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Folkscanomy Miscellaneous
by Kevin Savetz and FAXTOY Users
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Mendeley Climate Change Library
by I. Blessing Mafimisebi; Keith Jones; Bahar Sennaroglu; Sunday Nwaubani
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Building energy performance in existing stocks via facilities management interventions for low carbon building has become expedient and relevant in global climate change discourse. It has raised the consciousness for the need for a unified decision-support model for Facilities Managers and Owners, which could be used for office buildings across countries in achieving cleaner building energy production and use. This paper aimed at examining the factors that affect office Building Energy...
Topics: Building performance, Energy efficiency, Greenhouse gas emissions, Management policy, Structural...
By forming city-to-city (C2C) transnational networks, cities can take action collectively against climate change. Interaction and collaboration among cities offers policymakers a chance to learn how other cities are conducting climate mitigation and adaptation measures. However, activities of C2C climate networks vary. By analyzing C2C climate networks, this study aims to identify and categorize C2C networks for climate change action, and to link the functions with levels of activity. To...
Topics: City-to-city cooperation, Climate mitigation policy, Network function, Translocal relations,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Brooks A. Kaiser; Melina Kourantidou; Linda Fernandez
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Closing of the marine commons increases economic returns and slows depletion of valuable ocean resources. Rights-based management is widely used for fisheries rationalization. Regulators with sound biological and economic information can in theory set overall harvest control rules that protect the fish stocks, and manage for external costs and benefits from harvest. These may include ecosystem damages, overcapitalization in the fishery, and/or equity concerns. Regulatory efforts and related...
Topics: Fisheries economics, Open access fisheries, Property rights regimes, Snow Crab (C. opilio),...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hilary A. Hayford; Michael J. O'Donnell; Emily Carrington
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The dynamic ebb and flood of tides makes the marine intertidal zone a habitat with temperatures that fluctuate rapidly in both space and time. This is problematic for slow intertidal organisms that cannot move at the speed of tidal fluctuations. The timing of low tides determines which days organisms may experience extreme body temperatures, controlling microclimate to a greater degree than weather patterns. When low tides occur midday, temperatures can exceed critical thermal maxima for many...
Topics: Behavior, Intertidal ecology, Nucella, RFID, Stress avoidance, Tidal cycling
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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As the relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal, there is a need to understand how spatial patterns in soil moisture influence the distribution of vegetation, and how the structure of vegetation canopies and root networks regulates the partitioning of precipitation. Spatial patterns of soil moisture are often difficult to visualise as usually, soil moisture is measured at point scales, and often difficult to extrapolate. Here, we address the difficulties in...
Topics: Electrical resistivity tomography, Forest, Moorland, Soil moisture
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yang Dai; Meng Fei Wang; Shou Lin Jiang; Yi Fei Zhang; Megha N. Parajulee; Fa Jun Chen
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Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels can markedly affect the growth, development, reproduction and behavior of herbivorous insects, mainly by changing the primary and secondary metabolites of their host plants. However, little is known about the host-selection behavior and the respective intrinsic mechanism of sap-sucking insects in response to elevated CO2. In this experiment, the host-selection behavior, as well as the physiological mechanism based on the analysis of growth,...
Topics: Aphis gossypii, Elevated CO2, Host-selection behavior, Olfactory-related genes, Physiological...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Nicola Tasinato; Giorgia Ceselin; Andrea Pietropolli Charmet; Paolo Stoppa; Santi Giorgianni
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Difluoromethane (CH2F2,HFC-32) presents strong ro-vibrational bands within the 8–12 μm atmospheric window and hence it represents a greenhouse gas able of contributing to global warming. Numerous spectroscopic studies have been devoted to this molecule, however, much information on line-by-line parameters, like line intensities and broadening parameters, is still lacking. In this work, line-by-line spectroscopic parameters are retrieved for several CH2F2 ro-vibrational transitions belonging...
Topics: Collisional cross sections, Difluoromethane, Greenhouse gases, N2– O2– air-broadening,...
Ongoing climate change was first noticed by the public a few decades ago. The factual occurrence of such a change and its impact on the space were confirmed by both results of scientific research and economic assessments carried out for a variety of economic purposes. The economic sectors whose activities are based on natural weather conditions are most vulnerable to the effects of ongoing climate change. An increase in the number of extreme events, and primarily of their effects, are deeply...
Topics: Changing climate, Extreme event, Influence on rural areas, Valuable (sensitive) area
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Gurwinder Singh; Kripal S. Lakhi; Kavitha Ramadass; Sungho Kim; Declan Stockdale; Ajayan Vinu
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Novel acid treated porous activated biocarbons (APABs) are synthesized from biomass waste, Arundo donax, through sulphuric acid polymerization followed by a single step solid state activation using KOH at a fixed carbonization temperature of 600 °C. The specific surface area and the pore volume of the prepared materials is controlled by varying the ratio of KOH to biomass from 1 to 4. The sample prepared with the KOH/biomass ratio of 3 is found to be the best as it exhibits the specific...
Topics: Activated biocarbons, Arundo donax, CO 2 capture, High surface area, Porous
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Primary production of vast regions of the world's estuarine, coastal and pelagic ocean waters is limited by availability of fixed nitrogen; this despite the fact that a highly diverse suite of microorganisms potentially capable of fixing N2 (eubacteria and cyanobacteria), inhabit these waters. Theoretically, diazotrophs should supply the N needs to balance the N required to support primary production, assuming other key limiting nutrients, phosphorus and iron, are available and energy...
Topics: Climate change, Cyanobacteria, Denitrification, Eutrophication, N2 fixation, Nitrogen limitation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xiao Wang; Xianxiang Luo; Hongli Jia; Hao Zheng
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The stable soil carbon (C) pool in coastal wetlands, referred to as “blue C” which has been extensively damaged by climate change and soil degradation, is of importance to maintain global C cycle. Therefore, to investigate the dynamic characteristics of soil respiration rate and evaluate C budgets in coastal wetlands are urgently. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration rate in the reed wetland land (RL) and the bare wetland land (BL) was measured in situ with...
Topics: Bare land, Carbon cycle, Reed land, Seasonal variation, Soil organic carbon
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jens Mingram; Martina Stebich; Georg Schettler; Yaqin Hu; Norbert Nowaczyk; Peter Dulski; Haitao You; Stephan Opitz; Qiang Liu; Jiaqi Liu
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Lake Sihailongwan in Jilin province, NE China, provides the first continuous and almost entirely seasonally laminated sediment record on the East Asian mainland comprising the complete Holocene, the Late-glacial period, and large parts of the Last Glacial. Sediment and palynological proxy data provide a finely resolved regional environmental history of the East Asian monsoon. A varve-based chronology (shl-vc2) has been established for the last 65,000 years and allows a detailed comparison with...
