200 characters in length. Your 
message will be displayed instead of "OK" 

4k. 16k. or :12k Reg. or Ext. BASIC. 

PRICE *4.95 (tape)* 

SUPER PEEKER 

This is a BASIC program that will allow the user to ex- 
plore the inside of the color computer. Explore the 
I Missibi lilies with Super Peeker. 

Kik or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. 

PRICE *9.95 (ta|»e)** 

COLOR BIORHYTHM Are you up or down today, 
tomorrow, or years from now? Find out with COLOR 
BIORHYTHM. Uses high res graphics. Send the chart to 
printer. 16k or 32k Ext BASIC Keq. 

PRICE *14.95 (tape) D 

DD CLOCK Don't forget what time it is when you are 
programming. The time is displayed in the upper right 
corner of your screen. Shows hours, minutes and 
seconds. Beeps every hour. 

4k. Kik. or :12k. (Ext. BASIC not required.) 

PRICE *9.95 (tape)* D 

AUTO LOAD Auto latad will put any program or file 
from tape to disk! All machine language programs that 
load lielow the top of your disk system are modified so 
that they will operale pro|>erly with a disk system! 

Kik or :12k Ext. BASIC Req 
PRICE *12.95 (lain*)* 


COLOR IAGO 

Based on popular Othello game. Match wits with your 
computer! Uses high res color graphics. 5 levels of dif- 
ficulty. Joysticks required. 16k or 32 Ext. BASIC. 
PRICE *15.95 (tape) D 

COLOR COMPUTER/TDP-100 

SUPER- PRO 

REPLACEMENT KEYBOARD KIT 

S@¥@IJ - 95 

• All machine code D Disk Compatible 
•* BASIC with machine code subroutines 
Specify Disk when ordering and add $5.00 per program. 

Save money and ask that all ordered programs be loaded 
on one disk. You pay only for the one disk! Please add 
*2.00 shipping and handling on all orders. No extra 
charge on COD orders, Mastercard and VISA accepted. 

Allow two weeks for personal checks. Your order will 
usually be ship|>ed within two or three days. We will 
notify you of any problems within one week. Send 20 
cent stamp for free catalog. 

DOUBLE DENSITY SOFTWARE 

920 Baldwin Street 
Denton, Texas 76201 W$t i 
y) Phone 817/566-2004. 



Celebrating Our 2nd 
‘Record’ Year 


Happy Birthday to all 50,000 of us! And what better way to 
celebrate the beginning of our third year than with a present? 
We thought about including two candles and a cupcake, but 
decided against it when it was pointed out that the grooves on 
the soundsheet would probably get all gummy with icing. 

Anyway, we wanted some means by which we could share our 
excitement and express our appreciation to our readers at the 
same time. After all, over the entire two year existence of the 
Rainbow , each month has been a new record of growth in size 
and quality for us, thanks to you! 

After a bit of late-night brainstorming, we decided on binding 
a soundsheet of programs into our 2nd Anniversary issue — if it 
would work, that is. We ordered a prototype, and received a 
half-dozen sheets just as they would come from a full pressing 
run. After trying them out on several home systems by both 
methods listed here and finding that they all loaded, we were 
satisfied. 

Well, then, there it was. And here it is. Happy Birthday, good 
friends. We hope you enjoy the party favor. And we hope you 
enjoy each coming month of the Rainbow as we grow toward all 
the anniversaries to come. 

The Staff 



There are three programs on our sound- 
sheet. Please note that these are not meant as 
“stand alones," but are meant to be used 
after reading the article and any special 
instructions in the article on how to load and 
use the program. For instance. Memory 
(page 202) requires a PCLEAR I prior to 
loading into I6K. machines. 

Programs 

Shuffle , page 196 

Memory , page 202 

Home Budget Analysis, page 60. 

Instructions for loading record 

Important: Carefully remove soundsheet 
with the aid of a razor blade or other sharp 
instrument so as not to warp. Also, before 
loading Memory , page 202, be sure to 
PCLEAR I if you have I6K. 

Method 1 — Integrated stereo system with 

146 the RAINBOW July 1983 


built-in cassette tape deck. 

Step I — Insert blank tape in the 
cassette deck and put the re- 
cord on the turntable. If the 
record slips on the turntable 
use a coin as indicated on the 
record label. 

Step 2 — Record all three programs on 
the record on the blank cassette 
tape. 

Step 3 — Remove the cassette and 
insert it into your CTR-80 cas- 
sette recorder. 

Step 4 — Type “CLOAD" on your 
CoCo and RUN. 

Method 2 — Stereo system with turntable 
only. 

Step 1 — Make a patch cord to go from 
your stereo headphone jack to 
the AUX input on your CTR- 
80 using a 6' Extension Cord- 


Miniature Phone Plug (R.S. 
#42-2420)and a Plug Adap- 
ter (R.S. #274-046 or R.S. 
#274-305). No soldering will be 
required. (The R.S. #42-2157 
Mini Phone Plug to Stereo 
Phone Plug will also work.) 

Step 2 — Record the record on your 
CTR-80. 

Step 3 — Load the tape into your CoCo 
using “CLOAD" and then 
RUN. 

Comments 

1) Do not try to input data directly from 
your stereo system. This could possibly 
damage your computer. 

2) If precise recording levels can be obtained, 
the recording level should be lOdBM. 

3) Once the program is loaded into the com- 
puter, save the data to another tape using 
CSAVE “name of program” for future use. 


Shuffle MP3 hear it! 




A SAMPLING 
OF PROGRAMS FROM 
THE JULY 1983 ANNIVERSARY ISSUE OF 


RAINBOW 


FOR USE WITH THE RADIO SHACK TRS-80® 
COLOR COMPUTER. 


MONAURAL g 
O. 

(Refer to magazine articles for full program descrip- 
tion. Transfer to cassette for loading.) ' 

PROGRAMS: 

(BY FILE NAME) 

L 1. SHUFFLE j 

2. MEMORY ,v/ 

„ 3. HOMEBDGT .<f.yy 




RAINBOW MAGAZINE 
2nd ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 
JULY 1983 


THE STEREO COMPOSER 


THE VOICE 





The STEREO COMPOSER music synthesizer was developed for the true music 
lover All the features available for the COMPOSER described below are also 
available for the STEREO COMPOSER However, instead of using the single 6 bit 
digital to analog converter built into the computer and the speaker built into your 
TV. the STEREO COMPOSER uses two 8 bit digital to analog converters which 
drive two audio power amplifiers. These amplifiers supply enough audio power 
to easily drive your own external speakers If you like, the output may be con- 
nected to your home stereo system to further increase fidelity Connection is 
provided by two phono connectors. If the music is too loud, two built-in volume 
controls are provided to allow you to control the volume of each of the channels 
separately. The advantage of being able to use external high quality speakers is 
obvious. The use of higher quality digital to analog converters serves to further 
increase music fidelity. 

The STEREO COMPOSER produces music in stereo. Of the4 voices produced. 2 
are directed to each channel This ability alone increases the realism of the 
music. You can even move the voices between speakers as the music plays 

The STEREO COMPOSER comes assembled, tested burned in, with all the 
software and hardware to allow you to immediately start enjoying your music A 
complete manual and examples are provided to give you everything you need to 
know 

The STEREO COMPOSER is completely memory decoded so it does not conflict 
with the Radio Shack disk controller. In this way. disk owners with an expansion 
interface such as the BT- 1 000 by Basic Technology can produce music from disk 
with the STEREO COMPOSER in one slot and the disk controller in another In 
fact, you can even have THE VOICE in another slot without any fears that there 
will be memory conflicts. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 
Specify Cassette or Disk 

STEREO COMPOSER (Hardware and Software) S1 1 9.95 



THE COMPOSER 



The COMPOSER is a 4 voice music compiler which easily allows one to develop 
high quality music. Each voice is programmed separately In addition, each 
voice uses its own waveshape table which meansa unique sound foreach of the 
4 voices 

The COMPOSER features a7 octave range It supportsdotted and doubledotted 
notes as well as eighth, quarter, and standard triplet notes Sixteenth and thirty 
second notes are also supported 

The COMPOSER allows the music to be played at any tempo and in any key. And 
believe it or not. the tempo and key can be modified as the music plays This 
gives the user tremendous versatility in developing music Key modification also 
allows the user to move the music up or down one or more octaves 

The COMPOSER displays a constantly changing random kaleidoscope pattern 
as the music plays. In addition, the number of the note being played is displayed 
which aids one in finding sour notes during music development Both of these 
displays can be disabled to allow any screen to be displayed while the music is 
playing. In this way, one can show the words to a song or display a picture as the 
music plays. 

The COMPOSER develops a machine language position independent sub- 
routine that can be Saved. Loaded, and Executed independent of all other 
software. This means that you can share your music with friends. In fact, you can 
write your own BASIC programs that call and play the music. Software vendors 
may include the music in their own product. 

The COMPOSER is menu driven making it extremely easy and friendly to use and 
operate A thick operating manual is also provided. Many examples are given to 
aid the user in getting started. All you need is provided, no additional hardware is 
necessary. Don't let the price fool you. the COMPOSER has got to be heard to be 
appreciated. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 

CASSETTE VERSION $24.95 

DISK VERSION (32K) $29 95 







SPEECH SYSTEMS got its start providing high quality speech synthesizers for 
SS-50 bus computers We are now proud to announce the same high quality 
product for the Color Computer and TDP-100 

THE VOICE should not be mistaken with software speech synthesizers which 
require the computer to do all the work in producing speech 

THE VOICE uses a special large scale integrated circuit, the SC-01 by VOTRAX, 
to reproduce any one of 64 phonemes at 4 inflections Phonemes are basic units 
of speech which allow one to reproduce any word in English as well as many 
other languages 

THE VOICE has two outputs. Speech may be heard through the user's TV 
speaker, or the built-in audio power amplifier may be connected to your own 
external speaker A phono connector is provided for this purpose and if the 
volume is too high, a built-in volume control may be used to adjust it to the 
proper level 

THE VOICE comes assembled, tested, burned in. with all the necessary 
hardware and software A complete manual with many examples are provided to 
get you started in developing your own BASIC or machine language programs to 
use speech 

THE VOICE is completely memory decoded so it does not conflict with the Radio 
Shack disk controller In this way. disk owners with an expansion interface such 
as the BT-1000 by Basic Technology can produce speech from disk with THE 
VOICE m one slot and the disk controller in another In fact, you can even have 
the STEREO COMPOSER in another slot without any fears that there will be 
memory conflicts 

We are trying to develop a library of software for THE VOICE Toward this end. we 
will be offering substantial royalties to software authors for their work 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 
Specify Cassette or Disk 

THE VOICE (Hardware and Software) $179 95 


HOW TO ORDER 


We accept CASH. CHECK. COD. VISA, and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling for all products in the 

continental US and Canada 


Shipping and handling for all products outside the 

continental US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge (requires cash, certified check, or 

money order) $2.00 

Illinois residents purchasing the STEREO COMPOSER or THE VOICE please add 
5Va% sales tax. 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

SPECIALISTS IN SYNTHESIZERS 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER AND TDP-100. 


Spe ech ^Sifdternd 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 ^ 

(312) 879-6880 

CALL ANY DAY. ANYTIME TO ORDER. YOU MAY ALSO ORDER BY MAIL. 


r 

- - ! 


BASIC TRAINING 

4K 

1 RAINBOW 1 

m 

-hi zA- 


Learning Through 
Program Dissection 

By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 


Y ou’ve come a long way! It is time to introduce you to 
program analysis. 

There comes a time, which you may have reached, when 
things begin to fall into place. You know the rudiments of 
BASIC and have spent a lot of time at the keyboard. You are 
beginning to get the feel of computing. It is all starting to 
make sense. But, not quite! 

There are some things that remain hazy. Things you don’t 
grasp. Y ou understand the program “in toto,” but not every 
line. In fact, a few lines may not ring a bell at all. 

Dredge up the 3CRAPS program listing from our June 
installment. It will be used as the example to demonstrate 
one way to analyze a program. This will be a learning 
experience, and in a sense you will become an author. 


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NASHUA, NH 03063 
603-880-8169 Mon-Sat 10-10 


A notebook, similar to the reference notebooks you 
created, will be used. Do not number the pages. Using a 
black, felt-tipped pen, on a well-centered, gummed label, 
print “program analysis.” On the inside cover, about two 
inches from the top, draw about five horizontal lines. Print 
“contents” neatly, above the top line. Between the two top 
lines you drew, print neatly, “3CR APS,” or some title that is 
meaningful to you. 

On the top line of the first page, print in red ink, “analysis 
of 3CRAPS.” Skip a line. In black ink, print in paragraph 
form, a summary of the program. Use your own words and 
add anything you discover as you analyze the program. 

An example: “This is an attempt to analyze, by dissecting 
line by line, a home-made 3 crap dice game taken from the 
Rainbow, June 1983.” 

Remember, when you analyze a program, no permanent 
modifications, revisions or improvements are made. This is 
a no-no! 

CLOAD and RUN the program. Look it over carefully 
and compare it with your listing. Then, LIST it in incre- 
ments, (list-100; list 100-200) and try to figure out the pur- 
pose of each line. Keep your program in memory. You may 
want to run the program or just a part of it to verify how a 
line reads and what it does. 

Note; You can run a program from a selected point by 
“ RUN 130-” to begin at line 130. Try it and see what 
happens. RUN 140- to RUN 170-. Notice the different 
results you get. Some lines may give a UL error. Try to figure 
out why. 

Good starting or insertion points are at CLS, PRINT or 
REM lines. They will carry the program forward to a logical 
stop, INPUT or press ENTER, awaiting some information 
necessary to continue. If none is demanded, the program 
will run to the end. These are good entry points to check out 
certain parts of a program. 

Suppose you wanted to check out line 220 in action. Line 
220 states that if the total of the three dice is four you will 
GOTOWne 570, which, after a short pause, will tell you on a 
blue background the bad news that you lost. You might have 
to wait all day for a four to be cast. One way to overcome this 
would be to inject the desired result, “4,” by changing lines: 
1 40 B= 1 ; 1 50 A= I ; 1 60 C=2. Another way: change line 1 70 
R=4 which ignores the results of lines 140-160. There are 
other ways to achieve the desired result. Can you work out 


(Joseph Kolar is a free-lance writer and programmer 
dedicated to proselytizing for computers in general, 
and the Co Co specifically .) 


148 the RAINBOW July 1983 





“WANNA FIND OUT 
WHAT FUN REALLY IS?” 

THE KIND OF EXCITEMENT YOU GET OUT OF YOUR SYSTEM DEPENDS ON 

WHAT GAMES YOU PUT I NTO IT. 

If You Want to Find Out What it’s Like to Use your Computer to its Fullest....Then These are the Games 
You’ll Need! for yourtrs-so color computer 

DunkeyfAunkey 

32K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 

SEAL 



ON THIS SCREEN: 

Pop the Rivets and Fight Fires 


We're sure you already know 
the rules tothisgame! As game 
progresses so does the diffi- 
culty level 

Cassette . $24 95 

Diskette $29.95 


ON THIS SCREEN: 

Jump Barrels and Ride the Elevator 


ULTRA FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE ■ HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS ■ SPECTACULAR SOUND EFFECTS 


STRRFIRE 

16K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 



Plays like popular arcade game 
Defender" including: 

• Hyperspace 

• Smart Bombs 

• Radar Scanner 

Cassette $21.95 

Diskette $26.95 




Give your Color Computer^ 
a New Image! 


SCREEN - 64 





* 


RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 

SEAL 


64 Characters X 32 Lines 
Upper & LowerCase 

I6K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 

1. Load in SCREEN-64 

2. Type EXEC 

3. You’re Back in BASIC with a 64 x 32 
Screen plus.... 

FEATURES: 

• Slow/Fast Scroll Selectable 

• Window Capabilities 

• Text & Graphic on same screen 

• Superscript/Subscript 

• Reverse Screen/Reverse Video 

• No Hardware Modification Needed 


Cassette $1 9-95 

Diskette $24.95 


IntEllectranics 

22 Churchill Lane 
Smithtown, N.Y. 1 1787 
(516) 543-6642 


We pay all shipping. All orders shipped in 
24 hours. N.Y. residents please add sales 
tax. Canadian orders please send M.O. in 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED U.S. funds only. 




any? Of course, you must restore the original line or you will 
be “4’ed” to death. 

If you have Extended Color BASIC, you can TRON your 
way through a program. We shall assume that you have 
Color BASIC only. 

By now, you are hopelessly addicted to the 80C. If you 
have 4K, Color BASIC, I strongly urge you to have your 
machine upgraded to include Extended Color BASIC and 
16K, in that order. You are going to do it anyway. You will 
be glad you did! 

Back to the drawing board. After your introductory 
notes, skip a line. In black ink, print “10” to the left of the 
red, vertical line. To the right of this line, print in black ink 
the actual listing of line 10, up to the color (:), which separ- 
ates multiple statements massed in one line. On the next line, 
indent about an inch and in red ink, using your own words, 
print an explanation of the meaning of that segment of the 
line: “blank out the screen.” In black ink, on the next line, 
lined up with the black listing, print “:PRINT.” Indent an 
inch on the next line and in red, print “skip a line.” 

Next line: write 20 to the left of the red, vertical line. Print 
the following: print “rules” to the right. Count the spaces 
between (“”) and (R) and write the number, enclosed in a 
circle in the space. (Sometimes, it is easier to count them 
from the screen than the line listing.) On the next line, indent 
and in red, print: the word “rules” is centered on the screen. 
Do you know another way to achieve the same result? If you 
do, in pencil write any alternate way you have discovered to 
get exactly the same result. Try it out to be certain by 


OELRICH PUBLICATIONS 
BRINGS YOU 

GREAT SOFTWARE VALUES 

1. ) ZAXXON (by Datasoft) The official version from 

SEGA. Great graphics and sound! Maneuver 
your way through enemy planes and anti-air- 
craft fire to meet your date with the deadly robot 
ZAXXON! 32K cassette $35.95 

2. ) MOONSHUTTLE (by Datasoft) Watch your 

screen explode with life threatening man-o- 
wars, meteors, bomb launchers and more! The 
Prince of Darkness is the enemy, so this one will 
take your best effort. 16K cassette $31.00 

3. ) 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe (by J. Makowski) It’s human vs. 

computer in this all machine language version 
of a classic. Great graphics and a very strong 
playing program make this a bargain. 

16K cassette $16.95 

4. ) FROG TREK (by R. Oelrich) Use the keyboard ar- 

rows to guide your frog through rush hour traffic 
and across the river. All machine language code 
for fast play. 16K cassette $14.95 

All prices include shipping so you save! 

TO ORDER SEND CHECK OR M/O TO: 

OELRICH PUBLICATIONS 
4040 NASHVILLE 
CHICAGO IL 60634 
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(in Illinois call 312-545-9286) 

VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED 


replacing line 20 in the listing and RUN it. Restore the 
original line. 

Follow the same format throughout, systematically pro- 
gressing from one line number to the next. Do not skip a line 
number. If you are uncertain of the meaning of a line, leave 
adequate space to put in your explanation at a later time. 
List multiple entries, separated by a (:) separately. The 
exception would be an obvious case such as line 30 PRINT: 
PRINT.PRINT. Put the entry on one line in black; indent 
on next line and in red print “skip three lines.” 


“ There comes a time, which you may have 
reached, when things begin to fall into place. 
You know the rudiments of BASIC and have 
spent a lot of time at the keyboard. You are 
beginning to get the feel of computing. It is all 
starting to make sense. But, not quite!" 


Drop down to line 180. It would be listed, in its turn, as 
described above. An explanation could be “print the results 
of the cast of the ‘A’ die at screen location 200. Verify the 
location by checking the print @ worksheet in the manual.” 
If you know another way, add it in pencil. You could say: 
“PRINT @ 32*6+8, A.” 

Drop to line 480, which would be listed in its proper turn. 
This line means that if you rolled a number, 2, that was not 
equal to the number you were supposed to roll, R, or was not 
a 10, then get set to make another cast. Notice how lines 
480-500 give you all possible directions for any number that 
might be cast. 

Isn’t it interesting to puzzle out the significance of every 
line? But, what happens when you get hung up? If you can’t 
figure it out, try different strategms. For instance, RUN the 
program from some entry point near the problem area. 
Delete the line or lines that bug you. See what happens. 
(Remember to replace the lines later.) Pass around the prob- 
lem line with a GOTO or insert an (’) at the beginning of a 
line to effectively bypass the line. Substitute other data. 
Introduce temporary markers. (Insert an * at some point.) 
There are lots of things you can try to isolate the problem. 
RUN the program or part of the program, observing what 
changes occur, and you will get many good clues to help you 
solve the problem. 

Finally, if all fails, leave a few lines blank for the explana- 
tion. Continue, and return to it later. This will indicate your 
weak areas and what you need to work on. Don’t be 
obsessed with it. It may come to you later like a Hash out of 
the blue. 

Eventually, you will have the entire program psyched out. 
Good for you! Getting it down on paper helps to jog your 
memory. 

At some time, you will come across an intriguing and 
more complex program listing that you will want to dissect 
and study. Save it for a project and when you want a change 
of pace, get the old notebook out and chop it up. 

After you do four to six analyses, you will discover that 
you will begin to meaningfully read listings and give up 
dissecting programs. That is as it should be. In the mean- 
time, have fun! 




150 the RAINBOW July 1983 



PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 




6 * . 


w 


Eight-bit Bartender: 

This will light up your next party! Over 100 great drink 
recipes are stored by the bartender and called up at your 
command. Askforthem bydrinkname, main liquorused.or 
class of drink (highball, cocktail, etc.). These were gathered 
from the favorites and house specialties at famous pubs 
and taverns across the US. It outputs to the screen, printer, 
or both! At your next party let the guests browse through 
the Bartender. Needs 32K. TAPE $1 9.95 — DISK $24.95 




Flight 

If you'd like to fly a plane then this is what you've been 
waiting for. A really good graphics oriented flight simulator 
in high resolution. Four difficulty levels let you go from 
student level to a difficult instrument-only landing. In front 
of you on the screen are your instruments, and above 
them are two representations of your plane in relation to 
the flight path (top and side views). At the higher levels all 
you have to go by are the instruments. Can you put it down 
on the runway to hear the synthesized voice from the 
tower say “perfect landing”? It’s tough! You use your 
joystick just like the control stick on a plane, and the action 
is realistic indeed. This program was written by a pro- 
fessional flyer— a pilot for a major United States aircarrier, 
and the high standards of professionalism really show. 
Just CLOADM and take to the skies!! Requires 32K 
extended. TAPE is $1 9.95 — DISK is $24.95 


The Fantasy Master’s Secretary 

This program will be greatly appreciated by the many 
people trying to run a fantasy game! It’s not easy to keep 
track of hit points, charges in magic items, monsters, game 
time, armor values, and a lot more, all while trying to 
conduct a meelee and listen to 8 people talking at once. If 
you everthought you needed a secretary, this is it! It keeps 
track of all the above and more, and even has a help file in 
case you forget how to use it. It also figures the experience 
points of monsters while keeping an electronic eye on 
value and weight of treasure found. You’ll truly wonder 
how you got along without it!!! If you quit before the 
campaign is completed, you can save the whole thing to 
tape (or disk) and take up right where you left off next time 
you play. At the beginning it will ask you whether or not the 
players can see the screen, and set its displays up accord- 
ingly. Remember, this isn’t a game — it’s an aid to use with 
a fantasy game. $1 9.95 tape — $24.95 disk. 


Phonics I 

This classroom-tested program is the newest in our Phonics 
series. Written by the same elementary school teacher, it 
takes up where PREREAD I, II, & III leave off. Actually two 
programs (on separate tapes), the TUTORIAL teaches all 
22 of the consonant blends using on-screen graphics and 
voice (controlled by the computer and played through the 
TV speaker). The TEST program asks for the letters in 
these blends (again using voice throught the speaker), and 
checks the keyboard input for the correct answer. Again, 
on screen graphics are used as an aid to learning, and 
immediate feedback to the learner is given. 

Phonics II 

Similar to Phonics I in concept and execution, but Phonics 
II teaches consonant digraphs. Again there are two pro- 
grams (on different tapes) for the TUTORIAL and TEST 
modes. 


Both Phonics I and Phonics II are well documented, and are 
sold separately on TAPES for $24.95 each. They are also 
available as a package — only on DISK for $44.95. 


A Partial List of Prickly-Pear Programs 

Astrology, Gangbusters, Household Helper, 
Fantasy Gamer's Package, Viking, Football, 
Preread I, II & III, Mathpac I, Tarot, I Ching, 
Numerology, The Great Word Game, The 80C 
Songbook, Phonics I, Phonics 2, Flight, Las 
Vegas Weekend, The 8-Bit Bartender, The 
Fantasy Master’s Secretary, MonstersS Magic, 
Topsy Turvy, Galactic Patrol, Blockade, Sea 
Wars, Jungle, Spanish . . . 


FOR DISK VERSIONS ON AMDEK CARTRIDGES, ADD $5. 


Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 
on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 6% sales 
tax. Orders shipped within two days. 


Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To: PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9234 E. 30th Street 
Tucson, Arizona 85710 
(602) 886-1505 



DISK 

BASIC 

■ 

the 

a ~f ■ 

TUTORIAL 

RAINBOW 

r-V- 



M ost people with disk systems use the DIRe ctory 
command to list the names of files on their 
diskette, but many may not have a good idea of 
what the disk directory really is and other ways it may be 
used. The disk directory is that information stored on the 
diskette which tells Disk BASIC what files are there and 
where those files are located. Disk BASIC needs this infor- 
mation to use these files to store programs or data. 

The total disk directory is composed of a file allocation 
table and directory entries for each file. When you use the 
DIR command, this information is combined to tell you the 
name and size of each file. You can redirect this information 
to your printer by POKEmg the printer’s device number 
(254) into location 1 1 1 before requesting the directory list- 
ing. POKE 1 1 1,254 :DIRI will print the directory fordrive 1 . 

Disk BASIC divides the diskette into 35 tracks. You can 
visualize these tracks as concentric circles. Each track is 
sub-divided into 18 sectors. The designation of a track and 
sector identifies a unique area of the disk which contains 256 
bytes of information. The Disk BASIC file system groups 
nine of these numerically adjacent sectors into a unit called a 
Granule. There are two Granules per track. A Granule is the 
smallest unit that will be allocated to a file. The use of this 
Granule convention results in fewer disk areas for the file 
system to manage. There is no reason that this value had to 
be nine. Tandy could have decided to group six, or three, or 
two sectors into an allocation unit, or even allocated indi- 
vidual sectors. The use of a smaller allocation unit would 
haver resulted in less disk data area being wasted, but more 
disk space being required for directory information and 


■ |i" 1 1 1, 'll •. i 1 

( Mr Hefter is president of Custom Software Engineer- 
ing of Cocoa Beach, Florida) 


more overhead in the allocation process. The file system uses 
track 17 for the directory information. This leaves 34 tracks 
(68 Granules) available for files. The table below shows the 
track/sector of the first sector of each Granule. 


Gran - 
ule It 0 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

0 0/1 

0/10 

>/> 

1/ 10 

2/1 

2/ 10 

3/1 

3/10 

4/1 

4 / 10 

10 5/ 1 

5/ 10 

6/ 1 

6/ 10 

7/1 

7/10 

8/1 

8/ 10 

9/1 

9 , 10 

20 10/ 1 

10/ 10 

ll/l 

11/10 

12/1 

12/ 10 

13/1 

13/ 10 

14/ 1 

14/ 10 

30 15/1 

15 / 10 

16/ 1 

16/10 

18 / 1 

18/ 10 

19/ 1 

19/ 10 

20/1 

20/ 10 

40 21/1 

21/10 

22/1 

22/10 

23/1 

23/ 10 

24/1 

24/ 10 

25/ 1 

25/ 10 

50 26/ 1 

26/ 10 

27/1 

27/ 10 28/ 1 

28 10 

29/ 1 

29/ 10 

30/ 1 

30/ 10 

60 31/1 

31/ 10 

32/ 1 

32/ 10 

33 1 

33 10 

34 / 1 

34/ 10 




Tabulation Of Track/Sector For Each Granule 


The file allocation table (which is really a Granule alloca- 
tion table) is located in sector 2 of track 1 7. Only the first 68 
bytes of this sector are used. Each byte corresponds to one 
Granule on the disk. The first byte will give the status of 
Granule 0. The 15th byte will be the status of Granule 14. If 
the value of the byte is 255, it means that the corresponding 
Granule is not in use. A byte value between 0 and 67 indi- 
cates that the corresponding Granule is in use, and the byte 
value is a pointer to the next Granule of the file. This means 
that this Granule is not the last Granule of the file. A value 
between 192 and 202 means that the corresponding Granule 
is the last Granule of the file and tells how many of the 9 
sectors in that Granule are part of the file. The file allocation 
table does not provide enough information to tell where any 
given file begins. 

Sectors 3 through 1 1 of track 17 contain the actual names 
of the files on the disk and other information including the 
number of the first Granule of each file. This information is 
referred to as the directory entry. The directory entry for 


152 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Skyline Software 


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from your BASIC programs. This utility, written by Chris Hawks, does the memory management necessary to utilize 
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Works with 64K tape or disk systems. 

Cassette $27.95 Disk $29.95 

MDISK — Hal Snyder’s latest breakthrough for the 64K Color Computer! MDISK lets you use the upper 32K of 
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QUICKSORT — A machine language sort routine specifically designed to be used by BASIC programmers. This 
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Casette $12.95 

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WIZARD’S TOMB, PART II — Takes up where Wizard’s Tomb left off. reouests for cataloas 

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each file does not tell how many Granules long that file is. 
This is why both the directory entry and the file allocation 
table are required to produce the DIR listing. The directory 
entry tells where the file begins. Counting the Granules as it 
traces through the file allocation table until it finds the last 
Granule tells how long it is. Figure 1 illustrates how this all 
works. 

Each directory entry uses 32 bytes even though only 16 
bytes contain any useful information. The first 8 bytes are 
the file name and the next 3 are the extension (BAS, DAT, 
etc.). If the first byte of the file name is zero, it means that the 
file has been killed. If the first byte of the name is a 255, it 
means that entry and all following entries have not been 
used — no need to look further. It is the 14th byte of each 
entry which tells the number of the first Granule of that file. 

The disk directory is not part of any file and may not be 
OPENe d or read with the INPUT command. Disk BASIC 
provides another command which will bypass the file system 
and allow you to directly read any sector of the disk. This is 
the DSKI$ command and uses as parameters the drive 
number, track, sector, and two string variables — one to 
receive the first 128 bytes of the sector and one for the last 
128 bytes. (Remember that one string variable will not hold 
more than 255 bytes). 

Now we have enough background to put that disk direc- 
tory to work for us. Listing 1 shows a program which may be 

Figure 1 


B»l* Hwr 

I 14 



Byte # 

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 


Granule # 

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 

used to get a different kind of directory listing. This program 
will produce a map which shows which Granules are used 
for each file and their order of use. This program checks the 
first character of the file name for 255 (line 50) to find the 
first unused entry ( no need to read further) and checks for a 
zero (line 70) to see which files should be omitted from the 
listing. Line 80 prints the file name and extension and finds 
the first Granule of the file. Line 90 traces through the file 
allocation table until the last Granule is found. This pro- 
gram is written to allow you to customize it for your own 
use. For example, if you want the listing in alphabetical 
order, just add a bubble sort between line 60 and 70. Or if 
you want only BASIC programs listed, test for this in line 
70. Try running this program on several of your diskettes. 

The map produced may be of use if you have problems 
with your diskette. Listing 2 is a short program which may 
be used to read all sectors on a diskette. If you get an I/O 
error while trying to backup a diskette, run this short pro- 
gram. It will terminate with an I/O error, but the last track/ - 
sector displayed on your screen will tell you the first sector 


which cannot be read. You can generally make this sector 
readable by writing over it with a DISKOS command. You 
can then use your map and the track/ sector vs. Granule 
table to see which file (if any) has lost data. Remember to 
run the program (listing 2) again to confirm that the sector is 
readable and see if any other sectors are bad. 

The directory map is also of use to show you how your 
diskette is organized. If you have a map of a diskette you just 
put into service, it will probably show the files are well 
organized. Files are clustered around the middle of the 
diskette and multi-Granule files are using adjacent areas. 
But a map of a diskette which has been used for a while and 
which has had files grow or shrink in size, files deleted 
(killed), and others added, shows a less organized picture. 
The disk system will try to allocate adjacent Granules when 
it can. This is more than just aesthetically pleasing. It also 
allows files to be read or written with a minimum of time 
required to reposition the read head. But if you have several 
files (data or program) which gradually grow over time, the 
allocation pattern is one of intertwined Granule allocation. 

The disk system /MC/ft// 5 capability is good for making 
an exact duplicate of your diskette. It makes a physical 
copy— that is, it copies all sectors whether used or not. The 
BA CKUP process does nothing to reorganize your disk and 
get things back to a neat (and efficient) allocation. The disk 
system COPY command does write a file copy as if it is just 
being created, and in so doing keeps things together. You 
can create a new and well organized disk just by copying all 
of your old files to that new disk one by one. If you have 
many files on the disk, this will be a bit of a chore. 

But unlike the BA CK U /’command, the CO/ 5 T command 
can be used by a program. The disk manual states that the 
COPY will erase memory, but it really doesn’t. What it does 
do is use whatever memory is not in use by your program. 
The more memory available, the better COPY will work on 
longer files. 

Listing 3 is a program which will copy all files on a 
diskette in Drive 0 to Drive I . The effect of copying all files is 
to produce a logical backup of your diskette. But since this 
new diskette will probably be better organized (more effi- 
cient) than the original, you may want to make it your new 
working copy and keep the original as the backup. The 
COP Y command will not write over an existing file. To use 
this program, the new diskette must not have any files with 
the same name as those on the diskette to be copied. This will 
generally mean a newly formatted diskette. 

The use of this program also has some other advantages. 
The program will not try to read unused sectors so an 
unreadable but unused sector will not be a problem. If your 
old diskette is only partially filled, this procedure may actu- 
ally be faster than the BACKUP command. You may use 
this program to make one backup diskette combining two 
half-filled diskettes as long as file names do not repeat. And 
you may add those customizing touches like sorting the file 
names or copying only program files or only files which start 
or end with this or that. If you found a disorganized diskette 
with program Listing 1 , try program Listing 3 on it and then 
get a map of the new diskette to see what neat means! 

Unfortunately, Listing 3 will not work on a one-drive 
system. Program Listing 4 shows the modifications required 
for a logical backup using only one drive. This version does 
have many of the advantages of Listing 3, but it also has one 
major disadvantage. You will need to switch diskettes at 
least once for each file to be copied. For a single drive 
system, the BA CKUP command will generally be easier and 


154 the RAINBOW July 1983 



The PROFESSIONAL Keyboard 



"A Model 1 keyboard 
in a Color Computer case. 

This product is a real gem." 
Rainbow Review, March 1983 
*AII TDP/F orders please specify 


*No Extra Charge for TDP/F 
Model 


$69.95 


A direct plug-in 
replacement for your 
Color Computer. 


•Simple Installation 
(No glueing or cutting) 
‘Redefinable keys 
‘Free Software - See page 
80 of June 1983 RAINBOW 


"The Spectrum Switcher 
is a fantastic device" 
RAINBOW review, April, 
1983, Page 207 



SPECTRUM SWITCHER 

$99.95 


RAINBOW 

CtRTlflCATtON 

MAi 


Have your Disk and Cartridge too! 
Transforms a Color Computer into a dual slot 
system. Comes with extender cable. 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93 15 86th DRIVE WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

212 4412807 

all orders plus $3 S/H, N.Y. residents add sales tax 




faster than Listing 4 (unless you only have about half a 
dozen files). But you may wish to use the program when the 
map shows a real need for reorganization. 

You will probably find these small utilities useful. But 
more important, the use and understanding of these pro- 
grams will give you a better idea of how the file system uses 
the disk directory and how to make it work for you. 

Listing 1: 

1 'LISTING #1 

2 ’ 

3 'THIS PROGRAM IS USED TO 

4 'PRODUCE FILE ALLOCATION MAP 

5 ’ 

10 PCLEAR l: CLEAR 2000: DIM F*(72 
>:DR=0 'DR IS DRIVE NUMBER 
20 DSKI* DR, 17,2,AL*,B* 

30 N=l:FOR S=3 TO 11 
40 DSKI* DR, 17, S, A*,B*: A*=A*+LEF 
T* (B*, 127) : FOR J=0 TO 7 
50 F*(N)=MID*(A*, J*32+l, 16) : IF L 
EFT* ( F* ( N ) , 1 ) =CHR* ( 255 ) THEN N=N 
-1 1 GOTO 61 

60 N=N+1 : NEXT J,S 

61 'BUBBLE SORT CAN GO HERE 

70 FOR M=1 TO N: IF LEFT* <F* (M) , 1 
) =CHR* (0) THEN 100 
80 PRINT#-2: PRINT#-2, LEFT* (F* (M) 
,11>S" " i : G=ASC (MID* (F* (M) , 14, 1 

) > 

90 PRINT#— 2, G; ; : G=ASC (MID* (AL 
*,G+1,1)):IF G<68 THEN 90 
100 NEXT M 


IS DRIVE NUMBER 

20 FOR T= 0 TO 34:CLS:F0R S=1 TO 
18 

30 PRINT T,S:DSKI* DR, T, S, A*, B*: 
NEXT S,T: CLEAR 2000 


Listing 3: 

1 'LISTING #3 

2 ' 

3 'THIS PROGRAM IS USED TO 

4 'MAKE A LOGICAL BACKUP FROM 

5 'DRIVE 0 TO DRIVE 1 

6 ' 

10 PCLEAR l: CLEAR 2000: DIM F*(72 
>:DR=0 'DR IS DRIVE NUMBER 
30 N=1 : FOR S=3 TO 11 
40 DSKI* DR , 1 7 , S , A* , B* : A*=A*+LEF 
T*(B*, 127) :FOR J=0 TO 7 
50 F*(N)=MID*(A*, J*32+l, 16) : IF L 
EFT* ( F* ( N > , 1 ) =CHR* ( 255 ) THEN N=N 
-l:GOTO 61 

60 N=N+1 : NEXT J,S 

61 'BUBBLE SORT CAN GO HERE 

70 FOR M=1 TO N: IF LEFT* (F* <M> , 1 
> =CHR* (0) THEN 100 
80 W*=LEFT* (F* (M) , 8) +"/"+MID* (F* 
(M) ,9,3) : PRINT W*:COPY W* TO W*+ 
; 1 " 

100 NEXT M 


Listing 2: 

1 'LISTING #2 

2 ' 

3 'THIS PROGRAM IS USED TO CHECK 

4 'ALL SECTORS ON A DISK 

5 'IF IT ENDS WITH AN I/O ERROR 

6 'THE LAST TRACK/SECTOR DISPLAY 

7 'IS NOT READABLE 

8 ' 

10 PCLEAR l: CLEAR 8000: DR=0 'DR 


r 


v. 


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Listing 4: 

1 'LISTING #4 

2 ' 

3 'THIS PROGRAM IS USED TO 

4 'MAKE A LOGICAL BACKUP 

5 'USING ONLY DRIVE 0 

6 ' 

10 PCLEAR 1: CLEAR 2000: DIM F*<72 
>:DR=0 'DR IS DRIVE NUMBER 
30 N=l:FOR S=3 TO 11 
40 DSKI* DR, 17,S, A*,B*: A*=A*+LEF 
T*(B*, 127) :FOR J=0 TO 7 
50 F*(N)=MID*(A*, J*32+l, 16) : IF L 
EFT* (F* (N) , 1 ) =CHR* ( 255 ) THEN N=N 
-l:GOTO 61 

60 N=N+1 : NEXT J,S 

61 'BUBBLE SORT CAN GO HERE 

70 FOR M=1 TO N: IF LEFT* (F* (M) , 1 
) =CHR* (0) THEN 100 
80 W*=LEFT* <F* (M) , 8) +" / "+MID* <F* 
<M) ,9,3) :PRINT W*:COPY W* 

90 IF M<N THEN PRINT: PRINT" INSER 
T SOURCE DISKETTE AND" : INPUT "PRE 
SS ENTER" ;C* 

100 NEXT M 




156 fhe RAINBOW July 1983 




SPECTRUM SPECIALS 

Rompak w/Blank PC Board $9.95 

The Spectrum Remote Reset $12.95 

The Colorcade w/Rapid Fire. $19.95 

Video Plus - Superb Video Interface$24.95 
16/32K Upgrade Kit * Lowest price..$25.95 


Wico Red Ball Joystick $34.95 

The Spectrum Joystick $39.95 

Wico Analog Joystick $49.95 

Super - Pro Keyboard $69.95 

Botek Printer Interface $69.95 


Convert Modem to Auto 'Answer $99.95 

Amdek Twin 3" Drive System $599 

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How many of you have broken your sweet embrace with 
CoCo lately to maybe just lean back on an elbow and really 
take note of what’s happening with our Color Computer? 1 
mean, have you really noticed what’s going on around you? 
Have you noticed the ever increasing amount of software 
available these days? Or is it happening so fast that the pace 
is just too swift to keep up with? 

Consider that just a year ago the cupboard was woefully 
bare and comparable power cost almost three times as 
much, and your basic unit was a 4K machine. 

Consider that when you finished your journey through 
the accompanying manuals and went out shopping in search 
of software, almost all you could find were a few game 
cartridges. Foggy memories? Then pull out some of your 
back issues of the Rainbow and check out the advertising. 
Now compare that with today’s level of third party software 
and hardware advertising for our Color Computer. Notice 
anything significant? Sure the quantity has increased almost 
immeasurably, but look at the quality and diversity! 

We’re seeing more and more utilities and serious applica- 
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Take for example this brand new product that came 
across my desk for review just recently. GRAFPLOT is its 
name, a general graphing program. Written in open BASIC, 
it’s described as being capable of turning your Color Com- 
puter “into a sophisticated data plotter, producing profes- 
sional quality graphs of any type of X-Y data”and promises 
that you’ll never have to mess around with pencil, graph 
paper and ruler again. And 1 thought it was another pro- 
gram designed to print text on the graphics page before 1 
cracked the manual! 

GRAFPLOT is an applications program which will find 
itself equally useful in the home and office Color 
Computer — although probably more so in the latter case. 
And that, although not revolutionary, is progress, my 
friend! 

So what’s so great about this product? After all, you can 
learn how to make graphs from the computer manuals. But I 
guarantee you won’t be able to do it nearly as well and with 
the diversity that GRAFPLOT offers. 1 know there’s a new 
product out from the Fort Worth folks, but it’s ROMpak 
based, isn’t it? I find those cartridge programs so limiting for 
some reason. 

GRA F PLOT comes in two versions: a cassette version for 
16K machines; and a disk version for 32 K machines. For the 
cassette version, you’ll need a minimum of 16K with 
Extended Color BASIC and, naturally, a good cassette 
recorder. For the disk version you need 32K Disk Extended 
Color BASIC with one or more drives. Optional equipment 
requirements to get hardcopy printouts of your graphs are 
listed as a Line Printer VII or DMP-100 and the Radio 
Shack screenprint program. (There is a section in the man- 
ual on how to interface other screenprint routines and print- 
ers with GRAFPLOT.) 

Well, I found and blew the dust off my long unused copy 
of the screenprint program with a sigh of relief. But since 
changing over to the faster, smarter and much neater Oki- 
data 82A, I had passed my LP VII along to my computer 
engineering daughter. All I could do was cross my toes in 
hopes of discovering that the Oki’ would work out. (It went 
crazy when 1 tried to get a screen print!) 

