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Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Shahjadi Hisan Farjana; Nazmul Huda; M. A.Parvez Mahmud
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In this study, a life-cycle assessment from the aluminum production processes is carried out by considering four major steps of aluminum production - bauxite mining from the ore, alumina production, smelting, and the ingot casting process of aluminum. The study considered the cradle to gate system to analyze and quantify the environmental impacts during aluminum production process from raw materials to the final finished product. The production input and output datasets are taken from the...
Topics: Aluminum, Bauxite, Life-cycle assessment, Refining, Smelting
Building-Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal (BIPVT) technology offers multiple advantages; however, these types of installations include materials such as Photovoltaic (PV) cells and metals which considerably influence BIPVT environmental impact. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate BIPVT environmental profile, for instance by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In light of the issues mentioned above, the present article is an LCA study that assesses the environmental performance of a BIPVT...
Topics: Human toxicity, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Resources
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Joan Manuel F. Mendoza; Simona Andreea Popa; Francesco D'Aponte; Diego Gualtieri; Adisa Azapagic
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The annual market demand for disposable baby diapers exceeds 20 billion units (690 kt) in the European Union (EU). Almost 40,000 disposable diapers are used every minute, producing 1.3 t/min (dry weight) of waste. Based on the estimates in this work, this requires 90.3 PJ of primary energy and emits 2.7 Mt CO 2 eq. annually. In an attempt to reduce resource, waste and environmental impacts associated with diapers, this paper focuses on novel design and manufacture of disposable baby diapers....
Topics: Life cycle assessment, Resource efficiency, Waste management
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate a life cycle assessment of straight vegetable oil (SVO) and biodiesel addressing alternative upstream pathways. The pathways are SVO and biodiesel produced in the United Kingdom (UK) using European rapeseed and also, SVO and biodiesel produced in the UK using soybean grain and soybean oil imported from Argentina. Four environmental impact categories have been assessed using the SimaPro (ReCiPe life-cycle impact assessment) method: this includes global...
Topics: Biodiesel, Emission and shipping, Life cycle assessment, SVO
Walmart Inc., the U.S. and world's largest grocery retailer, owns a perishables, grocery, and general merchandise distribution center network, which stores and distributes refrigerated and non-refrigerated food. Finding cost-effective strategies to implement solar and wind-powered electricity in their distribution centers was the central objective of this research. The study analyzed the tradeoffs and effects on costs and climate change impact related to the increase of renewable energy use in...
Topics: Food distribution center, Life cycle assessment, Non-refrigerated warehouse, Refrigerated...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Charles Felix; Aristotle Ubando; Cynthia Madrazo; Ivan Henderson Gue; Sylviana Sutanto; Phuong Lan Tran-Nguyen; Alchris Woo Go; Yi Hsu Ju; Alvin Culaba; Wei Hsin Chen
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Microalgae offer promising and multifaceted solutions to the ongoing issues regarding energy security and climate change. One of the major bottlenecks in utilizing algal biomass is the excessive amount of moisture to be managed after harvest, which translates to costs in the dewatering step. Newer strategies have been developed to be able to convert algal biomass feedstock to biodiesel without the need for extraction and drying, such as in-situ transesterification. This process can be improved...
Topics: Biodiesel, In-situ Transesterification, Life Cycle Assessment, Microalgae, Subcritical
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Energy for society is an important element globally. Policy discussions in relation to climate change, suggest a transition from fossil-carbon-based systems to those based primarily upon renewable sources. The authors of this paper focused on a technical approach that can help to make that transition, namely pilot photovoltaic net metering installation for a business-residential entity in Slovenia, including its environmental perspectives. Results of the pilot photovoltaic net metering system...
Topics: Case study Slovenia, Life cycle assessment, Net metering, Photovoltaics
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The optimization of energy structures, aimed at saving energy and reducing emissions, is an important precautionary measure against climate change. This study considers different environmental impacts of power systems, and investigates ways to optimize power structures and decrease their potential environmental impact. A multi-objectives optimization model of energy structures was created based on life cycle assessment (LCA). This model covers several environment impacts, rather than only...
