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The research aim was to evaluate the influence of different thinning methods on future crop tree growth. Investigations were conducted on permanent Scots-pine experimental plots, established in 1960s and 1970s in Kozienice, Łąck, Parciaki and Janów Lubelski Forest Districts. To assess the response to thinning of future crop trees, their dominance coefficients were used. These are defined as quotients for each given future crop tree diameter and average stand diameter (WP1), the average...
Topics: Scots pine, permanent experimental plots, dominance coefficients, thinning intensity
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
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The survival, weight and relative growth rate (RGR) of the Melolontha spp. grubs feeding on roots of Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Fagus sylvatica, Betula pendula, Larix decidua, Alnus glutinosa and Pinus sylvestris were examined. Overall, the youngest grubs, L1, were the most affected by food quality. The mortality of the grubs feeding on the roots of A. glutinosa changed most rapidly and, consequently, LT50 was the shortest (25.9 days), whereas the slowest changes in mortality with the highest...
Topics: Quercus robur, Quercus petraea, Fagus sylvatica, Betula pendula, Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris,...
This paper presents the characteristics of a frost episode that occurred July, 20–23, 1996 in the centre of the Izera Mountains and its effects on forest management. Source data consisted of air temperature measurements originating from the author’s own and archival databases of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Voivodeship Inspectorate of Environmental Protection (WIOŚ), University of Wrocław (UWr) and the Bureau of Forest Management and Geodesy in Brzeg (BULiGL)....
Topics: frost, growing season, damage to forests, the Izera Mountains
The Kaszuby Lake District is located beyond the natural range of Norway spruce, however its share in local forest stands is considerable (14.8%) and its vitality and growth are here not less than within the natural range. The study presents the results of stock-taking of natural regeneration of Norway spruce in this region in year 2002 and 2012 and the relevant silvicultural recommendations. The stock of spruce natural regeneration was taken using the electronic database of the Regional...
Topics: Picea abies, natural regeneration stock-taking, natural range, silviculture, northern Poland
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 30, 2015 Janusz Szmyt, Robert Korzeniewicz
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The aim of this paper was to describe changes in the spatial distribution of living trees in planted and untended birch stands, as well as to determine the spatial differentiation of the diameters and height of their constituent trees. Analysis was performed in 9- and 39-year old stands. The structural diversity of birch stands was described using the following spatial indices: Clark-Evans index (CE), spatial differentiation index for DBH (TD) and height (TH). The CE index describes the...
Topics: spatial structure of stands, size differentiation of trees, silver birch, plantations, semi-natural...
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 30, 2015 Wojciech Szewczyk, Robert Kuźmiński, Małgorzata Mańka, Hanna Kwaśna, Piotr Łakomy, Marlena Baranowska-Wasilewska, Jolanta Behnke-Borowczyk
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Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) is the most valuable deciduous tree species in Poland. For almost 30 years, an oak decline resulting from stress factors leading to a decrease of tree vitality in the long-term has been observed. The aim of the present study was to determine the proportion of leaves infected by the fungus Erysiphe alphitoides, the cause of powdery mildew, in post-flood oak stands situated in the Forest District Wołów (51°32’N, 16°62’E) as well as to evaluate effects of...
Topics: defoliation, branch tip withering, oak decline, Forest District Wołów
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 30, 2015 Ewa Stefańska-Krzaczek, Paweł Pech
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The utility of phytocenotic indices in the diagnosis and classification of forest sites might be limited because of vegetation degeneration in managed forests. However, even in secondary communities it may be possible to determine indicator species, although these may differ from typical and well known plant indicators. The aim of this work was to assess the vegetation diversity of Scots pine stands in representative forest site types along a moisture and fertility gradient. In total 120 sample...
Topics: forest typology, indicator species, secondary forest communities, Pinus sylvestris
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 30, 2015 Aleksandra Rosa-Gruszecka, Dorota Hilszczańska, Hanna Szmidla
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This article highlights historical data regarding truffles’ occurrence in Poland. Along with the soil parameters the plant communities at the sites were studied. The results of the chemical soil analyses showed that the soil pH in water on 5 sites was acidic (from 4.3 to 6.1), and only in one, Wiązowna, was the pH (7.2) conductive to truffles development. Similarly, the content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in soil samples was low (from 0 to 0.03%), except for Wiązowna, where CaCO3 was...
Topics: truffle, host plants, soil parameters, habitat, historical sites
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 30, 2015 Grzegorz Rąkowski
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This paper presents an overview of bird research carried out in the Borki Primeval Forest during the last 30 years. The Borki Primeval Forest can be considered as one of the most important forest bird sites in Poland. Its avifauna comprises 139 breeding species, including 11 rare and endangered species listed in the Polish Red Data Book of Animals as well as 30 species listed in Annex I of the EU Birds Directive. Despite its relatively small area, the Borki Primeval Forest holds at least 1% of...
Topics: the Borki Primeval Forest, avifauna, important bird areas, forest birds, natural forests, indicator...
The study of pine needles was carried out in 2005 within the confines of the Słowiński National Park (SNP). In soil from Cladonio-Pinetum habitat, most macro- and microelements accumulate in the organic sub-horizons (Ol and Ofh), however the nutrient content of the mineral horizons was very low. Needles of Pinus sylvestris (Ps) were characterised by higher content of N, P, K, Ca, and Fe in comparison to needles of Pinus nigra (Pn); whereas needles of Pn were higher in content of Mg, Zn, Cu...
Topics: Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, needles, accumulation of elements
The main aim of the study was to determine changes in the species composition and structure of natural tree stands in the Białowieża Forest (BF), which occurred in the years 1975–2012, as well as to evaluate their trends, directions and rate. The study was carried out on 121 permanent research plots (50 × 50 m), which represented the most important forest phytocenoses in BF, i.e. fresh pine-whortleberry forest Vaccinio vitisidaeae-Pinetum Sokoł. 1980, fresh mixed spruce-reed grass forest...
Topics: hornbeam expansion, natural stands, permanent study plots, Białowieża Forest, ash dieback
The aim of these studies was to estimate the enzymatic activity and chemical properties of soils of Taxus baccata L. stands in selected forest reserves as well as in managed forest stands that do not belong to reserves. Furthermore, I compared the soil fertility of both types of forest stand using a biochemical soil quality indicator. The studies were conducted in the following reserves: ‘Bogdanieckie Cisy’, ‘Cisy Rokickie’, ‘Cisy Tychowskie’, ‘Cisy w Czarnem’, as well as in...
