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Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Brooks A. Kaiser; Melina Kourantidou; Linda Fernandez
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Closing of the marine commons increases economic returns and slows depletion of valuable ocean resources. Rights-based management is widely used for fisheries rationalization. Regulators with sound biological and economic information can in theory set overall harvest control rules that protect the fish stocks, and manage for external costs and benefits from harvest. These may include ecosystem damages, overcapitalization in the fishery, and/or equity concerns. Regulatory efforts and related...
Topics: Fisheries economics, Open access fisheries, Property rights regimes, Snow Crab (C. opilio),...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by F. Frappart; P. Azemar; P. L. Vu; T. Le Toan; B. Lubac; J. Darrozes
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Lakes and reservoirs have been identified as sentinels of climate change. Tonle Sap is the largest lake in both the Mekong Basin and Southeast Asia and because of the importance of its ecosystem, it is has been described as the “heart of the lower Mekong”. Its seasonal cycle depends on the annual flood pulse governed by the flow of the Mekong River. This study provides an impact analysis of recent climatic events from El Niño 1997/1998 to El Niño 2015/2016 on surface storage variations in...
Topics: ENSO, EVI, Mekong Basin, Monsoon, Multi-satellite, PDO, Rainfall, Surface water storage
UFO Newsletters from the Archives For the Unexplained
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Touchstone No 120 2018 01
Topics: ley, shepton, leys, mysteries, roman, trip, fosse, earth, subconscious, mallet, field trip, earth...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xiaoyu Wang; Tao Li; Lizhi Wang; Xiaoguang Yang; Tianyi Zhang; Zhijuan Liu; Erjing Guo; Ziqi Liu; Huihui Qu; Xi Chen; Hongtao Xiang; Yongcai Lai
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Northeast China (NEC) is one of the most important rice production areas in China, accounting for approximately 15% of its total national rice production, and is one of the regions most vulnerable to global climate change. Knowing crops’ potential yields is crucial to understanding comparisons of different cultivars, crops and environments as well as plausible future increases and limits to crop yields. To mitigate the impacts of climate change and enhance food security, investigating yield...
Topics: Agroclimatic zones, Climate change, ORYZA (v3) crop model, Rice, Yield constraints, Yield gaps
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Tom Roach; Zoran Kapelan; Ralph Ledbetter
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This paper aims to develop new, resilience type metrics for long-term water resources management under uncertain climate change and population growth. Resilience is defined here as the ability of a water resources management system to ‘bounce back’, i.e. absorb and then recover from a water deficit event, restoring the normal system operation. Ten alternative metrics are proposed and analysed addressing a range of different resilience aspects including duration, magnitude, frequency and...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, Performance metrics, Reliability, Resilience, Water resources...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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In an effort to address climate change, in 2013 China launched the world's largest government-driven carbon emission reduction programme, the National Low Carbon Industrial Parks Pilot Programme (LCIPPP). This paper analyses this newly developed pilot program. To deepen our understanding of the causes and the impact of industrial park CO 2 emissions, we use the STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model and data from 20 pilot industrial parks...
Topics: CO 2 emissions, Low carbon industrial park, STIRPAT model
Transition studies have made constructive efforts to attend more closely to the politics of sustainability transitions, with discourse emerging as an increasingly important means of interrogating these dynamics. Drawing on discourse perspectives, this study deploys the multi-dimensional discursive approach to explore framing struggles surrounding a climate change mitigation experience of international significance (the phase-out of coal-fired power in Ontario), revealing how ideas, interests,...
Topics: Coal phase-out, Discourse, Framing, Multi-dimensional discursive approach, Pathways, Transitions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Charlotte Rachael Hopkins; David Mark Bailey; Tavis Potts
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As international pressure for marine protection has increased, Scotland has increased spatial protection through the development of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) network. Few MPA networks to date have included specific considerations of climate change in the design, monitoring or management of the network. The Scottish MPA network followed a feature-led approach to identify a series of MPAs across the Scottish marine area and incorporated the diverse views of many different stakeholders. This...
Topics: Climate change, Delphi technique, MPA management, Marine protected area network, Scotland
Transitioning food, energy and water systems for adaptation and mitigation of climate change is a challenge requiring social as well as technological solutions. The best technological solutions will only be effective if combined with behavior changes placing climate change at the forefront of our socio-cultural consciousness. Education is central in creating such a shift. Climate researchers have an important role in aiding the uptake of climate change education in U.S. public schools, where...
Topics: Climate change education, Climate literacy and pedagogy, Science communication, Social behavior...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Results confirm that Iran like many countries is affected by high climate variability, which has influenced hydroclimatological variables such as temperature, evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and radiation. This study uses Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data to assess hydrological cycle changes in Iran during a long period (Jan1948-Jan2017). Results show that hydrometeorological variables have significant changes (p-value
Topics: Climate variation, Energy balance, Extreme weather events, GLDAS, Hydrological cycle,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yang Dai; Meng Fei Wang; Shou Lin Jiang; Yi Fei Zhang; Megha N. Parajulee; Fa Jun Chen
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Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels can markedly affect the growth, development, reproduction and behavior of herbivorous insects, mainly by changing the primary and secondary metabolites of their host plants. However, little is known about the host-selection behavior and the respective intrinsic mechanism of sap-sucking insects in response to elevated CO2. In this experiment, the host-selection behavior, as well as the physiological mechanism based on the analysis of growth,...
Topics: Aphis gossypii, Elevated CO2, Host-selection behavior, Olfactory-related genes, Physiological...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Benoit Thibodeau; Henning A. Bauch; Jochen Knies
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Understanding the dynamic of freshwater and sea-ice export from the Arctic is crucial to better comprehend the potential near-future climate change consequences. Here, we report nitrogen isotope data of a core from the Laptev Sea to shed light on the impact of the Holocene Siberian transgression on the summer stratification of the Laptev Sea. Our data suggest that the oceanographic setting was less favourable to sea-ice formation in the Laptev Sea during the early to mid-Holocene. It is only...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Filomena Pietrapertosa; Valeriy Khokhlov; Monica Salvia; Carmelina Cosmi
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Building a climate-ready adaptation society is an urgent question that cannot be postponed. Along the path towards an increase in climate resilience, a stimulating role is played by EU projects as well as by international climate networks such as the Covenant of Mayors Initiative on Climate Change Adaptation (Mayors Adapt), launched in 2014, and the new Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy which “pledge to reduce CO2 emissions by at least 40% by 2030 and to adopt an integrated approach...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, National adaptation action plan, National adaptation strategy, South...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jingyi Huang; Budiman Minasny; Alex B. McBratney; José Padarian; John Triantafilis
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Much research has been conducted to understand the spatial distribution of soil carbon stock and its temporal dynamics. However, an agreement has not been reached on whether increasing global temperature has a positive or negative feedback on soil carbon stocks. By analysing global maps of soil organic carbon (SOC) using a spherical wavelet analysis, it was found that the correlation between SOC and soil temperature at the regional scale was negative between 52° N and 40° S parallels and...