Topics: Life cycle assessment, Material input, Power structure, Water deprivation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Shahjadi Hisan Farjana; Nazmul Huda; M. A.Parvez Mahmud; Candace Lang
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Gold and silver are extracted through the gold-silver couple production process or the gold-silver-lead-zinc-copper combined production process. This paper aims to analyse and compare the life-cycle assessment (LCA)of the gold and silver refining processes. Two production routes are considered in this study: gold and silver refining through the gold-silver couple production process and gold and silver refining which are produced from the gold-silver-lead-zinc-copper combined production process....
Topics: Environmental impact, Gold refining, Life cycle assessment, Silver refining
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Weiguo Liu; Qiuan Zhu; Xiaolu Zhou; Changhui Peng
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The biomass-derived CO 2 emission is usually treated as neutral to climate change. However, due to the stay of biomass-derived CO 2 in the atmosphere, many researchers believe that biomass-derived CO 2 also has climate change benefit. Therefore, many methods to account the global warming potential of biomass-derived CO 2 (GWP bio ) were proposed. Based on those new methods, we developed an accounting system for climate change impact of biomass utilization in this study, and compared it with the...
Topics: CENTURY model, Caragana, Global warming potential, Life cycle assessment
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mehdi Hedayati; Philippa M. Brock; Gunasekhar Nachimuthu; Graeme Schwenke
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For many agricultural commodity sectors, efforts to meet international obligations regarding emissions reduction are increasing. The Australian cotton industry has already made advances in this regard and the high yields associated with Australian cotton production dramatically minimise greenhouse gas emissions intensity. However, certainty about the quantum of greenhouse gas emissions and the relative contribution of different components of the emissions profile is somewhat unclear; and...
Topics: Climate mitigation, Cotton production, Life cycle assessment, Nitrous oxide, Sustainability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Eleni Georgiou; Marie Raffin; Keith Colquhoun; Aiduan Borrion; Luiza C. Campos
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For the water sector to cope with rising populations and the anticipated impacts of climate change, increasing amounts of construction output are needed to build water-related infrastructure. Amidst emerging operational energy efficiencies and gradual grid decarbonisation, the relative impact and extent of embodied carbon dioxide equivalent (embodied CO 2 e) effected from the construction and maintenance of water sector infrastructure is likely to rise. For practitioners in the water and...
Topics: Industry practice, LCA (life cycle assessment), Supply chain, Water industry
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Anders Nordelöf; Anne Marie Tillman; Mikael Alatalo; Torbjörn Thiringer
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Ongoing development of electrified road vehicles entails a risk of conflict between resource issues and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, the environmental impact of the core design and magnet material for three electric vehicle traction motors was explored with life cycle assessment (LCA): two permanent magnet synchronous machines with neodymium-dysprosium-iron-boron or samarium-cobalt magnets, and a permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PM-assisted...
Topics: Electric motor, Ferrite, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Magnet, Neodymium, Samarium
Energy systems are currently designed focusing only on minimizing their cost or, at most, including limits on greenhouse gas emissions. Unfortunately, electricity technologies performing well in global warming potential might not necessarily behave equally well across other sustainability criteria. Hence, policies focused solely on mitigating greenhouse gas emissions could potentially resolve one problem (i.e., climate change)by creating another, thereby leading to burden-shifting. Here, the...
Topics: Climate change, Elasticity, Energy systems modeling, Life cycle assessment, STIRPAT
Following the Single Market for Green Products, the European Commission released the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules for Dairy Products (PEFCR-D). According to the PEFCR-D, nitrogen (N) emissions must be calculated as stated by The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the European Environmental Agency (EMEP/EEA) methods. However, since the IPCC method and the EMEP/EEA method follow different N flows, the estimated N emissions differ at common farm stages resulting...
Topics: Ammonia, Dairy manure, Life cycle assessment, Nitrate, Nitrogen dioxide, PEF
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Angelina Frankowska; Harish Kumar Jeswani; Adisa Azapagic
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A healthy diet depends on the daily intake of vegetables. Yet, their environmental impacts along the full supply chains are scarcely known. Therefore, this paper provides for the first time a comprehensive evaluation of the life cycle environmental impacts of vegetables consumed in UK. The impacts are assessed for 56 fresh and processed products produced domestically and imported from abroad, considering both the product and sectoral levels. At the product level, taking into account the market...
