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Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Christian Weibel; Timo Ohnmacht; Dorothea Schaffner; Katharina Kossmann
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The aim of this study is to identify the factors involved in reducing meat consumption. Meat consumption is a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and thus to climate change. Since meat consumption is a voluntary form of behavior, and since only 1.4 percent of the Swiss population are strict vegetarians, there is considerable potential for behavioral change. We propose an integrated and dynamic model based on a theory of planned behavior and a phase model of behavioral change to...
Topics: Behavioral change, Climate change, Meat consumption, Phase models
Tidal inlets, a common feature along coastlines globally, can be significantly affected by the impacts of global climate variabilities. Computational models provide the best opportunity to assess future changes to the dynamics of inlet systems. In this paper, the morphodynamic response of a gravel-dominated meso-tidal estuary inlet to Sea Level Rise (SLR) is discussed based on three future SLR scenarios. It uses a process-based computational coastal area model. The study's test site is the...
Topics: Climate change, Computational modelling, Deben Estuary, Inlet, Meso-tidal, Morphodynamics, Sea...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Christophe Jaeger; Pierre Foucard; Aurélien Tocqueville; Sarah Nahon; Joël Aubin
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An aquaponics system (AS) is an integrated system that combines a recirculating aquaculture system and a hydroponics system (HS). It is designed to recover nutrients released from fish and transfer them to plants to provide a system more environmentally-friendly than the two systems working separately. As a result, several AS are under development, but little information is available about their overall performances. The aim of this study was to assess nutrient-use efficiency and environmental...
Topics: Climate change, Eutrophication, Nitrogen, Phosphorus
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Pei Wang; Xiangzheng Deng; Huimin Zhou; Shangkun Yu
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There is a great deal of evidence that climate change affects socioeconomic systems. The social cost of carbon (SCC) is calculated by scientists to monetarize the incremental unit of carbon emission and is used to assess climate policies. This study begins with a review of current research on the SCC, followed by a discussion of the choice of models for the SCC. We give a list of advantages of disadvantages of each model and finally use a meta-analysis to evaluate the SCC from published...
Topics: Economics of climate change, Integrated assessment model, Literature review, SCC, meta-Analysis
Comprehensive carbon stock and flow accounts integrated with economic information, under an environmental-economic accounting framework, provide a common approach for an information system to improve policymaking for climate change mitigation, sustainable development and forest management. The information system includes environmental and economic data, linkages between land use activities, their co-benefits, inputs to the economy and benefits for human well-being. Forest management was used as...
Topics: Carbon accounting, Carbon storage and sequestration, Climate change mitigation,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Cátia Brito; Lia Tânia Dinis; José Moutinho-Pereira; Carlos Correia
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In the context of climate change, the combination of the drought, salinity, heat and high irradiance felt in many regions around the world will be intensified, further worsening the adverse effects on plant growth and development at different scales. This scenario will have severe repercussions on agricultural crops, compromising yields and harvest qualities. Kaolin (KL) clay has been recognized as a promising short-term strategy for the sustainable alleviation of adverse abiotic stress....
Topics: Abiotic stress, Climate change, Harvests quality, Particle film technology, Physiological...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Wouter Poortinga; Lorraine Whitmarsh; Linda Steg; Gisela Böhm; Stephen Fisher
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There is now an extensive literature on the question of how individual-level factors affect climate change perceptions, showing that socio-political variables, notably values, worldviews and political orientation, are key factors alongside demographic variables. Yet little is known about cross-national differences in these effects, as most studies have been conducted in a single or small number of countries and cross-study comparisons are difficult due to different conceptualisations of key...
Topics: Climate change, Cross-national analysis, European social survey, Perceptions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hakna Ferro-Azcona; Alejandro Espinoza-Tenorio; Rafael Calderón-Contreras; Victoria C. Ramenzoni; Maria de las Mercedes Gómez País; Maria Azahara Mesa-Jurado
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Establishing protected areas constitutes one of the main strategies for the conservation of marine and coastal ecosystems. Increasing risks associated with environmental change along with highly degraded coastal ecosystems encompass complex management challenges for the long-term sustainability of these landscapes. This article aims to explore the role of protected areas in past and ongoing community adaptation to the compounded effects of climatic and anthropogenic change. A literature review...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Global change, Marine and coastal areas, Protected areas, Vulnerability
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) is currently the major threat among arbovirus vectors in the Americas. We examined its past, present, and future distribution patterns in the South American fringe in association with environmental and demographic variables at two spatial scales. We updated the database of the occurrence of Ae. aegypti per locality and modelled by GLMM the past occurrence (until 2000) and its expansion (2001–2017) as a function of air temperature, precipitation,...
Topics: Arbovirus, Argentina, Climate change, Mosquitoes, Vector distribution models
Dengue fever, a vector-borne disease, represents a priority public health problem in Ecuador. Previous studies indicated that the ecology of the transmitter vector (Aedes aegypti) is influenced by environmental parameters and human behavior; however, the effects of those variables on mosquito population dynamics depend on local environmental features. In this study, we identified the most important factors influencing the risk of dengue virus infection in Ecuador. The maximum entropy algorithm...
Topics: Climate change, Dengue fever, Ecological model, Ecuador, Habitat suitability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Amalia M. Harrington; M. Scarlett Tudor; Helen R. Reese; Deborah A. Bouchard; Heather J. Hamlin
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The American lobster supports the most economically valuable fishery in the Gulf of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Across much of its range, ocean temperatures have increased at rates faster than almost anywhere in the world. Studies of warming effects on larvae have largely focused on survival and development, but rarely have examined sub-lethal effects that could influence settlement and subsequent recruitment to the fishery. We explored how warming influences rate of development, survival,...
Topics: Climate change, Fluctuating asymmetry, Hemocytes, Homarus americanus, Physiology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Kokou Adambounou Amouzou; John P.A. Lamers; Jesse B. Naab; Christian Borgemeister; Paul L.G. Vlek; Mathias Becker
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Climate change and variability challenge crop productivity and resource use efficiency in West Africa. Despite abundant research on climate change impact on crop yields and food security, little is known about climate change effects on the resource use efficiencies of the main staple crops in the dry savanna agro-ecological zone of northern Benin, West Africa. This study assessed the impact of climate change on water- and N-use efficiencies, and yields of maize and sorghum in the dry savanna of...
Topics: CERES-Maize, CERES-Sorghum, Climate change, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Current global change scenarios predict an increase in atmospheric CO 2 from the current 380 ppm to a value ranging from 540 ppm to 960 ppm by the year 2100. The effects of three air CO 2 levels (400, 600 and 800 ppm) on five submerged aquatic plants that utilize HCO 3− were studied, using the elevated CO 2 Open Top Chamber facility at Rhodes University (Grahamstown, South Africa). Plants grew in water with two different initial dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations of 1.5 and 3.0...
