tv American History TV Visits Las Cruces New Mexico CSPAN August 5, 2018 2:00pm-3:36pm EDT
in-depth look at roe v. wade here and we will hear from david savage, discussing judge kavanagh's nomination and the abortion issue. welcome to las cruces, new mexico. the city of about 100,000 sits in the chihuahua desert, just miles from the mexico border. flowing through his the waters of the rio grande river, making the surrounding area ideal for agriculture. , we will explore the city and the surrounding area -- surrounding area. coming up, we will visit the white sands missile range outside the city to hear about this u.s. army kasai and its site and- army test its role. nasa has a big sounding
rocket program. anything that has to do with rockets and missiles technology began here at white sands. >> later, we take you to new mexico state university to see their collections on two of the state's notable senators. >> for people studying the history and culture of any thisn, they use information. >> we begin at fort held in vast historic site, a >> fort sill than was established in maine, 1965. the primary reason it was established was to protect the citizens of the mississippi
valley. the trade route had been historically the camino real, but it was also from santa fe to chihuahua and back. that was the purpose of the protection. more than anything else. of course, the location was because, from time out of mind, this was a spot that had easy access to water, firewood, and provides very easy view from all the surrounding areas. you can see enemies coming. you can see trade caravans coming. the soldiers who were here provided escort service. they would travel of people down el camino. that was the main purpose.
this was a spot where they could rest, where they could find water. there was a hospital here. that's why it was located here and the purposes it serves. the ford has two period's of occupation, 1865 to 1878 as the first. the process of disassembling it. they take the windows and doors. they move them so they can use them in other locations. just threeg anyone years later, they decided to reoccupy it. is occupied for about a decade.
then there isn't really any need for this location to be manned by a military force anymore. of course, the thing he sees in the area have grown. it is a whole different beginning in the 1890's. had it not been taken apart, if they had left the door frames in the windows, those protect the integrity of the building and it probably would not be in the precarious shape that it is in. that was a standard thing. you had doors and windows and beams that were cut. they were just repurposed. that is what happened. it was no longer needed anymore. now let's go into the fort proper. one of the big challenges here,
as you will see as we go through of ruins, is the erosion these walls. typically, adobe is manufactured sand and water, clay, some matter-like straw in order to bind it. but here, the adobe's made only of sand and clay. they are much more susceptible to being damaged by rain. these are administrative buildings here one interesting thing about this fort although it also hass ruins, preserved the footprint of the fort itself. most other 19th-century force
that are made of adobe in the southwest, they are gone, except for the footprint on the ground. you can get a feel for what this area was like. this is also the only part of .he fort that was two stories this building right here that is made of stone. you might wonder why there would be a stone building inside of a -- an adobe fort. had a jail that was constructed out of stone, you were probably going to stay put. it looks very much like this one had two rooms, to sell areas. there was a courtroom in the second story.
one of the things they know about the siliceous or share is that they were frequently in trouble. nearby community. they liked to visit with the women they found in the community. was --y on an area average month, there might be seven or eight soldiers who probably up in this -- pretty secure jail. this right here is called the stanley port. this is the formal interest into the port -- into the fort. wereoldiers, when they coming and going, they would use this area. this area was two stories.
see building that you don't and thepost commissary storeroom. this was a significant place. take your ofy with all sort of needs of the the military was providing for them, basically. unfortunately, this building is nearly gone. there are plans to possibly put in some walls that would show the footprint sleeving get average in from this vantage you can see all the way
.round, 360 degrees if someone were coming that would pose a threat or a trade car event, you could see it easily. the military had a system where they used to wear what they call here there graphs, a system of using mirrors for reflect light signal so they could put a signal up on top of that mountain. person could observe everything happening and the information transmitted down here. this ford was part of a system of forts on through so the new mexico. here was where the noncommissioned officer stayed. ms. suleman sergeants and
corporals. they would be responsible for who would be crammed into this space over here. very -- the the fort was started in 1865. will, 16 life, if you 85 to 1778. there was a cavalry company, an infantry company, and there was room for 75 men in each barracks. very tightly packed they slept in bunkbeds. the army had a standard for the amount of air that was supposed to circulate.
this baruch did not meet that standard. guess, i would say that we were up in the mid to upper 90's. and it's june. it would have been brutal to be stationed here. the heat would have been overwhelming. this fort, interestingly enough, was not a fort that engaged in a lot of battles with native americans. fatalitiesonly three , people who died here in 80 sort of engagement. it was probably also, in addition to being hot and uncomfortable most of the time, it was pretty boring. they did a lot of maintenance were constantly on it. and patrol worked.
