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tv   In Good Shape - Chronobiology  Deutsche Welle  January 13, 2019 1:30pm-2:00pm CET

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the world. story discussions. you suffer. from funny gems from. our website. africa join us on facebook. welcome to be in good shape coming up. perceiving other people's pain and reduce empathy and staying on schedule why we should live by our biorhythms host dr constantly. good morning wherever you are are you like me having trouble getting out of bed every morning. maybe it's because of. magic.
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it's a dangerous condition you know it's not because everybody has it you me and my team it's just another word for it that clock and how this takes and how it affects our health this is what i'm going to talk about. here at the sheraton and he will reveal the magic of mysteries of coronal by which. they bring against kadian clock makes us sick. we all have to clock bacteria. it tells us humans when to get out of bed and when to get into bed and it is. time for digestion to take your pills or treat the gym
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doctors like we are just beginning to grasp the major importance of our in a clock everything in life follows it's a with we all have to get up and go to work. but some of us have to do it at four thirty in the afternoon and you know what's night shifts in a hotel when others call it a day he's just starting. the day after now the first night shift in a row is the toughest because you're not used to it and all you want to do is go to bed we could knock you for six a lot and. when your internal clock gets out of sync it's not only your daily routine that gets affected. what others have for dinner i have for breakfast. our internal clock is closely linked to our state of health. in the one nine hundred eighty s. scientists in america discovered the genetic underpinnings of the biological clock in fruit flies and a protein power that plays a key role in it. is essentially
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a timepiece within our body cells this launch to further studies into what's also known as said katie and rhythms. about the affair head to the sleep lab at a munich hospital he helps patients who said katie uncloak is out of kilter. when people read lives at odds with their biological clocks they become sleep deprived and that can cause serious health problems it affects the immune system of the metabolism their general performance that causes obesity concentration problems and metabolic disorders like diabetes and stronger. as the kadian rhythms are based more or less on a twenty four hour cycle and the cycle of light and dark plants has one to. place that petals accordingly. in the early morning our bodies release greater amounts of the stress hormone cortisol boosting our ability to act and respond in the evening
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our body temperatures think and the sleep toning kicks in calming us down. some people a night owls others are early risers no one internal clock is the same. like real owls human night owls often find it hard to function in daylight hours most jobs require an early start even though one hour shift to daylight saving time in the summer that some countries observe can impact the biological clock od work time long distance travel and partying into the night can all impinge on our well being and tell exactly when a person is internal clock is no longer in harmony with the outside world that's what we call social jetlag. yet there are ways to mitigate the negative effect. on his sunglasses on the way home from a night shift is either shielded from the morning sunlight that means he's less
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likely to suddenly feel wide awake and not that it is to stop surfing the web well before you go to sleep and to turn off one's phone. but time is that it's in the morning he steer clear of any stimulants fearful going to bed. yeah absolutely all i want to do is go to sleep i don't want to be me lauren off to work i just want to sleep. a few precautions can help your body cope better with unusual working hours. our topic today is the circadian clock and i'm here at the brilliance. at the institute for immunology and the department of criminal biology. thanks for having me today is what you do here somebody studied this acadian clock that our internal timing system but regulates our resolve and metabolism our behavior in a time of day dependent manner we're interested in how these clock mercs where it's
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located what it controls what happens if we kind of live against our clock and all these interesting question. patients who is shift workers and have problems and troubles doing all the shift work is this a problem with the circadian clock yes shift means that you are living against your own internal clock and and since the clock he's already needing so many different physiological processes that means that you kind of live against these processes and that kind of can cause really save your health problems we know for example that in nurses who do shift work. risk for breast cancer is increased we know that meant to bali problems can occur if you live against your clock we know that certain types of depressions are frequently officer and so on but can you do to compensate these i mean you have to do the
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shift work so. the best thing would be if you would be able to live in accordance with your own clock so. kind of employers kind of put people into different groups maybe group be good to know what kind of kroner type so employees to put in the right here the other thing used of boids rotating shifts or you can try to not use your long walk in the morning if possible and kind of more according to your own internal system. but i mean if i wouldn't have an alarm clock wouldn't be here and the show would be over without me so this is really a possible solution you know the half sort of pressure that we are but i mean we really as a scientist so chronobiology could kind of lobby for for example later school times
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is specially older kids fifteen eighteen year old pupils they usually have a much later clock than the rest of the society and for these people the school beginning is much. different types some people who'd like to sleep long and others like to get up in the morning credit early yeah so it's clear that we have different contacts and you can appreciate that if you know that the clock is determined by genes we have clock teams and depending so since we're all different . in our hair color in our diet and so on we also all different in terms of hours of kadian clock some have slower clocks of posix walk and that kind of translates to the different correlate so we are going to larks early birds like to sleep early i'd like like to get up early and probably a little bit more all speak to late types who probably. like to go