Topics: Bicarbonate, Carbon, Climate change, Growth, Nitrogen, Physiology, Starch, Submerged plants
Much literature discusses higher education as an agent for sustainable development, but the extent to which higher education contributes to unsustainable economic and social systems receives less attention. This paper examines the environmental impacts of international student mobility in higher education. Combining several datasets, the paper presents a model of greenhouse gas emissions associated with international student mobility. Estimates suggest that these emissions are substantial and...
Topics: Aviation, Climate change, Greenhouse gas emissions, Higher education, Mobility, Sustainable...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Current building energy use is projected to increase by 1.7% annually until 2025, and the great potential for energy reduction in existing buildings has created opportunities in building energy retrofit projects. In this research, a framework and method are proposed to evaluate the impacts of different retrofit options to existing building under climate change. A Python retrofit tool is developed to perform parametric study by running EnergyPlus under different retrofit scenarios for existing...
Topics: Building retrofit, Climate change, Energy use, EnergyPlus, Feature selection, Random forest
One-dimensional coupled ecological-hydrodynamic numerical models of lakes require extensive calibration of their chemical and biological parameters. Application of these models to future projections relies on the time invariance of the calibrated model parameters and of the adopted schematisation. This is mere speculation for real ecosystems, so that it is relevant to explore the limits of coupled models over extended periods. To date, almost all applications in literature have been calibrated...
Topics: 1D coupled ecological-hydrodynamic model, Climate change effects, Deep-water chemistry, Ecosystem...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Seth Wynes; Simon D. Donner; Steuart Tannason; Noni Nabors
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Lowering the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from air travel may be critical for avoiding dangerous levels of climate change, and yet some individuals perceive frequent air travel to be critical to their professional success. Using a sample of 705 travellers at the University of British Columbia, we investigated the influence of career stage, research productivity, field of expertise, and other variables on academic air travel and the associated emissions. This is the first time that...
Topics: Air travel, Climate change mitigation, Flying, Pro-environmental behaviors, Professional success,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Xin Zhao; Chao Pu; Shou Tian Ma; Sheng Li Liu; Jian Fu Xue; Xing Wang; Yu Qiao Wang; Shuai Shuai Li; Rattan Lal; Fu Chen; Hai Lin Zhang
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Mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from rice paddy (Oryza sativa L.) and balancing the trade-offs between reducing emission and sustaining food security have raised global concerns. A global meta-analysis of rice experimental data was conducted to assess changes in emissions of GHGs (CH4 and N2O) and global warming potential (GWP) in response to improvements through 12 field management practices. The results indicated that changes in GWP were mainly attributed to CH4 emission even...
Topics: Climate change mitigation, Global warming potential, Meta-analysis, Rice yield, Yield-scaled...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Hojatollah Kakaei; Fariborz Omidi; Roohollah Ghasemi; Maryam Ramin Sabet; Farideh Golbabaei
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The WBGT index is a common method to evaluate heat stress in the workplaces based on human physiological responses to environmental conditions. This systematic and meta-analysis study was aimed to estimate the mean value of the WBGT index in industries. The search protocol of this study was carried out according to PRISMA checklist. According to the heterogeneity of studies, a meta-analysis was done using a random effects model. The total value of WBGT index in the world according to this study...
Topics: Climate change, Indoor and outdoor heat stress, Meta-analysis and systematic review, WBGT Index
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Heikki Hänninen; Koen Kramer; Karen Tanino; Rui Zhang; Yongshuo H. Fu
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In boreal and temperate trees, air temperature is a major environmental factor regulating the timing of spring phenological events, such as vegetative bud burst, through underlying physiological processes. This has been established by experimental research, and mathematical process-based tree phenology models have been developed based on the results. The models have often been applied when assessing the effects of climate change. Currently, there is an increasing trend to develop process-based...
Topics: bud burst, climate change, dormancy, phenology, process-based modelling
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Daniele Codato; Salvatore Eugenio Pappalardo; Alberto Diantini; Francesco Ferrarese; Federico Gianoli; Massimo De Marchi
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Climate change currently represents the tip of the iceberg of the human footprint on the Biosphere, showing social and environmental impacts both on local and global scales. McGlade and Ekins (2015) argued that to keep the temperature from increasing by 2 °C, more than 80% of coal, 50% of gas and 30% of oil reserves must remain “unburnable” underground. Within such a global scenario, the Amazon Biome presently plays a crucial role both as a carbon sink and as a fossil fuel reserve....
Topics: Amazon, Biodiversity, Climate change, Conservation, GIS, Hydrocarbon projects, Indigenous people,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Catherine Devitt; Finbarr Brereton; Simon Mooney; David Conway; Eoin O'Neill
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Keeping within the temperature limits set by the Paris Agreement on climate action will be a significant challenge. Nuclear power generation may contribute to achieving these targets, however, there are significant environmental, economic and health risks attached. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, this paper explores how nuclear power generation is framed in the Irish print media, and discusses the implications of these frames for how nuclear power is perceived within the context of...
Topics: Climate change, Media framing, Nuclear power generation, Public debate
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Raul P. Lejano
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While the goals of sustainability and resilience look to the health and function of the system, a new criterion, relationality, focuses relationship and the degree of connectedness, social and otherwise, among persons (and even nonhuman others). It is founded upon an ethic of care that posits that no one is left alone, and that society must place a primary focus on the most vulnerable. This is particularly relevant when considering how cities are beginning to deal with increasingly frequent and...
Topics: Climate change, Extreme weather, Relationality, Sustainability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Anshu Rastogi; Marcin Stróżecki; Hazem M. Kalaji; Dominika Łuców; Mariusz Lamentowicz; Radosław Juszczak
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Global warming is an important issue which is leading to considerable changes in biomes. Environmental biologists are continuously assessing how global warming is going to impact the current population. Peatlands are one of the most important component of the terrestrial ecosystems which makes only 3% of them but contain around 40% of soil organic carbon. The composition of peatland vegetation impacts a range of ecosystem functions, therefore, with a change in composition, the behavior and...
Topics: Chlorophyll fluorescence, Climate change, OJIP curve, Peatland, Photosynthesis, Vegetation indices
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Margarita Pérez-Jiménez; M. Carmen Piñero; Francisco M. del Amor
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The atmospheric CO2 concentration and the frequency and severity of heat waves are increasing, and the nitrogen - key to plant development - supplied to crops leaches easily, polluting ground water. In this experiment, these three elements were combined, in order to unravel the physiological mechanisms involved in the plant response to this future scenario. Sweet pepper seedlings were exposed to distinct nitrate inputs (nutrient solutions containing 12 mM, 5 mM and 0 mM of N) and plant...
