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Folkscanomy Miscellaneous
by Kevin Savetz and FAXTOY Users
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Folkscanomy Miscellaneous
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A collection of over 200,000 Faxed-in pages sent to FAXTOY, an art project by Kevin Savetz.
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Agriculture consumes a huge amount of energy every year and then emits lots of greenhouse gases (GHG). Reduction of agricultural energy consumption is important to sustainable agriculture and mitigation of climate change. Groundwater is the main irrigation source in north China's main food production plains, North China Plain (NCP). Many studies have shown that the groundwater levels here have declined a lot during past decades. However, the related environmental and economic impacts have been...
Topics: Energy consumption, GHG emissions, North China Plain, Pumping irrigation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Beatriz H. Ramírez; Lieke A. Melsen; Laurens Ganzeveld; Rik Leemans; Adriaan J. Teuling
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The interaction between vegetation and the atmosphere is highly complex in fog affected ecosystems like Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs). Despite acknowledging fog effects on the canopy's water balance, quantifying their influence remains challenging. While the reduction in potential evaporation that is caused by fog presence, is largely independent of land cover, fog interception itself strongly depends on the land-cover's vegetation characteristics. A better understanding of how these...
Topics: Eastern Andes, Forest succession, Hydrology, Interception, Rutter model
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Qiang Zhang; Dongdong Kong; Peijun Shi; Vijay P. Singh; Peng Sun
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Using NDVI3g vegetation index, we defined 18 phenology metrics to investigate phenological change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Considering the heterogeneity of vegetation phenology, we divided TP into 8 vegetation clusters according to a 1:1000000 vegetation cluster map. For regions where phenology is highly sensitive to climate, we investigated the impact of climate variables, such as temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation on phenology using the partial least squares regression (PLS)...
Topics: EOS, PLS, Phenology, SOS, Tibetan plateau
Tropical cyclones (TCs) are among the most costly natural hazards affecting civil construction in coastal areas, which have caused extensive economic losses and social disruption world-widely. Moreover, the intensity and/or frequency of future TCs have been projected to change with time due to the potential impacts of climate change, indicating the potential of ever larger TC damages for coastal regions. The estimate of future TC damage should be conducted under a probability-based framework,...
Topics: TC damage in Hong Kong, Tropical cyclone
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Patrícia Anacleto; Cátia Figueiredo; António Marques; Miguel Baptista; Ana Luísa Maulvault; Carolina Camacho; Pedro Pousão-Ferreira; Luísa M.P. Valente; Rui Rosa
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Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and...
Topics: BDE-209, Energy budget, Metabolism, Ocean warming, White seabream
Over the last decade, unconventional coal seam gas (CSG) reserves in the Australian State of Queensland have been rapidly developed and include controversial extraction techniques such as hydraulic fracturing (’fracking’). Large-scale CSG projects primarily supply an international liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. This has integrated regions of CSG extraction into global energy networks and wider societal debates about envisioned energy futures and climate change. In this article, we...
Topics: Coal seam gas, Environmental anthropology, Ethnographic methods, Fracking
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Serge Payette; Ann Delwaide
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The lichen woodland (LW) is an open-crown subarctic forest distributed principally in North America where it extends from Newfoundland in Atlantic Canada to the Yukon and Alaska. It is the main tree ecosystem of the LW zone north of the closed-crown boreal forest zone, and south of the forest-tundra zone where its cover diminishes progressively toward the Arctic tree line. Growth and development of LWs are closely dependent on dry-mesic, nutrient-poor podzolic soil environments largely...
Topics: Boreal forest, Succession, Woodland
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Alnail Mohmmed; Jianhua Li; Joshua Elaru; Mohammed M.A. Elbashier; Saskia Keesstra; Cerdà Artemi; Kabenge Martin; Makomere Reuben; Zeben Teffera
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Agricultural productivity in rural areas is severely affected by climate variability, and this elevates the vulnerability of rural households to food insecurity. This study examines the socio-economic vulnerability of farmers who are susceptible to droughts in the five agricultural-based regions of Gadaref, Eastern Sudan. A survey was carried out in 500 households to collect data on socio-economic and livelihood indicators. The data analyzed from these indicators were used to generate the three...
Topics: Adaptive capacity, Drought, Exposure, Gadaref region, Sudan, Vulnerability
In the State Archive of Como, Northern Italy, about 15,000 historical maps belonging to different national cadastral productions are preserved. The Web C.A.R.T.E. project was started to enhance the accessibility of this valuable cartographic heritage using FOSS (Free and Open Source Software) technologies. The system, which implements specific web geoservices for cataloguing and visualization, should assist the State Archive of Como in the digital management of its cartographic resources and...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Very few studies have focused on historical mercury (Hg) deposition in the Southern Hemisphere, especially for the pre-mining period. Therefore, the respective contributions of Hg emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources are not fully constrained and the long-term influence of climate variability is still in debate. In this study, we reconstructed Hg depositions over the last 13,500 years based on two sedimentary records located at the fringe between Amazonia and the Altiplano....
Topics: "Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Central Andes, Climate change, Peat sediment,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Junwen Liu; Yangzhi Mo; Ping Ding; Jun Li; Chengde Shen; Gan Zhang
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Water-soluble brown carbon (ws-BrC) exerts an important influence on climate change, but its emission sources and optical properties remain poorly understood. In this study, we isolated two ws-BrC proxies, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and humic-like substance carbon (HULIS-C), from particulate matter collected in Guangzhou, China, during December 2012 for the measurement of dual carbon isotopes (14C and 13C) and light absorption. The mass absorption efficiencies of WSOC and HULIS-C at...
Topics: Brown carbon, Humic-like substance, Light absorption, Radiocarbon, Water-soluble organic carbon
Sea-level rise poses considerable risks to coastal communities, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Decision makers are faced with uncertain sea-level projections when designing a strategy for coastal adaptation. The traditional methods are often silent on tradeoffs as well as the effects of tail-area events and of potential future learning. Here we reformulate a simple sea-level rise adaptation model to address these concerns. We show that Direct Policy Search yields improved solution quality,...
Topics: Adaptation, Deep uncertainty, Direct policy search, Multi-objective, Optimization, Sea-level rise
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Kaiming Wang; Yong Mao; Jiangtao Chen; Shiwei Yu
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To support decision-making for an optimal portfolio strategy for low-carbon energy technology research and development (R&D), this study proposes a dynamic two-stage stochastic programming model, taking into account both the uncertainty of technological change and damages of climate change. Based on China's economic and technology level and expert elicitation, an R&D investment portfolio strategy looking at three low-carbon technologies (carbon capture and storage [CCS], solar...