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to bed at two o'clock in the morning and sleep until ten o'clock. when you have to get up in the morning or you go to sleep and it controls our body like the patients have a higher rate of heart attacks in the morning on the other excel days of all these circadian clock works one example the room with the right to use birth stiffness and pain in the joint is no c.v. here in the early morning hours another example attacks which is more frequently occurring or so in the middle of the night yes scientists could convince doctors to even look at the. time of day dependency in terms of when they decide their treatment strategy is so we would call the crawler therapy so this means giving the medication at the time the body and the organs need it and listen to the world of time. this is the university hospital in paris. for
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almost three decades oncologist levy has been researching cancer chronotherapy and he still hasn't got used to the early start. i'm not a morning. getting their morning. our bodies have their own internal clock and that means some people don't get going until a bit later in the day some of our body's organs are more active during the day others at night many processes follow a roughly twenty four hour rhythm. factors biorhythms into cancer treatment medications are administered at particular times the key idea behind chronotherapy. being confused. at least at the beginning because we knew nothing about the mechanism of course. but that's changed in the course of levy's research once the first studies were published he began working with cancer
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patients such as are. now sixty he has advanced cancer conventional treatment fail to help them. because chronotherapy is tailored to a patient's biological clock it's less taxing on the body. according to where in the british taking it can be become easier. because the system thirty did. not. to reduce the toxic effect of a drug patients are hooked up to a pump which ensures they receive precise amount. of the drugs active ingredients that time to intervals. one of the four medications is administered in the afternoon. the other three mainly at night when healthy cells divide less frequently than cancer cells so the effect of the medication on healthy cells is lessened reducing the side effects. and also says that for him the benefits of the
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treatment outweigh any downside. risk but is if is going to argue some side effects are unavoidable like hair loss or reduced appetite but the side effects are generally far less than those from conventional therapies and hair loss isn't that bad after all you can't hear the air is falling out so it doesn't really bother me we do something awful. chronotherapy has helped bring a lamp illinois cancer under control but studies reveal that the therapy isn't a successful for all patients. although the. best for about fifty percent of patients. too late for some of their. beliefs wasn't. a variety of factors determine which rhythm type an individual patient falls into. when light enters our eyes signals are sent to
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a central clock in our brains. this sets our biological clock our genes decide whether we are a day or night person. and other factors like when we eat exercise or sleep affected too. fast to live he and his team try to work out each patient's individual internal clock. and it is like. a sensor attached to the patient's chest sends information to the researches every minute this includes the skin surface temperature the patients current activity levels and even their posture that way doctors can determine the biorhythm of a patient for example when they're sleeping. chronotherapy might well have great potential but for now for the majority of cancer patients it's still little more than a promising scientific concept. one example is cancer but there are different diseases
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where physicians should take the circadian rhythm into account when we think about chroma therapy so the time of day depended medication we can't be what we know in the meantime it's many targets of drugs have a sick hadian rhythm of their activity so it's clear that. time of day to day depended medications should be much more taken into account as we do it nowadays and even when we develop new drugs pharmaceutical companies should look in their strategy where the side effects or positive effects are different depending of time of day and this is really possible because every one of us has different circadian rhythms and ticks differently now that's true we're all are different we all have different chronic. and that is due to our different genetic composition of our clock in the air for we need
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a personalized medicine and we need to personalized medication also in with regard of time of day and to know what type you are in a really objective manner is the goal of one of the blood based tests we're currently developing where a single blood sample should be enough to tell what your internal time is so i could take my patient get some blood sample into your left and you would say that he's an. early to bed exactly that might be an early type and that that might be important for the medication of this person to take the drug not in the morning but to take it for example hours after getting out of bed this is much more personalized than just saying time and external time of day but this is still experimental there's no commercial kitchen vailable right now so what do we do right now for my patients how can they see their intakes of the pills within the
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flock so it's first of all it's important to to really keep synchronized with the outside world many of us have much too little light in their daily environment if you're all days indoors where the light levels too low to really efficiently synchronize the amplitude so the strength of our clock is reduced into a light levels or maybe four hundred three hundred lux where as even on a rainy day in the outside it's ten thousand lux and then it's sunny days hundred thousand bucks so to get much light as possible is really important. in this respect the timing of the light is also important if you aren't a person who has problems getting up in the morning you need morning light so go outside do we're talking before breakfast or get out of the subway maybe one
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station early and walk the rest to your board that is even artificial lights lit coming out of light bulbs is it a case just for synchronizing the clock is ok but more light is better especially it can be also dangerous if you have too much artificial light for example coming out of computer screens with high content of blue light and we know that blue ivy's if you specially efficient in kind of modulating the clock what about changing the lights in the tablet computer smart i think it's a good idea to kind of remove all these blue light which influences our clock at the wrong time because then if you read at midnight with high levels of blue light the clock things always still day can slow down a little bit and that makes you. sleep longer in the morning it doesn't efficiently wake you up so it's good to reduce this blue light that will be right back with some viewer questions and we need your questions so if you've got any send them to
