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A collection of over 200,000 Faxed-in pages sent to FAXTOY, an art project by Kevin Savetz.
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mauricio E. Arias; Gordon W. Holtgrieve; Peng Bun Ngor; Thanh Duc Dang; Thanapon Piman
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The Mekong River remained hydrologically unregulated until recent decades and still harbors immense natural resources that are the basis of rural livelihoods. Research on how dams and climate change could alter the river has heightened in recent years, and while this research has led to important scientific concepts and increased discussion of sustainable development, it has done little to prevent the rapid environmental change in the Mekong floodplains of Cambodia and Vietnam. Meanwhile,...
Ongoing climate change, as well as long-term overgrazing, is threatening biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in grasslands worldwide. Climate change and grazing could directly alter ecosystem functioning and stability, or indirectly by changing species diversity, composition and plant functional traits. By synthesizing results from publications of the most recent 30-years, we found that effects of climate change and grazing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning varied from positive to...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pietro Croce; Paolo Formichi; Filippo Landi; Francesca Marsili
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A general procedure to evaluate future trends in snow loads on structures is illustrated aiming to study influences of climate change at European scale, to assess its impact on the design of new structures as well as on the reliability levels of existing ones, also in view of definition of updated snow maps for new generation of Eurocodes. Starting from reliable and high quality registered meteorological data of daily temperatures, rain and snow precipitations at nine Italian weather stations,...
Topics: Climate change, Climate models, Extreme values, Monte Carlo simulation, Snow loads, Snow maps
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Cyrus Martin
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Summary Every day, there is a massive movement of biomass up and down in the water column in what is likely the largest mass migration of animals on the planet. New research is shedding light on the drivers of these migrations and their significance to ecosystems and future climate change. Cyrus Martin reports.
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by André C. Velásquez; Christian Danve M. Castroverde; Sheng Yang He
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Global environmental changes caused by natural and human activities have accelerated in the past 200 years. The increase in greenhouse gases is predicted to continue to raise global temperature and change water availability in the 21st century. In this Review, we explore the profound effect the environment has on plant diseases — a susceptible host will not be infected by a virulent pathogen if the environmental conditions are not conducive for disease. The change in CO2 concentrations,...
The capacity of delivering ecosystem services essential to social well- being is impeded by climate and land use change, causing a significant alteration in the quality of functions and services of many ecosystems. This paper focuses on how to project future services of coastal ecosystem in Samutsakorn province, Thailand. The 2050 climate layers are projected by using WorldClim database at 30 s resolution. Projection of land use change analysis in 2050 using a spatial allocation model is...
Researchers have showed that climatic, population, economic, and social characteristics contribute to the proliferation of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever (DF) in Ecuador. In this study, we identified the factors with the greatest influence on dengue virus spread using a spatio-temporal analysis. We applied the maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) to determine the spatial distribution of DF and identify areas with high probability of presence of A. aegypti by analyzing monthly...
Topics: Aedes aegypti, Dengue fever, Ecuador, Social and ecological model
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Francesc Montserrat; Maila Guilhon; Paulo Vinicius Ferraz Corrêa; Natascha Menezes Bergo; Camila Negrão Signori; Pedro Marone Tura; Mascimiliano de los Santos Maly; Denise Moura; Luigi Jovane; Vivian Pellizari; Frederico Pereira Brandini; Alexander Turra
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The Rio Grande Rise is an extensive seamount region in the South-western Atlantic, with potential for deep-sea mining activities in the future. Such activities pose significant long-term disturbances and potentially severe impacts to both ecosystem structure and functioning, as well as associated ecosystem services. The Rio Grande Rise presents a severely understudied area, with very little knowledge on either local and regional scales. Most detailed knowledge available is centered on highly...
Topics: Anthropogenic pressure, Brazil, Cobalt crust, Cumulative impacts, Environmental management plan,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Shalini Dhyani; Rakesh Kadaverugu; Deepak Dhyani; Parikshit Verma; Paras Pujari
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Climate variability is the most influential driver altering the natural habitats of species leading to worldwide biodiversity loss. Understanding the climatic niche of vulnerable species and predicting its shift due to impending climate change is highly important to assess the damage. It also helps to plan and implement long term ex-situ or in-situ strategies to protect the species and its fragile habitats. Though, various important species of Himalayas are exploited for their economic and...
Topics: Central Himalayas, Climate change, Conservation planning, Hippophae salicifolia, Species...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Taxus wallichiana (Himalayan yew) has been subjected to over-exploitation for its anti-cancer ingredient Taxol. As a consequence, the species has already become endangered, facing enhanced threats of regional extinction. To compound this, the species shows high vulnerability to climate change impacts that may significantly reduce its present climatic niche. In spite of the ecological and enormous commercial importance of the species, the direct or indirect impacts of climate change on the...
Topics: Ensemble species modelling, Species-environment relationships
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rajiv Pandey; Juha M. Alatalo; Kavita Thapliyal; Sharmila Chauhan; Kelli M. Archie; Ajay K. Gupta; Shashidhar Kumar Jha; Manoj Kumar
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Climate change is predicted to have severe impacts on mountainous regions, including urban settlements, and livelihoods of the urban poor. Adaptive capacity for marginalized groups is largely determined by household-level resources and decision-making capacity. This study investigated the vulnerability status and prevalent adaptation strategies of urban slum dwellers in Dehradun, Indian Himalayas, using a pre-tested questionnaire covering household characteristics and indicators of...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change mitigation, Coping capacity, Hazard, India, Resilience, Risk, Slum...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by F. Saladini; G. Betti; E. Ferragina; F. Bouraoui; S. Cupertino; G. Canitano; M. Gigliotti; A. Autino; F. M. Pulselli; A. Riccaboni; G. Bidoglio; S. Bastianoni
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Water use and agricultural practices in the Mediterranean area are unsustainable. The situation is worsened by the increased frequency of droughts and floods, as well as desertification and soil depletion, associated with climate change. The aim of Partnership for Research and Innovation in the Mediterranean Area (PRIMA) is to foster an integrated programme of sustainable food production and water provision in the framework of the water-energy-food nexus. A monitoring tool developed under PRIMA...
Topics: Monitoring system, PRIMA programme, Sustainability, Sustainability indicators, Sustainable food...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Wei Liang; Bojie Fu; Shuai Wang; Weibin Zhang; Zhao Jin; Xiaoming Feng; Jianwu Yan; Yu Liu; Sha Zhou
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Revegetation, especially afforestation, has served as an important tool for controlling desertification. However, revegetation in water-limited regions will inevitably reduce the water available for socio-economic systems, which is poorly considered in decision-making on sustainable ecosystem management. This paper proposed a framework to determine the threshold of vegetation productivity (i.e., ecosystem carrying capacity), corresponding to available water resources for ecosystems (i.e.,...