Topics: enzymatic activity, chemical properties of soils, forest soils, forest reserves
The genetic variability and biodiversity of tree populations ensure the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. New research tools based on molecular DNA markers enable precise characterisation of forest genetic resources, i.e. detection of different allele frequencies in mature trees and progeny populations. The paper describes the genetic structure of mature stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Oława Forest District and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in Jawor...
Topics: nSSR markers, gene flow, genetic differentiation
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Stanisław Niemtur, Elżbieta Chomicz, Mariusz Kapsa
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The aim of the study was to analyse butt rot incidences in silver fir stands of selected nature reserves and national parks. The study included 11 stands in Carpathian forests and for comparison 4 stands outside the Carpathians. To identify butt rot in fir trees, we used the non-invasive method of acoustic tomography. We tested 30 randomly selected fir trees in each of the 15 stands using Picus Sonic tomography to determine butt rot occurrence and to assess the proportion (%) of healthy wood in...
Topics: silver fir, butt rot, nature reserve, national park, acoustic tomography, Picus Sonic, Carpathians
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Marzena Niemczyk, Anna Żółciak, Wrzesiński Piotr
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of common yew, Taxus baccata L., with respect to canopy openness. The plants were growing in ex-situ conservation plantations (established in 2008) in the understory of different tree species. Eleven forest plantations belonging to the following five forest districts were inventoried: Rokita, Baligród, Kołaczyce, Międzylesie and Henryków. In each plantation, the height and height increment of 200 yews were measured and gap light...
Topics: common yew, ex-situ conservation plots, canopy openness
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Robert Krawczyk
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Secondary succession is a long and complicated natural process returning forests to post agricultural lands, whereas afforestation is an attempt to speed up this process by planting trees. Massive afforestation in the twentieth century brought an increase in forest area in Poland along with management problems in these areas due to disturbances caused by root diseases. Therefore it appears necessary to employ successional processes more fully in order to create sustainable forest ecosystems.
Topics: afforestation, natural disturbances, secondary succession
Silver firs (Abies alba Mill.) of natural origin occurring in the Belorussian part of the Białowieża Primeval Forest constitute an enclave situated 120 km to the north-east of a dense fir stand in the Polish part of the forest. In order to protect this population a reserve called ‘Tisovik’ was established. In this study, plant communities occurring in the ‘Tisovik’ reserve were described and its fir population (20 trees) was characterised in terms of its genetic structure.
Topics: Abies alba Mill., forest communities, nature protection, ‘Belavezhskaya Pushcha’, Belarus
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Marcin Klisz, Szymon Jastrzębowski, Longina Chojnacka-Ożga, Jan Kowalczyk
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The purpose of this study was to determine the growth variability of four provenances of Picea abies on experimental plots in the Wyszków Forest District, central Poland. The experiment was established as a system of random blocks with four repetitions per block. We selected 48 trees from each provenance and the increment cores were colected from sample trees. Standard measurements of the width of annual increments were performed using the WinDendro software. Raw data was then indexed and...
Topics: dendrochronology, climate, pointer years, spruceless area
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Anna Klamerus-Iwan
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The subject of this research was the interception of precipitation, which is defined as the amount of water that can be retained by the entire surface of a tree. The aim was to measure the rate of interception under laboratory conditions in order to determine influential factors. To eliminate water absorption that would occur in living trees, we employed models of deciduous and coniferous trees enabling us to examine the effect of precipitation characteristics and the surface area individually....
Topics: area of trees, interception tank, mock trees, rainfall intensity, size of raindrops, sprinkler set
The article presents the results of research on the opportunity costs related to establishing nature reserves in four randomly-selected forest districts located in the Mazowieckie Province: Celestynów, Grójec, Płońsk and Zwoleń. Our analysis included calculation of profits forgone by forest districts due to the cessation of timber harvesting in nature reserves and an estimation of work places lost as a result of introduction of new limitations, as well as the expenses incurred by...
Topics: biodiversity conservation, public forests, local labour market, tax concessions
The aim of the study was to assess the influence of lithological and pedogenic factors in the shaping of Cu, Ni and Zn distribution patterns in the profiles of Brunic Arenosols and Gleyic Podzols of the lower supra-flood terrace of the Słupia River, which is located outside the range of significant anthropogenic sources of pollution with these metals. The contents of the investigated metals were analysed in aqua regia extracts of samples collected from three profiles of Brunic Arenosols,...
Topics: copper, nickel, zinc, Brunic Arenosols, Gleyic Podzols
The aim of this research was to find out what changes occurred between 1999–2009 in Oszast reserve in the volume, species composition and diameter at breast height (dbh) distribution of the forest stand, and the number and height of regeneration. The objective was to determine what would be condition of these managed lower montane multispecies forest stands (Swiss irregular shelterwood method or selection cuttings) and what role spruce would play in them if they have not been replaced by...
Topics: stand volume, dbh distribution, mortality, regeneration
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Paweł Horodecki, Katarzyna Wiczyńska, Andrzej M. Jagodziński
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The ‘Czmoń’ nature reserve (23.65 ha) was established in 1998 to protect one of the best-retained areas of natural oak-hornbeam forest (Galio Carpinetum) in the center of the Wielkopolska Region. Apart from oak-hornbeam forest, the ash-elm riparian forest (Querco-Ulmetum) and alder riparian forest (Fraxino-Alnetum) are found in the reserve. These plant communities, both natural and degenerated as a consequence of previous forest management, have created the convenient conditions for...
Topics: natural regeneration, phytocoenoses regeneration, oak-hornbeam forest
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Dorota Hilszczańska
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This review highlights the importance to people of some types of wild fungi considered in the context of non-wood forest products. Macrofungi are used both for food and medicine proposes. Substances isolated from the higher Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes mushrooms express promising immune modulating, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial and antidiabetic properties. They have been, and are presently, used against cancer in some countries in Far East as well as in the United States of America and...
Topics: fungal polysaccharides, medicinal mushrooms, antitumor activities
In this paper the values of energy expenditure obtained with estimative methods (tables of energy expenditure, Lehmann’s method) were compared to the data obtained with a method based on pulmonary ventilation measurements. Thereby, the usefulness of estimative methods for determining energy expenditure on work stations in forestry was tested. We compared energy expenditures for 30 forestry workstations within which 59 different activities were distinguished. For each activity the energy...