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us. on an upcoming show we'll be looking at aging what can we do to live longer healthier lives if you have a question about this send it to in good shape at d w dot com just went into aging in the subject line we look forward to hearing from you. so medication works differently depending on the time you take it this is what we learned so far take pain medication for instance like over the counter drugs newer pheno aspirin they should be taking in the evening because of this lesson is your risk. of getting it's trite let me give you one advice if you're on pain medication be extra careful because they have side effects and they can be addictive scientists recently found out that they can lower the level of your empathy they numb your compassion. because here. it is not to show the dentist gets terrible
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headaches and they often last all day he's one of a growing number of young adults with this problem. since. dennis has been taking medication for six months now using a number of over the counter painkillers he says they tend to be effective and he's noticed only minor side effects. were displaced. is a real problem i've had that i don't mean occasionally is a mild stomach ache opteron take a pill so it's like grumbling nothing serious and. since the tablets do actually help with my headaches i never thought twice about taking them. in the most medical dennis is a student and he has a job as well he says he can't take time off when he gets a headache so he pops pills and carries on his doctor however says painkillers are
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more dangerous than people realize that it's safe to stay in the stations are not aware of the serious physical risks with or of the psychological changes thinking for everything. much about them recent studies suggest that painkillers might have psychological side effects that have never been identified before the z. namely that they not only don't patients pain but also diminish their empathy with the suffering of others not relieve pain killers make you less sensitive. from under the light to switch wounded from mission mission off i just can't believe they'd make me feel less empathy with other people mentioned. when i cooked . it is dennis may find that surprising but neuropsychologist klaus and his team at the university of vienna find such links quite plausible. they're investigating the relationship between pain and empathy.
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but they seized in his power hypothesis is that overlapping areas of the brain are activated when i feel pain and when i know that somebody else is experiencing. and if medication reduces my own perception of pain that also affects my perception of another person's bank. to test their hypothesis the neuropsychologists recorded the brain activity in volunteers during a series of experiments. e.g. caps measure their brainwaves. the test subjects were hooked up to at a time. via electrodes on their hands they were given slightly electric shocks in a random sequence. they each had to rate
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how painful their own shocks were and those the other person experienced then they had to say how unpleasant it was to know that the other person was feeling pain. they couldn't see each other but they could assume that they were each given the same intensity of shock. the next step was to give some test subjects a placebo painkiller. and others nothing at all. it turned out that those who took the placebo said they felt less pain and also rated the other's pain as less intense. the next stage was to watch the participants brains using functional magnetic resonance imaging or f. m.r.i. while continuing the experiment. of.
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the use these buttons to register and rate the pain. the person in the machine was shown photos of the other person being subjected to electric shock. the m.r.i. scans showed which parts of the brain were active in the subject one quantifying their own pain and evaluating the pain of the other person. as it is in these in the colors indicate which regions of the brain are active as in the group that took up will activity was much lower than in those who didn't giving notice. the areas associated with empathy and with pain were both less active in those who had taken a pill. dennis may say he doubts his sensitivity to others is impaired by his painkillers but the research suggests there are complex issues to be disentangled
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here dennis's doctor for one thinks too many people take too many painkillers without thinking about the implications it could mean because we should only use pain meds for short periods of time to address specific symptoms about we have to keep in mind the side effects and we have to make that clear to our patients because they will have to learn to dose their painkillers more conservatively to minimize the negative side effects physical or psychological. as promised. back with. some viewer questions our viewer nina wants to know she has a friend and this friend and goes to bed at four or five in the morning wakes up at eleven am and then has a severe headache. and you have to go to bed and this is something that is for the headache i mean since we all have different contact they're also extremely cruel types which is not a disease or a malfunction of the clock some of us are but you could use
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a little bit about it by getting morning light maybe you go out for jogging in the morning after you stand up and avoid light so working on computers is not good for the headache whether it has something to do with it it's difficult to say from here elizabeth wants to know do we need less sleep as we get older well i mean there are studies that although people sleep less but maybe also the daily naps and so contribute. to that in the sleep is more of fragmented in the night as long as you feel refreshed over the day you don't have to worry about. very christian from. his g.p. told him that his brain can't be generated when he goes to bed after midnight no i don't agree with that we have no evidence for that thank so much christians today and i have to see you again next week and until then let's try to stay awake and
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get. the be.
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the be. the be. the be the mother. for sharing with us. join her on a journey of musical discover. what did people do for entertainment in the eighteenth century long before the advent of you tube they had something even better they had a form of live music called. flux
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