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FALL, 1979. 

The PET® Gazette With A New Name, 



ISSUE 1. 



$2.00 



COMPUTE. 



The Journal for Progressive Computing' 



softside 




305 Riverside Drive. New York, 



10025 



m 



program. 



1 GRAPHICS PAC 2 Quadruple your PET's graphic resolution. Why be 

stuck with the PET's cumbersome 25 x 40 1000 point 
display. With Graphics Pac you can directly control 
(set and clear) 4000 points on screen-. It's great for graphing, plotting, and gaming. Graphics 
Pac allows you to plot in any combination of two modes: 4 Quadrant graphing with (0,0) center 
screen, and Standard graphing with (0,0) plotted in the upper left hand corner. Complete docu- 
mentation shows how you can merge this useful routine with any of your own programs with- 
out retyping either one! All this on a high quality Microsette for only $9.95. 

2 ASSEMBLER 2001 A full featured assembler for your PET microcompu- 

ter that follows the standard set of 6502 mnemonics. 
Now vou can take full advantage of the computing 
abilities of your PET. Store and ioad via tape, run through the SYS or USR functions. List and 
edit too with this powerful assembler. No other commercial PETassembler gives you all these 
features plus the ability to look at the PET'S secret Basic ROMs all in one program. This valu- 
able program is offered at $15.95. 

^^ BIKE An exciting new simulation that puts you m 

^^% charge of a bicycle manufacturing empire. Juggle 

^ inflation, breakdowns, seasonal sales variations, 

inventory, workers, prices, machines, and ad campaigns to keep your enterprise in the 
black. Bike is dangerously addictive. Once you start a game you will not want to stop. To 
allow you to take short rest breaks. Bike lets you store the data from your game on a tape 
so you can continue where you left off next time you wish to play. Worth a mimon in fun, 
we'll offer BIKE at $9.95. 

^- Dynamic usage of the PET's graphics features 

■+ with sound ! when combined with the fun of the number 1 arcade 

vnnr nr>rr,r,„t^^ D u . ,, ^^"^^ cquals an action packed video spectacle for 

your computer. Bumpers, chutes, flippers, free balls, gates, a jackpot, aPd Tlittle luck 
guarantee a great game for all. $9.95. J f ■ ""•"^ ^u^k 

b SUPER DOODLE Give your PET a workout. This program really 

puts the PET'S graphics to work. Super Doodle lets 
»» y°" "se the screen of your PET like a sketch nad 

^roducVN^^V^t''^"^' ''^"'i^^"' ^'^"^"^ ^ ''^' °' ^'^y °^ '^' 256 charactrs the PET^can 
^nir' * ^^V"^«^ ^"^^"d« ^" e^a^e ^^y that automatically remembers your last five 

DooTe llZTv '^9lT' '^^- ^"' '''''' ^^"*^°^- ^^^ -^^^ ->- -°- P^P'- ^-y Super 
m^ DRIVING ACE Non stop excitement with a fast moving high 

^J paced version of your favorite video arcade racing 

be careful on those hairt>in turn. Thifn™^^' ^•*?'^! "P! Shift Down! Watch your gas. and 

racing games sZi^U^lT.X^iolt^ ^^^^ '^ -^l^^--^" — ^^ 

endless road narkprt Jit>, ur.ui. on your t^b.! computer. Driving Ace simulates an 

fast but packed Grand Prix track. $9 gs ^^ °"^^"^ ^'^^""^*™""^ *^« 

Dealer Rates On Request 
Authors; We offer UNBEATABLE royalties 



COMPUTE. 



Subicription Information: 

We're trying something we think is new in subscription options, a "third" 
level of domestic distribution. Our newstand price is S2.00 a copy. Our 
"mail-order" subscription price is $9.00. That price is based on a six-issue 
year — in January we become bi-monthly. Our third level is called a "retail" 
subscription. You subscribe through us for a six issue year at $7-50. At the 
time you subscribe, you designate a local retail store where you'd like to pick 
up your copy each issue. We'll include your copy with the dealer order and 
you can pick it up as soon as it arrives. No extra charges ... If you move, let us 
know where, and we'll send you a list of participating dealers in your new 
location. You get a first hand reference to computing resources in your new- 
location, and your retail subscription follows you. If you visit a 
neighborhood store periodically try the retail subscription. It saves us both 
time and money. If you prefer the direct to your mailbox service ot a "mail- 
order" subscription, our rates are reasonable. Happy Computing. 

Authors of manuscripts warrant chat all materials submitted to COMPUTE, 
ate original materials with full ownership rights resident in said authors. By 
submitting articles to COMPUTE, authors acknowledge that such materials, 
upon acceptance for publication, become the exclusive ptoperty of Small Sys- 
tem Services, Inc. Unsolicited manuscripts not accepted for publication by 
COMPUTE, will be returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped en- 
velope. Program listings should be pro\'ided in printed form as well as ma- 
chine readable form. Articles should be furnished as typed copy with double 
spacing. Each page of your article should bear the title of the article, date and 
name of the author. 

Address all manuscripts and correspondence to COMPUTE. Post 
Office Box 5119, Greensboro, N.C. 27403. Materials (advertising art work, 
hardware, etc.) should be addressed to COMPUTE., 900 Spring Garden 
Street, Greensboro, N.C. 27403. 

Entire contents copyrighr © 1979 by Small System Setvices, Inc. All 
rights re.servcd. "COMPUTE. The Journal for Progressive Computing" is a 
trademark of Small System Services, Inc. ISSN 0194-357X 

COMPUTE, is published by Small System Services, Inc. We are not 
connected in any way with the former publisher of The PET Gazette, the Mi- 
crocomputer Resource Center of Madison, Wisconsin, a dissolved non-profit 
corporation. 

COMPUTE, assumes no liability for errors in articles or advertise- 
ments. Opinions expressed by authots are not necessarily chose of 
COMPUTE. 

Domestic U.S. Pricing: 

Retail Subscriptions are available only in the U.S. and Canada. In Canada 
add S.50/issue at all levels. 



U.S. Newstand 
Mail 
Retail 



S2.00/is5ue 
S9.00/6 issue year 
S7.50/6 issue year 



Europe: Air Mail subscription U.S. S22.30/sb( issue year 

Foreign subscriptions and sales should be paid in United States funds drawn 
on a U.S. bank. 

Other areas: inquire for air mail rates. 



Staff of COMPUTE. 

Robert C. Lock, Acting Production/Coordinating Editor. 
Belindii Church Hulon, Editorial Assistant. 
Carol HolmquisC Lock, Circulation Manager. 

Software/Hardware Lab assistance furnished by the staff of Small System 
Services, Inc. 

Len Lindsay, Senior Contributing Editor for Commodore Products. 
Harvey Herman, SBC Contributing Editor. 
David Gibbs, Art Director/Design Consultant. 

Our "first issue" thanks to Camera Graphics, Graphix House, Greensboro 
Printing Company and The Design Group. 

PET is a trademark of Commodore Business Machmes, Inc. 
Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Company. 
Atari is a trademark of Atari, Inc. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Selecting and Developing Small Business Systems — 

Potential Problems & Pitfalls Mike Sawyer, page 4. 
Sorting Sorts: A Programming Notebook, 

Rick &(. Belinda Hulon, page 7. 
Len Lindsay Reviews Three Word Processors — 

An Overview page 13. 

Commodore Business Machines page 14. 

Connecticut Microcomputer page 17. 

Programma International page 19. 

Microcomputers for Nuclear Instrumentation, 

J.S. Byrd, page 24. 
Tokens Aren't Just For Subways: 

Microsaft Basic Harvey Herman, page 29, 

Universal 6502 Memory Test 

PET, Apple, Sym and Others Carl Moscr, page 32. 
Microcomputers in Education Pierre Barrette, page 33. 
Flying With PET Pilot: Kids and 

Microcomputers At Peninsula School, 

Katie and David Thornburg, page 40. 
Teachers, Computers and The Classroom, 

C.J. Carr and Everett Carr, page 42. 
Atari Computers: The Ultimate Teaching Machines? 

John Victor, page 62, 
The Evolution Of A Magazine Len Lindsay, page 65. 

Pet In Transition — ROM Upgrade Map, 

Jim Butterficld, page 68 
A Commodore Perspective 
Retrofitting ROMs 
PET Screen Print Routine 
TRACE For The Pet 
32K Programs Arrive 
Using Direct Access Files 

2040 Dual Drive Disk 
Mastering The Ohio Scientific Challenger IP, 

Keith Russell &. Dave Schult:, page 97 



Bob Crowell, page 71. 

Larry Isaacs, page 76. 

David Malmbcrg, page 78. 

Brett Butler, page 84. 

Len Lindsay, page 86. 

With The Commodore 

Chuck Stuart, page 93. 



REVIEWS: 

Rl'vIcw Policy, page 3. 

D.C. Hayes Micro Modem, page 50. 

PETSETla,pago3l. 

Petunia & Petunia Player, page 42. 

Corvu5 1 lA Disk E>rive, page 61. 

New-Cursor {Hardware), page 79. 

Ncw'Curaor (Hardware), page 82- 

Macro Assembler And Text Editor: 

Sym Version^ page 100. 
Challenger I P,pagf 101. 
Aim 65, page 104- 

ADVERTISERS INDEX 

AB Computers 77 

Abacus Softv^'are 81, CBG: 57 

Automated Simulations 80, CBG: 60 
Byte Shop CBGi 57 

Channel Data Book 38 

Commodore Business Machmes 9, 10, 
11. 12 
Competicive Software CBG: 58 

Computer As.=^ciates 2 ! 

Computer Power For Business IBC 

Computer World 63, CBG: 52. DR 
Connctiicui Mtcrocomputer 15, 22. Z3 
Creative Computing CBG: 46, 47, 48, 
49, DR 
Cursor " ■'' 

Datasoft Research 92. CBG-. 50 

Di. Daley 18. CBG: 60 



Eastern Houst SoftwarL- CBG: 59 

Elccironk Specialists 8 1 , CBG: 60, DR 
Excel 88, 90, CBG: 57 



Exccrt 


101 


Innovision 


74 


Irldif 


42 


Micro Computer Industries 


90 


Micro Technology Unlimited 


6, CBG; 




56 


MicTophys Programs 


43, CBG 


New England Elect rtjnics Co. 


27,39 


Newinan Computer Exchange 


67 


P.S. Software 


S8 


Peninsula School 


36 


Programma Inti'rnational 


BC 


Program Desiun 35. CBG: 53, DR 


RNBEntcrptises 99 


CBG: 55 


Sawyer Software 


73 


Scawell Marketing 


103 


Stoyen E. Shaw, P.E. 


88 


Skyles Electric Works 16, 28, Z9, 


83, CBG: 54, DR 


Soft^ide Software 


IFC 


Textcast 


75 


Total Inl'ormation Services 


90 


Zieijlcr Electronics Company 


20 


Compute Subscriptions CBG: DR, DR, 




DR 



CBG Christmas Buyers Guide 
DR: Direct Response Card 



COMPUTE. 



PUBLISHER'S REMARKS 

Welcome to the last "Super" issue of The PET Gazette, 
and the first "Super" issue of COMPUTE, Whether 
you're an old or new reader, you should read Lcn Lind- 
say's article on the evolution of the magazine. It'll tell 
you more about where the magazine began, arid provide 
some context for the Resource Sections, the "Gazettes," 
the Review Form, and so on. 

The PET Gazette built its name by serving as a re- 
source journal. We expect to continue that tradition, 
not only in relation to Len's activity as Senior Contri- 
buting Editor for Commodore products, but other edi- 
torial activity with the additional 6502 products being 
added to the magazine. 

We won't review a product from a press release. 
When you see a review in COMPUTE, you'll know it 
exists. We cannot always guarantee that it exists in 
quantity (e.g. note the Atari review ... John Victor re- 
views from experience. He has his hands on one of the 
very few that Atari has released to their suppliers), but 
that's the nature of the business these days. If we're re- 
viewing a prototype, we'll try to tell you. 

We'll reiterate Len's trusted warning: Never buy a 
product unless you're sure it exists. We try to screen our 
advertising, but that's not even a sure bet, so trust the 
reviews you see here, and article reviews you see else- 
where. World Power has given the industry some new 
problems, and we need to develop ways to protect our- 
selves in the future. 

One last comment on "prototype" reviews. The 
lead time in the publishing industry is tremendous ,.. 
frequently 4-5 months, hi fairness to developing com- 
panies, we'll review prototype products as one means of 
shortening that lead time. We'll make it clear in the re- 
view that the product is a prototype and may suffer as 
such from developmental bugs and hasty documenta- 
tion. Nonetheless we think it will service both readers 
and "emerging" companies. 

I'll be interested in comments on such a practice 
from manufacturers and readers. For additional infor- 
mation on our review policies and practices, see the 
facing page. 

Small System Services, Inc. of Greensboro, NC is 
the publisher of COMPUTE. Among other things, our 
company runs a retail store (The Corner Computer 
Store) and has an R&LD/new product division. We're 
offering this information up front because we see no 
point in trying to avoid the fact that we're a multi- 
faceted company. Some articles are contributed by our 
staff (sec ROM Retrofit installation and Sorting Sorts). 
These are intended to be service articles. We treat the 
magazine as a totally separate operation of our 
company. It will be as objective and fair as it has always 
been. 

COMPUTE is not a non-profit magazine (at least 
it's not intended to be), but we fully intend to maintain 
the access to resources and informative approach of the 
original non-profit PET Gazette, 



As you can see from the Table of Contents, we've 
organized the magazine into four major "Modules." 
These modules will continue to provide the basis for 
each issue of COMPUTE. 

1. 6502 Section: This part of the magazine is in- 
tended to provide articles of interest to every- 
body with a machine with a 6502 inside. If 
you're writing an article for this section, it needs 
to apply to more than one machine, or be gener- 
alizable to other 6502 machines. 

2. Business and Industrial: This section of the mag- 
azine is devoted to business and industrial appli- 
cations of 6502 based machines. The articles will 
be of general interest to both learners and 
"doers." 

3. Education: This section is intended as a resource 
guide to teachers actively involved in the use of 
microcomputers, and equally to teachers consid- 
ering involvement. 

4. The Gazettes: For your own ".special" machine, 
we offer a PET Gazette, an Atari Gazette, an 
Apple Gazette, and for now, an SBC Gazette 
(Single Board Computer Gazette — ouch). In the 
Gazettes, you'll find material of specific interest; 
articles, reviews, new products and resources. 
Naturally we're strongest this issue with the PET 
Gazette, closely followed by the SBC Gazette. 
The Atari Gazette is off to a good start, and we 
expect Apple to catch up by the next issue. We'll 
look forward to your comments, reviews and art- 
icles. Welcome to COMPUTE.! 

In January, we'll begin a column called the GAP, 
where we'll "discuss" problems, products, etc. Wc want 
the GAP to promote a dialogue between manufacturers 
and consumers. Nothing makes it to the marketplace 
that's all good or all bad. The GAP will attempt to in- 
vestigate these "margins." Among other things, Janu- 
ary's column will comment on that little piece of red 
plastic on the SYM-I, Commodore's documentation, 
and OSI. We're sure, by then, Atari and Apple will be 
included as well. 

Enjoy this issue. Send us your comments, sugges- 
tions and complaints. We'll see you in January. 

Robert Lock 



HELP! 

Beginning in January, Compute, will offer ii HIiLP! irolumn in lmlK scctidii of 
the magazine (as demand wnrrants). If you have a problem, question, com- 
plaint, etc. write to me at Compute. Be sure to write "HELP! Column" on 
the lower left corner of the envelope. We'll farm out your reqtiests to 
"HELPful" perwns in business, industry, education and so on as available 
and try to answer in the next issue. Please understand that requests cannot 
he answered |>ersonaily, ami that all requests for HELP! will not he respond- 
ed to in the HELP! columns. 

RCL 



Rev 



; Procedures: 



1, Gaines: 

Please make copies of the review form on the facing page for contributing 
Reviews and comments on existing games and simulations. When you pick 
up a copy of a new game, si: down and fill out a sheet for us alter you've 
spent some time with the documentation and software. 

We'll run a tabulation of "Scores" in each issue. Be sure you provide all of 
the requested information. 

2. Hardware: 

Use copies of the same review form. It tells us what exists, and helps us pre- 
sent our readers with a balanced review of new products. Whenever possi- 
ble, we'll back up solicited review articles with summaries from your 
review forms. 

Educational and Business Software 

We are recruiting reviewers for our "Practicing" Review Panels. If you're an 
Educator or Business person who's engaged in using micros in daily work, 
please drop us a note providing the following information: 

1. Position, location, number of years involved with computing, hardware 
used (e.g. e.xtetnal storage devices and so on), curriculum area/ business- 
professional area/indusrrial applications area, etc, 

2. Please indicate your willingness to review: 

General purpose software; software within your area of specialization, etc. 

Qualifications: 

Reviewers may not he engaged in the writing or marketing of softw'are within 
vertical markets. E.G. if you sell or write Educational software, we won't ac- 
cept your review of someone elses. We will consider your comments on the 
payroll package you buy from someone else to handle your own business rec- 
ords. Fair enough? 

In writing review articles, please address these points: 

Documentation: Software: 

Clarity Depth 

Usefulness Sophistication 

Adequacy (Does it cover the topicO Value 

Relevance 
Ease of Use 
"Necessity of skill" 

Please use the general purpose review form as an indicator of areas to cover in 
review articles. 



COMPUTE. 

The Journal for Progressive Computing 







Date. 



Product Name: 



Manufacturer/Distributor: 



Suggested Retail Price: $_ 
Reviewer Information: 
Name 



Age 



Sex 



(Note: We request age and sex information only for the purpose of better 
targeting our reviews ... e.g. some programs may be unanimously praised by 
"older" reviewers and panned by those younger. We'd be helping both 
groups if we could point that out!) 

Machine: PET APPLE ATARI 

OSI AIM SYlvl KIM Other 

SCORING: 



Lowest 





1 2 3 

1 . Documentation: 
Clarity and Readability 
Comprehensiveness 

2. Software: 
Ease of use 
Originality 
Error Handling 

Use of Machine Capability 

3. Hardware: 

Ease of installation 
Ease of use 

4. Is it worth it? 
Uniqueness 
Challenge (Interest) 

Quality (Amateurish • Well Done) 

5. Educational Value 
Presents facts; develops skills 
Ease of learning 

Age Breadth (limited - broad) 
GENERAL INFORMATION: 
Would you buy it now? 
Would you recommend it for: 
"Beginning" Computerists? 
"Intermediate" Computerists? 
"Advanced" Compurerists? 
All Computerists? 
Comments: 



Average 
4 



Highest 



COMPUTE. 



SELECTING AND DEVELOPING SMALL 
BUSINESS SYSTEMS 

Potential 
Problems 
And Pitfalls 



By Michael Sawyer, President of Sawyer Software 

As microcomputers become more powerful and inex- 
pensive and personnel salaries increase, the use of the 
microcomputer for business applications becomes more 
and more attractive. The small businessman however, 
unaware of whether the capabilities of the microcom- 
puter can meet his company's needs or interface proper- 
ly to existing applications, is left with a monumental de- 
cision. This article will address itself to aiding the small 
businessman in answering this question. 

There are four main elements to any computer "sys- 
tem." These are hardware (the actual computer equip- 
ment used), software (programs used to instruct the 
hardware what to do), personnel required to operate 
the system and the procedures necessary to accomplish 
any given task. It is extremely important for the small 
businessman to consider a system rather than just the 
equipment used. 

I've talked to many a small businessman who after 
investing thousands of dollars in equipment found no 
software to fit their application or found interfacing 
their application to their computer equipment both 
frustrating and expensive, if not impossible. 

PITFALL #1 

Without the other elements of a computer sys- 
tem a piece of computer equipment is useless. 
Before evaluating each of the four elements of a 
computer system the small businessman must define 
what applications he would like to involve the comput- 
er with and define his purpose in utilizing a computer 
system. If the purposes are cost and time effectiveness, 
he must define present cost and time necessary to com- 
plete a particular application, to have some degree of 
comparison to the microcomputer system. 

PITFALL #2 

Without fully defining current applications or 
present costs the small businessman loses any 
prospective of comparison and often ends up 
with an inadequate computer system. 
Some standard applications which are suited to the 
microcomputer are Payroll, General Ledger, Accounts 
Receivable, Accounts Payable, Word Processing and in 
certain instances Inventory Control. 



When defining your application divide it into three 
parts. The first is the information required to imple- 
ment a specific application. Below is a payroll example: 

NAME 

ADDRESS 

SOC. SEC. # 

SALARY/HOURLY RATE 

MARRIED/SINGLE 

# OF EXEMPTIONS 

EMPLOYEE # 

YR TO DATE, QUARTERLY, CURRENT FOR 

THE FOLLOWING: 

GROSS 

FED 

FICA 

STATE 

CITY TAX 

OTHER DEDUCTIONS 

The next section is what the computer is to calcu- 
late or figure: 

FEDERAL TAX 
FICA TAX 
CITY TAX 
NET PAY, etc. 

The last section is the reports or print-out you 
want: 

W2's, 941*5, Payroll Register, Name changes/ addi- 
tions, Cost accounting-payroll summary, checks, 
etc. 

By this time you should have a good idea of your 
present cost and time involved along with your defined 
applications. It is important to be properly prepared be- 
fore purchasing any equipment. 

There are several things to keep in mind before 
"shopping" for a microcomputer system. The first ele- 
ment of the microcomputer system, is the hardware, 

HARDWARE 

There is so much hardware available on the market to- 
day it is difficult to know what to choose. Also many 
companies are having financial trouble or have left busi- 
ness completely. When purchasing a microcomputer, it 
is probably best to consider the popularity of the micro- 
computer. The top three selling microcomputers of 1978 
were the TRS-80, PET and Apple (in order of sales). I 
am not inferring they are the best or the only micro- 
computers that can be used, but because of their popu- 
larity these microcomputers have more software avail- 
able for them than other microcomputers and can 
usually interface to more peripherals such as floppy 
disks, fixed disks, printers, etc. 

PITFALL #3 

An unpopular microcomputer may not be 
well supported by software companies, user 
groups, or peripheral companies and therefore 
end up with a very short life or lack of long 
term support by the microcomputer industry. 



COMPUTE. 



My suggested minimum system for a business envir- 
onment is a system with at least 32K, two floppy drives 
and a printer. The price for such a system will be 
$3,500.00 or more. Some small businessmen may be 
able to use a cassette based system, dependent upon the 
volume of accounts, reducing that figure by $ 1 ,000 to 
$1,500.00. However, for reliability and speed the floppy 
disk is certainly worth the extra cost. 

In considering any hardware, service is important. 
Find out who will service the equipment, where they are 
located and how long (maximum) it wfll take, along 
with what the charge rates are. Radio Shack is the only 
microcomputer company I know of that has a service 
contract, although most computer stores will service the 
■equipment they sell. 

SOFTWARE 

There are three basic ways of obtaining software. The 
first is "custom" software which is designed for your in- 
dividual company. It is usually the best, but also the 
most expensive. It can easily cost as much in custom 
software as the hardware to build your system. The sec- 
ond type is "canned" software, which is what most soft- 
ware on the market for microcomputers is. It is general- 
ly less expensive than custom software, but usually in- 
corporates only standard features of a certain applica- 
tion. It will lack non-standard reports or information 
your company may need. The third type is a hybrid — a 
"canned" program which is modified for your own com- 
pany. This type of software is becoming a more popular 
type to achieve low cost and still fulfil! the specific needs 
of your company. 

If you have a computer store near you, that is the 
best place to evaluate software. Use the application 
sheet you used to define each application to make sure 
the software fits your application. Simply buying a Pay- 
roll or General Ledger package without evaluation is 
like walking into a clothing store and buying a suit 
without trying it on. 

If no computer store is avaflable contact a software 
company about your application. Most software com- 
panies offer brochures, but often the brochure will not 
answer all the questions you may have. Writing a letter 
explaining exactly what the software must do will give 
you the feedback you need to make a decision. Ask for 
print-outs of any reports the application generates and 
when the program will be delivered. Also ask about cus- 
tom programming charges to modify the program if ne- 
cessary and what documentation is available for the 
software. 

PITFALL #4 

Failing to evaluate software before purchasing 
may lead to an inadequate microcomputer 
system. 



PERSONNEL 

Operating a microcomputer is a learning experience 
which requires time and patience. Some people have a 
natural ability when operating a microcomputer, while 
others find it very difficult. This factor alone can sub- 
stantially affect whether the microcomputer becomes a 
tool or a nuisance. All personnel that wiU be involved 
in operating the microcomputer should have several 
hours of "hands-on" experience if at all possible. Com- 
ments from personnel will aid upper management in the 
decision making process. 

PITFALL #5 

Failure to involve personnel who will be re- 
sponsible for data processing with the comput- 
er system at the initial level may result in a 
large amount of lost time or frustration for the 
personnel involved with the computer system. 

PROCEDURES 

Procedures are an important element of the computer 
system and are usually dependent upon the application 
software. Procedures should be simple to perform yet 
provide the necessary functions for your application. 
Adequate backup is a must, for each diskette can hold a 
mass of information which can be lost in a number of 
ways. Procedures should cover methods to edit or 
change data. Program response when you key in incor- 
rect data is almost as important as if you key in correct 
data. 

PITFALL #6 

Confusing procedures cause confused person- 
nel, loss of time and money. 
The computer store is a valuable place to evaluate the 
microcomputer system. Be sure to take the person who 
will be responsible for operating the microcomputer 
with you on any "shopping" trips. If at all possible let 
them operate the microcomputer rather than the com- 
puter store owner, so they can get a "feel" for the sys- 
tem. Be sure to ask the owner the following questions: 
Does the store provide training for your 
personnel? 

Who will service the computer, when are ser- 
vice times and how long can it takei' 
What additional equipment will interface to 
the microcomputer system, if you need further 
expansion? 

Can you get software modified and what is the 
cost for such modification? 
What is the maximum number of accounts or 
employees the system will handle and how can 
you add more in the future? 
Look at several microcomputer systems and don't 
buy on impulse. Substantiate your need to buy the mi- 
crocomputer system. In the end you'll find the time in- 
volved will pay off. 



COMPUTE. 



MICRO TECHNOLOGY UNLIMITED 



FIRST IN MICROPROCESSOR TECHNOLOGY 

Developed the firs! full page display (66 line 102 characters/line) word pro- 
processing system in 1972 (Now the A.B. Dick MAGNA-SL) 
Invented the first high quality Fourier synthesized 4 voice music system 
for the 6502 

Designed the first high resolution (320 x 200) graphic video display for 
the 6502 

Introduced the first 16K memory expansion board for the KlfJI-1 
Manufactured the first high resolution graphics enhancement board for 
the Commodore PET 



JUST LOOK AT OUR FIRST STRING LINEUP 
FOR THE KIM/SYM/AIM AND PET COMPUTERS 

K-1000 series of custom power supplies for the KIM-1 and Aim-65 
K-1002 series of digital-to-analog music boards for the KIM/SYM/AIM 
and PET computers 

K-1005 5-slot motherboard/card files for KIM/SYM/AIM and PET ex- 
pansion 

K-1007 PET bus to KIM bus interface and video processor 

K-1008 320 X 200 bit map graphics display with 8K memory 

K-1012 12K 2/08/TMS2716, EPROM programmer, serial and parallel 
I/O 

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COMPUTE. 



Belinda Hulon 

Rick Hulon, Manager, The Corner Computer Store 

An important aspect of many business applications in- 
volving microcomputers is the selection and efficient 
use of an appropriate sorting routine. While sorting rou- 
tines are readily available in the literature and/or easily 
programmable, some thought should be given to the 
type of sort used. This two-part article will deal with six 
of the better known sorting algorithms: Selection Sort, 
Bubble Sort, Shell Sort, Quick Sort, Merge Sort, and 
Heap Sort, These sorts range from very simple to quite 
complex, from extremely slow to exceedingly fast. This 
first article will concern itself with the simpler, slow to 
intermediate sorts. 

In this article we evaluate Selection Sort, Bubble 
Sort and Shell Sort. Selection Sort is a very simple, 
straight-forward routine {see Figure 1). Its methodology 
is to iteratively pass through the list of items to be 
sorted. On the initial pass, the first item is compared 
with each successive item, exchanging it with any ele- 
ment that is "less than" the first item. The "new" first 
element is then compared to each item after the point of 
exchange. This process continues until one entire pass is 
completed. The procedure is then repeated for the sec- 
ond item in the list, then the third, etc., until the last 
item is reached. Thus, Selection Sort essentially "selects 
out" the smallest item on the first pass, the next smallest 
on the second, and so on. This sort, then, always goes 
through a set number of passes regardless of the state of 
the list. An already sorted list would still go through the 
entire routine as though it were not sorted. 

Bubble Sort accomplishes its task not by comparing 
one item to all the others as in Selection Sort, but 
rather by comparing adjacent elements in the list, 
switching whenever necessary. In addition, it sets a flag 
to indicate when no exchanges have been made in a 
given pass, thus signalling the end of the sort. Bubble 
Sort therefore takes only as many passes as it needs. An 
already sorted list would use one pass to determine that 
no exchanges were made. A listing of Bubble Sort can 
be found in Figure 2. 

The third sort to be considered. Shell Sort, is some- 
what more complicated. Shell Sort is essentially an ex- 
tension of Bubble Sort. Initially a "gap" size is deter- 
mined to be the largest integer less than or equal to half 
of the list size (e.g., if the list contained 1 1 items, the ini- 
tial gap size would be 5). This gap size supplies the essen- 
tial difference between Shell Sort and Bubble Sort, for 
instead of only comparing adjacent items. Shell Sort 
compares items separated by the gap size, exchanging 
them when necessary. Once it determines that no ex- 
changes were made on the last pass with a particular gap 
size, the size of the gap is cut in half and the process con- 
tinues. As one can easily see, this results in a Bubble 
Sort when the gap size becomes 1, but since the list is al- 
ready partially sorted, it does not require as much time 
for larger lists as a regular Bubble Sort would. Shell 



Sorting Sorts: 
A Programming Noteboolc 



10 FOR 1=1 TO N-1 
20 FOR J=I+1 TO N 
30 IF V(I) <= V(J) 
40 S=V{I) 
50 V{I)=V(J) 
60 V(J)=S 
70 NEXT J 
80 NEXT I 
90 END 



THEN 70 



Figure 1 



10 F = l 

20 IF F=0 THEN 120 

30 F = 

4 FOR 1=1 TO N-1 

50 IF V(I)<=V(I+1) THEM 120 

60 S=V(I) 

7G V(I)=V(I+1) 

80 V(I+1)=S 

90 F=l 

100 NEXT I 

116 GOTO 20 

120 END 



Figure 2 



160 



10 GP=N 

20 IF GP<=1 THEN 

30 GP=IMT(GP/2) 

40 HI=H-GP 

50 F=e 

60 FOR 1=1 TO ni 

70 GI=GP+I 

IF V(I) <=V(GI) THEM 130 

S=V(I) 
100 V(I)=V(G1) 
110 V(GI)=S 
120 F=l 
13 NEXT I 
140 IF F=l THEN 50 
150 GOTO 20 
160 END 



80 
90 



Figure 3 



WHERE: 

V =ArraY containing data to be 

sorted 
S =Holding variable used for 

exchanging items 
N =Humber of items to be 

sorted 
F =Fl5.g indicating occurrence 

of an exchange 
GP =Gap size 

MI =Number of times the loop 
must be iterated on one 
pass; depends on gap size 
GI =Index for comparison; 
depends on gap size 



Sort, like Selection Sort, does not provide for an "easy 
out." However, it does not go through the routine a set 
number of times, a pre-sorted list will require only 
enough passes to obtain a gap size of 1 , since there will 
never be any exchanges. (See Figure 3). 

Several factors are involved in determining the effi- 
ciency of a sorting algorithm. The time involved, or the 
speed of the sort, is usually one of our major concerns, 
especially with micros. Two important factors contri- 
buting to the speed and efficiency of a sort are the num- 
ber of comparisons made and the number of actual ex- 
changes involved in sorting a list. In this case we count- 
ed any comparison made (including the checking of 
flags), not just data comparisons. Although we are not 
directly concerned with CPU time in terms of actual 
cost, it seems obvious that the fewer comparisons and 
exchanges made in the same (or less) amount of time, 
the more efficient the sort will be. These three factors 
then, time, number of comparisons and number of ex- 
changes comprise our criterion for comparison. The ac- 
tual method used was to generate 30 different lists of 
random numbers, having each algorithm sort each list. 
The 30 values for each of the criterion for the different 
list sizes were averaged to produce the values given in 
Table 1. This procedure was followed for lists of size 10, 
25, 50 and 100. All data was obtained from a Commo- 
dore CBM with 32K of internal RAM. 



TABLE 1 
BUBBLE SORT 

List Size 

10 

25 

50 

100 

SELECTION SORT 



SHELL SORT 



WHERE: 

s = seconds 
m — minutes 



Numher of Number of 

Comparisons Exchanges Time 



75 

508 

2098 

S811 

300 
1225 
4950 

72 

339 

967 

2669 



21 

153 

592 

2450 

21 

144 

505 

1815 

U 

63 

155 

399 



I.Ss 


12.4 s 


50.7 s 


3.6 m 


Lis 


7.3 s 


28.0 s 


1.8 m 


I.Ss 


7.4 s 


20.9 s 


57.2 s 



It should be noted that upon beginning this article 
there were some basic expectations. Having already run 
a similar project on a large computer, we expected simi- 
lar results from the CBM. The initial project showed, 
true to the numerous textbooks available, that while Se- 
lection Sort and Bubble Sort were good for small lists 
(even superior to more sophisticated sorts), Shell Sort 
would be better for larger lists. Also, Selection Sort 
should be faster than Bubble Sort, due to the nature of 
the algorithms (we omit the mathematical determina- 
tion of this situation). In this experiment we did dupli- 



cate our first results fairly well, as can be seen from 
Table 1. However, the amount of time involved seemed 
flabbergasting. Of course, wc could not ha\'e expected a 
micro to compare in speed to a mainframe, but the dif- 
ferences were disturbing. For example, the time in- 
volved in the sorting of a list of 500 items by one of 
these sorts ran into hours, somewhat troublesome for 
business applications. Having mulled ovet this for 
awhile we came to a tentative conclusion which seemed 
to explain this occurrence. Our original sorting routines 
were written in PL/1, a batch language for use on an 
IBM 360/370. In this situation the source code went 
through a compiler which translated it into machine 
code for execution. On our CBM, however, the rou- 
tines were written in interpreted BASIC. One impor- 
tant difference between an interpreter and a compiler is 
that with a compiler the source is "compiled" only once. 
The machine code is produced and the higher level 
language is no longer a concern. With an interpreter, 
on the other hand, each line of code is interpreted 
EVERY time it is encountered. This, then should ac- 
count for much of the excessive time observed. As a 
test, we wrote Selection Sort (chosen for its simplicity) 
in machine code. This eliminated the interpretation 
stage. This gives us a better idea of just how much time 
is actually involved in sorting the lists. The elimination 
of an interpreter changed the time involved drastically. 
While the BASIC routine required l.I seconds to sort a 

TABLE 2 

List Size Time for BASIC routine Time for mach. code routine 

0.00 sec 
0.02 soc 
0.05 sec 
0.1 7 sec 

list of only 10 items, the machine code version took so 
little time as to record a duration of seconds! Since the 
built-in timer of the CBM records time in "jit'fies" or 
1/60 of a second, it actually took less than 1/60 of a sec- 
ond to sort the list. The results are even more impres- 
sive for a list of 100 items. While BASIC required 109.2 
seconds (just under 2 minutes) the machine code ver- 
sion required only .2 seconds. In other words, the 
BASIC algorithm took 546 times longer than did the 
machine code routine. Much of this extra time, then, 
seems to be a result of the BASIC interpreter. Thus, 
what might seem to be a \-cry efficient sort could actual- 
ly prove to be worse than a less efficient sort, depending 
on the amount of code involved and the number of 
items to be sorted. In the design of business software, as 
much attention should be paid to the language (and 
therefore type of compiler or interpreter) as to the type 
of sort involved. If you arc willing to work with ma- 
chine code then more efficient sorts should be consider- 
ed. We will include machine code listings in the next 
article along with the evaluations of Quick Sort, Merge 
Sort, and Heap Sort. 



10 


1.1 sec 


25 


7.3 sec 


50 


28.0 sec 


100 


LSmin 



Qs. cammodore 



Effective Date Oct., 1979 



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3CM-7B4-{Bai 

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T{lu E. OAkWKI Pifll 

Ft. umamau*. Fl 333» 
»$-7t4.TMT 

arresHOP 

TSKBwg RO 
Miimi. R. J31S8 

COwPUTEH CENTER 

»Te C4nrr>i An 

SI. PvWitiuTg. FL 3J707 

BI3-3i3-l39e 

COMPUTERLAND 
SOOC SptriiinnivwfltvO 
Bwa Ral{!i,fL 334U 
X&-3U-it21 

COMPUTEHLANO 
3M3 ^fonh Fntorai Hwif 
F' LiLKJaicrBii. FL Di30a 
X5-556-07TB 

COMPUTERLAND 
2777-Q LJnl.«(iily B^ffl 
JiCkionriJIi.Fl^j'lt 
»4-73rZ47^ 

COMPUTERS FOR VOU 
3006 Browjr^ BJmi] 
Ft LaixiftrdHM. Fl 3U1Z 
30a-5ai-$9i4 

FLORIDA BOOK STORE 
IftU W UnM**itr A^ 
Olirmviit*. FL 3?ao« 

FOCUS SCiENTIFJC 
1G0I BiKiyr>a BIm3 
M*rr., FL 33133 
30S-3M-3»4e 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
itS3 Ponc«Oa Ltoo BJmi 
Cora! Gibtai FL 331U 

0L50M ELECT RDM CS 
2S0flrj FMMfAl H.ghwt)> 

Fl LAudiFOiM H. 33304 
30S-SGfi-7Si9 



CLSON ELECTnOMiCS 
« W 4Bn St 
Hr«t*«n. FL 330t? 
}«->a2]-160a 

CL3DN ELECTRONICS 
ZJIOHoii^woocI Blvd. 
i>)ptir>K>od. FL 33D20 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
le-W N E Second A»e 
W*m, f L 33133 
305-374-4121 

OLSOM ELfCTRONPCS 

UOI 22na Ave N 

Si PfllSFjaurg, FL 337T0 

613-345-9119 

OLSOfi ElECTflONlCS 
121 SS 0«l«UdCiry Hway 

Tim pa iFL Mfi09 
B13-2iy3iI9 

oatAN&o elEcthonics co 

a$e w 0*11 H-dfl* Flasil 
OM^rKja. FL 32809 
3C5-6iS-i?iD 

PPQFIT CONCEPTS, INC. 
9189 S Marnpton Pttc« 
Soc* Fuicn FL 3043* 
JM-4i3-?ai8 

TOMAA FjTNESS SVSTEMS 

PD Baji 1016^ 

LMa Mb1*o, Fl 327M 



ACTION euSiiSESS MACHINES 
ibN N ASwOM Df. 
MiCtKi. GA3I!J04 
91?^74-J333 

ANChQWA 
3330 PfliUmonl Rd 
AiianiH, GA 30305 
40*2161 7100 

ATLANTA COMPUTER MART 
HNl-a Bulord H-ghvray 
AtlanU. QA 30340 
4O4-4J6-064T 

AUTOMATED AN^^AjnG SY£ 
Ut2 OaIl Chtl Road 
Dctvllii GA^OM) 

COUPUTERLANO 
2*£J Ct*0 Pirtway 
S-wpiM. GA 30060 

'•04.»^040ft 

f h£ LOGIC STOBE 
UUiUKwi AowT 
Coturrbui. GA 3J906 
404-568-*197 

MERCHANTS SuS mChnS. 
ieE^iKuTi.«.Dr nE 
Aturu. GA 30329 
4a4-Si3-i[I27 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
3i3t CvTTD&aillan Ra 
Aitirii. GA3D3I1 
40*. 149-3625 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
2S71 N Deciljf RMd 
D«u[ur GA 30^33 
404-3 7J4-JTO' 

PgHIWETER 

iiiO PMictiIrM Irvd Bktf 
Su>ilo F. GalBMiy Ind Piiii 
NoiCFOSS, GA 30071 



COMPUTERLAND 
»rs. MinoSi 

MoWulu, Ml«4l3i 

i!(*.5Jt-SO02 



ELECTRONIC SPECIALTIES 

Boila ID 9-3704 
2M-37«-^(M0 

wCftLO TOv & MDSBYCRAFT 
7SW F«ii*ivw Art 
&Oi»a. ID 13704 
?09-3T9-3i61 , 203-376-2«a 



APPLETREE STEREO 
IWJW Lincoln M*j, 
De>«ib. ilL (Wits 
BT5-7M-J442 

APPLtTREE STEREO INC 
117-iigE Beiu'orISi 
Noi-mftl. tL 31761 
30fr*5Z-*Z1S 

APPLETREE STERgO INC 
<G45N Alp.rt 
RochluFd IL 61107 

sis-72a-»a;« 

aVTE SHOP 

5 S Lagrin^ RoAa 

Lagranga, ILgOSfS 

3]2-sra-Qg;o 

BYTE SHOP 
1602 S NOii St 
Ursana. IL $'aM 
!iT-3teSM3 

COMPUTERLAND 
»E RwKl Rd 

A.tiinqtoo He-gh-a iL 60004 
312-25£-«tee 

COMPUTER LAND 
136 W Cgda^ A»« 
DoY-nej-i O'CMi. IL. flOSiS 

3ia-9e*.?7H 

COMPUTERLAND 
S611N M<iwiuk«eAr« 
Nij«. IL BKia 
312-967-T714 

COM F^JTER LANE 
<t(N36 S Cicero Af 
Oi*U*n ILKHH 
31 !-4J2-»« 

COMPUTERLAND 
A507 N SifiiiK^g 
Peoria. IL £1614 
3f»-flaA-62$2 

COMPuTEflLANO 
1^00 5 LaVa SI 
MunOBhun. IL 600M 
3I2.WH30D 

FINANCIAL OYNAMfCS 

530 Park An 

Rriw FonuL ^L £030$ 

312-771-5*4* 

KAPiPEI S COWPUTEFi STORE 
t2S EL Main Sl 
Bail^lU IL tltm 
618.377-20*4 

LiLLiiPLjTE cowpuren mart 

♦446 OalitOfi St 
SkOi>«, IL CD07B 
3fli*74-13a3 ^_, 

0L5ON ELECTRONICS 
4)31 N MitAautM Aipf 
Criicago, JL &IM41 
3l2-M5-733a 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
1^3 Noun W«t>tn Ave 
CrqiMga. ILG0612 
3l2-4Z1-3£33 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
2&*1 W»t »li SliHI 
Cftrugo IL «0M; 
3 1 2-4.2^-6 19} 

OLSON ELECTHOWCS 
1734 OgOen A,B 
Oo*ieri O'&w IL 8051 S 
31?-BS2-S650 

OLSON EL£CTf10NICS 
?;i W Qoli Read 
Hollnan Eilaht, IL 60172 
312.682-7330 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
1354 WiTiiisr Ou» 
MtlioM Pvk.iL 60160 
3l3-344-£»0 

OLSON ELECTRONCS 
6?Ji Den-'Bitar St 

Monon Grpv, IL 60053 

3tz.9»-«roc 

OflCUTT BUSINESS MACHINES 
*Sl - Fintstr#al 
Laiai^. iLGIXf 
815-224-2774 



PERSONAL COMPUTED 
M E Lake siiHt 
■>>C«90 1L>6«0I 
31?'337-SI44 

RUHLS ASSOCIATES 
2i M Si*v4nuvi 
FfMpMi. IL 61032 
aiS-JM-764S 

STEREOTROniC iNDU^TaiES 
Wadiwerth Rd & NoMI^ Av« 
Z>on IL SG099 
3i;-33e-2223 



AUDIO SPECIALISTS 
41S N M»chla«n 
Sautn B*na. IN4G6O1 
!19-S3A-600i 

BVTE SHOP 

nrrgUmivOO'] Courl 
Ind'anapclhi IN 48250 
317-M2-2«3 

COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRONIC 
2204 QranO A(« 
Conncffvilie. IN 1:7331 
317-MS-6WJ 

TmE COMPUTER CENTER 
IMlflOrchi-ilSt 
Seulh B*n4l. IN 46637 

2ta>a72-a»2 

1FT WA1NE ELECTRONICS 

ft Wtyn*. IN 4U05 
31S"(B3-31SS 

FT WAYNE ELECTRONICS 
3606 E UauFTiM Akb 
Fl W#yfi* IN 4&K13 
aifr*2>3433 

FY WA-VNE ELECTRONICS 
3000 MtuffM A>m. 
Ft Wayrw. IN 4Be<D3 
219-423-3422 

GHAMAM ELECTHONJCSUPPlV 
23fdartd Columbu* 
And#raon. IN iM;4 
31?'644-W81 

OPAHAM ELECTRONIC SUPPLY 
10?02 E WMhinffion SI 
iTidia;iipoinJN:4B2&4 
3i7.Bg9-4na 

QRAHAM ELECTRONIC SUPPLV 
133 S Ptnrartiarii ^t 
IA^i4na{Miit. IN 4no4 

OhAHAM Electronic supply 

4|HNormSl 
Laiav^a. IN47Kli 
3I7.74J-4006 

GRAHAM ELECTRONIC SUPPLY 
Tipp^ca^^O* Mtii 
S«Q4moi«' PirkiKCy East 
L«r*y«tl«. IN 47905 
31T-MT-9T56 

GRAHAM ELECTRONIC SUPPLY 
?22 N MaiJiion SI 
Munt>e IN 47305 
317-2U-H37 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
5353 N imystom 
Indlantpolia. iN 482213 

STEWAFiT BUSINESS MACHINES 

aa'y. IN 48406 

IOWA 

THE COMPUTER CENTER 
30J Cummoitm 
Wa!arioo. iOM?0i 
219,272-0212 

THE MEMORY SANK 
41 ?8i Brady Sl 
Dii**n(Wd. 10 52006 
3t»3Bfr33aO 



BYTE Shop 
Ul^jcnnun Dnv* 
Uiu-on KS 66202 
9iM34-?S*J 



CENTRAL OFFICE SYSTEMS 
307 N Ua^n 
HuIch>raor. US 67101 
3!6-6£3-5t2l 

COMPUTERLAND 
10049 Sania Fb Df 
Ov«fland Parii KS G52l5 
913-492-0002 

COMPUTER VIDEO ROOM 
'105 W IDSin SI. 
OverTsnd Pd'ii KS«2I2 

9ii-64a-rios 

MAIN ElECTHCMJCS 

225 l» 

V/ichiia KS S72n 

316-267-3SS1 

PERSOMAL COMPUTER CENTER 
3^19 W S^m^T 
OienaniJ Pajt h!S 6£C2e 
gt3- 64*5342 

KIMTUCJIY 

BAflNE" WiLLERS INC 
232 E Uain Sl 
LMrreicn, KV 40507 
EC6-?52-22l£ 

COMin/TtHLAND 
113 E Lcntwn Lana 
LOuiaf^iU. KY 40222 
U2-£«7-a&» 

MICROTECH IHC 
lljf S eV> ST. 

LPursmtJfl, KY 4C203 

scs-sar-wM 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 

tiTSou-.m*nsDf 
LeiinfllO". KY 40503 
606-2 7a,W 13 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
4137 ShBlbyvilla Rd. 
Lojfsvill*. HY 40207 

5a3-ag3-?5fi2 

LOUI5iAKA 

COMPUTER PLACE 
3340 Hi^firftHd Rd 
Baton Roug* LA 70331 
504-3aT-M73 

Th£ COMPUTER PLACE 
1»4 Plniocn Rfl . SyLiv 202 
LdfayaTifr. lA 7060$ 

COMPUTER ShOppE 

IjA WW! etnll EJ^pw•y 

GiaTna. LA 700^ 
504-366-0687 

COMPLr"ER SHOPPE INC 
3225 Difiny Pvk 
hutaiii«. LA TOOm 
504-4 54-eeOT 

FREEMAN ELECTRONICS 

nWM 7t!iSl 

Wei! Mor:ri>t, LA TIMI 

318^386-2312 

VIDEO SJ*ECTRUM 

6601 VstBr&n^ Mmortsl Bi*a 

Metatrre. LA 7CCQ3 
504-385-5527 



CKA 

37 Hifih St 

Lowiilcn ^fE 04240 

20T-TU-fi96l 



COMPUTERLAND 
1^06^ Ff^atttick Rg 

ROtlrviliB MD 20655 
301-5*3-7675 

COMPUTERS ETC 
13A AFla;heny Aia 
To—ion. WD 2i2D4 
3ai-M6-g6ifl 

MACS MERCHANDISE lAART 

71*: F»rsiook Rd 
BaldTiij™ MD 21207 
3ai-2»-0473 

THE UATHBO* INC 
?62i ur<r«riitr BivO w 
AFveat^fi MD 2traC2 
30l-S33i^655S 



YOUR OWN COMPUTER LTD 
10*76 Cansw* War South 
Latga. MD2D870 

UASSACHUUTTS 

COMPUTERLAND 
214 WsfCBitor SI 
WvWtlitf MA 02161 
817-235-6252 

COMPUTER SHOP 1100(011 
288 Nq'TqIIi si 
CarnbiidflB MA 0:139 
504-454-aaoO 

CPU SHOP 
39 Pivaunl SI 

Chaimiown. MA 02129 
617-242-3350 

lAC LIMITED 
14! Aoditsn 
BatiO^. UA 021^0 
617-567,2517 

NEW ENGLAND ELECTRONICS 

679HigNar4 Av» 
Ntwjnarn MA 021 « 
617-449-1760 

OLSOf* ELECTRONICS 
SI 7.621 Boyblon 
Bo^tn. UAOl'iU 
»\7-9ST-4nO 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
Hanovar Mall 
HtftBrrM. Ma Oiiy» 
61T-efr.5Tfl6 

OLSON ELICTROMCS 
North Shor* Stioporg C*ni*F 
pMbody. MA DlfitO 

RETAIL COMPUTEW CEntEH 
'SSCtrMSt Sl. 
LudiCw, UA 01056 
413.58 9-01 Dfl 

THE SOUND COMPANY 
FilrflBld Mall 
QnicopM. MA ^1020 

THf SOUND COMPANY 
447 Surnrw Aw 

Sp"igf-Brd. MA 01136 
417-736-3636 

THE SOUND COMPANY 
Th« VMstTwa Sn^p 
iMartiMd. MA 0106$ 
413-464-1160 

memojM 

THE COUPUTCfl CENTEn 
2B3S1 Fchia Ad 
GaJ^un Cift- >" *tMi 
313^435-370 

COMPUTER MOUSE 
1407 Clinton Rd 
JlCkW^ Ml 4i?02 
917-763^5943 

CCMPUTERLAND 

2g27-aath st s e. 

K«nrw(x>d,MI««508 
616-ft42-2«1 

COMPUTERLAND 
Ml SoulK Lii^fnOI* 
flOCMMt^r. Ml 48063 
313-652 'KOO 

COMPUTERLAND 

29763 h(c<thx(«ti ain Hlghwat' 

Scuthfi«ld. Ml 46034 
3l^3SG-eiTl 

COMPuTEftUAHT Of RO^'AL OA« 
640 w UMiipf^d 
Claw»Br. Ml 49017 
313-286-0040 

COMPUTRDNIX CORP 
423. S^ifMw R4 
M4l«>^. Mr 46640 
517-631-6060 

EfllC ELECTRONICS 
10721 W Itfi M>i«Rd 
Oak Part. Ml tftiJ 

ai3-M7-oa(a 

LAFAvETTE RADIO ELECTRON 
SaKyVnMariw 
Ann Aftwi. Ml 4S104 
313-971-5420 



COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES. INC. 



Authorized Dealers 



Page 3 of 4 



LAFAYETTE RADIO ELEX;TRCJN 

13?6 B>oidway 
Ol'oit. Ml iSlX 

LAFAYETTE HAOhO ELECT HON 
1315 E arand KnvtAw 
EKlLinilng. VI 48623 
5IT'332-M7B 

LAFAYETTE RADIO ELECT 
»4C0 Orchard Lake Rd 
Firminoton, Ml tB02* 

lafavette radio electron 
J142 geth Si 

Oc0nd H 90.09. Ml 45^06 
6i6-SJ3^B5KJ 

UFAYETTE fWDIO ELEGTROM 
2^* M Rasa $|. 
Kalamaioo. Ml 49008 
616-381-5164 

LAFAYETTE FIADIQ ELECTRON 
337M PiyfTcmm Ra 
Livoftl*. Ul 48150 
3t3-261-06M 

LAFAYETTE RADIO ELECTRON 
3tBT3Gri|iol 
Hgwviliq Ml leOK 
]T3.Z»4.H»0 

LAfAVETTE RADIO ELECTRON 

MHH Van Dyha 

SiMling Hai(^hii. Ml 4S077 

313-2fi6-SS50 

LAFAYETTE RADIO ELECTflON 
3127 W. Huron 
Ponliac. Ml 48054 
3i>£ai-74Hl 

LAFAYETTE FtADiO ELECTRON 
34aD Waat R»d 
Tianlon. Mr4eiK] 
313-er5>7900 

LASER DYMAMICS 

Ahn Ar1>Cr. UJ 4SlQ4 

UAT74JX INC 
1J41 N Main 
Ann A/CM. Mf 4^104 

NATIONAL HICHO 
IDSSTMrdSL 
Musi«>9on. Ml 49440 
S15-7;2-Z«9 

NEWMAN COMPUTEFI EJICHANQE 
1250 N Uain Si 
Ann AfBof Ui 46iO? 