Topics: energy expenditure, comparison of methods, forestry
In 2011–2013, trials on the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against bark beetle (Ips typographus) populations were carried out under open field conditions in Norway spruce stands suffering from an outbreak in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in Poland. Modified pheromone traps were deployed to capture and thereafter release fungus-infected bark beetles to the forest environment. Infested spruce trees felled next to the traps remained unaffected by the transmission of the fungus...
Topics: bark beetles, Picea abies, biological control, montane forests, field trials
This article is an attempt to draw attention to the differentiation used to conserve endangered and protected species of flora in an area that is administered by the management board of the State Forests. I also draw attention to areas of insufficient knowledge of this subject-matter. A detailed inventory of endangered and protected species of flora for the purpose of planning in forestry would be very useful in light of laws related to nature conservation and the problem of preserving...
Topics: endangered plants, protected plants, forestry, nature protect, biodiversity
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Piotr Gołos, Adam Kaliszewski
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This article presents the most important aspects relevant to forest-derived biomass utilization for the purposes of energy production by professional energy providers. The issues discussed here are divided into four groups: environmental, social, economic and technological aspects of biomass utilization in energy production. The environmental part focuses on the effects of intensive use of leftovers from timber harvest on forest ecosystems as well as the problem of ash utilization. Economic and...
Topics: fuel wood, energy policy, climate policy, timber industry
Motor-manual machinery, i.e. chainsaws, is still commonly used for timber harvesting in Poland, especially in northern-east part of the country. The main goal of this research was to analyse the duration of operations such as felling, delimbing and bucking of the main tree species in Augustów Primeval Forest. Our aim was also to estimate the quantity of fuel necessary to perform these operations as well as the CO2 emission. Working’s day activity study was selected as a method of time...
Topics: time-consumption, felling, chainsaw, efficiency, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Adam Okorski, Tomasz Oszako, Justyna A. Nowakowska, Agnieszka Pszczółkowska
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Achieving high quality propagative material is difficult today due to the limited number of pesticides recommended for use. Simultaneously, EU regulations on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in forest nurseries came into a force, requiring a search for alternative plant protection methods that are safe for humans, animals and the environment. In this paper, we present the possibilities of using bio-fungicides against diseases in forest nurseries, their mechanisms of action, as well as the...
Topics: forest protection, forest nurseries, biological control, Oomycetes, Fusarium
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Anna Klamerus-Iwan
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The subject of the study is the process of interception by plants defined as the process of retaining rainfall water on plant surface, counting retention by individual plant parts or the vegetation cover as the whole. In the quantitative approach, interception capability of plants may be compared to a reservoir, the capacity of which is determined mostly by the surface of plants. Among many approaches to describe interception processes, a lot of attention has been focused on research concerning...
Topics: forest water balance, canopy storage capacity, rainfall intensity, size of raindrops
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Marek Jabłoński, Piotr Budniak
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The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol have committed member states to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by, among others, promoting the increase of carbon sequestration by carbon sinks (including woody biomass in forests). In order to achieve these objectives, an international reporting system was designed. The stock of woody biomass depends on several environmental and managerial factors, which determine species composition and age structure of a forest...
Topics: woody biomass, wood and bark density, BEF, BCEF, IPCC guidelines, carbon sequestration
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Adam Tomasz Sikora, Joanna Ukalska
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The aim of the study was to determine the impact of increased forest management due to natural disasters on particular core unit costs. We analysed the direct costs for the Forest District of Węgierska Górka in the years 2004–2010 based on information from the State Forests lnformation System (SFIS) database compared with selected forest districts within the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Cracow (RDSF). The forest districts were divided into two groups with two and six forest...
Topics: natural disasters, the core activity of Forest District, unit costs, the synthetic index of costs
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 26, 2015 Jarosław Lasota, Ewa Błońska, Maciej Zwydak, Tomasz Wanic
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The physical and chemical properties of soil are the basic features that are used in the assessment of mountain sites. The aim of this study was to produce a simple key for classifying forest sites in mountain areas using soil particle size distribution. 200 plots (standard typological space) were selected for examination, most of which are typical of the Carpathians – being dominated by flysch rock. A few plots were located in the Sudety and Tatra Mountains, which have a different surface...
Topics: forest soil, particle size distribution, mountain forest sites
The study determines the extent of soil disturbances occurring during mechanised harvesting operations in a beech timber stand and investigates whether applying different research methods can be used to classify, in a comparable way, forest areas with different levels of soil damage. In the analysed stand, felling and on-side processing were conducted with chainsaws, while extraction – using an farm tractor. After the completion of logging operations, visible soil disturbances on each sample...
Topics: logging damage, indicator of soil damage, beech timber stand, agricultural tractor
The aim of this study was to determine relationships between selected properties of juvenile wood and characteristics of the stem and crown of Scots pine. Analyses were conducted in northern Poland on eight mature pine monocultures. Nine trees were selected in each experimental site and their stems were divided into five sections. The centers of the sections were established at a height of 1.3 m from the tree base and at points corresponding to 20, 40, 60 and 80% tree height. Samples were taken...
Topics: basic density, strength perpendicular to grain, bending strength, modulus of elasticity, breast...
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 23, 2015 Radosław Plewa, Jacek Hilszczański, Tomasz Jaworski, Grzegorz Tarwacki
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This paper presents the results of our studies on the preferences of the flower chafer, Protaetia speciosissima (Scopoli, 1786). The studies were carried out in 2009–2010 in the Forest Districts of Hajnówka, Krotoszyn, Łochów, Pińczów, and Puławy, located in various regions of Poland. Barrier traps consisting of a Moericke’s trap and a Malaise’s trap combined with a barrier of fine net were used to collect beetles. Traps were installed at two heights in over 100 years old oak...
Topics: saproxylic beetles, oak stand, forest strata, yellow pan traps, vertical distribution
The research was carried out in the Słowiński National Park, in an area with 15 research stations in pine coniferous forests situated at locations (1) inaccessible to tourists, (2) most frequently visited by tourists as well as (3) in the vicinity of parking lots. The analysed samples comprised surface generic levels (Ol, Ofh, A), aboveground material (shoots; leaves and stems) and below-ground material (roots) of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). The performed analyses showed statistically...
