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Ongoing climate change, as well as long-term overgrazing, is threatening biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in grasslands worldwide. Climate change and grazing could directly alter ecosystem functioning and stability, or indirectly by changing species diversity, composition and plant functional traits. By synthesizing results from publications of the most recent 30-years, we found that effects of climate change and grazing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning varied from positive to...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pietro Croce; Paolo Formichi; Filippo Landi; Francesca Marsili
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A general procedure to evaluate future trends in snow loads on structures is illustrated aiming to study influences of climate change at European scale, to assess its impact on the design of new structures as well as on the reliability levels of existing ones, also in view of definition of updated snow maps for new generation of Eurocodes. Starting from reliable and high quality registered meteorological data of daily temperatures, rain and snow precipitations at nine Italian weather stations,...
Topics: Climate change, Climate models, Extreme values, Monte Carlo simulation, Snow loads, Snow maps
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Cyrus Martin
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Summary Every day, there is a massive movement of biomass up and down in the water column in what is likely the largest mass migration of animals on the planet. New research is shedding light on the drivers of these migrations and their significance to ecosystems and future climate change. Cyrus Martin reports.
The capacity of delivering ecosystem services essential to social well- being is impeded by climate and land use change, causing a significant alteration in the quality of functions and services of many ecosystems. This paper focuses on how to project future services of coastal ecosystem in Samutsakorn province, Thailand. The 2050 climate layers are projected by using WorldClim database at 30 s resolution. Projection of land use change analysis in 2050 using a spatial allocation model is...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Shalini Dhyani; Rakesh Kadaverugu; Deepak Dhyani; Parikshit Verma; Paras Pujari
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Climate variability is the most influential driver altering the natural habitats of species leading to worldwide biodiversity loss. Understanding the climatic niche of vulnerable species and predicting its shift due to impending climate change is highly important to assess the damage. It also helps to plan and implement long term ex-situ or in-situ strategies to protect the species and its fragile habitats. Though, various important species of Himalayas are exploited for their economic and...
Topics: Central Himalayas, Climate change, Conservation planning, Hippophae salicifolia, Species...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rajiv Pandey; Juha M. Alatalo; Kavita Thapliyal; Sharmila Chauhan; Kelli M. Archie; Ajay K. Gupta; Shashidhar Kumar Jha; Manoj Kumar
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Climate change is predicted to have severe impacts on mountainous regions, including urban settlements, and livelihoods of the urban poor. Adaptive capacity for marginalized groups is largely determined by household-level resources and decision-making capacity. This study investigated the vulnerability status and prevalent adaptation strategies of urban slum dwellers in Dehradun, Indian Himalayas, using a pre-tested questionnaire covering household characteristics and indicators of...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change mitigation, Coping capacity, Hazard, India, Resilience, Risk, Slum...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by F. Saladini; G. Betti; E. Ferragina; F. Bouraoui; S. Cupertino; G. Canitano; M. Gigliotti; A. Autino; F. M. Pulselli; A. Riccaboni; G. Bidoglio; S. Bastianoni
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Water use and agricultural practices in the Mediterranean area are unsustainable. The situation is worsened by the increased frequency of droughts and floods, as well as desertification and soil depletion, associated with climate change. The aim of Partnership for Research and Innovation in the Mediterranean Area (PRIMA) is to foster an integrated programme of sustainable food production and water provision in the framework of the water-energy-food nexus. A monitoring tool developed under PRIMA...
Topics: Monitoring system, PRIMA programme, Sustainability, Sustainability indicators, Sustainable food...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yi Yu Huang; Chien Teh Chen; Wen Tsan Liu
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Extreme weather events caused by climate change intensify the heat island effect, and a lack of greenery in urban areas increases the psychological stress and anxiety of city dwellers. This study compared the temperature reductions and heat amplitude reductions provided by four types of green roofing that can cover bare rooftops. The four types of plants grown on extensive green roofs in this study were: shrubs, perennial herbs, vines, and groundcover; these are potentially healing plants....
Topics: Ambient environment effect, Extensive green roof, Heat amplitude, Potentially healing plant,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rafael Muñoz-Mas; Patricia Marcos-Garcia; Antonio Lopez-Nicolas; Francisco J. Martínez-García; Manuel Pulido-Velazquez; Francisco Martínez-Capel
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A fuzzy rule-based system combining empirical data on hydraulic preferences and literature information on temperature requirements was used to foresee the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) spawning habitat degradation induced by climate change. The climatic scenarios for the Cabriel River (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) corresponded to two Representative Concentration Pathways (4.5 and 8.5) for the short (2011–2040) and mid (2041–2070) term horizons. The hydraulic and hydrologic modelling were...
Topics: Differential evolution, HBV-light, M5, Multi-Adaptive Regression Splines, Support Vector...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by L. D. Valdez; G. J. Sibona; C. A. Condat
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Aedes aegypti is the main vector of multiple diseases, such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. Due to modifications in weather patterns, its geographical range is continuously evolving. Temperature is a key factor for its expansion into regions with cool winters, but rainfall can also have a strong impact on the colonization of these regions, since larvae emerging after a rainfall are likely to die at temperatures below 10 °C. As climate change is expected to affect rainfall regimes, with a...
Topics: Aedes, Mathematical modeling, Mosquito abundance, Taiwan
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Leah S. Dudley; Mary T.K. Arroyo; M. P. Fernández-Murillo
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Flowers are likely to be under various selective pressures not limited to reproduction and resource trade-offs. Here, we investigate the physiological responses (conductance, transpiration and respiration) of flowers under augmented temperature and supplemental watering, link these responses to actual flower longevity, and search for evidence of adaptive plasticity. Flower maintenance costs and plant fitness were investigated using the Andean geophyte, Rhodolirium montanum, in a manipulative...
Topics: Actual flower longevity, Alpine, Conductance, Gas-exchange, Open-top chamber, Water stress
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Daniel C. Steinberg; David A. Bielen; Aaron Townsend
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Prior studies of the U.S. electricity sector have recognized the potential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by substituting generation from coal-fired units with generation from under-utilized and lower-emitting natural gas-fired units; in fact, this type of “re-dispatch” was invoked as one of the three building blocks used to set the emissions targets under the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. Despite the existence of surplus natural gas capacity in the U.S.,...
Topics: Climate change mitigation, Electricity, Energy modeling, Natural gas
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mónica Hernández-Morcillo; Paul Burgess; Jaconette Mirck; Anastasia Pantera; Tobias Plieninger
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Agroforestry, the integration of trees and shrubs with livestock and/or crops, can make a substantial contribution to mitigating and enabling adaptation to climate change. However, its full potential will only be achieved if the challenges to agroforestry implementation are identified and the most efficient and sustainable solutions are made widely known. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore these challenges and to determine the most suitable set of solutions for each challenge that...
