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Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Connor Y.H. Wu; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Julia M. Gohlke
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Background: A better understanding of how heat waves affect fatal traffic crashes will be useful to promote awareness of drivers’ vulnerability during an extreme heat event. Objective and Methods: We applied a time-stratified case-crossover design to examine associations between heat waves and fatal traffic crashes during May-September of 2001–2011 in the continental United States (US). Heat waves, defined as the daily mean temperature >95% threshold for ≥2 consecutive days, were...
Topics: Case-crossover design, Climate change, Fatal traffic crashes, Heat waves, Traffic safety
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Donald H. Burn; Paul H. Whitfield
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This research examines ways that climate change may alter the risk of flooding in cold regions focusing on changes in the flood regimes and changes and shifts in the dominant flood generating processes at 27 natural watersheds across Canada and the northern United States. Changes in flood regimes are examined using data from long term hydrometric reference streamflow gauging stations whose data record spans the past 100 years; stations included are considered to have good quality data and were...
Topics: Climate change, Flood events, Flood regimes, Peaks over threshold data, Seasonality
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Agriculture consumes a huge amount of energy every year and then emits lots of greenhouse gases (GHG). Reduction of agricultural energy consumption is important to sustainable agriculture and mitigation of climate change. Groundwater is the main irrigation source in north China's main food production plains, North China Plain (NCP). Many studies have shown that the groundwater levels here have declined a lot during past decades. However, the related environmental and economic impacts have been...
Topics: Energy consumption, GHG emissions, North China Plain, Pumping irrigation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Beatriz H. Ramírez; Lieke A. Melsen; Laurens Ganzeveld; Rik Leemans; Adriaan J. Teuling
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The interaction between vegetation and the atmosphere is highly complex in fog affected ecosystems like Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs). Despite acknowledging fog effects on the canopy's water balance, quantifying their influence remains challenging. While the reduction in potential evaporation that is caused by fog presence, is largely independent of land cover, fog interception itself strongly depends on the land-cover's vegetation characteristics. A better understanding of how these...
Topics: Eastern Andes, Forest succession, Hydrology, Interception, Rutter model
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Qiang Zhang; Dongdong Kong; Peijun Shi; Vijay P. Singh; Peng Sun
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Using NDVI3g vegetation index, we defined 18 phenology metrics to investigate phenological change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Considering the heterogeneity of vegetation phenology, we divided TP into 8 vegetation clusters according to a 1:1000000 vegetation cluster map. For regions where phenology is highly sensitive to climate, we investigated the impact of climate variables, such as temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation on phenology using the partial least squares regression (PLS)...
Topics: EOS, PLS, Phenology, SOS, Tibetan plateau
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Marcel van der Perk; Maria Stergiadi; Ton C.M. de Nijs; Rob N.J. Comans; Marc F.P. Bierkens
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Changes in soil hydrology as a result of climate change or changes in land management may affect metal release and leaching from soils. The aim of this study is to assess the cascading response of SOM and DOC levels and metal leaching to climate change in the medium-sized lowland Dommel catchment in the southern part of the Netherlands. We implemented the CENTURY model in a spatial setting to simulate SOM, DOC, and water dynamics in topsoils of the Dutch portion of the Dommel catchment under...
Topics: CENTURY model, Climate change, Heavy metals, Leaching, Soil organic matter, Spatial modelling
Tropical cyclones (TCs) are among the most costly natural hazards affecting civil construction in coastal areas, which have caused extensive economic losses and social disruption world-widely. Moreover, the intensity and/or frequency of future TCs have been projected to change with time due to the potential impacts of climate change, indicating the potential of ever larger TC damages for coastal regions. The estimate of future TC damage should be conducted under a probability-based framework,...
Topics: TC damage in Hong Kong, Tropical cyclone
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by E. Poisson; A. Mollier; J. Trouverie; J. C. Avice; S. Brunel-Muguet
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For the last few decades, environmental policies have led to drastic reduction in sulphur (S)-containing industrial emissions leading to reduced S inputs into the soil. This is of concern for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), which like most Brassica species is a high S-demanding crop. In this context, monitoring S fertilization has become a central issue. Moreover, ongoing and projected climate change will affect crop yield and quality worldwide, thus justifying the prediction of climate...
Topics: Climate change, Crop model, Oilseed rape, Simulation, Sulphur, Temperature
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Patrícia Anacleto; Cátia Figueiredo; António Marques; Miguel Baptista; Ana Luísa Maulvault; Carolina Camacho; Pedro Pousão-Ferreira; Luísa M.P. Valente; Rui Rosa
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Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and...
Topics: BDE-209, Energy budget, Metabolism, Ocean warming, White seabream
Over the last decade, unconventional coal seam gas (CSG) reserves in the Australian State of Queensland have been rapidly developed and include controversial extraction techniques such as hydraulic fracturing (’fracking’). Large-scale CSG projects primarily supply an international liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. This has integrated regions of CSG extraction into global energy networks and wider societal debates about envisioned energy futures and climate change. In this article, we...
Topics: Coal seam gas, Environmental anthropology, Ethnographic methods, Fracking
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Serge Payette; Ann Delwaide
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The lichen woodland (LW) is an open-crown subarctic forest distributed principally in North America where it extends from Newfoundland in Atlantic Canada to the Yukon and Alaska. It is the main tree ecosystem of the LW zone north of the closed-crown boreal forest zone, and south of the forest-tundra zone where its cover diminishes progressively toward the Arctic tree line. Growth and development of LWs are closely dependent on dry-mesic, nutrient-poor podzolic soil environments largely...
Topics: Boreal forest, Succession, Woodland
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Livestock production in peri-urban areas constitutes an important sub-sector of the agricultural production system in China, and contributes to environmental degradation and local air borne pollution contributing to smog. As a result, local policies are being implemented to safeguard the environment. However, there has been little attempt to quantify the impact of environmental policies on livestock production structure, spatial distribution and their related greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ammonia...
Topics: Climate change, Manure management, Mitigation option, Temporal and spatial variation, Urban...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Alnail Mohmmed; Jianhua Li; Joshua Elaru; Mohammed M.A. Elbashier; Saskia Keesstra; Cerdà Artemi; Kabenge Martin; Makomere Reuben; Zeben Teffera
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Agricultural productivity in rural areas is severely affected by climate variability, and this elevates the vulnerability of rural households to food insecurity. This study examines the socio-economic vulnerability of farmers who are susceptible to droughts in the five agricultural-based regions of Gadaref, Eastern Sudan. A survey was carried out in 500 households to collect data on socio-economic and livelihood indicators. The data analyzed from these indicators were used to generate the three...