Topics: Carbon pool, Carbon sink, Climate change, Soil forming factor, Soil variability
The transformation of natural landscapes into impervious built-up surfaces through urbanization is known to significantly interfere with the ecological integrity of urban landscapes and accelerate climate change and associated impacts. Although urban reforestation is widely recognised as an ideal mitigation practice against these impacts, it often has to compete with other lucrative land uses within an urban area. The often limited urban space provided for reforestation therefore necessitates...
Topics: Elevation, Partial least squares regression, Slope, Topographic wetness index, Urban ecological...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xiao Wang; Xianxiang Luo; Hongli Jia; Hao Zheng
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The stable soil carbon (C) pool in coastal wetlands, referred to as “blue C” which has been extensively damaged by climate change and soil degradation, is of importance to maintain global C cycle. Therefore, to investigate the dynamic characteristics of soil respiration rate and evaluate C budgets in coastal wetlands are urgently. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration rate in the reed wetland land (RL) and the bare wetland land (BL) was measured in situ with...
Topics: Bare land, Carbon cycle, Reed land, Seasonal variation, Soil organic carbon
This study investigates how the ecologically unequal exchange of carbon dioxide emissions varies with economic recessions. I propose a country-specific approach to examine (1) the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries and the “vertical flow” of exports to the United States; and (2) the variations of the relationship before, during, and after two recent economic recessions in 2001 and 2008. Using data on 69 developing nations between 2000 and 2010, I estimate...
Topics: Climate change, Ecologically unequal exchange, Economic recessions, Environmental sociology,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jeremy M. Hills; Evanthie Μichalena; Konstantinos J. Chalvatzis
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Transitioning to sustainability will require innovation, not just in technological and economic terms but also in governance and culture. The work presented here sought a remote, vulnerable island context (Fiji, South Pacific) to enable further insight into the innovation process related to resilience and sustainability. The innovation targeted by this work was off-grid solar renewable energy (RE) systems framed as a development instrument to promote local, community-based resilience to climate...
Topics: Innovation, Pacific island countries, Renewable energy, Resilience, Vulnerable communities
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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With deepening concerns over climate change, policymakers, electric utilities, environmentalists and others are increasingly championing the idea of ‘electrification,’ or the replacement of fossil fuels with electricity for direct end uses like transportation and space heating. The electric industry sees electrification as an opportunity for revitalizing sales and revenues. The focus of this paper is on consumer behavior and its nexus with public policy for advancing electrification.
Topics: Behavioral economics, Customer behavior, Economic issues, Electrification, Electrification gap,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jay J. Van Bavel; Andrea Pereira
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Democracies assume accurate knowledge by the populace, but the human attraction to fake and untrustworthy news poses a serious problem for healthy democratic functioning. We articulate why and how identification with political parties – known as partisanship – can bias information processing in the human brain. There is extensive evidence that people engage in motivated political reasoning, but recent research suggests that partisanship can alter memory, implicit evaluation, and even...
Topics: attention, group identity, memory, partisanship, perception, reasoning
eBooks and Texts
by Fred Sabine (Photographer)
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A collection of on-set photos taken by photographer Fred Sabine of actors Dean Stockwell and Susan Diol, during the production of the television show Quantum Leap. Rescued from an ebay sale by Allison Pregler, and described in a video by her at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3at8cylnJc Further copies of the scanned negatives will be uploaded to the Internet Archive but also shown at Pregler's Tumblr at: https://qlnegatives.tumblr.com/
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by S. Pellegrini; A. E. Agnelli; M. C. Andrenelli; R. Barbetti; G. Lo Papa; S. Priori; E. A.C. Costantini
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This research aimed at testing the use of present and past climosequences to estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) and related physical quality indicators under future climatic conditions. The influence of climate on soil features was studied for four combinations of typical Mediterranean soil types and cropping systems, placed along climosequences of the past (P1: 1961–1990), present (P2: 1981–2010) and future (P3: 2021–2050). The four test areas were located in Italy, each one...
Topics: Climate change, Cropping system, Mediterranean, Soil physics, Soil quality indicators, Soil type
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Weichao Guo; Hongyan Liu; Oleg A. Anenkhonov; Huailiang Shangguan; Denis V. Sandanov; Andrey Yu Korolyuk; Guozheng Hu; Xiuchen Wu
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Permafrost contains twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and the degradation of permafrost due to climatic warming, which could potentially change the global carbon cycle and could also enhance global climate change. It is well studied that permafrost degradation could result in vegetation transition. Aboveground vegetation can act as a buffer for climatic warming, however its role in regulating permafrost degradation remains unclear. In this study we examined how different vegetation types...
Topics: Freeze-thaw, Permafrost degradation, Snow accumulation, Vegetation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jianqing Wang; Lianqing Li; Shu Kee Lam; Xuhui Zhang; Xiaoyu Liu; Genxing Pan
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Global climate change with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature has been known impacting plant photosynthesis and grain yield in agroecosystems. However, how nutrient uptake and utilization by rice change under climate change stresses has been poorly addressed. An open-air field experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of factorial combinations of CO2 enrichment (up to 500 ppm) and canopy warming (+2 °C) on nutrient concentration (PNC), accumulation (PNA) and...
Topics: Climate change, Elevated air temperature, Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE), Nutrient dynamic,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mikko Peltoniemi; Mika Aurela; Kristin Böttcher; Pasi Kolari; John Loehr; Tatu Hokkanen; Jouni Karhu; Cemal Melih Tanis; Sari Metsämäki; Juha Pekka Tuovinen; Timo Vesala; Ali Nadir Arslan
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Ecosystems’ potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon, is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support analyses of ecosystem functioning. Analyses of conventional camera time series mounted near vegetation has been suggested as a means of monitoring phenological events and supporting wider monitoring of phenological cycle of biomes...
Topics: Birch, Budburst, Camera, Monitoring, Phenology, Time lapse
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Marc Corbeels; David Berre; Leonard Rusinamhodzi; Santiago Lopez-Ridaura
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Climate model projections coupled with process-based crop models are advocated for assessing impacts of climate change on crop yields and for informing crop-level adaptations. However, most reported studies are vague on the choice of the global circulation models (GCMs) for climate projections, and on the corresponding uncertainty with this type of model simulations. Here we investigated whether climate-crop modelling can be used for identifying crop management-level adaptation options. We...