Topics: Climate change strategy, Common agricultural policy, Europe, Nature-based solutions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Uwe Schlink; Daniel Hertel
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Operational snow forecasting models contain parameters for which site-specific values are often unknown. As an improvement a Bayesian procedure is suggested that estimates, from past observations, site-specific parameters with confidence intervals. It turned out that simultaneous estimation of all parameters was most accurate. From 2.5 years of daily snow depth observations the estimates were for snow albedo 0.94, 0.89, and 0.56, for snow emissivity 0.88, 0.92, and 0.99, and for snow density...
Topics: Bayesian estimation, ESCIMO model, Operational snow forecasting, Prediction performance, Sub-alpine...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. Khaki; E. Forootan; M. Kuhn; J. Awange; F. Papa; C. K. Shum
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Climate change can significantly influence terrestrial water changes around the world particularly in places that have been proven to be more vulnerable such as Bangladesh. In the past few decades, climate impacts, together with those of excessive human water use have changed the country's water availability structure. In this study, we use multi-mission remotely sensed measurements along with a hydrological model to separately analyze groundwater and soil moisture variations for the period...
Topics: Bangladesh, Data assimilation, GRACE, Groundwater storage, Hydrological modelling
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Meixian Liu; Xianli Xu; Alexander Y. Sun; Wei Luo; Kelin Wang
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Karst landscape, covers more than 10% of the global land surface and plays an important role in supporting ecosystems and human society, may be strongly influenced by climate change. Vegetation available water (VAW) is a key variable impacting the sensitivity of ecosystems to a changing environment. However, VAW in karst region is difficult to determine and remains uncertain. This study improved a dynamic Budyko-type water balance model, by introducing a nonlinear equation linking climate,...
Topics: Budyko framework, Ecohydrology, Hydrological modeling, Water balance
Carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the ratio of net primary production (NPP) to gross primary production (GPP), represents the capacity of plants in converting assimilated atmospheric carbon dioxide to ecosystem carbon storage. Process-based models are important tools for simulating NPP and GPP; yet the model performance in simulating vegetation CUE has not been fully explored. The goal of this paper is thus to investigate the spatial variations in CUE from different process-based carbon...
Topics: Autotrophic respiration (Ra), Carbon cycle models, Carbon use efficiency (CUE), Climate change,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Climate change is influencing tree phenology, causing earlier and more prolonged canopy closure in temperate forests. Canopy closure is closely associated with understorey light, so shifts in its timing have wide-reaching consequences for ecological processes in the understorey. Widespread monitoring of forest canopies through time is needed to understand changes in light availability during spring in particular. Canopy openness, derived from hemispherical photography, has frequently been used...
Topics: Citizen science, Fisheye photography, Hemispherical photography, Phenology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Amit Kumar Srivastava; Cho Miltin Mboh; Gang Zhao; Thomas Gaiser; Frank Ewert
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Climate change is unequivocal and these changes have increased over the past few years. The recent vulnerability and prospect of climate variability and change impact, thus, warrants measures now to reduce the adverse impacts. This study presents an estimate of the effects of climate variables on potential maize productivity and an assessment of the most limiting climatic drivers in the future climate scenarios for maize production in central Ghana, constituting major maize production areas....
Topics: Autonomous adaptation, Climate change, Maize, Sub-Saharan Africa
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Kpoti M. Gunn; Debra L. Gamble; Larry C. Brown; Barry J. Allred; Jeff A. Andresen
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Subirrigation is employed to supply water to crop root zones via subsurface drainage systems, which are typically installed for the purpose of excess soil water removal. Crop yield increases due to subirrigation have been demonstrated in numerous studies, but there is limited information regarding yield under future climate conditions when growing season conditions are expected to be drier in the U.S. Corn Belt. DRAINMOD was calibrated and validated for three locations with different soil...
Topics: DRAINMOD, Drainage, Hoytville, Maumee, Nappanee, Paulding
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Mixed crop-livestock farming systems provide food for more than half of the world's population. These agricultural systems are predicted to be vulnerable to climate change and therefore require transformative adaptations. In collaboration with farmers in the wheatbelt of Western Australia (WA), a range of systemic and transformative adaptation options, e.g. land use change, were designed for the modelled climate change projected to occur in 2030 (0.4–1.4° increase in mean temperature). The...
Topics: Mitigation, Modelling
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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It remains unknown how molluscs will respond to oceans which are increasingly predicted to be warmer, more acidic, and heavily polluted. Ocean acidification and trace metals will likely interact to increase the energy demands of marine organisms, especially oysters. This study tested the interactive effect of exposure to elevated pCO2 and copper on the energetic demands of the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) during reproductive conditioning and determined whether there were any...
Topics: Climate change, Copper, Eggs, Lipids, Mollusc, Ocean acidification, Oysters, Resilience,...
Buildings play a significant role in climate change mitigation. In North America, energy used to construct and operate buildings accounts for some 40% of total energy use, largely originating from fossil fuels. The strategic reduction of these energy demands requires knowledge of potential upgrades prior to a building's construction. Furthermore, renewable energy generation integrated into buildings façades and district systems can improve the resiliency of community infrastructure. However,...
Topics: District energy, Energy planning, Evolutionary algorithm, Net-zero energy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lijie He; Lunche Wang; Aiwen Lin; Ming Zhang; Xiangao Xia; Minghui Tao; Hao Zhou
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Since the Reform and Opening up in China, aerosols increasingly affect the country's climate change and human health. However, remote sensing studies have been inconclusive as to long-term trends in Chinese aerosol emissions. The newly-released MERRA-2 product provides a long-term (1980 onward) aerosol reanalysis dataset, and thus is used in this study for identifying trends in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE) in clear sky over the Yangtze River Basin (YRB)...
Topics: Aerosol direct radiative effect, Aerosol optical depth, Impact factor analysis, Trend analysis,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Diana Ivanova; Gibran Vita; Richard Wood; Carine Lausselet; Adina Dumitru; Karen Krause; Irina Macsinga; Edgar G. Hertwich
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As climate policy needs to address all feasible ways to reduce carbon emissions, there is an increasing focus on demand-side solutions. Studies of household carbon footprints have allocated emissions during production to the consumption of the produced goods, and provided an understanding of what products and consumer actions cause significant emissions. Social scientists have investigated how attitudes, social norms, and structural factors shape salient behavior. Yet, there is often a...
Topics: Carbon intensity, Climate change mitigation, Consumer behavior, Determinants, Lock-In, Policy...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Benjamin Maluenda; Matias Negrete-Pincetic; Daniel E. Olivares; Álvaro Lorca
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The significant integration of variable energy resources in power systems requires the consideration of greater operational details in capacity expansion planning processes. In hydrothermal systems, this motivates a more thorough assessment of the flexibility that hydroelectric reservoirs may provide to cope with variability. This work proposes a stochastic programming model for capacity expansion planning that considers representative days with hourly resolution and uncertainty in yearly water...