one of the significant things was providert did sex travel for people traveling on the camino real. of course, the camino real becomes the 20 it -- that you are what trail and you would go all the way to chihuahua. so you would had commerce from st. louis to santa fe come all the way down the camino real and all way down to mexico. i am standing on a piece of the camino real. you can see the little marker that says from this spot it is 1300 to 13 miles to mexico city and 283 miles to santa fe. as you stand here, you can imagine literally thousands of , ideas, religion, everything that came from the spanish world into this country
.ame along this road for example, people who live in new mexico and have been here for many, many generations, it is fascinating. here where there is ground. history, this location is probably more significant for its role in the camino real. at some point in the history of trying to preserve this place, i guess there was an attempt to say who was truly famous that was here? often times, that is used as some sort of a rationale. it turns out that, in his
memoirs, general douglas macarthur mentions that, when he his father, arthur -- wasur, was here in here. where macarthur and his wife live. macarthur had been born in january 1880 he says in his memoirs that he learned his shoes and to ride while he was here. but it seems rather unlikely. he would have been three years old when he came. five or six years old when he left. seems rather unlikely he could .ave hefted
there was an attempt to point out that macarthur was here. the mostobably was famous man that was here as a very young lad for a rafe key -- for a brief period of time. story that isig and inted with this fort new mexico in general, is the story of the buffalo soldiers, of course. war there hadl been black soldiers who fought the civil war a decision was made to four some black units
served under what officers and soy were sent to the west the first group that came here came in 1866 just after the fort . it was the 125th infantry. they were called the buffalo soldiers because the kiowa indians on the planes who first because of their bravery and their dark complexion their fierceness. they refer to them as buffalo soldiers. the men liked it. they referred to themselves that way as well.
there were a number of different units. -- 125th was replaced actually overlap with another group of infantry, the 38. perhaps the most famous buffalo soldiers were in the ninth and 10th cavalry. of those buffalo soldiers, there were eight and counters in the southwest. those individuals did not happen to serve here, but they were part of the buffalo soldiers group. that is one of the really important stories of these question forts. all i say is the historic site is where history happened. people can come here and have a guided tour, who can tell them
what this experience was like. unique amongalmost these question forts. as i said, this one is still here to some extent. whereas many of them are not. claps this weekend, american history tv is joining our comcast cable partners to showcase the history of las cruces, new mexico. to learn more about the cities ourur current tour, visit website. we continue now with the history of las cruces. >> while he las cruces, we visited the campus of new mexico state university and their library archives and special collections. we looked at items from the 'sllection of two of the state senators. >> today, we will be looking at
the papers of senator bacon fall. he was u.s. senator from new mexico from 1912 to 1921. he then became secretary of the interior under the william g harding administration. it was during that time he was probably best known for his currentlyt in what is -- which has come to be known. 1861 in kentucky. he was largely self educated, never went to college, never went to university. his father was a schoolteacher and his grandfather instilled in him a love of reading, a love of books. by the time he was a teenager, late teenager, he was reading law books. .hat was his passion he left kentucky when he was 18
or 19 years old. he moved to texas where he worked as a cow hand and as a cook on a cattle drive operation. while he was in texas, in 1881, he met in the morgan, who he married. shortly after that, he headed south into mexico. he was interested in mining opportunities that he might find mexico. he spent the extensive amount of time in mexico, in the stead of suck us, and alert a lot of -- cas, andown of zacate learned a lot. moved back to texas and they came to el paso and headed into the mountains outside of las cruces, in an area that is silver city, ended up in a
mining town called kingston. there was a lot of mining over there in the 1880's. decided totime, he stop his active prospecting studied for the bar exam, which he passed your which he passed. so he was a lawyer here, defending the little people, primary them -- primarily the mexican citizens who live here. he prided himself in helping the little guy while he was a lawyer. he also became a district judge. he started to become involved in
state territorial politics. at that time, new mexico as a territory. he served in the legislature during the 1890's while he was practicing law here as well. he was a proponent for statehood for new mexico. part in thetook .onstitutional convention mexico -- new mexico did come a state in 1812. it was one of the two senators .o represent he became involved in the .ommittee for mexican affairs he was try to help people who have either lost their lives in mexico are helping people .ecover property
this is one of his big activities as a senator. in 1921, a friend of falls, a senator from ohio, warren g. harding, was elected president. he appointed hall as secretary of the interior. planned to use some u.s., u.s. naval oil reserves. this is oil set aside for the year's test for the u.s. navy. he thought it would be better to ask light these resources for business purposes. in his dealings with his friend edward o heaney and harry the drillingleast rights for these oil reserves to private companies. but thisd foul
process, in itself, was not illegal. but he had taken a lot of criticism that he had not taken a lot of bids on this one. later, it would be charged against him that he actually took bribes from these two gentlemen. in exchange for awarding them the rights to drill in his oil reserves. 1928, is our -- he was arrested. he was fined $100,000. don't heaney was subsequently tried for his involvement in this affair and was found not guilty. there is a little bit of irony that fall was convicted that dirt heaney was then not convicted for.