Topics: Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, East Asian monsoon, Heinrich events, Lake sediments, Paleoclimatology,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Shlomo Angel; Sara Arango Franco; Yang Liu; Alejandro M. Blei
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Urban population density has featured in a large body of literature on the Compact City paradigm as the key compactness attribute of cities, yet the shape compactness of urban footprints has hardly deserved a mention. This essay seeks to correct that. We review the literature on the Compact City Paradigm with a special focus on the relationship between urban form and climate change, and focus on twelve physical attributes of cities that make them more or less compact. Other things being equal,...
Topics: Climate change, Compact city, Population density, Sample of cities, Shape compactness, Urban...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Benoit Thibodeau; Henning A. Bauch; Jochen Knies
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Understanding the dynamic of freshwater and sea-ice export from the Arctic is crucial to better comprehend the potential near-future climate change consequences. Here, we report nitrogen isotope data of a core from the Laptev Sea to shed light on the impact of the Holocene Siberian transgression on the summer stratification of the Laptev Sea. Our data suggest that the oceanographic setting was less favourable to sea-ice formation in the Laptev Sea during the early to mid-Holocene. It is only...
Land Surface Temperature (LST) has major importance in urban climatology, global climate change, and earth-atmosphere energy transfer. Relationship of vegetation and built-up parameters as indicators of LST has been investigated in the present study. The present study has been carried out to analyze the variations in rising in LST in the urban area than the neighboring rural area for three different seasons’ winter, summer and monsoon of the years from 2009 to 2013 using Moderate Resolution...
Topics: Enhanced vegetation index, Land surface temperature, Normalized difference built-up index, Percent...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Omar J. Guerra; Gintaras V. Reklaitis
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Energy systems face a growing vulnerability to the availability and quality of water sources as a consequence of rising energy demand and increasing climate variability. The vulnerability of energy systems to water utilization constraints could be mitigated by the effective design and implementation of water management strategies in energy conversion process and supply chain systems. Based on a broad literature review, this study provides a comprehensive examination of the recent advances in...
Topics: Climate change, Decision-making, Energy systems, Planning and design, Water management
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by María Benlloch-González; Rosa Sánchez-Lucas; Manuel Benlloch; Fernández Escobar Ricardo
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The increase in air temperature associated to climate change is expected to affect olive (Olea europaea L.) tree fructification. To determine the potential effects of global warming on floral phenology and fruit set under field conditions, olive trees growing in a Mediterranean climate type area were subjected to warmer temperature than ambient by the use of temperature controlled Open-top-Chambers (OTCs). Each OTC, equipped with heating and ventilation devices, was able to maintain a day/night...
Topic: Open top chamber (OTC)
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Filomena Pietrapertosa; Valeriy Khokhlov; Monica Salvia; Carmelina Cosmi
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Building a climate-ready adaptation society is an urgent question that cannot be postponed. Along the path towards an increase in climate resilience, a stimulating role is played by EU projects as well as by international climate networks such as the Covenant of Mayors Initiative on Climate Change Adaptation (Mayors Adapt), launched in 2014, and the new Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy which “pledge to reduce CO2 emissions by at least 40% by 2030 and to adopt an integrated approach...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, National adaptation action plan, National adaptation strategy, South...
Agriculture has been adversely affected by low water availability due to climate change, creating abiotic stress conditions for economically important crops such as cucumber. Two on-field seasons study (summer and fall) were conducted consecutively in 2016/17 to investigate the effect of deficit drip irrigation at three levels (DI0% = 100%, DI20% = 80%, and DI40% = 60% of crop evapotranspiration) on cucumber's growth and productivity, water use efficiency (WUE), osmo-protectants, leaf...
Topics: Cucumber yield, Deficit irrigation, Osmoprotectants and chlorophyll fluorescence, Seasons, Water...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jingyi Huang; Budiman Minasny; Alex B. McBratney; José Padarian; John Triantafilis
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Much research has been conducted to understand the spatial distribution of soil carbon stock and its temporal dynamics. However, an agreement has not been reached on whether increasing global temperature has a positive or negative feedback on soil carbon stocks. By analysing global maps of soil organic carbon (SOC) using a spherical wavelet analysis, it was found that the correlation between SOC and soil temperature at the regional scale was negative between 52° N and 40° S parallels and...
Topics: Carbon pool, Carbon sink, Climate change, Soil forming factor, Soil variability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Chenlu Li; Yongmei Lu; Jianing Liu; Xiaoxu Wu
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Dengue Fever (DF) has become one of the most serious infectious diseases in China. Dengue virus and its vector (Aedes mosquito) are known to be sensitive to climate condition. Climate impacts DF through affecting three essential bioecological aspects: DF virus, vector (mosquito) and DF transmission environment. Weather-based DF model, mosquito model and climate model are the three pillars to help the prediction of DF distribution. Through a systematic review of literature between 1980 and 2017,...
Topics: China, Climate change, Dengue fever, Projection
Fencing and grass plantation are two key interventions to preserve the degraded grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Climate warming and N deposition have substantially affected the alpine grassland ecosystems. However, molecular composition of soil organic carbon (SOC), the indicator of degradation of SOC, and its responses to climate change are still largely unclear. In this study, we conducted the experiments in three types of land use on the QTP: alpine meadow (AM), alpine steppe...
Topics: Climate warming, Land use, Molecular composition, Nitrogen deposition, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, SOC
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ioannis Karaouzas; Evangelia Smeti; Aikaterini Vourka; Leonidas Vardakas; Aggeliki Mentzafou; Elisabet Tornés; Sergi Sabater; Isabel Muñoz; Nikolaos Th Skoulikidis; Eleni Kalogianni
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Temporary rivers are dynamic and complex ecosystems that are widespread in arid and semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean. Biotic communities adapted in their intermittent nature could withstand recurrent drought events. However, anthropogenic disturbances in the form of water stress and chemical pollution challenge biota with unpredictable outcomes, especially in view of climate change. In this study we assess the response of the biotic community of a temporary river to environmental...
Topics: Diatoms, Fish, Macroinvertebrates, Macrophytes, Temporal response patterns, Water stress
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Water and energy are highly interdependent in the modern world, and hence, it is important to understand their constantly changing and nonlinear interconnections to inform the integrated management of water and energy. In this study, a hydrologic model, a water systems model, and an energy model were developed and integrated into a system dynamics modeling framework. This framework was then applied to a water supply system in the northeast US to capture its water-energy interactions under a set...