Topics: Climate models, Crop modelling, Crop yield, Uncertainty
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lingjie Lei; Jianyang Xia; Xiaona Li; Kun Huang; Ang Zhang; Shiping Chen; Ensheng Weng; Yiqi Luo; Shiqiang Wan
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Recent evidences show that terrestrial biogeochemical models have large uncertainty in estimating climate-change effect on grassland net ecosystem productivity (NEP), which is defined as the difference between gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and respiration (ER). It remains unclear that whether GEP or ER limits the model capability to simulate NEP responses to climate change in semiarid grasslands. Given the surrogate CENTURY-type model is widely used for Earth system modeling, we...
Topics: Carbon cycle, Climate change, Ecosystem respiration, Manipulative experiment, Terrestrial...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Tesfaye Shiferaw Sida; Frédéric Baudron; Haekoo Kim; Ken E. Giller
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Faidherbia albida parklands cover a large area of the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Africa, a region that suffers from soil fertility decline, food insecurity and climate change. The parklands deliver multiple benefits, including fuelwood, soil nutrient replenishment, moisture conservation, and improved crop yield underneath the canopy. Its microclimate modification may provide an affordable climate adaptation strategy which needs to be explored. We carried out an on-farm experiment for three...
Topics: Climate change, Competition, Crop physiology, Facilitation, Heat stress, Local adaptation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pantana Tor-ngern; Andrew Oishi; Sune Linder; Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius
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The forest hydrologic cycle is expected to have important feedback responses to climate change, impacting processes ranging from local water supply and primary productivity to global water and energy cycles. Here, we analyzed water budgets of pine forests worldwide. We first estimated local water balance of forests dominated by two wide-ranging species: Pinus taeda (36 °N) and Pinus sylvestris (64 °N). In these stands, growing season evapotranspiration (ET) was largely insensitive to...
Topics: Canopy transpiration, Evapotranspiration, Growing season, Pinus, Precipitation, Water balance
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Climate change projections for the Mediterranean region are predicting a significant rainfall decrease and an increase of temperatures. The consequences of these changes on food security and natural resources in this region might be very dramatic. Anticipating climate change impacts by improving agricultural systems efficiency is a critical need. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the vulnerability of water resources and performance of two major rainfed crops (Winter wheat &...
Topics: Adaptation strategy, Climate change, R'dom watershed, SWAT model, TOPSIS
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Julia de Frutos Cachorro; Anne Gobin; Jeroen Buysse
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Few studies have addressed the topic of farmers' adaptation to climate change from a multidisciplinary perspective, because of the difficulty in assessing their impacts. In view of the growing concern in the agricultural sector on this issue, we analyzed farm-level adaptation through arable land-use changes in the specific case of the Loam region in Belgium. With this aim, we used an agro-economic model which considered 20-year series of current and projected simulated yields with and without...
Topics: Agro-economic model, Climate change, Crop choices, Farmers' adaptation, Irrigation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Allyson Williams; Shahbaz Mushtaq; Louis Kouadio; Brendan Power; Torben Marcussen; David McRae; Geoff Cockfield
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Modelling cotton production at the farm-scale provides insight into the importance of water management options in adapting to climate change, especially given the renewed focus of government policies on irrigation water access and allocations. Using an irrigated cotton farm in southern Queensland as a case study, we investigated two possible adaptation strategies in response to changes in water resources from projected climate change (CSIRO Mk3.5, A1FI scenario). The modelled farm produced...
Topics: Climate change, Climate change policy, Cotton, Farming systems
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by J. P. Chen; G. Huang; B. W. Baetz; Q. G. Lin; C. Dong
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This study developed an inexact optimization modelling approach for supporting regional energy systems decision-making and greenhouse gas emission mitigation under uncertainty. The developed model integrates multiple inexact optimization programming approaches, incorporating interval linear programming, mixed-integer programming, and chance-constrained programming in an optimization framework. Uncertainties expressed as interval values and probabilistic distributions can be effectively handled....
Topics: Optimization, System analysis
As a promising alternative to fossil fuels, cellulosic biofuel has obtained considerable interest due to its potential for mitigating global climate change and enhancing energy security. However, the widespread adoption of cellulosic biofuel is taking place in a slower pace than expected. One major challenge is that the cellulosic biofuel production is still highly energy-intensive. In fact, the energy contained in cellulosic biofuel is less than the energy required for its production. To...
Topics: Biofuel production, Cellulosic biofuel, Energy analysis, Energy consumption optimization, System...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Haoran Zhang; Xuan Song; Tianqi Xia; Meng Yuan; Zipei Fan; Ryosuke Shibasaki; Yongtu Liang
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With the pressing demand of climate change mitigation, the rapid technological development and market adoption of battery electric vehicles are imperative. However, the diverse consumption attitudes and their interactions, which are rarely considered, can significantly affect the adoption potential of battery electric vehicles. On the basis of three years of global positioning system data of 1.6 million people, we estimated the travel and adoption demands of battery electric vehicles in Japan...
Topics: Adoption potential, Climate change mitigation, Consumption attitude, Human mobile behavior
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Delin Fang; Bin Chen
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The shortage of water resources and threat of climate change are two major global problems associated with economic development. One vital issue is to coordinate water resource utilization and CO2 mitigation considering their coupling mechanism in socio-economic systems. This study employed linkage analysis based on a multi-regional input-output database to identify the roles of economic sector and pathway with respect to water resource utilization and CO2 emissions, and to characterize each...
Topics: Carbon emissions, Linkage analysis, Nexus node, Water scarcity
CO2 capture in the spray tower using aqueous ammonia solution has been proved a potential approach for the post-combustion CO2 capture. To improve the performance of spray absorption, a new three-dimensional numerical model integrating the complex gas-liquid hydrodynamics and the chemistry of the NH3-CO2-H2O system has been proposed and developed in this paper. In the model, the gas-liquid hydrodynamics was simulated using the Euler-Lagrange method, while the chemistry of the NH3-CO2-H2O...
Topics: Multiphase, Post-combustion CO2capture, Spray tower
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Shweta Srinivasan; Nazar Kholod; Vaibhav Chaturvedi; Probal Pratap Ghosh; Ritu Mathur; Leon Clarke; Meredydd Evans; Mohamad Hejazi; Amit Kanudia; Poonam Nagar Koti; Bo Liu; Kirit S. Parikh; Mohammed Sahil Ali; Kabir Sharma
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This paper provides projections of water withdrawals and consumption for electricity generation in India through 2050. Based on the results from five energy-economic modeling teams, the paper explores the implications of economic growth, power plant cooling policies, and electricity CO2 emissions reductions on water withdrawals and consumption. To understand how different modeling approaches derive different results for energy-water interactions, the five teams used harmonized assumptions...
