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tv   Las Cruces NM PAAHTV  CSPAN  August 24, 2018 4:42pm-5:57pm EDT

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-- some can not only talk and walk, she can even do push-ups.
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coming up, we will visit the white sands missile range to hear about the u.s. army test rims during the cold war. >> anything that has to do with rockets and missile technology kind of begin here. to newr, we take you mexico state university to see the u.s. senators. are absolutely essential. >> would begin at four sutton attoric site -- would begin
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fort sutton historic -- four sutton. >> the primary reason before was established is to protect the citizens and travelers on the the camino real from santa fe to chihuahua and back. primary protection against apache raters more than anything else. this has been a spot were there was easy access to water, firewood and it provides very easy view of all the surrounding
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areas so you can see enemies coming inade caravans , so provided escort service that was the main purpose. served, therpose is shortcut through the desert. this was a spot where they could rest and find water. here.s why it was located the fort has two periods of occupation and they start the beamss to take the wooden off. they remove them so they can use
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them at other locations, but in 1881, just three years in later -- three years later, they occupy for a decade and after that point, the indian wars were over. there really isn't need for this location to the manned by a military force anymore. it is a whole different so the fort is abandoned again. had it not been taken apart, if they left the door frames and , it probably wouldn't be in the precarious shape that it is in. that was sort of a standard thing. you had things that were cut and
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they were repurposed, so that is what happened so it was really no longer needed.'s go one of the big challenges here as you will see is the erosion of the walls. typically, there will be a my, water,r with play, sand and some manner of , the adobe'sre were made of sand and clay so they are much more susceptible .o being damaged by rain these are administrative .uildings here
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one interesting thing about this fort is although you see it as ruins and also preserve the , most other 19th century forts, and the southwest they are gone except for the footprint on the ground, so you can get a feel for what the area was like. ofs is also the only part the fort that was two stories and this building right here mights made of stone, you wonder why would there be a, while this is a jail.
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if your fork had a jail constructed of stone, you are probably going to stay put. a second one here and one of the things we know is about the -- about the soldiers visiting a nearby community and liked to visit women in the community. they drank and thought and so probably in an average month, there might have been seven or eight soldiers who had run afoul of some sort of rule and they might end up in this probably pretty secure jail. is the formale
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entrance into the fort, so anyone who had business with the fort and of course the soldiers when they were coming and going, they would use this area. this was the only area that was two stories. see building that you don't was the post commissary and the storeroom, so this was actually a very significant place. they commissary would take care of the needs of the soldiers that the military was providing for them. unfortunately, this building is there are plans
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to possibly put some walls that would show a footprint so you can get a prescient -- and appreciation. i was talking about how you could see from this spot and you can see all the way around. someone60 degrees if were coming and posing a threat. you can see it very easily. system wherehad a they use heliograph's which is so theyfracting light could put a signal on top of the mountain and information could
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he transmitted. system inart of the new mexico. this building here was where the noncommissioned officers stayed, sergeants and corporals and they would be responsible for the men who would be crammed into this space here, so this is the andacks for the enlisted in , itsefore was started first life was 16 years. , are were two companies here calvary company and an infantry company. inre was room for 75 men
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each barracks, so very tightly packed. they slept in bunk beds. thearmy had a standard for amount of air that was supposed to circulate. meet that standard. i would guess we are in the mid imagine it will -- it would have been brutal to have stayed here. enough wasstingly in a lott that engaged of battles with native americans. they were a believe only three that died in any sort of engagement, so it was
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probably in addition to being hot and uncomfortable, it was probably pretty boring. they did a lot of maintenance homework. in its one of the really significant things that this four days was provide safe travel for people and you wouldreal have had commerce, and from all to new to st. louis down mexico. right here, i'm sending on a piece of the camino real. you can see a marker that says this is 1300 miles to mexico fey in 283 miles to santa
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and so as you stand here, you ,an imagine thousands of people everything that came from the spanish world into this country came along this road and so for example, people who live in new mexico and have been here for many generations, it is fascinating. they can stand were there ancestors are. this is a pretty form part of in terms of the sweep of history, this location is probably more significant in at some point, i
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guess there was an attempt to say who was truly famous that was here? oftentimes that is used as sort of rationale. it turns out that in his memoirs , general douglas barker -- jet douglas in the dark -- general was here andthur this building here is where the make arthur's -- make arthur's lived. macarthur had been born in january of 1880. he said in his memoirs that he learned to shoot while he was
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seems rather he would have been three years old when he came for five or six years old when he lived. it was rather unlikely he could have tested a military weapon. maybe he rode with his dad, but there was an attempt to point out macarthur was here and he probably was the most .amous man that was here the other big story.