had a rate, these events profound effect on fall, on his reputation, on his health, on .is career he came back to new mexico and was sentenced to serve one year in prison in santa fe, which he did. by the time he was out of prison, his health had been broken. he spent the rest of his life living between the ranch at and his home in a passive, texas. paul died in 1944 in el paso. and he is buried there. so these are some materials from the fault vapors. 18i mentioned, we have different millennial feet, something like 36 boxes. i pulled out some samples. there's not a lot of early his desk in the
papers. here, for instance, we have a fallf respondents between -- of correspondence between fall and sheriff pat garrett, who was kind of famously known in these parts as the slayer of .illy the kid mostly had to do with money that garrett had road from hall and was unable to a back. postscript -- where is that $50 check that you are going to return? a good portion of the material in this collection pertains to this teapot dome scandal that happened in the 1920's.
there is extensive correspondence in the collection between fall and harry sinclair and edward illini. these two folders contain correspondence between them .egarding oil exportation this western union telegram is in secret code. they had put in these nonsense words which are then deciphered into english. sortse telegrams of this were not necessarily private, people could see them, they felt that they had to write these telegrams in this secret code they had worked out together. this is sort of a defense that was written for the press at the time outstanding at hospice mints at the department of interior during the two years
were it managed many activities and outlined in the following statement appeared secretary hall has given his closest attention. mel -- all of the contracts entered into with their reasons haven't discussed at large and it is the purpose of the statement only to find out the advantages to the government and to the people which are already evident. i think the the defensive fall is? -- is quite strong. have new mexico politics, politicians, among the larger collections we have pertaining to political papers. .hey include pete domenici
six-termi was a senator from new mexico. andrea -- and972 in 2008. his family-owned a small grocery store in a small town in the mountains east of albuquerque. school, ad st. mary's private catholic school, in albuquerque. he attended the university of new mexico. after graduating, he was a schoolteacher, at garfield the junior high school in albuquerque. he attended law school at the university of denver and then returned to private practice in albuquerque. in 1972, he ran for united states senate and was elected as a private republican. pete was known as an expert on the federal budget.
he was one of the chief architects of the federal budget process. at times, he was one of the most knowledgeable people on d.c. was -- not only was this -- he focused heavily on deficit reduction. on budget matters he was among the most knowledgeable people in the room. people who served on the committee were well advised to be prepared before taking questions from him. this brought out a sampling of materials related to his work on the budget committee as well as some of the effects of that for new mexico.
we brought out his nameplate from the time as chairman of the budget committee in the 1980's. as theator's position times chairman of the budget committee -- for over 20 years the senior republican on the budget committee, put him in an advantageous position to steer funding toward new mexico. one of which was the human genome project. behind-the-scenes supporter of it. --the human genome was done we didn't have any authorization. this is an earmark of which we are very proud. might say, people
in future years will look back and say what you did to get the human genome object is one of the great accomplishments of all-time. and the senator did that through an earmark. >> that was the only time he ever used an earmark. [laughter] no, sir. in thatwant you put category because i used a lot of them, and i was proud of them. when i leave the senate my name will be on all of them and you can see them up and down the highway. i'm just kidding. [laughter] i'm not kidding too much. [laughter] >> it was something he became well known for in new mexico and helps with his political popularity. petes openly known as st.
for his ability to bring federal funds. one of the things we brought out is a hard hat from a project of the university of new mexico. we put st. pete on the hardhat for him to wear at the groundbreaking. related to that in the 1990's, the senator was instrumental in his efforts to achieve a balanced federal budget. memorabiliaieces of we brought was this from the , when floor on may 15 congress adopted a balanced budget. it was an effort in which he worked closely with president bill clinton on. he was known on the budget committee as fiercely advocating
for deficit reduction in his interest. reaganusly disputed the administration on many aspects of the federal budget. he was one of the republicans who pushed back hard against some of the stances of the reagan administration and demonstrated his bipartisan tendencies with president though clinton in office, he could work to achieve more balanced federal budgets. we brought out some of the materials related to watergate in 1973. gotof the fun things we working with political papers is everything old becomes new again. early in his career he was in office as watergate was the brought up materials in response to the saturday night massacre after richard nixon fired his attorney
general and other folks investigating him and the response. one of these documents was produced by yale university. the developed the committee on impeachment. entitled an introductory analysis on the possible grounds for impeachment which was distributed around capitol hill. is another document titled establishing an independent federal prosecutor, a preliminary analysis of constitutional29 issues. thehis document dealt into prosecutorial function of a special prosecutor and constitutional issues of how that person maintains independence of the executive branch or at least in the
investigation of the executive branch. have notes ons them by the senator or his staff. this folder is primarily correspondence related to the s in theprosecutor saturday night massacre. these documents contain annotations by the senator or his staff. in this letter from senator james buckley from new york that was sent out to the entire senate, the third paragraph reads, a majority of the senate has endorsed the bay hard proposal that judge sirotka would be moved to appoint a successor to archibald coxe.