Topics: Electricity generation, Emissions, India, Water consumption, Water withdrawals
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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To ensure the use of water today does not damage the prospects for its use by future generations, there is need to understand long-term water demand and supply through energy production, conversion, and use. This study aims to develop an integrated framework to assess the long-term impacts of climate change scenarios on water requirements and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The framework includes the integration of the Water Evaluation And Planning model (WEAP) and the Long-range Energy...
Topics: LEAP-WEAP integration, Power sector, Water demand, Water-energy nexus
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Richard Audoly; Adrien Vogt-Schilb; Céline Guivarch; Alexander Pfeiffer
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This paper provides pathways of the carbon content of electricity extracted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's fifth Assessment Report scenarios database. It demonstrates three policy-relevant aspects of the carbon content of electricity that are implicit in most integrated assessment model results but under-discussed in academia and the policy debate. First, climate stabilization at any level from 1.5 °C to 3 °C requires the carbon content of electricity to decrease quickly...
Topics: Carbon intensity, Climate change mitigation, Life cycle assessment, Power supply, Renewable energy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Bruno Colling Klein; Mateus Ferreira Chagas; Tassia Lopes Junqueira; Mylene Cristina Alves Ferreira Rezende; Terezinha de Fátima Cardoso; Otavio Cavalett; Antonio Bonomi
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The use of renewable jet fuel (RJF) in substitution to fossil jet fuel is one of the main initiatives towards the reduction of impacts derived from carbon emissions by airline operations. This study compares different routes for RJF production integrated with sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil. Eight scenarios with sugarcane mills annexed to three ASTM−approved RJF production technologies, i.e. Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA), Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FT), and Alcohol to Jet...
Topics: Biomass, Biorefinery, Life cycle analysis, Renewable jet fuel, Sugarcane, Techno-economic assessment
Dust aerosols are the main aerosol components of the atmosphere that affect climate change, but the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget is uncertain. In this study, a new parameterization scheme for dust devils was established and coupled with WRF-Chem, and the diurnal and monthly variations and the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget in East Asia was simulated. The results show that 1) both the diurnal and monthly variations in dust...
Topics: Atmospheric dust aerosols, Contribution rate, Diurnal variation, Dust devil, Monthly variation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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As atmospheric nitrogen (N) concentrations increase, it can wreak havoc on the entire planet, as well as the fragile ecosystems, once it exceeds the demand of ecosystems. Chronically elevated N deposition affects litter decomposition, which is a crucial process that controls nutrient cycling, soil fertility, and primary productivity. Nevertheless, the responses of litter decomposition and nutrient release to N addition remain elusive. Here we conduct a meta-analysis using 3434 paired...
Topics: Litter decomposition, Meta-analysis, Nitrogen deposition, Nutrient release, Plantation, Secondary...
Aerosols have adverse effects on human health and air quality, changing Earth's energy balance and lead to climate change. The components of aerosol are important because of the different spectral characteristics. Based on the low hygroscopic and high scattering properties of organic matter (OM) in fine modal atmospheric aerosols, we develop an inversion algorithm using remote sensing to obtain aerosol components including black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), ammonium nitrate-like (AN),...
Topics: Aerosol, Chemical components, Hygroscopicity, Organic matter, Remote sensing
A better understanding of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is a crucial challenge for climate change studies. In the present study, column-integrated aerosol optical and radiative properties observed at a rural site, Mbita (0.42°S, 34.20 °E, and 1125 m above sea level) located in Kenya, East Africa (EA) are investigated using ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data retrieved during January, 2007 to December, 2015. The annual mean aerosol optical depth...
Topic: SSA
Black Carbon (BC) has been widely recognized as the second largest source of territorial and global climate change as well as a threat to human health. There has been serious concern of BC emission and its impact in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) due to the use of biomass and fossil fuels for cooking, transportation and industrial activities. An attempt has been made to study indoor (Liquefied Petroleum Gas- LPG & Traditional cookstoves users households) and outdoor concentrations; seasonal...
Topics: Black carbon, Firewood, HYSPLIT, Health impact, Hotspots, Radiative forcing
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Muhammad Abrar Faiz; Dong Liu; Qiang Fu; Qiaohong Sun; Mo Li; Faisal Baig; Tianxiao Li; Song Cui
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The assessment of changes in the precipitation over a region is an important task that is significant for climate modeling and for understanding and monitoring natural hazards and hydrological cycle characteristics. However, the accuracies of gridded precipitation data sets should be evaluated and examined in reference to ground information and observations, as these data can be affected by systematic errors. Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the performances of long-term...
Topics: Climate change, Concentration index, Gridded datasets, Precipitation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Beixi Jia; Yuxuan Wang; Shan Huang; Yang Nan; Xuwen Zhou
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We examined the correlations between winter aerosol optical depth (AOD) in North China (NC) and three synoptic-scale meteorological indices from 2001 to 2016, including the Siberian High intensity (SHI), East Asian Winter Monsoon intensity (EAWMI), and the Siberian High Position index (SHPI). To separate the influences from meteorology and emissions, NC AOD was detrended by subtracting a linear increasing trend from 2001 to 2013 and a decreasing trend from 2014 to 2016, in correspondence with...
Topics: Future air quality, North China, Siberian High Position index, Synoptic-scale circulation, Winter...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by S. Rose Eilenberg; Kristen M. Fedak; Sankar Sambandam; Megan Benka-Coker; Brooke Reynolds; Jennifer Peel; Maggie Clark; Ming Shan; Christian L'Orange; Jeffrey R. Pierce; R. Subramanian
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Cookstoves have wide-reaching impacts on human health, air quality, and the climate. We measured emissions from uncontrolled cooking in 41 households in China, Honduras, Uganda, and India using a portable sampler. Test sites were chosen to cover a range of stove types (traditional and “improved”), fuels (wood, charcoal and coal), and cooking practices. We report test-integrated fuel-based emission factors (EFs) of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) mass, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon...
Topics: Biomass, Climate change, Cookstoves, Household energy, Particulate matter, Residential emissions,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Casey D. Bray; William Battye; Viney P. Aneja; Daniel Q. Tong; Pius Lee; Youhua Tang
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This study quantifies ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions from biomass burning from 2005 to 2015 across the continental US (CONUS) and compares emissions from biomass burning with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI), the Fire Inventory from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (FINN) and the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). A statistical regression model was developed in order to predict NH 3 emissions from biomass burning using a combination of...