Topics: Stochastic programming, Uncertainty
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Farming and rural development are central to the diversity of global food systems and diets, both significant factors in determining the nutrition and health outcomes of the world's population. Diets are not static and indeed are changing due to globalization, urbanization and demographic shifts. In addition, multiple burdens of malnutrition (both undernutrition and overweight and obesity) are not improving fast enough and in some cases, reversing for the worse. Unhealthy diets are major...
Topics: Climate change, Diets, Nutrition, Rural development, Urbanization
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Keyvan Malek; Jennifer C. Adam; Claudio O. Stöckle; R. Troy Peters
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Irrigation efficiency plays an important role in agricultural productivity; it affects farm-scale water demand, and the partitioning of irrigation losses into evaporative and non-evaporative components. This partitioning determines return flow generation and thus affects water availability. Over the last two decades, hydrologic and agricultural research communities have significantly improved our understanding of the impacts of climate change on water availability and food productivity....
Topics: Agriculture, Climate change, Hydrology, Irrigation, Model
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Saudi Arabia experiences annual growth of 6% in its power demand. Generation expansion has been driven by low domestic retail fuel prices leading to a power generation mix based on fossil fuels only. In light of current climate change discussions, this research assesses future generation expansion under different potential fuel-price reforms by an enhanced OSeMOSYS model. Results demonstrate that domestic retail fuel price levels >20% [>60%] of expected international wholesale fuel prices...
Topics: Climate change, Fuel-price reform, Saudi Arabia
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Abeer H. Ali; Mostafa Abdelrahman; Usama Radwan; Soad El-Zayat; Magdi A. El-Sayed
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With the increasing effects of global climate change and population growth, there is a high need for new agricultural practices to maximize efficiencies and reduce the efforts needed for developing new crop varieties that can withstand various abiotic stress. Plant-microbe association to optimize plant growth and increase plant host stress tolerance may play an essential role in improving environmental sustainability and economic viability, especially in the arid land habitats. In the present...
Topics: Antioxidant, Heat stress, Photosynthesis, Plant-endophytes association
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Nathan T. La Porte; Victor S. Batista; Michael R. Wasielewski
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The catalytic transformation of carbon dioxide into fuels is one of the most important reactions for creating a sustainable, carbon-neutral energy economy. Given that the sun is the only plausible energy source that can accommodate the increased global energy demand without contributing to catastrophic climate change, it makes sense to use solar energy to drive this reaction, ideally using the largest possible portion of the solar spectrum. Over the past several years, we have explored the use...
Topics: Photoinduced electron transfer, Radical anions, Solar fuels, Transient absorption, Ultrafast...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The redox state of NADH/NADPH balance (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is crucial in cellular homeostasis. Recent studies reported that sodium halide ions (NaX, X = F − , Cl − , Br − and I − ) stimulated NAD(P)H in Vibrio fischeri (VF). However, it remained unanswered whether this pattern applied in salts with other cations, e.g., K + , Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , whose aquatic concentrations were increased by anthropogenic activities and climate...
Topics: Chloride salts, Redox reaction, Stimulation, Vibrio fischeri
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Most of the experience collected on wave overtopping is concentrated on emerged or zero-freeboard structures, and only few experiments are available on over-washed dikes. The experience on submerged crest conditions is principally related to rubble mound structures and limited to the wave reflection and transmission processes. The existing tools for the prediction of the average wave overtopping discharge (q) at dikes are therefore targeted to represent overtopped structures, leading to...
Topic: Wave overtopping discharge
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Esther Bautista-Chamizo; Ana R. Borrero-Santiago; Manoela R. De Orte; Ángel DelValls
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As a result of the increasing pressure provoked by anthropogenic activities, the world climate is changing and oceans health is in danger. One of the most important factors affecting the marine environment is the well-known process called ocean acidification. Also, there are other natural or anthropogenic processes that produce an enrichment of CO2 in the marine environment (CO2 leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage technologies (CCS), organic matter diagenesis, volcanic vents, etc). Most of...
Topics: Acidification, Climate change, Marine microalgae, Transgenerational effects, pH
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Li H. Erikson; Antonio Espejo; Patrick L. Barnard; Katherine A. Serafin; Christie A. Hegermiller; Andrea O'Neill; Peter Ruggiero; Patrick W. Limber; Fernando J. Mendez
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Deterministic dynamical modeling of future climate conditions and associated hazards, such as flooding, can be computationally-expensive if century-long time-series of waves, sea level variations, and overland flow patterns are simulated. To alleviate some of the computational costs, local impacts of individual coastal storms can be explored by first identifying particular events or scenarios of interest and dynamically modeling those events in detail. In this study, an efficient approach to...
Topics: Coastal storm cells, Dynamical downscaling, Global climate models, K-means clustering, Southern...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Macdonald Mubayiwa; Brighton M. Mvumi; Tanya E. Stathers; Shaw Mlambo; Tinashe Nyabako
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Many smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa rely on synthetic pesticides for protecting stored-grain. Recommendations on use of these grain protectants are typically based on “blanket” application rates which are fixed rates that are not varied according to grain type, pest range or agro-climatic regions. There are numerous anecdotal reports of storage pesticide failure or reduced efficacy from farmers. Might rising global temperatures be a contributory factor? Smallholder farmers are...
Topics: Climate change and variability, Pesticide degradation, Pesticide tolerance, Sorghum grain storage,...
The crushed-rock interlayer (CRI) has been used to cool the railway embankment subbase and subgrade of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) in permafrost regions. However, in addition to the climate change, aeolian sand clogging has been affecting this mitigation techniques aimed to increase heat extraction and reduce subsurface heat penetration by air convection through the voids of the CRI. Its long-term performance is evaluated herein using a numerical modelling. Simulation results demonstrate an...
Topics: Aeolian sand, Climate change, Crushed-rock interlayer, Permafrost degradation, Qinghai-Tibet Railway
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Feng Xiaoming; Liu Qinglong; Yin Lichang; Fu Bojie; Chen Yongzhe
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The sustainability of the coupled human–natural system under continuous global warming has been capturing increasing research interest. Water is among the most critical elements, not only for the natural system but also for social–economic development, especially in water-limited regions. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive analytical framework to link water research with the sustainability of the human–natural system. We suggest that special emphasis should be paid to the linkage...