313- 994-3200 

MAIN SYSTEMS INC 

1161 H Ba'HfVQwH-BhwaY*S 

n.-iL Ml 4B£H 

3.13-?J?-Ji» 

OLSON EiLECTRONICS 
I5&47 SouThlwU Rd 
Allan Pan. Ml 4etQI 
3lS-3e&-Qi50 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
1590 Wwrt-ara A»« 
BloomfLsid Hill*. W" 4B013 
Ji3-ap-«rs9 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
1 H30 O^na Rn«f Am 
Del^oH. Ml 4M2? 
313-338-0777 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
W243Gra:lDt 
Dasrort Ml 46205 
3l3.37!-T3i7 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
19045 M<diJi«&«<TH0 

Liifan>a. Ml 46152 
313-t77-0CBa 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
M121 DoOuirtOrfl 
Madison HaigniT. yi 48071 
3I3-54E-D1B0 

OLSON ELECTRONICS 
37627 GrallOl A»* 
Ml aaTwni. W 48043 
3l3Mfi3-rDT4 



OLSON ELECTROiH res 
!d3N wi^ne Rd 
WMTiani Ml 4&1&S 
J13-7M-3445 

Tfli-CiTJES COMPUTER MART 
3145 Shitijek Ha 

S*(iin*ir, wi 4e«a 

St7-79>13i6<l 

UiNNESOTA 

COMPLIEHOEF-OT 
M15 W rOlh SI 
Mjrnaawlii. ^It^ S!43Q 
512-927-5401 

COWPUTERLANO 
6070 Mcrgan CircIC' Hi 

ait«fliii"aiOft, WN B&431 

DIGITAL Den 

ItMgMapivwood M»ii 
Mat>i«wood. UN 55109 
S12-77[>3«rs 

JOHNSON RIC SALES 

i3?&-9nin At* N w 

C^-On Fllp.a», HN 56433 
612-755-7037 

MINNESOTA MJCflO SYSTEMS 
S14 Oa^' Anth^a Soijin 

MJnn**[hCSi>l. MIV $J4$4 

i(i?-a5s-s*M 

SCKAAi( ELECTRONICS 
1415 MerHjoia H«i^tt Rd 
St. Pa4>l MN 5S120 
&12-454-aaH 

I\u COUPUTEftS 
5717 KaraiAir* 

Broolilp C«nl»r. MN SSJW 
613-SeO-C3M 

MiSSi&Si^^i MiCi^OS. inC 
MftrtSI iTOtJTwTYRd 
JacKson. Mr 39304 
601-'»4a-7B4iJ 



CDC ASSOCIATES 
Fivu*anr. MO iXai 

314-M1.4A» 

CCWPUTEIFILAND 
tHQQ South Qlvntlona 
Sp'tfvgfiaic!. VO B50D4 

4t7-5a3-TDea 

COWPUTEfl UAflT 
igiS Holanel Road 
iifHMMnoanc*. WO MOSS 
816-461-5005 

F0R5YTHE COMPUTERS 
11S6G St Charla»RDck Hd 
B'Klgatan. WO 63044 

GATEAAy ELECTRONICS 
Bi;>?* PaqaBI>n] 
Sa LOJ.1 MQ £3130 
3U-427-6I18 

PAHSOnS ELECTRONICS 
lOSSVantur*^ 
SI Lou I. MO 43301 
314-723-2227 



BVTE SHOP 
120T G-aiJ Aw? Suite J 
Birmgi MT 59102 
406-252- 2299 

THE COWPUTER STORE 
ijift- lifflih Si W OS 
BiOingt. MT SaiOJ 
4»-?45-0OM 

VARITPON 
7?9lnc!iana St 
CnlnooK HT 59523 
4oe-35:-?ii6 



AMERPCAN COMPUTERS 
4442 S B4m 
□main NEWI27 
402-592-15119 



SYTE SHOP 
iat2 Park Orka 
Onntna. NE'SSl27 
aa5-i3S-73«i 

COMPUTERLAND 
l!03l Elm Si 
Cwnal^a. NE SSt44 
40^-391-4710 

nUAMA COMPUTEfl STORE 
4J4Q S fi4tti Sil 
OmaPia.NS 88127 
402. 592 34*) 



BYTE SHOP 
4104 S Ki«tilie Lana 
Ratio, NV 69502 
702-826-6030 

HOME COMPUTERS 
1778 Tioplcana 
Uai Vaca*. NV 89139 
702'73s-$M3 

INGENUITV INC 
1562 Linda Way 
Spants. NV &&43I 
7Q2-359-6671 

HEW HAMPSHIRE 

COMPUTERLAND 
41» Amharil 
NAiUbt. NN 03000 
W3-UC-523a 

L4 D ENTERPRISES 
736 Tnird An« 
Badin. HH 03570 
603-752- 1W2 

NEW JERSEY 

COMPUTEftLANO 
74 E]n SI 

M<Mrni1oi«rr. HJ QTSEC 
20i-S»-*OT7 

COMPUTERLAND 
Hi0h*ar EU, Rout* 4 
Paiafnva HI 07B£2 
201 94i-»(» 

COMPUTERLAND 
14tiE RDutaTQ 
CMfTy HiJJ. U 00034 
499-^5-5900 

T^« COWRUTCfl *»♦( 
Ptn» BroQk PUia 'ftOu!» 4« 
Rnrt^oo*. NJ 07W) 
m-S75-P448 

OMOEN STATE COM^'Ln'ERS 
B« South An 
MtatAaW, NJ 07090 
SIM-JOf'-OSII 

LOPIE INDUSTAES 
12 Ovwlooti Rd 
RochalK F^ac* NJ 07662 
2OI-H3-0C2O 

MEDIA SOFTWARE 
372H.ghciaal Dr 
Wmi M'IfO'd. NJCr^aO 

MELAD ASSOCIATES 
PO Bo» 1M 
Mmt^n^ NJ qiKtc 

SS COMPUTER ENTERPRISES 
?24 E «*di*ofi A.* 
Crank.ll NJ 07fi» 
2Ql-Mr-aC7Q 

SMI lAC 

600 Wasl^ingTon A<* 
Caffium, JiJ 07072 
2gi -^la-aaoo 

STOnEhEnGE COMPUTER CD 

BgS(jrTim.l A.t 

SummiL NJ 07«)1 
20S277.10M 

THDR ELECTRONICS CORP 

32T Pa-nfi tif I van la Aia 

Linden. NJ 07{3e 
Hl-4fl6-3300 

NEW HE III CO 

OMEOA OFFICE PRODUCTS 
OlOoRictiiano NE 
AlOuQinrqua. NM S7113 
»^345-4MS 



AMERICAN PERIPHERALS 
3 flango' Si 
L-rdanhurn. NV 11747 
5 H-4« 7-2615 

APOLLO DlSTRwSuTORS 

3-9 Wsoaland 
FafmraoeJaiB NY t1735 
515-420-664? 

A5 D Of F ICE SYSTEMS 
Vai^ Wya Rl*/a 
PgugnniMiipjIii, NV 1S603 
t1 4-4 7 3- 9400 

B C C0WMUN1CATI0NS 

207 Dapo! Rd. 

Hunttngion Slalicn. NV 11746 

LI6-549-JW03 

BITS A BYTES 

SSOO STraigm Ru 
Fradonja. NV 14083 

BYTE SHOP 

2721 Hempilaad Tumpi^a 

LcvitECwn NV ll/M 

516-731-3116 

COMPUTER CONNECTION CORP 
fifiin Ait«an Ava 
Wh<i*aboro NY 1 3a« 
3ll-73«-92flB 

THE COMPUTER CORNER 
200 Hamitlon Ana 

W-iita Plami, NY 1O6O1 
914-949-3282 

THE COMPUTER FACTORY 
4a5LaJiLn4ioi> Av» 
NawYOFh. NY 100)7 
;iS-M7-5a:i 

COMPUTER OENtRAt 9T0«E 
103 Alia nilCAr* 
L>»t«*. HY 115« 
5 16-667. 15DD 

COMPUTER HOUSE I7*C 
7;t AiiariiC Art 
Rochaaiai. NV 14fi09 
714-6M-93U 

COMPUTEHLANQ 
1612 Niagara Fatia Blvd. 
BuHalo. NY 141 » 
71B-e3t«Sil 

COMPUTERLAND 
22& Elmira Hd 
HthAca. NY 14050 
>8C7-777-UU 

COWPUTtflLANO 
71 W*»lburv *^ 
Cwiestacfl L 1 NV 115U 
ST6-742-22W 

COMPUTER HiCnOSVSTEUS 
1311 Nonrv*rn Qind 
u»inh*aa«i NV lion 
5i«-A2T.»M) 

COMNJTER S"OP OF StRACuSE 
3470 E £t.. .&i^ 
D»w.n. NY 13JI4 
315^448H?fr4 

COMPUTER STRATEGIES INC 
3C0 N Main SI 

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VISIT YOUR LOCAL COMMODORE DEALER 

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Part No. 321039-A 



COIVIIViaDORE BUSINESS MACHINES. INC. 



COMPUTE. 



13 



THREE WORD PROCESSORS: 



A User Manual Of Reviews 

Len Lindsay, 

Senior Contributing Editor for 
Commodore Products 



I am presenting an overview of 3 word processors for the PET. 
In addition I am attempting a comparative evaluation. This is 
extremely difficult since they all do things differently. I am 
trying to show what each can do as well as what it doesn't do. 
You decide what you need and can afford, but please don't 
rely completely on this set of articles. Contact each company 
for their information and read it carefully. 

What are some areas of major difference between the 3 
word processors presented in this issue? One difference is how 
they are programmed. Commodore's is written completely in 
machine language. Machine language is much faster than 
Basic. Programma's and Connecticut Microcomputer's are 
written in BASIC. Therefore, you can change lines and mod- 
ify each to suit your needs. This would include adding a sec- 
tion to save and load files on your disk, either Commodore's, 
Computhinks, or others. 

Another major difference is how the word processor 
treats your text. Each is different. Connecticut Microcomput- 
er's looks at your text as a series of consecutive lines. The 
lines can be moved, inserted, deleted & changed. Program- 
ma's looks at the text as a series of strings. These strings can 
be changed, have parts deleted or have more characters 
inserted, etc. Commodore's looks at your text as a sferies of 
characters. 23 lines of text are always displayed on the screen. 
It scrolls up &L down as needed, while the cursor indicates 
your position within the text. 

How about the manuals? Both Commodore and Con- 
necticut Microcomputer provide good manuals with expla- 
nations of the various aspects of their programs. Programma's 
word processor is virtually self explanatory. It comes with a 1 
page introduction. Further instructions are on the tape as a 
text file. Once you LOAD the program you INPUT the in- 
structions from the tape. Other than explaining the use of 2 
special function keys, instructions aren't needed, for the pro- 
gram asks for information when it's needed. It begins by ask- 
ing what major function you wish to perform. If you are going 
to print your output it prompts you for information on mar- 
gins, etc. In addition to their printed manual Commodore 
also includes their manual on the diskette following their 
word processor programs. 

What about the price? Programma's is $19.95; Connecti- 
cut Microcomputer's is $29.50; and Commodores is $99.95. 
And how about a minimum system configuration needed to 
use the program? Both Programma's and Connecticut Micro- 
computer's work on the standard 8K PET with I cassette 
unit. A printer is not necessary since the finished text can be 
output on your screen. Commodores Word Processor II re- 
quires a 16K PET and at least I disk drive. The finished text 
can not be sent to the screen, so a printer is a necessity. How- 
ever, you can compose your text without the printer. 



f 



An Overview 



8i 



I 

SOT 

OS 



§ 



PET 8K (OLD) 


(VER I) 


YES 


VERl 


PET16K-32K(NEW) 


VER2 


YES 


VER 2 


RS232 OUTPUT TO PRINTER 


YES 


YES 


YES 


OUTPUT TO CBM PRINTER 


YES 


YES 


YES 


COMPUTHINK DISK FILE STORAGE 


NO 


NO* 


NO* 


GBM DISK FILE STORAGE 


YES 


YES 


NO* 


FINAL TEXT OUTPUT TO EITHER 
SCREEN OR PRINTER 


NO 


YES 


YES 


AUTO REPEAT KEYS 


YES 


NO* 


NO* 


CENTER TEXT (i.e. Headings) 


YES 


NO 


YES 


SHIFT FOR UPPER CASE 


YES 


YES 


YES 


ALL CAPS LOCKS 


YES 


YES* 


NO 


VARL\BLE SPACING 
(Single or Double...) 


YES 


YES 


YES 


LINE SPACING CHANGEABLE 
WITHIN ONE FILE 


NO 


NO 


YES 


TAB CONTROL 


YES 


1 


NO 


RIGHT JUSTIFY 


YES 


NO 


VER 2 


EDIT AVAILABLE 


YES 


YES 


YES 


DELETE 


YES 


YES 


YES 


INSERT 


YES 


YES 


YES 


SEARCH 


YES 


NO 


VER 2 


VARIABLE BLOCKS 


YES 


NO 


NO 


PAUSE 


NO 


NO 


YES 


SCROLLING TEXT (up or down) 


YES 


NO 


NO 


VARL^lBLE line LENGTH (margins) 


YES 


YES 


YES 


VARY LINE LENGTH WITHIN 
ONE TEXT 


YES 


NO 


YES 


BASIC OR MACHINE LANGUAGE 


ML 


B 


B 



•Routine may he 3,dded by user. 

Each has its own advantages. Programma's is the sim- 
plest to operate. Connecticut Microcomputer's is most flexi- 
ble in formatting your final output. It can print separate seg- 
ments or the whole text. It can dynamically change its line 
length, spacing, etc. within the same text. Commodore's is 
enjoyable to use. You see your text move around; spaces open 
up for line insert , etc. 

Next issue I will review more word processors, including 
Version 2 from Connecticut Microcomputer and 2 other ver- 
sions from Commodore. Textcast will also be included, which 
is different from each of these covered this issue. TIS has a 
text editor which will be included and so will CURSOR'S text 
editor. Computer Factory supposedly has a word processor, 
but I have not yet received a reply to my letter asking for in- 
formation on it. Home Computer Center is supposed to 
release a word processor soon, hopefully in time to be in- 
cluded next issue. I ordered a word processor from England 
long ago, but haven't received it yet. If anyone has a word 
processor working on the PET, please contact me right away. 
I may even include a summary of CONTEXT as adapted for 
the PET from the Kilobaud article. 

Send your comments, ideas, and suggestions directly to: 
Len Lindsay, 1929 Northport Dr., Room 6, Madison, WI 
53704. 1 hope to hear from you. Since I get a lot of mail, please 
include a self-addressed stamped envelope if you would like a 
reply. 



14 



WORD PROCESSOR 

$99.95 

COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES, INC. 
Palo Alto, CA 

I have used every text editor or word processor for the 
PET that I could get ahold of. This word processor is by 
far the best. And Commodore will soon release an even 
more advanced word processor with more added fea- 
tures. I was fortunate to receive an advance copy of the 
preliminary version. I have used it for one month now, 
and I use it heavily, for word processing is my major use 
of my PET. 

The Commodore Word Processor can be used with 
the PET or CBM models 2001- 16 and -32, N or B ver- 
sion microcomputers, equipped with a Commodore 
model 2040 Dual Drive Floppy Disk and Commodore 
model 2022 or 2023 Matrix Printer, A separate version 
is also included for use with any ASCII printing device, 
such as a NEC Spinwriter. 

The Commodore Word Processor is character 
oriented with direct cursor editing. It is extremely easy 
to use. I will try to cover its many features and com- 
mands in an overview. 

The top two lines of the screen are reserved for 
STATUS indicators. These rwo lines indicate your 
cursor location by line and column numbers as well as 
other important information. The other 23 lines contin- 
ually display the text you are working on. It can be 
scrolled both up and down using the CURSOR UP or 
CURSOR DOWN keys, and at an amazingly quick 
speed too. This scrolling speed can be increased to the 
point of a blur by hitting the CONTROL key before 
using the CURSOR UP or DOWN. 

SHIFTING. All alphabetics are lower case, shift 
for upper case. The SHIFT LOCK key on the PET 
works as usual, shifting all the keys. In addition, the 
backslash key has been disabled and now functions as 
an ALL CAPS LOCK. This is different from the 
SHIFT LOCK in that it only shifts the 26 alphabetic 
keys. The numbers, for example, still come out numbers 
and are not shifted. 

CONTROL KEY. The REV/OFF key has been 
deactivated and is now used as a CONTROL key. This 
allows commands to be issued such as CONTROL s to 
set a tab. 

TEXT FILES. To either LOAD or SAVE a sec- 
tion of text press SHIFT and HOME/CLR. First you 
give the file name. When loading a file, you need not 
spell out the complete name but can take advantage of 
the 2040 disk's pattern matching routines. Next you 
specify whether to LOAD or SAVE that file (simply hit 
"S" or "L"). If you specify LOAD, you do not have to 
indicate from which drive, it searches both drives for 
the file. Of course for a SAVE you must specify which 
drive number. If you try to SAVE a file with a name 
that already exists on that drive, the program asks you 
if you wish to OVERWRITE the existing file or not. If 



you wish to overwrite ic, simply hit "Y" for yes. This is 
handy for updating your files. 

REPEAT. All non-letter keys are equipped with 
automatic fast REPEAT except the CONTROL key. It 
takes about I second to get from one side of the screen 
to the other with a repeating cursor key. Repeat is also 
very handy for use with the Delete and Insert keys, 

TAB. You may tab over to the next set tdb loca- 
tion by hitting SHIFT "arrow across" key. To .set or 
clear a tab, place the cursor in the correct column and 
hit CONTROL "S" (to set) or CONTROL "C" (to 
clear). To clear all tabs hit CONTROL "K." Set tab po- 
sitions are continually indicated by half boxes on the 
second status line over each column wirh a set tab. This 
is very convenient. 

HOME. Hitting the HOME key takes you to the 
start of the text presently on your screen. Hitting it 
once more takes you to the very start of all text present- 
ly in memory, or column 1, line 1. 

DELETE. Pressing the DELETE key will delete the 
character immediately preceding the present cursor po- 
sition. Holding the key deletes entire strings. To delete 
an entire line at a time simply put the cursor at the start 
of the line and hit the CONTROL key then the DE- 
LETE key for each line to be deleted. To delete the re- 
mainder of a line simply hit RETURN. All text below a 
deleted section is moved up as necessary. 

INSERT. The INSERT key functions as usual and 
repeats if held down. It pushes the entire paragraph 
over one space to the right beginning at the cursor po- 
sition. If the paragraph runs out of expansion room all 
text beneath it is moved down one line. You may also 
enter INSERT MODE by pressing SHIFT and CON- 
TROL. While in inserr mode you may type in what you 
wish to insert and the text is moved as mentioned above 
to make room for each character as you enter them. 
The delete key still functions as usual. Press SHIFT and 
CONTROL again to return back to normal mode. 

RETURN. The return key is graphically illu- 
strated on the screen as a left ARROW ACRC)SS char- 
acter. This character is not printed when formatted on- 
to a page. The RETURN key deletes the remainder of 
the line you are on and puts the cursor on the first posi- 
tion of the next line. It is normally used only when you 
wish the printer to begin a new line, usually at the end 
of a paragraph or title. You do not hit RETURN after 
every sentence. This makes typing a paragraph much 
easier. 

CENTER. Type a SHIFT COLON ":" (graphical- 
ly illustrated as a check mark) at the beginning of any 
line you wish to be centered on the printed page. End 
the line with a RETURN. The formatter will automatic- 
ally center the line within the margins when printed. 
You can center each line of a whole paragraph by pre- 
ceding it with a SHIFT COLON and ending ir with a 
RETURN. 

SEARCH. The Editor will search through all text 
for any character, word, or phrase. Simply put the 
string you wish to search for on the first line. Then hit 



15 



^■i-r-Mr^- !r^5<r-5g ^ 



1. v^ r>< ,i~i ■^ N< X -^ v. X >J, >J, :-■_ ;■< :; 



PET Printer Adapter 



^^^ 




The CmC ADA 1 200 drives an RS-232 printer from the 
PET iEEE-488 bus. Now, the PET owner can obtain 
hard copy listings and can type letters, manuscripts, 
mailing labels, tables of data, pictures, invoices, 
graphs, checks, needlepoint patterns, etc.. using 
RS-232 standard printer or terminal. 

A cassette tape is included with software for plots, 
formatting tables and screen dumps. The ADA1200 
sells for S169.00 and includes case, power supply and 
cable. 



Order direct or contact your local computer store. 

VISA AND M(C ACCEPTED — SEHQ ACCOUNT NUMBCn EKPIRATION DATE AND SIGN ORPER 
AOO »3 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING — FOREIGN ORDERS ADD <0» FOR AIR POSTAGE 

CONNECTICUT microCOMPUTER , Inc. 
150POCONO ROAD 
BROOKFIELD, CONNECTICUT 06804 
TEL 1203) 775-9659 TV/X 710 456-0052 
r^ ■ir-ir vr ^-r ■tj Trf- >r^-g Jg ^ ve vr %j 



:x >^ >^. W -» 



CONTROL 'f.' The editor will place the cursor immedi- 
ately after the first occurance of the search string. 
CONTROL 'P will take you to the next occurance, etc. 
til! the end of text. 

COPY. Similar to the SEARCH function, the 
Editor can COPY the word or phrase that is on the first 
line anywhere you place the cursor and type CON- 
TROL '*.' This saves the time of typing the same phrase 
or company name over many times. 

ERASE. One can erase all the text by typing 
CONTROL 'e' followed by 'a' (for all). Typing CON- 
TROL 'e' followed by 'r' erases all text after the cursor 
position. 

MERGE. Text from a file on disk can easily be 
merged into the file you are presently working on. Sim- 
ply place your cursor on the line where you wish to 
merge the new text. Then LOAD the new text. 

MOVE. Whole sections of text can be moved from 
one place to another. This is helpful if you wish to rear- 
range your paragraph order. 

HYPHENATION. Semi-automatic hyphenation 
is available. You just place a special hyphen symbol 
(shifted ' @ ,' graphically displayed as a '-') where you 
would like the word hyphenated if need be. When 
printed the word will be hyphenated at that point if ne- 
cessary, otherwise the hyphen will be ignored. 

FORMATTING FUNCTIONS. When your 
text is formatted onto the printed page you have many 
print features to control. Line spacing is variable, single, 



double, or other. Margin release and indentation is 
handy to use. You can set both Right and Left margins. 
The nicest feature is the justification feature. You can 
have your printed copy justified both left and right. 

APPEND. Since there are two distinct and sepa- 
rate text areas, you may compose lines or paragraphs in 
the alternate text area and number them. Later while 
writing your text you can call any of your previously de- 
fined lines by number. Thus you can have a disk of 
numbered paragraphs which you load into the alternate 
text area. These then can be called into your main text 
as you need them, in any order. 

VARIABLE DATA BLOCKS. Here is a feature 
I was pleased with. You can have variables in your text. 
This is ideal for form letters. First compose the letter, 
leaving blank the name & address, and other variable 
info, such as amount of money owed, etc. Then in your 
alternate text area enter the name, address &. other info 
needed, in the correct order as used in your main text. 
You can enter this info for more than just the first one. 
When done with the data for the first, simply begin the 
sequence again for the second, then the third, etc. 

The variable data in your main text can be filled 
manually, semi-automatically, or automatically. Also, 
there is a special printing option which will print your 
main text and fill in the variable data as it goes. It will 
type one right after the other {hopefully you put in some 
page commands at the end of the letter). 



; %.; ^J vg ,vc5^xx -!..r->.ic-i-;T..;^^; 



PET Word Processor 






IT^^^M 


.. ;;. C 
-I n IV\-\Ki 


^B *"* ^1 



This program permits composing and printing letters, 
flyers, advertisements, manuscripts, etc., using the 
COMMODORE PET and a printer. 

Printing directives include line length, line spacing, 
left margin, centering and skip. Edit commands allow 
you to insert lines, delete lines, move lines and 
paragraphs, change strings, save files onto and load 
files from cassette (can be modified for disk), move up, 
move down, print and type. 

Added features for the 16/32K version include string 
search for editing, keyboard entry during printing for 
letter salutations, justification, multiple priming and 
more, 

A thirty page instruction manual is included. 

Ttie CmC Word Processor Program for the 8K PET is 
S29.50. The 16/32K version is $39.50, 

Order direct Or contact your local compulef store. 



CONNECTICUT microCOMPUTER , Inc. 

ISO POCONO ROAD 
BPOOKFIELD. CONNSCTICUT 06804 

TEL: i203j 775-9659 TWX: 7^0-456-0052 



16 



COMPUTE. 



Skylcs Electric Works 




PAL-80 



TM 



80 characters per line 

8V2 inch wide thermal paper 

Full graphics at 60 dots/inch 

Interfaced to PET 

Works with all PET peripherals 

40 character per second rate 

Microprocessor controlled 

Bidirectional look -ahead printing 

Quiet operation 

No external power supplies 

Only two driven parts 

High reliability 

Clear 5x7 characters 

Attractive metal and plastic case 



The Skyles PAL-80^'^ is a high speed thermal printer 
offering the combination of text printing at 80 charac- 
ters per line and continuous graphics at 60 dots per 
inch. In the text mode, upper and lower case data are 
printed at 40 characters per second. The 5x7 charac- 
ters provide clear readable copy on white paper; no hard 
to find, hard to read aluminized paper. 

In the graphics mode, seven bits of each byte correspond 
to the seven dots in each of the 480 print positions per 
line. Since the computer driving the printer has full con- 
trol over every print position, it can print graphs, bar 
charts, line drawings, even special and foreign language 
symbols. Despite its low cost, the Skyles PAL-80 is a 



true intelligent printer with full line buffering and bi- 
directional look-ahead printing. 

High reliability is designed in: The thick film thermal 
print head has a life expectancy of 100,000,000 charac- 
ters. Two DC stepping motors provide positive control 
of the print head and the paper drive. 

The Skyles PAL-80 operates directly from a 1 15V 60 Hz 
line (230V 50 Hz available). No external power supplies 
are required. 

It comes complete with an interface for the PET: a two 

and a half foot cable plugs into the IEEE interface at 
the back of your PET, Works with all PET models and 
PET or Skyles peripherals. 



Please send me 



Skyles PAL-80 printer(s) 



complete with Th foot interface cable to attach to my 
PET at S675.00 each* (Plus $10.00 shipping and hand- 
ling). I also will receive a test and graphics demonstra- 
tion tape at no additional charge and over 150 feet of 
814 inch wide black on white thermal paper S 



would also like to order 



rolls of SVj inch wide 



by 85 ft. long thermal paper (black ink) at S5.00 each 
S 

10 roll cartons at $45.00 $ 



VISA, Mastercharge orders call (800) 227-8398 
California orders call (415) 494-1210 

"California residents add 6 to 6'/;% sales tax 
where applicable. 



PAL-80 SPECIFICATIONS 

TEXT 

Format 



Print speed 
Line Feed 
Character Set 

GRAPHICS 
Format 
Print Speed 

COMMON 
Paper 

Dimensions 
Weight 



80 characters per eight inch line 

6 lines per inch nominal 

40 characters per second 

50 milliseconds nominal 

96 Characters, including upper and 

lower case, numerals, and symbols 

480 print positions per line 
240 print positions per second 

8% inch wide thermal paper, available 
in 85 foot foils, black image on white 
12"Wx 10"D X 2%"H 
8 lbs {3.6 kg) 



Skyles Electric Works 



10301 Stonydale Drive 

Cupertino, CA 95014 • (408) 735-7891 



TM PAL-RD Printpr nn A Leash a trademark nf Skvlp^ Elpntric Works Inn 



COMPUTE. 



15 



PET Printer Adapter 




The CmC ADA 1200 drives an RS-232 printer from tlie 
PET IEEE-488 bus. Now. tine PET owner can obtain 
hard copy listings and can type letters, manuscripts, 
mailing labels, tables of data, pictures, invoices, 
graphs, checks, needlepoint patterns, etc., using 
RS-232 standard printer or terminal. 

A cassette tape is included with software for plots, 
formatting tables and screen dumps. The ADA1200 
sells for $169.00 and includes case, power supply and 
cable. 



Order direct or contact your local computer store. 

VISA AND M/C ACCEPTED — SEND ACCOUNT NUMBER, EXPIRATION DATE AND SIGN OHOER 
400 13 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING & HANDLIWG — FOREIGK ORDERS ADD 10*. FOR AIR POSTAGE 

CONNECTICUT microCOMPUTER , Inc. 

1S0 POCONO ROAD 

BROOKFIELD, CONNECTICUT 06S04 

TEL- 12031 775-9659 TWK 710 456-0052 



CONTROL 'f.' The editor will place the cursor immedi- 
ately after the first occurance of the search string. 
CONTROL 'f will take you to the next occurance, etc. 
till the end of text. 

COPY. Similar to the SEARCH function, the 
Editor can COPY the word or phrase that is on the first 
line anywhere you place the cursor and type CON- 
TROL '*.' This saves the time of typing the same phrase 
or company name over many times. 

ERASE. One can erase all the text by typing 
CONTROL 'e' followed by 'a' (for al!). Typing CON- 
TROL 'e' followed by 'r' erases all text after the cursor 
position. 

MERGE. Text from a file on disk can easily be 
merged into the file you are presently working on. Sim- 
ply place your cursor on the line where you wish to 
merge the new text. Then LOAD the new text. 

MOVE. Whole sections of text can be moved from 
one place to another. This is helpful if you wish to rear- 
range your paragraph order. 

HYPHENATION. Semi-automatic hyphenation 
is available. You just place a special hyphen symbol 
{shifted ' @ ,' graphically displayed as a '-') where you 
would like the word hyphenated if need be. When 
printed the word will be hyphenated at that point if ne- 
cessary, otherwise the hyphen will be ignored. 

FORMATTING FUNCTIONS. When your 
text is formatted onto the printed page you have many 
print features to control. Line spacing is variable, single, 



double, or other. Margin release and indentation is 
handy to use. You can set both Right and Left margins. 
The nicest feature is the justification feature. You can 
have your printed copy justified both left and right. 

APPEND. Since there are two distinct and sepa- 
rate text areas, you may compose lines or paragraphs in 
the alternate text area and number them. Later while 
writing your te.xt you can call any of your previously de- 
fined lines by number. Thus you can have a disk of 
numbered paragraphs which you load into the alternate 
text area. These then can be called into your main text 
as you need them, in any order. 

VARIABLE DATA BLOCKS. Here is a feature 
I was pleased with. You can have variables in your text. 
This is ideal for form letters. First compose the letter, 
leaving blank the name &. address, and other variable 
info, such as amount of money owed, etc. Then in your 
alternate text area enter the name, address & other info 
needed, in the correct order as used in your main text. 
You can enter this info for more than just the first one. 
When done with the data for the first, simply begin the 
sequence again for the second, then the third, etc. 

The variable data in your main text can be filled 
manually, semi-automatically, or automadcally. Also, 
there is a special printing option which will print your 
main text and fill in the variable data as it goes. It will 
type one right after the other (hopefully you put in some 
page commands at the end of the letter). 



-S^IS^SSE^I^ZSI^Z^Z^SZ^^S^ISZSES^Sl^^SSS: 



r->< %j ^ ^^^^^ 



PET Word Processor 




J :;i !:; 


^H •— • H 



This program permits composing and printing letters, 
flyers, advertisements, manuscripts, etc., using the 
COfvlMODORE PET and a printer. 

Printing directives include line length, line spacing, 
left margin, centering and skip. Edit commands allow 
you to insert lines, delete lines, move lines and 
paragraphs, change strings, save files onto and load 
files from cassette (can be modified for disk), move up, 
move down, print and type. 

Added features for the 16/32K version include string 
search for editing, keyboard entry during printing for 
letter salutations, justification, multiple printing and 
more. 

A tfiirty page instruction manual is included. 

The CmC Word Processor Program for the 8K PET is 
$29,50. The 16/32K version is 539.50. 

Order direct or contact your local computer store. 

VISA AND M/C ACCEPTED — SEND ACCOUNT NUMBER. EXPIRATION DATE AND SIGN ORDER 
ADD S I PER DRDEfl FOR SKIPPING & NANDUNG ^ FOREIGN ORDERS ADD 10^ FOR AIR POSTAGE 

CONNECTICUT microCOMPUTER , Inc. 

150 POCONO ROAD 
BROOKFIELD, CONNECTICUT 06B04 

TEL- 1203) 775.9659 TWX 710-456-OO52 



"■w %j %tBe M ve ifi 



■K ,K K ac 



r^r^^ 



16 



COMPUTE. 



Skylcs Electric Works 




PAL-80 



™ 



• 80 characters per line 

• 814 inch wide thermal paper 

• Full graphics at 60 dots/inch 

• Interfaced to PET 

• Works with all PET peripherals 

• 40 character per second rate 
Microprocessor controlled 
Bidirectional look-ahead printing 
Quiet operation 
No external power supplies 
Only two driven parts 
High reliability 
Clear 5x7 characters 
Attractive metal and plastic case 



The Skyles PAL-80^'^ is a high speed thermal printer 
offering the combination of text printing at 30 charac- 
ters per line and continuous graphics at 60 dots per 

inch. In the text mode, upper and lower case data are 
printed at 40 characters per second. The 5x7 charac- 
ters provide clear readable copy on white paper; no hard 
to find, hard to read aluminized paper. 

In the graphics mode, seven bits of each byte correspond 
to the seven dots in each of the 480 print positions per 
line. Since the computer driving the printer has full con- 
trol over every print position, it can print graphs, bar 
charts, line drawings, even special and foreign lanquage 
symbols. Despite its low cost, the Sl<yles PAL-80 is a 



true intelligent printer with full line buffering and bi- 
directional look-ahead printing. 
High reliability is designed in: The thick film thermal 
print head has a life expectancy of 100,000,000 charac- 
ters. Two DC stepping motors provide positive control 
of the print head and the paper drive. 

The Skyles PAL-80 operates directly from a 1 15V 60 Hz 
line (230V 50 Hz available). No external power supplies 
are required. 

It comes complete with an interface for the PET: a two 

and a half foot cable plugs into the IEEE interface at 
the back of your PET. Works with all PET models and 
PET or Skyles peripherals. 



.Skyles PAL-80 printer(s) 



Please send me 

complete with 2/3 foot interface cable to attach to my 
PET at S675.00 each* (Plus S10.00 shipping and hand- 
ling). I also will receive a test and graphics demonstra- 
tion tape at no additional charge and over 150 feet of 
8V2 inch wide black on white thermal paper S 



. rolls of 8/2 inch wide 



I would also like to order 

by 85 ft. long thermal paper (black ink) at S5.00 each 

S 

10 roll cartons at $45.00 $ 



VISA, Mastercharge orders call (800) 227-8398 
California orders call (415) 494-1210 

'California residents add 6 to 6Vi% sales tax 
where applicable. 



PAL-80 SPECIFICATIONS 

TEXT 

Format 



Print speed 
Line Feed 
Character Set 

GRAPHICS 
Format 
Print Speed 

COMMON 
Paper 

Dimensions 
Weight 



80 characters per eight inch line 

6 lines per inch nominal 

40 characters per second 

50 milliseconds nominal 

96 Characters, including upper and 

lower case, numerals, and symbols 

480 print positions per line 
240 print positions per second 

8% inch wide thermal paper, available 
in 85 foot foils, black image on white 
12"Wx 10"D X 2%"H 
8 lbs (3.6 kg) 



Skyles Electric Works 



10301 Stonydale Drive 

Cupertino, CA 95014 • (408) 735-7891 



TM PAt -Rfl Printpr r,ri. fl I each a t^Q^tuvi^rL' ^* CL-wlar Cln/**.^;.^ lAJi«.^L.* r_ 



COMPUTE. 



17 



TYPING OPTIONS. You can do more than just 
type one copy of your main text. You can type up to 255 
copies of the text. And as mentioned above you can 
have variable blocks filled as the printer types. 

DISK COMMANDS. Most commonly used disk 
commands are available while using the Commodore 
Editor. They are simplified too. To initialize a diskette 
in drive 1 simply type CONTROL ' * ' to get into disk 
control mode. Then type 'il'. That is all there is to it. 

END NOTES. I am sure you will be hearing a lot 
about this Word Processor from Commodore. And re- 
member, I have described the first version. Another 
version is in the works that makes this one look primi- 
tive. I will be telling you about that one as soon as I see 
it. If you are looking for a good word processor and you 
have a NEW PET and DISK and PRINTER then I 
highly recommend this particular one. 



WORD PROCESSOR 
PROGRAM (WPP) $295o 

CONNECTICUT MICROCOMPUTER 

ISOPoconoRd. 

Brookfield, CT 06804 

This is one of the first word processors available for the 
PET. It now is also available in an expanded version for 
the NEW PET. I have just received a review copy of that 
new version and will be able to report on it next issue. 
The version for the OLD PET is very good. I used it to 
do my last few newsletters and enjoyed using it very 
much. All that is needed to use this word processor is 
an 8K PET. It can display its final output on either the 
PET screen or a printer. I have received tapes by mail 
that were data tapes to be used with this program. 
These tapes are used as input and then printed out on 
my printer. I could set up my own line length etc. This 
is very nice. 

This is a line oriented word processor. As you enter 
the text it is automatically assigned aline number. Each 
time you hit return you go on to the next line number. 
Lines can be moved, replaced, inserted, changed, and 
deleted. Printer commands are put right in with the 
text. They are refered to as directives. There are two 
main modes of operation. In Command Mode you can 
look at lines, change things, save the text on tape, etc. 
The other major mode is INPUT MODE. While in this 
mode you are entering the text, line by line. 

Even though your text is entered and assigned se- 
quential line numbers the lines are not printed that 
way. When printed, all the lines are treated as one long 
string of data (and directives for the printer). Sentences 
are printed one after another. A new paragraph is 
started only when a) a directive is encountered, or b) a 
line begins with a space. This word processor is very 
versatile and flexible, but does require getting used to 



the commands and directives. I use a small index card 
with the commands summarized on one side and the di- 
rectives on the other. Commands and directives are re- 
presented in a very logical and easy to remember man- 
ner. I had very little trouble getting used to them. 

You will have to get used to thinking of your text as 
a series of lines sequentially numbered. You are always 
positioned at the 'current line number.' This doesn't 
have to be the last line you typed in. You can move to 
any line you wish while in the Command Mode. Many 
of the commands use the 'current line number' as a re- 
ference point. For example you may wish to go up 5 
lines. The program takes the line you are now at and 
puts you at the line 5 above it. The program will always 
print on the screen the text in the line you currently are on. 

FREE BYTES. For example, to find out how many 
free bytes are left you enter the command 'FREE' or 
simply enter 'F.' The program then would respond and 
tell you how many bytes were free. 

DOWN. Moves the current line pointer down as 
many lines as you specify. It will not go past the last line 
number currently assigned. For example, if you are at 
line 75 and go down 10, but line 80 is the last line, you 
will be placed at line 80, 

UP. This command will move the current line 
pointer up the number of lines you request. It goes up as 
far as line number 0. If you are on line 5 and ask to go 
up 9 you will end up on line 0. 

GO TO. You can go to any line you wish with this 
command. If you wish to make a correction to line 51, 
simply go to that line. 

REPLACE. The Replace command allows you to 
replace any line with the next one you type in. 

CHANGE. This command is very handy for cor- 
recting spelling errors or changing words. First go to the 
line you wish to change. Then specify what string you 
wish to change, and what you wish to change it to. For 
example, you might change 'their' to 'there.' 

MOVE. You can move any number of consecutive 
line numbers to another location very easily. All line 
numbers are reassigned to once again be in correct 
ascending order. 

INSERT. To insert a line or several lines in be- 
tween 2 existing lines, simply go to the first of the two 
lines (the one you wish to insert after) and go into IN- 
PUT mode. All line numbers already in your text after 
that line number will be increased by one for every line 
you insert, 

ERASE. Lines may be erased a whole line at a 
time, or even a whole group of consecutive lines at once 
using this command. 

TYPE. This is different than PRINT, Print is your 
formatted text. Type will type out the lines as they are 
stored presently. They can be typed onto your screen or 
to your printer, 

PRINT. This command prints your text either to 
your screen or to your printer in its finished form. All 
directives within the text are followed. 



18 



COMPUTE. 



Business Programs for the PET 

Dr. Daley continues to expand software for the PET. Some of our newest offer- 
ings for the businessman are Hsted below. 

These programs are available NOW for the COMPU/THINK disk and will be 
converted to the COMMODORE disk as soon as one can be obtained. All come with 
documentation. 

We have in progress programs for Billing, Ledger and Modified Inventory. Call 
for prices and delivery. 



Inventory 

This program will maintain a complete inventory for 
the small business. Functions include entering and 
editing of the new inventory, modifying individual 
records, and a variety of reports $99.95 



Estimate 

This set of four programs will build a file for use, in 
conjunction with one version of the above inventory 
files, to prepare accurate estimates for an individual 
job. This program can eliminate the difficulties and 
inaccuracies of quote preparation $99.95 



Mail List 

This program will maintain a mailing list of about 
6000 names kept in zip code sequence. Individual 
records are accessed in seconds, and the entire list or 
any subset may be printed on labels $99.95 



Your order will be shipped within four business days from receipt. 

Charge your order to 
MC/VISA 





DR. DALEY, 425 Grove Avenue, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49103 

Phone (616) 471-5514 Sun. thru Thurs., noon lo 9 p.m. eastern time. 



COMPUTE. 



19 



SAVE. Your text is saved as data onto cassette tape 
on cassette unit #1 with this command. I have found 
the data saved to be very reliable. It would LOAD later 
without problems. 

LOAD. This allows you to load in text previously 
saved by this program. You can start with an empty 
text and load in one to work with. Or you can add to 
the current text in memory. To add to your current text 
simply set your 'current line pointer' at the line you 
wish this text on tape to be added after. Then LOAD in 
the tape. 

INPUT. Of course there is the Input command. It 
puts you into "Input Mode". I will describe this mode 
and its "Directives" next. 

DIRECTIVES. All directives must start in the 
first column of a line or they will be created as text. You 
use the directives to instruct the printer how you would 
like your output printed. All directives begin with a '.'. 
For example, .ce is the directive for center the next 
string (as for a heading). 

CENTER. You can have headings centered very 
easily with this directive. Be careful not to try to center 
a 40 character string within a 30 character line length. 

LINE LENGTH. You can change the line length 
at any time during the printing of the text. The default 
line length is 60. The line length begins at the Left 
Margin and creates a Right Margin that many spaces to 
the right. 

LEFT MARGIN. The left margin is set at I by de- 
fault, but you can assign any left margin you wish, and 
it can be changed at any time within your text. For ex- 
ample, you currently have a Left Margin of 10 and Line 
Length of 60. That means your Right Margin is at 70. 
Now you can change your Left margin to 30. Your 
Right Margin now would be 90 since you did not 
change your Line Length. 

LINE SPACING. Your text is printed single 
spaced unless you specify otherwise. You can print dou- 
ble or triple spaced text. Once again, this can be 
changed at any point within your text. 

SKIP A LINE. You can add blank lines with this 
directive. It will skip as many lines as you specify. 

NO LINE FEED. You can overprint using this 
directive. This line will be printed without a line feed on 
the printer. Underlining is available without having to 
use this feature. 

REPEAT CENTERED. Any string can be re- 
peated as many times as you wish and then centered on 
the page. For example, 'XO' repeated 5 times would be 
'XOXOXOXOXO.' It would be centered on the line. 
This is handy for creating dividing lines on your page. 

NEW LINE. You need to be able to tell the 
printer when to start a new paragraph. A new para- 
graph is started any time a directive is encountered. 
You may also have the printer start a new line by leav- 
ing at least one space at the start of that line. Your para- 
graph will be indented by the number of spaces you be- 
gin the line with. 



PAUSE. This directive is handy if you wish to do 
personalized form letters. The program waits until you 
hit a key on the PET before continuing. This allows you 
to use the keyboard on your printer (if you have one) to 
type in the person's name, etc., before continuing with 
the text. 

SEND ASCII CODE. You can direct the PET to 
output any ASCII character code you wish. I have used 
this to have it ring the bell on my Teletype 43. 

THE TEXT. Any of these directives can be inter- 
spersed with your text. To enter your text, simply type 
it in. The delete key works as usual to erase typing er- 
rors. You can hit RETURN after any word, though it is 
optional. I find it best to hit return after every sentence, 
although it is not necessary. This way, I can move lines 
around later and don't havetoworryabout partial lines, etc. 



WORD PROCESSOR $19.95 

programmed by Mike Richter 
marketed by 

PROGRAMMA INTERNATIONAL 
3400 Wilshire Blvd. 
Los Angeles, C A 90010 

This is a very good word processor. It does what you 
need in ordinary use, and doesn't subject you to learn- 
ing special commands to use it. It works with either 
OLD or NEW PETs and even has a special version for 
use with the AXIOM printer. Another version is for use 
with any RS232 printer via an RS232 interface. Text is 
stored on cassette. A minimal system for its use would 
be an 8K PET with 1 cassette unit. Since it can print 
your finished text either on the screen or printer, the 
printer is optional. Of course you will probably want 
your text printed on hard copy, but it is possible to put 
together your text, save it on tape, and later print it on- 
to paper at your friend's house, local dealer, or just send 
it via mail as a letter on tape. 

This word processor has several modes and for your 
convenience displays a menu of your choices. You 
choose from; Edit the text 

Input from tape 

Output to tape 

Print the output 

Read to screen 

Write something new 
Simply decide what you wish to do and hit the key 
matching the first tetter of that choice (E for Edit the 
text). 

WRITE SOMETHING NEW. All text present- 
ly in memory is erased when you enter this mode (To 
modify your present text you would enter EDIT mode). 
Your keyboard now acts like a smart typewriter (shift 
for upper case). You do not have to hit return after each 
line or sentence. As a matter of fact, the return key is ig- 
nored. Simply type your text as a continucius string. 



20 



COMPUTI. 



Use the up arrow key to separate paragraphs. Para- 
graphs are automatically indented as you specify when 
in PRINT mode. To get an extra blank line in between 
paragraphs simply type two up arrows consecutively. 
The delete key works as usual allowing you to erase 
your typing errors as you go. Hit the backslash key to 
signify the end of input. You will then be presented 
with the menu of choices again. 

EDIT THE TEXT. Editing the text is performed 
in a manner requiring little effort on your part. There 
are no fancy commands to learn. Text is displayed on 
the screen in blocks of about 4 lines. The cursor is 
moved with the cursor keys. Place the cursor over a 
character. Now hit delete and it is deleted, and the rest 
of text in the block is moved over 1 to the left to fill the 
"hole." To insert something simply hit the up arrow 
key. The character where the cursor was is lit up to re- 
mind you where you are inserting into. A new cursor is 
now below the block of text. You simply type in what 
you wish to insert and end with the backslash key. The 
character lit up is then replaced with the string you just 
typed for the insert. 

PRINT THE OUTPUT. Printing your text is 
very easy. All you need to do is answer these simple 
questions: 

1) HOW MANY SPACES IN A TAB? 

You may type in any digit from to 9. Each para- 
graph will be indented this many spaces. You do 
not have to hit return after your choice. New para- 
graphs are identified in your text by the up arrow. 

2) TO SCREEN OR PRINTER? 

Hit S and the text will be printed onto your screen. 
Hit P and it will print onto your printer (device #5 
— if yours is a different device you must change the 
basic program in two lines). 

3) DOUBLE SPACE? 

Hit Y and your output will be double spaced. Hit N 
and your output will be single spaced. 

4) HOW MANY CHARACTERS PER LINE? 
Now you will be setting your margins. It will set 
right and left margins so as to fit the number of 
characters in each line on the page with even mar- 
gins on both sides (centered on the page). 

If you chose to print to the screen it will also ask 
you; 

5) HOW MANY LINES PER PAGE? 

While printing on the screen you must remember 
you will only be able to view 25 lines at a time. This 
question allows you to set how many lines to print 
on the screen before pausing to allow you to read 
them. After printing the number of lines you spec- 
ify, it will print a blank line and then print the mes- 
sage "KEY SPACE TO CONTINUE" in reverse 
field. This is followed by a blank line. Thus the 
maximum number of lines viewable on one screen 
is 22 (39 characters per line). 
Once you have answered these questions it prints 
your text.That is all there is to it. When it is done, it once 
again displays the menu of choices on the screen for you. 



READ TO SCREEN. This is an easy way to see 

your text without having to answer the questions asked 
in the PRINT mode. It will print 20 lines per screen, 39 
characters per line, single spaced, with a tab of 5. This is 
probably what you would choose anyway. If you wish 
something else simply use the PRINT mode. When all 
text has been displayed, you once again are returned to 
the menu, 

OUTPUT TO TAPE. One of the major benefits 
of a word processor is the ability to save your text on 
tape (or disk) for use later without having to key it all in 
again. Choose this option and save your text on tape 
using cassette unit #1. When through saving the text 
you are returned to the menu again. This word process- 
or gives you an option I have not often seen elsewhere. 
When in OUTPUT TO TAPE mode it first asks you 
what the file's name is. Thus you can label your text 
files on tape. But then it asks you: 

DO YOU WANT TO SAVE THE PROGRAM? 

If you hit N it simply saves your text on tape. But if 
you hit Y it will first save the Word Processor program 
and immediately after it save your text. Thus each of 
your text files can be on tape with the program that will 
use them. This is a very handy option. 

INPUT FROM TAPE. Hit I to choose this op- 
tion from the menu. It will then prompt you to PRESS 
PLAY ON TAPE #1, Simply put your text data tape in 
tape #1 and press PLAY and it will be loaded in. This 
program is nice enough to tell you what text file you are 
loading in by printing the file's name on the screen after 
it reads the header. 

So here is a very easy to use word processor that 
does a lot. Recommended for its simplicity and usefulness. 



X>«^«** 



<*AeA 



Sell Commodore Business Computers 

Make New Profits 

From an Initial Low 

Investment of Less Than 

$3,000. 

Contact the Southeastern Distributor 

Jerry G. Zeigler 

Zeigler Electronic Products 

3661 Calumet Rd. 

Decatur, GA 30034 

(404)289-2265/289-1596 



PET RS-232C Serial Adapter 



21 



Uses the PET IEEE Bus 

RS-232C Serial Input/Output 

20 MA Current Loop (active or passive) 

Crystal Controlled Baud Rates (75 to 9600 Baud) 

Full Duplex 

Selectable IEEE device address 

IEEE Bus extended for 
other devices 

Power supply and 
enclosure included 




DIMEHSIOHSl 



POWER 
REQJIREMENTS; 



117 VAC JI25 walls 



SERIAL 

IMPUT/OUTPUT 

SPECtFICATtONSi 



E(A RS'232C (emale connecloi 

Usei selaclacie serjal channes 
EIARS-232C 

20 MA current loop active 
20 WA current loop passive 

User selectable baud rates 

75 300 3600 

110 600 4800 

^3i5 1200 7200 

1 50 1 800 960Q 

200 2-100 



Now you can have RS-232C capability with your PET, With the RS-232C 
Serial Adapter you can use your PET as a terminal, or get hard copy from any 
serial printer, including current loop devices. 

The Serial Adapter is designed to be fully compatible with the IEEE-488 
Bus and allows you to use other 488 devices with the PET at the same time. 



IEEE. 483 

INPUTfOUTPUT 

SPECIFICATIONS: 



Complies with I E EE 468 Std 1 975 
Selectable laiker/listener address (Pevice 4-7) 
Arjdress laciory sirarpe<3 lor device n 
PET IEEE Bus is extended tor other devices 



$225.00 



Please add $5.00 shipping and handling. 



Computer, 
Associates 

LTD. 

n07 Airport Road, Ames, Iowa 50010 
515-233-4470 



PET IS a irademark ol Commodore Business Machines. Inc. 



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Data Acquisition Modules 



[ -s," 1 «' 




■VBTVMH 






CIH>t*ThM 



The world we live In Is full of variables we want to 
measure. These Include weight, temperature, pressure, 
humidity, speed and fluid level. These variables are 
continuous and their values may be represented by a 
voltage. This voltage is the analog of the physical varia- 
ble. A device which converts a physical, mechanical or 
chemical quantity to a voltage is called a sensor. 

Computers do not understand voltages: They under- 
stand bits. Bits are digital signals. A device which con- 
verts voftages to bits is an analog-to-digital converter. 
Our AIM1 6 (Analog Input Module) is a 1 6 input analog- 
to-digital converter. 

The goal of Connecticut microcomputer in designing 
the DAM SYSTEMS is to produce easy to use, low cost 
data acquisition modules for small computers. As the 
line grows we will add control modules to the system. 
These acquisition and control modules will include 
digital input sensing (e.g. switches), analog input sens- 
ing (e.g. temperature, humidity), digital output control 
(e.g. lamps, motors, alarms), and analog output control 
(e.g. X-Y plotters, or oscilloscopes). 



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i^i^s^i^s: 



Connectors 



^ 



# 





The AIM 16 requires connections to its Input port 
(analog inputs) and its output port (computer inter- 
face). The ICON (Input CONnector) is a 20 pin, solder 
eyelet, edge connector for connecting inputs to each of 
theAIMie's 16 channels. The OCON (Output CONnec- 
tor) is a 20 pin. solder eyelet edge connector for con- 
necting the computer's input and output ports to the 
AIM16. 

The MANM0D1 (MANifold MODule) replaces the 
ICON. It has screw terminals and barrier strips for all 1 6 
inputs for connecting pots, joysticks, voltage sources, 
etc. 

CABLE A24 (24 inch interconnect cable has an inter- 
face connector on one end and an OCON equivalent on 
the other. This cable provides connections between the 
DAM SYSTEMS computer interfaces and the AIM16 or 
XPANDR1 and between the XPANDR1 and up to eight 
AIM16S. 



ICON. 

OCON, 

MANMOD1 . 

CABLE A24. 



S 9.95 
S 9.95 
S59.95 
S 19.95 



Analog Input Module 




The AIM16 is a 16 channel analog to digital converter 
designed to work with most microcomputers. The 
AIM16 is connected to the host computer through the 
computer's 8 bit input port and 8 bit output port, or 
through one of the DAM SYSTEMS special interfaces. 

The input voltage range Is to 5.12 volts. The input 
voltage is converted to a count between and 255 (00 
and FF hex). Resolution is 20 millivolts per count. Ac- 
curacy is 0.5% ± 1 bit. Conversion time is less than 1 00 
microseconds per channel. All 16 channels can be 
scanned in less than 1.5 milliseconds. 

Power requirements are 12 volts DC at 60 ma. 

The P0W1 is the power module for the AIM16. One 
P0W1 supplies enough power for one AIM16, one 
MANM0D1, sixteen sensors, one XPANDR1 and one 
computer interface. The POW1 comes in an American 
version (POWIa) for 110 VAC and in a European ver- 
sion (POWIe) for 230 VAC. 



AIM16. 

POWIa, 

POWIe, 



$179.00 
S 14.95 
S 24.95 



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■95^ 



'-^^^^^^'^^^^^ v^ Vf Vf ^r^■w;«l^rf^»^■s^T>^T^w ^^ ^ s^ ^ X X • j^ - ^ ' i-^ ' , 



XPANDR1 




The XPANDR1 allows up to eight AIM 16 modules to be 
connected to a computer at one time, The XPANDR1 is 
connected to the computer in place of the AIM16. Up to 
eight AIM16 modules are then connected to each of the 
eight ports provided using a CABLE A24 for each 
module. Power for the XPANDR1 is derived from the 
AIM16 connected to the first port. 



XPANDR1 



S59.95 



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TEMPSENS 




This module provides two temperature probes for use 
by the AIM16. This module should be used with the 
MANM0D1 for ease of hookup. The MANMODI will 
support up to 16 probes (eight TEMPSENS modules). 
Resolution for each probe is I^F. 

TEMPSENS2P1 (-10°F to 120°F) . 



Computer Interfaces 
and Sets 







For your convenience the AIM16 comes as part of a 
number of sets. Tfie minimum configuration for a usable 
system is the AIM16 Starter Set 1. This set includes 
one AIM16, one POWl, one ICON and one OCON, The 
AIM16 Starter Set 2 includes a MANM0D1 in place of 
the ICON. Both of these sets require that you have a 
hardware l<nowledge of your computer and of computer 
interfacing. 

For simple plug compatible systems we also offer 
computer interfaces and sets for several home com- 
puters. 

The PETMOD plugs into the back of the Commodore 
PET computer and provides tvi/o PET IEEE ports, one 
user port and one DAM SYSTEMS port. The PETMOD is 
connected to the AIM16 or XPANDR1 with CABLE A24. 
The PETSET1 includes one PETMOD, one CABLE A24, 
one AIM16, one POWl and one MANM0D1. To read 
and display a single AtM16 channel (N) using the 
PETSET1 the BASIC statements 

are ail that is needed. 

The KIMMOD plugs into the COMMODORE KiM ap- 
plications connector and provides one application con- 
nector and one DAM SYSTEM'S port. The KIMMOD is 
connected to the AIM16 or XPANDR1 with CABLE A24. 
Assembly and machine language programs for reading 
and displaying data are included. The KIMSET1 in- 
cludes one KIMMOD, one CABLE A24, one AIM16, one 
POWl andoneMANMOD 1. 

All sets come in American and European versions. 

AIM16StarterSet1a(110VAC) ... S189.00 
AIM1 6 Starter Set 1 e (230 VAC) . . . S 1 99.00 
A1M1 6 Starter Set 2a (110 VAC) ... S 259.00 
AIM1 6 Starter Set 2e (230 VAC) . . . S 269.00 

PETMOD ... $ 49.95 
KIMMOD . . . S 39.95 
PETSETIa... $295.00 
PETSETIe... S 305.00 
KIMSETIa... S 285.00 
KIMSETIe... $295.00 



^ r ^ ■ ^ v. ■ >^ '^^ ^ -^ X.J-I. j-i-jJ."ve-WT.erMr7nr«^>g3Jijg>i^;-e.'^ x xy ^ 



Our Guarantee of Satisfaction 



Our customers are our most important asset. We want 
you to be pleased with whatever you purchase from us. 
We strive to offer top quality products at reasonable 
prices. We believe you should see an item before you 
spend your hard earned cash for it. 

Ask for a demonstration at your local computer store 
so you can be sure our products perform as you want 
them to perform. Your dealer is a valued source of infor- 
mation and advice. 

If you cannot see our products In advance, and order 
direct from us, we offer a money back guarantee. If our 
products don't perform as you expect, return the mer- 
chandise to us within 30 days, in its original condition, 
and we will refund the purchase price. 

Our standard warranty for all our products is 90 days. 



L^tn^ 



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Coming Soon 



TEMPSENS-2P with other temperature ranges. Inter- 
faces for TRS-80. APPLE, AIM65. Light sensors. Out- 
put modules. Contact us for price and availability. 



:■v^->;■^<%^ i-t^^j-iLvtvujv? sj -u ■K"^J"M"«-v r ; a r ^K r ;.r T -f ;v; 



^.^■ve j£ 



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Dealers 



Give your potential customers a reason for buying your 
computers. We offer excellent discounts to legitimate 
dealers. Contact us for our dealer pack. 



-s!rr,J^r>i^r^r,^VL-i 



M >^ JJ.J-gy->ILjA 



Order Form 



CONNECTICUT microCOMPUTER , Inc. 

1S0POCONO ROAD 
BROOKFIELD, CONNECTICUT 06804 

TEL: (203) 775-9639 TWX: 770-456-OO52 



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24 



MICROCOMPUTERS FOR 
NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTATION 



Excerpted from a paper presented at the Conference and 
Exhibits on Small Computers. Session on Applications in 
Engineering and Science Clemson University. Clemson, 
South Carolina. May 23-24, 1979. 