Topics: Capsicum annuum L., Climate change, Heat shock, Nitrogen, Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, WUE
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Purpose: This paper reviews the past and future trends of climate change in Malaysia, the major contributors of greenhouse gases and the impacts of climate change to Malaysia. It also reviews the mitigation and adaptations undertaken, and future strategies to manage the impacts of regional climate change. Methodology: The review encompasses historical climate data comprising mean daily temperature, precipitation, mean sea level and occurrences of extreme weather events. Future climate...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Impacts, Malaysia, Mitigation, Trends
This paper provides a view of the major facts and figures related to infectious diseases with a focus on food-borne and water-borne diseases and their link with environmental factors and climate change. The global burden of food-borne diseases for 31 selected hazards was estimated by the World Health Organization at 33 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2010 with 40% of this burden concentrated among children under 5 years of age. The highest burden per population of food-borne...
Topics: Climate change, Environmental health, Food-borne diseases, Infectious diseases, Water-borne diseases
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Àlex Rollan; Antonio Hernández-Matías; Joan Real
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Farmland birds have suffered notable declines in Europe in recent decades, mainly due to agricultural intensification and climate change. Organic farming, which has been shown to enhance biodiversity, is increasingly being put into practice in European vineyards. Nevertheless, no previous studies have reported significant positive responses in avian communities to organic practices. On the other hand, cover cropping is a common practice in both organic and conventional vineyards and is thought...
Topics: Birds, Climate change, Herbaceous cover, Organic farming, Vineyards
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mohammed Sanusi Shiru; Shamsuddin Shahid; Eun Sung Chung; Noraliani Alias
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The objective of this study was to assess the changes in the severity and return periods of meteorological droughts during major cropping seasons of Nigeria for the period 1901–2010 in order to understand the impacts of climate variation on seasonal droughts. Gauge-based gridded global precipitation climatology center (GPCC) rainfall and climate research unit (CRU) potential evapotranspiration (PET) data having a spatial resolution of 0.5° were used for the reconstruction of droughts using...
Topics: Climate change, Modified Mann-Kendall trend, Seasonal droughts, Standardized precipitation...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by José Roberto Vieira Aragão; Peter Groenendijk; Claudio Sergio Lisi
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Tropical dry forests (TDF) are highly important tropical forest ecosystems. Yet, these forests are highly threatened, usually neglected and only poorly studied. Understanding the long-term influences of environmental conditions on tree growth in these forests is crucial to understand the functioning, carbon dynamics and potential responses to future climate change of these forests. Dendrochronology can be used as a tool to provide these insights but has only scantly been applied in (dry)...
Topics: Caatinga, Climate change, Growth rings, Secondary xylem, Tree ring analysis
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Annual surface air temperatures across the eastern United States (US) have increased by more than 1 °C within the last century, with the recent decades marked by an unprecedented warming trend. Tree-rings have long been used as a proxy for climate reconstruction, but few truly temperature-sensitive trees have been documented for the eastern US, much less the Appalachian Mountains in the Southeast. Here, we measure blue intensity (BI) and ring width (RWI) in red spruce growing at the...
Topics: Appalachian mountains, Climate change, Dendroclimatology, Maximum temperature, North Carolina, Red...
Since climate change involves uncertainty, complexity and massive, rapid disruptions, companies seeking to adapt need to search for specific and non-traditional knowledge. Social learning approaches have emerged as a promising way to address the issue of adaptation to climate change. This paper examines the structuring of a business strategy for adaptation in a Brazilian thermoplastic resin and petrochemical company to exemplify the extent to which internal changes in the organization's...
Topics: Business risk management, Climate change adaptation, Community of practice, Organizational...
Even though air travel often provides the fastest transport option, it also has the highest climate impact. Especially on long-haul trips, an aircraft usually represents the only feasible option. Nevertheless, aircraft are more often used on short-haul routes as well. It is the short-haul flights that produce the highest emissions per passenger. These are also the ones that could be replaced the most easily by land-based transportation modes. This study investigates the greenhouse gas emissions...
Topics: Climate change, Greenhouse gas emissions, Modal shift, Short-haul flight, Train, Travel time
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Antonio Rafael Sánchez-Rodríguez; Chengrong Nie; Paul W. Hill; David R. Chadwick; Davey L. Jones
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The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (e.g. flood, drought) are predicted to increase for the foreseeable future and it is expected that these will negatively impact upon agroecosystem functioning. Our understanding of how grassland ecosystems respond to extreme weather events occurring at different times of the year, however, is lacking. To better understand the seasonal response of grassland to flooding, we subjected an agricultural grassland to an 8-week extreme flood event...
Topics: Climate change, Iron oxyhydroxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, PLFA, Soil microorganisms
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Marco Meisser; Amarante Vitra; Claire Deléglise; Sébastien Dubois; Eric Mosimann; Alexandre Buttler; Pierre Mariotte
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Drought events can strongly affect ecosystem functioning by modifying relationship between plants, microbes and soil chemistry, with consequent impacts on nutrient cycling. However, the potential impacts of a soil moisture reduction on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in grasslands remain poorly understood, especially in regard to forage production. To fill this knowledge gap, a drought experiment was carried out using rainout shelters in two permanent grasslands, characterized by...
Topics: Climate change, Forage quality, Forage yield, Nitrogen cycle, Phosphorus cycle, Soil moisture
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Kerou Zhang; Xiaolu Zhou; Mingxu Li; Kefeng Wang; Juhua Ding; Changhui Peng
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A process-based dynamic ecosystem model of TRIPLEX-GHG was used to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of N 2 O fluxes from global forest and grassland ecosystems under the effects of global warming and elevated CO 2 concentrations. From 1992 to 2015, the estimated average N 2 O emissions from forests and grasslands were 3.62 ± 0.16 Tg N yr −1 and 1.40 ± 0.03 Tg N yr −1 , respectively. Tropical regions made large contributions (83.9% for forests and 74% for grasslands) to the total...
Topics: Climate change, Global forest and grassland ecosystems, Nitrous oxide, Process-based model
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jens Kiesel; Andreas Gericke; Hendrik Rathjens; Annett Wetzig; Sonja C. Jähnig; Nicola Fohrer
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Freshwater species are adapted to and depend on various discharge conditions, such as 32 indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA). Knowing how these indicators will be altered under climate change is essential for predicting species response and to develop mitigation concepts. The simulation of IHA under climate change is subject to considerable uncertainties which should be considered to obtain credible and robust predictions. Therefore, we investigated the major uncertainties inherent in...