Topics: Ammonia, Biomass burning, Fire emissions, National emissions inventory, Wildfires
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Salvador Guzmán-Sánchez; Daniel Jato-Espino; Ignacio Lombillo; Jose Manuel Diaz-Sarachaga
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The sustainability of cities is being influenced by their roofs, which cover a high proportion of built-up areas and whose design is crucial to control their economic, environmental and social impacts in a context of urban sprawl and Climate Change. For this reason, this research developed a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology combining the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to support the selection...
Topics: Climate scenarios, Expert judgment, Multi-criteria decision analysis, Sustainability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Christopher M. Hamilton; Brooke L. Bateman; Patricia J. Heglund; Jessica M. Gorzo; Wayne E. Thogmartin; M. Zachariah Peery; Volker C. Radeloff; Anna M. Pidgeon
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Climate change is accompanied by shifts in species distributions, as portions of current ranges become less suitable. Maintaining or improving landscape connectivity to facilitate species movements is a primary approach to mitigate the effects of climate change on biodiversity. However, it is not clear how ongoing changes in land use and climate may affect the existing connectivity of landscapes. We evaluated shifts in habitat suitability and connectivity for the imperiled Blanding's turtle...
Topics: Circuitscape, Dispersal, Emissions scenarios, Land use change, Maxent, Species distribution model
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Robert A. Davis; David M. Watson
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The recent capture and removal to captivity of the first Nicobar Pigeon in Australia on the basis of biosecurity concerns, provides a compelling opportunity to examine how we manage species that naturally disperse to new territories. With the spectre of increasing climate change there is an increasing recognition of the need for species to expand or shift their ranges as part of natural adaptation. The occurrence of vagrants is a natural phenomenon that may be increasing as a result of climate...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Biochar produced from biomass pyrolysis is becoming a powerful tool for carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction. Biochar C recalcitrance or biochar stability is the decisive property determining its carbon sequestration potential. The effect of pyrolysis process parameters on biochar stability is becoming a frontier of biochar study. This review discussed comprehensively how and why biomass compositions and physicochemical properties and biomass processing conditions...
Topic: Pyrogenic carbon materials
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ireen Vieweg; Eider Bilbao; James P. Meador; Ibon Cancio; Miren P. Cajaraville; Jasmine Nahrgang
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Polar cod is an abundant Arctic key species, inhabiting an ecosystem that is subjected to rapid climate change and increased petroleum related activities. Few studies have investigated biological effects of crude oil on lipid metabolism in this species, despite lipids being a crucial compound for Arctic species to adapt to the high seasonality in food abundance in their habitat. This study examines the effects of dietary crude oil exposure on transcription levels of genes related to lipid...
Topics: Biotransformation, Crude oil, Lipid metabolism, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, Plasma...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Nadja D. Kuepper; Carina Marek; Nestor Coria; Marcela M. Libertelli; Petra Quillfeldt
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Wilson's storm-petrels (Oceanites oceanicus) are the smallest marine birds breeding in Antarctica, where events like snowstorms often prevent parents from providing food daily for their offspring. To minimize energy expenses, Wilson's storm-petrel chicks can reduce their metabolism and body temperature by entering hypothermia. Hypothermia is reported to impact development, hence we hypothesized that hypothermia will be majorly used after long fasting periods. Chick development in a breeding...
Topics: Antarctic, Fasting, Hypothermia, Juvenile, Oceanites oceanicus, Storm-petrel
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Wei Xie; Jikun Huang; Jinxia Wang; Qi Cui; Ricky Robertson; Kevin Chen
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China's food security has been facing several challenges, which are likely to be worsened due to climate change. The purpose of this paper is to provide an evidence on the impacts of climate change on China's agriculture, with particular attention to the market and trade responses. Using projected crop yield changes for China and its’ main trading partners under changing climate, we employ an agricultural partial equilibrium model (CAPSiM) and a linked national and global equilibrium model...
Topics: Climate change, Food security, Market, Trade
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Konstantinos Asimakopoulos; Hariklia N. Gavala; Ioannis V. Skiadas
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Implementation of biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels has been established as an answer to climate change by limiting GHG emissions. Syngas fermentation has emerged as a promising process for the conversion of waste biomasses to valuable products with bioethanol being on the main focus. However, the bottleneck of the mass transfer of syngas compounds H 2 and CO along with low production yields has set barriers to the development of an industrial scale plant. Recent research indicates...
Topics: Biofuels, Bioreactor configurations, Mass transfer, Syngas fermentation, Synthesis gas
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Geneviève Cloutier; Marielle Papin; Christian Bizier
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Greening projects lead by civic actors at the urban scale spur transformation through example and through gradual adjustment of processes. Questions remain on how such projects are put into action and on what make them work. How do civic experiments reflect the ongoing change in urban governance and practices? We focus on a qualitative study of two greening initiatives lead by civic groups in Quebec City (Quebec, Canada). The case studies are analysed through the lens of theories that approach...
Topics: Civic action, Do-it-yourself urbanism, Experiments, Neighbourhood, Urban governance
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jong Hwan Park; Jim J. Wang; Ran Xiao; Scott M. Pensky; Manoch Kongchum; Ronald D. DeLaune; Dong Cheol Seo
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Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g −1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The...
Topics: Climate change, Coastal wetland, Freshwater marsh, Mercury adsorption, Metal fractionation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Climate change may promote the decoupling of the different above-ground and below-ground compartments of high elevation ecosystems. Along elevation gradients, a trade-off between species tolerance to cold climates and metabolic rates dictates that cold adapted organisms display a lower efficiency in decomposition, growth or herbivory. As a consequence, if dispersal or evolution under climate change is systematically faster for agents of one compartment (e.g. insect herbivores, or soil microbes,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Coastal communities are threatened by the impact of severe storms that may cause significant loss or damage of property and life. The main processes causing such impacts at sandy coastlines and nearby coastal communities are storm erosion, overwash and inundation. Coastal response under present conditions and under predicted climate change has been frequently assessed on the basis of numerical models, which in turn can be also used to evaluate the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)...
Topics: Bayesian network, Coastal barriers, Disaster risk reduction measures, Early warning systems, Hazard...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Recent publications are reviewed in the context of urban health issues possibly resulting from global climate change. The most important phenomena having an impact on health discussed in the paper include increased ultraviolet radiation due to stratospheric ozone, temperature-related effects, precipitation-related effects (both excessive precipitation and drought), vector-borne diseases, and finally air quality, smog-related effects. Among the above, those most directly linked to climate change...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Selma Hurem; Thomas W.K. Fraser; Tȃnia Gomes; Ian Mayer; Terje Christensen
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Environmental UV radiation in sufficient doses, as a possible consequence of climate change, is potent enough to affect living organisms with different outcomes, depending on the exposure life stage. The aim of this project was to evaluate the potentially toxic effects of exposure to sub-lethal and environmentally relevant doses of UVA (9.4, 18. 7, 37.7 J/cm2) and UVB radiation (0.013, 0.025, 0.076 J/cm2) on the development and behaviour in early life stages (4.5–5.5 h post fertilization,...