Topic: Stochastic programming
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Carlos Tirado; Daniel Trujillo; Jaime Pizarro-Araya; Fermín M. Alfaro; Sylvana González; Miguel A. Carretero
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There is an increasing contribution of ecophysiology in community ecology and climate change contexts. As such, functional patterns under extreme water and temperature restrictions in deserts can provide inference of the responses of small ectotherms to climate change. However disentangling the interactive effects between both factors requires experimental evidence. Here we took advantage of a flowering desert episode promoting a population bloom in Gyriosomus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)...
Topics: Activity, Climate change, Deserts, Functional response, Thermoregulation, Water loss
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pavel Vaskan; Elia Ruiz Pachón; Edgard Gnansounou
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Lignocellulosic material is one of the most promising feedstock frequently investigated for the biochemicals and biofuels industries. Palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) are the abundant lignocellulosic residues from the palm oil/biodiesel industry, which require special disposal and utilisation. Therefore, the valorisation of EFB as a multi-product bio-refinery feedstock promises to be economically and environmentally attractive. However, it requires further investigation and feasibility...
Topics: Cattle feed, Climate change, Electricity, Lignocellulosic material, Second generation bioethanol
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Global climate change is one of the most prominent and complex environmental problems caused by increasing concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Rice paddies are an important anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas approximately 298 times stronger than carbon dioxide. Identifying a suitable mitigation method for N2O emissions from rice agriculture, while maintaining optimum crop productivity is strongly needed. A 2-year field study was conducted on rice to assess...
Topics: Nitrous oxide, Plant growth regulator, Stomatal frequency, Transpiration, Xylem vessel size
On a global scale, the need for CO2 mitigation and adaptation strategies is both compelling and urgent. While there are several challenges including political, economic, and technological, IPPC has identified the lack of mitigation and adaptation strategies and the lack of “flows of knowledge and information relevant for adaptation decisions” as the fundamental barriers to adaptation. In fact, there exists much scientific evidence of how environmental emissions (e.g., CO2) are contributing...
Topics: CO 2 emissions, CO 2 stabilization task, Education and training with computer simulations,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mustafa Ali; Christina M. Kennedy; Joe Kiesecker; Yong Geng
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China aims to realize the aspiration of sustainable development using the Circular Economy (CE) policy which, apart from other objectives, aims to minimize raw material extraction and preserve natural resources. While CE can be an important policy tool to promote more sustainable development trajectories, in practice it does not always avoid or mitigate adverse impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services caused by resource extraction and infrastructure development. Here we review the current...
Topics: Climate change, Economic growth, Mitigation banking, Sustainable development
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Liping Ye; Jinglan Hong; Xiaotian Ma; Congcong Qi; Donglu Yang
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Ceramic tiles are important building materials, but their production consumes large amounts of energy and raw materials and causes serious pollution. In this study, a cost combined life cycle assessment is conducted to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of ceramic tile production from cradle to gate and identify the key substances and processes to eliminate production issues. Results show that marine ecotoxicity, climate change, terrestrial ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and fossil...
Topics: Ceramic tile, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle costing, Life cycle inventory, Process-based...
Consumer food waste usually exceeds food losses when a developing country transitions to a developed one. With this notion, China, which is experiencing socioeconomic transition, is projected to be a future hotspot of global food waste. However, the mechanism of food waste generation is more complex than that of food losses, because various driving factors entangle with each other in a non-linear way. Here, by linking household survey data and reviewed life-cycle-assessment dataset, we...
Topics: Bayesian Belief Network, Carbon footprint, Climate change, Food waste, Socioeconomic transitioning,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rupert Seidl; Katharina Albrich; Dominik Thom; Werner Rammer
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In order to prevent irreversible impacts of climate change on the biosphere it is imperative to phase out the use of fossil fuels. Consequently, the provisioning of renewable resources such as timber and biomass from forests is an ecosystem service of increasing importance. However, risk factors such as changing disturbance regimes are challenging the continuous provisioning of ecosystem services, and are thus a key concern in forest management. We here used simulation modeling to study...
Topics: Climate change impacts, Forest disturbance regimes, Landscape management, Risk management, Timber...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. N. Anwar; M. Baqar; M. Rehan; W. D. Khan; K. Rasool; A. S. Nizami
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The quest for a sustainable environment and combating global warming, carbon capture, and storage (CCS) has become the primary resort. A complete shift from non-renewable resources to renewable resources is currently impossible due to its major share in energy generation; making CCS an imperative need of the time. This study, therefore, aims to examine the reckoning of carbon dioxide (CO2), measurement methods, and its efficient capture and storage technologies with an ambition to combat global...
Topics: CO2 measurement, Carbon capture and storage (CCS), Climate proxies, Global warming, Sustainable...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Changes in long-term, montane actual evapotranspiration (ET) in response to climate change could impact future water supplies and forest species composition. For scenarios of atmospheric warming, predicted changes in long-term ET tend to differ between studies using space-for-time substitution (STS) models and integrated watershed models, and the influence of spatially varying factors on these differences is unclear. To examine this, we compared warming-induced (+2 to +6 °C) changes in ET...
Topics: Integrated watershed model, Snow, Soil properties, Space-for-time substitution
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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An integrated simulation-optimization (ISO) approach is developed for assessing climate change impacts on water resources. In the ISO, uncertainties presented as both interval numbers and probability distributions can be reflected. Moreover, ISO permits in-depth analyses of various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic consequences when the promised water-allocation targets are violated. A snowmelt-precipitation-driven watershed (Kaidu watershed) in northwest...
Topics: Climate change, Multistage, Simulation-optimization, Stochastic analysis, Uncertainty, Water...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by James Hansen; Pushker Kharecha
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Near-universal recognition of the threat of human-caused global warming, tragically, has not been accompanied by comprehensive quantitative assessment of technological options for mitigating climate change. In this issue of Joule, David W. Keith and co-authors describe a process of capturing CO2 from the air and provide a much-needed empirical cost estimate based on results from a pilot plant. Estimated costs, exceeding $100 per ton of CO2 without including the cost of CO2 storage, are lower...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Geoff A. Wilson; Markus Schermer; Rike Stotten
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Building on critical community resilience studies, this study analyses the resilience of the village of Vent, a remote mountain community in the Austrian Ötztal valley challenged by slow-onset disturbances such as climate change, outmigration of young people and the repercussions of the post-2008 recession. A conceptual framework which focuses on how well economic, social, cultural, political and natural domains are developed within a community, is used as the conceptual springboard to assess...