Topics: Climate change, EURO-CORDEX, Hydrological indicators, Indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA),...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by O. Quetzalcóatl; M. González; V. Cánovas; R. Medina; A. Espejo; A. Klein; M. G. Tessler; L. R. Almeida; C. Jaramillo; R. Garnier; N. Kakeh; J. González-Ondina
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A user-friendly system designed to understand local littoral processes and design/evaluate coastal interventions, named the Coastal Modeling System (SMC ε ) is presented. The system, which comprises a set of numerical models, state-of-the-art methodologies and numerical databases, is prepared to provide a method for coastal practitioners, researchers and decision-makers to address coastal issues, such as erosion and flooding or to evaluate coastal defense structures. The system incorporates a...
Topics: 2000 MSC, 86A05, Brazilian coasts, Climate change, Coastal interventions, Coastal management,...
Water resources across the globe are projected to undergo significant changes as climate and socio-economic conditions change. A policy relevant question thus arises: whether climate change or population change exerts a greater control on future freshwater resources of a region? Understanding the relative importance of these factors in affecting water availability can help guide prioritization of policy level interventions. In this study, we quantify the changes in mean annual per capita water...
Topics: Budyko, Climate change, Population, SSP, Water availability
While human socioeconomic activity leads to climate change, the latter also affects the former; socioeconomic and climate systems have considerable interactions. Some studies have looked at the effects of climate change on labor productivity and gross domestic product, yet they have not considered the interaction between socioeconomic and climate systems. This study therefore examined that aspect as well as the economic impact of climate-change-induced labor productivity change....
Topics: Climate change, Economic activities, Energy supply, Gross domestic product, Labor productivity,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Solomon Asfaw; Antonio Scognamillo; Gloria Di Caprera; Adriana Ignaciuk
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This article investigates the empirical linkages between crop and livelihood diversification strategies, extreme weather events, and household welfare using a unique dataset that integrates harmonized, national representative household surveys and geo-referenced climatic information collected in Malawi, Niger and Zambia. In doing so, the paper addresses the potential endogeneity arising from the selection bias and the heterogeneity of the effect across the quantiles of the income distribution....
Topics: Climate change, Diversification, Impact, Livelihood strategy, SSA
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Nitrogen deposition and precipitation change are not only hot topics of current global change but also the main environmental factors affecting plant growth. Thus, the effects of nitrogen and precipitation on the life history of spring-(SG) and autumn-germinated (AG) ephemeral plants of Erodium oxyrhynchum were researched in the Gurbantunggut Desert, northern China, and the aim was to understand the response of plants from different germination seasons to global change. SG and AG plants with...
Topics: Climate change, Cold desert, Ephemeral plant, Erodium oxyrhynchum, Increased nitrogen, Increased...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yijing Wang; Liutao Chen; Zhiying Song; Zeqing Huang; Erjia Ge; Lijie Lin; Ming Luo
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While the changes in air temperature under climate change and urbanization have been extensively examined in the literature, little is known about how human-perceived temperatures change. This study investigates the long-term changes in human-perceived temperatures (e.g., summer heat stress and winter wind chill conditions) over South China and quantifies the possible effects of urbanization. Daily observations at 86 stations during the period of 1961–2014 are collected and analyzed. Analysis...
Topics: Climate change, Heat stress, Human-perceived temperature, Long-term trend, Urbanization effect,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yan Dong; Chengsheng Jiang; Mayhah R. Suri; Daphne Pee; Lingkui Meng; Rachel E. Rosenberg Goldstein
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Climate change impacts all water sources, including high quality groundwater that supplies agricultural irrigation in many regions of the United States. This study assessed groundwater level changes in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region with a focus on cultivated areas. Trends of groundwater level were estimated using linear regression, and examined for shallow, medium, and deep depths across physiographic regions of Mid-Atlantic. A hotspot analysis was conducted to identify spatial clusters of wells...
Topics: Climate change, Groundwater, Mid-Atlantic, Water-level change
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Natural gas is a fossil fuel accounting for about 30% of US primary energy consumption. Climate change is one of the primary environmental issues associated with natural gas use: natural gas combustion releases carbon dioxide. A less emphasized issue is that natural gas is mostly methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). The climate impact of natural gas use is thus sensitive to the amount of methane that escapes from the natural gas system unburned. We call attention to three considerations for...
Topics: Carbon footprint, Climate change, Inventory, Leakage, Methane, Natural gas
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Laura Batlle-Bayer; Alba Bala; Isabel García-Herrero; Elodie Lemaire; Guobao Song; Rubén Aldaco; Pere Fullana-i-Palmer
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This study assesses the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and the nutritional quality of the current food consumption and losses of an average Spanish citizen, and compares them with two alternative diets: one following the Spanish dietary guidelines (The NAOS Strategy; NAOS), and another one based on the Mediterranean (MED) diet. The diet-related GHG emissions of current eating patterns would be reduced by 17% and 11%, when shifting to the NAOS and MED diets, respectively, and even more (42% and...
Topics: Climate change, Diet, Greenhouse gas emissions, Impact reduction, LCA, Nutrition
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Livia Bizikova; Patricia Larkin; Scott Mitchell; Ruth Waldick
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Resilience-based approaches to climate change have yet to be widely applied in agriculture. In this sector, indicators have been centered on the impacts of climate on production systems, crops, yields, infrastructure, financial performance, farmers’ livelihoods and food security. This paper focuses on designing an indicator set to capture the resilience of agriculture to inform decision-making frameworks and policies. The indicators’ selection and definition were driven by their relevance...
Topics: Adaptation to climate change, Agriculture, Canada, Farm management, Indicators, Ontario,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Duncan Ray; Michal Petr; Martin Mullett; Stephen Bathgate; Maurizio Marchi; Kate Beauchamp
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The future provision of forest goods and ecosystem services is dependent, among other factors, on climate change impacts, forest management, and response to forest policies. To assess policy implementation targets for Scotland's National Forest Estate under climate change, we simulated forest growth through the 21st century - with and without the abiotic impacts of climate change, and with and without the biotic impacts of an important fungal disease. Eight different forest management...
Topics: Abiotic impacts, Biotic impacts, Climate change, Ecosystem goods and services, Forest management...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Simon Scheiter; Judith Schulte; Mirjam Pfeiffer; Carola Martens; Barend F.N. Erasmus; Wayne C. Twine
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Savanna rangelands provide essential ecosystem services to people. Intense land-use and climate change may degrade ecosystems and influence the provision of ecosystem services. Complex dynamic vegetation models can simulate future vegetation and how vegetation may interact with land-use. Yet, identification of best-practice management directives in the face of climate change is challenging and requires consideration of socio-economic aspects. Here, we developed an economic model to describe the...
Topics: Cattle grazing, Climate change, Dynamic vegetation model, Ecological-economic model, Fuelwood...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Sofia R. Pauleta; Marta S.P. Carepo; Isabel Moura
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Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming impact 300-fold higher than carbon dioxide. Due to its exponential increase in the atmosphere and its implications in climate change there is the need to develop strategies to mitigate its emissions and to reduce it to the inert dinitrogen gas. Only three enzymes have been reported to be able to reduce nitrous oxide, namely nitrogenase, one multicopper oxidase and nitrous oxide reductase, with the latter being the only one with a...