Topics: bilberry, leaves, stems, roots, accumulation of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, protected area
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 23, 2015 Adam Tomasz Sikora, Joanna Ukalska
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The aim of the study was to determine the impact of increased timber logging after natural disasters on timber assortments, unit prices, as well as average prices of timber spruce and total timber. The net sales prices of the years 2004–2010, available from the database of the State Forests Information System (SFIS) for the Forest District of Węgierska Górka, were analysed and compared to the prices of selected forest districts within the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Cracow...
Topics: natural disasters, timber assortments, unit prices, the timber market
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Jarosław Lasota, Ewa Błońska, Tomasz Wanic, Maciej Zwydak
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The subject of this study were soil requirements of common woody shrubs, which may be part of the forest understory (Sorbus aucuparia L., Frangula alnus Mill., Corylus avellana L., Juniperus communis L., Padus avium Mill., Euonymus europaea L., Sambucus nigra L.). We focused on phytocenoses in the vicinity of natural forests in reserves and national parks of Polish lowlands and defined optimal types and subtypes of soil with trophic variations for each underwood species. The range of trophism...
Topics: forest shrubs, soil requirements, forest sites, plant communities
Structural diversity is one of the most interesting phenomena that have been studied by forest ecologists and practitioners. Amongst the different characteristics of forest structure, spatial diversity of trees and their attributes seem to be very important The more spatially structured a population is, the higher its diversity in terms of size and species richness. Because most forests in Europe are managed and were artificially established, they are subjected to conversion processes turning...
Topics: spatial indices, forest diversity, self-thinning, managed forests
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Wojciech Grodzki, Jerzy R. Starzyk, Mieczysław Kosibowicz
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Recently, Norway spruce stands in Beskid Żywiecki (Western Carpathians) have been plagued by bark beetle outbreak affecting an extensive area over a large range of altitudes. Georeferenced data (2356 records) from 2009–2011 of the volume of felled spruces showing insect infestation in forest sub-compartments were analysed with respect to selected site and stand characteristics. The infestation intensity varied between individual parts of the examined area. Spruce mortality, recorded evenly...
Topics: insect outbreak, site, stand characteristics, spatial analysis, Picea abies
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Robert Czubaszek, Ewa Walentynowicz
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The aim of the research presented here was to determine and compare the habitat conditions of the two adjacent dune areas in the Narew River Valley. For the comparative studies we used the ecological indicator value method and the index of forest soil trophism (ITGL), both of which revealed differences between the investigated habitats. Values of ITGL indicate that in the case of the Uroczysko Serwańce dune, which is covered by a mixed coniferous forest (Serratulo-Piceetum), the habitat is...
Topics: inpeatland dunes, ecological indicator values, forest soil trophism index
We analysed changes in soil chemical properties (pH, C:N, N, P, K, Ca, Na) inside two forest areas chosen for renewal (Lubartów A and B) and within one post-agricultural site (Świerczyna) designated for afforestation with Scots pine. The experimental plots were located in areas known as persistent cockchafer grub spots. The Lubartów A site was not fenced and showed signs of wild boar activity. Analyses were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and spring 2012, prior to pine sawdust application...
Topics: chemical composition, fallow soil, forest soil, sawdust, weather parameters
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Kazimierz Januszek, Hanna Stępniewska, Ewa Błońska, Joanna Molicka, Krzysztof Kozieł, Anna Gdula, Anna Wójs
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The alkalisation of soil is a common phenomenon in forest ground nurseries. Liming, inadequate fertilisation and the use of hard water for irrigation are the main reasons for this alkalisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fertilisation with aluminium sulphate on soil pH, the activity of selected soil enzymes, efficiency as well as the growth parameters of pine seedlings. The study was conducted in a forest nursery, on a plot with soil pH 6.4 in water and 5.9 in 1M...
Topics: soil pH, aluminium sulphate, pine seedlings quality, ectomycorrhizae, damping-off
The aim of the research was to determine the effect of initial spacing on the survival and growth of pine trees in dry coniferous and fresh coniferous forest habitats after nearly 40 years from the establishment of plantation. The study presents an analysis of seven spacing variants in square, rectangular and triangular spacing patterns with the initial density ranging from 6 944 seedlings/ha to 15 625 seedlings/ha. The studies were conducted on two study sites. No tending treatments (selective...
Topics: Scots pine, initial spacing, initial density, survival of trees, trees’ growth, habitat conditions
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Dorota Dobrowolska, Grażyna Olszowska, Marzena Niemczyk
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Yew Taxus baccata L. is an endangered tree species in parts of Europe. In Poland small populations grow in forest reserves. The study was conducted in two reserves established particularly for the protection of yew populations located in the regon of Pomerania. The aim of the study was to know the number, vitality and growth conditions of natural yew regeneration and to identify threats to the regeneration of the species. The stand structure and regeneration of yew was described in 30 circular...
Topics: yew conservation, stand structure, natural regeneration, yew morphology, Pomerania
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Marek Ciosek, Janusz Krechowski, Katarzyna Piórek, Sikorski Roman
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This paper presents the results of studies carried out on Ptelea trifoliata populations in the Wyszków Forest District in 1998 and 2013. P. trifoliata is a native species of North America (United States of America, northern part of Canada) and has a wide ecological range. However, it prefers fertile, wet soils and moderate light. In Europe, it is planted for its decorative value and is mainly found in synanthropic habitats (parks, graveyards, roadsides, fortifications) in Poland. The station...
Topics: Ptelea trifoliata, Wyszków Forest District, spreading of species, biometric studies
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Jerzy Borowski, Jacek Piętka, Andrzej Szczepkowski
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The study gives information on insects living on the black alder Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. in those 57 alder stands which exhibited the most severe signs of dying back. The surveys revealed the presence of 28 species of insects belonging to various different orders. The most common species were Agelastica alni, Xiphydria camelus, Xyleborinus attenuatus (Bland.) (=X. alni Nissima) and Saperda scalaris. It seems that none of the species of insects identified would be expected to cause die back...
Topics: insects, black alder, Alnus glutinosa, stands die back
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Ryszard Bis, Dorota Dobrowolska
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The study was conducted in Starachowice Forest District in Iłżecka Forest in southern part of Poland. Silver fir was the main tree species in Iłżecka Forests in the past. Nowadays the area is occupied by Scots pine forests, however the percentage of silver fir has recently increased again. The distribution of silver fir is uneven in this region. The article tries to answer the following questions: What does determine the distribution of silver fir stands in Iłżecka Forest? Do the...
