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Folkscanomy Miscellaneous
by Kevin Savetz and FAXTOY Users
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Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Francisco Gonzalez Antivilo; Rosalía Cristina Paz; Mariela Echeverria; Markus Keller; Jorge Tognetti; Roberto Borgo; Fidel Roig Juñent
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Vitis vinifera is mainly cultivated in temperate areas, where seasons are well defined and winter conditions might be severe. To survive under these conditions during the dormant season, grapevines sense environmental parameters to trigger different protective mechanisms that lead to cold hardiness (CH). Crop yield and sustainability will be determined according to the level of CH reached in each organ. Moreover, different cultivars of V. vinifera exhibit different behavior throughout the...
Topics: Acclimation, Climate change, Deacclimation, Temperature, Vitis vinifera, Winter season
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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As a result of climate change outdoor temperature and humidity are predicted to increase within the next decades in Germany, especially in the Upper Rhine area. As indoor summer conditions will be affected by this change, responses of 136 subjects to warm-humid conditions have been investigated in a test-facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Nine experimental conditions with high operative temperature (to) and different relative humidity (RH) levels (26 °C, 28 °C or 30 °C...
Topics: Thermal acceptability, Thermal comfort, Warm-humid environment
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by S. Rafael; B. Vicente; V. Rodrigues; A. I. Miranda; C. Borrego; M. Lopes
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Air pollution is an environmental and social issue at different spatial scales, especially in a climate change context, with an expected decrease of air quality. Despite the technological evolution of the last decades in the transport sector, road traffic emissions are still one major source of air pollution at the city level. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of a set of resilience measures, based on nature-based solutions, in the wind flow and in the dispersion of air...
Topics: Air quality, CFD modelling, Resilience measures, Road traffic emissions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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A wide variety of weather-data are readily available for simulating buildings energy performance by using dynamic software. However, climate change and its effects on buildings energy performance represent a critical issue, also considering the implications of climate change on human comfort. Starting from this, the present study aims at analyzing the climatic conditions in Rome and its surroundings, evaluating the occurrence of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. Therefore, meteorological...
Topics: Air temperature, Dynamic simulation, Relative humidity, Summer cooling, Urban heat island, Weather...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Guoqi Yu; Rencong Yang; Shiyi Chen; Dongmei Yu; Jiansheng Cai; Jiexia Tang; Wenwen Zhai; Yi Wei; Quanhui Chen; Ge Zhong; Jian Qin
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Background: In the current context of global climate change, understanding the impact of climate on respiratory infectious diseases such as mumps and the potential modified factors is crucial, especially in developing countries. However, research on the climate-related incidence of mumps is rare, inconsistent and mainly limited to a single city or region. Methods: Daily mumps cases and meteorological variables of 10 cities in Guangxi, Southern China were collected for 2005–2017. Two-stage...
Topics: Distributed lag non-linear model, Meteorological factor, Modifier, Multi-city, Mumps
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jianyong Wu; Mohammad Yunus; Mohammad Ali; Veronica Escamilla; Michael Emch
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Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease and remains a global threat to public health. Climate change and variability have the potential to increase the distribution and magnitude of cholera outbreaks. However, the effect of heatwave on the occurrence of cholera at individual level is still unclear. It is also unknown whether the local vegetation could potentially mitigate the effects of extreme heat on cholera outbreaks. In this study, we designed a case-crossover study to examine the association...
Topics: Climate extreme, Greenspace, Infectious disease, Temperature
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Choquet Anne; Faure Chloé; Danto Anatole; Mazé Camille
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The Southern Ocean is a unique ecosystem with highly coveted marine resources. It includes the largest marine protected area anywhere, with management spread across national jurisdictions and a number of international bodies and cooperative arrangements. The area has local, national and international stakeholders with interests in an array of activities, such as fishing, tourism and scientific research. This article sheds light on the linkages between climate change and governance of Southern...
Topics: Antarctic, Environmental management, Fisheries management, Long term ecological research, Southern...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ruth J. Mitchell; Diana J. Gilbert; Sonja Hurskainen; Robin J. Pakeman; Jacqueline M. Potts; David Riach
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The predicted long lag time between a decrease in atmospheric deposition and a measured response in vegetation has generally excluded the investigation of vegetation recovery from the impacts of atmospheric deposition. However, policy-makers require such evidence to assess whether policy decisions to reduce emissions will have a positive impact on habitats. Here we have shown that 40 years after the peak of SOx emissions, decreases in SOx are related to significant changes in species richness...
Topics: Climate change, Grazing, Nitrogen deposition, Species richness, Sulphur deposition
We synthesize the empirical contributions from the existing applied economics literature examining the influence of institutions and governance on environmental policy, environmental performance, and green investment. The literature on the influence of populism and public opinion on environmental policy adoption is also reviewed in line with the special issue. First, the paper describes how the relationship between institutions, environmental performance and environmental policy have been...
Topics: Environmental performance, Environmental policy, Governance, Institutions, Public opinion
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Louise Sandberg Sørensen; Sebastian B. Simonsen; René Forsberg; Kirill Khvorostovsky; Rakia Meister; Marcus E. Engdahl
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The shape of the large ice sheets responds rapidly to climate change, making the elevation changes of these ice-covered regions an essential climate variable. Consistent, long time series of these elevation changes are of great scientific value. Here, we present a newly-developed data product of 25 years of elevation changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet, derived from satellite radar altimetry. The data product is made publicly available within the Greenland Ice Sheets project as part of the ESA...
Topics: Greenland Ice Sheet, elevation change, essential climate variable, radar altimetry
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Antonios Konstantas; Harish K. Jeswani; Laurence Stamford; Adisa Azapagic
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This study evaluates life cycle environmental impacts associated with chocolate products made and consumed in the UK. The paper focuses on three representative chocolate products occupying 90% of the market: ‘moulded chocolate’, ‘chocolate countlines’ and ‘chocolates in bag’. The impacts were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool and following the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The water footprint was also considered. For example, the global warming potential...
Topics: Chocolate, Climate change, Environmental sustainability, Food supply chains, Life cycle assessment
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. Dalle Fratte; G. Brusa; S. Pierce; M. Zanzottera; B. E.L. Cerabolini
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One of the key principles for modeling future impacts of anthropogenic and climate changes on vegetation is to identify clear patterns and trends between plant functional traits and ecological drivers. The global spectrum of plant form and function outlines the major axes of variation and coordination among plant traits. We hypothesized that inter-specific plant trait variation at the regional scale should match axes of plant adaptation highlighted by the global spectrum, and that plant...