Harmful algal blooms have become increasingly frequent due to the dual pressure of excessive nutrient loading and climate change in recent years. Algal-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a potentially large component of the labile organic matter pool, and also climate warming may affect the DOM pool, although the results on the latter so far are equivocal. The question of how eutrophication and climate warming may drive the accumulation of autochthonous DOM is much debated. Here, we...
Topics: Chromophoric dissolved organic matter, Climate warming, High-resolution mass spectrometry,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mathias Vuille; Antoine Rabatel; Dean Jacobsen; Alvaro Soruco; Marcos Villacis; Oliver Elison Timm; Thomas Condom; Nadine Salzmann; Jean Emmanuel Sicart
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Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been retreating for the past several decades, leading to a temporary increase in dry season water supply downstream. Projected future glacier shrinkage, however, will lead to a long-term reduction in dry season river discharge from glacierized catchments. This glacier retreat is closely related to the observed increase in high-elevation, surface air temperature in the region. Future projections using a simple freezing level height- equilibrium-line altitude...
Topic: Water resources
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Bassirou Diop; Nicolas Sanz; Yves Jamont Junior Duplan; El Hadji Mama Guene; Fabian Blanchard; Jean Christophe Pereau; Luc Doyen
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This paper deals with fishery management in the face of the ecological and economic effects of global warming. To achieve this, a dynamic bioeconomic model and model-based scenarios are considered, in which the stock's growth function depends on the sea surface temperature. The model is empirically calibrated for the French Guiana shrimp fishery using time series collected over the period 1993–2009. Three fishing effort strategies are then compared under two contrasted IPCC climate scenarios...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Climate scenarios, Fishery bioeconomic model, Renewable resources,...
Land use and climate change are increasingly important stressors affecting freshwater ecosystems. Although their effects on freshwater organisms have been widely studied, most studies applied traditional statistical methods, which only focus on single stressor and simple cause-effect relationships without considering the complex interactions among stressors. Therefore, we developed an integrated method by combining Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) and Bayesian Networks (BNs) to estimate the...
Topics: Bayesian networks, Climate change, Freshwater ecosystems, Human disturbances, Structural equation...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Qifei Han; Chaofan Li; Chengyi Zhao; Yaoqi Zhang; Shoubo Li
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Accurate predictions of water vapor at large temporal and spatial scales are particularly important in global studies. In recent years, Central Asian grasslands have been subject to both intensive grazing and variability in climatic conditions. However, uncertainties about grazing on water cycling under climate change still exist. Therefore, the Biome-BGC grazing model was applied to assess the effects of grazing on evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE). Three grassland types...
Topics: Central Asia, Evapotranspiration, Grazing, Water use efficiency
Forest ecosystems play an important role in mitigating global climate change, and this role has recently been further reinforced by the Paris Agreement. However, our knowledge with respect to the trade-offs between timber production and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems is still seriously deficient. Therefore, the overall goal of this study is to quantitatively analyze the effects of a set of economic and ecological constraints on the joint production capacity for forest timber and...
Topics: Forest management, Green-up constraint, Timber production
In this review article, we trace the history of events leading to the development of individual-based models (IBMs) to represent aquatic organisms in rivers and streams. As a metaphor, we present this history as a series of confluences between individual scientists (tributaries) sharing ideas. We describe contributions of these models to science and management. One iconic feature of river IBMs is the linkage between flow and the physical habitat experienced by individual animals, and the first...
Topics: Agent-based model, Dendritic river network, Ecosystem, Hydropower, Individual-based model,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Muhammad Wajid Ijaz; Rasool Bux Mahar; Altaf Ali Siyal; Muhammad Naveed Anjum
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Sea level rise (SLR) in response to looming climate change is being considered as a major impediment to coastal areas. Acute wave activities and tidal propagations of semi-diurnal to mixed type are impairing the morphology of the Indus Delta in Pakistan. In this study a synthetic approach has been adopted using multi sensor satellite and ground data in order to integrate the individual effect of topography, oceanic activities and vegetative canopy for deduction of a synergic impact over the...
Topics: Satellite imagery, Sindh coast
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Signe B. Rasmussen; Stephen Blenkinsop; Aidan Burton; Per Abrahamsen; Peter E. Holm; Søren Hansen
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The agricultural sector supports the growing world population with food and successful crop production is highly dependent on the prevailing climatic conditions. A modelling analysis of projected future changes in agroclimatic conditions is presented for eastern Denmark, focussing on indices of drainage need, field trafficability, water shortage and relative production (the ratio between actual and potential production). Projected climatic change from 11 climate model simulations were...
Topics: Crop water shortage, Field trafficability, Hourly rainfall, RainSim, Statistical change factors,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Crop models are increasingly being used as tools to simulate climate change effects or effects of virtual heat-tolerant cultivars; therefore it is important that upper temperature thresholds for seed-set, seed growth, phenology, and other processes affecting yield be developed and parameterized from elevated temperature experiments whether field or controlled-environment chambers. In this paper, we describe the status of crop models for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea...
Topics: Crop modeling, DSSAT, Elevated temperature, Grain growth rate, Grain-set, Model parameterization,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Incomplete knowledge about climate change and the related uncertainty in climate prediction makes adaptation inherently difficult. We introduce a real options framework to determine the optimal adaptation to catastrophic risk that takes into account climate change uncertainty. The framework can be used to select the optimal adaptation project from a number of alternative projects or to determine the optimal investment sequence of the considered projects. In applying the model to the management...
Topics: Investment under uncertainty, Real option
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by undefined Ergon; G. Seddaiu; F. Volaire; P. Korhonen; P. Virkajärvi; G. Bellocchi; M. Jørgensen; L. Østrem; D. Reheul
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Climate change and its effects on grassland productivity vary across Europe. The Mediterranean and Nordic regions represent the opposite ends of a gradient of changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, with increasingly warmer and wetter winters in the north and increasingly warmer and drier summers in the south. Warming and elevated concentration of atmospheric CO2 may boost forage production in the Nordic region. Production in many Mediterranean areas is likely to become even more...
Topics: Breeding, Grassland, Management, Persistence, Productivity, Seasonal stress
Estuarine biodiversity is impacted by climate change and anthropogenic use due to the high productivity of estuarine ecosystems and convenient human use of nearshore areas. Human use of estuaries (e.g. with dredging, filling, and invasive species introductions) has decimated subtidal and marsh ecosystems, thus making them the focus of major restoration efforts. Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) such as eelgrass beds, and their associated communities, fall under these restoration efforts,...