Topics: soil type, geological base, fir stands, forest site type
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Szymon Bijak, Maciej Czajkowski, Łukasz Ludwisiak
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Among the invasive tree species identified in Polish forests, black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) appears to pose the greatest threat. The objective of this study was i), to determine the abundance of this species in the forests managed by the State Forests National Forest Holding (PGLLP) and ii), to characterise the ecological conditions that it is found in. The source data was obtained from the State Forests Information System (SILP) database. In Polish forests, black cherry mostly occurs as...
Topics: black cherry, ecological conditions
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 19, 2015 Jacek Banach, Kinga Skrzyszewska, Mateusz Smętek, Kamil Kubacki
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This research was carried out on two experimental plots located in the Rymanów and Nawojowa forest districts. In the second and fifth year after planting, at three and six years of age respectively, survival and height of 25 beech progenies of selected seed stands were measured. Furthermore, we show the effect of beech origin and growth environment (significant ‘provenance × block’ and ‘provenance × test plot’ interactions). Beeches from both experimental plots differed significantly...
Topics: testing program, survival, tree height, heritability, stability of genotypes
The rate of change in the cost of logged timber and prices of raw timber during the period, 2001–2009, was examined for the Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Zielona Góra. A logarithmic evaluation of average rate of change indicated that the rate of increase in timber harvest costs was higher than the rate of increase in the average price of raw timber and likewise the price of most log grades. The average increase in raw timber value was 2.51% annually. The price of low-diameter...
Topics: forest management, economics, marketing, prices, costs, rate of growth
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 17, 2015 Miłosz Tkaczyk, Robert Tomusiak
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In Poland, according to the law (amendment of the act of 21st May 2010) – on the provision of information on the environment and its protection, public participation in environmental protection and environmental impact assessments etc. (Official Law Journal article 08.199.1227, as amended) – the owner can cut down trees without permission, if they do not exceed the age of 10 years old. However, if an owner happens to cuts down a tree on his property without knowing the age of the tree, he...
Topics: silver birch, age, dbh, height, former agricultural land
Ongoing climate change is mainly evident as increased in average temperature. It is expected to have a significant impact on world’s biomes, with forest ecosystems especially vulnerable to these changes. The effect of climate change on forests is both indirect, through its impact on various tree species of different ecological requirements, and direct, through its impact on all living components of the forest ecosystem. Among the latter, insects are the group of the greatest importance,...
Topics: global warming, forest insects, population dynamics, forest insects’ outbreaks, range shift,...
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 17, 2015 Leszek Bolibok, Michał Brach, Stanisław Drozdowski, Michał Orzechowski
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Contemporary models of light conditions on the forest floor can be divided into two categories: undercanopy models that allow the light conditions in a stand under the canopy to be simulated, and models that take into account shielding from the side. Under-canopy models precisely estimate the availability of wavelengths of light spatially distributed under the canopy of stands: however, these models require a large amount of data on the spatial structure of forest stands. The other class of...
Topics: light conditions, diffuse light, direct light, gaps, modeling
Airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology allows accurate information about the forest environment to be obtained. The high precision of ALS allows the detection of individual trees. An individual tree is composed of many elements and requires relatively complex algorithms. Factors that determine and affect the accuracy of calculating the number of trees can be split into the following groups: biological factors, technical factors related to the flight and data acquisition parameters, technical...
Topics: segmentation, tree detection, crown height model, accuracy
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 17, 2015 Wojciech Młynarski, Adam Kaliszewski
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The article presents research on the management and supervision of forests located within cities in the Mazowieckie Province. The information was obtained: from questionnaires sent to all 85 city authorities in the province. The questions were related to organization and supervision of forests, forest management and protection, recreational management and financing of forests, as well as main problems associated with the management of urban forests. The research indicated that forests, which...
Topics: urban forests, urbanised areas, communal forests, private forests
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 17, 2015 Mariusz Kormanek, Jacek Banach, Michał Ryba
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The paper presents research on influence of nursery soil compaction, composed of peat (90%) and perlite (10%), on the growth of seedlings of Pinus sylvestris grown in containers. Polyethylene nursery are containers used for the seedling production. These containers were filled with three different densities of the peat and perlite substrate (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g·cm-3). During the experiment, nursery containers were initially placed in a plastic tent for a period of two months, and then for three...
Topics: Pinus sylvestris, bulk density, container nursery, growth, root system
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 17, 2015 Jarosław Skłodowski, Piotr Gołos, Mateusz Skłodowski, Wojciech Ożga
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Questionnaire surveys were conducted from July 1st to August 15th, 2012 in forests near Gołdap, Białowieża, Pisz, Kraśnik, Warsaw and Zakopane with 335 respondents – 146 residents (43.6%) and 189 tourists (56.4%). The respondents declared that they visit forests throughout the year for various purposes, most often with family or friends and most frequently for the recreational activity of walking. They typically spend about three hours in the forest during a single visit. Respondents...
Topics: recreational function of the forest, survey research, public preferences, contingent valuation...
The aim of this study was to determine how thermal conditions affect the speed of sound wave propagation, in trunks of living alder Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. trees. This method in practiced when diagnosing the presence of intern.al decay in standing trees. Field work was carried out four times at different temperatures (+13°C, +3°C, -7°C and -16°C) using an lmpulse Hammer. There was a significant correlation between the thermal conditions and the speed of sound wave propagation....
Topics: alder, speed of sound wave propagation, temperature, internal decay, impulse hammer
The study makes an attempt to evaluate the effect of resin-tapping on the radial increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Increment cores were taken from two groups of trees: resin-tapped trees and normal trees growing in a 148–year-old pine stand in the Lidzbark Forest District. The cores were taken with the Pressler increment borer from two heights on the tree trunk: 1,30 m and 3,30 m. Using dendrochronological methods, real chronologies were built for each of the four analysed groups...
Topics: Scots pine, tree rings, resin-tapping, dendrochronology
The results of a survey conducted in several Promotional Forest Complexes (PFC) in the Śląskie and Podlaskie regions, as well as the urban forests in Łodź and Warsaw, indicate that visitor preferences vary among forest sites. Those forests where visitors prefer to rest should be located in forests designated for recreation, and include elements of recreational infrastructure. Depending on characteristics of the forest in question (seaside, lakeside, or mountains), respondents preferred...