Topics: Climate change, Ecological gradients, Land use change, Landolt, Plant global spectrum
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Scott D. Odell; Anthony Bebbington; Karen E. Frey
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In this paper, we demonstrate that climate change is critically important for the current and future status of mining activity and its impacts on surrounding communities and environments. We illustrate this through examples from Latin America, including a spatial analysis of the intersection between projected climate changes and existing mining operations. We then elaborate a framework to identify and investigate the relationships among mining, climate change, and public and private responses...
Topics: Extractive industries, Mining, Policy, Research priorities
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Significant research attention has been given to understanding the entanglements of culture and climate change in Indigenous communities for global and Australian contexts. Although there is a growing body of knowledge on the threats and vulnerabilities posed by climate change to Indigenous peoples and cultures, there is only modest substantive research on the ways that Australian Aboriginal people in remote, arid-zone communities observe, understand, experience, and act upon the changing...
Topics: Aboriginal Australians, Arid zone, Climate change, Mixed-methods
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Julius Taminskas; Rita Linkevičienė; Rasa Šimanauskienė; Laurynas Jukna; Gintautas Kibirkštis; Marija Tamkevičiūtė
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Cyclic peatland surface variability is influenced by hydrological conditions that highly depend on climate and/or anthropogenic activities. A low water level leads to a decrease of peatland surface and an increase of C emissions into the atmosphere, whereas a high water level leads to an increase of peatland surface and carbon sequestration in peatlands. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the influence of hydrometeorological conditions toward the peatland surface and its feedback...
Topics: Climate change, Peatland surface, Raised bog water table, Surface variability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Kristen Carlson; Leland C. Bement; Brian J. Carter; Brendan J. Culleton; Douglas J. Kennett
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Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios from bison bone collagen recovered from Paleoindian bison kill sites provide a record of the B/A, YD, and EH climates in the North American southern Plains. This record is compared to the stable C isotopes derived from previously published, dated paleosols from the region. Together these data sources define a local response of the southern Plains grassland structure to the changing climatic conditions, specifically temperature and...
Topics: Bison antiquus, Clovis drought, Paleoindians, Stable isotopes, Younger Dryas
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The response of near ground air temperature to changing precipitation regimes has received extensive attentions in climate change studies. In semi-arid and arid regions, the mean annual temperature correlates negatively with precipitation. However, it remains unclear to what extent one unit change of precipitation can trigger temperature change (i.e., the temperature sensitivity to precipitation). Taking a semi-arid region in Northwest China as a study area, we quantitatively investigated the...
Topics: Climate change, Land-atmosphere interaction, Precipitation, Temperature, Vegetation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Emily Nishikawa; Meuris Gurgel Carlos da Silva; Melissa Gurgel Adeodato Vieira
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This work evaluated the cadmium biosorption capacity by the alginate extraction residue from brown seaweed Sargassum filipendula, an industry waste which is often discharged into the sea. The biosorption kinetics and equilibrium were investigated, with further analysis of the process thermodynamics. The Mass Transfer in External Film model best described the kinetic data and the rate controlling step is the diffusion through the boundary layer. The kinetic constant values of the model were...
Topics: Biosorption, Dealginated residue, LCA, Sargassum filipendula
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Thom Best; Karen N. Finney; Derek B. Ingham; Mohamed Pourkashanian
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As greenhouse gas emissions are a key driver of climate change, sources of CO2 must be mitigated, particularly from carbon-intensive sectors, like power production. Natural gas provides an increasingly large percentage of electricity; however its lower carbon intensity is insufficient to make proportional reduction contributions to circumvent 2 °C global warming. The low partial pressure of CO2 in its flue gas makes post-combustion capture more challenging – increasing the CO2 in the exhaust...
Topics: CO2 emissions, Exhaust gas recirculation, Humidified air turbine, Post-combustion carbon capture
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yanne Goossens; Johan De Tavernier; Annemie Geeraerd
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The current golden standard for calculating the environmental impact of a product or process is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, leading to results in a large number of impact categories, such as climate change, acidification and toxicity. In the absence of information on which impact category to prioritize, alike products cannot easily be compared and judging environmental sustainability remains difficult. To facilitate transparent communication about the sustainability of products...
Topics: Environmental performance, Life cycle assessment, Planetary boundaries, Single score index,...
Global warming is a worldwide problem that requires an international strategy to ensure compatibility of economic growth and overcoming climate change. Although global use of low-carbon technology is a solution, consideration of economic consequences is important to promote future technology development and use. Photovoltaic (PV) solar power system is a promising renewable technology that carries climate mitigation expectations. We conducted a value chain analysis to evaluate the economic...
Topics: Climate change mitigation strategy, Solar power system, Technology diffusion, Value chain analysis
The development of renewable energy is the key to deal with climate change and low-carbon economy development in China. Here, based on a balanced panel dataset of 30 provinces in China cover the period of 1996–2013, this paper explores the effect of economic growth, CO2 emissions, foreign trade (exports or imports) and urbanization on renewable energy consumption at the national and regional levels by using a dynamic system-GMM panel model. The empirical results show that the influence of...
Topics: CO2 emissions, Foreign trade, Renewable energy consumption, Urbanization
There is a substantial need to accelerate the advancement and implementation of clean energy technologies in order to solve the challenges of the energy crisis and climate change. Solar heating technology is a feasible solution among clean energy technologies. In real conditions such complex systems often suffer from different kinds of technical failures and deviations reducing the system performance. This paper focuses on the challenges of a solar district heating system at high latitudes,...
Topics: Cold climate, District heating, Multi-objective optimization, Seasonal storage, Solar Community,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Increased anthropogenic nutrient input and losses has caused eutrophication problems in freshwater and coastal ecosystems worldwide. High-frequency observations and modeling of river fluxes in subtropical regions are required to understand nutrient cycling and predict water quality and ecological responses. In 2014, a normal hydrologic year, we carried out daily sampling of the North Jiulong River in southeast China, which drains an agricultural watershed and experiences the Asian monsoon...
Topics: Climate change, Eutrophication, Flood, LOADEST model, Nutrient, Storm
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Katherine Cure; Jean Paul A. Hobbs; Tim J. Langlois; David V. Fairclough; Emma C. Thillainath; Euan S. Harvey
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Distribution shifts of demersal fishes are important adaptive responses to warming oceans for species' persistence. Shifts are facilitated by factors such as adult movement and dispersal of pelagic larvae to normally cooler regions, where increasing ocean temperatures are now enhancing larval and juvenile survival. However, successful recruitment (i.e. larval settlement) at these new regions can be constrained by resource availability, specialisation (food, habitat) and ecological interactions...