the president seems to -- contented appointed prosecutor under the direct supervision of the attorney general, this portion is underlined by the , it would appear the president's hopeful is unsatisfactory to the majority of the people and the senate. at the time i believe that the bay hard approach would delicately alter the balance of authority in executive functions which are the great glory of the principal separation of powers. this is underlined by the senator and in his handwriting below it it's is correct on both accounts -- it says, correct on both accounts. to researcher interested in this topic, that is information that can only be found by this unique document. one of the other tips that he was known for was his work on nuclear nonproliferation. specifically the president saw a grave national threat to the
united states in terms of national security. this was another effort which was especially bipartisan. the senator worked very closely with sam nunn and hall lugar on legislation and policies in which the united nuclearould help secure materials from the former soviet republic after the fall of the cold war. was one of his greatest contributions to national security in that at the time it may not have been11 especially well known among the public, but it was something that he and his office devoted considerable energy to. the result was large amounts of nuclear material was secured and
some of it was eventually sent to the united states. the idea was it was preventing the material from falling into terrorist hands or into the hands of nationstates which the nityd can -- the world commu might not want to use. senators continued efforts in addition to the bipartisan policy center was his involvement with the domenici institute here on campus. conference focuses on various issues that the senator and the committee feel are of national relevance and often focus on bringing in bipartisan speakers and focusing on both sides of the aisle with possible
solutions. away indomenici passed september of 2017 on the opening day of the conference. haveniversity continues to a relationship with the senator's family. and we continue to receive items from the family as they donate them. >>, comcast partners worked with the cities tour staff when we traveled to new mexico. learn more about las cruces all weekend here on american history tv. mexico come a chili peppers is one of our main crops.
a lot of times food is grown because of the culture. wisconsin grows a lot of sauerkraut because of german immigrants. here we have the hispanic population and chili peppers are part of that culture. people don't realize that they are native to the tropical rain forest. they like a 62 degree day with rain every few days. but we have adapted them to this climate. 1540, coronado came up on an exposition to introduce spanish rule to new mexico. and he this european agriculture to the puebla indians. he said that these indians were under theg chili spanish agriculture because
group then, the indians and what we called a waffle system. they had little squares in which cornwould plant squash and to catch the rainwater but this irrigation would bring water from the river to irrigate fields. they had already incorporated that into their fields. chili had been grown here for a very long time. in the late 1800s when animus -- a got founded we had member named for beyond garcia in the firstcia graduating class. his mission was to find new crops for farmers to grow. at the time it was cotton, corn, alfalfa and that was it. he began to look at different horticultural crops. he looked at fruit trees and brought in seed -- onion seed
from spain. he introduced a major crop. he also looked at chili peppers. at the time there only being grown in the backyards of what we called kitchen gardens. he felt if you made the more uniform you would get non-hispanics to eat chilies. in the early 1900s he released what he called the mexico number nine. , peoplebegan to grow it liked it and we began a whole new industry here. began the whole process of building up a whole industry here. the interesting thing is up until that time, if you made a mexican food dish, you would use
different chilies like hell up jalapeno or- like serrano. not as sophisticated in those days so mexican food was anything that had chili spice to it. now you could grow it, process it and use it in that mexican food industry at the time. it really became the basis of the mexican food industry in the united states. the chili pepper institute was established in 1993. our mission statement was to educate the world about chili peppers. we've a long history from the founding of the university to today. we've noticed that people from all around the world will come in and see their chili and they say that is mine from my country
and we were trying to at one to asia and chili the asian market told us we didn't have good quality, and we didn't know what that meant because they had good color and did not have insects parts or disease or mold. we thought they were putting up a barrier but what we learned over time through talking to chilis have a the different type of heat. we were sure what they were talking about so we begin to study what we call a heat profile. the next time that you eat chili, watch how fast the he develops. does it come on quickly or is it delayed? how long does it linger? does it dissipate quickly or does it linger for hours? consumeple when the y it. the third is where do you sense the heat? the lips, the tip of the tongue
or the throat? and the last one is a sharp heat, like a prickly heat. the flat heat is like it has been painted. the fifth is that he level, m -- heat level. mild, medium hot. asian culture wants sharp heat. they went fast heat that dissipates quickly at a high level. ate we knew that, we look that new mexico chili variety and they almost all have the flat heat. we found one variety that was hot and had sharp heat. we sent this one to asia and they said oh yeah, this is good. now we literally send tons of red chili to do kimichi, noodles. we realize, that is what they meant by quality.