After carefully reading through the documentation’s 34 
pages, it was time to tackle the program. Unfortunately, 1 
couldn’t think of anything I wanted to plot out on a graph at 
the time! Wouldn’t you know it? Well, anyway, the manual 
includes an extensive tutorial section with a set of basic data 
provided to permit you to initiate a number of graphs and 
even includes printouts of what they should look like. Why 
not use these data, I said to myself. 

Following the manual’s instructions to clear the machine 
for all available memory (aimed at the 16K user), I loaded in 
the first cassette program and started following the step by 
step tutorial. Once 1 had entered the data and checked it, I 
simply called for the graph to be drawn on the high resolu- 
tion screen. I was both surprised and pleased at the results. 
Looking good, CoCo! The screen presentation, using 
PM ODE 4, was clear and very crisp indeed. Even though the 
steps taken to get that display were at first kind of confusing, 

I quickly got used to it, thanks to the meticulous “hand hold- 
ing” documentation. 

After discovering that the Okidata 82 A wouldn’t respond 
to the screenprint program (I should have known better), 1 
“borrowed” and hooked up the LP VII and soon produced 
my first hardcopy printout. The image produced by the LP 
Vll left much to be desired in my opinion: too small (3”h x 
414 ”w) and kind of jagged. Maybe the latter is a result of a 


158 the RAINBOW July 1983 



BASIC AID 


AT LAST! Help for the BASIC programmer. BASIC AID is an indespensable addition to the Color 
Computer. It will save you valuable time and effort. If you write or modify BASIC proarams 
you need BASIC AID. 

You get 43 Common BASIC commands available as single Control Key inputs. Greatly 
speeds up program entry. 

A powerful feature is the ability to redefine any or all of the keys to your own specifications 
PLUS you get invaluable features such as a MERGE command. Move Line command and 

Automatic Line Numbering 




MERGE— Insert programs stored on 
cassette into your Basic program. 

You can even assign new line 
numbers to the program you read 
in. Great for creating your own 
tape library. 

MOVE— Lets you move and renumber any 
part of your Basic program. GOTOs 
and GOSUBs are automatically 
changed. 

Redefine any or all keys! Put in your most 
frequently used commands. Then save 
them to tape for use another time. 


M M 



"An excellent program 
and fine utility' — 

— RAINBOW review, 
August, 1982, Page 27 


BLANK SET -AUTONUtl- 

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much-used printer head, though. I found the first prints 
coming out in white on black. Remembering that 1 could 
POKE value 255 into memory location 16303, I soon 
changed that to a black on white printout. (The disk version 
takes care of this for you by modifying the screenprint 
program and relocating it to high memory. 

One last word about the cassette version and we’ll move 
on. Because GRAFPLOT itself consists of two programs, 
you’ll find yourself shuffling back and forth among three 
cassettes: the program tape, screenprint, and a data tape. 
You might get a bit confused at first, but it’ll wear off soon, 
especially if you keep your work area clean and neatly 
organized. 

The disk version is much easier to use. After the long 
process of backing up the master disk’s two programs and 
then bringing the main program up, you’re asked if you have 
a copy of the modified screenprint program on the disk. No? 
Then load the screenprint program into memory from 
cassette and within a few seconds it’s modified (including 
getting rid of the shift/ up arrow), moved to high memory 
and on your disk ready to work! You’re advised to then 
make a new backup working copy of your backup. 

Both versions employ extensive error trapping to guard 
against your bombing the program and losing your data to 
boot. One method used very effectively is Automatic 
Prompting to lead you through all of the steps necessary to 
enter, set up and draw a graph. You’re urged to use this 
option every time. 

I mentioned earlier that I was hard-pressed to come up 
with a set of statistics of my own to graph out. But suppose 
you’re more creative than I. Just what kind of data will 

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GRAFPLOT handle? Its author suggests the following 
applications: 

Personal: 

♦budgets and actual expenses versus time (days, weeks, 
months, or years) 

♦children’s growth curves (height and weight versus time) 
♦tax bracket versus income 

♦stock and investment performance versus time or interest 
rate 

Business: 

♦sales charts 

♦marginal cost and marginal profit versus units produced 
♦total cost and revenue versus time 

♦performance forecasts or production, investments, et 
cetera 

Statistics: 

♦scatter plotting of raw data 

♦plotting of data versus regression curves 

♦evaluation of integrals of complex equations 

Scientific and Engineering 

♦experimental results plotting 

♦removal of noise from data 

♦data extrapolation to new experimental conditions 
♦evaluation of certain quantities by calculating the area 
under a curve. (I’d never have thought of that one! I’m 
usually behind the curve.) 

If you can think of unique applications, you can even 
define your own functions with the manual and program 
leading you along. 

Suppose you’ve already got some files with data you’d like 
graph plotted. Can you integrate them directly into GRAF- 
PLOT? Yes, with reservations. “ GRAFPLOTcan read data 
from any tape or disk file that has the proper data structure.” 
What that means is that you must use the GRAFPLOT 
format in recording your data. There’s a section in the 
manual suggesting how you can achieve this compatibility. 

The documentation — let’s call it a manual — isn’t too 
badly put together. 1 was a little skeptical from the start 
about its print format of very closely spaced typewritten 
lines. It just seems a bit too crowded to my eyes. Maybe I’m 
mellowing, though, because I soon found myself able to 
wade through it and make some sense out of the format. It’s 
“chock-full-'o’-nuts” to make GRAFPLOT easy to use. 

Here are the basic questions (with short answers) I asked 
myself after running through the program several times and 
getting a good feel for it: 

Overall impression? — (Very impressed) 

Probable market? — (Small, small business and the natu- 
rally inquisitive) 

Easy to use? — (Very, if you follow the manual) 

Would 1 buy it? — (Maybe) 

Do I recommend it? — (Yes, to anyone with such a need) 
I’m very impressed with GRAFPLOT, even though it 
doesn’t produce pie — or bargraphs. One last thing: because 
it uses high resolution’s PMODE 4, don’t expect to see 
dazzling colors on the screen. And if you’re going to use the 
hardcopy printouts in business, you might want to enlarge 
them a bit photographically first. Whether these are short- 
comings or not depends on your intended applications., 
(Hawkes Research Services, 1442 Sixth Street, Berkeley, CA 
94710, S35 cassette, $45 tape) 

— Ed Lowe 


160 the RAINBOW 


July 1983 


********************************************************** 


**************************************** 


“BREAKING ALL 
SALES RECORDS’ 
Bob Rosen 



“Recommend to 
anyone who enjoys 
games on his CoCo.” 
RAINBOWReview, 
March 1983 


STICK INTERFACE 


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Finally! A program written to protect 
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6883 (SAM) Chip with heat sink $29.95 

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YOU’VE BEEN READING ABOUT 

the “new” Color Computers on these 
pages for some time — now we’re going 
to tell you something about one of 
them. 

Yes, it is available. It is called the 
MC-10 and has the now-familiar CoCo 
logo of red, green and blue rectangles on 
its white cover (see the picture on this 
page). Not only is the “PoCo CoCo” 
(poco means small in Spanish) available 
now, but it is available for $119.95. 
That’s a very competitive price and 
when we tell you more about it, you’ll 
see that it looks like the people at Radio 
Shack have come up with another winner. 

From the standpoint of the CoCo 
Community, the advent of the TRS-80 
MC-10 means that there will be a whole 
lot of people joining us! Here’s an ideal 
“first” computer at a “first computer 
price.” And, while the initial version 
comes with just 4K, there is reference to 
greater memory availability and some 
interesting possibilities for expansion. 

The instruction set for PoCo CoCo is 
something of a mixture of Color BASIC 
and Extended Color BASIC. And while 
there are no high-res commands, it 
seems obvious that high resolution gra- 
phics will be possible with machine lan- 
guage programs. 

PoCo CoCo arrived here just as we 
were on deadline, so there may be 
number of details we will be forced to 
leave out of this first look-see. But, Dan 
Downard, our technical editor, promises 
a full run-down on PoCo CoCo for next 


month. 

In the meantime, here are some first 
impressions: 

The MC-10 has all the string functions 
available for CoCo, many of the trig 
operations (like COSine and SINe) and 
a good amount of other goodies such as 
RND, ABS, CHR$ and the like. It also 
has PEEK and POKE, which the non- 
Extended BASIC CoCo did not origi- 
nally have. 

Along the same vein, it also has multi- 
dimension array capabilities, which were 
not included with non-Extended. And, 
surprise, it sends information to the 
printer by LPRINT— not PRINT #-2, 
as does CoCo. This may cause some 
compatibility problems, but shouldn’t 
be too serious. 

Then there’s something new: CLO AD* 
and CSAVE*. These two commands 
allow you to save and load arrays to 
tape without affecting the rest of the 
program. A nice addition! 

Also obviously different is the key- 
board, which sports automatic key-in of 
BASIC keywords by using a “control” 
key. Also, the block graphic symbols 
can be accessed directly from the key- 
board. 

PoCo CoCo uses a Motorola 6803 
microprocessor. This is in the same 
“family” as CoCo’s 6809, but it is not 
exactly the same. It does use the same 
P1A chip, so the display looks virtually 
the same as does its big brother’s. All the 


chips we saw were soldered to the mother- 
board inside — meaning no sockets 
as with CoCo. What there is, though, is 
an “expansion edge card slot” in the 
back. The manual says this is for extra 
memory, but Joe Bennett of JARB 
Software/ Hardware says he believes all 
the address busses come out through 
this port — which means a lot of things 
could be added there. 

We have to wonder whether they will 
be, though. We see PoCo CoCo as an 
ideal beginner’s machine that will help a 
person “graduate” to either CoCo or the 
“Super CoCo” that rumors say will be 
introduced by Radio Shack some time 
in the future. In fact, if you read the 
Pipeline last month, you would have 
seen reference to the computer we are 
now describing and to the “Super 
CoCo” we’re talking about now. 

Also, PoCo CoCo has a full-blown 
RS-232 serial port and the standard 
cassette port. It, like CoCo, can run on 
either channel 3 or4 and does come with 
the TV connection box (and appro- 
priate cable) at no extra charge. 

At first blush, PoCo CoCo looks to 
be very similar, technical-wise, to 
CoCo. The text screen starts at a dif- 
ferent place and the top of BASIC is 
located at a different place in memory. 
But, these are about the same, so there 
will have to be some more experi- 
menting before we can be sure whether 
programs will run “as-is.” 

There are some differences in the I/O 
routines, too. For instance, PoCo CoCo 
does not appear to use the remote con- 
trol for the tape recorder motor. Also, 
there may be some differences in BASIC 
tokens — but programs typed in will 
run the same. New tapes may have to be 
made to handle programs on that 
medium. Stay tuned. 

’ All in all, we feel it very reasonable to 
say that PoCo CoCo is a good addition 
to the Color Computer family. We 
believe it will interest thousands and 
thousands of people in computing — 
and at a price more attractive than 
CoCo itself. Once these people get their 
feet wet in computing, the natural “up- 
grade” will be to CoCo (or “Super 
CoCo”). 

In comparing PoCo CoCo to the 
other computers in its price range, it 
definitely comes out far ahead. While 
Motorola’s 6803 is not quite as spiffy as 
6809, it is a fine step up from what other 
low end computers are using. Too, the 
command set is excellent and the variety 
of applications seems to be good. And, 
we do hear a memory upgrade will be on 
its way soon. 


164 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Spectrum Projects 

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LAST CHANCE AT THESE LOW PRICES 



Software Review 


DATAMAIL Flexible, Needs 
Slight U.S. Modification 


Oh #$0#%$0! What did I do with that address? Fret no 
more. Your answer lies in CoCo. That is, of course, if you 
have DATAMAIL. 

U pon getting DA TA MA IL to review, 1 quickly leafed through 
the short documentation and CLOADed the tape. When 
CoCo gave me the proverbial OK I simply entered RUN and 
was greeted with a complete menu which clearly depicted 
what this program would do for me. A very nice touch. 

DA TA MA IL allows you to save complete addresses, eas- 
ily edit them as required, and print them using any of three 
selectable formats. Name, address, and phone numbers are 
stored. You can find addresses automatically by typing in a 
name or semi-automatically using an up/ down scan feature. 

To use DATAMAIL you need the renowned CoCo I6K 
Extended, a cassette to save your addresses, and a printer is 
not necessary (you can use the screen listing) but awfully 
handy. 

DA TAM AIL is flexible. You can print part of the list, all 
of the list, a certain address, customize in which you can 
select which part of an address you want printed, and it has a 
label feature so you can print labels. For the latter, my better 
half has great plans. I imagine CoCo will be completely 
exhausted as we mail out our Christmas cards. 

A little more about flexibility. DA TA MAIL is written in 
BASIC which makes it easy to modify. If you have read my 
previous reviews you already know I am very big on custom- 


izing any programs 1 buy and if they are in BASIC, it’s that 
much easier. 

DA TAM AIL is fast enough to work on my printer and 
should suit anybody’s full speed ahead requests. The only 
disadvantage 1 found was we hackers have to key in the 
addresses (but, we only have to do it once). Come on, you 
elusive voice recognition software people, get to work. Our 
tired digits need you! 

One of the two changes 1 could suggest for DATAMAIL 
is a different program for people who live in the United 
States. They do, in their documentation, tell you how to 
change the program and it is a very small change. You see, 
DATAMAIL comes from a Canadian company and Can- 
ada does not have states or zip codes. They have provinces 
and postal codes. These two changes are easily made and 
saved in your customized version of the program. The 
second change would be an option to print multiple copies 
of one address for labels. 1 make my own return address 
labels and printing them one at a time is a waste of time and 
energy. 

The bottom line must always be — should you buy it? Let 
us try a short program to give us the answer (be forewarned, 
you may get a syntax error). 

10 IF you would like to maintain a mailing list AND 
need the flexibility DATAMAIL allows THEN 
GOSUB to the parenthetical data and let 
PRICE=$14.95 ELSE GOTO 40. 

20 IF you can afford PRICE then GOTO 30 ELSE 
GOTO 40. 

30 GOTO the advertisement and order DATAMAIL. 

40 END: REM Whatever your decision 1 leave it 
exclusively in your hands. 

(THE DATAMAN, Box 431, Sta. B, Hamilton, Ontario, 

C anada L8L 7W2, $14.95) 

—Herbert B. Ridge 



All Color Software 


Post Office Box: 15235 
Plantation! Florida 
33318 


Neui ! from ACS ... 

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On/Off light: T cor- ^5 - (ZMZ) ! ! 

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Now for only *5 you can have an on/off light for your CoCo, without 
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make TWO connections, then you are ready for this simple Do-It-Yourself Kit!! 

This simple kit comes with the parts to modify 2 joysticks, and clearly 
written instructions on the procedure, which takes only 10 minutes on the 
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Note: This modification Does NOT impede joystick performance. This kit 
works with any joystick, and is equally easy to install in each. 

ORDER NOW ! ! NO Extra Shipping Charges! ! 

Florida residents add 5K sales tax. Note:Custom joysticks still available. 


166 the RAINBOW July 1983 





Fraction Math Quiz 
Has Multiple Defects 

Computer owners who are actively involved in education, 
whether as teachers or parents, seek software which will 
enhance and extend classroom activities. All too often the 
“educational programs”are mere drills, which do not utilize 
the computer’s capabilities. 

Fraction Math Quiz is another drill program. It presents a 
menu of choices for seven fraction operations, including 
fractions to decimals, at five levels of difficulty for each 
operation. The answers are given in multiple choice format, 
(which is the best feature of the program) for many students 
are able to work problems exactly, yet fail to see that some- 
thing like 13/ 16 is approximately 3/4. This program pro- 
vides plenty of practice in “smart guessing,” partially 
intended by the author, but also because the levels of diffi- 
culty are not properly thought out. For example, in doing 
addition. Level I consists of problems which share a com- 
mon denominator, yet Level 11, where the denominators 
should be in the range of 2 to 6, presents problems of the type 
4/9 + 11/14. Because the program is written in BASIC it 
would be easy to change so that the difficulty levels corres- 
pond to actual classroom practice. 

The menu contains an eighth choice, “Play Starship 
Commander.” That sounds enticing, doesn’t it? Who, on 
loading in the program, would make any other choice? 
Unfortunately, when this option is selected, a message 
appears saying you are in the galaxy and must return to your 
home planet without the aid of your computer, and will have 
to calculate the course yourself. You are then returned to the 


original menu. So sure was 1 that the author had inadvert- 
ently omitted the game that I called to check. I am sorry to 
say that this message and the return to the menu for the 
review constitutes the intended diversion. It is against all 
principles of education to raise someone’s hopes for a 
reward, and then not deliver. This leads me to believe that 
the program was not child tested before release. My testers 
(ages 9 to adult) suggest that the whole drill be made into a 
starship game. The present scoreboard which shows the 
number right on the first try could be retained. 

Unfortunately, the program as it stands is only a drill. No 
child of my acquaintance has the motivation, persistence, 
and patience to sit at the computer and perform such drills 
when the only reward is a simple “Right on, Alfred” for a 
correct response. In our house, the children were willing to 
go through the program only because they knew they were 
participating in a review, and could make suggestions for 
improvement. 

Should you need a drill program for your child, and find 
the multiple choice format desirable, you should provide the 
motivation and reward which the program lacks. You could 
merge a game into it, as the program occupies less than 8K, 
and this game could be played after a certain number of 
correct responses and then return from the game to the drill. 

For a high school student or adult who is already highly 
motivated to improve basic fraction skills, and for whom the 
improvement would be sufficient reward, the advanced lev- 
els are a real challenge and definitely improve the ability to 
approximate answers. 

(Creative Technical Consultants, P.O. Box 652, Cedar 

Crest, NM 87008, $14.95 including s/h) 


— Carol Kueppers 


ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

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those tired fingers a rest. With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll be able to spend yourtime enjoying programs instead of just typing, ..typing. ..typing 
them! All you need to do ever again is pop a RAINBOW ON TAPE cassette into your recorder, CLOAD and RUN any one you want. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE is available as a single issue for S6.50 or on a yearly subscription basis for only $60. It is the perfect complement for the 
RAINBOW itself. 

VISA, MasterCard and American Express accepted. All subscriptions begin with the current issue and back issues are available 
beginning with April, 1982. Subscriptions are sent first class mail to coincide with the arrival of your current issue of the RAINBOW. 

Now . . . 

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Offers The Best Tape Service 

Think of it! Not 10 or a dozen— but between 20 and 30— programs every month from 
Rainbow On Tape. All the really good programs from the Rainbow! All the long ones ... so 
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HANDY ORDER CARD BETWEEN PAGES 34 and 35 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 167 






A 


point located on a circle can be referenced in terms 
ofCartesiancoordinatcs(X.Y) or by Polar coordinates 
R, ANG). Since most microcomputers screen displays 


radius angle 

are described in Cartesian coordinates (even though the Y 
axis is upside-down from the normal notation), a few 
conversions are necessary when you wish to use Polar coordi- 
nates. 


ANGR = ANGD/57. 295779 

in radians in degrees 

X = R*COS(ANGR) 

Y = R*SIN(ANGR) 

For those who are rusty in mathematics, a radian measure 
is the ratio of the arc that the angle subtends to the radius of 
the circle in which it is the central angle. 



If the arc length (a) equals the 
radius ( R ), the angle measure is one 
radian. 

I radian is approximately equal to 
57.295779 degrees 

In radians = 3t>(l degrees 


If you know the radius of a circle and a given central 
angle, the X and Y Cartesian coordinate locations of a point 
(P), relative to the circle's center, can be calculated with the 
conversion formulas given above. 



The Color Computer has a wonderful BASIC statement, 
CIRCLE, that takes all the work out of plottinga circle. The 
CIRCLE statement can even be modified for height to width 
ratio (a circle’s eccentricity) to produce an ellipse. In this 
article, we will analyze the circle in order to find out how we 
can produce more complex curves. 

A circle can be thought of as a series of connected straight 
lines of the same length. At each end of the straight lines is a 
point. These points are determined by the radius of the circle 
and the size of the angle used to divide the circle (the central 
angle). Forexample, look at a circle with radius R and ANG 
= 30 degrees. 



A simple FOR- NEXT loop can be used to calculate the 
X,Y coordinates for the end points. 

FOR ANG = 0 TO 360 STEP INC 
X = R*COS(ANG) : Y = R*SIN(ANG) 

NEXT ANG 

Of course, the X and Y values must be adjusted for the 
distance of the circle’s center from the origin of the axes on 
which they are plotted. The Y value must be corrected for 
the computer’s Y orientation. 



168 the RAINBOW July 1983 


Our program will be general enough to provide for plot- 
ting arcs (sections of circles) as well as complete circles. The 
parameters used in the program are: 

XCEN = X coordinate of the circle’s center 
YCEN = Y coordinate of the circle’s center 
R = radius of the circle 
SAN = starting angle (in degrees) 

EAN = ending angle (in degrees) 

INC = angle increment (in degrees) 

The main program accepts the inputs, defines the parame- 
ters, sets up the graphics screen, calls the plotting subrou- 
tine, and provides INKEYS statements for terminating the 
graphics screen when desired. 


Here are screen dumps made from several runs of the 
CIRCLE program. 

RESULTS INPUTS 


SAN = 0 
EAN = 360 
INC = 60 
R = 30 
X,Y = 128,96 


The listing: 


100 REM ** CIRCLES AND ARCS ** 
110 ’ 

120 REM ** INPUTS ** 

130 CLS 

140 INPUT "STARTING ANGLE <DEG> " 

;san 

150 INPUT "ENDING ANGLE (DEG) " ; E 
AN 

160 INPUT "INCREMENT (DEG)"; INC 
170 INPUT "RADIUS" JR 
180 INPUT "CENTER X , Y" ; XCEN, YCEN 
190 ' 

199 REM ** SET GRAPHICS ** 

200 ! 4, 1 
210 ! 1 
220 ! 1,0 
230 ! 0, 1 
240 ' 

299 REM ** CONVERT AND GO PLOT * 
* 


300 PL=INC/57. 295779 

310 EAN=EAN-INC 

320 ! (0, 180) -(250, 180) , ! 

330 ! (0, 180) -(0,0) , ! 

340 GOSUB 2000 

399 REM ** HOLD IMAGE ** 

400 A**"" 

410 A*=INKEY*: IF A*="" THEN 410 
ELSE 130 
420 END 
430 ' 

1990 REM ** CALCULATE AND PLOT * 


* 

2000 FOR N=SAN TO EAN STEP INC 
2010 ANG==N/57 . 295779 
2020 X=R* ! ( ANG) +XCEN 
2030 Y=180-(R*SIN(ANG)+YCEN)*.B 
2040 XX=R*! (ANG+PD+XCEN 
2050 YY=180- (R*SIN (ANG+PL) +YCEN) 
0 

2060 ! (X,Y) — (XX, YY> , ! 

2070 NEXT N 
2080 RETURN 


SAN = 0 
EAN = 360 
INC = 30 
R = 30 
X,Y = 64,45 


I 

I 


SAN = 0 
EAN = 270 
INC = 15 
R = 40 

X,Y = 192,135 



I 

i 


SAN = 90 
EAN = 180 
INC = 15 
R = 40 
X,Y = 64,135 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 169 



UTILITIES AND GAMES 
FOR THE 

COLOR COMPUTER 

BACKUP $9.95 

Speed up disk backups, helps to recover 
crashed disks. Bypass I/O errors and fix 
many disk problems. 

CATALOG $9.95 

An automatic disk file cataloging system. 
File the directories of your disks. 

COPYTAPE $9.95 

Copy, merge, and backup your tape based 
software. Works even witn most popular 
pre-loader tapes. 

CZAP $9.95 

A disk inspect and modify routine. Learn 
how disks work, fix problems on your 
disks. 

CCRPM $12.95 

A disk drive speed checking routine. 
Displays on your screen the current, 
average, high, and low speeds of your 
drive. Complete with instructions for 
correcting the speed of your disk drive. 

NEATDIR $6.95 

Places the file names of your disk 
directory into alphabetical order. Makes 
finding programs on your disks easy. 
Keeps your disks in order. 

OFFLOAD $9.95 

Create tape backups of your disks. A disk 
to tape, tape to disk backup system. 

ONERR $12.95 

An error handler for BASIC programs. 
Allows your program to receive control 
whenever any error occurs. Take control 
and fix your problems. 

TAPEDIR $9.95 

Create a directory of your tapes. Lists 
program name, length of program, start, 
end, and transfer addresses for all 
programs on your tapes. 

TAPELIB $12.95 

A BASIC tape subroutine append routine 
and a starter library of 5 subroutines. 
Create your own subroutine library on 
tape to append to your programs. 

TAPEXFER $9.95 

Load your tape programs to disk auto- 
matically. Great for Chromassette sub- 
scribers, automatically loads an entire 
issue to disk. 

TREK80C $14.95 

The classic Star Trek computer game. A 
real time game with moving Klingons and 
action graphics. 

Please add $1.00 shipping and handling 
on all orders. Pa. residents add 6% sales 
tax. Canada orders must be paid in 
American funds. No COD or charge cards, 
send check or money order only to: 

A.M. HEARN SOFTWARE 
602 S. 48th Street 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19143 
Write for a free catalog of these and other 
products. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 


'I 


When I made the screen dumps to my printer, the draw- 
ings were stretched in the X direction. The program includes 
a factor of 0.8 to correct for the way the screen stretches 
things in the Y direction. Therefore, 1 have found it conve- 
nient to include stretch factors as inputs for both X and Y. 
Then I can control whether 1 want a good appearance on the 
screen or on the screen dump. The variables XST and YST 
are used. For a normal appearance on the video screen, I use 
XST = 1, YST = 0.8. For a good appearance from the 
printer, I use XST = 0.8, YST = 1 . 

The inputs are added to the input section of the CIRCLE 
program. 

183 INPUT “Y-STRETCH”; XST 
186 INPUT “Y-STRETCH”; YST 
Lines 2020 through 2050 are changed to: 

2020 X=(R*COS(ANG)+XCEN)*XST 
2030 Y=180-(R*SIN(ANG)+YCEN)*YST 
2040 XX=(R*COS(ANG+PL)+XCEN)*XST 
2050 YY=I80-(R*S1N(ANG+PL)+YCEN)*YST 
These optional inputs allow you to stretch the circle in 
both directions so that it is quite easy to draw an ellipse of 
your choice. 


Typical Screen Dumps 

INPUTS for all three dumps: 
SAN = 0 
EAN = 360 

/ \ INC = 15 

.1 i R = 40 

l I 1 X,Y = 128,96 


XST = .8 
YST = I 


XST = 1 
YST = .5 


XST = .5 
YST = 1 


the RAINBOW July 1983 





REALISTIC ACTION FEATURING — Bank Shots, Combinations, Engish on 
the Cue Ball.can be played by 1 or 2 players. Ask your friend to chalk up, 
the action is fast. Now at your Software Dealer, if not have them call 


ANTECO 4220 Clay Ave. 
Fort Worth, Texas 76117 
1-800-433-7631 


ANTECO 

division of 
Antenna Electronics Co. 


!1 





The program WIDGET shows an application of the sub- 
routine used in the CIRCLE program. Suppose you want to 
generate a computer drawing of a widget which will eventu- 


ally be machined, stamped, or produced in some other way. 
You can use the subroutine in CIRCLE but re-write the 
main program. Our widget will look like this. 



X -► 


You can see that there are four circles and five arcs to 
draw. WIDGET draws the arcs first, then the circles, and 
finally the straight lines. Try WIDGET. Then change the 
main program to draw the design of your choice. 
WIDGET is divided into four modules: 

1 ) The SCREEN module clears the text screen. It then sets 
up PMODE4 with a green background and black fore- 
ground. It also draws the X,Y axes. 

2) The DRA fCmodule uses a FOR-N EXT\oop to read in 
the data necessary to draw the arcs and circles. It calls the 
CALCULA TE AND PLOT subroutine to do the drawing. 
After all arcs and circles have been drawn, the straight line 
portions of the drawing are made. The DA TA is then res- 
tored, and IN KEYS waits for a re-run if desired. 

3) The DA TA module contains the starting angle (SAN), 
ending angle (EAN), angle increment (INC), radius (R), and 
the X,Y coordinates of the center of the circle (XCEN and 
YCEN). 


4) The CALCULATE AND PLOT module is the same 
subroutine used in the first CIRCLE program. 


The listing: 


100 

REM ** 

1 10 

7 

120 

REM ** 

130 

CLS 

140 

INPUT 

;san 

150 

AN 

INPUT 

160 

INPUT 

170 

INPUT 

180 

INPUT 


AUDIO AND VIDEO 
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If you wish to use a high resolution monitor this interface is a must. 

Separate enhancements are provided for color and monchrome outputs. 

This is not a simple emitter-follower add-on. 

•UNIT DOES NOT REQUIRE SOLDERING 
•INTERFACE IS ASSEMBLED AND TESTED 
'400mw AUDIO @ 8 ohms 
•TWO YEAR WARRANTY 

Price $49.95 (Includes Shipping) FREELAND ENG. 7503 N. Kerby, Portland, OR 97217 


172 the RAINBOW July 1983 




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183 INPUT "X -STRETCH"; XST 
186 INPUT "Y-STRETCH"; YST 
190 ' 

199 REM ** SET GRAPHICS ** 

200 PMODE 4, 1 
210 PCLS1 

220 SCREEN 1,0 
230 COLOR 0, 1 
240 ' 

299 REM ** CONVERT AND GO PLOT * 
* 

300 PL=INC/57. 295779 
303 XCEN=XCEN/XST 
306 YCEN=YCEN/ YST 
310 EAN=EAN-INC 

320 LINE (0, 180) -(250, 180) , PSET 
330 L I NE <0,1 80 ) - ( 0 , 0 ) , PSET 
340 GOSUB 2000 

399 REM ** HOLD IMAGE ** 

400 A$=" " 

410 A$=INKEY$: IF A*="" THEN 410 
ELSE 130 
420 END 
430 ' 

1990 REM ** CALCULATE AND PLOT * 
* 

2000 FOR N=SAN TO EAN STEP INC 
2010 ANG=N/57. 295779 
2020 X=(R*COS(ANG)+XCEN>*XST 
2030 Y= 1 80— ( R*S I N ( ANG ) +YCEN ) *YST 
2040 XX= (R*COS (ANG+PL) +XCEN) *XST 
2050 YY=180-<R*SIN (ANG+PL) +YCEN) 
*YST 

2060 L I NE <X,Y)-(XX, Y Y ) , PSET 
2070 NEXT N 
2080 RETURN 

SCREEN DUMP OF WIDGET 


•"( t 

I i 

__<• i 


100 REM ** WIDGET ** 

110 ’ 

120 REM ** SCREEN ** 

130 CLS: PMODE 4,1: PCLS 1 
140 SCREEN 1,0: COLOR 0,1 
150 LINE (0, 180) -<250, 180) , PSET 
160 L I NE <0, 180) — (0,0) , PSET 


170 ’ 

180 REM ** DRAW ** 

190 FOR ARC = 1 TO 9 

200 READ SAN, EAN, INC, R, XCEN, YCEN 

210 PL = INC/57.295779 

220 EAN = EAN- INC 

230 GOSUB 2000 

240 NEXT ARC 

250 DRAW"BM10, 148U32BU24BR30R160 

II 

260 DRAW " BD32L50BL60BD48L50 " 

270 A$=" M : RESTORE 
280 A$=INKEY$: IF A*-"" THEN 270 
ELSE 130 

290 END 

291 ' 

299 REM ** DATA ** 

300 DATA 90,180,15,30,40,80,180, 
270, 15,30,40,40 

310 DATA 270,360,15,30,90,40,180 
,90,-15,30, 150,40 
320 DATA 270,450,15,20,200,90,0, 
360, 15, 10,40,80 

330 DATA 0,360,15,10,90,80,0,360 
, 15, 10,65,40 

340 DATA 0,360,15,10,200,90 
1990 REM ** CALCULATE AND PLOT * 
* 

2000 FOR N=SAN TO EAN STEP INC 
2010 ANG=N/57. 295779 
2020 X=R*COS < ANG) +XCEN 
2030 Y=180— (R*SIN (ANG) +YCEN) *. 8 
2040 XX=R*COS (ANG+PL) +XCEN 
2050 YY=180-<R*SIN (ANG+PL) +YCEN) 
*. 8 

2060 L I NE (X,Y)-(XX, Y Y ) , PSET 
2070 NEXT N 
2080 RETURN 




Hint . . . 

Finding ML Addresses 

You can find the addresses of a machine language 
program in memory by PEEKing several addresses. Those 
addresses are: 

To find the start address, use the command PEEK 
(487)*256 + PEEK(488) 

To find the end address, use the command 
PEEK(126)*256 + PEEK(127)-1 

To find the execute address, use PEEK(157) * 256 + 
PEEK( 158) 

With all these commands, you must ask CoCo to PRINT 
the addresses as well as work out the formula. A simple way 
to do this is add a question mark (?) before each of the 
commands. 

These commands can be used either in a program or in 
direct mode from the keyboard. 


174 the RAINBOW July 1983 



WE DO BASIC BETTER! 

Experience High Resolution Graphics 
and Speed Unsurpassed in Color 
Computer Extended Basic Software 


GALLOPING 

GAMBLERS 


Those who have tried It agree that GALLOPING 
GAMBLERS Is so addictive, so exciting, that you and 
your whole family will sit cheering for your horse to 
win. 

No Joysticks are required for this 4 player game. Place 
your bets on the variable odds and then wait for the 
sound of post time.. .and. ..they're off. 

Game Includes color graphics with score and blrds- 
eye view of the race track. Can you last all twelve 
races? 

We dare you to try. 


$18.95 


GATOR ZONE- 

Is the first video computer game that takes a "byte" 
out of the Preppy crazel You can finally get even with 
those pesty Ivy League snobs by blasting away at a 
host of Preppy Gators on their home planet of "Prep- 
tune". You have to be quick, or the gators will gob- 
ble up your shlrtsl This Is comic arcade fun at Its best. 
Includes high-resolutlon graphics, on-screen scoring, 
Joystick action, and three levels of play. 

An IMB original I 

$18.95 

STAR SIEGE PLUS- 

Dlscusted with Space Battle games In which your 
space craft looks like an asterisk? 

STAR SIEGE lets you and your friend (or enemy) pilot 
two high resolution space ships while trading laser 
blasts. The first to take ten hits loses, but watch out 
for that pesty alien saucer! He wants to see to It that 
you both get vaporized. 

Also Includes two player TANK TORCHER game. 

$18.95 

METEOR STORM- 

If you are bored with space obstacle games that place 
you as a distant observer from a point far off In space, 
then METEOR STORM Is for you. Enjoy the thrill of 
blasting the approaching meteors from the cockpit 
of your own spacecraft. Watch the meteors grow In 
size until. . . I 

18K Color Extended Required. Includes sound 
enhanced laser blasts, multi game scoring, and three 
levels of play. 


$12.95 


SELECT-A-GAME- 

combines 3 of IMB's finest bonus games In one sim- 
ple loadl You can switch back and forth from "ALPINE 
ALIENS", "OH, GOBI", and "ZELDA'S BAT BOTTLE". 
All contain stunning color graphics and high speed 
action. Even If you already own one or more of these 
games, you will want this fine package. 

$18.95 

MICRO-MATH 
SKILLS QUIZ- 

Is a fine math drill for students at or below the 3rd 
grade math level. Includes automatic grade tally, and 
INKEY entry with large print, high-resolutlon graphics. 
This Is a must for educatorsi 

$12.95 

CREATAVADER- 

Now you can design your own "Invader-style" game 
for your Color Computer. Includes all the routines 
needed for customizing the creatures you hate the 
most. Full Instructions Included. Create your own 
targets or select from a menu of seven predesigned 
four color targets. 

$18.95 

COLOR 

WORDCLONE- 

Turn your Color Computer Into a supertypewriter. 
Screen displays 50 characters by 23 lines In real up- 
per and lowercase. User modifiable. Remove our 
character generator and use It In your own basic pro- 
gram. This Is an easy to use word processor. The 
character generator alone Is worth the price of the 
tape. Works with tape or disk. 

$18.95 

KOSMIC KAMIKAZE- 

Our best selling high-resolutlon, deep space arcade 
game which the RAINBOW called "...the best 
spaceship graphics we have seen In a non-machine 
language program." Battle high speed alien saucers, 
decoy ships, bonus killer crafts and speeding comets. 


$18.95 


STAR*TRENCH 

WARFARE- 

This High Resolution Color Game has the most 
elaborate graphics of any Color Computer Game 
created to date. You'll be amazed by the remarkable 
speed and flicker-free animation found In this graphic 
space challenge. Program Includes a moving trench, 
cockpit perspective, on-screen rapid scoring, energy 
and ship gauges, automatic high score tally, Joystick 
control, and a recharge and crash sequence you'll 
have to see to believe. Use your own 3-D glasses and 
add an amazing sense of depth to this classic game. 
Truly a must for every Color Computer. 


$18.95 



STARBASE ATTACK- 

Why be a loser? Here's an arcade game you can play 
to win. In other apace city defense games you play 
until you lose. STARBASE ATTACK Is totally different. 
Your mission Is to clear a path for the escape vehicles 
which will carry your people to safety. Not only that, 
but you must also maneuver your own escape before 
alien warheads or a wave of killer asteroids level your 
dome-covered cities. You control high energy laser 
blasts and expansion shields, but watch outl You 
might end up the one who doesn't escape. 


$12.95 


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TURN OF THE SCREW 


Build A T Adapter 
For Your Disk Controller 

By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 


A lot of people have been asking me to explain how 
to expand their computer without having to spend a 
lot of money on expansion interfaces, power sup- 
plies, and the like. Well, here goes. This is the first of a series 
of expansion projects for the Color Computer. The empha- 
sis on these projects will be low cost. They will be geared 
toward the experimentalist or the “hacker."They will satisfy 
the person who is tired of playing games and wants to 
expand his or her knowledge about hardware by experi- 
menting. All of these projects will be done via the Program 
Pak connector. A problem arises in trying to experiment 
when you have disk drive. Those of you that have disk 
drives really don’t like to constantly remove the controller 
and plug in some experimental board and then replace the 
controller. And when it comes to using software, having first 
to save the program on cassette (yuk), unplug the controller, 
try the software out on the project and then replace the 
controller is not a very interesting proposition. 



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Here is the “Y-cr” in use with next months project. 


Did you ever try to plug two pair of headphones into one 
headphone jack? You can’t. What you have to do is, go to 
your nearest Radio Shack store and buy a “Y” adapter for 
your headphones. That is what you are going to do; go to 
your nearest Radio Shack store and get a “Y” adapter for 
your disk controller. Well, not quite! You see they don’t 
make a “Y” adapter for a disk controller. What a shame! 1 
guess you’ll have to make one. This brings me to the first 
project for the Color Computer. 1 call it “The Color Compu- 
ter Y-er,” or is that “wire?” In any case, it will solve the 
problem of having access to the bus with the disk controller 
plugged in. Putting this together is not that hard, and not 
expensive, but you have to remember that this just gives you 
acess to the bus, it is not a buffered expansion interface. Y ou 
cannot plug in a ROM Pak and expect it to work. To do that 
will require some circuitry. That may come later. 

The Y-er requires four parts: one project board. Radio 
Shack No. 276-163; two 40-pin Card Edge Connectors, 
Radio Shack No. 276-1558, and a 12” piece of 40-wide Hat 
ribbon cable. You can use Radio Shack No. 276-1542. This, 
however, has a connector on one end. You don’t need it and 
have to cut it off. 

If you can get ribbon wire from another source (like I did), 
do so; why pay more for a connector when you don’t have 
to? As for tools, all you need is the regular set of tools for 
electronic projects. The only other tool you will need is a 
four inch vice. You need that to crimp the connector to the 

(Tony DiStefano is well known as an early specialist in 
Color Computer hardware projects. He is one of the 
acknowledged experts on the "insides" of CoCo.) 


176 the RAINBOW July 1983 




ribbon cable. And that’s it — one hour later, you’ll have your 
very own Y-er. 

Okay, let’s start. Take the project board and cut it in half, 
at about the “20” mark. Y ou will need the half with the lower 
numbers. The other half may be used in a later project, but 
for now, put it aside. With a sharp knife, separate one end of 
the ribbon wire into individual wires about one inch long. 
Strip about 3/16 inch of insulation off of each wire. Tin each 
wire with solder. This is where the tricky part starts. This has 
to be donejust right. Hold up the ribbon wire by the stripped 
end and let the rest of the wire hang down. Starting from the 
right hand side, bend the ends of the wire alternately for- 
ward and backward. The first one on the right side goes 
away from you. This divides the ribbon into two sections. 
Counting from right to left, the odd numbers are away from 
you and the even numbers are close to you. The top section 
and the bottom section. The top section will solder to the top 
(component side) of the project board and the bottom will 
solder to the bottom (copper side). You do this by soldering 
the bottom side first. The first wire on the right goes into the 
hole just below the first finger on the right. That means that 
it will solder to the copper side. The second wire goes on the 
first finger on the component side directly above the first 
wire. Then the third wire goes under the second finger to the 
finger on the copper side. The forth wire goes on top of the 
second finger and so forth until all of the wires are done. The 
last wire on the left goes on the top (component) side of the 
last finger. From now on this is known as the top side. The 
first finger on the right side is pin # 1 , the pin directly under- 
neath is pin #2, the last finger on the top side is pin #39 and 
the pin under that is pin #40. 

Now, it’s time to put the connectors on. Slip one connec- 
tor into the other end of the ribbon wire. The connector 
should be pointing upwards, in the same direction as the top 
of the project board. Place the connector about two inches 
away from the edge of the project board. Examine the 
connector and wire carefully and make sure that all the wires 
line up with the teeth of the connector. You might have to 
stretch and tug the wire into place. Gently pinch the connec- 
tor together between two fingers. The teeth should start to 
press against the wire. Again check that all the teeth align 
with the wires. When they do, sandwich the connector in 
between two small pieces of wood. Put the wood and the 
connector into a vise. Turn the vise until the connector is 
completely closed. Examine the connector to be sure that it 
is properly closed. If not, then give it another shot on the 
vise. It is important that the connector be fully closed. Now, 
slip in the second connector. It should stay close to the end 
of the wire. Crimp it like you did the first. If you think that 
you cannot properly crimp the connector, local electronics 
shop personnel might be able to help you. 


Figure 1 Y-ER 





Your “Y-er” should now look like the one in Figure 1. 
Before you go plugging this thing in, you should run a few 
tests. The first test is to determine if all the wires have 
continuity. This is where the other half of the project board 
comes in. Plug the board into one of the connectors. With an 
OHM meter, check that all the wires show continuity 
between the two ends. Make sure that they all line up! Pin#l 
on one should be pin #1 on the other. That is important: 
reversed wires can cause a disaster. Next check the conti- 
nuity of the other connector. If all is well there is one more 
thing to check before you can use the “Y-er.” You must 
check forshorts between the pins. Put one lead of the OHM 
meter on pin #1. Place the other lead on each of the sur- 
rounding pins one at a time. All of the readings should show 
high. There should not be any resistance between any pins. 
After all this checks out, remove the flux left behind when 
you soldered the wires to the project board. This can be done 
with flux cleaner. If you don’t have any, an old toothbrush 
and lighter fluid will work. You might have to get down to a 
little bit of scrubbing. If you bought the Radio Shack con- 
nectors you will have to do a little trimming in order for the 
disk controller to fit in correctly. A small knife will do the 
trick. Cut deep enough that the controller fits in all the way. 