Topics: "CuA center, Denitrification, CuZ model compounds, Nitrous oxide, Nitrous oxide reductase"
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Dayong Zhang; Zhiwei Zhang; Shunsuke Managi
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With growing global actions toward climate changes, green finance receives large attention in recent literature. It is though conceptually unclear, with no consensus achieved on its definition among researchers. This paper provides a brief review of the recent advances in green finance research. It uses a bibliometric analysis approach to summarize the status quo and development trends of green finance. We assist establishing a solid conceptual base and guidance to future research directions.
Topics: Bibliometric analysis, Climate change, Green finance
Terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is closely associated with precipitation and crucial to ecosystem, which has been receiving great concerns at the backdrop of global climate change. In addition to modern investigations, paleo record of N cycling may provide valuable clues about how ecosystem N responds to climate change. Here we measured soil organic nitrogen (TON) and its isotope value (δ 15 N org ) in two loess-paleosol sequences (LPS), i.e. the Yuanbao (YB) and Luochuan (LC) sequences, on...
Topics: Chinese Loess plateau, Loess-paleosol sequence, Organic nitrogen isotope, Past climate change,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Buildings are big consumers of energy and materials, and important producers of waste and emissions. Prefabrication presents an opportunity to reduce impacts in the building sector; however, few studies have focused on prefabricated houses and with contradictory findings. The main goal of this article is to assess the embodied energy (EE) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) of a prefabricated modular house, based on a modular system to enable different layouts. A “cradle-to-site” analysis...
Topics: Climate change, Embodied energy (EE), Life-cycle assessment (LCA), Offsite construction,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Maria Vincenza Chiriacò; Claudio Belli; Tommaso Chiti; Carlo Trotta; Simone Sabbatini
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Sustainable agricultural and food processing practices are often proposed as attractive strategies enabling food systems to respond to the challenges posed by climate change in terms of adaptation and mitigation. However, information on the actual contribution to climate change provided by sustainable food production systems is lacking in literature. With the intention to contribute to a more informed debate, this study aims at quantify the actual impact on climate of sustainable practices...
Topics: Carbon footprint, Climate change mitigation, Eddy covariance, LCA, Vineyard, Wine
To better understand the effect of human activities on tropical oceanic climate change, existing coral-based paleoclimate data from the northern South China Sea (SCS) for several representative climate periods over the past 2000 years were synthesized and reanalyzed. The sea surface temperature (SST) during the current warm period (CWP), in which the climate has been influenced by human activities, exhibits larger change amplitude and higher oscillation frequency than during periods in which...
Topics: Anthropogenic CO 2, Coral, Human activity, Oceanic climate change, Oceanic climate variability,...
New zoogeomorphological features discovered in dryland landscapes of Northern Africa reflect human-animal agency since prehistory, and attest to complex, networked activities over great distances. We discuss the role of zoogeomorphology in shaping Earth's surface since the beginning of the Anthropocene, the timeframe when natural processes shifted and landscape evolution became more human-dominated. We focus on contexts in arid and semiarid lands of Northern Africa, which are metastable,...
Topics: Anthropocene, Arid regions, Climate change, Dust emission, North Africa, Zoogeomorphology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Leoni Mack; Raoul Marie Couture; Fabien Cremona; M. Teresa Ferreira; Michael G. Hutchins; Ute Mischke; Eugenio Molina-Navarro; Katri Rankinen; Markus Venohr; Sebastian Birk
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There are infinite possible future scenarios reflecting the impacts of anthropogenic multiple stress on our planet. These impacts include changes in climate and land cover, to which aquatic ecosystems are especially vulnerable. To assess plausible developments of the future state of European surface waters, we considered two climate scenarios and three storylines describing land use, management and anthropogenic development (‘Consensus’ ‘Techno’ and ‘Fragmented’ which in terms of...
Topics: Chlorophyll-a, Climate change, Land use change, Multiple stressors, Storylines, Total nitrogen,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Temperature in freshwater ecosystems fluctuates daily, seasonally and yearly. Climate change further induces temperature variations. In this study, we hypothesise that water temperatures, in particular thermal extremes, can significantly influence chemical toxicity to ectothermic organisms. Although temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) is a classic research area in ecotoxicology, a unified model for predicting TDCT for freshwater species is yet to be developed. This study aimed to...
Topics: Climate change, Ecological risk assessment, Fresh water ecosystems, Temperature-dependent chemical...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Erin C. Pischke; Barry Solomon; Adam Wellstead; Alberto Acevedo; Amarella Eastmond; Fernando De Oliveira; Suani Coelho; Oswaldo Lucon
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There are numerous strategies to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or to mitigate global climate change. One of them is to promote polices for developing renewable energy sources. There has been a growth in such policies but not enough is known about their effectiveness. We use a revised version of Schaffrin et al.'s (2015) Index of Policy Activity (IPA)1 to examine the historical development (1998–2015) of federal and state/provincial renewable energy policies across five federal...
Topics: Climate change, Pan-America, Policy output, Renewable energy
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Traditional Knowledge has the potential to increase our understanding of many kinds of ecological phenomenon including floods. This article offers insights into the nature of spring flooding and its impacts in the southwestern James Bay region of northern Ontario, Canada from the perspectives of residents of Kashechewan First Nation. This article highlights the important contribution of Kashechewan First Nation's traditional knowledge to understanding and reducing disaster risks in this...
Topics: Canada, Climate change, Indigenous Peoples, Kashechewan First Nation, Participatory techniques,...
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Despite the heightened urgency of curbing carbon emissions around the world, the healthcare sector in general, and the pharmaceutical sector in particular have received very little attention from the sustainability community in terms of their contribution to the global carbon footprint. In this paper, we conduct an analysis of the overall contributions and the historical emissions trends of the pharmaceutical sector, as well as an industry-specific comparative analysis of the major...
Topics: Climate change, Emission intensity, Emissions reduction, Greenhouse gas emissions, Paris agreement,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Vikram S. Negi; Ravi Pathak; Ranbeer S. Rawal; Indra D. Bhatt; Subrat Sharma
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The Himalaya, as provider of range of goods and ecosystem services, is vital for sustaining the life of billions of people. Recognition as one of the Global biodiversity hotspot implies its global significance. The forest ecosystems and plant biodiversity in the region is predicted to respond to the rapid warming and the human induced perturbations. However, documentation of these responses and likely consequences is meagre so as to provide a basis for future comparison. Realizing the...