Topics: Endemic, Labridae, Range shift, Recruitment
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Christopher Severen; Christopher Costello; Olivier Deschênes
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The hedonic pricing method is one of the main approaches used to estimate the economic value of attributes that affect the market price of an asset. This method is routinely used in environmental economics to derive the economic valuation of environmental attributes such as air pollution and water quality. For example, the “Ricardian approach” is based on a hedonic regression of land values on historical climate variables. Forecasts of future climate can then be employed to estimate the...
Topics: Agricultural land prices, Climate change, Climate change and agriculture, Climate change forecasts,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by David Pulido-Velazquez; Antonio Juan Collados-Lara; Francisco J. Alcalá
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Climate change will modify the availability of groundwater resources in the future. Thus the evaluation of average aquifer recharge from precipitation, and its uncertainty, becomes a key subject in determining suitable countrywide water policies. The confident prediction of renewable groundwater resources requires an accurate evaluation of aquifer recharge over time and space, especially in large territories with varied conditions for aquifer recharge such as continental Spain. This study asses...
Topics: Aquifer recharge, Climate change scenarios, Continental Spain, Hydrological impacts
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Impact of air temperature on the Maximum Precipitation (MP) estimation through change in moisture holding capacity of air was investigated. A series of previous studies have estimated the MP of 72-h basin-average precipitation over the American River watershed (ARW) in Northern California by means of the Maximum Precipitation (MP) estimation approach, which utilizes a physically-based regional atmospheric model. For the MP estimation, they have selected 61 severe storm events for the ARW, and...
Topics: Atmospheric river, Climate change, Dynamical downscaling, Hydraulic structure design, Probable...
Addressing systematic biases in regional climate model simulations of extreme rainfall is a necessary first step before assessing changes in future rainfall extremes. Commonly used bias correction methods are designed to match statistics of the overall simulated rainfall with observations. This assumes that change in the mix of different types of extreme rainfall events (i.e. convective and non-convective) in a warmer climate is of little relevance in the estimation of overall change, an...
Topics: Bias correction, Climate change, Extreme rainfall, Regional climate models, Self-organizing maps...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by A. Holma; P. Leskinen; T. Myllyviita; K. Manninen; L. Sokka; T. Sinkko; K. Pasanen
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The EU is aiming to increase the utilisation of renewable energy to 20% of the total energy consumption by 2020. For Finland, the target is 38%. Renewable energy sources are assumed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when compared to fossil fuels. Yet not all environmental impacts of renewable energy use are thoroughly assessed, and there are no comprehensive assessments on the impacts and risks of renewable energy production that would take into account all possible environmental impacts. We...
Topics: Energy scenarios, Environmental impacts, Expert knowledge, Qualitative, Renewable energy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Dinh Ho Tong Minh; Emile Ndikumana; Ghislain Vieilledent; Doyle McKey; Nicolas Baghdadi
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Reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) requires detailed insight into how the forest biomass is measured and distributed. Studies so far have estimated forest biomass stocks using rough assumptions and unreliable data. High-resolution data and robust methods are required to capture the spatial variability of forest biomass with sufficient precision. Here we aim to improve on previous approaches by using radar satellite ALOS PALSAR (25-m resolution) and optical...
Topics: ALOS PALSAR, Aboveground biomass, Biomass, Carbon, Landsat tree cover, Madagascar, REDD
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rajesh P. Rastogi; Ashok Pandey; Christian Larroche; Datta Madamwar
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Energy is the utmost requirement for driving the organization and maintenance of entire ecosystem. Our continued dependency on fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas as the prime source of energy has led to serious concerns about the future energy supply and security. Furthermore, over-consumption of carbon-based fossil energy sources raises serious environmental issues of global warming and climate change. To overcome the global energy demand and to enable economic as well as...
Topics: Algae, Biodiesel, Biofuels, Green energy, Photo-bioreactor, Triacylglycerol
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by José Gomis-Cebolla; Juan Carlos Jimenez; José Antonio Sobrino
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Amazonian tropical forests play a significant role in global water, carbon and energy cycles. Considering the importance of this biome and climate change projections, the monitoring of vegetation status of these rainforests becomes of significant importance. In this context vegetation temperature is presented as a key variable linked with plant physiology. In particular some studies showed the relationship between this variable and the CO 2 absorption capacity and biomass loss of these tropical...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Benjamin L. Allen; Alana Fawcett; Alison Anker; Richard M. Engeman; Allan Lisle; Luke K.P. Leung
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Climate (drought, rainfall), geology (habitat availability), land use change (provision of artificial waterpoints, introduction of livestock), invasive species (competition, predation), and direct human intervention (lethal control of top-predators) have each been identified as processes driving the sustainability of threatened fauna populations. We used a systematic combination of empirical observational studies and experimental manipulations to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these...
Topics: Apex predator, Climate change, Extinction risk, Food web, Species interactions, Trophic cascade
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Sen Li; Linda Juhász-Horváth; László Pintér; Mark D.A. Rounsevell; Paula A. Harrison
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Impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic change on agricultural land systems are inherently uncertain. The role of regional and local-level actors is critical in developing effective policy responses that accommodate such uncertainty in a flexible and informed way across governance levels. This study identified potential regional challenges in arable land use systems, which may arise from climate and socio-economic change for two counties in western Hungary: Veszprém and Tolna. An...
Topics: Agricultural land use, Crop rotation, Empirically-grounded agent-based model, Environmental change...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Huan Huan; Bo Tao Zhang; Huimin Kong; Mingxiao Li; Wei Wang; Beidou Xi; Guoqiang Wang
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A comprehensive model for groundwater risk assessment was proposed by combining the hazard of contaminated sources (H), groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (V) and groundwater function value (F), and verified in Jilin City of northeast China. This model is characterized by integrating groundwater resource, ecology, and geological environment under the impact of climate change and human activities. The hazard of potential polluted sources was assessed by quantifying the properties and the...
Topics: Groundwater function value, Groundwater pollution risk, Hazard, Intrinsic vulnerability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Daniel A. Spring; Luke Croft; Nick R. Bond; Shaun C. Cunningham; Ralph Mac Nally; Tom Kompas
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When freshwater resources become scarce there is a trade-off between human resource demands and environmental sustainability. The cost of conserving freshwater ecosystems can potentially be reduced by implementing institutional reforms that endow environmental water managers with a permanent water entitlement and the capacity to store, trade and release water. Australia's Murray Darling Basin Plan (MDBP) includes one of the world's most ambitious programs to recover water for the environment,...