Topics: Anthropogenic effect, Climate, Ecological modeling, Eelgrass restoration, Invertebrate
This paper examines the acceptance of burden sharing rules that refer to the costs of the German energy transition, which is one of the most challenging and disputed national climate and energy policy measures. Based on data from a comprehensive survey of more than 2200 citizens, the empirical analysis reveals that the polluter-pays rule has by far the highest support compared with the ability-to-pay rule and especially compared with the equal-pay rule, which is widely refused in the sample....
Topics: Attitudinal factors, Burden sharing rules, Climate and energy policy measures, Climate change,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Fanxin Meng; Gengyuan Liu; Yuanchao Hu; Meirong Su; Zhifeng Yang
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With the increasing threat of global climate change, carbon emissions reductions in cities have aroused the concern of the world. Carbon flow is one of the profiles that is closely connected to the urban metabolic system. Here, a global environmentally extended multi-scale input-output model was employed to accurately trace the carbon flow in a multi-scales economic system from production and consumption perspectives. Beijing was selected as the case, and the results were as follows: Beijing is...
Topics: Carbon flow, City, Consumption-based accounting, MRIO, Structure analysis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Josep Peñuelas; Jordi Sardans; Iolanda Filella; Marc Estiarte; Joan Llusià; Romà Ogaya; Jofre Carnicer; Mireia Bartrons; Albert Rivas-Ubach; Oriol Grau; Guille Peguero; Olga Margalef; Sergi Pla-Rabés; Constantí Stefanescu; Dolores Asensio; Catherine Preece
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Climate change is increasing temperatures globally and drought in many regions. If climate change continues at its current rate, the resilience of many ecosystems will likely be exceeded, altering their structure and function. A consistent understanding of the impacts, however, remains elusive due to the difficulty of obtaining data of field studies at different scales from local to regional. We review the impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mediterranean region based...
Topics: Climate change, Community and ecosystem changes, Drought, Experiments, Long-term, Management,...
This study investigates how technological transitions across California's power sector have shifted its state-level carbon dioxide emissions and cooling water consumption intensities. Its ultimate goal is to evaluate how the state's climate mitigation and environmental policies have affected the power sector's vulnerability to extreme drought and how extreme drought has affected progress towards the state's climate mitigation priorities. The study analyzes the period spanning 2010–2016, which...
Topics: CO2 emissions, Climate change mitigation, Cooling water consumption, Drought resiliency,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ana Luísa Maulvault; Carolina Camacho; Vera Barbosa; Ricardo Alves; Patrícia Anacleto; Fabiola Fogaça; Christiaan Kwadijk; Sara C. Cunha; José O. Fernandes; Rie R. Rasmussen; Jens J. Sloth; Òscar Aznar-Alemany; Ethel Eljarrat; Damià Barceló; António Marques
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Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this...
Topics: Acidification, Bioaccumulation, Emerging chemical contaminants, Flame retardants, Perfluorinated...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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An ecosystem in a cold climate river basin is vulnerable to the effects of climate change affecting permafrost thaw and glacier retreat. We currently lack sufficient data and information if and how hydrological processes such as glacier retreat, snowmelt and freezing-thawing affect sediment and nutrient runoff and transport, as well as N2O emissions in cold climate river basins. As such, we have implemented well-established, semi-empirical equations of nitrification and denitrification within...
Topics: ARB, Cold climate river basin, SWAT
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jinghong Gao; Hongli Hou; Yunkai Zhai; Alistair Woodward; Sotiris Vardoulakis; Sari Kovats; Paul Wilkinson; Liping Li; Xiaoqin Song; Lei Xu; Bohan Meng; Xiaobo Liu; Jun Wang; Jie Zhao; Qiyong Liu
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To date, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mitigation strategies and the accompanying health co-benefits in different economic sectors have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this paper is to review comprehensively the evidence on GHG mitigation measures and the related health co-benefits, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to promote further development and implementation of climate change response policies. Evidence on GHG emissions, abatement measures and related...
Topics: Climate change, Greenhouse gas, Health co-benefits, Mitigation, Policy implications
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Catalina Codruta Dobre; Joanne Vinke-de Kruijf; Luisa Moretto; Marco Ranzato
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Worldwide, conventional stormwater management policies and practices are under pressure due to the malfunctioning of existing urban drainage systems, population growth, urbanisation and climate change. In response to these developments, we have seen an increase in the development and uptake of alternative actions. These actions often involve physical infrastructure moving from the underground to the surface and an increase of stakeholder interactions and involvement. We draw upon the literature...
Topics: Alternative actions, Governance configuration, Sustainability transition, Urban stormwater...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Michael D. Schweitzer; Andrew S. Calzadilla; Oriana Salamo; Arash Sharifi; Naresh Kumar; Gregory Holt; Mehdi Mirsaeidi
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Dust storms are strong winds which lead to particle exposure over extensive areas. These storms influence air quality on both a local and global scale which lead to both short and long-term effects. The frequency of dust storms has been on the rise during the last decade. Forecasts suggest that their incidence will increase as a response to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Elderly people, young children, and individuals with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are at the...
Topics: Asthma, COPD, Dust, Lung health, Sarcoidosis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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International agreements on energy access and climate change, formulated according to neoliberal orthodoxy, will drive significant finance to developing countries for clean technology investments. But critics call for more active state intervention – a developmental approach – arguing that free markets alone will not deliver what is required. This creates the potential for confrontation between contradictory ideologies in national policymaking and implementation: neoliberalism in global...
Topics: Kenya, Strategic niche management, Sustainable energy access
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lisa V. Luna; Bodo Bookhagen; Samuel Niedermann; Georg Rugel; Andreas Scharf; Silke Merchel
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Glacial deposits on the high-altitude, arid southern Central Andean Plateau (CAP), the Puna in northwestern Argentina, document past changes in climate, but the associated geomorphic features have rarely been directly dated. This study provides direct age control of glacial moraine deposits from the central Puna (24°S) at elevations of 3900–5000 m through surface exposure dating with cosmogenic nuclides. Our results show that the most extensive glaciations occurred before 95 ka and an...
Topics: Quaternary climate change, South American Monsoon, cosmogenic nuclides, cross-calibration, moraine,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by N. C. Lee; V. M.S. Leal; L. C. Dias
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Defining objectives is an essential part of planning processes, useful to induce creative alternatives and to derive the attributes (criteria) on which the alternatives will be assessed. This article identifies a set of energy planning (EP) objectives and measurable attributes specifically tailored for promoting sustainability in developing countries. A literature review was conducted as part of a problem structuring activity to identify applicable EP objectives. The Economic Community of West...