Topics: Adaptive capacity, Drought, Exposure, Gadaref region, Sudan, Vulnerability
In the State Archive of Como, Northern Italy, about 15,000 historical maps belonging to different national cadastral productions are preserved. The Web C.A.R.T.E. project was started to enhance the accessibility of this valuable cartographic heritage using FOSS (Free and Open Source Software) technologies. The system, which implements specific web geoservices for cataloguing and visualization, should assist the State Archive of Como in the digital management of its cartographic resources and...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Very few studies have focused on historical mercury (Hg) deposition in the Southern Hemisphere, especially for the pre-mining period. Therefore, the respective contributions of Hg emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources are not fully constrained and the long-term influence of climate variability is still in debate. In this study, we reconstructed Hg depositions over the last 13,500 years based on two sedimentary records located at the fringe between Amazonia and the Altiplano....
Topics: "Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Central Andes, Climate change, Peat sediment,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Shifting wind patterns are an expected consequence of global climate change, with direct implications for wind energy production. However, wind is notoriously difficult to predict, and significant uncertainty remains in our understanding of climate change impacts on existing wind generation capacity. In this study, historical and future wind climatology and associated capacity factors at five wind turbine sites in California are examined. Historical (1980-2000) and mid-century (2030-2050)...
Topics: California, Variable-resolution climate modeling, Wind energy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Junwen Liu; Yangzhi Mo; Ping Ding; Jun Li; Chengde Shen; Gan Zhang
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Water-soluble brown carbon (ws-BrC) exerts an important influence on climate change, but its emission sources and optical properties remain poorly understood. In this study, we isolated two ws-BrC proxies, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and humic-like substance carbon (HULIS-C), from particulate matter collected in Guangzhou, China, during December 2012 for the measurement of dual carbon isotopes (14C and 13C) and light absorption. The mass absorption efficiencies of WSOC and HULIS-C at...
Topics: Brown carbon, Humic-like substance, Light absorption, Radiocarbon, Water-soluble organic carbon
Sea-level rise poses considerable risks to coastal communities, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Decision makers are faced with uncertain sea-level projections when designing a strategy for coastal adaptation. The traditional methods are often silent on tradeoffs as well as the effects of tail-area events and of potential future learning. Here we reformulate a simple sea-level rise adaptation model to address these concerns. We show that Direct Policy Search yields improved solution quality,...
Topics: Adaptation, Deep uncertainty, Direct policy search, Multi-objective, Optimization, Sea-level rise
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Kaiming Wang; Yong Mao; Jiangtao Chen; Shiwei Yu
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To support decision-making for an optimal portfolio strategy for low-carbon energy technology research and development (R&D), this study proposes a dynamic two-stage stochastic programming model, taking into account both the uncertainty of technological change and damages of climate change. Based on China's economic and technology level and expert elicitation, an R&D investment portfolio strategy looking at three low-carbon technologies (carbon capture and storage [CCS], solar...
Topics: Stochastic programming, Uncertainty
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. F. Adame; R. M. Zakaria; B. Fry; V. C. Chong; Y. H.A. Then; C. J. Brown; S. Y. Lee
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Offsetting carbon (C) emissions and reducing nitrogen (N) pollution have been goals of mangrove restoration programs around the world. There is a common, yet dubious expectation that mangrove restoration will result in immediate and perpetual delivery of ecosystem services. There are expected time lags between mangrove clearing and C and N losses, and between restoration and C and N gains. Obtaining accurate rates of losses and gains requires frequent and long-term sampling, which is expensive...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Farming and rural development are central to the diversity of global food systems and diets, both significant factors in determining the nutrition and health outcomes of the world's population. Diets are not static and indeed are changing due to globalization, urbanization and demographic shifts. In addition, multiple burdens of malnutrition (both undernutrition and overweight and obesity) are not improving fast enough and in some cases, reversing for the worse. Unhealthy diets are major...
Topics: Climate change, Diets, Nutrition, Rural development, Urbanization
The distributions of many species show climate-driven shifts towards higher elevations, but evidence for elevational shifts is scarce for the alpine grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The upward shift of alpine grassland distribution from 2000 to 2014 was assessed with field measurements and satellite remote sensing data obtained across six elevational transects on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The aboveground biomass (AGB) of alpine grasslands varied with altitude and its data produced...
Topics: Alpine grasslands, Climate warming, MODIS, NDVI, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Upward shift
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Peng Li; Changhui Peng; Meng Wang; Yunpeng Luo; Mingxu Li; Kerou Zhang; Dingling Zhang; Qiuan Zhu
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Autumn phenological shifts induced by environmental change have resulted in substantial impacts on ecosystem processes. However, autumn phenology and its multiple related controlling factors have not been well studied. In this study, the spatiotemporal patterns of the end date of the vegetation growing season (EGS) and their multiple controls (climate change, summer vegetation growth and human activities) over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) were investigated using the satellite-derived...
Topics: Anthropogenic activities, Biotic controls, Climate change, Vegetation growth
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yawen Huang; Wei Ren; Lixin Wang; Dafeng Hui; John H. Grove; Xiaojuan Yang; Bo Tao; Ben Goff
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No-tillage (NT) has been touted as one of several climate-smart agriculture (CSA) management practices that improve food security and enhance agroecosystem resilience to climate change. However, the sustainable effectiveness of NT greatly depends on trade-offs between NT-induced changes in crop yield and greenhouse gas (GHG, i.e. CH 4 , CO 2 , and N 2 O) emissions. Such trade-offs are regulated by climate fluctuations and heterogeneous soil conditions and have not been well addressed....
Topics: Climate change mitigation, Crop yield, Greenhouse gas emissions, No-tillage
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Sara A. Shields-Menard; Marta Amirsadeghi; W. Todd French; Raj Boopathy
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Energy security, environmental concerns, and unstable oil prices have been the driving trifecta of demand for alternative fuels in the United States. The United States’ dependence on energy resources, often from unstable oil-producing countries has created political insecurities and concerns. As we try to gain energy security, unconventional oil becomes more common, flooding the market, and causing the major downshift of the usual unstable oil prices. Meanwhile, consumption of fossil fuels...
Topics: Global warming, Lignocellulosic ethanol, Microbial lipids
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Bassirou Diop; Fabian Blanchard; Nicolas Sanz
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This paper deals with the biological, ecological and economic impact of global warming and mangrove habitat availability on the French Guiana shrimp fishery. A dynamic bio-economic model is built by employing a shrimp stock's growth function depending on Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and on mangrove surface. The model is empirically calibrated for the French Guiana shrimp fishery using time series collected over 1995–2011. First, two Cobb-Douglas functions, which describe shrimp's natural...