Topics: Water supply, Water-energy nexus
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Belinda Gallardo; Manuel Lopes-Lima; Ronaldo Sousa; Manuel Pizarro; Khairul Adha Rahim; Salvatore G.P. Virdis; Alexandra Zieritz
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Deforestation, climate change and invasive species constitute three global threats to biodiversity that act synergistically. However, drivers and rates of loss of freshwater biodiversity now and in the future are poorly understood. Here we focus on the potential impacts of global change on freshwater mussels (Order Unionida) in Sundaland (SE Asia), a vulnerable group facing global declines and recognized indicators of overall freshwater biodiversity. We used an ensemble of distribution models...
Topics: Climate change, Freshwater mussels, Habitat fragmentation, Oil-palm, Sinanodonta woodiana, Species...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Haitao Wang; Jack A. Gilbert; Yongguan Zhu; Xiaoru Yang
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Coastal ecosystems are hotspots for nitrogen cycling, and specifically for nitrogen removal from water and sediment through the coupled nitrification-denitrification process. Salinity is globally important in structuring bacterial and archaeal communities, but the association between salinity and microbially-mediated nitrification and denitrification remains unclear. The denitrification activity and composition and structure of microbial nitrifiers and denitrifiers were characterized across a...
Topics: Abundance, Community structure, Denitrification, Nitrification, Salinity
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yunqi Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Shunli Zhou; Zhimin Wang
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No-tillage (NT) is a popular agricultural technique worldwide, but it remains unclear how NT affects the yield, evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize and wheat. We performed a meta-analysis of the NT effects on the yield, ET and WUE for wheat and maize based on the literatures published during 1950–2018. Yield, ET, and WUE varied by species, region, and agronomic and environmental factors. Averaged across all the geographic locations NT had no effect on the yield,...
Topics: Climate change, Crop rotation, Irrigation, No-tillage
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Chengcheng Gang; Wei Zhao; Ting Zhao; Yi Zhang; Xuerui Gao; Zhongming Wen
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In the 1990s, the Chinese government began implementation of a series of national-scale restoration programs to combat environmental degradation. As one of most important arid and semiarid regions of China, the Loess Plateau has attracted attention related to the effectiveness of these initiatives. The present study analyzed land use and cover change (LUCC) of the grassland in the Loess Plateau and the consequent change in net primary productivity (NPP) based on a consecutive land use data...
Topics: Green-for-Grain Project (GGP), Human activities, Land use and cover change (LUCC), Loess Plateau,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jie Liang; Wenle Xing; Guangming Zeng; Xin Li; Yuhui Peng; Xiaodong Li; Xiang Gao; Xinyue He
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Climate change, regarded as one of the major threats to biodiversity and ecosystems, can impact on the distribution and survival of migratory birds. To investigate the threats of climate change to threatened migratory bird distributions, we used species distribution model (SDM) and climatic data under current and future climate scenarios to predict future changes in species distributions and how the geographic distribution of these threatened birds may respond to climate change by 2050. Our...
Topics: China, Climate change, Conservation hotspots, Species distribution model, The Ramsar sites,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Understanding how soil processes, belowground plant and fungal species composition, and nutrient cycles are altered by disturbances is essential for understanding the role forests play in mitigating global climate change. Here we ask: How are root and fungal communities altered in a mid-successional forest during shifts in dominant tree species composition? This study utilizes the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET) at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) as a...
Topics: Forest disturbance, Fungi, Mycorrhizae, Nitrogen, Soil
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jeremy M. Hills; Evanthie Μichalena; Konstantinos J. Chalvatzis
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Transitioning to sustainability will require innovation, not just in technological and economic terms but also in governance and culture. The work presented here sought a remote, vulnerable island context (Fiji, South Pacific) to enable further insight into the innovation process related to resilience and sustainability. The innovation targeted by this work was off-grid solar renewable energy (RE) systems framed as a development instrument to promote local, community-based resilience to climate...
Topics: Innovation, Pacific island countries, Renewable energy, Resilience, Vulnerable communities
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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With deepening concerns over climate change, policymakers, electric utilities, environmentalists and others are increasingly championing the idea of ‘electrification,’ or the replacement of fossil fuels with electricity for direct end uses like transportation and space heating. The electric industry sees electrification as an opportunity for revitalizing sales and revenues. The focus of this paper is on consumer behavior and its nexus with public policy for advancing electrification.
Topics: Behavioral economics, Customer behavior, Economic issues, Electrification, Electrification gap,...
The transformation of natural landscapes into impervious built-up surfaces through urbanization is known to significantly interfere with the ecological integrity of urban landscapes and accelerate climate change and associated impacts. Although urban reforestation is widely recognised as an ideal mitigation practice against these impacts, it often has to compete with other lucrative land uses within an urban area. The often limited urban space provided for reforestation therefore necessitates...
Topics: Elevation, Partial least squares regression, Slope, Topographic wetness index, Urban ecological...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Tom Roach; Zoran Kapelan; Ralph Ledbetter
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This paper aims to develop new, resilience type metrics for long-term water resources management under uncertain climate change and population growth. Resilience is defined here as the ability of a water resources management system to ‘bounce back’, i.e. absorb and then recover from a water deficit event, restoring the normal system operation. Ten alternative metrics are proposed and analysed addressing a range of different resilience aspects including duration, magnitude, frequency and...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, Performance metrics, Reliability, Resilience, Water resources...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xiaoyu Wang; Tao Li; Lizhi Wang; Xiaoguang Yang; Tianyi Zhang; Zhijuan Liu; Erjing Guo; Ziqi Liu; Huihui Qu; Xi Chen; Hongtao Xiang; Yongcai Lai
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Northeast China (NEC) is one of the most important rice production areas in China, accounting for approximately 15% of its total national rice production, and is one of the regions most vulnerable to global climate change. Knowing crops’ potential yields is crucial to understanding comparisons of different cultivars, crops and environments as well as plausible future increases and limits to crop yields. To mitigate the impacts of climate change and enhance food security, investigating yield...
Topics: Agroclimatic zones, Climate change, ORYZA (v3) crop model, Rice, Yield constraints, Yield gaps
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Tien Dung Khong; Michael D. Young; Adam Loch; Jayanthi Thennakoon
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Sea level rise and upstream development is causing salinity intrusion in Vietnam's Mekong River Delta (MRD) and, as a consequence, agricultural productivity is declining. As the Vietnamese government and local communities search for a solution, it has become apparent that there are insufficient public resources to build the dykes necessary to control this problem. So, we employ a referendum contingent valuation methodology (CVM) to determine whether or not farm households might be willing to...
Topics: Climate change, Referendum, Willingness to pay
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Golam Saleh Ahmed Salem; So Kazama; Shamsuddin Shahid; Nepal C. Dey
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The objective of the present study was to assess the impacts of climate change on irrigation cost in a groundwater dependent irrigated region in northwest Bangladesh. An ensemble of general circulation model (GCMs) were used for the projection of climate, an empirical hydrological model based on support vector machine (SVM) was used to simulate groundwater level from climatic variables, and a multiple-linear regression (MLR) model was used to estimate the irrigation cost due to the changes in...