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the other story is the story of the buffalo soldiers. after the civil war, of course there have been soldiers who had fought. they were sent to many of them in 1866group came here infantry and they were called buffalo soldiers because the tile indians who encountered hairbecause they had curly and because of their bravery and
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dark complexioned in their fierceness, they referred to them as buffalo soldiers. it and theyd referred to themselves that way. there were a number of different units. replacedf the 25th was by a number -- another group of infantry. probably the more famous worthy ninth and 10th calvary. eightse, they were encounters in the southwest. those individuals to not happen to serve here. that is one of the really important stories of these
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western forts. the historic is site is where history happened and i think that is where people .ome here to have a guided tour uniqueeally almost because this one is still here where as many of them are not. >> the white sands missile range, located 26 miles from las cruces is a testing area for the u.s. army. it is the largest military installation in the united states, consisting of almost
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3200 square miles. while in las cruces, we toured the missile range where we heard about some of the earliest tests conducted their. events thate two occurred in 1945 one week from each other. those two things really set the stage for what occurred here .ater all the missile testing since that time, the navy came out, the need the need for to defend the fleet. b-2navy was part of the
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program as well. it has always tested out here and then everything through the cold war. sounding rocket programs, so to do withat has rockets or missile technology kind of began here. during war two, the program, we looked at it and kind of understood the technological changes that were occurring. what really sparked the iielopment, during world war they camelize quickly in very quick and low.
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in 1944, the germans went into production. aircraft were going to the flying a lot higher and engaging those aircraft at the time was not going to work. to keep the pace the jet engine was needed. army talk tou.s. the california institute of and our corporal came out and developed it behind me. time understood we were going to try to get over to theists united states. a perfectere they
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how, but we needed to learn to guide these rockets. therd the end of the war, rocket scene has this huge facility in germany. east between the brutal.and germans was the german rocket team did not want to surrender to the soviets. they did not want to do it. they realize that they wanted to pursue the technology, it would go.ably be the best way to
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guardsd a group of ss with them. the guards were supposed to execute them, but the guards, understanding which way the war was going slowly dropped off as they made their way south. brotherbron von and his actually found the american and surrendered the german rocket team. this german rocket team, but in addition we needed the hardware and the technology itself. we had captured some of the rocket sites, but the bulk of the production was an which wasd facility
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.n ss run facility when the u.s. army got to that thatof germany then we got production facility in the tunnels were full of the equipment. we also located the document dump and started shipping that andf over to white sands this material was heading over and was putd states on train cars and shipped out. >> they have a number of items in its collection. we have what is probably the most original b-2 that exists.
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we also have a number of tracking cameras that track in recorded flights in three-dimensional space. is the lack corporal. it was developed by the california institute of technology and beginning in december 1944, they were looking at a rocket to be used for research. they needed something that could payload --,000 25,000 pound payload. we only fired six of them are successfully and that was the first thing that was ever fired. 1949.became important was
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we took it and put it in the nose of the rocket. once it reached out at the top onthe flight, it continued and we set an altitude record and a speed at over 5000 miles per hour and that record remained for almost a decade. america's first attempt to try to do something like that. what they demonstrated was that you could take a booster of one side and a rocket from another and you could boost that to a greater altitude by using a second rocket. the acted as a booster for corporal and that technology would be incredibly important in the future to get their vehicles
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into space. right now we are standing in missile park. 70rently contains about large artifacts and these are things that were tested in the recently. quite we have artillery type rockets. we are going to discuss the missile system. while the army was working on the program here, they started a development of what we know now.