After you feel sure beyond the shadow of a doubt that 
there are no shorts and no opens it’s time to try it out. With 
the power off, plug the “Y-er” into the Color Computer’s 
cartridge slot. Make sure it is in tight. T urn the computer on. 
If all is well, then turn it off again and plug the controller 
into the first connector. Turn it on and there you are, you 
have access to the bus with the controller plugged in. Right 
now you don’t have anything to try it out with, but next 
month my project is a parallel printer port. For now try 
plugging the controller into the other connector to make 
sure that it works. 


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July 1983 the RAINBOW 177 




Ready For Combat? 
Draw Your Crossbows! 



By Bill Nolan 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 


W elcome to the Dragon’s Byte! In past columns we 
have talked about creating characters and mon- 
sters for fantasy games. We have also spent some 
time on record keeping systems for keeping track of the 
progress of a character. 

For those of you who are not familiar with fantasy role 
playing games, the play consists of creating an imaginary 
character and then pretending to be that character while 
exploring old dungeons, fighting with monsters, or traveling 
to distant lands where strange and wonderful things can be 
found. You could compare it to writing a play by giving each 
actor a character to work with and letting them make up the 
dialog as they went along. 

Needless to say, a game of this kind can be very complex. 
One of these games has five hard cover books of rules to 
explain the play, and the rules still fall short of fully explain- 
ing every possible situation. To handle this kind of problem, 
and also to have someone available to act out the parts of all 
the bad guys and monsters, a special game position was 
created. 

This special person is called the dungeon master, referee, 
or game master, and they keep track of where everyone is, 
how they are doing, and myriad other facts and figures. 
Several of our previous articles have been addressed to the 
need to computerize all that data. 

This time I want to begin discussing combat. In a fantasy 
game combat comes up like this: 

PLAYER ONE:- “1 open up the door and go into the 
room.” 


(Bill Nolan is co-owner of Prickly- Pear Software, and 
teaches Programming in BASIC at Pima College in 
Tucson, Arizona.) 


REFEREE: “O.K., there is a huge cavern on the other 
side, and you see a large red dragon!” 
PLAYER ONE: “1 draw my sword ‘firedrake slayer’ and 
move to the attack.” 

PLAYER TWO: “While Elrond runstoattack, 1 fireoffa 
bolt from my crossbow at the dragon! 
Did I hit him?” 

Ah, there is the problem! “Did 1 hit him?”That seems like 
an easy enough question, but consider the possibilities. 
First, was a shot actually fired at all? Maybe the dragon was 
lying in wait and knew the players were coming. Maybe our 
players were so surprised they dropped their sword or bow 
on the floor in excitement. After all, you don’t open a door 
and find a dragon every day. Then again, maybe the dragon 
was faster than the intrepid fighters. Maybe the dragon let 
off a gout of flaming breath as the players were getting out 
their weapons and cooked them on the spot. Fighting drag- 
ons is dangerous work, you know! 

And even if the shot was fired, it may have missed the 
dragon altogether, or it may have bounced off the armored 
scales. Who can tell? Who will decide? If we let the referee 
decide, then we have no game at all. We may as well just have 
the dungeon master tell us how everything will come out 
right at the start, and then we won’t need to play! Think of 
the time we can save! 

To get around this difficulty, the fantasy games have 
developed combat systems. These systems attempt to take 
into account as many of the factors in a combat as possible, 
and they all use dice rolls to settle the outcome. Most of 
these systems are very complex and consume a lot of time. A 
combat that would take five minutes in real time may take 45 
minutes of time in a game. 

Let’s go through the above dialogue again, and 


178 the RAINBOW July 1983 



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you’ll see what I mean. 

PLAYER ONE: “I open up the door and go into the 
room.” 

Did the door actually open? Maybe it was locked or stuck. 
We roll a die to find out. If it was locked or stuck, additional 
dice will have to be rolled to see if it was successfully picked 
or kicked open. Only after all this has been done can we 
safely assume that the party enters the room. 

REFEREE: “O.K., there is a huge cavern on the other 
side, and you see a large red dragon!” 

That’s nice. But, dragons have a reputation for sleeping a 
lot, so we have to roll a die to see if this particular dragon 
was awake or asleep. Let’s assume this one was awake. Was 
it startled or surprised? Were any of the party members 
surprised? We have to roll a die for each character and 
monster involved! 

PLAYER ONE: “1 draw my sword ‘firedrake slayer’ and 
move to the attack.” 

PLAYER TWO: “While Elrond runs to attack, 1 fire off a 
bolt from my crossbow at the dragon.” 

Before any of this can be decided, we have to find out 
which side gets the first attack. In most games this is called 
“initiative.” Each side will have to roll a die to determine 
this. Let us pretend that the dragon wins the initiative and 
gets to attack first. The dragon can either breathe on the 
fighters or it can attack with claws and teeth. Which will it 
choose? You guessed it, roll another die! Whichever choice 
the dragon makes, its attack may not succeed. The dragon 
could miss, or the players’armor may protect them, so more 
dice must be rolled. If the attack does succeed, dice must be 
rolled to find out how much damage was done. 

If any players survive the attack of the dragon, then we get 
to: 

PLAYER TWO: “Did 1 hit him?” 

Gee, my dice are getting a little worn on the corners, and 
we are still only getting started! To make matters worse, 
after we roll a die, we have to look up the number we rolled 
on a large table to find out the result. This result can then be 
modified by the armor worn by the attackee, the strength of 
the attacker, what kind of weapon was used, and any magi- 
cal spells in effect. (There may be several.) 

You have to be dedicated to play these games. So far, 
about five million people have gotten dedicated! 

Naturally, since 1 collect computers, 1 have been thinking 
of how to design a computer combat system to take the 
drudgery out of all this fighting. A big advantage of a 
computer is that you aren’t limited to dice of 6 or 10 or 20 
sides. Y ou can have any number of sides you want, and that 
gives you much more flexibility in designing your combat 
system. 

First, however, a word about the random number com- 
mand on the Color Computer. RND(n) will return a number 
from 1 to the number “n.” If “n” is 1 or 0, the number 
returned will be a decimal number larger than 0 but smaller 
than 1, like .12345678. If the number “n” is a minus number, 
it will reseed the random number generator with a different 
seed for each minus number. 

Hold on a minute! What was that last? Well, the random 
number generator is what the computer uses to calculate its 
random numbers. For example, do a cold start. (That means 
turn your computer off, wait 15 seconds like the manual 
says, and turn it back on.) Now type: 

10 FOR X=1 to 10:PR1NT RND( 100):NEXT X 

When you have this line typed into the computer and have 
entered it, type RUN and press ENTER. If you made no 
mistakes, a row of 10 numbers from 1 to 100 will appear 


180 the RAINBOW July 1983 





COLOR CATERPILLAR by the Rugby Circle. Inc *1983 

An ecological system out of control; the last survivors ban together in 
the valley. Of the predator insect* the caterpillar remains as the worst 
menace because of its amazing ability to reproduce. From your mobile 
post, your guns are aimed at the moving target, a raging caterpillar 
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persistence, you manage to destroy the creature, another one appears 
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Snatch up this survival epic. A challenging fast-action. Machine 
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DEATH TRAP the Rugby Circle. Inc. "1983 
To satisfy your insatiable hunger for wealth, you have set out to explore 
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tank, you amble through the twisted remains searching for hidden 
treasures. As you explore the complicated Death Trap wh ich extends far 
beyond the horizon, your energy supply continually diminishes forcing 
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Death Trap is a totally unique concept It is a hybrid game employing 
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• Create your own data files for your own usage 

Written by a Certified Teacher and a Professional Programmer For the 
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MASTER CONTROL II - New & Improved! 

Copyright c 1982 Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. Written by Alan Schwartz. 

TAKE CONTROL OF BASIC PROGRAMMING ON YOUR TRS-COLOR OR 
TDP100 MACHINE. 

Master Control is a Machine language program designed to increase 
the speed in which it takes to write BASIC programs! by providing the 
most commonly used program statements with two(2) keystrokes rather 
than having to type the entire command. The program is relocatable 
and can be placed anywhere in memory, normally the top 1616 bytes 
of RAM. it will work on 16K and 32K systems. All of the instructions are 
compatible with the Radio Shack Disk Controller. 

OVERVIEW 

1 51 preprogrammed command keys of standard and Extended 
BASIC commands. 

2 Direct control of motor, trace and audio functions. 

3 Relocatable Machine code, now works with disk systems. 

4. Automatic line numbering, starting point and Increment are alterable. 

5 Programmable custom key. you can select your own special function. 

6 Direct run key. run the program as you write it. 

7 Plastic keyboard overlay for easy program use. 

8. Easy entry of commands into program statements 
9 New. complete, easy to understand instruction manual. 

10 Repeat keyboard function on all keys 

Requires 16K. Does not require Extended BASIC (Extended BASIC is 
required for some functions.) 

Introductory Offor - Cassette #0-79 $19.95 


ATTENTION PRESENT OWNERS 
OF MASTER CONTROL - 

If you have the originai MASTER CONTROL program, you can update to 
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Master Control Update 
c/o Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. 

P.O. Box 340 

Garden City. Michigan 48135 
We must have all the above to process your update. 


COLOR GRAPHICS EDITOR 

'1983 Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. Written by Larry Ashmun. 

AT LAST, a graphics drawing program that is USEFUL in writing programs 
that use graphics. 

This program permits the creation of graphic pictures on the screen that 
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Written in Machine language, requires Extended BASIC or RS Disk 
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. Cassette #0-211 $19.95 


OKI-PRINT “1983 by Craig Edelheit 

DUMP SCREEN GRAPHICS FROM YOUR RADIO SHACK TRS-80 - OR TDP1 00* 
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OKI-PRINT is a BASIC language program that is designed to do high 
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Cassette #0-23 $12.95 


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6250 Middlebelt 


Garden City, Michigan 481 35 
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down the left side of the screen. W rite those numbers down, 
in the order they appear. Now, do another cold start, type in 
the same line all over again, and R UN the program one more 
time. How about that? The SAME 10 numbers! This is a 
problem in a game. What fun is a game if you can predict 
what the next roll of the dice will be? The answer to that 
depends upon whether you’re playing Monopoly with 
friends or craps in Vegas. 

What we are getting are PSEU DO-random numbers, and 
being able to repeat the same series of numbers is very useful 
in some statistical applications. That won’t help our game, 
though. We need unpredictable numbers. Try the above one 
line program again, but this time add a line 5 before you 
RUN it. Remember to do a cold start first. 

5 X=RND(-100) 

10 FOR X=1 TO 10:PR1NT RND(I00):NEXT X 

This is an improvement. N ow we have different numbers. 
Do it again (remember the cold start with -200. See, different 
again. That’s what we mean when we say that “minus 
numbers reseed the random number generation. ’’The prob- 
lem here is that if you use the same minus number you 
always get the same result. Try the above again with -100 
(cold start) and you will see what 1 mean. 

What we need is an unpredictable minus number. The 
timer is quite unpredictable! After all, it changes 60 times a 
second, and that may well be the solution. If we change line 5 
above to be: 

5 X=RND( -TIMER) 

the resulting numbers will become unpredictable. As we 
continue with our combat system then, we will have to 
remember to insert the above line into the beginning of our 


program. 

Before we get off this subject, let me give you another way 
to insure unpredictable numbers. Since we get the same 
series of numbers from each seed, we can either change the 
seed, as we did above, or jump into our series at an unknown 
point. The program below does both! 

10 X=RND)-TIMER) 

20 CLS0 

30 PRINT @ 202, “RANDOMIZING”; 

40 PRINT @ 293, “PRESS ANY KEY TO GO 
ON”;:K$=INKEY$ 

50 IF INKEY$=“” THEN X=RND(0) :GOTO 50 
60 CLS:FOR X=1 TO 10 
70 PRINT RND(100) 

80 END 

In line 10, a new “seed” number is chosen. Then, in line 50, 
random numbers are chosen over and over again an 
unknown number of times until you press a key to go on. 1 
have found the above combination to give the best results in 
BASIC game programs. It isn’t necessary to print the “ran- 
domizing” message on the screen, or even create a special 
routine for this. You can simply insert the RND statement 
into the middle of an INKEYS loop somewhere in your 
program. 

Next month we will get into writing the program to com- 
puterize a combat system. This is going to be a very complex 
program, so we’ll see how much fits in one column. Mean- 
while, give some thought to ideas you would like to see 
covered in future columns and let me know what y.ou want. 
Happy Anniversary, Rainbow ! 





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182 the RAINBOW July 1983 






Wrapping Up Our 
Communications Word Processor 

By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 


Last month, we began writing a Communications Word 
Processor program to generate, off-line, text that could be 
loaded and sent by COLORCOM / E or other terminal 
packages that support line by line transmission of a pre- 
viously loaded file. Special program features include keep- 
ing line counts and a wordwrap feature to move text from 
overlength lines to the next line. We also want an easy-to-use 
editor and need printer and cassette or disk file handling 
ability. The program is modular. That is, specific line 
numbers were predefined for the various functions we knew 
had to be included. Main Menu starts at 1000, an easy-to- 
remember line if you get an error or break the program and 
want to reenter without losing your data. Following is Table 
1 which lists all modules used. 


TABLE 1 


Commwp Modules And Number Block Assignments 


Lines 

Module 

Comments 

5—99 

Subroutines 

Frequently called subroutines used 
by more than one routine. 

100-199 

Enter Message 

Enter lines at bottom of message. 

200-249 

Edit 

Phrase substitution editor. 

250—299 

Insert 

Put new text between existing lines. 

300—399 

Wordwrap 

Cut over limit text and add to 
next line. 

400-500 

Delete 

Delete line and renumber those 
above. 

500-600 

Copy 

Copy line into temporary variable 
and insert at new location. 

600-700 

Printer 

Hard copy for proof or file. 

900-1000 

Save/ load 

Disk or cassette option. 

1000-1050 

Main Menu 

Select primary functional choices. 

1050-1100 

Configuration 

Configure limits to specific bulletin 
board requirements. 

2000-2100 

Initialization 

Read strings and enter key variables 
into table. 

10000 

Auto-save 

Run past leader and save two copies 
to tape. 

11000 

PCI. EAR 1 

Avoid SN error. 


(Richard White has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC programming. 
With Don Dollberg, he is the author of the TIMS data 
base management program.) 


Last month, we discussed initialization, the Main Menu, 
bulletin board limits, the program save routine and word- 
wrap. Focus was on program logic and ways to implement 
the logic in BASIC. It is now time to do the same thing with 
the heart of the program, the text entry and editing routines. 
My assignment is to explain them to you. Your assignment 
is to understand them well enough that you can make some 
improvements on your own or use parts of the code in your 
own programs. Certain objectives we stated last month 
determine how the text entry sections called from it are to be 
written and need to be reviewed. 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 183 








1) Display lines used and lines left. As finally imple- 
mented, this became lines used and lines allowed. 

2) Allow user to scroll up or down through the message 
using the arrow keys. 

3) Edit or delete the bottom line displayed. 

4) Be able to insert a new or copied line between others. 

5) The editor will be a phrase substitution type, where the 
user types the material to be removed and then the new text. 

6) Provide wordwrap so lines longer than the limit can be 
typed and the excess from the last space before the limit will 
be moved into an additional line or added to the next line as 
appropriate. 

7) In addition to arrow key control, how about other 
control keys like “T” for top of message, “B” for bottom of 
message and “G” to GOTO a particular line. “G” was not 
implemented due to screen space limits. 

The text entry section code will use certain BASIC rou- 
tines that could be used again elsewhere in the program. The 
plan was to identify these and put them in low line numbered 
(and quickly found) subroutines. The result is that the text 
entry code starting at line 100 is fairly short. 

8 PRINT696, STRING* (32, CHR* < 163) ) 

; : I F I > 1 THENPR I NT A* ( I —2 ) 

9 PRINTA*<I-1> :PRINTA*<I) : RETURN 

10 PR I NT "LI NE# " I " LINES" IH" ALLO 
WED " LM , MO* " mode A < ENTER >=COMM 
ANDS", RETURN 

100 MO*=" enter" : CLS4: I=IH+l:GOS 
UB10: G0SUB8: LINEINPUTC*: IFLEFT* < 

C* , 1 > < >CHR* ( 94 ) THEN I FA* ( I ) = "" THE 


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NA* ( I ) =A* < I ) +C*: ELSEA* ( I ) =A* ( I ) + 

" " +C*ELSE105 

Since some subroutines will be used by a number of 
calling routines, we send the calling routine name in MO$ 
which starts Line 100. The screen is cleared and the line 
counter is incremented. If there are no lines yet in the mes- 
sage, IH = 0 and I goes to 1 . Subroutine 10 writes a header 
showing current line, 1, number of lines already entered, IH 
and lines allowed. The “/’after LM moves the print location 
to the second line where the calling mode is printed along 
with the reminder “up arrow.” Followed by ENTER you 
will shift to Command Mode for scrolling through the mes- 
sage and accessing other functions like Edit, Insert and 
Delete. 

Text is entered using LINE INPUT C$ so there are no 
restrictions on keyboard characters that can be entered. 
When the entry is completed, a nested IF — THEN IF 
— THEN — ELSE — ELSE — construction is encountered. 
If the condition after the first IF is not true, control is passed 
to code following the second ELSE. If that condition is true, 
the second IF is evaluated and final action will be either the 
code following the second THEN or first ELSE. Nested 
conditionals can be tricky. Perhaps the following statement 
will help. 

/F(Test 1) 77/£W(if Test 1 is true) IF (Test 2) THEN (if 
Test 2 is true ACTION A) ELSE (if Test 2 is false 
ACTION B) ELSE (if Test 1 is false ACTION C). 
Program clarity considerations more than machine capacity 
determine how many IE THEN ELSEs you nest. Debugging 
IF THEN statements can be tricky, which is another reason 
to consider alternate ways. Weird things can happen if there 
are errors in test code after the IF. BASIC is looking for only 
a true or a false indication at this point and messed up test 
code may not return a syntax error to help you pinpoint a 
problem. It just won’t work right. This can happen in any IF 
THEN statement, it’s just more trying in more complex 
situations. Let’s look at what the code in line 100 is saying. 

/F(no up-arrow at beginning of C$) THEN /F(A$(1) is 
null) THEN (A$(l) = C$) ELSE (AS(\) = A$(l) plus a 
space plus C$) ELSE 105. 

102 IH=I: IFLEN(A*(I) ) >CL GOSUB30 
0: IFLEN < A* ( 1 + 1 ) ) >CL THENI = I + 1 1 GO 
TO 1 02 : ELSE 1 00ELSE 1 00 
105 1=1-1 

110 PR I NT0480, "COMMAND ?";:GOSUB 
1 2 : ONZ GOTO200 , 250 , 400 , 500 , 1 000 : 
Z=Z-5:CLS3:FG=l:0NZ G0SUB14, 16,1 
8,20:FG=0:GOTO110 

Line 102 clarifies why we would need to test for A$( I) 
being null. The user is free to enter as much text as desired in 
a line and wordwrap is called in 102 if text is longer than 
maximum line length. Wordwrap cuts off enough of the left 
of C$ to fill A$(I) and RETURNS. In line 102, one is added 
to I and wordwrap is again called if needed until C$ is used 
up. Again nested IF — THEN — ELSE statements are used, 
but the false action for both IFs is to go to 100. Still, two 
ELSE statements are required, one for each IF. In this 
special case where actions are identical, 103 GOTO 100 can 
be substituted for the pair of ELSEs. 

If the up-arrow is entered, it is assumed that there is no 
text, I is reduced in 105 and the program goes into the 
command mode in Line 1 10. Subroutine Line 12 is called to 
print the command options, get the letter keystroke and 
convert it to a number that is returned in Z. In some cases. 


184 the RAINBOW July 1983 




NOW THERE ARE TWO TOOLKITS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

The software development tools that let you put even more power into the already 
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• Full Screen Editor with Arrow Key controlled cursor; open up space/delete and close up space 

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• Protect the current BASIC program from being wiped out with a CLOAD, NEW etc.; or from being LISTed 

• Restore a protected BASIC prog ram/ Append any number of BASIC programs together easily 

• Tone on keypress or normal silent keys (Tone modifiable by use of Sound n,n Command) 

• Global Search of command or text strings in BASIC programs with wildcard character and next 

• 9 Screen Print Delays with keyboard override (for slow, readable LISTings and DISK DIRectories) 

• Variable Name List/String-Byte memory usage/Range of FREE MEM/Top of memory address display 

• Fast Machine Code to BASIC DATA converter for storing machine code visibly in BASIC 

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• Break Key Disable/Enable (Pause keys still available) 

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like scrolling with the arrow keys, we want to return to 1 10 
to repeat the action or make another choice so a subroutine 
call is desirable. In other cases, like going to the Main Menu, 
any return will be from choices at that routine and GOTO 
action is appropriate. Line 12 was written so that the GOTO 
choices are returned as Z=1 through 5. The ONZ GOTO 
comes first in 1 10 and ifZ is greater than 5 no action is taken, 
the program subtracts 5 from Z and does an ONZ GOSUB. 
When control comes back from the subroutine, we loop 
back and do 1 10 again. 

12 PRINT032, "tOP bOTTOM UP/DOW 
N ARROWS eDITiNSERT dELETE cOP 
Y mENU " j : IFF6=1THENRETURN 

ELSEFORJ=0TO0: Z$= INKEY*: J= ( Z*=" " 

) :next: z=instr ( m eidcmtb"+chr*(94 
) +CHR* ( 10) , Z*> : I F Z=0THEN 1 2ELSERE 
TURN 

I like Line 12 both for what it does and how it does it. 
First, it prints the Command Mode options. Next it checks if 
flag FG=1 . If so, it returns to the calling routine. Next it gets 
the letter keystroke and converts it to a number using the 
INSTR routine we discussed last month. Finally, it checks 
for invalid entries, Z=0, and goes around again in that case. 
As written, a lower case letter is an invalid entry. In any 
word processor where the user is likely to be using lower case 
as not, failure to allow lower case command strokes is 
intolerable. Your assignment, should you decide to accept it, 
is to rewrite line 12 and 1 10 if need be to accept lower case 
commands. There are at least two ways to do this. One 
involves changes in 12 and 1 10. The other splits 12 into two 


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lines (12 and 13) and does not require changing 110. It’s 
things like this that cause Versions 2.0 and 3.0 to be written. 

Coming back to the flag FG=1, this was set in 1 10. If the 
action called for involves scrolling the screen or moving to 
the top or bottom, one of the subroutines 14, 16, 18 or 20 is 
used. These use subroutines 8 and 10 to rewrite the screen. 
Since 12 is called by 1 10, its use in the other subroutines is 
only to get the command test up quickly so the eye does not 
notice what 10 wrote on text lines 2 and 3 while the message 
text is being written. Indeed, the GOSUB 12 in line 110 
might better be in line 105. I leave you to experiment. 

The subroutines in lines 1 4 to 2 1 do the scrolling and Top 
and Bottom functions. Pay attention to 1 and you can figure 
out how they work. 

14 I=l:GOSUB10:GOSUB12:GOSUB8:RE 
TURN 

16 i=ih+i:gosubi0:gosubi2:gosub8 

: RETURN 

18 I F I > 1 THEN 1=1—1 

19 GOSUB 10: GOSUB 12: G0SUB8 : RETURN 

20 IFKIH THENI = I + 1 

21 GOSUB 10: GOSUB 12: G0SUB8 : RETURN 

It may seem that we have spent an inordinate amount of 
space on one block of code. But, there was a lot to think 
about in those few lines. The remaining text functions follow 
a bit different pattern in that the subroutines pertaining only 
to that function are in the same code block, following the 
main routine, and not at the front of the program. You can 
compare text entry and edit and decide which way you like 
best or if you even care. Note that I did not follow my 
original intent, but this would prevent me from going back 
and doing some rewriting once the program was working to 
my satisfaction. 

1 think a phrase substitution editor is the next best thing to 
a full screen editor and is much easier to implement in a 
BASIC program. After writing the heading and text lines, 
the program asks for the “old phrase.” This can be any 
combination of characters that occurs in the last line of text. 
This occurs in Line 200. There is also the test for no entry 
and for the up-arrow. Either of these provides escape. Since 
one may want to make a number of changes in a line, or even 
change a change just entered, the option to change with the 
escape is necessary. 

200 MO*=" edit" : CLS5: GOSUB10: GD 
SUB8 : L I NE I NPUT "old phrase ";A*: 

I FA*= " " ORA*=CFIR* ( 94 ) THEN220 
210 F= INSTR (A* ( I > , A*) : IFF=0THENC 
LS5: GDSUB10: G0SUB8: PRINT"phrase 
not found ": LINEINPUT"ol d phrase 
" ; A*: I FA*= " " ORA*=CFIR* ( 94 ) THEN22 
0ELSE210 

215 LINE I NPUT "new phrase ";B*:L 
1 =LEN < A* ( I ) ) : A=LEN ( A* ) : C*=LEFT* ( 

A* (I) , F— 1 ) :L2=LEN(C*) :L3=L1-<A+L 
2) :Q*=RIGHT* (A* (I) , L3) : A* ( I ) =C*+ 
B*+Q*: GOTO200 

In Line 210, the starting position of the old phrase in the 
line is found. If the exact combination of characters is not 
found, INSTR returns a zero, we reprint the screen with the 
message “phrase not found” and the invitation to re-enter 
the old phrase. A lot of Line 200 code is duplicated, mainly 
so the message “phrase not found” will be correctly posi- 


186 the RAINBOW July 1983 



PRETTY PRINTER 

This M/L utility program will allow you to write your 
code in as compact a form as you wish, but list it to 
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1 0 PR I NT "EXAMPLE": FORX=ATO M:FORY=STO 
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tioned. When the old phrase is found, the program moves to 
215 to get the new phrase. Then the text line is taken apart 
into the portion left of the old phrase, C,$ and the portion to 
the right of the old phrase, Q$. It is then put back together 
with the new phrase in the middle as A$(I) = C$ + B$ + Q$. 


220 PR I NT@480, "command ?";:GOSUB 
230: ONZ GOTO200, 100, 1000: Z=Z-3: C 
LS5: FG=1 : ONZ G0SUB242 , 244,246, 24 
8:FG=0:GOTO220 

230 PRINT032, "tOP bOTTOM UP/DO 
WN ARROWS eDIT CURRENT MES 

SAGE mENU "j : IFFG=1THENRETUR 
NELSEFOR J =0TO0 : Z*=INKEY*: J= < Z$=" 

■) :NEXT: Z=INSTR("ECMTB"+CHR«<94) 
+CHR* ( 10) , Z*) : IFZ=0THEN230ELSERE 
TURN 

242 I = 1 : GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB230 : GOSUBS : 
RETURN 

244 I=IH+l:GOSUB10:GOSUB230:GOSU 
B8: RETURN 

246 IF I >1 THEN I =1—1 

247 GOSUB10:GOSUB230:GOSUB8:RETU 
RN 

248 IFKIH THENI = I + 1 

249 GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB230 : G0SUB8 : RETU 
RN 

Line 220 does the same thing as Line 1 10 in text entry and 
Lines 230 to 249 are similar to 1 2 to 2 1 that were used in text 



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entry. The difference is that the choices in Line 230 are 
different than those in Line 1 2 and all subroutines need to be 
rewritten using 230 rather than 12 as the subroutine call. 

The insert routine starting at line 250, the delete routine 
starting at line 400 and the copy routine at line 500 are built 
on structures similar to edit which we discussed above. Copy 
may be viewed as a special case of insert since the source of 
the text is string memory rather than the keyboard. In each 
case we need to move strings and we do this by moving the 
address of the string in the variable table, rather than copy- 
ing the string itself to a different place in memory. 

250 MO$= "in sert " : CLS6 : GOSUB 1 0 : GO 
SUB8 : PR I NT " enter 1 i ne " : L I NE I NPUT 
C$: I FLEFT* ( C* , 1 ) =CHR* ( 94 > THEN260 
255 FORJ=IH TOI STEP-1 : A=VARPTR ( 
A*(J> ) :B=VARPTR(A*(J+1> ) :FORK=0T 
04: POKEB+K, PEEK (A+K> : NEXT: next: I 
=1+1 : IH=IH+1 : A* ( I ) =c$: IFCLCLEN (A 
$ ( I ) ) GOSUB300 

In insert, the new text is obtained in line 250. In line 255, the 
variable table listing for each string is moved to the next 
higher array location. The text that was represented by, say, 
A$(I0), the tenth line is now represented as A$(ll). The 
program will then move the pointers for A$(9) up to the 
A$( 10) location until the right line is opened up for the new 
text. Delete does the reverse, moving the variable table 
contents down and in the process erasing the address of the 
string being deleted. Though the deleted string still exists in 
memory, the computer has no way of finding it. Eventually a 
garbage collection will overwrite the deleted material and it 
will be gone for good. 

All of the code for these routines are in the program listing 
at the end of this article. I invite you to study it. You may 
also want to rewrite these to use common subroutines in low 
line numbers to reduce the code in each section. 

The printer code starting in line 600 is intended to print 
the text file for review and editing only. Hence, it is short 
without refinements. The baud rate setting routine is the 
fanciest thing there. Feel free to use it in your programs. 

As more owners acquire disk drives, the ability to save or 
load using either tape or disk becomes more important. 
Tape makes a good long-term storage media for archive 
purposes and for sending data through the mail. The stra- 
tegy used here is to have a saving and a loading routine. The 
variable D, for device number, is used with each OPEN, 
PRINTff and LINE INPUTft statement so these can apply to 
either disk or tape operations. For example, line 914 sets D 
=-l, gets the file name and runs past the tape leader if the 
user wishes. Control is then passed to 950 to PRINTti-l the 
data. But when disk is specified, line 91 1 sets D=l, gets the 
file name and transfers control to 950 that pre-forms the disk 
operation since D=l. Considerable flexibility and perfor- 
mance is achieved with a modest amount of code, much of 
which is in the menu to make the thing user friendly. Since 
the program listing follows closely, consult it for the 900 
section coding. 

This wraps up the discussion of COMMWP. It has served 
well as a discussion piece. There is much room for improve- 
ment and refinement and I hope that some of you do just 
that. If you do, keep in mind the modular concept that 1 have 
been teaching. There is plenty of room for more code in each 
block, except perhaps 200. You may also want to use the 
BASIC program framework, perhaps keeping the printer 
entry and tape/disk I/Oand start over to do a different type 
of program. Once you have a library of program modules 


188 the RAINBOW July 1983 




‘TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER PRODUCTS” 


“ ENHANCED 1248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER 

The list of directly compatible EPROMs increases by one. now 
including: 2508's, 2758-0/1's, 251 6’s. 271 6's, 2532's, 2732's, 
68732-0/1 's, 68764's. and 68766's. 


NEW_FEATURES INCLUDE: 

1) Intelligent algorithm that reduces programming time to as little 
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2) Diagnostic routines to isolate defective EPROMs, or locate 
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3) A feature that guards against EPROM type entry errors, 

4) Diagnostic routines that prevent keyboard entry errors from 
causing disastrous consequences. 


FIR M_WAREF EATUR ES 

1 ) EPROM ERASED! 4) BYTE PROGRAMMING! 

2) COMPARE EPROM TO RAMI5) DUMP EPROM TO RAM! 

3) BLOCK PROGRAMMING! 6) JUMP! 

Firmware is "stack-oriented", "position independent", and "menu 
driven". Supplied in an EPROM, it can also be stored on disc or tape 
for execution from RAM if desired. 


STANDARD HARDWARE FEATURES 

1) It has Its own "on-board" 25 volt programming supply. 

2) A quality textool "zero insertion force" (ZIF) socket. 

3) Socket for firmware on-board. 

A PIA port is also available on the programmer. This 8 bit parallel 
I/O port with handshake lines, can be used for many applications, 
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The enhanced 1248-EP costs only $129.95. 

Firmware upgrades are available to our previous 1 248-EP custom- 
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The CK4 cards work with 2K, 4K, and 8K ROMs or EPROMs of the 
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CONSULT FACTORY FOR AVAILABILITY AND PRICE INFORMA- 
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FACTORY FRESH COMPONENTS : 

ITEM DESCRIPTION PRICE 

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2532 EPROM 4K by 8 bit, $6.50 ea. 

682 IP P.LA. $3.50 ea. 

74LS156 Open collector decoder $1.70 ea. 

Socket Textool "Zero Insertion Force" $9.00 ea. 
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ORDERING INFORMATION : 

Add $3.00 to all orders to cover shipping and handling. Canadian 
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. VOLTAIRE ~ 


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like these, you can reuse them in other programs with minor 
modifications. Indeed, neither the I/O nor the printer rou- 
tines were written for COMMWP. 


The listing: 

0 GOTO 11 000 
3 I-I-l 


0386 

255 0629 

310 0869 

442.... 0AA5 

542 0D26 

640 101D 

915 1260 

1050 ... 1514 
END . . . 1745 



8 PRINT896, STRING* (32, CHR* ( 163)) 
I : IFI >1THENPRINTA* (1-2) 

9 printa*(i-i):printa*(I):return 

10 PRINT"LINE#" I " LINES" 1H M ALLO 
WED"LM, MO*" mod* ENTER >-COMM 
ANDS" , , : RETURN 

12 PRINT832, "tOP bOTTOM UP/DOW 
N ARROWS «DITiNSERT dELETE cOP 


Y mENU "» ! IFFG-1THENRETURN 
EL8EFORJ-0TO0: Z*-INKEY*: J-(Z*-"" 
) :next:z-instr("eidcmtb"+chr*(94 
) +CHR* ( 10) , Z«) : IFZ-0THEN12ELSERE 
TURN 


14 I-l:GOSUB10:GOSUB12:GOSUBB:RE 
TURN 


TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by BOB ALBRECHT 

This entertaining self-instructional book is packed with 
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John Wiley & Sons $9.95 

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TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

by DON INMAN 

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ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 
FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 
by DON INMAN and KURT INMAN 

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Reston Publishing Company $14.95 

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16 I-IH+1 : 0OSUB10: G08UB12: GQ8UB8 
S RETURN 

18 IFIMTHENI-I-1 

19 8O3UB10: GQSUB12: 0OBUB8: RETURN 

20 IFKIH THENI-I+1 

21 BOSUB10: 0OSUB12: 0OSUB8: RETURN 
100 HO*-" •nt»r":CLS4: I-IH+1 :G08 
UB10: G0SUB8: LINEINPUTC*: IFLEFT* ( 
C*, 1 ) < >CHR* (94) THENIFA* (I)-" "THE 
NA* < I ) -A* ( I ) +C*: ELSEA* ( I ) -A* ( I ) + 
" "+C*ELSE103 

102 IH-I: IFLEN(A*(I) ) >CL 0OSUB30 
0: IFLENiA* (1+1) ) >CL THENI-I+1: 80 
TO102: ELSE 100ELSE 100 

103 I-I-l 

110 PRINTB480, "COMMAND ?"|:0O8UB 
12: ONZ GOTO200, 250, 400, 300, 1000: 
Z-Z-5:CL83:FB-l:0NZ B08UB14, 16, 1 
8, 20: FG— 0: GOTOl 10 
200 MO*-" •dit":CLS5:8OSUB10:6O 
SUB8: LINE INPUT "old phraaa "|A«: 
I FA*- " " ORA*— CHR* ( 94 ) THEN220 
210 F-IN8TR ( A* ( I ) , A*) : IFF— 0THENC 
LSS: QOSUB10: Q0SUB8: PRINT "phriti 
not found" : LINE INPUT"old phraaa 
" I A* : I FA*- " " ORA*— CHR* < 94 ) THEN22 
0EL8E210 

213 LINEINPUT"n*w phraaa "|B*:L 
1-LEN ( A* ( I ) ) : A-LEN ( A*) : C*— LEFT* ( 
A* ( I ) , F— 1 ) : L2— LEN (C*) : L3— LI— (A+L 
2) :Q*— RIGHT* (A* ( I ) , L3) : A* ( I ) — C*+ 
B*+Q*: QOTO200 

220 PR I NT8480, "command ?" I S GOSUB 
230: ONZ QOTO200 , 100, 1000: Z-Z-3: C 
LSS:FQ-l:ONZ BOSUB242,244,246,24 

8:fq-0:qoto220 

230 PRINT832, "top bOTTOM UP/DO 
WN ARROWS *DIT CURRENT MES 

SAGE mENU " ) : IFFG-1THENRETUR 
NELSEFORJ-0TO0: Z*-INKEY*: J- ( Z*-" 
■ ) : next: z-instr < "ecmtb u +chr* (94) 
+CHR* ( 10) , Z*) : I F Z -0THEN230ELSERE 
TURN 

242 I-l:GOSUB10:GOSUB230:GO8UB8: 
RETURN 

244 I-IH+l: GOSUB 10 : GOSUB230: GOSU 
B8: RETURN 

246 IFIMTHENI-I-1 

247 GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB230 : G0SUB8 : RETU 
RN 

248 IFKIH THENI-I+1 

249 GO8UB10:GOSUB230:GOSUB8:RETU 
RN 

250 MO*— 11 i mtrt " : CLS6 : GOSUB 1 0: GO 
SUBB: PRINT "antar 1 ina" : LINEINPUT 
C*: IFLEFT* (C*, 1 ) -CHR* (94) THEN260 
255 FORJ-IH TOI STEP- 1 : A-VARPTR ( 
A* ( J ) ) : B-VARPTR ( A* ( J+l ) ) : FORK— 0T 
04: POKEB+K, PEEK (A+K) : NEXT: NEXT: I 

-i+i: ih-ih+i:a*(d-c*: ifcl<len(A 


190 the RAINBOW July 1983 





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* ( I > ) 8OSUB300 

260 PRINT8480, "command ?"|:0OSUB 
270: ONZ GOTO250, 100, 1000: Z-Z-3: C 
LS5 : FG- 1 : ONZ 0OSUB202 , 284 , 286 , 28 
e: F0-0: 0OTO260 

270 PRINT832, "tOP bOTTOM UP/DO 
WN ARROWS INSERT CURRENT M 

ESSA0E mENU " I : IFFG-1THENRETUR 
NELSEFORJ-0TO0: Z*- INKEY*: J- ( Z*-" 

■ ) : next: z-instr < * icmtb m +chr* <94> 

+CHR* ( 10) , Z*) : I F Z -0THEN27 0ELSERE 
TURN 

282 i-i:gosubi0:gosub270:0OSUB8: 
RETURN 

284 I — I H+ 1 : 0OSUB 10: 0O8UB270 : OOSU 
B8: RETURN 

286 IFI >1THENI— I— 1 

287 OOSUB 1 0 : 0OSUB270 : 0OSUB8 : RETU 
RN 

288 IFKIH THENI-I+1 

289 OOSUB 1 0 : 0OSUB270 : 0O8UB8 : RETU 
RN 

300 FORJ-I TOIH:Fl-0: IFLEN(A*(J) 
XCL THENNEXT: RETURN 
305 F-INSTR(F1+1, A*(J) , " "):IFF< 
CL ANDF< >0THENF 1 -F : GOTO305ELSEC* 
-RIGHT* (A* (J) , LEN(A«(J) )-Fl) :A*< 
J ) —LEFT ♦ ( A* ( J ) , F 1 ) 

310 IFJCIH ANDA* ( J+l ) < >" "ANDLEFT 
*(A*(J+1) , 1)0" "THENA* (J+l ) — C*+ 

192 the RAINBOW July 1983 


" "+A* (j+l): next: RETURN 
313 IFJ-IH THENA* (J+l )-C*: RETURN 
320 F0RJ1-IH TOI STEP-1 : A-VARPTR 
( A* ( J 1 ) ) : B— VARPTR (A* ( Jl+1 ) ) :FORK 
-0TO4: POKEB+K, PEEK (A+K) : NEXT: NEX 

t: ih-ih+i:a*(J1+1)-c*:next 
400 no*-"d«i«t«":CLS7:0O8UBi0:8O 
SUBS: PR I NT "dal at* this lin«7 Y/N 
" : FORJ-0TO0: C*-INKEY*: J- (C*-“ H 
) : next: ifc*-chr* (94) orc*< >"Y m the 
N 410405 FORJ-I TOIH-l: A-VARPTR (A 
*(J+1) ) : B- VARPTR (A* (J) ) :FORK-0TO 
4 : pokeb+k, PEEK (A+K) : next: next: I- 
i-l: IH-IH-1 

410 PRINT8480 p "command ?"|:60SUB 
420: ONZ BOTO400P 100, 1000: z-z-3: c 
LS5:F0-l:ONZ G0SUB442 , 444 , 446 , 44 
8 :fg-0:goto410 

420 PRINT832, "tOP bOTTOM UP/DO 
WN ARR0W8 dELETE CURRENT M 
ESSA0E mENU : IFF0-1THENRETUR 
NEL8EFORJ-0TO0: Z*-INKEY*: J- ( Z*-" 
" ) : next: z-instr ( "dcmtb"+chr* (94) 
+CHR* ( 10) , Z«) : I F Z -0THEN420ELSERE 
TURN 

442 I-l:0OSUB10:GOSUB420:8OSUB8: 
RETURN 

444 I-IH+l:GO8UB10:0OSUB420:QOSU 
B0: RETURN 

446 IFIMTHENI— I— 1 

447 0O8UB10:0O8UB420:GOSUB8:RETU 
RN 

448 IFKIH THENI-I+1 

449 OOSUB 1 0 : QOSUB420 : 0OSUB8 : RETU 
RN 

500 CLS8: 0OSUB10: 0OSUB540: 0OSUB8 
: PRINT"copy this line? Y?":FORJ- 
0TO0: Z*-INKEY*: J- ( z*-" " ) : next: z- 
INSTR ( "YCMTB"+CHR* (94) +CHR* ( 10) , 
Z*) : I F Z — 0THEN500 

505 ONZ 0OTO510, 100, 1000: Z-Z-3: C 
LS8: ONZ 0OSUB542, 544,546,548: 80T 
0500 

510 C*— A* ( I ) 

315 CL88 : OOSUB 10: 8OSUB340 : 0OSUB8 
: PRINT" inssrt. . . "C*: PRINT"hsrs 
? Y?":FORJ-0TO0:Z*-INKEY«: J-(Z*- 
" " ) : next: z-instr ( "ycmtb"+chr* (94 
) +CHR* ( 10) , Z*) : IFZ— 0THEN513 
520 ONZ G0T0323, 100, 1000: Z-Z-3 :C 
LS8: ONZ 0OSUB540 , 544 , 546 , 548 : GOT 
0515 

523 FORJ-IH TOI STEP- 1 : A- VARPTR ( 
A* ( J ) ) : B-VARPTR (A* (J+l ) ) : FORK-0T 
04: POKEB+K, PEEK (A+K) : NEXT: NEXT: I 
-i+i: ih-ih+i:a*(i>-c*:goto500 

540 PRINT832, "tOP bOTTOM UP/DO 
WN ARROWS CURRENT M 

ESSA0E mENU " | : RETURN 
542 1-1 : RETURN 


INTERNATIONAL 
COLOR COMPUTER CLUB, INC. 

A Non-Profit Educational Corporation 
Main Office 

2101 E. Main St., Henderson, Texas 75652 
Canadian Branch 

P.0. Box 7498, Saskatoon, SK S7K— 4L4 


WORLD’S LARGEST COLOR COMPUTER CLUB 


HERE ARE SOME GOOD REASONS TO JOIN OUR CLUB 

1) . FREE PROGRAMS' Good programs written by our members are contained in our library, 

in the newsletter, and on the new member tape. 

2) . NEWSLETTER. A "magazine" sized newsletter (last issue was 80 pages), with programs, 

tips, data, reviews, articles and much more. 

