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Ponge’s library

This collection has been created to make available to everybody old papers (journal articles and book chapters) gathered during the 50 years of my scientific career and not digitalized until now. This collection embraces a wide array of publications in the various fields of soil science, but not only, ecology and evolution being also present.



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"Autolysates" are exuded from living leaves macerated in chloroform-saturated water. In the case studied of Melandryum rubrum, the oxydation of these autolysates yields various brown products, some of which are water soluble, some in extraction reagents for humic acids and some insoluble. The fractions soluble in NaOH 0.1 N present the general features of humic acids: flocculation by H+ and Ca++, visible and infra-red spectra, electrophoretic mobility, high resistance to microbial...
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Book chapter
Topic: soil science
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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Journal article
Topic: Soil science
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The charge-transfer acceptor properties of a humic acid in aqueous solutions have been established by spectrophotometric studies of the interactions with dihydroxobenzenes at varying pH. It is suggested that the colours of humic acids in the visible range are also dependent on internal charge-transfer interactions.
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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Book chapter
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Journal article
Topic: Soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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The charge-transfer acceptor properties of a partially reduced humic acid have been established by spectrophotometric studies at varying pH of the interactions with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. More detailed studies have also been made with the original humic acids. It is suggested that the colours of humic acids in the visible range cannot be fully explained by simple quinhydrone interaction or by the presence of semi-quinone groups.
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Soil Science integrates specific contributions from physics, chemistry, biology, and the human sciences. During the last 2 decades, these approaches, which had primarily developed separately and at different speeds, have been progressively integrated. Ecology has contributed a significant number of integrative concepts and questions, some, such as nutrient cycling and energy budgets, that are rather old, and others, such as soil engineering by macroinvertebrates, the relationship between...
Topics: functional domains, hierarchy, invertebrates, scales, sustainability
Comparative morphological and chemical analyses were carried out in mineral and organic soil profiles under three different vegetation types in the Luneburger Heide, NW Germany.Two stands each of Calluna vulgaris heathland, birch-pine forest, and oak-beech forest were selected on comparable parent material (base-poor sandy deposits of the penultimate lce Age) in close proximity to each other. The three vegetation types are assumed to represent early, mid and late stages of a secondary...
Topics: Calluna heathland, Fagus-Quercus forest, NW Germany, depodzolization, humus accumulation, humus...
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The capacities of leachates from decomposing leaves of deciduous trees to attack calcareous and non-calcareous parent materials (taken from the C horizons of a brown forest and a podsol soil respectively), and soil from the B horizon of a podsol have been examined. The changes in the composition of extracts obtained in this way when brought into contact with other soil materials also have been studied. Attempts have been made to ascertain the chemical form or forms in which iron exists in the...
Topic: soil science
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Book
Topic: Soil science
The author places in a historical perspective the difficulties encountered by soil scientists in establishing an universally acceptable soil classification. He compares two main types of classification, effective and genetic, the latter based on pedogenetic processes. The FAO-UNESCO classification belonged originally to the first type, but was progressively modified towards the second. The definition of "diagnostic horizons" and "diagnostic properties" are linked to the main...
Topics: diagnostic horizons, effective/genetic classification, reference system, soil classification
A respirometer system was developed to study the dynamics of partial anaerobiosis and denitrification in unsaturated soil. The system enables one to measure simultaneously the distribution of water, oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH as a function of space and time in an unsaturated, artificially made, homogeneous, cylindrical aggregate and the changes in atmospheric composition as a function of time in the chamber the contains the aggregate. Except for water transport, these processes...
Topic: soil science
Modifications in humus characteristics due to a population of Brachypodium silvaticum were compared to humus without herbaceous vegetation under beech stands. The grass litter furnishes additional organic material and mineral elements, in particular N and P. The calcium-rich roots contribute after their necrosis to a rise in humus pH. The decomposition and mineralization of organic material are increased as revealed by in situ tests of cellulolytic and proteolytic activities as well as the in...