Topics: Loess Plateau, Revegetation, Socio-economic systems, Sustainable water resources
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jarryd Alexander; David A. Ehlers Smith; Yvette C. Ehlers Smith; Colleen T. Downs
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Population expansion and land transformation reduce biodiversity, potentially reducing environmental functionality. These effects are evident globally, and specifically in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa, where land cover is being transformed for urbanisation. However, much of the urbanised areas incorporate differing levels of urban greening, which is improving local species and functional diversity. In recent years, a new form of urban greening in the form of eco-estate development has...
Topics: Development plans, Ecological Circuit Theory, Land transformation, Land use, Management framework,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Md Mahedi Al Masud; Nurun Naher Moni; Hossein Azadi; Steven Van Passel
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The Southwest Coastal people of Bangladesh have introduced Tidal River Management (TRM) as an environmentally acceptable water resource management practice based on their indigenous knowledge of water logging of low lying coastal land. TRM helps to address problems resulting from different anthropogenic and structural development activities, and it has been successful in helping coastal communities to adapt to climate change and rising sea level vulnerability by forming new land in Tidal...
Topics: Climate change, Sedimentation, Sustainability index, Water management, Water-logging
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yi Yu Huang; Chien Teh Chen; Wen Tsan Liu
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Extreme weather events caused by climate change intensify the heat island effect, and a lack of greenery in urban areas increases the psychological stress and anxiety of city dwellers. This study compared the temperature reductions and heat amplitude reductions provided by four types of green roofing that can cover bare rooftops. The four types of plants grown on extensive green roofs in this study were: shrubs, perennial herbs, vines, and groundcover; these are potentially healing plants....
Topics: Ambient environment effect, Extensive green roof, Heat amplitude, Potentially healing plant,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rafael Muñoz-Mas; Patricia Marcos-Garcia; Antonio Lopez-Nicolas; Francisco J. Martínez-García; Manuel Pulido-Velazquez; Francisco Martínez-Capel
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A fuzzy rule-based system combining empirical data on hydraulic preferences and literature information on temperature requirements was used to foresee the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) spawning habitat degradation induced by climate change. The climatic scenarios for the Cabriel River (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) corresponded to two Representative Concentration Pathways (4.5 and 8.5) for the short (2011–2040) and mid (2041–2070) term horizons. The hydraulic and hydrologic modelling were...
Topics: Differential evolution, HBV-light, M5, Multi-Adaptive Regression Splines, Support Vector...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by L. D. Valdez; G. J. Sibona; C. A. Condat
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Aedes aegypti is the main vector of multiple diseases, such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. Due to modifications in weather patterns, its geographical range is continuously evolving. Temperature is a key factor for its expansion into regions with cool winters, but rainfall can also have a strong impact on the colonization of these regions, since larvae emerging after a rainfall are likely to die at temperatures below 10 °C. As climate change is expected to affect rainfall regimes, with a...
Topics: Aedes, Mathematical modeling, Mosquito abundance, Taiwan
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pin Wang; Tangao Hu; Feng Kong; Junfeng Xu; Dengrong Zhang
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Extreme cold events have always been great threats to the major rice-cultivation areas across China. The spatial pattern of rice exposure to cold stress (ECS) is critical to develop countrywide adaptation strategies. Under climate change, whether and how ECS spatial pattern has changed? These answers are urgently required for adaptation optimization, but regrettably remain unclear. Here, we examined the changes in rice-planted area exposed to cold stress across mainland China, and historical...
Topics: China, Climate change, Cold stress, Geographical centroid, Rice
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Long-term forest productivity and carbon sequestration capacity are affected by climate change, and have become a global concern. In this study, we provide a simple and nondestructive method to determine tree CO 2 assimilation across multiple time scales. The new method combines sap flow and stable carbon isotope discrimination (Δ 13 C)measurements to estimate carbon assimilation. We analyzed variability and conducted paired-sample t-tests to compare CO 2 assimilation estimated from gas...
Topics: Gas exchange measurement, Sap flow, Stable carbon isotope discrimination, Stomatal conductance,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jimmy Chun Kuen Tong; Jason Ming Yeung Tse; Phillip John Jones
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During winter-time in Mongolia, the air pollution is so severe that it threatens the citizens’ health. Ulaanbaatar is the capital city of Mongolia, and its population represents about half of the total population of Mongolia. The majority of people in the Ger area, approximately 50% of population of Ulaanbaatar, rely on direct coal burning to generate the required heat to maintain a comfortable environment in the cold season. The heavy reliance on coal leads to catastrophic air pollutant...
Topics: Building energy use, Detached houses, Fossil fuel reduction, Insulation, Thermal tool
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Leah S. Dudley; Mary T.K. Arroyo; M. P. Fernández-Murillo
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Flowers are likely to be under various selective pressures not limited to reproduction and resource trade-offs. Here, we investigate the physiological responses (conductance, transpiration and respiration) of flowers under augmented temperature and supplemental watering, link these responses to actual flower longevity, and search for evidence of adaptive plasticity. Flower maintenance costs and plant fitness were investigated using the Andean geophyte, Rhodolirium montanum, in a manipulative...
Topics: Actual flower longevity, Alpine, Conductance, Gas-exchange, Open-top chamber, Water stress
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Daniel C. Steinberg; David A. Bielen; Aaron Townsend
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Prior studies of the U.S. electricity sector have recognized the potential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by substituting generation from coal-fired units with generation from under-utilized and lower-emitting natural gas-fired units; in fact, this type of “re-dispatch” was invoked as one of the three building blocks used to set the emissions targets under the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. Despite the existence of surplus natural gas capacity in the U.S.,...
Topics: Climate change mitigation, Electricity, Energy modeling, Natural gas
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Brian Alan Johnson; Rajarshi Dasgupta; André Derek Mader; Henry Scheyvens
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Forest conservation is a key component of multilateral environmental agreements related to biodiversity conservation (Convention on Biological Diversity; CBD)) and climate change (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change; UNFCCC), and ambitious national commitments are essential to the implementation of these agreements. To understand the relationships between developing countries’ different forest conservation commitments/policies made under the CBD and UNFCCC, here we proposed a policy...
Topics: Deforestation, Ecosystem services, Forest reference level, NBSAP, Policy scenario analysis,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by E. Gissi; S. Fraschetti; F. Micheli
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Marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP) is intended as a process to apply an adaptive ecosystem-based approach in order to manage the oceans towards the sustainable use of marine resources. Several policy documents and research articles have identified the need for MSP to address change, intended as dynamic aspects from different drivers. However, practical examples of MSP embracing change and dynamics are rare and the inclusion of system dynamics, environmental variability and future change in...
