Traumatic optic neuropathy is a rare but devastating injury that can result from blunt force or explosive blast. Presentation can be delayed by several weeks and patients ultimately lose vision completely in the affected eye. Unfortunately, in the military, damage is often bilateral. We use a mouse model of closed globe trauma to induce indirect traumatic optic neuropathy in order to test underlying mechanisms with the goal of identifying therapies for this currently untreatable blinding condition. Our work on this grant to date has identified sterile neuroinflammation as a key pathway involved in neurodegeneration after trauma. We have also packaged EPO-R76E into nanoparticles for intraocular delivery, after demonstrating that intraocular delivery is likely to be more efficacious than systemic delivery. We are currently treating mice with galantamine after trauma and will examine alterations in the amacrine cells and ganglion cells as well as therapeutic outcome measures including electroretinogram, visual evoked potential, and optical coherence tomography. Finally, a pre-application to the DoD for a clinical study was invited for a full submission.