Topics: Climate change, Energy, Food, Life cycle assessment, Sustainability, Water footprint
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Europe is currently adapting its waste management strategies towards the increased recycling of waste materials, motivated by ambitious recycling targets. This requires correctly sorting and recovering of all relevant waste flows. In Denmark, a considerable share of residential household waste is collected at recycling centres, 16% of which is sent to energy recovery in the form of “small combustible waste”. Although essential in order to enhance the management of household waste, very...
Topics: Circular economy, Climate change, Contamination, Life cycle assessment, Recycling rate, Sampling
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rebecca J. Thorne; Evert A. Bouman; Cristina B.B. Guerreiro; Anna Majchrzak; Sylwia Calus
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Local governments can play a key role in reducing emissions associated with local energy use. 17 Polish municipalities provided data on energy use and CO 2 emissions for 2015. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to calculate lifecycle impact indicators for greenhouse gases, particulate matter, acidification and eutrophication associated with the annual energy demand in each municipality. Results showed that impacts from energy use increase almost proportionally with total energy used in the...
Topics: Climate change mitigation, Life cycle assessment, Municipal energy use, Municipal planning
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Jérémy Rodrigues; Antoine Gérard; Geoffroy Séré; Jean Louis Morel; Sophie Guimont; Marie Odile Simonnot; Marie Noëlle Pons
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The objective of the LORVER project was the construction of fertile Technosols on an industrial brownfield using wastes and byproducts to produce biomass for industrial purposes (hemp as a fiber source and poplar for short rotation coppice). A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the Technosol construction was conducted to highlight the most significant environmental contributions. Three scenarios were compared: a reference scenario (REF) without improvement of the brownfield, a Technosol scenario...
Topics: Brownfield, Constructed technosol, Hemp, Life cycle assessment, Short rotation coppice,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Yan Dong; Michael Hauschild; Hjalte Sørup; Rémi Rousselet; Peter Fantke
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It is commonly acknowledged that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from anthropogenic sources accelerate climate change impacts. Efforts are made by governments and companies to reduce GHG emissions via policies and actions. In order to determine which actions to prioritize among many options, benefits of emission reductions are often monetized, to compare with the costs of action or with benefits that can be obtained from other actions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a commonly used tool to...
Topics: Climate change, Cost of carbon, Damage modelling, Life cycle assessment, Monetary valuation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Rattanawan Mungkung; Patthra Pengthamkeerati; Ratcha Chaichana; Saranya Watcharothai; Kittiwan Kitpakornsanti; Supachok Tapananont
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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Hom Mali organic rice production in Surin province, Thailand was performed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts. The scope of study was the farm gate and the functional unit was set as one kg of organic paddy rice. The inputs and outputs were collected from the farm's data recording including the measurement of water levels inside the rice field which was done over the production cycle along with methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Inventory analysis...
Topics: Greenhouse Gas (GHG), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Organic jasmine rice, Water footprint
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ramzy Kahhat; Eduardo Parodi; Gustavo Larrea-Gallegos; Carlos Mesta; Ian Vázquez-Rowe
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Alluvial gold mining activities in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest are responsible for mercury emissions and deforestation. To understand related environmental impacts, specifically toxicity and climate change, this study uses Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Four predominant extraction systems were selected and modelled and three scenarios that reflect currently available gold recovery systems were modelled: amalgamation, amalgamation with mercury recovery through retort system and...
Topics: Amalgamation, Artisanal and small scale gold mining, Life Cycle Assessment, Mercury, Peru, Toxicity
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ian Vázquez-Rowe; Ramzy Kahhat; Gustavo Larrea-Gallegos; Kurt Ziegler-Rodriguez
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Most developing nations have had to perform a swift transition from the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation actions engaged in the Copenhagen Accord, to the relatively ambitious mitigations signed in the frame of the Paris Agreement. Consequently, Peru is currently creating its national structure to combat climate change through mitigation and adaptation actions. Nationally-determined contributions (NDCs) are the planned interventions that nations report for intended reductions...