Topics: Change and dynamics, Climate change, Environmental dynamics, Social dynamics, Transdisciplinary...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mónica Hernández-Morcillo; Paul Burgess; Jaconette Mirck; Anastasia Pantera; Tobias Plieninger
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Agroforestry, the integration of trees and shrubs with livestock and/or crops, can make a substantial contribution to mitigating and enabling adaptation to climate change. However, its full potential will only be achieved if the challenges to agroforestry implementation are identified and the most efficient and sustainable solutions are made widely known. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore these challenges and to determine the most suitable set of solutions for each challenge that...
Topics: Climate change strategy, Common agricultural policy, Europe, Nature-based solutions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Uwe Schlink; Daniel Hertel
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Operational snow forecasting models contain parameters for which site-specific values are often unknown. As an improvement a Bayesian procedure is suggested that estimates, from past observations, site-specific parameters with confidence intervals. It turned out that simultaneous estimation of all parameters was most accurate. From 2.5 years of daily snow depth observations the estimates were for snow albedo 0.94, 0.89, and 0.56, for snow emissivity 0.88, 0.92, and 0.99, and for snow density...
Topics: Bayesian estimation, ESCIMO model, Operational snow forecasting, Prediction performance, Sub-alpine...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Adina T. Abeles; Lauren C. Howe; Jon A. Krosnick; Bo MacInnis
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People tend to perceive their own opinions to be especially prevalent among others, especially among members of their in-groups. This paper proposes that this process operates differently in groups with prominent figures who take public stances on issues (opinion cues) that suggest what group members do or should think when some members of such groups are opinion deviant, meaning that their own opinions differ from their group's opinion cues. Two studies of Democrats', Republicans' and...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by María Benlloch-González; Rosa Sánchez-Lucas; Mohamed Aymen Bejaoui; Manuel Benlloch; Ricardo Fernández-Escobar
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Temperature in the Mediterranean Basin, the main area of olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation, has been projected to rise drastically in the near future threatening olive production. To determine the potential effects of higher temperature on the olive fruiting cycle and vegetative growth, a study with the cultivar ‘Picual’ has been carried out simulating global warming conditions under field conditions. Temperature-controlled open top chamber (OTC) systems were used to increase the...
Topics: Climate change, Fruit yield, High temperature, Olive fruiting cycle, Open top chamber (OTC),...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. Khaki; E. Forootan; M. Kuhn; J. Awange; F. Papa; C. K. Shum
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Climate change can significantly influence terrestrial water changes around the world particularly in places that have been proven to be more vulnerable such as Bangladesh. In the past few decades, climate impacts, together with those of excessive human water use have changed the country's water availability structure. In this study, we use multi-mission remotely sensed measurements along with a hydrological model to separately analyze groundwater and soil moisture variations for the period...
Topics: Bangladesh, Data assimilation, GRACE, Groundwater storage, Hydrological modelling
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by J. G. Conijn; P. S. Bindraban; J. J. Schröder; R. E.E. Jongschaap
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Global food demand is expected to increase, affecting required land, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs along with unintended emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHG) and losses of N and P. To quantify these input requirements and associated emissions/losses as a function of food demand, we built a comprehensive model of the food system and investigated the effects of multiple interventions in the food system on multiple environmental goals. Model outcomes are compared to planetary boundaries...
Topics: Food system, GHG emission, Land use, Phosphorus, Planetary boundaries, Sustainability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Meixian Liu; Xianli Xu; Alexander Y. Sun; Wei Luo; Kelin Wang
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Karst landscape, covers more than 10% of the global land surface and plays an important role in supporting ecosystems and human society, may be strongly influenced by climate change. Vegetation available water (VAW) is a key variable impacting the sensitivity of ecosystems to a changing environment. However, VAW in karst region is difficult to determine and remains uncertain. This study improved a dynamic Budyko-type water balance model, by introducing a nonlinear equation linking climate,...
Topics: Budyko framework, Ecohydrology, Hydrological modeling, Water balance
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Fred D. Tillman; Tom Pruitt; Subhrendu Gangopadhyay
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Hydrologic model input datasets such as climate, land use, elevation, soil, and geology information are available in a range of scales for use in water resources investigations. Smaller spatial and temporal scale input data allow groundwater recharge models to simulate more physically realistic processes and presumably result in more accurate estimates of groundwater recharge. Projected climate data are, therefore, often downscaled to smaller spatial and temporal scales for use in these models....
Topics: Climate change, Groundwater recharge, Upper Colorado River basin
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Garba Aliyu; Alberto Sanz-Cobena; Christoph Müller; Mohammad Zaman; Jiafa Luo; Deyan Liu; Junji Yuan; Zengming Chen; Yuhui Niu; Weixin Ding; Aisha Arowolo
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Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important and persistent greenhouse gases, however, there is a lack of accurate data on soil background N2O emissions (BNE) from agricultural land. Calculations of N2O emission factors from land uses are currently based on a single, universal BNE value advocated by the International Panel on Climate Change, but BNE are thought to vary with climate and soil types. We ran a meta-analysis of 58 peer-reviewed, published data source on soil BNE from cropland...
Topic: Soil properties
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lindsay D. Brin; Claudia Goyer; Bernie J. Zebarth; David L. Burton; Martin H. Chantigny
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Climate change-related increases in winter temperatures and precipitation, as predicted for eastern Canada, may alter snow cover, with consequences for soil temperature and moisture, nitrogen cycling, and greenhouse gas fluxes. To assess the effects of snow depth in a humid temperate agricultural ecosystem, we conducted a two-year field study with (1) snow removal, (2) passive snow accumulation (via snow fence), and (3) ambient snow treatments. We measured in situ N2O and CO2 fluxes and...
Topics: Carbon dioxide, Climate change, Denitrification, Nitrification, Nitrous oxide, Snow cover
Carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the ratio of net primary production (NPP) to gross primary production (GPP), represents the capacity of plants in converting assimilated atmospheric carbon dioxide to ecosystem carbon storage. Process-based models are important tools for simulating NPP and GPP; yet the model performance in simulating vegetation CUE has not been fully explored. The goal of this paper is thus to investigate the spatial variations in CUE from different process-based carbon...
Topics: Autotrophic respiration (Ra), Carbon cycle models, Carbon use efficiency (CUE), Climate change,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Nils Hoffmann; Peter Schall; Christian Ammer; Bertram Leder; Torsten Vor
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Many non-native tree species have been introduced to Europe to improve forest productivity. It is assumed that some of these species are better able than native species to mitigate negative effects of climate change. A high growth-related tolerance to climatic extremes is essential to qualify a tree species’ suitability for cultivation and must be quantified before initiating adaptation measures. This study investigated basal area and volume increment (BAI and VI) data at various stem height...