3) . NEWSLETTER Tape. A tape of all the programs appearing in the newsletter is available from 

the library for $2.00 (to members) or $4.50 (to non-members). 

4) . CLUB LIBRARY. The club maintains a library of programs, books, and Radio Shack ROM— 

packs. The programs are member written and come six program to a tape 
or disk. They are yours to keep; however, there is a small fee to cover the 
postage and tape (or disk) of $2.00 ($4.50 for disk). The books and ROM— 
packs may be checked out for 3 weeks at a time (extensions possible). 

5) . DISCOUNTS. You can get large discounts on many software and hardware items for the 

Color Computer from some of the MAJOR companies. Also discounts on 
subscriptions to the RAINBOW, Color Computer News, Color Computer 
Magazine, Chromasette Magazine, and CoCocassette Magazine(up to 25%). 

6) . ADVERTISE FREE. Members may place ads up to % page (classified type) per issue during their 

entire membership in the newsletter FREE. Display ads at 25% off. These 
ads must be computer related; however. 

7) . BORROW PARTS. Don't wait weeks for the parts to come in from Radio Shack! Just check 

them out from the Club's Parts library and return them when yours arrive. 

8) . SURPRISE. You receive a "New Member" package containing many useful items. 

9) . GET HELP. This is the world's largest Color Computer Club. With members in almost 

every field of expertise. So if you have a problem with the Color Computer, 
we can almost always get you the answer. Put your problem on the Club's 
Bulletin Board, write, or call. Telephone No. (214) 657—7834. 

10) . FIND FRIENDS. As a new member, you will receive a list of the members in your area on a 

quarterly basis whom you may contact for CoCo talk. 

HOW TO BECOME A MEMBER:::: 

Write to the club for an application, there are no conditions for membership other than agreeing 
to obey the rules and by-laws, being interested and paying the dues. The membership dues are $30.00 
($50.00 outside the U.S.( In Canada it is in Canadian funds) in U.S. funds)per year and we believe you 
get more than your moneys worth. You can save more than the memberhip dues in discounts the club 
offers to you. Example : Subscription to the RAINBOW, 25% off of the regular subscription rates. 

Some members have told me that the new member tape alone is worth the membership dues. It contains 
10 very good programs. Some of the programs contained in the library are Accounts Receivable, General 
Ledger, Inventory, Sales File and ticket program with automatic Inventory update (for 32K with 2disk )• 
There is over 72 programs in the library to choose from ranging from 4K to 64K w/disk. 




RAINBOW 

C f <*■•()». 
SI 



344 I-IH+l: RETURN 
346 IFI>1THENI-I-1 

547 RETURN 

548 IFKIH THENI-I+1 

549 RETURN 

600 P0KE63494, 0: BP-PEEK ( 150) :BU- 
IN8TR ( "61841 87 180",RI0HT 

*(STR*(BP> ,LEN(8TR*(BP> )-l) ) :BU- 
4800 /BU 

610 CL8:PRINT«73, "PRINT ROUTINES 
" PPf “ CURRENT BAUD RATE -"BU P 

TAB <6) "RESET BAUD RATE" PPP " P 
RINT TEXT",,,," MENU" :CT— 1 
615 CT*-RIGHT*(8TR*(CT) , 1) :LP-IN 
8TR ( " 1 2 3",CT*) :LP-LP*32+2: 

PRINT0LP, " >" I : FORJ-0TO0S Z*-INKEY 

*: j-(Z*-"") : next:print#lp, " "y 

620 IFZ*— CHR* < 10) ANDCT< 3THENCT— C 
T+ 1 : 80T06 1 5ELSE IFZ*-CHR* ( 94 ) ANDC 
T>1THENCT— CT— 1 : 80T0613EL8EIFZ*< > 
CHR* (13) THEN6 1 3EL8E0N CT 80T0625 
,640, 1000 

625 PRINT" : INPUT" ENTER NEW BA 
UD RATE 11 1 BU* : BU*-LEFT* ( BU* , 1 ) : BL 
-INSTR ( "36124" , BU *) 2 I FBL-0THENPR 
I NT 11 baud rata mr r or SOUND 100, 30 
: BOTO600 

630 BU < 1 ) — 180: BU <2) — 87: BU (3) —41 : 
BU (4) —18: BU (5)— 6: POKE 150, BU (BL) : 
6OTO600 

640 CLSIPRINT0194, "SET TOP OF SH 


EET AT PRINTER HEAD AND PR 

ESS ANY KE Y ": FOR J-0TO0:J-( INKEY* 
-" "): NEXT: LM-INT (80/CL) :FORJ-lTO 
5: PRINT#— 2, " " 

650 F0RI-1T0IH:PRINT#-2,TAB(LM)A 
• ( i ) : next: 6OTO1000 
900 CL83: PRINT066, " 8AVE TO TAP 
E : PR I NT# 130, " SAVE TO DISK 

"I :PRINT®194, " LOAD FROM TAPE" 
y :PRINT#258, " LOAD FROM DI8K"y: 
CT— 1905 CT*— RIGHT* (STR* (CT) , 1 ) ■ L 
P— INSTR <" 123 4" , CT*) : LP— LP*32 
+2: PRINT0LP, " >" y : FORJ-0TO0: Z*— IN 
KEY*: J-(Z*-"") : NEXT: PRINT0LP, " " 

y 

910 IFZ*— CHR* ( 10) ANDCT<4THENCT— C 
T+l : 8OTO905EL8EIFZ*— CHR* (94) ANDC 
T > 1 THENCT — CT— 1 : 8OTO905ELSE I F Z *< > 
CHR* (13) THEN905ELSEON CT G0T0914 
,911,913,912 

911 D-l:PRINT#322, "FILE NAME" y : I 
NPUTNA*: GOTO950 

912 D-1:PRINT0322, "FILE NAME" y : I 
NPUTNA*: GOTO920 

913 D— l:PRINT®322, "FILE NAME" y : 
I NPUTNA* : 8OTO920 

914 D— l:PRINT®322, "FILE NAME " y : 
INPUTNA«:PRINT8386, "RUN PAST LEA 
DER Y/N": INPUTI*: IFI*-"Y"THENMOT 
ORON: FORK— 1TO6000: NEXT: : GOTO950 

915 8OTO950 


TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER* 

-16K Extended Basic, Menu-Driven, Well-Documented, Easlly-Modtlied. 
-For either cassette or diskette systems (Be sure to specify). 

-Place an order of at least $40 and get one extra of your choice free. 
-Orders shipped on cassette - Add $5 for shipment on diskette. 


/f^\ 

-FURST- "SSSS 


-REPORT WRITER- 


Data Element Dictionary driven File Update and 
Retrieval SysTem. Create and maintain files according 
to your specifications. Ideas for applications in- 
cluded $25 

-MAILING LABELS- SKST 

Generate and maintain mailing label records. Selective- 
ly print desired quantities. Can keep several label files if 
desired. Designed for Printer VII, easily modified. $20 


Used in conjunction with FURST to selectively format 
reports on your printer. Includes headings and total 
capabilities $15 

-EXERCISE PLANNER- 

Build and maintain complete exercise schedule for 
regular and/or weight programs. Display guides you 
through daily-calculated routines. Print complete 
schedule if desired $15 


-DISK DIRECTORY PRINT- 


For diskette users only. Get hard copy of disk directories on your printer for easy use and reference. Only $5 


Send check or money order to: 


1 

LAND SYSTEMS 


wsr 

P.O. Box 232 

[ MasterCard 1 

'l l 

Bellbrook, Ohio 45305 



•TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 
are Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 


194 the RAINBOW July 1983 




920 OPEN" I " , D, NA*: 1*0 

925 IF EOF (D) THENCL08ED: IH-I : 60 

TO 1000 

930 I-I+l:LINEINPUT#D ( A*<I) S0OTO 
925 

950 AUDIOON: 0PEN"0" , D, NA*: FQRI-1 
toih: print#d, a* ( I ) : next: closed: i 

FCT >0AND D— 1 THENMOTORON : FORK- 1 T 
0600: NEXT : MOTOROFF : CT-0ELSE 1 000 
1000 CLS3: PRINT041 | "COMMUNICATIO 
NS" ! : PRINT973, "WORD PROCESSOR" I : 
PRINT9105," VERSION 1.0 "|:PRIN 
T0197, "nEW MESSAGE "|:P 

RINT9229, "CURRENT MESSAGE 
I 

1005 PRINT9261, "bULLETIN BOARD L 
IMITS" I : PRINT9293, "pRINT MESSAGE 
"I :PRINT9325, "»AVE/LOAD 
MESSAGE " | : FORJ-0TO0: Z*- INKEY 

*: j- < z*-" " ) : next: z-instr < "ncbps" 

f Z*> : IFZ— 0THEN1000 
1010 ONZ GOTO 1020, 100, 1050,600,9 
00 

1020 fori-ito30:a*(I)-"":next: i- 
0: IH-0 

1050 CLS3: PR I NT970, "BULLETIN BOA 
RD LIMITS"! :PRINT«166, "CHARACTER 
S/LINE "CL| :PRINT0198, "1 INES/ME 
S8AQE "LM| 1PRINT9230, "oK AS I 
8 " | : FORJ-0TO0: Z*-IN 


KEY*: J- < Z*-" " ) : NEXT: Z-INSTR < "CLO 
",Z*>:ONZ GOTO 1060, 1070 , 1080 
1035 GOTO 1050 

1060 C*-"":PRINT0184, " "|:FORK- 
0TO1 : FORJ-0TO0: Z*— INKEY*: J— (Z*— " 
" ) : NEXT: PRINT11B4+K,, z*i : c*-c*+z* 
:next:cl-val(C*> : goto 1050 

1070 C*— " " : PRINT0216, " "|:FORK- 
0TO1 : FORJ-0TO0: Z*- INKEY*: J- ( z*«" 
" ) : NEXT: PRINT0216+K, Z*| : C*-C*+Z* 

: next: lm-val <c*> : goto 1050 

1080 IFIH-0THEN100ELSEIFIH>LM th 
ENCLS 3: PRINT9168, "CURRENT MES8AQ 
E"! :PRINT®299, " HAS MORE LINES " 
! :PRINT0232, "THAN LIMIT SET."|:P 
RINT9296, " PRESS ANY KEY "|:PRIN 
T9328, 11 TO CONTINUE "|:FORJ-0TO 
0: J- ( INKEY*-" " ) : NEXT 
1090 I-l:GOSUB300: GOTO 100 
2000 CLEAR 5000 D I MA* ( 50 ) 

2010 cl-64:lm-16:a-0:b-0:k-0 
2100 GOTO 1000 

10000 AUDIOON: INPUT"RUN PAST LEA 
DER Y/N"| I*: IF I *-"Y" THENMOTORON: 
FORX-1TO6000: NEXT 

10010 forc-ito 2 :csave"commwp":mo 
toron: forx— 1TO600: next: next: moto 
ROFF'END 

11000 PCLEAR 1 : GOTO2000 




x / / JFD - COCO DISC 

/ / / i |J- 

J & M Systems, Ltd. is a leader in the Model III 
marketplace with our JFD-III Disc Controller. With 

thousands in operation, we have set new standards 

in controller performance and reliability. We bring 
these same high standards to the COCO, resulting 
in the highest quality disc controller system on the 
market. Compare these functions before you buy: 

/ I 1 f 

• Price. $449 includes controller, first drive, disc 

basic in ROM, and manuals. Just plug it in. jl 

• Never needs adjusting. Our exclusive Digital jl 

Phase Lock Loop Data Separator and Digital Pre- J j 

comp Circuit eliminates the 3 adjustments found mi 
on other controllers. / 

High quality standard production disc drives. For 

improved service and reliability. Tandon & Teac 

drives provide twice the read sensitivity that the 
drives found in other disc systems do, and hold 
their alignment far longer. / 

Gold-plated card edge connectors throughout. 

Software compatible with Radio Shack Disc 
Basic, Flex, and OS/9. j 

J & M Systems, Ltd., 137 Utah NE, Albuquerque 
(505) 265-1501 / 


SYSTEM- $449 






,N.M. 87108 


«4A 

J&M SYSTEMS, LTD. 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 195 




Doin’ the Hi-Res Shuffle 

Program 

By 

Phillip Beistel 

Shuffle is one of three programs on the Rainbow 
'Record. 'See page 146. 


I f you’ve ever shuffled little numbered plastic squares 
around on a palm-sized plastic board, trying to order 
them chronologically, you know the game called Shuffle. 
Whether in its solid form it was called that or something else. 
I’m unsure. Nevertheless, it was always enjoyable — an estab- 
lished item in that revolving crop of kid-crazes which 
included the yo-yo. Hula hoop and Gumbo shooter. 

In its computerized form, the game gives up its pocket 
portability, but it gains in pizazz with some very nicely done 


(Mr. Beistel has been associated with large computer 
hardware and software for nearly 15 years and has 
been writing 80 C software during the last three years.) 



FLY the FIS 

Instrument 
Flight 
Simulator 

Variable control sensitivity for 
beginner or expert. Navigate a 
new course each flight or do 
aerobatics. Instrument takeoffs 
and landings. Get yours now to 
be elgible for future low cost 
upgrades. Specify 16K or 32K. 
Tape $19.95 Disk $21.95 

LPVII/DMPIOO Descenders 

Its as if your printer had built 
in descenders. Load, execute, and 
forget its there. The lowercase 
set : abcdef ghi jk 1 mncpqrstuvwxyz 

16K/32K Tape or Disk $14.95 
Add $1.00 Shipping on all orders. 

KRT Software 813 - 321-2840 
P O Box 41395 

St Petersburg, FI 33743 


hi-res graphics. Phillip Beistel’s outstanding version of this 
classic, by the way, is not only listed here, but is also one of 
the three programs on our Rainbow “Record” which you 
will find on page 146. 

Shuffle has a couple of quite interesting features: the most 
obvious is the flashing name at the top of the screen. The 
routine starting at line 46 does the flashing. Also, Phillip 
uses the keyboard rollover table to allow faster access of the 
keyboard. You'll find this within the line 46 routine, as well. 

The game will randomly place 15 numbers inside a 4 x 4 
matrix. The object is to rearrange the numbers into ascend- 
ing order by using the arrow keys to move the blank square 
and, consequently, the numbers, around the screen. If you 
get frustrated, you can quit at any time by pressing the “Q” 
key. When the game is either finished, or you quit, the 
number of moves and the time used is displayed. 

We think this is an excellent quality game, worthy of its 
inclusion in our first “record,” and hope you will take advan- 
tage of this for easy loading. For those who prefer the direct 
approach, we give you the following listing. 


The listing: 



. . 01D3 

26 ... . 

. . 0472 

38 ... . 

. . 0727 

50 ... . 

. . 0A77 

70 ... . 

. .0C1F 

90 ... . 

. . 0F17 

END . 

.. 1044 


1 RUN6 

2 7 SHUFFLE 

3 7 by PHIL BEISTEL 

4 7 1439 ARNOLD ST. 

5 7 PGH, PA. 15220 

6 IF PEEK (&HC000) =126 AND PEEK<& 
HC001 ) =126 THEN POKE65495,0 

8 XR=RND (-TIMER) :GOTO109 

9 CLS (RND (8) > : PRINTS1 1 , " 7 SHUFFLE 
7 "5 IPRINT096, " ARRANGE THE NUMBE 
RS FROM 1 TO": PRINT" 15, UPPER L 
EFT TO LOWER RIGHT. PRINT" USE 
THE ARROW KEYS TO MOVE. " 

10 PRINTS22B, "DUPLICATE THIS PAT 

TERN: :PRINT@298, " 123 4"S 

:PRINT@330," 567 8";:PRINT@ 
362," 9 10 11 12"; :PRINT@394, "13 

14 15 "; 


196 the RAINBOW July 1983 






LEARN A SECOND LANGUAGE ON YOUR 

COLOR COMPUTER • NEW • EXCITING • EASY 

Creative Courseware using the latest 
technology and Professional Programming 



• Fulfill your educational objectives 

• Have fun learning a new language 

• Expand your children’s horizons. 


• Improve your job potential 

• Young and old can learn 

• Affordable, only pennies per hour. 


Our Lessons Teach You to 
HEAR and THINK in a 
Second Language 
These lessons are for you if you: 

• Think you can’t learn 

• Have had previous difficulties 

• Want to start out right 

• Want language success 


• SEE — High quality visuals, not dotted graphics 

• HEAR — High quality audio as spoken by natives 

• UNDERSTAND — Through programmed instruction 

• RESPOND — Branching, and looping insure learning. 


Lessons Now Available in 
Spanish, English and 
French 

• Color Computer with 16K RAM 
and tape recorder required 

• SLU-1: People, Persons & Family 

• SLU-2: Stand, Walk & Run 

• SLU-3: Smile, Eat & Talk 

• SLU-4: House 

• SLU-5: Open & Closed 

• SLU-6: Furniture & Appliances 

• SLU-7: Meals 

• Vocabulary #1, 2 & 3: 200 words each 


Other Lessons and 
Languages Available Soon 


Special Values 

Special Value #1 

SLU 1 -3, VOCAB 1 , and Lesson Control 
A $129.75 Value for only $99.95. 

SV-1 (specify language desired) $99.95 

Special Value #2 

SLU 1-7, VOCAB 1-3, and Lesson Control 
A $249.45 Value for only $199.95. 

SV-2 (specify language desired). . . $1 99.95 

Demonstration Lesson (for the doubter) 
DEMO-1 $9.95 

Individual Lessons: 

(specify language desired) 

Second Language Usage (SLU) $19.95 
Vocabulary (SL) $19.95 

Lesson Control: (only one copy needed 
for all lessons and languages) 

LC-CC $49.50 


HOW TO HEAR AND THINK IN A SECOND LANGUAGE 

Skilled linguists have developed our series of second language programs. The lessons utilize the power of programmed 
instruction wherein you are advanced to new material only after satisfactory learning has occurred at the current level. Our 
techniques teach you how to think in a language without initially using any printed text material. No mental translation to your 
native language is required. You learn as a child does, hearing and speaking before reading. The computer both tutors and 
keeps track of progress as it moves you forward (or backward when review is necessary). AUDIO plus VISUALS plus 
INTERACTIVE RESPONSE establish the learning process, and literally THOUSANDS of visuals help seal-in the sound patterns 
of your new language. 

All of our lessons are interactive and user friendly; yet, you are unaware of the complex course structure involved. For 
example: Lesson SLU-1 uses the theme of PEOPLE, PERSONS & FAMILY to teach the use of nouns to name things, to classify 
them into categories, and to identify members of a group. Sentence structure is developed using the verb ‘be’ and its relationship 
to nouns and adverbs, including plural forms and inversions. Noun structure using definite and indefinite articles, and regular 
and irregular plural forms is also presented. The other lessons are similarly designed. In addition, each VOCABULARY LESSON 
presents approximately 200 visuals and 200 words that are integrated into the learning process. 

While the foregoing might seem complex, and it is, IT IS ALSO THE REASON OUR COURSEWARE CAN TEACH 
LANGUAGES. If you have tried 'game' or ‘tape’ language programs you know that they are ineffective. Our programs can teach 
you a language because we have successfully combined expert authoring of programmed courseware with audio & visuals & 
response & branching into a powerful tutorial package. 


DEALER INQUIRIES ACCEPTED 

We have a broad range of Audio 
Visual Computer Aided Instruc- 
tion under development. Some 
users of our courseware might 
include Day Care Centers, 
Schools (public and private), 
institutions in various categories, 
individuals and language tutors. 


ABSOLUTELY NO RISK 

You may examine your 
order for 15 days. If you de- 
cide not to take advantage 
of the lesson(s) simply re- 
turn in good condition for a 
full refund or cancellation 
of credit card charges. 


*WE PAY UPS IN USA 

(street address required for UPS) 
•Add S2 00 if US Mail desired. 

•Add 15% for foreign. APO & FPO 
(Remit in US Funds) 

•Virginia Orders add 4% sales tax 
•Mail credit card orders please 
include all card information 


WE ACCEPT 

• VISA and 
MASTER CARD 

• Money Orders 

• Certified Checks 

• Other Checks (must 
clear before shipment) 


FREE ORDER LINE 

1-800-368-6300 
* * * 

FOR VIRGINIA ORDERS 
AND OTHER CALLS: 

1 -804-463-6300 

BASIC PROGRAMS, INC. 

236 Mustang Trail, #102 
Virginia Beach, VA 23452 






11 DIM A<4,4) ,B<16) :X16=0: Y16=0: 
M=0: ZT=0 

12 S*="T200L200O4V31? l; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6 
;7;8;9; 10; ll; 12; ll; 10;9":T*="T10 
0;L100V31;O4; l; 12" 

13 F0RX=1T04:F0RY»1T04: A<X, Y)=0: 
NEXTY: NEXTX : SCREEN0, 0: F0RX=1T016 

:b<X)=x:nextx 

14 F0RX=1T04:F0RY=1T04 

15 D=RND (16) 

16 IF B ( D > =0 THEN 15 

17 IF D=16 THEN X16=X:Y16=Y 

18 A(X, Y)=B<D) :B(D)=0: NEXTY, X 

19 PMODE 1,1: PCLS 

20 DRAW"C2; S8; BM72, 4; BD1D1F1R3F1 
D2G 1 L3H 1 BU5E 1 R3F 1 BR4BU 1 ; D7U4R5NU 
3D4 ; BR4BU7D6F 1R3E1 U6BR4NR5D3NR4D 
4BR5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4BR5; BR4BU7D 
7R5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4R5 " 

21 DRAW " C3 ; S4; BM28, 28; R203; D163; 
L203; U163" 

22 PAINT <40, 30) ,2,3 

23 DRAW"C3;S4;R51;D163;R51;U163; 

R5 l ; D 1 63 ; R50 ; U40 ; L203 ; U41 ; R203 ; U 
41; L203 " 

24 60SUB52 

25 F0RX=1T04: F0RY=1T04 

26 PLAY T*:X*=STR*< < <X-l)*50)+32 
) :Y*=STR*< < <Y-l)*40)+32) : ON A<X 

C~ 'N 

SF> SOFTWARE^ 

FOUR NEU PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 

SPDUMP A screen duap routine of 360 bytes of fasti 
relocatable aachine language code. All PMODESi color 
PMODES in 4 B&W shadesi twice size option in PMODES 3 
or 4, position duap on paper, inverse iaage option, do 
tore than 1 screen as for MPP graphics. Works on 
DMP2B0 LPVII etc. Coaes with BASIC instructions. Needs 
BAS1C1.1 or an Bbit printer fix. On tape. $16 

CONCPOLY Use this aenu driven prograa to design and 
draw a fantastic variety of intricate and colorful 
patterns, suitable for duap to a printer, includes 
exaaples and instructions. Works in a 16K coaputer, 
EXT. or DISK BASIC. Coaes on tape. $8 

SIXFOURK Use your 64K coaputer froa BASIC. This 
prograa allows you to inspect RAM, wove ROM to RAM and 
run it there, disable DISK or EXT. BASIC, and nake 
setups with graphics, prograa, strings, and USR in 
upper or lower RAH to get the best use of RAM. The 
prograa does the setups and includes tutorials and 
instructions to let you aake setups. On tape. $20 

ROTWORLD This showy prograa for the 64K coaputer will 
display a rotating color globe of the earth. You get 
20 fraaes of a PM0DE1 globe which is loaded into 60K 
of RAM by a driver prograa plus an instruction prograa 
all on disk to show off your 64K color coaputer. $25 

Free little graphics prograa with order or request for 
our catalog. For fast service send check or HO to: 

SP SOFTWARE, 1102 BILTHORE, LYNCHBURG VA 24502 

V / 


, Y) GOTO 29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36 
, 37, 38, 39, 40,41, 42, 43, 44 

27 PRINT0483, " (PRESS ANY KEY TO 
PLAY. >"; I I *= INKEY* 

28 I *= INKEY*: IF I*=»" THEN 28 EL 
SE SCREEN 1,0:GOTO53 

29 DRAW " C4 ; S8 ; BM " +X*+ " , " +Y*+ " BD5 
BR8E3D 1 3NL3R3 " : G0T044 

30 DRAW"C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD6 
BR8U2E 1 R6F 1D4G1 L7D6R7 " : G0T044 

31 DRAW ,, C4;S8;BM ,, +X*+", "+Y*+ ,, BD2 
BR6R6F 1 D4G 1 NL4F 1 D4G 1 L6 " : G0T044 

32 DRAW"C4j S8; BM"+X*+" , "+Y*+"BD2 
BR 1 2ND 1 4G8R 12": G0T044 

33 DRAW"C4; S8; BM"+X*+" , "+Y*+"BD3 
BR6NR8D6R7F 1 D4G 1 L7H 1 U2 " : G0T044 

34 DRAW"C4; S8; BM"+X*+" , ,, +Y*+"BD3 
BR7R6F 1 H 1 L6G 1 D 1 0F 1 R6E 1 U6H 1 L6G 1 " : 
G0T044 

35 DRAW"C4; S8; BM"+X*+" , "+Y*+"BD3 
BR6R 1 0G2D 1 G2D 1 G2D 1 G2D 1 " : G0T044 

36 DRAW" C4; S8; BM"+X*+" , "+Y*+"BD2 
BR8R6F 1 D4G 1 L6H 1 U4NE 1 D4F 1 G 1 D5F 1 R6 
E1U5H1":G0T044 

37 DRAW"C4; S8; BM"+X*+" , "+Y*+"BD3 
BR8R6F 1D4G1 L6H 1 U4NE 1 D4F 1 R6G6 " : GO 
T044 

38 DRAW"C4; S8j BM" +X*+" , "+Y*+"BD5 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR4R4E 1U10H1L4G1D10 
F1":G0T044 

39 DRAW"C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD4 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR4R2NR2U 1 2G2 " : GOTO 
44 

40 DRAW " C4; S8; BM " +X*+ " , " +Y*+ " BD5 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR4NR5U6R4U 1 R 1 U4L 1 U 
1L3D1L1 " : G0T044 

41 DRAW"C4j S8» BM"+X*+" , "+Y*+"BD4 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR4R4E 1 U4H 1 NL3E 1 U4H 
1L4" X G0T044 

42 DRAW"C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD4 
BR4E2D 1 2NR2L2BR 1 2U 1 2G6R8 " : G0T044 

43 DRAW"C4;SB;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD5 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR3BU 1 NU2F 1 R6E 1 U4H 1 
L6U6R7" : G0T044 

44 IF M< >0 THEN RETURN ELSE NEXT 
Y, X 

45 G0T027 

46 DRAW " C2; S8; BM72, 4; BD1D1F1R3F1 
D2G1L3H1 BU5E 1 R3F 1 BR4BU 1 ; D7U4R5NU 
3D4 ; BR4BU7D6F 1R3E1 U6BR4NR5D3NR4D 
4BR5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4BR5; BR4BU7D 
7R5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4R5" 

47 IF PEEK <339) =251 OR PEEK <341) 
=247 OR PEEK (342) =247 OR PEEK <34 
3) =247 OR PEEK <344) =247 THEN 50 

48 DRAW"C3j S8; BM72, 4; BD1D1F1R3F1 
D2G 1L3H1 BU5E 1 R3F 1 BR4BU 1 ; D7U4R5NU 
3D4 ; BR4BU7D6F 1 R3E 1 U6BR4NR5D3NR4D 
4BR5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4BR5; BR4BU7D 
7R5j BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4R5 " 


198 the RAINBOW July 1983 




,* 


THE ALTERNATIVE 

COLOR COMPUTER 
DISK SYSTEMS 

® 449 « 


40 TRACK 
DRIVE 


ROM SOFTWARE 

A Full Featured 
Basic Compatible DOS 


200 K BYTES 

USER STORAGE 

8 :r 400 K BYTES 

USER STORAGE 


INCLUDES: TC-99 Disk Controller W/CCMD 9 DOS 
ROM • 40 Or 80 Track Disk Drive • Power supply • 
Case • 2 Drive Cable • 9 Disk utility Programs 
• CCEDT9 Disk Text Editor • Disk Text Processor i 

Manufactured Under License From Tall Crass Technologies 


Editor /Assembler CO-RES9 

LexL Pro TL 

CO-RES9 is a co-resident Editor/Assembler that 
will allow you to create, edit and assemble 
machine language programs for the color com- 
puter. it will quickly and efficiently convert 
assembly language programs into machine code 
files. It will output machine object code to either 
cassette tape in a CLOADM' compatible format or 
directly to memory for direct execution. MQty) 

CO-RES9 editor/ assembler tape ONLY 

w/manuai $39.95- $29.95 

R.S. DISK EDITOR & ASSEMBLER Disk 

w/ manual ,$79-.95 $49.95 

"The Professional’s word Processor” 

TEXT PROCESSOR FEATURES TEXT EDITOR FEATURES 

• Character Fin • Single Keystroke Edit 

• programmable Footer command 

• Right Justify Line • Append Files from Tape or Disk 

• Multiple Footnotes , - Fully integrated Disk FHe 

• Three indent Modes : Handler 

• Three Programmable Headers : • Edit or Process Files Larger 

• Ten Programmable Tab Stops Than Memory 

• Margin Justification • (No conversion Required) Fully 

Left & Right ASC II compatible 

• Decimal Align, Center, Left & • Full Featured Line Oriented 

Right Justify on Tab column Screen Editor 

• Display 8 input from Keyboard • Search and Replace Any 

• Change Formatting During Character Pattern 

Processing • Copy, Move or Delete Lines 

or Blocks of Text 
• Edit Basic, Text or Assembler 

Files 

text PRO II Features Over 70 commands in All. Disk ... $79.95 

DATA PACK 

TERMINAL PACKAGE 


Full Text Buffering 

Terminal Baud Rates 300 To 9600 Baud 
Automatic word wrap Eliminates Split words 
Full/Half Duplex 
Automatic File Capture 

Programmable word Length, Parity & Stop Bits 

Automatic Buffer Size At Memory Limit 

Save & Load Text Buffer To Tape Or Disk 

Send Files Directly From Buffer Or Disk 

Full Disk Support For Disk Version 

Printer Baud Rates 110-4800 

Send Control Codes From Keyboard 

ASCII Compatible File Format rainbow 


• Display On Screen Or Output Contents Of Buffer 
To Printer 

we also have a disk version available called "DISKPACK." 
it includes all the commands mentioned plus com- 
mands for disk control. They include: Disk Load, Disk 
Save, Directory, Send Disk File and Kill Disk File. As usual 
all files are Basic Compatible ASCII formatted files 
which are also compatible with our Text Editor and 
word Processor programs. 

Datapack on tape w/ manual $24.95 

Diskpack for R.S. disk w/ manual $49.95 

^ Diskpack for ccmd 9 w/manuai $39.95 


5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 



(702) 452-0632 


All Orders Shipped 
From Stock 
Add $2.50 
Postage 




49 IF PEEK <339) 0251 AND PEEK <34 
1)0247 AND PEEK (342) 0247 AND P 
EEK <343) 0247 AND PEEK <344) 0247 

THEN 46 

50 RETURN 

51 PAINT < < <X16-1 ) *50) +32, < <Y16-1 
) *40) +32) ,2, 3: RETURN 

52 PAINT < < < X 16— 1 ) *50) +32, < < Y16— 1 
) *40 ) +32 >,4,3: RETURN 

53 TIMER=0 

54 M= 1 : G0SUB46 

55 IF PEEK <339) =251 THEN 108 

56 ZT=ZT+1 

57 IF PEEK <341) =247 THEN 62 

58 IF PEEK <342) =247 THEN 75 

59 IF PEEK <343 >=247 THEN 68 

60 IF PEEK <344) =247 THEN 81 

61 B0T054 

62 IF Y16=4 THEN SOUND 1 00, 1 : GOTO 
54 

63 G0SUB51 

64 A<X16, Y16)=A<X16, Y16+1) 

65 X=X16: Y=Y16:G0SUB26 

66 Y 1 6= Y 16+1: G0SUB52 

67 G0T087 

68 IF XI 6=4 THEN SOUND 1 00, 1 : GOTO 
54 

69 G0SUB51 


Co Co - Cooler (St 



• Brings operating 
temperature 
to ambient, 
regardless 
of 

accessory 
load 


• Reduces temperature 
of ENTIRE computer . . 
not just the SAM chip 


• Easy 1-minute installation • $39.95 


Companion Keyboard Cover $7.95 
Co Co Software 

• Send For Free Catalog • For Fastest Service 
Send Money Order Or Certified Check • Add 
$2.00 Shipping Charge Per Order • Calif. 
Residents Add 6W% Sales Tax • All Merchandise 
Shipped From Stock • 


REM Industries , Inc . 

9420 "B” LurlineAve., Chatsworth, CA 91311 

(213) 341-3719 


70 A<X16,Y16) =A < X 1 6+ 1 , Y 1 6 ) 

71 X=X16:Y=Y16: G0SUB26 

72 X 1 6= X 1 6+ 1 : G0SUB52 

73 G0T087 

74 END 

75 IF Y16=l THEN SOUND 1 00, 1 : GOTO 
54 

76 G0SUB51 

77 A<X16,Y16) = A < X 1 6 , Y 1 6— 1 ) 

78 X=X16: Y=Y16:G0SUB26 

79 Y 1 6= Y 16—1: G0SUB52 

80 G0T087 

81 IF X 16=1 THEN SOUND 1 00, 1 : GOTO 
54 

82 G0SUB51 

83 A<X16,Y16) = A < X 1 6— 1 , Y 1 6 ) 

84 X=X16: Y=Y16:G0SUB26 

85 X 1 6= X 1 6— 1 : G0SUB52 

86 G0T087 

87 IF A < 1 , 1 ) =1 AND A<2,1>=2 AND 
A <3, 1 ) =3 AND A < 4 , 1 ) =4 AND A<1,2> 
=5 AND A <2, 2) =6 AND A <3, 2) =7 AND 

A <4, 2) =8 AND A < 1,3) =9 AND A <2, 3 
)=10 AND A<3,3>=11 AND A<4,3)=12 
AND A<1,4)=13 AND A<2,4)=14 AND 
A <3, 4) =15 THEN 89 

88 G0T054 

89 WN=TIMER:CLS(RND<8> ) 

90 SC= 1 : FORQ= 1 TO 1 0 

91 SCREEN 1, SC 

92 PLAY S$ 

93 IF SC=1 THEN SC=0:GOTO95 

94 SC=1 

95 NEXT Q 

96 PRINT@99, " YOU COMPLETED THE 
PUZZLE 

97 PRINT® 138, " IN" ; ZT; "MOVES " ; 

98 SC=1 

99 SQ=INT<WN/60) :MQ=INT<SQ/60> IS 
Q=SQ-MQ*60 

100 IF MQ=0 THEN 102 

101 PRINT@170, MQ5"MIN. AND";SQ; 
"SEC. "5 : GOTO 103 

102 PRINTQ170, SQ; "SEC. " ; 

103 PRINTQ481, "PRESS Y TO TRY AG 
AIN. N TO END"; 

104 I*=INKEY*: IF 1*="" THEN 104 

105 IF I*="Y" THEN M=0; CLS <RND <8 
> > :PRINT@200, " RESTARTING ";:TIM 

er=0: zt=0:gotoi2 

106 IF I*<>"N" THEN 104 

107 CLS <RND <8> ) : PRINT0203, "T. T. F 
. N . " ; : PR I NT@448 , " BYE-BYE " ; : P0KE6 
5494,0: NEW 

108 CLS ( RND < 8 ) ) : PR I NT® 1 02 , " YOU 
GAVE UP AFTER " ; : PR I NT® 1 38 , ZT ; " M 
OVES AND " ; : WN=T I MER : G0T098 

109 PCLEAR2: G0T09 




200 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Software Review 


Stock Option Strategies 
For Experienced Traders 

Stock options — Ah, visions of gleaming Rolls Royces, a 
seaside hideaway in the Caribbean, and me sipping rum 
drinks with bits of tropical fruit floating in them. All this and 
more drifted through my mind as I gazed at the Stock 
Option Strategies cassette in my hand. 

Stock options offer the potential of immense gains for 
relative small investments, they also have a darker side — the 
possibility of sudden and complete loss of your investment. 

The question was would this program and my trusty 80-C 
be able to guide me around the pitfalls of sudden loss and to 
a life of ease and plenty which I so justly deserve? 

I’m sad to report that this review is being typed into my 
CoCo in the somewhat cluttered office of my home, instead 
of overlooking blue waters with a tanned companion at my 
side. 

Advertising for the Stock Option Strategies program 
states that the program allows you to devise your own stock 
option strategies. Alas, the program did not allow me to do 
so. The problem lies more with the documentation than the 
program. 

Program documentation only consists of a % page 
xeroxed copy of typed instructions. Assumptions are made 
that the user is familiar with all the terminology of buying 
stock options, how they work and where to find the neces- 
sary information. 

For instance, if you know what a strike price is, you’re 
OK, if not, forget it, Charlie. The only hint as to where to 
find necessary information is a reference advising you to 
consult the Wall Street Journal. 

A common mistake has been made by the author in 
asuming that the user has a working knowledge of the 
specific activities associated with the program. The program 
makes sense to the author, so it must be fine. Testing the 
program with end users ofter leads to adding needed addi- 
tional explanations and instructions. 

Documentation on a program of this type should include 
an explanation of how stock options are traded and a com- 
plete and concise set of definitions for all requested 
INPUTS. 


Instructions on how to “test run” a few examples to 
familarize yourself with the programs operation should also 
be included so that the user can become comfortable with 
the program before taking a plunge with more than monop- 
oly money. The single paragraph explanation of the mecha- 
nisms involved in stock option trading is just not enough. 

The program itself does not offer the “bells and whistles” 
one expects from a professionally marketed, business- 
oriented program. The frills, like a colorful title page, are 
missing, but more important options, like saving your data 
and results to disk or tape for later retrieval, or printing your 
data on a printer, are also missing. 

The program has a routine which graphs future stock 
prices in color and shows the resultant gains and losses. 

Overall, the detail and presentation of Stock Option 
Strategies is not what I would expect from a tape available 
from a mailorder software marketer. 

Greentree Software has missed regarding their target 
audience. In its existing form, it is most usable only by those 
now actively involved in stock option trading. I cannot 
recommend this program to those interested in learning 
about stock options before investing. As mentioned before, 
the problem lies more with incomplete documentation than 
the program itself. 

Stock Option Strategies requires 16K. 

(Greentree Software, P.O. Box 97, Greenwood, IN 46142, 

$14.95) 

—Bruce Rothermel 


Hint . . . 

Saving In ASCII 

When you SAVE programs, CoCo can perform this 
function in two ways, by using binary codes or actual letters 
and numbers (called ASCII and pronounced AS-KEY). 

Although it takes longer, ASCII sometimes is a more 
accurate way to SAVE a program, especially when you may 
be transferring programs between systems — say from a disk- 
based to a cassette-based system. 

To SAVE in ASCII, simple add a comma and an “A”to 
the end of your SAVE instruction, like this: CSAVE 
“PROGRAM”, A and the ASCII SAVE will be done by 
CoCo. 



— — ★ ★ CoCo T-SHIRTS ★ ★ — 

HANES QUALITY - TAN WITH COLORFUL GRAPHICS 
GREAT FOR INDIVIDUALS AND CLUBS 

SIZES: SM, MED, LG, XLG CHILDS 10/12, 14/16 
PRICES: $6.95 EA. OR 2-5 AT $6.50 EA., 

6-11 AT $6.25 EA., OR 12 & UP AT $5.95 EA. 

SPECIFY QUANTITY AND SIZE WHEN ORDERING 
SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 

CoConut Products 

6400 N.W. 34th AVE., FT. LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA 33309 
SEND $1.00 FOR POSTAGE AND HANDLING 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 201 



Memory 

Brain Strain With Schmaltz 

By Jim Schmidt 


Memory is several things at once. Obviously, it’s a game. 
But it is also something of a memory trainer. Based on sound 
research, the concepts it uses are valid and real. It remains to 
be seen, however, if the memory improvement one seems to 
experience will last. 

The use of simple ASCII character graphics along with 
sound, and care taken in the borders of the instructions give 
added interest, I hope, to the program. 

All of us have purchased programs that perform quite 
well in their functions, but have such minor imperfections as 
misspelled words, words broken on the screen, vague 
instructions, and endless black text on green. It seems that 
having gotten the program to run properly, the programmer 
quits! Not much (if any) thought is given to packaging and 
eye appeal. 

Memory is perhaps the other extreme. 1 normally would 
not load up such a simple game with as much gingerbread. It 
was done primarily to illustrate some of the things that can 
be done quite easily. 


— SPECTACULATOR TO ASCI 




— ASCII TO SPECTACULATOR — 

Use Your Word Processing Program 
To Include Spectacul ator Tables In Your 
Reports 

Run Spectacul ator On Data Files Created 
Outside 0+ Spectacul ator 

Spectran is a easy to use program for unleashing the 
power of Disk Spec tacul ator . ML makes it quick. Works 
with ASCII compatible WP programs on 16K or 32K Disk 
systems. Use spreadsheet tables in your reports. Use 
downloaded data in Spectacul ator . Easy to follow manual 
with examples. On diskette for $25.00 postpaid. 

DISK UTILILTY PACKAGE 

DIRDUPL - 

Simple program for protecting and restoring many 
bombed diskettes. 


DISKLDOK - 

-> Disk utility program to examine and change 
data bytes on diskettes. 

— > File analysis. 

• -> List granules allocated to a disk file. 

— > Alter Directory contents. 

-> Simultaneous listing of diskette data contents 
in ASCII and HEX formats. 

-> User friendly. 

The DISK UTILITY PACKAGE including DIRDUPL, DISKLOOK, 
and manuals on diskette for $15.00 postpaid. 


INTRODUCTORY OFFER! 

For a limited time, if you order Spectran at $25.00 we 
will include the DISK UTILITY PACKAGE and manuals at no 
extra cost. Now that's a bargain! 


CRIMSON SOFTWARE 
The RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Group 
32 Beverly Heights 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35404 



Regardless of what program you’re working on, I don’t 
think it ever hurts to throw in a little schmaltz! 


Memory is one of three programs on the Rainbow 
‘Record. 'See page 146. 




For those with I6K 

r 

30 ... . 

. . 0049 

1440 

. 13D3 

machines, a PC LEAR 1 

150. . . 

. 01CB 

1620 . 

. 16B5 

will be needed prior to 

480... 

. . 05A6 

1770 . 

. . 1922 

CLOA Ding to provide 

760... 

. 08D4 

2040 

. 1C8D 

enough free memory to 

920. . . 

. . 0B98 

3055 

. 1FEE 

load the program. 

1100 . 

. . 0E71 

11500 

. . 22A9 

The listing: 

1260 . 

. . 111B 

END . 

. . 25F3 


10 ’ THE MEMORY BUILDER 
20 ' A LEARNING GAME BY 
30 ' JIM SCHMIDT 
40 ’ 196 A ARLENE CT. 

50 ' WHEELING, IL. 

60 ' 60090 

62 CLS0 

63 POKE280, PEEK (275) 

64 CLEAR 1000 

65 GOSUB 10000 
67 GOTO30000 
70 GOSUB 1980 

80 ’ ENTRY FOR RERUN 
90 CLS0 

100 GOSUB2200 : PR I NTS 1 28 , " WAN 
T INSTRUCTIONS? - < Y/N) " : P0KE1 15 
2 , DB : POKE 1 1 83 , DB 
110 A$=INKEY$: IF A$=" " THEN 110 
120 IF A$=" Y" THEN GOSUB 750 
1 30 CLS0 : GOSUB2200 : PR I NTS 128," 
NUMBER OF STRINGS (1-9)": POKE 
1 152, DB: P0KE1 183, DB 
140 AI$=INKEY$: IF AI$= M " THEN 140 

(Mr. Schmidt is a professional in data processing. 
Currently, he is a Senior System Analyst and special- 
izes in financial! business software and systems develop- 
ment.) 