Topics: Fishery bio-economic model, Global warming, Mangrove, Renewable resources, Sea surface temperature,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Keyvan Malek; Jennifer C. Adam; Claudio O. Stöckle; R. Troy Peters
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Irrigation efficiency plays an important role in agricultural productivity; it affects farm-scale water demand, and the partitioning of irrigation losses into evaporative and non-evaporative components. This partitioning determines return flow generation and thus affects water availability. Over the last two decades, hydrologic and agricultural research communities have significantly improved our understanding of the impacts of climate change on water availability and food productivity....
Topics: Agriculture, Climate change, Hydrology, Irrigation, Model
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Saudi Arabia experiences annual growth of 6% in its power demand. Generation expansion has been driven by low domestic retail fuel prices leading to a power generation mix based on fossil fuels only. In light of current climate change discussions, this research assesses future generation expansion under different potential fuel-price reforms by an enhanced OSeMOSYS model. Results demonstrate that domestic retail fuel price levels >20% [>60%] of expected international wholesale fuel prices...
Topics: Climate change, Fuel-price reform, Saudi Arabia
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Carina J. Gronlund; Kyle P. Sullivan; Yonathan Kefelegn; Lorraine Cameron; Marie S. O'Neill
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Cold and hot weather are associated with mortality and morbidity. Although the burden of temperature-associated mortality may shift towards high temperatures in the future, cold temperatures may represent a greater current-day problem in temperate cities. Hot and cold temperature vulnerabilities may coincide across several personal and neighborhood characteristics, suggesting opportunities for increasing present and future resilience to extreme temperatures. We present a narrative literature...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Housing, Neighborhoods, Weather
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jian Peng; Jing Ma; Qianyuan Liu; Yanxu Liu; Yi'na Hu; Yingru Li; Yuemin Yue
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As an important theme in global climate change and urban sustainable development, the changes of land surface temperature (LST) and surface urban heat island (SUHI) have been more and more focused by urban ecologists. This study used land-use data to identify the urban-rural areas in 285 cities in China and comparatively analyzed LST in urban-rural areas with the perspective of spatial-temporal dynamics heterogeneity. The results showed that, 98.9% of the cities exhibited SUHI effect in summer...
Topics: China, City classification, Cross-city comparison, Land surface temperature, Spatial-temporal...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Thomas A. Deetjen; Julia P. Conger; Benjamin D. Leibowicz; Michael E. Webber
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This study reviews the research literature's recommendations on which policies a city can pursue to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Using these recommendations, we develop a multi-parameter, analytic scoring rubric for quantifying the comprehensiveness of a city's climate action policy plans. The scoring rubric is used to assess the plans of 29 major U.S. cities revealing trends about urban climate policy in the United States. Most of these plans strongly pursue policies aimed at building...
Topics: Buildings, Cities and climate change, Climate policy, Decarbonization, Demand-side measures,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Abeer H. Ali; Mostafa Abdelrahman; Usama Radwan; Soad El-Zayat; Magdi A. El-Sayed
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With the increasing effects of global climate change and population growth, there is a high need for new agricultural practices to maximize efficiencies and reduce the efforts needed for developing new crop varieties that can withstand various abiotic stress. Plant-microbe association to optimize plant growth and increase plant host stress tolerance may play an essential role in improving environmental sustainability and economic viability, especially in the arid land habitats. In the present...
Topics: Antioxidant, Heat stress, Photosynthesis, Plant-endophytes association
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by A. Benchrif; B. Guinot; M. Bounakhla; H. Cachier; B. Damnati; B. Baghdad
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The Mediterranean basin is one of the most sensitive regions in the world regarding climate change and air quality. Deserts and marine aerosols combine with combustion aerosols from maritime traffic, large urban centers, and at a larger scale from populated industrialized regions in Europe. From Tetouan city located in the North of Morocco, we attempted to better figure out the main aerosol transport pathways and their respective aerosol load and chemical profile by examining air mass back...
Topics: Aerosols, Back trajectory clustering, Chemical composition, Maritime traffic, PM2.5, Western...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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In European countries, buildings are the major energy consumers due to the general low energy performance of the existing building stock. To achieve the ambitioned targets for emissions reduction, it will be necessary to take actions for its large scale renovation. However, today's standards are mainly focused on new buildings, guiding the improvement of the energy performance of the existing buildings into expensive processes and complex procedures that seldom are accepted by users, owners or...
Topics: Carbon emissions reduction, Co-benefits, Energy savings
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Chen Zeng; Fan Zhang; Xixi Lu; Guanxing Wang; Tongliang Gong
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Suspended sediment load of a river represents integrated results of soil erosion, landform change and ecosystem variation occurring within the river basin. Accurate estimation of suspended sediment load is helpful for distinguishing the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on earth system processes within river basin under global climate change. Suspended sediment load, with long-term in-situ observation limited by harsh conditions, can be estimated by sediment rating curves and various...
Topics: Flood rank, Sediment rating curve, Suspended sediment concentration, Suspended sediment load, The...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Nathan T. La Porte; Victor S. Batista; Michael R. Wasielewski
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The catalytic transformation of carbon dioxide into fuels is one of the most important reactions for creating a sustainable, carbon-neutral energy economy. Given that the sun is the only plausible energy source that can accommodate the increased global energy demand without contributing to catastrophic climate change, it makes sense to use solar energy to drive this reaction, ideally using the largest possible portion of the solar spectrum. Over the past several years, we have explored the use...
Topics: Photoinduced electron transfer, Radical anions, Solar fuels, Transient absorption, Ultrafast...
This study investigated the extent to which students’ sourcing and comprehension can be supported by the reading of real, as opposed to print-out versions of multiple documents. It was found that the reading of real rather than print-out versions of multiple documents on the issue of climate change increased students’ memory for source information and made them include more specific references to document sources in argument essays that they wrote about the issue. In turn, such increased...
Topics: Comprehension, Multiple document reading, Sourcing
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The redox state of NADH/NADPH balance (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is crucial in cellular homeostasis. Recent studies reported that sodium halide ions (NaX, X = F − , Cl − , Br − and I − ) stimulated NAD(P)H in Vibrio fischeri (VF). However, it remained unanswered whether this pattern applied in salts with other cations, e.g., K + , Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , whose aquatic concentrations were increased by anthropogenic activities and climate...