Topics: Community resilience, Conceptual resilience frameworks, Remote mountain communities, Small...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Celso A. Hernández; Carlos Sangil; Alessandra Fanai; José Carlos Hernández
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Primary production and respiration rates were studied for six seaweed species (Cystoseira abies-marina, Lobophora variegata, Pterocladiella capillacea, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina pavonica and Corallina caespitosa) from Subtropical North-East Atlantic, to estimate the combined effects of different pH and temperature levels. Macroalgal samples were cultured at temperature and pH combinations ranging from current levels to those predicted for the next century (19, 21, 23, 25 °C, pH: 8.1,...
Topics: Climate change, Coastal ecosystem, Macroalgae, Primary production, Respiration
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The Governor of the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil announced during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of Parties, in December 2015, a plan to reduce considerably the state's greenhouse gas emissions–the Produce, Conserve and Include Strategy (PCI). Its governance structure - made up of members from the civil society, the private sector, and distinct government agencies - was planned to promote the integration of public policies. This article presents the...
Topics: Brazilian Amazon, Climate change, Environmental funds, Governance, Mato Grosso, Policy integration
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ana G. García; Celia Olabarria; Julio Arrontes; Óscar Álvarez; Rosa M. Viejo
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The green alga Codium fragile ssp. fragile (hereafter C. fragile) has long been assumed to outcompete and displace its native congeners via cryptic invasion. We analysed the population dynamics of the exotic C. fragile and native congeners and their relative abundance on intertidal shores in N-NW Spain. Our results did not support the existence of current competitive displacement by the exotic species. The presence of C. fragile was clearly seasonal, while the native C. tomentosum was more...
Topics: Population dynamics, Recruitment
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Javier Porobic; Elizabeth A. Fulton; Stewart Frusher; Carolina Parada; Billy Ernst; Diana Stram
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The Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management (EBFM) paradigm has been incorporated in the new Chilean Fisheries Act, requiring Chile to transition into EBFM. Chile is a major fishing nation and has substantial industrial and artisanal fleets that provide significant social and economic benefits to Chile and its coastal communities. With Chile facing global challenges, such as food security and climate change, transitioning to EBFM is seen as a mechanism for improved management of Chile's marine...
Topics: Chilean ecosystems, EAF, EBFM, Fisheries policy, Policy coherence, Small-scale fisheries
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Riccardo Arosio; Kirsty C. Crocket; Geoffrey M. Nowell; S. Louise Callard; John A. Howe; Sara Benetti; Derek Fabel; Chris D. Clark
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The reconstruction of past ice sheet dynamics can inform on long-term ice stream activity, and in turn provide constraints on the response of modern ice sheets to climate change. The Hebrides Ice Stream (HIS) flowed across part of the western Scottish shelf to the shelf-break during the last glacial cycle. To investigate the deglacial dynamics of the HIS following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), lead (Pb) isotope records were extracted from the FeMn oxyhydroxide and detrital fractions of...
Topics: FeMn oxyhydroxides, Glacial sediments, Last Glacial Maximum, Pb geochemistry, Provenance, Western...
In predicting how droughts and hydrological cycles might change in a changing climate, change of pan evaporation (E pan ) is one crucial element to be understood. The derived partial differential (PD) form of the PenPan equation is a prevailing attribution approach worldwide. However, small biases exist and the application of PD method is limited within the derivation of partial differential form of the equation, which impede the attribution analysis in hydrology. Here we designed a series of...
Topics: Attribution, Pan evaporation, The experimental detrending (ED) approach, The partial differential...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Imam Buchori; Angrenggani Pramitasari; Agung Sugiri; Maryono Maryono; Yudi Basuki; Anang Wahyu Sejati
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As a global issue, climate change has been significantly influencing coastal areas and causing changes in marine and terrestrial environments. The increase in sea-level rise (SLR), for example, has worsened the quality of life of coastal communities, and this risk increases especially in coastal cities of the developing world. This paper aims to comprehend the variety of self-mitigations and the patterns of local migrations of communities in the northern part of Semarang City, Indonesia. The...
Topics: Community adaptation, Flooding, GIS, Inundation, Migration, Mitigation, Rob
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Scott A. Martin; Rhett M. Rautsaw; M. Rebecca Bolt; Christopher L. Parkinson; Richard A. Seigel
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Coastal ecosystems worldwide are being impacted by sea-level rise caused by climate change. As mitigation efforts increase to protect these threatened ecosystems, a deeper understanding of how wildlife adapt to coastal management techniques is needed. We monitored three constructed sand dunes (built in 2010 and 2014) and two natural dunes in central Florida from June 2015 through June 2016 to assess the impact of dune construction as a management technique on terrestrial vertebrates....
Topics: Climate change, Florida, Managed retreat, Wildlife management
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lulu Zhao; Hanlie Hong; Jiacheng Liu; Qian Fang; Yuzeng Yao; Wei Tan; Ke Yin; Chaowen Wang; Mi Chen; Thomas J. Algeo
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Visible-to-shortwave infrared reflectance (VSWIR) spectroscopy is a fast and efficient approach for estimation of soil properties. In order to test whether soil weathering intensity can be predicted using reflectance spectra in the VSWIR range (350–2500 nm), and to examine the efficacy of this methodology to supplement or substitute for traditional mineralogical and geochemical techniques of paleoclimate reconstruction, we investigated a Quaternary soil sequence at Shengli in the Sichuan...
Topics: CIA, Clay minerals, Fe-oxide minerals, Imaging spectroscopy, Paleoclimate, VSWIR
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by N. Van Oostende; E. Curchitser; J. P. Dunne; B. B. Ward
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The measured concentration of chlorophyll a in the surface ocean spans four orders of magnitude, from ∼0.01 mg m−3 in the oligotrophic gyres to >10 mg m−3 in coastal zones. Productive regions encompass only a small fraction of the global ocean area yet they contribute disproportionately to marine resources and biogeochemical processes, such as fish catch and coastal hypoxia. These regions and/or the full observed range of chlorophyll concentration, however, are often poorly represented...
Topics: California Current, Chlorophyll, Coastal hypoxia, Coastal upwelling, Diatom, Phytoplankton...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Bente J. Graae; Vigdis Vandvik; Kari Klanderud; W. Scott Armbruster; Wolf L. Eiserhardt; Kristoffer Hylander; Johan Ehrlén; James D.M. Speed; Kari Anne Bråthen; Ann Milbau; Øystein H. Opedal; Inger G. Alsos; Rasmus Ejrnæs; Hans Henrik Bruun; H. John B. Birks
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In the face of climate change, populations have two survival options − they can remain in situ and tolerate the new climatic conditions (“stay”), or they can move to track their climatic niches (“go”). For sessile and small-stature organisms like alpine plants, staying requires broad climatic tolerances, realized niche shifts due to changing biotic interactions, acclimation through plasticity, or rapid genetic adaptation. Going, in contrast, requires good dispersal and colonization...