Topics: Climate change, River red gum, Storage releases, Water entitlements, Water trading
In fire-prone ecosystems, changes in rainfall after fire could differentially affect seeders and resprouters, thus leading to long-lasting impacts on the vegetation. Climate change in the Mediterranean region is projected to reduce precipitation, expand the summer drought and increase fire danger. Understanding the sensitivity to changes in rainfall during the post-fire regeneration stage is critical to anticipate the impacts of climate change on Mediterranean-type areas of the world. Here, we...
Topics: Erica, Plant demography, Post-fire herbs, Rainfall manipulation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Charles M. Balagizi; Marcellin M. Kasereka; Emilio Cuoco; Marcello Liotta
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We report the first δ 18 O and δ 2 H data of Virunga rainfall in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, situated on the limit between Central and Eastern Africa. The dataset is from 13 rain gauges deployed at Mount Nyiragongo and its surroundings sampled monthly between December 2013 and October 2015. The δ 18 O and δ 2 H vary from −6.44 to 6.16‰ and −32.53 to 58.89‰ respectively, and allowed us to define a LMWL of δ 2 H = 7.60δ 18 O + 16.18. Three main wind directions,...
Topics: East African Lakes stable isotopes, Moisture source for Virunga, Virunga Local Meteoric Water Line,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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This study predicts the probabilities of achieving the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission targets set by the Paris Agreement and the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of the top ten CO2 emitters (TTCE). The TTCE are China, USA, India, Russia, Japan, Germany, South Korea, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia based on their emission trends over 1991–2015 period. The methods of trend extrapolation and back propagation (BP) neural networks are used in this paper to overcome the weakness...
Topics: CO2 emission, Climate change, Energy consumption, Paris Agreement, Renewable energy
Separating impacts of land use/land cover change (LUCC) and climate change on hydrology is essential for watershed planning and management. This is typically done via hydrological modelling in combination with the one-factor-at-a-time analysis. However, it remains unclear how large the differences in isolated hydrological impacts would be when selecting different baseline periods. In this study, we compared baseline period choices for separating climate change and LUCC impacts on watershed...
Topics: Baseline period choice, Climate change, Hydrological impact, Hydrological model, Land use/land cover
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by L. E. Sundt-Hansen; R. D. Hedger; O. Ugedal; O. H. Diserud; A. G. Finstad; J. F. Sauterleute; L. Tøfte; K. Alfredsen; T. Forseth
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Climate change is expected to alter future temperature and discharge regimes of rivers. These regimes have a strong influence on the life history of most aquatic river species, and are key variables controlling the growth and survival of Atlantic salmon. This study explores how the future abundance of Atlantic salmon may be influenced by climate-induced changes in water temperature and discharge in a regulated river, and investigates how negative impacts in the future can be mitigated by...
Topics: Climate scenarios, Hydropower regulation, Individual-based modelling, Mitigation, Population...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by John C. Wingfield; Michaela Hau; P. Dee Boersma; L. Michael Romero; Nigella Hillgarth; Marilyn Ramenofsky; Peter Wrege; Robert Scheibling; J. Patrick Kelley; Brian Walker; Martin Wikelski
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El Niño Southern Oscillation events (ENSO) and the subsequent opposite weather patterns in the following months and years (La Niña) have major climatic impacts, especially on oceanic habitats, affecting breeding success of both land and sea birds. We assessed corticosterone concentrations from blood samples during standardized protocols of capture, handling and restraint to simulate acute stress from 12 species of Galapagos Island birds during the ENSO year of 1998 and a La Niña year of...
Topics: Corticosterone, El Niño Southern Oscillation event, La Niña Southern Oscillation event, Land...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Joel B. Sankey; Alan Kasprak; Joshua Caster; Amy E. East; Helen C. Fairley
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Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic...
Topics: Aeolian dune, Change detection, Dam, Fluvial, Modelling, River regulation
Agriculture is a global contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, causing climate change. Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is seen as a pathway to climate change mitigation. But, long-term data on the actual contribution of tropical soils to SOC sequestration are largely absent. To contribute to filling this knowledge gap, we measured SOC in the top 15 cm over 12 years in two agronomic long-term trials in Western Kenya. These trials include various levels – from absence to full adoption...
Topics: 4p1000, C-sink, Climate change mitigation, Greenhouse gas emissions, Soil organic carbon
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yanbin Hao; Hui Zhang; Joel A. Biederman; Linfeng Li; Xiaoyong Cui; Kai Xue; Yanfen Wang
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Climate models predict a substantial increase in the frequency of extreme drought, suggesting subsequent impacts on the carbon (C) and water cycles. Although many studies have investigated the impacts of extreme drought on ecosystem functioning, it remains unknown how the timing of extreme drought within a growing season may affect carbon and water cycling. Here we conducted a 3-year field experiment to investigate the influence of seasonal drought timing on ecosystem carbon and water exchange...
Topics: Climate change, Ecosystem respiration, Extreme drought timing, Grasslands, Gross primary...
The Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States has some of the most productive forests in the world. As precipitation regimes may shift with changing climate in this area, droughts are predicted to increase in both frequency and degree of severity, which will have a significant impact on already drought-prone ecosystems. When modeling ecosystem responses to drought, it is important to consider the physiology of individual tree species since the variations in drought sensitivity among...
Topics: Climate and age gradients, Drought, Pacific Northwest, Water use efficiency
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yuanyuan Wang; Lili Zhang; Nan Zhou; Lina Xu; Jincheng Zhu; Hongbin Tao; Shoubing Huang; Pu Wang
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Global climate change has raised many concerns especially on the food security. It becomes increasingly important to understand the underlying mechanisms and to find out strategies to adapt climate change. Climate data from 1954 to 2015 at one representative experimental station in the North China Plain, model simulation, and a 5-year field experiment from 2011 to 2015 worked together to detect effects of climate change on maize yield and adaption methods. In the field experiment, two foliar...
Topics: Climate change, Corn, Harvest time, Leaf productivity, Penology, Yield
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Simon C. Parkinson; Marek Makowski; Volker Krey; Khaled Sedraoui; Ned Djilali
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Sustainable development objectives surrounding water and energy are interdependent, and yet the associated performance metrics are often distinct. Regional planners tasked with designing future supply systems therefore require multi-criteria analysis methods and tools to determine a suitable combination of technologies and scale of investments. Previous research focused on optimizing system development strategy with respect to a single design objective, leading to potentially negative outcomes...