202 the RAINBOW July 1983 





CoCo 

t Watehousa 


NOW THE BEST IS 
EVEN BETTER! 

MASTER CONTROL II 

from Soft Sector Marketing 

The best doesn’t always cost more and 
MASTER CONTROL is a good example. What 
would you be willing to pay for a program that 
would cut your typing time by more than 50% 
and eliminate hours of debugging because 
you misspelled a command word? For example 
the command STRINGSfrequires nine strokes, 
with MASTER CONTROL II you only require 
two strokes. Just hit the down arrow key twice 
and it's done, and no mistakes. That is just one 
of the 50 pre-programmed commands avail- 
able to you. If that isn’t enough you also have 
the ability to customize your own keytoentera 
statement or command, correctly, automatically 
every time. But thats not all, how about auto- 
matic line numbering. Just enter the starting 
number and the increment you want and 
MASTER CONTROL II will do it for you. You 
also have direct control of MOTOR, AUDIO 
and TRACE plus a direct RUN key. Sounds 
great? Well thousand of color computer owners 
have been enjoying these features for years. 
But now the new MASTER CONTROL II also 
has the following features: 

* New plastic overlay that can be removed 
when you are not using MASTER 
CONTROL II. 

* New documentation, to help you get the 
most from the program. 

* New repeating keyboard. 

* New-now loads to disk with appropriate 
disk commands. 

List price $19.95 


Introductory price 


Sr| J 86 


Plus $2.50 Shipping & Handling 

SAVE A BUCK...Order the NANOS Color 
Basic and Extend pocket card with your 
MASTER CONTROL II and you get this $4.95 
value for only $3.95 extra. (NANOS pocket 
card not sold separately.) 


only 

$14.95 

plus $2.50 
shipping 


&£tS 

for THE 

COLOR 

COMPUTER. 


A MUST BOOK 
for the 
Color 
computer 
owner! 


ORDER YOUR COPY TODAY1 

The first document to provide information that will 
allow the user to take advantage of all the features of 
the Color Computer. Aimed at the machine language 
user. 

The FACTS attempts to explain, and describes in 
detail, how the user can make use of the computers 
internal features Divided into two sections: Hardware 
and software; the primary emphasis is on hardware 
capabilities and circuits. Provides detailed explan- 
ations of all the internal large scale integrated 
circuits. 


SPECIALS 

DONKEY KING 

by Tom Mix Software 

Exciting sound-Realistic graphics. Never 
before have you seen a game like this for your 
CoCo. Four graphic screens just like the 
actual arcade games. 

Requires 32K TAPE...S1 9.95 

IF YOU DON’T HAVE 32K ORDER THE RAM 
SLAM. THIS SIMPLE KIT TO UPGRADE 
YOUR COCO TAKES LESS THAN 30 MINUTES 
TO INSTALL. NO SOLDERING REQUIRED... 

only $49.95 

KEYS of the 
WIZARD 

By Spectral Associates 

Keys of the Wizard is a fast- 
action. Machine language ad- 
venture game filled with tricks, 
traps, treasures and creatures 
all of which are randomized at 
the beginning of each adven- 
ture so that no adventure will 
ever be exactly the same. Three 
different skill levels to choose 
from. Cassette only. 

Reg. $19.95 $16.95 

MAGIC BOX 

By Spectral Associates 

Magic Box is a special pur- 
pose utility designed to load 
TRS80 Model I and II! 50 
Baud Basic programs into the 
Color Computer. Makes avail- 
able a wide selection of soft- 
ware. Magic Box DOES NOT 
convert Machine language pro- 
grams Requires 16K Extended 
BASIC. 

Reg. $24.95 $21.95 

DOODLE BUG 

by Computerwore 

You must hustle your lady bug through an 
intricate maze of barriers and turnstiles, while 
trying to earn points by eating all the dots, letters 
and hearts. Enemy bugs buzz after you and 
you must avoid the skulls! Exquisite sound 
adds to the excitement. A must game for any- 
one who enjoys fun and a challenge. 
Cossette...$21.21 

WRITE FOR OUR CATALOG BEE 
IhIbJ SEND ORDERS TO 
500 N. Dobson • Westlond. Ml 45185 
Phone (313) 722-7957 




KATERPILLAR ATTACK by Tom Mix Soft- 
ware. Katerpillar is a fast-paced arcade game. 
Machine language. Requires joysticks. 
Cassette only $24.95 

GHOST GOBBLER by Spectral Associates 
This is an excellent version of the popular 
arcade game of PAC-MAN. You control 
maze with the right joystick Requires Ex- 
tended BASIC. 

Cassette only $21.95 

WAR KINGS by Tom Mix Software 
Shield your castle from cannonball attacks 
and deflect them towards your opponent’s 
castle. Machine language. Ext. BASIC. Re- 
quires joysticks. 

Cassette only $19.95 

HAYWIRE by Mark Data 

Have fun zapping robots with fast paced 

action combined with dynamite sound effects 

and super Hi- Res graphics. For one or two 

players. 

Cassette only $24.95 

GALAX ATT AX by Spectral Associates 
Under a constant barrage of enemy fire you 
protect your ground base by shooting alien 
fighters. Use the right joystick to control the 
motion of your ship and right fire button to 
fire. 

Cassette only $21.95 

BATTLEFLEET by Spectral Associates 
This grown-up version of Battleship is the 
toughest thinking game available. There is 
no luck involved as you seek out the com- 
puters hidden fleet. 

Cassette only $14.95 

CAVE HUNTER by Mark Data Products 
Fast-paced action for the Color Computer. 
Super Hi- Res graphics, dynamite sound ef- 
fects. This game will astonish you with its 
detail and quality. 

Cassette only $24.95 

SPACE TRADERS by Spectral Associates 
Space Traders is a fast moving galactic trading 
game for the Color Computer. Requires Ext. 
BASIC. 

Cassette only $14.95 


TYPING TUTOR 

This personal typing teacher allows you to 
learn at your own pace whether a beginner or 
just a little rusty. 1 6K 

Cossette...$19.95 


HOW TO ORDER BY MAIL: For prompt and courteous shipment. SEND MONEY ORDER. CERTIFIED CHECK 
CASHIERS CHECK MASTERCARD/VISA (include card number, inter-bank No, expiration date and signature) 
PERSONAL AND BUSINESS CHECKS MUST CLEAR OUR BANK BEFORE PROCESSING. Shipping and packaging 
charge of $2.50 minimum must be added to all orders in continental U.S. (Canadian order $5.00 minimum) Michigan 
residents include 4% sales tax 10% deposit required on C.O.D. orders. 


1 50 S0UND234 , 1 : A= VAL < A I * ) 

160 IF A=0 THEN PRINT" 

CAN’T BE ZER0":S0UND7,7:F0R L0=1 
TO 100: NEXT: SOTO 130 
165 I FA >5THENPR I NT " 

1 70 CLS0 : 6OSUB2200 : PR I NTS 128," 
LENGTH OF STRINGS <l-9> " : POK 
El 152, DB: POKE1 183, DB 
180 BI*=INKEY*: IFBI*="" THEN 180 
1 90 S0UND234 , 1 : B* VAL ( B I * ) 

200 IF B-0 THEN PRINT" 

CAN'T BE ZER0":S0UND7,7:F0R LO-1 
TO 100: NEXT: GOTO 170 
210 CLS0 : GOSUB2200 : PR I NT® 128," 
DIFFICULTY LEVEL <TIME>< l-5>" : PO 
KE1 152, DB: POKE1 183, DB 
220 CI*«INKEY*: IF Cl*-"" THEN 22 
0 

230 S0UND234 , 1 : C- V AL < C I * ) 

240 IF C=0 THEN PRINT" 

CAN'T BE ZER0":S0UND7,7:F0R LO=l 
TO 100: NEXT: GOTO 210 
242 IF 05 THEN PRINT" YOU 

MUST BE KIDDING! !! ":S0UND7,7: FOR 
LO-1TO100: NEXT: GOTO210 
250 C-900/C 
260 GOSUB 330 


Introducing - MORE Quality Software by MSI. 

Featuring * COLOR FINANCE for the Color 
Computer - 32k Ext. Disk req'd. $59.95 

Features include: 


User Friendly - No programming knowledge 
required 

Fully documented/Easy to use 

Maintain up to 21 Asset, 21 Liability, 

and 54 Expense Accounts 

Print Options (Account Statements, Budgets, 

Trial Balance, & MORE!) 

Backup/Restore To Cassette Tape 
Large 42 x 32 screen display 
Sample Session Included for Fast and Easy 
Instruction. 

ONLY $59.95 
exclusively from 
_ Delker Electronics, Inc. 

DELKER 

■ j i ; ' j ! n il 1 1 (Dealer Inquiries welcome) 
IMHlluMlqi Delker Electronics, Inc. 

P.O. Box 897 
Dept D 

Smyrna, TN 37167 
800-251-5008 

615-459-2636 (Tennessee) 



270 CLS0 

280 PRINTS32, " PRESS SPACE BAR 
WHEN READY" 

290 PR I NT® 140, "ready ??" 

292 PRINTS148, STRING* (11,CHR*< 14 
4) ) :P0KE1183, 1 44 : POKE 1 1 69 , 144 
300 GOSUB2200 

310 A*— INKEY*: IF A*-"" THEN 310 
320 GOTO 490 

330 NO*-"Y":GOSUB9000:DIM AA*<A> 
:dim zz*(A) 

340 DATA A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H, I, J,K,L 

,M,N,0,P,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 

350 FOR 1-1 TO A 

360 FOR K—1T0B 

370 D— RND < 26 ) 

380 FOR J-1T0D 
390 READ BB* 

400 NEXT 

410 RESTORE 

420 AA* ( I ) -AA* < I ) +BB* 

430 PR I NT® 128-32, "PLEASE WAIT... 

II 

440 S0UND234, 1 

450 PRINT0128, "I'M GETTING MY ST 
UFF TOGETHER. " 

460 NEXT: NEXT 
470 RETURN 
480 CLS 

490 FOR L=1T0A 

493 PRINT6224, ">>>>>>>>>>" 

500 PR I NTS235 , AA* < L ) 

503 PRINT0246, "<<<<<<<<<<" 

510 FOR M=1 TOC: NEXT 

515 S0UND245, 1 

516 PRINT0225, STRING* <30, 255) 

520 NEXT 

530 SOUND 200, l:SOUND200, 1 

540 CLS0: PRINT" ANSWER TI 

ME !!!!** 

550 PRINT "ENTER STRINGS ONE AT 
A TIME AND < ENTER > AFTER EACH" 
560 F0RAZ-1T0A 
570 INPUTZZ* (AZ) 

580 IF AA«(AZ) ><ZZ*(AZ) THENGOSU 

B9000 : SOUND 134,7: S0UND2 , 24 : PR I NT 

"YOU MISSED IT. . . " : PRINT" YOU ENT 

ERED " ; ZZ* <AZ) ; " SHOULD BE "AA*< 

AZ ) : R-R+l : GOTO 690 

590 NEXT 

600 GOSUB 9000 

610 PRINT@96," ALL STRINGS ARE 
CORRECT !!!!!" 

620 SOUND 69, 2: SOUND 111,9 
630 SOUND 69, 2: SOUND 111,9 
640 SC=(A*2>+(B*3>+(VAL(CI*>*4>* 
10 

650 PR I NT® 160, "YOUR SCORE IS " ; S 
C 

660 PRINT"" 


204 the RAINBOW July 1983 



READ THE FINE PRINT. 

It's worth your time. This is good stuff. 


SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 


MACRO-80C 

This is a disk-based editor, macro assembler and 
monitor, written for Color Computer by Andy Phelps. 
THIS IS IT — The ultimate programming tool! 

The powerful 2-pass macro assembler features condi- 
tional assembly, local labels, include files and cross 
referenced symbol tables. Macro- 80C supports the 
complete Motorola 6809 instruction set in standard 
source format. There are no changes, constraints or 
shortcuts in the source language definition. Incor- 
porating all of the features of our Rompack-based 
assembler (SDS80C), Macro- 80C contains many 
more useful instructions and pseudo-ops which aid 
the programmer and add power and flexibility. 

The screen-oriented text editor is designed for 
efficient and easy editing of assembly language pro- 
grams. The "Help Key" feature makes it simple and 
fun to learn to use the editor. As the editor requires no 
line numbers, you can use the arrow keys to position 
the cursor anywhere in the file. Macro- 80C allows 
global changes and moving/copying blocks of text. 
You can edit lines of assembly source which are 
longer than 32 characters. 

DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows 
examining and altering of memory, setting break 
points, etc. 

The editor, assembler and monitor — as well as 
sample programs — come on one Radio Shack com- 
patible disk. Extensive documentation included. 

MACRO-80C Price: $99.95 

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

The Micro Works Software Development System 
(SDS80C) Is a complete 6809 editor, assembler and 
monitor package contained in one Color Computer 
program pack! Vastly superior to RAM-based 
assemblers/editors, the SDS80C is non-volatile, 
meaning that if your application program bombs, it 
can’t destroy your editor/assembler. Plus it leaves 
almost all of 16K or 32K RAM free for your program. 
Since all three programs, editor, assembler and 
monitor are co-resident, we eliminate tedious 
program loading when going back and forth from edit- 
ing to assembly and debuggingl 
The powerful screen-oriented Editor features finds, 
changes, moves, copys and much more. All keys have 
convenient auto repeat (typamatic), and since no line 
numbers are required, the full width of the screen 
may be used to generate well commented code. 

The Assembler features all of the following: complete 
6809 instruction set; conditional assembly; local 
labels; assembly to cassette tape or to memory; 
listing to screen or printer; and mnemonic error codes 
instead of numbers. 

The versatile monitor Is tailored for debugging pro- 
grams generated by the Assembler and Editor. It 
features examine/change of memory or registers, cas- 
sette load and save, breakpoints and more. SDS80C 
Price: $89.95 

MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH 

• Forth is faster to program in than Basic 
• Forth is easier to learn than Assembly Language 

• Forth executes in less time than Basic 
Forth is a highly interactive language like Basic, with 
structure like Pascal and execution speed close to 
that of Assembly Language. The Micro Works Color 
Forth is a Rompack containing everything you need 
to run Forth on your Color Computer. 

Color Forth consists of the standard FORTH Interest 
kGroup (FIG) implementation of the language plus 


most of FORTH-79. It has a super screen editor with 
split screen display. Mass storage is on cassette. 
Color Forth also contains a decompiler and other aids 
for learning the inner workings of this fascinating 
language. It will run on 4K, 16K, and 32K computers. 
Color Forth contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM 
for your programs! There are simple words to effec- 
tively use the Hi-Res Color Computer graphics, joy- 
sticks, and sound. The 112-page manual includes a 
glossary of the system-specific words, a full standard 
FIG glossary and complete source listing. COLOR 
FORTH . . . THE BEST! From the leader in Forth, 
Talbot Microsystems. Price: $109.95 

MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS 
VIA YOUR MODEM! 

Make your Color Computer an intelligent printing 
terminal with off-line storage! The Microtext module 
is just what you’ll need for 

— Talking to a timeshare system or information 
service 

— Printing out what is received as it is received 
— Saving received text to cassette tape 
— Re-displaying the received text even while 
on-line 

— Communications with other computers 
— Using your computer as a general-purpose 
300-baud terminal 

— Downloading programs from other computers 
The Microtext module is a program pack containing 
not only firmware but a second serial port so that 
both your printer and modem can be connected at the 
same time. Microtext can be configured for any serial 
printer that will work with the Color Computer, even if 
it requires line feeds! But even if you don’t have a 
printer, you can keep a permanent copy of your data 
by storing to cassette tape. Also, any Radio Shack/ 
Centronics-compatible parallel printer may be used 
by adding the Micro Works' PI80C parallel interface. 
For those of you with special terminal applications, 
Microtext has selectable parity; it sends odd, even, 
mark or space. With mark parity (which is default) you 
can send to computers requiring either seven or eight 
bits. All 128 ASCII codes can be sent. Exchange pro- 
grams with other Color Computer users! Basic pro- 
grams may be downloaded from other computers or 
timesharing systems. 

You'll find many uses for this versatile module! 
Available in ROMPACK, ready-to-use, for $59.95. 

MACHINE LANGUAGE 

MONITOR TAPE: A cassette tape which allows you to 
directly access memory, I/O and registers with a 
formatted hex display. Great for machine language 
programming, debugging and learning. It can also 
send/receive RS232 at up to 9600 baud, including 
host system download/upload. 19 commands in all. 
Relocatable and reentrant. CBUG Tape Price: $29.95 

MONITOR ROM: The same program as above, 
supplied in 2716 EPROM. This allows you to use the 
entire RAM space. And you don't need to re-load the 
monitor each time you use it. The EPROM plugs into 
the Extended Basic ROM Socket or the Romless Pak 
I. CBUG ROM Price: $39.95 

SOURCE GENERATOR: This package is a disas- 
sembler which runs on the color computer and gener- 
ates your own source listing of the BASIC interpreter 
ROM. Also included is a documentation package 
which gives useful ROM entry points, complete 
memory map, I/O hardware details and more. A 16K 
system is required for the use of this cassette. 80C 
Disassembler Price: $49.95 a 


T 6809 Assembly Language Programming, 
1 Leventhal, $16.95 

1 

by Lance 

I TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics, by Don Inman, 

1 $14.95 


1 Assembly Language Graphics for the TRS-80 Color 

1 Computer, by Don Inman, $14.95 

A 

^^kSfarf/ng Forth, by L. Brodie, $19.95 

-A 


GAMES 


Star Blaster — Blast your way through an asteroid 
field in this action-packed Hl-Res graphics game. 
Available in ROMPACK; requires 16K. Price: $39.95 

Pac Attack — Try your hand at this challenging game 
by Computerware, with fantastic graphics, sound and 
action! Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 

Haywire — Have fun zapping robots with this Hi-Res 
game by Mark Data Products. Cassette requires 16K. 

$24.95 

Dunkey Munkey — Arcade excitement awaits those 
who dare to conquer the Munkey! Joystick and 32K 
required, by Intellectronics. Cassette: $24.95 

Colorpede — Great graphics, two-player option, and 
pause control in this exciting game by Intracolor 
Communication. Cassette requires 16K: $29.95 

Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by 
Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K: 
$19.95 each. 

Cave Hunter — Experience vivid colors, bizarre 
sounds and eerie creatures in hot pursuit as you wind 
your way through a cave maze in search of gold 
treasures. This exciting Hi-Res game by Mark Data 
Products requires 16K for cassette version. $24.95 

Starflre — Fly around the planet defending Earthlings 
from being snatched up by aliens in this challenging 
game from Intellectronics. Cassette requires 16K: 

$21.95 

Doodle Bug — Joystick-controlled Doodle Bugs must 
move quickly through mazes while being chased by 
enemy bugs In Hi-Res game by Computerware. 
Cassette requires 16K: $24.95 

Astro Blast — You’ll need to act fast as you protect 
Earth from wave after wave of alien invaders in this 
Hi-Res game by Mark Data Cassette requires 16K: 
$24.95 




PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE - Serial to parallel 
converter allows use of all standard parallel printers. 
PI80C plugs into the serial output port, leaving your 
Rompack slot free. You supply the printer cable. PI80C 
Price: $69.95 

MEMORY UPGRADE KITS: Consisting of 41 16 200ns., 
integrated circuits, with instructions for installation. 
4K-16K Kit Price: $39.95. 16K-32K Kit (requires 
soldering experience) Price: $39.95. For Rev. level E, 
ET, NC and TDP-IOOs, we carry 64K chips; upgrading is 
easy! Eight prime 64K chips and instructions: $64.95 

Romless Packs for your custom EPROMs — call or 
write for information. 


THE 




MasterCharge/Visa Accepted 
California residents add 6% tax. 


P.O. BOX 1110, DEL MAR, CA 9201 4 [61 9] 942-2400 


670 PRINT0224, "CONGRATUL- 
ATIONS ! ■ 

680 GOTO 710 

690 PR I NT PR I NT " PROGRESS IS... 

CONT I NUOUSLY TRY I NG . " 

700 PR I NT "DEFEAT IS. . . NOT TRY IN 

0. M 

710 PRINT"" 

720 PRINT "AGAIN? <Y/N>" 

730 5*- INKEY*: IF S*="" THEN 730 
740 IF S*»"Y" THEN RUN 80 ELSE 
GOTO 15000 
745 END 
750 ’ 

760 CLS: CG*1 : GOTO2200 

765 PRINT" ***MEMORY***" 

766 GOSUB 8000 

770 PRINT" IT HAS BEEN KNO 

WN" 

775 GOSUB 8010 

780 PRINT" FOR SOME TIME THA 

T" 

785 GOSUB 8020 

790 PRINT" WHAT WE CALL MEMO 

RY" 

795 GOSUB 8030 

800 PRINT" IS REALLY TWO VER 

Y" 

805 GOSUB 8040 

810 PRINT" DIFFERENT FUNCTIO 


NS. " 


DISK ZIPPER 


COLOR DISK UTIILITY PACKAGE 
A MENU DRIVEN SYSTEM DISK CONTAINING: 

ERROR CRASHLESS BACKUP DUAL AND SINGLE DRIVE 

WRITE OR READ ANY SECTOR =CHECK DISK FOR ERRORS 

PAGE DISK THROUGH ANY PMODE WINDOW IN COLOR A 

DUMP DISK IN HEX OR ASCII : PRINTER SUPORTED 

LOAD ML TAPE TO DISK RELOCATES UNLOADABLES 

WITH COMPLETE MANUAL : REOS3SK RS DISK^^B| t \ 

ONLY £4.95 £ \ 

ARCADE - CONTROLS/ 

WICO MADE JOYSTICK INTERFACE: TWIN S T I C K 
ALLOWS ANY TWO JOYSTICKS TO WORK ON THE 
COLOR COMPUTER: ONLY19.SS 

ACC-U-FIRE PADDELS/ ATARI-TYPE GAME PADDELS PLUG INTO COLOR — 
COMPUTER FOR IMPROVING SCORES! WORKS ON HOR 4 VERT GAMES 
ONLY $19.95! 

HARDWARE! T 

ROMPACK EXTENDER PUT YOUR DISKPACK # 

WHERE YOU WANT IT: 3 FEET LONG I flt) 

quality cable only 3 7.00 fw 

GREEN- PHOSPHER ADAPTER / NOW PRINT GREEN ON BLACK SCREEN' 

ALL HARDWARE, NO SOFTWARE/ NO SOLDERING/ AND ONLY $19.95/ 
WORKS ON ANY TV: SMALL BOARD GOES ON THE 
RF SHIELD: ONLY THREE WIRE CLIPS 

EPROM PROGRAMING! EK.4K BK BYTES 
WE WILL PROGRAM YOUR EPROM FOR 5 00 
SEND US ONE OF YOUR GAMEPACKS AND w’e WILL PUT YOUR 
PROGRAM IN ITFOR ONLY 30.00 
CALL OR WRITE FOR DETAILS 
YOU CAN PRINT VIOTEX FROM ROMPACK 
WICO COMMAND CONTROL STICK 3800 OUR SOFTWARE ALLOWS YOU TO 
WICO REDBALL STICK 3400 PRINT OEF LINE FROM VIDTEX 

WICO TRACKBALL BBOO WITH SERIAL Y CABLE 29.15 

ATARI' JOYSTICKS $6.95/ WITHOUT CABLE 9.95 

WE CARRY TOM-MIX 4 MARK- DATA. 

ZAXXONDATASOFT 34.85 MICRO “ DIV Toledo .Ohio 43612 

DONKEY KING $24.95 ' 1-419-476-6282 

PROTECTORS 24.95 450 W LASKEY 

ASTRO- BLAST 24.95 I ASK FOR MICRO- DIV.I 

SPACE RAIDERS.. 24.95 1 

MOON - LANDER E.B. 19.95 C.O.D. Credit Card 

HAYWIRE 24.95 orders accepted /add $2.00 shipping 


815 GOSUB 8050 

820 PRINT" CALLED SHORT TERM 

AND" 

825 GOSUB 8060 

830 PRINT" LONG TERM MEMORY, 

THESE" 

835 GOSUB 8070 

840 PRINT" TWO ABILITIES CAN 

NOT" 

845 GOSUB 8080 

850 PRINT" ONLY BE TRAINED, 

BUT " 

855 GOSUB 8090 

860 PRINT" CAN ACTUALLY BE M 

ADE TO" 

865 GOSUB 8100 

870 PRINT" ACHIEVE SOME VERY 

II 

875 GOSUB 8110 

880 PRINT" REMARKABLE RESULT 

S IF" 

885 GOSUB 8120 

890 PRINT" YOU ARE WILLING T 

0 TRY. " 

895 GOSUB 8130 

900 PRINT" <ANY KEY>" 

905 GOSUB 8140 
915 GOSUB 8150 

920 GL** INKEY*: IF GL*="" THEN 92 
0 

930 CLS : PR I NT " " : CG=2 : GOTO2200 
940 PRINT" IT IS NOT A MA 

TTER " 

945 GOSUB 8000 

950 PRINT" OF INTELLIGENCE. 

WE " 

955 GOSUB 8010 

960 PRINT" ALL HAVE THE NECE 

SSARY" 

965 GOSUB 8020 

970 PRINT" EQUIPMENT. IT IS 

II 

975 GOSUB 8030 

980 PRINT" MOSTLY A MATTER 0 

F " 

985 GOSUB 8040 

990 PRINT" EFFORT AND TRAINI 

NG. " 

995 GOSUB 8050 

1000 PRINT" HOW MUCH EFFORT 

IS, " 

1005 GOSUB 8060 

1010 PRINT" OF COURSE, UP TO 

YOU. " 

1015 GOSUB 8070 

1020 PRINT" THE MORE YOU TRY 

THE " 

1025 GOSUB 8080 

1030 PRINT" BETTER YOUR MEMO 

RY WILL " 


206 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Introducing . . . 

New! From the Programmer’s Guild 

miA waksuok. 

The Ultimate Arcade Challenge! 

New from Arcade Master Charles Forsythe! 

The most original game ever produced! 

16 levels of breath taking action! 

Up to 6 players in competition! 

Keyboard or joystick control. 

Runs on any 16K TRS-80 color or TDP 100. 

Guide your Ninja through boulders, fire, pitfalls, flaming 
meteors, and Ninja masters to attain the ultimate 
achievement in — NINJA GRANDMASTER! 


MN1A WAkftiOft,. s „ !lw , „ 

game ever written! 


Exciting— Frustrating— Difficult— Impossible — your skill will tell the tale. 




— for those who would face 
the ultimate arcade challenge— 


TO WIN OR DIE! 


$29.95 cassette 
Free Shipping 
VISA MASTERCARD 


r THE PROGRAMMER’S GUILD 
P.O. BOX 66 

PETERBOROUGH, NH 03458 
—or Call (603) 924-6065 for COD— 


AND GET “FREE" SHIPPING ANYWHERE ON THE 
PLANET EARTH OR HER COLONIES 




1035 GOSUB 8090 

1040 PRINT" GET. YOUR SHORT 

TERM" 

1045 GOSUB 8100 

1050 PRINT" MEMORY IS THE ON 

E THAT" 

1055 GOSUB 8110 

1060 PRINT" CAN MOST BE IMPR 

OVED. " 

1065 GOSUB 8120 

1070 PRINT" < ANY KEY>" 

1075 GOSUB 8130 
1077 GOSUB 8140 
1080 GOSUB 8150 

1090 GL*= INKEY*: IFGL*="" THEN 10 
90 

1100 CLS : PR I NT " " : CG=3 : GOTO2200 
1110 PRINT" BY UTILIZING 

ONE " 

1115 GOSUB 8000 

1120 PRINT" OF THE FAVORITE 

TRAINING" 

1125 GOSUB 8010 

1130 PRINT" METHODS USED BY 

THE" 

1135 GOSUB 8020 

1140 PRINT" RESEARCHERS IN T 


AUTO-DIALER 

BY SOUND WORKS 

^^nOMArTcTHONTTlALER - 

Si ULTRA HIGH SPEED DIALING AND 
REDIALING 

^ STORE OVER 50 NUMBERS 
^ NO MODEM REQUIRED 
Gf NO TONE SERVICE NEEDED 
fif SIMPLE HOOK-UP 
Si ADAPTABLE TO ANY PHONE 
Si 1*K EXTENDED REQUIRED 

CASSETTE $24.95 DISK) 34.95 

Soundworks Productions 

26 EAST 7th STREET 
PATC HOGUE, NEW YORK 1 1 772 

Utl lllmHU' ADO 7.25% TAX 


HIS " 

1145 GOSUB 8030 
1150 PRINT" 

•I 

1155 GOSUB 8040 
1160 PRINT" 
GROUP" 

1165 GOSUB 8050 
1170 PRINT" 

YOU" 

1175 GOSUB 8060 
1180 PRINT" 
IMPROVE" 

1185 GOSUB 8070 
1190 PRINT" 

AR AS" 

1195 GOSUB 8080 
1200 PRINT" 

TO GO." 

1205 GOSUB 8090 
1210 PRINT" 

E SOME" 

1215 GOSUB 8100 
1220 PRINT" 

LE YOU" 

1225 GOSUB 8110 
1230 PRINT" 

ESS. 

1235 GOSUB 8120 
1240 PRINT" 

1245 GOSUB 8130 

1246 GOSUB 8140 
1250 GOSUB 8150 
1260 GL** INKEY*: 
60 

1270 CLS: PRINT"' 
1280 PRINT" 

WILL" 

1285 GOSUB8000 
1290 PRINT" 

II 

1295 GOSUB8010 
1300 PRINT" 
TRINGS" 

1305 GOSUB8020 
1310 PRINT" 

S AT" 

1315 QOSUB8030 
1320 PRINT" 

YOU" 

1325 GOSUB8040 
1330 PRINT" 

TH AND" 

1335 GOSUB8050 
1340 PRINT" 

CAN" 

1345 GOSUB8060 
1350 PRINT" 

R OF" 

1355 GOSUB8070 


FIELD, THE TIMED 

SEQUENCE /RANDOM 

LETTERS METHOD, 

CAN POTENTIALLY 

YOUR MEMORY AS F 

YOU ARE WILLING 

AND, YOU CAN HAV 

FUN DOING IT WHI 

CHART YOUR PROGR 

< ANY KEY>" 

IFGL*=" " THEN 12 

■:cg=4:goto2200 
THIS PROGRAM 

PROVIDE YOU WITH 

VARYING LENGTH S 

OF RANDOM LETTER 

VARYING SPEEDS. 

CONTROL THE LENG 

SPEED. YOU ALSO 

SELECT THE NUMBE 


208 the RAINBOW July 1983 










. 0 , 


• WRITTEN IN MACHINE 
LANGUAGE 

• FIVE SCREENS WITH 
INCREASING DIFFICULTY 

• HI RES COLOR GRAPHICS 

• REALISTIC SOUND 
EFFECTS 

Requires 16K RAM, Joysticks 
ONLY $21.95 








l«rj 


Mm 

.a*- 




g«IW 




• WRITTEN IN MACHINE 
LANGUAGE 

• HI RES COLOR GRAPHICS 

• GREAT SOUND 

• EXPLODING BOMBS. 
DEADLY MISSILES. 
ATTACKING TANKS 

Requires 32K RAM, Joysticks 
ONLY $21.95 


■ A , 


LUNAR-ROVER PATROL - Guide your Lunar Rover along the moon’s surface following every bump and 
crevice as a barage of obstacles hinder your movement. No MOON-PATROL type features left out of this 
game. 

WHIRL YBIRD RUN - Your mission is to reach and destroy the enemy base hidden deep within the Tunnel 
of Doom encountering missiles, saucers, and deadly gas clouds along the way. If you like SCRAMBLE, you 
will love WHIRLYBIRD RUN. 


For Orders Only 

1 - 800 - 426-1830 

except WA, AK, HI 


Call or write for a complete catalog 
Business Office and Information Call: 

(206)581-6938 

Office open 8:30—4:30 P.S.T. 


We accept VISA. MASTERCARD. AMERICAN EXPRESS. 
Add 3% for shipping. NO C.O.D. 

All prices U.S. FUNDS. 

WA residents add 7.8% sales tax. 


SPECTRAL 

ASSOCIATES 


3416 South 90th Street 
Tacoma, WA 98409 


DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 





STRINGS DISPLAYE 


BECAUSE THE GROU 


DISPLAY IS RANDO 


1360 PRINT" 

D. " 

1365 GOSUB8080 
1370 PRINT" 

P" 

1375 GOSUB8090 
1380 PRINT" 

M, IT" 

1385 G0SUB8 1 00 

1390 PRINT" WILL OCCASIONALL 

Y COME" 

1395 G0SUB81 10 
1400 PRINT" 

ORD. " 

1405 GOSUB8120 
1410 PRINT" 

1415 G0SUB8 1 30 
1417 GOSUB8140 
1420 G0SUB8 1 50 

1430 GL*« INKEY*: IFGL*="" THEN 14 
30 

1440 CLS:CG=5:GOTO2200 


UP WITH A REAL W 


< ANY KEY>" 


1450 PRINT" 

BE A" 

1455 GOSUB8000 
1460 PRINT" 

F THIS" 

1464 6OSUB8010 
1470 PRINT" 


THIS WORD MAY 


NAUGHTY WORD. 


IS OF CONCERN, R 



GRAND SLAM BRIDGE 


SHARPEN UP YOUR BRIDGE GAME. COM- 
PUTER BIDS YOUR PARTNER’S HAND AND 
PLAYS THE OPPONENT'S HANDS. RAN- 
DOM HANDS DEALT EACH TIME. CARDS, 
TRICKS, BIDS, AND CONTRACT SHOWN 
ON SCREEN. 

32 K CASSETTE $19.95 

RAINBOW 


STOCK OPTION STRATEGIES 

DEVISE YOUR OWN STOCK OPTION STRAT- 
EGIES. COVERED OPTIONS, STRADDLES, 
CALLS, AND PUTS. % GAINS AND LOSSES 
VS. FUTURE STOCK PRICES GRAPHED IN 
COLOR. EASY TO USE, NO DATA BASE RE- 
QUIRED, JUST ENTER FROM KEYBOARD. 
MENU DRIVEN. 

16K CASSETTE $14.95 

RAINBOW 




SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 



GREENTREE SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 97 
GREENWOOD, IN 46142 



EMOVE" 

1475 GOSUB8020 
1480 PRINT" 

THE " 

1485 GOSUB 8030 
1490 PRINT" 

ND" 

1495 GOSUB 8040 
1500 PRINT" 

RS" 

1505 GOSUB 8050 
1510 PRINT" 

TO 21." 

1515 GOSUB 8060 
1520 PRINT" 

8c 2210)." 

1525 GOSUB 8070 
1530 PRINT" 

OFF" 

1535 GOSUB 8080 
1540 PRINT" 

II 

1545 GOSUB 8090 
1550 PRINT" 

W SPEED" 

1555 GOSUB 8100 
1560 PRINT" 

H THE" 

1565 GOSUB 8110 
1570 PRINT" 
RINGS" 

1575 GOSUB 8120 
1580 PRINT" 

YOU GO. " 

1585 GOSUB 8130 
1590 PRINT" 

1595 GOSUB 8140 
1600 GOSUB 8150 
1610 GL*= INKEY*: 
10 

1620 CLS: PRINT"' 
1630 PRINT" 

RM" 

1635 GOSUB8000 
1640 PRINT" 
ERAGE, " 

1645 GOSUB8010 
1650 PRINT" 

MS. " 

1655 GOSUB8020 
1660 PRINT" 

* II 

1665 GOSUB8030 
1670 PRINT" 

TERS" 

1675 GOSUB8040 
1680 PRINT" 
LONGER" 

1685 GOSUB8050 
1690 PRINT" 


THE VOWELS FROM 

DATA STATEMENT A 

CHANGE THE NUMBE 

IN THE RND 8c FOR 

(LINES 340, 370 

YOU SHOULD START 

WITH A FEW SHORT 

STRINGS AT A SLO 

AND INCREASE BOT 

LENGTH OF THE ST 

AND THE SPEED AS 

< ANY KEY>" 

IFGL*»"" THEN 16 

1 : CG=6 : GOTO2200 
YOUR SHORT TE 

MEMORY, AS AN AV 

CAN HANDLE 7 ITE 

BY USING ’GROUPS 

(STRINGS) OF LET 

YOU CAN REMEMBER 

SEQUENCES. THIS 


210 the RAINBOW July 1983 





UN-BELIEVABLE 


But true! There is a disk 
drive in your Color Compu- 
ter .. . and it is faster and 
more efficient than any 
“hardware" drive you can 
buy, for any price. This new 
"disk drive” is called VDOS— 
for Virtual Disk Operating 
System— and it will absolutely 
revolutionize the way you 
operate your CoCo. 

VDOS lets you use the 
"extra" memory inside your 
CoCo as a virtual disk, with 
programs (any programs) 
stored out of the way. You 
can "save” and "load" pro- 
grams from your in-memory 


disk into working memory, 
and then run them. When 
you're done, you can simply 
access your in-memory disk 
again . . . and save or load 
another, and another. 

And VDOS is fast. 
Because you are using 
memory rather than a 
mechanical device (like a 
disk drive or cassette 
player), programs load 
instantly. Yes, VDOS is fas- 
ter than a disk! 

VDOS works with all 
Color Computers— from 
16K non-extended to 64K 
extended. Obviously, the 


more memory you have, the 
greater number (and 
length) of programs you 
can store. For a 64K sys- 
tem, VDOS also uses the 
"unused" part of memory, 
providing up to 50,000 
bytes of storage! Now, 
that's some disk! 

We call it VDOS because 
in the future there will be 
utilities for your VDOS 
UNDISK that will give even 
greater capabilities— such 
as a full one-pass memory 
dump to cassette. Other 
utilities are planned, too. 

We believe VDOS is the 


greatest advancement for 
CoCo since the introduc- 
tion of the disk drive itself. 
And, at less than $100, it is 
so inexpensive you can’t 
afford to be without it. If 
you have the "cassette 
blues,” VDOS is the answer! 

Finally, VDOS is simple to 
operate. It is entirely self- 
prompting and comes with 
a complete manual. But you 
almost don’t even need the 
instructions— it requires 
absolutely no technical 
expertise. 

VDOS. The answer to 
your prayers. 


Cassette: $97.50. Add $1.50 shipping 
and handling; Canadians add $5 for 
shipping; Foreign points add $9. 
VISA and Master Card accepted. 
All Kentucky residents add 5% sales 
tax. Payments accepted in United 
States currency only. 



Dr. Preble's Programs 
6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
(502) 241-6474 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 

MAINSOW 




IS" 

1695 GOSUB8060 

1700 PRINT" BECAUSE, WITH PR 

ACT ICE, " 

1705 GDSUBS070 

1710 PRINT" YOUR MEMORY USES 

THE " 

1715 GOSUB8080 

1720 PRINT" SAME 'SLOT' FOR 

A " 

1725 GOSUB8090 

1730 PRINT" WHOLE GROUP AS F 

OR A " 

1735 GOSUB8100 

1740 PRINT" SINGLE LETTER." 

1745 GOSUB 8110 

1750 PRINT" < ANY KEY>" 

1752 GOSUB8120 

1755 GOSUB8130 

1757 G0SUB8 1 40 

1760 GOSUB8150 

1770 GL*= INKEY*: IFGL*=" " THEN 17 
70 

1780 CLS:PRINT"":CG=7:GOTO2200 
1790 PRINT" SO IT IS NOT A 

T ALL" 

1795 GOSUB8000 

1800 PRINT" IMPOSSIBLE TO EX 

PAND" 


STAT 3 S 


A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM, THAT CALCULATES-MEAN, — UARANCE, 
AND STANDARD DEUIAT ION FOR BOTH SAMPLES OR POPULATION 
ALLOUS DATA STORAGE TO TAPE OR DISK. FULL COLOR GRAPHING OF 
FREQUENCY HISTOGRAM. ALLOUS EASY MODIFICATION OF STORED DATA, 
COMBINE TWO FILES. ETC. USER FRIENDLY! CASSETTE $24.95 


COLOR GRAPIC PRINTER UTILITES 

UTILITES FOR RADIO SHACKS CGP-1 13, COLOR GRAPIC PRINTER/PLOTTER 
WORD PROCESSOR— SUPPORTS IMPEDED CONTROLS FOR PRINT SIZE AND COLOR 
RIGHT JUSTIFICATION. DESIGNED JUST FOR THE CGP-1 13 

SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM TRUE FOUR COLOR PRINT OUT, UORKS IN PNODE 3 

OR 4 YOU UON'T BELEUE THE DETAILS 
DRAWING BOARD ETCH-A-SKETCH FOR THE PRINTER. ANY COLOR, EASY 

CORRECTIONS CASSETTE $24.95 j 


RELOCATE 


RELOCATE MAKES AUTOMATIC TAPE COPIES OF ANY COLOR COMPUTER 
CARTRIDGE. ALLOUS CHANGES TO BE MADE TO THE PROGRAM SUCH AS 
r.PRINT-OUT ^VIDEOTEX, CHANGE BAUD RATE IN tSCRIPSIT. ECT. 3 
REQUIRES EITHER A 04K MOO. OR A 10K OR LARGER COMPUTER UITH A 
CARTRIDGE MEMORY EXPANSION OF 4K DR LARGER. VERY EASY TO USE! 
ONCE FAMILIAR UITH THE PROGRAM, COPIES CAN BE MAOE IN LESS THEN 
FOUR MINUTES <fc O A QC 

CASSETTE 9Z4. gj 


C0MPTERI2ED ALARM SYSTEMS 

LET CoCo UATCH YOUR HOUSE UHILE YOU ARE AUAY. LESS THAN TUENTY 
DOLLARS OF RAO 10 SHACK COMPONENTS. PLANS AND SOFTUARE. 

WRITE FOR DETAILS 

CTHIS AO TYPESET UITH THE COLOR GRAPIC PRINTER! 

Transtion Technology PLEASE SPECIFY 
1458 U. B I RCHWOOD AUE. 

CHICAGO IL 60626 


•1.50 SHIPING AND HANOLING C.0.0. EXTRA 


•TANOY Corp 


1805 GOSUB8010 
1810 PRINT" 

II 

YOUR ABILITY TO 

1815 GOSUB8020 
1820 PRINT" 

REMEMBER 7 LETTE 

RS TO" 

1825 GOSUB8030 
1830 PRINT" 

THE ABILITY TO R 

EMEMBER" 

1835 GOSUB8040 
1840 PRINT" 

7 GROUPS OF SAY 

5 " 

1845 GOSUB8050 
1850 PRINT" 

LETTERS. YOU AR 

E THEN" 

1855 GOSUB8060 
1860 PRINT" 

REMEMBERING 35 L 

ETTERS" 

1870 PRINT" 

WITH THE SAME ME 

NTAL" 

1880 PRINT" 

HORSEPOWER USED 

FOR 7. " 

1890 PRINT" 

II 

1895 GOSUB8070 
1900 PRINT" 

HOW FAR CAN Y 

OU GO 7" 

1905 GOSUB8080 
1910 PRINT" 

IF YOU ARE READY 

TO TRY" 

1915 GOSUB8090 
1920 PRINT" 

GIVE ME A ’ Y' " 

1925 GOSUB8100 

1926 G0SUB81 10 

1927 GOSUB8120 

1928 GOSUB8130 

1929 GOSUB8140 

1930 GOSUB8150 
1940 Q*= INKEY*: 

IF Q*= " " THEN 194 

0 

1950 IF Q*="Y" 

THEN RETURN 


1 960 NO*= "Y" : GOSUB9000 : PR I NT© 1 28 
, "WELL, LET'S GET TOGETHER SOON. 