Topics: Climate sensitivity, Drought response, Exotic tree species, Resistance, Stem analysis, Total ring...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Dan Liu; Philippe Ciais; Xianzhou Zhang; Gensuo Jia; Mingguo Ma; Yaoming Ma; Miaogen Shen; Shilong Piao
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The grassland ecosystems in Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Inner Mongolia (IM) of China play important roles in climate change mitigation and food and livestock production. These two regions have increasingly experienced higher temperatures and changing precipitation regimes over the past three decades. However, it remains uncertain to what extent rising temperature and varying precipitation regulate the water and carbon fluxes across alpine (TP) and temperate (IM) grasslands. Here, we first optimize...
Topics: Climate change, Grassland, Inner Mongolia, ORCHIDEE model, Tibetan Plateau
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Climate change is influencing tree phenology, causing earlier and more prolonged canopy closure in temperate forests. Canopy closure is closely associated with understorey light, so shifts in its timing have wide-reaching consequences for ecological processes in the understorey. Widespread monitoring of forest canopies through time is needed to understand changes in light availability during spring in particular. Canopy openness, derived from hemispherical photography, has frequently been used...
Topics: Citizen science, Fisheye photography, Hemispherical photography, Phenology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xiaoyang Zhang; Senthilnath Jayavelu; Lingling Liu; Mark A. Friedl; Geoffrey M. Henebry; Yan Liu; Crystal B. Schaaf; Andrew D. Richardson; Joshua Gray
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Land surface phenology (LSP) has been widely retrieved from time series of various satellite instruments in order to monitor climate change and ecosystem dynamics. However, any evaluation of the quality of LSP data sets is quite challenging because the in situ observations on a limited number of individual trees, shrubs, or other plants are rarely representative of the landscape sampled in a single satellite pixel. Moreover, vegetation indices detecting biophysical features of vegetation...
Topics: Land surface phenology, Phenocam, VIIRS, Validation and evaluation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xiaobo Gu; Huanjie Cai; Li Zhang; Zhitao Zhang; Heng Fang; Pengpeng Chen; Peng Huang; Yupeng Li; Yuannong Li; Jiaming Zhou; Yadan Du
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Ridge-furrow full film mulching (RFFM) has been widely adopted as a water-saving and yield-improving planting pattern in arid and semi-arid regions. Whether or not RFFM can replace the conventional flat planting pattern (FP) with supplemental irrigation in dryland farming has not been tested. Moreover, the effects of reducing irrigation frequency and amount on crops in dryland farms under different rainfall years (dry, normal or wet years) remain unknown. Present study selected winter rapeseed...
Topics: Adaptive management, Dryland agriculture, Ridge-furrow film mulching, Supplemental irrigation,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Amit Kumar Srivastava; Cho Miltin Mboh; Gang Zhao; Thomas Gaiser; Frank Ewert
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Climate change is unequivocal and these changes have increased over the past few years. The recent vulnerability and prospect of climate variability and change impact, thus, warrants measures now to reduce the adverse impacts. This study presents an estimate of the effects of climate variables on potential maize productivity and an assessment of the most limiting climatic drivers in the future climate scenarios for maize production in central Ghana, constituting major maize production areas....
Topics: Autonomous adaptation, Climate change, Maize, Sub-Saharan Africa
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Azra Alikadic; Ilaria Pertot; Emanuele Eccel; Claudia Dolci; Amelia Caffarra; Riccardo De Filippi; Cesare Furlanello
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Simulations of the effect of climate change on the phenology of grapevines indicate shorter growing seasons, earlier occurrences of phases and shorter phase duration in the future. The impact varies depending on the geo-localization of the studied region and its microclimate. The objective of this study is to further understand the impact of climate change on grapevine phenology by studying the role of varieties and microclimates through a regional assessment carried out in two future periods...
Topics: Climate change, Grapevine, Micro climate, Modelling, Phenology, Vine
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Autumn phenological variation of temperate and northern ecosystems plays a major but poorly defined role in the global carbon cycle. Constructing robust process-based autumn phenology models is key for improving current ecosystem models to accurately simulate ecosystem productivity and carbon sequestration. In this study, we developed a new process-based autumn phenology model. The model was fitted and validated using 67 leaf coloration and brown-down time series collected for 27 woody and...
Topics: Climate change, Model comparison, Plant phenology, Process-based leaf senescence model, Spatial and...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Haixin Chen; Linchao Li; Xiaoqi Luo; Yi Li; De Li Liu; Ying Zhao; Hao Feng
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Covering soils using mulch can increase crop productivity in dryland agriculture. However, there remains large uncertainty regarding impacts of mulching on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, especially under climate change (increases in air temperature and atmospheric CO 2 concentration and changes in precipitation). In this study, we applied a biogeochemical model, DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), to predict impacts of different mulching practices on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize...
Topics: Biogeochemical modeling, Climate change, Crop yield, Mulching, N 2 O emission
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Anne Frédérique Gendron St-Marseille; Gaétan Bourgeois; Jacques Brodeur; Benjamin Mimee
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Climate change will undoubtedly impact air and soil temperature in the future. For agriculture, climate warming could be beneficial by opening new lands to profitable crops at higher latitudes. In Canada, soybean production has had a spectacular growth over the last five years with an increase of 27% in the acreage devoted to its cultivation. However, the anticipated climatic changes, coupled with global trading intensification could also favor the introduction and establishment of invasive...
Topics: Glycine max, Heterodera glycines, Invasive alien species, Modelling, Soybean, Soybean cyst nematode
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Francisco Javier Abad; Diana Marín; Maite Loidi; Carlos Miranda; José Bernardo Royo; Jorge Urrestarazu; Luis Gonzaga Santesteban
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Viticulture in Southern Europe heads towards a scenario of drier and warmer the growing seasons due to climate change. This decrease in the amount of water available for the vines and increase in evapotranspiration make necessary finding strategies to reduce vineyard water needs. In this context, the effect of severe trimming (40–60% of shoot length), performed at pea-size stage, on plant water status was evaluated in four different vineyards located in North of Spain. Severe trimming...
Topics: Canopy management, Climate change, Water saving, Water-use efficiency
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Agriculture is exposed to climatic impacts, especially in developing countries. Adaptation is the predominant practice that farming communities undertake to deal with these climate-induced challenges. While significant attention has been devoted to farmers’ adaptation strategies, little is known about how innovative practices are associated with the improvement of rural livelihoods. To address this gap, the paper attempts to investigate how farmers lead the process of rural innovations that...
Topics: Vietnamese Mekong Delta, Water management
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Gennady Bracho-Mujica; Peter T. Hayman; Bertram Ostendorf
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Long-term, continuous, accurate, daily weather records for precipitation, temperature and solar radiation are critical inputs for modelling long-term climate risk in cropping systems. However, comprehensive weather data often exhibit short record length and missing or inaccurate records, which can lead to inconsistencies. Using risk profiles (cumulative probability curves of crop yield) as a tool for quantifying the performance of cropping systems under climate variability, this study examines...