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it is one on the green launcher in the foreground. booster, one the believe was at the time that the soviets would send aircraft to the north pole through canada it was united states and one missile per aircraft. that was the big program out here. it was the first american missile to shoot down an aircraft. bomberot down a drone and during the time, the german rocket team had left about 1950. were very educated and had physics and engineering. in alternative was to be
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korea. they did not mind being out here. what a lot did is they were stationed here and they would go to new york and one instance they were briefing the military and a on this technology group of naval pilots, most of them world war ii veterans and they were talking about this new missile system being tested. the neville officers were kind of joking about it. as the broomstick scientist film of this being destroyed. the room got silent and the presentation ended and the naval --es found out of the room
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filed out of the room very quietly. it was recognized immediately the potential for these systems. deployed in rings of steel around the city, the city of chicago had 24 batteries around the city of chicago, but the 19eat changed and ajax was increasingly seen as not as robust as needed. side ofry on the south chicago engage the target coming out of the north, that is where it will go down in the city of chicago. lust, it was considered an efficient.
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they started looking at a program which is the larger missile of the background. it potentially could carry a nuclear warhead. you could deployed less batteries and engage many more aircraft with that nuclear warhead. the thinking was not necessary to block everything, but when any kind of mechanisms, if you don't blow them up, render them unusable. >> the testing that has been think ithere, people is mostly military testing, but it has involved a lot of
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civilian uses as well. that is still a big program out here. is theirnteresting learning how to fly these. we understood that this thing provides a perfect platform to send up to 100 miles in the atmosphere, so early on, the navynment and the army and harvard and put together this toearch rocket panel basically let the community know that they could use these rockets and you are wanting to do research on some facet, you
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could essentially bid on a rocket and they would say yes or no. they would set the rocket up for you. you would collect and then publisher data. a number of things showed the curve of the earth was done in white sands. it shows that the small animals liftoff ande at when anything becomes weightless, good -- those were critical and that data was used by the german rocket team when tostarted talking to people
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put people into space. it is not just the military application, there has been a lot of signs out there as well. there are a number of things we want people to take away. number one is the army's role. the the development of atomic bomb. up with people grew these dreams of going to space. we also want people to understand the role this has played, particularly during the cold war and how continues to provide for what is happening today.
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>> while in las cruces, we visited the campus of new mexico state university. there, we looked at collections of the states u.s. senators. >> we are going to look at the papers of senator albert bacon. tohe was a senator from 1912 1921. he became -- it was during that time he is probably best known for what is known to be the teapot dome scandal. he was born in 1861 in kentucky and largely self educated.
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never went to college or university. instilled in him a love of reading and books. his passion was reading law books and someday he would become a lawyer. his love kentucky when he was about 18 or 19 years old. cook for a cattle drive operation. that he he met someone married. shortly after that, he headed south into new mexico and he was interested in opportunity that quiteht find and he spent an extensive amount of time and learned a lot about mining while
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he was down there. it would come in handy later in life. after a few years, he returned becomes and decided to -- they came to el paso and headed to the mountains in las cruces and ended up in a mining town where there was a lot of forvity and worked there quite some time. they settled in las cruces and decided totime he stop his active processing -- active prospect in -- active prospecting activities. hererved as a lawyer
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through the 1890's. he prided himself in defending .he little people again, the spanish language abilities really helped and he gave pride in helping the little guy. judgeo became a district and started to become involved in territorial politics at that time in so he served in the state legislature while he was practicing law. he was a proponent for new parto and in 1910, he took in the constitutional convention were new mexico. in mexico did become a state 1912 and at that time was elected as one of the first two senators and federal government.