Topics: Global circulation model, Groundwater level, Irrigation cost
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Camila R. Guetter; Marion C. Henry; Marie Crandall; Mecker G. Möller; Janet Elizabeth Tuttle-Newhall; Sharon Stein
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Background: Climate change will affect most populations in the next decades and put the health of billions of people at risk. Health care facilities represent a significant source of pollution around the world and contribute to environmental changes. To address this topic, we performed a review of the available literature on tactics to reduce operating room (OR) waste and the potential of these strategies to impact the environment. Data Sources: A literature search was performed querying...
Topics: Climate change, Global surgery, Global warming, Operating room waste reduction, Recycling,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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In an effort to address climate change, in 2013 China launched the world's largest government-driven carbon emission reduction programme, the National Low Carbon Industrial Parks Pilot Programme (LCIPPP). This paper analyses this newly developed pilot program. To deepen our understanding of the causes and the impact of industrial park CO 2 emissions, we use the STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model and data from 20 pilot industrial parks...
Topics: CO 2 emissions, Low carbon industrial park, STIRPAT model
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rebecca L. Mau; Paul Dijkstra; Egbert Schwartz; Benjamin J. Koch; Bruce A. Hungate
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Soil contains the largest terrestrial pool of carbon (C), but how this pool will be affected by global change remains unknown. Warmer temperatures generally increase soil respiration, while additional C inputs from plants to soil can increase or decrease soil C decomposition rates through a phenomenon known as priming. Priming occurs when soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition rates change in response to a fresh substrate, though the mechanisms underlying priming are poorly understood. Here,...
Topics: Climate change, Priming, SOM decomposition, Warming
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lu Gao; Jie Huang; Xingwei Chen; Ying Chen; Meibing Liu
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This study focuses on the analysis of the nonstationarity characteristics of extreme precipitation and their attributions in the southeastern coastal region of China. The maximum daily precipitation (MDP) series is extracted from observations at 79 meteorological stations in the study area during the first flood season (April–June) from 1960 to 2012. The trends of the mean (Mn) and variance (Var) of MDP are detected using the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape...
Topics: Climate change, Human activity, Nonstationarity, Precipitation, Risk, Trend
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. M. Thompson; B. H. Coe; R. M. Andrews; D. F. Stauffer; D. A. Cristol; D. A. Crossley; W. A. Hopkins
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Habitat loss and pollution are two of the greatest global threats to biodiversity. Due to their widespread prevalence, these threats often co-occur, yet their interactive effects on organisms remain poorly understood. Some reptiles are vulnerable to these threats because they have specific microclimate requirements for embryonic development and because pollutants are maternally transferred to their eggs; both incubation temperature and pollutants affect reptile sex determination. In aquatic...
Topics: Agriculture, Climate change, Fluctuating temperature, Mercury, Nest microclimate, Turtle
Water shortage appears to be expedited under the current climate change scenario worldwide. The present work was aimed to investigate the effects of zinc-chelated lysine (Zn-Lys) on germination and yield of water stressed radish plants. The research was comprised of two studies where the effect of Zn-Lys seed priming on germination attributes under PEG-induced water stress was investigated in the first experiment. In the second experiment, growth, physio-biochemical, and yield responses of...
Topics: Antioxidants, Bio-fortification, Drought, Nutrient dynamics, Nutritional quality, Plant biomass
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xin Ying Kong; Boon Junn Ng; Kok Hong Tan; Xiaofang Chen; Huanting Wang; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Siang Piao Chai
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Under the tremendous pressure of imminent energy crisis and anthropogenic climate change, photocatalytic conversion of abandoned CO2 into energy-rich hydrocarbon fuels is highly desirable. However, this solar-to-fuel conversion is unavoidably suppressed by the fast recombination of electron-hole pairs and lack of stability of photocatalysts. To overcome this, we have developed ultrathin BiOBr nanosheets (BOB-NS) with primarily exposed {001} facets. The {001} facets of BOB-NS are comprised of...
Topics: CO2 reduction, Long-term stability, Oxygen vacancy defects, Photocatalysis, Ultrathin BiOBr...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Michael Gross
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Ahead of the 24th annual global summit on climate change, science provides ever more detailed and reliable scenarios of the catastrophic damage that the ongoing man-made climate change is going to cause in the years to come. However, people with the power to do something about it still don’t take much notice, and denialists even win elections. Michael Gross reports.
This article examines the emerging nexus of cities, climate change, and information and communication technologies (ICTs) and highlights the importance of ICT innovation-based urban low carbon development pathways in realizing the 1.5 Celsius (C) climate change global policy objective. The first part of the article reviews the three phases of the scientific scholarship on ICTs, climate change, and environmental sustainability, while the second part of the article examines ICTs in accelerating...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Stephen J. Beatty; James R. Tweedley; Alan Cottingham; Tom Ryan; Joel Williams; Kath Lynch; David L. Morgan
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Estuarine storm surge barriers are designed to prevent the flooding of human-developed landscapes. While such barriers may have a range of ecological impacts, including the fragmentation of aquatic habitats and the alteration of water quality, their impact on obligate estuarine fishes is largely unknown. The sparid, Acanthopagrus butcheri, was used as a model species to determine how surge barriers may influence the movements of solely estuarine species and fish kill events. Individual A....
Topics: Acanthopagrus butcheri, Fish kills, Fish migration, Flood-mitigation barriers, Habitat...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. Peraza-Castro; E. Ruiz-Romera; M. Meaurio; S. Sauvage; J. M. Sánchez-Pérez
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The separate and combined effects of climate change and forest clearcutting on discharge, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) load at a seasonal and annual scale were evaluated for the Oka catchment. Compared to the baseline scenario (1970–2000), climate change displayed a decrease in annual rainfall (RCP4.5: 27% and RCP8.5: 28%) and an increase in mean temperature (12% for both emission scenarios). Together with the decrease in rainfall, a decrease in...
Topics: Climate change, Forest clearcutting, Hydrological modelling, SWAT
The Lynher Estuary in Southwest England is a small, strongly tidal sub-estuary of the Tamar Estuary. It is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), a Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ), a part of the Plymouth Sound and Estuaries Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and a Special Protection Area (SPA). Management of the Lynher SSSI and MCZ stipulates that good water quality and sediment quality should be maintained; as such, a good understanding of its responses to influences such as climate...
Topics: Chlorophyll-a, Dissolved oxygen, Estuarine turbidity maximum, Lynher Estuary, Salinity intrusion,...