Topics: APSIM, Climate risk, Extreme temperature events, Frost, Heat, Probability risk assessment
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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In many temperate parts of the world, supplemental irrigation is crucial to assure both crop yield and quality. Climate change could increase the risks of irrigation being restricted by increasing crop water requirements and/or decreasing water availability. In England, water abstraction for irrigation is limited by maximum annual volumetric limits, as specified in the abstraction licences, and surface water abstraction restrictions imposed by the regulator during drought. This paper assesses...
Topics: Adaptation, Drought, England, Irrigated agriculture, Resilience, Risk
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Uttam Kumar Mandal; D. Burman; A. K. Bhardwaj; Dibyendu Bikas Nayak; Arpan Samui; Sourav Mullick; K. K. Mahanta; T. D. Lama; B. Maji; Subhasis Mandal; S. K. Sarangi
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Sundarbans in West Bengal, India located in the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal is one of the vulnerable zones subjected to abrupt climate change. The region receives 2.7 times surplus rainfall as compared to crop evapotranspiration during monsoon months causing widespread waterlogging of the low lying agricultural fields and impedes the productivity. The present study assessed the effects of different land shaping models namely, farm pond (FP), deep furrow and high ridge (RF) and paddy cum...
Topics: Climate change, Coastal saline soil, Farm pond, Water balance, Water footprint
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Kpoti M. Gunn; Debra L. Gamble; Larry C. Brown; Barry J. Allred; Jeff A. Andresen
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Subirrigation is employed to supply water to crop root zones via subsurface drainage systems, which are typically installed for the purpose of excess soil water removal. Crop yield increases due to subirrigation have been demonstrated in numerous studies, but there is limited information regarding yield under future climate conditions when growing season conditions are expected to be drier in the U.S. Corn Belt. DRAINMOD was calibrated and validated for three locations with different soil...
Topics: DRAINMOD, Drainage, Hoytville, Maumee, Nappanee, Paulding
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Mixed crop-livestock farming systems provide food for more than half of the world's population. These agricultural systems are predicted to be vulnerable to climate change and therefore require transformative adaptations. In collaboration with farmers in the wheatbelt of Western Australia (WA), a range of systemic and transformative adaptation options, e.g. land use change, were designed for the modelled climate change projected to occur in 2030 (0.4–1.4° increase in mean temperature). The...
Topics: Mitigation, Modelling
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by undefined Shweta; Bimal K. Bhattacharya; Akhouri Pramod Krishna
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The annual water loss through evapotranspiration (ET) is an uncertain but significant component of India's water budget. The present study generated independent estimates of baseline annual ET, calibrated with in situ micrometeorological data over Indian sub-continent, using surface energy balance framework and satellite-based long-term thermal remote sensing, visible and near-infrared observations as the primary data sources. Thirty years’ (1981–2010) of satellite-based ET estimates at...
Topics: Surface energy balance, Thermal remote sensing
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Anton Pijl; Claudia C. Brauer; Giulia Sofia; Adriaan J. Teuling; Paolo Tarolli
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The Po valley in northern Italy is one of Europe's largest and most anthropogenically-modified lowland areas, where intensifying climate and land transformation are increasingly causing water management problems. In this study, the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is calibrated, validated, and applied to a reclaimed basin in the Veneto region (Italy) in order to assess the hydrologic impacts of land use and climate change scenarios. First-time model calibration for Mediterranean...
Topics: Climate change, Hydrologic modelling, Land use change, Lowland, Scenario analysis, Urbanisation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Arvind Parwal; Martin Fregelius; Irinia Temiz; Malin Göteman; Janaina G.de Oliveira; Cecilia Boström; Mats Leijon
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The concern for climate change and energy consumption has increased the demand for renewable energy production considerably. Marine energy sources attract attention because of their high energy density. Wave energy is an attractive renewable energy source with large potential. Due to the nature of the ocean waves, a linear wave energy converter generates intermittent power. It is therefore crucial to regularize the power before connecting to the grid. Energy storage systems present effective...
Topics: Dynamic rate limiter, Energy management control system, Hybrid energy storage system, State of...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Current building energy use is projected to increase by 1.7% annually until 2025, and the great potential for energy reduction in existing buildings has created opportunities in building energy retrofit projects. In this research, a framework and method are proposed to evaluate the impacts of different retrofit options to existing building under climate change. A Python retrofit tool is developed to perform parametric study by running EnergyPlus under different retrofit scenarios for existing...
Topics: Building retrofit, Climate change, Energy use, EnergyPlus, Feature selection, Random forest
Refrigerators are a common appliance in developed and emerging economies around the world. These appliances consume significant energy globally and improving their efficiency is an important aspect of future climate change mitigation. It is widely understood that the energy consumption of household refrigerating appliances is strongly influenced by room temperature and many analysts have identified ambient temperature as the most important factor in normal use. Room temperature has two main...
Topics: Energy consumption, Freezers, Household refrigeration, Modelling energy, Refrigerators, Room...
Building sector accounts for about 30% of total primary energy consumption in Chinese cities, in which the untreated scattered coal is one of the most important sources for local air pollutants such as SO2, NOx, PM2.5 and carbon emissions, posing serious threats on air quality, public health and climate change. This work aims to evaluate the impacts of the coal substitution policy (“coal-to-gas” and “coal-to-electricity”) on building energy demand and emissions for Beijing, Tianjin, and...
Topics: Building sector, City, Coal-to-electricity, Coal-to-gas, Emission reductions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Charles Felix; Aristotle Ubando; Cynthia Madrazo; Ivan Henderson Gue; Sylviana Sutanto; Phuong Lan Tran-Nguyen; Alchris Woo Go; Yi Hsu Ju; Alvin Culaba; Wei Hsin Chen
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Microalgae offer promising and multifaceted solutions to the ongoing issues regarding energy security and climate change. One of the major bottlenecks in utilizing algal biomass is the excessive amount of moisture to be managed after harvest, which translates to costs in the dewatering step. Newer strategies have been developed to be able to convert algal biomass feedstock to biodiesel without the need for extraction and drying, such as in-situ transesterification. This process can be improved...
Topics: Biodiesel, In-situ Transesterification, Life Cycle Assessment, Microalgae, Subcritical
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Due to the threats of climate change and global warming, carbon emissions are becoming a new concern during power system operation. This paper proposes a consumption-side carbon emission penalty scheme, where consumers are penalized based on their individual carbon emission responsibilities and penalty rates. Firstly, carbon emission responsibilities (CER) of consumers are determined after allocating the generators’ carbon emission responsibilities to consumers through power flow tracing....