II 

■ ■ 

1970 END 

1980 MM*="M EMORY" 

1990 LC*491 

2000 FOR JZ=1TO100 

2010 PRINTQLC— 11, " "JM 

M* 

2020 LOLC-32 

2030 IF LC<32 THEN LC=491 

2040 NEXT 

2050 PRINT" MEMO 

R Y" 

2060 PRINT" MEMO 

R Y" 

2070 PRINT" MEMO 

R Y" 

2075 PRINT" MEMO 
R Y" 


212 the RAINBOW July 1983 




e ORGANIZE and PROTECT your VALUABLE 
software library the COLORFUL way with 
ZETAPAKS ™ from ZETA Computer. 

Mix 'n' match your collection with these rugged-vinyl 
software ' safes'' in a choice of 4 COLORS. Now you can 
store your media TOGETHER with your instructions on the 
SAME shelf with your computer books. 

$3.50 EACH or 
$38.95 Per DOZEN 
Postpaid 

—COLORS- 
BEIGE 
TAN 
BLUE 
YELLOW 

HOLDS ALL TYPES OF SOFTWARE MEDIA 

Besides holding a 6" x 8V2" manual up to Vi" thick, a 
ZETAPAK can hold 2 audio/digital cassettes 

or 2 stringy floppy cartridges 
or 2 of the new 3" micro disks 
or 6 5V4" floppy disks 
or 2 ROM cartridges (up to Ve" thick) 

Ask you local computer dealer to stock ZETAPAKS or 
ORDER DIRECT: ZETACOM Dept. RB 

P.O. BOX 3522 
GREENVILLE, SC 29608 

’Specify how many of what color. 

*Send Bank or PO Money Order for fastest service. 

*COD is fast but $2 extra. *Please allow4 weeks delivery on checks. 
’Foreign: US Funds add .50 each for Air Mail. ’Purchase Price of 
$3.00 each ZETAPAK REFUNDABLE if returned unopened within 
30 days. ’SOFTWARE PUBLISHERS/DEALERS write or call for 
discount schedule. ..(803) 246-1 741 after 1 P.M. EST. 

© TM 1983 ZETA Computer 






2080 PLAY " V30 } 03 J T255 ; L255 " 

2090 FOR JJ=1TO30 
2 1 00 PLAY " CDEABFCD ; V- " 

2110 NEXT 

2 1 20 PD*= " FBRPBC Z X AQPLT YE I KBNTLD 
FSEOKBVCXRUGJVJ XOQ" 

2125 CLS 

2130 FOR JJ=1TO50 

2140 LN=RND ( 5 > : LL=RND < 35 > 

2150 ST$=MID*(PD*,LL,LN> 

2160 PRINT@RND<510> , ST* 

2170 SOUND 169, 1 

2180 NEXT 

2190 RETURN 

2200 RESTORE 

2210 FORPQ= 1 T026 

2220 READWW*:NEXT 

2230 DATA131, 134, 140. 147, 150 

2240 DATA153, 156, 166, 169, 172 

2250 DATA195, 198,201,204,211 

2260 DAT A2 14,217, 220 , 230 , 243 

2270 DATA246, 249, 252 

2280 FORWO=lTO RND(22> 

2290 READDB 
2300 NEXT 
2310 RESTORE 


UBXl 


IS < MATHFACT > ffl 

*35 SOFTWARE <C> 198a 

II 

IS 

n 

H 
R 

L 1 

fl II! 


B 

■ <FO 
B < B > 

■ <C> 

B (. D > 

■ SELECT 
01 SELECT 


ADDITION 
SUBTRACTION 
MULT I PLICATION 
DIVISION 

LEVEL 1 OR 2? 
A.. B, C.. OR D' 


Dl PLEASE TYPE YOUR FIRST NAME. B 
m BURTON m 


Requires 16K Extended Basic 






Cassette $16.95 


» * 

TRS-80 Color Computer/ TDP- 100 Ohio Residents 
‘Trademark of Tandy Add 5V4% Sales Tax 

APPEALING GRAPHICS • FUN REWARDS • SOUND 
Used Successfully In Classrooms and In Homes 

ALSO AVAILABLE-CASSETTES 

Clock $24.95 Carry $19.95 

Money $19.95 ABC's $ 9.95 

Subtract/Borrow $19.95 Spelling $16.95 

Question $19.95 Hangword $14.95 

WRITE FOR FREE DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE 
OR ASK FOR DEALER DEMONSTRATION 

B5 SOFTWARE • dept c 

1024 Bainbridge PI. •Columbus, Ohio 43228 »C614) 276-2752 


2315 IF C6O0 THEN BOTO3000 

2320 'BUILD BORDER 

2350 FORBD* 1 024TO 1 504 STEP32 

2360 POKEBD, DB 

2370 POKEBD- 1 , DB 

2380 NEXT 

2400 POKE 1 055+480, DB 
2410 RETURN 

3000 IF CG=1 THEN CG=0: G0T0765 
3010 IF CG=2 THEN CG=0:GOTO 940 
3020 IF CG=3 THEN CG=0: GOTOl 1 10 
3025 IF CG=4 THEN CG=0: GOTO 1280 
3030 IF CG=5 THEN CG=0: GOTO1450 
3040 IF CG=6 THEN CG=0: GOTO 1630 
3050 IF CG=7 THEN CG=0: GOTO 1790 

3055 PR I NT " ERROR " : STOP 

8000 POKE 1 024, DB: POKE 1 055, DB: RET 
URN 

8010 POKE 1 056, DB: POKE 1 087, DB: RET 
URN 

8020 POKE1088,DB:POKE1U9,DB:RET 
URN 

8030 POKE1 120, DB: POKE1 151 , DB: RET 
URN 

8040 POKE 1 1 52 , DB : POKE 1 1 83 , DB : RET 
URN 

8050 POKE 1 1 84 , DB : POKE 1215, DB : RET 
URN 

8060 POKE 1216, DB : POKE 1 247 , DB : RET 
URN 

8070 POKE 1 248 , DB : POKE 1 279 , DB : RET 
URN 

8080 POKE 1 280 , DB : POKE 1 3 1 1 , DB : RET 
URN 

8090 POKE 1 3 1 2 , DB : POKE 1 343 , DB : RET 
URN 

8 1 00 POKE 1 344 , DB : POKE 1 375 , DB : RET 
URN 

8110 POKE 1 376, DB: POKE 1 407, DB: RET 
URN 

8 1 20 POKE 1 408 , DB : POKE 1 439 , DB : RET 
URN 

8130 POKE 1 440, DB : POKE 1 47 1,DB: RET 
URN 

8140 POKE 1 472 , DB : POKE 1 503 , DB : RET 
URN 

8150 POKE 1 504, DB: POKE 1 535, DB: RET 
URN 

9000 GOTO20000 

9045 IFNO$="Y" THEN 9095 

9050 PLAY " V30 ; 03 ; T255 ; L255 " 

9060 F0RGL=1T03 
9070 PLAY " DEFGABC ; V- " 

9080 PLAY " CBAGFED ; V+ " 

9090 NEXT 

9095 NO$=" " : RETURN 

10000 GOSUB20000 

10500 IF HT$=" Y" THEN RETURN 

1 0600 POKE 1 058 , ASC ("P") 

1 0700 POKE 1 059 , ASC ( "R" ) 


214 the RAINBOW July 1983 



TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 


Computer Island Presents 

THE BEST IN 
SOFTWARE FOR KIDS! 


TDP SYSTEM 100 



DOLLARS AND SENSE 16* Ext. $11-95 

Learn to make purchases. Graphic displays of items 
kids love. Player buys using dollars and coins to prac- 
tice using money correctly. Solutions given. 

McCOCO'S MENU 1GK Ext. $11.95 

America’s favorite pastime — going out to eat! Learn 
to buy and add up your purchases from a typical fast 
food restaurant menu. Gain skill in using money. Dif- 
ferent prices each time. 

MONEY-PAK 32K Ext. $22.95 

This is a menu-driven merged version of the above 2 
programs. Also includes play money for extra rein- 
forcement. 

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 16K $11.95 

Menu driven, 2 level program provides practice in 
adding or subtracting 2 digit numbers. Vertical format 
for proper entry of digits in the answers. Report card 
scoring. 

... NEW ... 


... ... 

BEYOND WORDS 32K Ext. $19.95 Each 

3 Part menu driven program with tutorials and grade 
appropriate subtests and reviews. Over 400 questions, 
800 words, modifiable. 

* Beyond Words I - Grades 3-5 

* Beyond Words II - Grades 6-8 

* Beyond Words III - Grades 9-12 

VOCABULARY BUILDERS 32K Ext. $19.95 Each 

4 Part multiple choice format. 200 questions, 1000 
words. User modifiable. 

* Vocab. Builder I - Grades 3-5 

* Vocab. Builder II - Grades 6-8 

* Vocab. Builder III ■ Grades 9-12 

On Disk 

Beyond Words I and Vocab. Builder I $38.95 

Beyond Words II and Vocab. Builder II $38.95 

Beyond Words III and Vocab. Builder III $38.95 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE GAMES 16K or 16K Ext. $11.95 



PRESCHOOL PACK 1 by Joseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 

Clown and Fish-Num: Two programs to help your child 
recognize and count the words and numbers 1 - 10. 
Hi-res graphics and lively songs help to attract and 
keep attention. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 2 by Joseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 

Count Kids and Add Penny: Two programs to help your 
child count and add up to 10. Beautiful hi-res 

graphics. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 3 by Joseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 

Alpha-Byte: Programs designed to teach recognition 

and identification of the alphabet. Attractive hi-res 

graphics. 

Each of the above Preschool Packs on disk - $15.95 
All three Preschool Packs on disk - $38.95 


LONG DIVISION TUTOR by Ed Guy 

16K Ext. Basic $14.95 

A tutorial that takes the child through all steps of the 
example. Includes HELP tables, cursor aids, and 
graphic aids. Input your own numbers, or let the com- 
puter choose the example. Three levels of difficulty. 
Great teaching program! 

MULTIPLICATION TUTOR by Ed Guy 

16K Ext. Basic $14.95 

Similar type tutorial to the above. All carries indicated. 
Teaches examples from one to three place multipliers. 

READING AIDS 4-Pak 16K Ext. $19.95 

A 4 part menu driven program for the Elementary 
school child to create his own original reading 
material. Includes the 4 popular programs — POETRY, 
SILLY STORIES, SILLY SENTENCES and WIZARD, now 
expanded to 16K Extended Basic. 


****** NO EXTRAS NEEDED -***~* 
Instructions are included enabling you to modify these 
programs for additional vocabulary or verb practice. 
Create your own future versions!!! 

FRENCH BASEBALL - Score base hits or home tuns 
for correct answers. You're out if wrong. Correct 
answers supplied. Fun way to learn and practice 
vocabulary. 2 levels. 200 questions 
SPANISH BASEBALL - Same game using Spanish 
vocabulary words. 

ITALIAN BASEBALL - Same game using Italian 
vocabulary words. 

PLEASE SPECIFY LANGUAGE AND VERSION 


HEBREW BULLETIN BOARD 16K Ext. $15.95 
by Joseph Kolar 

A utility that will enable YOU (0 create Hebrew or 
Hebrew/Engtish words, flash cards, sentences, 
greeting cards, etc. in Hires. Easy to team-full 
documentation. For hard copy, use your printei and 
any scieen print program. 


MUSIC DRILL by David Steele 

16K Extended $19.95 

A high resolution program that teaches and tests the 
notes of the Treble and Bass clefs in each of the 10 
most popular Major and Minor keys. 

"A must for all MUSIC students." 


PHHFFXTTT TFFy-FFFHtFF l U-K 1.4-H 1 X-M-X-FYY- FI AFTTTV A 



SPECIAL - CLOSEOUT of Creative Computing’s never 

* released software lor the CoCo. 2 Hi-Res machine !* 

i language, joystick controlled arcade style games. ^ 

PICNIC (escape spider, capture food), TRICKASHAY j 

* (tank duel in a tricky maze). 1 or 2 players, multi-level, j* 

l 16K Ext. Both for an incredible $11.95 ^ 




:*■ 



THE TALKING WIZARD 16K Ext. $19.95 
A talking version of our popular WIZARD game. This is 
a child size (Eliza-Freud) type game. Input any ques- 
tion and the WIZARD writes and now SPEAKS (through 
the T.V. speaker) an amusing answer. Great for reading 
practice or just plain fun. 

voict by-ClMiical Cowrtinj Inc. 




COCO-JOT by Steve Greenberg 

16K $11.95 

A new version of the famous Jotto word game. A guess- 
ing game using your powers of reasoning and deduction. 
1 or 2 player game. Different levels of play. Ages 8 to 
adult. User modifiable. 

GHOST 16K Ext 

by Sherman Rosen $11.95 

Color Computer version of the famous word game. 2 
levels. Ages 8 to adult. Great Family Fun! 



COMPUTER ISLAND 
DEPT. R 

227 Hampton Green 
Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 


(212) 948-2748 


16K CIRCUS ADVENTURE $9.95 

A child's adventure game with many songs, graphics, 
and surprises. Meet all of your circus favorites while 
searching for the popcorn man. Great family fun for all 
ages. 

16K SCHOOLMAZE ADVENTURE $11.95 

While in search ol a lost computer tape, you travel in a 
school and draw pictures, compose songs, play basket- 
ball, and use the keyboard to travel in the hallways. 


SOFTWARE FOR SPECTRUM’S LIGHT PEN 

KID'S FUN-PAK: This 3 program game sel will enter 
lain you with a great new dimension lor your com 
puter. Tutorial included with documentation. 

Kid’s Fun-Pak Tape 16K Ext. $14.95 

Light Pen and Tape 534.95 


DEALERS INQUIRIES INVITED 

FREE set of BINARY DICE, including tuli directions, 
with orders of 2 or more items. 

Add $1.00 S/H • N.Y. Add Proper lax 
Send lor catalog ol othei programs 


Authors: We are seeking quality children’s software for 
leisure or learning. Write for details. Top royalties. 



CoCoD AT A Enterprises 

1316 Quail Avenue • McAllen, Texas 78501 

Color Computer 16K 
EXTENDED BASIC 


6=?j=^t7S=3»S=ZW«W«««W»^ 

“Low Cost, High Quality Software " 

Color Computer Weekly, March 11, 1983 

"Satisfaction guaranteed or your money back!" 

★ ★ ★ ★ ★ The Product Line ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 

GRAPHICS PROGRAM 

GENERATOR I $11.95 tk- 

Let your CoCo write "Syntax perfect" graphics programs for you! 
Boxes, circles, arcs, ellipses, paint, and lines can all be created 
while viewing the graphics screen using the arrow keys and a 
few one-key commands. Use either of four color sets in PMODE3. 
Extra features like “erase", “check remaining strings space" and 
optional grid marker pixels. When your graphics are complete, 
GPG I will write a unique program to tape to duplicate the picture 
you've created. This generated program can be edited, added to, 
or merged like any other! Manual details operation. 

GRAPHICS PROGRAM fE) 

GENERATOR II $16.95 -sr- 

All the features of GPG I plus characters with a self loading 
machine language module! Includes a binary screen save feature 
to reproduce your graphics with text in a later program. Manual 
includes Assembly Language source listing. 




ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION 
MONITOR $10.95 

Utilize your CoCo to reduce your electric bill! Both text and 
graphic presentations are used to show consumption in either 
dollars or KWH. Extra features include bill projection anytime 
during month and 20 day trend analysis. If you can't measure it, 
you can’t manage it! Sixteen page manual includes listing and 
forms to record data. Printer is NOT required. 




HOUSEHOLD BUDGET ' 

WORKSHEET $ 6.95 -TS- 

Produces an up-dated monthly financial worksheet without files, 
yet contractual loans are automatically up-dated with new 
balances and months remaining. Budget categories and variable 
expenses user defined. Includes provisions for variable income 
like commissions, one time expenses and/or income. Excellent 
manual includes listing, examples, form to list data. Works with 
any printer. 

LLIST-RITE $ 5.95 

Complex, non-commented programs are much easier to follow 
after using this listing utility! Multiple statements and IF. . . 
THEN. . .ELSE statements are logically separated, line numbers 
are set apart from text, page boundries are observed. Works 
with any printer; complete, easy to understand instruction sheet 
included. 


MATCH 2! $7.95 

Our version of concentration. Play against the computer at 
different skill levels or select two player option. Some unexpect- 
ed surprises add more fun, should sharpen memory skills. 


Each program ordered must include 75$ for Shipping and 
Handling. 


1 0800 POKE 1 060 , ASC (“0") 

10900 POKE 1 06 1 , ASC < " G " > 

11100 POKE 1 064 , ASC < " M " ) 

11200 POKE 1 063 , ASC ( " A " ) 

11300 POKE 1062, ASC <"R"> 

11400 POKE 1 068, ASC ("B") 

11500 POKE 1 069 , ASC ( " Y " ) 

11600 POKE 1131, 255 : POKE 1 1 63 , 255- 
1 6 : POKE 1195, 255 : POKE 1 204 , 255-32 : 
POKE 1223, 255 : POKE 1 227 , 255-48 *. POK 
E 1 236 , 255 i POKE 1 255 , 255-64 : POKE 1 2 
56,255 

11700 POKE 1257, 255: POKE 1258, 255- 
1 6 : POKE 1 259 , 255 : POKE 1 268 , 255-32 : 
POKE 1 296 , 255 : POKE 1 300 , 255-48 : POK 
E 1 328 , 255 : POKE 1 329 , 255-64 
1 1 800 POKE 1 330 , 255 : POKE 1331, 255- 
16: POKE 1 332 , 255 
13020 F0RUI=1T03 

1 3030 PLAY " T 1 3 ; L3 ; V30 5 CCDEFGAB ; P 
555 C" 

13035 NEXT 
13040 RETURN 
13045 PLAY "C" 

13100 HT**"Y": GOTO 10000 
13200 END 

1 5000 NO*= "Y"! CLS : GOSUB9000 
16000 PR I NT© 128, " UNTIL NEXT TI 
ME... BYE!" 

16010 FOR LP=1 TO 500: NEXT 
17000 PLAY"V30;03;T5;L5" 

18000 PLAY " CDEFGAABBC " 

19000 END 
20000 CLS0 

20010 IF HJOITHEN HJ=1 : DIMFG* < 1 
6) 

20020 Cl =150 

20040 F0RX1=1T016 

20050 FG*(X1)=STRING$(32,C1> 

20060 NEXT 

20070 Y1=0:C1=C1+1 

20090 FORX 1=1T016 

20100 PRINT@Y1,FG*(X1> ; 

20120 Yl=Yl+32 
20130 NEXT 
20140 VI =1535 

20150 FORZ 1=1504TO1519: POKEZ 1 , Cl 
-1 :P0KEV1 , Cl-1 : V1=V1-1 : NEXT 
20155 RETURN 
20170 IFS*="Y" THEN END 
30000 CLS0:PRINT@96, " " 

30005 PR I NT© 102, "COPYRIGHT <C> 1 
982" 

30007 PR I NT© 128," " 

30010 PRINT0134, "J. J. SCHMIDT" 
30017 PR I NT© 160, " " 

30020 PR I NT© 166, "ALL RIGHTS RESE 
RVED" 

30030 FORYY=1TO500:NEXT:GOTO70 


216 the RAINBOW July 1983 




AARDVARK 

TRS-80 COLOR COMMODORE 24 VIC-20 SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99 



QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMESI Different from all the others. 
Quest is played on a computer generated 
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, explor- 
ation of ruins and temples and outright 
banditry. When your force is strong enough, 
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable 
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every 
time. 16k TI99, TRS-80 Color, and Sinclair, 
13K VIC-20. $14.95 each. 



ADVENTURES!!! 


The Adventures below are written in BASIC, 
are full featured, fast action, full plotted ad- 
ventures that take 30-50 hours to play. (Ad- 
ventures are interactive fantasies. It's like 
reading a book except that you are the main 
character as you give the computer, com- 
mands like "Look in the Coffin" and*"Light 
the torch.") 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, 
TRS-80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k 
on OSI and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires 
extended BASIC. Now available for TI99. 
Any Commodore 64. 

$14.95 Tape — $19.95 Disk. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS 

(by Rodger Olsen) 

This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian 


32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $24.95. city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to 
Adds a second level with dungeons and survive this one. A good first adventure. 


more Questing. 



PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 

This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of 
problems. Exciting and tough I 

DERELICT 

(by Rodger Olsen & Bob Anderson) 

New winner in the toughest adventure from 
Aardvark sweepstakes. This one takes place 
on an alien ship that has been deserted for a 
thousand years — and is still dangerous! 

Dungeons of Death — Just for the 16k TRS- 
80 COLOR, this is the first D&D type game 
good enough to qualify at Aardvark. This is 
serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 players to go 
on a Dragon Hunting, Monster Killing, Dun- 
geon Exploring Quest. Played on an on- 
screen map, you get a choice of race and 
character (Human, Dwarf, Soldier, Wizard, 
etc.), a chance to grow from game to game, 
and a 15 page manual. At the normal price 
for an Adventure ($14.95 tape, $19.95 disk), 



PLANET RAIDERS — Not just another de- 
fenders copy, this is an original program 
good in its own right. You pilot a one man 
ship across a planetary surface dogfighting 
with alien ships and blasting ground installa- 
tions while you rescue stranded troopers. 
Rescue all the troopers and be transported 
to another harder, faster battle. Joysticks 
required. ALL MACHINE CODE! EDSONS 
BEST! 16K Tape TRS80COLOR $19.95 - 
32 K Disk $21.95. 

BASIC THAT ZOOOMMS!! 

AT LAST AN AFFORDABLE COMPILER! 

The compiler allows you to write your 
programs in easy BASIC and then auto- 
matically generates a machine code equiv- 
alent that runs 50 to 150 times faster. 

It does have some limitations. It takes at 
least 8k of RAM to run the compiler and it 
does only support a subset of BASIC— 
about 20 commands including FOR, NEXT, 
EN D, GOSU B, GOTO, IF, THEN, RETURN, 
END, PRINT, STOP, USR (X), PEEK, 
POKE, *,/,+, -, > , < ,=, VARIABLE 

NAMES A-Z, SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLES, 
and INTEGER NUMBERS FORM 0-64K. 
TINY COMPILER is written in BASIC. It 
generates native, relocatable 6502 or 6809 
code. It comes with a 20-page manual and 
can be modified or augmented by the user. 
$24.95 on tape or disk for OSI, TRS-80 
Color, VIC 20, or Commodore 64. 

SEAWOLFE - ALL MACHINE CODE In 
this high speed arcade game, you lay out 
patterns of torpedoes ahead of the attacking 
PT boats. Requires Joysticks, at least 13k 
RAM, and fast reflexes. Lots of Color and 
Sound. A fun game. Tape or Disk for Vic20, 
Commodore 64, and TRS-80 Color. 

$14.95 Tape - $19.95 Disk. 

Dealers — We have the best deal going for 
you. Good discounts, exchange programs, 
and factory support. Send for Dealer Infor- 
mation. 


CATERPILLAR 

O.K., the Caterpillar does look a lot like a 
Centipede. We have spiders, falling fleas, 
monsters traipsing across the screen, poison 
mushrooms, and a lot of other familiar 
stuff. COLOR 80 requires 16k and Joy- 
sticks. This is Edson's best game to date. 
$19(95 for TRS 80 COLOR. 


this is a giveaway. 

WIZARDS TOWER — This is very similar to 
Quest (see above). We added wizards, magic, 
dragons, and dungeons to come up with a 
Quest with a D&D flavor. It requires 16k 
extended color BASIC. $14.95 Tape, 
$19.95 Disk. VIC 20 Commodore 64. 


Authors — Aardvark pays the highest com- 
missions in the industry and gives programs 
the widest possible advertising coverage. 
Send a Self Addressed Stamped Envelope 
for our Authors Information Package. 

Adventures and Quest new available 
for TI99 


Please specify system on all orders 

ALSO FROM AARDVARK — This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 



AARDVARK 

2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 / (31 3) 669-31 1 0 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 

$2.00 shipping on each order 



RAINBOW 


CONSTRUCTION 

Work St 

:ation 

On W 

heels 

By Richard Giovanoni 


This lcc Gocart Brings Home Economy 

Of Organization Rather Than Mileage 


T his past Christmas, when I added a printer to my 
TRS-80 Color Computer, it became obvious that 1 
would have to consolidate my work area. Too 
many cables and cords, and space was becoming a prob- 
lem. Two of my sons were home from college: it’s amaz- 
ing how they consume food and space in an exponential 
relationship to their presence. Necessity, then, was the 
mother of my prototype portable computer center, lcc 
Gocart. 

Now my total operation is contained within a four- 
square-foot area. It’s on wheels and 1 can retreat to any 
leftover space in the house. The computer, printer, 
recorder, tapes, notebooks and magazines have all been 
stacked and shelved in a converted stereo cabinet. (The 
cheap kind that go for about $20 on sale.) The overall 



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setup is shown on page 2 of the plans. 

Since this was my prototype, a good deal of the con- 
struction was dictated by what odds and ends I had on 
hand. This included the stereo cabinet which no longer 
was in use. As it turned out, the system has worked so well 
that I haven’t even taken the time to finish it up properly. 
The pristine beauty of its rough hewn plywood remains 
intact for all to admire. 

Construction 

Building the Gocart was done in two stages, the base 
and the equipment-holding upper section. 

It all started with the basic stereo cabinet; it set the size, 
and because it was available, meant the project could be 
completed sooner. Five major modifications were needed 
to fill my requirements. 

1) Metal reinforcing angles were 
added to all four corners on the 
back of the cabinet to make the 
unit more solid. 

2) I added the casters along the 
bottom, using eight of them 
mounted on pieces of scrap one 
inch board. I figured eight of 
them were needed to distribute 
the load and provide stability. 
The second sliding shelf was in 
stalled four inches down from 
the top. In my case this is a piece 
of half inch plywood, 20 x 15 
inches. Strips of half-inch quar- 
ter round molding make up the 
rails as shown in Detail A on 
page I of the plans. 

4) A I /2 inch hole was cut in the 
middle of the back panel about 
two inches down from the top so 
the recorder cord and cable could 
be brought out to the power 
outlet and computer. 


3 ) 


218 the RAINBOW July 1983 



5) To provide support for the TV, an end support, 12 
inches wide was added to the left side between the 
upper and lower shelves. By inserting the extra shelf 
as shown, I picked up a place for my notebooks and 
other miscellaneous stuff that I tend to accumulate. 
Once this task was complete I could attack the construc- 
tion of the equipment bay shown in the plans on page 1 . 

I figured out how to stack up the rest of the equipment 
so that 1 could get at, and see everything in the most 
efficient manner for me. I’m right handed, over six feet, 
and a lousy typist, all of which influenced my set up and 
some of the vertical dimensions. 

Page I of the plans shows the layout of the pieces that 
make up the equipment bay. They were all cut out of half 
inch plywood. After the rails for the sliding shelves have 
been put on with glue and brads the sides can be 
assembled to the base. I used glue and four penny finish 
nails. By slipping in the shelves at this time the proper 
spacing can be maintained while the 
TV shelf is hammered home. At this 
point the unit is solid as a rock. The 
printer shelf is installed last. All those 
1!4 inch holes are for getting the 
cables and cords routed to the proper 
place and still keeping them out of 
the way. 

The completed bay was lined up on 
top of the base and clamped in place 
while I drilled % inch holes at each 
end down through the top shelf of the 
base. Quarter-inch bolts and wing 
nuts installed through these holes 
make everything secure and allow for 
easy removal. 

The easel holds papers or maga- 
zines when typing programs. The 
location is a must for me. As a hunt 
and peck, two-fingered typist I have 
to have the copy as close to the key- 
board as possible. That’s one of the 
main reasons for my “in-line” arran- 
gement of the equipment. This setup 
also makes it easier to check the text against the screen 
when trying to find typing bugs. 


T o attach the easel I used an old bracket that I found in 
my junk box. 1 bent it to about a 60 degree angle and then 
bolted it to the front edge of the printer shelf. The easel 
was then attached with another bolt to the other leg of the 
bracket. I found that it was best for me to adjust the 
location of the easel so that the lower edge just rests on 
the top of the computer case. 

The easel is a piece of leftover pegboard. I glued half- 
inch flat molding strips along the top and sides. A piece of 
one inch inside corner molding serves as a lip that forms 
the paper rest. 

A short extension cord with three outlets is attached to 
the back of the cabinet near the computer end. Printer, 
computer and recorder power cords, fed through those 
I % inch holes along the sides, all plug in here. It is close to 
my left hand so that I can unplug the computer easily at 
the end of a session. The excess length of the cables and 
cords are coiled and secured with garbage bag ties and lie 




My daughter, Mary, at the controls. The overall arrangement is 
shown with the BW portable 1 use most of the time. The 
recorder shelf is in the stored position. 


out of the way on the base of the equipment bay under the 
printer and paper shelves. 

As an example of routing, the cable from the RF 
modulator feeds down through the hold in the right side 
of the TV shelf, out the top hole in the right side, back in 
through the bottom hole and then to the computer port, 
with the excess coiled up. This path keeps it out of the 
way of the printer and the paper feed. 

I added the optional storage shelf above the paper tray 
because the space was there to use. When the printer is in 
use I slide this shelf back out of the way. 

If I had to do it over, I would make the printer shelf a 
couple inches deeper (as shown by the dotted lines on the 
plan) to give me a little more clearance for my DMP 100 
printer. Obviously, this particular shelf has to be sized to 
whatever printer you may have. Next time I would use 
ball-type casters; it would be much easier when moving 
over carpeted areas. I am still trying to figure out how to 
add a built-in light. 

I’m really happy with the setup and hope that it con- 
tains some ideas useful to others. ^ 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 219 



re Review 


Dungeons Of Daggorath 
New Adventure Standard 

(Editor’s Note: This review is made possible through an 

advance copy of the program provided to the Rainbow b v 

Radio Shack.) 

We seem to be breaking frontiers all over the place for 
CoCo these days. The arcade games get better and better yet; 
the utilities become more and more powerful; the abilities of 
our favorite computer seem to grow more and more each 
month in regard to data bases, word processing and the like. 

Now, in the world of Adventure gaming, there is a new 
standard. It is called Dungeons of Daggorath. It is from 
Radio Shack, available in a Program Pax. 

Frankly, it is one of a kind — yet I expect to see more of its 
ilk in the months ahead. The reason is simply that once 
someone does something, the way they do it tends to get 
around. 

In the case of Dungeons of Daggorath, this is a clear 
bonus for us all. 

As most everyone who reads this magazine for very long 
will know, 1 am hooked on Adventure games. Now, 1 con- 
fess to not being very good (the pressure of a monthly 
deadline seems to slow down the time 1 have to analyze 
them), but 1 love to play ’em. 

Thus far. Dungeons of Daggorath is simply the best 
Adventure game 1 have played to date. In fact, it is almost a 
falsehood to say that it is an Adventure — because the action 
gets fast and furious, much like many of the better arcade 
games I’ve enjoyed. In short, it is more an Adventure/ Ar- 
cade offering than anything else! 


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AND BATTLE FOR CONTROL OF AN 11 STAR SYSTEM WHILE 
COMMANDING MASSIVE BATTLECARRIERS, FIGHTER SQUADRONS, 
FREIGHTERS, AND PLANETARY DEFENSE. WITH GAME SAVE(3-8hrs) 

ZYRONlTWO PLAYERS BATTLE WITHIN AN ASTEROID FIELD WITH 
SHIPS BUILT TO THEIR OWN SPECIFICATIONS. TWO SCENARIOS 
INCLUDED-ONE PLAYER TRIES TO SLIP FREIGHTERS PAST THE 
OTHER'S DEFENSES OR AN ALL OUT BATTLE. (2-4hrs) 

QUESTAR: EXPLORE OVER 30 PLANETS AND ENCOUNTER 
UNKNOWN CIVILIZATIONS, DESERTED CITIES, AND BUSY ST ARPORTS 
WHILE SEARCHING FOR HIDDEN ZYRON BASES. AN EXCELLENT 
ONE PLAYER GRAPHICS ADVENTURE GAME.(60-90min) 


ONLY $19.95 EACH OR ALL THREE FOR $49,951 
PLUS $1.50 FOR SHIPPING 


CHECK OR MONEY 
ORDER ONLY. 
8END SASE FOR 
MORE INFORMATION. 


AVAILABLE ONLY FROM 

*HYC0MP* 


P.O. BOX 15331 
TULSA, OK 74158 
(918)266-6452 


Thanks to an advance copy of both the documentation 
and the Program Pak, we can probably stay ahead of some 
of you until next month — that’s when Dungeons of Daggo- 
rath goes on sale at your local Radio Shack stores and 
dealerships. But, while we are, so far, the number one player 
of this excellent offering, it is only fair that we tell you 
something about it (this is a review, isn’t it?) 

Dungeons of Daggorath is a three level, real time Adven- 
ture that makes you do a bit of thinking and a lot of fast 
reactingall at once. But, it also won’t let you go too fast. Oh, 
I’m getting ahead of myself . . . 

The screen is divided into three segments — one which 
shows the area you are in — in G 3D-type maze format, the 
second showing what you are holding (if anything) in each 
hand. At the bottom of all this is a four-line “command 
area” that lets you enter commands. 

In the middle of the status area is a beating heart — yours. 
As you exert yourself, the heart beats faster and faster. If it 
gets going too fast, you’re a goner — which means you can’t 
rush through room after room. If you do, you’ll be out of 
breath and the smallest, tiniest spider might do you in. Or, 
you can just overexert yourself and burst your heart then 
and there. 

I think this is the most true to life aspect of Dungeons of 
Daggorath. Face facts: If you are a real adventurer, you 
don’t go racing from room to room. And, you do have to 
conserve some energy. A lot of programs do this with water 
and food availability — but Dungeons handles it in real time 
and completely true to life. 

This is hardly the only thing which makes Dungeons of 
Daggorath a superior program, however, the maze is 
extremely well constructed and populated with all sorts of 
creatures. There are also various kinds of objects — and dif- 
ferent levels of each object. The stronger the object, the more 
good it can do you. 

As an example, you start with a wooden sword, which can 
kill certain things. But there is also an iron sword . . . and an 
“elvish” one, as well. The more powerful the sword, the 
better it is for you! 

Too, you only have two hands, and generally, you can 
only carry one thing at a time in each. To actually use an 
object, you have to specify the hand in which you are carry- 
ing it. You do have a pack, though, to stow other things. 

Movement is easy, using just the “M” key to move for- 
ward. You can turn around, turn right or left and the like. 
You can also move backwards (backpedal), something that 
is often necessary in a fight to get your heart slowed down a 
bit. 

Incidentally, the sound is fantastic. You can hear an 
opponent before you can see it (and each has its own distinct 
sound). Y our heartbeat is audible, too. And, when you light 
a torch, you can hear the match sizzle. 

Commands can be abbreviated (but must be separated by 
a space, which can be frustrating) and there is a save game 
feature (to cassette). The only thing we didn’t like was that 
there is no “scor e" perse, you either live or die. We think the 
addition of some sort of status after death would be a nice 
addition to Dungeons of Daggorath. 

This game is not for the novice adventurer, nor for the 
novice arcade player, either. But, with a little skill and 
thinking (fast thinking). Dungeons of Daggorath will pro- 
vide you with more fun than you’ve had in quite a while. 

Dungeons of Daggorath: A great game! 

(At Radio Shack stores, dealers and computer centers, 

$29.95) 


— Lonnie Falk 


220 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Software Revie\ 


Fastape: ML Utility 
Allows High Speed I/O 

Much has been said lately about the high-speed, or 
vitamin E POKE {or our CoCo. While in this mode. BASIC 
programs will run about 30 percent faster, making number 
crunching and arcade-type programs execute at a more 
satisfactory speed. The major problem in using high-speed is 
that you cannot do any I/O operations to your cassette, 
printer, ordisk. If you do, you will find out the true meaning 
of “I/O error” or possibly a “locked up” system. What we 
need is a way to have our cake and eat it too. 

Fastape is a machine language utility that will solve most 
of these problems. With it, you can save and load programs 
and data from cassette, and use your printer, all while 
remaining in high-speed mode. Once loaded, the program 
will auto-execute and automatically adjust itself for the 
amount of memory you have. Unlike most machine lan- 
guage utilities, it is not necessary to reserve space for it, by 
means of a CLEAR statement, before loading it in. 

Using Fastape could not be easier. It operates in four 
modes. The first two are the high and low (or normal) speed 
CPU modes. These modes will have your CoCo running in 
either the high or low speed mode of operation, just as if you 
had entered the proper POKEs. Each of these modes, in 
turn, have two speed modes for cassette operations. The 
high speed cassette mode will save and load your files in 
almost exactly one-half the normal time. Unbelievable, but 
true! The low speed mode (did you guess it already?) oper- 
ates just as if the program was not running. 

With the combination of these four modes, you can save 
or load data in any desired format. This allows for the 
necessary flexibility when you first start to use the program, 
by enabling you to load your existing tapes, and then to save 
them out in the high-speed format. You can even load tapes 
created in the high-speed CPU mode that were saved with- 
out using the program (possibly by accident). 

When using your printer with Fastape, it will auto- 
matically adjust the baud rate for you, so that your printer 
will produce the listings you want, instead of garbage. If you 
operate your printer at a rate other than the default of 600 
baud, all you have to do is to enter the necessary POKE 
prior to loading the program, or while it is running in the 
low-speed CPU mode. 

Switching between operating modes is accomplished by 
holding down the “control”(down arrow) key and pressing 
the number I to4 key, depending on which of the modes you 
want. The control key can also be used to speed up the entry 
of some common BASIC commands. These include the 
audio, motor, and cassette commands, as well as a few 
others. In addition, you can use it to find out which of the 
modes you are in, in case you have forgotten. 

Fastape is a great utility program that should prove to be 
boon to all cassette users. The documentation explains ever- 
ything you need to know in order to use it without any 
problems, and it works like a champ. If you are tired of 
waiting for those tapes to load, I strongly recommend that 
you buy this fine utility. If I could only figure out how it 
works. 

(SpectroSystems, 11111 North Kendall Drive, Suite A108, 

Miami, FL 33176, $21.95 tape) 

— Gerry Schechter 


Federal Hill Software 


Coco-Acountant! 

Were your taxes a mess this year? Make those 
deductions a breeze! Use data from up to 450 canceled 
checks for reports of expenditures by month, account of 
payee! Flags deductible checks, checks subject to sales tax- 
•even computes the sales tax you paid. Lists to screen or 
printer. $15.95 on tape, $21.95 on disk.32K 
CREDIT ACCOUNTANT performs same functions for 
credit card expenditures. Only $9.95 when ordered with 
Coco-Accountant (tape or disk). 

Blackjaq! 

As close as you can come to the real thing without 
losing your shirt. Full casino simulation - - up to 5 players 
and 9 decks. Computer plays vacant hands by card count- 
ing rules, gives counting pointers, keeps track of winnings 
and will even print out results of every hand! Keyboard or 
joystick. Nothing else like it in 16K Ext. $19.95 on tape, 
$24.95 on disk. 

The Handicapper! 

Use the power of your COCo to improve your 
performance at the track! Separate 16K programs for 
thoroughbred and harness horses apply proven handicapping 
techniques using speed, pace, post position, past perfor- 
mance, driver or jockey record and horse's attributes. 
Simple enough for the beginner - - sophisticated enough for 
the veteran horseplayer. Detailed instructions. Does not 
require Extended Basic. Harness Handicapper or Thorough- 
bred Handicapper, $24.95 on tape. Both programs, $39.95. 

Printer Artist! 

Turn your printer into an artist with this unique 
series of 16K Ext. programs. Create drawings of birds and 
animals, sports figures, ships, holiday and patriotic scenes, 
famous Americans and others. Set up a file of printer art 
on disk or tape. Includes 12 ready-to-run pictures and 
simple instructions for 40 more. Complete documentation 
and guide to creating your own art. $19.95 on tape. 

Koko Math! 

Teachers and parents: Are your kids bored with dull 
educational programs? Let Koko the Math Clown make 
arithmetic a joy! Get 10 problems right and give him a 
bath! All operations, three levels of difficulty. Colorful 
graphics and music. Does not require Extended Basic. 
$8.95 on tape. 

Federal Hill Software 
825 William Street 
Baltimore, Maryland 21230 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 221 




SAVE!!! 

AT ARIZONA DISCOUNT SOFTWARE YOU CAN SAVE ON ALL SORTS 
OF SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE ITEMS FOR YOUR COLOR COM- 
PUTER OR TDP 100!! (TDP IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY) 

CHECK THESE OUT!!! 


GAMES 15% OFF!!!! 



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DISK 

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21.20* 

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24.60* 

25.45 

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18.65 

22.90 

SPACE SHUTTLE (MIX) 

24.60* 


THE FROG (MIX) 

23.75 

26.30 

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23.75 

26.30 

*32K PROGRAM 




PLUS!!! 

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67.95 

THE ENTIRE SUPER COLOR LIBRARY 



(DISK ONLY) SAVE 20% OVER LIST 


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TELEWRITER 64 (COGNITEC) 


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25.45 

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21.20 

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FLEX 



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FLEX & D/BASIC PKG 



1 1 7.00 

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64K RAM CHIP SET 



49.95 

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424.95 

MARK DATA PROFESSIONAL KEYBOARD 


59.95 

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29.95 

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CALL ABOUT CUSTOM MODS/CALL OUR 24 HR BBS (602) 245-0488 
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PHONE (602) 231-0080 (11 am-12m EDT) 

COMPUSERVE I.D. # 71715,2001 


mill ’ I 


Morocco Gran Prix 
Roars With Action 

In Morocco Gran Prix, Computerware’s newest graphics 
game for the Color Computer, you are a pit crew member at 
the local race track. During qualifications, the world famous 
race driver Juan “el Racero” Gomez becomes sick on gaso- 
line vapors. You decide to take advantage of the opportun- 
ity to take the high powered racer for a test drive, but little 
did you know that the race would begin as soon as you hit 
the track. 

Once the game has loaded, you see the instruction screen. 
The racer is controlled with the right joystick. Left to right 
controls your steering, while forward and back controls 
your speed. 

An overhead view of the brightly colored racer appears at 
the pits on the side. To begin the game just cross over the 
guard rail. A timer is instantly activated and the race is on! 
The timer begins counting down at 100 seconds. Points are 
awarded for the amount of time you stay on the track. The 
faster you drive, the more points you accumulate. If you 
crash, you end up at the pits on the side. To re-enter the 
track, just cross over the guard rail. Occasionally, you 
encounter night driving conditions and snow covered roads, 
just to keep you from getting bored. There are also a few 
surprises, such as fire trucks and the like. If you get over 
2000 points by the time the timer runs out, you are awarded 
with an extended play. Morocco Gran Prix keeps track of 
the top ten scores. 

The wisest strategy when racing is to start off fast. Once 
you pass by a car, don’t worry about it anymore — it’s out of 
the picture. All danger lies ahead. Develop a sense of timing 
early in the game as to how frequently other autos show up. 
At those times, slow down and survey the scene. If the racers 
ahead can be easily passed, then resume top speed. Of 
course, the best strategy is practice. And that’s what you’ll 
want to do, because Morocco Gran Prix is addicting! 