J.S. Byrd 
Staff Engineer 

Savannah River Laboratory 
E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co. 
Aiken, South Carolina 29801 

* The informcirion concaintrd in this article was developed during the 
course of work under Contract No. AT(07-2)- 1 with the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Energy. 

SUMMARY 

Small, desk-top Commodore PET® computers are being 
used to solve nuclear instrumentation problems at the Sa- 
vannah River Laboratory (SRL). The ease of operating, 
programming, interfacing, and maintaining the PET com- 
puter makes it a cost-effective solution to many real-time 
instrumenration problems that involve both data acquisi- 
don and data processing. The lEEE-488 GPIB (General 
Purpose Instrument Bus) is an integral part of the PET 
hardware. 

This paper reviews GPIB design concepts and dis- 
cusses SRL applications that use the PET computer as a 
GPIB controller. 

Since rhe development and the commercial introduc- 
tion of the Intel* 8008 8-bit microprocessor in 1972, 
SRL has used programmed microprocessor-based digital 
systems to solve laboratory instrumentation problems. 
The initial cost of $200 per unit for the Intel 8008 mod- 
ule made it an attractive design component for sophisti- 
cated digital systems. Several systems' ^ were designed 
with this module. Those systems are still used daily and 
have operated reliably and required very little 
maintenance. 

During the next few years, more sophisticated mi- 
croprocessors (Intel* 8080, Motorola** 6800, etc.) and 
supporting large-scale integration (LSI) interface mod- 
ules and memory modules were available to design engi- 
neers. Industry competition and improved manufactur- 
ing techniques rapidly reduced the cost of LSI devices. 
By 1974 many "home" and "hobby" computer systems 
became commercially available. These ranged in price 
from several hundred to several thousand dollars de- 
pending on capability. These computer systems general- 
ly lacked manufacturer software support and peripheral 
device support. The "home computer" description was 
somewhat misleading since users needed expertise in 
both hardware and software. We evaluated several of 
these systems for laboratory applications, but we con- 
cluded that special purpose in-house designs met our in- 
strumentation needs better."* ^ 

• Intel Corp. , 3065 Bowers Ave. , Santa Clara, C A 9505 1 . 
•* Motorola, Inc.. Box 20912, Phoenix, AZ 85036. 



In 1977 self-contained, desk-top microcomputers 
appeared in the electronics industry market. Commo- 
dore Business Machines, Inc., began delivering its 
PET-2001 computer, which was the first "affordable" in- 
tegral single package unit for the home computer nov- 
ice. The single package unit costs $795. The specifica- 
tions, such as an advanced BASIC* interpreter, were 
also attractive. Integral input/output hardware and 
software to support the IEEE-488 GPIB make the PET 
computer a versatile controller and data processor for 
laboratory experiments. 

THE PET COMPUTER 

The PET computer is designed around the MOS Tech- 
nology** 6502 8-bit microprocessor.* It has a cathode 
ray tube (CRT) display, compressed keyboard, and cas- 
sette tape transport; all three peripherals are integrated 
into a single desk-top package. (Figure I). Its firmware 
package (built-in programs) occupies 14K memory 
addresses which consist of a BASIC interpreter, operat- 
ing system, and peripheral utility programs. The stan- 
dard RAM (random access memory) occupies 8K 
addresses; expansions up to 32K are supported by the 
firmware.'' 

FIGURE L PET Input/Output Ports 

1EEE.488 BUS (GPIB) 



II 



PERIPHERAL INTERFACE 
ADAPTER 



H 



CENTRAL PROCESSOR UNIT 

6502 

MOS TECHNOLOGY, INC. 



m 



PERIPHERAL 
ADAPTER 



H 



USER "HOBBY" PORT 

8-bit data I/O 
controls 



MEMORY & I/O 
EXPANSION PORT 

8-bit data I/O, buffered 
address lines, 10 4K pages 
controls 



* BASIC (Beginners Ail-purpose Symbolic Instruc-tion Code). 
•* MOS Technology, Inc. is owned by Cominodore Business Mach ines 
Inc.Palo Alto, CA. 



COMPUTE. 



25 



The PET has three ports to connect I/O peripheral 
devices (Figure 1). A portion of a peripheral interface 
LSI module {MOS Technology 6522) is dedicated to a 
user "hobby" port that allows an S-bit exchange of data 
with I/O devices. Also, that port can supply a program- 
med frequency square wave signal to external peripher- 
als. An expansion port for memory and I/O devices has 
buffered central processing unit (CPU) signals (data and 
handshake controls) and decoded 4K page addressing 
signals. Both the expansion and "hobby" port can be 
controlled by "peeking" and "poking" from a BASIC 
program or by a custom machine language program^ 
that resides in memory. A short machine program 
might be loaded from cassette via a BASIC program (for 
example, as a DATA STATEMENT) or more complex 
machine programs may be installed as permanent addi- 
tions to firmware. 

The lEEE-488 GPIB port is supported by the 
BASIC and operating system firmware as the primary 
peripheral I/O port. It is controlled from BASIC with 
file structured "print," "get," and "input" commands. 
Commodore peripherals (printer, disk, etc.) are "intelli- 
gent" GPIB devices. 

THE IEEE-488 GPIB 

In December 1974 the IEEE Standards Board approved 
what is now known as IEEE Standard 488^ '" that de- 



scribes a general purpose instrument bus (GPIB) for pro- 
grammable instruments. The GPIB is an improved ver- 
sion of HP-IB (Hewlett-Packard Instrument Bus) used 
with a family of instruments from Hewlett-Packard Co. 
GPIB uses a party-line bus structure to which a maxi- 
mum of 15 devices may be connected. Sixteen signal 
lin~s (Figure 2) provide communication of 8-bit com- 
mands and data bytes between a bus controller (such as 
PET) and "listener" and/or "talker" devices connected 
to the bus via a standard cable. 

SRL APPLICATIONS 

The versatility of the PET computer/GPIB controller 
makes it a cost-effective solution to many SRL instru- 
mentation problems (Figure 3). Although our problems 
encompass a variety of widely different requirements 
and constraints, one (and sometimes all three) of the 
PET interface ports can be used to connect the PET to 
real-time I/O peripheral devices. 

A simple application uses a PET and the IEE-488 
bus to control two commercial devices, an Aston* event 
scaler and a printer. Events from a gamma ray detection 
system are automatically counted; sample concentra- 
tion of Krypton-85 is computed; a formal test report is 
printed. All programming is in BASIC. Data are also 
archived on cassette tape so that a more complex data 
processing program on selected data could be run on 
the PET later. 



FIGURE 2. PET Computer Connected to lEEE-488 Bus 



PET COMPUTER 
IEEE-488 Bus ControUer 



( IEEE-488BUS 



COMMERCIAL 

LABORATORY INSTRUMENT 

with IEEE-488 option 



iO 



c 



J Liste 
^ Dev 



LISTENER/TALKER 

INTERFACE 

TTL Logic Design 



7Y 



DAC 
Listener 
ice 



(^ 



^ 



ADC 

Listener/Talker 

Device 



=> 



PANEL 
METER 
Talker 
Device 



c= 



* The Aston Company, Atlanca, GA. 



26 



COMPUTE. 



A system has been designed and partially imple- 
mented to control and collect data, compute results, 
and print reports on information from a Princeton Ap- 
plied Research* (PAR) electrochemical instrument. The 
complete system will use GPIB and the memory I/O ex- 
pansion potts of the PET. Currently, PET monitors and 
controls a PAR 179/173D instrument and a digital 
panel meter and an ICS 4883 parallel data coupler. A 
9K byte BASIC program operates the system. At a fu- 
ture date, high speed data from a PAR 174 instrument 
will be monitored by PET over a "direct memory ac- 
cess" channel into the I/O expansion port. 

Future applications currently in development phase 
will use PET with a microprocessor-based analog data 
acquisition subsystem on the GPIB. 

* Princeton Applied Rtsearuh Corp., Box 2565, Princeton, NJ 08540. 



CONCLUSIONS 

PET computers are inexpensive, effective GPIB bus con- 
trollers. Using GPIB instruments, in-house engineering 
development is minimized, and therefore, reduces sys- 
tems cost and implementation time, BASIC program- 
ming is easy and final system program is usually written 
by the experimenter; engineering support will provide 
I/O subprograms either in BASIC or machine language. 



REFERENCES 

I. J.S. Byrd, A Desk- Top Microcompuier. Thesis, University of South Caro- 
lina, Columbia, SC (1973). 

I. J.S. Byrd. "When Your System's Data Rates Differ, It's Time for a Micro- 
processor." EDN, pp 57-62 (November 20, 1974}. 

3. J.S. Byrd. "Microcomputer-Based Control and Data Collection for a 
Mass Spectrometer." Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 30, No. I , pp 27-3 1 
Gan/Feb, 1976). 

4. J.S. Byrd, R,J. Sand. Microcomptaer-Boicd Pneumatic Concrolkr for Neu- 
tron Accivmion Anaiysii. USERDA Report DP-1439, E.l. duPont de 
Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC (1976). 

5. R.J. Sand. SRL/6800 MicropTocessor Hurduart Manual. USDOE Report 
DPSTM-DC- 1, E.l. duPont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River 
Laboratory, Aiken, SC (1979). 

6. Hardanre ManuaJ, MCS6500 Microcomputer Family, Second Edition. 
MOS Technology, Inc., Norristown, PA ( 1976). 

7. PET2C10J-S PerjonaJ Computer User Manual, First Edition. Commodore 
Business Machines, Inc., Palo Ako, CA (1978). 

8. Programming Manual, MCS6500 Microcomputer Family, Second Edition. 
MOS Technology, Inc., Norristown, PA (1975). 

9. JEEE Standard Digital Inter/ace /or Programmabie Jnitnimentation, IEEE Sid 
488-1978 (revision of ANSf/iEEE Std 488-1975), The Institute of Electrical 
and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY (1978). 

10. Jim McDermott. "The IEEE 488 Bus Plays a Major Role in Programmable 
Instrument Systems." Ekaronic Design 24, pp 76-80 (November 22, 1976>. 

1 1. D.C. Lcughry, M.S. Alien. "IEEE Standard 488 and Microprocessor 
Synergism." Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 66, No. 2, pp 162-1 71 (February, 
1978). 

12. Daniel Levasscur. "Simplify lEEE-'lSS Implementation with a Multifunc- 
tion Interface." EDN, pp 105-1 13 (March 5, 1979). 

13. John Pieper, R.J. Grossi. "LSI Streamlines Instrument Interface with 
Standard lEEE-488 Bus." Electronics, pp 145-150 (April 26, 1979). 



FIGURE 3. 



Special Purpose 



Firmware 



PET COMPUTER 

IEEE.488 Bus Controller 



c 



Expansion Port 
(Memory, I/O) 



1EEE.488 Bus (16 Signals) 



^J IJ If U 



Commodore 
Printer 



Other Bus 

Instruments 



Voltmeters 

Counters 

Scalers 



1EEE.488.RS.232 

Serial 

Interface 



Bus 
Interface 



Printers 
Displays 
Modems 



YY 

Other "non-bus" 



II 



SRL-Designed 
"Intelligent" 

ADC 



TT 



instruments Environmental Parameters 
IBM Mag Tape . Temperature 

- Moisture 

- Wind Speed, direction 

- Ocean Currents 

- Etc., etc. 



27 



NEECO 



PET 2001 — 32K 




PROUDLY ANNOUNCES THE NEWEST 

PET MICROCOMPUTERS BY COMMODORE! 

The PET" is now a truly sophisticated 

Business System with the 
announcement of these Peripherals. 









PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 


PRICE 


AVAILABILITY 


PET 2001— 4K 4K RAM 


S 595 


IMMEDIATE 


PET 2001— 8K SK RAM 


S 795 


IMMEDIATE 


PET 2001— 16KN (Large Keys)16K RAM* 


$ 995 


IMMEDIATE 


PET 2001- 32KN (Large Key5)32K RAM 


Si 295 


IMMEDIATE 


PET 2023 PRINTER ROLL FEED 


S 850 


IMMEDIATE 


PET 2022 PRINTER TRACTOR/ROLL 


S 995 


IMMEDIATE 


PET 2040A SINGLE FLOPPY 


S 895 


JUNE/JULY 


PET 2040 DUAL FLOPPY- 


$1295 


IMMEDIATE 


PET C2N 2nd Casselte 


S 100 


IMMEDIATE 


"The 16K/32K (large keyboard) units do not tnctuc^e a 


cassette drive. Older C2N Cassette. 


2040 Floppy Drive requires a 16K or 32K unit 8K RAM Retrofit available July. 



LARGE TYPEWRITER KEYBOARDS NOW AVAILABLE! 



ALL UNITS ARE FULLY TESTED BY NEECO BEFORESHIPMENT. ALL PET'S ARE 
WARRANTEED (BY NEECO) FOR 1 FULL YEAR! NEECO IS A FULL CUSTOMER- 
ORIENTED BUSINESS. PLEASE CALL FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. ALL 
UNITS ARE IN STOCK & READY TO SHIP. FULL SOFTWARE AVAILABLE! 





JPOMPUTHINK A & .8 MEGABYTE DISK 
' DRIVES FOR THE NEW 16/32K PETS! 

DISK SYSTEMS INCLUDE DISKMON OPERATING 
SYSTEM IN ROM AND INTERFACE TO 16/32 PETS! 

t>iyal Minillopoy Drives with 20QK per Qishelle aoe tor lalal iOOK BOOK an line 

BOOK mocej accesses all J flisiiclle sides via dual leao and wme af m system 

Dual Df?ns'ly Hai(J*3fe and DOS loads 20K twirr^ iendcatio'ii mi? seconds compteit 

DiSKMON (DOS) adds 17cdmman(j5 lo BASIC mcljding flarvtom AccL-ssand prinler SUDlMrt 

S^5lom tofTieB tomplutL' with plug in inleinal board conraminq BK flAr,^ DOS and DiSK ConlrOlief 

nard^aie — Board plugs Oireclly onto mlcinal memory expansion pins 

System dyes no! utilize IEEE of USER Port syslem lunclioris directly Irurtt rtiempry prjrl 

All DISKMON DOS cummands residlt intetaclively with BASIC -dish directory command and 

lormai command do nol interfere witu piogram in RAW DOS command were designed lor 

SirnptiCLlY of use System Mas manulaclured for tieavy commercial use 

System insialls completely in less tnan len minutes— immediately ready for use 

'lJ9Sand'l595pricesinclu0ealina'dware DOS comclete user manual, and cemouliliiy diskette 

Awailatjl<> software includes PLU Cornpiler |'2S0] Relocatable Assemol^r |'70) Souice.editot 

Program |'7QI Aulohnk Linirinq Loade/ i'70i ar\d a complete Ofttaoase system tPagemate '49S| 

Cill J' wr.le lor complete pioducc i nlormaiion anc specit'Cauons- User rrvmcal '10 

(PRODUCT AVAILABILITY IS AUG SEPT-CALL FOR INFO) 
ALL 16,'32K MODELS INCLUDE AN 400K-16N '1295 



FOR 8K PETS 

(small keyboards)' 

.4 Megabytes of Disk 

Storage for 8K PETS! 

(Requires Expandamem) 

400K-8S DISK SYSTEti/ INCLUDES RANDOr^ 

ACCESS IN DOS-LOADS 20K IN 4 SECONDS! 

24K Expandamem Memory ^525 J^ 00^5 

32K Ey.pandameni MemOfy '61S Ifc30 



INTERNAL PLUG-IN INTERFACE 
BOARD CONTAINING DOS, SK OF 

RAM, AND CONTROLLER 



400K-32N '1295 

800K-16N '1595 

aOOK-32N MS95 



CALL OR WRITE FOR A FREE COPY OF OUR NEW JULY CATALOG! 

NEW CENTRONICS 730 PRINTER FOR PET! 

• NEWEST TECHNOLOGY FROM CENTRONICS • 50 CPS • 80 CHARACTER LINE 

• 10 CPI • 7x7 DOT MATRIX • HANDLES ROLL FEED. PIN FEED 

1 ■■ PAPER • UPPER & LOWER CASE-'1099 PRICE INCLUDES 

INTERFACE TO lEEEPORT AVAILABLE AUG.SEPT, 




M099 



TRS-80 USERSl-THE 

MODEL 730 IS AVAILABLE FOR USE WITH 
THE TRS-80, PRICE 
INCLUDES CABLE 

only 



$995 



WECANNOTLISTALLOF OUR SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE PRODUCTS 
CALLOR WRITE FOR OUR* FREE* SOFTWARE/HARDWARE DIRECTORY 

ALL NEECO PETS CARRY A FULL ONE-YEAR NEECO WARRANTEE. 



NEECO 



NEW ENGLAND ELECTRONICS CO., INC. 

679 HIGHLAND AVE., NEEDHAM, MASS. 02194 
MON. - FRI. 9:30 - 5:30, EST. 



(617)449-1760 

WASTERCHARGE OR VISA ACCEPTED 
TELEX NUMBER 951021. NEECO 



28 



COMPUTE. 



A Warning: 



The MftCRoTen™ 

is for Professional 
Programmers — and Very 
Serious Amateurs — Only 

Now: a machine language pro- 
gramming powerhouse for the 
knowledgeable programmer who 
wants to extend the PETs capa- 
bilities to the maximum. The 
MacroTeA, the Relocating Macro 
Text EditorAssemblerfrom Skyles 
Electric Works. 

The Skyles MacroTeA is a super 
powerful text editor. 26 powerful 
editing commands. String search and 
replace capability. Manuscrfpt feature 
for letters and other text. Text loading 
and storage on tape or discs. Supports 
tape drives, discs, CRT printers and 
keyboard. 

The Skyles MacroTeA is a relocating 
machine language assembler with true 
macro capabilities. A single name 
identifies a whole body of lines. You 
write in big chunks, examine, modify 
and assemble the complete program. 
And, when loading, the MacroTeA goes 
where you want it to go. Macro and 
conditional assembly support. Auto- 
matic line numbering. Labels up to 10 
characters long. 

The Skyles MacroTeA is an enhance 
Monitor. 11 powerful commands to 
ease you past the rough spots of 
program debugging. 

The Skyles MacroTeA is a warm 
start button. Over 1700 bytes of 
protected RAM memory for your object 
code. 

There's no tape loading and no 
occupying of valuable RAM memory 
space: The Skyles MacroTeA puts 10K 
bytes of executable machine language 
code in ROM (from 9800 to BFFF — 
directly below the BASIC interpreter). 
2K bytes of RAM (9000 to 97FF). 

Like all Skyles Products for the PET, it's practically plug in 
and go. No tools are needed. And, faster than loading an 
equivalent size assembler/editor from tape, the MacroTeA is 
installed permanently 

The Skytes MacroTeA: 13 chips on a single PCB. Operates 

interfaced with the PET's parallel address and data bus or with 

the Skyles Memory Connector (When ordering, indicate if the 

MacroTeA will interface with a Skyles Memory Expansion 

System. You can save $20.) Specifications and engineering are 

up to the proven Skyles quality standards. Fully warranted for 90 

days. And, as with ail Skyles products, fully and intelligently 

documented. 

VISA, Maslercharge orders call (800) 227-8398 (Except Calif.) 
Califomfa orders please call (415) 494-1210. 

Skyles Electric Works 

10301 Stonydale Drive, Cupertino, CA 95014, (408) 735-7891 



COMPUTE. Dealers As Of September 11, 1979 



American Ptripherais 
3 Bangor Street 
Lindenhurst, NY 1 1757 

Apple T.V. & Computing 
2606 S.Robertson Blvd. 
Los Angeles, CA 90034 

Atlanta Computer Mart 
5091 Buford High%vay 
Atlanta, GA J034O 

Bariiey Miller's, Inc. 
232 East Main Street 
Lexington, KY 40507 

Byte Shop 

604 1 Greenback Lane 

Citrus Heights, CA 95610 

Byte Shop #1 

1415 West EI Cami no 

Mountain View, CA 94040 

Byte Shop/Brentwood 
I16IlSnn Vicente Blvd. 
Los Angeles, CA 90049 

Byte Shop 

2 is N. Elm Street 

Greensboro, NC 27401 

Byre Shop of Raleigh 
1213 Hillsborough Street 
Raleigh, NC 27603 

Byte Shop of Milwaukee 
6019 W. Lay ton Avenue 
Greenfield, \V1 53220 

Computer Age, Inc. 

46S8 Convoy Street, Suite 105 

San Diego. CA 921 11 

Computer Center 
302 Commercial Street 
Waterloo, Iowa 5070! 

Computer Center of South Bend 
51591 US3IN 
South Bend, IN 46637 

Computer Concepts 
1401 East Lincolnway 
Cheyenne, WY 82001 

Computer Country 
235 Dunn Road 
Rorissant, MO 63031 



Computer Forum 
14052 E. Firestone Blvd. 
Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670 

Computer Nook 

Route 46, Pine Brook Plaia 

Pine Brook, NJ 07058 

Computer Shoppe, Inc. 
3225 Danny Park 
Metaine, LA 70002 

Computer World 

679 1 Westminster Avenue 

Westminster, CA 92683 

Computerland 
2992 Navajo Road 
El Cajon, CA 92020 

Computerland of Santa Maria 
223 S. Broadway 
Santa Maria, CA 93454 

Computers For You 
3608 West Broward Blvd. 
Ft, Lauderdale, FL 33312 

The Corner Computer Store 
900-902 Spring Garden Street 
Greensboro, NC 27403 

Home Computers 
1775 Tropicana#2 
Liberace Plaia 
Las Vegas, NV 89 109 

Computerland 

1500 South 336th Street 

Suite 12 

Federal Way, WA 98003 

Computerland/Milwaukee 
101 II W.Capitol Drive 
Milwaukee, WI 53222 



Kappel's Computer Store, Inc. 
125 E. Main Street 
Belleville, ILL 62220 

Madison Computer Store 
1825 Monroe Street 
Madison, WI 537 11 

Micro Mini Computer Vi'orld 
Town & Country Shopping Ct. 
74 Robinwood 
Columbus, OH 432 13 

Millet's Micro Com 
62 1 E. Broadway 
Mesa, AZ 85204 

Mr. Calculator, Inc. 

39 Town &. Country Village 

Palo Alto, CA 94301 

PC Computers 

10166 San Pablo Avenue 

El Cerrito.CA 94530 

Personal Computer Center 
3819 West 95th Street 
Overland Park, KS 66206 

Personal Computers, Inc. 
South 104 Freya 
Spokane, WA 99202 

CANADA 

Home Computer Centre 
6101 Yonge Street 
WiUowdale, Ontario 
MZMiWZ CANADA 

House of Computers 
368 Eglington Ave. W. 
Toronto, Ontario 
M5N 1A2 CANADA 

Kobetek Systems Limited 

RR#1 

Wolfville, Nova Scotia 

BOP 1X0 CANADA 



ASSEMBLE LIST 



0108 :MOVE TBL 1 TO TBL2 



©400- A/ OB 0120 

0402- Bg OB 04 0130 
0405- 89 OB 05 0140 



0110 

0120 LOOP 



0408- 08 
0409 DO F7 




0150 j 

0160 I 

0170 ; 
0180 TBL1 
0190 TBL2 
0200 ; 
0210 



LABEL FILE 1= EXTERNAL! 



START = 0400 
TBL2 = 050B 
1ieOOO,060B,060B 



LOOP = 0402 



.BA S400 

LDY #00 

LDA TBLI.Y 

STA TBL2,Y 

INY 

BNE LOOP 

.DS 256 
.DS 256 



TBL1=040B 



COMPUTE. 



29 



128 

129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
HEM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 



168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
READY 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REN 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REH 
REM 
REM 
REM 
FOR 



80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
8A 
SB 
8C 
8D 



A8 
A9 
AA 
AB 
AC 
AD 
AE 
AF 
B0 
Bl 
B2 
B3 
D4 
85 
B6 
B7 
B8 
B9 
BA 
BB 
BC 
BD 
BE 
BF 
C0 
CI 
C2 
C3 
C4 
C5 
C6 
C7 
C8 
C9 



Tokens Aren't Just for Subways — 

A Convenient Method to List Microsoft BASIC 

Tokens 

Harvey B. Herman 

Chemistry Department 

University of North Carolina at Greensboro 

Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 

The latest buzzword in computer circles is "Tokens." I 
have even heard the verb "tokanize" used in casual con- 
versation. However, my observation is that many peo- 
ple are stili confused about the meaning of this term and 
would like to learn more. How do you explain to some- 
one looking at the table on p. 8 of the Spring 1 979 issue 
of the PET Gazette (list compiled by Jim Butterfield) 
why, for example, a decimal 161 in memory can have 
four or more different meanings, including the three 
letter BASIC key word GET? This article is intended to 
clear up some of the confusion (I hope) and to illustrate 
a convenient method to list all the tokens in various 
versions of Microsoft BASIC (PET, KIM, SYM, etc.). 
Understanding tokens is not just an idle exercise. 
Useful programs have begun to appear which use 
"token knowledge" for specific purposes. For example, 
Len Lindsay (our indefatigable editor) recently publish- 
ed (The PET Gazette, Summer, 1979, p. 10) a program 
to identify PEEK and POKE in BASIC programs so 
chey can be more easily converted to run on PETs with 
new ROMs. This program searches memory for the 
PEEK and POKE tokens and would not work unless 
these values are known. Other Microsoft BASICs have 
similar, but not identical, lists of tokens. To use the 
Lindsay program on other computers it probably would 
be necessary to change the token values. A BASIC pro- 
gram to list PET tokens is shown and discussed below. 



CA 

OPEN 5,4:CMD 5 

1=1 TO 667 STEP 
J=J+1 

POKE 1028+1, 
NEXT I 

LIST 128-202: REM 202 {127+#TOKENS> 
REM PRINT#5:CLOSE5 



9:REM 667 (9**TOKENS-8) 



, 127+J:REM 1028 (START OF PROGRAM STORAGE+4) 



Is ProQrom ming Fun? 

Have More Fun, 
Make Fcuuer Errors, 
Complete Programs Much 
Faster . . . ujith the 
BnSICPnOGRflMMCR'S 

Toolkit™ 

Now you can modify, polish, simplify, 
add new features to your PET pro- 
grams far more quickly while reducing 
the potential for error. That all adds up 
to more fun . . . and the BASIC 
Programmer's TooIKit. 

The magic of the TooIKit: 2KB of 
ROM firmware on a single chip with a 
collection of machine language pro- 
grams available to you from the time 
you turn on your PET to the time you 
shut if off. No tapes to load or to 
interfere with any running programs. 
And the Programmer's TooIKit installs 
in minutes, without tools. 

Here are the 10 commands that can 
be yours instantly and automatically 
. . . guaranteed to make your BASIC 
programming a pleasure: 

AUTO RENUMBER DELETE 

HELP TRACE STEP 

OFF APPEND DUMP 
FIND 

Every one a powerful command to 
insure more effective programming. 
Like the HELP command that shows 
the line on which the error occurs 
. . . and the erroneous portion is 
indicated in reverse video: 



HELP 
500J=SQR(A*BIB) 



... Or the TRACE command that 
lets you see the sequence in which 
your program is being executed in a 
window in the upper corner of your 
CRT: 



To Order PROGRRMMCR'S ToOlKiT or MflCROTefi — 

Custom designed to plug into your PET So, when ordering, please indicate if your 
Toolkit: 



.. .will be used with the Skyles Memory Expansion System, or 

...will be used with the ExpandaPet.or Expandmem 

...will be used with the PET 2001-8 alone 

five furnish connectors lo the memory expansion bus and to We second cassette interlace. 

...will be used with the PET 20 01-16, -32 jchip only) 

..will be used with Sltyies MacroTeA 



sao.oo' 

S80.00- 
$80.00- 

$50.00' 
$50,00' 




The Programmer's TooIKit is a 
product of Harry Saal and his 
associates at Palo Alto ICs. 

So, if you really want to be into 
BASIC programming — and you want 
to have fun while you're doing it, order 
your BASIC Programmer's Toolkit 
now. We guarantee you'll be de- 
lighted with it. 



Your MacroTeA. Custom designed tot your PET So specify your PET model when ordering. $395.00 
(important Savings: If it's to be used with a Si^yies Memory Expansion System, the MacroTeA can 
plug directly into the Skyles connector. So you save S20. The Skyles MacroTeA is only $375.00 
when interfaced with the Skyles Memory Expansion System.) 

Send, your check or money order to Skyles Electric Works. VISA, Mastercharge orders may call (800) 

227-8398. (California residents: please phone (415) 494-1210.) 

Ten Day Unconditional Money-Bacic Guarantee on atl products sold by Skyles Electric Works, except chip only. 

Caiifornia residenls: please add B-6'/:% Calilornia sales lax. 

Skyles Electric Works 10301 Stonydale Drive, Cupertino, CA 95014, (408) 735-7891 




30 



COMPUTE. 



The program can be adapted to other BASICs with 
only few changes (underlined). Before proceeding to 
that discussion a few words about tokens are in order. 
The concept underlying tokens is not difficult to under- 
stand. Programs are not stored exactly as they are typed 
in. Instead of storing all the characters in the keyword 
PRINT, for example, PET Microsoft BASIC stores only 
one 8 bit character, decimal value 153. This saves stor- 
age space and speeds up execution of programs. All the 
tokens are greater than 127, i.e., their hexadecimal 
value has its most significant bit (MSB) set. The BASIC 
interpreter can rapidly identify the tokens by checking 
the MSB and jumping to the appropriate subroutine. 
The number of tokens in a given BASIC depends 
on the number of commands and functions which have 
been implemented. In a recent article on tokens (MI- 
CRO 15:20) a list for OSI BASIC was included which 
showed 68 tokens (for comparison PET has 75). Also, 
the PRINT token had the decimal value of 151 (PET 
uses 153), These facts are cited to emphasize the impor- 
tance of modifying programs which PEEK at memory 
for particular tokens when transferring them to other 
computers. The values may accidentally agree but don't 
count on it. 







128 


END 80 


168 


NOT A8 






129 


FOR 81 


169 


STEP A9 






130 


HEXT 82 


170 


+ AA 


Listing 


131 
132 


DATA 8 3 
INPUT* 84 


171 
172 


- AB 
* AC 


(Below) 


133 
134 


INPUT 85 
DIM 86 


173 
174 


/ AD 
" AE 


With 




135 


READ 87 


175 


AND AF 


Output 


136 
137 


LET 88 
GOTO 89 


176 
177 


OR B0 
> Bl 






138 


RUN 8A 


178 


= B2 






139 


IF 8B 


179 


< B3 






140 


RESTORE 8C 


180 


SGN B4 






141 


GOSUB 8D 


181 


INT B5 


142 REM 


8E 


142 


RETURN 8E 


182 


ABS B6 


143 REM 


8F 


143 


REM 8F 


183 


USR B7 


14 4 REM 


90 


144 


STOP SO 


184 


FRE B8 


14 5 REM 


91 


145 


ON 91 


185 


POS B9 


14 6 REM 


92 


146 


WAIT 92 


186 


SQR BA 


147 REM 


93 


147 


LOAD 93 


187 


RND BB 


14 8 REM 


94 


148 


SAVE 94 


188 


LOG BC 


149 REM 


95 


149 


VERIFY 95 


189 


EXP BD 


150 REM 


96 


150 


DEF 96 


190 


COS BE 


151 REM 


97 


151 


POKE 97 


191 


SIN BF 


152 REM 


98 


152 


PRINTS 98 


192 


TAN C0 


15 3 REM 


99 


153 


PRINT 99 


193 


ATN CI 


15 4 REM 


9A 


154 


CONT 9A 


194 


PEEK C2 


155 REM 


9B 


155 


LIST 9B 


195 


LEN C3 


156 REM 


9C 


156 


CLR 9C 


196 


STRS C4 


157 REM 


9D 


157 


CMD 9D 


197 


VAL C5 


158 REM 


9E 


158 


SYS 9E 


198 


ASC C6 


159 REM 


9F 


159 


OPEN 9F 


199 


CHR$ C7 


160 REM 


A0 


160 


CLOSE A0 


200 


LEFTS C8 


161 REM 


Al 


161 


GET Al 


201 


RIGHT? C9 


162 REM 


A2 


162 


NEW A 2 


202 


MID? CA 


163 REM 


A3 


163 


TAB( A3 






164 REM 


A4 


164 


TO A4 


READY 


, 


165 REM 


A5 


165 


FN AS 






166 REM 


A6 


166 


SPC( A6 






167 REM 


A7 


167 


THEN A7 







The program shown is loaded and run normally. It 
converts the REM tokens in statements 128 to 202 (PET 
version) to the correspondingly numbered token and 
terminates with a list of the tokens and their decimal 
and hexadecimal equivalents. Note the program will 
not run a second time with a simple RUN command as 
the first REM has been replaced with an END {try RUN 
500 instead). The PET version can be listed on a print- 
er, if available, by deleting the REM in statement 500 
and properly closing the file after the program ends. 

If you are using this program on another computer 
(KIM or SYM) the number of tokens will need to be 
changed. The proper value can be found by trial and er- 
ror. When the number of tokens is less an error will be 
printed when the list in statement 550 attempts to print 
an invalid token. The number of the last printed token 
is used to correct statement 550. The REM comments 
will help in locating other statements which use the 
number of tokens and need correction. When the num- 
ber of tokens is greater than the PET, more initial 
REMs should be added (203 and above), and the num- 
ber of tokens increased appropriately until an invalid 
token causes an error message as above. 

Whatever computer is being used the list of tokens 
should be kept handy as it is an invaluable aid in under- 
standing and modifying programs written for other 
systems. 

Review 

DC Hayes Micro Modem $395.00 

Michael Tulloch 
103 White Cr. 
NiceviUe, Fla. 32578 

Manufacturer 

10 Perimeter Park Drive 

Atlanta, GA 30341 

I've been using a D.C. Hayes MicroModem for several 
months now. If you've ever used a time-share terminal 
you'll only know about half of what to expect. For those 
of you who've never time-shared, getting into the world 
of mainframes is a logical expansion of hobby comput- 
ing. Owning a modem opens another field too, that of 
written communication. In addition to being able to ac- 
cess big machines you can type to your friends, interact 
with telephone bulletin boards and play interactive 
games. 

The DC Hayes MicroModem consists of two parts. 
One is a PC board which plugs into the Apple (they re- 
commend slot 3). It contains software in ROM to turn 
your Apple into a dumb terminal. You can even dial 
from the keyboard. 

The other part is a small plexiglass and metal box 
apparently containing the telephone interface. Since 
this is an FCC registered device, you just plug it into 
your phone line. Then call the phone company, tell 
them you have an FCC registered device, give them the 
device number and ringer equivalent. There is no extra 
charge in most cases. 



COMPUTE. 



31 



Documentation of this device is excellent. Operat- 
ing theory, sample programs, good instructions and 
even a history of modem technology is included. One of 
the sample programs allows you to call up your Apple 
(from work?) using a dumb terminal and write pro- 
grams. This sure is a better way to spend lunch than 
playing cards! When you get home the program will be 
ready for you. 

Computer to computer links are also possible. Our 
Tektronix 4051 has a program dump routine which can 
pass a whole program over its modem. We called my 
Apple at home and dumped a Tektronix BASIC pro- 
gram to it. The Tektronix displays each line as it is pass- 
ed. Much to our surprise there appeared rather strange 
symbols and extraneous letters intermixed on the 
screen. We finally figured out that the Apple wouldn't 
accept some of the Tektronix graphic commands and 
was passing *** SYNTAX ERROR *** back to the 
4051. The 4051 was interleaving this on its display. 
However, when I got home, all Apple syntax compata- 
ble lines were loaded in the Apple. The program even 
ran correctly except, of course, there was no graphic 
output. 

Another nice feature is that there is nothing to as- 
semble. It's just plug in and go. Programs can easily be 
written which do some very complex things over the tel- 
ephone. One example Hayes gives is a message relay. 
You call the Apple and leave a message. The Apple 
then calls another computer or terminal and relays the 
message. It keeps trying until it gets through. All aspects 
of the modem operation are accessible to the program- 
mer so transmission characteristics, number of rings to 
answer, and so on can be programmed. 

At $395.00 the D.C. Hayes modem is a good buy. 
With all the telephone accessible hobbyists, computer 
stores, main frames, and club machines on line, you can 
quickly spend twice the purchase price on long distance 
telephone calls. 



Review 

PETSET1a$295.00 

Connecticut Microcomputer, Inc. 

150 PoconoRoad 

Brookfield, Connecticut 06804 

Many PET users intend to do more with their comput- 
ers than just play games. Small computers can do many 
(but not all) scientific calculations formally done on 
larger and more expensive computers. Laboratory data 
in analog form can be fed directly into a small computer 
using electronic circuits containing analog-to-digital 
converters. The result of an experiment can be known 
shortly after the experiment is completed and repeated 
if necessary. The equipment (PETSET 1 A) reviewed 
here allows PET owners to connect analog data, from 
several instruments, direcdy into their PET. No special 
programming expertise is required of you and neither 
do you have to be an electronics wizard. 



PETSET la consists of separate modules which 
when connected together, and to the PET, make up a 
16 channel, 8 bit, analog-to-digita! conversion system. I 
assembled this together in less than five minutes (I'm 
slow). Connections are made to a screw terminal barrier 
strip with just a screw driver. I believe the ease of instal- 
lation will be attractive to potential users. 

The software needed to use PETSET la is also 
quite simple: 10 POKE 59426,0 : POKE 
59426,255 : ? PEEK (59471) 20 GOTO 10 
The above program will sample analog channel 
repeatedly, as fast as BASIC will allow. There is no 
need to check for end of conversion (EOC) as the con- 
version is completed (100 jisec) even before BASIC is 
ready to check. It should be easy to add statements 
which bring in data at specified time intervals using the 
real time clock. With more programming effort experi- 
enced users could write a machine language routine 
which would bring in data even faster than the simple 
BASIC program above. 

PETSET la is connected to both the IEEE and User 
Port. It uses the IEEE port as a simple output control. 
For example, poking a zero to location 59426 starts con- 
version on analog channel 0. Digital data is brought in 
on the User Port by peeking at location 59471 (VIA 
output register without handshaking). The IEEE port 
can still be used for other devices such as CMC's printer 
adapter (ADA 1200) without disconnecting PETSET 
la. Technical specifications are; 
16 analog inputs 
100 jjsec conversion time 
to -f 5 V inputs 
to 255 counts (8 bit conversion) 
input current, 2;jamp, max 
max error, 0.5% typical 
I was generally pleased with the system. However, 
the packaging is not as compact as I would wish. Some 
space is required behind the PET to accomodate the 
modules. A flat surface is also helpful. However, it does 
perform as advertised and is easy to put together and 
use. While it is not cheap, it is probably within many 
people's budgets. This system should definitely be con- 
sidered if you: 

1) want to measure several voltages 
simultaneously, 

2) are satisfied with 8 bit resolution, 

3) don't want to spend lots of time with con- 
struction or programming. 

Reviewed by Harvey B. Herman 



32 



Universal 6502 Memory Test cari w. Moser 

This article contains a memory test program which tests RAM 
memory in various 6502 based systems. This test was developed 
after using several tests which did not perform a complete test. The 
problem areas were untested chip select.s and address line inputs. 
The program performs two tests; 
Test 1: Tests memory cells for storage retention, and open, 

shorted, or non-functioning data and Ao-An address 
lines. This is done by writing 00 Oil ... FFOOOll ... FF 
continually throughout the memory range for the first 
pass. When this has been written, it is checked to vali- 
date the data. On the next pass 01 02 ... FFOOOl 1 ... FF 
is written and checked. This continues for 256 (hex FF) 
passes until all possible combinations of bit patterns 
have been used. 
Test 2: Tests the RAM chip select inputs. This is the same as 
test 1 except data 0001 ... F2 00 01 ... F2 is used. The 
purpose of this test is to test the remaining Ag-A,, 
address lines. Listings 1 (originating at memory address 
$0002) and 2 (originating at S0800) contain the source 
of the memory test program. The reason for these two 
listings is that not all 6502 microcomputers have RAM 
at a common address from which the memory test pro- 
gram can execute. To determine which listing is appro- 
priate for your system, consult table A. Next enter the 
object code from the appropriate listing, and then con- 
figure the I/O for your system, also from table A. 
Enter the start address and end address of the memory range 
to be tested as described in table B. Execution begins with test 1 at 
$0002 for Listing 1 and S0800 for Listing 2. 

If an error occurs, it will be outputted in the following format: 
Address Test Pattern Error 

xxxx yy iz 

Note: This program performs a lengthy but exhaustive test of RAM memory. 
It takes approximately 38 seconds per IK of memory for each test 1 and test 
I. 



When test 1 runs to completion, a break instruction will be exe- 
cuted to enter your systems monitor program. Register A will con- 
tain El indicating end of test 1. To execute test 2, simply continue 
execution by typing G to your monitor. 

If errors occur, they will be of the same form as described 
above. When test 2 has run to completion, a break instruction will 
again transfer control to your monitor and register A will contain 
E2 signifying the end. To continue execution again at test !, simply 
type G. The start and end address range is not altered by the mem- 
ory test program. 

If errors occurred in test 2 but not in test 1 , you can safely as- 
sume a chip select malfunction (possible stuck in enable state or 
malfunction with circuitry which generates the chip select) or an 
address line other than A0-A7. Usually a number of errors will occur 
in test 1 when the fault is a single defective address input, data in- 
put, or data output. 

If a continuous sequence of addresses with errors occur, the 
problem is likely to be an open data input or a data output stuck at 
'I'or'O.' 

If errors occur every 2nd, 4th, 8ch, 16ch or some power of 2 
address sequence, check for defective address inputs ;is follows: 
Data bit Check Data bit Check 

with error address input with error address input 
Do 
D, 
Dz 
D3 

If, for example, you are checking 2I02's (1x1 K) and are specify- 
ing a 4K range of memory and an error common to the whole range 
occurs, the problem is likely to be in the power leads, defective data 
or address buffers, stuck at '0' address inputs, stuck at '0' data 
inputs, or stuck at '0' data outputs. 

In all of the above, you may have to examine the various mem- 
ory error patterns for some similarity in order to isolate the defective 
component. This is especially true of the ixlK 2102, and lxl6K 
41 16 memory chips where each chip is devoted to a particular data 
lead (D0-D7). 



Afl or Aa 


D, 


K^ or Ajj 


A, or A, 


Ds 


Ajor A]3 


A2 or A,(j 


D, 


h(, or A,4 


A, or All 


D7 


Ajor A15 



TEST 2 ™ST 1 



0802' 
0805- 
O30S' 

oaoA 

D80B' 
fi8DC- 
08DD' 
OBID- 
0813- 
0815- 00 
BB16- EA 
D817- EA 
0818 



A2 eo 

8E E2 Oa 

29 IE 03 

A9 El 

OO 

EA 

EA 

EE E2 08 

20 IB 03 

A9 E2 



4C 00 08 



B002- A2 00 



000<1- 
0007- 



%Z E4 00 
20 ID OB 



O0OA~ AD El 

oaoc- 00 



OOOD- 
O0OE- 
OOOF- 
0012- 
Q015- 
0017- 
0018- 
0319- 
0O1A- 



EA 
EA 
EE E4 



00 
ID 00 



20 

A9 E2 

00 

EA 

EA 

4C 02 00 



881B- 2B C9 08 0fllD- 20 CB 00 

081E- AB 00 0020- A0 00 

0820- A2 00 D022- A2 00 

0822- 3E El 08 0024- 8E E3 06 

0825- 4C 2E 08 0027- 4C 30 00 



0828- 
082B- 
0820- 
0e2E- 
0831- 
B834- 
0835- 
0837- 
0839- 
0838- 
083E- 
0841- 



EE El 08 
DO 01 
60 

AC El 08 
20 9F 03 
93 

81 00 
CI BO 
FO 03 
20 81 08 
20 6E 08 
FO 06 



002A- EE E3 00 
0O2D- D0 01 
60 

AC E3 
20 Al 



002F 
0030 
0033 
0036' 
S037' 
0039' 
0038- 
0B3D- 
0040- 



00 



81 00 
CI 00 
FO 03 
20 83 00 



00 



0843- 20 61 08 
£846- 4C 34 08 0048 



20 70 
0043- FO 06 
0045- 20 63 00 

40 36 00 



0849- AC El OS O04B- AC E3 00 
084C- 20 9F 03 004E- 20 Al 00 
0e4F- 93 0051- 98 

0850- CI 00 0B52- CI 00 



0010 
0080 
0Q90 
0100 
0140 

oieo 

8170 
0180 
0190 
0200 
0210 
0220 
0230 
0240 
0250 
0260 
0270 
0280 
0290 
0300 
0310 
0320 
0330 
0340 
0350 
0360 
0370 
0380 
0390 
0400 
0410 
0420 
0430 
0440 
045O 
0460 
0470 
0480 
0490 
0500 
0510 
0520 
0530 
0540 
055P 



; HCS 6502 HEMORK TEST 

iZEHO PAGE LOCATIONS 

ADDRS .DE ;2 BYTES - ADDRESS OF 

fiEMORY 

.BA S0OO2 OR .BA 50800 
HEM < TEST LDX *S0B 

STX TEST<TyPE ,• TEST 1 

JSR TEST<PGH 

LDA »SE1 

BKK 

NOP 

NOP 

IHC TEST<TYPE ; TEST 2 

JSR TEST<PGM 

LDA #?E2 

BRK 

NOP 

NOP 

JHP NEM<TEST 



TEST<PGH 



NX < PASS 
LOOPl 



N0<ERR1 



CK<PATHN 



JSR CRLF 

LDY tSOO ; 

LDX J.S0O 

STX TEST<PATRN 

JMP HX<PASS 

INC TESKPATRN 

BNE NX<PASS 

RTS 

LDY TEST<PATRN 

JSR INKADDRS 

TYA 

STA ( ADDRS, X] ; 

CMP (ADDRS, X) r 

BEQ N0<ERK1 

JSR ERROR ; ADDRS, 

JSR INC<ADDRSC 

BEO CK<PATRN 

JSR INC<RY 

JMP LOOPl 



PATTERN REGISTER 



STORE PATTERN 
CHECK 

R(A) , (ADDRS, X) 



LDY TEST<PATRH 
JSR INKADDRS 
L00P2 TYA 

CHP (ADDRS, X) 



INITIALIZE ADDRS 



33 



6852- FB 

3854- 23 

B857 

B85A- 

B85D- 

385F 

0861 



D3 

81 38 
23 61 ES 
23 6E 08 
DO PB 
FD C7 



ce 

0862- AD E2 08 
0865- FO 06 
CO F3 
90 02 



0867 
0869 



086B- AO 00 
0660- 60 



oesE- 

0870- 
0872- 
0874- 
0877- 
3879- 
a87B- 
087E- 
0880- 

3881- 
0882- 
3884- 
3887- 
0889- 

oeec- 

0B8F- 
BB9E- 
0893- 
0896- 
089S- 
089D- 
B89E- 



Ee 00 

DO 32 
E6 31 
AD DF 38 
C5 30 
DO 05 
AD E3 08 
C5 01 
60 

48 

AS 01 
20 AA 08 
A5 03 

20 AA oa 

20 D4 08 

68 

20 AA OS 

20 D4 oe 

Al 00 
20 AA OE 
20 C9 OE 
60 



0054- 
0056- 
0059- 
0O5C- 
305F- 
3061- 
0063- 
0064- 
0067- 
0069- 
O06B~ 
006D- 
006F- 



0070- 
3072- 
3074- 
0076- 
0079- 
D07B- 
O07D- 
0080- 
0082- 



FB 
20 



20 63 
20 7E 



FO C7 
CB 

AD E4 00 
FD 06 
C0 F3 
90 02 
A0 0B 
60 



E6 00 
D0 02 
E6 01 
AD El 00 
C5 03 
DO 05 
AD E2 00 
C5 01 
60 



0083' 
3084' 
3086' 
3089' 
O08B' 
0O8E 
0091 
0092 
0095 
0398 
039A 
0090 
OOAO- 60 



48 

A5 01 
20 AC 
A5 OC 
20 AC 00 
20 D6 00 
68 

20 AC 00 
20 D6 00 
Al 00 
20 AC 00 
20 CB 00 



3D 



3a9F- AD QD OB 

33A2- 85 0D 

08A4- AQ DE DO 

C8A7- 85 01 

0BA9- 60 



OSAA- 
OSAB- 
08AC- 
fl8AD- 
08AE- 
08AF- 
0302- 
08B3- 
0BB5- 
08B7- 
0869- 
OBBB- 



D8ED- 
B8C0- 

oeci- 

08C2- 

eec3- 

BBC4- 

oacs- 
oeca- 



Eac9- 

08CB- 
08CE- 
BBDO- 
0BD3- 



48 

4A 

4A 

4A 

4A 

20 B3 Bi 

68 

29 OF 

09 30 

C9 3A 

90 32 

69 06 



8C E3 

EA 

EA 

EA 

EA 

EA 

AC E3 

63 



38 



A9 0D 
20 BD 38 
A9 OA 
20 BD 8 
60 



0804- 20 D7 
0BD7- A9 20 
08D9- 20 BD 
08DC- 60 



38DD- 
38DF- 



O0A1- AD DF 30 
30A4- 85 03 
30A6- AD EO 00 
0eA9- 85 01 
00AB- 60 



0OAC- 48 
eOAD- 4A 
OOAE- 4A 
OOAF- 4A 
O0BO- 4A 
O0B1- 20 B5 30 
30B4- 68 
0OB5- 29 0F 
0flB7- 09 30 
0OB9- C9 3A 
00BB- 90 02 
0OBD- 69 06 



OOBF- 8C E5 00 
OaC2- EA 
E0C3- EA 
00C4- EA 
CQC5- EA 
O0C6- EA 
00C7- AC E5 00 
OOCA- 60 



O0CB- A9 BD 

O0CD- 23 BF 00 

B0DO- A9 CA 

0OD2- 20 BF 00 
0OD5- 60 



0BD6- 20 D9 00 

0flD9- A9 20 

00DB- 20 BF 00 

0BDE- 60 



BBDF- 
0OE1- 



08E1- 
08E2- 
08E3- 



00E3- 
e0E4- 
aBE5- 



9560 
0570 
0580 
0590 
0600 
0610 
0640 
0650 
0660 
0670 
0680 
0690 
0700 
0710 
0720 
0730 
0740 
0750 
0760 
3770 
3780 
0790 
0300 
0310 
0840 
0850 
0860 
0870 
3880 
3890 
3900 
0910 
0920 
0930 
0940 
0953 
0960 
0970 
0980 
0990 
1000 
1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 
1060 
1070 
1080 
1390 
1100 
1118 
1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1150 
1170 
11B3 
1193 
1203 
1210 

1220 
1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 
1290 
1300 
1318 
1323 
1333 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 
13B0 
1390 
1400 
1410 
1420 
1430 
1440 
1450 
1460 
1470 
1480 
1490 
1500 
1510 
1520 
1530 
1540 
1550 



ADDRS , R ( A ) , ( ADDRS , X 1 



BEQ NOiERRi 

JSR ERROR j 
N0<EHR2 JSR INC<KY 

JSR INC<ADDRSC 

BNE L00P2 

BEQ NX<PATRN 
INC<RY IKY 

LDA TEST<TYPE 

BEQ EXITl 

CPY *SF3 ; RESET RtV) TO CHECK 

BCC EXITl CHIP SELECTS 

LDY *S00 
EXITl RTS 



INC<AQDRSC INC "ADDRS 
DUE SKIP<HI 
IKC 'ADDRS+SOl 
LDA END 
CriP *ADDRS 
BNE EXIT2 
LDA END•^501 

ADDRS+501 



SKIP<HI 



EXIT2 



CHP 
RTS 



;OUTPUT THE ERROR; ADDRESS, PATTERN, ERROR 



ERROR 



PHA 
LDA 



■ADDRS+SOl 



JSR TBYT 
LDA 'ADDRS 
JSR TBYT 
JSR SPACE2 
PLA 

JSR TBYT 
JSR SPACE2 
LOA (ADDRS, X) 
JSR TBYT 
JSR CKLF 
RTS 



OUTPUT ADDRS HI 



OUTPUT ADDRS LO 



OUTPUT PATTERN 



OUTPUT ERROR IN MEMORY 



INITIALIZE ADDRS WITH START 
INK ADDRS LDA START 
STA 'ADDRS 
LDA START+SOl 
STA *ADDRS-fS01 
RTS 



ROUTINE TO OUTPUT A BYTE 
BYT PHA 

LSR A 

LSR A 

LSR A 

LSR A 

JSR NIBBLE 

PLA 
IBBLE AND fSOF 

ORA fS30 

CMP #S3A 

BCC WRITE 

ADC t506 



.-ROUTINE TO WRITE AN ASCII CHAR. 
WRITE STV SAVEY 
ROM. LINK NOP 

MOP 

NOP 

NOP 

NOP 

LDY SAVEY 

RTS 

fROUTKlE TO OUTPUT CRLF 
CRLF LDA SSOD 

JSR WRITE 

LDA SS3A 

JSR WRITE 

RTS 



TABLE A 




Enter at ROM LINK: 




Use 


00C2 for Listing 1 


Computer 


Listing 


08C0 for Listing 2 


PET 




20 D2 FF 


APPLE n 




09 80 20 ED FD 


SYM 


I or 2 


2063A6 


KIM 




20A0IE 


TIM 


lor 2 


20C6 72 


OSI65D 




200BFE 


WL'Stern Data Systems 




20 A5 FC 


ATARI 




7 


AIM 




? 


Super KIM 




? 


TABLES 








Listing I 


Listing 2 


Start Address lo 


OODF 


08DD 


Start Address hi 


OOEO 


08DE 


End Address lo 


OOEl 


08DF 


End Address hi 


00E2 


08E0 


Execution Address 


0002 


0800 



iSPACE2 
; SPACE 
SPACE2 
SPACE 



START 
END 



OUTPUT 2 SPACES 
OUTPUT 1 SPACE 

JSR SPACE 

LDA S' 

JSR V.'RITE 

RTS 



.DS 2 ;USER ENTERS START OF MEMORY RANGE 
.DS 2 ;USER ENTERS END OF HEHORY RANGE 



TEST<PATRN . DS 1 
TEST<TYPE .DS 1 
SAVEY .OS 1 



CURRENT TEST PATTERN 
=1,2 FOR TEST TYPE 
SAVE RIY) 



Statement 140: $0002 For Test 1 
$0800 For Test 2 



Universal 6502 Memorv Test 

EASTERN HOUSE SOFTWARE 
Carl W. Moser 
3239 Linda Drive 
Winston-Salem, NC 27106 



34 



Microcomputers In Education 

by 

Pierre P. Barrette 

Assistant Professor Information Science 

Department of Curriculum, Instruction and Media 

College of Education 

Southern Illinois University 

Carbondale, Illinois 62901 

This article includes excerpts from: The Microcomputer and 
the School Library Media Specialist. Available, spring 
1980 from: Libraries Unlimited, Inc., P.O. Box 263, 
Litdeton, Colorado 80160 

Copyright © 1979 Pierre P. Barrette All rights reserved. 

Exclusive permission granted for 

Reproduction and publication only to: 

COMPUTE. The Journal for Progressive Computing^''' 

American education is quietly undergoing an electronic 
revolution and microprocessor-based computers are the 
reason. In 1950 there were only seven macro {main- 
frame) computers in the United States. In 1976 there 
were over 90,000 macro and minicomputers. Of this 
number over 70,000 were minis. In 1979 over 400,000 
macro, mini and microcomputers will have been sold 
Of this number over 250,000 are microcomputers! But 
what about 1987? A recently completed two year multi- 
million dollar study projects that in 1987 over 400 mil- 
lion intelligent electronic modules will be sold in the 
United States! This number reflects only the consumer 
market and not the industrial or business/communica- 
tions sectors. No studies have yet been uncovered that 
project the number of microcomputers that will be sold 
to schools. But by 1987 it is safe to estimate that the 
K-12 school educational consumer market will reflect a 
conservative five percent of all consumer sales or ap- 
proximately 2,000,000 units! If you add to this number 
the number of units sold to schools between 1979 and 
1986 the figure goes over 4 million units or an average of 
20 microcomputers of one type or another in every 
school in the United States. 

What abouts costs? In 1968 a typical 16K computer 
cost about $68,000 excluding peripherals. In 1979 a 16K 
microcomputer system with keyboard, video display 
and cassette storage can be purchased off the shelf for 
about $850.00. It was further estimated that by 1987 the 
average selling price for intelligent electronic modules 
will be $50.00 using 1978 dollars, and this is only the 
beginning. 

Are schools beginning to use microcomputers? A 
most definite yes. Actually schools don't use microcom- 
puters, it's the teacher and students who do. Let's exam- 
ine how educational microcomputer based application 
programs are developing and where the needs are. In 
general, application programs that have been and are being 
developed fall into two broad categories. One category 
is the direct instructional application designed for indi- 



vidual or small group use by students. The second cate- 
gory is the instructional management programs for use 
by teachers. 