they couldn't explain it but that was it, the heat profile. the reason we were interested in this is if you think of the food industry they want a fast heat that dissipates quickly and you eat more product. medicine, heeof at. capsaicin. that lingers because that is how you kill the pain. chiliesht, we'll breed that will have medicinal extract versus the food industry. that is how we were beginning to look at it. fewuse they are one of the agricultural commodities it is worth about $500 annually to our economy. we look at that raw product. it is worth about $50 million but 10 times that much when you look at the processors, people
that we have to hire at the factories. the people that are really into chilies are known as chili heads. we have people all over the world who contact us and send us heat. hottime we heard about a chili in india. it was supposed to the hottest in the world and we could not get seeds to test it but one of our members was in india and said, i found this here, it is ulokia, they call it the butjulokia. i think we should grill it. we said this looks really hot, let's to trials to test out how hot it is. yesterday we found out that was milliont chili to hit 1
global heat units. 1000.l chilis are about that became a new class of chili pepper called superhot. to ghostame translates pepper in english. we introduce ghost pepper, for good or for bad, to the united states. after we said the ghost separate is the world's oddest, our friends in trinidad said, ours is hotter. they sent a seat and we trusted the trinidad scorpion and we found one variety called t hitdad maruga scorpion that 2 million. for us that is the world's oddest. guiness has their own way but for us being a research based institute we have to grow and
replicate in trials and do it in a scientific way. some people say guiness said something and you say the other. right now, we have found that maruga scorpion is the world's hottest. we have expanded our products. we have what we call it public-private partnership. after we discovered the ghost toper, they said we want help you, we would like to make a hot sauce. we said we don't just want a hot sauce that people can't eat -- flavor is important. that is the future of chilis, flavor. we would like to make a hot sauce to help you raise funds to help fund the institute. we are self supported.
we get no support from the university except to pay the electric bill. we have to be self-sufficient. they said we would like to help with a hot sauce. they made formulations and we tested it and said this has a good flavor. then we worked with the university of communications and came up with the holy jalokia hot sauce. it is hot but it has flavor. one of the things we have been trying to do is educate people that chilies have flavor. sauce, holy jalokia hot spice rubs, and a bunch of products that are available only here. as part of our culture. people embrace this. in new mexico we have an official state question, is it red or green? when you go to a restaurant you will be asked if you want read and shallot is -- read enchilada
s or green enchiladas? as soon as people come back they have to have that dish. staffpan city tour recently traveled to visit historic sites. the city was founded in 1849 and means the crosses in spanish. cruces allabout las weekend here on american history tv. cannothe time americans this part of the united states, this is already old. a while in las cruces we took driving tour of the city with this rock ranger. >> thank you for showing us around the area today. you were born and raised in this area? >> yes. my family we are multicultural
and bilingual. , i am lot of people here native american and hispano. i interact with people from all over the world. >> we are going to be visiting a lot of other areas. where will you take us? >> we will travel in closer to go into this village. the native indigenous community. we will also see the one that dates back to the 1850's and we will see parts of old downtown las cruces. cannot right now we are overlooking leesburg dam state park. more about this area. >> this is an old area. natural with the environment, the geology and the terrain. that river below us is one of
only five rivers in the entire planet that is in a valley that it did not create. the reason that river is in the valley now is because it sits atop a rift. underneath the valley and parts of the river to mother are still geothermal activity. result, the groundwater and the river water when he gets pushed back up it is a hot spring. in addition to being hot they also contain an element known as radium which has a radioactive half-life. there are a lot of people who believe that it has therapeutic and healing properties, medicinal properties. has attracted people for thousands of area --
thousands of years to these areas. say thousands of years you really mean early settlers to the area. >> this particular area we're looking at, the level on the right-hand side is the leather mountains, they are the highest in the area, just shy of 9000 feet among -- below sea level. these mountain ranges are prehistoric villages and artifacts. from the last ice age to people .rom the archaic period to these other people who are the ancestors of the modern people. we so have these modern people living in the area that descend from these folks. and we have the spanish history. hispanic families that you can find up north in
northern new mexico, all of their ancestors had to come through this passage. this is the migration route. >> what year are we talking? 1500s, the first spanish explorers and conquistadors come to the area. >> this predates plymouth rock? rock,predates them with all of back east, the early colonial period. this is all happening a century or more prior to all of the. >> we are talking about immigration to the area. your close to the border here. what is the relationship with the u.s.-mexico border when it relates to new mexico? talking culture i
like to joke with tourists and visitors that my whole life i've heard about this international border and the state borders but i have never seen them. they have shown them to me on paper but i have never seen them. mean by that is if you are born and raised in this community -- this may be true of other border communities, anglo or hispanic like. ,e are so inter-woven interlaced, interdependent and even intermixed. we are very tight with the cross-cultural, cross-border community. movement between the countries has always been pretty easy come a historically. there are a lot of people who have family on both sides. the people who have been here longer than the borders, the ties and the relationships go back when the borders have been
moved. they have been moved and changed but relationships have stayed the same. you will have families in this community -- we are talking 150 years ago, they had already .ixed, anglos and hispano's it is reflected in our language, our border language is often a mix of english and spanish. a prime example, heavily influenced by mexican culture in our foods. does agriculture play a big role in las cruces? >> yes. the big lakes and reservoirs are the primary -- the primary reason for building them is to trap and store melted snowfall.