Topic: soil science
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A method for fractionation of soil-extracted humic acid on controlled-pore glass has been investigated. Separations at different pH were performed and the linearity of the separation isotherms was tested by reseparation.
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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It has been shown that the two-phase systems introduced by Albertsson can be used for fractionation of humic acids. Counter-current distribution in our aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol system demonstrated heterogeneity of humic acid. There are complications , which disturb the counter-current fractionation.
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Journal article
Topic: soil science
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Journal article
Topic: Soil science
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Topic: soil science
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Firstly, the author summarises tile two important types of humification: 1° Direct, by the rapid change of fresh organic matter (especially lignin ) into humus, so-called "inherited". 2° Indirect by chelting effect with cations and insolubilising more or less soluble precursors (fulvic acids, humic acids, insolubilising humin ). Modern fractionating processes allow the composition of the humiferous horizons to be determined and divided into its different constituents as shown in the...
Topic: soil science
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Book chapter
Topic: soil science
Book chapter
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Book chapter
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Journal articles
Topic: soil science
Some of the soils which are formed in the so-called "Sable des Landes" formation, show complex sections which always cannot directly be explained. Some soils for instance are formed on the superficial beds of the "Sable des Landes" which cover residual soils partially eroded. The presence of these buried residual soils gives arguments for the multiplicity of stages in the deposition of the "Sable des Landes".
Topic: soil science
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The main object of the research is directed towards the problems of forest site description and mapping. The authors give, in the FIRST PART of this paper, after a short description of the Ardennes, the pedological description of the sites studied. This research has a double purpose, first of all to present a set of observations on a series of little degraded beechwood sites which will be used as reference sites in further research; the final aim has in view the determination of the edaphic...
Topic: Soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Journal article
Topic: soil science
A comparative investigation on the humus located under a stand of Brachypodium silvaticum and under adjacent surfaces without herbaceous stratum, in a beech grove of Fontainebleau Forest, was. conducted on the following physical, chemical and biological characteristics: porosity, organic matter, C/N ratio, exchangeable bases, pH, mineralization of carbon, urease activity, mineralization of nitrogen in situ and in the incubator. Related to a higher porosity, a lower C/N ratio, a less acid pH, a...
Topic: soil science
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Knowledge of the degree of biological activity of holorganic soil layers is essential to foresters for three reasons: It influences the rate of forest growth, the intensity of silvicultural cuttings, and the choice of biodegrading material for amelioration of nursery soils impaired by eradicants. Information on this attribute of humus layers was obtained by manometric determination of their catalytic potentials (Cp). Biologically inert humus layers, associated wih retarded release of nutrients...
Topics: Greek-Latin terminology, biodegradation of eradicants, forest soils, holorganic layers, lichen...
Journal article
Topic: soil science
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A genetic classification of sandy soils of the Belgian Campine based on field observation and micromorphology is attempted. The southern part of this region has a glauconitic parent material which has a great influence on the soil development. Analogous stages of development can be distinguished. The intensity of these stages determines the final composition of the profile. In all considered soils, a colloidal cutan is formed around the skeleton particles. This cutan can be organic or mineral,...
Topic: soil science
1 Studies of ecological interactions in the soil environment require skilled usage of concepts from physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology. This volume offers numerous examples of the multi-disciplinary nature of our work. 2 In each instance - roots as primary producers, root/microbe interactions, interactions of roots, microbes and fauna, and interactions of all three groups with the sand-silt-clay-organic matter milieu (soil) - significant new information has appeared over the last 5...
Topic: soil science
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Journal article
Topic: soil science
Journal article
Topic: soil science
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Journal article
Topic: soil science
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Journal article
Topic: soil science
The present study on the physical properties of termite infected soils, shows that the specific biological behaviours of the species influence differently the structural stability (Is test) and the permeability (K test) of strata. The soil-feeding termite Thoracotermes macrothorax, through the sheer use of a material elaborated from an equilibrated texture (clays/coarse sands) and by means of its own faeces as cement, does improve deeply the structural stability of its area. Whereas the...
Topics: Macrotermes mülleri, Thoracotermes macrothorax, permeability, structural stability, termites,...