Topics: Developing countries, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Energy planning,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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As a critical link between carbon and water cycles, water use efficiency (WUE) is an important metric for assessing ecosystem response to climate change. However, the controlling mechanism of WUE is still unclear because a number of environmental factors are usually cross-correlated in natural systems. Using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method, this study investigated the seasonal and inter-annual variations of WUE and their controlling mechanism based on 10 years of eddy covariance...
Topics: Drought effects, Eddy covariance, Indirect effect, Structural equation modeling
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by C. M. Roshith; D. K. Meena; R. K. Manna; A. K. Sahoo; R. K. Raman; A. Sengupta; B. K. Das
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This study consolidated our understanding on community structure of phytoplankton of the Gangetic estuary (Hooghly-Matla) based on both bibliographic sources and field studies. A total of 378 species of phytoplankton taxa belonging to 196 genera and 109 families were reported from the Hooghly-Matla estuarine system which is among the major biodiversity hotspots of the world and plays a pivotal role as nursery ground for fish and shell species. Being an estuarine system its working as a sink for...
Topics: Bio-indicators, Carbon fixation, Riverine influx, Species succession, Sundarbans
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Stephen A. Wyka; Isabel A. Munck; Nicholas J. Brazee; Kirk D. Broders
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Climate model predictions for the northeastern U.S. forecast a warmer and wetter climate, which favors the survival, reproduction and dispersal of foliar diseases of eastern white pine, collectively called White Pine Needle Damage (WPND). Foliar diseases cause defoliation of white pine, leading to growth reductions, canopy dieback and predisposing trees to other pathogens and insects. This situation is very similar to other conifer foliar diseases, such as Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) in...
Topics: Armallaria, Brown spot needle blight, Caliciopsis canker, Cronartium ribicola, Diplodia shoot...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yolanda Bouzas-Cid; Emiliano Trigo-Córdoba; Elena Falqué; Ignacio Orriols; José M. Mirás-Avalos
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Concentrations of amino acids and volatile compounds of a given grapevine cultivar might be altered by inter-annual climate variability and management practices such as irrigation. These compounds determine, in part, aroma and sensory characteristics of wines. The current study aimed at assessing the amino acid profile of musts and wines and the volatile composition of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar ‘Godello’ grown in the Ribeiro Designation of Origin (NW Spain) under rain-fed and...
Topics: Ribeiro DO, Vine water status, Vitis vinifera L., White wine
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Manuel Maass; Víctor J. Jaramillo; Geoffrey Parker; Fermín Pascual; Georgina García-Méndez; José Sarukhán
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Rainfall, runoff and sediment yield have been measured over three decades (1983–2015) in five contiguous small watersheds (12–28 ha) covered by mature tropical dry forest (TDF) at the Chamela Biological Field Station, UNAM, in the southern Pacific Coast of Jalisco, Mexico. Hydrological dynamics strongly drive the seasonal and inter-annual variability of TDF primary productivity, litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Although the study region is constantly influenced by storms related...
Topics: Chamela, ENSO, Forest management, Hurricane, ILTER, Mex-LTER, Rainfall:runoff relationship,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mauro Cremaschi; Michele Degli Esposti; Dominik Fleitmann; Alessandro Perego; Emanuela Sibilia; Andrea Zerboni
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This paper discusses the time and steps of the introduction of intensive agriculture and evolution of irrigation systems to sustain crops in the palaeo-oasis of Salut in the northern Sultanate of Oman. Various geoarchaeological methods allow reconstructing the exploitation of the natural resources of the region and technological development of irrigation methods since the Mid-Holocene. Intensive agriculture started during the Bronze Age and continued with some spatial and intensity fluctuations...
Topics: Climate change, Cultivation in ancient oasis, Falaj, Irrigation strategies, Northern Oman, U-series...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Neil Roberts; Jessie Woodbridge; Andrew Bevan; Alessio Palmisano; Stephen Shennan; Eleni Asouti
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We review and evaluate human adaptations during the last glacial-interglacial climatic transition in southwest Asia. Stable isotope data imply that climatic change was synchronous across the region within the limits of dating uncertainty. Changes in vegetation, as indicated from pollen and charcoal, mirror step-wise shifts between cold-dry and warm-wet climatic conditions, but with lag effects for woody vegetation in some upland and interior areas. Palaeoenvironmental data can be set against...
Topics: Neolithic revolution, Palaeo-demography, Pollen, Southwest Asia
Seasonal timing (phenology) of reproduction is a critical dimension of life-history, affecting ecological and evolutionary processes including individual fitness, community interactions, species boundaries and climate change adaptation. Staggered phenological sequences, or progressions, of flowering in plants have long been a topic of interest. Less well studied are multi-dimensional progressions across seasonal time and elevational space, which may be especially vital to understanding montane...
Topic: Reproductive ecology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jan Ossenbrink; Sveinbjoern Finnsson; Catharina R. Bening; Volker H. Hoffmann
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In the light of pressing societal challenges such as climate change and resource scarcity, scholars are increasingly interested in studying policy mixes in the context of sustainability transitions. However, despite numerous conceptual advances and empirical insights, researchers still lack universal criteria or accepted heuristics for delineating policy mixes in these complex policy spaces. We address this gap by conducting an extensive review of the literature, synthesizing best practices,...
Topics: Sustainability transitions, Technological change
Total iron ore demand in China grew to 1.1 billion tonnes in 2013 as a result of ongoing urbanization and massive infrastructure development. Iron ore and steel production are major sources for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Since China has committed to lowering carbon intensity to meet climate change mitigation goals, detailed studies of the energy use and GHG emissions associated with iron ore mining and processing can aid in quantifying the impact and effectiveness of emissions reduction...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by D. Argüeso; S. Businger
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Renewable energy is a main avenue to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change, as well as health impacts, associated with mining, refining and burning fossil fuels. Isolated locations with consistent natural energy resources patterns, such as Hawaii, have great potential to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and generate energy locally. Using a regional atmospheric model, we explored the wind-power potential of Oahu at high resolution (1 km) and over a period...
Topics: Climate modeling, Regional atmospheric modeling, WRF, Wind energy, Wind-power potential
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Amedeo Argentiero; Carlo Andrea Bollino; Silvia Micheli; Constantin Zopounidis
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Environmental policy measures to reduce greenhouse gases emission to mitigate climate change are common practice in many developed countries, encompassing both technology-push measures and demand-pull measures. The effectiveness of such policies continues to need investigation, especially when shortsighted measures lead to suboptimal investments in the absence of a credible government commitment. The aim of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive strategy for renewable...