Topics: Biodiversity, Climate change, Criteria & indicator, Ecosystem, Forest, Indian Himalayan Region,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by E. Gissi; S. Fraschetti; F. Micheli
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Marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP) is intended as a process to apply an adaptive ecosystem-based approach in order to manage the oceans towards the sustainable use of marine resources. Several policy documents and research articles have identified the need for MSP to address change, intended as dynamic aspects from different drivers. However, practical examples of MSP embracing change and dynamics are rare and the inclusion of system dynamics, environmental variability and future change in...
Topics: Change and dynamics, Climate change, Environmental dynamics, Social dynamics, Transdisciplinary...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Francisco Javier Abad; Diana Marín; Maite Loidi; Carlos Miranda; José Bernardo Royo; Jorge Urrestarazu; Luis Gonzaga Santesteban
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Viticulture in Southern Europe heads towards a scenario of drier and warmer the growing seasons due to climate change. This decrease in the amount of water available for the vines and increase in evapotranspiration make necessary finding strategies to reduce vineyard water needs. In this context, the effect of severe trimming (40–60% of shoot length), performed at pea-size stage, on plant water status was evaluated in four different vineyards located in North of Spain. Severe trimming...
Topics: Canopy management, Climate change, Water saving, Water-use efficiency
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Decision-making processes in the European Forest Sector are characterized by an enormous diversity in institutional and political framework conditions. In general, there is a clear need to improve policy integration and management approaches in order to deliver the competing ecosystem services demanded by society. The Special Issue “Models and tools for integrated forest management and forest policy analysis” originates from an initiative of Working Group 2 “Forestry modelling for...
Topics: "Climate change, Ecosystem services, Policy analysis, Decision-making methods, Decision...
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In the arid Hexi Corridor of northwest China, vegetation cover plays a pivotal role in sustaining the unique terrestrial ecosystem. In this paper, vegetation changes during growth season from April to October were investigated through examining the trends in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) across the Hexi region. Based on the GMMIS NDVI 3g.v1 dataset, NDVI trend and its dependency on elevation and land cover were analyzed for the period 1982–2015 according to multiple...
Topics: Climate change, Elevation, Land cover, NDVI trend, Precipitation, Temperature
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rachael H. Nolan; David J. Eldridge; Keryn I. Paul; Stephen Roxburgh; Don W. Butler; Daniel Ramp
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Extreme disturbance events, such as wildfire and drought, have large impacts on carbon storage and sequestration of forests and woodlands globally. Here, we present a modelling approach that assesses the relative impact of disturbances on carbon storage and sequestration, and how this will alter under climate change. Our case study is semi-arid Australia where large areas of land are managed to offset over 122 million tonnes of anthropogenic carbon emissions over a 100-year period. These carbon...
Topics: Climate change, Drought, Forest, Grazing, Mortality, Wildfire
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yun Yang; Zhenchen Wang; Yueqing Xie; Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani; Qiankun Luo; Gan Chen; Qi Zhang; Jianfeng Wu; Jinguo Wang; Jichun Wu
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Various natural and anthropogenic factors affect the formation of gleyed soil. It is a major challenge to identify the key hazard factors and evaluate the dynamic evolutionary process of soil gleyization at a regional scale under future climate change. This study addressed this complex challenge based on regional groundwater modelling for a typical agriculture region located in the Ganjiang River Delta (GRD) of Poyang Lake Basin, China. We first implemented in-situ soil sampling analysis and...
Topics: Climate change, Groundwater depth, Numerical modeling, Poyang Lake, Soil gleyization
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Freshwater ecosystem services are negatively affected by factors such as climate change (e.g. changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise) and human interventions (e.g. agriculture practices, impoundment of dams, and land use/land cover change). Moreover, the potential synergic impacts of these factors on ecosystems are unevenly distributed, depending on geographical, climatic and socio-economic conditions. The paper aims to review the complex effects of climatic and non-climatic...
Topics: Climate change, Ecosystem services framework, Human activities, Risk assessment
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Aristeidis G. Koutroulis
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Drylands are vital ecosystems which cover almost 47% of the Earth's surface, hosting 39% of the global population. Dryland areas are highly sensitive to climatic changes and substantial impacts are foreseen under a warming climate. Many studies have examined the evolution of drylands in the future highlighting the need for improved capability of climate models to simulate aridity. The present study takes advantage of new higher resolution climate projections by the HadGEM3A Atmosphere Global...
Topics: Aridity, Climate change, Drylands, Global impacts, Runoff, Water resources
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Stefano Terzi; Silvia Torresan; Stefan Schneiderbauer; Andrea Critto; Marc Zebisch; Antonio Marcomini
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Climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on our society, the economy and the environment. According to future scenarios, mountain regions are highly vulnerable to climate impacts, including changes in the water cycle (e.g. rainfall extremes, melting of glaciers, river runoff), loss of biodiversity and ecosystems services, damages to local economy (drinking water supply, hydropower generation, agricultural suitability) and human safety (risks of natural hazards). This is due to...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, Event trees, Multi-risk assessment, System dynamic modelling
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Nicolas Francart; Mathias Larsson; Tove Malmqvist; Martin Erlandsson
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This study investigates how Swedish municipalities work to reduce the climate change impact of building construction. It focuses on current practices related to promoting the use of sustainable construction materials and on barriers to environmental requirements in construction, in particular environmental performance requirements based on LCA procedures. Municipalities were surveyed about the existence of municipal policies dealing with environmental issues in construction, the knowledge level...
Topics: Climate change impact, Construction, Environmental requirement, LCA, Municipality, Policy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Lee Hannah; Christopher Costello; Vittoria Elliot; Brandon Owashi; So Nam; Rodrigo Oyanedel; Ratha Chea; Ouk Vibol; Chheng Phen; Gavin McDonald
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Freshwater protected areas (FPAs) are increasingly important for biodiversity conservation, given the intensive use of these systems for water, energy and food production. However, the fisheries benefits of FPAs are not well understood, particularly for indiscriminate fisheries typical of tropical systems. Here we report the results of a model that tests the fisheries effects of no-take protected areas in conditions unique to indiscriminate riverine/floodplain systems. The model has a...
Topics: Cambodia, Climate change, Community, Fishery, Flood-pulse, Floodplain, Freshwater, Freshwater...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Wolfgang Buchholz; Lisa Dippl; Michael Eichenseer
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Leadership in Climate Policy is usually associated with leading by example in mitigation efforts whereas little attention has been paid to leadership in climate-friendly technological progress. We point out that pioneering activities that create reliable demand such as Germany's feed-in tariff for solar energy constitute such technological leadership. Based on global learning curves, we argue that the enormous reduction of prices for photovoltaic modules is due to demand side interventions like...