Topics: Capacity expansion planning, Climate change mitigation, Energy systems analysis, Groundwater...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Stephanie E. Chang; Jackie Z.K. Yip; Tugce Conger; Greg Oulahen; Michelle Marteleira
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Coastal communities around the world face challenges in planning for coastal flooding and sea-level rise related to climate change. This paper develops an approach for identifying typologies of communities on the basis of their hazard vulnerability characteristics. The approach first characterizes communities with a suite of vulnerability indicators, selected to meet criteria of breadth, relevance, and data requirements. Cluster analysis is then applied to the indicator profiles to identify...
Topics: Cluster analysis, Coastal, Community, Natural hazard, Similarity, Vulnerability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Freshwater lake ecosystems have supported livelihoods for millennia. Yet, most lakes worldwide today are suffering severe degradation in response to anthropogenic pressures. Scientists and managers are facing pressing challenges to define safe operating space for successful lake management into the future. Achieving these goals requires a clear understanding of nonlinear trajectories of ecosystems response to changes in multiple interacting drivers at multi-decadal scales. Based on a synthesis...
Topics: Anthropocene, Ecosystem services, Lake ecosystem, Regime shift, Resilience
Transitioning electricity generation sectors to renewable energy is a necessary element of climate change mitigation but a challenging one with years of technical and social lock-in creating considerable inertia and a pace of change insufficient to meet the task. Transition management has emerged as a promising approach to proactively manage and accelerate transitions in sectors like energy and water and has the potential to do so in manner that would help secure energy justice. However, the...
Topics: Australia, Energy transformation, Just transitions, Renewable energy, Sustainability transitions,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by S. Salcedo-Sanz; R. García-Herrera; C. Camacho-Gómez; A. Aybar-Ruíz; E. Alexandre
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In this paper we deal with a problem of representative measuring points selection for long-term wind power analysis. It has direct applications such as wind farm prospective location or long-term power generation prediction in wind-based energy facilities. The problem's objective is to select the best set of N measuring points (i.e. N representative points), in such a way that a wind power error reconstruction measure is minimized, considering a monthly average wind power field. In order to...
Topics: Analogue method, Coral Reefs Optimization algorithm, Representative points, Wind power field...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Tiago F. Jesus; Vera M.F. Almeida-Val; Maria M. Coelho; Rui Rosa
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Future climate change scenarios predict threatening outcomes to biodiversity. Available empirical data concerning biological response of freshwater fish to climate change remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of two Iberian freshwater fish species (Squalius carolitertii and the endangered S. torgalensis), inhabiting different climatic conditions, to projected future scenarios of warming (+ 3 °C) and acidification (ΔpH = − 0.4). Herein,...
Topics: Heat shock response, Oxidative stress, Squalius carolitertii, Squalius torgalensis, Warming
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by S. Ayebare; A. J. Plumptre; D. Kujirakwinja; D. Segan
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The Albertine Rift region of Africa is one of the most biodiverse areas on the planet, with more threatened and endemic vertebrates than elsewhere on the continent. Many of the endemic species are confined to montane forest or alpine areas. We assessed impacts of loss of habitat to agriculture and predicted impacts from niche modelling of climate change to the endemic species of the Albertine Rift. Modelling species distributions for 162 endemic terrestrial vertebrates and plants, we estimated...
Topic: Species distribution modelling, habitat loss"
Migratory species are fundamental for the long-term maintenance of biodiversity, as well as for the ecological functions they provide. Their current protection, however, lacks a clear understanding of how conservation areas are able to maintain the connectivity of populations in different periods of the migration cycle. Such a problem is even more significant in light of the consequences of climate change on the availability of suitable habitats, especially for those species for which the...
Topics: Climate change, Conservation, Migration, Network analysis, Spoonbill
Megacities are socio-ecological systems (SES) that encompass complex interactions between residents, institutions, and natural resource management. These interactions are exacerbated by climate change as resources such as water become scarce or hazardous through drought and flooding. In order to develop pathways for improved sustainability, the disparate factors that create vulnerable conditions and outcomes must be visible to decision-makers. Nevertheless, for such decision-makers to manage...
Topics: Hydrological risk, Informality, Mexico City, Urban water governance
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Patricia M. Saco; Omer Yetemen; José F. Rodríguez
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Anthropogenic activities and climate change are imposing an unprecedented pressure on drylands, increasing their vulnerability to desertification. The spatial organization of the sparse vegetation cover is fundamental for the healthy function of the system, and disturbances can trigger cascading feedbacks leading to catastrophic system collapse. Here we discuss some of the latest research aiming at understanding abrupt landscape transitions and possible non-reversible changes, as well as...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by V. S. Yakushev; A. P. Semenov; V. I. Bogoyavlensky; V. I. Medvedev; I. V. Bogoyavlensky
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Special experiment on metastable relic methane hydrates behavior in clay-enriched sediment recovered from “Yamal ice crater” has been arranged to check sensitivity of relic gas hydrates to small temperature changes in permafrost section. The experiment was conducted in an experimental cell with P/T conditions registration and equipped by stirrer. Prepared sample was saturated by methane hydrates and chilled to temperature −7 °C, and then cell was depressurized to form metastable...
Topics: Climate change, Gas liberations, Microbial gas, Permafrost, Permafrost pockmarks, Relic gas hydrates
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yacob Mulugetta; Vanesa Castán Broto
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Cities offer enormous opportunities for climate action that would limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C by 2100 above pre-industrial levels. For example, cities can act through planning and service delivery, bringing together residential, work and leisure in single spaces, and creating better connectivity between areas within and between cities. In Least Developed Countries (LDCs) cities offer multiple opportunities for low carbon innovations given that so much of the cities in LDCs are yet...
Climate change is a primary driver that alters water pollution hotspots in watersheds, which complicates the use of Best management practices (BMPs) for diffuse pollution mitigation strategies. The objective of this study is to evaluate future changes in BMPs on total phosphorus (TP) loads to the river system, depending on climate change. Current weather data were collected from 2000 to 2010 and future weather data from 2040 to 2050 were obtained from regional climate model simulations based on...
Topics: Best management practices, Climate change, Diffuse pollution, Multi-objective optimization, SWAT
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a highly nutritious grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, and cold) and offers an alternate crop to endure harsh environmental conditions under the face of climate change. Naturally, quinoa genome displays a wide degree of variabilities in drought tolerance strategies. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate drought tolerance variations and stress tolerance enhancement in four quinoa genotypes (Pichaman,...