Topics: Fossil fuels, Knowledge capital, Monetary subsidy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Vladan M. Karamarković; Miloš V. Nikolić; Rade M. Karamarković; Miodrag V. Karamarković; Miljan R. Marašević
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More pronounced climate changes and strict environmental requirements change the criteria used for the determination of the installation capacity and the turbine type for a small hydropower plant (SHPP). This paper proposes a technical solution that determines the optimal configuration for two existing SHPPs that operate in a combined system with the aim to increase the production of electricity during the flow rates lower than the minimum flow for which the supplier guarantees the turbine...
Topics: Net present value, Optimization, Small hydropower plant, Technical solution, Turbine
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Wen Na Ding; Jian Huang; Tao Su; Yao Wu Xing; Zhe Kun Zhou
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Palaeoendemic plants, whose past geographical distribution was much larger than their present distribution ranges, play an important role in reconstructing biogeographical events, and in tracking floristic relationships among continents throughout geological time. Improving knowledge about their geographical histories helps to understand the evolution of biodiversity under palaeoenvironmental changes. Here, we report the first fossil record of Dipteronia from East Asia, namely Dipteronia...
Topics: Biodiversity, China, Climate change, Dipteronia, Fossil history, Rupelian
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xiaona Chen; Di Long; Shunlin Liang; Lian He; Chao Zeng; Xiaohua Hao; Yang Hong
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Snow cover condition across the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is not only a significant indicator of climate change but also a vital variable in water availability because of its water storage function in high-mountain regions of Southwest China and the surrounding Asian countries. Limited by low spatial resolution, incomplete spatial coverage, and short time span of the current snow cover products, the long-term snow cover change across the TP under the climate change background remains unclear. To...
Topics: AVHRR surface reflectance CDR, Climate change, Snow cover extent, Tibetan Plateau
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xiaoyang Zhang; Lingling Liu; Yan Liu; Senthilnath Jayavelu; Jianmin Wang; Minkyu Moon; Geoffrey M. Henebry; Mark A. Friedl; Crystal B. Schaaf
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Vegetation phenology is widely acknowledged to be a sensitive indicator of the response of ecosystems to climate change, and phenological shifts have been shown to exert substantial impacts on ecosystem function, biodiversity, and carbon budgets at multiple scales. Therefore, long-term records of the phenology of the vegetated land surface are critical in exploring the biological response to environmental change at regional to global scales. Land surface phenology (LSP) from satellite...
Topics: Evaluation and validation, Land surface phenology, Phenology product, VIIRS time series
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. A. Hannan; R. A. Begum; M. G. Abdolrasol; M. S. Hossain Lipu; A. Mohamed; M. M. Rashid
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Malaysia's framework for energy development was established in the early 1970s. Henceforth, many successive policies were introduced as potential resources for electricity generation and utilization. Currently, as a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Malaysia is sparing no effort to comply with the policy to meet the challenges of mitigating over-dependence on fossil fuels, reducing carbon levels, and achieving sustainable national development. This paper...
Topics: Baseline studies on energy, Efficiency, Indicators, Malaysian energy policies, Renewable energy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Divita Bhandari; Gireesh Shrimali
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India's flagship scheme for energy efficiency is Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT). Under PAT, obligated industries are required to achieve targets either by implementing energy efficient technologies or by purchasing energy efficiency certificates (ESCerts). We ask two questions: is PAT effective so far? Is PAT likely to be effective in future? We conclude the following: the targets are not strict enough to add energy efficiency activities beyond business-as-usual; long-term investment in...
Topics: Energy efficiency, India, PAT scheme
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and...
Topics: Conservation supply curves, Energy efficiency, Energy efficiency measures, Energy end-use,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xianglan Li; Hong He; Zhiping Wang; Wenping Yuan; Linghao Li; Wenfang Xu; Wei Liu; Huiqiu Shi; Longyu Hou; Jiquan Chen
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The response of soil methane (CH4) uptake to increased nitrogen (N) deposition and grazing management was studied in three types of steppe (i.e., meadow steppe, typical steppe, and desert steppe) in Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment was designed with four simulated N deposition rates such as 0, 50, 100, and 200 kg N ha− 1, respectively, under grazed and fenced management treatments. Results showed that the investigated steppes were significant sinks for CH4, with an uptake flux of...
Topics: CH4 exchange, Desert steppe, Inner Mongolia, Meadow steppe, Typical steppe
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Whanhee Lee; Hayon Michelle Choi; Dahye Kim; Yasushi Honda; Yue Liang Leon Guo; Ho Kim
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Recent studies have reported that heat-related mortality decreased by adaptation during decades. However, since the frequency of extreme heat events is increasing, it is difficult to conclude with certainty that the heat mortality burden is decreasing. To examine temporal changes in mortality attributed to heat extremes in Northeast Asia, we collected temperature and mortality data covering the years 1972–2012 from 57 cities of 3 countries (Taiwan, Korea, and Japan) in Northeast Asia. Poisson...
Topics: Attributable mortality risk fraction, Climate change, Extreme heat, Mortality burden
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Stephanie D. Jurburg; Tiago Natal-da-Luz; João Raimundo; Paula V. Morais; José Paulo Sousa; Jan Dirk van Elsas; Joana Falcao Salles
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Increasing climatic and anthropogenic pressures on soil ecosystems are expected to create a global patchwork of disturbance scenarios. Some regions will be strongly impacted by climate change, others by agricultural intensification, and others by both. Soil microbial communities are integral components of terrestrial ecosystems, but their responses to multiple perturbations are poorly understood. Here, we exposed soils from sustainably- or intensively-managed grasslands in an...
Topics: Bacteria, Climate change, Land management, Microbiome, Precipitation, Resilience, Soil
Anthropogenic disturbances within or near aquatic ecosystems often contribute to eutrophication events. Cyanobacteria are a key group responsible for environmental problems associated with eutrophication processes. Interest is growing in estimating the threat of cyanobacteria in tropical Africa, however, there is still a lack of understanding regarding temporal drivers of cyanobacteria dynamics in natural aquatic ecosystems given the paucity of relevant fundamental research in this area. To...
Topics: Cyanobacterial blooms, Cyanotoxins, Eutrophication, Harmful algal blooms, Malilangwe reservoir,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Sorada Tapsuwan; Claire Mathot; Iain Walker; Guy Barnett
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Australian households are faced with rising energy costs and increasing occurrences of extreme weather events, such as hail storms and heat waves, due to the effect of climate change and influence of energy policies. Consequently, there has been increasing effort into designing homes and neighbourhoods that have built-in or retrofitted sustainable features such as solar panels to ensure that households are able to secure their own supply of electricity in times of shortages, as well as save on...