Topics: Climate change, GHG mitigation, Life Cycle Assessment, Nationally determined contributions, Paris...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Buildings are big consumers of energy and materials, and important producers of waste and emissions. Prefabrication presents an opportunity to reduce impacts in the building sector; however, few studies have focused on prefabricated houses and with contradictory findings. The main goal of this article is to assess the embodied energy (EE) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) of a prefabricated modular house, based on a modular system to enable different layouts. A “cradle-to-site” analysis...
Topics: Climate change, Embodied energy (EE), Life-cycle assessment (LCA), Offsite construction,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Carine Lausselet; Vilde Borgnes; Helge Brattebø
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The building sector is a major driver of climate change, and the increased focus on significantly reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in recent years calls for major initiatives in the way we plan, build and operate buildings and neighbourhoods. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a commonly used and well-established tool to estimate the total emissions caused by buildings throughout their entire life cycle. Yet, LCAs of more complex systems such as neighbourhoods are scarce. We have developed...
Topics: Early stage planning, Greenhouse gas emissions, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Zero emission...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Guanyi Chen; Xutong Wang; Jiao Li; Beibei Yan; Yuan Wang; Xiao Wu; Rosita Velichkova; Zhanjun Cheng; Wenchao Ma
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Incineration is well used to treat municipal solid wastes (MSW) but is difficult to treat sewage sludge (SS) because it requires a large amount of heat to remove high content of moisture in SS. Over 50 billion tons of SS are discharged annually in China, and the need for a better waste treatment strategy is urgent. This paper is to introduce a waste disposal technology referring to the integrated treatment of MSW and SS. Four scenarios were analyzed including Mono-incineration of MSW (Case 1)...
Topics: Energy recovery, Integrated treatment, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Municipal solid waste, Sewage...
Carbon dioxide emissions pricing is employed as an approach to mitigate climate change. To analyze the impact of carbon prices on the metal mining industry, this paper presents a new block-based carbon dioxide emissions estimation model to assess the carbon dioxide emissions and carbon intensity in varying carbon prices, by employing the engineering-based inputs from life cycle of mineral production. Such engineering-based data of an iron case is provided to test the impact of carbon prices on...
Topics: Carbon dioxide emissions, Carbon intensity, Carbon price, Life cycle assessment, Metal mining...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Netchanakan Sununta; Ratchayuda Kongboon; Sate Sampattagul
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In the era of globalization, the economy has expanded, leading to an increase in population and the growth of the city dramatically. The municipalities as local administrators for the being and the quality of life of people in the city. However, the activities in the city such as fuel consumption of housing and transportation, electricity use, waste management like wastewater and waste produce both direct and indirect greenhouse gases, increasing many impacts of climate change. The concept of...
Topics: Carbon footprint, Forecasting, GHG mitigation options, Life cycle assessment, Low carbon city,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Chun Guo; Jixuan Liao; Xin Zheng; Zhenhua Zhang; Xiaofeng Chen; Kun Yang; Mingnian Wang
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The purpose of this paper is to evaluate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a Chinese highway tunnel in the life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) method is adopted in the paper. Based on rock mass classification and pavement categories, five different functional units have been proposed for the first time. The system boundaries, processes and assumptions are defined. The study results indicate: 1) the GHG emissions of a double-track four-lane Chinese highway tunnel in 100 years can be up to...
Topics: Climate change, Greenhouse gas emissions, Highway tunnel, Life cycle assessment, Rock mass grade
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Mohammad Ali Rajaeifar; Saeed Sadeghzadeh Hemayati; Meisam Tabatabaei; Mortaza Aghbashlo; Seyed Bagher Mahmoudi
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Among the various agri-food sub-sectors, sugar production is specifically ranked among the top energy-intensive industries in which massive amounts of various fossil energy carriers are used during sugar beet processing jeopardizing the environmental sustainability of the whole industry. Among the various solutions introduced to date, using renewable energies to supply power to this industry could be regarded as a promising approach to reduce the environmental concerns faced by this sector. In...
Topics: Anaerobic digestion, Beet sugar industry, Life cycle assessment, Municipal solid waste, Renewable...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by M. A.Parvez Mahmud; Nazmul Huda; Shahjadi Hisan Farjana; Candace Lang
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Hydropower is the widely used source of clean energy which includes some hazardous emissions that affect human health, ecosystems, and resources. However, in spite of an enormous amount of hydropower generation in Europe, no research has been carried out in evaluating the hazardous emissions from the plants located in alpine and non-alpine areas. Therefore, this paper will analyse the comparative environmental impacts of hydropower plants in alpine and non-alpine areas of Europe by a systematic...