Topics: Antioxidant enzymes, Drought stress, Inorganic ions and K+/Na+ ratio, Osmolytes, Osmotic adjustment
Transdisciplinary research has been introduced as an approach to integrate different bodies of knowledge to learn and to develop solutions towards socio-ecological transformations. In these concepts, broad stakeholder involvement is intended to promote knowledge integration, consensus formation and activation of local actors to initiate and advance learning and change processes. In doing so, however, transdisciplinary processes enter societal battlegrounds and meet conflicting interest and...
Topics: Climate Adaptation, Conflicts, Interests, Knowledge Claims, Legitimacy, Transdisciplinarity, Values
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Fang Yan; Jingcai Lü; Dahu Zou; Baolin Zhang; Zhiyong Yuan; Haipeng Zhao; Song Huang; Gang Wei; Xue Mi; Wei Xu; Shu Chen; Jie Wang; Feng Xie; Minyao Wu; Hanbin Xiao; Zhiqiang Liang
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Overexploitation, habitat destruction, human-driven climate change and disease spread are resulting in the extinction of innumerable species, with amphibians being hit harder than most other groups [1]. Few species of amphibians are widespread, and those that are often represent complexes of multiple cryptic species. This is especially true for range-restricted salamanders [2]. Here, we used the widespread and critically endangered Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) to show how...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hossein Kazemi; Hermann Klug; Behnam Kamkar
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Ecosystem services and biodiversity are critical to ensure sustainable development of agricultural activities. Based on available scientific knowledge, high shares of biodiversity are followed by more carbon sequestration, reduced soil erosion risk, improved production and food security. This review aims to detect biodiversity services in three aspects; (1) providing ecosystem services in modern agroecosystems in response to future challenges, (2) the ability of biodiversity to support...
Topics: Agrobiodiversity, Biodiversity review, Climate change, Food security, Sustainable agriculture
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The productivity of global terrestrial ecosystems, especially in rain-fed agricultural systems and water-limited semi-arid ecosystems is largely restricted owing to climate-induced freshwater variability. In this study, Lake Chad basin (LCB) is selected as a tentative test bed to examine the utility of terrestrial water storage (TWS) inverted from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements as a useful indicator in assessing the impacts of climate variability on annual crop...
Topics: Agriculture, Climate variability, Food security, Lake Chad basin, Rainfall, Sahel
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Holly L. Bernardo; Pati Vitt; Rachel Goad; Susanne Masi; Tiffany M. Knight
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Ensuring the best use of limited conservation resources requires comprehensively assessing the relative importance of multiple threats, some of which occur at local and some at regional spatial scales. Multiple threats are rarely modeled in traditional population viability analyses (PVAs) due to the high data requirements necessary to parameterize age or stage based population models. Count based PVAs have been shown to provide robust results, and count data are readily available from many...
Topics: Climate change, Count based population viability analysis, Deer, Invasive species, Rare plant...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Soil organic carbon (SOC) is pivotal for biological, chemical and physical processes and provides vital information on changes in soil fertility and land degradation. Rangelands, accounting for about 81% of Australian land area, are significant carbon (C) stores and small increases in soil C sequestration over such a vast area represents a considerable climate change mitigation opportunity. Efficient modelling techniques to evaluate the potential to increase rangeland SOC stocks are vitally...
Topics: Genetic algorithm, Land fractional cover data, Machine learning, Remote sensing, Soil organic...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Emma M. Brinley Buckley; Bryan C. Pijanowski; Michael L. Forsberg
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On 21 August 2017, a total solar eclipse crossed the continental United States, providing a unique natural experiment to observe how wildlife and plants respond to rapid and drastic changes in photic conditions using a multi-modal suite of tools. We installed passive time-lapse and infrared cameras, sound recorders, and data loggers in the Central Platte River Valley of Nebraska to study this phenomenon. The eclipse lasted about three hours, and complete obscuration of the sun (totality) lasted...
Topics: Animal response, Image analysis, Light, Passive monitoring, Soundscape, Total solar eclipse
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by J. P. Coelho; A. I. Lillebø; D. Crespo; S. Leston; M. Dolbeth
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The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the alien invasive bivalve Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) in the nutrient dynamics of temperate estuarine systems (oligohaline areas) under climate change scenarios. The scenarios simulated shifts in climatic conditions, following salinity (0 or 5) and temperature (24 or 30 °C) changes, usual during drought and heat wave events. The effect of the individual size/age (different size classes with fixed biomass) and density (various...
Topics: Droughts, Ecosystem functioning, Invasive alien species, Nutrient dynamics
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Alexander Singer; Oliver Schweiger; Ingolf Kühn; Karin Johst
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Species range shifts under climate change have predominantly been projected by models correlating species observations with climatic conditions. However, geographic range shifting may depend on biotic factors such as demography, dispersal and species interactions. Recently suggested hybrid models include these factors. However, parameterization of hybrid models suffers from lack of detailed ecological data across many taxa. Further, it is methodologically unclear how to upscale ecological...
Topics: Biotic interaction, Colonization, Dispersal, Extinction, Range projection
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Carlo Gilardelli; Roberto Confalonieri; Giovanni Alessandro Cappelli; Gianni Bellocchi
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The formalization of novel equations explicitly modelling the impact of extreme weather events into the crop model WOFOST (EMS: existing modelling solution; MMS: modified modelling solution) is proposed as a way to reduce the uncertainty in estimations of crop yield. A sensitivity analysis (SA) was performed to assess the effect of changing parameters values on the yield simulated by the model (both EMS and MMS) for different crops (winter and durum wheat, winter barley, maize, sunflower) grown...
Topics: Climate scenarios, Crop parameters, Crop yield, Extreme weather events, Morris’ method,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Kate R. Weinberger; Antonella Zanobetti; Joel Schwartz; Gregory A. Wellenius
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Background: Extreme heat is a well-documented public health threat. The US National Weather Service (NWS) issues heat advisories and warnings (collectively, “heat alerts”) in advance of forecast extreme heat events. The effectiveness of these alerts in preventing deaths remains largely unknown. Objectives: To quantify the change in mortality rates associated with heat alerts in 20 US cities between 2001 and 2006. Methods: Because NWS heat alerts are issued based on forecast weather and...
Topics: Climate change, Early warning systems, Extreme heat, Heat warnings, Public health
Meteorological droughts can have unexpected cascading consequences on social, economic, and environmental systems, which depend on the starting conditions of affected systems, and on natural and human drivers. In coastal areas, droughts propagate their effects to coastal aquifers, causing exacerbation of withdrawals with consequent worsening of groundwater quality and quantity. Considering the area of Lecce province (Salento peninsula, Apulia region, Southern Italy), the study outlines the...