being all ofson these peak countries. >> you are also known for green chili. >> this hatch valley has actually have it patented and copyrighted. no one can legally call their chili hatch chili unless it is .rown in the hatch valley they have gone to court over that. and el pecan is rising up to being king. i know we are in the north and going toward the center. river, wese to the will cross the rio grande and we will stop by a roadside historic landmark marker which is basically a monument to the signing of the gaston purchase. >> we've pulled off literally into the dirt on the side of the
road to see this small marker. even though it is tiny it has a big role in southwest and american history. >> the u.s. coast war against mexico. mexico loses and they lose the moment they decide to give in and say, let's stop fighting was right after the battle of braci to. that is right to the south of us. they have to decide where will mexico end and where will the u.s. begin? the map and the instruments they have -- as good as they had at the time they were still off. they decide that the rio grande will play a role in this order. the problem is at the river moves back and forth so they decided to set fixed markers.
this is one of the corners of what would later become known as the gaston purchase. this corner marker is at that actually the beginning of mexico and the end of the u.s.. mesilla exists, there are 15 to 20 families at this time who do not want to become u.s. citizens. --is one of those instant periods in history where we can say not all mexicans want to become americans. these folks jumped out of the united states into mexico. >> we should go to old mesilla and see this. >> it is real common to find cars driving or parked in and
andnd, owned by both anglo hispano alike that have a bumper sticker that say yo soy mesillero. sometimes it will have the translation that is i am a proud mesillan. they are very proud of it. it all goes back to the history of them not wanting to become u.s. citizens after the war. purchase, gaston about 50 to 60 hispanic families up their take belongings and leave their homes standing, load up their wagons, look across the river must see a hill, hence the name mesilla, little hill, or little table. they said that is where we will move to, that is where we will build our village. twist. has a weird
two years later when they do the purchase, they wind up back in the united states. plaza. the old historic the kiosk, it has both the u.s. and mexico flag. mesilla and the 54 is for 1854. this here, billy the kid was jailed here. this is an old courthouse. have the brick sidewalk, the brick patio. fors this a large place tourists? >> this is tourism central. area.the magnet for this >> we're leaving the area now, to where? for anotheread
community that is not as old, but is still very unique and distinct. >> we're turning into the tortugas area. tell me more. as is spanish for turtles. flee new is, when they mexico as a result of the 1680 groups, one are two group is about two weeks ahead of the other group and it is a mixture of mexican indians, spaniards and puebla people who are fleeing the revolt. behind theer group, main group, the main group complain and say they are moving slow, they are moving like turtles. this building on the left, it is a terra cota color.
this building and the handling are all three the same kind of color. ,hese are the social, religious and ceremonial structures that they built here. the biggest event of the year for these people, tourists come and family members come from all over. they come here during the week of december 12. virgen des the day of la guadalupe. in the other building they will have candles and they will dance all night long and they will have ritualistic prayer and dance. it is a mixture of roman catholic and indigenous belief. meeteople here are a microco example. spanish,a mixture of mexican indian and native new
mexican. >> it shows the diversity of the area. se it's in the tortuga' neighborhood, the puebla neighborhood and now we are entering the modern downtown of las cruces. the city the things of of las cruces did several years ago is it consolidated all of their museums to be shoulder to shoulder here on main street. it took us several years to renovate this entire main street district. brand-new, the parking, the sidewalks, the lighting, but they tried to keep that feel of a certain time period. but now everything is within walking distance. bookstore,k to the
you can walk to all of the museums. >> we have been all around the area, we talked about its history among we saw were the earliest settlers started. what would you like to see next for southern new mexico? >> the next thing is to make reality -- the idea of making this a destination specifically eco-tourism.and i think we have as great or even greater potential for that than any other place in the southland. alex, thank you for showing us around the area today. we are in the mercantile and french heritage is in of las
cruces where c-span's learning about the history. new mexico has a strong agriculture industry. next we take you around the museum to learn how agriculture has impacted life in the u.s. since before new mexico's founding. >> the idea for this began in the 1970's. he began talking to other people. farmers, ranchers, business including the new mexico state president at the time and they talked about creating a ranch museum to preserve our state's heritage. new mexico has a unique agricultural story. it goes back 4000 years. people were growing their own food. the farm and ranch is in is a little bit unique in that we have animals.
las cruces is not have a zoo. we take that role, but we have all sorts of livestock. we have horses, ponies, sheep to my goats and donkeys. demonstrations are another thing that make us unique. quiltingl spending, come -- wool spinning, quilting. you'reople come here, not just seeing things on the wall. you can see this nail being made. it.ink it adds a lot to >> right now we're in a heritage gallery where we show the story of agriculture in new mexico. it's what we consider the
beginning of agriculture up until the turn-of-the-century. this torsion that represents these native americans who lived here 240 years ago and what we consider the first agriculturalists. this is a representation of a penthouse -- pithouse. there would have been several in the village with the people lived. they would not have spent a lot of time in the pit house. they would be there in the evenings and at nighttime and would have slept inside. and mightnt weather have spent time inside but most the time they would have been outside, working in their fields, growing their squash, crops, corn, the earliest crops in the valley. this is what we call our casa
colonial. this is a typical home that represents how the spanish 1815, buted here in early spanish came in the 1500s. vaca came0s cabeza de to new mexico. they were looking for riches and wondered into kansas and came back this way. or rathered here, left behind the remnants of the things they brought to southern new mexico. new brought chili to mexico. if you have not heard of hatched chili, you should. they also raised what we call mission grace. that was the first commercial crop the mission grapes. they were making wine for the fryers, the priests in the catholic church.