Transition studies have made constructive efforts to attend more closely to the politics of sustainability transitions, with discourse emerging as an increasingly important means of interrogating these dynamics. Drawing on discourse perspectives, this study deploys the multi-dimensional discursive approach to explore framing struggles surrounding a climate change mitigation experience of international significance (the phase-out of coal-fired power in Ontario), revealing how ideas, interests,...
Topics: Coal phase-out, Discourse, Framing, Multi-dimensional discursive approach, Pathways, Transitions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Charlotte Rachael Hopkins; David Mark Bailey; Tavis Potts
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As international pressure for marine protection has increased, Scotland has increased spatial protection through the development of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) network. Few MPA networks to date have included specific considerations of climate change in the design, monitoring or management of the network. The Scottish MPA network followed a feature-led approach to identify a series of MPAs across the Scottish marine area and incorporated the diverse views of many different stakeholders. This...
Topics: Climate change, Delphi technique, MPA management, Marine protected area network, Scotland
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jim Krane; Kenneth B. Medlock
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The United States appears less exposed to geopolitical risks affecting its oil supply than at any time since the relatively stable period preceding the widespread oil sector nationalizations of the 1970s. Energy prosperity in the US contrasts with a more fraught period for traditional energy exporting states where geopolitical challenges have been compounded by fiscal stress and rising domestic energy demand. America's relationship with energy-exporting countries will continue to evolve as the...
Topics: Carter Doctrine, Climate change, Crude oil, Energy security, Geopolitics, OPEC
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yue Qin; Fan Tong; Guang Yang; Denise L. Mauzerall
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Under the Paris Agreement, China committed to peak its carbon dioxide emissions on or before 2030. Substituting natural gas for coal may facilitate it meeting this commitment. However, three major challenges may obstruct progress towards desired climate benefits from natural gas. 1) A fundamental price dilemma dis-incentivizing a coal-to-gas end-use energy transition: low city-gate gas prices discourage an increase in gas supplies while high end-use gas prices impede an increase in gas demand....
Topics: Climate change, Coal, Methane leakage, NDC, Natural gas, Price dilemma
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by J. Díaz; R. Carmona; I. J. Mirón; M. Y. Luna; C. Linares
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Many of the studies that analyze the future impact of climate change on mortality assume that the temperature that constitutes a heat wave will not change over time. This is unlikely, however, given the process of adapting to heat changes, prevention plans, and improvements in social and health infrastructure. The objective of this study is to analyze whether, during the 1983–2013 period, there has been a temporal change in the maximum daily temperatures that constitute a heat wave...
Topics: Daily mortality, Heat waves, Impact assessment, Prevention plans, Time trend
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jonathon Taylor; Paul Wilkinson; Roberto Picetti; Phil Symonds; Clare Heaviside; Helen L. Macintyre; Michael Davies; Anna Mavrogianni
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There is growing recognition of the need to improve protection against the adverse health effects of hot weather in the context of climate change. We quantify the impact of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and selected adaptation measures made to dwellings on temperature exposure and mortality in the West Midlands region of the UK. We used 1) building physics models to assess indoor temperatures, initially in the existing housing stock and then following adaptation measures (energy efficiency...
Topics: Adaptation, Dwellings, Heat, Indoor temperature, Mortality, Urban Heat Island
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Many Oklahomans agree that the disposal of produced water in deep injection wells contributes to the increased rate of seismicity in the state. However, a portion of this same population disagrees that greenhouse gas emissions contribute to climate change. Part of this difference can be explained as an effect of the combination of a particular cultural model of nature and Oklahomans’ relative insulation from the effects of climate change. This article suggests that scientific communication...
Topics: Analogies, Climate change, Cultural Models, Induced seismicity
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Elsayed Mansour; Ehab S.A. Moustafa; Naglaa Qabil; Asmaa Abdelsalam; Hany A. Wafa; Ahmed El Kenawy; Ana M. Casas; Ernesto Igartua
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Climate change poses challenges to agricultural production in general and to plant breeders in particular. Adaptation of cereals to the new conditions and increasingly variable situations arising from this process is essential to reduce risks and limit potential threats associated with climate hazards. This study presents the first attempt to assess the response and resilience of barley genotypes, with different growth habits across Egypt. For this purpose, eight field trials were conducted...
Topics: Barley growth habits, Climate change, Mediterranean region, Photoperiod response genes, Resilient...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by R. P. Rötter; M. Appiah; E. Fichtler; K. C. Kersebaum; M. Trnka; M. P. Hoffmann
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Climate change implies higher frequency and magnitude of agroclimatic extremes threatening plant production and the provision of other ecosystem services. This review is motivated by a mismatch between advances made regarding deeper understanding of abiotic stress physiology and its incorporation into ecophysiological models in order to more accurately quantifying the impacts of extreme events at crop system or higher aggregation levels. Adverse agroclimatic extremes considered most detrimental...
Topics: Drought, Heat, Heavy rain
Transitioning food, energy and water systems for adaptation and mitigation of climate change is a challenge requiring social as well as technological solutions. The best technological solutions will only be effective if combined with behavior changes placing climate change at the forefront of our socio-cultural consciousness. Education is central in creating such a shift. Climate researchers have an important role in aiding the uptake of climate change education in U.S. public schools, where...
Topics: Climate change education, Climate literacy and pedagogy, Science communication, Social behavior...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by John H. Knight; Budiman Minasny; Alex B. McBratney; Terry B. Koen; Brian W. Murphy
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Traditionally, soil temperatures at various depths were measured daily at agricultural research stations around the world. Short-term fluctuations are damped at depth, acting as a natural low pass filter on soil surface temperature time series. In the last 20 years, a number of northern hemisphere soil temperature data sets have been analysed for long term trends, but our analysis at four sites in eastern Australian is the first in the southern hemisphere. Soil temperature data at Cowra in New...
Topics: Climate change, Fourier analysis, Soil heat transport, Soil thermal diffusivity, Soil thermal...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Narasimha D. Rao; Jihoon Min; Ruth DeFries; Suparna Ghosh-Jerath; Hugo Valin; Jess Fanzo
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India has among the highest lost years of life from micronutrient deficiencies. We investigate what dietary shifts would eliminate protein, iron, zinc and Vitamin A deficiencies within households’ food budgets and whether these shifts would be compatible with mitigating climate change. This analysis uses the National Sample Survey (2011–12) of consumption expenditure to calculate calorie, protein and the above micronutrient intake deficiencies and relate them to diets, income and location....