Topics: Alpine and non-alpine regions, Environmental performance evaluation, Hydropower plant, Life-cycle...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Ali Tighnavard Balasbaneh; Abdul Kadir Bin Marsono; Adel Gohari
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Flood risk is increasing rapidly around the world owing to the influence of climate change on precipitation levels. The refurbishment process is a complicated method of building construction after flooding. This study assesses all building costs in parallel with environmental emissions after repairs in a flood zone, in non-flood situations and when a flood hits the building, to determine the feasibility of repairs. Five types of building materials including common brick, concrete block, steel...
Topics: Building adaptation, Flood disaster, Global warming potential, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle...
In the present study, a novel model-based approach is detailed for optimal design and analysis of clean and economic production technologies regardless of temporal and local restrictions. Accordingly, a dual-layer mathematical model is developed in which techno-economic and life cycle analyses are integrated in the first layer using a novel self-sustainability flowchart and the nexus between the water, energy, and carbon sectors are investigated in the second layer using an input/output...
Topics: Life cycle assessment, Power and freshwater cogeneration, Renewable energy, Self-sustainability,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Miia Liikanen; Kaisa Grönman; Ivan Deviatkin; Jouni Havukainen; Marko Hyvärinen; Timo Kärki; Juha Varis; Risto Soukka; Mika Horttanainen
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The European Commission's ambitious construction and demolition waste (CDW) material recovery target has placed pressure on Finland to increase its CDW material recovery rate. It has been identified that using CDW fractions, e.g. waste wood, plastic, mineral wool and plasterboard, as raw materials for wood polymer composites (WPCs) may help in reaching the CDW material recovery target. The objectives of this study were to assess the environmental impacts of WPC production using specific CDW...
Topics: Construction and demolition waste, Environmental impact assessment, Life cycle assessment, Material...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by A. Amato; F. Ferella; F. Vegliò; V. Innocenzi; N. M. Ippolito; C. Pillar Jimenez Gomez; F. Beolchini
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The rare earth elements (REEs) were classified as critical raw materials for Europe for their economic relevance and the supply risk. Currently, most of REE production is concentrated in the Chinese area and it is used for the production of many technologies including: fluorescent lamps, fluid catalytic cracking catalysts and permanent magnets. At the end of their life, these products can cause management problems, mainly due to the hazardous component presence. Nevertheless, this critical...
Topics: Catalytic cracking catalysts, Economic sustainability, Environmental sustainability, Fluorescent...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by T. M. Gulotta; M. Mistretta; F. G. Praticò
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In the past, lowest price was the award criterion, given that structural capacity and safety were assured. In the last years, environmental, energy, and long-term impacts have been introduced (climate change, resource depletion, energy consumption, generated solid waste, discharged water, and emissions). Unfortunately, the introduction of new pavement technologies and materials (i.e., waste plastics) affects maintenance and rehabilitation processes and call for accurate and timeliness studies...
Topics: Energy, Environmental impacts, Hot mix asphalt (HMA), Life cycle assessment, Reclaimed asphalt...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Sustainable agricultural intensification (SI) is an important strategy to respond to the combined challenge of achieving food security and providing public goods and ecosystem services to society, including mitigation and adaptation of climate change. Sustainable intensification includes a wide range of measures at both the supply and demand-side of agricultural production. However, currently, it is unclear what are the most effective and priority measures. This study assesses the potential of...
Topics: Climate change mitigation strategies, Greenhouse gas emission savings, Human and livestock diet,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
by Sofia R. Pauleta; Marta S.P. Carepo; Isabel Moura
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Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming impact 300-fold higher than carbon dioxide. Due to its exponential increase in the atmosphere and its implications in climate change there is the need to develop strategies to mitigate its emissions and to reduce it to the inert dinitrogen gas. Only three enzymes have been reported to be able to reduce nitrous oxide, namely nitrogenase, one multicopper oxidase and nitrous oxide reductase, with the latter being the only one with a...
Topics: "CuA center, Denitrification, CuZ model compounds, Nitrous oxide, Nitrous oxide reductase"