Topics: Chloride salts, Redox reaction, Stimulation, Vibrio fischeri
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Most of the experience collected on wave overtopping is concentrated on emerged or zero-freeboard structures, and only few experiments are available on over-washed dikes. The experience on submerged crest conditions is principally related to rubble mound structures and limited to the wave reflection and transmission processes. The existing tools for the prediction of the average wave overtopping discharge (q) at dikes are therefore targeted to represent overtopped structures, leading to...
Topic: Wave overtopping discharge
The valorization of CO2 has gained increasing interest in the scientific and industrial communities during the last decades with intensive research devoted to CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization. This is because the greenhouse gas emission has become a serious concern to face the global climate change and that efficient solutions are required to reduce the carbon footprint. Up to now the chemical transformation of CO2 into fuels and target molecules has been mainly investigated by using...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Paulo Pereira; Igor Bogunovic; Miriam Muñoz-Rojas; Eric C. Brevik
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Soils provide and regulate a large number of ecosystem services (ES) and play an important role in sustaining humanity. The benefits we receive from soils are directly or indirectly linked to clean air and water and food production, among others, and are key to poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation. These are some of the most important challenges for our society. The type, quantity or quality of soil ES depends on the specific environmental characteristics that will determine soil...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Esther Bautista-Chamizo; Ana R. Borrero-Santiago; Manoela R. De Orte; Ángel DelValls
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As a result of the increasing pressure provoked by anthropogenic activities, the world climate is changing and oceans health is in danger. One of the most important factors affecting the marine environment is the well-known process called ocean acidification. Also, there are other natural or anthropogenic processes that produce an enrichment of CO2 in the marine environment (CO2 leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage technologies (CCS), organic matter diagenesis, volcanic vents, etc). Most of...
Topics: Acidification, Climate change, Marine microalgae, Transgenerational effects, pH
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Rivers are characterized by their water flow regime and sediment transport. Sediments are crucial for channel morphology, water quality, providing habitat for aquatic organisms and, finally, for sustaining deltas. Rivers are, however, fragmented by dams and will face an additional building boom due to actions to mitigate climate change (with hydropower) and water scarcity. Reservoir siltation is a serious challenge for reservoir management but also entails downstream morphological impacts....
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Li H. Erikson; Antonio Espejo; Patrick L. Barnard; Katherine A. Serafin; Christie A. Hegermiller; Andrea O'Neill; Peter Ruggiero; Patrick W. Limber; Fernando J. Mendez
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Deterministic dynamical modeling of future climate conditions and associated hazards, such as flooding, can be computationally-expensive if century-long time-series of waves, sea level variations, and overland flow patterns are simulated. To alleviate some of the computational costs, local impacts of individual coastal storms can be explored by first identifying particular events or scenarios of interest and dynamically modeling those events in detail. In this study, an efficient approach to...
Topics: Coastal storm cells, Dynamical downscaling, Global climate models, K-means clustering, Southern...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by I. Muñoz; E. Cifrian; A. Andrés; G. San Miguel; D. Ruiz; J. R. Viguri
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A comparative cradle-to-grave LCA shows that incorporating Waelz slag into ceramic bricks generates lower impact on climate change and reduces the impact on freshwater ecotoxicity and fossil depletion. These benefits are attributable to impact savings due to avoiding the landfilling of the slag and reduced fuel demand during the manufacturing stage. However, due to the higher SO 2 and HF emissions generated in the firing of slag containing bricks, these benefits are offset by higher impacts on...
Topics: Bricks, Ceramics, Industrial ecology, LCA, Waelz slag
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Macdonald Mubayiwa; Brighton M. Mvumi; Tanya E. Stathers; Shaw Mlambo; Tinashe Nyabako
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Many smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa rely on synthetic pesticides for protecting stored-grain. Recommendations on use of these grain protectants are typically based on “blanket” application rates which are fixed rates that are not varied according to grain type, pest range or agro-climatic regions. There are numerous anecdotal reports of storage pesticide failure or reduced efficacy from farmers. Might rising global temperatures be a contributory factor? Smallholder farmers are...
Topics: Climate change and variability, Pesticide degradation, Pesticide tolerance, Sorghum grain storage,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hanqin Tian; Chaoqun Lu; Shufen Pan; Jia Yang; Ruiqing Miao; Wen Ren; Qiang Yu; Bojie Fu; Fei Fei Jin; Yonglong Lu; Jerry Melillo; Zhiyun Ouyang; Cheryl Palm; John Reilly
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Increased natural and anthropogenic stresses have threatened the Earth's ability to meet growing human demands of food, energy and water (FEW) in a sustainable way. Although much progress has been made in the provision of individual component of FEW, it remains unknown whether there is an optimized strategy to balance the FEW nexus as a whole, reduce air and water pollution, and mitigate climate change on national and global scales. Increasing FEW conflicts in the agroecosystems make it an...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by William R. Travis; Joel B. Smith; Gary W. Yohe
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The literature on adaptation to climate change indicates that limiting global warming to 1.5°C or less would reduce damages relative to higher magnitudes of warming, and require less adaptive effort particularly by lessening the risk of extremes and reducing the potential need for transformative adaptation. Smaller climate change nevertheless poses risks of significant impacts, dislocation and adaptation costs in particularly exposed and vulnerable places. Climate change will also vary across...
The crushed-rock interlayer (CRI) has been used to cool the railway embankment subbase and subgrade of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) in permafrost regions. However, in addition to the climate change, aeolian sand clogging has been affecting this mitigation techniques aimed to increase heat extraction and reduce subsurface heat penetration by air convection through the voids of the CRI. Its long-term performance is evaluated herein using a numerical modelling. Simulation results demonstrate an...
Topics: Aeolian sand, Climate change, Crushed-rock interlayer, Permafrost degradation, Qinghai-Tibet Railway
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Feng Xiaoming; Liu Qinglong; Yin Lichang; Fu Bojie; Chen Yongzhe
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The sustainability of the coupled human–natural system under continuous global warming has been capturing increasing research interest. Water is among the most critical elements, not only for the natural system but also for social–economic development, especially in water-limited regions. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive analytical framework to link water research with the sustainability of the human–natural system. We suggest that special emphasis should be paid to the linkage...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Alberto Arzac; Elena A. Babushkina; Patrick Fonti; Viktoriya Slobodchikova; Irina V. Sviderskaya; Eugene A. Vaganov
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Climate affects wood formation with consequences for the functioning and survival of trees. Since tree-rings tissues (i.e., earlywood and latewood) are formed at different time in the season, the impact of climate change might differently affect their functions. In this study, we combine quantitative tracheid anatomy with the Vaganov-Shashkin growth model (VS-model) to investigate how summer drought affected the annual ring structure of Pinus sylvestris L. from a forest-steppe zone in Southern...