Topics: Climate mitigation, Co-benefits, Food security, Hidden hunger, Micronutrient deficiencies
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Results confirm that Iran like many countries is affected by high climate variability, which has influenced hydroclimatological variables such as temperature, evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and radiation. This study uses Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data to assess hydrological cycle changes in Iran during a long period (Jan1948-Jan2017). Results show that hydrometeorological variables have significant changes (p-value
Topics: Climate variation, Energy balance, Extreme weather events, GLDAS, Hydrological cycle,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hana Etemadi; Joseph M. Smoak; Christian J. Sanders
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Mangrove forests rank as one of the world's most productive biomes and their soils are highly efficient in accumulating organic carbon (OC). Most research on OC in mangrove forests has focused on moist tropical and sub-tropical regions. Here we examine an arid mangrove forest (composed of the species Avicennia marina) from the Jask area in southern Iran. The organic carbon content, TOC:TN ratios and δ 13 C signatures indicate that marine algae and microalgae are a greater source of organic...
Topics: Arid mangrove wetland expansion, Jask mangroves, Organic carbon, Sea level rise
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Claudio Favi; Federico Campi; Michele Germani; Steve Manieri
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Maritime vessels are complex products with long service lives and high costs of construction, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing. The definition of a consistent and repeatable life cycle model among vessel types is still an open question, and the development of such a model can be helpful for the implementation of decision-making strategies and design choices. The present paper aims to introduce a life cycle model and a data framework in the early phases of shipbuilding design,...
Topics: Data framework, Design, LCA, LCCA, Life cycle model, Maritime vessel
Energy efficiency improvement is usually regarded as an effective way to decrease energy consumption and to fight climate change, but it also booms energy consumption through rebound effects. But the improvement of energy efficiency also has rebound effects, which increases energy consumption and emission. So this paper arms to capture the rebound effects of efficiency improvement by considering zero-cost breakthrough of energy efficiency and price jump of energy purchase. First, energy...
Topics: Energy efficiency, Price jump, Rebound effects, Zero-cost breakthrough
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by F. Frappart; P. Azemar; P. L. Vu; T. Le Toan; B. Lubac; J. Darrozes
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Lakes and reservoirs have been identified as sentinels of climate change. Tonle Sap is the largest lake in both the Mekong Basin and Southeast Asia and because of the importance of its ecosystem, it is has been described as the “heart of the lower Mekong”. Its seasonal cycle depends on the annual flood pulse governed by the flow of the Mekong River. This study provides an impact analysis of recent climatic events from El Niño 1997/1998 to El Niño 2015/2016 on surface storage variations in...
Topics: ENSO, EVI, Mekong Basin, Monsoon, Multi-satellite, PDO, Rainfall, Surface water storage
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by María A. Díaz; Horacio E. Bown; Juan P. Fuentes; Amanda M. Martínez
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Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are greenhouse gases (GHG), which sustained increase in the atmosphere contribute to global warming and climate change. The GHG fluxes of soils are strongly controlled by water content, temperature, plant and microbial communities and soil management. The Chilean sclerophyllous ecosystem is a global biodiversity hotspot historically and increasingly threatened by human activity. The aim of this study was to compare soil CH4 (and CO2) fluxes, under...
Topics: Air filled porosity, Carbon dioxide, Methane, Sclerophyllous, Soils
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Cheuk Hei Marcus Tong; Steve Hung Lam Yim; Daniel Rothenberg; Chien Wang; Chuan Yao Lin; Yongqin David Chen; Ngar Cheung Lau
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Air pollution is an increasingly concerning problem in many metropolitan areas due to its adverse public health and environmental impacts. Vertical atmospheric conditions have strong effects on vertical mixing of air pollutants, which directly affects surface air quality. The characteristics and magnitude of how vertical atmospheric conditions affect surface air quality, which are critical to future air quality projections, have not yet been fully understood. This study aims to enhance...
Topics: Air quality, Climate change, Generalized linear models, Principal component regression,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Bahareh Kaveh; Muhammad Usman Mazhar; Benjamin Simmonite; Marjan Sarshar
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In the UK, housing has been identified as a major sector for contributing to the 80% reduction in carbon emissions over the 1990 baseline by 2050, required by the Climate Change Act 2008. However, pre-1919 housing stock is the least energy efficient and consequently poses challenges to meeting this target. Using a mixed methods approach, the current study demonstrates that, in actuality, there is a significant potential for reducing emissions among this sub-sector of housing, and that the major...
Topics: Carbon emissions, Homeowners, Pre-1919 housing stock, Retrofitting, Viability
Procedural and behavioural biases have received little attention in recent Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) research. Our literature review shows that most research on biases was done 15–30 years ago. This study focuses on biases that are introduced at an early stage of MCDA when building objectives hierarchies and their effect on the weights. The main objective is to investigate whether prior findings regarding such biases, which were mostly based on laboratory experiments, can be...
Topics: Behavioural OR, Decision analysis, Decision processes, Multiple criteria analysis, OR in...
Transition pathways have attracted increasing interest as a useful analytical lens through which to capture the interlocking processes, patterns, and directions that might constitute substantial movement toward sustainability. While recent research has elaborated the political character of pathways, there is still room to further scrutinize the role of critical choices and branching points in defining diverging pathways. Contributing to the growing body of research on pathways, this study...
Topics: Branching points, Climate change mitigation, Critical choices, Pathways, Socio-technical transitions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Octavio Aburto-Oropeza; Andrew F. Johnson; Scott Butterfield; Mickey Agha; Edith B. Allen; Michael F. Allen; Jesús Arellano González; Diego M. Arenas Moreno; Rodrigo Beas-Luna; Gabriel Caetano; Jennifer E. Caselle; Gamaliel Castañeda Gaytán; Max C.N. Castorani; Linh Anh Cat; Kyle Cavanaugh; Jeffrey Q. Chambers
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The US and Mexico share a common history in many areas, including language and culture. They face ecological changes due to the increased frequency and severity of droughts and rising energy demands; trends that entail economic costs for both nations and major implications for human wellbeing. We describe an ongoing effort by the Environment Working Group (EWG), created by The University of California's UC-Mexico initiative in 2015, to promote binational research, teaching, and outreach...
Topics: Binational collaborations, Cross-border transformation, Environmental innovation, Northern Mexico,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jessica Ferner; Sebastian Schmidtlein; Reginald T. Guuroh; Javier Lopatin
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Livestock rearing is the most important agricultural activity in global drylands, making forage supply an essential ecosystem service (ES). Most drylands are expected to experience increasing levels of climatic aridity and land-use pressure in the future. As few studies account for combined effects of these global change drivers, we still have a limited understanding of how these drivers jointly shape forage supply. Here, the concept of social-ecological systems (SESs) is useful, as it helps to...
Topics: Savanna ecosystem, Social-ecological system (SES), Structural equation modelling (SEM)
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Gianluca Pescaroli; Michael Nones; Luca Galbusera; David Alexander
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Cascading crises and disasters in the global interconnected system are emerging topics in today's disaster risk reduction research. The primary objective is improving the capability of our societies to cope with such events and mitigate their detrimental consequences through an evolved understanding of their nature. Rather than being merely considered as an outcome of low-probability/high-impact processes, cascading events can be associated with the cross-scale accumulation of vulnerability...