Topics: Climate change, Coastal aquifer, Drought, Scenario building, Water crisis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The 2ν6 (A1 + E)/ν2 + ν3 (A1)/ν3 + ν5 (E) band system of CH3Br, near 2000 cm−1, has been studied, for both 79Br and 81Br isotopologues, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with a resolution of 0.003 cm−1. This band system, revealing anharmonic (Δk = Δl = 0) and Coriolis (Δk = Δl = ± 1) interactions, has been analyzed through a least-squares fit of more than 3000 transitions, for each isotopologue. More than 600 transitions belonging to the very weak ν3 + ν5...
Topics: Anharmonic, Combination bands, Coriolis and α-resonance interactions, High resolution, IR...
In December 2013, local politicians celebrated with a champagne toast as the municipality of Trondheim received permission from the Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation to develop 110 ha (272 acres) of high quality farmland for housing and business. The primary reason for this decision was the promotion of a more climate-friendly city. The land in question had been singled out as especially important for agriculture in previous planning processes. Based on documents, media texts and...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Adam Hestetune; Erin Seekamp; Mae A. Davenport; Jordan W. Smith
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Very little outdoor recreation and tourism research uses scientifically-grounded climate change projections or weather data to predict future recreation demand using standard contingent behavior methods. The demand studies that have presented visitors with projected changes to climate and weather are limited to predicting visitation demand in a single season at a single destination. This research note reports a replication of a winter tourism demand model for the summer tourism season at the...
Topics: Environmental conditions, Outdoor recreation, Place meanings, Seasonality, Travel behavior, Weather
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by I. B. Bolotova; O. N. Ulenikov; E. S. Bekhtereva; S. Albert; S. Bauerecker; H. Hollenstein; Ph Lerch; M. Quack; T. Peter; G. Seyfang; A. Wokaun
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We report high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of nitrogen trifluoride (trifluoroamine, NF 3 ) measured with the Zürich Bruker prototype spectrometer (ZP 2001) and the SLS THz/FTIR setup (2009 prototype) in the range 20–3000 cm -1 at temperatures between 80 and 120 K using a collisional cooling cell designed with White cell multipath reflection optics and at room temperature (296 K). Except in the far-infrared with instrument limited resolution (Δν̃ FWHM = 0.0008 cm...
Topics: Atmospheric trace gases, Combination bands rovibrational analysis, Greenhouse effect, High...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Paul Mwebaze; Gay C. Marris; Mike Brown; Alan MacLeod; Glyn Jones; Giles E. Budge
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There is concern that insect pollinators, such as bees, are currently declining in abundance, and are under serious threat from factors such as increased use of certain pesticides, land use changes, competition from invasive alien species, pathogens, parasites and climate change. Using the contingent valuation (CV) method, this paper evaluates how much public support there would be in preventing further decline to maintain the current number of bees by estimating the willingness to pay (WTP)...
Topics: Bees, Ecosystem services, Pollination, Valuation, Willingness to pay
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Alan M. Friedlander
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The people of Oceania have long relied on the ocean for sustenance, commerce, and cultural identity, which promulgated a sophisticated understanding of the marine environment and its conservation. Global declines in ocean health now require innovative solutions that can benefit from customary knowledge and practices, which in the past led to sustainable marine resource use. The resurgence of local stewardship, which incorporates customary practices and governance, has shown promise in many...
Topics: Climate change, Co-management, Marine conservation, Marine protected areas, Oceania, Traditional...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Elodie Le Cornu; Angee N. Doerr; Elena M. Finkbeiner; Don Gourlie; Larry B. Crowder
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Small-scale fisheries are undeniably important for livelihoods, food security and income around the globe. However, they face major challenges, including global market and demographic shifts, policy changes and climate variations that may threaten the wellbeing, health and safety of fishing communities. Over the years, various forms of spatial management have been implemented in small-scale fisheries as a potential solution to problems afflicting these systems. The benefits of such approaches...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Inés Mazarrasa; Jimena Samper-Villarreal; Oscar Serrano; Paul S. Lavery; Catherine E. Lovelock; Núria Marbà; Carlos M. Duarte; Jorge Cortés
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Seagrass meadows provide multiple ecosystem services, yet they are among the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Because of their role as carbon sinks, protection and restoration of seagrass meadows contribute to climate change mitigation. Blue Carbon strategies aim to enhance CO2 sequestration and avoid greenhouse gasses emissions through the management of coastal vegetated ecosystems, including seagrass meadows. The implementation of Blue Carbon strategies requires a good understanding of...
El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and latitudinal shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) cause large scale hydrologic changes in the western tropical Pacific (WTP). However, there is still a debate on the role of ENSO and ITCZ shifts on the hydroclimate in the WTP and their linkage to Northern Hemisphere climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. For that reason, we present ice volume-corrected seawater δ18O (δ18Osw-ice, a proxy for salinity) and sea surface...
Topics: AMOC, ENSO, ITCZ, Sea surface temperature, Seawater δ18O estimates, Western Philippine Sea
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Bridie McGreavy; Sara Randall; Tyler Quiring; Carter Hathaway; Gabrielle Hillyer
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Intertidal ecosystems and the small-scale fisheries these ecosystems support are an important part of coastal economies, environments, and cultures. Globally, fisheries such as the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) face multiple stressors related to climate change, invasive species, and unsustainable land use. Co-management approaches based on shared responsibility for resource management among actors and institutions can build resilience to socio-environmental change by strengthening the use of...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Tien Dat Pham; Naoko Kaida; Kunihiko Yoshino; Xuan Huu Nguyen; Hao Thi Nguyen; Dieu Tien Bui
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The Cat Ba Archipelago is an island chain bordering Hai Phong City in North Vietnam and has been recognized as a biosphere reserve by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) since 2004. However, the mangrove forest ecosystem of this reserve has suffered severe degradation due to its partial conversion to shrimp aquaculture. The restoration of the mangroves is expected to play an important role in dealing with climate change impacts, given their ability to...
Topics: Hai Phong City, Mangrove restoration, Vietnam, Willingness to pay
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Zaiqing Wang; Cuiling Yang; Hao Chen; Pei Wang; Pengtao Wang; Chunpeng Song; Xiao Zhang; Daojie Wang
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Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide. For current B. napus production, it is urgent to develop new varieties with higher seed productivity and increased stress tolerance for better adaptation to the abiotic stresses as a result of global climate change. Genetic engineering, to some extent, can overcome the limitations of genetic exchange in conventional breeding. Consequently, it considered as an effective method for improving modern crop breeding for B. napus. Since...