they were selling the grapes to make wine. we are back in the wine industry again in new mexico. it went away for a long time, but when you hear about wineornia -- all of the from california, in new mexico we were growing the first grapes and making wine even before they did in california. a couple of the things that i think are interesting, and that we represent here are the corri ente cattle. "cree yo yo" cattle which means common. and migratedm here to southern texas and lived around louisiana and texas and eventually they became what we call today longhorn cattle. we still have them and we raised
that cattle here at the southern ranch museum. manager says that those cattle could live in the parking lot. their little water, very harsh conditions. they are really tough, they are small, the cavs will weigh about 20 pounds when they are born where a longhorn calf might way 80 52 hundred pounds. sheep,so brought these they're the ones the navajo raise now. this section of our heritage gallery is called generations. when it was created it was the very first formal exhibit here. 1860 tothe story of 1930.
bringing in army forts in the state and in southern new mexico. moreemen were raising english style or -- anglo. european types of cattle. the first major breed were the herford cattle. the brown cattle with white faces. we have those on the south 20. would butcher them to feed living on americans reservations and the soldiers living in several different military forts. they were moving these cattle back-and-forth from here, from texas, up north to kansas to put them on the rail roads here.
you have seen the old western movies. here, movingstory these cowboys out on the range with the horses. we are standing in front right now of the chuckwagon. the chuckwagon was supposedly created by charles good night, a good night loving cattle business in texas and they basically had to bring the food and all of the supplies to the cowboys out on the range because they did not come to town. they didn't have homes like we had today. they would spend months out on the trail. was.is what new mexico this was the big industry here.
>> this is selling that connects all of us. at some point they grew their own food. this is a museum that touches everyone. it touches our generation. join us as we go inside the museum to learn about the history of america's space activity. >> the white sands missile range located 26 miles from las cruces is a testing area for the u.s. army. the site is the largest military installation in the united states. touredn las cruces, we the white sands missile range is him where we heard about some of the earliest tests conducted
there. events thate two occurred in 1945 am a one week from each other. -- 1945, one week from each other. atomic bombg of the site and the beginning of the space age. those two things really set the stage for what occurred here later. all army rocket and missile testing, since that time, has taken place here. 1946, came out, recognizing the need for new munitions to defend the fleet. the air force, out of home air always testeds out here going back to world war ii, training the the 17 bomber crews.
every type ofwar, artillery type missile, sounding rocket programs. nasa has a big sounding rocket program here. anything that has to do with rockets and the full technology began here. ii, we lookedar at that program and understood the technological changes that were occurring. what really sparked the development -- during world war ii, there was no way to defend, the navy realized quickly they had a hard time defending against, cozzi pilots -- kami kaze pilots. 1944, the germans went into production of the first jet powered aircraft.
engaging those aircraft at the was with the gun technology not going to work. they realized developing something that could keep pace with that rocket engine was needed. in 1944 -- these jet propulsion labs started looking at these rocket technologies. and this came out of that program. it was developed as a sounding rocket and could carry a payload up to 125,000 feet. at the same time we realized we were trying to get these rockets over to the united states. not only were they a perfect , but we doplatform to learn how to guide and fuel
these rockets. tour the end of the war, the german rockets have this huge facility. that was their main test b-two's.for the spring, 1945, the soviets were only 40 miles from this city and the german team did not want to surrender to the soviets. they realize that if they wanted to pursue this technology, the western allies would be the best way to go, so they fled south. to bavaria. guards. a group of ss if it looked like they were going to fall into allied hands,
the guards were supposed execute them. warunderstanding where the was going the guards slowly dropped off as they made their way south. braun, and his brother -- his brother found the americans fourth infantry division outside germany and surrendered the german rocket came. we had been looking for these guys. we wanted this german rocket team. the rockets, we needed the hardware, we needed the technology itself. we had captured some of the rocket sites. production the b2 was at the underground facility, which was an ss-run facility. they used slave labor for book
and walled -- buchenwald to build b-2's. when the u.s. army got to that part and it liberated that, we got that production facility. the tunnels underground were full of b-2 parts. we located the document dump and started shipping that stuff over .o white stand -- white sands in the summer of 1945 this material was heading to the united states. the white sands missile range -- we have what is probably the most complete original b-2 that still exists. these are the tracking cameras that tracked and recorded
missile flights in the dimensional space during the missile flight. the army needed some sort of sounding rocket to use for atmospheric research. they needed something that could carry a payload up to 100,000 miles. jpl developedd the wide corporal. we only fired six of them out here. very successfully. where it became important was 1949. in the middle of the program, we -- latlead corporal
corporal and put it in the nose of a b-2 rocket. once the rocket reached the top of its flight, the lat corporal was ignited and continued its flight. we set an altitude record at the time. that was our first two-stage rocket. what they demonstrated was you could take a booster of one type and a rocket from another, and you could boost that rocket to a greater altitude. that is what it showed us. that was technology that would be incredibly important for the future.