Topics: Consumption-side, Economic dispatch, Emission penalty, Low-carbon
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Md Nasir Uddin; A. K.M. Saiful Islam; Sujit Kumar Bala; G. M.Tarekul Islam; Sudipta Adhikary; Debanjali Saha; Shammi Haque; Md Golam Rabbani Fahad; Rabeya Akter
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The coastal region of Bangladesh is highly vulnerable due to its low adaptive capacity, dense population, flat topography and exposure to various natural disasters such as cyclone, storm surges, sea level rise, tidal floods, bank erosion etc. In addition to present vulnerability, climate change will bring detrimental impact on socio-economic performance, health, and livelihood of the coastal population. This study has been conducted to assess the vulnerabilities of the coastal region of...
Topics: Climate change, Coastal region, Mapping tool, Principal component analysis (PCA), k-mean cluster
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. Arshadi; H. Taghvaei; M. K. Abdolmaleki; M. Lee; H. Eskandarloo; A. Abbaspourrad
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Serious and immediate action is needed to reduce carbon emissions and prevent catastrophic global climate change. In this work, we investigate the enhancement of CO 2 absorption in water by preparing and adding different types of modified Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles to a water-base fluid, creating a nanofluid system that has gained increasing interest over the last decade. The nanoabsorbents are prepared by using different inorganic and organic reagents; tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS),...
Topics: CO 2 absorption, Dendritic, Nanofluidic, Nanoparticle, Water
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. O. Birlain-Escalante; J. M. Islas-Samperio; F. Manzini-Poli; G. K. Grande-Acosta
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In 2014, the Mexican Chemical Industry (MCI) energy consumption represented 13.5% of the industrial sector total consumption (211 PJ), being the industry with the second highest greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in Mexico with 13.8 MtCO 2e . This article shows that in the medium and long term it is feasible to transform the MCI into a low-carbon industry. To prove this hypothesis, two scenarios are constructed in terms of the MCI's final energy uses: a business as usual (BAU) scenario and an...
Topics: Energy efficiency, Mexican chemical industry, Mitigation cost, Renewable energies
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ke Wang; Jianjun Zhang; Bofeng Cai; Shengmin Yu
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Fugitive methane from underground coal mining is the main source of methane emissions in China. Accurate and updateable methane emission factors for underground coal mining are of great significance for the accounting of methane emissions in China. In this paper, 10,951 underground coal mines are investigated for developing an emission factor matrix for national and provincial scales. For national emission factors, 27 types of emission factors are determined according to the classification of...
Topics: Methane emission factors, National, Provincial, Uncertainty analysis, Underground coal mine
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. A.Parvez Mahmud; Nazmul Huda; Shahjadi Hisan Farjana; Candace Lang
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Hydropower is the widely used source of clean energy which includes some hazardous emissions that affect human health, ecosystems, and resources. However, in spite of an enormous amount of hydropower generation in Europe, no research has been carried out in evaluating the hazardous emissions from the plants located in alpine and non-alpine areas. Therefore, this paper will analyse the comparative environmental impacts of hydropower plants in alpine and non-alpine areas of Europe by a systematic...
Topics: Alpine and non-alpine regions, Environmental performance evaluation, Hydropower plant, Life-cycle...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ana Luísa Maulvault; Vera Barbosa; Ricardo Alves; Patrícia Anacleto; Carolina Camacho; Sara Cunha; José O. Fernandes; Pedro Pousão Ferreira; Rui Rosa; António Marques; Mário Diniz
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Pharmaceutical drugs, such as diclofenac (DCF), are frequently detected in the marine environment, and recent evidence has pointed out their toxicity to non-target marine biota. Concomitantly, altered environmental conditions associated with climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also affect the physiology of marine organisms. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceutical exposure and climate change-related stressors) still require a deeper...
Topics: Acidification, Diclofenac, Fish, IBR, Multi-biomarkers, Warming
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Siyang Cheng; Lingxi Zhou; Pieter P. Tans; Xingqin An; Yunsong Liu
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As CO 2 is a primary driving factor of climate change, the mole fraction and source–sink characteristics of atmospheric CO 2 over China are constantly inferred from multi-source and multi-site data. In this paper, we compared ground-based CO 2 measurements with satellite retrievals and investigated the source–sink regional representativeness at China's four WMO/GAW stations. The results indicate that, firstly, atmospheric CO 2 mole fractions from ground-based sampling measurement and...
Topics: Atmospheric CO 2, Atmospheric background station, Flask sampling observation, GOSAT, Source–sink...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pierpaolo Saccon
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This chapter aims to illustrate some of the recent methodologies that can be employed for improving water use efficiency in agriculture by optimizing irrigation management based on crop water requirements.
Topics: AquaCrop, Crop water productivity, Crop water requirement, FAO, Irrigation management, Scenario...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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It remains unknown how molluscs will respond to oceans which are increasingly predicted to be warmer, more acidic, and heavily polluted. Ocean acidification and trace metals will likely interact to increase the energy demands of marine organisms, especially oysters. This study tested the interactive effect of exposure to elevated pCO2 and copper on the energetic demands of the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) during reproductive conditioning and determined whether there were any...
Topics: Climate change, Copper, Eggs, Lipids, Mollusc, Ocean acidification, Oysters, Resilience,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Qiyuan Wang; Junji Cao; Yongming Han; Jie Tian; Yue Zhang; Siwatt Pongpiachan; Li Li; Xinyi Niu; Zhenxing Shen; Zhuzi Zhao; Danai Tipmanee; Suratta Bunsomboonsakul; Yang Chen; Jian Sun
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A lack of information on the radiative effects of refractory black carbon (rBC) emitted from biomass burning is a significant gap in our understanding of climate change. A custom-made combustion chamber was used to simulate the open burning of crop residues and investigate the impacts of rBC size and mixing state on the particles' optical properties. Average rBC mass median diameters ranged from 141 to 162 nm for the rBC produced from different types of crop residues. The number fraction of...
Topics: Biomass burning, Black carbon, Light absorption, Mixing state, Size distribution
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pamela T. Muñoz; José Bonomi Barufi; Leonardo Rörig; Jason M. Hall-Spencer; Paulo Antunes Horta
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Combined effect of acidification and sea warming derived from future conditions of Climate Change have been little investigated in marine photoautotrophs, especially on sensitive organisms such as calcifying macroalgae. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the interactive effects of acidification and increased temperatures on the two Brazilian calcifying macroalgae Lithothamnion crispatum and Sonderophycus capensis. Both species were cultured for 48 h under: (1) current pH (7.8 ± 0.2)...
Topics: Acidification, Climate change, Macroalgae, Warming
In salmonids, exposure to elevated temperature impairs oogenesis. As such, there is a need to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin this process, and develop mitigation strategies that maintain or rescue reproductive development in broodstock. In this study, follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and/or insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) treatment were assessed for their ability to promote reproductive function at 14 and 22 °C in ovarian follicles from coho salmon in vitro....