Not only is the action portion of Morocco Gran Prix 
spectacular, but the game is a visual triumph as well. The 
racers themselves are handsomely detailed with color rival- 
ing most coin-op video games. The only things missing are 
curves and road signs. The track remains straight through- 
out the entire game, and there are no road signs to add to the 
visual effects of the game. A red caution flag does appear 
once in a great while just before the fire truck hits the track. 
The sound effects are about average for the Color Compu- 
ter, and are nothing short of spectacular when you crash 
(though it would be nice if the fire truck had a siren!). 

Morocco Gran Prix is delightful to look at and a blast to 
play. Computerware should be congratulated for their work 
in this new racing game for the Color Computer. 

(Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, 32K Mach- 

ing Language, $24.95) 

—Barry Younce 


222 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Software Review 


Fast Action And Great Graphics 
Make Planet Invasion Challenging 

As I loaded this 16K machine language program from 
Spectral Associates into my CoCo, I sighed at the prospect 
of what I thought would be just another space arcade game, 
but 1 soon discovered that the outstanding graphics and 
animation put this game in a class by itself. 

Planet Invasion is a “ Defender -type” arcade game. You 
are required to cruise above the planet’s surface locating and 
destroying wave after wave of Praetorian invaders. The 
playing area extends off the screen in both directions, but 
author Steve Geiseking had the foresight to provide our ship 
with a long range scanner which helps determing the exact 
locations of the invaders. You are given a certain amount of 
time to destroy each wave or the invaders will begin to fire 
chasers at you, and these are extremely difficult to avoid. 
Developing an ability to use the long range scanner is impor- 
tant because it will save you a lot of time and will help to 
destroy a wave quickly before any of the deadly chasers 
appear. 

In addition to the chasers, each wave is made up of 
different types of enemy craft, each with different character- 
istics. Grabbers will fire at you while they lower themselves 
to the planet’s surface in order to grab the caloxin crystals 
which dot the terrain. After grabbing a caloxin crystal, they 
lift off and begin moving toward the top of the screen. There 
are two reasons why it is important to destroy the grabbers 
before they ascend to the top of the screen. First, if a grabber 
succeeds in reaching the top with a caloxin crystal it 
becomes a killer — a deadly, intelligent craft which seeks you 
out and spews rapid fire. Second, if the enemy succeeds in 
capturing or destroying all your caloxin crystals, you will be 
forced to fight “in the outer reaches of space far from the 
planet’s surface.” What this means is that the display of the 
planet’s terrain disappears and only your ship and those of 
the enemy are displayed. Before this happened to me the first 
time 1 didn’t think that it would make much difference, but, 
boy, does it! Without the surface of the planet scrolling by 
beneath you all sense of speed is lost and tracking and 
destroying the enemy becomes doubly difficult. 

You can avoid this calamity by preserving your caloxin 
crystals. There are three ways to do this. First, of course, you 
can destroy the grabbers before they seize any crystals. This 
is an okay strategy for about the first two waves; after that, 
there are just too many of them for this to be effective. 
Second, you can destroy a grabber after it has seized a 
crystal and begun its acent. If the grabber is destroyed at a 
low altitude, the caloxin crystal will drop back to the 
planet’s surface unharmed. Finally, if you are forced to 
destroy a grabber with a crystal at a high altitude you can 
catch the caloxin crystal in mid-air and return it safely to the 
planet’s surface; otherwise the crystal will be destroyed when 
it hits the surface. 

In addition to the pesky grabbers and chasers, the Praeto- 
rians have an array of sophisticated weaponry pitted against 
you. Among these are miners which move slowly about the 
screen leaving mines which will destroy you if you collide 
with them. The only good thing about miners is that they are 
relatively easy to shoot down because they move so slowly. 
Beamers are deceptive; they sit there barely moving and are 


very easy to hit, but when hit, they split into three berserkers 
and, boy, is that an appropriate name! These little attackers 
are difficult to shoot down because of their small size and 
their violently evasive maneuvers. They are intelligent 
trackers and literally spew out lethal rapid fire. 

Fortunately our ship is equipped with three “smart 
bombs” which, when released, destroy all enemy ships pres- 
ently on the screen. However, there are so few of them that 
one must be very judicious in their use. Fire them only when 
the screen is crammed with Praetorians or when you are 
threatened by a chaser. 

Your ship is controlled by a combination of joystick and 
keyboard inputs. The right joystick controls elevation, 
direction and speed. If the joystick is positioned to the left, 
our craft moves to the left (that is, the screen scrolls to the 
right) and the further left the joystick is moved the faster the 
ship moves. I like this combination of speed and direction in 
one control. The fire button controls the laser fire and if you 
hold the button down you get continuous rapid fire, a fea- 
ture 1 like very much. It really saves wear and tear on the old 
trigger finger. There is a tendency to fly along with the laser 
firing at all times but this doesn’t really give you much of an 
advantage. Pressing the space bar fires one of the smart 
bombs, and pressing the “H” key moves your ship into 
hyperspace; that is, it moves you immediately to some other 
portion of the battle area. This can be very helpful when you 
find yourself in an area teeming with Praetorians and you 
want to get out fast. 

On-screen scoring is provided and also high score for the 
session is displayed. You are also kept informed as to the 
number of ships remaining, the number of smart bombs 
remaining and the current Praetorian wave number. Docu- 
mentation is adequate. 

If you enjoy good space games then this one is for you. 
Another plus: Spectral Associates says it will replace the 
tape for only $1.50 should it be accidentally erased or 
become unusable for any other reason. (How can you go 
wrong with a deal like that?) For disk users, instructions are 
provided for transferring the program to disk. 

(Spectral Associates, 141 Harvard Avenue, Tacoma, WA 

98455, S21.95) 


— David Johnson 


K-2 READING PHONICS 


OLD MCDONALD'S 
FARM VOWELS 


A game like drill program to present long and 
short vowels with words, pictures and spoken 
messages. Teacher generated for home and 
school Five challenging levels with scoring, 
rewards and reinforcement. 

For COCO Color Computers with 16K Ext 
Color BASIC & cass. OMF $14.95 + 2 00 ship- 
ping VISA & M C 

RAINBOW 


TEKSYM CORPORATION 
14504 County Road 15 
Minneapolis. MN 55441 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 223 



RECEIVED & CER TIFIED 

The following products have been recently received by the Rainbow , examined by our magazine staff and approved 
for the Rainbow Seal of Certification , your assurance that we have seen the product and have ascertained that it is 
what it purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 


Scramble, a I6K word game for two to four 
players. Objective: opponents alternate enter- 
ing a 4-15 letter word, the computer scram- 
bles the word, and your opponent must 
unscramble the word in 214 minutes. Four 
skill levels. Kaleidoscopic Creations, P.O. 
Box 1284, Melrose Park, IL 60160, tape 
$15.95. 

The Computer Camp Book, a ( 8 14 ” x 11”, 
227-page, soft-cover) book on computer 
camps and how to become a computer liter- 
ate. First, it is a manual on how to start your 
own computer camp; second, it is a guide to 
computer camps, and third, it tells you how 
to become a computer literate. YSCC, 8327 
Sheridan Lane, Eden Prairie, MN, $12.95. 

TNT-ALYZ, an electronic circuit analysis 
program of interest to electronic hobbyists, 
hams, and engineers. This program is capa- 
ble of computing the gain and phase re- 
sponse of complex electronic circuits. In- 
cludes a 30-page manual. TNT Software, 
Route 2, Box 76 D, Manor, TX 78653, tape 
$29.95. 

Fasfape, a 32K program which doubles the 
speed of your cassette operations and allows 
you full use of your cassette and printer, 
while the computer is running at high speed 
mode. Spectro Systems, 1 1 1 1 1 N. Kendall 
Drive, Suite A-108, Miami, FL 33176, tape 
$21.95. 

Function Graphing Module, a I6K program 
that allows you to graph functions of a single 
variable on the high resolution graphics 
screen of your computer. Includes a 53-page 
manual. Calcsoft, P.O. Box 401, St. Ann, 
MO 63074, tape $19.95. 

Amortise, a 16K program which allows you 
to print amotization charts. Showing for 
each month, the date due, amount to princi- 
pal, amount to interest, total interest to date, 
balance still owing and totals for each year. 
Dataman, Box 431, Station B, Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada L8L 7W2, tape $9.95. 

CoCo Copy, a 16K machine language pro- 
gram that will copy BASIC or machine lan- 
guage programs including most automatic 
start programs. Dataman, Box 431, Station 
B, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8L 7W2, 
tape $12.95. 

Pretty Printer, a 1 6K machine language util- 
ity program that will allow you to write your 
code in a compact form and list to the screen 
or printer in an easy to read format. Data- 
man, Box 431, Station B, Hamilton, Onta- 
rio, Canada L8L 7W2, tape $12.95. 

P.U.F.F., Printer Utility File Formatter, a 
1 6K program which turns any word proces- 


sor into a super printer formatter. Dataman, 
Box 431, Station B, Hamilton, Ontario, 
Canada, L8L 7W2, tape $24.95. 

Fraction Math Quiz, a 16K drill program 
with five skill levels from introductory ele- 
mentary school to advanced high school 
fractions, includes seven fraction operations 
and multiple choice format. Creative Tech- 
nical Consultants, P.O. Box 652, Cedar 
Crest, NM 87008, tape $14.95. 

Fire Copter, a 32K full color graphics game 
for one to two players. Objective: you are 
aboard the Fire Copter, trying to keep your 
city from being burned to the ground by the 
minions of Pyro Maniac — the firedroids, 
while putting out the fires and destroying the 
firedroids. Adventure International, P.O. 
Box 3435, Longwood, FL 32750, tape 
$24.95. 

Sea Dragon, a 32K arcade game with seven 
skill levels for one or two players. Objective: 
you are sea captain of the nuclear sub — the 
Sea Dragon; make it through the mine field 
to reach your target— the Master mine— as 
you snake through treacherous underwater 
passages, avoiding mines, depth charges, 
stalactites, and enemy attack stations along 
your way. Adventure International, P.O. 
Box 3435, Longwood, FL 32750, tape 
$34.95. 

Grafplot, a 16K graph drawing program 
used to turn your computer into a data plot- 
ter producing graphs of any type of X-Y 
data. Hawkes Research Services, 1442 Sixth 
Street, Berkeley, CA 94710, Tape $35, 32K 
disk $45. 

An Adventure in Murder, a mystery game. 
Objective: you are a detective hired to find 
the murderer of Mrs. McDermitt. While 
searching through her four-floor mansion 
you are given clues and a list of suspects 
enabling you to determine the murderer. 
Mr. R’s Software, 68 Kelly Road, South 
Windsor, CT 06074, tape $14.95. 

Zarconian Marble, a 16K checker-style stra- 
tegy game for one or two players. Objective: 
play against the computer or an opponent 
and be the first to either get five marbles in a 
row or first to make five captures. CoCo 
Hut, P.O. Box 24451, Houston, TX 77015, 
tape $19.95. 

8-Ball, (Rom Pac) a I6K arcade-type pool 
game for two players. Objective: try and be 
first to sink all of your balls and then the 
8-ball to win the game. Anteco Software, 
P.O. Box 14728, 4220 Clay Avenue, Fort 
Worth, TX 67117, $29.95. 


Family, a 32K genealogical data base pro- 
gram for up to eight generations and 255 
ancestors. Prints pedigree charts, family 
groups and a reference index. Available 
from The Word Merchant, P.O. Box 232, 
Lititz, PA 17543, tape $9.95. 

Pie Chart, a I6K graphing program which 
allows you to enter data such as monthly 
bills, yearly expenditures, etc. Harmonycs, 
P.O.Box 1573, Salt Lake City, UT 84110, 
tape $10.95. 

Help! Color Computer Reference System, a 

(4” x 6”, 99-page, ringbound, soft-cover) ref- 
erence system designed to provide the be- 
ginning programmer with the essential infor- 
mation needed to write personal and work- 
able programs. Wright Books, 54 Vly Road, 
Albany, NY 12205, $9.95. 

Rainbow-Writer, a 1 6K high resolution gra- 
phics text display utility which allows you to 
write text on any graphics screen in rainbow 
colors. Rainbow Connection Software, 3514 
6th Place, NW, Rochester, MN 55901, disk 
$32.95. 

Electronic Calligrapher, a I6K disk based 
calligraphing program that when used with a 
printer capable of dot matrix graphics will 
print any line, up to 25 characters, in either 
an Old English or Chancery cursive-type 
font. DSL Computer Products, Inc. 13726 
West Warren, Dearborn, Ml 48126, disk 
$18.95. 

Pie Zapper, a high resolution graphics pro- 
gram that produces pie charts on the screen. 
Includes a 26-page manual. Southern Soft- 
ware Systems, 485 T ropical Trail, Suite 109, 
Merritt Island, FL 32952, tape $15.95, disk 
$19.95. 

Convert, a I6K program that will convert 
units of length, volume, area or weight from, 
or to, the equivalent imperial, metric, nauti- 
cal or historical systems of measurement. 
Dataman, Box 431, Station B, Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada L8L 7W2, tape $9.95. 

Filmastr, a general purpose database man- 
ager in data entry screen format which holds 
up to 20 data fields. The Computer House, 
Box 1051, DuBois, PA 15801 , tape $29.95, 
disk $34.95. 

Time& Money, a financial planningaid that 
will determine the value of investments and 
compare various methods of handling invest- 
ments. The Computer House, Box 1051, 
DuBois, PA 15801, tape $ 19.95, disk $24.95. 

Master Control II, a 1 6K machine language 
program designed to increase the speed it 
takes to write BASIC programs. Includes a 


224 the RAINBOW July 1983 



plastic keyboard overlay. Soft Sector Mar- 
keting, Inc., 6250 Middlebelt, Garden City, 
MI 48135, tape SI9.95. SSM is offering 
owners of the original Master Control an 
update to the newer version for $8 plus $2 
S & H. 

Color Graphics Editor (CGE), a 16K ma- 
chine language program that allows you to 
create on screen high resolution graphics 
which can also be transferred to disk. Soft 
Sector Marketing, Inc., 6250 Middlebelt, 
Garden City, MI 48135, tape $19.95. 

Color Caterpillar, a 16K machine language 
arcade-style game for one or two players. 
Objective: destroy the caterpillar in seg- 
ments by firing missiles and gaining points 
by killing off mushrooms, tarantulas, and 
beetles. Soft Sector Marketing, Inc., 6250 
Middlebelt, Garden City, MI 48135, tape 
$19.95. 

Colonial Trilogy, a series of three new 32K 
games with high resolution graphics. Volume 
I, Colonial Wars, a two-player space battle 
game with a split screen concept. Objective: 
colonize and battle for control of an eleven- 
star system while commanding massive bat- 
tle carriers, fighter squadrons, freighters and 
planetary defenses. Volume II, Zyron, a 
space battle game for two players. Objective: 
battle within an asteroid field while one 
player tries to slip freighters past the others' 
defenses. Volume III, Questar,an adventure 
game for one player. Objective: explore over 
30 planets and encounter unknown civiliza- 
tions, deserted cities, and busy starports 
while searching for hidden Zyron bases. 
HYCOMP, P.O. Box 15331, Tulsa, OK 
74158, $19.95 each or all three tapes for 
$49.95. 

BLACKJAQ!,a 16K casino simulation card 
game of “21" for one to five players. Objec- 
tive: beat the dealer’s hand without going 
over 21 points. Federal Hill Software, 825 
William Street, Baltimore, MD 21230, tape 
$19.95. 

Harness Handicapper, a 16K program that 
applies established handicapping techniques 
and the power of the computer to the ratings 
of harness horses, which will enable you to 
improve your betting performances at the 
race track. Federal Hill Software, 825 Wil- 
liam Street, Baltimore, MD 21230, tape 
$24.95. 

CoCo Accountant, a 32K home or small 
business accounting program that allows 
you to keep records of yearly expenses while 
providing information at tax time without 
the task of sorting through cancelled checks. 
Federal Hill Software, 825 William Street. 
Baltimore, MD 21230, tape $15.95, disk 
$21.95. 

Printer Artist, a 16K four-program cassette 
and tutorial package on computer art. In- 


cludes two programs containing 12 ready to 
run pictures and an instruction booklet for 
49 other drawings which can be created, 
printed and saved to tape or disk using the 
two utility programs which will enable you 
to use those instructions to create pictures. 
Federal Hill Software, 825 William Street, 
Baltimore, MD 21230, disk $19.95. 

Pick Which, a 16K machine language game 
for all ages. Objective: search the screen in 
an effort to choose the most desirable pic- 
ture. Detailed pictures fill the screen along 
with sounds. Spectral Associates, 141 Har- 
vard Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98466, tape 
$9.95. 

Space Race, a 16K RAM machine language 
game with high resolution graphics and 
sound. Objective: maneuver your ship 
around the four-cornered race track while 
destroying alien ships and watching out for 
mines laid by the swarmers. Spectral Asso- 
ciates, 141 Harvard Avenue, Tacoma, WA 
98466, tape $21.95. 

C-Trek, a I6K space combat game. Objec- 
tive: you are the captain of the ship and it is 
your task to destroy all the invading forces 
before they can launch their attack on the 
Federal seats of power. Spectral Associates, 
141 Harvard Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98466, 
tape $8.95. 

Color Zap, a 16K high resolution graphics 
arcade game with 15 skill levels and sound. 
Objective: zap the onslaught of alien attack- 
ing ships as they seek to destroy you to gain 
entrance to the Stargate — which you are 
defending. Spectral Associates, 141 Harvard 
Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98466, tape $9.95. 

Home Money Manager, a disk-based per- 
sonal checkbook system. It tracks data by 
date, paid to, check number, account num- 
ber, amount of check, and current balance. 
Each of the printed reports will show month- 
ly deposit total, expense total, gain or loss, 
and current balance. Computerware, Box 
668, Encinitas, CA 92024, disk $19.95. 

Introduction to Data Communications, a 

five part, I6K program requiring Extended 
BASIC, designed to teach beginners the 
basic ideas and terminology to use a data 
communications device. Computerware, 
Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, tape $17.95. 

Moon Hooper, a 32K arcade game with five 
skill levels. Objective: you are out on test 
maneuvers in the new exploration machine, 
the Moon Hooper and must avoid being 
blasted by enemy saucers while firing phas- 
ers and racing toward your home base. 
Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 
92024, tape $24.95. 

Morocco Gran Prix, a 32K race car game. 
Objective: you are part of the pit crew and in 
Juan “el Racero” Gomez’s absence, you 
sneakingly take his high-powered racer out 


for a test drive and are caught in the middle 
of the actual race. See how well you can do, 
avoiding crashes and demolitions. Compu- 
terware. Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, tape 
$21.95. 

Indexer, a 16K machine language utility 
program which produces a sorted list of var- 
iables and line numbers used in your BASIC 
program. ML-US’R Software, 115 Rising 
Sun, Fort Mitchell, KY 41017, tape $14.95. 

Label III, a I6K mail list program which will 
print lists or labels of three or four line 
addresses and a telephone number. Owls 
Nest Software, P.O. Box 579, Ooltewah, TN 
37363, tape $19.95. 

Clock, a I6K machine language time clock 
program that uses the interrupt that is gen- 
erated by the VDG. Chroma-Systems Group, 
P.O. Box 366. Dayton. OH 45420, tape 
$9.95. 

CCADS, Color Computer Assembly Lan- 
guage Debugging System, a I6K complete 
language software development monitor. 
Included area 6809 line assembler and disas- 
sembler, hex and ASCII memory dump, 
memory alteration routines, serial printer 
capabilities, and a user software execution 
controller with six breakpoints, and user 
register storage and modification. Chroma- 
Systems Group, P.O. Box 366, Dayton, OH 
45420. tape $19.95. 

Unlock, a menu driven disk backup utility 
which produces copies of diskettes that can- 
not be backed up using the BACK UP com- 
mand from BASIC. Chroma-Systems Group, 
P.O. Box 366, Dayton, OH 45420, disk 
$24.95. 

Chroma-Keys, a 16K utility program that 
will reduce the amount of time required to 
key in magazine listings by adding a click 
sound when a key is pressed. Chroma- 
Systems Group, P.O. Box 366, Dayton, OH 
45420, tape $9.95. 

Program File, a 16K Extended BASIC pro- 
gram that will organize your cassettes. Owls 
Nest Software, P.O. Box 579, Ooltewah, TN 
37363, tape $14.95. 

Kodomo-no-go, a 16K or 32K Japaneese 
named game for five in a row played on a 19 
x 19 board. For one or two players and four 
skill levels. This game is similar to tic-tac-toe 
which is also included on both tapes. Inter- 
cept Enterprises, P.O. Box 4016, Cherry 
Hill. NJ 08034, 16K tape $14.95, 32K tape 
$19.95. 

Fundfile, a I6K Extended BASIC portfolio 
and account management program for secur- 
ities. Creates files for up to 900 transactions 
and 50 securities. Parsons Software, Dept. 
A, 1 18 Woodshire Drive, Parkersburg, WV 
26101, disk $27.95. 


The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products for the TRS-80 Color Computer, the 
TDP-100, or the Dragon-32, regardless of whether they advertise in the Rainbow. By awarding a Seal, the magazine 
certifies the program does exist, but this does not constitute any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be forwarded to the Rainbow's reviewers for evaluation. 

— Jutta Kapfhammer 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 225 



STATISTICS 


16K 
EC B 



By Linda Nielsen 


H 


programming 


aving spent a 
little time in Las 
Vegas recently 
(most of it at the Consu- 
mer Electronics Show, 
honest!), 1 thought 
it might be interesting to 
write a bit about pro- 
grams to calculate the 
probabilities for some 
games of chance. This is 
my way of beginning to 
talk about the whole area 
probability and statistics. 

Interestingly enough, there is no generally 
accepted definition of probability among 
mathematicians, even though everyone has an 
intuitive understanding of what probability 
means. The classical interpretation of probabil- 
ity, and the one 1 will use, depends on the con- 
cept of equally likely events. For example, if 
you flip a coin and it has an equal chance of 
showing a “heads” or a “tails,” then each of 
those outcomes has a Vi or 50 percent probabil- 
ity. It may be hard to imagine how equally likely 
events can be found in weather forecasting, but 
they are quite common in games of chance. 

Let’s examine what happens when a single die 
is thrown. Imagine this die is one of those six- 



you see at crap tables in 
Las Vegas. Before you 
ever throw that cube, you 
know that when it lands, a 
side will be showing on 
the top. You also know 
that the top side will have 
between one and six spots 
on it. You know that you 
are not going to see one 
side with two hundred lit- 
tle spots on it. So you 
simply throw away the idea of getting two 
hundred. A statistician would say that the 
probability of getting two hundred in one roll of 
an ordinary six-sided die is zero. 

On the other hand, if the die has already been 
thrown but you can’t see the top side, you can 
still imagine the probabilities. If you don’t 
know what happened, from your perspective 
the outcome is still uncertain even though the 
event happened in the past. 

Since you know for certain that the number 
of dots showing will be between one and six, we 
say that the probability of a whole number 
between one and six is equal to one. The proba- 
bility of the sure or certain event is always equal 
to one. 

If this is a fair die, then each of the outcomes 


sided kinds you once used in M onopoly or that one through six is equally likely. An unfair die is 


226 the RAINBOW July 1983 


D A 




E R 





What’s blue and red, about an inch tall, able to leap 
across a Color Computer video display in a single bound, 
and destined to put Inky, Winky and Stinky out to 
pasture? 


Danger Ranger, the 
ScreenPlay. That’s who. 


newest character from 


Danger Ranger isn't a clone of some moldy arcade 
game. It isn’t like any video game you've ever seen. It's 
faster. More challenging. More fun. 

Your joystick controls Danger Ranger on his mission 
to make the universe safe for Mom, Brotherhood and 
The American Way. First, our hero finds himself in the 
surrealistic ‘Chamber of Pasha,' which consists of five 
consecutive platforms. Danger Ranger has to blast his 


way through radioactive bats and roving eyes to pick up 
the ten keys that may spell the difference betwen survival 
and death for the human race! 

If Danger Ranger can muster enough skill and courage 
to survive those challenges, he'll enter the 'Acid Cham- 
ber.’ Here, not only do demons guard the treasure boxes 
he wants to collect, but fatal drops of acid fall from the 
ceiling and rise from the floor. Not a nice way to make a 
living - but it makes one heck of a video game. 

Danger Ranger, from ScreenPlay. 

Poor Winky. Lucky you. 

I6K Tape $24.95 

No Extended Basic Required 


ScreenPlay™ 

1-800-334-5470 

P.O.Box 3558 Chapel Hill, NC 27514 

* Rod* o S hock ond Cob / Compute/ ore tsodemerts of Tondy Corp 


one of those that usually or always shows a particular 
number on the top and you wouldn’t want to mess with one 
like that. (In a future article I will discuss how you could 
write a program to do a good job of guessing if a particular 
die is a fair one or not.) If each of the numbers, one through 
six, is equally likely then probability of any particular 
number coming up must be 1/6. If we built a fair die with 
four sides numbered one through four, then the probability 
of each number between one and four being the number on 
the bottom would be 1/4. Similarly, a fair, 20-sided die 
numbered from one to 20 has a 1 / 20 chance of showing each 
number between one and 20 and a zero probability of any 
other outcome. 

The probability of getting a number less than five on a 
six-sided die would be the probability of getting a one or a 
two or a three or a four. It isn’t possible to get both a two and 
a three in one roll so we can add the probabilities of one, 
two, three and four to arrive at the probability that the 
number will be less than five. That is 1/6+1/6+1/6+1/6 or 
4/6= 66667. 

Now we are ready to write a simple program to calculate 
the probability of some outcomes from a single throw of an 
“N” sided die. First clean up the screen, then query the user 
for the number of sides on the die. 

100CLS: INPUT" HOW MANY SIDES ON THE DIE”;N 

Next calculate the probability of each number using the 
formula: probability=l /number of sides. 

1 10P=1/N:PR1NT“THE PROBABILITY OF EACH 
NUMBER FROM 1 to “’N;”IS”;P 


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INTO HARD COPY 

CATCH THAT COLOR PM0DE3 
PICTURE ON PAPER (USING 

A CG P-1 15 COLOR PLOTTER) 

•Machine language subroutines 
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•Auto start from cassette 
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Next, put in a program loop to calculate the probability 
that the number of the die will be less than each of the 
numbers from 1 to the highest number that exists on the die. 
Statisticians call this a cumulative probability table and you 
can see why: 

120 FOR J=l TO N:T=0:FOR K=1 TOJ’ T=P+T:NEXTK 
□OPR I NT" PROBABILITY OF<=“;J;”IS 
140PR1NT USING “#.#####”; T: NEXT J 

If you want the program to return to the beginning to 
accept new parameters, then add these lines: 

160 R$=1NKEY$:IF R$=“” THEN 160 
170 GOTO 100 

If you want the cumulative probability table to be sent to 
the printer then change line 140 and add line 150: 

140 PRINT USING“#.#####”;T; 

150 PRINT#-2,“THE PROBABILITY OF - ";T: 

NEXT.) 

Now let us consider a more interesting question. Most 
games of chance involve throwing more than one die. The 
most common one 1 know of is the game of craps in which 
two, six-sided dice are thrown. But there are also games like 
Dungeons and Dragons which use one or more four, six, 
eight, twelve and twenty-sided dice. Next, we will write a 
program to determine the probability of any selected 
number when you throw from one to five “N” sided dice. 
Clean up the screen and ask the user for the number of dice 
and the number of sides on each of the die. 

100CLSJNPUT “HOW MANY DICE (1-5)”;D : INPUT 
"HOW MANY SIDES”;N 

Suppose we are throwing three, four-sided dice. Each of 
these dice is an equilateral pyramid with sides numbered one 
through four. When it lands there are three sides showing 
and one facing down. Imagine that the dice are different 
colors so we can distinguish among the first, second and 
third die. The first die has a 1/4 chance of having a one on 
the bottom side. Assuming, (and it seems a safe assumption) 
that the dice don’t influence each other, the second and third 
die also have a 1 / 4 chance of showing a one on the bottom. 
Then the probability of a total throw of three is ( 1 /4)*( 1/4)* 
(1/4) or 1/64 which is 0.015625. 

Consider the event that the first die has a three, the second 
die has a two and the third die has a one on the bottom. This 
exact event also has a probability of (l/4)*(l/4)*(l/4) or 
0.015625. Notice, however, that the sum of the die is now 
3+2+1 or six, and we can get a six in several different ways. 
In tabular form we could get a six by: 


First Die 
1 
1 

4 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

2 


Second Die 
1 

4 

1 

2 

3 

1 

3 

1 

2 

2 


Third Die 

4 

1 

1 

3 

2 

3 

1 

2 

1 

2 


228 the RAINBOW July 1983 




In all there are ten different ways that we could get a six 
from the roll of three four-sided dice. Each of these ten 
different sequences is equally likely. That is, each of the 
sequences has a probability of 0.0 1 5625. Nevertheless, when 
rolling several dice, we are usually interested in the sum and 
not in the precise order of each die. So if we are interested in 
the probability of a six in this example it would be 0.0 1 5625 
+ 0.015625 + 0.0 1 5625 etc for ten times. More simply, that is 
10 x 0.015625 or 0.15625. 

We want to use our program to calculate the probability 
of each simple (or equally likely) event and then add up all 
the occurrences of this particular event. The next line of the 
program calculates the probability of each simple event: 

110 P=(1/N)1D 

The next line of the program asks the user what number is 
wanted and sets the program variables to zero: 

120 INPUT“YOU WANT”1:: T=0: E=0: F=0: G=0: H=0: 
M=0 


Then we want to calculate the occurrences of the chosen 
number, L, over all the dice and all the numbers one through 
N: 

130 IF D=l THEN T=P: GOTO300 

140 IF D>4 THEN FOR E=1 TO N 

150 IF D>3 THEN FOR F=1 TO N 

160 IF D>2 THEN FOR G=1 TO N 

170 IF D>1 THEN FOR H=1 TO N 

180 FOR M=I TO N 

190 Z=E+F+G+H+M 

200 IF Z=L THEN T=T+P 

210 NEXT M:NEXT H: IF D=2 THEN 300 

220 NEXT G: IF D=3 THEN 300 

230 NEXT F: IF D=4 THEN 300 

240 NEXT E 

300 ?“YOUR PROBABILITY IS ”;:PRINT USING 

“#.###### ”;T 
310 GOTO 110 

This program works. (Whew! I’m so proud!) It runs quite 
slowly if you have lots of sides on your dice. 1 imagine there 
are some programmers out there who can improve on my 
system, and I would appreciate hearing from them. 

1 seem to have left you with lots of dice that are hard to 
build. Can you imagine a one-sided die? Well, I can’t either, 
but try it anyway because it will demonstrate something 
about probability. Remember the probability of the sure or 
certain event is always one. Moreover, these programs are 
not limited to dice games. If you have cards or balls or slips 
of paper numbered one through “N,”the outcome from one 
random draw is the same as throwing one die. If you return 
your draw, mix up the items and draw again; that is like 
throwing two “N” sided dice. Statisticians call this sampling 
with replacement because if you get a two on the first draw 
you can get a two on a later draw, also. In other words, items 
are not removed from the pool of possibilities when they are 
chosen. Next time I will discuss how you might write a 
program to determine the probabilities of some card games 
where the cards are dealt without replacement. 

One last note about Las Vegas. From the perspective of 
classical statistics, the house will always win. Nevertheless, if 
you enjoy gambling you can consider it entertainment and 
enjoy your fling. 1 had a wonderful time playing the video 
Black Jack and Poker. The screen graphics were stunning 



W loi HI 

OaytM , OMo 46420 


C CADS 


A full 6.° 09 machine language monitor with line 
assembler and disassembler. All you need to debug 
machine language programs. OIL, 16!: or 32k) 
Cassette $19.95 or bisk (With Source) $23.95 


UNLOCK *3= 

A complete disk backup utility. Features included 
are initialization of any track; copy any track 
and correct I/O errors, or leave them intact; and 
verify any track. Track numbers upto track 60 may 
be used at any tine. (ML, 16k or 32k) 
Disk (With Source) $24.95 


DSKMON 


Examine and fix sector data, also includes disk 
verify, file information display, and selective 
disk backup. (ML, 16k or 32k) 
Disk (With Source) $24.95 


Utilities 

Chroma-Keys — Define function keys and save them 
to disk or cassette. (ML, 16k or 32k) 
Cassette $9.95 or Disk (With Source) $13.95 0 ^ 

Spooler — Print disk files or the basic program 
in memory without waiting. (ML, 64k only) 
Cassette $11.95 or Disk (With Source) $15.95 


Games 


Prospector — An ECB Hi-Res graphics game. Can you 
got the gold out of the mine? (ECB, 16k or 32k) 
Cassette $7.95 


Jump-A-Peg — A Hi-Res version of an ancient 
strategy game. (ECB, 16k or 32k) 
Cassette $7.95 


Clock 
the CoCo. 
I/O. 

Cassette 


Miscellaneous 


A software real-time clock prog ran: for 
Warning: The clock './ill stop during tape 

(ML, 16k or 32k) 

3°. 95 or Disk (Mith Source) $13.95 


Chroma-Systems Group 
PO Do:; 360 
Dayton, Oh 45420 

blouse inclu-.le $1 for shipping and handling per 
item. Ohio residents please acid 6 sales tax. 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 229 




and at $.25 the price was low enough for my entertainment 
budget. Remember something else: even unlikely events do 
happen. If the probability of winning is only 0.01 you can 
still win. Just don’t try it too often! 

(Ms. Nielsen has taught economics and statistics in 
several universities for the past 10 years.) 


Listing 1: 

100 CLS: INPUT “HOW MANY SIDES ON 
THE DIE" | N 

110 p-i/n:print"the probability 

OF EACH NUMBER FROM 1 TO"|N|"IN 
"IP 

120 FOR J-l TO NST-0SFOR K-l TO 
j. t-p+t:next k 

130 PRINT "PROBABILITY OF <-"|J|" 
IS "| 

140 PRINT USING "#. #####" I T: 

130 PRINT#-2, "THE PROBABILITY OF 
<-"|J|" - "|T: NEXT J 
160 R*- INKEY*: IF R*«"" THEN 160 
170 GOTO 100 


Listing 2: 


100 CLS: INPUT"NUMBER OF SIDES"|N 
110 I NPUT " NUMBER OF DIE <1-5)"|D 
120 P-i/<N~D> 

140 input" you want"il:t-0:e-0:f- 

0:g-0:h-0:m-0 

130 IFD>4 THEN FORE- 1 TON 

160 IFD>3 THEN FORF-1TON 

170 IFD >2 THEN FORG-1TON 

180 IF D>1 THEN FORH-1TON 

190 IFD-1THENT-P:GOTO300 

195 FORM- 1 TON 

200 Z-E+F+G+H+M 

220 IFZ-L THEN T-T+P 

240 NEXTM:NEXTH: IFD-2THEN300 

250 NEXTG: IFD-3THEN300 

260 NEXTF: IFD-4THEN300 

270 NEXTE 

300 PR I NT "YOUR PROBABILITY IS "I 
: PR I NTUS I NG " # . ###### " | T 
320 GOTO 120 




VOICE RECOGNITION 

For your 16K TRS-80 Extended Basic Color Computer 
By Cary D. Perttunen 


Using your cassette recorder's condenser microphone, the COLOR TALK TO ME software 
package can let you use your own voice as an alternate means of input for any of 
your BASIC programs. Over 200 words can be stored in 16K RAM. With a little 
practice, you can attain from 80% to over 90% accuracy for most applications. 

The COLOR TALK TO ME Software Package includes: 

-COLOR TALK TO ME machine language subroutine 

-The BASIC subroutine which can merge COLOR TALK TO ME with your programs 
-Complete instructions on how to use and incorporate COLOR TALK TO ME 
in BASIC programs 
-Two application programs: 

1. VOICE CALC- Use your voice to enter arithmetic problems and VOICE CALC 

will display the solution. 

2. SCREEN PAINTER- Say a color and the screen will be painted that color. 

ALL OF THIS ON TWO CASSETTES FOR ONLY $49.95!!! 

ColorSoft Software Co. will soon be releasing voice recognition programs which can be used 
once you buy COLOR TALK TO ME. Coming soon: Connect More, Crosswords & more! 

ATTENTION PROGRAMMERS: ColorSoft Software Co. will market original voice recognition 
programs using COLOR TALK TO ME with excellent royalties in return. 

Dealer Send check or money order to: ColorSoft Software Co. 

Inquiries Add $2.00 shipping 11764 Raintree Ct. 

Invited Utica, MI 48087 


230 the RAINBOW July 1983 





Filmastr: A Handy Do-It-All 
Filing System For CoCo 

One of the reasons that I bought a disk, aside from the 
inherent speed, was to enable me be explore more serious 
applications of my CoCo. Sure I like games, but it seemed to 
me to be a waste of computing power when all I was doing 
was eating “power dots,” and protecting cities from being 
destroyed. 

1 took my first step in this direction when 1 bought a word 
processor. The next step I took was to write a program to 
keep track of my growing library of programs. After 1 w rote 
it, I started to think of other things that I wanted to keep 
track of. I did not want to have to write a new program for 
each application I could think of so 1 started to think about a 
“do-it-all” program. At about the same time I began to see 
ads for this type of program, so 1 figured that 1 would lay 
back and let someone else do the work for me. 

Filmastr is just such a program. With it you can create and 
maintain just about any kind of file that you can think of. It 
features full screen editing of data, copying fields from one 
record to the next while adding information, machine lan- 
guage sorting, record selection, print formatting, and of 
course, adding, changing and deleting of the records in your 
file. 

When the program is RUN, a title screen appears with a 
menu of two choices. Y ou can either define a new file or load 
an existing one. Since you must define your file before you 
can do anything else with it I will discuss this first. 

The first thing you do is to give your file a title (or name as 
1 prefer to call it). You then define all of your fields and their 
lengths. While you are doing this the fields as well as the title 
can be placed almost anywhere on the screen. Also each field 
is assigned a number for future reference. 1 thought that this 
was a nice feature, because it allows you to determine 
exactly how the screen will look when you are using it later 
on. 

Once your file is defined you are told how many fields it 
has, the length of the file and how many records it can hold. 
This definition is then saved, and you are ready to start 
working with your file. 

In order to begin working with your file you must first 
load it. This may seem like the obvious thing to do, but it 
also applies to files that have just been defined that have no 
records in them yet. After your file is loaded, the bottom of 
the screen shows your choices at this point. 

The first thing that you will be doing is to add some 
records to your file. This is done using the screen format that 
you defined previously. Entering data is done one field at a 
time, and you can use the arrow keys to correct any mistakes 
before you hit ENTER. 

From this screen you can also load in another file. This 
requires that both files be defined in exactly the same 
manner, and allows you to merge several small files into a 
larger one. More on this later. This screen also has the Sort 
option, which will allow you to put your file into any 
sequence. You can sort on more than one field but you 
cannot sort in descending order. The other options here are 
to End the program, which will ask you if you have saved 
your file, and to List your file. 


When listing your file, you can browse through it quickly 
on the screen using the arrow keys. If you hit the BREAK 
key, another menu is presented at the bottom of the screen. 
This menu has six additional options. From it you can 
change or delete records. These are pretty straightforward, 
so I won’t go into them any further. 

The Select option allows you to work with a subset of the 
file. Any field can be used in the selection. You can also use a 
portion of a field, as well as two relational operators. For 
example, you can select name equal to “S” for all names 
starting with the letter “S.” or name equal to “PETERS” for 
all names of “PETERS," “PET ERSON,” or whatever. The 
relational operators can be used, for example, to select all 
Zip Codes greater than “20000.” 

The Save option allows you to save your file. The interest- 
ing thing here is that your file is saved based on the records 
that have been selected. If the Select option has not been 
used, then all the records are saved. However, if you have 
selected records, then only those selected will be saved. 
These smaller files can be used just like any other and can 
always be merged together, which provides a good amount 
of flexibility. 

The Sum option allows you to add up any numeric field 
and will give you a total of the field. By combining this 
feature with the Select feature, you can get totals for any 
part of your file. 

The Print option (you guessed it) will print your file to the 
screen or printer. In order to print a file you must define a 
“print format.” This format tells the program which fields 
are to be printed, and in what order. You can also add spaces 
or whatever you like between the fields, and you can print 
the fields on several lines. An example of this would be if you 
wanted to print name and address labels. You would print 
the name and address on separate lines, the city followed by 
a comma and a space, the state followed by a space, and the 
Zip Code. Although this sounds very flexible, you cannot 
format numeric fields with embedded commas or periods, 
and you cannot produce listings with headings or page 
numbers — very basic features in my opinion. Also when 
listing to the screen, you will have to hit the shift and 
keys to stop it from scrolling off the screen. 

All things considered, Filmastr is a very good utility pro- 
gram. The documentation is very well written, and will guide 
the first time user through the various options with no 
problem. If you want to do some serious work with your 
CoCo, I recommend that you check it out. 

(The Computer House, Box 1051, DuBois, PA 15801, 

$29.95 tape, $34.95 disk) 


— Gerry Schechter 


S0C VOICE SYNTHESIS !!! 


BUILD YOUR OWN VOTRAI SC-«1 SPEECH MODULE THAT PLUGS INTO 
THE SERIAL PORT. ENJOY THE FUN THAT COMES WITH BEING ABLE 
TO PROGRAM YOUR SYSTEM TO SAY ANY TEXT YOU WISH. USE IT TO 
ENHANCE GAMES, AS A TEACHING AID, OR TD HELP A DISABLED 
FRIEND. NO SPECIAL TOOLS REQUIRED. SIMPLE STEP BY STEP 
INSTRUCTIONS USING EASY TO OBTAIN RADIO SHACK STOCK PARTS 
(Except the VOTRAI chip, for which I provide a supplier's list). 
COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS, INCLUDING SAMPLE PROGRAMS. 15.00 
* OR * 

CUSTOM MADE PRINTED CIRCUIT SEND CHEQUE OR MONEY 

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MINIMUM. INCLUDING SAMPLE 763 MULVEY AVE. 

PROGRAMS AND INSTRUCTIONS. WINNIPEG MANITOBA 

$15.00 PLUS $1.00 POSTAGE CANADA R3M 1G4 

Manitoba residents include 5% sales tax 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 231 



Software Review 


Alcatraz II Unsuccessful 
As Great Escape 

Alcatraz II is a graphic escape game using low resolution 
graphics (PMODE 1). In your role as a convict, you franti- 
cally try to escape from the penitentiary, avoiding guards, 
robots and the trained killer, the Minotaur. After CLOAD- 
ing the Extended BASIC program, you start the game by 
choosing to use either the four arrow keys or the right 
joystick. 

You maneuver your figure through a maze of square cell 
blocks, hoping to find a clear escape path from the wing. The 
exit of each wing is located on the right side of the screen. 
There are also guards in the wing who constantly patrol the 
hallways. Your figure moves at the same speed as the guards, 
so there is no chance of being outrun. If a guard catches you, 
the escape is unsuccessful and the game is over. Between 
some of the blocks are closed gates. You cannot pass 
through the closed gates, but when a guard passes through a 
gate, he opens it, leaving you a way out. The key to the game 
is to lure the guards toward you. If a guard sees you in his 
hallway, he will move toward you, opening all gates in his 
way. If you take too much time in a wing, you should expect 
to see the hall lasers. After a short buzzing alarm, five lines 
slowly emerge down each hall, from either the right or top of 
the screen. Y ou must quickly move to a safe hallway to avoid 
being zapped. Unfortunately, the lasers will close any pre- 
viously opened gates. If you reach the exit of the wing, your 
score will be added up and displayed. After you escape each 
wing, the number of guards in each wing increases. You 
must get through two more identical wings before encoun- 
tering the Minotaur. 