Topics: Communities, Green building, Resiliency, Social, Sustainability, Urban
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Marta Dias; Ana Ferreira; Raúl Gouveia; Rui Cereja; Catarina Vinagre
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Storms inflict damage to corals resulting in fragments that have the potential to regenerate thus contributing to the asexual reproduction of the parental colony. Extreme climatic events like these are predicted to increase in the future due to ocean warming, which is also the primary cause of coral reef bleaching and consequent coral mortality in the tropical and subtropical seas. This way it is urgent to investigate the differential effect of warming over post-fragmentation and regeneration...
Topics: Bleaching, Coral regeneration, Global climate change, Thermal stress
Although soil nitrification has been studied intensively, with an effort to elucidate the relative contributions of both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), their relative contributions to N2O production remain unclear. Understanding the temperature- and depth-dependent activities of AOA and AOB, as well as production of N2O, is of great importance for predicting their responses to climate change. This work applied the recently discovered AOB inhibitor, octyne, to soil...
Topics: Agriculture, Ammonia oxidation, Nitrous oxide, Soil, Temperature
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Uncertainty about the effects of climate warming on belowground processes of tropical and subtropical forests limits our ability to predict the response and feedback of such ecosystems to future climate change. Few field experiments in the tropics and subtropics have been conducted on the effects of manipulating warming on microbial community, enzyme activities and soil organic carbon (C) decomposition of forest ecosystems. Here, using buried cable techniques, we conducted a microcosm warming...
Topics: Acid resistant C, Acid resistant N, Extracellular enzyme activity, Extractable C and N, Microbial...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Joyce V. Zwartkruis; Holger Berg; Andries F. Hof; Marcel T.J. Kok
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In this paper three approaches on transitions pathways are combined to study the role of agricultural nature conservation in the Dutch land use domain for achieving internationally agreed climate and biodiversity targets. The three perspectives used are the Multilevel Perspective (MLP), Initiative Based Learning (IBL) and Integrated Assessment Modelling (IAM). The analysis provides insights in how the combination of different research approaches can lead to more comprehensive policy advice on...
Topic: Triangulation
Climate change will bring more heat extremes to the already warm tropical areas in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The resulting surge in cooling demand will only make the thermal discomfort in tropical cities even worse. This paper presents evidence to the approaching air conditioned cooling load deluge and shows why the air conditioned management of cooling load is particularly problematic in the tropics. It then presents the technical, institutional and cultural challenges to passive...
Topics: Cooling load, Thermal comfort, Tropical urban climate, Urban design, Urban heat island
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by J. Grey Monroe; David W. Markman; Whitney S. Beck; Andrew J. Felton; Megan L. Vahsen; Yamina Pressler
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Climate change is altering natural selection globally, which could shift the evolutionary trajectories of traits central to the carbon (C) cycle. Here, we examine the components necessary for the evolution of C cycling traits to substantially drive changes in global C cycling and integrate these components into a framework of ecoevolutionary dynamics. Recent evidence points to the evolution of C cycling traits during the Anthropocene and the potential to significantly affect atmospheric CO2. We...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by David Nogués-Bravo; Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez; Luisa Orsini; Erik de Boer; Roland Jansson; Helene Morlon; Damien A. Fordham; Stephen T. Jackson
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How individual species and entire ecosystems will respond to future climate change are among the most pressing questions facing ecologists. Past biodiversity dynamics recorded in the paleoecological archives show a broad array of responses, yet significant knowledge gaps remain. In particular, the relative roles of evolutionary adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and dispersal in promoting survival during times of climate change have yet to be clarified. Investigating the paleo-archives offers...
Topics: adaptation, dispersal, experiments, extinction, forecast, models, paleoecology
Adaptation research often uses identity categories. This article argues that a performativity approach allows us to understand identity in ways that are important for adaptation. Performativity sees identity as constructed through practices in an ongoing process of negotiation and renegotiation. Individuals and groups can thus be understood as having the agency to redefine identity by changing their everyday practices; changed practices, in turn, can influence the construction of identity....
Topics: Africa, Agency, Category, Kenya, Pastoralism, Practice
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Global climate change and ecological problems brought about by greenhouse gas effect have become a severe threat to humanity in the 21st century. Vegetation plays an important role in methane (CH 4 ) transport, oxidation and emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills as it modifies the physical and chemical properties of the cover soil, and transports CH 4 to the atmosphere directly via their conduits, which are mainly aerenchymatous structures. In this study, a novel 2-D simulation...
Topics: CH 4 emissions, CH 4 oxidation, Landfill, Simulation, Vegetation embedded module
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by T. Distefano; M. Riccaboni; G. Marin
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The issue of water access and security has been emphasized in the recent policy debate on sustainable development (Sustainable Development Goal No. 6) and adaptation to climate change (CoP21 in Paris, 2015). This study provides new evidence about the Blue Virtual Water Input-Output Network. The main novelty of our approach is the combination of Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) with Network Theory. SDA reveals that size-related, technological and structural components have contributed...
Topics: Network analysis, Virtual water trade
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Duncan Macqueen; Anna Bolin; Martin Greijmans; Sophie Grouwels; Shoana Humphries
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The combined impacts of multiple locally-controlled forestry (LCF) businesses will play a key role in shaping the fate of forest landscapes. This article analyses how such enterprises contribute to a broad notion of prosperity as ‘that which people value and have reason to value in line with the common good’. It focuses on innovations that are found in those businesses and highlights how these differ from other models of business, which often pursue, for a limited number of people, a...
Topics: Business models, Global, Locally controlled forestry (LCF), Prosperity, SDGs, Small and medium...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Murilo G. Veloso; Denis A. Angers; Tales Tiecher; Sandro Giacomini; Jeferson Dieckow; Cimélio Bayer
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The effect of no-tillage (NT) on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage may help Brazil meet its 37% greenhouse gas emissions reduction target by 2025. When combined with legume cover crops, NT could result in even greater SOC storage than NT alone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the SOC storage potential of NT and the contribution of legume cover crops and nitrogen (N) fertilization to this potential in both the surface and subsurface soil layers of a previously degraded subtropical...
Topics: Carbon sequestration, Climate change mitigation, Conservation agriculture, Cropping system, Soil...
Shifts in vegetation phenology induced by climate change are substantially modifying various ecosystem processes, and those changes can in turn affect weather and climate systems. Realistic modeling of spring vegetation green-up is critical to improving process-based ecosystem models of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and for better understanding of the coupling between TP terrestrial biophysical processes and the Asian monsoon system. However, no model is available for simulating the vegetation...