Topics: Cascading disasters, Climate change, Critical infrastructure, Emergency planning, Impact...
Wetlands are a non-renewable resource of high potential for organic archaeological deposits and palaeoenvironmental sequences. This resource is at threat from development and climate change. Only a small percentage of the identified wetlands in North West Europe have been studied with regard to their depth, stratigraphic architecture and the heritage assets they contain. In this paper several case studies are combined to show the variation of radar velocity field with different wetland sediment...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Existing studies on farmers’ willingness to reuse agricultural biomass waste usually focus on individual and social economic characteristics without consideration of the underlying psychological factors. This paper uses the theory of planned behavior, a typical social psychology model, to identify the psychological constructs that affect farmers’ intentions to reuse agricultural biomass waste for carbon emission abatement. According to this theory, an individual's behavior is driven by the...
Topics: Biomass resource, Climate change mitigation, Structural equation modeling, Theory of planned...
The carbon and water cycles play an important role in ecosystem functioning and are linked to each other through different physical and biological processes. The hydroclimatic disturbances such as droughts affect both hydrological as well as the ecological processes. Increasing hydroclimatic disturbances under climate change will adversely affect the ecohydrological processes and hence, the assessment of the ecohydrological resilience and its controlling factors is important for the...
Topics: Droughts, Ecohydrological resilience, Ecosystem water use efficiency, Evapotranspiration,...
Snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. As a major part of the cryosphere, snow cover also represents a valuable terrestrial water resource. In the context of climate change, the dynamics of snow cover play a crucial role in rebalancing the global energy and water budgets. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations are three techniques frequently utilized for snow cover investigations. However, the uncertainties caused by systematic errors, scale gaps, and...
Topics: Field measurement, Geotagged photo, Hydrological model, Remote sensing, Snow cover
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Erin E. Black; Ken O. Buesseler; Steven M. Pike; Phoebe J. Lam
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Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are thought to be regions of decreased carbon attenuation in the upper ocean with a biological pump that could deliver a greater percentage of exported carbon to the mesopelagic relative to surrounding waters. However, much is still unknown about carbon cycling through these zones and the areas of extreme oxygen minima (nM O 2 ) or oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) within the OMZs. Paired sampling for 234 Th (t½ ~ 24.1 days) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was...
Topics: Export, GEOTRACES, GP-16, Oxygen minimum layer, Particulate organic carbon, Remineralization,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by V. Lontorfos; C. Efthymiou; M. Santamouris
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Cities face important overheating problems caused by the local and global climate change. Detailed mitigation and adaptation plans and strategies, are designed and applied to counterbalance the impact of the overheating challenges. Albedo management seems to be among the more considered mitigation strategies. A barrier to the wider use of reflecting technologies is the lack of quantitative experimental data and concrete knowledge about their mitigation contribution. Up to now, the performance...
Topics: Ageing, Reflective cool materials, Urban heat island, Urban mitigation technologies
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Utpal Kumar Das; Kok Soon Tey; Mehdi Seyedmahmoudian; Saad Mekhilef; Moh Yamani Idna Idris; Willem Van Deventer; Alex Stojcevski
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To mitigate the impact of climate change and global warming, the use of renewable energies is increasing day by day significantly. A considerable amount of electricity is generated from renewable energy sources since the last decade. Among the potential renewable energies, photovoltaic (PV) has experienced enormous growth in electricity generation. A large number of PV systems have been installed in on-grid and off-grid systems in the last few years. The number of PV systems will increase...
Topics: Artificial intelligence, Hybrid model, Machine-learning, Optimization, PV power forecasting
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Heike Auerswald; Gaute Torsvik
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Challenges addressed in global politics, such as climate change, maritime piracy and fighting highly contagious diseases, concern global public goods. The related policy decisions are primarily made by teams. In contrast, economic models of global public goods typically assume a single rational decision maker. We use a laboratory experiment to compare team decisions to the decisions of individuals in a finitely repeated public goods game with and without a costly punishment option. Teams of...
Topics: Experiment, Group decision-making, Public good, Punishment
Tunisia is prone to serious depletion of water resources that is threatening the sustainable agriculture development especially the livestock sector. The current study aimed to measure water footprint (WF) and economic water productivity (EWP) of sheep meat within twelve smallholder farms in two different agro-ecological zones in Tunisia; humid in northern and semi-arid in central Tunisia. A year-round monitoring of on-farm practices was performed using water meters and recording equipment's...
Topics: Gross margin, Sheep, Smallholder farms, Water footprint
Increasing heat-wave risk due to regional climate evolutions, exacerbated by urban heat island (UHI) effects, is a major threat for the inhabitants of many cities. Adaptive policies such as greening the urban environment are often proposed to limit population vulnerability, as vegetation enables to regulate the microclimate by evapotranspiration. The efficiency of such strategies depends on water availability and raises the issues of water supply for irrigation and of vegetation efficiency....
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Irrigation, Pavement watering, Urban climate, Urban heat island effect
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Morey Burnham; Laura Vang Rasmussen; Zhao Ma
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The world's poor are frequently considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change (Niang et al., 2014), and thus most in need of adaptation to reduce the harms and risks climate change poses to their lives and livelihoods. As climate change adaptation projects are increasingly linked to socioeconomic development, scholars have recognized that planned adaptation interventions must go beyond abating climate risk and address the various structural deficits,” such as lack of income,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Environmental impact and climate change urge governments across the globe to prioritize to the development of new energy vehicles (NEVs). Since 2010, the Chinese government has introduced numerous policies to accelerate the development of the NEV industry. These policies have various effects on NEVs due to several complex factors, such as timing, regional economies, and other demands on the government's attention. This paper investigates NEV policies that were launched by China's national,...
Topics: Industrial development, New energy vehicles, Policy analysis, Policy recommendation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by S. Pellegrini; A. E. Agnelli; M. C. Andrenelli; R. Barbetti; G. Lo Papa; S. Priori; E. A.C. Costantini
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This research aimed at testing the use of present and past climosequences to estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) and related physical quality indicators under future climatic conditions. The influence of climate on soil features was studied for four combinations of typical Mediterranean soil types and cropping systems, placed along climosequences of the past (P1: 1961–1990), present (P2: 1981–2010) and future (P3: 2021–2050). The four test areas were located in Italy, each one...
Topics: Climate change, Cropping system, Mediterranean, Soil physics, Soil quality indicators, Soil type
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mikko Peltoniemi; Mika Aurela; Kristin Böttcher; Pasi Kolari; John Loehr; Tatu Hokkanen; Jouni Karhu; Cemal Melih Tanis; Sari Metsämäki; Juha Pekka Tuovinen; Timo Vesala; Ali Nadir Arslan
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Ecosystems’ potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon, is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support analyses of ecosystem functioning. Analyses of conventional camera time series mounted near vegetation has been suggested as a means of monitoring phenological events and supporting wider monitoring of phenological cycle of biomes...