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In this review the interactions between plant, animal and microbial components of the soil biota are represented by a model which allocates a pivotal functional role to the large, abundant invertebrates which ingest or manipulate both organic and mineral material, forming long-lasting microstructures. These invertebrates are designated soil ecosystem engineers and it is argued using data on numerical and biomass densities, geographical distribution and known functional roles, that earthworms...
Topics: climate change, earthworms, ecosystem engineers, fertility, intensification, land use, restoration,...
Journal article
Topic: soil science
ln the Bh horizons of podzols developed on the Vosgian sandstones, clay accumulations can be interpretated as a result of simultaneous podzolization and clay illuviation. Field experiments by lysimeters do verify the present reality of the two processes: dispersion and migration of fine clay minerals (smectites of degradation) translocated with percolating waters downward the spodic horizons, no clay particle migration in the acid brunified soil. As it is generally admitted that aluminous ions...
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Optic-volumetric measurements were carried out on "mammoth-sized" thin sections of three different humus forms (a mor, a litter-covered mull and a calcareous mull). The volumes of the different components of the organic and mineral matter were directly measured with a Zeiss integration eyepiece I. The volumes of the pore classes distinguished were determined on micro-photographs with a Zeiss particle size analyser and with the aid of a grid of fixed points. These measurements revealed...
Topic: soil science
The chemical and biological characteristics of surface horizons of five forest soils (France) were measured at regular intervals of time for two years. Data were interpreted through the factor analysis method. Some variables showed significant seasonal variations; but others did not, the absence of signification being attributed to the involvement of uncontrolled factors. In spite of different types of variation which affected the biological characteristicsstudied here, surface horizons could...
Topic: soil science
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A carbon-nitrogen model has been constructed for some soil processes taking place in the FH-layer of a pine forest. It includes processes as decomposition, respiration, mineralisation, immobilisation and decomposers biomass formation. Most of the data used to construct the model was taken from the literature and a few from own measurements. A number of runs have been carried out. One of them is defined as the standard run. The other deal with the sensitivity of the model to changes in chosen...
Topic: soil science
Forest humus profiles exhibit high stability against deposition of acids. Their morphology has not substantially changed during the period between about 1960 and 1985. This means that the overall activity of the saprophagous soil animal communities has not changed either. Explanations for this stability are to be found at the abiotic level as well as at the autecological and the synecological level of the animals. This paper focusses on the stabilizing principle of redundancy, scarcely...
Topics: humus profiles, litter transformation, redundancy, saprophagous soil animals, soil acidification,...
This study presents a few results of physico-chemical analyses done on different oligotrophic peats from the Swiss Jura Mountains. The methods used are the following ones (fig. 1): - granulometric wet sieving at 2000, 200 and 50 µm (Results in tabl. 2) - measure of the fiber content and the pyrophosphate index (fig. 2) - micromorphological observations (tabl. 3) - alcaline extraction with NaOH at pH = 10; determination of the "fulvic acids/humic acids ratio"; summary characterization...
Topic: soil science
We conducted a laboratory study using soil cores to determine whether anecic earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) burrow linings (the hydrosphere) are sites for enhanced carbon and nitrogen mineralization and increased microbial biomass and nematode abundance. We compared microbial biomass C, C mineralization rates, metabolic quotient, levels of inorganic N (NO3- and NH4+), and nematode abundance over the course of 11 weeks in soil from earthworm burrows, bulk soil away from burrows, and a control...
Topic: soil science
Acidification is considered in the context of a specific problem in the management of a particular community (chalk heath). Chalk heath is an intimate mixture of calcicoles and calcifuges growing in a shallow loam over chalk (top soil pH 5-6). Since the virtual cessation of rabbit-grazing with myxomatosis in 1954, bushes of Calluna and Ulex have grown up and acidified the soil below them (top soil pH 3.5-5.0). When the Ulex scrub is cleared a mixture of calcifuges and indifferent species...