Topics: Adaptation, Dispersal, Microclimate, Niche, Refugia, Resilience
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hugues Alexandre Blain; José Alberto Cruz Silva; Juan Manuel Jiménez Arenas; Vasiliki Margari; Katherine Roucoux
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The pattern of the varying climatic conditions in southern Europe over the last million years is well known from isotope studies on deep-ocean sediment cores and the long pollen records that have been produced for lacustrine and marine sedimentary sequences from Greece, Italy and the Iberian margin. However, although relative glacial and interglacial intensities are well studied, there are still few proxies that permit quantitative terrestrial temperature and precipitation reconstruction. In...
Topics: South-Western Mediterranean, Vertebrates as climate proxy
This article is concerned with the interaction of international, regional and national policy on climate change and sustainability, and the implications of these policy dimensions for planning. With the scientific consensus pointing to unequivocal human influence on the ecosystem, the issue of how best to manage climate change and ecological sustainability is arguably now a matter for economic, political, policy and planning domains. However, despite the warnings of scientists that ‘business...
Topics: Climate change, Crisis, Economy, Planning, Policy, Techno-finance fix
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yuan Shang; Maarten A. Prins; Christiaan J. Beets; Anu Kaakinen; Yann Lahaye; Noortje Dijkstra; Daniël S. Rits; Bin Wang; Hongbo Zheng; Ronald T. van Balen
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The thick loess-palaeosol sequences in the Mangshan Loess Plateau (MLP; central China) along the south bank of the lower reach of the Yellow River provide high-resolution records of Quaternary climate change. In addition, substantial increases in grain-size and accumulation rate have been inferred in the upper part of the loess sequence, above palaeosol layer S2. This study investigates the sources of the long-term dust supply to the MLP and explores the mechanism behind the sudden increase in...
Topics: End member modelling, Grain-size, Mangshan Plateau, Provenance analysis, Sanmen Gorge
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jiayun Yao; Sean M. Raffuse; Michael Brauer; Grant J. Williamson; David M.J.S. Bowman; Fay H. Johnston; Sarah B. Henderson
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Forest fire smoke is a growing public health concern as more intense and frequent fires are expected under climate change. Remote sensing is a promising tool for exposure assessment, but its utility for health studies is limited because most products measure pollutants in the total column of the atmosphere, and not the surface concentrations most relevant to population health. Information about the vertical distribution of smoke is vital for addressing this limitation. The CALIPSO satellite can...
Topics: CALIPSO, Forest fire smoke, Machine learning, Population exposure, Statistical model, Vertical...
A new late-Holocene high-resolution pollen record is presented from Lago Patria with the aim of investigating past vegetation and environmental dynamics in a still under-investigated coastal sector of the Campania region (Italy). Our results show the evolution of a mixed deciduous and evergreen oak-dominated lowland forest, rich in both xeric and mesic woody taxa, under the influence of climate, human impact, geomorphic processes and their interplay. Between 4800 and 2800 cal BP, the pollen...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Maria Celeste Dias; Sandra Correia; João Serôdio; Artur Manuel Soares Silva; Helena Freitas; Conceição Santos
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Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves accompanied by drought episodes. These challenges are increasing in the Mediterranean basin, where Olea europaea L. has an important ecological and economic role. Olive breeding programs have been focused on highly productive cultivars, while ancient cultivars may present higher tolerance to drought and heat resilience. Therefore, it is important to select traditional cultivars that may give reliable performances under the emerging...
Topics: Olea europaea, Photosynthesis, Total antioxidant capacity
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Sara González-Delgado; Cataixa López; Alberto Brito; Sabrina Clemente
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Rising ocean temperatures as consequence of climate change has led to increased populations of species with tropical affinities, generating a tropicalization process of the biota. In this sense, an increase in populations of the zoanthids Palythoa canariensis and Zoanthus sp. is expected for the Canary Islands being able to change local habitats and biodiversity. Within this study the potential of these species to modify the composition of their associated fauna in intertidal pools of the...
Topics: Biodiversity, Ecosystem engineers, NE atlantic, Palythoa canariensis, Tropicalization, Zoanthus sp.
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by A. G. Koutroulis; L. V. Papadimitriou; M. G. Grillakis; I. K. Tsanis; K. Wyser; R. A. Betts
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As freshwater availability is crucial for securing a sustainable, lower‑carbon future, there is a critical connection between water management and climate policies. Under a rapidly changing climate, it is more important than ever to estimate the degree of future water security. This is a challenging task as it depends on many different variables: the degree of warming and its consequent effects on hydrological resources, the water demand by different sectors, and the possible ameliorations or...
Topics: Adaptation, Droughts, Europe, Vulnerability, Water availability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Eduardo Aguilera; Guiomar Carranza-Gallego; David Soto; Manuel González de Molina
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Soil organic carbon (SOC) management is key for soil fertility and for mitigation and adaptation to climate change, particularly in desertification-prone areas such as Mediterranean croplands. Industrialization and global change processes affect SOC dynamics in multiple, often opposing, ways. Here we present a detailed SOC balance in Spanish cropland from 1900 to 2008, as a model of a Mediterranean, industrialized agriculture. Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and soil C inputs were estimated...
Topics: Climate change, Irrigation, Land use change, NPP, Roots, Woody crops
Conducting controlled burns in fire prone areas is an efficient and economic method for forest management, and provides relief from the incidence of high severity wild fires and the consequent damage to human property and ecosystems. However, similar to wild fires, controlled burns also affect many of the physical and biogeochemical properties of the forest soil and may facilitate remobilization of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) sequestered in vegetation and soil organic matter. The...
Topics: Arsenic and metals, Environmental pollution, Forest fire, Historical mining, Prescribed fire, Soil...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Philip Garnett
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While the world argues about whether climate change is real, what if all systems are failing? This paper seeks to ignite further discussion concerning human impact on all aspects of our environment as we move further into the Anthropocene, not only in terms of the pressure we produce, but also how our activity changes the nature of the relationships between Earth's systems. The paper suggests that we currently lack the tools and analytical capacity to understand the significance of these...
Topics: Anthropocene, Artificial Intelligence, Complexity, Failure, Networks, Systemic
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Aerosol is an important component of the atmosphere that affects the environment, climate, and human health. Remote sensing is an efficient observation method for monitoring global aerosol distribution and changes over time. The daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) level-2 aerosol optical depth (AOD) (Collection 6) product (10 km resolution) is often used to study climate change and air pollution. However, the product is prone to yielding large amounts of data gaps due to...