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he became involved in the committee for new mexican affairs and was trying to help inple who lost their lives new mexico or helping people recover property that was taken during the course of the american revolution. a senator from ohio was elected president in he pointed and secretary of the interior. he had a plan to use some oil asidees that had been set . inre were three reserves and
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his dealings after any and another friend, he least least -- leased. the profit in itself was not legal, but some people cried foul. later, if the charge against him that he had taken bribes from these two gentlemen in exchange for awarding them the right to drill in these oil reserves. convicted fory
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$100,000 a bribe of was found not forty in giving a bribe $100,000. .here is a little bit of irony events had athese on hisd effect reputation, his health, his career and he came back to new sentenced tos serve one year in prison in santa fe which he did. his health had been broken living between the ranch at three rivers and his home in el .aso texas
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these are some materials from the fall papers. and thereout 36 boxes is not a lot of very early materials. it is mostly post-20th century, but here we have the correspondence between fall and several people. these are some letters from the doponses mostly having to .nd was unable to pay back
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postscript, where is the $50 check your going to return? pertains to the scandal that happened that you -- that happens in the 1920's. these two folders contain some oildence on exploitation that they were conducting in mexico and you can see the telegram is written in and they put in .hese nonsense words
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telegrams, people are going to see them and felt they had to write these telegrams and the secret code they had worked on. this was a defense that was written at the time. years of which they manage their activity outlined in the following statement. he has given his closest attention to the affairs of the government. all of the contracts had been discussed at large in the purpose of this statement only to point out the advantages of the people already evident. i think the defense is quite strong and it is probably overlooked by a lot of historians.
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it is one of many collections we .ave here >he was a six term senator from new mexico. 2008.ired in he was warned to a family of a his familyants and sort in the east of albuquerque. he attended the university of and talk to garfield
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junior high school. he returned to a private practice in albuquerque and in 1972, he ran for united states senate and was elected as a republican. theas known as an expert on federal budget. not only was this effective towards this state, but he also focused heavily on debt reduction, particularly on .udget matters people who testified before the senate committee worth a live eyes to be prepared -- were
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-- people whoe testified before the senate committee were devised to be prepared. we brought out the nameplate from the time of the chairman theet committee and senator's position is at times chairman of the budget committee contagious in an and -- advantageous position. the human genome project
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through it was a behind-the-scenes supporter. >> >> no authorization. after that, i mean, this was an earmark which we are very proud. >> and the senator, i might say, people in future years will look back and say, what you did to get the human genome project is one of the great accomplishments of all time. >> through an earmark. >> the human genome project -- >> about the only time he ever used an earmark. >> no, sir. i don't want to be put in that category because i used a lot of them and i was very proud of them. you can find them in my state. here -- ave the senate
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>> over here -- >> over there you will see all the earmarks. drive up and down the highway. i'm just kidding. but not kidding too much. i'm not too far exaggerating. >> with something he became so well known for in new mexico held with his held with his po
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popularity with his state that he was openly known as st. pete in new mexico for his ability to bring federal funds. one of the things we brought out is ability to bring federal funds. one of the things we brought out is a hard hat from a project at the university of new mexico in which they put st. pete on the ability to bring federal funds. one of the things we brought out is a hard hat from a project at the university of new mexico in which they put st. pete on the hard hat for him to wear at the ground breaking. is the when roll call vote adopted a balanced budget. it was also an effort in which he worked adopted a balanced budget. it was also an effort in which he worked closely with president clinton on. he was known one of the republi who pushed back. again, bipartisan tendencies with president clinton in office, he found that he could work to achieve more balanced federal budgets. on this table, we brought out some materials related to watergate in 1973. one of the fun things about
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working with political papers is that often everything that is old becomes new again. early in his senate career he was obviously in office as watergate was unfolding. so we brought out a selection of materials that were related to or in response to the saturday night massacre after richard nixon fired a number of his attorney general and other folks investigating him. and the response. so one of these documents was produced by yale university. it -- developed the committee on impeachment. for example, this document is entitled an introductry analysis of possible grounds for impeachment. which was distributed around capitol hill. his folder is another document titled establishing an
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independent federal prosecuter, a preliminary analysis on constitutional issues. this document delves into particularly the prosecutorial functions of a special prosecuter and the constitutional issues of how maintains independence or at least maintainses its independence in its investigation of the executive branch. and maintains independence these documents ha annotations or notes on them by the senator or his staff. the same with this folder. this folder is primarily correspondance related to the special prosecutors in the saturday night massacre both by senator dome chi and received by so many of these are in the form of dear colleague letters. these contain also antations by the senator or his staff.