Topics: Climate change, Drought, Tracheidogram, VS-oscilloscope, Xylem anatomy
Norway spruce is one of the economically most important tree species in Central European forestry. However, its high susceptibility to droughts poses a strong challenge to its cultivation under future conditions with likely more frequent and prolonged droughts and shifts in the seasonal climate. To compensate for expected losses of forest areas suitable for the cultivation of spruce, more drought-tolerant species are required. Silver fir and Douglas fir are two potential candidates, which...
Topics: Abies alba, Central Europe, Climate change, Dendroecology, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii
Harmful algal blooms have become increasingly frequent due to the dual pressure of excessive nutrient loading and climate change in recent years. Algal-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a potentially large component of the labile organic matter pool, and also climate warming may affect the DOM pool, although the results on the latter so far are equivocal. The question of how eutrophication and climate warming may drive the accumulation of autochthonous DOM is much debated. Here, we...
Topics: Chromophoric dissolved organic matter, Climate warming, High-resolution mass spectrometry,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mathias Vuille; Antoine Rabatel; Dean Jacobsen; Alvaro Soruco; Marcos Villacis; Oliver Elison Timm; Thomas Condom; Nadine Salzmann; Jean Emmanuel Sicart
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Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been retreating for the past several decades, leading to a temporary increase in dry season water supply downstream. Projected future glacier shrinkage, however, will lead to a long-term reduction in dry season river discharge from glacierized catchments. This glacier retreat is closely related to the observed increase in high-elevation, surface air temperature in the region. Future projections using a simple freezing level height- equilibrium-line altitude...
Topic: Water resources
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jian Sun; Tiancai Zhou; Genwei Cheng; Miao Liu; Youchao Chen; Liping Zhu; Arshad Ali Shedayi; Huan Yu; Guohua Liu; Ming Xu; Wei Deng; Jihui Fan; Xuyang Lu; Yukun Sha
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Future climate warming is expected to have a significant effect on the operation of Earth and Ecological systems. A key concern in the future is water resource availability. In regions such as the Tibet Plateau (TP) lakes and glaciers appear to be highly sensitive to climate forcing and variations in the size and extent of these system will have profound socio-economic and environmental consequences in South and Central Asia. Although the variety of glaciers and lake son the TP is a heavily...
Topics: Lakes and glaciers, Regional climate, Tibetan Plateau, Water resource
We explore a novel approach towards quantification of paleo-ecological signals from non-analogue microfossil assemblages by quantifying relations between assemblages and high-quality geochemical and sedimentological data from sedimentary archives. We test this approach using one group of microfossils, the organic cysts of dinoflagellates (dinocysts), which are widely used in shelf and open marine settings for biostratigraphy and reconstructions of past environments and environmental change....
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Food systems worldwide rely on water resources that are facing demand from a growing population while regional water supplies are increasingly uncertain due to climate change. In this environment, dietary changes may have the potential to reduce water used in food production. At the same time, it is well established that American diets need to change in order to align with Federal healthy eating guidelines. In this article, we examine if there are synergies between healthier diets and blue...
Topics: Blue water, Environmental input-output model, Food policy, Healthy diet, Sustainability, U.S. food...
Climate changes pose serious challenges to the persistence of plant species, especially those with narrow habitats. Failure to adopt timely measures would lead to the permanent loss of valuable endangered species. This study used maximum entropy to predict the geographical distribution of a medicinal and vulnerable plant species, Daphne mucronata Royle, under current and future climatic conditions (A2a/HadCM3) in central Iran. A total of 100 locations with the species occurrence were recorded....
Topics: Climate change scenario, Maximum entropy, Niche shift, Vulnerable species
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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This paper develops an Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare for Spain from 1970 to 2012 and seeks to update valuation approaches to a number of items. Two approaches have proven particularly controversial over recent decades; the costs of energy depletion and of climate change. The valuation implications in measuring present welfare have proven problematic, as both include future sustainability consequences arising from resource depletion and environmental impacts. This study includes a...
Topics: Energy, ISEW, Welfare, Spain, Sustainable"
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Allen Blackman; Peter Veit
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Indigenous communities (ICs) have emerged as important players in global efforts to reduce forest carbon emissions, in part because they are viewed as conscientious stewards of the forest lands to which they have legal title. Yet ICs tend to be located in remote areas where deforestation would be limited regardless of who manages them. Therefore, to determine whether IC management actually cuts forest carbon emissions, it is important to control for such confounding factors. To that end, we use...
Topics: Ecuador, Forest carbon, Indigenous community, Matching, REDD
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mijke van Oorschot; Maarten Kleinhans; Tom Buijse; Gertjan Geerling
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River morphology and riparian vegetation continuously adapt to changing discharge conditions, which makes it a challenge to distinguish long-term development driven by natural discharge variation from the impacts of flow alteration due to climate change and due to dams. The aim of this study was to investigate how such flow alterations affect bio-geomorphological processes and habitat suitability of several fluvial plant and animal species. This is done with a numerical model representing...
Topics: Bio-geomorphology, Climate change, Dams, Flow alteration, Riparian vegetation, River morphodynamics
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Taniya RoyChowdhury; Lisa Bramer; David W. Hoyt; Young Mo Kim; Thomas O. Metz; Lee Ann McCue; Heida L. Diefenderfer; Janet K. Jansson
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Earth System Models predict climate extremes that will impact regional and global hydrology. Aquatic-terrestrial transition zones like wetlands are subjected to the immediate consequence of climate change with shifts in the magnitude and dynamics of hydrologic flow. Such fluctuating hydrology can alter the nature and rate of biogeochemical transformations and significantly impact the carbon balance of the ecosystem. We tested the impacts of fluctuating hydrology and, specifically, the role of...
Topics: Anaerobic respiration, Iron reduction, Methane production, Soil metabolites, Sulfate reduction,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Bassirou Diop; Nicolas Sanz; Yves Jamont Junior Duplan; El Hadji Mama Guene; Fabian Blanchard; Jean Christophe Pereau; Luc Doyen
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This paper deals with fishery management in the face of the ecological and economic effects of global warming. To achieve this, a dynamic bioeconomic model and model-based scenarios are considered, in which the stock's growth function depends on the sea surface temperature. The model is empirically calibrated for the French Guiana shrimp fishery using time series collected over the period 1993–2009. Three fishing effort strategies are then compared under two contrasted IPCC climate scenarios...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Climate scenarios, Fishery bioeconomic model, Renewable resources,...