Direct microcomputer based instructional programs 
can be found in scattered but growing use across all 
grade levels and in almost all subject areas. These in- 
structional programs can be further classified into five 
distinct categories. The first category is Drill and Prac- 
tice. The second is Simulation /Modeling. The third is 
Games. The fourth is Tutorial. The fifth is a combina- 
tion of the first four. Thousands of individual authors, 
both teachers and non-teachers are busily designing 
and developing direct instructional application pro- 
grams. It should also be noted that a major textbook 
publisher has already developed and is marketing a mi- 
crocomputer based instructional program series. This 
series uses minifloppies and employs color graphics and 
audio! The need for well designed and validated applica- 
tion programs that fit into the curricula of .schools and 
match identified learning needs is enormous. Let's ex- 
amine four categories of microcomputer-based instruc- 
tional application programs a little more closely. 

Drill and Practice. Programs of this nature are highly 
desirable to develop mastery skills associated with spe- 
cific learning objectives. Essentially, items .such as math, 
spelling, syntax, etc. are displayed for the student to 
practice a specific skill. The built-in random number 
generator function of a micro is a great help in mixing 
items. The student is expected to practice until mastery. 
Students, however, can quickly become tired or even 
frustrated with this type of program unless it is carefully 
designed. 

Simulation/Modeling. Programs of this type are gen- 
erally more complex to write. However, they are also 
highly desirable and are used by teachers to simulate or 
model real world events without having students physi- 
cally encounter the actual forces that shaped the events. 
Decision making skills are developed. Extensive group 
discussion occurs. Often data is collected from real 
world environments and entered into the program. 
This type of program is often very economical and quite 
suited to be used with an individual or a group of 
students. 

Games. These programs are fun. Students, as well as 
adults, spend hours with them. They serve a very im- 
portant educational motivational purpose for many stu- 
dents. In addition, if the programs are well designed, 
they assist students in developing process thinking 
strategies. 

Tutorials. These application programs are without 
doubt the most complicated to write. Their purpose is 
for students to acquire specific knowledge through well 
designed linear and branching frame sequences. Usually 
these programs are designed for individual student use. 

It must be reemphasized that the need for well de- 
signed microcomputer based instructional application 
programs is enormous and will grow through the next 
decade. However, it must also be emphasized even more 
strongly that programs need to be personally validated 



« 



How I Spent My Summer Vacation" 




"My father brought home a computer. It was fun. The computer was like a 
teacher. I learned how to do graphs and lots of other things too. I had a really good time.' 

Sonja Richman — Age 9 

Sonja used Program Design educational software on herTRS-80. PDI 

programs and games teach subjects like programming, reading, and grammar. 

Kids and adults like PDI because the programs keep them involved and 

entertained while they learn. 

PDI has courses for all ages. Some of Sonjas favorite courses are Graph 

Builder. Story Builder, and Memory Builder: Concentration. For her parents. 

we have courses like Step By Step to teach them programming and Spelling Builder. 

Guaranteed-to-load cassettes for APPLE, PET, TRS-80 Level II, ATARI 

Send for our flyer. And see Program Design software at participating 
Computerlands and other fine computer stores. 



Program Design, Inc.. 1 I Idar Court, Greenwich. CT 06830 (203) 661 -8799 



PET PROGRAM TAPES 

educational software 
for 8k pets 




Peninsula School 
Computer Project 



Our games and languages for 8K Pets are challenging and easy to use. Draw was 
featured in People's Compmers. Quest will be featured in Byte. Each tape comes with 
a booklet of listings and other useful information. If any tape fails to load, return 
for a complete refund. 

Tape #1: Pilot, Gold, Sky, Hammurabi, Names, Hands 
Pilot is an easy-to-leam dialog programming language. 
Five sample programs are included. 

Tape #2: Renumber, Lemon, Kaleidoscope, WSFN 

The Lemon player tries to maximize profits from a lemonade stand 
The WSFN programmer tells a "robot" to draw graphic designs. 

Tape #3: Quest, Draw 

Quest is a challenging cave exploration game. 

Draw lets you paint pictures with the PET graphic characters. 



ORDER FORM 
Tape # Price Quantity 

1 $19.95 X 

2 $14.95 X 


Total 

$ . 
$ . 


check payable to: 

Peninsula Computer Project 
Peninsula Way 
Menlo Park, CA 94025 


3 $9.95 X 
in Calif., add 6% sales tax 


$ . 
$ . 


enclose 


$ . 




Name 
Address 




Retailers: Send for our 
— wholesale order form. 


City State 


Zip 


Outside U.S.: add postage. 



37 



and must fit into established and emerging curricula of 
schools if they are to be accepted. Being able to write in 
the English language does not automatically qualify a 
person to be a teacher or an instructional designer. 
And, so it goes at being able to write programs in 
BASIC, Pascal, Tutor or PILOT, etc. 

Thousands of individual authors from ages five 
through eighty- plus are busily designing and develop- 
ing exciting and innovative instructional software pro- 
grams around PET, APPLE II, ATARI, TRS-80, PRO- 
CESSOR SOL, TI 99/4 and other personal microcom- 
puter systems. I can only encourage this activity while 
concurrently suggesting that efforts be shared with 
others including teachers, administrators and school 
board members. Remember to watch your language. By 
that I mean don't frighten others by impressing them 
with computer terminology. Save the RAM, ROM's, 
K's, DOS's and memory maps, etc. until the appropri- 
ate time. Otherwise, more harm than good may arise. 
Just remember where you were knowledge-wise a scant 
five years ago! 

A second category of microcomputer based applica- 
tion programs falls into the instructional management 
area. While general ledger and small business applica- 
tion programs have been developed to operate on vari- 
ous microcomputer systems, few of these fit the day to 
day instructional management needs of teachers. 
Teachers need file management programs operating on 
disc based systems. They need programs to maintain 
student progress records. They need programs to anal- 
yze grades and programs to file learning objectives as 
well as test items. They need diagnostic programs. They 
need programs to match those media materials readily 
available in schools to specified learning objectives. 
They also need microcomputer based word processing 
text editing programs. These and other time savers will 
be in great demand in the near future. Other methods 
for data entry aside from keyboarding will be needed. 
One microcomputer systems supplier has just offered a 
new peripheral that uses common mark sense cards to 
read and load data directly into a microcomputer sys- 
tem. You can expect to begin seeing data entry methods 
employing voice recognition within five years! 

While instructional and management applications 
of microcomputers in education continue to grow with 
self-contained application programs, the fetal horizon of 
a new most significant microcomputer application is 
just now presenting itself. This horizon deals with using 
microcomputers as intelligent terminals to access infor- 
mation data bases in the U.S. and throughout the 
world. Couple a microcomputer with a modem com- 
munications device and you have the capability to ac- 
cess huge machine readable data bases. Five years ago 
there were no more than 100 machine readable data 
bases. Today more than 1,000 exist and the number is 
growing weekly. Parents of children in elementary 
school perhaps need to realize that during the lifespan 
of their children ninety percent of all knowledge the 
world has ever known will be discovered! Access to this 



information via microprocessor based intelligent sys- 
tems coupled to the expanding number of bibliographic 
and non-bibliographic data bases world wide may spell 
the difference in the future educational success of their 
children. A direct concerted effort by parents in en- 
couraging microcomputer and intelligent terminal ex- 
penditures in schools, especially school library media 
centers, may realistically dictate the future viability of 
his or her child. The future is now. 

Teachers as well as students will be accessing huge 
machine readable files from their school library media 
centers and from home. Already, in one state, for a 
nominal hook-up fee and a $2.75 per hour connect 
charge, an end user is provided a toll free number to a 
massive machine readable data hank. And this is only 
the beginning. 



Suggestions to authors of microcomputer based instruc- 
tional materials; 

First of all, document, document and when you are tired of 
documenting, document some more. By this I mean not only be 
sure that you have entered liberal REMs, or other equivalent 
statements, within your application program but MORE IM- 
PORTANT the following. As you test out (validate) versions of 
your program with your child or children it is even MORE IM- 
PORTANT for you to keep a very careful log of how you gave 
and paid attention to the child. For example, how much time 
did you actually spend asking questions like ... What did you 
thinker like about it??? In what ways did you positively reinforce 
the child for working at and perhaps achieving at a program that 
you may have designed? Were you persistent at encouragement? 
Test yourself with this ciucstion. How often and how much time 
have you spent talking about how your child is doing in a spe- 
cific application program with your spouse, friends, or business 
associates? Do extra smiles, praise, or extra conversations devel- 
op at dinner? How about extra hugs! Only you can answer but if 
so it may give you this most important clue. Success in your ap- 
plication program may well not be a function of your adept pro- 
gramming skills, but the fact that vou attended (paid attention) 
to what the child was doing. An enormous body of knowledge in 
the field of applied behavior analysis stands ready to back this 
most important point. 

Pierre Barrette 



A Call for Resources. My forthcoming 
book gives clear guidelines to school library media spe- 
cialists and teachers on how to select and evaluate mi- 
crocomputer based instructional materials. Authors 
hoping to market programs may want to closely exam- 
ine these selection evaluation criteria guidelines. 

A question often asked relates to the use of high 
level computer languages and the microcomputer. This 
certainly is a basic question. No pun intended! Many 
readers already know that BASIC is the most common 
high level language currently in use with microcomput- 
ers regardless of dialect. Most readers may also know 
that the BASIC language is not machine independent 
and consequently application programs are machine 
and often model specific. While a comparative discus- 
sion related to the educational implications of using 



38 



COMPUTE. 



Qhonne/ ^ 




Omnifile """"""-— !____— ---'^ S20 

A powerful database program with sorting, formating, and 
computational features for accessing and processing 
almost any type of record. Suitable for mailing lists, check- 
book and other transaction records, Inventories, sales 
records, statistical records and even as a cash register. 

Personal Ledger $20 

A complete double entry bookeeping system with provisions 
for budgeting and keeping records of income, expenses, 
assets and liabilities. Provisions for entering transactions, 
adding or editing accounts, and printing of a detailed 
Income Statement and Balance Sheet. 

Data Logger $10 

User can save and easily find any data item in a list e.g., 
address lists, mini-inventories, etc. Designed in a general- 
ized framework to allow the user to adapt the program to 
individual applications. 

All Channelgram software includes a complete manual with 
instructions, listing, & sample data. 

The Channel Data Book for Pet $20 

A complete hardware and software updated reference 
service listing descriptions for over 1 400 software programs 
and over 200 peripheral devices for PET. Designed to 
organize documentation, newsletters, listings, and other 
user selected Information In an attractive 3-rlng binder. 

Cash, Checks, f^oney Orders, Visa, Master Charge 
59bO Mandofin five. GoletQ Cfi Q^017 



BASIC, Pascal, TUTOR, PILOT, COBOL, APL, FOR- 
TRAN, LISP and other high level languages would cer- 
tainly bring out the advocates and create a host of new 
friends, it would almost as certainly polarize others. The 
book attempts to do neither. It does provide sample pro- 
grams comparing both BASIC and Pascal. 

It should be noted that a crosscompiler is in its final 
stages of design and will be able to download TUTOR 
developed programs into machine level to run on one of 
the microcomputers already available. This and other 
developments will be discussed. 

Sharing and exchanging ideas about resources is 
nothing new. People have networked their ideas formal- 
ly and informally for years. Therefore, micronetwork- 
ing in principle is not new but how to do it is quite an- 
other matter. Micronctworks are developing across the 
United States and overlap both public and private sect- 
ors including education. The book discusses how to 
establish a micronetwork if you're not already in one. It 
provides a bibliography of hundreds of micronecworks, 
many of w^iom exchange application programs at no 
charge. 

Peripheral hardware is also a subject of interest. 
What's a daisy wheel, 5x7, 7x7, 7x9 and 1x9 dot matrix 
printer' What's a thermal impact or Inkjet printer? 
These and other introductory questions about printers 
will be included in non-technical language. Also to be 
included is how data is stored on cassette, disc, bubble 
memories and videodiscs. The latest developments on 
interfacing microcomputers with videodisc playback 
machines will be discussed. In plain English the con- 
cepts of graphic resolution are presented together with 
differences between CRT and plasma display devices. 

The preceding is only a thumbnail sketch of the 
contents of this new book. Other important profession- 
al educational issues arc also raised such as the effect of 
state standards on purchasing microcomputers, data 
privacy, copyright and more. Throughout the book the 
enormously complex role of the school library media 
specialist is considered together with the impact of new 
communications and microprocessor technology. Ex- 
tensive bibliographies are included. A separate biblio- 
graphy of vendors and their services is included based 
upon a nationwide survey this past summer. 

This author will be including a bibliography of in- 
structional as well as management application reference 
sources in the book. If you have authored any programs 
and have actually used them with children or adults, 
write and let me know. Describe what it is you have 
done, who the programs have been used with and what 
microcomputer system you used. If you'd like your 
name included to share your programs or market them, 
let me know. Send a black and white glossy of your 
child or children using a microcomputer. I may be able 
to use the picture if you give me permission. 

In the meantime, enjoy your microcomputer sys- 
tem. Learn as much as you can about it and share your 
enthusiasm with others. Comments relative to this arti- 
cle are most welcomed by the author. Write me. 



39 



EDUCATORS TAKE NOTE!! 



2'*"N0W 



("at least through 
November 30, 1979.) 



Commodore & NEECO have made 
it easier and less expensive to inte- 
grate small computers into your 
particular school system's educa- 
tional and learning process. The 
Commodore Pet has now proven 
itself as one of the most important 
educational learning aids of the 
1970's. Title IV approved! 




8K Pet S795 

16K Pet (Full keyboard) $995 

32K Pet (Full keyboard) $1295 

New England Electronics Company is pleased to announce a special promotion in conjunction with 
Commodore itn'i Corporation. Through November 30th, 1979, educational institutions can purchase two 
Commodore Pet Computers & receive A THIRD PET COMPUTER ABSOLUTELY FREE!! 

The basic 8K Pet has a television screen, an alpha-numeric and extensive graphics character keyboard, and a 
self-contained cassette recorder which serves as a program-loading and data storing device. You can extend the 
capability of the system with hard copy printers, floppy disk drives & additional memory. The Pet is a perfect 
coniputer for educational use. It is inexpensive, yet has the power & versatility of advanced computer 
technology. It is completely portable & totally integrated in one unit. NEECO has placed over 100 Commodore 
Pets "in school systems across the country." Many programs have been established for use in an educational 
environment, they include: 



NEECO Tutorial System 
Projectile Motion Analysis 
Momentum & Energy 
Pulley System Analysis 
Lenses & Mirrors 
Naming Compound Drill 
Statistics Package 
Basic Math Package 
Chemistry with a Computer 



S2995 

$1995 
$1995 

SI 995 

$1995 
SI995 
$2995 

$2995 
$1500 




NEECO 



679 Highland Ave. 
Needham, MA 02194 
(617)449-1760 



DON'T DELAY! TIME IS LIMITED! 
CALL OR WRITE FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION TODAY! 



40 



COMPUTE. 



Flying With PET PILOT: 

Kids And 
Microcomputers At 
^ ■ ■ School 



Katie A, Thornburg and David D. Thornburg 
Peninsula School Computer Project 
Peninsula School, Peninsula Way, 
Menlo Park, CA 94025 

Peninsula School is a privately owned and operated 
parent-teacher cooperative which provides an alterna- 
tive to public elementary education in the San Francis- 
co Bay area. Microcomputers were introduced at Penin- 
sula School during the fall of 1977 in response to parent 
interest in preparing their children to experience the 
ever-increasing utility of computers in modern society. 
The process of developing computer literacy in the Pen- 
insula community has been a multi-faceted one. It has 
involved acquainting both faculty and students with 
computer capabilities and designing suitable programs 
to promote the use of the computer as a creative tool. 
Funding of the project has been accomplished by parent 
donations and the sale of programs written and donated 
to the school by parent computer professionals. After 
school computer classes have supplemented the limited 
classroom availability of the computers. 

The initial exposure of students and faculty to the 
games authored by the parent volunteers came thtough 
computer open houses and a very brief series of classes. 
This introduction was sufficient to generate consider- 
able student enthusiasm and to allow the teachers to 
assess the appropriateness of computer based materials 
for individual classroom situations. Due to the limited 
nature of available resources (both volunteers' time and 
the number of microcomputers - 2 PETs - then at the 
school's disposal), educational efforts were subsequently 
focused on the upper grades. 

The initial program library provided by the volun- 
teers consisted of: 

• DRAW, a program that allows even young child- 
ren to make pictures using the PET's graphic characters 

• the programming language PET PILOT 

• adaptions of 5 programs to PET PILOT: 

GOLD, a version of Goldilocks in which the 

user helps the computer write the story 

SKY, a question and answer game whose 

questions depend in part on the user's 

answers. 

NAMES, which explores ideas the user has 

about his or her name 

HANDS, which suggests new ways of looking 

at everyday things 

HAMMURABI, a simulation in which the 

user makes economic decisions that mean life 

and death in the small country he or she rules 



• LEMON, a simulation of running a lemonade 
stand 

• QUEST, a challenging cave exploration game 

• WSFN, a programming language that can be 
used to teach elementary concepts of computer pro- 
gramming and spatial representation by having the user 
give instructions to a make-believe "turtle" on the dis- 
play screen. 

NAMES and HANDS were originally written to 
encourage students with writing blocks to express them- 
selves verbally by engaging them in a dialogue. Among 
the additions to these programs the MAD LIB was an- 
other creative writing stimulus which has proven to be 
quite popular. In this type of program, the user is asked 
to supply examples of several parts of speech which are 
then inserted by the computer into the appropriate 
blank spaces of a pre-programmed story often provided 
by another user. 

During the course of the school year students pro- 
gressed from playing games to writing programs. As 
they became comfortable with the mechanics of inter- 
acting with the computer, students began to identify 
loopholes in games such as LEMON. Both the sense of 
mastery obtained from locating these loopholes and the 
humorous potential offered by creative writing exercises 
such as GOLD and MAD LIB provided an impetus 
for students to learn programming. 

Of the languages available to us (PILOT, BASIC, 
WSFN), PET PILOT was selected as the jumping-off 
point for introducing students and teachers to program- 
ming. PILOT is a computer language for dealing with 
words (in the sense of character strings) rather than for 
performing computations. However, it should be noted 
that the Peninsula School PILOT interpreter is written 
in BASIC rather than in machine language; BASIC 
commands for numerical manipulations can be readily 
incorporated into PILOT programming using our in- 
terpreter. The examples of PILOT games provided by 
the volunteers were developed to serve as models for 
teachers to modify in generating material more relevant 
to their own classroom needs. 

As it was our primary intent to enable students and 
teachers to become comfortable with microcomputing, 
we chose a computer language that would minimize the 
mechanical hang-ups of communicating with the com- 
puter, thereby minimizing programmer frustration in 
achieving his or her goal. PILOT satisfies this objective 
in that its commands are simple and it performs impor- 
tant formatting functions automatically. The end result 
- the appearance of a story or story-like game on the 
computer display - therefore does not become subordi- 
nated to the intricacies of the computer language in 
which it is programmed, 

PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teach- 
ing) was invented by John A. Starkweather at the Uni- 
versity of California Medical Center in San Francisco 
to simplify the writing of programs that mainly consist 
of conversational dialogs. It is a language that can be 



COMPUTE. 



41 



readily understood by most eight year olds. In otir ver- 
sion of PILOT most statements have the form; 
command: text 

or 

command condition: text 

Our set often commands and two conditions allows 
compact representations of very sophisticated programs 
to be made. 

The commands most commonly found in student 
programs are T:, A: and M:; often in conjunction with 
the conditionals Y and N (for yes and no). 
T: WHAT IS YOUR NAME? 

will cause the words WHAT IS YOUR NAME? 
to be displayed on the computer screen. 
A: ANSWERS 

will capture a user response and place this result in 
the string variable ANSWERS. 

M: HORSE, COW, ELEPHANT 

will compare the result of the most recent A: state- 
ment with the words HORSE, COW, or ELEPHANT. 
As a result of using an M: statement, the value of the 
conditionals Y and N is set. If any of the words 
HORSE, COW, or ELEPHANT is contained anywhere 
in the response to the previous A; statement, Y is true. 
Y and N are mutually exclusive. Selective use of com- 
mand statements occurs when the conditional appears 
alongside the command. In a PET PILOT program in 
which the statement pair 

TY: THAT IS A GOOD ANSWER! 
TN: PLEASE TRY THAT AGAIN. 

appears, THAT IS A GOOD ANSWER! will be 
printed if and only if Y is true. PLEASE TRY THAT 
AGAIN, will be printed if and only if N is true. 

In comparing PILOT with BASIC, T: is often 
compared with PRINT, and A: v^'ith INPUT. As im- 
plemented on the PET, there are important differences 
in these operations. These differences generally result in 
shorter, more readable programs in PILOT. If a long 
string of words in BASIC is displayed using PRINT, it 
is possible to have words fracture at the end of a line 
and finish on the next line. When T: is used in 
PILOT, the interpreter verifies that a word completely 
fits on a line before that word is displayed on the screen. 
If the word does not fit, the word is automatically print- 
ed on the next line. The major difference between A: 
and INPUT involves character shifting. When charac- 
ter strings are entered, A: automatically shifts the char- 
acters so that the keyboard behaves as a normal type- 
writer, {i.e., unshifted letters appear in lower case and 
shifted characters appear in upper case.). This over- 
comes the character shifting problem found in the 8K 
PET's. 

For most of our beginning programmers, T: and A: 
statements have been adequate to allow stories and dia- 
logues to appear on the computer screen. However, we 
can better illustrate the greater simplicity and legibility 
of language arts programs written in PILOT with a 
teacher-authored version of IN and OUT, a program 



involving the M: command to test for the "INNESS" or 
"OUTNESS" of various words. After being presented 
with numerous examples of words which are either "IN" 
or "OUT," the user is asked to identify the criterion of 
"INNESS" or "OUTNESS"; in this case words begin- 
ning with vowels turn out to be "IN," and those begin- 
ning with consonants are therefore "OUT." 

As written in PET PILOT, the relevant criterion 
defining portion of the program appears as 

A:AN$ 

M: bA,bE,bLbO,bU, 

TY: AN$ IS IN, 

TN: AN$ IS OUT. 
As written in BASIC, the equivalent function ap- 
pears as 

1000T$ = "AEIOU" 

1100F = O 

1200 IN PUT AN$ 

1300FORI=lTO5 

1400 IFLEFT$(AN$,1) = MID$(T$L1) 

THEN F = 1 

1500 NEXT I 

1600 IF F = 1 THEN PRINT AN$;"bIS 

IN." 

1 700 IF F = O THEN PRINT AN$;"bIS 

OUT." 
(In the above two program segments, b indicates a 
typed space.) If the matching had been performed 
against a list of words rather than against single letters, 
the BASIC program would have grown much more 
complex. The PILOT program, however, would have 
remained about the same in length. 

Just as playing computer games has generated an in- 
terest in programming, student curiosity about comput- 
ers has bred student enthusiasm for every aspect of mi- 
crocomputing. Older children (at least 9 years of age) 
branched out into BASIC and WSFN. Unlike many 
apprehensive adults first encountering microcomputers, 
our students have approached the machines eagerly and 
have emerged from the program with confidence in 
their abilities to interact with computers. Concommit- 
antly, students have been seen to have an increased 
confidence in themselves that has carried over into 
other areas of their lives. 

The computers have been a vehicle for bringing 
children together. Each computer has often been used 
by two or three children working jointly on a program 
or game. This sharing of resources has been extended 
beyond the solving of common problems to peer teach- 
ing. Children who have acquired a mastery over some 
aspect of microcomputing readily and voluntarily share 
their knowledge with newcomers, thus imparting a tre- 
mendous sense of cohesiveness to the entire computer 
activity. 

Classroom time allotted to computer instruction 
both during and after school has proven insufficient to 
meet student demand for access to the machines. Stu- 
dents and faculty have obtained permission to take the 



42 



COMPUTE. 



computers home overnight and on weekends ro share 
with their families. At a recent workshop held at the 
school, children were able to spend an entire day learn- 
ing about computers with their parents and friends. On 
viewing her children's involvement in the computer 
project, one parent remarked, "It's great!" 

Acknowledgement: We wish to thank Dotty 
Calabrese, Anne Branch, Dave Offen and Phyllis Cole 
for their contributions to this article. We also wish to 
acknowledge the tremendous energy, effort and enthus- 
iasm expended by Larry Tesler, Phyllis Cole, Dave 
Offen, Roger Chaffee, Bob Albrecht and Ramon 
Zamora in making this project a reality. 

Review 

Petunia & Petunia Player 

$29.95 &$14.95 

HUH Ek-ctroiiics 
1429 Maple Street 
San Mateo, CA 94402 

PETUNIA is a 4'voice music system which delivers 
"Chamberlin type" {see "BYTE" SEPTEMBER, 1977) 
music through your amplifier-speaker system. The 
PETUNIA board plugs into your parallel user port and 
your 2nd cassette interface, A minimal amount of cod- 
ing and documentation is provided with the PETUNIA 
which (unless you want to do a lot of work from 
scratch) is why you will want to also purchase the 
PETUNIA PLAYER. 

The PETUNIA PLAYER is a program on cassette 




Programs for your ATARI® 

• miDIS Is a monlhly cassette magaiine 
of programs for the ATARI 400 and 
800 personal computer 

• You get four excellent programs each 
montfi on a higfi quality C-30 cassette, 
ready to load and run. 

• Eacti Issue of IRIDIS has an animated 
'Front Cover" tfiat will delight your 
eyes' 

• With each cassette you gel IRIDIS 
Notes, a lively newsletter of informa- 
tion about the ATARI computer- You 
may disagree with our opinionated 
editors, but you'll never be boredl 

• IRIDIS brings you fun and games 
education, and business programs 
and "software tools" that will help you 
enjoy your ATARI. 



n 12 issues for S39. 95 in US 

& Canada 
D 4 issues for Si 4.95 
D Sample copy 34,95 

We Accept VISA and Mastercharge 



city 



Slate/Zip 



IRIDIS, Box 550, Goleta, CA 93017 



which plays several sample songs and also allows you to 
code in music of your own. The coding required to en- 
ter your own music is simple enough, but tedious. 

The sound generated is full and rich — very organ- 
like in timbre — you will want to play it through a hi-fi 
system rather than the small speaker-amplifiers many of 
us have been using with the CB2 sound. 

The music 1 found easiest to code in and the most 
satisfying to play is music arranged for choral groups 
e.g. (S.A.T.B. or T.T.B.B.). These seem to fit the four 
voices of the PETUNIA best. 

I found it very simple to add another jack and two 
wires to the board so that I can implement the CB2 (Pet 
Gazette cons'cntions) .sound without removing the 
PETUNIA board each time. 

If you are interested in computer music and don't 
mind the translating from sheet music, the PETUNIA 
Si. PETUNIA PLAYER combination may be for you. 

by Dr. Matarclla 

Teachers, Computers 
And The Classroom 

By C.J. Carr and Everett Q. Carr 

The self-contained general purpose microcomputers are 
standing at the classroom doot. Whether the computer 
will become a part of every classroom's equipment may 
be determined within the ne.xt couple of years. The 
principle judges will be the army of classroom teachers, 
and they are tough judges. 

So far the personal microcomputers have been in 
the hands of enthusiasts willing to invest many hun- 
dreds of hours of their lives testing the computer relia- 
bility, improvising curriculum, writing prograins for stu- 
dents and teachers, searching literature for program ma- 
terials, comparing texts, testing tapes and cassettes; en- 
gaged in all the tasks that distinguish a leader in any 
field. To these people, the David Ahls, the Larry 
Tesslers, Lud Brauns and Peninsula School Projects, the 
rest of the schools already owe much. 

Our work with computers began in 1977 with the 
construction of an IMSAI 8080 from a kit that included 
I6K of memory and a North Star minifloppy diskette. 
This computer, destined for computer control in a plan- 
etarium, was an excellent learning tool for learning ma- 
chine language and BASIC programming, in addition 
to the base provided in computer jargon. The IMSAl 
however, is not the kind of machine you would want to 
live with in the classroom. Its weight, size and dangling 
ribbon cables make it unwieldy and vulnerable. 

The announcement of the PET was an occasion of 
great interest. Commodore promised a self-contained, 
instant-on, built-in video, cassette permanent storage 
memory, 8 Kilobyte RAM Memory and an 8K Micro- 
soft BASIC in ROM in production quantities at a start- 
lingly low price. 



Software Specialists 



Science and Education 



Microphys Programs 



Dear Educator: 

Microphys is pleased to introduce its series of computer programs 
which have been specifically designed for use on the Commodore 
PET microcomputer. These programs have readily enabled 
instructors to provide their i^tudents with an opportunity to review, 
in on interesting and effective manner, the important concepts 
encountered in introductory courses in chemistry, physics, 
mathematics, and English vocabulary. 

The advent of microprocessor technology has virtually 
revolutionized the concept of computer utilization ivithin the 
academic environment. No longer need a teacher consider being 
merelv a part of a large time-sharing network in which cost factors, 
response times, available storage etc. ser\-e to limit, if not completely 
discourage, the use of the computer in the classrootn. 

The PET microcomputer is relatively inexpensive, yet it 
possesses the power and versatility generally associated with 
standard mini-systems. It is completely portable and its siient 
operation permits its use during lecture and recitation classes. 
Students may create and store their own programs on standard 
audio cassettes which they purchase and retain. 

Please note that the vast array of software programs, \vhich 
have been uniquely designed for use on the PET microcomputer, 
will readilv enable you to use the microsystem in vour courses as 
soon as it arrives. The programs are available on cassette tapes and 
arrive complete wUh full instructions for their immediate use even 
by those who have little, if any, experience with the use of the 
computer itself. 

There are three tvpes of programs in the Microphys series: 
I. Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs guide the student 

through a series of quantitative questions; the student interacts 

with the computer and receives immediate evaluation of his 

responses and/or assistance when needed. Each time a particular 



program is run, a different set of numerical data is generated. In 
most instances, ar> entirely new problem is presented. 
II. Individualized-Instruction Programs generate a unique set of 
problems for each student. The essential information needed to 
solve each problem is recorded and, when he is ready to do so, 
the student may obtai n the computer's answers and compnre his 
results. These answers may be suppressed by deleting line 
number 8500 in any program. When now run, a unique set of 
problems is procluced for each student who records the essential 
information along ;vith his code number which is generated by 
the computer. V\Tten his work is completed, the student enters 
his code number and ansxvers into the program which had given 
him his assignment. The computer will then grade his work, 
displaying the answers to those problems which were 
incorrectly solved; a percent score and a brief comment 
reflecting an overall evaluation are also given. 
III. Utility Programs are designed to provide solutions to time 
consuming problems often given on exams or homework 
assignments. Problems in calorimetry, stoichiometry, projective 
motion, vector analysis, etc. require tedious computation. These 
utility program.s free teachers from the time required to obtain 
the correct solutions. Students may also be permitted access to 
these programs in order to check their own work. 

Please note that each physics and chemistry program 
has both the computer-assisted instruction and individualized 
instruchon versions recorded on opposite sides of the cassette. The 
vocabulary programs are similarly designed; the computer 
assistance being rendered by providing the student with a sentence 
in which the \vord to be defined is used properiy. With this 
contextual clue, the student is again asked to correctly select the 
proper definition. The math cassettes have only an 
individualized-instruction mode. 



Chemistry and Physics 
Cassettes 

1. Linear Kinematics 

2. Projectile .Motion* 

3. Motnentum and Energy* 

4. Energy and the Inclined Plane 

5. Inelastic Collisions 

6. Centripetal Force 

7. Pulley Systems — Machines* 

8. Specific iTcat Capacity 

9. Calorimetry 

10. Heats of Fusion Vaporization 

Tl. Specific Gas Laws 

12. General Gas Law 

13. Thermodynamics 1 

14. Thermodynamics 11 

15. Transverse Standing Waves 

16. Longitudinal Standuig Waves 

17. Lenses and Mirrors" 

18. Refraction of Light 

ly. Senes Circuit Analysis 

20. Parallel Circuit .Analysis I 
20A. Parallel Circ-uit Analysis II 

21. Series Parallel Circuit Analysis* 

22. Faraday's Law 

23. Cram-Molecular Mass 

24. The Mole Concept" 

25. The Molarity Concept* 

26. The Normality Concept 

27. The Molality Concept 

28. Stoichiometry: Mass Mass 

29. Stoichiometry: MassVolume 

30. Stoichiometry: General* 

32. Percent Concentration 

33. pH Concept 

34. EMF of Electrochemical Cells 

35. Electric Field Analysis 

36. Photoelectric Effect 

37. Symbols and Valence Drill 

38. Formulas of Compounds Drill* 
40. Total Internal Reflection 



Vocabulary 
Cassettes 



Note: Please indicate whether you desire the 8K or ICiK version of a 
given program when placing an order. 

The cost of each cassette is S20. 



401. 12th 

402. 12th 

403. 12th 

404. 12th 

405. 12th 

406. 11th 

407. 11th 

408. 11th 

409. 11th 

410. 11th 

411. 10th 
412- 10th 

413. 10th 

414. 10th 

415. 10th 



416. 
417. 
418. 
419. 



9 th 
9th 
9th 
9th 



420. 9th 

421. 8th 

422. 8th 

423. 8th 

424. 8th 

425. 8th 

426. 7th 

427. 7th 



428. 
429. 
430. 



7th 
7th 
7th 



Grade I 
Grade 11 
Grade 111 
Grade IV 
Grade V 
Grade ! 
Grade II 
Grade III 
Grade IV 
Grade V 
Grade 1 
Grade II 
Grade 111 
Grade IV 
Grade V 

Grade I 
Grade 11 
Grade 111 
Grade IV 
Grade V 
Grade 1 
Grade II 
Grade 111 
Grade IV 
Grade V 
Grade 1 
Grade 11 
Grade 111 
Grade IV 
Grade V 



Math Cassettes 
Senior High School 

701. Quadratic Equations 

702. Trigonometry 1 

703. Simultaneous Equations (2x2) 

704. Simultaneous Equations (3x3) 

705. Geometrical Areas 

706. Trigonometry H 

707. Verbal Problems 1 — Numbers 

708. Verbal Problems 11 — Coins 
7tl9, Verbal Problems III — Ages 

710. Verbal Problems IV — Interest 

711. Verbal Problems V — Mixtures 

712. Verbal Problems VI — Geometry 

713. Verbal Problems VII — Rates 

714. Verbal Problems VIII — Digits 

715. Verbal Problems IX ^ Work 

716. Arithmetic Progressions 1 

717. Arithmetic Progressions II 

718. Geometric Progressions I 

719. Geometric Progressions II 

720. Types of Variation 

721. Linear Equations 

722. Formula Evaluation 

723. Coordinate Geometry I 

724. Exponents and Logarithms 

725. Verbal Problems — General 



Math Cassettes 
Junior High School 

80i. Magic Squares 

802. Multiplication 

803. Division 

804. Modular .Arithmetic 

805. Proporrion Problems 

806. Percent Problems 

807. Addition of Fractions 

808. Subtraction of Fractions 

809. Multiplication of Fractions 

810. Division of Fractions 

811. Mode, Median, and Mean 

812. Bar Graph Analysis 

813. Decimals 1 

814. Decimals 11 

S15. Verbal Problems I 

Utility Cassettes 

301. Vector Analysis I 

302. Vector Analysis II 

303. Gas Law .Analysis 

304. Oprics Analysi's 

305. Projectile Analysis 

306. Calorimetry .Analysis 

307. Chemistry I Analysis 

308. Chemistry II Analysis 

309. Stoichiometry Analysis 



Microphys Programs 

2048 Ford Street 

Brooklyn, New York 11229 

(212) 646-0140 



44 



COMPUTE. 



By the spring of 1978, with delivery time down to 3 
months, and after we had spent nearly 10 hours on a 
PET at a cooperative Computer Shop 50 miles away, we 
ordered our own personal PET and recommended the 
machine for a trial program in our schools. Our PET ar- 
rived in July 1978 and it seemed that we sat down to 
learn about programming it on July 4th, and didn't get 
up till August. By September, we were able to fill the 8K 
RAM of the PET with interactive programs in weather 
forecasting, a simulation of the first flight to Mars for 
our Gifted/Talented Child programs and an electronic 
flip-chart for presentations about computers for schools. 

Our planetarium's Gifted/Talented Child program 
for 4th, 5th and 6th graders was our first opportunity to 
teach programming from our own material called 
"BASIC in 8 Wonderful Hours." By this time we had 
literally spent a year of our lives mastering computer 
fundamentals and were ready for the kids and teachers. 
In addition, a proposal written in December 1977 was 
approved for a small grant that allowed purchasing two 
school PETs to tend to schools during the 1978-79 
school year. An informal survey had shown that over 
60% of the area's high school math teachers had already 
taken a course in computer programming as an elective. 
Most had some knowledge of FORTRAN. It was with 
this group we started early in 1978 with a mini-micro- 
computer show from an area computer shop. 

Each teacher who was to receive a computer for 
classroom use was required to spend two full school 
days with the PET computer, receiving individual one- 
on-one tutoring. They were supplied with an 8 hour 
BASIC programming course, CAI tapes in BASIC pro- 
gramming and 20 blank CIO cassettes. Nine of thirteen 
area schools joined this lending program and supple- 
mented the grant to cover software costs. Each school 
had the PET for a month's trial. In all, this lending pro- 
gram was an amazing success. We tutored 18 teachers 
who in turn supplied a measure of computer literacy to 
about 600 high school seniors during 20 school days at 
each school. Our 20 Gifted/Talented children at 4th, 
5th and 6th grades had a short course of about 12 hours 
sharing 4 computers and using CAI tapes. They flew to 
Mars, explored its surface and returned to Earth with 
Martian soil samples in a planetarium/computer 
simulation. 

The enthusiastic response of teachers, students and 
administrators, and the timely offer of Commodore in 
offering 3 PETs for the price of 2, permits our area to 
start the 1979-80 school year with 53 PET computers 
and 10 of 13 schools participating. 

Another small grant, written in December 1978 
and approved for July 1979, allowed us to offer an inten- 
sive 40 hour two-week course for Gifted/Talented 7th, 
8th and 9th graders. In this intensive course, 20 stu- 
dents each had access to one of 20 computers for the en- 
tire period. There were always 4 tutors on the computer 
floor for the most intensive type of individual tutoring. 
This "Computer Survival Course for Kids" was consid- 



ered completely successful. Not a single child missed a 
single minute of the 40 hours. 17 of 20 kids took a com- 
puter home for a week. 

There are several key problems to solve in achieving 
our local goal that every school section and building 
will have a classroom full of computers by 1985. 

The problems are: 

1. Teacher preparation/ acceptance 

2. Curricula development/matching software 

3. The rate of technological development 

4. Funding 

While I can justify a limited number of hours of 
computer games, only a fully prepared teacher with the 
correct software is equipped to prevent abuse of the 
computer's potential. And only if teachers are prepared 
and confident will they accept a computer in the class- 
room as anything other than an interesting short-term 
diversion. 

The key element is an acceptable computer curricu- 
lum. There are first commercial attempts at this with 
math programs for Kindergarten to 8th grade on 6 type 
CIO cassettes. While I am sure many of these sets will be 
purchased, there is a chance that the backlash of the re- 
action to poor material could have long-term adverse ef- 
fects. High quality CAI material and drill materials are 
required. Suppliers should be aware that a high quality 
program which costs $300 is far more acceptable than 
$30 programs that are inadequate in performance. 

The rate of technological progress is an unknown 
factor. Consider, for example, the effects on schools 
comparing a choice of features like: 

a. Color high resolution, color graphics and 
built-in disc memories 

b. High resolution graphs, illustrations and 
animation 

c. Talking computers, equipped with varia- 
tions of a 5 cm diameter video disc containing 
a basic and special English vocabulary, which 
can be called with a computer routine which 
responds in less than 10 milliseconds 

d. The declining cost of land communications 
by fiber optics or satellite/home video anten- 
na receivers that allow home communication 
with a central US data bank through your 
own computer 

e. The improved all-digital disc which will be 
cheaper and more reliable than any other stor- 
age media and yet allow easy access for a per- 
sonal computer. 

Funding computer equipment costs present fewer 
problems than one may imagine. There always seems to 
be a fund to cover hardware. The cost of updating 
teachers is another matter. Few universities or colleges 
are in a position to obtain microcomputers quickly, nor 
do they have instructors with the background to do the 
teacher teaching. There are interesting times ahead. 



COMPUTE. 



45 





COMPUTE. 



Have You Been 

Bitten By The 

Computer Bug? 



;^^'<5>^'.^;>i'-<5!-.>5'v.<S^--tf^'-^^i<^..<J'-%.^.v^-<?''Vi>--e^5^-<S>^i-i?^--^ 



Basic Computer Games 

Edited by David Ahl, this book con- 
tains 101 imaginative and challenging 
games for one, two, or more players — 
Basi<elbaii, Craps, Gomoko, Biackjack, 
Even Wins, Super Star Trek, Bombs 
Away, Horserace. Simulate iunar land- 
ings. Play the stock market. Write poetry. 
Draw pictures. 

All programs are compiete with listing 
In Microsoft Basic, sample run and 
description. Basic conversion table in- 
cluded. 125,000 copiesin print. 192 pages 
softbound.[6C]$7.50. 





. 


r 


1 


'■""^"•t.i„,, 


k 


i^r^- ■*»».; 




The Best of 
Creative Computing 

Tfie first two years of Creative Com- 
puting magazine have been edited into 
two big blockbuster books. American 
Vocational Journal said of Volume 1, 
"This book is the 'Whole Earth Catalog' of 
computers." [6Aj Volume 2 continues in 
the same tradition. "Non-technical in 
approach, its pages are filled with infor- 
mation, articles, games and activities. 
Fun layout." —American Libraries. [6B] 
Each volume $8,95. 



l\1ore Basic 
Computer Games 

Contains 84 fascinating and enter- 
taining games for solo and group play — 
evade a man-eating rabbit, crack a safe, 
tame a wild horse, become a millionaire, 
race your Ferrari, joust with a knight, trek 
across the desert on your camel, navigate 
in deep space. 

Ail games come complete with pro- 
gram listing in Ivlicrosoft Basic, sample 
run and description. 192 pages soft- 
bound. [6C2] $7.50. 




m^^^. 



rsitii ii& 



SCILIU I 



Problems for 

Computer 

Solution 



Problems for Computer Solution by 

Stephen J. Rogowski is an excellent 
source of exercises in research and 
problem solving for students and self- 
learners. Problems like the Faulty Speed- 
ometer Spotter make learning fun and 
easy. 104 pages, soflbound, (9Z]$4. 95. 



Computer Coin Games 

Computer Coin Games by Joe Weis- 

becker aids newcomers to the field of 
computers by simplifying the concepts of 
computer circuitry through games which 
can be played with a few pennies and full 
sized playing boards in the book. 
Enhanced by outrageous cartoons, 
teachers, students and self-learners of all 
ages will enjoy this 96 page softbound 
book.[10R]$3.95. 




Creative Computing 
IVIagazine 

Creative Computing has long been 
Number 1 in applications and software for 
micros, minis, and time-sharing systems 
for homes, schools and small busi- 
nesses. Loads of applications every 
issue: text editing, graphics, communi- 
cations, artificial intelligence, simula- 
tions, data base and file systems, music 
synthesis, analog control. Complete pro- 
grams with sample runs. Programming 
techniques: sort algorithms, file struc- 
tures, shuffling, etc. Coverage of elec- 
tronic and video games and other related 
consumereiectronics products, too. 

Just getting started? Then turn to our 
technology tutorials, learning activities, 
short programs, and problem solving 
pages. No-nonsense book reviews, too. 
Even some fiction and foolishness. 

Subscriptions: 1 year $15, 3 years $40. 
Foreign, add $9/year surface postage, 
$26/year air. Order and payment to: 
Creative Computing, Attn: Karen, P.O. 
Box 789-lvl, f^lorristown, NJ 07960. Visa or 
MasterCharge acceptable by mall or 
phone; call 800-631-8112 9 am to 5 pm 
EST{in NJ call 201-540-0445). 

:Kl . -: » yaC lt X i e i C« XX X a «X 3 t 3 aKt XX3t3tX 

How To Order if Your 
Dealer is Out Of Stocic 

Creative Computing Software should 
be stocked by your local retail computer 
store. If your favorite outlet does not have 
the software you need, have him call our 
retail marketing dept. at 800-631-8112. (In 
NJ, 201-540-0445). 

Oryoucanorderdirectly from Creative 
Computing. Send your check for tapes 
plus $1.00 shipping and handling per 
order to Creative Computing Software, 
P.O. Box 789-fvl, Morristown, NJ 07960. 
NJ residents add 5% sales tax. Visa, 
(vSasterCharge or American Express are 
also acceptable. For faster service, call in 
your bank card order toll free to 

800-631-8112 

(In NJ. call 201-540-0445) 



More Games, Challenging Problems 

And Programs ThanYou Can 

Shake A Joystick At! 



Send 3 stamps for our two big 20-page catalogs of software, books and T-Shirts. 



COMPUTI. 



47 



Logic Games-1, CS-1 001 (8K) 



$ 7.95 



How logicaf are you? Test 
your strategy and logical abil- 
ities against the computer or 
another player In these fun and 
challenging games. 




1. Awarl 

Awari is an ancient African 
game played with beans on a 
board divided into pits: six per 
player on the sides and two 
honne pits at each end of the 
board. Test your strategy a- 



gainst PET's by moving more 
beans into your home pit. On 
each move, you take the beans 
from any pit on your side and 
"sow" them, one in each pit 
going counterclockwise. Addi- 
tional rules make the game 
more interesting. The program 
has a learning mechanism 
which makes it progressively 
harder to beat. Uses graphics. 4. Fllp-Flop 



but don't bite the poisoned 
corner! Two or more players 
take turns chomping on a 
cookie (actually a grid up to 
9x9). The loser is the player 
forced to chomp the poisoned 
corner. A challenging game of 
strategy. 



2. Bagels 

Bagels anyone? Try to guess 

the computer's secret three- 
digit number. The computer will 
respond to your guess with the 
clues pieo, fermi, or bagels, to 
indicate which digits are correct 
and which are in the right place. 



3. Chomp 

Hungry? Well, have a cookie, 



The object of Flip-Flop is 
change a row of ten X's to a row 
of O's in a minimum number of 
moves. On each move you may 
flip any of the ten positions, but 
the catch is thai flipping one 
letter may cause several others 
to flip too. 



5. Hexpawn 

Hexpawn is played with chess 
pawns on a 3x3 board. The 
pawns are moved as in chess. 



The object of the game is to get 
one of your pawns to the 
opposite side of the board or to 
prevent your opponent from 
moving. Hexpawn is a learning 
game-the computer begins with 
random moves and learns how 
to play, gradually becoming an 
excellent player. 




Hi-Q 



In this version of the Old 
European solilare game of logic 
with jumping pegs. You try to 
leave one peg in the center 
hole. A tough challenge. 



1. Splat 

This game simulates a para- 
chute jump. The object is to 
open your chute at the last 
possible moment without going 
SPLAT! You can jump on any 
planet, even the sun, or set your 
own terminal velocity, accel- 
eration, and freefall time. After 
setting the timer, the PET 
displays the descent of the 
parachutist, "...they picked him 
up and poured him from his 
boots." 



2. Car Race 

Come to the PET 500! Drive a 
car around the racetrack at your 



Action Games, CS-1008 (8K) 



$ 7,95 




4. Bowling 

Welcome to the PET Bowling 
Lanes! Up to 4 players can 
compete for the highest score. 
You can throw hooks as well as 
straight balls in this game. But 
stay out of the gutter! 



own speed, and see if you - t i, 
qualify for the Grand Prix! 5. Tank 



3. Breakout 

Here's a dynamic version of 
Breakout for your PET. Try to 
knock all the bricks off the wall 
for a maximum number of 
points. The position of the 
paddle is controlled by the 
keyboard. 



A thrilling action game that 
everyone will enjoy! Every game 
has a new layout with walls, 
trees, and lakes. Maneuver your 
lank around the obstacles and 
try to blow up your opponent's 
tank. Tank has screen wrap 
around and ricocheting projec- 
tiles. This action game is one of 
the staff's favorites. 




6. Subs 

You are in control of a ship 
and drop depth charges to sink 
the subs and score points, while 
the subs launch missiles at you. 
Subs carry different point 
values depending on their 
depth. Extensive game options 
allow you to set many param- 
eters—speed, frequency of 
enemy missiles, etc. Subs is 
another of the staff's favorites. 



Sensationai Simulations, CS-1201 (8K) 



1. Animal 

In this game, you teach the 
computer. You think of an 
animal and the computer tries 
to guess what it is. If the 
computer guesses incorrectly it 
will ask for a yes-no question 
that differentiates the animal 
you were thinking of from the 
one it guessed. In this way the 
computer 'learns' new animals. 
And just what does distinguish 
a leopard from an ocelot? 

2. Fur Trader 

You are the leader of a French 



fur trading expedition in 1776 
leaving the Ontario area to sell 
furs and get supplies for the 
next year. You can choose the 
fort at which you wish to trade 
and the type of furs you wish to 
trade. To get the best prices for 
your furs, you must take your 
chances with the Iroquois 
Indians, the Lachine Rapids, 
and other hazards. 



3. Hammurabi 

Test your administrative abil- 
ities by governing ancient 



Sumeria for a 10-year term in 
office (if you last that long). 
Each year you must make 
decisions of how much to feed 
your people, and what land to 
cultivate and trade with neigh- 
boring city-states. Hazards 
include a bad harvest and rats 
that eat the grain in storage. 



4. Stock Market 

Try your lock in the stock 
market and make your fortune! 
You start with $10,000 and may 
buy or sell stocks with a 1% 



$ 7.95 



brokerage fee on each trans- 
action. The computer controls 
the mini-economy and the 
stock exchange. 



S. Word 

How rich is your vocabulary? 
Match your wits against the 
computer by trying to guess the 
computer's mystery word. After 
each guess, clues are provided 
which indicate how many of the 
letters in your guess are in the 
mystery word and if any are in 
the correct position. 



Use the handy postcard to order CREATIVE COMPUTING Software. 




Graphics Games-1 , CS-1004 (8K) 



$ 7.95 



1. Chase 



Chase is a fast-paced two- 
player game- One ptayer pur- 
sues the other through a maze 
of obstacles and "zap doors" 
which Instantly transport the 



marker to another place on the 
screen. The players alternate 
between chasing and being 
chased, and play for the best 
time. Each player controls his 
marker with a set of nine 
directional keys. 



2. Escape 








Try to escape from a maxi- 
mum-security prison patrolled 
fay robot guards who destroy 
anyone they encounter. You 
must time your forward and 
backward movements precisely 
to move through the doors 
which open and close period- 
ically, while at the same time 
avoiding the guards. The robot 
guards can tell when you're 



nearby and take action to 
intercept you. 

3. Dart 

Here's a game in which you 
muss estimate the answer to an 
arithmetic problem as quickly 
as possible. Choose the type of 
problem and the skill level. The 
accuracy of your estimates are 



shown graphically on a dart- 
board. For one or two players. 

4. Snoopy 

Curse you Red Baron! Try to 
shoot down the Red Baron 
before he gets you by correctly 
computing positive and neg- 
ative distances on a number 
line. There are five timed skill 
levels ranging from Cadet to 
Ace. Which one are you? 

5. Sweep 

Hit nine targets in the correct 
order by controlling the path of 
a rollerball which increases in 
speed. Be careful— if you go too 
near a wrong target you will be 
deflected away and lose points. 



This exciting set of games 
lets you wipe out your oppo- 
nent with radioactive material 
or a cannon, land on the moon, 
or test your strategy against the 
PET. 

1. LEM 

In this graphic real time lunar 
landing game, you must land on 
the moon's surface with the 
lowest possible velocity. You 
can control the thrust of your 
retro-rockets with the number 
keys but have only a limited 




Graphics Games-2, CS-1005(8K) 



amount of fuel. The automatic 
pilot option can be activated 
and deactivated with the key- 
board. You take a walk on the 
moon and plant a flag if you 
land successfully. 

2. Nuclear 

Nuclear is an exciting strat- 
egy game for two players. Each 
ptayer, in turn, places a particle 
of radioactive material on a 6x6 
board. When the number of 
particles at a location reaches 
its critical mass, it explodes 
sending particles to adjacent 
squares. As the board fills up, a 
single explosion can cause long 
chain reactions. The object of 
the game is to cause the right 
chain reaction to wipe out all of 
your opponent's pieces. Nu- 
clear is a game of skill, fast 
decisions, and quick reversals, 
providing fun for many hours. 




3. Artillery 



In the game of Artillery, two 
players shoot cannons at each 
other over computer-generated 
terrain. You choose the firing 
angle and the number of bags 
of powder to be used, and then 
observe the trajectory of the 
shot on the screen. Artillery 
makes good use of PET's 
graphics, changing the terrain 
and wind speed for each game. 

4. Bounce 

Bounce is an intriguing graph- 



$ 7.95 

ics demonstration which traces 
the path of a ball as it bounces 
around the screen. 

5. Checkers 

PET matches strategy against 
you in this popular game. The 
computer does not look ahead 
more than one move ahead, 
hence the game is best suited for 
beginning players. 

6. Dodgem 

Dodgem is played on a checker 
type board against the computer 
or another player. The object of 
the game is to block your 
opponent to slow him down. One 
player moves pieces from the 
bottom of the board to the top. 
and the other player moves from 
left to right trying to get all the 
pieces off the board. This is a 
challenging strategy game. 



Board Games, CS-1007 (8K) 



S 7.95 



liffillD 



Ill' -- hi^^i 



1. Yahtzee 

In this is PET version of the 
popular dice game of Yahtzee. 
the PET rolls the dice, gives you 
your options and keeps score 
for up to four pfayers, 



2. Blackjack 

Come to the PET Casino! Up 
to four players can try their 
playing skill and luck against 
the PET dealer in this game of 
Blackjack. 



3. Backgammon 

Test your backgammon strat- 
egy against the PET's. The 
computer varies its strategy 
both within and between games 
and plays an excellent game! It 
even doubles if it is winning. 
This version of Backgammon 
makes impressive use of PET 
graphics. 




4. Trek3 

Trek3 is our PET version of 
the popular Startrek game. You, 
as captain o1 the Enterprise, 
must destroy the Klingons who 
threaten the Federation. This 
real time version gives you 
control over phasers, torpe- 
does, warp drive, and a "com- 
puter" function to help out in 



tight situations. This is a real 
classic that should be in every- 
one's software library. 

5. One Check 

One Check is an intriguing 
game of strategy. You start with 
two rows of checkers on the 
outside spaces of all four sides 
of the board. The object of the 
game is to remove as many 
checkers as possible by diag- 
onal jumps. Almost chess-like 
in nature, moves must be 
planned well ahead so you do 
not leave isolated pieces. It is 
very challenging (almost im- 
possible!) to clean off the 
board, but it can be done! 



Use the handy postcard to order CREATIVE COMPUTING Software. 



COMPUTE. 



Number Games-2, CS-1002(8K) 



$ 7,95 



The Number Games tape con- 
tains an exciting famity of 
"guess the number" games. Pit 
your sl<ill against the PET in 
these six games. 

1. Guess 

Guess is the simplest of the 
number guessing games. The 
computer setects a number 
between 1 and any limit you set. 
You then guess the number 
using the clues "too high" or 
"too low" provided by the 
computer. 

2. Letter 

Letter is an alphabetic version 
of the game of Guess. It's not as 
simple as it sounds. 

3. Number 

This game is different in that 
you only get one guess per 
round. The computer-selected 
number is between 1 and 5. and 
you gain or lose points depend- 
ing on how close your guess is. 
If you guess the number exact- 
ly, you hit the jackpot and 
double your point count. 

4. Trap 

The computer selects a ran- 



dom number between 1 and 
100, and you must guess the 
number by trapping it between 
your two numbers. The com- 
puter tells you if the mystery 
number is higher, lower, or 
between your trap numbers. 

5. Stars 

You try to guess a mystery 
number between 1 and 100. But 
this time the computer tells you 
if you're getting closer or 
farther away, but not the direc- 
tion to go. It requires a different 
playing strategy. 



How nunu do uOu uiiih to r«moy*? 

Illllllllllllll 
llllllll 



6. 23-Matches 

You start with 23 matches. 
You and the computer alternate 
taking matches away from the 
pile. On each turn you may take 
1, 2, or 3 matches. The player 
forced to take the last match 
loses. Uses graphics. 