>> right now we are standing and missile park. currently, this contains about 70 large artifacts. these things were tested or used out here from the early days until quite recently. we have everything from army history, navy history, we have nasa pieces out here. we have artillery rockets. what we going to discuss is the nike missile system. while the army was working on the missile program, concurrent with that they started what is now known as the nike system. it's the one on the green launcher in the foreground. rockets one booster, one
to take down one aircraft. the belief at the time was that the soviets would send squadrons of aircraft over the night -- over the north pull, through states.into the united they would be engaged with one missile per aircraft. nike was the first american missile to shoot down an aircraft. 1950 when they shot down a drone bomber from world war ii. -- theseis time period are not your typical army draftees at the time. they have degrees in physics. what a lot of these men did they -- in oneoned here
instance, they were briefing the different military civilian groups on this new technology being tested out here. they had a group of naval aviators who came in. they were talking about this new missile system being tested in new mexico. the naval officers were joking about it. scientists, that is what we called them, showed a -17 beinghis b destroyed by a missile at white sands. the room got silent, the presentation ended, and the naval flyers fire -- filed out of the room quietly. it was a definite paradigm shift in the technology that we used. what missiles could do and how
to defend against aircraft. it was recognized immediately by the flyers the potential for these systems. the nike ajax was an important system. had 24y of chicago batteries around the city of chicago. the threat changed. ajax was seen increasingly as not being as robust a system as they needed. it had a short range. a battery on the southside of chicago, engages a target from will goh, the debris down in the city of chicago. it was considered inefficient. you had to have one missile per aircraft. they started looking at a different system and developed the nike zeus. that's in the background in the
green launcher. it could potentially carry a nuclear warhead. the thinking of that one was, you could deploy less nike zeus batteries in that one location. with the nuclear warhead, the thinking was not to blow up everything, but to render the electronics, any mechanisms in those bombs -- if you don't blow them up, render them unusable. eus was deployed for a long time. up until the late 1980's or early 1990's in some countries. testing here, people think it is mostly military testing but it has involved a lot of civilian use as well. the rockets that are fired out here even today are sounding rockets.
this is silly big program out here, even with the program. were the army and the navy learning how to fly these these, we understand that these things platform forrfect instrumentation to send up to 100 miles in the atmosphere, so early on, the government and the army, the navy, johns hopkins university, harvard, some others came together and what together this upper atmosphere research rocket panel to basically let the communities know, the nowcational communities k that they could use these rockets. if you had a project and you were doing some facet of atmospheric research some of you essentially bid on a rocket, you put your proposal in, and
the army or navy essentially said yes or no. they would set the rocket up for you, you would get together, and fire the rocket. a number of things that were done out there, the first video topography that shows the current of the earth from space was done at white sands. there were shots that showed that these small animals to survive the thrust of a rocket apogee, whennd at it comes weightless, the heart rate and the respiration were good. those were critical because that data was used by the german they startedent talking to people about this -- civilian to organization to put people into space. it is not just the military
applications that are crucial out here. have beenood science done out here as well. there are a lot of good things we want people to take away from the museum. number one of course is the army's role in these two things, the manhattane in project and the development of the atomic bomb, and the army's role in the space program. a lot of people grew up with dreams of going into space. it is a very important story that we tell here. particularly during the cold war and how it continues to provide an important testbed for what is happening today. >> our cities tour staff
recently traveled to las cruces, new mexico to learn about its rich history. learn more at c-span.org/citie tour. you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on sees an c-span3. this weekend on "american artifacts," we learned what life was like for the american world war i soldier who served overseas. we visited the u.s. army heritage and education center in carlisle to talk to reenactors. here is a review. >> hey there. my name is michael. the here to talk about what soldiers in world war i thought, kerry, that sort of thing. we have a 1910 haverstock during this is what we would call a net set or backpack today some of
the is what all of the soldiers would have carried, everything at leastd have needed, according to the united states government. we have a news van couch, where kit,ould keep your you're eating utensils of a photograph that you would want access to quickly, and attorney, that, you- underneath would have a tool, for most a shovel. you did not have the combination tools that you were familiar with later on, but during world war i, you one man andt least carry one of these and loosen it so it would be easy to shovel out of the way at the time. when you are issued your rations, not unlike during the war,can civil or, based --
they still issued hard drive, heart bread biscuits. 6:00tch the entire program p.m. on our weekly series called "american artifacts," only on american history tv. >> recently, the franklin d. roosevelt presidential library in hyde park, new york issued a unique film collection, and joining us on the phone to talk about is library director all barre paul sparro. what is the miss thy lehand? paul: she was a close friend of the president. she lived in the white house. she was intrigued with film cameras. she had a film camera and she