Topics: Abiotic stress, Brassica napus L., Co-expression, Comprehensive stress resistance, Multi-genes...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Francisco Traversaro; Francisco O. Redelico
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The aim of the contribution is to introduce a novel information plane, the causal-amplitude informational plane. As previous works seems to indicate, Bandt and Pompe methodology for estimating entropy does not allow to distinguish between probability distributions which could be fundamental for simulation or for probability analysis purposes. Once a time series is identified as stochastic by the causal complexity-entropy informational plane, the novel causal-amplitude gives a deeper...
Topics: Permutation entropy, Time series analysis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Organisms that modify the environment (niche constructors) are likely candidates to mediate the effects of climate warming. Here we assess tundra plant community changes along a temperature gradient and how these are modified in the presence of the common allelopathic dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum and the large herbivore Rangifer tarandus. We developed a structural equation model based on data from a field-based study of 1450 tundra plant communities across Northern Fennoscandia, covering a...
Topics: Herbaceous plants, Niche construction, Rangifer tarandus, Structural equation model
In general, successful risk communication can be said to require “an understanding of the target audience, including the best means for reaching the audience: a credible or trusted source; and a message that has ideally been pre-tested to ensure its effectiveness” [43]. The scientific quality of the risk analysis is not questioned. The sources can be credible or trusted, but the scientific risk analysis quality can be poor. For example, the risk communication can be based on a...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The outdoor thermal environment is expected to be deteriorated under climate change. An approach of risk identification including assessment from aspects of thermal stress effect, people's exposure, and local's vulnerability were adopted to study a hot-and-humid traditional rural community located at Tainan, Taiwan. Layers of each aspect were either constructed by in-situ measurements or simulations. To evaluate the future thermal comfort changes by simulations, the prerequisite hourly climate...
Topics: Future climate, Outdoor thermal comfort, Taiwan, Thermal stress risk identification
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pengpeng Duan; Xi Zhang; Qianqian Zhang; Zhen Wu; Zhengqin Xiong
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Evidence suggests that biochar is among ideal strategies for climate change mitigation and sustainable agriculture. However, the effects of soil aging on the physicochemical characteristics of biochar and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) production remain elusive. We set up a microcosm experiment with two greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) (alkaline and acid) soils by using the 15 N tracing technique and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the mechanisms of N 2 O production as...
Topics: Denitrification, Field-aged biochar, Greenhouse vegetable production soils, N 2 O emissions,...
The effect of snow depth on litter decomposition in cold regions has attracted substantial attention, but the importance of snow depth to the releases of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The releases of C, N, and P from the foliar litter of Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica in response to snow depth changes were examined for 12 months in a temperate forest of Northeast China via a snow depth manipulation experiment that included...
Topics: Elemental release, Global climate change, Litter decomposition, Snow depth manipulation, Temperate...
This study examined the impact of disaggregate and aggregate energy, economic development, urbanization and political institutional quality on environmental pollution using a time series data spanning from 1971 to 2017. The study employed response surface regressions, structural break cumulative sum (CUSUM) test based on recursive residuals and ordinary least squares (OLS) residuals for parameter stability en route to estimating the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) regression. The...
Topics: Nuclear energy, Renewable energy, South Africa
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Climate change has altered the elements of water availability, water demand and climate extremes in time and space. Such changes have various implications on water security, particularly in urban regions that are highly concentrated with human population and socio-economic activities. Assessing the climate change impacts on water security is often based on using the projections from an ensemble of climate models which are further downscaled into finer spatial resolutions. The availability of...
Topics: "Climate change impact assessment, Downscaled climate simulations, Modeling uncertainty,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Wen Xiao; Xiao Chen; Xin Jing; Biao Zhu
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The crucial biogeochemical processes such as carbon and nutrient cycling are increasingly altered at the ecosystem scale by global environmental changes. Although soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) play a critical role in biogeochemical processes, the global patterns of soil EEAs in a changing world remain elusive. Here, we synthesized eight EEAs involved in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) acquisition in response to seven global change factors based on 132 peer-reviewed...
Topics: Carbon storage, Climate change, Extracellular enzyme activities, Nitrogen addition, Nutrient...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Joshua Elliott; Cynthia Rosenzweig; Leonard A. Smith; Ian Foster
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Process-based agricultural models, applied in novel ways, can reproduce historical crop yield anomalies in the US, with median absolute deviation from observations of 6.7% at national-level and 11% at state-level. In seasons for which drought is the overriding factor, performance is further improved. Historical counterfactual scenarios for the 1988 and 2012 droughts show that changes in agricultural technologies and management have reduced system-level drought sensitivity in US maize production...
Topics: Adaptation, Agriculture, Climate extremes, Drought impacts, Seasonal prediction
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Maria Carolina Guarinello de Oliveira Portes; Hugh Safford; Hermann Behling
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Campos de altitude and Araucaria forest are unique and highly diverse ecosystems and focus areas for conservation and restoration in southeastern Brazil. This paper reports a high-resolution paleoecological study of an approximately 700-year Late Holocene core, a period that includes the influence of two highly distinct civilizations and the transition between them: Amerindian/pre-Columbian and European/post-Columbian. Results highlight the interworkings of regional climate change and local...
Topics: Atlantic Forest, Campos de altitude, Conservation, Human impact, Palaeoecology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lijie Lin; Erjia Ge; Xiaoping Liu; Weilin Liao; Ming Luo
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Heat waves (HWs) exert increasingly profound effects on public health and ecosystems under global warming and regional urbanization. This study examines the changes in the frequency, duration, magnitude, and timing of HWs in Fujian, Southeast China during 1971–2014 and quantifies the possible effects of urbanization using a dynamical classification scheme for urban and rural stations. Considering that some rural stations could have been converted into urban types during the urbanization...
Topics: Fujian, Global warming, Heat wave, Long-term trend, Southeast China, Urbanization
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by A. Maarit I. Kallio; Rafal Chudy; Birger Solberg
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Rapid decarbonisation of the transport sector calls for increased use of biofuels. Part of the increase may be covered by fuels produced from logging residues, wood chips and round wood. This article addresses the economic potential and possible impacts of increased production of such wood based biofuels on the forest industries and production of wood based heat and power in the European Economic Area. A global model for the markets and trade of forest biomass and products, the EFI-GTM was...
Topics: Bioenergy, Climate change mitigation, Energy wood, Forest biomass, Forest sector