$ 7.95 



Conversational Games-1 , CS-1006 (8K) 



1. Eliza 

Eliza is the PET version of the 
famous conversational program 
writlen by Dr. Joseph Weizenbaum. 
In it, the computer plays the rote of 
a psychoanalyst, responding to 
your statements. Eliza worlds by 
analyzing your input, searching for 
certain key words and phrases, and 
preparing the appropriate reply. 
Amaze your non-computer friends 
with intelligent babbling! 

2. Hurkle 

In five moves or less, you try to 
find the Hurkle who is hiding on a 
10x10 grid. He gives you clues like 
"Go Ivtorlhwest" or "Go South". This 
game is useful for teaching children 
how to use Cartesian plane 
coordinates, or just to play for fun. 

3. Hangman 

Hangman is the PET version of 
the popular word game. The secret 
word may be selected by a friend or 
the computer The graphics makes 
the game fun as well as education- 




al. Try these words with your 
Scrabble champion: vizsia, snitch, 
mnemonic, or frankly. 

4. Hexletter 

Hexletter is an intriguing strategy 
game played on a hexagonally- 
shaped board. The object is to 
capture more letters than your 
opponent, which can be the 
computer or a friend. 

5. Haiku 

You and the PET compose 
Haiku poetry. The computer has a 
library of stored phrases and puts 
them together in sometimes funny, 
sometimes meaningful ways. 




Adventureland and 

Pirate Adventure 

on one tape. 



24K needed. CS-1009. $14.95. 



Logic Games-2, CS-1003(8K) 



$ 7.95 



Here are six fascinating and 
challenging games of logic to 
test your skill and strategy. 

1. Rotate 

A 4x4 board is filled with the 
letters A through P in random 
locations. Your task is to put 
them in alphabetical order in as 
few moves as possible by 
rotating groups of four letters 
counterclockwise. Sound easy? 
Try it! 

2. Strike-9 

In Strike-9, you begin with a 
list of numbers 1 through 9. On 
each roll of the dice, you must 
remove digits from the list 
adding up to the roll. The game 
ends if you can't do it. The 
object is to remove all nine 
numbers. 



3. Nim 

Nim is one of the oldest two- 
person gamfls known to man. 
Here you play against the PET. 
You can- specify the number of 
piles of beans, the size of each 
pile, and the win option of either 
taking or not taking the last 
bean, Uses graphics. 



4. Even-Wins 

Challenge the computer! A 
random odd number of beans 
are placed in a resource pile. 
On each turn players take from 
1 to 4 beans from the pile. When 
there are no more beans in the 
resource pile, the player with 
(he even number of beans wins, 
The computer does not like to 
lose. 

5. Not One 

The game of Not One is 
played with two players (you 
and a friend or the computer) 
and a pair of dice. Players roll 
the dice and get pojnts for the 
number rolled. You can con- 
tinue rolling as long as you 
wish, but if any roll is the same 
as your first, your score for that 
round is 0. Win by having the 
highest score at the end of ten 
rounds. 

6. Batnum 

Batnum (Battle of Numbers) 
is a completely generalized 
game involving taking beans 
from a pile. You determine the 
size of the resource pile, the 
minimum and maximum beans 
per turn, the win option, and 
who goes first. Uses graphics. 



Study IVIade Easy, CS-1202 (8K) 




study Made Easy is a quick 
and easy way to study, You 
decide which subjects you wish 
to study. You decided how fast 
you want to work and when 
you've done enough. The PET 
becomes your assistant, aiding 
in the entry of questions and 
answers. 



Study Made Easy will create 
study drill tapes automatically. 
You can use this program to 
study chemical symbols, U.S. 
presidents, or any other subject 
which can be studied by drill 
and practice. The computer 
creates a tape that you can 
place m the PET and use 
immediately. You don't need to 
know anything about com- 
puters to use Study Made Easy. 

Study Made Easy comes with 
three prepared drills and the 
program needed to make new 
study drills packaged in an 
attractive cassette binder. The 
programs are interactive, self- 
instructing and easy to use. 



Or send payment plus $1 .00 shipping to Creative Computing, Box 78g-M , Morristown, NJ 07960. 



50 



COMPUTC. 



DataSoft 
Research 



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LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 90027 



*PET is a Trademark oS Commodore 



Dealer Inquiries Invited- 



fUlNTED IN U.S * 



COMPUTE. 



51 



HOW TO EXPAND THE PET* 




K-1007A-1 PET TO MTU INTERFACE $99 

• New redesigned - cable may be unplugged to move the system 

• Accepts 1 MTU expansion board or plugs inio ttie K-1005-P 
card tile 

• Hardware & Software video switch for ellliGr PET video or MTU 
Qrapliics 

• Graptiic screen image position controls 

K-iaOS-P EXPANSION CARD FILE S80 

• Black anodiiea aluminum Irame cliassis wilh plastic card 
guides for 5 boards 

• Double sided backplane wilh live connectors and shielded bus 
lines 

• An application backplane is available tor custom wiring 




1. K-IDOSA-P VISIBLE MEMORY 



K-1012A SYSTEIVI EXPANSION BOARD 



3. K-1016A ieK MEMORY BOARD 



4. K-IOaOA PROTOTYPE BOARD 

5. K-1013A FLOP — oops, to be announced 

6. K-1008A-4 SUPERRES - oops. 10 be announced 

7. K-1DD2A-8 8 VOIC — oops, to be announced 

I 

K-100Z-2A S BIT OAC MUSIC BOARD S50 

• 8 bit digital to analog convener with ±'h LSB linearity 

• Sharp low pass tiller designed for BJKHz sample rate 

• Hi fidelity power amplifier • 400 rnW HMS into A ohm - 
with volume control 

• Plugs into I/O and second cassette port regenerating 
the edge fingers tor reuse 

• Software for 4 voices, up to t6 harmonics in waveform 




TAKE ONE PET COMPUTER (presently Support "old 8K" 
will), "new PETS" supported by Nov. 1979) 



ADD ONE MTU PET 
EXPANSION INTERFACE 
DECIDE IF YOU WANT ONLY 
ONE MTU EXPANSION BOARD OR 
MORE (JUMP TO STEP E 
IF ONE) 

ADD FIVE BOARD 
EXPANSION CARD FILE 

E. SELECT EXPANSION BOARD(S) 

I NEEDED (NOW OR FUTUflEj 

K-IDOSA-P VISIBLE MEMORY S243 

• 320 wide by 200 high bit map graphics 

• Each point individually addressable 

• filachine language graphic/text software called from 
PET BASIC-K-1008-3C $20 

• BK byle RAM doubles the standard 8K PET memory size 

• Drives the PET CRT monitor Itirough the K-1007-A 
interface and/or use a CCTV monitor 

K-1012A SYSTEM EXPANSION BOARD $295 

• 12 PROM sockets (2708/TMS2716) ■ for 12 PROMS, 
11 uses Ihe power of one! 

• 32 bidirectional I/O lines 

• Full RS-232 asynchronous serial communications - 
75-4800 baud 

• PROM programmer 

K-iai6A 16K MEMORY BOARD $340 

• 15K byte memory, addressed as contiguous 16K 
starting al any 4K boundary 

• Super low power - MAX l.B WAHS lolal 

K-102DA PROTOTYPE BOARD S42 

• On board regulators (or -i-SV @ 1.2A and +^2V @ 0.50A 

• Manual provided lo allow documenting your circuit. Also 
gives instructional guide to design on Itie MTU/KIM bus 

• Universal 0.100 inch pattern on 1/3 of board allows 
S. 14. 16. 20. 22. 24. 28. 40, 64 pin fCs 

• Bus and application edge lingers provided 



If you know our other 
products, you know how 
good these will be! 



9^^ 



T. TO ADD MUSIC. TRUE MUITI- 

I HARMONIC (UP TO 16) WAVEFORMS 

AND 4 VOICES SIMULTANEOUSLY. 

SELECT K-1D02-2A 

G. ORDER REQUIREO MATERIALS FROM 
MTU 




All MTU products are supplied with full documentation manuals which have been classed as "hesi in the 
Industry". All manuals for hardware may be purchased seperately. 

All hardware products are tested and burned in at the factory. A full 6 monlti guarantee comes with each 
hardware product, with service support by the factory. 

CALL OR WRITE FOR OUR NEW OCTOBER FULL LINE CATALOG AND TO BE ADDED TO OUR MAILING UST 

MICRO TECHNOLOGY UNLIMITED 

a DIV. of Consilidated Sciences Inc. 
841 Galaxy Way 
P.O. Box 4596 

• PET IS a r=9,«er«, trada^ark ot C«.n.«.Dr. MaflCheSler, N . H. 031 08 

(603)627-1464 




COMPUTJ. 



computer 

Apple II Reference Manuaf S10.00 

Apple Soft Manual 10.00 

Programmer's Guide (Computer Station* 5.95 

Apple II Monitor Peeled 9.9S 

Software Directory for Apple 

• Business. Finance & utility 4.95 

• Games, Demo, Utility . , 4.95 

Best of Contact '78 ,.,,..,..... 2.50 

Programming in PASCAL iCrogonoJ 9.90 



INTIBFACE CARDS 

Prntotvoing ■ moubv cartl 
Parallfl Printer interf sttMifl 
Communlcntiors CirO & 0075 

Connector Ca Off 
High &o*etl Sf rial (ruertjce Carci 
Language Systom wun Pascal 

titaKRAMADKldlReaulrpdi 
floatesof I II Firmware cjrd 
1 6 loDut Analog c;ird 



091 00 
200 OD 
zgsoo 



ACCESSORIES 

Disk!!— Drive only igs 00 

Disk ii-crivff & controller [32K Min 

7AW R«ammtna«d] ^9S (90 

vinvi carrving ca$e so oo 

Tape R*cort*er ao 00 

Programmers Aid No 1 Firmware IFpr 
UW wllh intieg^r BASiCi SO 00 

aacx Cl\»ndsrCjTa 19900 

Auto-sran ?ou package tFor 

AppltllOtMyi E^OO 

Digihltllfr PAIS bv TJId$ 
[Kltfnrm»._ 499 00 



13 H WL^eOf^xMor^ltor 1d9.O0 

C9t>!n from Monliono Apple tF 9.9S 
15 cororTVCompatlDie wim 

Ap0L« II 390.00 

Sup-v MOCuiatoriB'fi 25 OO 

SOFTWARf FOR APPLE )l 

PASCAL from Proflf^ammi a9 ^S 

FORTH 39^5 

LISP— from A^lplf software BK NO i N't 

LISA— lnt?rjtllv« dllk KSffflDier S4 tS 

WHATSIT— Exceiifni con<vers3ilonai oaia 

p»e manager s^KlDOdO 48IC13SO0 

SAjrcoN'Cnarrtp or rna WKt coast 

Computer FJIre 19.S5 

APPLE PiF-Exc^uent tent editor 24.^5 

FORTE-Musit editor In hIrW 19.95 
FA ;tc AM MON— excellent DackciamTnon 

gamp with grsDJiICi Tape 20 00 OliJi 25.00 

APPLF21— ExceiieniDiacKjiJcxgani? 9 ?5 

BRIDGE CH AIL ENCEir-- computer orlogc t4.^S 
FINANCtAL MANA{»M{NT SYSTEM 

• Accolihk PJvaDie • Ledger Proc«slng 

• Accounts irecelvaOie * Pavroli 

■ inventory Control * SBOO Comolete 

• &300 EACH Package > S10 for Manuai 

PRINTER SP£CIA(.S FOR APPLE AMD PET 
TReNDCOM 100 with Interface lor 
Apple or PET J50 00 



LtTE P£W USM Witn TV Of mOrtltCr 

screen m 95 

AiF MusEc Svntrteilzer Boai-as 26S oo 

SycwrtaiKer 273 00 
Arudpx DP-8000 witJi trscter 

a paper wJJth and Interface 

to Apple lOSOOe 
cervtranici 7T9-2 for Apple ii 

vvitn p3(imti int^rraice i 7as DO 

SOmNABE iSrnif for cOmpl«t« &OftwJir« 
CatJIAg SVOOl 

□ow Jonei ponroiio EvJiuaiof 

stock Ouoie^ Reponej' DKk SO oo 

Mlcroch«t2 0Cr)e4$Dl4k 2S 00 

Disk utility Pick wlttl OCK 12 25 00 

rue controller icenefai ousinKs 

Sif^eml 635,00 

Apple PO^I EMaillng LiStSvlteml d9 95 

Bowling Program aiskette- ^5 00 
Ttie C-3shler (Beca3i Store M3injgement !50 00 

Ctietkbook cjsvctte 30 00 
Appieson ii {.^nqu^yf i DemcD 

caisette 30 oo 

RAM Te'i.t Ta^ie with Manual 7 50 

Flnanc:e 1-2 C^sspttf Pi^k^qv 35 00 
□itamover.Tei^pOng CiiWtt* 

ICdm card L M:od(<m P«q dl 7 50 

Microcness 2 o cness Tape 20 oo 

Bowling program Tape iSoO 
Pascal witn ia;nguage Svs.tem 

iiBK i^AM i DISK 11 Requireoi 495 00 



New for Apple Computer Owners 
at Low ComputerWorld Prices 

8" Disk Drives with housing $1295.00 for single drive $1895.00 for dual drive 



A PROFESSIONAL 
BUSINESS SYSTEM 



b i^ri 



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2001-8 $795 

2001 -16N . 5995 
2001-S2N . S1295 
2001-328 . . 51295 

External 

Cassette S95 

PET to IEEE 

cable $39.95 



CBM 2023 
Printer . 
IEEE to IEEE 
catile $49.95 



$849 



Join Now 





2001-1 6B 
$995 



commodore pet Service Kit $30.00 

Beeper— Tells when tape Is Loaded 24.95 

Petunia— Plav music with PET 29,95 



Video Buffer— Attach another display . 
Combo— Petunia and video Buffer 

SOFTWARE FOR PET 



29.95 

49.95 



Mirrors and Lenses 19.35 

The States ifl.95 

Real Estate i & 2 59.95 

Momentum and Energy . .19.95 

Projectile Motion 19.95 

Mortgage 14.95 

DOW Jones 7.95 

Petunia Player Sftwr . . . .14.95 



Checkers and Baccarat 7.95 
Chess 19.95 

Series and Parallel 

Circuit Analysis 19.95 

Home Accounting 9.95 

BASIC Matn 29.95 

Came Playing with basic 
vol. 1, 11.111 9.95 each 



Become a member of ComputerWorld's RAYGAMCO Computer Discount Club. 

By being a RAYGAMCO Member you receive substantial discounts on every item you purchase, 
including all hardware, software, accessories, even books and paper! You will also receive a 
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Nothing to buy. Simply complete the self-addressed postcard in this magazine with name, 
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Charter RAYGAMCO IVIembers' Special. Join now and receive 20% OFF of any purchase.* 

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ComputerWorld 



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COMPUTE. 



53 




TURN YOUR COMPUTER INTO A TEACHING MACHINE 

Program Design has educational and game programs for the whiole family -from preschool child to 
adults. Programs are simple to use, fun. and most impcalant . . . they teach! 

READING COMPREHmSION: WHAT'S DIFFERENT? Ages 8 up PET S14 95 

10 reading comprehension programs which present logical problems where the student picks the 
one word in four which doesn't belong with the rest. Builds analytical skills essential for understanding 
what you read. 

PRESCHOOL IQ BUILDER Ages 3-h5 PET. APPLE II. TRS-80 LEVEL I or LEVEL II S 13.50 

Teaches vital cognitive skills that children must learn in order to do well in school. In Part 1, Same and 
Different, the child discfiminotes between two forms. In Part 2, Letter Builder, the child matches a 
letter on the TV monitor to one on the keylDoard. Accompanying Parent's Guide gives instruction, 

STEP BY STEP Ages junior high to adult PET, APPLE II. TRS-80 LEVEL 1, LEVEL II 
32 programs and a 64-page workbook teach programming in BASIC for the beginner. Introduces all 
important BASIC commands and programming logic, including simple string logic and one- 
dimensional arrays. Lessons are interactive, presented in a question-and-answer format on the 
computer screen. The Workbook adds extra information, Through instruction, structured practice, 
and frequent skills testing, the user learns how to write BASIC programs. 
3 tapes. Workbook, vinyl binder S39.95 on 2 APPLE DISKS S49.95 

MEMORY BUILDER: CONCENTRATION Ages 6 up PET. APPLE 11. TRS-8G LEVEL II S13.50 

A series of educational games to improve memory, attention span and concentration. Letters and 
3-letter words ore used. Player has three options: ploy against the computer, play against him or 
herself, play against another player. Especially good for parent and child to play together, 

STORY BUILDER/WORD MASTER Ages 9 up PET. APPLE II, TRS-80 LEVEL II S13.50 

Series of partially completed verses that the child completes. Teaches grammar skills in an enjoy- 
able way. Word Master is a logic game where the child fries to guess a 3-letter word generated by 
the computer. Teaches reasoning ond vocabulary. 

CODE BREAKER Ages 10 to adult PET, APPLE II S13,50 

3 scrambled message games of increasing difticuify that build basic word handling skills needed 
for good writing. First game scrambles letters within the words in the message; next 2 games 
scramble letters and also word order. The last game gives the hardest messages. Messages are 
mode up by the computer from an extensive word list. 

MORSE CODE GAME All ages PET S16.5G 

Turns the PET into a Morse Code sender. Practice receiving code a^ different speeds, store messages 
in code, or play against another player. Includes plug for 2nd cassette port; user supplies inexpen- 
sive 6-volt DC buzzer. 



Program Design, Inc. 11 Idar Court Greenwich, Conn. 06830 203-661-8799 



COMPUTE. 



a Skylcs Electric Works 

fc3 

You love your PET, but you'll 
love it more with this BigKeyboard? 



sf»i; r^ mn <tm 

S*** WKt, f«*: ■*.• 



w -^m- iM» mn 
•m. 'm^ mx m»- 



im ««K mm Ht^ 



74KB Big KeyBoards@ $125.00 (Plus $5.00 shipping & handling) 

The Skyles Big KeyBoardT"'^. More than 1 5 inches wide. A layout nearly 
identical to the PET Keyboard and with all functions-alpha, numeric, 
graphics, special symbols, lower case alpha -on full-sized, almost plump, 
key-tops double-shot to guarantee lifetime durabihty. 

Actual size 

Would you like to turn on your PET 
. . . and see this 




* * * COMIVIODORE BASIC * * * 
31743 BYTES FREE , 

READY I 



8KB 8K Memory Expansion Systems @ $250.00 
(Plus $3.50 shipping & handling) 

16KB 16K Memory Expansion Systems @ $450.00 

(Plus $5.00 shipping & handling) 

24KB 24K Memory Expansion Systems @ $650.00 

(Plus S5.00 shipping & handling) 

Skyles Memory Expansion Systems are complete; nothing more to buy. • First quality 
static RAMs • SoHd soldered on first quality glass epoxy board • Separate PET Adapter 
Printed Circuit Board connects directly to data bus on your PET-no rat's nest of hang- 
ing hand-wiring • Ribbon cable and 50 pin connectors that keep your PET open to the 
outside world (one on the 8KB; two on the 16KB and 24KB). 

8KB Memory Expansion System(s) at S250 each. $ 

(Adds 8,192 bytes; total 1 5,359)ishipping and handling $3.50 each) 
16KB Memory Expansion Systeni(s) at S450 each. S 

(Adds 16,384 bytes; total 23,55 1) (shipping and handling $5.00 each) 
24KB Memory Expansion System(s) at S650 each. $ 

(Adds 14,576 bytes; total 3 1 ,743) (shipping and handling $7.00 each) 
74KB Big KeyBoard(s) at $ 1 25 $ 

(shipping and handling $5.00 each) 

SPECIAL DEAL(S): 8KB Memory and 74KB KeyBoard at $350 complete S 

SPECIAL DEAL{S): 16KB Memory and 74KB KeyBoard at $525 complete S 



* Please add 6% sales tax if you are a California resident; 6.5% if a resident of BART, Santa Clara or Santa Cruz Counties (CA). 
Please add shipping and handling costs as indicated. . 

VISA, MASTERCHARGE ORDERS CALL (800) 227-8398 (except California residents) 

CALIFORNIA ORDERS PLEASE CALL (415) 494-1210 




Skyles Electric Works 



10301 Stonydale Drive 
Cupertino, CA 95014 
(408) 735-7891 



AIM 65 



55 



BY ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL 




AIM 65 Is fully assembled, tested and warranted. With the 
addition of a low cost, readily available power supply, it's 
ready to start working for you. 

AIM 65 features on-board thermal printer and 
alphanumeric display, and a terminal-style keyboard. It 
has an addressing capability up to 65K bytes, and comes 
with a user-dedicated IK or 4K RAM. Two installed 4K 
ROMS hold a powerful Advanced Interface Monitor 
program, and three spare sockets are included to expand 
on-board ROM or PROM up to 20K bytes. 

An Application Connector provides for attaching a TTY 
and one or two audio cassette recorders, and gives exter- 
nal access to the user-dedicated general purpose I/O lines. 

Also included as standard are a comprehensive AIM 65 
User's Manual, a handy pocket reference card, an R6500 
Hardware Manual, an R6500 Programming Manual and an 
AIM 65 schematic. 

AIM 65 is packaged on two compact modules. The 
circuit module is 12 inches wide and 10 inches long, the 
keyboard module is 12 inches wide and 4 Inches long. 
They are connected by a detachable cable. 

THERMAL PRINTER 

Most desired feature on low-cost microcomputer systems . , . 

• Wide 20-column printout 

• Versatile 5x7 dot matrix format 

• Complete 64-character ASCII alphanumeric format 

• Fast 120 lines per minute 

• Quite thermal operation 

• Proven reliability 

FULL-SIZE ALPHANUMERIC KEYBOARD 

Provides compatibility with system terminals . . . 

• Standard 54 key, terminal-style layout 

• 26 alphabetic characters 

• 10 numeric characters 

• 22 special characters 

• 9 control functions 

• 3 user-defined functions 

TRUE ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY 

Provides legible and lengthy display . . . 

• 20 characters wide 

• 16-segment characters 

• High contrast monolithic characters 

• Complete 64-character ASCII alphanumeric format 



PROVEN R6500 MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEM DEVICES 

Reliable, high performance NMOS technology . . . 

• R6502 Central Processing Unit (CPU), operating at 1 
MHz. Has 65K address capability, 13 addressing modes 
and true index capability. Simple but powerful 56 
instructions. 

• Read/Write Memory, using R2114 Static RAM devices. 
Available in IK byte and 4K byte versions. 

• 8K Monitor Program Memory, using R2332 Static ROM 
devices. Has sockets to accept additional 2332 ROM or 
2532 PROM devices, to expand on-board Program 
memory up to 20K bytes. 

• R6532 RAM-Input/Output-Timer (RIOT) combination 
device. Multipurpose circuit for AIM 65 Monitor functions. 

• Two R6522 Versatile Interface Adapter (VIA) devices, 
which support AIM 65 and user functions. Each VIA has 
two parallel and one serial 8-bit, bidirectional 1/0 ports, 
two 2-bit peripheral handshake control lines and two 
fully-programmable 16-bit interval timer/event counters. 

BUILT-IN EXPANSION CAPABILITY 

• 44-Pin Application Connector for peripheral add-ons 

• 44-Pin Expansion Connector has full system bus 

• Both connectors are KIM-1 compatible 

TTY AND AUDIO CASSETTE INTERFACES 

Standard interface to low-cost peripherals . . . 

• 20 ma. current loop TTY interface 

• Interface for two audio cassette recorders 

• Two audio cassette formats: ASCII KIM-1 compatible 
and binary, blocked file assembler compatible 

ROM RESIDENT ADVANCED INTERACTIVE MONITOR 

Advanced features found only on larger systems . . . 
Monitor-generated prompts 
Single keystroke commands 
Address independent data entry 
Debug aids 
Error messages 
Option and user interface linkage 

ADVANCED INTERACTIVE MONITOR COMMANDS 

Major Function Entry 
Instruction Entry and Disassembly 
Display/Alter Registers and Memory 
Manipulate Breakpoints 
Control Instruction/Trace 
Control Peripheral Devices 
Call User-Defined Functions 
Comprehensive Text Editor 

LOW COST PLUG-IN OPTIONS 

A65-010— 4K Assembler— symbolic, two-pass $79.00 

A65-020— 8K BASIC Interpreter 99.00 

3K RAM Expansion Kit 50.00 

POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS 

+ 5 VDC ± 5% regulated @ 2.0 amps (max) 
-t-24 VDC ±15% unregulated @ 2.5 amps (peak) 
0.5 amps average 

PRICE: $369.00 (IK RAM) 

Plus $4.00 UPS (shipped in U.S. must give street address), 
$10 parcel post to APO's, FPO's, Alaska, Hawaii. All inter- 
national customers write for ordering information. 

We manufacture a complete line of high quality expansion 
boards. Use reader service card to be added to our mailing 
list, or U.S. residents send $1,00 (International send $3.00 
U.S.) for airmail delivery of our complete catalog. 



H^ 



ENTERPRISES 

INCORPOftATED 



2967 W. Fairmount Avenue 
Phoenix AZ. 85017 

1602)265-7564 



9^ 




s 



56 



COMPUTE. 



Software Specialists 



Science and Education 



Dear Educator: 



Microphys Programs 

September 1, 1979 *DISKETTES- For Use With Commodore's 2040 Drive 



Microphys is pleased to announce the release of two utility 
programs which have been designed to permit instructors in 
every academic area to establish an unlimited number of 
source files in which questions used on exams and 
homework assignments may be conveniently stored. These 
questions may then be accessed by students as a means of 
review and may also serve as the basis for individualized 
exams and homework or study assignments. 

QUESLO enables the instructor to readily create source 
files. The text of each question, the possible choices, and the 
correct answers are merely typed into the computer and 
stored on the disk file designated by the instructor. 
Additional questions may be added to a given source file at 
any time. 

QUEGEN can access any source file and generate an 
individualized exam or assignment for each student using a 
subset or the entire group of questions previously entered. 
QUEGEN will provide the correct answers so that the 
student may assess his performance. 

If the instructor wishes to do so, the answers may be 
suppressed by deleting line #8500 from QUEGEN. This will 
prevent the computer from displaying the answers to a 
student's exam or assignment. Each student will be given a 
randomly selected code number and a unique assignment 
which he may complete away from the computer. 

When the student has completed his work, his results 
may be graded by running QUEGEN from line #9000. The 
computer will then request that the student enter his 
answers and assignment code. The computer will then grade 
the assignment, displaying the correct answers to those 
questions which were missed by the student. A percent score 
is indicated and a brief comment, reflecting an overall 
evaluation, is also given. 

QUESLO and QUEGEN have been designed for 
exclusive use on the Commodore 16K PET microcomputer. 
The 2040 dual drive floppy disk peripheral is also required. 
The two programs are accompanied by complete instructions 
and sell as a set for $40. Source files containing questions in 
virtually every academic discipline vrill soon be made 
available. 

If you need additional information or wish to place an 
order, please write to the above address. 

Respectfully yours, 
Allen I. Rosen 



Ml 



M2 



M3 



VI 



PI — Physics I Disk — contains the following 14 programs: 
1,2,3, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 301, 302, 305, and 306. 

P2 — Physics II Disk — contains the following 17 

programs: 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 20A, 
21, 35, 36, 40, 303, and 304. 

CI — Chemistry I Disk — contains the following 13 

programs: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 22, 23, 24, 37, 38, 39, 303, 
and 306. 

C2 — Chemistry II Disk — contains the following 13 

programs: 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 307, 
308, and 309. 

— Senior High Math I Disk — contains the following 13 
programs: 701 - 713. 

— Senior High Math II Disk — contains the following 

12 programs: 714 - 725. 

— Junior High Math Disk — contains the following 15 
programs: 801 - 815. 

— Senior High Vocabulary Disk — contains the 
following 15 programs: 401 - 415. 

V2 — Junior High Vocabulary Disk — contains the 

following 15 programs: 416 - 430. 

Note: The cost of each diskette is $180. 
*See Program List in Education Section 

Special Cassettes — These programs require a 16K 
environment and the Commodore 2040 drive. 

901 . QUESLO — permits the creation of source file used to 
generate individualized exams and homework 
assignments. 

902. QUEGEN — accesses source files prepared by 
QUESLO and generates the exams and homework 
assignments. 

903. ANAL-I • — establishes class files for use with 
ANAL-II. 

904. ANAL-II — grades and analyzes mulhple-choice 
examinations. Provides mean, standard deviation, 
detailed item analysis, grade distribution, and assigns 
letter grade to each numerical grade. 

Note: The cost of each special cassette is $20. It is suggested 
that 901-902 and 903-904 be purchased together. 

Note: Over 120 educational programs in math, chemistry, physics, 
and vocabulary arc available for use on the 8K and 16K 
Commodre PET and CBM microcomputers. These programs 
may also be obtained ori diskettes for use with the 2040 dual 
floppy drive. 



Microphys Programs 

2048 Ford Street 

Brooklyn, New York 11229 

(212) 646-0140 



S7 



PET MACHINE LANGUAGE GUIDE 




Contents include sections on; 

• input and output routines. 

•Fixed point, fioating point, 
and Ascil number conversion. 

•clocks and timers. 

•Bulit-in aritnmetic functions. 

■ Programming hints and sugges- 
tions. 

•Many sample programs. 



If you are interested in or are already into madiine language 
programming on the PET, then this Invaluable guide is for 
you. More than 30 of the PET's built-in routines are fully 
detailed so that the reader can immediately put them to good 

use. 

Available for $6.95 + .75 postage. Michigan residents please 
include 4% state sales tax. VISA and Mastarcharge cards 
accepted - give card number and expiration date. Quantity 
discounts are available. 



HSmiHl 



mmii 



ABACUS SOFTWARE 

P. 0. Box 7211 

Grand Rapids, Michigan 



49510 



THE BRAND NEW 

EXCEL TX-80 

DOT MATRIX PRINTER 

$560°° 




ONLY 

STANDARD FEATURES: 

• 80 columns on plain paper with adjustable paper width 

• 150 characters per second (70 lines per minute) throughput; 

• Friction feed standard, tractor feed at $25 more 

• 96 character set (upper and lower case) plus PET's" 
graphic set 

• Elongated character (double width printing) 

• Microprocessor control and self-test when power up 

• Centronics compatible parallel interface 

• 90 days warranty parts and labor 
OPTIONAL INTERFACE BOARDS & CABLE SETS: 

• PET*, APPLE ir, TRS-80* and serial interlace board available 
at $60 each 

• All our interface boards reside inside the printer and does 
not require extra power supply 

• Cable for each interface is available at extra cost 

SEND ORDERS TO: 

P. O. Box 1147 

El Cerrilo. Calit. 94530 

Phone: (415) 465-4240 



TERMS: 

• Checks. Master Charge 
and Visa accepted • Allow 
up to 4 weeks tor delivery 

• please add J15 per 
printer tor shipping i 
handling • Calit. residents 
add 6% salej tax. 



EXCEL COMPANY 

MICRO COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

618 GRAND AVENUE 
OAKLAND, CALIF. 94610 

We are the original PET* Keyboard 
Interface people 

'Trul* Marfci ol Commodore, Apple & Tand]r Corp. 



PET*"" Keyboard Interface SALE 

TOEL KBlF-3 SALE PRICE : S125.O0 

Full all t€K ASCII Keyboard with upper k 
lower case letters. Case optional add S30 
Interfnce installed and plugs into PET* 
and ready for use. 

Recognize all upper X lower case characters 
r^i^neric, pjficluations and repeat key. 
90« of all GRAPHICS are in-jileisented. 
PET* keyboard can be used sipwltaneously. 

■ No Itodificatjon to the PET* necessary. 
Completely assembled and checked out. 

HOOEL KB1F.2 S*LE fR'CE : SfiO.ClO 

■ SAME Interface as above without keyboard. 

. Jumper Selectable for data strobe polarity for your own keyboard. 

■ One ribbon cable and one connector included. 




SALE PRICE : SIB-OO 



HOOEL KOlF-l 

INTERFACE with upper case characters, 
numeric and punctuations. Curser control 
set impleinented. 

. fiO graphics, repeat key and lower case. 

■ Other features same as KBlF-2. 



He accept checks, mncy order, «SA and KASlEfi CHARSE CARK. Personal 
checks take 2 weeks to clear. Please ADD J6 for KflIF-3 and SJ for all 
Others to cover shipping and handling within the continental U.S. Foreign 
orders please write for nuote. Calif, residents add 6; sales tax. 
Allow upto 4 weeks for delivery. SEND FOR FSEE SPECIFICATIONS. 




$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 



EXCEL CO. 

618 GRAND AVE 

OAKLAND CALIF. 

g«610 

TEL: (415) 155 4240 



SEND ORDERS 10; 

P. 0. BOX 1147 
EL CERRITO CALIF. 
94530 



ALL SALES EHO ON JAN. 31st. 19B0 



PET is a registered trade Eiake of Coftipodore Business Machine Inc. 



$ 
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$100 COUPON $100 

Pre Christmas Special 

$100 OFF 

the APPLE 

and 

16K & 32K COMMODORE PET 

offer good 'til Dec. 8, 1979 

BYTE SHOP 

the affordable computer store 



$100 



218 N. Elm street 

Greensboro, N.C. 27410 

919/275-2983 

COUPON 



$100 



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58 



COMPUTE. 



F^: I === T r--| 1=1 :== DB CH h-l l_l S: ! 

RREE CRSSEXXE OR VOUR CHO I CI 
WITH RURCHRSE OR RLEX I — VUE 



Purchase a PLEXI-VUE at -the Regular- Price of $14.95 aricJ Receive a 
FREE Cassette of VOUR CHOICE I OFFER EXPIRES DEC. 15.. 1979 
SO ORDER NOW FOR EARLIEST DELIVERV! 



RLL HEN SOFTmRE FITS ALL PETS/CEHS-$9.95 Each Uith Case 



MEMORV TEST- This aiyes you 3 choices of tests to let you isolate 
bad memory, or test error messa-iie. Fast Machine Larisuaae Routine. 

HOME UTILITIES- Combines Loafis 1^2.. Savings. Electricity and MPG 
to load at one time with menu. Hak&s a nice Demonstration Ta»t>e! 

OTHELLO-OTHELLO/2-STRftTEGV- Othello -vs-PET. or Friend. Strategy 
is like Mastermind. EXCEPT you cari change Difficulty f 

EOUNCE-CHflSE-EREAKOUT- Famous flrca<:ie names for your Enjoyment! 

QUIZ MASTER- Enter your Questions, arid Answers to create a Quiz. 
Use as Multi^^le Choice or Fill-in! KeePS total of Ri*>ht answers. 

TANK- A 2 Player action ^larne. Both Players cari move at the same 
time! Nice Graphics, with no Player locU-out. 



SEND RLL 

ORriERS 
WITH *1 . ©Q 
F-OSTRGE^ 
HRMriL I MG 
TO : 



COMPETITIVE ! 

SOFTWARE 

21650 Maple Glen Drive 
Edwardsburg, MI 49112 



PET is Trademark of COMMOE)ORE 



Give your PETt^ a new FACE! 

PLEXI-VUE*" 
High Contrast Viewing Screen 



COMPARE: 



a 



HIGH CONTRAST! 

LESS EYESTRAIN! 

DECREASES GLARE! 

FITS ALL PETS! 

INSTALL IN 1 IHlNUTEt 

Unbreakable LEXAN! 



WITH 
PLE%t-VUg 



UPDATES APPEARANCE 

Changes BLUE Fascia of Older 

PETS to BLACKI 

SEE WHITE LETTERS 

ON A BLACK SCREEN! 

SUG. RETAIL $14.96 



coMPirrt. 



59 



ADVERTISEMENT 

Important Advertisemcnl — Please Note 

If you are into machine language programming or just 

learning, you can not afford not to have this 

software. For details, please read on — 



6502 Macro Assembler/Text Editor 



General 

Versions currently available for new & old PETs (with 16K 
memory), Apple II, and Sym on respective compatible tapes 
(Kim, Atari, Aim, and others coming soon) 

Written entirely in machine language — not in BASIC, thus 

you get very fast and accurate assemblies 

36 error codes, 26 commands, 22 pseudo ops 

Occupies 8K memory starting at 2000 hex 

Macro and conditional assembly capability 

Creates relocatable object code on tape or executable code in 

memory 

Vectors and special commands for use with disc operating 

systems 

Each user is assigned a serial number for future reference and 

updating 

Text Editor Features 

Auto line numbering for easy source entry 

String search command (FIND) 

String search and replace command (EDIT) 

String Search and conditionally replace by stepping thru file 

and prompting user for determination of replacement (EDIT) 

Commands to copy and move one or more source lines 

(COPY, MOVE) 

Duplicate command for duplicating and updating source 

lines (DUPLICATE) 

Renumber source file command (NUMBER) 

Command to delete one or more lines (DELETE) 

Load and record commands (GET, PUT) 

Source files can also be appended to current file (GET 

APPEND) 

Each source file loaded results in a status summary 

consisting of length in bytes plus the address range where 

loaded 

Assembler Features 

Labels unique up to 10 characters. Labels may be made up of 

the following: @A-Z [ \ ] t <- • / 0-9 : ; < > ? 

Label expressions may be entered. Ex: LDA Table-Index -HI 

Hex, decimal, binary constants and ASCII strings may be 

stored 

Ex: .By 'this is text string' 

.By %liai $F3 49 'ABC maskbyte 
Can specify hi or lo part of label 
Ex: LDA #^,OP.TABEL ; Load hi part of OP.Table 

LDA ^)L, VALUE ;Load lo part of Value 
Free format input. Simply separate fields with one or more 
spaces and the fields will be automatically tabulated. 
Conditional Assembly Operatore: IFE, IFN, IFP, IFM, SET 
Macro capability via .MD Pseudo OP (MACRO 
DEFINITION) 

Non-repeating label capability for macros 
Macros can be nested 

Conditional Assembly can be incorporated vrithin macros 
Capability to store executable object code in memory and/or 
output relocatable object to tape during assembly 
Can assemble source from memory or, for long programs, 
from tape or disc 



Assembler can store object code in memory at a different 

address from its execution address if desired (VIA .MC 

PSEUDO OP). This is useful if object is to execute in memory 

space occupied by ASSM/TED 

Complete listing can be generated during assembly 

( > ASSEM LIST) or an errors only listing can be generated. 

Three ways to generate an errors only assembly: 

VIA '> ASSM NOLIST Command 

VIA .LC PSEUDO OP 

VIA Conhrol O (tO) when outputHng 

Command to output only the symbol table 



Operating Features 

Commands may be abbreviated to first 2 characters 

Commands, Pseudo Ops, and Conditionals may be entered 

as upper or lower case characters 

Machine language programs can be executed via Run 

command 

User command for User Created Functions (USER) 

Upper and lower boundaries for Text File and Symbol Table 

assume a default size on cold entry, but can be changed or 

displayed via set conunand 

User Comments 

"I am most impressed with your work and will be using it 

regularly from now on." — company in Illinois 

"I was using TED/ ASSM almost every day with great success 

and satisfaction. Itis a real professional quality tool and very 

efficient." — systems consultant in New York 

"Works like a charm . . . your Ted is really excellent — it is 

head and shoulders better than all other microprocessor 

based assembler/text editors." — physics professor in 

Canada 

"I compliment you on the excellence of this software ... As a 

macro assembler, it is in a class by itself for the 6502." — user 

in Virginia 

"About 10 times better than any other assembler I've used." 

— California user 

"The editor alone is an excellent start as a word processing 

package." — chemistry professor in Michigan 

"The more 1 see of other assemblers, the more I am 
impressed with the capabilities of ASSM/TED." — user in 
California 

Ordering Information 

Users Manual and Cassette: $49.95 postage included 

(overseas add $3.00) 

Specify either PET (old & new), Apple II, or Sym version 

Check, money order, or company purchase order acceptable 

Send order to: Carl W. Moser 

3239 Linda Drive 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 27106 

Phone: (919) 748-8446 after 4:30 E.S.T. 

Dealer discounts are available. Write for details. 

If you like to use the graphics capability of your computer, a 
graphics drawing compiler is now available for the 
Assm/Ted. $29.95 postage included (overseas add $3.00) 



60 



COMPUTE. 



Srflf^FIEET ^ 
mm ^ 

A specially designed SF TACTICAL BATTLE GAME for 
your PET, TRS-80 or APPLE Computer. 

The man called Sudden Smith watched the five blips on 
his screen spread out to meet the enemy. Two freighters 
converted into something like battlewagons, powerful 
but slow, and three real cruisers: the most powerful group 
of warships ever seen near the Promethean system — except 
for the Stellar Union fleet opposing them. Everyone was 
calling it Starfleet Orion, though it existed for only this 
day. It was life or death, and, after the object lesson on 
the planet Spring, everyone knew it. 

STARFLEET ORION is a complete 2 player game system 

• rule book • battle manual • cassette 

• ship control sheets • program listings 

Includes 2 programs, 22 space ship types, and 12 playtested 
scenarios. Game mechanics are extremely simple, but play 
Is exciting, challenging, and rich in detail. Specify PET {8Kt, 
TRS-80 (Level II, 16K), or APPLE II (16K & 32K) $19.95. 

Ask your local dealer or send your check to: 

Automated Simulations 
Department J 
P.O. Box 4232 
Mountain View, CA. 94040 

California residents please add 6% sales tax 



DISK DRIVE WOES? PRINTER INTERACTION? 

MEMORY LOSS? ERRATIC OPERATION? 

DON'T BLAME THE SOFTWARE! 





lSO-1 *^ ISO-2 

Power Line Spikes, Surges & Hash could be the culprit! 
Floppies, printers, memorv &■ prcxessor often interact! 
Our unique ISOLATORS eliminate equipment interaction 
AND curb damaging Power Line Spikes, Surges and Hash. 
•ISOLATOR (IS0-1A) 3 filter isolated 3-prong sockets; 
integral Surge/Spike SuppressJon; 1875 W Maximum load, 

1 KW load any socket S54.95 

•ISOLATOR (ISO-2) 2 filter isolated 3-prong socket banks; 

(6 sockets total); inte^-al Spike/Surge Suppression; 

1875 W Max load, 1 KW either bank $54.95 

•SUPER ISOLATOR {ISO-3), similar to ISO-1 A 

except double filtering & Suppression .... S79.95 
•ISOLATOR (ISO-4), similar to IS01A except 

unit has 6 individually filtered sockets .... £93.95 
'ISOLATOR (ISO-5). similar to ISO-2 except 

unit has 3 socket banks, 9 sockets total ... $76.95 
•CIRCUIT BREAKER, any model (add-CB) Add $ 6.00 
•CKTBRKR/SWITCH/PILOTany model 

(-CBS) Add $11.00 

Hk PHONE ORDERS 1-617-655-1532 

/^^ Electronic Specialists, Inc. 



171 South Main Street, Natick. Mass. 01760 



^«P<-Pg 



DR, DALEY presents 
Software for the PET and the APPLE 



Dr. Daley's software is proud to announce 
the release of a package of our best selling 
programs. 

These programs, regularly retailing for over 
$400, have been assembled into a single 



package for only $49.95. Included is our best 
selling TREK3, CHECKBOOK, and a mailing 
list, tutorials, games and puzzles for every 
member of the family. All attractively 
packaged in an album. 



50 PROGRAMS ONLY $49.95 



Your order will be shipped within four business days from receipt. 



Charge your order to 
MC/VISA 



master charge 

Tm[ JHTEHBINK C»BD 




DR. DALEY, 425 Grove Avenue, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49103 

Phone (616) 471-5514 Sun. thru Thurs., noon lo 9 p.m. eastern time. 



COMPUTE. 



61 




Corvus 11 A Disc Drive 

A User's Review 



by 

Michael TuUoch 
103 White Cr. 
Niceville, Fla. 32578 



Manufacturer 

Corvus Systems, Inc. 

900 S. Winchester Boulevard 

San Jose, California 95128 

408 725-0920 



Would you spend 4 or 5 times more for a disk than you 
spent for your Apple computer? That's right, $5,300 for 
an Apple compatible disk. It may sound like a lot of 
money, but it might be money well spent if you've got 
large data files or many programs. 

The Computer Store of Destin, Florida recently re- 
ceived their first Corvus 1 1 A disc drive. The owner 
liked it so much that he took it home! 

I've used the unit but most of the following informa- 
tion is based upon interviewing Gary Workman, the 
store owner. I'll tell you what the Corvus disc is, some 
of its physical specifications and our experience with the 
unit. If you run a business or do large data reduction 
programming, you'll find it worth investigating. 

The disc unit itself is a space age enclosure of black 
metal and dark plexiglas. A round wire cable connects 
the drive to its power supply. A ribbon cable connects 
the drive to an interface board in the Apple. The inter- 
face board plugs into a slot just like most other Apple 
peripherals. Since the Corvus only occupies one slot, 
the Apple can still accommodate floppy discs. 

High speed is another positive feature of the 
Corvus. 1 couldn't accurately measure the difference be- 
tween the Corvus and the floppy, but I'd guess the 
Corvus is more than ten times faster in both read and 
write. This means that serial or random access searches 
of large data bases become really practical. 

One of the most impressive of the Corvus disc fea- 
tures is its capacity. It is equivalent to 82 standard 
Apple discs: 9.6 megabytes are on line. Each of the 82 
volumes arc identical in size to an Apple floppy diskette. 
What is almost as impressive is that this capacity is 
packed into two moderate sized boxes. One contains 
the drive {an IMI 7710 "Winchester" hard disc) and 
drive electronics. It measures 8'/i x 6 x 18 inches. The 
other box is the power supply which is 4 x 5'/4 x 15'/2 
inches. 

Documentation is, as usual in new computer prod- 
ucts, a weak point. Eight pages, including the limited 
warranty, were all that came with the unit. Gary was 



s^Z^TO 




able to get the thing up and running but a couple of 
calls to the manufacturer were required. Newer units 
are supposed to come with more complete documenta- 
tion. In any case, be sure you're familiar with Apple's 
3.2 DOS before you jump in. You can't hurt the disc 
but -you sure can hurt your data. 

On the positive side of the documentation issue is 
the excellent telephone help and complete compatabil- 
ity with Apple software. 

Another nice feature is the aforementioned com- 
plete compatibility with Apple DOS. The Corvus is 
completely transparent to the user. The volume number 
in the Apple I/O commands selects the disc volume just 
like the slot number does with multiple floppy drives. 
The only software difference is a new command, "CAT- 
ALOG V99" lists the first program name from each vol- 
ume. Auto boot is also available. 

Gary's Corvus disc has been in use for two weeks 
with no operating problems. The device incorporates 
several safety mechanisms so that "head crashes" are 
apparently a thing of the past. An auto-write-stop fea- 
ture on power loss is just one of these. 

When this unit was ordered they were quoting 2-3 
weeks for delivery. Gary's took a month. Delivery now 
looks like two weeks. This may change as their sales 
increase. 

My only strong dislike is the power switch. It is lo- 
cated on the power supply. The power supply is massive 
and looks out of place among all the other sleek com- 
puter parts. It's unfortunate the power supply can't be 
hidden somewhere. 

The Corvus seems an ideal mass memory device for 
a business, professional, or other interest requiring large 
information storage. Its price is steep for strictly hobby 
use. But for those who can afford it, or need it, it really 
helps make a small computer into The Big Apple. 



APPLE RESOURCES 



Apple Computer, Inc. 
10260 Bandley Drive 
Cupertino, CA 95051 

Compute. 
Apple Coordinator 
900 Spring Garden St. 
Greensboro, NC 27403 

Mountain Hardware 
300 Harvey West Blvd. 
Santa Cruz, CA 95060 

Personal Software 
592 Weddeil Drive 
Sunnvvale,CA94086 



Automated Simulations 

Dept.J 

P.O. Box 4232 

Mountain View, CA 94040 

Programma 

3400 Wilshire Blvd. 

Los Angeles, C A 90010 

Rainbow Computing, Inc. 
Garden Plaza Shopping Center 
9719 Reseda Blvd. 
Northridge.CA 91324 

SSM 

21 16 Walsh Ave. 

Santa Clara, CA 95050 

Sub Logic 

BoxV 

Savoy, IL 61874 



62 



COMPUTE. 




ATARI 

COMPUTERS: 

THE ULTIMATE 

TEACHING 

MACHINES? 



John Victor, President 
Program Design, Inc. 
1 1 Idar Court 
Greenwich, CT 06830 

The first microcomputer systems were not designed 
with any particular purpose in mind. They were all-pur- 
pose machines. As a result, they had to be designed for 
all possible configurations with plenty of slots for mem- 
ory boards, large power supplies, cooling fans, etc. First 
generation computers were expensive, and many users 
were paying for features they did not need. 

The next generation of microcomputers eliminated 
the big boxes of the first generation computers, and the 
video terminal and computer were combined into one 
unit. Tremendous cost reductions were achieved, but 
the results were definitely not all-purpose machines. 
Rather, they were devices targeted for use by schools, 
small businesses and software hobbyists. The Radio 
Shack TRS-80, Commodore PET and apple computers 
became the top sellers of this second generation. 

With the introduction of the Atari line of comput- 
ers we are seeing a third generation of microcomputer — 
not just from the hardware end but also from a market- 
ing approach. These computers are slightly cheaper 
than those of the previous generation. The major differ- 
ence is in the configuration and the application for 
which the systems were designed. A recent article in on- 
Computing described the Atari computers as hybrids — 



a cross between a video game and a small computer. 
Actually the systems have incorporated the best fea- 
tures from both creating a true personal and home com- 
puter system. These systems are excellently suited for 
the educational and recreational interests of the con- 
sumer market. 

The Atari computers can be operated in three dis- 
tinct modes: (1) as a regular BASIC-speaking microcom- 
puter, (2) as an audio-visual teaching system, and (3) as 
a regular Atari video game machine. In addition to the 
normal computer functions the Atari computer can run 
an audio cassette from within a BASIC program or 
along with its educational ROM cartridge. The market- 
ing people at Atari have obviously discovered the con- 
sumer market for educational materials (which is easily 
10 times as large as the school market). 

For the last few months I have had the opportunity 
to use both the Atari 400 and 800 models for program 
development, and 1 will relate some of my discoveries 
about the possibilities of these systems in a series of 3 
articles. The first will cover an overview of the Atari 
system, the second will cover Atari BASIC, and the 
third will cover applications for this type of system. 



THE ATARI AT A GLANCE 

MICROPROCESSOR: 6502. (It is my understand- 
ing that a second 6502 handles the video display 
and graphics.) 

MODELS: 400 and 800. 400 is non-expandable 
with 8K memory. 800 is expandable with plug-in 
modules. 

PRICE: 400 is in $500 range - 800 is in SI 000 
range. 

VIDEO: User's color TV set. Connects thru built- 
in RF modulator (FCC approved) 

LANGUAGES AVAILABLE: BASIC supplied in 
plug-in ROM 

BASIC GRAPHICS: Full color. Several different 
graphics modes — low to high resolution. Pseudo- 
graphics and special characters available in text 
modes. 

TEXT: 3 text modes with different type sizes. Up- 
per and lower case, reverse characters, special char- 
acters, control characters. 40 by 24 display in regu- 
lar type mode. 

SOUND: 4 sound registers and bell. 

MEMORY: 800 can be expanded to 48K thru 
memory modules. 



COMPUTt. 



63 



WANTED: ATARI 

• • • FIND IT AT COMPUTERWORLD. 
ATARI- 800^" ATARI- 400 

PERSOflAL COMPUTER SYSTEM 



PRICE INCLUDES: 

Computer Console 
BASIC Language Cartridge 
Education system Master cartridge 
BASIC language Programming 

Manual (Wiley) 
800 Operators Manual with Note Book 
ATARI 110 Program Recorder 
Culde to BASIC Programming Cassette 
8K RAM Moauie-Power supply 

TV Switch Box 



ATARI 

PERSONAL COMPUTER 
SYSTEM 

PRICE INCLUDES: 
Computer Console 
BASIC Language Cartridge 
BASIC Language Programming 

Manual (Wiley) 
aoO Operators Manual with 

Note Book 
power Supply 
TV Switch Box 




5999 



99 



5549 



99 



s»«)!BH9»eB as «««asasBQ 

aB®®SSt3C3SCD(B!38BBt=l 

— sssraasmsEiaeBBa 




ATARI 810™ 
DISC DRIVE* 
DISKETTES 

CX8IOO BLANK DISKETTES' 
CX8101 DISK FlLEMA^^ACER• 

S5.C0 ea. 



PERIPHERALS AND ACCESSORIES 

ATARI aiO™ 

PROGRAM RECORDER $89.99 

ADD-ON MEMORY (800 ONLY) 



$749.99 



ATARI 820™ 

PRINTER* $599.99 

ACCESSORY CONTROLLERS 



CX2C-01 DRIVING CONTROLLER PAIR 
CX3004 PADDLE CONTROLLER PAIR 
CxaO Oa JOYSTICK controller PAIR 

519.95 ea. 



CX852BK RAM MEMORY MODULE f12a.99 
CX85J16K RAM MEMORY MODULE S2A9.99 



ROM CARTRIDGES 

CXL40G1 EDUCATION SYSTEM MASTER 
CARTRIDGE 55499 

KEY !|l uses loysticK controller 
Ip) uses paddle controller 
tdJ uses driving controller 



SOFTWARE 

GAMES S49.99/ea. APPLICATION $69.99 



CXL400a BASKETBALL 
CXL4005LIFE 

cxLaooe super breakouttm 
cxaooa SUPER BUCTM" 



111 

lp» 

id> 



EDUCATION SYSTEM CASSETTE PROGRAMS 



CX6001 US. history 
CX600I u s. government 
CX6005 supervisory skills 

CX6004 WORLD HISTORY IWESTERN) 
CX60Q5 BASIC SOCIOLOGY 
CX60O6 COUNSELING PROCEDURES 
CX6007 PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING 
CX60Q8 PHYSICS 



CX60O9 
CX6010 

cxeon 

CX6012 
CX6015 
CX6014 
CX6015 
CX601S 
CX6017 



$39.99/ea. 

GREAT CLASSICS lEPJCLISH) 
BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS 
BASIC PSYCHOLOGY 
EFFECTIVE WRITING 
AUTO MECHANICS 
PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS 
SPELLING 
BASIC ELECTRICITY 
BASIC ALGEBRA 



CXL4002 ATARI BASIC 
CXL400J ASSEMBLER DEBUG" 
CXLaOO? MUSIC COMPOSER 
CXL4009 COMPUTER CHESS' ' 



BASIC CAME AND 
PROGRAM CASSETTES 



CX4101 GUIDE TO BASIC PROGRAMMING* 
CXaiOI BASIC CAME PROGRAMS' 

529.95 ea. 

"October Delivery ■ 'Novenioer Delivery 

—Prices subject to change.— 



We Promise to Deliver! 



• We GUARANTEE ship dates on prepaid Computer System orders.* 

• [f for reasons beyond our controf we miss a ship date, WE WILL REFUND THE SHIPPING 
AND HANDLING CHARGES TO YOU - PLUS GIVE YOU A 10% DISCOUNT ON YOUR 
NEXT PURCHASE OF ANY ATARI SOFTWARE! 

• For prepaid Computer System orders, you'll receive an Accessory Controller of your choice. 

•All prepaid orders musi be for full amount by Cashier's Check only, payable lo ComputerWorld. California residents, please add 6% sales tax. 



ORDERING INFORMATION: 



TELEX 182274 



1. Type or print item(s) you wish to order. 

2. If you pay by personal check: please allow 2 weeks for personal check to clear. 

3. If you pay with bank card: We accept VISA, BankAmericard, fVlasterCharge, Please include bank card number, 
card expiration date, and your signature. 

4. Add 50< for postage and handlirig of books, manuals, catalogs, and magazines. Add S10.00 for shipping, 
handling, and insurance for hardware and systems orders. 

5. Send orders to ComputerWorld, 6791 Westminster Ave., Westminster CA 92683, California residents, please add 
6% sales tax. 



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64 



COMPUTE. 



PERIPHERALS AVAILABLE: game paddles, cas- 
sette storage, disk drive, printer 

CASSETTE: Dedicated unit supplied by Atari. 
600 baud. Recording method similar to Kansas 
City standard. 

THE COMPANY 

The most important feature of a computer is not to be 
found in the computer itself, but rather in the company 
manufacturing the computer. The failures in most other 
small computers has not been in the basic design but 
rather in the type of support the computer gets from its 
creator. 

For example, the TRS-SO design is essentially very 
good. The failures of the system can be laid to Radio 
Shack (and its parent company Tandy) which I like to 
describe as a "19th century company trying to deal with 
a 21st century technology." Radio Shack has done well 
marketing and servicing the TRS-80. However, when it 
came to research, development, design, and other crea- 
tive activities, the company was in well over its head. 
(Note that the basic design came from outside the 
organization!) 