Topics: Ambition, Climate change, Feed-intariffs, Leadership, Solar photovoltaic, Subsidies
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Climate change and pharmaceutical contamination are two priority research topics due to their impacts in the aquatic ecosystems and in the food chain structure. In the bottom of many food chains are the invertebrates, like the amphipods, which are important environmental and ecotoxicological models. In this study, we combined the increase of temperature [ambient and warming temperature], pCO 2 [normocapnia and hypercapnia] and the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) [environmentally...
Topics: Aquatic animals, Climate change, Comet assay, Endocrine disruptors, Invertebrates
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Shakeel Ahmad; Ghulam Abbas; Mukhtar Ahmed; Zartash Fatima; Muhammad Akbar Anjum; Ghulam Rasul; Muhammad Azam Khan; Gerrit Hoogenboom
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The phenological changes of a long-term observed rice-wheat system (RWS) were used to determine the relationships among management practices, climate change, and crop phenology to devise adaptation strategies for RWS for mitigating the potential impact of climate change. The study comprised of 10 sites of observed and simulated rice-wheat system phenological data for the historical period from 1980 to 2014 in Punjab, Pakistan. The observed climate warming from sowing or/transplanting to...
Topics: CSM-CERES-Rice model, CSM-CERES-Wheat model, Climate change, Phases, Stages, Thermal trend
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Alessandro Anav; Alessandra De Marco; Pierre Friedlingstein; Flavia Savi; Pierre Sicard; Stephen Sitch; Marcello Vitale; Elena Paoletti
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Climate change significantly modifies terrestrial ecosystems and vegetation activity, yet little is known about how climate change and ozone pollution interact to affect forest health. Here we compared the trends of two metrics widely used to protect forests against negative impacts of ozone pollution, the AOT40 (Accumulated Ozone over Threshold of 40 ppb) which only depends on surface air ozone concentrations, and the POD (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose) which relies on the amount of ozone uptaken by...
Topics: AOT40, Climate change, Forests, POD, Tropospheric ozone
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Manuela I. Brunner; Astrid Björnsen Gurung; Massimiliano Zappa; Harry Zekollari; Daniel Farinotti; Manfred Stähli
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In Alpine regions, future changes in glacier and snow cover are expected to change runoff regimes towards higher winter but lower summer discharge. The low summer discharge will coincide with the highest water demand for irrigation, and local and regional water shortages are expected to become more likely. One possible measure to adapt to these changes can be the extension of current uses of artificial reservoirs and natural lakes to the provision of water for the alleviation of water shortage....
Topics: Climate change, Multi-purpose reservoirs, Storage capacity, Water demand, Water shortage
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Florian Zellweger; Pieter De Frenne; Jonathan Lenoir; Duccio Rocchini; David Coomes
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Microclimates at the land–air interface affect the physiological functioning of organisms which, in turn, influences the structure, composition, and functioning of ecosystems. We review how remote sensing technologies that deliver detailed data about the structure and thermal composition of environments are improving the assessment of microclimate over space and time. Mapping landscape-level heterogeneity of microclimate advances our ability to study how organisms respond to climate...
Topics: LiDAR, climate change ecology, light detection and ranging, thermal imaging, topography, vegetation...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Maia Call; Clark Gray; Pamela Jagger
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Recent research suggests that sub-Saharan Africa will be among the regions most affected by the negative social and biophysical ramifications of climate change. Smallholders are expected to respond to rising temperatures and precipitation anomalies through on-farm management strategies and diversification into off-farm activities. However, few studies have empirically examined the relationship between climate anomalies and rural livelihoods. Our research explores the impact of climate anomalies...
Topics: Climate change, Rural livelihoods, Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jean Fletcher; Nancy Longnecker; James Higham
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Comprehensive measures for reducing transport emissions were absent from the 2015 Paris Agreement yet without radical transformations in mobility systems and travel behaviour, transport emissions will continue to grow rapidly. This study investigated perceptions of travel in the year 2050 to see whether expectations of future travel align with lower carbon mobility systems. Data were collected through an international, online survey in 2016, targeting young adults with high levels of climate...
Topics: 2050, Avoid-shift-improve, Climate change, Future travel, Low carbon mobility, Visions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The Mid-Carnian Pluvial Episode (or “Carnian Wet Intermezzo”) interrupted the generally arid climate of the Triassic in different regions. An enhanced high-resolution time scale, especially with intercalibrated ammonoid, conodont and magnetic polarity zones, is required to understand the global coincidence of regional manifestations of this climatic change and possible causation factors. The termination of oolite-rich limestones and the initial influx of terrigenous debris at the Unit 1 to...
Topics: Biostratigraphy, Climate change, Late Triassic, Mazzaella carnica
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Michael J. O'Brien; Francisco I. Pugnaire
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Species distributions are driven by abiotic conditions that filter species with specific traits and physiological tolerances and match them with their suitable environment. Plant–plant interactions can constrict (through competition) or loosen (through facilitation) the strength of these environmental filters, which in turn inhibit or enhance establishment and recruitment of plant species at a finer spatial scale. Although competition is often the focus of community assembly processes that...
Topics: Climate change, Community assembly, Environmental filters, Nurse-plants, Plant-climate...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Environmental change in the Arctic has been a primary topic of interest in recent years, particularly as it relates to the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. Sea ice is of particular importance in this context, both in terms of the effects of climate change in the Arctic, but also globally. Most studies examining the responses of various components of the biosphere to warming temperatures necessarily have a short temporal perspective. The purpose of this study was to use stable...
Topics: Archaeology, Arctic, Climate change, Dorset, Paleoeskimo, Sea ice, Seals, Stable isotopes, Thule
In many passerine birds, testosterone stimulates song and aggression but inhibits paternal care, but few studies have explored whether such effects can be reversed with testosterone blockers. We explored the effect of testosterone blockers on song, aggression and paternal care of Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), an arctic passerine with a short breeding season. Twenty-one “blocker males” received implants containing an androgen receptor blocker and an aromatase inhibitor, compared...
Topics: Aggression, Arctic, Climate change, Parental care, Short season hypothesis, Song, Territoriality,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Autumn phenological variation of temperate and northern ecosystems plays a major but poorly defined role in the global carbon cycle. Constructing robust process-based autumn phenology models is key for improving current ecosystem models to accurately simulate ecosystem productivity and carbon sequestration. In this study, we developed a new process-based autumn phenology model. The model was fitted and validated using 67 leaf coloration and brown-down time series collected for 27 woody and...
Topics: Climate change, Model comparison, Plant phenology, Process-based leaf senescence model, Spatial and...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Panagiotis Tsigaris; Joel Wood
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An endogenous growth model with a simple climate system is used to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the capital-to-net income ratio and the net of depreciation share of income to capital, a measure of wealth concentration and income distribution between capital and labour respectively, over the next two centuries. If climate change only directly affects production, as usually assumed, the capital-to-net income ratio will increase as compared to what it would be in the absence...