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or example, on this dear colleague letter from senator james buckley of new york colleague letter from senator james buckley of new york that was sent out to likely the entire senate, the third paragraph of it reads, a majority of the senate has now hart proposal hart proposal that the judge would be directed to appoint a successer. whereas the president seems intent on appointing a prosecuter under the direct supervision of the attorney general. it would appear that the president's pr postal, without more, is unsatisfactory to both a majority of the people and of the senate. at the same time, i believe that the bay-hart approach would fundamentally alter the delicate balance of authority and division of function which are the great glory of the separation of powers. this is underlined and in the senator's handwriting it says correct on both counts. to a researcher that -- i want
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rested in this topic, that's information that could only be found on this document. one of the other major initiatives that he was known for was his work on nuclear nonproliferation. in specifically the senator saw a grave national threat to the united states in terms of national security. in securing fiscal material and other nuclear material after the fall of the soviet union. and this was another effort which was especially bipartisan in which the senator worked ery closely with sam nun and paul woodward on developing legislation. and policies in which the united states would help secure nuclear materials from the various former soviet republic after the fall of the cold war. was probably one of
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his greatest contributions to national security in that at the time may not have been especially well known among the public, for it his greatest contributions was that he and his office wouldday vote considerable energy to. the results were that large amount of nuclear material was adhered and some of that sent to the united states but was preventing that material from lling into, say, terrorist hands or falling into the hands of nation states which the world community might not attempt developing nuclear weapons or even just the potential to form things such as dirty bombs with lower level fiscal material. one of the senators' continued efforts upon his bipartisan policy center was his involvement with the institute re on campus and the hosting
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of the policy conference every september. that conference gathers -- that focuses on various issues that the senator and the committee feel are of national relevance and often focuses on bringing in bipartisan speakers and focusing on the both sides of the aisle to talk about solutions or possible solutions to pressing national issues. the senator passed away in september of 2017 sadly actually on the opening day of ast year's conference. the university continues to have a relationship with the senator's family through the institute as well as here in the archives. we don't continue to receive items from the family as they donate them. , chili peppers is one of our main crops. a lot of times foods are grown
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in the area because of culture. in wisconsin they make a lot of saurcrault because of the german immigrants. here we have the hispanic population. chill ip pester are part of that culture. what people don't realize is chilis are native to the tropical rain forest. really happy. really happy. but what we have adapted them to this climate. in 1540, fran sist covassquezz came up on an expedition to introduce spanish rule to new mexico. and introduced european or spanish agriculture to the pueblo indians. in 1598, to establish a presence of the spanish in new mexico, he said that the indians were now growing chilis just under the spanish kind of agriculture. because before then the indians
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waffle we call the system. they had little squares, they would plant corn, squash, but the spanish introduced rrigation to bring the water from the river to irrigate fields. so they had already that.orated so we have had chili being grown here for a very, very long time. then that. so we in the early -- late, in a late 1800s, we had rofessor here names garcia that was our very first graduating class and our very first hort cult rist. his mission was to find new to grow. the farmers at that time, they were growing mainly cotton, maybe corn, alfaxa and that was it. so he began to look at a lot of different horticultural crops. he looked at fruit trees, sweet onions. he brought in seed from spain
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that was the basis of sweet onions. he introduced a major crop. he also looked at chili peppers. at the time, chilis were only being grown in the backyards in what we call kitchen gardens. them thought if he mealed milder he would get nonhispanics to eat chilis. so he created a breeding program of local chilis and selected for a unique pod type. then he released what he called new mexico number 9. he interdeuced this new pod type. people liked it. and it began a whole new industry here. we began to can it to ship back east on the trains and stuff. so it began the whole process of building up a whole industry here. dehydrating the red chilis and canning and freezing the green. up until that time, if you made what we would say a mexican food dish, you would use
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different chilis. but now there was one chili that kind of fit all that and we weren't as sophisticated back in those days so mexican food was anything that had chili spice. so now you could have one chili, grow, process and use in at we were calling mexican food. so it really became the basis of the new mexico food industry in the united states. so we always say he's the father of the mexican food industry. the chili pepper institute was established in 199 . the mission statement is to introduce the world about chili peppers. we have a long history from the founding of the university to today. one of the things we notice on our teaching garden is people from all around the world come in and see, and they say that's my chili from my country. we were trying to export at one
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oint chili to asia and the asian market told us we didn't have good quality. we didn't know what that meant. it had good color, didn't have insects or anything, disease, mold. we just didn't understand why they were putting up a barrier. but what we learned over time is that the chilis had a different kind of heat. and we weren't sure what they were talking about. so we began to study what we call today a heat profile. every chili has five components to a heat profile. so the next time you eat chilis watch how fast does the heat develop. does it come on quickly or a delayed heat? how long does it linger? does it dissipate quickly or linger for literally hours in some people when they consume it? the third one is where do you sense the heat?