Topic: Ovarian steroidogenesis
Buildings play a significant role in climate change mitigation. In North America, energy used to construct and operate buildings accounts for some 40% of total energy use, largely originating from fossil fuels. The strategic reduction of these energy demands requires knowledge of potential upgrades prior to a building's construction. Furthermore, renewable energy generation integrated into buildings façades and district systems can improve the resiliency of community infrastructure. However,...
Topics: District energy, Energy planning, Evolutionary algorithm, Net-zero energy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lijie He; Lunche Wang; Aiwen Lin; Ming Zhang; Xiangao Xia; Minghui Tao; Hao Zhou
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Since the Reform and Opening up in China, aerosols increasingly affect the country's climate change and human health. However, remote sensing studies have been inconclusive as to long-term trends in Chinese aerosol emissions. The newly-released MERRA-2 product provides a long-term (1980 onward) aerosol reanalysis dataset, and thus is used in this study for identifying trends in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE) in clear sky over the Yangtze River Basin (YRB)...
Topics: Aerosol direct radiative effect, Aerosol optical depth, Impact factor analysis, Trend analysis,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jose L. Gonzalez-Andujar; Maria J. Aguilera; Adam S. Davis; Luis Navarrete
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Weeds can harm crop growth and yield by competing for light, water, and nutrients and can produce high global potential yield losses if not controlled. However, the effects of weed diversity have not been fully examined. Here, we have used long-term data (31 years) of a cereal–legume rotation from a locality in central Spain to determine the importance of internal and external (weather and weed diversity) factors on crop yield. We used a novel methodology based on dynamic systems to explore...
Topics: Crop management, Crop yield, Nonlinear, Precipitation, Self-regulation, Temperature, Time series
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho; Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos Freire; Bradford Paul Wilcox; Jason Brossard West; Fernando José Freire; Flávio Adriano Marques
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Caatinga forests occupy an area of around one million km2 in the semiarid region of northeast Brazil. These landscapes are undergoing rapid change because of accelerated deforestation for cultivation and firewood. The capacity of Caatinga forests to regenerate after clearing determines the magnitude of the carbon (C) sink in the soil, and thus is fundamental information for developing management policies for long-term sustainability. The objective of this study was to investigate C stocks and...
Topics: Degradation, Organic matter, Semiarid forests, Sustainability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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This study explored the consequences for long-term projections and impact analysis of the uncertainty in model parameters and initial conditions. Using the Global Forest Products Model, multiple replications of projections were carried out with parameters or initial condition data sampled randomly from their assumed distribution. The results showed that parameter uncertainty led to uncertainty of the projections increasing steadily with the time horizon, and more rapidly than the uncertainty...
Topics: Climate change, Forest sector models, Uncertainty
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Magdalena Brunnhofer; Natasha Gabriella; Josef Peter Schöggl; Tobias Stern; Alfred Posch
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Because it is a mature industry, the European pulp and paper industry (PPI) possesses strengths due to its infrastructure, technological know-how, and the availability of biomass. However, the declining trend in the wood-based products sales, coupled with an increasing amount of global attention focused on a bio-based and circular economy, sends a clear signal to the industry, indicating that it needs to transform its business model to increase its profitability while contributing to climate...
Topics: Delphi method, Pulp and paper industry, SWOT-analysis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Decision-making processes in the European Forest Sector are characterized by an enormous diversity in institutional and political framework conditions. In general, there is a clear need to improve policy integration and management approaches in order to deliver the competing ecosystem services demanded by society. The Special Issue “Models and tools for integrated forest management and forest policy analysis” originates from an initiative of Working Group 2 “Forestry modelling for...
Topics: "Climate change, Ecosystem services, Policy analysis, Decision-making methods, Decision...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated changes, such as increasing severity of droughts and insect outbreaks. We review the major insects and pathogens affecting the disturbance regime for coastal Douglas-fir forests in western Oregon and Washington State, USA, and ask how future climate changes may influence their role in disturbance ecology. Although the physiological constraints of light, temperature, and moisture largely control tree growth, episodic...
Topics: Climate change, Disturbance, Douglas-fir, Insects, Pathogens
Climate change and human impacts are often implicated in Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. The discovery of associated remains of extinct giant short-faced bears (Arctodus simus) and invading brown bears (Ursus arctos) raises the possibility of competition as another potential factor. We describe fossil remains of both genera from Pellucidar Cave, Vancouver Island, Canada. Analyses of ancient mitochondrial DNA support the identifications of post-cranial brown bear specimens and assign these...
Topics: Biogeography, Morphology, Paleoecology, Quaternary extinctions, Ursidae, Vancouver Island, aDNA
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by G. R. Hancock; V. Kunkel; T. Wells; Cristina Martinez
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Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a major soil component. However, there is still much to learn regarding its spatial and temporal distribution as well as how SOC moves through the landscape. Of particular interest is how SOC movement is related to soil erosion and deposition. Here we examine the spatial distribution of SOC over two large (562 and 606 km 2 ) catchments in relation to soil erosion and deposition. We found that the spatial distribution of SOC concentration on average is stable (over...
Topics: Carbon cycle, Climate change, Environmental tracers, Soil erosion, Soil organic carbon
Soil temperature is an important physical variable of soil and plays a key role in controlling the underground hydro-thermal processes in permafrost regions on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Daily soil temperatures were observed at five different vegetation cover sites (alpine wet meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe, alpine desert steppe and alpine desert) from 2012 to 2015 in permafrost regions on the QTP. The performance of three reanalysis soil temperature products (National Centers for...
Topics: Observation, Permafrost, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Reanalysis product, Soil temperature
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Z. M. Lan; C. R. Chen; M. Rezaei Rashti; H. Yang; D. K. Zhang
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Biochar amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil quality and mitigate climate change. Yet the extent and regulating mechanisms of soil nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission in response to amendment of biochars derived from different feedstock have not been clearly demonstrated. A 12-month field trial was conducted to study the impact of two distinct biochar feedstocks (pine chip and peanut shell, at 10 and 30 t ha −1 ) with (+N) and without nitrogen (N) (−N) fertilization on soil...
Topics: Biochar feedstock, Microbial gene abundance, N fertilization, N uptake, Nitrous oxide emission
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by S. Sjögersten; P. Aplin; V. Gauci; M. Peacock; A. Siegenthaler; B. L. Turner
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Climate warming is likely to increase carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from tropical wetlands by stimulating microbial activity, but the magnitude of temperature response of these CO2 and CH4 emissions, as well as variation in temperature response among forest types, is poorly understood. This limits the accuracy of predictions of future ecosystem feedbacks on the climate system, which is a serious knowledge gap as these tropical wetland ecosystems represent a very large source...