Topic: Spatiotemporal correlation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Tianyang Li; Siyue Li; Richard T. Bush; Chuan Liang
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Silicon and carbon geochemical linkages were usually regulated by chemical weathering and organism activity, but had not been investigated under the drought condition, and the magnitude and extent of drought effects remain poorly understood. We collected a comprehensive data set from a total of 13 sampling sites covering the main water body of the largest freshwater lake system in Australia, the Lower Lakes. Changes to water quality during drought (April 2008–September 2010) and post-drought...
Topics: Bicarbonate, Climate change, Dissolved silica, Drought, Geochemical linkages, Water quality...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hongfen Teng; Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel; Zhou Shi; Adrian Chappell; Wu Yu
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Soil erosion by water is accelerated by a warming climate and negatively impacts water security and ecological conservation. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has experienced warming at a rate approximately twice that observed globally, and heavy precipitation events lead to an increased risk of erosion. In this study, we assessed current erosion on the TP and predicted potential soil erosion by water in 2050. The study was conducted in three steps. During the first step, we used the Revised Universal...
Topics: Climate change, Future erosion, RUSLE, Soil erosion by water, Tibetan Plateau
On the behalf of my co-authors I submit the following corrigendum: #1 Hilsa kelee should be replaced with Tenualosa ilisha (in 3 places) Appendix A - Table A1 Page 9 - Marine (under common name Hilsa Shad) Page 10 Freshwater (under common name of Hilsa shad) Page 11 Table A2 Freshwater (under common name of Hilsa shad) #2 Penaeus semiculcatus should be Penaeus semisulcatus (in 1 place). Page 10 Table A2 Penaeid Prawn #3 Cirrhinus cirrhosus should be Cirrhinus mrigala (in 3 places). Appendix A...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by A. Gomiero; R. G.J. Bellerby; M. Manca Zeichen; L. Babbini; A. Viarengo
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Recently, there has been a growing concern that climate change may rapidly and extensively alter global ecosystems with unknown consequences for terrestrial and aquatic life. While considerable emphasis has been placed on terrestrial ecology consequences, aquatic environments have received relatively little attention. Limited knowledge is available on the biological effects of increments of seawater temperature and pH decrements on key ecological species, i.e., primary producers and/or...
Topic: Ocean acidification
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yuan Fang; S. Thomas Ng; Zhendong Ma; Hongyang Li
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Carbon emissions contribute substantially to climate change. Many researchers believe that the construction industry can contribute significantly to carbon dioxide reduction through cleaner and more sustainable building production and construction, e.g. low energy building design and the use of low carbon materials. Nonetheless, the environmental impacts associated with construction process should not be underestimated. Despite that, as construction process is complex and involves many...
Topics: Carbon emissions, Construction logistics process, Construction process, Emission factor, Quota...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The population history of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) and its response to climatic and environmental changes have been widely studied in maritime Antarctica and several glacial refugia of Adélie penguins were dated back to the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the process of colony expansion during the subsequent glacial-interglacial transition was less well-documented. In this paper, we investigate an ornithogenic core from Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, to improve knowledge of...
Topics: Deglaciation, Ice retreat, Ornithogenic sediment, Penguin occupation, Penguin-derived proxies,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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This special issue of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Reviews is focused on the social and policy dimensions of smart grids, an emerging set of technologies and practices which have the potential to transform dramatically electricity systems around the world. The six related articles explore social and political dynamics associated with smart grid deployment in the United States of America (USA) and Canada. Aspects examined in this special issue include the evolution of smart grid policy in...
Topics: Buildings, Canada, Climate change electricity, Economics, Energy planning, Environment, GHG...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Moges B. Wagena; Benjamin Rau; Andrew R. Sommerlot; Daniel R. Fuka; Peter J.A. Kleinman; Zachary M. Easton
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Nutrient export from agricultural landscapes is a water quality concern and the cause of mitigation activities worldwide. Climate change impacts hydrology and nutrient cycling by changing soil moisture, stoichiometric nutrient ratios, and soil temperature, potentially complicating mitigation measures. This research quantifies the impact of climate change and climate anomalies on hydrology, nutrient cycling, and greenhouse gas emissions in an agricultural catchment of the Chesapeake Bay...
Topics: Climate change, Greenhouse gases, N2, N2O, Nutrient cycling, SWAT-VSA, Weather anomalies
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Biodiversity loss in urban landscapes is a global challenge. Climate change is a major driving force behind biodiversity loss worldwide. Using Wellington, New Zealand as a research site, the aim of this research is to show how the most suitable patches of vegetation in urban landscapes can be identified, ranked, and prioritised as potential urban wildlife sanctuaries. This is in order to protect vulnerable indigenous fauna from some of the indirect impacts of climate change such as increased...
Topics: Indigenous fauna, Landscape composition and configuration, Rising temperatures, Urban biodiversity,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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City authorities, community groups and retrofit installers need to identify suitable local areas and dwellings for installing energy retrofit measures. This paper presents a localised Geographical Information System (GIS) based approach that utilizes publicly-available national and local datasets on housing and energy to provide targeted low carbon measures across UK cities. The study uses a rapid city-level energy assessment approach to spatially identify suitable neighbourhoods for particular...
Topics: Cities, Climate change, Energy demand, GIS, Housing, Mass retrofit
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Alberto Arzac; Vicente Rozas; Philippe Rozenberg; José M. Olano
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Deciphering climatic factors limiting cambial activity is critical to forecast the potential of trees to respond to ongoing climatic change. We explored multiple xylem traits, including tree-ring width, inter-annual microdensity variation and intra-annual density fluctuations (IADF), to unveil the climatic factors constraining cambial activity of a Mediterranean conifer (Pinus pinaster) along a continental-aridity gradient. Secondary growth responded mainly to water availability, explaining as...
Topics: Cambial activity, Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADF), Mediterranean climate, Secondary...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Replacing fossil fuels by logging-residue-based bioenergy has been proposed as a way to mitigate climate change. If residues are combusted for energy, their carbon content is released immediately. Residues, that are not combusted, decompose and emit carbon gradually. The relative harmfulness of bioenergy emissions therefore depends on how strongly we prefer the slow release of carbon to an immediate one. Two factors affect this judgment: (1) our time preference and (2) our expectations...
Topics: Betula pendula, Bioenergy, Carbon, Emission factor, Logging residues, Picea abies, Pinus...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Barkha Subba; Sandeep Sen; Gudasalamani Ravikanth; Michael Peter Nobis
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Amphibians are one of the most vulnerable taxa at risk of rapid decline under climate change. Here, we evaluated the impact of different migration constraints on projected future distributions of four high elevation frogs, belonging to the genus Scutiger, in the Eastern Himalaya. We explored differences between the output of conventional models assuming no or unlimited migration versus models considering plausible migration rates to ascertain future species distributions under climate change....