Land use and climate change are increasingly important stressors affecting freshwater ecosystems. Although their effects on freshwater organisms have been widely studied, most studies applied traditional statistical methods, which only focus on single stressor and simple cause-effect relationships without considering the complex interactions among stressors. Therefore, we developed an integrated method by combining Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) and Bayesian Networks (BNs) to estimate the...
Topics: Bayesian networks, Climate change, Freshwater ecosystems, Human disturbances, Structural equation...
Extreme weather events have been affecting local environmental sustainability. Previous literature in this field evaluates environmental sustainability based mainly on past and current resource consumption and availability, however, knowledge about the status and potential changes of environmental sustainability under future climate extremes is missing. This paper proposes an integrated approach (combining the Ecological Footprint Analysis with econometric regressions) to predict future...
Topics: Climate change, Ecological footprint analysis, Econometric regressions, Environmental...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xiaoji Shen; Ru An; Li Feng; Nan Ye; Maohua Li
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The Three-River Headwaters Region (TRHR), located in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau, is a key ecological region of China for its abundant natural resources and crucial ecological functions. In recent decades, severe vegetation degradation is observed due to its fragile ecosystems, global climate change and frequent human disturbance. To restrain the further degradation, the Chinese government initiated an ecological conservation project of TRHR in 2005 with a total investment of around 1...
Topics: DBEST, MODIS, NDVI, TRHR, Time series analysis, Vegetation change
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yuping Bai; Xiangzheng Deng; Sijian Jiang; Zhe Zhao; Yi Miao
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With the increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere, global greenhouse effects have intensified, thereby contributing to climate change. Agriculture contributes to climate change by increasing GHG emissions, and climate change in turn affects agricultural production. In this paper, we calculated carbon emissions and sequestration of agriculture in the 142 counties of Hebei Province, China, and analyzed their spatiotemporal distributions during 2000–2010. Considering net...
Topics: Agroecosystem, Carbon emission, Climate change, Hebei, Low-carbon agricultural production efficiency
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Massimiliano Agovino; Mariaconcetta Casaccia; Mariateresa Ciommi; Maria Ferrara; Katia Marchesano
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Agriculture and climate change are characterized by a complex cause-effect relationship. The agricultural sector generates significant quantities of gas emissions that affect climate. The rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the increase in temperatures as well as changes in the precipitation regime have repercussions on the volume, quality and stability of the agricultural and zoo technical production, but also on the natural environment in which agriculture is...
Topics: Panel data models, Sustainability
India's geography, monsoon dependency and weather anomalies place wheat production prospects and sustainability at crossroads across agro-ecologies owing to its vulnerability. An attempt has been made to track the vulnerability in wheat producing regions for climate smart farming in India sourcing relevant historical data on multi-dimensional indicators for sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity. The composite vulnerability index has been estimated for 16 wheat growing states using the...
Topics: Climate smart farming, Climate vulnerability, Principal component analysis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yufei Wang; Xiaohui Lei; Xin Wen; Guohua Fang; Qiaofeng Tan; Yu Tian; Chao Wang; Hao Wang
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The eco-hydrological system in China is undergoing dramatic changes in recent decades due to climate change and construction of cascade dams for power production. Given that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways, the purpose of this study is to predict future changes in runoff and fish habitat quality of the Yalong River basin attributed to the individual and combined effects of cascade dam construction and climate change. The bias corrected and spatially downscaled...
Topic: Weighted usable area
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Qifei Han; Chaofan Li; Chengyi Zhao; Yaoqi Zhang; Shoubo Li
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Accurate predictions of water vapor at large temporal and spatial scales are particularly important in global studies. In recent years, Central Asian grasslands have been subject to both intensive grazing and variability in climatic conditions. However, uncertainties about grazing on water cycling under climate change still exist. Therefore, the Biome-BGC grazing model was applied to assess the effects of grazing on evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE). Three grassland types...
Topics: Central Asia, Evapotranspiration, Grazing, Water use efficiency
Forest ecosystems play an important role in mitigating global climate change, and this role has recently been further reinforced by the Paris Agreement. However, our knowledge with respect to the trade-offs between timber production and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems is still seriously deficient. Therefore, the overall goal of this study is to quantitatively analyze the effects of a set of economic and ecological constraints on the joint production capacity for forest timber and...
Topics: Forest management, Green-up constraint, Timber production
In this review article, we trace the history of events leading to the development of individual-based models (IBMs) to represent aquatic organisms in rivers and streams. As a metaphor, we present this history as a series of confluences between individual scientists (tributaries) sharing ideas. We describe contributions of these models to science and management. One iconic feature of river IBMs is the linkage between flow and the physical habitat experienced by individual animals, and the first...
Topics: Agent-based model, Dendritic river network, Ecosystem, Hydropower, Individual-based model,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Muhammad Wajid Ijaz; Rasool Bux Mahar; Altaf Ali Siyal; Muhammad Naveed Anjum
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Sea level rise (SLR) in response to looming climate change is being considered as a major impediment to coastal areas. Acute wave activities and tidal propagations of semi-diurnal to mixed type are impairing the morphology of the Indus Delta in Pakistan. In this study a synthetic approach has been adopted using multi sensor satellite and ground data in order to integrate the individual effect of topography, oceanic activities and vegetative canopy for deduction of a synergic impact over the...
Topics: Satellite imagery, Sindh coast
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mark E. Baird; Mathieu Mongin; Farhan Rizwi; Neal E. Cantin; Monika Soja-Woźniak; Jennifer Skerratt
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Mass coral bleaching has emerged in the 21st century as the greatest threat to the health of the world's reefs. A sophisticated process understanding of bleaching at the polyp scale has now been achieved through laboratory and field studies, but this knowledge is yet to be applied in mechanistic models of shelf-scale reef systems. In this study we develop a mechanistic model of the coral-symbiont relationship that considers temperature-mediated build-up of reactive oxygen species due to excess...
Topics: Biogeochemical model, Climate change, Coral mortality, Great Barrier Reef, Mass bleaching,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Antoine Brias; Jean Denis Mathias; Guillaume Deffuant
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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change anticipates increasing extreme rain events in the 21st century, leading to more frequent floods and more phosphorus transported into lakes, enhancing the risk of their eutrophication. This paper reports research assessing this risk on Lake Bourget in France, by coupling a statistical estimation of annual phosphorus transportation from annual rainfall and a dynamical model estimating the evolution of the phosphorus concentration in the lake in the...