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the tip of your tongue, lips, mid pal at back of your throat? the fourth is sharp or literall hours in some people when they consume it? the third one flat. sharp heat is like pins sticking you with the heat like flat heat eat, the is like it's been painted. some call i had a broad heat in your mouth. the fifth is the heat level. mild, medium, hot. what we found is asian culture wants that sharp heat and they want it to be a fast heat that dispatriots quickly at a high level. so once we knew, we looked at the new mexico chili varieties and almost all had the flat heat. we found one variety that was hot that had the sharp heat. try this one. they said we like this. this is good. now we literally send tons of ed chili to do noodles and stuff because we realized that's what they meant by quality. they couldn't explain it to us but that was it. the heat profile.
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and the reason we were interested is that if you think of the food industry, they want a fast heat that dispatriots quickly. product. re medicine that the chili heat is used in, in a lot of ointments, you'll see out there, product. medicine that the chili heat is used ointments, lynnments. you want a heat that lingers because that's how you kill the pain. so you are putting a little pain which is the heat to get rid of a big pain. we thought, ocket, we'll breed chilis that will be med isnal versus the food industry. that's how we were beginning to look at it. because chili peppers are one of the few agricultural commodities that we had the vertical integration it's worth about 500 million annually to the economy. we look at what we call farm gate worth about 50 million but worth ten times that much when you look at all the processes,
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people we have to hire at the factories. so it's a nice vertical integration. the people into chilis are known as chili heads. we have people all over the contacts and send us heats and such. one time we heard about a very hot chili in india. it was supposed to be the hottest in the world. we couldn't get any seeds. but one of our members was in c india and said i found this chili here. 's not the chili but i think it's really hot. we grew it and so the first year we looked at it and said, this looks pretty hot. we should do replicated trials that test it out to see how hot it is. the next year when we did that, we found out that was the very first chili to ever hit 1 million heat units. and this is how we measure chili heat. jalepenos are about 10,000.
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this is 1 million. that became a whole new class of chili called super hot. translathes to ghost pepper. so we introduced ghost pepper to the united states. then it was interesting. after we said the goes peppers is the world's hottest. our friends and colleagues in trinidad said ours is hotter. we said send us the seed. so we tested the scorpion and we found one variety off the island there called trinidad that hit 2 million. so for us at the chili pepper institute that's still the hottest. guinness has their own way of deciding what is hot. the institute being research based we have to grow them with controls, replicated trials and do it a scientific way.