Topics: Amphibian distributions, Climate change, Eastern Himalaya, High elevation, KISSMig, MaxEnt,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jasmine B.D. Jaffrés; Chris Cuff; Cecily Rasmussen; Aimee S. Hesson
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The quality and quantity of observed and reanalysed data influence the direction and accuracy of scientific research. This paper reviews the data available for the study of climate and weather patterns in Australia. A list of global reanalysis and satellite data is provided, along with a more detailed review of available in situ (weather station) data in Australia. Regularly updated climate indices are identified that have previously been linked to Australian climate and weather events....
Topics: Reanalysis, Satellites, Weather stations
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by A. Lagarde; L. Doyen; A. Ahad-Cissé; N. Caill-Milly; S. Gourguet; O. Le Pape; C. Macher; G. Morandeau; O. Thébaud
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This paper examines the impact of climate change on the bio-economic performance of Bay of Biscay mixed fisheries and explores the capacity of alternative management strategies to cope with these impacts. A dynamic multi-species, multi-class, multi-fleet model is developed and calibrated using available biological, economic and environmental information for French fleets. Fishing and economic data have been collected within the European Data Collection Framework. Climate represented by the sea...
Topics: Global warming, Scenarios, Sustainability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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To prevent soil erosion and improve ecological environment over the Loess Plateau, the Chinese Government implemented a large scale ecological restoration (ER) in the past decades. ER activities have successfully reduced soil erosion and expanded vegetation, and also changed the water-energy balance, which would alter the hydrological dryness conditions. Knowledge of the impacts of land surface changes on hydrological dryness is essential for ER-related policy making and management. However, so...
Topics: Climate change, Drought, Ecohydorology, Ecological restoration
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Qingling Sun; Baolin Li; Yecheng Yuan; Yuhao Jiang; Tao Zhang; Xizhang Gao; Jinsong Ge; Fei Li
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Phenology models are useful tools to study phenology shifts and their responses to climate change. Multiple factors including temperature, precipitation, photoperiod, insolation, and snow can affect the phenology of alpine grasslands on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP), but most models applied on the QTP have only considered the influences of temperature or temperature and precipitation. This study presents a multi-factor-driven phenology model, the Alpine Meadow Prognostic Phenology (AMPP)...
Topics: Alpine meadow, Climatic factor, Growing Season Index, Phenology model, Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Csilla Stenger-Kovács; Kitti Körmendi; Edina Lengyel; András Abonyi; Beáta Szabó; Krisztina Buczkó; Judit Padisák
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Shallow, saline inland lakes occur over large areas in Central-Europe and they bear exceptionally high biological conservation values. Climate change and anthropogenic activities threaten their natural conditions, or even their existence. These aquatic ecosystems are exposed to multiple stress like naturally high conductivity, pH and nutrient load with very low transparency for light. As they are subjects of criteria set by the EC Water Framework Directive and biological conservation managment,...
Topics: Carpathian basin, Functional approaches, Index, Morphological traits, Soda pans, Water Framework...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) harbor an exceptionally high biodiversity of vascular plants. At the same time, climatic conditions in many MTE regions are projected to become both drier and hotter, and fire intervals shorter. The Interval Squeeze conceptual model integrates the potential effects of a changing climate and fire regimes on perennial plant population persistence and postulates that warmer, drier conditions will negatively affect multiple plant demographic processes. Dependent...
Topics: Climate change, Drought impacts, Fire-ecology, Interval squeeze, Mediterranean-type ecosystem,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rubí Raymundo; Senthold Asseng; Richard Robertson; Athanasios Petsakos; Gerrit Hoogenboom; Roberto Quiroz; Guy Hareau; Joost Wolf
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Potato is the most important non-grain crop in the world. Therefore, understanding the potential impacts of climate change on potato production is critical for future global food security. The SUBSTOR-Potato model was recently evaluated across a wide range of growing conditions, and improvements were made to better simulate atmospheric CO2 and high temperature responses. Comparisons of the improved model with field experiments, including elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and high...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Amanda J. Gregory; Jonathan P. Atkins
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Citizen Science attracts a lot of positive attention and a convenient alignment with it might offer multiple benefits for Community Operational Research. But what would be the basis for such an alignment? Could it offer important reciprocal benefits for Citizen Science? We address our first question by conducting a systematic comparison of Community Operational Research and Citizen Science to reveal points of commonality and difference between the two. Having established the basis for...
Topics: Citizen Science, Community Operational Research, OR in environment and climate change, Problem...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Henry W.G. Birt; Samuel A.F. Bonnett
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Urban soils play an essential role in delivering ecosystem services due to soil microbial functions but there is limited evidence of the role of urban soils in the global carbon cycle. Inorganic nitrogen (N) reduces microbial respiration of soil organic matter (SOM) in pristine and managed forest soils but there is less evidence available on the extent to which this occurs in contrasting urban soils. This study examined the ephemeral effect of inorganic N and SOM (woodland versus grassland...
Topics: Extracellular enzymes, Nitrogen, Organic matter, Substrate-induced respiration, Urban soil
Appropriate measurement of environmental and emission abatement efficiency is crucial for assisting policy making in line with constructing a more sustainable society. The majority of traditional approaches for environmental efficiency measures take pollutant emissions as either undesirable outputs or environmentally determined inputs which suffer a limitation of not satisfying the physical laws that regulate the operation of economic and environmental process. In this study, we propose a DEA...
Topics: Electricity generation, Emission reduction, Materials balance principle, OR in environment and...
We used two types of preference elicitation methods based on multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) for a wastewater infrastructure decision in Switzerland. We aimed to register the implementation impacts of two preference elicitation philosophies (aggregation, disaggregation) in a large, real-world case and give guidance on these elicitation approaches for practitioners. We conducted two series of face-to-face interviews with the same ten. The first interview set used direct aggregation...
Topics: Behavioral OR, OR in environment and climate change, Preference elicitation, Stakeholder interview
Energy retrofit of existing buildings was highlighted as an efficient massive action to decrease energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases. But, detecting the optimal retrofit strategies for groups of buildings is nowadays a highly complex problem. Their energy consumptions are influenced by building-related factors (climate, building envelope, building services and systems) and by user-related ones (building operation and maintenance, occupant behavior, and indoor environmental...
Topics: Climate change, Energy poverty, Energy retrofit, Principal components analysis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Arne Henningsen; Geraldine Henningsen; Edwin van der Werf
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The ease with which firms can substitute away from energy to other inputs is an important determining factor in the costs of climate change mitigation policies. Climate policy simulation models usually represent this substitutability by using the Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) function with parameter values often taken from econometric studies. Hence, the accuracy of the estimated substitution parameters has a strong influence on the validity of the climate policy simulation. In this...