Topics: Climate change, Economic growth, Wealth
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Orou G. Gaoue; Carol C. Horvitz; Ulrich K. Steiner; Shripad Tuljapurkar
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Environmental and anthropogenic stressors can interact (e.g., drought, harvest or herbivory) to shape plant demography and evolutionary strategies with implications for sustainable resource management plans. Harvest or recurrent biomass removal can act as a selective force. However, our understanding of how harvest and changes in climate can synergistically shape plant evolutionary strategies is limited. We used age-from-stage matrix modeling to investigate how chronic anthropogenic disturbance...
Topics: Age-from-stage, Age-specific mortality, Climate change, Non-timber forest products harvest
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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A balanced panel of 103 countries for the period 1995–2011 is introduced into a metafrontier framework to gain insight into the idiosyncratic performance of countries in two distinct groups — developed (Annex I) countries and developing (non-Annex I) countries. We measure efficiency using a generalized directional distance function model suitable for dealing with anthropogenic emissions. The measurement of efficiency and technology gaps takes into account the group-specific heterogeneity....
Topics: Efficiency, Environment and climate change, Metafrontier, Technology gaps
Variation in water temperature can have important effects on the energetics underlying metabolism, growth, and reproduction of many organisms. In order to anticipate how a species' allocation of energy may change in a warming ocean, we need to know the degree to which processes such as metabolic rate change with temperature (i.e., the thermal sensitivity of metabolism, Q10). In the context of long-term climate change, it will also be helpful to know whether local populations that experience...
Topics: Biogeography, Climate change, Metabolism, Oxygen consumption, Thermal sensitivity
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Clive Davies; Raffaele Lafortezza
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Spatial planning of green infrastructure has become well established since the turn of the millennium. However, as a planning and policy concept alone it lacks the focus and immediacy that decision makers may be looking for to solve current problems associated with urban and extra-urban sustainability and resilience. In nature-based solutions decision makers can find the focus and immediacy they are seeking. We posit that these nature-based solutions used in combination with spatial green...
Topics: Climate change, Green infrastructure, Grey infrastructure, Nature-based solutions, Path dependence,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. Badrul Masud; Yoshihide Wada; Greg Goss; Monireh Faramarzi
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Crop yields (Y) and virtual water content (VWC) of agricultural production are affected by climate variability and change, and are highly dependent on geographical location, crop type, specific planting and harvesting practice, soil property and moisture, hydro-geologic and climate conditions. This paper assesses and analyzes historical (1985–2009) and future (2040–2064) Y and VWC of three cereal crops (i.e., wheat, barley, and canola) with high spatial resolution in the highly intensive...
Topics: Canada, Climate change, Crop modeling, Virtual water content, Virtual water flow
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This study characterized the potential effects of elevated water temperature on source water quality and corresponding disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Results of laboratory simulations showed that although DBP formation increased with temperature, both the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and DBP formation decreased when water was incubated at higher temperatures (35 °C) prior to chlorination, probably due to increased microbial activity leading to greater degradation...
Topics: Bromide, Climate change, Conventional treatment, Disinfection byproducts (DBPs), Warming...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Amanda E. Poste; Cathrine Skaar Hoel; Tom Andersen; Michael T. Arts; Per Johan Færøvig; Katrine Borgå
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Increases in terrestrial organic matter (tOM) transport from catchments to boreal lakes can affect methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in aquatic biota both directly by increasing concentrations of aqueous MeHg, and indirectly through effects on MeHg bioavailability and on energy pathways in the lower food web. We carried out a detailed seasonal study of water chemistry, zooplankton diet, and MeHg accumulation in zooplankton in two lakes with contrasting tOM concentrations. Between-lake...
Topics: Allochthony, Browning, Climate change, Fatty acids, Mercury. Organic matter
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Andrea Duane; Núria Aquilué; Quim Canelles; Alejandra Morán-Ordoñez; Miquel De Cáceres; Lluís Brotons
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Fire regimes are shifting or are expected to do so under global change. Current fire suppression is not able to control all wildfires, and its capability to do so might be compromised under harsher climate conditions. Alternative fire management strategies may allow to counteract predicted fire trends, but we lack quantitative tools to evaluate their potential effectiveness at the landscape scale. Here, we sought to quantify changes in fire regimes induced after the implementation of different...
Topics: Climate change, Fire management, Fire regime, Landscape fire-succession model, Novel climates,...
Climate change and population growth can affect the supply and the demand sides of transportation networks, respectively. Rational assessment of societal risk of transportation networks should consider these effects, both of which are uncertain in nature. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to assess societal risk of transportation networks subjected to uncertainties due to climate change and future population growth. The method is posited on a robust traffic assignment model using the...
Topics: Climate change, Population growth, Risk assessment, Robust traffic assignment
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The environmental attitude associated with sustainable development includes the belief that the manipulation of ecosystems has a negative effect on natural evolution. Therefore, monitoring and controlling mechanisms have been developed for urban construction activities. Accordingly, urban green building ranking systems have been established around the world. However, Iran does not have its own system, nor does it follow any existing system due to political relationship issues. Through...
Topics: Climate change, Green building, Green roof, Green wall, Monetary valuation, Ranking system
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Zhifu Mi; Vincent Viguié; Neil Fromer; Yutao Wang
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Cities, the core of the global climate change mitigation and strategic low-carbon development, are shelters to more than half of the world population and responsible for three quarters of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG). This special volume (SV) provides a platform that promotes multi- and inter- disciplinary analyses and discussions on the climate change mitigation for cities. All papers are divided into four themes, including GHG emission inventory and accounting, climate...
Topics: City, Climate change, Emission inventory, Mitigation, Sustainable development
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Martin E. Wainstein; Jerôme Dangerman; Stephanie Dangerman
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At present, an energy transition consistent with achieving the goals set out by the Paris climate agreement is not occurring, primarily due to lock-in dynamics at the societal and energy business complex level. To contribute to discussions on how to unlock a major system transformation, we introduce here a new framework that characterises the energy business as a system and traces its metabolism. Drawing analogies with biology and using metabolic maps, we present a systems analysis...
Topics: Climate change, Complex adaptive systems, Corporate governance, Earth system, Energy business,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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With rapid increases in global food demand and production, oil palm expansion constitutes a major emerging challenge for forest conservation in Amazonia and other tropical forest regions. This threat is evident in the Peruvian Amazon, where local and national incentives for oil palm cultivation along with growing large-scale investments translate into accelerated oil palm expansion. Environmental sustainability of oil palm cultivation in the Peruvian Amazon is contingent on policy incentives...
Topics: Climate change, Environmental governance, Forest conservation, Land use change, Oil palm, Peruvian...