Topics: Heart rate, Lipid peroxidation, Locomotor, ROS, UV, Zebrafish
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Predicted climate change could impact the effects that various chemicals have on organisms. Increased temperature or change in precipitation regime could either enhance or lower toxicity of pesticides. The aim of this study is to assess how change in temperature and soil moisture affect biochemical biomarkers in Eisenia fetida earthworm and microbial activity in their excrements after exposure to a fungicide - propiconazole (PCZ) and an insecticide - chlorantraniliprole (CAP). For seven days,...
Topics: DHA, GST
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Simone Martelli; Diego Guizzardi; Alessandro K. Cerutti; Andreea Iancu
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There is a growing interest in voluntary programmes for climate change mitigation, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction commitments. This paper gauges evidence on the support of citizens for climate change mitigation programmes at the local level, analysing voting behaviour. A quasi-experimental set-up is offered by the EU Covenant of Mayors (CoM) initiative, which is the mainstream European movement for local authorities voluntarily committing to meet and exceed the European Union...
Topics: Climate change mitigation, Covenant of Mayors, Emission reduction, Voting
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Paola Rocchi; Mònica Serrano; Jordi Roca; Iñaki Arto
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Carbon pricing is an essential instrument to address climate change. However international differences in carbon control policies may cause not only carbon leakage but also competitiveness disadvantages. In this context, border carbon adjustments are a promising tool for discouraging these problems. But designing a real-world border carbon adjustment instrument implies to consider significant issues: technical feasibility, data availability, the risk of retaliation from developing countries,...
Topics: Avoided Emissions, Carbon Border Tax, Climate Change, European Union, GHG Emissions, Global Public...
The ambitious goals to limit global warming can only be reached with a broad acceptance and participation of the general public. This paper relies on surveys among citizens in China, Germany and the U.S. and investigates the determinants of the acceptance of national and international adaptation and mitigation efforts. The empirical findings indicate that specific beliefs and environmental awareness are important drivers in all three countries, while political attitudes and socio-economic...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Mitigation, Policy preferences
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by João Paulo Romanelli; Jaqueline Tomiê Fujimoto; Marcilene Dantas Ferreira; Douglas Henrique Milanez
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A bibliometric analysis was performed to evaluate the global scientific production on ecological restoration from the period of 1997 to 2017. This analysis was based on online database of Science Citation Index Expanded – Web of Science© and a total of 3297 publications was retrieved. The analysis comprised seven main aspects: (1) publication activity, (2) Web of Science categories, (3) journals, (4) countries, (5) authors, (6) organizations and (7) keywords. The results indicated that the...
Topics: Bibliometric map, Restoration ecology, Soil, Systemic approach, Tropical ecosystems, VOSviewer
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Félix Massiot-Granier; Martin Castonguay; Hilaire Drouineau; Emili García-Berthou; Pascal Laffaille; Alain Lechêne; Mario Lepage; Karin Limburg; Jérémy Lobry; Eric Rochard; Kenneth Rose; Juliette Rosebery; Thibaud Rougier
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Climate, by altering the spatio-temporal distributions of suitable habitats, leads to modifications in a multitude of species ranges. In recent years, the ability of species to adjust to changing climatic conditions is of growing concern. In the present study, a generic trait-based method to assess species exploratory potential under climate change is proposed. “Exploratory potential” is here defined as the capacity of species to initiate the act of leaving their current habitats and to...
Topics: Climate change, Composite metric, Exploration, Migratory species, Participatory method, Range shift
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Luis R. Vieira; Fernando Morgado; António J.A. Nogueira; Amadeu M.V.M. Soares; Lúcia Guilhermino
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The coastal ecosystems are recognized worldwide by their ecological an economic importance. In these ecosystems, aquatic life is governed by the abiotic variations, therefore, the interactions between natural stressors and anthropogenic pollution (multiple stressors) may represent an additional threat. Thus, considering these combined effects with the climate change scenarios, it is urgent to develop cost-effective tools to assess the impact of pollution on sensitive and important ecosystems,...
Topics: Biomarkers, Coastal lagoon, Early warning indicators, Multiple stressors, Pomatoschistus microps,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yu Liu; Xiaohong Hu; Feng Wu; Bin Chen; Shunxiang Yang; Zhixiong Weng
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Zhangye City is a representative agricultural city in China where agriculture depends heavily on precipitation in the Heihe River Basin; water use for agriculture plays a key role in the sustainable development of total water resources. This study, based on the predicted surface runoff by GCM, uses a CGE model with a water-land resources account, to analyze the impact of climate change on Zhangye City's economy and agricultural water consumption. The results show that climate change increases...
Topics: CGE model, Climate change, Economic impact, GCM, Surface runoff
Accurate and periodic assessment of grassland yield (GY) is of great importance for the management of high altitude plateau grasslands. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a very important pastoral area that provides a microcosm of typical alpine grassland ecosystems. Based on remote sensing data, meteorological datasets and observational plant biomass data, we used the Global Production Efficiency Model and Soil and Atmosphere Model (GLOPEM-CEVSA) to estimate GY and its response to climate change and...
Topics: Climate change, Grassland yield changes, Grazing activities, Protection and restoration projects,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jenny Jyrkänkallio-Mikkola; Mika Siljander; Vuokko Heikinheimo; Petri Pellikka; Janne Soininen
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Understanding how species are distributed in space and time is a focal element guiding conservational efforts under ongoing climate change and the Holocene extinction. Freshwater habitats are currently one of the most threatened ecosystem types, and studies aiming to unravel factors that govern biodiversity of tropical stream micro-organisms are especially scarce. Diatoms play an important role as primary producers in streams and are widely used as ecological indicators. However, relatively...
Topics: Beta diversity, Community structure, Diatoms, Environmental heterogeneity, Headwaters, Tropics
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Eric Rahn; Philippe Vaast; Peter Läderach; Piet van Asten; Laurence Jassogne; Jaboury Ghazoul
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The response of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agronomical performance to changes in climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) is uncertain. Improving our understanding of potential responses of the coffee plant to these changes while taking into consideration agricultural management is required for identifying best-bet adaptation strategies. A mechanistic crop modelling approach enables the inclusion of a wide range of prior knowledge and an evaluation of assumptions. We adapt a...
Topics: Adaptation to climate change, Agroforestry system, Coffea arabica L., Parameter uncertainty,...