Topics: CES, Climate policy, Elasticity of substitution, Energy, Replication study
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mark G. Stewart; John D. Ginger; David J. Henderson; Paraic C. Ryan
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The paper describes a risk analysis of the economic impact of damage to metal roofing of a typical contemporary (new) Australian house subject to extreme wind loading. The failure modes considered are roof cladding and batten-to-truss connection failures, with the effect of defective construction also considered. Monte-Carlo simulation and structural reliability methods are used to stochastically model spatially varying pressure coefficients, roof component failure, and load re-distribution...
Topics: Climate change, Damage, Fragility, Housing, Reliability, Wind load
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Muhammad Adil Rashid; Mathias Neumann Andersen; Bernd Wollenweber; Kirsten Kørup; Xiying Zhang; Jørgen Eivind Olesen
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Indirect effects of high temperature through increased vapor pressure deficit (VPD) are vital but often ignored in climate impact studies. We investigated the direct (via heat) and indirect (via VPD) effects of a post-anthesis applied high temperature episode on biochemical and diffusional components of photosynthesis in two wheat cultivars. Plants were exposed to a five-day episode of hot humid (HH: 36 °C; 1.96 kPa) or hot dry (HD: 36 °C; 3.92 kPa) climate, including normal climate (NC: 24...
Topics: Biochemical limitation, Climate change, Diffusional limitation, Heat stress, Photosystem II,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by T. C. McDonnell; S. Belyazid; T. J. Sullivan; M. Bell; C. Clark; T. Evans; W. Cass; A. Hyduke; H. Sverdrup
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Ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition on two hardwood forest sites in the eastern United States were simulated in the context of a changing climate using the dynamic coupled biogeochemical/ecological model chain ForSAFE-Veg. The sites are a mixed oak forest in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia (Piney River) and a mixed oak-sugar maple forest in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (Cosby Creek). The sites have received relatively high levels of both...
Topics: Acidification, Biodiversity, Climate change, Forest understory, Nitrogen
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Andrey Filipchuk; Boris Moiseev; Nataliya Malysheva; Valentin Strakhov
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The controversy over how to improve the carbon balance assessment for the Russian national forests is discussed. According to the preliminary calculations, three factors are responsible for the underestimation of the carbon sink in Russian forests, up to ≈ 340 ± 75 million tons per year in total: 1. The methodology of assessments. 2. The methodological ambiguity of forest classification, which excludes some areas from managed forests and therefore from assessment, for instance, ≈ 200...
Topics: Carbon balance assessment, Carbon sink, Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), Net annual increment,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Z. W. Kundzewicz; V. Krysanova; R. E. Benestad; M. Piniewski; I. M. Otto
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The uncertainty concepts play a prominent role in global environmental change research, including climate change science and climate change impact science, with hydrology and water resources research in particular. One is uncertain, to varying degrees, about virtually everything in the future as well as about much of the past and the present state. The present paper reviews applications of the uncertainty notion to results of change detection, process understanding and modeling of systems, and...
Topics: Climate change impacts, Information, Modelling, Uncertainty, Water resources
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Qiqi Tan; Jiazhu Li; Zixun Chen; Guoan Wang; Yufu Jia; Hongyan Yao; Wenxuan Han
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How terrestrial ecosystem responds to global warming has received wide attention. Plant stoichiometry has the potential to reflect ecosystem responses to climate change, thus, investigating the variations in plant stoichiometry with temperature is important and necessary for revealing the responses of terrestrial ecosystem to global warming. Although many studies had explored the relationships between plant N, P stoichiometry and temperature, previous field investigations did not eliminate the...
Topics: Decoupling of N and P cycles, Global warming, Leaf N, P stoichiometry, Temperature gradient
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by A. Bhattachan; G. M. Sanchez; L. S. Smart; P. J. Taillie; R. E. Emanuel; E. L. Seekamp
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Many rural coastal regions are distinctly vulnerable to sea level rise because of their remoteness, isolation from central planning agencies, and poverty. To better plan for future sea level changes in these regions, an interdisciplinary approach to assess the social and environmental impacts of sea level rise and their dynamic feedbacks is important. In this paper, we use a socio-ecological system framework to investigate sea level rise impacts to the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula, a rural,...
Topics: Climate adaptation, Climate change, North Carolina, Risk perceptions, Social-ecological systems
It is increasingly recognised that meeting the obligations set out in the Paris Agreement on climate change will not be physically possible without deploying large-scale techniques for either removing greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere or reflecting sunlight away from the Earth. In this article we report on the findings of a scenarios method designed to interrogate how far these ‘climate engineering’ ideas may develop in the future and under what governance arrangements. Unlike...
Topics: Policy instruments, Research incentives, Scenarios, Slippery slope
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Anders Arvesen; Gunnar Luderer; Michaja Pehl; Benjamin Leon Bodirsky; Edgar G. Hertwich
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The fields of life cycle assessment (LCA) and integrated assessment (IA) modelling today have similar interests in assessing macro-level transformation pathways with a broad view of environmental concerns. Prevailing IA models lack a life cycle perspective, while LCA has traditionally been static- and micro-oriented. We develop a general method for deriving coefficients from detailed, bottom-up LCA suitable for application in IA models, thus allowing IA analysts to explore the life cycle...
Topics: Climate change mitigation, Integrated assessment model (IAM), Life cycle assessment (LCA),...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Wang Me; David P. Hamilton; Christopher G. McBride; Jonathan M. Abell; Brendan J. Hicks
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The objective of this study was to combine a catchment model with a one–dimensional lake water quality model to simulate the trophic state of a eutrophic shallow lake in response to nutrient load reductions and climate change. The catchment and lake models gave satisfactory performance in simulating observed data, indicating that the key processes that affect nutrient loads and lake trophic status were adequately represented. Simulating removal of nutrients by reducing fertiliser applied to...
Topics: Catchment modelling, Climate change, Lake eutrophication, Lake modelling, Nutrient reductions
Developing cultivars with adaptive traits to improve sustainability in the face of climate change is an important option for climate smart agriculture. The CROPGRO-cotton model was calibrated and evaluated at two locations in Cameroon over a period of two years using two planting dates and four contrasted cultivars. The model was used to assess yield gains by modifying plant traits such as specific leaf area, photosynthetic capacity and crop phenology. The ideotype was tested in conventional...
Topics: CSM-CROPGRO-cotton, Crop modeling, Cultivar, Ideotype, Planting date
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Graciela G. Nicola; Benigno Elvira; Bror Jonsson; Daniel Ayllón; Ana Almodóvar
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The abundance of Atlantic salmon is declining throughout its geographical area. Fisheries and global warming were assumed as main drivers of the decline, and recent studies suggest that habitat changes in freshwater is a third contributor. Southern populations experience the greatest decline, and face the highest risk of extinction as global warming moves its thermal niche northwards. We analysed long-term catch data (1949–2013) from a salmon fishery in northern Spain, and examined its...
Topics: Climate change, Flow alteration, Land-ocean temperature, Long-term abundance, Salmo salar