In the fourth wing, you will see the Minotaur, two walls, 
and three force fields with their corresponding switchboxes. 
The Minotaur moves in random directions, but moves faster 
than you, so you have to react quickly. Once in the Mino- 
taur’s lair, you must deactivate the force fields by entering 
the switchboxes. You may hide from the Minotaur in the 
switchboxes because he is too large to enter. You cannot 
pass through a wall, but the M inotaur can, leaving a hole in 
the wall. Waiting for the Minotaur to destroy a particular 
segment in the wall can take a considerable length of time, a 
wait that is quite tedious. 

After eluding the Minotaur, you must get through two 
more wings to complete the escape of the first building. The 


second and third buildings are identical to the first in struc- 
ture, except for additional robot guards. The robot guards 
move slower than you, but they always move directly toward 
you, forcing you to make quicker decisions than before. Y ou 
must take advantage of the robots’ slower speed to avoid 
being captured. The great escape is over when you exit the 
third building. 

On the opposite side of the tape of Alcatraz II, there is an 
instruction program. This program explains the important 
aspects of playing, and introduces you to the characters. 
Personally, I would rather read instructions on the screen 
than on paper any day. The instruction program also gives 
you hints on playing and automatically starts loading the 
main program. The documentation also explains the bug in 
ROM which may yield a SN error because of the PCLEAR 
statement. If this occurs, simply type RUN again and all 
should be well. 

The movements of the figures are slow and choppy due to 
the limitations of Extended BASIC. The program also 
makes use of sound and keeps track of the high score. 

Alcatraz II, I believe, does not compare with the high 
quality of some other games of this type for the Color 
Computer, but the price is not high, either. 

(Spectral Associates, 3416 South 90th Street, Tacoma, WA 

98409, $8.95 on tape) 

—Joe Esposito 


About Your Subscription 

Your copy of the RAINBOW is sent third class mail and, for subscribers 
in the United States, the date of mailing is printed on the label. If you do not 
receive your copy by the 25th of any month, send us a card and we will mail 
another immediately via first class mail. 

Y ou must notify us of a new address when you move. Notification should 
reach us no later than the 1 5th of the month prior to the month in which you 
change your address. Sorry, we cannot be responsible for sending another 
copy when you fail to notify us. 

Y our mailing label also shows an “account number”and the subscription 
expiration date. Please indicate this account number when renewing or 
corresponding with us. It will help us help you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U.S. subscribers, there may be a mailing 
address shown that is different from our editorial office address. Do npt 
send any correspondence to that mailing address. Send it to our editorial 
offices at P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. This applies to everyone 
except those whose subscriptions are through our distributor in Australia. 



232 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Software Review 


Software Review 


Robottack: A Fast-Paced, 
High-Res Shoot ’em up 

When Robottack arrived for review, the first thing that 
struck my mind was, “Oh no, not another clone of the 
famous Beserk game! Can’t they think of anything new?” 
Well, I’m glad to Say I was wrong (maybe even dead wrong). 

Although there are robots and humans involved in this 
game, it does not incorporate the mazes and rooms of the 
well known arcade game. As a matter of fact, one of the neat 
features of this game is the ability to move freely all around 
the screen. You are the “super human” who must fight off 
the attacking robots and save the remaining humans from 
destruction. The left joystick is used to move your human 
anywhere on the screen, and the right one to shoot in any of 
eight directions. This takes a little getting used to at first, not 
only to coordinate the movement between the two joysticks, 
but to “untrain” yourself that the fire button shoots bullets. 
In this game, the fire button is used only to start playing. 

As you successfully fend off the robots, you move to 
another “frame,” and the action starts over again, only with 
more difficulty. 1 don’t know how many frames there are, 
but after about 10 minutes of play, I progressed to frame 1 1 
and achieved a score of 28,000 points. I’ll spend a few hours 
trying to reach the heights of Robottack fame. There are 
plenty of obstacles to overcome, however, since there is not 
just one kind of robot, but guardian robots, gunner robots, 
mind robots, and bombs. The bombs look like “X’s," and 
they chase after you very very fast. 

The beginning of each new frame starts off with great 
audio/ visual effects, as your super-human “materializes” in 
the center of the screen, similar to the famous Imagic game. 
Demon Attack. At the same time, your foes appear at var- 
ious random points on the playfield, wasting no time as they 
start to seek you out. Each new frame brings more vicious 
robots and faster action. I’ve discovered that it’s not neces- 
sary to clear each new frame entirely of robots, which leads 
me to believe that new playfields are achieved by reaching 
certain point levels. 

Although many games claim to be (and indeed are) in 
machine language, that doesn’t necessarily mean that they’re 
done well. All too often, the sound effects suffer for the 
graphics, or vice versa. Intracolor did a good job with this 
one, taking full advantage of the Color Computer’s sound 
and graphics abilities. It is a fast-paced, high-resolution, 
arcade style shoot ’em up, and for those of you who like that 
kind of thing, this is a good bet. It’s designed for one or two 
players, with the top five scores displayed on the screen. 

They were thoughtful enough to include a PAUSE feature 
which you activate by pressing the space bar. But my game 
has paused long enough — it’s time to get to frame 12. 

(Intracolor Communications, P.O. Box 1035, East Lansing, 

MI 48823, $24.95 cassette, $27.95 disk) 

— Bob Safir 


New Frog Is A 
Prince Of A Program 

Tom Mix Software has done it again! Their newest addi- 
tion to the company’s list of software is The Frog. 

The Frog is an almost flawless derivative of Frogger. 
Everything in Frogger is here in The Frog. There are lady 
frogs, treacherous diving turtles, pesky flies, hungry alliga- 
tors and deadly snakes to contend with. 

In case any of y.ou out there have not seen Frogger or The 
Frog, here is a description of how the game works. The 
object is for you, the frog, to travel from the bottom of the 
screen to the top and safety. Sound easy? Not quite. 

There are cars, trucks and other vehicles that would love 
to run your green body into the pavement. There are about 
five rows of this before you reach the middle of the screen — 
if you live that long. Here is a safe place from the cars, but, 
on screen three, a snake moves back and forth when you 
reach this spot and would like frog legs for dinner. 

Ahead of you are another five rows of water and numer- 
ous logs and turtles move back and forth in different direc- 
tions at varying speeds. U nfortunately, your frog can 7 swim 
and getting your feet wet is fatal. Now we jump on a group of 
turtles and wait there. Oh no, their backs are only showing 
now; better get off before they submerge and we get all wet. 
So we quickly jump onto a passing log. 

What do we have here? A girl frog! Like a lady or gentle- 
man you’ll help her get across the river, for an extra 200 
points. Now we jump on another faster log and — what’s 
this? — a snapping alligator is moving towards us! Don’t 
jump into gator’s jaw or we will be someone’s lunch. We’ll 
jump on his back. 

Now we slowly move along watching the clock in order 
not to run out of time. Here comes a home safe spot, our 
destination. Before we jump, a fly appears in that spot, so 
now, instead of being eaten, let’s eat the fly and get 200 extra 
points. We must do that five more times before we go to 
another screen and a harder challenge. 

The detail of this game is amazing. Some of the cars have 
exhaust coming out of them as they move. The logs roll. The 
turtle’s legs move. When turtles dive there are bubbles. The 
fly flaps his wings. The gator’s jaws and tail move and, when 
you are killed, a skull and crossbones appear over the spot. 
The Frog uses the highest graphics mode and is written in 
machine language. 

The Frog, fortunately, takes the middle ground in diffi- 
culty. It is not too hard as to be impossible, but not too easy 
as to be boring, and after some practice you can actually get 
good. 

(Tom Mix Software, 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, MI 

49505, $27.95 on tape, $30.95 on disk) 

— Jeff White 


July 1983 the RAINBOW 233 




JL ■ ■ ■* ■ M. A. 


RAINBUG 

III 


Part three of a series on our 
new machine language 
monitor being developed 
by the author, Rainbow 
Technical Editor, 

Dan Downard 


the 
RAINBOW 


I n last month’s installment we added a section of machine 
code to the Rainbug monitor showing how to calculate 
offsets and mentioned the different types of addressing 
used in a 6809 microprocessor. This month we will add the 
facility of calculation of postbytes, such as those used in 
indexed and indirect addressing of Rainbug and discuss the 
different types of instructions understood by the machine. If 
you are having trouble inputting the machine code into your 
CoCo look in this issue under “Rainbow Info" for a quick 
BASIC program for inputting machine language routines. 
Remember the starting address for Rainbug is $3000 in the 
listing, but it can be changed to any address you desire. Until 
you are sure it is functioning properly it is best to leave it at 
$3000. 

6809 Instructions 

Machine code instructions can be divided into five major 
categories according to the affected registers: 


Instructions Register(s) 

•8-Bit Accumulator and Memory 

Instructions A,B 

• 16-Bit Accumulator and Memory 

Instructions D 

• Index/Stack Pointer Instructions X,Y,U,S 

• Branch Instructions CC 

• Miscellaneous Instructions All 


For your reference we are including a list of all instructions 
in Table 1 through 5. By looking at the mnemonics and the 
description following them you can follow assembly texts in 
any article as they are used exclusively with the addressing 


( Dan Downard is an electrical engineer and has been 
involved in electronics for 24 years through ham radio 
(K4KWT). His interest in computers began about five 
years ago and he has built several 68XX systems .) 

234 the RAINBOW July 1983 


modes discussed in last months segment to describe all of the 
available machine code functions. We will examine an 
instruction from each set to familiarize us with the pro- 
cedure. 

8-Bit Accumulator 
and Memory Instructions 

For our example let’s look at the ADDA instruction, or 
add memory to accumulator A. This particular instruction 
is also valid for the B register, thus the notation ADDB. It 
can be used with all but inherent addressing modes since the 
value of any memory location is added to the A register and 
the a register is replaced with this value. Certain bits of the 
CC (Condition Code) register are affected by this operation 
and for anything but simple binary arithmetic must be 
examined for future operations. 

16-Bit Accumulator 
and Memory Instructions 

The STD instruction stores the 16-bit value in the D 
register, which is the A and B registers combined, at any 
memory location depending on the addressing method in 
use. How can you store a 16-Bit value at one 8-Bit memory 
location? You can’t. The 16-Bit value is actually stored at the 
memory address specified and the next consecutive byte. 
Again, the inherent mode is the only type of addressing that 
can’t be used. 

Index/Stack Pointer Instructions 

What happens when you want to store a value for future 
reference such as a return address for a subroutine. The 
microprocessor does this automatically when you execute 
certain instructions through the use of the S, or Stack Pointer 
register. In reality, this isa memory location in RAM whose 
location is recognized by the 6809 through your instruction 
such as LEAS. If you notice from Table 3 there are actually 
two stacks, the S and U registers. The S register is always 


recognized by the microprocessor as the primary, or hard- 
ware, stack. Any register can be temporarily saved for future 
use by instructions such as PSHS or retrieved by the PULS. 
What these instructions do is provide a method of organiza- 
tion for logical temporary storage of variables and ad- 
dresses. 


Table 1 

8-Bit Accumulator and Memory Instructions 


Instruction 

Description 

ADCA, ADCB 

Add memory to accumulator with carry 

ADDA, ADDB 

Add memory to accumulator 

ANDA, ANDB 

And memory with accumulator 

ASL, ASLA, ASLB 

Arithmetic shift of accumulator or memory left 

ASR, ASRA, ASRB 

Arithmetic shift of accumulator or memory right 

BITA, BITB 

Bit test memory with accumulator 

CLR, CLRA, CLRB 

Clear accumulator or memory location 

CMPA, CMPB 

Compare memory from accumulator 

COM, COMA, COMB 

Complement accumulator or memory location 

DAA 

Decimal adjust A accumulator 

DEC, DECA, DECB 

Decrement accumulator or memory location 

EORA, EORB 

Exclusive or memory with accumulator 


Exchange R1 with R2 (R1, R2 = A, B, CC, DP) 

INC, INCA, INCB 

Increment accumulator or memory location 

ll.TMS.M^ r a. 

Load accumulator from memory 

II.1WI.1MMM:- 

Logical shift left accumulator or memory location 

LSR, LSRA, LSRB 

Logical shift right accumulator or memory location 

MUL 

Unsigned multiply (Ax B — D) 

NEG, NEGA, NEGB 

Negate accumulator or memory 

ORA, ORB 

Or memory with accumulator 

ROL, ROLA, ROLB 

Rotate accumulator or memory left 

1 1 1 II 1 1 1 II I I I — 

Rotate accumulator or memory right 

SBCA, SBCB 

Subtract memory from accumulator with borrow 

STA, STB 

Store accumulator to memroy 

SUBA, SUBB 

Subtract memory from accumulator 

TST, TSTA, TSTB 

Test accumulator or memory location 

TFR R1 , R2 

Transfer R1 to R2 (R1, R2 = A, B, CC, DP) 


NOTE: 

A, B, CC, or DP may be pushed to (pulled from) either stack with PSHS, PSHU 
(PULS, PULU) instructions. 

Branch Instructions 

Remember the offset calculator from last month’s article? 
Offsets are used in conjunction with branch instructions to 
compare values in a program requiring a decision on how to 
proceed. 1 suppose a simple program is the best way to 
illustrate. Using the memory examine function of Rainbug, 
enter the following program into memory starting at $2000. 


$2000 

8E A 147 

l.DX 

#$A 147 

$2003 

A6 80 

LDA 

,X+ 

$2005 

BD A30A 

JSR 

$A30A 

$2008 

8C A16F 

CMPX 

ff$A16F 

$200 B 

26 F6 

BNE 

$2003 

$200D 

39 

RTS 


This particular program should tell you 

what version of 


ROM you have in your computer. Notice that the routine 
printed the value of memory at the location of the X register 
and compared it each time with SA16F. If it was not equal, 
another character was printed. 

Miscellaneous Instructions 

This group of instructions is a grab bag of commands that 
are not directly related to any specific register. For example 
the J M P instruction tells the 6809 to change the value of the 
program counter, thereby moving program execution to a 
different address. Essentially when you execute an EXEC 
instruction in BASIC you are doing the same thing. Did you 


Table 2 

16-Bit Accumulator and Memory Instructions 


Instruction 

Description 

ADDD 

Add memory to D accumulator 

CMPD 

Compare memory from D accumulator 

EXG D, R 

Exchange D with X, Y, S, U, or PC 

LDD 

Load D accumulator from memory 

SEX 

Sign Extend B accumulator into A accumulator 

STD 

Store D accumulator to memory 

SUBD 

Subtract memory from D accumulator 

TFR D, R 

Transfer D to X, Y, S, U, or PC 

TFR R, D- 

Transfer X, Y, S, U, or PC to D 


NOTE: 

D may be pushed (pulled) to either stack with PSHS, PSHU (PULS, PULU) 
instructions. 


notice the interrupt instructions? We will cover interrupts 
and condition codes next month. 

Rainbug 

Two new commands are added to Rainbug this month. 
One was actually in the listing last month but omitted from 
the commands. 

X Exit to BASIC 

E Encode Postbyte 

The X command is self explanitory and executes as soon as 
the key is depressed, so be careful. If hit by accident an 
EXEC command from BASIC will return you to Rainbug. 
The E command has the following syntax: 

E ,X++ 

E HHHH,PCR 
E H,X 


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July 1983 


the RAINBOW" 235 








































































The preceding examples are all mnemonics requiring a 
postbyte as part of the op-code. The E command will auto- 
matically calculate the postbyte for you. The letter “H” is 
input to indicate the number of hex bytes needed in the 
expression. 

Table 3 

Index/Stack Pointer Instructions 


Instruction 

Description 

CMPS, CMPU 

Compare memory from stack pointer 

CMPX, CMPY 

Compare memory from index register 

EXG R1. R2 

Exchange D, X, Y, S, U or PC with D, X, Y, S, U or PC 

LEAS, LEAU 

Load effective address into stack pointer 

LEAX, LEAY 

Load effective address into index register 

LDS, LDU 

Load stack pointer from memory 

LDX, LDY 

Load index register from memory 

PSHS 

Push A, B, CC, DP, D, X, Y, U, or PC onto hardware stack 

PSHU 

Push A, B, CC, DP, D, X, Y, X, or PC onto user stack 

PULS 

Pull A, B, CC, DP, D, X, Y, U, or PC from hardware stack 

PULU 

Pull A, B, CC, DP, D, X, Y, S, or PC from hardware stack 

STS, STU 

Store stack pointer to memory 

STX, STY 

Store index register to memory 

TFR R1, R2 

Transfer D, X, Y, S, U, or PC to D, X, Y, S, U, or PC 

ABX 

Add B accumulator to X (unsigned) 


Summary 

It looks like this four-part series is going to be extended 
another month out of necessity to cover all of the material 
intended in short, hopefully digestible, segments. Next 
month we will cover interrupts and the CC register. We will 
add tape and disk commands to Rainbug leaving break- 
points for last. So far the starting, ending and execute 
addresses are $3000, $3302, $319E. Notice that the lookup 
table is different due to addition of a new command. See you 
next month! 


Table 4 

Branch Instructions 


! Instruction 

Description 

SIMPLE BRANCHES 

BEQ, LBEQ 

Branch if equal 

BNE, LBNE 

Branch if not equal 

BMI, LBMI 

Branch if minus 

BPL, LBPL 

Branch if plus 

BCS, LBCS 

Branch if carry set 

BCC, LBCC 

Branch if carry clear 

BVS, LBVS 

Branch if overflow set 

BVC, LBVC 

Branch if overflow clear 

SIGNED BRANCHES 

BGT, LBGT 

Branch if greater (signed) 

BVS. LBVS 

Branch if invalid twos complement result 

BGE, LBGE 

Branch if greater than or equal (signed) 

BEQ, LBEQ 

Branch if equal 

BNE, LBNE 

Branch if not equal 

BLE, LBLE 

Branch if less than or equal (signedl 

BVC, LBVC 

Branch if valid twos complement result 

BLT, LBLT 

Branch if less than (signed) 

1 UNSIGNED BRANCHES 

BHI, LBHI 

Branch if higher (unsigned) 

BCC, LBCC 

Branch if higher or same (unsigned) 

BHS, LBHS 

Branch if higher or same (unsigned) 

BEQ, LBEQ 

Branch if equal 

BNE, LBNE 

Branch if not equal 

BLS, LBLS 

Branch if lower or same (unsigned) 

BCS, LBCS 

Branch if lower (unsigned) 

BL6. lblo 

Branch if lower (unsigned) 

! OTHER BRANCHES 

BSR, lbsr 

Branch to subroutine 

BRA, LBRA 

Branch always 

BRN, LBRN 

Branch never 


236 the RAINBOW July 1983 


Table 5 

Miscellaneous Instructions 


Instruction 

Description 

ANDCC 

AND condition code register 

CWAI 

AND condition code register, then wait for interrupt 

NOP 

No operation 

ORCC 

OR condition code register 

JMP 

Jump 

JSR 

Jump to subroutine 

RTI 

Return from interrupt 

RTS 

Return from subroutine 

SWI. SWI2, SWI3 

Software interrupt (absolute indirect) 

SYNC 

Synchronize with interrupt line 


Reprinted from the MC6809 - MC6809E Microprocessor Programming 
Manual with the permission of Motorola, Inc. 


00100 *RAINBUG 

00110 *DAN DOWNARD REV 2 

00111 HINES 100-2550 AND LINES 

00112 ♦2885-3080 APPEARED IN PARTS 

00113 ♦! AND 2 OF THIS SERIES 


3000 


00120 

ORG 

$3000 


31A8 

00130 CNDBAD 

EQU 

ERROR 


008C 

00140 SKIP2 

EQU 

$8C 


A000 

00150 POLCAT 

EQU 

$A000 


A002 

00160 CHROUT 

EQU 

$A002 



02555 ♦TABLE OF COMMANDS 


3205 

02560 CMDTBL 

EQU 

♦ 

3205 

42 

02570 

FCC 

HI 

3206 

00F2 

02580 

FDB 

BKPT-* 

3208 

43 

02590 

FCC 

/C / 

3209 

00F0 

02600 

FDB 

CALL-* 

320B 

44 

02610 

FCC 

/D / 

320C 

00EE 

02620 

FDB 

DISK-* 

320E 

45 

02630 

FCC 

/E / 

320F 

0054 

02640 

FDB 

ENCDE-* 

3211 

47 

02650 

FCC 

/G / 

3212 

00E9 

02660 

FDB 

GO-* 

3214 

4C 

02670 

FCC 

III 

3215 

00E7 

02680 

FDB 

LOAD-* 

3217 

4D 

02690 

FCC 

/M / 

3218 

FDES 

02700 

FDB 

CMEM-* 

321A 

40 

02710 

FCC 

/e/ 

321B 

00E2 

02720 

FDB 

PRINT-* 

321D 

4F 

02730 

FCC 

/ 0/ 

321E 

0017 

02740 

FDB 

OFFS-* 

3220 

50 

02750 

FCC 

!?/ 

3221 

00DD 

02760 

FDB 

PUNCH-* 

3223 

52 

02770 

FCC 

/R / 

3224 

00DB 

02780 

FDB 

REG-* 

3226 

53 

02790 

FCC 

/S / 

3227 

00D9 

02800 

FDB 

STLEV-* 

3229 

54 

02810 

FCC 

m 

322A 

00D7 

02820 

FDB 

TRACE-* 

322C 

56 

02830 

FCC 

m 

322D 

00D5 

02840 

FDB 

VER-* 

322F 

57 

02850 

FCC 

/W / 

3230 

FE5C 

02860 

FDB 

CWIND0-* 

3232 

58 

02870 

FCC 

III 

3233 

002A 

02880 

FDB 

EXIT-* 



03085 ♦ENCODE 

A POSTBVTE 

3263 6F 

E2 

03090 ENCDE 

CLR 

,-s 





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3265 5F 


03100 

CLRB 


32A0 26 

F6 

03350 

BNE 

ENLP2 

3266 30 

8D 0048 

03110 

LEAX 

C0NV1 , PCR 

32A2 E6 

IF 

03360 

LDB 

-1,X 

326 A 17 

FF01 

fl-noa 

W A imV 

LBSR 

INCH 

32A4 EA 

E4 

03370 

ORB 

,s 

326D 81 

5B 

03130 

CMPA 

i$58 

32A6 E7 

E4 

03380 

STB 

,s 

326F 26 

07 

03140 

BNE 

EN2 

32A8 30 

E4 

03390 

LEAX 

,8 

3271 86 

10 

03150 

LDA 

#$10 



03395 *PUT CHAR ON SCREEN 

3273 A7 

E4 

03160 

STA 

,s 

32AA 17 

FEBB 

03400 

LBSR 

0UT2HS 



03165 *NEXT CHARACTER 


32AD 17 

FED3 

03410 

LBSR 

PCRLF 

3275 17 

FEF6 

03170 ENGET 

LBSR 

INCH 

32B0 35 

84 

03420 

PULS 

PC, B 



03175 *END OF ENTRY 




03425 &TABLE OF VALID INPUTS 

3278 81 

0D 

03180 EN2 

CMPA 

t$0D 

32B2 

41 

03430 C0NV1 

FCC 

/A/ 

327A 27 

0E 

03190 

BEfi 

END1 

32B3 

04 

03440 

FCB 

$04 



03195 HOOK 

UP CHAR IN TABLE 

32B4 

42 

03450 

FCC 

/B / 

327C 6D 

84 

03200 ENLP1 

TST 

,x 

32B5 

05 

03460 

FCB 

$05 

327E 1027 

FF26 

03210 

LBEQ 

ERROR 

32B6 

44 

03470 

FCC 

/D/ 

3282 A1 

81 

03220 

CMPA 

, X++ 

32B7 

06 

03480 

FCB 

$06 

3284 26 

F6 

03230 

BNE 

ENLP1 

32B8 

48 

03490 

FCC 

/ H/ 

3286 EB 

IF 

03240 

ADDB 

-1|X 

32B9 

01 

03500 

FCB 

$01 

3288 20 

EB 

03250 

BRA 

ENGET 

32BA 

48 

03510 

FCC 

/H7 

328A 30 

8D 004D 

03260 END1 

LEAX 

CDNV2, PCR 

32BB 

01 

03520 

FCB 

$01 

328E IF 

98 

03270 

TFR 

B, A 

32BC 

48 

03530 

FCC 

/H/ 

3290 84 

60 

03280 

ANDA 

#$60 

32BD 

01 

03540 

FCB 

$01 

3292 AA 

E4 

03290 

ORA 

>s 

32BE 

48 

03550 

FCC 

IHI 

3294 A7 

E4 

03300 

STA 

,s 

32BF 

00 

03560 

FCB 

$00 

3296 C4 

9F 

03310 

ANDB 

#$9F 

32C0 

2C 

03570 

FCC 

V 

3298 6D 

84 

03320 ENLP2 

TST 

,x 

32C1 

00 

03580 

FCB 

$00 

329A 1027 

FF0A 

03330 

LBEQ 

ERROR 

32C2 

2D 

03590 

FCC 

/-/ 

329E El 

81 

03340 

CMPB 

, X++ 

32C3 

09 

03600 

FCB 

$09 


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238 the RAINBOW July 1983 






32C4 

23 

03610 

FCC 

/-/ 

32C5 

01 

03620 

FOB 

$01 

32C6 

53 

03630 

FCC 

/S/ 

32C7 

70 

03640 

FCB 

$70 

32C8 

59 

03650 

FCC 

/Y/ 

32C9 

30 

03660 

FCB 

$30 

32CA 

55 

03680 

FCC 

/U/ 

32CB 

50 

03690 

FCB 

$50 

32CC 

58 

03700 

FCC 

HI 

32CD 

10 

03710 

FCB 

$10 

32CE 

2B 

03720 

FCC 

HI 

32CF 

07 

03730 

FCB 

$07 

3230 

2B 

03740 

FCC 

HI 

3231 

01 

03750 

FCB 

$01 

3232 

50 

03760 

FCC 

l?l 

3233 

80 

03770 

FCB 

$80 

3234 

43 

03780 

FCC 

/C/ 

3235 

00 

03790 

FCB 

$00 

3236 

52 

03800 

FCC 

/R/ 

3237 

00 

03810 

FCB 

$00 

3238 

53 

03820 

FCC 

/]/ 

3239 

00 

03830 

FCB 

$00 

32BA 

FF 

03840 

FCB 

$FF 



03845 ^CONVERSION TO SET POSTBYTE 

323B 

1084 

03850 C0NV2 

FDB 

$1084 

3233 

1100 

03860 

FOB 

$1100 


323F 

1288 

03870 

FOB 

$1288 

32E1 

1389 

03B80 

FOB 

$1389 

32E3 

1486 

03890 

FOB 

$1486 

32E5 

1585 

03900 

FOB 

$1585 

32E7 

1688 

03910 

FOB 

$16SB 

32E9 

1780 

03920 

FOB 

$1780 

32EB 

1881 

03930 

FOB 

$1881 

32E3 

1982 

03940 

FDB 

$1982 

32EF 

1A83 

03950 

FDB 

$1 A83 

32F1 

828C 

03960 

FDB 

$S28C 

32F3 

8383 

03970 

FDB 

$8383 

32F5 

039F 

03980 

FDB 

$039F 

32F7 

00 

03990 

FCB 

$00 



03995 ^RETURNS FOR 

FUTURE ROUTINES 

32F8 39 


04000 BKPT 

RTS 


32F9 39 


04010 CALL 

RTS 


32FA 39 


04020 BISK 

RTS 


32FB 39 


04030 GO 

RTS 


32FC 39 


04040 LOAB 

RTS 


32FB 39 


04050 PRINT 

RTS 


32FE 39 


04060 PUNCH 

RTS 


32FF 39 


04070 REG 

RTS 


3300 39 


04080 STLEV 

RTS 


3301 39 


04090 TRACE 

RTS 


3302 39 


04100 VER 

RTS 



0000 

04110 

END 



00000 TOTAL ERRORS 



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July 1983 the RAINBOW 239 











A Tale of Three Flexes 


By Dr. Laurence D. Preble 

A ll in favor of more powerful software for the Color 
Computer say Aye! Good . . . Now, someone explain 
to the Russian ambassador that rumble he heard 
was not a nuclear test — only the unanimous agreement of a 
megaton of CoCo users. 

If you have been following my periodic reviews, you know 
that Flex (TM of Technical Systems Consultants) is a pow- 
erful alternative disk operating system for the Color Com- 
puter. An incredible variety of business software is designed 
to run under Flex. A number of programming languages are 
available including Pascal, Fortran, RS BASIC, RS Assem- 
bler, TSC BASIC, TSC Assembler, Relocating Assembler, 
Macro Assembler, Mumps, Forth and “C.” Another reason 
I use Flex with the Color Computer is that it allows me to 
run high performance disk drives as well as the standard 
Radio Shack drives. One drive 1 use can handle nearly a 
megabyte of storage; that translates to over 200 programs 
stored on one disk! 

Data-Comp was the first to “have” Flex for the Color 
Computer about two years ago. Commercial distribution 
did not actually begin until 1982. Their current offering has 
evolved considerably since the early beginnings which 
required hardware adapters and much software modifica- 


NEW FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 


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of X-Y data. GRAFPLOT is perfect for personal, business, statis- 
tistical, scientific and engineering applications. Includes features 
not found in any other COLOR COMPUTER graphing system: 

■ 2 2 2x174 pixel on-screen data plotting area. 

■ Complete on-screen labeling for two Y-axes w/200 data 

points per axis leven more points by chaining data filesl. 

■ 9 graphing options: 3 symbols w/2 line types or points only. 

a Full function data editing: add, change, delete and sort. 

■ Hardcopy w/standard screenprint programs Inot supplied I - 

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■ Graphs output to screen, printer, tape or disk. 

■ Plots any user-defined function, edit 4 program lines. 

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Dealer inquiries welcome. Quantity discounts available. 


tion. Frank Hogg Labs began offering their commercial 
version in early 1982. This implementation was actually the 
first to run on an “almost” stock CoCo. I say almost because 
it still required the hardware addition of 64K chips as do all 
current versions of Flex. Brand new is the offering by Spec- 
tral Associates. If each version of Flex were totally identical 
with its companions, it would not matter much where you 
purchase Flex. Life is rarely that simple. Technical Systems 
Consultants (TSC) authored the original versions of Flex; 
those versions, however, will not run on the Color Compu- 
ter without modification. It is the modifications to Flex that 
are unique to each distributor. 

Modifications to Flex consist of special input/ output 
routines, video display implementations, printer drivers and 
disk drivers. Methods of installing Flex in the CoCo varyas 
well. In addition, each distributor has provided certain 
added attractions which we will discuss in some detail. 

Data-Comp Flex 

Data-Comp does not actually sell a fully modified version 
of Flex — what they do sell is the F-MATE(RS) conversion 
for TSC Flex. The user, however, may purchase both the 
F-MATE(RS) conversion and TSC General version of Flex 
from the people at Data-Comp; it is then, a relatively simple 
procedure to combine the conversion package with Flex to 
have a working system. Once a “boot up” disk has been 
created, you can enter Flex from Radio Shack Disk BASIC 
by typing RUN “FLEX.” 

Once you have entered Flex, you may select a high resolu- 
tion video display; you are no longer limited to the standard 
Radio Shack 32 column by 16 row screen format. A 51 x 24 
display format is most useful; it provides good legibility on 
most TVs while giving you the added features of upper and 
lower case characters and an XY addressable cursor. Inverse 
video is also available. One very nice extra is that Data- 
Comp provides you with the Assembly Language Source 
listings of the video routines so that you may modify them at 
will. You may create screen formats of 32 x 1 6, 32 x 24, 42 x 
24, 51 x 24 and 64 x 24. (Data-Comp also provides Source 
Code for a total of eight of its support commands, a freebie 
not currently available from other companies.) 

Another salient feature of Data-Comp Flex is its NEW- 
DISK command. NEWDISK allows you to format a new 
disk any way you like within the physical limitations of the 
disk drive you are using. You may specify double or single 
sided, double or single density and you may specify the 
maximum number of tracks available. Up to this point, 
everything I have mentioned is also true of the other com- 
panies’ NEWDISK commands; however, Data-Comp’s 
NEWDISK also provides you with a running commentary 
on how the formatting is proceeding. Formatting a mega- 
byte disk on a high performance drive takes several minutes 
and may lead you to believe your system has “hung” or 
crashed; so it is very nice to visualize the progress being 
made. 

Although it is fine to use a Radio Shack disk drive with 
Flex, the formats of a Flex diskette and a Radio Shack 
diskette are dissimilar and therefore incompatible; however, 
Data-Comp provides three utilities for exchange of infor- 
mation between Radio Shack and Flex diskettes. RSREAD 
is a machine language command which will read a file from a 
Radio Shack disk and transfer the information to a Flex 
disk. This function is provided free. RSDIR is a machine 
language command which displays the directory of a Radio 
Shack disk — also free. Frank Hogg Labs does provide a 
command which includes the functions of RSREAD and 


240 the RAINBOW July 1983 



RSDIR but Hogg’s version is written in DBASIC which you 
must purchase separately. Spectral Associates does not cur- 
rently provide a similar function. RSWRITE is a machine 
language command which will write a Flex file to a Radio 
Shack disk. Currently, neither Frank Hogg Fabs nor Spec- 
tral Associates offers such a function. Finally, RSCVBIN is 
a machine language command which will rearrange the 
format of a Radio Shack machine language program so that 
it will run under Flex. No other company currently offers 
this function. 

Also provided free is CCBAS1C, a conversion for Radio 
Shack Extended BASIC to run under Flex. The conversion 
allows you to LOA D and 5/1 VE both BASIC and machine 
language programs in Flex format. Special disk input/ out- 
put routines such as individual sector read/ write functions 
are not implemented. 

Data-Comp provides an unusual printer driver command 
that checks to see if the printer is ready before outputting 
data. Without such a feature, your system will “hang up" 
and need to be reset if you attempt to send data to the printer 
port with no printer available. 

MEMEX and DISKEX are two more interesting machine 
language commands which allow the user to examine and 
change memory or the sectors of a disk respectively. 

DISKRATE allows the user to set the stepping rate of a 
DISK drive. This is useful because some high performance 
drives can step up to five times faster than normal Radio 
Shack drives. 

USERKEYS provides a means of defining your own con- 
trol codes and special characters not available on the normal 
Color Computer keyboard. 


When you buy the Flex package from Data-Comp, they 
also include a full feature Editor and Assembler from TSC. 
This is not exactly a freebie, however, because Data-Comp’s 
price for their Flex package is higher than either the Frank 
Hogg Laboratories or the Spectral Associates version. 

For those of you who wish to purchase or already own a 
separate terminal, Data-Comp sells a handy utility called 
TERM. For $19.95 you receive a package that allows 
another terminal to access the Color Computer. An interest- 
ing feature is the recognition of the BREAK key on the 
terminal. While using EXT and receiving output from the 
computer, you may press BREAK on the terminal which 
will cause the output to pause. You may then press ESC to 
continue output or press a carriage return to abort output. 
One truly unique feature of TERM is the automatic recogni- 
tion of baud rates from the terminal. 

Overall, I was impressed with Data-Comp’s version of 
Flex. There were a few aspects 1 felt were lacking or could 
stand some improvement. One example which really stands 
out is that the people at Data-Comp never purchased a 
license for Flex from TSC. Both Frank Hogg Labs and 
Spectral Associates purchased the rights to distribute Flex 
at a cost of from $ 1 2,000 to $20,000. A license to Flex allows 
the distributor to freely modify the operating system and to 
distribute the end result at whatever price they choose. By 
not purchasing a license to Flex, Data-Comp must sell their 
package of modifications separate from Flex and devise a 
method for the user to combine the modifications with the 
Flex package. This is not so bad but does add an extra step 
to setting up Flex. To reiterate, anybody, including you or I, 
can sell TSC Flex; of course, TSC will receive most of the 



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July 1983 the RAINBOW 241 



profit unless we agree to pay X amount of dollars to license 
the product. Once we obtain the license, we owe TSC 
nothing more and can modify and distribute Flex at will. 

Without a license, the problem is that the price of Flex is 
set by TSC. Theoretically at least, both Spectral Associates 
and Frank Hogg Labs could cut prices on their versions of 
Flex as low as they like becaue the own the rights to Flex and 
pay no further royalties on each sale. In practice, however, 
the prices of the three Flex versions are fairly competitive. 

Frank Hogg Labs Flex 

Frank Hogg Labs has been supplying Flex for the Color 
Computer for over a year now but has been supplying 
business software to run under Flex since 1979, long before 
the Color Computer was invented. The FHL version of Flex 
is well done. Installation of Flex is very simple because you 
do not need to do any procedures to modify Flex. Insert the 
system disk provided into drive 0 and type RUN “FLEX.” 

FHL Flex also privdes several high resolution screens 
such as 32 x 24, 5 1 x 24, 64 x 24 and even 64 x 32. Again, I 
find the 5 1 x 24 screen most useful in all versions of Flex as it 
provides the best compromise between legibility and density 
of information. The FHL video formats provide all of the 
expected features plus a few unique features. Like Data- 
Comp and Spectral Associates, FHL gives you an addressa- 
ble cursor, upper and lower case, control codes and inverse 
video. Extra functions include an optional status bar at the 
bottom or top of the screen like the fancy professional 
terminals. It is also possible to “protect” certain portions of 
the screen. That is, you can put a block of information on the 
screen and keep it from scrolling or being overwritten. FHL 


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video routines also allow special methods of generating all 
of the ASCII characters and codes without the necessity of 
defining user keys. 

A very handy feature of FHL Flex is the HELP com- 
mand. Did you forget how to work a certain command like 
CAT? Type HELP CAT to get the answer. No other version 
of Flex currently offers this feature. 

FHL also provides a printer driver that is built into Flex. 
That means the driver is immediately available without 
loading from disk. You can even send a special control code 
form the keyboard to cause everything that outputs to the 
screen to also output to the printer. This is especially useful 
for getting hard copies from programs that were not 
designed to access the printer port. Baud rates up to 9600 are 
provided. 

The SETUP command is very powerful. You may use 
SETUP to alter the printer baud rates, set up parameters for 
an external terminal, set up stepping rates for your disk 
drives and examine and change portions of memory. You 
can even use the SETUP command to tell the operating 
system what kind of disks you have; once the system is 
informed that you have a 40 track single sided drive, it would 
not waste time trying to format that drive 80 track or double 
sided. FHL’s competitors at Data-Comp seem to feel that 
this aspect of SETUP is a waste of time and an extra step. On 
other Flex systems, if you attempt to operate a disk drive 
beyond its capacity it will flop around for a while but even- 
tually give up. On FH L Flex the system immediately knows 
if you try to overextend a drive’s capability and aborts 
gracefully. Is the extra step of using SETUP worthwhile? 
Well, before deciding, remember that this only need be done 
once and then forgotten. The other mentioned functions of 
SETUP are undisputably worthwhile. 

For those who own or intend to buy a professional dumb 
terminal, a useful set of commands is EXT and INT. Like 
Data-Comp’s TERM command, EXT gives control of the 
computer to an external terminal which would normally 
include a professional full function keyboard and an 80 x 24 
characterdisplay. INT restores control to the Color Compu- 
ter’s internal keyboard. As with Data-Comp’s TERM com- 
mand, the BREAK key is recognized to cause a pause in the 
output stream. Unlike Data-Comp’s TERM command, 
baud rates to the terminal are initialized with the SETUP 
command. Also unlike Data-Comp’s TERM command, 
EXT and INT are included in the purchase price of FHL 
Flex. 

Some of you may be interested in learning Assembly 
Language and may need some editing capability but are not 
willing to spend a hundred bucks for the software. Frank 
Hogg Labs recently began including an Interactive Assem- 
bler and a Tiny Editor free when you purchase their version 
of Flex for $69.95. 1 know that Data-Comp includes a full 
feature Assembler and Editor with their Flex. The catch is 
that Data-Comp charges $199 for their basic Flex package. 
Neither the Interactive Assembler (ISM) nor the Tiny Edi- 
tor (TED) are as powerful as their grownup counterparts 
but they are surprisingly capable for their size. ISM assem- 
bles code directly to memory and can immediately execute 
the code, hence the term “Interactive.” Also included is the 
ability to examine and change memory. TED is line oriented 
and allows global searches and changes. 

So far, everything I have described is included when you 
buy FHL Flex for $69.95. For an extra $30, you can buy 
DBASIC which I feel is well worth the expense. DBASIC is 
FHL’s conversion of Radio Shack’s Disk Extended BASIC. 


242 the RAINBOW July 1983 




MIND BOGGLING 
ADVENTURES 




BEACON 

by PAL Creations 

You are the new keeper of an old 
lighthouse. The fact you have no ex- 
perience doesn’t matter as the old keeper 
will meet you there to show you the ropes. 
32K EXT $14.95 


MANSION OF DOOM 

by PAL Creations 

Rescue the Princess Marlena from the 
mysterious Count Von Steinoff and re- 
unite her with the townspeople of her 
village in Transylvania. The Count's man- 
sion has 76 distinct locations for you to 
explore in your rescue attempt. 

32K EXT $14.95 




EVASION 

by PAL Creations 


You have just escaped from a German 
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you must get out of Germany! 

32 K EXT $19.95 


TOWER CASTLE 

from Moreton Bay 
17.95 


BLACK SANCTUM 

by Mark Data 

$19.95 


EL DIABLERO 

by ( 'om/nilenvare 

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CARIBBEAN ODYSSEY 

You are stranded on a Caribbean island 
once used by pirates to store their 
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32K EXT $19.95 


THE FINAL 
rainbow COUNTDOWN 

by Bill & Debbie Cook 
You are outside a missile base which has 
just been evacuated because a bcserk 


General has started the countdown on a 
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Your mission, if you accept it, is to stop 
the missile launch and prevent WWIII. 
I6K EXT $14.95 


STALAG & ENO 

by PAL Creations 

1) You are an allied POW in a German 
prison camp in 1944 and were forgotten in 
the hot box when the camp was evacuated 
due to unexpected bombing raids. How 
will you get out ALIVE? 

2) Your eccentric old aunt just died and 
left you a fortune in cash. To prove you 
deserve it, you must decipher the clues 
and find your fortune, which she hid in 
her living room. 

32K EXT Both for $14.95 


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OLDIES BUT GOODIES. . 


JUNGLE TREK 

S£»l 

Lost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe com- 
pound before you arc lunch for lions; 
high resolution; multi-color. 

16K EXT $14.95 


SCORE-EZ 


From 1 to 6 people can play this excellent 
adaptation of a popular board game. The 
computer keeps score for all players, and 
rolls dice. You can roll again just like the 
original game. Properly position the 
results of each turn for maximum score. 
The only thing you will need besides your 
computer is players. Color graphics and 
sound will entertain you for hours, and 
it’s EZ to play. 

16K EXT $15.95 


RAINBOW 

lirxft 


BIORHYTHM/ 
PSYCHIC APT. 


1) Prints biorhythm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
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2) Your psychic ability is determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16K Ext Both for $15.95 


CALIXTO ISLAND 

by Mark Data 

$19.95 

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Dealer/ Author Inquiries Invited 

All programs watrantied 60 days from date ol put chase 
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C.O.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 
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S.S. POSEIDON 

by Bill & Debbie C ook 
You are aboard the S.S. Poseidon when it 
is capsized by a tidal wave. It is floating 
bottom-up on the surface and taking on 
water. Will you survive to tell your tale? 
16K LXl $14.95 

SANDS OF EGYPT 

DISK $29.95 


UTILITIES 

Disk to Tape (Tom Mix) 19.95 

Tape to Disk (Tom Mix) 19.95 

Color Diagnostic (Computei'ware) 17