Topics: Birch, Budburst, Camera, Monitoring, Phenology, Time lapse
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Tesfaye Shiferaw Sida; Frédéric Baudron; Haekoo Kim; Ken E. Giller
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Faidherbia albida parklands cover a large area of the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Africa, a region that suffers from soil fertility decline, food insecurity and climate change. The parklands deliver multiple benefits, including fuelwood, soil nutrient replenishment, moisture conservation, and improved crop yield underneath the canopy. Its microclimate modification may provide an affordable climate adaptation strategy which needs to be explored. We carried out an on-farm experiment for three...
Topics: Climate change, Competition, Crop physiology, Facilitation, Heat stress, Local adaptation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Weichao Guo; Hongyan Liu; Oleg A. Anenkhonov; Huailiang Shangguan; Denis V. Sandanov; Andrey Yu Korolyuk; Guozheng Hu; Xiuchen Wu
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Permafrost contains twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and the degradation of permafrost due to climatic warming, which could potentially change the global carbon cycle and could also enhance global climate change. It is well studied that permafrost degradation could result in vegetation transition. Aboveground vegetation can act as a buffer for climatic warming, however its role in regulating permafrost degradation remains unclear. In this study we examined how different vegetation types...
Topics: Freeze-thaw, Permafrost degradation, Snow accumulation, Vegetation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pantana Tor-ngern; Andrew Oishi; Sune Linder; Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius
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The forest hydrologic cycle is expected to have important feedback responses to climate change, impacting processes ranging from local water supply and primary productivity to global water and energy cycles. Here, we analyzed water budgets of pine forests worldwide. We first estimated local water balance of forests dominated by two wide-ranging species: Pinus taeda (36 °N) and Pinus sylvestris (64 °N). In these stands, growing season evapotranspiration (ET) was largely insensitive to...
Topics: Canopy transpiration, Evapotranspiration, Growing season, Pinus, Precipitation, Water balance
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jianqing Wang; Lianqing Li; Shu Kee Lam; Xuhui Zhang; Xiaoyu Liu; Genxing Pan
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Global climate change with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature has been known impacting plant photosynthesis and grain yield in agroecosystems. However, how nutrient uptake and utilization by rice change under climate change stresses has been poorly addressed. An open-air field experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of factorial combinations of CO2 enrichment (up to 500 ppm) and canopy warming (+2 °C) on nutrient concentration (PNC), accumulation (PNA) and...
Topics: Climate change, Elevated air temperature, Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE), Nutrient dynamic,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Marc Corbeels; David Berre; Leonard Rusinamhodzi; Santiago Lopez-Ridaura
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Climate model projections coupled with process-based crop models are advocated for assessing impacts of climate change on crop yields and for informing crop-level adaptations. However, most reported studies are vague on the choice of the global circulation models (GCMs) for climate projections, and on the corresponding uncertainty with this type of model simulations. Here we investigated whether climate-crop modelling can be used for identifying crop management-level adaptation options. We...
Topics: Climate models, Crop modelling, Crop yield, Uncertainty
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lingjie Lei; Jianyang Xia; Xiaona Li; Kun Huang; Ang Zhang; Shiping Chen; Ensheng Weng; Yiqi Luo; Shiqiang Wan
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Recent evidences show that terrestrial biogeochemical models have large uncertainty in estimating climate-change effect on grassland net ecosystem productivity (NEP), which is defined as the difference between gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and respiration (ER). It remains unclear that whether GEP or ER limits the model capability to simulate NEP responses to climate change in semiarid grasslands. Given the surrogate CENTURY-type model is widely used for Earth system modeling, we...
Topics: Carbon cycle, Climate change, Ecosystem respiration, Manipulative experiment, Terrestrial...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Climate change projections for the Mediterranean region are predicting a significant rainfall decrease and an increase of temperatures. The consequences of these changes on food security and natural resources in this region might be very dramatic. Anticipating climate change impacts by improving agricultural systems efficiency is a critical need. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the vulnerability of water resources and performance of two major rainfed crops (Winter wheat &...
Topics: Adaptation strategy, Climate change, R'dom watershed, SWAT model, TOPSIS
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Julia de Frutos Cachorro; Anne Gobin; Jeroen Buysse
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Few studies have addressed the topic of farmers' adaptation to climate change from a multidisciplinary perspective, because of the difficulty in assessing their impacts. In view of the growing concern in the agricultural sector on this issue, we analyzed farm-level adaptation through arable land-use changes in the specific case of the Loam region in Belgium. With this aim, we used an agro-economic model which considered 20-year series of current and projected simulated yields with and without...
Topics: Agro-economic model, Climate change, Crop choices, Farmers' adaptation, Irrigation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Shweta Srinivasan; Nazar Kholod; Vaibhav Chaturvedi; Probal Pratap Ghosh; Ritu Mathur; Leon Clarke; Meredydd Evans; Mohamad Hejazi; Amit Kanudia; Poonam Nagar Koti; Bo Liu; Kirit S. Parikh; Mohammed Sahil Ali; Kabir Sharma
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This paper provides projections of water withdrawals and consumption for electricity generation in India through 2050. Based on the results from five energy-economic modeling teams, the paper explores the implications of economic growth, power plant cooling policies, and electricity CO2 emissions reductions on water withdrawals and consumption. To understand how different modeling approaches derive different results for energy-water interactions, the five teams used harmonized assumptions...
Topics: Electricity generation, Emissions, India, Water consumption, Water withdrawals
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Allyson Williams; Shahbaz Mushtaq; Louis Kouadio; Brendan Power; Torben Marcussen; David McRae; Geoff Cockfield
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Modelling cotton production at the farm-scale provides insight into the importance of water management options in adapting to climate change, especially given the renewed focus of government policies on irrigation water access and allocations. Using an irrigated cotton farm in southern Queensland as a case study, we investigated two possible adaptation strategies in response to changes in water resources from projected climate change (CSIRO Mk3.5, A1FI scenario). The modelled farm produced...
Topics: Climate change, Climate change policy, Cotton, Farming systems
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by J. P. Chen; G. Huang; B. W. Baetz; Q. G. Lin; C. Dong
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This study developed an inexact optimization modelling approach for supporting regional energy systems decision-making and greenhouse gas emission mitigation under uncertainty. The developed model integrates multiple inexact optimization programming approaches, incorporating interval linear programming, mixed-integer programming, and chance-constrained programming in an optimization framework. Uncertainties expressed as interval values and probabilistic distributions can be effectively handled....
Topics: Optimization, System analysis