Atari, in contrast, is well suited for this type of busi- 
ness. Their internal structure is unbureaucratic and so- 
lutions oriented. 1 believe that their top management 
understands the electronics and the marketing of 
electronics. 

This is not to say that Atari hasn't made mistakes, 
or won't make mistakes. What I will say is chat this 
company learns from its mistakes. They are strictly a 
class operation. 

Atari's crucial edge in this business is that they un- 
derstand the importance of software. To this end they 
are supporting software development from both within 
and outside the company. In contrast, Tandy and Com- 
modore seem to be discouraging the outside develop- 
ment of software with a lack of regard for making hard- 
ware and software changes compatible from older to 
newer machines. 

ATARI 400 AND 800 

The Atari computers come in two models: 400 and 800. 
The 400 is much less expensive and is non-expandable. 
It also uses a flat, solid state keyboard. The 800 is very 
much like the Apple II in appearance, and is expandable 
using plug-in cartridges. 

The non-expandability of the 400 is a problem. 
When working in BASIC, the operating system gobbles 
up almost 3K of the computer's memory leaving 5K for 
the user to work with. 1 don't think chat 8K is enough 
— I6K would have been much better. Otherwise, the 
system is OK. I happen to like the solid state keyboard if 
the choice is between it and an inexpensive mechanical 
keyboard like the one on the Ohio Scientific Challenger 
IP. (Solid state key beeps when hit.) 

The modular construction of the 800 makes expan- 
sion the simplest thing imaginable. Add more memory? 
Even the most technicallv naive consumer can do it. 



without bringing the computer back to the store! 

Since the language ROM is contained in a cart- 
ridge, it will be a simple matter to change languages 
with this system. If this system had been available for 
the TRS-80 Level I and II, then there would now be ten 
times as much software available for the Radio Shack 
computer as there now is. 

PROGRAM STORAGE 

There are three modes of program storage for the Atari 
system: plug-in ROMs, audio cassette, or disk. The 
plug-in ROMs are great for mass market programs such 
as microchess. However, they are expensive and must 
be manufactured in quantities of around 30,000. Most 
applications programs would not qualify for chis type of 
storage. (The decision of Texas Instruments and other 
companies Co make their systems primarily ROM based 
may very well eliminate most of the software support for 
cheir systems!) 

One of the best features of the Atari computer is 
the audio cassette storage capability. Atari obviously 
learned from the mistakes of Commodore and others re- 
garding cassette recording formats. They picked a high- 
ly reliable system based on two tones for encoding digi- 
tal information — is represented by one tone, and 1 by 
another. The cassette unit supplied has the audio con- 
trols removed. 

The cassette format is unaffected by small differ- 
ences in recording level, drop outs, head misalignment, 
dirty heads, etc. — all of the things chat would reck 
havoc with a PET, Apple or TRS-80 tape. However, 
this system cannot tolerate speed variations. Cheap cas- 
sette casings and home-brew duplication will not go 
over very well with this system. 

There is also another problem: the computer must 
see a program within so many seconds of a CLOAD 
command. Therefore, the tape must be carefully posi- 
tioned before loading a program. 

The Atari cassette unit is stereo — one track records 
digital information for program storage and a second 
can play back audio voice recording. This system can 
play a voice to go along with educational programs 
under computer control. The voice is played back 
through the user's TV set. 

The Atari disk system transmits data serial fashion. 
This makes data transfer much slower than a system 
(such as Apple's) chac transmits data in parellel. This 
was done so that the Atari system could gain FCC ap- 
proval — a parallel connection produces too much radio 
frequency interference. 

NEXT A REVIEWOFATARI BASIC AND GRAPHICS 



ATARI RESOURCES 

Atari, Inc. Iridis Magazine 

1265 Borregas Ave. Box 550 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 Goleta, CA93017 

Compute. Personal Software 

Atari Coordinator 592 Weddell Drive 

900 Spring C arden St. Su nny vale, C A 94086 
Greensboro, NC 27403 



Program Design, Inc. 
11 Idar Court 
Greenwich, CT 06830 



65 




THE EVOLUTION 

OF A MAGAZINEbyLen Lindsay 

April 1978 marked the beginning of the PET GAZETTE. 
It was begun by an enthusiastic, active, involved dreamer. 
There were, of course, high hopes, but it's beginning 
was quite modest. A little background about it's founder 
may be of use. 

WRITING. When I put together the first PET 
GAZETTE, I had a background that helped to get it 
started and grow. I previously was the editor, typist, etc. 
for a college newspaper. Thus at the beginning I knew 
how much time and effort a newsletter takes. (It is esti- 
mated about 10 hours per page for a newsletter editor, if 
he doesn't do the typing — I did the typing too!) I also 
was familiar with printers and camera ready copy. But a 
good writer 1 was not. In fact, my college English pro- 
fessor said that I was one of the worst writers she had 
ever seen. But maybe that was one of the reasons the 
GAZETTE grew, It was not stuffy and gramatically pre- 
cise, but rather down to earth. I believe what one says is 
more important than how one says it (as long as your 
readers understand what you mean). 

DECISION. The decision to specialize in the PET 
was made after analyzing the information in all the 
magazines and 5 full file cabinet drawers. It appeared to 
be the computer of the future, for the everyday person. 
The decision to buy a PET was made, and the first issue 
of the PET GAZETTE was compiled. My PET did not 
arrive until MAY of 1978. Thus, my first issue was writ- 
ten, printed and mailed before I even had a PET. 

DISTRIBUTION. The first issue was mailed to 
every name and address that could be found connected 
to the PET via an article or ad. News releases were sent 
to various publications. I was determined to provide in- 
formation for PET users free of charge. 

PROGRAMMING. I did not know BASIC very 
well when the PET first arrived, but learned PET 
BASIC very fast using my PET to help me, I don't know 
any other computer language. However, most PET 
users also seem to be in that position when they first get 
their PET so my articles may have been more relevant 
to them. 

THE EVOLUTION BEGINS. The PET 

GAZETTE was originally to be a resource guide, to give 
all PET users one place to look to find any PET com- 
pany's address, a list of products for the PET etc. The 
first issue listed two PET groups and 4 magazines. A list 
of 15 PET related magazine articles was printed. The list 



of PET related products amounted to only 4. The soft- 
ware list included 1 1 known sources and a FREE cas- 
sette program exchange was announced along with 
some guides for programs and their submission. Peoples' 
Computers Graphic and Special Character LISTING 
conventions were mentioned and supported. This trend 
of proposing standards to help the user avoid the trap of 
everyone doing it a bit different was continued in future 



issues. 



SECOND ISSUE. The second issue was twice as 
large. This issue contained one half page ad. The Soft- 
ware list increased and listed specific programs and 
prices. The number of PET groups listed doubled to 4. 
The list of PET accessories increased from 4 to 11 com- 
panies, and there now were 3 pages for standards and 
Cassette Exchange information. This issue was publish- 
ed in MAY 1978, just before I received my PET. I had 
no PET programs myself, and luckily no one had sub- 
mitted programs for exchange. I did worry about what 
would happen if delivery of my PET were late. Fortu- 
nately, I received my PET in time. And then I was em- 
barrassed that in my second issue, one of my program- 
ming suggestions to improve readability of BASIC 
wouldn't work on the PET. 1 had advised indenting the 
inside of each FOR ... NEXT loop by one space. But I 
found that the PET ignores all extra spaces between the 
line number and the start of the commands. Thus you 
could leave the extra spaces as you typed in the pro- 
gram, but when listed they would be gone. I wonder 
how many of my then almost 100 readers realized that at 
the printing of my 2nd issue of the PET GAZETTE, I 
still did not have a PET? 

ISSUE THREE. The growth trend continued. 
The third issue was three times the size of the previous 
issue, now weighing in at 24 pages. Advertisements now 
took up about 8 pages. Advertising rates were kept ex- 
tremely low as an incentive to get a lot of ads. I felt the 
PET users would appreciate being able to see all the PET 
products advertised in one place. There were now 2 full 
pages listing PET related magazine articles. The Soft- 
ware list expanded to IVi pages. Now that 1 had a PET I 
began carefully looking at programs on the market for 
the PET. My reviews covered 4 pages, and began what 
was to become a main emphasis in the PET GAZETTE 
— informing PET users what to expect from programs 
purchased, 

FOUR BRINGS PROBLEMS. This was my 
last monthly issue. It's 40 pages presented a problem: 
collating it by hand and then stapling it together. This 
wasn't too bad before with fewer pages and less copies. 
But my mailing list continued its trend of doubUng each 



66 



issue. 400 copies ro collate, fold, staple, address, and 
mail is quite a chore. To save on postage, I acquired a 
bulk rate mailing permit. 1 retained the size 
to keep it a handy little reference publication. The mail- 
ing list was put onto metal addressograph plates. A 
printer in town was kind enough to do this for me. He 
also had collating and paper folding machines. They 
helped, but it still took a few days of solid work for my- 
self and the couple of people that I talked into helping 
me. 

Sound capability was now being added to the 
PET and when this issue came out, at least 3 methods, 
all incompatible, were being used. The simplest one was 
chosen to be proposed as the convention for adding 
sound to programs. All it took was 2 wires and a speak- 
er/amplifier. And the programming was rather simple 
too. This convention did become standard and is often 
referred to as the GAZETTE sound convention. Al- 
most all programs using sound use this convention. 
This kept the exchange of programs compatible. 

This issue also began my WARNING. *** Never 
buy a product unless you are sure it exists ***. This was 
right on the cover of the issue. Every issue from this 
point on contained a similar warning on the cover or 
1st page. This of course made product reviews very im- 
portant. It also helped PET users to be wise buyers. I 
never printed a review of a product that did not exist. In 
addition to the reviews, PET programming tips were ex- 
panded. The GAZETTE was now more than just a 
guide to PET resources, it was an information guide as 
well. 

LAST OF THE HANDY SIZE. 
This issue was the firs: where I had too much mater- 
ial to print, and couid not afford to print and mail it all. 
Only about half of the material was chosen to be print- 
ed. The list of PET companies now covered 3 pages, 
with 4 columns on each page. Listing of PET programs 
began in this issue with FILE MANAGER, a program 
to help users with data files. Now, the bulk of the 
GAZETTE was helpful information and programming 
tips. My mail was increasing and many people were 
sending in information to print for the benefit of my 
readers. I was very happy with the generally enthusias- 
tic and friendly attitude of most PET users. It really 
seemed that we had a PET community. 

A MAJOR TURNING POINT. I decided to double 
the size from 5'/2x8'/2 to 8'/2xl 1. The GAZETTE had by 
now become a magazine. I converted my mailing list 
and arranged for another company to manage it for me. 

Advertisers in this first large size issue were lucky. 
They paid for a full SVzxSVi page ad and received an ad 
twice that size, due to the page size doubling, I now had 
over 25 reviews printed, and several more that didn't 
get included until the next issue. The cover now was a 
beautiful photo of the PET in outer space, which I de- 
signed. I am very happy with that cover photo. The 
workings of the PET were also uncovered and a ma- 
chine language program listing was included. 



Perhaps the most significant change was that 1 now 
was using my PET to do my magazine. I had a Word 
Processing Program and printer. If it weren't for that I 
would not have been able to keep up the GAZETTE. 

THE BEST. Due to requests for back issues which 
no longer were available I decided to compile all my pre- 
vious information together with my new information 
and publish a BEST OF THE PET GAZETTE. 1 print- 
ed 4,000 copies of this 100 page book. It included over 
100 product reviews, 20 program listings, and a ton of 
information. Company addresses were printed along 
the left side of 9 consecutive pages so as to be easy to flip 
through to find any company's address. Copies of this 
excellent resource and information guide are still avail- 
able from COMPUTE at $10 each, 

SPRING '79 ISSUE. The GAZETTE now in- 
cluded art work and parts of it were typeset. Almost 60 
more products were reviewed. I now was receiving re- 
views in the mail from enthusiastic readers. Some re- 
views came on tape, which provided data for my Word 
Processor Program. I then couid print out the review on 
my printer in any size column to fit the space available 
on the page. 

SUMMER '79. This issue brought all the prob- 
lems to a head. It took almost 2 months to get it back 
from the printer, and another month before it was mail- 
ed by the company managing my subscription list. I had 
no control over all these delays, and was very frus- 
trated. This, combined with being overworked and hav- 
ing to spend the majority of my time with "business" 
rather than with "computing" led to a sad state of af- 
fairs. The quality of my writing could not remain high 
when I had only enough time to put out first drafts, 
which were then printed. This is far from ideal. But by 
now there were thousands of PET users depending on 
the GAZETTE and I did not have the heart to just quit. 
Small System Services called . What do you know! They 
were interested in publishing the GAZETTE. After a 
few letters and phone conversations it was decided that 
they could carry on the GAZETTE and improve it im- 
mensely. How could 1 refuse that? The GAZETTE now 
reached its turning point, and it looked like a turn for 
the BEST. 

THE NEW PET GAZETTE. Small System Ser- 
vices now is publisher of the PET GAZETTE. They de- 
cided to change its name to COMPUTE, the Journal for 
Progressive Computing. Emphasis on the PET remains, 
but other 6502 computing systems will also be covered, 
including the new, not yet released ATARI! In addition 
to all chat, COMPUTE will have its own booth at three 
major fall computer shows (Boston, Atlanta, Philadel- 
phia). The fall super issue of COMPUTE looks promis- 
ing indeed, with about 10,000 copies to be distributed. 
All this, and it should get even better. Watch for my 
program review roundup in the next issue. I'll be here, 
hope you will be too. 



COMPUTE. 



67 



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68 



COMPUTE. 



PET In Transition Jim Butterfleld, Toronto 

A transition issue of the PET GAZETTE is very appro- 
priate, because the PET itself is in transition. New prod- 
ucts and new software are going to change the nature of 
the machine. Old hands at PET system use will have to 
learn new tricks. 

A lot of "old" software won't work on the new ma- 
chines. Those chess and music playing programs, for ex- 
ample, can't make the transition in their present form. 
Many of the POKEs and PEEKs have shifted to new lo- 
cations. SYS, USR and WAIT commands will need 
reworking. 

The machines themselves have a few hardware 
changes. A new memory arrangement eliminates screen 
hash. The screen can no longer be blanked, so that cer- 
tain special effects (explosions, etc.) are difficult to 
achieve. The character generator has changed, giving 
an unfamiliar reversal of upper and lower case. The 
memory expansion edge connector is physically differ- 
ent; it appears as if Commodore doesn't intend it to be 
user accessible any more. Instead, a "mother board" 
architecture is hinted at; and empty ROM sockets sug- 
gest that new software may be forthcoming. An a.sscm- 
bler? New languages? It's anybody's guess right now. 

Further hardware changes are rumoured. Most of 
the ones I hear are associated with screen format 
changes (80 characters? Colour? Programmable 
characters?) 

With all these changes, what should the PET owner 
do? Stay with his original machine? Retrofit with the 
new ROM chips? Buy the new model? 

My recommendation is this: upgrade with new 
ROMs, or buy a new unit; but either way, take the 
plunge. You'll want the new model if you are strong on 
large keyboards, green screens, and/or ROM expansion 
capability; otherwise, stay with your existing machines 
but fit the new ROM programs. 

There's too much good stuff in the new software to 
hold back. The limit on array size is lifted; tape files be- 
have correctly; the IEEE-488 bus works better; the 
built-in Machine Language Monitor is very valuable; 
you can now pull the computer out of a total crash 
without losing memory; and numerous little improve- 
ments have been made. 

Commodore may introduce more ROM's in the fu- 
ture. But I believe that they won't tinker with lower 
memory (locations to 102J decimal) to any great ex- 
tent. So an upgrade which is made now should last for a 
while. 

Commercial software houses will have to wrestle 
with the upgrade, of course. Buyers will have to closely 
examine programs on sale to make sure that they are 
compatible with their computer model. "AC/DC" pro- 
grams, which will run on any existing ROM, will be a 
help (I understand that such a version of Microchess 
will soon be available). Eventually, I believe that the up- 
graded ROMs will become standard, and most software 



0000-0002 


0-2 


0003 


3 


0004 


4 


0005 


5 


0006 


6 


0007 


7 


0008 


8 


0009 


9 


OOOA 


10 


OOOB 


11 


OOOC 


12 


OOOD 


IJ 


OOOE 


14 


0011-0012 


17-18 



will be written for them; the original ROM will fade out 
of the picture. 

Clubs, and newsletters like The PET GAZETTE, 
will also need to cope with this transition. Programs and 
techniques will have to be carefully identified: which 
ROM set will they work on? Where possible, two ver- 
sions will be desirable. 

Eventually — hopefully — we'll all settle back into a 
standard machine. And then we can focus our atten- 
tion fully on the main objective: making it do the jobs 
we want to do. 

Memory locations for ROM upgrade on PET computers 

Jim Buttcrllcld, Toronto 

USR Jump instruction 

Search character 

Scan-betwcen-quotes flag 

Basic input buffer pointer; # subscripts 

Default DIM nag 

Type: FF = string, 00 = numeric 

Type: 80 = integer, 00 = floating point 

DATA scan Hag; LIST quote Hag; 

memory flag 

Subscript flag; FNx flag 

= input; 64 = get; 152 = read 

ATN sign flag; comparison evaluation 
flag 

input flag; suppress output if negative 
current I/O device for prompt-suppress 
Basic integer address {for SYS, GOTO, 
etc.) 

Temporary string descriptor stack 
pointer 

Last temporary string vector 
Stack of descriptors for temporary 
strings 

Pointer for number transfer 

Misc. number pointer 

Product staging area for multiplication 

Pointer; Start-of-Basic memory 

Pointer: End-of-Basic, 

Start-of-Variables 

Pointer: End-of-Variables, 
Start-of-Arrays 
Pointer: End-of-Arrays 

Pointer: Bottom-of-strings (moving 
down) 

Utility string pointer 

Pointer: Limit of Basic Memory 

Current Basic line number 

Previous Basic line number 

Pointer to Basic statement (for CONTl 

Line number, current DATA line 

Pointer to current DATA item 

Input vector 

Current variable name 

Current variable address 

Variable pointer for FOR/NEXT 

Y save register; new-operator save 

Comparison symbol accumulator 

.Misc. numeric work area 

Work area; garbage yardstick 

Jump vector for functions 

Misc. numeric storage area 



0013 

0014-0015 
0016-OOIE 

OOlF-0020 
0021-0022 
0023-0027 
0028-0029 
002A-002B 



19 

20-21 
22-30 

31-32 
33-34 
35-39 
40-41 
42-43 



00ZC-002D 44-45 



00ZE-002F 
0030-0031 

0032-0033 

0034-0035 

0036-0037 

0038-0039 

003A-003B 

003C-003D 

0O3E-003F 

0040-0041 

0042-0043 

0044-0045 

0046-0047 

0048 

004A 

004B-004C 

0O4D-OO5O 

0051-0053 

0054-0058 



46-47 
48-49 

50-51 

52-53 

54-55 

56-57 

58-59 

60-61 

62-63 

64-65 

66-67 

68-69 

70-71 

72 

74 

75-76 

77-80 

81-83 

84-88 




69 





ml 




m 




w\ 


^ 


/*%. 


I' 


yl 




/^ .^^ 



umper 
our 

PET... 

. . .with HAYDEN COMPUTER 
PROGRAM TAPES. 



Indulge your PET with complete, ready-to-run, bug- 
free programs that are recreational, educational, and 
just plain fun! Full documentation accompanies each 
tape or can be found in books with the same title 
(available separately}. And, they come with a war- 
ranty against manufacturer's defect. 

Hayden publishes new programs every month. Just 
look at what you can spoil your PET with now . . . 

BACKGAMMON . . . The classic game of skill and 
luck played between you and a preprogrammed op- 
ponent. Full documentation included (FDI). #02507, 
$10.95 

BATTER UP!!... Action-packed baseball with 3 
levels of display. It will challenge your reaction time 
and logic. FDI. #02801, $10.95 

COMPLEX MATHEMATICS... 8 programs that 
give the user the ability to perform computations of 
complex numbers in BASIC rather than in FOR- 
TRAN. FDI. #01201, $14.95 

CROSSBOW . . . Features a target game that, be- 
sides offering hours of fun, teaches fractions in an 
exciting and competitive environment. Includes 3 lev- 
els of play, FDI. #02701, $9.95 



ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS — 1 ... Con- 
tains 8 programs useful to the engineer such as; 
Integration by Simpson's Rule, Quadratic Equations 
(covering all 3 root cases), etc. FDI. #01301, $14.95 

GAME PLAYING WITH BASIC (3 separate 
tapes) . . . Features educational and recreational 
programs. Separate book covers all 3 tapes, 
#5109-3. $7.95. Tape 1, #00201; Tape 2, #00301; 
and Tape 3, #00401, $9.95 each 

GENERALMATHEMATICS — 1 ... Provides 15 
programs useful to anyone who wishes to improve 
their math skills and accelerate their computations. 
FDI. #01101, $14.95 

MAYDAY... An exciting and fast-moving airplane 
flight simulation. It takes concentration, judgment, 
and agility to avoid crashing! FDI. #02601, $9.95 



See these and future tapes at 
your local computer store! 



Or write to: 

\S\ HAYDEN BOOK COMPANY, INC. 

50 Essex Street, Rochelle Park, NJ 07662 




Hayden PET 

Tapes 

make terrific holiday 

gifts! 



70 



COMPUTE. 



0O59-0O5D 89-93 

0O5E-OO63 94-99 

0064 100 

0065 101 

0066-006B 102-107 

006C 108 



006D 


109 


006E-006F 


iio-ni 


0070-0087 


112-135 


0088-008C 


136-140 


008D-OOSF 


141-143 


0090-0091 


144-145 


0092-0093 


146-147 


0094-0095 


148-149 


0096 


150 


0097 


151 


0098 


152 


0099-009A 


153-154 


009B 


155 


009C 


156 


009D 


157 


009E 


158 


009F 


159 


OOAO 


160 


00 A 1 


161 


OOA3-OOA4 


163-164 


00A5 


165 


00A6 


166 


00A7 


167 


00A8 


168 


00A9 


169 


00 AA 


170 


OOAB 


171 


OOAC 


172 


OOAD 


173 


OOAE 


174 


00 AF 


175 


OOBO 


176 


OOBl 


177 


00B2 


178 


00B4 


180 


00B5 


181 


00B7 


183 


00B9 


185 


OOBA 


186 


OOBB 


187 


OOBC 


188 


OOBD 


189 


OOBE 


190 


OOBF 


191 


OOCO 


192 


OOCl 


193 


0OC2 


194 


0OC3 


195 


OOC4-OOC5 


196-197 


00C6 


198 


00C7-00C8 


199-200 


0OC9-OOCA 


201-202 


OOCB-OOCC 


203-204 



Misc. numeric storage area 

Accumulator #1: E,M,M,M,M,S 

Series evaluation constant pointer 

Accumulator hi-order propogation 

word 

Accumulator #2 

Sign comparison, primary vs. 

secondary 

low-order rounding byte for Acc#! 

Cassette buffer length/Series pointer 

Subrtn; Get Basic Char; 

77, 78 = pointer 

RND storage and work area 

Jiffy clock for Tl and TIS 

Hardware interrupt vector 

Break interrupt vector 

NMl interrupt vector 

Status word ST 

Which key depressed: 255 = no key 

Shift key: 1 if depressed 

Correction clock 

Keyswitch PIA: STOP and RVS Hags 

Timing con.stant buffer 

Load = 0, Verify = 1 

# characters in keyboard buffer 

Screen reverse flag 

lEEE-488 mode 

End-of-liiie-for-input pointer 

Cursor log (row, column) 

PBD image for tape I/O 

Key image 

= flashing cursor, else no cursor 

Countdown for cursor timing 

Character under cursor 

Cursor blink flag 

EOT bit received 

Input from screen/ input from keyboard 

X save flag 

How many open files 

Input device, normally 

Output CMD device, normally 3 

Tape character parity 

Byte received flag 

Tape buffer character 

Pointer in file name transfer 

Serial bit count 

Cycle counter 

Countdown for tape write 

Tape buffer #1 count 

Tape buffer #2 count 

Write leader count; Read pass I/pass 2 

Write new byte; Read error flag 

Write start bit; Read bit seq error 

Pass 1 error log pointer 

Pass 2 error correction pointer 

= Scan; 1-15 = Count; S40=: Load; 

$80= End 

Checksum 

Pointer to screen line 

Pcsition of cursor on above line 

Utility pointer: tape buffer, scrolling 

Tape end address/end of current 

program 

Tape timing constants 



OOCD 



OOCE 



205 



206 



OOCF 


207 


OODO 


208 


OODl 


209 


00D2 


210 


O0D3 


211 


00D4 


212 


00D5 


213 


OOD6-00D7 


214-215 


00D8 


216 


0OD9 


217 


OODA-OODB 


218-219 


OODC 


220 



OODD 



221 



OODE 


222 


OODF 


223 


0OEO-0OF8 


224-248 


00F9 


249 


OOFA 


250 


OOFB-OOFC 


251-252 


0100-OlOA 


256-266 


0100-013E 


256-318 


OIOO-OIFF 


256-511 


0200-0250 


512-592 


0251-025A 


593-602 


025B-O264 


603-612 


0265-026E 


613-622 


026F-0278 


623-632 


027A-0339 


634-825 


033A-03F9 


826-1017 


03FA-03FB 


1018-1019 


04OO-7FFF 


1024-32767 


8000-8FFF 


32768-36863 


9000-BFFF 


36864-49151 


C000-E0F8 


49152-57592 


E0F9-E7FF 


57593-59391 


E810-E813 


59408-59411 


E820-E823 


59424-59427 


E840-ES4F 


59456-59471 


FOOO-FFFF 


61440-65535 



00 = direct cursor, else programmed 

cursor 

Timer 1 enabled for tape read; 

00 = disabled 

EOT signal received from tape 

Read character error 

# characters in file name 
Current logical file number 
Current secondary addrs, or R/W 
command 

Current device number 

Line length (40 or 80) for screen 

Srarr of tape buffer, address 

Line where cursor lives 

Last key input; buffer checksum; bit 

buffer 

File name pointer 

Number of keyboard INSERTs 

outstanding 

Write shift word/Receive input 

character 

# blocks remaining to write/read 
Serial word buffer 

Screen line table: hi order address & 

line wrap 

Cassette #1 status switch 

Cassette #2 status switch 

Tape start address 

Binary to ASCII conversion area 

Tape read error log for correction 

Processor stack area 

Basic input buffet 

Logical file number table 

Device number table 

Secondary address, or R/W cmd, table 

Keyboard input buffer 

Tape #1 buffer 

Tape #2 buffer 

Vector for Machine Language Monitor 

Available RAM including expansion 

Video RAM 

Available ROM expansion area 

Microsoft Basic interpreter 

Keyboard, Screen, Interrupt programs 

PlAl- Keyboard I/O 

P1A2 - lEEE-488 I/O 

VIA -I/O and Timers 

Reset, tape, diagnostic monitor 



71 



A Commodore Perspective 

Commodore's new marketing moves (whether "reactive" or plan- 
ned) are exciting old time PET owners and dealers alike. In example, 
their recent service seminars have been provided at no charge ro 
dealers (with the exception of personal expenses) ... and Commo- 
dore is providing breakfast, lunch, materials & service manuals at 
no cost! A welcome start ... our plandits to whoever's responsible at 
Commodore. In this article. Bob Crowcll provides an interesting 
overview/perspective. 

Robert J. Crowell 

President 

New England Electronics Co., Inc. 

679 Highland Avenue 

Needham,MA02194 

The history of the Commodore PET computer is a very 
interesting and mostly unknown story. For the benefit 
of the vast group of Commodore PET owners, here is a 
brief history, from the author's experience, on the evo- 
lution of the Commodore PET. 

The story of the Commodore PET computer began 
in 1974. MOS Technology, a semiconductor research 
and manufacturing company in Norristown, PA., was 
partially purchased by Commodore. This purchase gave 
Commodore a new technological 'pool' to draw from. 
In 1975, the founders of MOS Technology, some of 
whom were from the Motorola 6800 (microprocessor) 
design group, felt that they could improve on the 6800 
microprocessor. The resultant research and develop- 
ment led to the announcement of a whole new series of 
integrated circuits, the 6500 series. The 6502 CPU 
"Computer on a chip" microprocessor and future CPU 
of the PET was born. The announcement of this family 
of chips did not arouse much excitement e.xcept in engi- 
neering circles. As the product data sheets on this new 
family of chips were circulated, engineers spent many 
hours discussing the future applications of the 6502 
CPU, PlAs, VIAs, and other esoteric technological 
marvels. 

At this time, during early 1976, the microcomputer 
industry consisted of a relatively small number of engi- 
neering type hobbyists happily assembling a few micro- 
computers (the first microcomputers were produced in 
kit form). Soon various articles began appearing that 
heralded the availability of microcomputers for 
everyone. 

How many of these "computers on a board" would 
sell? No one at that time could estimate the market for a 
technologically new product like microcomputers. As 
advertisements on this new product continued circulat- 
ing, the infant "hobbyist" market began clamoring for 
attention by ordering thousands of these units, mostly 
on a cash prepaid basis. Send in your funds and wait 
three to six months for your unit to arrive! 

During this period the engineers at MOS Technol- 
ogy, having recently been acquainted with this new in- 
dustry, announced that they would introduce a new 



computer on a board called the KIM-1. The KIM-1, 
with the 6502 as the CPU/brain, became a success be- 
fore the first unit came off the assembly line. The 'father 
unit' of the PET was born. 

Thousands upon Thousands of KIM's were subse- 
quently sold as the hobbyist, industrial, and education- 
al markets adopred the KIM-1 with open arms. Remem- 
ber, the KIM-1 was designed for easy use. All you had 
to do was hook up your own power supply, hook up a 
cassette, and away you went happily programming in 
hexadecimal format! Even at this early stage it was evi- 
dent to some people that the KIM's days were number- 
ed. Sooner or later the various markets demanding the 
KIM- 1 would become semi-saturated. 

During the introduction of the KIM, a vague shape 
began forming in the mind of a senior engineer at 
MOS. Why nor design a KIM-like unit that would con- 
tain a power supply, an interpretive language (basic) to 
allow non-technical people to program it, a CRT video 
display, and a keyboard? Could a product like that be 
sold? Who would buy it? How would the unit be 
marketed? 

As the KIM-1 enjoyed a vast amount of success, 
MOS Technology was selling integrated circuits for use 
in calculators and other products. (All you Apple own- 
ers can thank MOS Technology for the 6502 Micropro- 
cessor!) Enter Commodore in a big way! Commodore, a 
customer and partial stockholder of MOS, was one of 
the earliest manufacturers of handheld calculators. 
MOS Technology had the chip development and man- 
ufacturing capabilities to produce chips in large quanti- 
ties but did not have a consumer-oritned marketing 
staff. Commodore did not have any large chip manufac- 
turing capability but was essentially a marketing firm 
wirh offshore calculator manufacturing capabilities. 
The match was obvious and a very quick "takeover" 
was arranged. The result was that Commodore became 
a vertically integrated company, designing and manu- 
facturing chips on one end and selling the finished 
product on the other end. This vertical integration, in 
conjunction with the overseas arms of Commodore, 
laid the foundation that allowed Commodore to an- 
nounce that an entirely new product was coming. By 
December of 1976, Commodore's stock had jumped 
from 4'/2 to 7. 

Who would buy the unit? At what price? What do 
we call it? As this new unit would probably be sold di- 
rectly to users in the home, an acceptable name had to 
be created. Remember, in 1977, very few people had a 
firm understanding of this new market, and the general 
consensus was that the lion's share of the market would 
be people utilizing the unit for 'personal' transactions. 
Since computers were 'scary' to the average person (they 
fill entire rooms and cost millions of dollars, don't 
they?), a nice, comfortable product name had to be 
created. The name Personal Electronic Transactor was 
quite a mouthful, but as was originally planned, the 
acronym P.E.T. became the accepted name. 



72 



COMPUTE. 



The original pricing of the unit was announced in 
mid- 1977 at $495 for the 4K RAM unit. The price 
quickly went to S595 for the 4K unit and a $795 8K (op- 
tional) unit was announced. 

The industry scoffed and said it couldn't be done at 
that price. Well, basic marketing philosophy (and good 
corporate management) dictates that if you come out at 
the lowest possible price point, with a good possibility of 
a mass market, you make small profits (if any) at the be- 
ginning, and you make it up in future large volume pro- 
duction. Of course, a low price also helps to preclude 
market entry from competitors. An ulterior pricing mo- 
tive may have been to announce a price that would re- 
main stable. In the mid 1970's the pricing in the calcu- 
lator market continuously decreased as companies 
'skimmed' the market with one lower price point after 
another. Due to these regular decreases in price, the 
purchasing public began waiting for lower prices before 
they purchased. If the PET was announced at a higher 
price, say at $1 195 and then dropped to $995 and then 
again to $795 the market would possibly have waited for 
even lower price points. As the PET, by its very nature, 
would have a much longer product life cycle than a cal- 
culator product, a stable pricing policy became an im- 
portant consideration. 

In June of 1977, Commodore unveiled the PET at 
the Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago. There was 
the PET, amidst all the Commodore calculators. The 
public went wild. I personally stood there and like many 
others wrote out a check (at full retail) to Commodore 
to purchase a PET. I watched one person purchase four 
units. During the three-day Show, Commodore's stock 
again jumped, this time to 9'/4. 

Commodore originally announced that the PET 
was capable of handling many different tasks, especially 
with their "soon to be available" 2020 printer. Many of 
these potential uses would, of course, require a printer 
as well as support from Commodore. However, Com- 
modore never had a chance. After Popular Science put 
the PET on it's cover the demand for the PET exploded. 
Commodore quoted 30-day delivery, then 60, then 90, 
then an astounding 4-5 months! Remember, these were 
all prepaid orders. Commodore was inundated with 
customer orders, dealer inquiries, and requests for infor- 
mation. Due to the size of Commodore's staff, many re- 
quests went unanswered, as Commodore concentrated 
on the task at hand — producing as many PETs as 
possible. 

As Commodore was marketing the PET directly to 
consumers, the 40 to 50 dealer inquiries received per 
day piled up. A few persistent dealers continued to 
clamor for attention. 

Due to the absolutely incredible demand for the 
PET, Commodore was extremely selective of it's dealers. 
Commodore required a service technician, a retail out- 
let, an excellent credit history, and a cash deposit on fu- 
ture orders. The cash deposit weeded out a large per- 
centage of potential dealers and left Commodore with 



only financially strong dealers to choose from. A tre- 
mendous committment to the future of the PET and to 
Commodore was required for a prospective dealer to 
send a certified check for a large amount of money, with 
no idea when to expect their deposits back. The re- 
quired cash deposit also supplied Commodore with 
short-term working capital, allowing them to maximize 
production. In early 1978, as demand continued to ex- 
pand, the Commodore PET dealer network was started. 

The dealers who were selected found themselves 
able to require prepayment from customers: in econom- 
ic terms, a vertical transfer of funds. Commodore re- 
quired deposit funds and in turn, the dealer required 
prepayment; delivery to customers (from dealers) was 
now 30-60 days. The purchasing public prepaid and pre- 
paid. Commodore's stock rose and rose. 

As volume production began in earnest, Commo- 
dore (I assume) realized that within a year or so PET 
production and therefore supply would be close to PET 
demand. Commodore had increased production, but 
had not increased their marketing staff to support the 
large numbers of PETs being delivered. As the PET is a 
computer, many user and dealer questions arose. Most 
of these questions went unanswered as the small mar- 
keting staff at Commodore was taxed to the limit. In 
order to expand the markets for the PET, a crash effort 
began to bring the long-awaited peripheral printer to 
market. 

Problem after problem developed, vendor designs 
were examined, tested, and discarded one by one. A 
print head was finally accepted and Commodore an- 
nounced that the long awaited printer would go into 
immediate production with deliveries commencing in a 
few months. After this public announcement, in Janu- 
ary of 1978, Commodore found that the print head 
they had selected did not perform within the specified 
engineering parameters. The print head mechanism de- 
veloped problems after continuous use. An increase in 
price was announced hoping (I assume) that the extra 
projected profits would justify a quick re-engineering of 
the unit. However, this was not to happen. The print 
head problem, coupled with other problems was enough 
to force Commodore to cancel the 2020 printer. Back to 
the drawing board. Within a few months, Commodore 
announced that they would come out with two new 
printers, at higher prices, at some point in the future. 

Many customers had prepaid 2020 printer orders 
and the lack of information from Commodore on their 
orders, coupled with the lack of good documentation on 
the PET, strained customer and dealer relations. In the 
midst of all these problems, a larger problem arose. PET 
production was rising faster than PET demand and 
soon a production surplus would be created. 

A major corporate decision was finally made to 
bring in some upper echelon personnel to assist Com- 
modore in the transition from the marketing of the 8K 
PET to the marketing of the CBM business system 
(large keyboard PETs and peripherals). A secondary 








QUALITY BUSINESS SOFTWARE FOR THE COMMODORE PET 



■li- ACCOUKTINQ PACK I — 

Accounting Pack 1 Is a general ledger package 
designed for small businesses and homeowners. 
It contains check |ournal, genera: ledger, income 
statement {current ytd, previous month ytd and 
current month), balance sheet (current month and 
previous month). There are 15 commands and 6 
reports that can be generated. The system uses an 
unique single-errtry bookkeeping system and can 
hold up to 50 entries per period (month, week, day) 
and up to 40 different accounts. Each period's 
aata is kept on convenient cassette tapes. Utilizing 
the general ledger command the user can view the 
general ledger entries for the month from Assets 
to Expenses or stop in midstream and view one 
particular account. Or the user can type In an account 
name such as "Advertismg'* and view the entries 
lor that month. The Accounting Pack 1 program 
Includes a checklx>ok reconcllatlon routine which aids 
In finding checkbook errors. 
S2S.00 



"Accounting Pack ! by SAWYER SOFTWARE can be 
descriljed in one word: Fantastic. Any who has pre- 
pared a balance sheet manually will have a alight heart 
murmur upon using the Accounting Pack. It is amazing 
that the program fits In 8K. I would say the Accounting 
Pack is useful and could justify the price o( a PET unto 
itself for any smal I busi ness. ' ' 
Review fn BESTOF PET GAZETTE. 



SCHEDULE PLANNER — 

Schedule Planner can be used by secretaries, 
receptionists, housewives or anyone wanting to plan 
and have at theif fingertips their own schedule. Data 
entered is data: time, priority and description. The 
commands allow the schedule to be shown (or a 
particular day, request of lime or the "viewing" of 
appointments according to importance. 
$15.00 



SCHEDULE PLANNER #2 - 

Schedule Planner #2 includes all the features o( 
Schedule Planner, but is used lor one or more 
individuals. Utilizing Schedule Planner #2 a customer 
can call in asking when his appointment with Dr. 
Jones is and in seconds the receptionist can give the 
date and time. Or Dr. Jones can find out his schedule 
for the day. Witti the viewing command, an appoint- 
ment at 12:00 on a particular day will display on the 
screen at that time allowing receptionists and 
secretaries to validate appointments. 
S20.00 



• * * NEW • • * 

Business Software For Your 
Compu-Think Disk. 



GENERAL LEDGER - 

Maintains data files on disk. Prints standard 
reports - Balance Sheet, Income Statement with 
percentages and Trial Balance. Same General 
Ledger as we use to maintain our financial 
Information. 
1195.00 

PAYROLL — 

Computes FICA, Federal and State (calculated on 
percentage of gross pay and can be customized lor 
your particular state). Prints individual employee 
records for quarterly reports. Up to 250 employees 
per disk. 
S195.0O 



MAILING LIST - 

Up to 1,000 names per diskette. Will print by key 
field, zip, state or code (you specify). Will interface 
to upcoming Accounts Receivable package. 
$195.00 



• * * NEW • • • 

Butlnns Seltwara For Your Cominodor* DItk 

GENERAL LEDGER - 

Maintains data (lies on disk. Prints standard 
reports - Balance Sheet, Income Statement with 
percentages and Trial Balance. Will Interface to 
upcoming AR and AP packages. 
$195.00 

PAYROLL - 

Computer FICA, Federal and State (calculated on 
percentage of gross pay and can be customized for 
your particular state). Prints individual employee 
records for quarterly reports, Up to 250 employees 
per disk. 
$195.00 



Call or write for your free brochure and hard copy 
on all our PETtm cassette and disk software. 
Inciude device number on all printer software. All 
programs include documentation, are in BASIC and 
on cassette or Compu-Think disk. When ordering 
disk sollware specify single density or dual density 
and send Compu-Think disk serial number. Add 
$5.00 (or disk software. 



tV ACCOUNTING PACK II- 

Accounting Pack II is a much more powerful version 
of Accounting Pack I. It has all the features of 
Accounting Pack I, plus up to 250 entries per period, 
MENU, Optional debit-credit of entries, easy addition 
or deletion of accounts, formatter for reports, intelli- 
gent report generator and single entry for sales 
transactions. Accounting Pack II requires at least 8K 
additional memory for your PET. OPTIONS: 1. 
Accounting Pack I to Accounting Pack II data file 
converter (free lo previous owners of Accounting 
Pack I). 

AP2 also utilizes a printer for hard copies of all reports. 
■ ■^ $45.00' 

ir PAYROLL- 

Especially designed with the small businessman in 
mind. Utilizing cassettes can record data for any 
numt}er of employees (8 employees per cassette). 
Computes tax information and updates totals for 
quarterly and yearly reports. Employees can be 
salaried or hourly and pay periods can be either 
weekly, bi-weekly, semi-monthly or monthly. 
$30.00 

PAYROLL- 18K- 

Sameas Payroll, but utilizes 6K additional memory in 

PET. Handles any number of employees by holding 

25 employees' information per cassette. Also has 

Menu. 

.,,., $45.00 

tr BUSI NESS ANALYSIS— 

Business Analysis allows managemefvt to have 
available to them information for financial planning 
decisions. Up to 4 years of balance sheet and income 
statement information can be entered with resultant 
analysis in the areas at liquidity, leverage, profit- 
ability and activity. The ratios generated for each 
year are the: current ratio, acid test, debt-nw, 
profil-nw, profit margin, sales-rec, sales-inv, 
sales-wc, with a brief explaination of each. The 
growth analysis gives the yearty growth in S areas 
and the average growth in 5 areas. Future growth 
analysis projects figures for the next year. 
$30.00 

BUSINESS GRAPHIC PACK 1 — 

Business Graphic Pack 1 is a simpie program to use, 
but professional in output. The graph includes title, 
labeling of axis, dual graphic ability, whether the 
data is in Mill's, 100's or 1000's, and an optional 
X-axis = date and latjeling of the x-axIs with month 
and year. Entry is as easy as typing the title, # of 
entries, the X,Y value (Jan. 15, 1978 would be 
entered as 115.78), entering 11 the x-axis = date, if 
the user wants crosshatching and then graphing. 
The program also includes Mth order and Geometric 
regression to give the user a formula for his set of 
data (if possible). 
$25.00 



Sa'wyer Softivare 




li'PET is a trademark of Commodore Business 
Machines, Inc. 



201 Worley Road 

Dexter, Mo. 63841 

314-624-7611 

(dealer inquires invited. 



■^ Now Available for the 16K Level II TRS-80 



TRS-80 Is a ' trademark of Radio Shack a Tandy Corp. 



74 



COMPUTE. 



Isn't it about time the computer adapted to you? 



Gel a pen or pencil and print the letter Z in the box below. 

N A 



Congratulations! You just found out how easy it is to enter hand printed characters into your 
pgyT.M computer with the PrestoDigitizer^-'"' tablet from Innovision. 

The PrestoDigitizer''"^ lets the PET^'^' learn to recognize your printing style. Once you "leach" the 
computer your handwriting, you can save your stroke set on tape for later use. 

Our recognition software is so fast Zorro wouldn't be able to get ahead of it! Print a letter and - 
Presto! - it appears in a string variable, ready to print, display, or use in your programs (our 
learning and recognition algorithms combined take only about 2K bytes of RAM). 

By now you have found that most nifty peripherals cost $500 and up. How's this for a refreshing 
change: The PrestoDrgitizer^^, completely assembled and tested, ready to plug right in to the 
pgjTM yjg^ pQj^ pjyj 3 cassette with complete startup software, and full documentadon including 
detailed instractions for writing your own programs for this tablet - the whole works will cost you 
only S48.50 plus tax and shipping. 

< $50 ? 

That's right - less than $50 for a device that is so unique and useful we could easily charge more. 
At this price anyone ■ educators, business users, home hobbyists, anyone who uses a PET^^\ can 
now have the ability to communicate with the computer in a mode we all know - hand printing. 

So lei the computer adapt - after all you are the boss! 

(PET^-^^ is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. PrestoOigitizer^-^ is a trademark 
of Innovision. Patent pending.) 

ORDER FORM: SEND WITH CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO 
INNOVISION, P.O. BOX 1317, LOS ALTOS, CA 94022 

OK, Innovision - I'm ready to take control of my PET''^. 

Ship me PrestoDigitizer^^ tablet(s) at $48,50 each plus $1.50 for shipping and 

handling (California residents include 6.5% tax). I have enclosed a check or money 
order for U. S. S , so quickly ship my tablet(s) to: 

Name: 



Address: 



City, State, ZIP: 



COMPUTE. 



77 



EXCHANGING THE ROMS 

It doesn't matter whether you remove all of the old 
ROMs then insert all the new ones, or replace them one 
at a time. Just be sure to save the old ROMs in the con- 
ductive medium that came with the new ones. They will 
be needed if something happens to the new ROMs. It 
may be necessary during the exchange to temporarily 
insert some ROMs in aluminum foil to protect them 
from static electricity. 

The position of each integrated circuit on the PET 
circuit board is designated by a letter to identify the 
row, followed by a number to identify the column. The 
ROMs are located on row H, which is the third row 
from the front. The columns are numbered from 1 
through 7 going from right to left as you face your PET. 
To determine which ROM to put in each location in 
row H, refer to Table 1. Notice the Table shows the lo- 
cations numbered HI through H7 going from right to 
left as in your PET. When you have finished installing 
your new ROMs, check to make sure the notched end 
on each is toward the front of the PET, and that each is 
in the correct socket. 

CHECKING OUT THE NEW ROMS 

While the PET is still open, push down any cable con- 
nector which may have been pulled up when opening 
the PET. Now plug the PET in and turn it on. If the 
READY message appears on the screen, you can close 
the PET and proceed with the checkout. If it doesn't 



come ready, recheck the ROMs to see chat each is in the 
proper location, especially the ROM in location H7. If 



TABLE 1 
















H7 


Hi 


m 


H4 


Hi 


H2 


HI 


oui>m 


90W7- 


WIW- 


901447- 


WI447- 


W1447- 


WI447- 


U0H47- 


ROMS 


08 


Of 


02 


06 


05 


01 


0^) 


Rtitrtifit 
















W16 


Wl-MV- 


WI-H7- 


901447- 


W1447- 


W1447- 


W1447- 


901447- 


ROMS 


26 


23 


21 


25 


24 


22 


20 


01d65« 


6540- 


6540- 


6540- 


6540- 


6540- 


6540- 


6540- 


ROMS 


C18 


014 


012 


016 


015 


Oli 


019 or Oil 


Kctrorit 
















o>(0 


654& 


6540- 


6540- 


6540- 


6540- 


6540- 


6540- 


ROMS 


C26 


025 


021 


025 


024 


022 


020 



each was in the proper location, then you should re- 
mo\-e and reinsert each ROM while checking to see if 
any pins were bent during the first insertion. 
Once your PET will reset properly, running some pro- 
grams should verify that the ROMs have been inserted 
properly. If a program gives errors, that doesn't mean a 
ROM is in the wrong socket. Running programs does 
not prove conclusively that none of the ROMs have been 
damaged. A much better test for damage would be to 
run the Commodore's GRAPHIC ROM TEST pro- 
gram in the diagnostic kit for the new PETs. 

If you have any problems that you can't solve, or 
would rather not perform the installation yourself, see 
your nearest PET dealer with a service department 
about having them do the installation. You might also 
find out if your local PET dealer has a copy of the 
GRAPHIC ROM TEST, if you don't have access to one 
otherwise. 



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WITH THE PURCHASE OF ONE 
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PET 2040 Dual Oisl( Drive — 343.000 bytes 
PET 2022 Tractor Feed Printer 
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Axiom EX-820 PET Plotter S790.00 

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KIM-1S159(Add530lOrP™erSupplylSYM-1S222 

aAS-1 Microsoft ROM Basic for SYMS 85 



IEEE - RS232 Printer Adaptor tor PET 
BETSI PET to S-100 Interface & Motherboard 
PET Connectors-Parallel or IEEE 

Cassette Port 
Personal Information Management System— 
Protect-A-Pet dust cover 
Programmers Toolkit - PET ROM Utilities 
Microcfiess for PET /Peter Jennings) 
PET 4 Voice Music Board (MTUK-1002-2) 
MlsIc Software (K-1002-3C) for PET 
CmC Word Processor program for PET 
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Adventure 1 for 24K PET 
Adventure 2 for 24K PET 
Tunnel Vision/Kat S Mouse-maze - PET 
Graphics Utility Package for PET 
Stimulating Simulations-Book & PET tape 
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Write for PET Software List 
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Word Processor for PET — Machine language version 
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2114 



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Video Interface with Graphics 
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6502 Microprocessor Chip 
6522 VIA 
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450ns S5.70 24 @ S5.I5 100 @ 



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4.90 MINIMUM ORDER S10.00 



Hands on Basic with a PET 

Programming the 6502 fZaks) 

6502 Applications Book (Zaksj 

6500 Programming Manual (MOS) 

6500 Hardware Manual 

Programming a Microcomputer: 6502 

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3M "Scotch" B" disks o A I c ^"^^^^ 
3IVI "Scotch" 5" diskettes oALt 10/S35 
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[215) 699-8386 



8936 



78 



COMPUTE. 



SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE 

From David Malmberg — Sphinx 

General utility to print the screen using the new PET 
printers, and convert from a basic print format to the 
PET printer format — which are far from compatible. 

This routine will handle upper and lower case, as 
well as graphics and reverse fields. It can be appended to 
a program as a subroutine or used as a stand alone 
routine. 

Some of the options in the routine are as follows: 

1. Enhanced printing is obtained when the entry 
point is line 63500 i.e., GOSUB63500 or 
RUN 63 500. 

2. Normal printing is obtained when the entry 
point is 63510. 

3. Number of copies is set by the variable NN in 
line 63510. 

4. Number of blank lines between copies is given 
by the limit of the for loop in line 63580. 

5. Graphic or lower case modes are automatically 
handled by PEEKING in LOC(59468) and for- 
matdng to the printer accordingly. Note!!! This 
routine assumes the new ROM. If the old ROM 
is used, switch the CHR$(17)'s and CHR${145)'s 
in lines 63526-29. 

6. The routine will print the entire screen or until 
it encounters a "READY." The variable JJ, speci- 
fied in lines 63520 and 63570, controls the print 
line range, and could be specified by the calling 
program — especially if the purpose was to use 
the screen as a work area to convert between 
BASIC and PET printer formats. 

A word of caution — the PET printer interprets a 
number of characters as special control characters. 



635G0 
63510 
63520 
63521 
63522 
63523 
63524 
63525 
63526 
63527 
63528 
63529 
63530 
63541 
63542 
63543 
63544 
63545 
63546 
63547 
63548 
63549 
63558 
63559 
63560 
63570 
6358G 
63590 



CC5 
NN=1 
JJ = 
SLS = 
hT-;=0 



CHRS(l) 
:OPEN 1,4 :FOR 11=1 TO NN 



PET Resources 

A: Abacus Software 
P.O. Box 721 
Grand Rapids, MI 49510 

Addison Wesley Publishing 
Reading, MA 01867 

ADP Systems 

95 West 100 South 

Logan, UT 84321 

Aladin Automation 
3420KenyonSr.#131 
San Diego, CA 921 10 

Aicorn Data Services 
P.O.Box 1535 
Corinth, MS 38834 

Apparai 
P.O.Box 10324 
Denver, CO 80210 

Aresco 

P.O.BoxlH2 
Columbia, MD 21044 

Automated Simulations 

P.O. Box 4232 

Mountain View, CA 9402Z 

Axeco Industries 
13304 87 NE 
Kirktand, WA 98033 

AjiioiD Corp. 

5932 San Fernando Rd. 

Glendale.CA 91202 

t>: Biosystems Research 
P.O. Box 160272 
Miami, FL 331 16 

C: CAP Electronics 

1884 Shultnan Ave. 
San Jose, CA 95124 

Century Research &. Mtg. 
4815 W. 77th St. 
Minneapolis, MN 55435 

Channel Data 
5960 Mandarin Ave. 
Goleta.GA 93017 



:JJ=JJ + 1 : FOR KK=1 TO 40 
XX=PEEK(32767+KK+40* (JJ-1) ) 
IF XX=32 OR XX=96 THEN SLS=SLS + CHR?(32) :GOTO 63558 
IP XX>127 THEN SLS=SL? + CHRS(18) 
IF PEEK(59468)=12 THEN 63541 

IF XX>0 AND XX<27 THEN SL? = SL5 +CHR5 ( 17 ) +CHR$ {XX+64 ) ■.mi=l 
IF XX>128 AND XX<155 THEN SLS=SLS + CHR$ t 17 ) +CHR$ (XX-64 ) :Vm=l 
IF XX>64 AND XX<91 THEN SL$=SL? +CHR$ ( 145 ) +CHR$ (XX) :ITO=1 
IF XX>192 AND XX<2ie THEN SLS=SLS +CHR? (1 45 ) +CHR5 (XX-1 23 ) :Vnf=l 
IF Vn-7=1 THEN 63549 

IF XX<32 THEM SLS=SLS+CHRS (XX+64) :GOT063549 

IF XX>31 AND XX<64 THEN SL? = SLS + CHRS (XX) .■GOT063549 

IF XX>63 AND XX<96 THEN SLS=SLS+CHRS (XX+128 ) :GOT063549 

IF XX>95 AND XX<128 THEN SL$=SL$+CHRS [XX+64) :GOT063549 

IF XX> 127 AND XX<160 THEN SLS=SLS+CHR? (XX-64 ) :GOT063549 

IF XX>159 AND XX<192 THEN SLS=ELS+CHR? (XX-128) :GOT063549 

IF XX>191 AND XX<224 THEN ELS=SLS+CHRS (XX) :GOT063549 

IF XX>223 THEN SLS=SLS+CHRS(XX-64) 

IF XX>127 THEN SL5=SLS+CHRS (146) 

NEXT KK 

IF LEFT?{SL5,6)="READY." THEN 63580 

PRINT#1,CCS;SL$ 

IF JJ<25 THEN 63521 

FOR PP=1 TO 10 :PRINT#1 : NEXT PP 

NEXT II :CC$="" : CLOSE 1 



CGRS Microtech 
P.O. Box 368 
Southatnpton, PA 18956 

CMS Software 
5115Menefee 
Dallas, TX 75227 

Commodore — USA 
3330 Scott Blvd. 
Santa Clara, CA 95050 

Commodore — Canada 
3370 Pharmacy Ave. 
Agincourt, Ontario 
Canada 

Commodore — England 
360 Euston Rd. 
London, England 
NWl 3BL 

Competitive Software 
21650 Maple Glen Dr. 
Edwardsburg, MI49112 

Compuquote 
6914 Bcrquist Ave. 
Canoga Park, CA 91307 

Compu.'ican 

Box861-A 

Valley Forge, PA 19481 

Computer Project 
Peninsula School 
Mcnlo Park, CA 94025 

Computers One/#306 Kahnia 
4211 Waialae Ave. 
Honolulu, HI 96816 

Computer Tutor 
317 Elm St. 
Helena, ARK 72342 

Computhink 
3260 Alpine Rd.. 
Menlo Park, CA 94025 

Computing Teacher/Comp Cnt 
Eastern Oregon State College 
LaGrandc, OR 97850 

Concordia Designs 
P.O. Box 2 19 
Scarborough, Ontario 
Canada MIR 5B7 

Conley Graphics 
211 Purdue Rd. 
Kensington, CA 94708 

Connecticut Microcomputer 
I50PoconoRd. 
Brookfield, CT 06804 

Cooper Computing 

Box 16082 
Clayton, MO 63 105 

Coyote Enterprises 

Box 101 

Coyote, CA 95013 

Creative Computing 
P.O. Box 789.M 
Morristown, NJ 07960 

Creative Software 

P.O. Box 4030 

Mountain View, CA 94040 

Cursor 
Box 550 
Goleta.CA 93017 



79 



O: Dads Reliable Softii-are K: 

1614 Norman Way 
Madison, \XT 53705 

Datasoft Research 
3360 Ley Dr. #816 
Los Angeles, CA 90027 

Dilithium Press 

P.O. Box 92 

Forest Grove, OR 97 116 

Distinctive Interiors 
6278 SW 14 Sr. 
Miami, FL 33144 

D&R Creative Systems M : 

P.O. Box 402 

St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 

Dr. Daley 

425 Grove Ave. 

Berrien Springs, Ml 49103 

fc.: Eclectic Software 

2830 Walnut Hill Ln. 
Dallas, TX 75229 

Excel Co. 