Topic: soil science
On the calcareous karstic levels of Jura, the soils of convex areas are thin, calcic, humiferous and strongly aggregated whereas dolina soils are deep, acid and sprinkled with inherited elelments such as vegetal residues or small charcoal. The first ones aggregates are not destroyed by the rain but are translated by running water. Incubated without calcic source they lose calcium and organic matter as well as their structural stability. This enables to demonstrate the possible filiation between...
Topics: Jura, catena, erosivity index, karstic erosion, lake sedimentation
The weathering phenomena resulting from the colonization of leucitic rocks of Mt. Vesuvius by Stereocaulon vesuvianum (Pers.) lichen have been studied. Lichen weathering results in the disruption of the rock substrate and in the extensive etching and degradation of the primary rock-forming minerals particularly leucite and augite to yield poorly ordered alumino-silicate materials and clay minerals. It is suggested that the weathering process could be accounted for the reactions of lichen acids...
Topic: soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Book chapter
Topic: soil science
The substratum of the soils is either a porous system or a water-repellant level. In the first case, it is drained by fractures and by an active succion induced through the fine porosity. In the second case, the rock prevents the vertical infiltration of the water and a water-table is establishing. This water generally flows out by lateral movement. The dynamic of these flow seems to be the controlling factor of pedogenesis. We compare in this topic soils being submitted to identical conditions...
Topics: Jura, limestone, pedogenesis, rock breaking, rock porosity, soil-rock system, soils evolution
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Nutrients in soil organic matter (SOM) are present within complex polymers and mineral-organo associations. Investigations into the chemical composition of SOM and the nutrient elements within it have only been partially successful and have not been linked to biological processes. Particle-size and density fractionation studies have provided insight into the architecture of soils and on the distribution and stability of SOM and nutrient elements. Such studies should be continued. Modern...
Topic: soil science
Journal article
Topic: soil science
The study of a bio-toposequence of acid brown soils, in Belgian Ardennes, showed that moder appears as a humus climax. It is characterized by the highest values of parameters such as extraction index, HA content, ratios HA/FA, HA/Humines, humic/fulvic fractions. The diminution of these parameters on both sides of this humus form can be explained by the peculiarities of humification of mull or dysmoder types.
Topic: soil science
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Journal article
Topic: soil science
Some paleogeographic and geoecological aspects of the radiocarbon method of investigating the humus of paleosols are examined. Examples are the study of the transformation of organic matter of soils in time; paleogeographic reconstructions and climate forecasts; radiocarbon chronology, refinement of geochronological scales, and correlation of natural boundaries of the Pleistocene and Holocene; and chronometry and attempts to predict ecological catastrophes.
Topics: geoecology, humus of paleosols, paleogeography, radiocarbon age
The diameter of pores contained in aggregates and colonized by bacteria was mesured in three different soils: a rendzina, an acid brown soil and a chernozem. Results confirmed the hypotheses of Hattori (1976): the mean diameter of pores is close to 2 µm. The size of bacteria, although variable according to the soil, was always less than 1 µm: between 0.60 and 0.75 µm; but the d/D ratio (mean diameter of bacteria/mean diameter of pores) was constant, viz. 1/3. In the third part of this study,...
Topic: soil science
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Specific fabrics (burrow walls, casts and lethargy cells) related to earthworm activity were studied at various levels through binocular. thin section and S.E.M. observation. The burrows, into which roots penetrate and gut contents are casted, are connected with the soil porosity system near the surface and lined with cast which obstructs the connection with depth. Mucus lines the burrow walls after each passage of the animal. Specific organo-mineral associations, and organic content of burrow...
Topic: soil science
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Book chapter
Topic: soil science
The authors have studied a sequence of acid brown soil, whose humus types varied from mull to dysmoder, in Belgian Ardennes, namely by means of determination of colour quotient Q 4/6, gel permeation chromatography, and l.R.-spectrography. It appeared that humus types are not distinguishable by the nature of their basic chemical components, but by the kind and degree of arrangement of the components between themselves and with mineral colloids. The differences come from variation in the...