Topics: Contingent Valuation Method, Willingness to Pay, preferences, survey
The paper presents the results of a lichenological study conducted in 2012 in the ‘Lekowo’ forest complex, situated in the north-western part of Mazovia (Forest Division of Ciechanów). It is the largest forest complex in the area, covering 1596 ha. The research area comprises two small nature reserves (‘Lekowo’ – 5,31 ha, and ‘Modła’ – 9,36 ha) with old-growth oak trees (160–200 years of age) and adjacent managed pine forests (76–107 years of age). The aim of this study...
Topics: lichens, species diversity, fragmentation, nature conservation, forest management, lichen indices
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 17, 2015 Marek Tadeusz Ciosek, Janusz Krechowski, Katarzyna Piórek
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The distribution of Trollius europaeus in the northern part of the Południowopodlaska Lowland was described and a phytosociological study made of the localities where it was present between 2010 and 2012. The condition of all sites where T. europaeus was historically present was also verified. These field studies reveal that the number of sites of occurrence and the abundance of T. europaeus populations have rapidly diminished over recent years. Only 15 populations of the species in the...
Topics: Trollius europaeus, forest communities, forest edge communities, Południowopodlaska Lowland
In Poland, Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Scriba) and Trypocopris vernalis (L.), are very common throughout the whole country and belong to the most numerous representatives of the Geotrupidae family. Research on the habitat selectivity of Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Scriba) and Trypocopris vernalis (L.) was conducted in the years 2004–2006 in the Wipsowo Forest Inspectorate (Regional Forest Department in Olsztyn). The dung beetles were collected using Barber traps installed in a clearcut...
Topics: Geotrupidae, Anoplotrupes stercorosus, Trypocopris vernalis, ecology, afforestation, NW Poland
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 16, 2015 Ihor Kozak, Patrycja Czekajska, Hanna Kozak, Adam Stępień, Piotr Kociuba
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The study was conducted in the Polish (Roztoczanski National Park) and Ukrainian (Rava-Rus’ka Landscape Reserve and Yavorivskyi National Park) parts of the Roztocze region. In each of these locations three research areas were established in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands under similar ecological conditions. The purpose of this study was to carry out a survey of possible scenarios for pine stand dynamics in the Polish and Ukrainian parts of Roztocze using the FORKOME model. A control...
Topics: Scots pine, beech, fir, spruce, FORKOME computer model, Roztocze, prognosis
Temperature measurements were taken: (1) under opening scales, (2) at the seed, and (3) in the stem, of pine cones. Changes in temperature were only examined during the second stage of a two-stage seed extraction process. During this phase a permanent dehydration temperature of 50°C was used, following comparison over a ranges of temperatures, between a lower limit of 35°C and a higher limited of 50°C. The temperature was slowest to increase in the cone’s stem, and fastest to increase...
Topics: seed extraction, scale, pine cone, thermocouple
The experimental area is located in the Węgorzyno Forest Sub-District, Łobez Forest District. 29 Polish provenances of beech from their natural range were growth in a completely randomised block design with four replications. In 2010, after the end of the growing season, measurements were carried out on the experimental plot, including: determination of the survival rate and the diameter at breast height, and height of trees. Moreover, the total basal area and the total volume were...
Topics: Fagus sylvatica L., provenance variability, valuation features
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 16, 2015 Ivan Sopushynskyy, Alfred Teischinger
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The paper presents analysis of biometric features of ash with wavy-grained wood, which has decorative appeal. The research results shows that fresh broadleaves ash forest stands growing in the Vinnytsya and Sokyryany Regions of Ukraine have high potential for growing curly ash. The differences between straight-grained and wavygrained wood density and macrostructure were analysed and estimated. Statistical evaluation of the aesthetic macrostructure of wood characteristics indicated that the...
Topics: common ash, wavy-grained wood, biometry, decorative wood, anomaly wood, forest stands
The soil of former farmland greatly differs from forest soil, and significantly influences tree growth and development compared with other site factors. The effect may also be reflected indirectly in radial variability of wood. This study compared radial variation of wood density, compressive strength along the grain and static bending strength of wood of Scots pine trees growing on former farmland and forest soils. The analyses were conducted in eight mature pine stands. On the basis of the...
Topics: basic density, static bending strength, compressive strength along fibers
Phytophthora cambivora (Straminipila, Oomycota) causes root rot and stem canker on several deciduous tree species in Europe. However, very little is known about the variation in susceptibility to P. cambivora colonisation among provenances and families of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.). We studied variation in susceptibility of one French and 16 Polish provenances, representing 62 families. Samples were taken from three test plots located in the Brzesko Forest District. Oak susceptibility...
Topics: defense, family, Phytophthora cambivora, provenances, resistance, shoot, susceptibility
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 16, 2015 Sławomir Mioduszewski, Adolf F. Korczyk
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Vegetative progeny were obtained from 46 elms (Ulmus glabra Huds.) by grafting. These grafted trees were planted in 2009 in a clone archive in forest plot 264j in the Bielsk Forest District. After one year of growth, elm clone survival ranged from 38% to 100% (89% on average). Although all clones were of similar age and were grown under similar conditions, their average height was highly variable and ranged from 99.0 cm (clone no. 9473z) to 186.6 cm (clone no. 9645z), while average root collar...
Topics: vegetative progeny, clone archive, Ulmus glabra Huds., Wych elm
The bad economic situation for agro-forest farms in Poland during the interwar period was caused by war damage, a global economic crisis, crop failure, indebtedness prior to World War I, and by tribute payments towards rebuilding the country. Although the timber harvest was substantial, farm owners were forced to take loans. In 1938, the debt level of agro-forest farms accounted for 18 per cent of their total value. The average debt level for this period oscillated between 9.8 and 126.0...
Topics: forestry history, private agro-forest farms, loans, debt, state assistance
This paper describes a method of determining the stocking density and volume of forest stands based on airborne laser-scanning data. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ground-based measurements of standing volume and tree-density, and those acquired based on the Crown Height Model (CHM) interpolated from airborne laser scanning data. Data were collected from 34 sample plots of two sizes for the CHM analysis: 500 m2 (radius 12.61 m) and 1963.5 m2 (radius of 25.0 m):...
Topics: centroid, ground-based data, forest inventory, scaling, airborne ceiling, Crown Height Model
The effectiveness of different peat-based substrates was compared for the propagation of two mountain tree species (silver fir and European beech). The experiment was set up in the spring of 2006, and seedlings were grown in polystyrene multipots for 2 years. Four types of substrate were applied: (1) a newly prepared 1:1 peat-sawdust mixture; (2) a peat-sawdust mixture which had already been used for five production periods; (3) a peat substrate produced in the ‘Nędza’ container nursery...