Topics: Lake eutrophication, Phosphorus dynamics, Rainfall variability, Regime shift
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Signe B. Rasmussen; Stephen Blenkinsop; Aidan Burton; Per Abrahamsen; Peter E. Holm; Søren Hansen
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The agricultural sector supports the growing world population with food and successful crop production is highly dependent on the prevailing climatic conditions. A modelling analysis of projected future changes in agroclimatic conditions is presented for eastern Denmark, focussing on indices of drainage need, field trafficability, water shortage and relative production (the ratio between actual and potential production). Projected climatic change from 11 climate model simulations were...
Topics: Crop water shortage, Field trafficability, Hourly rainfall, RainSim, Statistical change factors,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Crop models are increasingly being used as tools to simulate climate change effects or effects of virtual heat-tolerant cultivars; therefore it is important that upper temperature thresholds for seed-set, seed growth, phenology, and other processes affecting yield be developed and parameterized from elevated temperature experiments whether field or controlled-environment chambers. In this paper, we describe the status of crop models for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea...
Topics: Crop modeling, DSSAT, Elevated temperature, Grain growth rate, Grain-set, Model parameterization,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Laura Farías; Estrella Bello; Gresel Arancibia; Josseline Fernandez
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Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are greenhouse gases and active in the depletion of the ozone layer. These gases, originating from both anthropogenic and natural sources, are mainly released to the atmosphere from coastal areas, including continental shelves, estuaries and fjords. Surface distribution of dissolved N2O and CH4 during the austral spring were described within the Magellanic Sub-Antarctic region (50–55°S, Chile) with a coastal area that has a complex system of fjords,...
Topics: Chilean fjords, Magellanic sub-antarctic region, Methane, Nitrous oxide
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Changing climatic conditions makes the development of cultivation strategies for protected cherry cultivation necessary. The objective of the present study was to investigate physiological processes in connection with light availability in different planting systems under cover using a Dualex™ for non-destructive measurements. Hence, cherry trees were either trained as hedgerows, i.e. the most dense planting ([2.35 m*2]*1.5 m), or trained as spindles (2.70 m*2.0 m; 1.75 m*2.9 m) and grown...
Topics: Abiotic stress, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Climate change, Light limitation, Protected cultivation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hongyan Ruan; Puyu Feng; Bin Wang; Hongtao Xing; Zhigang Huang; Hao Guo; De Li Liu
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Climate change is recognised to alter the distribution of rainfall and increase temperature and atmospheric CO 2 concentration [CO 2 ] and pose a formidable challenge to the sustainability of various cropping industries around the world. Additionally, in specific regions, like China, and for particular crops, like sugarcane, the likely effects of climate change are not straightforward. This is because of non-linearity of the interacting climatic factors on crop growth and yield. In our study,...
Topics: APSIM-Sugarcane, Elevated CO2, General circulation model, High temperature, Statistical...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Incomplete knowledge about climate change and the related uncertainty in climate prediction makes adaptation inherently difficult. We introduce a real options framework to determine the optimal adaptation to catastrophic risk that takes into account climate change uncertainty. The framework can be used to select the optimal adaptation project from a number of alternative projects or to determine the optimal investment sequence of the considered projects. In applying the model to the management...
Topics: Investment under uncertainty, Real option
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by undefined Ergon; G. Seddaiu; F. Volaire; P. Korhonen; P. Virkajärvi; G. Bellocchi; M. Jørgensen; L. Østrem; D. Reheul
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Climate change and its effects on grassland productivity vary across Europe. The Mediterranean and Nordic regions represent the opposite ends of a gradient of changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, with increasingly warmer and wetter winters in the north and increasingly warmer and drier summers in the south. Warming and elevated concentration of atmospheric CO2 may boost forage production in the Nordic region. Production in many Mediterranean areas is likely to become even more...
Topics: Breeding, Grassland, Management, Persistence, Productivity, Seasonal stress
Estuarine biodiversity is impacted by climate change and anthropogenic use due to the high productivity of estuarine ecosystems and convenient human use of nearshore areas. Human use of estuaries (e.g. with dredging, filling, and invasive species introductions) has decimated subtidal and marsh ecosystems, thus making them the focus of major restoration efforts. Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) such as eelgrass beds, and their associated communities, fall under these restoration efforts,...
Topics: Anthropogenic effect, Climate, Ecological modeling, Eelgrass restoration, Invertebrate
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Naidion Motta Silvério; Regina Mambeli Barros; Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho; Miguel Redón-Santafé; Ivan Felipe Silva dos Santos; Victor Eduardo de Mello Valério
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In recent years, the Brazilian electricity sector has seen a considerable reduction in hydroelectric production and an increase in dependence on the complementation of thermoelectric power plants to meet the energy demand. This issue has led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which has intensified climate change and modified rainfall regimes in several regions of the country, as well as increased the cost of energy. The use of floating PV plants in coordinated operation with...
Topics: Floating PV power plant, Hybrid PV hydroelectric power plant, Hydro/PV coordinated operation, Solar...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yan Liu; Liu Yang; Wuxing Zheng; Tang Liu; Xiangrong Zhang; Jiaping Liu
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In current system of building energy efficiency, the building energy saving rate is calculated based on energy consumption per unit area on a certain past stage. The approach is restricted by the development of economy, progress of energy-saving technologies and climate change. In present work, a novel building energy efficiency evaluation index is developed to represent building energy saving performance. A building model can be first established according to architectural design scheme,...
Topics: Building envelopes, Calculation model, Energy saving rate, Thermal design, Weather data
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Buildings are significant drivers of climate change, generating one third of global greenhouse gas emissions. When new buildings are constructed to high performance standards, increased rates of building replacement spurred by rising property values can raise the operating efficiency of building stocks. However, it can take years before the embodied greenhouse gas emissions associated with new construction are offset by more efficient operations. This paper calculates the carbon dioxide...
This paper examines the acceptance of burden sharing rules that refer to the costs of the German energy transition, which is one of the most challenging and disputed national climate and energy policy measures. Based on data from a comprehensive survey of more than 2200 citizens, the empirical analysis reveals that the polluter-pays rule has by far the highest support compared with the ability-to-pay rule and especially compared with the equal-pay rule, which is widely refused in the sample....
Topics: Attitudinal factors, Burden sharing rules, Climate and energy policy measures, Climate change,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Fanxin Meng; Gengyuan Liu; Yuanchao Hu; Meirong Su; Zhifeng Yang
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With the increasing threat of global climate change, carbon emissions reductions in cities have aroused the concern of the world. Carbon flow is one of the profiles that is closely connected to the urban metabolic system. Here, a global environmentally extended multi-scale input-output model was employed to accurately trace the carbon flow in a multi-scales economic system from production and consumption perspectives. Beijing was selected as the case, and the results were as follows: Beijing is...
