From an entire millennium of the Byzantine Empire, in this essay we will focus on two important centuries, 11th and 12th. What will mainly concern us is the Byzantine society in relation to the “others”, that is minorities and groups of people of foreign origin and religion. This essay is divided into two main parts. In the first we will describe the ways and means through which the inhabitants of the Byzantine Empire came in contact with the groups of individuals mentioned above. These contacts were not something that took place exclusively inside the empire, but also outside it, in neighboring peoples. In the second part we will be concerned with the treatment of non-Greek and non-Greek-speaking population groups by the Byzantines within the empire.