The increasing environmental concerns and the significant growth of the waste to energy market calls for innovative and flexible technology that can effectively process and convert municipal solid waste into fuels and power at high efficiencies. To ensure the technical and economic feasibility of new technology, a sound understanding of the characteristics of the integrated energy system is essential. In this work, a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of a waste to power and heat plant...
Topic: Techno-economic Analysis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Darren McCauley; Raphael Heffron
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Just transition is a new framework of analysis that brings together climate, energy and environmental justice scholarships. It was originally coined as a term that was designed to link the promotion of clean technology with the assurance of green jobs. The Paris climate change agreement marks a global acceptance that a more rapid transition is needed to avert disastrous consequences. In response, climate, energy and environmental justice scholarships must unite in assessing where injustices...
Topics: Climate justice, Distributional justice, Energy justice, Environmental justice, Just transitions,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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This paper analyzes the roles of policies and preferences in national adoption of solar and wind energy technologies. We use cross-sectional and panel regressions for both the European Union and a broader international sample. We find that countries that price carbon emissions have gone on to adopt more solar and wind energy. The aggregate level of policy support, measured in euros per megawatt hour, appears to have been important for solar energy adoption. We also find that solar energy...
Topics: Aggregate policy support, Carbon pricing, Climate change perception, Renewable energy preference,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rongqiang Wei; Qingli Zeng; Tim Davies; Guangxiang Yuan; Kaiyang Wang; Xinyu Xue; Qianfeng Yin
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Alpine glaciers and permafrost are sensitive to climate change, and their degradation due to annual temperature increasing has already induced many mass movements such as debris flows. On September 4 of 2007, July 25–31 and September 5–8 of 2010, three large debris flows took place in Tianmo gully, a left-bank tributary of Parlung River, southeast Tibetan Plateau. The debris flows blocked the river, and a section of highway 450 m long including a bridge 76 m long were destroyed by the...
Topics: Deglaciation, Landslide dam-breach, Rock avalanche, Sichuan-Tibet highway/railway
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Anteneh G. Dagnachew; Paul L. Lucas; Andries F. Hof; Detlef P. van Vuuren
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Access to electricity services is fundamental to development, as it enables improvements to the quality of human life. At the same time, increasing electricity access can have notable consequences for global climate change. This paper analyses trade-offs and synergies between achieving universal electricity access and climate change mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa, using the IMAGE-TIMER integrated assessment model. For this purpose, we analysed developments in a number of indicators that...
Topics: Climate change mitigation, Electricity access, Sub-Saharan Africa
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Fanny Frei; Simon R. Sinsel; Ahmed Hanafy; Joern Hoppmann
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Effectively mitigating climate change requires a fundamental and rapid transition in the way electricity is generated and used. The global electricity sector, however, is still dominated by large incumbent utility companies, which have historically been slow to embrace change. Given this seeming contradiction, in this paper we investigate whether and how 25 of the biggest electric utilities worldwide have adapted their business portfolios during the energy transition from 2003 to 2015. We...
Topics: De-carbonization, Decentralization, Electric utilities, Energy transition, Servitization, System...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Robert D. Cairns
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Recently, there has been an expression of concern that vast quantities of oil must remain in the ground because of anticipated action on climate change. A consequent fall in share values of international oil companies may threaten pensions, small investments and even the stability of the financial system. The threat is held to warrant policy intervention to provide more information to small investors. Consideration of the technology of oil extraction and of the options available to oil...
Topics: Climatic change, Natural decline, Options, Stranded asset, Sunk asset
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Julian Torres de Miranda Pinto; Oscar Mistage; Patrícia Bilotta; Eckard Helmers
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When attempting to reduce atmospheric emissions, a strategy commonly suggested by experts is the replacement of road transport with rail transport. However, in many countries and for many companies worldwide a complete transition to rail transport of freight is not feasible due to either a lack of available railway infrastructure or high investment costs. With that in mind, this paper aims to assess the potential of road-rail intermodal operations as a strategy to reduce atmospheric emissions,...
Topics: Emissions, Freight, Greenhouse gas, Intermodal, Rails, Roads
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Kelli M. Archie; Ralph Chapman; Stephen Flood
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This paper investigates climate change adaptation and mitigation planning responses of New Zealand communities, using an online survey of local elected representatives. Climate change is affecting New Zealand through changes in precipitation patterns, increases in temperature, changes to the frequency and duration of droughts, sea level rise, and the increased occurrence of extreme events. These impacts highlight the vulnerability of key economic activities, communities, and infrastructure. As...
Topic: Perceptions of climate change
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ismael Aranda; David Sánchez-Gómez; Estrella Cadahía; Brígida Fernández de Simón
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The genetic variability within a plant species or population determines the extent to which drought impacts plant function at different levels of biological organization. By disentangling the extent to which drought tolerance is genetically determined within a population, we can get insights of the adaptive capacity of species to cope with climate change at the local scale. We compared the ecophysiological and leaf metabolic responses of different maternal families from a single population of...
Topics: Amino-acids, Beech, Carbohydrates, Drought, Fagus sylvatica, Gas exchange
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Helen K. Green; Obaghe Edeghere; Alex J. Elliot; Ingemar J. Cox; Roger Morbey; Richard Pebody; Angie Bone; Rachel A. McKendry
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One of the implications of climate change is a predicted increase in frequent and severe heatwaves. The impact of heatwaves on the health of the population is captured through real-time syndromic healthcare surveillance systems monitored daily in England during the summer months. Internet search data could potentially provide improved timeliness and help to assess the wider population health impact of heat by capturing a population sub-group who are symptomatic but do not seek healthcare. A...
Topics: Heat-related illness, Heat-waves, Public health, Syndromic surveillance, Temperature
Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) influence policymaking in states by devising and promoting policy ideas. In this study, we examine to what extent a set of IGOs make normative commitments to integrate environmental concerns as well as to contrast this commitment to environmental policy integration (EPI) with climate policy integration (CPI) and energy policy integration (EnPI). Which characteristics of an IGO increase its likelihood to make a normative commitment to EPI? Do...
Topics: Climate, Energy, Environment, Intergovernmental organizations, Policy integration
Irrigation of crops is responsible for 40 percent of the world's food supply. A ubiquitous issue in irrigation is the tendency of upstream users to deplete the stream and deprive downstream users of water. Climate change threatens to exacerbate this problem by threatening the water supply to many irrigation systems, especially those that rely on snowmelt. Using a natural experiment in the Rio Grande Basin of Colorado, I examine five hypotheses about how water rights and physical properties of...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Irrigation, Norms, Prior appropriation, Water rights
Due to few comparative studies, explanations for differences in adaptation mainstreaming between sectors remain widely unclear. The article analyzes how adaptation mainstreaming was approached during the development of the Swiss National Adaptation Strategy and to what extent adaptation objectives were mainstreamed into sectoral policies. The analysis reveals that in Switzerland, adaptation objectives are integrated more substantially into sectoral policies when they overlap with primary...