P.O. Box 1 147 

El Cerrito, CA 94530 

V ', Fantasy Games Software 
P.O. Box 1683 
Madison, Wl 53701 

Forethought Products 
87070 Dukhobar Rd. #K 
Eugene, OR 97402 

Cj: H. Geller Computer Sys. 
P.O. Box 350 
New York, NY 10040 

GPA Electronics 
906 Blair Ave. 
Oakland, CA 9461 1 

George Risk Industries 

GRlPla:a 

Kimball, NEB 69145 

Dave Gomberg 
7 Gatevicw Ct. 
San Francisco, CA 941 16 

H: Hayden Book Co. 
50 Essex St. 
Rochelle Park, NJ 07662 

Don Henderson 
9350 Bolsa Ave. #8 
Westminster, CA 92683 

David Howe N: 

Box 28314 
Sacramento, CA 95828 

HUH Electronics O: 

P.O. Box 259 
Fairfax, C A 94930 

li Innovison 

P.O. Box 1317 

Los Altos, C A 94022 

Instant Software 
Peterborough, NH 03453 

International Technical Systems 
P.O. Box 264 
Woodbridge,VA22I94 

J: James Johnson 

9304 Emery Grv.Rd. 
Gaithersburg, MD 20760 



Don Kerchum 
313 Van Ness Ave. 
Upland, CA 94720 

Kilobaud — Microcomputing 
Peterborough, NH 03458 

Brent Klinchurch 

2744 Ashwood St. 
Orange, CA 92665 

Kvenich Sl Associates 
151 Carlingvicvv Dr. #5 
Rexdale, Ontario 
Canada M9\V 5E7 

Mad Hatter Software 
219 Washington Ave. 
Chelsea, MA 02 150 

Matrix Magazine 

1041 North Main Street 

Ann Arbor, MI 48104 

McGraw Hill .Book Company 
P.O. Box 446 
Hightstown, NJ 08520 

M&E Associates 
10439 N.StellingRd. 
Cupertino, CA 95014 

Micro 

8 Fourth Lane 

So. Chelmsford, MA 01824 

Microphys Programs 
2048 Ford St. 
Brooklyn, NY 11229 

Microsoft 

300 San Mateo NE 

Albuquerque, NM 87108 

Microsoftware Systems 
RO. Box 1442 
Woodbridge.VA 22193 

Microtechnology Unlimited 
P.O. Box 4596 
Manchester, NH 03108 

Microtronics 
5943 Pioneer Road 
Hughson,CA 95326 

Minds Eye Personal Software 

P.O. Box 354 

Palo Alto, CA 94301 

C.W. Moser 
3239 Linda Drive 
Winston-Salem, NC 27106 

Nestar Systems 
810 Garland Drive 
Palo Alto, CA 94303 

On Computing 
70 Main Street 
Peterborough, NH 03301 

On-Line 

24695 Santa Cruz Hwy. 

Los Gatos, CA 95030 

Osborne &. Associates 
P.O. Box 2036 
Berkeley, C A 94702 



If you're thinking of buying the 6502 Programming Man- 
ual, which is the definitive book on machine language, 
remember that the identical book is published by Com- 
modore, by Synertek, and by Rockwell. Shop around: 
Commodore's price is higher than the other two. 

The book is a reference, not a teaching book, and it 
has muddy spots, but it's complete and accurate. Any- 
one trying to tackle machine language should have one. 

To find out if you have anything on cassette tape: 
mount the tape on cassette player #1, press PLAY and 
then hold down the less-than (< ) key. You'll see 
instantly if the tape is empty or not. Works on both old 
and new PETS. 

Received a hot flash from the Vancouver group, 
but it may require a little more work ... 

You can speed up the PET dramatically just by typ- 
ing POKE 59458,62. 

Problems to be investigated: 

Doesn't seem to work on units with the old 
Oil ROM. Why? 

On other machines, there might be a danger 
of crashing very occasionally — it hasn't hap- 
pened to me, but it seems possible when I 
study the system. If so, the fix is very easy; use: 

POKE 59458,62: POKE 59456,223 
which is 100% safe. Question: is this too cau- 
tious? Will the single POKE work every time? 
Experiment! Supply feedback! 

Jim Butterfield 



REVIEW 

NEW-CURSOR 

$4.95 

INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL SYSTEMS, 

INC. 

P.O. Box 264 

Woodbridge,VA22194 

NEW-CURSOR is a momentary switch and resistor de- 
vice which is designed to attach easily to your PET and 
give you the capability of a semi-warm reset. If you lose 
your cursor, a simple press on your NEW-CURSOR 
button will cause PET to reset without the shock to 
your power supply and video system such as you get 
when you turn your PET off and then on again. 

The instructions provided are brief but clear. No 
soldering is required and the only tool needed is a 
screwdriver to open your PET. It took me (all thumbs) 
less than ten minutes to install my NEW-CURSOR 
which I received within a week of my order. 

SURPRISE BONUS - I found that when I use 
NEW-CURSOR, I do not lose information stored in 
the 2nd cassette buffer! 

This item is a MUST for anyone doing machine- 
language programming. 



by Dr. Matarella 



80 



P: People Computer Company 
1263 El Camino Real - Box E 
Menla Park, C A 94025 

Personal Computing 
1050 Commonwealth Ave. 
Boston, MA 02215 

Personal Software 
592 Weddell Drive 
Sunnyvale, C A 94086 

Pickles &. Trout 
P.O. Box 1206 
Goleta,CA 93017 

Pleiades Game Company 
202 Faro Avenue 
Davis, CA 95616 

Program Design Inc. 
UldarCourr-Dept. 110 
Greenwich, CT 06830 

Programma International 
3400 Wilshire Blvd. 
Los Angeles, C A 90010 

PS Software House 
P.O. Box 966 
Mishawaka, IN 46544 

Purser Computer Cassettes 
P.O. Box 466 
Eldorado, CA 95623 

Q: Quill Software 

2512 Roblar Lane 
Santa Clara, CA 95051 

R: Recreational Computing 
1263 El Camino Real-BxE 
Menio Park, CA 94025 

Rcigh Engineering 
635 Oiannini Drive 
Santa Clara, CA 95051 

Mike Richter 
2600 Colby Avenue 
Los Angeles, CA 90064 

St Harry Saal 

810 Garland Avenue 
Palo Alto, CA 94303 

Sa»7er Software 
201 WorleyRd. 
Dexter, MO 63841 

Steve Shaw 
P.O.Box 1707 
Tampa, FL 33601 

Skylcs Electric Works 
599 N.Mathilda Ave. #26 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Softape 

10756 Vanawen 

North Hollywood, CA 91605 

Softbrew 

6206 Newberry Rd. #318 

Indianapolis, IN 46256 

Softone 

3 1 5 Dominion Drive 

Newport News, VA 23602 

Softouch 

Box 422 

Logan, UT 84321 

Softside Software 
305 Riverside Drive 
New York, NY 10025 



Software Shoppe 
P.O. Box 271 Dept.G 
Ber«-yn, IL 60402 

Software Industries 
902 Pinecrest 
Richardson, TX 75080 

Speakeasy Software 
Box 1220 

Kempcville, Ontario 
Canada 

SSI 

4327 East Grove St. 

Phoenix, AZ 85040 

Warren Swan 
15933 S.Gove Ave. 
Oak Forest, IL 60452 

Sybex 

2020 Milvia St. 

Berkley, CA 94704 

Small System Services, Inc. 
900-902 Spring Garden St. 
Greensboro, NC 27403 

X: Tab Books 
RO. Box 40 
Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214 

Technical Hardware, Inc. 
P.O. Box 3609 
Fullerton,CA 92634 

3G Company 
Ri. 3 - Box 28A 
Gaston, OR 971 19 

TNW Corporation 
4805 Mercury St. 
San Diego, CA 921 11 

Total Information Services 
P.O. Box 921 
LosAlamos.NM 87544 

Tycom 

68 Vclma Ave. 

Pittsfield,MA01201 

W: Roger Walton 
Box 503 
Bethany, OK 73008 

At X&iY Enterprises 
P.O. Box 796 
Huntsville, AL 35804 

L'- Zephyr Software 
P.O. Box 713 
Boneta.CA 92002 

ZZYP Data Processing 
2313Morningside 
Bryan, TX 77801 



DUNJONQUESr'* Presents 



Isff^ 




0! 



• Take your favorite character — or 
let the computer create one for 
youf 

• Let the Book of Lore guide you 
through a DUNJONQUEST" 
within the Tempfe. 

• Decide to fight the monsters or 
grab the treasure and run— but 
don't think too long— they'll come 
after you! 

The Temple of Apshai— for the 
TRS-80 (Level II. 16K) and PET 
(32K) microcomputers. 

Ask your local dealer 

or send a check for S24.95 to: 

Aulamaled Simulations- Department J, P.O. Box 4232, 
Mountain View, CA 94040 

California residents urease add S-c sales tax, 



mtTTHB 

The Vault of the Dead Is 
but one of the many 
dark and fearsome 
mysteries within the 
ruined Temple of 
Apshai. The Temple of 
Apshai is your first 
adventure in the 
DUNJONQUEST'" series 
of fantasy role playing 
games. 

DUNJONQUEST'" is a 
complete game system 
and The Temple of Apshai 
is a complete fantasy 
adventure game for you 
and your microcomputer. 

OVER 200 i^ooHi ! 
Oif€fi. 30 H0MiTe£6l 
O^ai TO TTSVADH^I 



CASSETTE FORMAT REVISITED 

Pulse positiors modulation is used iri the PET (cries of 
'what's that?'). At regular intervals a byte marker pulse 
is written on the tape, followed by bit pulses, the 
elapsed time defining the '0' or '1.' This method has sev- 
eral advantages. Because the bit pulses are referenced to 
the byte marker, data is fairly immune to variations in 
tape speed. If 8 bits do not follow the marker, there has 
been an error. 

Three time periods are defined: Long (L) = 336 
± 5uS (1.49kHz), Medium (M) = 256 ± 5uS 
(1.49kHz), Short (S) = 176 ± 5uS (2.84kHz), and these 
are used to define a Word Marker = LLMM, 
T = MMSS and '0' = SSMM, where LLMM means: 
long '1,' long '0,' medium '1,' med '0.' Now to words, 
ASCII 'A' = 01000001 which, when preceded by the 
word marker and terminated with odd parity gives 

LLMMMMSSSSMMSSMMSSMMSSMM 
SSMMMM SSSSMMMMSS 

■ mkr 10 10 1' gives a character length of 
8.96mS. Note 8 bits plus parity to accommodate graph- 
ics. Now since it is inefficient to start and stop the tape 
for each character, they are stored in memory (635-825 
or 827-1017 for = 1 or =2) until sufficient to make up a 
block of data. I will deal with programs later as they dif- 



81 



fer from data. Now since data blocks are 191 bytes each 
a further check is possible (long or short block error). 
Each block is written twice and if an error is found in 
the first block, the second is used. Only if the corre- 
sponding byte in both blocks is in error can we not re- 
cover data. 

'Now the crunch. The cassette motor takes time to 
run up to speed and the interblock gap is there to allow 
for this. If we try to read the tape while the motor is still 
accelerating, errors are likely to occur. If the first byte or 
two are not recognized, the block is discarded. Should 
this contain the mark for end-of-file (EOF) or end-of- 
tape (EOT) the PET would crash. Owing to a bug in the 
operating system the inter-block gap is too short ... It is 
relatively simple to turn the cassette motor on before 
the buffer is full and patches for this have been printed 
in IPUG circulars but most comprehensively in the TIS 
Workbooks. 

Two more definitions: Block end marker = LL plus 
leader, Leader = over 50 cycles of shorts. 

HEADER & 
PROGRAM FILE DATA FILE 



Header 192 bytes 
Repeated header 
Program (one 
long block) 
Repeated prog. 



End block 
Repeated end. 



Header 192 bytes 
Repeated header 
Data block 192 bytes 
Repeated data block 
Data block as reqd. 
Repeated as reqd. 



Data + spaces co end 
Repeat above 
End block 
Repeat end. 

ALL BLOCK TYPES 



END 
FORMATS 

Low Starting 
High Address 
Low Ending 
High Address 
ASCII Up to 
Prog 16 
chars 

ASCII 
Sp Spaces 
to 191 



Leader 

Count 

Down 

Type 

Data 

area 

Check-sum 

Block 
end mkr 
Leader 



First leader 2 sees approx. 
9 bytes First pass $89 ,88,. ..81 

Second pass $09,08,.. .08 

If data or header 191 bytes 

If program, length of program 

Exclusive-OR checksum of above 

(hdr type) 

Block end marker, 1 cycle long 

Approx 450 cycles of leader 
(0.16 sees) 



ReprintecS by permission: Norman Basson, Independent PET Users Group of 
England 

EUiam Associates (24000 Bessemer Street, Woodland 
Hills, CA 91367) offers cassette labels on pin- 
feed backing. 

These white Cassette Labels are removable and 
come one label wide on fanfold, pinfeed backing. 

Prices start at $5.90 per 100 and $27.00 per 500. 

Dealer and large quantity discounts are available. 



PET' MACHINE LANGUAGE GUIDE 




Contents include sections on: 
•input and output routines. 

• Fixed point, floating point, 
and Ascll number conversion. 

• Clocks and timers. 
•Built-in arithmetic functions. 
•Programming hints and sugges- 
tions. 

•Many sample programs. 



If you are interested in or are already into machine language 
programming on the PET, then this invaluable guide is for 
you. More than 30 of the PET's built-in routines are fully 
detailed so that the reader can immediately put them to good 
use. 

Available for $6.95 + .75 postage. Michigan residents please 
include 4% state sales tax. VISA and Mastercharge cards 
accepted - give card number and expiration date. Quantity 
discounts are available. 




ABACUS SOFTWARE 

P. 0. Box 7211 

Grand Rapids, Michigan 



49510 



DISK DRIVE WOES? PRINTER INTERACTION? 

MEMORY LOSS? ERRATIC OPERATION? 

DON'T BLAME THE SOFTWARE! 





ISO! '\) ISO-2 

Power Line Spikes. Surges & Hash could be the culprit! 
Floppies, printers, memort/ Si processor often interact! 
Our unique ISOLATORS eliminate equipment interaction 
AND curb damaging Power Line Spikes, Surges and Hash. 
•ISOLATOR (ISO-1 Al 3 filter isolated 3prong sockets; 
integral Surge/Spike Suppression; 1875 W Maximum load, 

1 KW load any socket $54.95 

•ISOLATOR (ISO-21 2 filter isolated 3-prong socket banks; 

(6 sockets total); inteyal Spike/Surge Suppression; 

1875 W Max load, 1 KW either bank $54.95 

•SUPER ISOLATOR (IS03), similar to IS0-1A 

except double filtering & Suppression .... S79.95 
•ISOLATOR (ISO-41, similar to IS0-1A except 

unit hs 6 individually filtered sockets .... S93.95 
•ISOLATOR (ISO-51, similar to ISO-2 except 

unit has 3 socket banks, 9 sockets total . . . S76.95 
•CIRCUIT BREAKER, any model ladd-CB) Add S 6.00 
•CKTBRKR/SWITCH/PILOTany model 

(CBS) Add $11. 00 

PHONE ORDERS 1-617-655-1532 ^gT 

IS^ Electronic Specialists, Inc. 



171 South Main Street. Natick. Mass. 01760 



Peptpg 



82 



Dear Len, 

I just finished reading the latest Gazette. You're get- 
ting better each time, and this one continues the trend. 
It brings up niany points I'd like to discuss; as usual, you 
are free to publish any or all of this note. 

First, on the subject of program protection, I agree 
with one of your correspondents in not promoting that 
protection. Recognize that I say that as one who has 
software on the market and hopes to make some money 
from it. But in the personal computer business, the gen- 
eral case of games and the like should not be to make a 
living at programming. First, any program produced on 
cassette can be duplicated; audio techniciues will always 
work, and piracy is therefore always possible. More gen- 
erally, if you had a perfect protection technique, you 
could not make the duplicates to distribute to exploit it! 
Thus, one depends on the honesty of the buyer and on 
reasonable pricing. That is, if someone makes a product 
which is worth the money (e.g., Microchess 2.0), the 
user will be willing to pay for it. On the other hand, if 
one is ripped off for $20 for software not worth $5, one 
gets mad. Therefore, it is necessary that the programs be 
priced in accordance with their worth. I have reviewed 
a lot of PET software recently, and have found none to be 
underpriced, I have found a lot to be overpriced, and 
would expect it to be stolen. 

In reviewing the programs, I have come across sev- 
eral 'protected' against copying. Of course, they aren't 
safe from duplication, but they are difficult to change. 
So, when they are close to being right, or to being mar- 
ketable, they arc not worth the effort to fix. Better just 
reject them, and pass on the comments if you care to 
bother. But the main reason for not protecting code is 
to make it accessible to the user. The best computer 
game I've ever played is Thousand Miles by Frank 
Covitz. (It's for sale by Programma, but this is not a 
plug!) Even chat program needed a few fixes (initialize 
the random number seed, poke 59468, improve the hu- 
man interface) before it was put on the market. If he 
had protected the program, that would have been im- 
practical. And, on my big PET, I want to add some 
graphics, improve the machine algorithm, etc. That ex- 
ercise should be encouraged, not suppressed. For exam- 
ple, some of my simple games give the user directions for 
changes which may personalize the product. That mat- 
ters to me, primarily to persuade the game player that 
he/she can be a game maker. My philosophy is known 
to you from HUNT, and I'm glad to say that the people 
at Programma have been happy to cooperate with me; 
none of my software will be guarded against user modifi- 
cation. Recognizing that that means possible loss of in- 
come to a young, struggling company, I am very appre- 
ciative of their attitude. 

On to the disc question. Commodore seems to have 
solved the hardware problems; my discs are doing fine. 
File handling is excellent, although a bit tedious. The 
essence of the DOS isn't really here yet, although the 



version I have would be a good start if it didn't have a 
significant bug. I assume that the bug is either out by 
now or will be soon, and the new version should be 
workable. I am working on a very sophisticated library 
system now, which looks as though it will hold all of my 
10,000 or so classical recordings on a single disc, with 
access by soloist, conductor, etc. So far so good, and I 
have all but one of the major software elements com- 
pleted. (That one, to merge files, should be done this 
week.) They are trying at Commodore now, although 
they still aren't succeeding in supporting the customers 
very well. Surprise? Oh, come on now! 

Sincerely, 
Mike Richter 

CGRS MICROTECH has announced a 6502 Pro- 
fessional Development System. Using the standard 
SlOO microcomputer bus, the system features the 
CGRS 6502/S100 MPU Board. Additional boards in 
this multi-card computer consist of: the CGRS Multiple 
I/O Board, a SlOO Disk Controller Board and a I6K 
RAM Board. All boards are mounted in a 10 slot SlOO 
Mainframe leaving room for expansion and experiment- 
al hardware. 

The CRS-DOS operating system and a disk operat- 
ing package complete with Editor/ Assembler are 
standard. 

The 6502 PDS comes with dual minifloppy (5") or 
dual full size (8") floppy disks. The minifloppy system 
sells for $2500 and the full size floppy based system sells 
for $3300. Available options include a hardware DMA 
Front Debug Panel ($250), additional 16K RAM ($350), 
9 digit Basic interpreter ($250), Pragmatic Designs 
DBM-1 ROM simulator ($270), and an internal Video 
Terminal ($650). A set of manuals is available separate- 
ly for $25. For additional information, contact: CGRS 
Microtech, P.O. Box 368, Southampton, Pa. 18966 
(215)757-0284. 

Review NEW-CURSOR 
INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL SYSTEMS, 
Box 264 
Woodbridge,VA 22194 

Cursor, not to be confused with the cassette magazine 
of that name, is a reset button to clear a program or stop 
a crashed program without turning off the PET's power. 
This little $4.95 device consists of a pushbutton switch 
mounted with sticky Cape and two jumpers with alligat- 
or clips — one grounded to a board mounting screw, the 
other going to a certain resistor on the board itself. 

Installing cursor takes just a jiffy and it works 
exactly as advertised. One push of the button and you 
are back to the 'bytes free' message on the PET screen. 
Cursor is a worthwhile convenience and well-worth the 
price. 

John Hirsch 



83 



Skylcs Electric Works 



You love your PET, but you'll 
love it more with this BigKeyboard? 




74KB Big KeyBoards® $125.00 (Plus S5.00 shipping & handling) 

The Skyles Big Key B oar d'^'*^. More than 1 5 inclies wide. A layout nearly 

identical to the PET Keyboard and with all functions— alpha, numeric, 

graphics, special symbols, lower case alpha — on full-sized, almost plump. 

key-tops double-shot to guarantee lifetime durability. 

Actual size 

Would you like to turn on your PET 
. . . and see this 




8KB 8K Memory Expansion Systems @ S250.00 

(Plus S3. 50 shipping & handling) 

16KB 16K IVlemory Expansion Systems @ S450.00 

(Plus S5.00 shipping & handling) 

24KB 24K IVlemory Expansion Systems @ S650.00 

(Plus S5.00 shipping & handling) 



* * * COMIVIODORE BASIC * * * 

31743 BYTES FREE 

READY 



Skyles Memory Expansion Systems are complete; nothmg more to buy. • First quality 
static RAMs • Solid soldered on first quality glass epoxy board • Separate PET Adapter 
Printed Circuit Board connects directly to data bus on your PET -no rat's nest of hang- 
ing hand-wiring • Ribbon cable and 50 pin connectors that keep your PET open to the 
outside world (one on the 8KB: two on the 16KB and 24KB). 



.8KB Memory Expansion System(s) at S250 each. 

(Adds 8,192 bytes;tota! \ 5, 3 59){shipping and handling S3.50 each) 

. 16KB Memory Expansion System(s) at S450 each. 

(Adds 16,384 bytes; total 23,55 1 ) [shipping and handling S5.00 each) 
. 24KB Memory Expansion System{s) at S650 each. 

(Adds 1 4,5 76 bytes: total 3 1 ,743) (sliipping and handling $ 7.00 each) 

.74KB Big KeyBoard(s) at Si 25 

(shipping and handling $5.00 each) 
.SPECIAL DEAL(S): 8KB Memory and 74KB KeyBoard at S350 complete 
.SPECIAL DEAL(S): 16KB Memory and 74KB KeyBoard at S525 complete 



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Please add 6% sales tax if you are a California resident; 6.5% if a resident of BART, Santa Clara or Santa Cruz Counties (CA). 
Please add shipping and handling costs as indicated. , 

VISA, MASTERCHARGE ORDERS CALL (800) 227-8398 (except California residents) 
CALIFORNIA ORDERS PLEASE CALL {415) 494-1210 




Skyles Electric Works 



10301 Stonydale Drive 
Cupertino, CA 95014 
(408) 735-7891 



84 



COMPUTE. 



Trace For The PET 



Brett Butler 

3017 Arvida Circle 
Mississauga, Ontario 
Canada L5N 1R6 

I wished I had a TRACE program when I first got my 

PET. Eventually, 1 wrote it myself. 

TRACE allows you to actually see Basic executing. 
It resides in the high end of memory, occupying less 
than 340 bytes. 

It displays each line as it's inperpreted. This means 
that it shows the actual Basic commands being per- 
formed, rather than just listing the line. If part of a line 
is not executed, you won't see it. For example, if you 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 

1080 

1090 

1100 

1110 

1120 

1130 

1140 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1180 

1190 

1200 

1210 

1400 

1410 

1420 

1430 

1440 



PRINT "THIS PROGRAM LOCATES TRACE IN" 
PRIKT"ANY SIZE MEMORY THAT IS FITTED..." 
PRINT"TI-1IS VERSION WORKS ONLY WITH" 
PRINT"ORICIMAL R H PETS - USE ANOTHER" 
PRINT"VERSION FOR THE NEW (16K,32K) KACHIMES" 
DATA-343,162,5,189,181,224,149, 194,202,16,2 
DATA173,-3 43,133,134,173,-342,133, 135,169,2 
DATA3, 13 4, 125, 16 2, 3, 32, -27 2, 20 8, 249,202,208 
DATA76,106,197,162,5,189,-6,149, 194,202,16, 
DATA230, 124, 208,2, 230, 125, 177, 124, 96,230,20 
DATA197,0,8,72,133,79,13 8,72,152, 72,166,137 
DATA228,78,240,107,133,77,133,82, 134,78,134 
DATA3, 133, 74, 202, 208, 253, 136, 208, 250,198,74 
DATA16O,8O,15 3,255,127,136,20 8, 250,132,76,1 
DATA248,160,15,6,82,38,83,162, 253,181,87,11 
DATA136,16,238,216,88,162,2,169, 48,133,89,1 
DATA7 4, 74, 32, -44, 10 4, 44, 15, 32, -44,166,88,20 
DATA165,75,197,201,240,55,165, 79,208,4,133, 
DATA2O8,8,169,94,32,-30,24,144, 33,41,127,17 
DATA3, 200, 208, 248, 200, 202, 16, 244,185,145,19 
DATA245,41,127,32,-32,165,2 01, 133,75,104,16 
DATA173,6 4,232,41,32,208,24 9,15 2, 96,9,48,19 
DATA2, 19 8, 8 9, 41, 6 3, 9, 12 8, 132, 81, 32,-54,164, 
DATA2, 160, 7, 200, 13 2, 76, 16 4, 81, 96, 76,-25 6,32 
S2=PBEK{134)+PEEK(135}*256: Sl=S2-343 
FOR J=S1 TO S2-1 
READ X:IF X>=0 GOTO 1050 

X=INT(Y/256} :Z=Y-X*256 
J=J+1 



have a conditional statement such as: 

100 ON A GOTO 200,300,400 and variable 
A is 2, you'll see: 100 ON A GOTO 200,300, 
or with an IF statement like: 

100 IF A > 5THENB = B + 2 
with A less than 5 you'll see; 100 IF A > 5 THEN B 
with A 5 or over you'll see: 100 IF A > 5 THEN 
B = B + 2 

One more characteristic of TRACE: it also shows 
values that are being input. 

TRACE comes as a Basic program, which POKEs 
the machine language instructions into the proper 
place. It finds the high end of memory, wherever it hap- 
pens to be, and then builds the machine language up 
there. So it doesn't matter if your PET is fitted with 4K, 
8K, 16K or more: TRACE will be packed into the right 
place. 



48,169,239,133,210,96 


55,133,124,160,0,162 


,248,32,-272,32, 


,-272 


248,169,242,133, 


,210,96 


1,208,2,230,202, 


,96,32 


,165,136,197,77, 


,208,4 


,83,173,4,2,208, 


,14,169 


,16,246,32,-54,169,160 


32,84,132,85,132,86,120 


7,87,149,87,232, 


,48,247 


34,88,181,84,72, 


,74,74 


2,16,233,32,-38, 


,32,-38 


77,240,47,16,42, 


,201,255 


0,160,0,185,145, 


,192,48 


2,48,6,32,-32,200,208 


8,104,170,104,40,96,168 


7,89,208,4,169,32,208 


76,153,0,128,192,79,208 


,-263 





Y=X+S2 
POKE J,Z 
POKE J,X 
NEXT J 
PRINT" = 
REM BY 
PR INT "TO 
PR I NT "TO 



=== TRACE ===" 

BRETT BUTLER, TORONTO 

INITIALIZE AFTER LOAD: SYS";S1+17 
ENABLE TRACE: SYS";Sl+56 



PRINT"TO DISABLE: SYS"; Sl+2 

PRINT"CHANGE SPEED WITH: POKE"; S1+124;",X 

PRIMT" = = MAKE A NOTE OF ABOVE COMMAIIDS = =" 

PRINT"SAVE USir.G MACHINE LANGUAGE MONITOR:' 

PRINT" .S 01, TRACE"; 

S=INT(Sl/256) :T=S1-S*256 

POKE 134,T:POKE 135, S 

POKE 130,T:POKE 131, S 

S=S1:GOSUB1400 

S=S2:GOSUB1400 

PRINT: END 

PRINT","; :S=E/4096 

GOSUB1420 

GOSUB1430 

T=INT(S) :IF T>9 THEN 

PRINT CHR5(T+48) ;: S 



Programs may be changed, or new programs 
loaded, without affecting TRACE. It will stay in there 
until you cut power off. All Basic functions operate 
normally (but slower). If you use the STOP key to stop a 
program, hold it down for a few moments until it 
"catches." 



T=T+7 
=(E-INT(S))*16:RETURM 



COMPUTE 



83 



There are two versions of TRACE: one for original 
ROM and one for the new upgrade (16K, 32K) ROM. 

Once the machine language version of TRACE is 
written to fit your machine, it may be used right away 
or saved with the Machine Language Monitor ... Basic 
TRACE tells you how to do this. The machine lang- 
uage version is handier, since it will load more quickly 
— and it may be loaded without disturbing other Basic 
programs previously in memory. 

There are four locations you need to know to run 
TRACE properly. The Basic TRACE loader gives you 
the addresses that apply to your machine. 



7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 



PRINT"THIS PROGRAM LOCATES TRACE IN" 
PRINT"ANY SIZE MEMORY THAT IS FITTED... 
PRINT"THIS VERSION WORKS ONLY WITH" 
PRINT"UPGRADE ROM (32K) PETS - USE 
PRINT"AKOTHER VERSION FOR ORIGINAL R 
PRINT"MACHINES," 



INITIALIZE - seals TRACE into high memory 
and restores any existing Basic programs. Use once after 
loading the machine language TRACE. 

ARM — sets TRACE on. From this point on, Basic 
programs can be TRACE'd 

DISARM - sets TRACE off. TRACE remains 
locked in high memory, but does not act on your Basic 
program. 

Speed Location — Poke any value from 1 to 255 
here, to control the speed of the TRACE display. 

The SYS commands for ARM and DISARM may 
be given directly from a program. So when you're de- 
bugging, you can have your program turn TRACE on 
at a certain point, and turn it off again later. 



M" 



1000 
1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 
1060 
1070 
1080 
1090 
1100 
1110 
1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1160 
1170 
1180 
1190 
1200 
1210 
1220 
1400 
1410 
1420 
1430 
1440 



DATA -342,162,5,189,249,224,149, 112,202,16,24 8,169,239,133,128,96 
DATA 173,-342,133,52,173,-341,133, 53,169,255,133,42,160,0,162,3 
DATA 134,43,162,3,32,-271,208,249, 202,208,248,32,-271,32,-271,76 
DATA 121,197,162,5,189,-6,149,112, 202,16,248,169,242,133,128,96 
DATA 230,42,208,2,230,43,177,42, 96,230,119,208,2,230,120,96 
DATA 32,115,0,8,72,133,195,138,72, 152,72,166,55,165,54,197 
DATA 253,208,4,22 8,254,240,106, 133,253,133,35,134,254,134,36,165 
DATA 152,208,14,169,3,133,107,202, 208,253,136,208,250,198,107,20 8 
DATA 246,32,-54,169,160,160,80, 153,255,127,136,208,250,132,182,132 
DATA 37,132,38,132,39,120,248,160, 15,6,35,38,36,162,253,181 
DATA 40,117,40,149,40,232,48,247, 136,16,238,216,88,162,2,169 
DATA 48,133,103,134,102,181,37,72, 74,74,74,74,32,-44,104,41 
DATA 15,32,-44,166,102,202,16,233, 32,-38,32,-38,165,184,197,119 
DATA 240,55,165,195,208,4,133,253, 240,47,16,42,201,255,208,8 
DATA 169,105,32,-30,24,144,33,41, 127,170,160,0,185,145,192,48 
DATA 3,200,208,248,200,202,16,244, 185,145,192,48,6,32,-32,200 
DATA 208,245,41,127,32,-32,165, 119,133,184,104,168,104,17 0,104,40 
DATA 96,168,173,64,232,41,32,208, 249,152,96,9,48,197,103,208 
DATA 4,169,32,208,2,198,103,41,63, 9,128,132,106,32,-54,164,182 
DATA 153,0,128,192,195,208,2,167, 7,200,132,182,164,106,96,76 
DATA -255,32,-262 

S2=PEEK(52)+PEEK(53)*256: Sl=S2-342 

FOR J=S1 TO S2-1 

READ X:IF X>=0 GOTO 1050 

Y=X+S2:X=INT(Y/256) :Z=Y-X*256 

POKE J,Z:J=J+1 

POKE J,X 

NEXT J 

PRINT" === TRACE ===" 

REMARK: BY BRETT BUTLER, TORONTO 

PRINT"TO INITIALIZE AFTER LOAD: SYS";S1+17 

PRINT"TO ENABLE TRACE: SYS"; 81+56 

PRINT"TO DISABLE: SYS";Sl+2 

PRINT"CHANGE SPEED WITH: POKE " ; Sl+123 ; " ,X" 

PRINT "==MAKE A NOTE OF ABOVE COMMANDS==" 

PRINT"SAVE USING MACHINE LANGUAGE MONITOR:" 

PRINT" .S "; 

S=INT(Sl/256) :T=S1-S*256 

POKE 52,T:POKE 53, S 



POKE 48, T: POKE 49, S 

PRINTCHR$(34) ; "TRACE' 

S=S1:GOSUB1400 

S=S2:GOSUB1400 

PRINT: END 

PRINT", "; :S=S/4096 

GOSUB1420 

GOSUB1430 

T=INT(S) :IF T>9 THEN 

PRINTCHR$ (T+48) ; :S= (S 



,-CHR${34); ",01"; 



T=T+7 
INT(S) )*16 



If you're tracing a dull part of your program, hold 
down the SHIFT key. This will speed things up a bit. 

Special thanks to Jim Butterfield, Toronto; without 
his encouragement and assistance TRACE would still 
be just an idea. 



; RETURN 



86 



COMPUTE. 



32K Programs Arrive: 
Fantasy Role 



Game For The PET 

An overview bv Len Lindsay 



I am very pleased and impressed with the package I re- 
ceived from AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS, PO Box 
4232, Mountain View, CA 94040. 1 refer to it as a pack- 
age because it is more than a tape with a program on it. 
It is professionally packaged. The 60 page manual is 
typeset, well written and easy to understand. The tape 
has custom made cassette labels on each side and is in a 
norelco style hard plastic box. The manual and tape are 
sealed in a plastic "bag." 

It takes about 10 minutes to load the program from 
tape into your PET. Once it is in you can SAVE it on 
disk if you have one. But the tape seems very reliable. It 
LOADED perfectly the first time. The program also re- 
lies on 4 DATA files on the back of the tape. I had no 
problem reading these files either. I should have a small 
program written for the next issue explaining how to 
read DATA from the tape and WRITE it onto your 
disk. 

So, what is this program I am talking about, and 
WHAT DOES IT DO?! 

The program is the first in a series of computer Role 
Playing Games (RPG). The series is called DUNJON- 
QUEST (pronounced like dungeon quest). This first 
program in the series is dtled TEMPLE OF APSHAI. 
The price is $24.95, a bargain for what you get. 

What does it do? Automated Simulations explains 
it well in their brochure. "Explore the ruins of the 
ancient Temple of the god Apshai. Wrest golden trea- 
sures from the grasp of hideous monsters. Delve ever 
deeper into the forgotten labyrinth as you grow into a 
warrior of heroic powress!" The introduction in the 
manual is good at introducing a newcomer to Role Play- 
ing Games (RPG). Part of the introduction goes like 
this: "Role Playing Games (RPGs) allow you a chance to 
step outside a world grown too prosaic for magic and 
monsters, doomed cities and damsels in distress ... and 
enter instead a universe in which only quick wits, the 
strength of your sword arm, and a strangely carved 
talisman around your neck may be the only things se- 
parating you from a pharoah's treasure — or the mandi- 
bles of a giant mantis." 

Role Playing Games try to simulate fantasy worlds 
as realistically as possible. This involves many details. 
Your character is identified by many qualities. How in- 
telligent? How much intuition? How strong? How much 
dexterity? Etc. ... These qualities are used to determine 
outcomes of encounters, or what your character can 
and can't do. You receive silver pieces with which to 



buy swords, armor, etc. The computer does all the hard 
work of figuring out the details. It will tell you if your 
character is not strong enough to swing a Broadsword. 
You should get a smaller one. Buying the equipment is 
enjoyable in itself. You haggle with the Innkeeper over 
the prices. The computer plays the Innkeeper. It also 
uses the information about the qualities of your charac- 
ter to determine how good you are at bargaining. 

This may sound very complicated, but I assure you 
it is NOT. Without a computer to help you it would in- 
deed be extremely complex and require several people 
to play one game. But remember the PET is very capa- 
ble and does all the complex duties for you. And no 
cither players are needed. This is a solotaire game, the 
PET plays for everyone else. This game is for anyone 
who is tired of simple "video games." 

There are over 200 rooms to roam about in. The 
PET displays a graphic display of your location on the 
screen along with a status summary. You do not just 
move from room to room. The rooms are BIG and you 
walk around in them, watch out for trap doors. You in- 
spect the walls for secret doors. You have to open the 
door before you can go through it. It is important which 
way you are facing. You can walk up to 9 steps in the di- 
rections you are facing in one turn. Or you may use one 
of your turns to turn left. 

This is a real time game. If you don't move, the 
monsters will. You can choose to talk to them (which is 
very risky), run away (if you can make it) or attack 
them. Several methods of attack are available. You may 
also have a bow and some arrows (maybe even magic ar- 
rows). It is safest to shoot at monsters from far away 
since they then can not strike back. Your arrow shots 
are visually animated on the screen as are your sword 
swings. 

There is one important distinction about RPGs. 
When the game is over, if you survived, your character 
still lives on. He is richer, stronger, and has more exper- 
ience. The extra money can be used to buy better 
armor. And his experience is one of the factors that the 
PET uses to determine outcomes of batdes. The more 
experience, the better fighter you are. You can leave the 
game anytime you like. The PET gives you a summary 
of your character and his treasures and armor. You sim- 
ply jot this information down. Next time you play, the 
PET asks you if you would like a new character created 
— say no, and then simply enter your data on the char- 
acter you already have. You will get to know your "alter 
ego" very well, and begin to identify with him. You will 
learn that he is not very good at shooting arrows, but 
can run well. Best of all, you can take your character to 
other role playing games, either manual ones or the 
computer controlled games soon to be released. 

DUNJONQUEST is quite an experience. I am very 
pleased with it and rate it as one of my favorite PET pro- 
grams. A word of caution though. This is a serious 
game. Be prepared to THINK. Be ready to alter your 



COMPUTE. 



87 



strategy when it backfires. Oh, and you might be happy 
to know, that if your character dies, there is a good 
chance that the wizard will find and resurrect him (for a 
fee of course). But then again, his body and soul might 
get devoured by a monster first. You must see for your- 
self. Happy Gaming!! 



Review 

THE BASIC SWITCH 

Modell5-A $99.95 

$149.95 with BASIC Programmer's Toolkit 

Small System Services, Inc. 

900 Spring Garden St. 

Greensboro, NC 27403 ,^ 

Like many early purchasers of the Commodore PET, I 
looked forward to the introduction of the normal sized 
keyboard 16 and 32K models. When one arrived local- 
ly, the first entry I made was a SYS(64824) call which on 
the old PET's initializes the operating system and prints 
out the free memory. 1 was surprised when this crashed 
the system. After recovering by turning the 16K PET off 
and on, I PEEKed location 135 and found that this loca- 
tion couldn't possibly contain the upper limit of mem- 
ory (for a 16K PET this should be 64 and it was some- 
thing like 255). Then I looked at the manual and discov- 
ered that a drastic revision of key memory locations oc- 
curred in the process of getting the "bugs" out of the old 
operating system. In as much as many programs 1 had 
developed since 1976 depend on calls to the operating 
system, I was upset to say the least. 

As Fm sure is the case with many, 1 have learned to 
live with the bugs in the original PET BASIC and have 
developed many programs within its not too serious 
limitations. While most simple — all BASIC — pro- 
grams will run on either version of the PET, many as- 
sembly language programs will run into trouble (for ex- 
ample, unused page locations on the old PETs may be 
used on the new ones and using these locations for tem- 
porary storage can bomb the system). The only near 
saving grace was that the manual accompanying the 
new PETs did have a reasonable memory map (it took a 
year and six months to get the equivalent from Com- 
modore for my old PET but fortunately other owners 
beat that record) so there was hope of revising my oper- 
ating system software to be compatible with the new 
machines. But could I count on new software to be com- 
patible with my old PET? Should I order the new 
ROM's and take advantage of the fixed bugs and the 
ROM monitor? But then my high memory monitor 
(which includes a dissassembler) wouldn't work. Would 
new peripherals from Commodore (especially IEEE 
ones) work with the old ROM's? I soon found my word 
processing program would not work with the new 



ROM. These were some of the many questions that 
crossed my mind. The BASIC SWITCH is the solution 
for being able to use either the old or new ROM's with- 
out having to do any more than throw a switch. The 
change can be made without turning off the PET and 
the system is re-initialized bv the process, i.e. "### 
COMMODORE BASIC ###" or "*** COMMO- 
DORE BASIC ***" and "XXXX BYTES FREE" are 
printed out depending on which set of ROM's you have 
just switched in. This device does not tie up any of the 
ports so if you have peripherals like the CGRS PEDISK 
or the BETSI, you can still use them. As an added ex- 
tra, the SWITCH has an empty socket for EPROM. I 
have seen the SWITCH in operation with a BASIC 
PROGRAMMERS TOOL KIT (Palo Alto IC's, A Divi- 
sion of Nestar Systems, Inc.). The empty socket is a zero 
force insertion socket so other ROM's can easily be sub- 
stituted (finally the flexibility of a plug in ROM!). Al- 
though the Tool Kit has been reviewed elsewhere, I can 
add my enthusiasm for this product after having seen it 
in action. The 15th ROM socket can be readdressed in 
the area reserved for ROM expansion in the old PET's 
(starting at $B00O) in order to avoid conflict with other 
additional ROM's (for example the DOS boot in ROM 
for the CGRS PEDISK is addressed starting at $BO00). 
In summary, the BASIC SWITCH offers old PET 
owners the advantages of the new ROM's while at the 
same time avoiding the time consuming process of re- 
writing existing operating system dependent software. 
As an added bonus, ROM-packs like the BASIC Pro- 
grammer's Tool Kit (and hopefully others in the future) 
can be used. 

Dr.J.A. Dilts 

Department of Chemistry 

University of North Carolina at Greensboro 

Greensboro, NC 27412 



Instant Software, Inc. of Peterborough, NH, has re- 
leased its catalog of over 300 programs for the fall of 
1979. 

For a copy, inquire at your local computer store, or 
write: Instant Software, Inc., Catalog Dept., Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. 

The North London Hobby Computer Club, (HoUoway, 
London N78DB) entering its second year, is now a re- 
cognised "course" within the Polytechnic of North Lon- 
don. Called Recreational Computing, it entides all of its 
members to the benefits of being a part-time student. 
Contact them for more information. 



S8 



COMPUTE, 



P.S. Software House 



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I STOCK MARKET • TRADER 
ENTREPRENEUR 

I OPTION ANALYSIS SYSTEM 

This system in slriclljr for the market speculator. Working 
with price, calculated vctatility, and calculated average daily 
premium , this system picks the best buys from 75 or more 
options. Judgement by theanalyst is required. For *35.00 
you receive two programs plus eaimple doto bose and instruc- 
tion manual. TRS80 LEVEL H and PET 

STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS SYSTEM | 

I Technical analysis, i2dailyand ISweekly indicators, for the 
stock market enthusiast. This system signaled the Oct. 78 
debacle. For ^25.00 you receive two programs plus dota base 
and 27 page detailed instruction manual. 
TRS 80 LEVEL I or I 16 K and PET 

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS SYSTEM 

Includes two programs and hord copy instructions for better con- 
trol of your stock and option transaction. For?20,00you receive 
I software with eight analysis routines.Tvm of these routines are 
stock transactions which made money and option transactions 
which mode money. Six more program routines existwith some 
consideration given to taxes. Please indicate ■ 
TRS 80 LEVEL I 16K or PET 8K 

ACCOUNTING ANALYSIS SYSTEM 

Includes two progroms and hard copy instructions forasmall 
cash enterprise. From your data base a Prof it and Loss State- 
ment OS well as a Balance Sheet ore produced. In addition simple 
budget comparisonsare mode. Please remit $20.00 and indicote^ 
TRS 80 LEVEL I 16 K or PET BK 

LETTER PROCESSER 

This program for TRS 80 owners with printers. Generotes letters 
to different individuals with the some body. Cassette filestores 
names and addresses. Remit* 15.00. 



Distributed by 



STEVEN E.SHAW PE. 
RO. Box 1707 
Tampa, Florido 33601 



master charge 



THE BRAND NEW 

EXCEL TX-80 

DOT MATRIX PRINTER 

$560°° 



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STANDARD FEATURES: 

• 80 columns on plain paper with adjustable paper width 

• 150 characters per second (70 lines per minute) throughput; 

• Friction feed standard, tractor feed at $25 more 

• 96 character set (upper and lower case) plus PET's* 
graphic set 

• Elongated character (double width printing) 

• Microprocessor control and self-test when power up 

• Centronics compatible parallel interface 
. 90 days warranty parts and labor 

OPTIONAL INTERFACE BOARDS & CABLE SETS: 

• PET-, APPLE W. TRS-eO' and serial interface board available 
at $60 each 

• All our interface boards reside inside the printer and does 
not require extra power supply 

• Cable for each interface is available at extra cost 



SEND ORDERS TO: 

P. O Box 1147 

El Cerrito, Calil- 94530 

Phone: (415) 465-4240 

TERMS: 

• Checks, Masler Charge 
and Visa accepted • Allow 
up to 4 weeks lor delivery 

• Please add Si 5 per 
printer for shipping & 
handiing • Calif residents 
add 6% sales tax 



EXCEL COMPANY 

MICRO COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

616 GRAND AVENUE 
OAKLAND, CALIF. 94610 

We are the original PET" Keyboard 
Interface people 

*Trad. M.rlti of Commodore, Apple a Tandy Corp, 



COMPUTI. 



89 



Non-Stop PETS, Old And New 

Contributed by Micro Software Systems 

This note provides a method for disabling the STOP 
key on either old (2001-4, 2001-8) or new (2001-16, 
2001-32) PETs with a single algorithm, even though the 
locations and contents to be POKED are different. It is 
based on Len Lindsay's PET-POURRI column in the 
July 1979 issue of Kilobaud Microcomputing, but pro- 
vides a correction and avoids a potential problem in the 
procedure he presented. 

In PETs using Version 1 ROMs (models 2001-4 and 
2001-8 which have not been modified), the STOP key is 
disabled with 
10 POKE 537,136 
and re-enabled with 
20 POKE 537,133 

PETs equipped with Version 2 ROMs (2001-16, 
2001-32, and modified 2001-4 and 2001-8) may use the 
following to disable the STOP. 
10 POKE 144,49 
To re-enable the STOP, 
20 POKE 144,46 

A composite procedure, which will work on either 
machine, is based on the contents of memory location 
(50003) ... a fact which was brought to my attention by 
Ted Polczynski, attributed again to Len Lindsay. In the 
old ROM, PEEK (50003) gives a value of 0, while the 
new ROM returns a value of 1. The following BASIC 
program segment uses that value to adjust a POKE com- 
mand for the machine it's running on. 
To disable the STOP, use 

lOPT = PEEK (50003): SL = 537-393*FT: DL = 136- 
87*PT: POKE SL, DL 
To re-enable the STOP, use 

20PT = PEEK (5003); SL = 537-393*PT: DL = 133-87*PT: 
POKE SL, DL 

The advantage of this version of the routine is that 
it always pokes the same value into the control location, 
no matter how many times the program is run. 
Versions of the form 
POKE SL, PEEK (SL) + 3 

can cause unpredicted results (including loss of control) 
if they are executed more than once. 



Julian Allason, of Petsoft, is interested in acquiring Eur- 
opean rights for programs for PET, TRS 80 and Apple 
personal computers. For more information, write him 
at: Applied Computer Techniques Limited, Petsoft 
Division, 5/6 Vicarage Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham 
B15 3ES 

A new catalog listing books, software and merchandise 
from Creative Computing (P.O. Box 789-M, Morris- 
town, NJ 07960) can be obtained by calling toll-free 
800-631-8112. 



Un-Crashing On 
Upgrade ROM Computers 

Jim Butterfield, Toronto 

If you do much work in machine language, sooner or 
later you'll write a program that will crash. 

Formerly, you were out of luck. Unless you were 
lucky enough to stumble into a type 1 crash — which 
would take you to the Machine Language Monitor, or 
to an ?INVALID NUMERIC statement — your only re- 
medy would be to reset, and wipe memory. 

Type 2 crashes (tight loops) could be guarded 
against with a little preparation involving fiddling with 
the interrupt structure. But the nasty type 3 crash (X2 
codes) cannot be fixed without kicking the Reset line; 
and Reset means memory test, and memory test means 
you'll have to reload your program. 

No more. On upgrade ROMs, you can come out of 
a hard crash with memory preserved. 

Method: Set the diagnostic sense pin to ground; 
then kick the Reset line. The processor will re-awaken 
in the Machine Language Monitor with memory 
preserved. 

There's more: you're not yet out of the woods. Type 
a semicolon followed by RETURN; PET will respond 
with a question mark. Now move the cursor back to 
your register display line, and change the Stack Pointer 
(SP) value from 01 to F8. This strange procedure is im- 
portant: you must follow it exactly. Once you've done 
so, you're clear. You may return to Basic with an X if 
you like, or proceed in the MLM. 

Hardware: To make the diagnostic sense pin: take a 
standard 12-pin edge connector and wire pin 5 (diagnos- 
tic sense) to pin N (ground). Key the connector so it sits 
on the parallel user port. Plug it in whenever you want 
to un-crash, but don't leave it on the machine. 

The Reset button is a little trickier, since you have 
to know where to connect it. Check with someone 
who's knowledgeable on PET hardware. 

Commercial sources: International Technical Sys- 
tems. Box 264, Woodbridge VA 22194 makes a Reset 
button. 

Gord Reithmeier, 411 Duplex Avenue, Apt. 11, 
Toronto Canada M4R 1 V2, makes two uncrashing de- 
vices, either of which fits on the Parallel User Port; they 
include a diagnostic pin toggle switch and a Reset but- 
ton. An IC clip snakes inside PET's cover to connect to 
the reset line. Instructions are included. The basic unit 
sells for $20; or for $30 the unit also includes the Poor 
Man's D/ A converter. 



Song data and sequencing data which are compatible 
with the MTU music software for PET computers are 
available from F. Covitz, Deer Hill Rd., Lebanon, N.J. 
08833. Price is $1.00 per page. Write him for a list of cur- 
rent offerings. 



90 



Review 

8-BIT DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER 

Micro Technology Unlimited — $50 
Review by Arthur Hunkins 

Micro Technology Unlimited has produced an excellent 
DAC board for advanced home music applications. It 
contains an on-board filter and audio amplifier, and ex- 
tends its connectors (user and cassette ports) to fingers 
on the opposite side, an important advantage for new 
PET's, It additionally provides a CB2 input to the audio 
amplifier section, bypassing the filter, and facilitating 
the board's use in simple, traditional musical 
applications. 

Technical specifications and overall design are su- 
perior. The unit comes with a good manual that in- 
cludes schematic, board layout, parts list, principles of 
operation, troubleshooting guide, and a modest amount 
of installation and test information. One problem: only 
a two-line program is given to verify correct operation 
of all sections, a program that, if successful, produces 
the sound of a "misfiring race car!" No other user soft- 
ware is included, only the suggestion that you purchase 
the K- 1002-2 Advanced Music Software package for 
$20. (This advanced software package, which will be the 
subject of a January review, is entirely in machine lang- 
uage, and like many sophisticated programs, will not yet 
work on the new PET's. It does demonstrate, the capabil- 
ity of producing four-part harmony, each part with a 
unique tone color.) 

For any musical application short of a stand-alone 
composition, use of the HUH Petunia software is recom- 
mended. It runs without modification on MTU's D/A 
converter. The Petunia software is a straightforward 
PET adaptation of one of Hal Chamberlin's Sept. 1977 
Byte magazine programs. (This important article of 
Chamberlin's, "A Sampling of Techniques for Comput- 
er Performance of Music," reprinted in the Byte Book of 
Computer Music, is the source for 6502 microprocessor 
musical applications, including HUH software and 
hardware, and the --arious products MTU is marketing 
for the Kim and PET. Of course, Hal Chamberlin is Mr. 
Music at Micro Techno.logy.) 

The Petunia software (also in machine language 
though loaded by BASIC) can be easily modified to fit 
in the upper .5K of user memory, rather than IK. Un- 
fortunately, even this otherwise highly useful sound 
generating routine must be substantially modified to 
run on new PET's. 

The MTU DAC is powered by the PET's own + 5 
volts at the cassette port, a significant design feat for 
both filter and amplifier. It consumes little power 
(quiescent: less than 50ma; worst case drain: 300ma). 
The filter cuts off sharply at 3.5kHz, and is of a six-pole, 
.5db Chebyshev design. Power output is 300mw into an 
8 ohm load (4-16 ohm permitted). The output features 
on-board trimpot and RCA phono jack. I use a modi- 
fied ($6) Realistic Junction Box with two sets of head- 
phones, switchable to a small speaker. The manufacturer 



Micro Computer 
Industries, Ltd. 

1532 East Mulberry Unit H 

Ft. Collins, Colorado 80524 

Phone 303 22 M 955 

CBM or PET Inventory Control 

Cassette version, 8K PET $39.95 

Disk version, 2500 items per drive with 
history and data base management. 
Writes purchase orders; sorts by 1 fields; 
no computer experience required. $100.00 

Instructions $10.00 refundable with purchase 

Complete system with 32K computer, 
2040 disk drive, 2022 tractor printer with 
inventory controi $3,585.00 



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. PET . PET . PET . PET • PET • PET . PET . PET . PET • PET • PET . PET • PET . I 



COMFUTf. 



91 



suggests hookup to an external amplifier for uses re- 
quiring greater volume. One additional plus: jumper 
connections are readily accessible for obtaining at the 
output jack either the raw DAC, or unamplified filter 
signal. 

Minor hardware disadvantages are as follows: 1) the 
connector finger extensions are not keyed (a hacksaw 
cures this problem fast), and 2) the cassette deck fingers 
are brought out on the lower side of the board. Since ex- 
ternal cassettes use the upper connections, this is a not- 
able inconvenience for those intending to use the board 
(eventually!) with the new PET's. However, a modest 
amount of rewiring (six jumpers) can dispose of this 
difficulty. 

For anyone interested in more than one-voice 
music making with pulse waves, MTU's digital-to- 
analog converter is an e.xcellent buy. If you don't hap- 
pen to have the $50 this unit is well worth, there is an- 
other answer to "making chords," that is, if you don't 
care about filtering, but do like to put (very) simple cir- 
cuits together, build Jim Butterfield's "Poor Man's D/A 
Converter" (PET Gazette, Spring 1979). I did - for $5 
in parts on the back of a user port edge connector (the 
connector is half of the $5). It works quite satisfactorily, 
even without 1% resistors — using the Petunia software 
and external amplifier/speaker. 

FOOTNOTE 

Note/* for "CB2" 

"CB2 sound" is a single pitch, 5-vo!t pulse wave available at the CB2 pin on the ustr 
port. To hear it without the MTU DAC, attach a live lead to the CB2 pin on the user 
port (see Commodore manual), and another to one of the j^round connections on the 
same port. Do this through an edge connector. Attach the other ends to the line level 
(auxiliary) input of an amplifier/speaker. See also reference in this article to "Poor Man's 
D/A Convcrtor," vhkh handles "CB2 sound." 



Review 



ti 



BRIDGE CHALLENGER" 



Author — George Duisman 
Personal Software 
P.O. Box 136-M 
Cambridge, MA, 02138 

"BRIDGE CHALLENGER" consists of 2 programs; 
BRIDGE deals hands randomly and defends against 
you, and DEALER is used to save special deals on cas- 
sette tape {BRIDGE will accept these tapes in lieu of the 
random hands). There is no bidding sequence; the hu- 
man player simply selects the contract after viewing 
both the North and South hands. Hands inay be re- 
played (good for trying alternate lines of play) and if you 
don't like the N-S hands you can request to play E-W 
(but then PET defends with the N-S hands, now 
labelled E-W). 