Topics: Daytime mean temperature, Phenological model, Remotely sensed phenology, Start of growing season
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Qinchuan Xin; Yongjiu Dai; Xia Li; Xiaoping Liu; Peng Gong; Andrew D. Richardson
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As leaves are the basic elements of plants that conduct photosynthesis and transpiration, vegetation leaf dynamics controls canopy physical and biogeochemical processes and hence largely influences the interactive exchanges of energy and materials between the land surface and the atmosphere. Given that the processes of plant leaf allocation is highly sensitive to climatological and environmental conditions, developing robust models that simulate leaf dynamics via climate variables contributes a...
Topics: Climate change, Ecosystem, Growing production-day, Leaf area index, Phenology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Dailiang Peng; Chaoyang Wu; Xiaoyang Zhang; Le Yu; Alfredo R. Huete; Fumin Wang; Shezhou Luo; Xinjie Liu; Helin Zhang
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Land surface phenology, especially spring phenology, has been reported as a powerful indicator of ecosystem responses to climate change. It also exerts strong control on the carbon, water and energy balances and, hence, climatic feedbacks. Researchers have produced numerous spring phenology products from various coarse-resolution remote sensing data at regional or global scales. Scaling up observations of spring phenology from plot-level (or finer resolution) to coarser resolution is important...
Topics: Scale effecting, Scale up, Spring phenology, Validation
Over the course of a few decades, soybeans in Brazil evolved from being a localized crop, with planting suitable only in regions with long photoperiods, to being the most cultivated crop countrywide. This happened thanks to the development of varieties that allowed changes in the planting calendar, permitting both cultivation in lower latitudes and the adoption of modern double-cropping systems. Here we develop a spatial dataset of Brazilian soy planting-window estimates for rainfed single and...
Topics: Brazil, Crop calendar, Double cropping, Soybean
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Linlin Gao; Xiaohua Gou; Yang Deng; Zhenqian Wang; Fu Gu; Fang Wang
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The effect of warming-induced drought stress on tree growth has been frequently discussed, and a decline in the growth of forest and increased mortality has been reported for many areas of the world. A hiatus in the global warming trend began around the year 2000, but how tree growth has responded to this warming slowdown remains unclear. Here we present a study of the recent impacts of climate change on Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) growth using 38 tree-ring records collected from the...
Topics: Increasing tree growth, Qilian Mountains, Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia), Tree-ring, Warming...
Climate change is an obvious worldwide phenomenon closely related to human development, growth and consumption patterns, and it threatens land use, development, people and the environment. Due to its characteristics, Spain is among the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the European Union (EU). Thus, spatial planning is considered one of the main instruments available to manage sustainable adaptation to climate change. This article presents an assessment framework for exploring...
Topics: Climate change impacts, Implementation strategies, Indicator-based model, Land-use assessment,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, accounting for more than 25% of global production and consumption. Rice cultivation is also one of the main sources of anthropogenic methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The challenge of maintaining food security while reducing greenhouse gas emissions is an important tradeoff issue for both scientists and policy makers. A systematical evaluation of tradeoffs requires attention across spatial scales and over...
Topics: Agricultural CH4 and N2O emissions, China, Climate change, Mitigation tradeoffs, Model coupling,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Zarrar Khan; Pedro Linares; Martine Rutten; Simon Parkinson; Nils Johnson; Javier García-González
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Predictions show that pressure on already limited water and energy resources is expected to increase in many parts of the world as a result of growing populations, rapid urbanization, increasing pollution and climate change impacts. With water and energy playing a critical role in socio-economic development, ensuring resource security is a top policy concern. However, achieving this efficiently requires taking into account the various links between the two sectors through their joint...
Topics: Integrated planning, Optimization modeling, Water-energy nexus
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Sergio Castellanos; José E. Santibañez-Aguilar; Benjamin B. Shapiro; Douglas M. Powell; Ian M. Peters; Tonio Buonassisi; Daniel M. Kammen; Antonio Flores-Tlacuahuac
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Solar photovoltaics (PV) manufacturing has experienced dramatic worldwide growth in recent years, enabling a reduction in module costs, and a higher adoption of these technologies. Continued sustainable price reductions, however, require strategies focused in further technological innovation, minimization of capital expenditures, and optimization of supply chain flows. We present a framework: Techno-economic Integrated Tool For Tariff And Transportation (TIT-4-TAT), that enables the study of...
Topics: Mathematical programming, Minimum sustainable price, Multi-objective approach, Photovoltaics...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Bo Meng; Yu Liu; Robbie Andrew; Meifang Zhou; Klaus Hubacek; Jinjun Xue; Glen Peters; Yuning Gao
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To date, the burden of CO2 emissions reductions has been largely confined to large enterprises in China. Using new data with firm ownership and size information included, we show that micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) produced 53% of China's CO2 emissions in 2010. Detailed supply-chain analysis reveals that final demand for products made downstream by domestic-private MSMEs, along with exports made downstream by foreign-owned MSMEs, are the main drivers of China's CO2 emissions....
Topics: CO2 emissions, Carbon intensity, Climate change, Firm heterogeneity, SMEs, Supply chain
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hung Chak Ho; Anders Knudby; Guangqing Chi; Mehdi Aminipouri; Derrick Yuk Fo Lai
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Excess mortality can be caused by extreme hot weather events, which are increasing in severity and frequency in Canada due to climate change. Individual and social vulnerability factors influence the mortality risk associated with a given heat exposure. We constructed heat vulnerability indices using census data from 2006 to 2011 in Canada, developed a novel design to compare spatiotemporal changes of heat vulnerability, and identified locations that may be increasingly vulnerable to heat. The...
Topics: Climate change, Demographic change, Heat vulnerability, Regional planning, Spatiotemporal...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Cheuk Hei Marcus Tong; Steve Hung Lam Yim; Daniel Rothenberg; Chien Wang; Chuan Yao Lin; Yongqin David Chen; Ngar Cheung Lau
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Anthropogenic climate change has been increasingly confirmed by weather observation and scientific literature in recent decades. Atmospheric stability, which has strong effects on vertical mixing of air pollutants and thus air quality, may be affected under climate change. This study aims to statistically assess the impacts of climate change alone on the future air quality in the Pearl River Delta region in the near future (2030–2039) and the far future (2090–2099) under two Representative...
Topics: Air quality, Climate change, Generalized linear models, Trans-boundary air pollution