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so some people say well guinness says something is the world's hottest you say the other. so right now we have found that the trinidad scorpion is the world's hottest. here in what we call the center for chili pepper knowledge, we our expanded kind of products. and one of the things we've done is called a public-private partnership. after we had discovered the ghost pepper, they came and said we want to help you. we would like to make a hot sauce. i said we don't want just a hot sauce that's so hot that people products. and one of the can eat -- flavor is really important. that's the future i think of chilis too, is flavor. i'll talk about that in the next -- but we like to make a hot sauce that to help you raise funds. we're self-supporting here. we get no support from the pay rsity per se except to
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the electric bill. so we have to be self-sufficient. so we say we would like to help you with the hot sauce. they made formulations. we tested it, we like this formulation, it's a really good flavor. then we worked with the university communications and came up with the hot sauce. so this was -- it's hot. no question about it. but it has flavor. one of the things we've been educate people that chilis have flavor. so we have taco sauce, salsa, spice rub, and a whole set of products that are available here. in new mexico, chili is more than just an economic crop. something we grow. it's part of our educate people that chilis have flavor. so we have embrace this. in new mexico we have an official culture. people really question, state question. we say it's red or green. and that's when you go to a restaurant you'll be asked do you want red enchiladas or green? and one of the things you'll that green miss
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chili or that red chili. as soon as they come back they have to have that chili dish. the idea for this museum began in the 1970s. the secretary of agriculture at the time noticed new mexico artifacts were ending up in museums in other states. he began talking to other people. farmers, ranchers, including dr. gerald thomas. they talked about creating a farm and ranch museum to preserve our state's heritage. new mexico has a really unique agricultural story. it goes back 4,000 people where people are growing their own food. we take a lot of pride in preserving and sharing it with people. the department ratch museum is a little unique in that we have animals. most don't have animals. las crucas does not have a zoo so we sort of take that role. but we have all sorts of
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livestock. we have seven different breeds of beef cattle, horses, ponies, sheep, goats, donkeys. we have the milk cows. we have milking demonstrations. demonstrations are another thing that makes us unique. we do wool spinning, quilting, sowing that sort of thing. so when people come here you're not just looking at static exhibits. you're experiencing agriculture, you're seeing demonstrations. you can see a nail being made. how precious that would have been to someone building something back then. i think it just adds a lot to it. >> right now we're in what we call the heritage gallery. this is the gallery where we show the story of agriculture in new mexico. from what we consider the beginning of agriculture into -- up into about the turn of the century. so we're right now in the section of the gallery that represents the native americans
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that lived here about 1300 years ago and what we consider the first agriculturists here in the valley. this is a representation of a pit house which would be the home to that group of native americans. there were several of these pit houses in the village where the people lived. ey wouldn't have spent a lot of time in the pit house. they would have been there in the evening, at nighttime, would have slept inside. and in inclement of time in the pit weather woul have spent some time inside, maybe done some of the cooking. most most of the people they would have been outside working in their field, growing their crops, squash and corn, the earliest crops that we had here in the valley. so this is our what we call our casa colonial. this is a typical home that represents how the spanish lived here in about
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1815. but the spanish came here early spanish came in the 1500s. 1600s, in new mexico -- if you know the story they were looking for riches and hey wandered in kansas and then came back this way and settled here. not really settled but left behind remnants of the things that they brought here in southern new mexico. they brought chili to new mexico. so we raise a lot of chili here in southern nule. -- new mexico. they also raised mission grapes. so they made wine and were making wine basically for the frires, for the catholic church. for the priests and the catholic church and were selling those grapes to make wine. so that was very popular. coming back.
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it went away for a long time. when you hear about california being the wine from california, n new mexico we were growing the first grapes here in new mexico and making wine even before they did in california. so those are some of the crops that the spanish brought here to the new world when they came. a couple of the things that i think are interesting that we sort of represent here in our the cattle. these cattle came from spain and they brought them the over and they left some of those cattle in new mexico and in parts of texas and they migrated to southern texas and lied around louisiana and southern texas. they became long horn cattle. we still have those and we raise that type of cattle here. they're real small.
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our livestock manager on the say that bote cattle could live in the park lot. so they can get by with almost anything. very little water, very harsh conditions. tough. really they're small, they have small cavs. their calves weigh about 20 pound when they're born. where a long horn calf might way 85 to 90 to 100 pound. smaller. smaller. they also brought sheep. and the sheep are the sheep that the navajo here in new mexico raise now. this section of our heritage gallery is called generations. what it does and what it did when tough. it was created, it the very first formal exhibit and told the story of agriculture post civil war was a big period of change for new mexico. we were bringing in setting up army forts here in the state l over the state but here in
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southern new mexico. so cattlemen were raising more english style or angelo -- i don't know what the word is exactly. uropean. >> live to ohio where president trump is in columbus. ♪ god bless the u.s.a. >> thank you very much, everybody. it's great to be back here. remember, you cannot win unless you get the state of ohio. remember that? [cheers and applause] .> i heard that so many times you need the state of ohio.


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