Topics: Carbon dioxide, Climate change, Methane, Moisture status, Peatland, Temperature response, Tropical
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Surface temperature is critical for the simulation of climate change impacts on the ecology, environment, and particularly permafrost in the cryosphere. Virtually, surface temperatures are different in the near-surface air temperature (Ta) measured at a screen-height of 1.5–2 m, the land surface temperature (LST) on the top canopy layer, and the ground surface temperature (GST) 0–5 cm beneath the surface cover. However, not enough attention has been concentrated on the difference in these...
Topics: Elevational permafrost, Ground surface temperature (GST), Land surface temperature (LST),...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Javad Seyedmohammadi; Fereydoon Sarmadian; Ali Asghar Jafarzadeh; Mohammad Ali Ghorbani; Farzin Shahbazi
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Cultivation priority planning is a very important and vital step in suitable and sustainable revenue of agricultural land. The growth of urban areas and industrial intensification has contributed to a reduction in valuable agricultural lands and to various environmental impacts including climate change. This reduction in agricultural land severely impacts food production and food security. In order to effectively address this issue, spatial analytical and optimization methods based on...
Topics: Cultivation priority, Fuzzy AHP, Fuzzy TOPSIS, SAW, TOPSIS
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jean Fletcher; Nancy Longnecker; James Higham
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Comprehensive measures for reducing transport emissions were absent from the 2015 Paris Agreement yet without radical transformations in mobility systems and travel behaviour, transport emissions will continue to grow rapidly. This study investigated perceptions of travel in the year 2050 to see whether expectations of future travel align with lower carbon mobility systems. Data were collected through an international, online survey in 2016, targeting young adults with high levels of climate...
Topics: 2050, Avoid-shift-improve, Climate change, Future travel, Low carbon mobility, Visions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by L. Y. Puerres; G. Bernal; M. Brenner; S. Restrepo; W. F. Kenney
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High-energy events in the Caribbean Sea include hurricanes, tropical storms, cold fronts and tsunamis. El Rosario Archipelago, located on the Colombian Caribbean shelf (SW Caribbean) consists of a set of ancient and successive coralline formations, uplifted by tectonic and diapiric activity. We undertook an integrated analysis of instrumental climate records and sediment records from a beach ridge system, a reef lagoon and a mangrove lagoon in the Archipelago, to determine whether historical...
Topics: Beach ridges, Coastal sediment records, Foraminifera, South Caribbean storms
The complex geomorphic and sedimentary evolution of the central Po Plain (northern Italy) during the last 30 ky was reconstructed through the integration of stratigraphic, geomorphological, geochemical and radiocarbon data. A key element of the Late Pleistocene stratigraphy is a 20 km-wide channel-belt sand body, with its top at a depth of ~13 m, fed by the Po River. Whereas the southern boundary of the Po fluvial channel belt coincides with a sharp lithological contact with floodplain muds,...
Topics: Controlling factors, Geomorphology, Late Quaternary, Po Plain, Sediment provenance, Subsurface...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jessica Fanzo; Claire Davis; Rebecca McLaren; Jowel Choufani
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A better understanding of the pathways linking climate change and nutrition is critical for developing effective interventions to ensure the world's population has access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food. The paper uses a food systems approach to analyze the bidirectional relationships between climate change and food and nutrition along the entire food supply chain. It identifies adaptation and mitigation interventions for each step of the food supply chain to move toward a more...
Topics: Food security, Food supply chain, Food systems, Nutrition
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Climate change and human activities have substantially changed hydrological and geomorphologic processes, particularly in upper mountainous catchments. The Jinsha River Basin (JRB), the uppermost region of the Yangtze River and the largest hydropower production region in China, was chosen to investigate the sediment load responses to climate variations and human activities. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and double mass curve were used to explore the spatial-temporal variations of...
Topics: Cascade reservoirs, Climate change, Discharge, Jinsha River, Sediment load, Three Gorges Reservoir
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by María Díaz-Redondo; Miguel Marchamalo; Gregory Egger; Fernando Magdaleno
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The Mediterranean region is recognized as one of Earth's biodiversity hotspots, but disconnection of habitats and fluxes of energy and nutrients have made them particularly vulnerable to external perturbations in the current context of global warming. This paper presents a multitemporal approach to understand how past human impacts have led to present deficits in fluvial dynamics and to propose and assess possible future restoration scenarios. First, biogeomorphic regression and progression...
Topics: Biogeomorphology, Middle Ebro River, Process-based restoration, Scenarios
Highlights •Anglophone media portrayals marginalized local climate vulnerabilities.•Technocratic conservation agenda, mythmaking drove semantic drift in media accounts.•Anglophone media representations failed to articulate poverty, inequality, justice.•Anglophone media discourses were found to promote neoliberal conservation agendas.•Absence of cultural and linguistic equivalence affect vernacular media discourse.
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Zhaoli Wang; Jun Li; Chengguang Lai; Raymond Yu Wang; Xiaohong Chen; Yanqing Lian
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Drought is considered an environmental disaster with a direct and devastating impact on agriculture. However, little research focuses on climate change related drought variations across the global grain production area (GGPA). Thus, the variation of crop yield across different grain production regions that experience severe drought remains inadequately studied. We analyzed drought variations across the GGPA to study the impacts of severe droughts on the yields of four major crops (maize, rice,...
Topics: Crop yield, Food security, Global grain production area, SPEI
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The faulty notion that population size is a fundamental driver of scarcity undergirds discourses of demographic trends as both threats and burdens. This claim of population-induced scarcity builds on well-worn “overpopulation” narratives which are often simplistic and repetitive: the finite planet and its natural resources cannot support the overly large and growing global population. In this article, we analyze three interrelated discourses that portray contemporary demographic trends as...
Topics: Degradation narrative, Demographic dividend, Malthus, Population ageing, Youth bulge
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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In this study, we explore cumulative exposure, climate justice, and flood risk with specific reference to community resilience, vulnerability, and social justice characteristics at the county-level within the U.S. Mississippi River basin from 1990 to 2009. Using a basic conceptual model of spatial resilience to climate risks, temporal lag effect of community capacity, urban and rural spatial classification, integrative cumulative exposure, and spatial clustering of risk, we examine spatial...
Topics: Climate adaptation planning, Climate change, Differential vulnerability, Spatial clustering of...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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This paper traces the relations and frictions that make up the institutional assemblage for the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) program in Papua New Guinea (PNG). By engaging with REDD+ using assemblage-thinking – a theoretical orientation and method that focuses on relationality, heterogeneity and emergence – this paper interrogates the dominance of scalar discourses around climate change and environmental governance. While scalar discourses predefine...
Topics: Assemblage, Papua New Guinea, REDD+, Scale