Topics: Carbon flow, City, Consumption-based accounting, MRIO, Structure analysis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Current atmospheric CO 2 (400 ppm) is increasing 2 ppm annually and might reach up-to 1000 ppm by year 2100 due to global climate change. Different plant growth was observed under elevated CO 2 in the previous studies. However, plant induced soil suction besides plants growth due to increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration in heavily compacted soil remain elusive. The objective of this study is to quantify transpiration and evapo-transpiration induced soil suction by Schefflera heptaphylla in...
Topics: CO 2 concentration, Correlation, Plant characteristics, Soil-water retention, Suction
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ni An; Sahar Hemmati; Yu jun Cui; Chao sheng Tang
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The global warming and climate change have aroused increasing attention to the effect of intensive soil water evaporation on earth constructions. When investigating the hydro-mechanical behavior of soil during evaporation, it is of paramount importance to consider the coupled transport of heat and water in soil. In this study, four different evaporation tests of Fontainebleau sand conducted in an environmental chamber are investigated. A numerical approach combing a coupled hydro-thermal model...
Topics: Environmental chamber tests, Evaporation, Fontainebleau sand, Numerical modelling, Soil-atmosphere...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Josep Peñuelas; Jordi Sardans; Iolanda Filella; Marc Estiarte; Joan Llusià; Romà Ogaya; Jofre Carnicer; Mireia Bartrons; Albert Rivas-Ubach; Oriol Grau; Guille Peguero; Olga Margalef; Sergi Pla-Rabés; Constantí Stefanescu; Dolores Asensio; Catherine Preece
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Climate change is increasing temperatures globally and drought in many regions. If climate change continues at its current rate, the resilience of many ecosystems will likely be exceeded, altering their structure and function. A consistent understanding of the impacts, however, remains elusive due to the difficulty of obtaining data of field studies at different scales from local to regional. We review the impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mediterranean region based...
Topics: Climate change, Community and ecosystem changes, Drought, Experiments, Long-term, Management,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Chunping Xie; Mengqi Bai; Xiaolei Wang
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The transport sector is attracting increasingly attention in the context of climate change and sustainable development, for its rapidly growing demand for energy and heavy reliance on oil products. Especially in China, where the demands for transportation are tremendous and ever-increasing, it is worthy to explore the provincial variations in energy efficiency in the transport sector, in order to enhance energy efficiency and to promote energy savings in this sector. By using stochastic...
Topics: Energy efficiency, Energy-saving potential, Stochastic frontier analysis, Transport sector
This study investigates how technological transitions across California's power sector have shifted its state-level carbon dioxide emissions and cooling water consumption intensities. Its ultimate goal is to evaluate how the state's climate mitigation and environmental policies have affected the power sector's vulnerability to extreme drought and how extreme drought has affected progress towards the state's climate mitigation priorities. The study analyzes the period spanning 2010–2016, which...
Topics: CO2 emissions, Climate change mitigation, Cooling water consumption, Drought resiliency,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ana Luísa Maulvault; Carolina Camacho; Vera Barbosa; Ricardo Alves; Patrícia Anacleto; Fabiola Fogaça; Christiaan Kwadijk; Sara C. Cunha; José O. Fernandes; Rie R. Rasmussen; Jens J. Sloth; Òscar Aznar-Alemany; Ethel Eljarrat; Damià Barceló; António Marques
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Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this...
Topics: Acidification, Bioaccumulation, Emerging chemical contaminants, Flame retardants, Perfluorinated...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Allene Macabuhay; Alireza Houshmandfar; James Nuttall; Glenn J. Fitzgerald; Michael Tausz; Sabine Tausz-Posch
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Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] drives the rise in global temperatures, with predictions of an increased frequency of heat waves (short periods of high temperatures). Both, CO2 and high temperature, have profound effects on wheat growth and productivity. We tested whether elevated [CO2] (eCO2) has a potential to ameliorate the effects of simulated heat waves (HT) on wheat in a dryland cropping system. Wheat was field-grown at the Australian Grains Free Air CO2 Enrichment (AGFACE)...
Topics: Carbohydrate metabolism, Climate change, Grain quality, Grain yield, Photosynthesis, Triticum...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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An ecosystem in a cold climate river basin is vulnerable to the effects of climate change affecting permafrost thaw and glacier retreat. We currently lack sufficient data and information if and how hydrological processes such as glacier retreat, snowmelt and freezing-thawing affect sediment and nutrient runoff and transport, as well as N2O emissions in cold climate river basins. As such, we have implemented well-established, semi-empirical equations of nitrification and denitrification within...
Topics: ARB, Cold climate river basin, SWAT
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Background: Little is known about the relationship between Salmonella infection and meteorological parameters other than air temperature. This study aimed to explore associations of Salmonella hospitalizations with temperature, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall. Methods: With negative binomial distribution assumed, time-series regression model adjusting for season and time trend were constructed employing distributed lag non-linear models and generalized additive models. Meteorological...
Topics: Humidity, Meteorology, Rainfall, Salmonella, Temperature, Weather
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jinghong Gao; Hongli Hou; Yunkai Zhai; Alistair Woodward; Sotiris Vardoulakis; Sari Kovats; Paul Wilkinson; Liping Li; Xiaoqin Song; Lei Xu; Bohan Meng; Xiaobo Liu; Jun Wang; Jie Zhao; Qiyong Liu
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To date, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mitigation strategies and the accompanying health co-benefits in different economic sectors have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this paper is to review comprehensively the evidence on GHG mitigation measures and the related health co-benefits, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to promote further development and implementation of climate change response policies. Evidence on GHG emissions, abatement measures and related...
Topics: Climate change, Greenhouse gas, Health co-benefits, Mitigation, Policy implications
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mihai R. Niță; Denisa L. Badiu; Raffaele Lafortezza; Diana A. Onose; Simona R. Grădinaru; Irina I. Năstase
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Cities undergoing climate change and rapid urbanization are faced with significant transformational processes that affect the environment and society, challenging them to become more sustainable and resilient. The promotion of nature-based solutions represents an efficient approach to meet sustainability targets in cities and improve the quality of life of citizens. The association of large components of green infrastructure, such as urban parks, with physical activity can counteract the...
Topics: Green infrastructure, Human health and well-being, Local knowledge, Nature-based solutions,...