Topics: Adaptation mainstreaming, Climate change adaptation, National adaptation strategies, Policy...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Manuel Herrera; Alfonso P. Ramallo-González; Matthew Eames; Aida A. Ferreira; David A. Coley
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Heat waves give rise to order of magnitude higher mortality rates than other weather-related natural disasters. Unfortunately both the severity and amplitude of heat waves are predicted to increase worldwide as a consequence of climate change. Hence, meteorological services have a growing need to identify such periods in order to set alerts, whilst researchers and industry need representative future heat waves to study risk. This paper introduces a new location-specific mortality risk focused...
Topics: Built environment, Heat waves, Models ensemble, Quantile regression, Weather files
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by John E. Walsh; Uma S. Bhatt; Jeremy S. Littell; Matthew Leonawicz; Michael Lindgren; Thomas A. Kurkowski; Peter A. Bieniek; Richard Thoman; Stephen Gray; T. Scott Rupp
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The paper summarizes an end-to-end activity connecting the global climate modeling enterprise with users of climate information in Alaska. The effort included retrieval of the requisite observational datasets and model output, a model evaluation and selection procedure, the actual downscaling by the delta method with its inherent bias-adjustment, and the provision of products to a range of users through visualization software that empowers users to explore the downscaled output and its...
Topics: Alaska, Climate modeling, Downscaling, Precipitation, Temperature, Visualization
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pere Marti-Puig; Alejandro Blanco-M; Juan José Cárdenas; Jordi Cusidó; Jordi Solé-Casals
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The wind sectors pends roughly 2200M€ in repair the wind turbines failures. These failures do not contribute to the goal of reducing greenhouse gases emissions. The 25–35% of the generation costs are operation and maintenance services. To reduce this amount, the wind turbine industry is backing on the Machine Learning techniques over SCADA data. This data can contain errors produced by missing entries, uncalibrated sensors or human errors. Each kind of error must be handled carefully...
Topics: Fault diagnosis, Outliers, Pre-processing, Renewable energy, SCADA data
Against the background of a global energy transition, resource-rich Russia embarked on renewable energy policies (REPs). Having set a renewable goal of 4.5% in the electricity mix (2009), Russia's government introduced support schemes on the wholesale (2013) and retail (2015) electricity markets. This raises the question of how Russia's elite explain this rollout of REPs, as a global shift towards renewables may threaten hydrocarbon exports. Common drivers – security of supply and ecological...
Topics: Critical discourse analysis, Energy transition, Renewable energy policy, Russia, Social...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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This paper studies the delegation of climate policy to a supranational environmental authority. We develop a simple model of a world consisting of a large number of countries, which derive utility from energy consumption. Countries suffer from global warming and local air pollution, both caused by the combustion of fossil fuels, and decide individually on investments in clean technologies for energy production. A supranational environmental authority decides for each country on the maximally...
Topics: Optimal delegation, Supranational environmental authority
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pedro Crespo del Granado; Renger H. van Nieuwkoop; Evangelos G. Kardakos; Christian Schaffner
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Climate change induced policies impose wide-ranging implications throughout the whole energy system and influence various sectors of the economy. To analyse different decarbonization pathways for the energy system, existing models have traditionally focused on specific energy sectors, adopted specific research perspectives, assessed only certain technologies, or studied isolated components and factors of the energy system. However, few efforts have been undertaken to successfully model a...
Topics: Bottom-up/top-down methodologies, Energy transition, Energy-economic system, Linking energy models,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by S. A. Petropoulos; A. Karkanis; N. Martins; I. C.F.R. Ferreira
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Wild native species are usually grown under severe and stressful conditions, while a special category includes halophytic species that are tolerant to high salinity levels. Native halophytes are valuable sources of bioactive molecules whose content is higher in saline than normal conditions, since the adaptation to salinity mechanisms involve apart from changes in physiological functions the biosynthesis of protectant molecules. These compounds include secondary metabolites with several...
Topics: Salinity, Secondary metabolites
Plant silicon (Si) content is a trait that has gained increasing attention in recent years, and is now often suggested to be a plant functional trait. This paper reviews the evidence that supports the inclusion of plant Si content within the plant functional traits framework. Plant Si contents can vary greatly among plant taxa and environments, reflecting multiplicity of roles and functions in plant biology. Plant Si uptake and accumulation also affects plant community and ecosystem properties,...
Topic: Si uptake
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Evelyn Wallor; Kurt Christian Kersebaum; Domenico Ventrella; Marco Bindi; Davide Cammarano; Elsa Coucheney; Thomas Gaiser; Pasquale Garofalo; Luisa Giglio; Pietro Giola; Munir P. Hoffmann; Ileana Iocola; Marcos Lana; Elisabet Lewan; Ganga Ram Maharjan; Marco Moriondo
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Process-oriented agro-ecosystem models are increasingly applied to assess crop management options or impacts of climate change on agricultural production, food security and ecosystem services. Thereby, the aggregation of initial soil and climate information is a widely used approach for performing simulations at larger scales such as regions, nations or even globally. In this context, the ability of models to respond to different site conditions is essential for high quality impact assessment...
Topics: Crop model, Model sensitivity, Soil, Spatial variability
In the floodplains of Bolivia's western highlands, or Altiplano, farmers, herders, and fishers maintain their livelihoods at water-land interfaces that are riddled with disaster risk. This paper draws on 13 months of fieldwork in the region as well as contemporary press accounts to explore water-land disasters in the Desaguadero River floodplain and Lake Poopó watershed. My analysis builds on Henri Lefebvre's notion of rhythm to articulate a “politics of cyclic dissonance” – struggles...
Topics: Bolivia, Climate change, Drought, Flood, Lake Poopó, Water
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Tal Caspi; Leo Estrada; Anna V. Dowling; Erin Su; Maxim Leshchinskiy; André R.O. Cavalcanti; Edward J. Crane; Colin R. Robins; Wallace M. Meyer
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Understanding how invasive plants influence terrestrial carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budgets is important in the context of global climate change. In southern California, type-conversion, a process in which native California sage scrub is type-converted to non-native grassland, is thought to negatively impact total C and N storage in surface soil horizons. To better understand the extent to which type-conversion influences regional nutrient storage, we examined C and N concentration (%) and...
Topics: Fungi:bacteria ratio, Invasive grass, Shrubland, Soil density, Soil microbes, Soil organic carbon