The defense suffers from the absence of bidding 



cues, but it is no pushover. 1 tested it against defensive 
deals 41-46 in Alfred Sheinwold's A SHORT CUT TO 
WINNING BRIDGE (1961), and although I am far from 
an expert, I was able to make 4 of the 6 hands (2 with an 
over-trick) on my first try. Best defense sets all 6 
contracts. 

The program is in 'packed' BASIC, but is a tight fit 
in PET's 7167 bytes; I finally got tired of the OUT OF 
MEMORY ERROR message and deleted Line 3, a REM 
statement (Sorry, George!); it works fine now. 

The program should be, helpful to beginners who 
need experience as declarer, or to experienced players 
who want to try alternate lines of play. It has never fail- 
ed to toad, and there is reasonable documentation, 
neatly printed. It exists; it works; and I found it to be 
well worth the money. 

Ken Morse , 




The Original Cassette Magazine 
for the Commodore PET. 

• Five excellent programs come to you each month on a C-30 
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92 



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93 



Using Direct Access Fiies 
Witli Tlie Commodore 2040 
Dual Drive Disk 

Chuck Stuart, President 
CMS Software Systems 
5115 Me nefee Drive 
Dallas, TX 75227 

One of the main advantages of using direct access files is 
the ability to access any record in a file directly without 
having co read through the entire file. With direct ac- 
cess, the last record in a file can be located and read into 
memory just as fast as the first record. Also, any record 
in a direct access file may be read into memory, up- 
dated, and then written back to the file without disturb- 
ing the other records in the file. 

Although true direct access files are not directly 
supported in the current 2040 Disk Operating System, 
Commodore has provided a series of disk utility com- 
mands that will, in effect, allow direct access file pro- 
cessing. The difference being that instead of the DOS 
keeping up with the track and sector addresses of each 
record in the file, a separate sequential file must be 
maintained to hold the record keys and address point- 
ers. If for instance, the direct access file is a Customer 
account file keyed by account number, then the sequen- 
tial file would hold an account number for each record 
in the account file plus the track and sector addresses 
for each record. This sequential file must be loaded into 
an array in memory before any processing of the direct 
access file can take place. To access a specific account, 
the array must be searched for the desired account 
number and then the corresponding track and sector 
numbers are used to directly access the record. 

If the 2040 supported true direct access file process- 
ing, it would only be necessary to indicate the account 
number in the INPUT# or PRINT# statement and the 
DOS would keep up with the track and sector addresses 
in it's own directory. Hopefully this will be implemented 
in a later version of the DOS. 

It will probably be a little easier to understand and 
successfully use direct access files if you understand how 
a disk is laid out in tracks and sectors. Each disk has 35 
tracks, each track is divided into from 16 to 20 sectors, 
and each sector holds 256 bytes of data. Each byte will 
hold one character. Since an entire sector is read from 
or written to the disk at a time, sectors are generally re- 
ferred to as data blocks or simply 'blocks,' Tracks and 
sectors do not physically exist on the disk but are elec- 
tronically impressed upon the surface material of the 
disk during the NEWing process, hence the expression 
'soft sectored,' Track 18, being centrally located in the 
middle of the disk, is used by the 2040 DOS to hold the 
directory. The remaining 34 tracks are available to the 
user. If you're having trouble visualizing the tracks and 
sectors on a disk, think of the disk as a bull's eye target 
and the rings on the target as the tracks on the disk. 



Now if you cut the target into pie shaped wedges, you 
can see how the tracks are divided into sectors or data 
blocks, 

Reading data into your program from the disk or 
writing data to the disk from your program using direct 
access is a two step process. To read data from a direct 
access file into your program, you must first load the 
data from the disk into one of the 256 byte disk buffers 
with the 'BLOCK-READ' disk utility command. Once 
the data block has been successfully loaded into the 
buffer, it can then be read into memory with a standard 
input# statement. The process is just the reverse when 
writing data from your program to a direct access file. 
You first write the data to a buffer using a PRINT# 
statement, then the data must be loaded from the buffer 
onto the disk with the 'BLOCK-WRITE' disk utility 
command. It is important to understand this process. 
The 'BLOCK-READ' command loads an entire 256 
byte sector from the disk into a buffer and makes it 
available to your program through a standard INPUT# 
statement. The 'BLOCK- WRITE' command takes the 
contents of an entire 256 byte disk buffer and loads it 
onto a sector of the disk. It makes no difference if the 
record contained only one byte of data, it still occupies 
one entire 256 byte sector on the disk. Later I will ex- 
plain how to place multiple records in a sector using the 
BUFFER-POINTER disk utility command. 

One other area to cover is the BLOCK AVAILA- 
BILITY MAP (BAM). This is a reference map used by 
DOS to keep up with which blocks are being used and 
which blocks are available for use. To keep DOS from 
overwriting your direct access files with sequential files, 
you must flag those blocks on the BAM so DOS will 
know they are being used. As we will see later, this is 
done with the 'BLOCK- ALLOCATE' disk utility 
command. 

Now that the general concept of direct access files 
and how they work on the Commodore 2040 Dual 
Drive Disk has been explained, the actual coding neces- 
sary to do the job will be examined line by line. Lines 
500 to 680 would be part of the main program while 
lines 1000 to 1520 are subroutines which execute the 
various disk utility commands as required. The subrou- 
tines will be examined first, then the main program. 

Lines 1000-1090 

This subroutine is called after each disk utility or 
read/ write command to check the error channel, chan- 
nel 15, to see if a disk error has occurred. If an error has 
occurred, the error number and error message are dis- 
played along with the track and sector address where 
the error occurred. If the error number is '00' then no 
error occurred and control returns to the main program. 

Lines 1100-1190 

This subroutine is used to allocate or reserve one 
sector on the disk through the use of the 'Block- Allo- 
cate' disk utility command in line 1 1 10. The sector is 
flagged on the BAM so DOS will not use it later for 
storage of sequential files. Looking at line 1 1 10, 'D' is 



94 



COMPUTE. 



the disk drive number, 'T' is the track number, and 'S' 
is the sector number. These values must be preset in the 
main program. After line 1 1 10 requests the allocation, 
line 1 120 reads the error channel to see if an error has 
occurred. If no error has occurred, control returns to 
the main program. If the error number is 65, this means 
that the requested block has already been allocated. But 
lo and behold, DOS has been kind enough to locate the 
track and sector numbers of the next available block 
and place them in ET$ and ES$. These values are 
placed in T and S and we again request allocation. Two 
important points must be remembered. DOS does not 
automatically allocate the next available block. It just 
tells you where it is. To allocate the block, you must re- 
set 'T' and 'S' to the values returned in 'ET$' and 'ES$' 
and then reissue the 'Block-Allocate' command in line 
1 1 10. The other thing to remember is that for a block to 
be successfully allocated, a direct access file must be 
open when the 'Block-Allocate' command is given and 
that the block will not actually be reservered on the 
BAM until that file is closed. Allocating a block will not 
keep you from writing on it. It just keeps DOS from 
writing on it. 

Lines 1200-1220 

This subroutine is used to free a previously allo- 
cated block. The 'Block-Free' command is the exact op- 
posite of the 'Block- Allocate' command. In line 1210, 
'D' is the disk drive number and 'T' and 'S' hold the 
track and sector address of the block to be freed. After 
the command has been executed, line 1220 sends con- 
trol to the error channel routine. If no error occurred, 
control returns to the main program. This routine is 
used to delete records from a direct access file by immed- 
iately releasing the block back to DOS. There is there- 
fore no need for periodic system housekeeping to re- 
claim unused disk space. As with the 'Block-Allocate' 
command, a direct access file must be open when the 
'Block-Free' command is given, and the block is not act- 
ually flagged as available until the file is closed. 

Lines 1300-1320 

This subroutine is used to make a block on the 
disk available for reading by your program. In the 
'Block-Read' utility command, line 1310, 'CH' holds the 
channel number, 'D' holds the disk drive number, and 
'T' and 'S' hold the track and sector addresses of the 
block to be read. When the command is executed, a 256 
byte data block is read from the disk and placed in one 
of the disk buffers. The data can then be read into mem- 
ory with a standard INPUTS statement. After the block 
is read in from the disk, line 1320 sends control to the 
error check routine and, if no error has occurred, con- 
trol returns to the main program, 

Lines.1400-1420 

This subroutine u.ses the 'Block- Write' utility com- 
mand to write the contents of a 256 byte buffer onto the 
disk. Again, 'CH' holds the channel number, 'D' holds 
the disk drive number, and 'T' and 'S' hold the track 
and sector addresses of the sector where the data is to be 



placed. Before this routine is executed, data should be 
placed in the buffer using the PRINT# statement. After 
execution, control passes to the error check routine and 
then back to the main program. 

Lines 1500-1520 

This routine uses the 'Buffer-Pointer' utility com- 
mand to set the buffer pointer to the byte in the buffer 
where reading or writing is to begin. Correct use of 
this routine will allow multiple records per sector, giving 
more efficient utilization of disk space. In line 1510, 
'CH' is the channel number and 'BP' is the byte pointer. 
If 'BP' is set to a value less than 1, it will be treated as 
though it were set to 1. If set to a value greater than 255, 
it will wrap around and begin at I again. Setting 'BP' to 
260 has the same effect as setting it to 5. After execu- 
tion, line 1520 directs control through the error check 
routine and back to the main program. 

Lines 500 to 590 

These lines show the coding necessary to write rec- 
ords to a direct access file. They would be part of the 
main program. 

Line 510 opens the command/error channel, chan- 
nel 15, and assigns it to file number 15. Channel 15 
must be opened and assigned to a file before any com- 
munication between computer and disk can take place. 

Line 520 sets the channel variable to 3 and the disk 
drive variable to 1. The channel can be set to any un- 
used channel between 3 and 15. The drive number is set 
to 1 for the left drive or for the right drive. 

Line 530 opens file number 1 and assigns it to chan- 
nel 'CH.' In this case, 3. The '#' tells DOS that this is a 
direct access file. 

Line 540 is used to locate the next available sector 
and allocate it on the BAM. 'T' is set to 1 and 'S' is set 
to because that is the address of the first sector on the 
disk. If that sector has been allocated, the next available 
sector is automatically located and allocated by the sub- 
routine in lines 1200 to 1290. 

Line 550 sets the buffer pointer to 1 so DOS will 
begin writing at the first byte in the buffer. 

Line 560 writes the record data to the buffer begin- 
ning at the byte referenced by the buffer pointer. 

Line 570 writes the buffer to the disk sector previ- 
ously allocated in line 540. At this point, 'T' and 'S' 
must be saved along with whatever record key is being 
used so that this record can be found on the disk later. 

Line 580 closes the direct access file opened in line 
530. 

Lines 600 to 680 

This subroutine contains the coding necessary to 
read records from a direct access file. It would be part of 
the main program. 

Line 610 opens file number 1 and assigns it to the 
preset channel in 'CH.' The '#' tells DOS that this is a 
direct access file. 

Line 620 loads a block of data from the disk and 
places it in the buffer assigned to channel 'CH.' 'T' and 
'S' must be set to the address of the sector where the de- 



95 



sired record is located. 

Line 630 sets the buffer pointer to begin reading at 
the first byce in the buffer. 

Line 640 reads the record data from the buffer into 
the program. 

Line 650 checks the status word. 

Line 670 closes the direct access file. 

This program will run as is. It will write the num- 
bers 1 through 10 to the disk and then read them back 
in. If you add a line to the program that will print T,' 
'S,' and the array 'A$' on the screen, you can verify that 
the correct data was written to and then read from the 
disk and even see to which sector it was written. Notice 
that each time the program is run, a new sector is 
allocated and used. These sectors will become wasted 
space on the disk unless you free them with the 'Block- 
Free' command. Add a GOSUB 1200 at line 665 and 
notice that now the program reuses the same sector 

500 REM WRITE A DIRECT ACCESS RECORD 

510 OPEH 15,8,15 :GOSUE 1000 

520 CH=3 :D=1 

530 OPEN 1,8,CH,"#" :G0SU31GDD 

540 T=l :S=G :C-OSUB 1100 

550 BP-1 :GOSUB15D0 

560 FOR 1 = 1 TO 10 :PRINT#1,I CHR5 { 13 ) ; : NEXT I 

570 GOSUB 1400 

580 CLOSE 1 

600 REM READ A DIRECT ACCESS RECORD 

610 OPEH 1,8,CH,"#" :GOSUB 1000 

620 GOSUB 1300 

630 BP=1 :GOSUB 1500 

640 FOR 1=1 TO 10 :INPUTiJl, A$(I) 

650 IF ST THEH 1=10 

560 NEXT I 

670 CLOSE 1 

690 END 

1000 REM ERROR CHANNEL INPUT ROUTINE 

1010 INPUT#15, EM$,EM$,ET5,ES? 

1020 IF EM$="0O" GOTO 1090 

1030 PRINT " DISK ERROR S" EN? " " EMS " " ET$ 

1040 INPUT " CONTINUE? "; AS 

1050 IF A5<>"y" THEN STOP 

10 90 RETURN 

1091 REM 

1100 REM ALLOCATE 1 D/A BLOCK 

1110 PRINT#15, "B-A";D;T;S 

1120 INPUTifl5,EN$,EM$,ETS,ESS 

1130 IF EN$="00" GOTO 1190 

1140 IF EN$="65" THEN T=VAL{ET$) : S=VAL(ES$) 

1150 GOTO 1030 

1190 RETURN 

1191 REM 

1200 REM FREE 1 D/A BLOCK 

1210 PRINT#15, ''B-F",-D;T;S 

1220 GOTO 1000 

12 91 REM 

1300 REM READ D/A BLOCK 

1310 PRINT#15, "B-R";CHrD;TfS 

1320 GOTO 1000 

1391 REM 

14 00 REM V?RITE D/A BLOCK 

1410 PRINTfilS, "B-V7";CHrD,-T;S 

1420 GOTO 1000 

1491 REM 

1500 REM SET BUFFER POINTER 

1510 PRINT#15, "B-P";CH;BP 

1520 GOTO 1000 



each time. Why? What would happen if you moved the 
GOSUB 1200 to line 675? Why? 

Now we will explain how to write more than one 
record to a sector. If you've followed everything up to 
this point, especially the section on the 'Buffer-Pointer' 
command, then you have probably pretty well figured it 
out for yourself. 

If each record in a direct access file occupies one 
entire sector of the disk, then each disk will only hold a 
maximum of about 670 records. If each record 
contained only a few bytes of data, this would be a 
totally unacceptable waste of valuable disk space. In 
order to achieve maximum use of the available disk 
space, we must pack the maximum number of records to 
a sector. 

In order to do this it is necessary to reduce the 
record size to the minimum number of bytes that will 
store the necessary data. Most DOS allow data to be 
written to the disk in binary format like the data is 
stored in memory. In other words, integer data re- 
quires two bytes of disk space and floating point data 
requires five bytes. Although 2040 DOS is an excellent 
first release version, this type of disk packing is one of 
the standard DOS features not supported. Data is 
written to the disk in the same form it is written on the 
screen, each character takes one byte of disk space. In 
addition, numeric data includes leading and trailing 
blanks. For this reason it is usually more efficient to 
write data to the disk in string format. String data occu- 
pies one byte of disk space for each character in the 
string. In addition, if the record contains more than one 
data field, then each field must be followed by a CAR- 
RIAGE RETURN, CHR$(13), field delimiter. This re- 
quires one extra byte per field. If each field in the record 
is always the same size, in other words the record con- 



ES? 



GOTO 1110 



tains no string fields such as CUSTOMER NAME that 
vary in size from record to record, then all the fields can 
be concatenated into a single string field before writing 
the record to the disk. This could result in a consider- 
able saving since no field delimiters would be required. 
Upon reading the record back in, it could be split up 
into the original fields with the MID$ statement. 

Once the maximum record size has been deter- 
mined, divide the record size in bytes into 255 to deter- 
mine the maximum number of records that can be 
stored on a single sector of the disk. For example, if each 
record in the file has been determined to have a maxi- 



96 



mum length of 20 bytes including all necessary field de- 
limiters, then by dividing 20 into 255 we see that we can 
store 12 records per sector. Since the zero byte is used 
by DOS as an EOI pointer, the first record begins in 
byte 1, the second record in byte 21, the third record in 
byte 31, etc. Now you will have to add a fourth field to 
your sequential pointer file. Besides record key, track 
address, and sector address, you must identify each rec- 
ord's position in the block. Then, to locate a specific 
record in the file, you would search the record key array 
for the desired record, use the corresponding track and 
sector addresses to read in the indicated sector, and 
then set the buffer pointer to the value in the corre- 
sponding record position field. Now you are ready to 
read the desired record into your program with a stan- 
dard PRINT# statement. 

Before winding this up, there is one other impor- 
tant area that should be covered and that is the correct 
way to write data to the disk. The following lines show 
several ways data can be written. 

100PR1NT#1, A$, B, C% 

200PRINT#1,A$;B;C% 

300 PRINT#1, A$ CHR$(13) B CHR$(13) C% 
CHRS(13); 

400 FOR I = I TO 10 :PRINT#1, A$(I) :NEXTI 

500 FOR 1 = 1 TO 10 :PRINT#I , A$(I), :NEXT1 

600 FORI= I TO 10 :PRINT#I, A$(I) CHR$(13); 
;NEXT1 

Line 100 

WRONG! Commas have the same skipping effect 
on the disk as they do on the screen. This would result 
in very inefficient use of disk space. 

Line 200 

WRONG! Semicolons are non printing characters 
and will not work as field delimiters. Any attempt to 
read A$ would read B and C% as well. 

Line 300 

CORRECT. This method will write a CARRIAGE 
RETURN, CHR$(13), field delimiter between each field 
and the semicolon on the end keeps OS from adding a 
trailing LINE FEED character to the last field. 

Line 400 

WRONG! The OS will add CARRIAGE RETURN 
and LINE FEED characters to each field. The CAR- 
RIAGE RETURN character is desired but the LINE 
FEED will become the first character in the following 
field and can cause numerous problems. 

Line 500 

WRONG! Same reason as line 100. 

Line 600 

CORRECT. The required CARRIAGE RETURN 
character is inserted between each field in the record 
and the semicolon keeps the OS from adding a LINE 
FEED characrer. The PET Operating System treats all 
data the same no matter if it is printing to screen, disk, 
or printer. For this reason, the last field in every 
PRINT# command should be followed by a semicolon 
to keep the OS from adding a LINE FEED character to 



the output data string. This LINE FEED character will 
become the first character in the following field and 
cause all kinds of headaches. It will crash your program 
with a data check error if you attempt to read the field 
in numeric format and can lead to erroneous compari- 
sons if read in string format. This is true whether you 
are using direct access or sequential files. Data is much 
easier to read correctly from the disk if it was written 
correctly to the disk. 

You should now be well versed in the theory of 
using direct access files on disk. Next comes the fun 
part, gaining actual experience reading and writing di- 
rect access files on your disk. Start with the program in 
lines 500-680 plus the subroutines in lines 1000 to 1 520. 
When you are sure you know exactly what each line 
does, you can start experimenting around, adding lines, 
etc. When the program crashes, and it probably will 
several times, back up and don't try anything new until 
you know exactly what went wrong. Before you know 
it, you'll be the club expert on 2040 direct access files. 

I'll be glad to answer any questions by mail if you 
include a self addressed stamped envelope. Good luck. 



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COMPUTE. 



97 




Mastering The Ohio Scientific 
Challenger IRA Learn-By- 
Doing Approach 



by Keith Russell and Dave Schultz 
Total Information Services 
Los Alamos, MM 

The Ohio Scientific Challenger IP (CIP) is the SUPER- 
BOARD II single board computer in a cabinet with a 
power supply. It is destined to become a very popular 
personal computer. Its low cost, graphics features, and 
powerful BASIC language make it an attractive ma- 
chine for many people. For most purchasers, the CIP 
will be your first computer. With little background or 
experience with computers, you will need some help 
and instruction on how to make the CIP work for you. 
First, let's define some notation. We will use a con- 
sistent notation in this article to indicate what is to be 
typed on the keyboard (T:), what appears on the TV 
display (R:), and what indicates that blanks are to be 
typed (b). For example; 

T: info ('RETURN' key) 

means to type the characters contained on the line 

after the colon (:) and then type 'RETURN.' 

R: response 

means that the CIP will display this information 

on the TV after you type the previous line. 

Blanks are important in some cases. When they are 
important they are specified by b. For example: 

T: ?"ABbC" ('RETURN' key) 
means that you should type ?, then ", then the 
letter A, then the letter B, then a space, then the 
letter C, then " followed by a 'RETURN'. 

Now let's run that example all together: 

T:?"ABbC" ('RETURN' key) 
R: ABC 

The 'RETURN' key must be pressed at the end of 
each line. We will assume that you know that and 
will not use ('RETURN' key} in any more 
examples. 

Now lets tackle how the CiP represents and stores 
numbers. You will learn how the CIP represents num- 
bers by experimenting systematically. Each experiment 
(exercise) shows you what to type as input to your com- 
puter and the expected reply. 



DATA REPRESENTATION ON THE CIP 

A. Largest Numeric Vahw To find the largest floating- 
point number that the CIP can handle, run the follow- 
ing program. 

Exercise; Test for the floating-point maximum. 

T:NEW 

T: 200 1 = 1 

T: 2101 = 1*2 

T; 220 PRINT 1 

T: 230 GO TO 2 10 

RUN 

A long series of numbers starting with 

R:2 

R;4 

R:8 

R:16 

will be printed out; the last number will be 

R:4.2535E + 37 

followed by 

R:?0-ERRORIN210 

This means that 8.50706 E -)- 3? was too large to 
represent. 

Exercise; Modify the program above to display large 
negative floating-point numbers to determine the 
largest negative number that the CIP can represent. If 
the sign of the result alternates between plus and minus, 
you should try a different modification. Your result 
should show that the sign is independent of the maxi- 
mum size permitted. 

T; 

T: 

R: 



R: 



The largest negative number is . 



B. Memon' Space Used Different types of data re- 
quire different amounts of memory. To determine the 
memory space required for each type, we will use the 
FRE function. FRE returns the amount of space 
remaining. 

Exercise: Determine the amount of space used by a 
single floating-point value. 

T;NEW 

T:DIMA(100) 

T: ?FRE(0) 

R: 2913 



98 



This determines the amount of memoty space left 
after reserving 100 floating-point locations. Next, deter- 
mine the amount of space left after reserving 101 float- 
ing-point locations. 
T:NEW 
T:DIMA(101) 
T: PRINT FRE(O) 
Rr 2909 

The difference (4) is the number of bytes that one 
floating-point variable requires. 

C. Number of Significant Digits The C IP can display 
six digits in a number even though more information 
can be stored in memory. 

Exercise: Determine the number of digits displayed 
for floating-point numbers. 

Note: The values given are the responses from FRE on a 4K machine. If you 
have an SK machine, note the values. The difference should show the same 
result for the si:e of the variable. 

T: PRINT 123456 

R: 123456 

This indicates that sLx digits can be displayed. 

T: PRINT 1234567 

R: 1.23457E + 06 

This shows that the seventh digit is not displayed. 

Exercise; Show how many digits of information can 
be saved in memory. 

T: A=I234560;PRINTA 

R: 1.23456E + 06 

T:B= 123456 liPRlNTB 

R:1.23456E + 06 

Even though the numbers entered differ by 1 in the 
seventh digit, the display shows that they are equal. Are 
they really? 

Exercise: Test if the numbers entered are really 
equal. 

T: IF A<> B THEN PRINT " <> " 

R:<> 

The response shows that the CIP can distinguish 
the difference of 1 in the seventh digit, even if it doesn't 
display the difference. Can the CIP distinguish a differ- 
ence of 1 in the eighth digit? 

T:C=12345670:FRINTC 

R: 1.23457E-I-07 

T:D=12345671:PRINTD 

R: 1.234567E + 07 
The displayed values appear to be equal. Are they? 

T: IF C <> D THEN PRINT " <> " 

R: <> 

Since the CIP can distinguish between numbers 
that differ by one in the eighth digit, let's try a differ- 
ence of 1 in the ninth digit. 

T:C=123456780:PRINTC 

R: 1.23457E + 08 

T:D=123456781:PR1NTD 

R: 1.23457E + 08 

T: IF C = D THEN PRINT " = " 

R: = 



It appears that the CIP cannot distinguish between 
two numbers that differ by one in the ninth digit. 

The number of significant digits displayed is six and 
the number of digits saved in memory is approximately 
eight. 

D. Rounding Since the ClP stores approximately 
eight digits in memory and only displays six digits, it 
must "round" to decide what to display. 

Exercise: Determine how the CIP rounds numbers 
for display. 

T: NEW 

T: 100 A =1234510 

T: 110FORI=lTO15 

T: I20B = A + 1 

T: 130PR1NT"A + ";1;" = ";B 

T: 140 NEXT 1 

T:RUN 

R:A+ 1= l,2345IE + 06 

R: A+ 5= 1.23452E + 06 

R:A-l- 15= I.23453E-i-06 

From this display, you can see that 1234515 was 
rounded up to 1.23452E + 06 and 1234525 was rounded 
up to 1.23453E + 06. The CIP rounds the sixth digit up 
whenever the seventh digit is 5 (or more) and rounds it 
down whenever the seventh digit is 4 (or less). 

These simple exercises show that you can learn 
quite a bit about your CIP (or any other personal com- 
puter) by doing some well chosen experiments. You can 
master your CIP. All it takes is a little experimenting. 

Foornote: 

Tliis material is exerpted from the Total Information Services (TIS) 
Workbook 101 ■ Gettine Started with Your OSl CIP. (Copyright © 1979 
Total Information Services) Reprinted with permiiision of TIS. 

Total Information Services (TIS) has been publish- 
ing tutorial workbooks for the Commodore PET since 
March 1978. They have now expanded their workbook 
series to include the Challenger IP from Ohio 
Scientific, 

Target, c/o Don Clem 

RR2 

SpencervtUe, OH 45887 

Seawell Marketing 
P.O.Box 17170 
Seattle, WA 98107 



RKB Enterprises 

2967 W. Fairmount Ave. 

Phoenix, AZ 85017 



SBC RESOURCES 

Microtechnology Unlimited 
P.O. Box 4596 
Manchester, NH 03108 

Ohio Scientific 
1333S.Chi!licotheRd. 
Aurora, OH 44202 

Excert, Inc. Synertek Systems Corporation 

P.O. Box 8600 150 S.Wolfe Road 

White Bear Lake, MN 55 1 10 Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Connecticut Microcomputer Total Information Services 

150PoconoRd. P.O. Box 921 

Brookfleld, CT 06804 Los Alamos, NM 87544 

Compute. Rockwell International 

SBC Coordinator Microelectronic Devices 

900 Spring Garden St. P.O. Box 3669 

Greensboro , NC 2 7403 Anaheim. C A 92803 

Micro Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 

8 Fourth Lane 3330 Scott Blvd. 

So. Chelmsford, MA 01824 Santa Clara, CA 95050 



SYM-1, 6502-BASED MICROCOMPUTER 

FULLY-ASSEMBIED AND COMPLETELY INTEGRATED SYSTEAA thot'5 
ready-to-use 

ALL LSI IC'S ARE IN SOCKETS 

28 DOUBLE-FUNCTION KEYPAD INCLUDING UP TO 24 "SPECIAL" 
FUNCTIONS 

EASYTG-VIEW 6-DIGIT HEX LEO DISPLAY 
KIM-1' HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY 

The powerful 6502 8-Bit MICROPROCESSOR whose advanced 
architectural feotures have mode it one of tfie lorgest selling "micros" 
on the morket todoy. 

THREE ON-BOARD PROGRAMMABLE INTERVAL TIMERS ovailable to 
the user, expandable to five on-boord. 

4K BYTE_ROM RESIDENT MONITOR and Operating Progroms. 
Single 5 Volt power supply is oil that is required. 
IK BYTES OF 2114 STATIC RAM onboard with sockets provided for 
immediate expansion to 4K bytes onboard, with total memory expan- 
sion to 65, 536 bytes. 

USER PROM/ROM; The system is equipped v^ith 3 PROM/ROM ex- 
pansion sockets for 2316/2332 ROMs or 2716 EPROMs 
ENHANCED SOFTWARE with simplified user interface 
STANDARD INTERFACES INCLUDE; 
— Audio Cassette Recorder Interface with Remote Control (Two 

modes: 135 Boud KIM-1' compatible, Hi-Speed 1500 Baud) 
— Full duplex 20mA Teletype Interface 
— System Expansion Bus Inferfoce 
— TV Controller Board Interfoce 
—CRT Compotible Interface (RS-232) 

APPLICATION PORT: 15 Bi-directional TTL Lines for user opplicolions 
with expansion capability for added lines 

EXPANSION PORT FOR ADD-ON MODULES (51 I/O Lines included in 
the basic system) 

SEPARATE POWER SUPPLY connector for easy disconnect of the d-c 
power 
AUDIBLE RESPONSE KEYPAD 




Synertek has enhanced KIM-1 * software as well as the hardware. The 
softwore has simplified the user interface. The basic SYM-1 system is 
programmed in machine language. Monitor status is easily accessible, 
and the monitor gives the keypad user the same full functional capabili- 
ty of the TTY user. The SYM-1 has everything the KIM-1 ' hos to offer, 
plus so much more that we cannot begin to tell you here. So, if you want 
to know more, the SYM-l User Manual is available, separately. 
SYM-1 Complelew/monuals $229.00 

SYM-1 User Manuol Only 7.00 

SYM-1 Expansion Kit 60.00 

Expansion includes 3K of 21 14 RAM chips and 1-6522 I/O chip. 
SYM-1 Manuals: The well organized documentation package is com- 
plete ond eosy-to-understond. 

SYM-1 CAN GROW AS YOU GROW. It's the system to BUILD-ON. 
Expansion features that are available: 

BAS-l 8K Basic ROM (Microsoft) $89.00 



KTM-2 (Completo terminal less monitor] 319.00 

QUALITY EXPANSION BOARDS DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY FOR KIM-1, SYM-1 & AIM 65 

These boards are set up for use with a regulated power supply such as the one below, but, provisions have been made so that you con add 

onboord regulotors for use with an unregulated power supply. But, because of unreliability, we do not recommend the use of onboard 

regulators. All I.C.'s are socketed for eose of maintenance. All boards carry full 90-day warranty. 

All products that we manufacture are designed to meet or exceed industrial standards. All components are first qualtiy and meet full 

manufacturer's specifications. All this and an extended burn-in is done to reduce the normal percentage of field failures by up to 75%. To you, 

this means the chance of inconvenience and lost time due to a failure is very rare; but, if it should happen, we guarontee a turn-around time of 

less than forly-eight hours for repair. 

Our money hack guarantee-. If, for any reason you wish to return ony board that you hove purchased directly from us within ten ( 1 0) days after 

receipt, complete, in original condition, and in original shipping carton; we will give you a complete credit or refund less a SIO.OO restocking 

charge per board. 



VAK-1 8-SLOT MOTHERBOARD 

This motherboard uses the KIM.4' bus structure, it provides eight (8) 
expansion board sockets with rigid card cage. Separate jacks for audio 
cassette, TTY and power supply are provided. Fully buffered bus. 
VAK-1 Motherboard $129.00 

VAK.2/4 16K STATIC RAM BOARD 

This board using 2114 RAMs is configured in two (2) separately 
addressable 8K blocks with individual write-protect switches. 

VAK-2 16K RAM Board with only $239.00 

8K of RAM ( '/2 populated) 
VAK-3 Complete set of chips to 125.00 

expand above board to 16K 
VAK-4 Fully populated 16K RAM 325.00 

VAK.5 2708 EPROM PROGRAMMER 

This board requires a +5 VDC and -H2 VDC, but has a DC to DC 



multiplyer so there is no need for an additional power supply. All 

software is resident in on-board ROM, and has a zero-insertion socket. 

VAK-5 EPROM Programmer w/2708 adapter $249.00 

VAK-5A Single voltage 2716 adapter 45.00 

VAK-6 EPROM BOARD 

This board will hold 8K of 2708 or 2758, or 16K of 2716 or 2516 
EPROMs. EPROMi not included. 

VAK-6 EPROM Board $119.00 

VAK-7 COMPLETE FLOPPY-DISK SYSTEM (Oct 79) 

VAK-8 PROTYPING BOARD 

This boord allows you to create your own interfaces to plug into the 
motherboard. Etched circuitry is provided for regulators, address and 
data bus drivers; with a large area for either wire-wrapped or soldered 
IC circuitry. 

VAK-8 Protyping Board $39.00 



POWER SUPPLIES 

ALL POWER SUPPLIES are totally enclosed with grounded enclosures for safety, AC power cord, and carry a full 2-year warranty 
FULL SYSTEM POWER SUPPLIES 

This power supply will handle a microcomputer and up to 65K of our 
VAK-4 RAM. ADDITIONAL FEATURES ARE: Over voltage Protection on 5 
volts, fused, AC on, off switch. Equivalent to units selling for S225.00 or 



KIM-1 ' Custom P.S. provides 5 VDC @ 1.2 Amps 
and +12 VDC @ .1 Amps 
KCP-1 Power Supply 



$39.00 



Provides +5 VDC @ 10 Amps & ±12 VDC @ 1 Amp 

VAK-EPS Power Supply $119.00 

VAK-EPS/AIM provides the same as VAK-EPS plus 24V 

unreg. 149.00 

*KIM is a product of MOS Technology 



SYM-1 Custom P.S. provides 5 VDC @ 1.4 Amps 

VCP-1 Power Supply $39.00 



> 



RNB> ENTERPRISES 






INCORPORATED 



2967 W. Fairmount Avenue 
Phoenix AZ 85017 

(602)265-7564 

Add $2.50 far chinnina nnH hnnrlimn nor nrAa 



100 



COMPUTE. 



Review 

6502 Macro Assembler And Text Editor 
SYM Version $49.95 

Carl W. Moser 

3239 Linda Drive 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27106 

If you want to become serious about your business ap- 
plication or computer hobby, an assembler is a must. 
Many programs written in BASIC take too long to exe- 
cute. I recently wrote a BASIC program which imple- 
mented a successive approximation analog-to-digital 
converter. Sample frequency was limited by the pro- 
gram to a few times per second. When the program was 
rewritten in machine language, the maximum sample 
rate increased 100 fold. 

Only trivial programs should be hand-assembled. It 
takes too long and corrections are quite tedious. How- 
ever, a good assembler at a reasonable price is hard to 
find. Carl Moser is offering a super assembler for the 
SYM (and PET, Apple and other 6502 machines). It has 
features normally found on much larger systems, e.g., 
macro capability. One line of source code in your pro- 
gram is expanded into many lines according to a previ- 
ous definition. Assembly language programming should 
be facilitated once a library of macros is built up {much 
like FORTRAN subroutines). 

I did have some trouble loading the original tape. I 
put the blame on SYM's 1.0 monitor and its notorious 
cassette problems. My back-up copy, made with the 
new 1.1 monitor on my system, works every time. The 
assembler/ text editor requires memory from S2000 - 
$3FFD. Default file boundaries for the SYM version are: 
Text file: $200 - $BFC 
Label file: $C00 - $EFC 
Relocatable buffer: $F00 

The system I am using (4K SYM, KIM-3(8K), and 
Seawell Little Buffered Motherboard) was able to run 
without changing the default boundaries. 

In the week that I have had to test the program I 
have not exercised every feature of the assembler/text 
editor. However, every thing I have tried has worked! 
Some of my previous experience has been with assem- 
blers written in BASIC and the difference in execution 
times for Moser's assembler (written in machine lang- 
uage and much faster) is absolutely phenomenal . 1 am 
not about to list all the features — you must look at the 
50 page manual to appreciate the available commands 
for both the text editor and the assembler. 

Even though I was very pleased with the package I 
have two minor "carping" points. One, the manual is 
written in a general manner with specifics for each ver- 
sion {PET, APPLE, and SYM) in appendices at the end. 
It is a little difficult for the SYM user (me) to find what 
he needs without a lot of paper shuffling. Two, the as- 
sembler requires you to specify zero page addressing 
modes with an asterisk. I would prefer that the assem- 



bler use this whenever possible with provision for a 
manual override. Once I forgot the asterisks in an early 
try at assembling. However, the text editor has a con- 
venient "EDIT" command and I had no problem insert- 
ing the asterisks where needed. I like a forgiving pro- 
gram and I heartily recommend this package to serious 
SYM computer buffs. 

Reviewed by Harvey B. Herman 



Review 

The Challenger IP 

W. Keith Russell 
Santa Fe, NM 

INTRODUCTION 

The Ohio Scientific Challenger IP, relatively new on 
the horizon of lower-priced, full-feature BASIC-in- 
ROM computers, deserves serious consideration by 
anyone who is interested in convenient programming in 
BASIC with an all-in-one, ready-to-run, plug-in micro- 
computer, but who has limited funds. 

In this article I will summarize some of my experi- 
ences with OSl (that's Ohio Scientific Instruments) and 
the CIP, along with comments on the relative merits or 
demerits of the unit. It should be noted that the CIP, 
which sells for $349, is also available as the Superboard 
II for $279; the Superboard comes without a case and re- 
quires the addition of a power supply, but is otherwise 
identical to the CIP. Most of my comments should ap- 
ply to it as well. 

1 ordered my computer with some trepidation be- 
cause of all the depressing stories I had heard about de- 
livery of other systems. Delivery took nine days. 

I called my mail order dealer collect several times, 
both before and after buying my computer, and had 
long conversations, at his expense, asking what must 
have seemed to him to be trivial questions. I don't know 
if OSI and its dealers always provide that kind of ser- 
vice, but if they do, one shouldn't be hesitant to invest 
in their products by mail if they aren't available locally. 

FEATURES 

The CIP is a "single-board" computer, with CPU, 
BASIC-in-ROM, RAM, video display, cassette inter- 
face and keyboard all on one board. The CIP must be 
expanded externally, while the C2-4P (at $598) can be 
expanded internally; the C 1 P expands to 32K of RAM 
memory, the C2-4P to 40K. Finally, the screen display 
on the CIP is limited to 24 rows x 24 columns, as com- 
pared to the C2-4P's 32 x 64. 



COMPUTE. 



101 



***** AIM-65 ***** 
EXCERT INCORPORATED 

Qty 1-9 

$375 

$450 

$85 

$100 

EXCERT has concentrated on the AlM-65 to guarantee YOU that the products we offer are fully 
compatible. We know how these products work since they are used in our systems. EXCERT can 
help you get the system YOU want! 



PIU 




A65-1 


AIM-65 w/IK RAM 


A65-4 


AlM-65 W/4K RAM 


A65-A 


Assembler ROM 


A65-B 


BASIC ROMS 



ACCESSORIES 

P/N 

PRS1 +5V at 5A, +24V at 2.5A, 
±12V at 1A (does not fit in- 
side ENC1) $95 

PRS2 +5V at 5A, +24V at 1A 

(mounts inside ENC1) $50 

ENC1 AIM-65 case with space for 
PRS2 and MEB1 or MEB2 or 
VIB1 $45 

ENC2 ENC1 with PRS2 inside $100 

TPT1 Approved Thermal Paper 

Tape, 6/165' rolls $10 

MCP1 Dual 44 pin Mother Card takes 

MEB1, VIB1, PTC1 $80 

MEB1 8K RAM, 8K Prom sockets, 
6522 and programmer for 5V 
Eproms (2716) $245 

PTC1 Prototype card same size as 

KIM-1, MEB1, VIB1 $40 

VIBl Video bd with 128 char, 128 
user char, up to 4K RAM, light 
pen and ASCII keyboard inter- 
faces $245 

MCP2 Single 44 pin (KIM-4 style) 
Mother Card takes MEB2, 
PGR2 and offers 4K RAM 
sockets $119 

with 4K RAM $169 

MEB2 16K RAM bd takes 2114's $125 

with 8K RAM $225 
with 16K RAM $325 

PGR2 Programmer for 5V Eproms 
with ROM firmware, up to 8 
Eproms simultaneously $195 

with 4 textool skts $245 



SYSTEMS 

"ASSEMBLED & TESTED" 

All AIM-65 systems are self contained and have 
the power supply (PRS2) mounted inside ENC1. 



"STARTER" SYSTEMS 



P/N 

SB65-1 



A65-1 in ENC2 
SB65-4 A65-4 in ENC2 

SB65-4B Same Plus BASIC 

"EXPANDED" SYSTEMS 



$475 
$540 
$640 



P/N 



"8" "C" "D" 
MEB1 MEB2 VIBl 



E_65-4 A65-4, ENC2, 
w/one MEB1, 
MEB2, orVIBI $775 $855 $775 

E_65-4B Same Plus 

BASIC $875 $955 $875 



Higher quantities and systems with pther op- 
tions quoted upon request! 

Mail Check or Money Order To: 

EXCERT, INCORPORATED 

Attn: Laurie 

P.O. Box 8600 

White Bear Lake, MISI 55110 

(612)426-4114 

Add $5.00 for shipping, insurance, and hand- 
ling. 

Minnesota residents add 4% sales tax. 



102 



Benchmark tests applied by Rugg and Feldman 
("BASIC Timing Comparisons ...revised and up- 
dated," Kilobaud, Oct. 1977, pp. 20-25) show that (at 
least at that time and on the specific tasi<s tested) the 
Challenger 2P had the fastest floating point BASIC of 
all stock 8'bit microcomputers tested, including the PET 
and most other popular models. My ClP uses the same 
version of BASIC, and my own tests confirm the re- 
ported times. The Challengers require approximately 42 
seconds for the longest task, as compared to as much as 
320 seconds for some other systems. The PET took 51 
seconds; part of the reason that it is slower is that it has 
10-digit BASIC, compared to the Challenger's 6'/2. Un- 
fortunately, the TRS-80 was not included in the com- 
parison, but the authors point out that the 6502 micro- 
processor of the Challenger and PET is inherently faster 
than the 2-80, which the TRS-80 uses. Although speed 
is not generally considered to be a major concern, there 
are cases in which it makes a difference — even with my 
fast BASIC, a simple game of War I programmed for my 
kids from Creative Computing's Basic Computer Games 
takes a full minute to shuffle the cards before every 
game. Any slower and the kids would switch to a regu- 
lar TV channel! 

GRAPHICS 

The character generator ROM can display 256 different 
characters, including upper case, lower case, alpha, nu- 
meric, special punctuation, graphics characters, and 
gaming characters. Included are such things as arrows, 
tanks, men, houses, and airplanes. Using the POKE 
command (in BASIC), these can be displayed in any de- 
sired position on the screen, or made to move in various 
directions across the screen. They are fun to use and 
make interactive graphics feasible. 

PRICE 

A ClP system complete with direct-wired monitor and 
tape recorder, ready to plug in and use, is available from 
OSI (for around $500, 1 believe), but the real saving 
comes in buying the CIP alone at $349 and adding your 
own tape recorder and standard TV. With the 24 x 24 
display this provides a perfectly usable system. 

A working CIP system can be developed for about 
$450; this includes the CIP, a low-priced TV and tape 
recorder, and a $10 RF modulator (available from most 
dealers) to feed the computer signal to the TV. 

PROBLEMS? 

While the TRS-80 has its Level I BASIC, the standard 
PET its nonstandard keyboard, the CIP has its 24 x 24 
screen display. Twenty-four lines are okay — after all, 
many popular units have only 16. However, 24 charac- 
ters per line is a big limitation. Almost all published 
programs assume at least 32, and some are written for a 
64- or even 80-character width. The result is that many 
PRINT statements have to be rewritten, and some 
tables are impossible to display. Admittedly, this is not 
a serious problem, but it is a highly frustrating one. On 
the other hand, this is one o( the main factors in the 



original low price of the CIP, and helps make it possible 
to use a standard TV. You'll have to weigh the advan- 
tages against the disadvantages. As previously noted, 
OSI does well with graphics. 

While the 8K BASIC-in-ROM you receive with the 
CIP is more powerful and flexible than the TRS-80's 
Level 1 4K BASIC, it is less powerful than either Level II 
or the standard PET BASIC. The only way to upgrade 
it is with disk BASIC. It is powerful enough for most 
"personal" applications. 

Finally, there's a problem not with the computer it- 
self, but with the aids for using it. Although OSI pro- 
vides a looseleaf binder full of information about the 
CIP, the quality of the documentation is not the best. 
(Editor's note: They're not alone ... more next issue.) 
One example is the omission of information such as 
how to save a machine code program on tape (we're told 
how to load one from tape!). 

WILL THE C 1 P ACHIEVE FAME? 

There has not seemed to be a great deal of interest in 
OSFs Challengers in the past, at least among personal 
users. One teason is that they have not been readily 
available in local outlets. Many buyers will more readily 
invest in a machine they've tried out at a local store, 
rather than buy sight unseen a CIP which they know 
little about. 

In addition, users' groups, from which a novice can 
learn about his or her system, have been hard to find. 
The only relevant publication I'm aware of is the Chal- 
lenger Times (formerly Independent OSI Users Newsletter,) 
published by Newton Software Exchange, P.O. Box 
518, Newton Corner, MA 02158. This is typically a 4- 
page, 8'/2 X 1 1 publication which publishes readers' 
questions and problems along with an occasional short 
program, and may be too technical for many owners. 

Software has also been hard to come by. My experi- 
ence has been slow delivery and disappointing results. 
This software deficit cannot readily be o\'ercome by 
ordering elsewhere; while ads for independently-pro- 
duced TRS-80 and PET programs fill the pages of the 
micro magazines, little has been available for the 
Challengers. 

Similarly, additional hardware and peripherals 
such as disk drives and printers have generally been 
available only through OSI. On the positive side, OSI's 
prices for peripherals seem cjuite reasonable, and be- 
cause the CIP is compatible with many peripherals pre- 
viously developed for OSFs business systems, they are 
available now; there should be little waiting around for 
new equipment to be developed, such as owners of 
other micros have often had to endure. 

Prospects seem to be improving in other areas as 
well. Articles on OSI and the Challengers are appearing 
more regularly in the computer magazines now, OSI is 
stepping up its advertising, and the company is report- 
edly looking for more retail outlets, including depart- 
ment stores. More sales will stimulate the development 
of more software and compatible hardware. And that in 



Introducing SEAWELL's 




Little Buffered Mother 

The ultimate Motherboard for any KIM-1 , SYM-1 , or AIM-65 system 




Features: 

• 4K Static RAM on board 

• +5V, + 12V, and -12V regulators on board 

• 4+1 buttered expansion slots 

• Accepts KIM-4 compatible boards 

• Full access to application & expansion 
connector 

• LED indicators for IRQ, NMI, and power-on 

• Also compatible with SEA-1, SEA-16, the 
PROMMER, SEA-PROTO, SEA-ISDC, and more 

For further information contac!: 

SEAWELL Marketing Inc. 
P.O. Box 17006 
Seattle, WA 981 07 



• Onboard hardware for optional use of 
(128K addressing limit) 

• Mounts like KIM-4 or with CPU board stand- 
ing up 

• 10 slot Motherboard expansion available- 
SEAWELL's Maxi Mother 



Standard $139 

W/4KRAM $189 

Assembled Only 



SEAWELL Marketing Inc. 
315N.W.85thi 
Seattle, WA 9811 7 
(206) 782-9480 



104 



COMPUTE. 



turn should help the current owners. 

AND FINALLY... 

For some of us, the CIP may be the only complete com- 
puter system within reach of a limited budget. You will 
have to learn BASIC on your own (unless you already 
know it, in which case you have a good head start); you 
will at times have to struggle through less-than-ade- 
quate documentation; and you may have to write most 
of your programs yourself for a time. On the bright side, 
the CIP is not just a cheap substitute. While it may not 
be as flexible as some more high-priced systems, it does 
compare favorably with many selling for several hun- 
dred dollars more. 



Aim 65 users now have a newsletter called The Target. 
The Target contains articles on using the printer, display, 
keyboard, basic programs as well as machine language and 
product reviews. Contact The Target c/o Donald Clem 
RR#2 SpencerviUe, OH 45887. The cost is S5 in the US 
and Canada (512 elsewhere) for six bimonthly issues. 
Please include payment with order. 



AIM 65 Review 

by Donald Clem, RR#2, Conant Rd., 
SpencerviUe, OH 45887 

One of the latest single board computers to appear on 
the market is the AIM 65 from Rockwell International 
of Anaheim, California. The main attributes of the 
AIM 65 which set it apart from some earlier single 
board computers are its full size keyboard and on-board 
printer. 

The most obvious elements of the AIM 65 are the 
keyboard, display, printer, electronics, and two dual 22 
pin connectors for expansion. The keyboard has 54 
keys which support 69 functions. When in the monitor 
command mode, approximately 1/3 of the keys are used 
to implement the various commands. Three of the keys 
may be user defined to perform functions desired by the 
user. At this point, the versatility of the AIM 65 be- 
comes apparent. 

The display is 20 characters wide and uses 16 seg- 
ment display devices. The 16 segments allow greater 



readability than a 7 segment display. The display uses 
internal latches and decoding so no processor overhead 
is required to refresh the display. This approach does in- 
crease power needs, 

A 5x7 dot matrix thermal printer is provided which 
uses 2'/4 inch wide paper. It is 20 characters wide and 
prints 64 ASCII characters. It can generate program list- 
ings whenever desired. The printer can echo everything 
shown on the display or be disabled and print nothing. 
The printer can be switched on and off from the key- 
board or through program control. In my opinion, the 
printer has made the purchase of the AIM 65 
worthwhile. 

The standard AIM 65 electronics are the 6502 pro- 
cessor, several I/O ports, ram and rom. One of the I/O 
ports, a 6522, is completely available for user interfaces. 
The remaining I/O supports the monitor. The mini- 
mum AIM configuration comes with IK of 21 14 ram. 
The on board ram may be expanded to 4K. 4K should 
be enough for most AIM dedicated applications. For 
general purpose use, additional ram may be required. 
12K of additional rom {2332's) may be added if desired. 
An optional Assembler and 8K basic is available. 

All LSI components are mounted in sockets except 
an I/O port mounted directly to the display. A com- 
pletely socketed board would have been nice, but this 
would have increased the price. 

The two edge connectors at the back of the AIM 
are claimed to be Kim-1 compatible. They are compati- 
ble when the 6502 bus signals are consideri^d, but when 
considering the signals specific to either the AIM 65 or 
the Kim- 1, they differ. In 99% of rhe cases, these differ- 
ences will make little difference, but the user should be 
aware that they do exist. 

Two cassette recorders may also be added for low- 
cost mass storage. The recorders may be used under re- 
mote control if desired. Some recorders require more 
current than the AIM 65 remote circuitry can supply 
and, therefore, eliminate the remote control feature. 
This drawback can be remedied by adding relays. 

The documentation for the AIM 65 includes a 6500 
Hardware Manual, 6500 Programming Manual, AIM 
65's User Guide and Monitor Listing, a wall-size sche- 
matic, a Programmers Reference Card and an AIM 65 
Reference Card. The initial AIM 65's User Guide con- 
tained a multitude of errors, but Rockwell has since sup- 
plied revised correction pages. The User's Guide mea- 
sures 1-1/8 inches thick and provides step-by-step ex- 
amples on how to use the AIM 65. The optional Basic 
interpreter is by Microsoft and quite powerful. 

The power requirements for the minimum configu- 
ration are about 2 amps at 5 volts and 2 amps peak at 24 
volts (.5 amps average) (used for the printer only). 

In summation, 1 would consider the extensive 8K 
monitor system a value approaching the price for the 
AIM 65. On top of this, I would add that it also con- 
tains the printer, making it an excellent value at the 
$375 needed for minimum configuration. 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 
FOR THE PET® 




This Accounts Receivable program is written for use with the Com- 
modore 33K computer, dual disk drive and printer (either tractor or 
friction feed). It is ideal for small to medium sized businesses that 
require fast, accurate billings and statements with a desire for in- 
formation about account balances and activity. 

The program offers a unique combination of desirable bookkeeping 
and billing features combined with excellent graphics that allow 
users to utilize the program quickly, easily and without extended 
training periods. Among the outstanding features included are: 

• Period-to-date sales summary itemized by sales category. 

• Immediate access to account data including: number of invoices 
outstanding; outstanding balance; date account was opened; date 
of last transaction; Itemized listing on monitor of all outstanding 
invoice data including partial payments and credit balances. 

• Aged accounts receivable statements with automatic printing of 
aged statements of account for active accounts. 

• Payments may be entered either against invoice number or out- 
standing balance. A printed statement of payments received shows 
date, amount, account name and number, check number or 
notation for cash payment, and listing of all invoices credited to 
provide an audit trail of transactions. 

• Single or multiple item invoices with automatic extensions and 
calculaton of multiple line items. 

• Multiple classifications of account within taxable or non-taxable 
categories. 

• Automatic calculation of sales tax for taxable accounts . 

• Efficient disk storage using variable length files for maximum data 
base storage. 

• Formatted printing for legible invoices and statements allows the 
use of inexpensive stock paper. 

• Full prompting leads even novice operators through the program 
without difficulty. 

• Restricted access code limits unauthorized use, 

HOW TO ORDER: Send your check or money order for the 
amount of order and shipping charges, Allow two weeks for 
personal checks to clear. Send to: 

CO MPUTER POWER for business ^^^1^];^^^^ 

^^^^^^^^^^^■^^^■^^^^^^^^^^^^"■" ask for Huron 
1325F Tompkins 608 274-1733 

; Madison, WI 537 16 ask for Kenn 



PREE with a computer 
system purchased from us, 
or $295 for the program, a 
com.plete user manual, and a 
one-year update service. 

Send for your 

FRE7 
user's manual 

today! 

IF YOU HAVE YOUR COM- 
PUTER, send $295 and $5 
handling and shipping to the 
address helow to receive 
your Accounts Receivable 
software. Mastercharge and 
Visa orders will be shipped 
same day. 

IF YOU NEED A COMPUTER, 
we can supply the Com- 
modore Business Machine, 
32K with business keyboard, 
dual disk drive, tractor feed 
printer, two required con- 
necting cables, a starter 
supply of paper, and 10 
diskettes in a library file 
box, for $3,699* Buy your 
computer system from us 
and we'U give you the Ac- 
counts Receivable software 
package at NO Ar-i-T-^-n, 
CHARGE! Please add $30 for 
handling and insured 
shipping. 

NOW IN STOCK! Ninety 
percent of items are shipped 
from stock, within one day of 
payment. 

• Price BUtjJoct to change without noUeo 




master charge 



"Your one best source for 

disk business software 

for the 

^ co mm odore 

Business Machine , ' ' 



Software for the PET 




ZAP 



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$9.95 




SHOOTIMG GALLERY 



$9.95 



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ACT 



Petsoft 



We are proud to announce that PRO- 
GRAMMA INTERNATIONAL, INC. is now 
the exclusiuB representative and distributor 
of all software developed by ACT PETSOFT 
in the United Kingdom. Over tOO new PET 
programs will be released within the next 
three nnonths containing exciting games and 
applications. See our ads or write for further 
information. 

WORD PROCESSOR FOR THE PET 

The PROGRAMMA Word Processor for the 
Pet is a suitable text processor that does ex- 
actSy what you require, without having to 
expose the user to a lengthy learning and 
training session. Versions are available for 
the OLD and NEW ROM Pets, and support 
for various types of printers is available. 
The system can print the completed text 
either on the screen or on a printer. There 
are several modes of operation offered by 
the Word Processor. Text can be edited, text 
can be loaded from cassette, text can be 
saved to cassette, text can be printed to the 
CRT or printer, text can be read unto the 
screen. The system is very user oriented and 
simple to operate. 

RS-232 Word Processor SI 9.95 

AXIOM Word Processor 19.95 

Selecterm Word ProcKsor 19.95 

PAS PERSONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

The PAS System for the Pet relies heavily 
on the Pet's data file capabilities to generate 
and validate files containing a detailed de- 
scription of your financial transactions. 
Designed specifically to be used with your 
check register as the data source, PAS con- 
sists of six programs including those to 
generate and edit data files, balance the 
checkbook, reconcile the bank statement, 
report checks that are outstanding, and 
summarize transactions over a period of 
time. Three files are generated by the PAS 
System: monthly transactions, outstanding 
checks and summary. The system is de- 
signed to operate with either the OLD or 
NEW ROM Pets using the cassette as the 
mass storage device. A version for the 
COMPU-THINK Disk unit is also available. 
PAS on cassette $19.95 

PAS on COMPU-THINK Disk 24.95 



All orders include 3% postage and handling. 

Pet is a registered trademark of Commodore 

International. 

California residents add 6% Sales Tax. 

VISA & MASTERCHARGE accepted. 



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TELEPHONE BOOK 



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STAR TREK 



$9.95 



PROGRAMMA 
INTERNATIONAL, Inc. 
3400Wilshire Blvd. 
Los Angeles, CA 90010 
(213) 384-0579 

384-1116 

384-1117 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



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