Topics: substrate, peat, sawdust, seedling quality, container seedling, Hebeloma crustuliniforme
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 16, 2015 Pavlo Khoyetskyy
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There have been two periods of change in the dynamics of bear population in the Eastern Carpathians. The first period lasted over 50 years, starting in the late 1940s and ending in the year 2001. The second period started in the early 21st century. The bear population reached its maximum – of about 1100 individuals – in the early 1970s. Over 85% of recorded bear deaths have resulted from poaching.
Topics: Ursus arctos, population dynamics, poaching
I present dendroclimatological analysis of coniferous tree species growing under the same environmental conditions in the WULS-SGGW Forest Experimental Station in Rogów (51°49' N, 19°53' E, ca. 190 m a.s.l). The study focuses on silver fir, European larch, Scots pine and Douglas fir. For each species, tree-ring width and annual sensitivity chronologies were developed for the period 1931–2010. Analysed species show considerable similarity of their radial increment course (GLK up to 67%, the...
Topics: dendroclimatology, Scots pine, silver fir, European larch, Douglas fir, central Poland
The study presents the results of an analysis of the pine tree growth increments (height increment, dbh increment, basal area increment and volume increment) for a 5-year period. The study involved Scots pine trees of Kraft’s class 1, 2 and 3 (dominant stand) in stands of different age classes (II, III, V) growing in fresh mixed coniferous (BMśw) and fresh coniferous (Bśw) forest habitats. The multivariate analysis of variance was performed to assess the statistical significance of age and...
Topics: height increment, dbh increment, basal area increment, volume increment, growth space, crown, age,...
The composition and structure of beetle clusters living in rotting birch wood in Kampinos National Park was investigated. Photoeclectors were used to remove beetles from collected wood samples. Ten different research plots, each corresponding to a different forest type, were sampled every month over a 1-year period. A collection of 3256 beetles from 37 families comprising 206 species was amassed during the study. The collected beetles were divided into trophic families, species rareness, and...
Topics: forest type, Coleoptera, saproxylic insects, Betula, Kampinos National Park
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 12, 2015 Piotr Gołos
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To research attitudes to urban and suburban forests, a questionnaire was given to the random sample of 500 Warsaw residents. The most important factors identified by respondents included unlimited accessibility of urban forests as well as their proximity to urban areas. The main forest recreational activities expected by Warsaw residents were longer walks, natural silence and calm, also the absence of litter. A few respondents were receptive to the idea of managed forests as well as natural...
Topics: preferences and social research, cities, recreation
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 12, 2015 Tomasz Oszako, Katarzyna Anna Kubiak, Marta Siebyła, Justyna Anna Nowakowska
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Slow Sand Filters (SSF) are a biological method used to protect nursery plants, from pathogen infections which can cause serious diseases in many forest tree species. Thanks to SSF application the number of phytopathogens in nurseries can be significantly reduced, as demonstrated by many field and greenhouse experiments (e.g. in Polish nurseries, and for horticultural crops in Germany and The Netherlands). In this study, the effect of pollution from fertilizers and fungicides used in...
Topics: Phytopathogen, biofilm, SSF, PCNB, mineral fertilizer
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 12, 2015 Andrzej M. Jagodziński, Katarzyna Pietrusiak, Mateusz Rawlik, Sławomir Janyszek
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We studied seasonal changes in the understorey biomass of an oak-hornbeam forest association Galio sylvatici-Carpinetum betuli . Samples were collected weekly during the most dynamic period of herbaceous layer development (April–May 2010), and every two weeks for the remainder of the growing season (June-October). Samples were collected from 10 randomly selected localities of 0.36 m2 within the plant community. The plants harvested were separated by species, then oven-dried and weighed. There...
Topics: plant biomass, herbaceous layer, oak-hornbeam forest association, geophytes, seasonal changes
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 12, 2015 Zbigniew Karaszewski, Dieter F. Giefing, Piotr S. Mederski, Mariusz Bembenek, Anita Dobek, Anastasia Stergiadou
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Damage to the remaining stand is an unavoidable consequence of thinning operations. The different machines used for timber extraction differ in the level of damage of trees they cause, mainly through wounds to the bark and cambium which can make a substantial impact on the remaining trees. Three different methods of timber harvesting with a chainsaw were analyzed: the short wood system (SWS), the long wood system (LWS) and the full tree system (FTS) in which an agricultural tractor is used for...
Topics: tree damage, Scots pine stands, forest operations, timber harvesting methods, extraction by tractor
Since 1967, when the Polish State Forests were first inventoried, a continuous increase in the volume of growing stock has been recorded. This increase in timber resources is mainly the result of sustainable forest management. However, during this time period inventory methods have been changed a few times and this may have affected the estimates of of wood resources. Since 2011 new instructions have been in place for forest management plans in the Polish State Forests. Despite this, the method...
Topics: changes of growing stock, stratified sampling, accuracy of inventory
The article reviews the electrophysiological characteristics of pre-cambial phloem material in undergrowth shrubs. The electrophysiological properties of hazel ( Corylus avellan a L.), elder ( Sambucus nigra L.) and other undergrowth shrubs are compared, as well as how these characteristics change depending on stand density indices. Differences in electrophysiological characteristics reveal the crucial role of light for the growth, development, and persistence of undergrowth shrubs. I suggest...
Topics: electrophysiological characteristics, dielectric parameters, understorey, impedance, polarization...
The research aim was to evaluate the influence of different thinning methods on future crop tree growth. Investigations were conducted on permanent Scots-pine experimental plots, established in 1960s and 1970s in Kozienice, Łąck, Parciaki and Janów Lubelski Forest Districts. To assess the response to thinning of future crop trees, their dominance coefficients were used. These are defined as quotients for each given future crop tree diameter and average stand diameter (WP1), the average...
Topics: Scots pine, permanent experimental plots, dominance coefficients, thinning intensity
The article reviews the electrophysiological characteristics of pre-cambial phloem material in undergrowth shrubs. The electrophysiological properties of hazel (Corylus avellana L.), elder (Sambucus nigra L.) and other undergrowth shrubs are compared, as well as how these characteristics change depending on stand density indices. Differences in electrophysiological characteristics reveal the crucial role of light for the growth, development, and persistence of undergrowth shrubs. I suggest that...
Topics: electrophysiological characteristics, dielectric parameters, understorey, impedance, polarization...