Topic: Soil science
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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The morphological, physical, and chemical properties of nine, important, broadly defined Newfoundland forest soil types are described in this paper. The soils of the Avalon Peninsula are generally stonier, more compacted, and richer in silt and clay than those of western Newfoundland. Gleysols and gleyed podzols are the common soils on the Avalon Peninsula whereas orthic and peaty podzols are the common soils in western Newfoundland. In both sample areas the growth of balsam fir and black...
Topic: Soil science
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Evolution of CO2 from the floor of a pine stand was calculated from the rate of CO2 increase in air before and after passage over profile sections of different depth. The contribution of a profile layer to total respiration was calculated as the difference between CO2 evolution from profiles with and without that layer. Concentrations of CO2 were measured for a 24-hr period using slow air flow (ca. 1 cm/min) over the floor, automatic sample selection, and infrared gas analysis. The resulting...
Topic: Soil science
Measurements of redox-potential in a sprucewood Brown Podzolic soil, with dysmoder and microgley showed that: a) in the holorganic horizon A0, low nitrification rates are not related to the redox-potential per se; b) in the microgley horizon A12g, values of the redox-potential are too high for sulfides to be produced.
Topic: Soil science
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The soil fauna and the soil profile of five habitats in an inland-dune on the Veluwe, The Netherlands, are described. These habitats are: bare sand, a Polytrichum piliferum vegetation, a grass vegetation with Festuca ovina prevailing, a Calluna vulgaris heath, and a stand with some Pinus silvestris. In the bare sand no animals are living, and the algae and blown-in plant remains are not attacked by animals. In the moss vegetation isotomids are the main agents in the breakdown of plant remains,...
Topic: Soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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The results presented in this paper can be briefly summarized as follows: Celluloses are decomposed in nature largely by the agency of four groups of organisms: (a) Fungi, which are most active in acid and well aerated soils; these fungi include a great many genera found among the Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti. (b) Aerobic bacteria, which are most active in neutral, alkaline and faintly acid soils. The soil has to be well aerated and contain free bases (CaCO3, etc.). They...
Topic: Soil science
The indian subcontinent, particulary the Himalayan range, is from biogeographical point of view a cross-road between the tropical afro-brazilian country, the territory of the South-East Asia and the northern eurasiatic shield. The soil-insects of the group of Collembola are very efficient indicators in paleobiogeographic hypothesis: they are a testimony of early prejurassic evolution and are nowadays, especially in the Southern hemisphere, dispersed on the blocks of the parceled out...
Topic: Evolution
Book chapter
Topic: Evolution
The neurosecretory and retrocerebral systems of Collembola are very similar to those of other Insects, especially of Pterygota: 10 to 15 neurosecretory cells are divided in lateral and central groups in every half of the brain; the nervi corporis cardiaci I have a chiasma as in other insects; the neurohemal organs are in relation with the aorta or with a cephalic blood sinus; the corpus allatum is composed of a few cells and innervated by a nerve which arises from the subesophageal ganglion....
Topic: Evolution
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Samplings of the L-, FH-layers and mineral soil layers were carried out in the mature Scots pine stand at Ivantjärnsheden. The L-layer samples were sorted into different litter components and live roots were removed from the FH-layer samples. Analyses were thereafter made for carbon and the nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. Analysis of organic components concerned water- and acetone soluble substances, Klason lignin, cellulose and...
Topic: Soil science
Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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Succession has been studied by various specialists, e.g. botanists, zoologists, pedologists, and others. It has been found out that plant succession depends on the soil development. It is also known that the development of soil types depends on certain soil animals. The present paper deals in more detail with the xeric succession of soil animals in connection with the general picture of the whole ecosystem succession. The xeric succession of soil animals begins with water-fauna, continues with...
Topic: Soil science
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A simplified procedure for embedding and sectioning litter and soil samples based on the procedure of Anderson and Healey (1970) but using inexpensive and easily available materials is presented. A 20% gelatine solution was used as an embedding medium. Litter and soil sections prepared by this method provide a visual perspective not attainable by Tullgren or flotation extractions. Embedded sections are particularly useful for observing vertical stratification of biota, and for evaluating...
Topic: Soil science