The article reviews the electrophysiological characteristics of pre-cambial phloem material in undergrowth shrubs. The electrophysiological properties of hazel (Corylus avellana L.), elder (Sambucus nigra L.) and other undergrowth shrubs are compared, as well as how these characteristics change depending on stand density indices. Differences in electrophysiological characteristics reveal the crucial role of light for the growth, development, and persistence of undergrowth shrubs. I suggest that...
Topics: electrophysiological characteristics, dielectric parameters, understorey, impedance, polarization...
The article reviews the electrophysiological characteristics of pre-cambial phloem material in undergrowth shrubs. The electrophysiological properties of hazel (Corylus avellana L.), elder (Sambucus nigra L.) and other undergrowth shrubs are compared, as well as how these characteristics change depending on stand density indices. Differences in electrophysiological characteristics reveal the crucial role of light for the growth, development, and persistence of undergrowth shrubs. I suggest that...
Topics: electrophysiological characteristics, dielectric parameters, understorey, impedance, polarization...
The composition and structure of beetle clusters living in rotting birch wood in Kampinos National Park was investigated. Photoeclectors were used to remove beetles from collected wood samples. Ten different research plots, each corresponding to a different forest type, were sampled every month over a 1-year period. A collection of 3256 beetles from 37 families comprising 206 species was amassed during the study. The collected beetles were divided into trophic families, species rareness, and...
Topics: forest type, Coleoptera, saproxylic insects, Betula, Kampinos National Park
The article reviews the electrophysiological characteristics of pre-cambial phloem material in undergrowth shrubs. The electrophysiological properties of hazel (Corylus avellana L.), elder (Sambucus nigra L.) and other undergrowth shrubs are compared, as well as how these characteristics change depending on stand density indices. Differences in electrophysiological characteristics reveal the crucial role of light for the growth, development, and persistence of undergrowth shrubs. I suggest that...
Topics: electrophysiological characteristics, dielectric parameters, understorey, impedance, polarization...
The article reviews the electrophysiological characteristics of pre-cambial phloem material in undergrowth shrubs. The electrophysiological properties of hazel (Corylus avellana L.), elder (Sambucus nigra L.) and other undergrowth shrubs are compared, as well as how these characteristics change depending on stand density indices. Differences in electrophysiological characteristics reveal the crucial role of light for the growth, development, and persistence of undergrowth shrubs. I suggest that...
Topics: electrophysiological characteristics, dielectric parameters, understorey, impedance, polarization...
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 4, 2015 Tomasz Oszako; Katarzyna Anna Kubiak; Marta Siebyła; Justyna Anna Nowakowska
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Slow Sand Filters (SSF) are a biological method used to protect nursery plants, from pathogen infections which can cause serious diseases in many forest tree species. Thanks to SSF application the number of phytopathogens in nurseries can be significantly reduced, as demonstrated by many field and greenhouse experiments (e.g. in Polish nurseries, and for horticultural crops in Germany and The Netherlands). In this study, the effect of pollution from fertilizers and fungicides used in...
Topics: Phytopathogen, biofilm, SSF, PCNB, mineral fertilizer
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 4, 2015 Andrzej M. Jagodziński; Katarzyna Pietrusiak; Mateusz Rawlik; Sławomir Janyszek
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We studied seasonal changes in the understorey biomass of an oak-hornbeam forest association Galio sylvatici-Carpinetum betuli. Samples were collected weekly during the most dynamic period of herbaceous layer development (April–May 2010), and every two weeks for the remainder of the growing season (June-October). Samples were collected from 10 randomly selected localities of 0.36 m2 within the plant community. The plants harvested were separated by species, then oven-dried and weighed. There...
Topics: plant biomass, herbaceous layer, oak-hornbeam forest association, geophytes, seasonal changes
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Nov 4, 2015 Zbigniew Karaszewski; Dieter F. Giefing; Piotr S. Mederski; Mariusz Bembenek; Anita Dobek; Anastasia Stergiadou
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Damage to the remaining stand is an unavoidable consequence of thinning operations. The different machines used for timber extraction differ in the level of damage of trees they cause, mainly through wounds to the bark and cambium which can make a substantial impact on the remaining trees. Three different methods of timber harvesting with a chainsaw were analyzed: the short wood system (SWS), the long wood system (LWS) and the full tree system (FTS) in which an agricultural tractor is used for...
Topics: tree damage, Scots pine stands, forest operations, timber harvesting methods, extraction by tractor
Since 1967, when the Polish State Forests were first inventoried, a continuous increase in the volume of growing stock has been recorded. This increase in timber resources is mainly the result of sustainable forest management. However, during this time period inventory methods have been changed a few times and this may have affected the estimates of of wood resources. Since 2011 new instructions have been in place for forest management plans in the Polish State Forests. Despite this, the method...
Topics: changes of growing stock, stratified sampling, accuracy of inventory
The article reviews the electrophysiological characteristics of pre-cambial phloem material in undergrowth shrubs. The electrophysiological properties of hazel (Corylus avellana L.), elder (Sambucus nigra L.) and other undergrowth shrubs are compared, as well as how these characteristics change depending on stand density indices. Differences in electrophysiological characteristics reveal the crucial role of light for the growth, development, and persistence of undergrowth shrubs. I suggest that...
Topics: electrophysiological characteristics, dielectric parameters, understorey, impedance, polarization...
The paper presents characteristic and morphological diagnostic features of females and second larval instar of six terebrantian species: Oxythrips ajugae Uzel 1895, O. bicolor (O. M. Reuter 1879), Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel 1895), Thrips calcaratus Uzel 1895, T. minutissimus Linnaeus 1758 and T. pini (Uzel 1895). The species are the most numerously and frequently caught in traps in the canopy layer of various Central European forests. Both adults and larvae of Oxythrips spp. may be easily...
Topics: Thysanoptera, Terebrantia, morphology, second larval instar, canopy layer
The paper presents characteristic and morphological diagnostic features of females and second larval instar of six terebrantian species: Oxythrips ajugae Uzel 1895, O. bicolor (O. M. Reuter 1879), Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel 1895), Thrips calcaratus Uzel 1895, T. minutissimus Linnaeus 1758 and T. pini (Uzel 1895). The species are the most numerously and frequently caught in traps in the canopy layer of various Central European forests. Both adults and larvae of Oxythrips spp. may be easly...
Topics: Thysanoptera, Terebrantia, morphology, second larval instar, canopy layer