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Folkscanomy Computer: Inbox and Miscellaneous
Oct 9, 2019 Tarleton Gillespie
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CC-Licensed edition of "Custodians of the Internet" by Terleton Gillespie, published by Yale Press, 2018.  Official website:  http://custodiansoftheinternet.org/ Most social media users want their chosen platforms free from harassment and porn. But they also want to see the content they choose to see. This means platforms face an irreconcilable contradiction: while platforms promise an open space for participation and community, every one of them imposes rules of some kind. In the...
Software Library: MS-DOS Games
Oct 9, 2019
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Official Site MagiDuck Platform DOS Released Apr 07, 2018 Gameplay Platform Perspective Side view Genre Action Setting Fantasy Interface Direct Control Visual 2D scrolling Description MagiDuck is a 2D scrolling platform game for the original IBM PC with a CGA card. It uses a tweaked 40x25 text mode to achieve a graphical resolution of 80x50 with 16 colours. The protagonist is a little duck who tries to find out who attacked her family castle, while her family is away. She can jump and shoot...
Software Library: MS-DOS Games
Oct 2, 2019
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Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 María Gabriela Perotti; Marcelo Fabián Bonino; Daiana Ferraro; Félix Benjamín Cruz
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Ectotherms are vulnerable to climate change, given their dependence on temperature, and amphibians are particularly interesting because of their complex life cycle. Tadpoles may regulate their body temperature by using suitable thermal microhabitats. Thus, their physiological responses are the result of adjustment to the local thermal limits experienced in their ponds. We studied three anuran tadpole species present in Argentina and Chile: Pleurodema thaul and Pleurodema bufoninum that are...
Topics: Climate change, Niche models, Reaction norms, Thermal physiology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Stephanie Hopp; Francesca Dominici; Jennifer F. Bobb
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Heat waves have been associated with adverse human health effects, including higher rates of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and these health effects may be exacerbated under continued climate change. However, specific causes of hospitalizations associated with heat waves have not been characterized on a national scale. We systematically estimated the risks of cause-specific hospitalizations during heat waves in a national cohort of 23.7 million Medicare enrollees residing in 1943 U.S....
Topics: Environmental health, Heat waves, Hospital admissions, Prevention, Public health
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Aline C. Martins; Thuane Bochorny; Oscar A. Pérez-Escobar; Guillaume Chomicki; Silvana H.N. Monteiro; Eric de Camargo Smidt
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The colonization of the epiphytic niche of Neotropical forest canopies played an important role in orchid's extraordinary diversification, with rare reversions to the terrestrial habit. To understand the evolutionary context of those reversals, we investigated the diversification of Galeandra, a Neotropical orchid genus which includes epiphytic and terrestrial species. We hypothesized that reversion to the terrestrial habit accompanied the expansion of savannas. To test this hypothesis we...
Topics: Amazonia, Ancestral area estimation, Molecular dating, Orchids, South American arid diagonal
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 H. W.I. Gray; S. Nishida; A. J. Welch; A. E. Moura; M. S. Kiani; R. Culloch; L. Möller; A. Natoli; L. S. Ponnampalam; G. Minton; M. Gore; T. Collins; A. Willson; A. R. Hoelzel
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Phylogeography can provide insight into the potential for speciation and identify geographic regions and evolutionary processes associated with species richness and evolutionary endemism. In the marine environment, highly mobile species sometimes show structured patterns of diversity, but the processes isolating populations and promoting differentiation are often unclear. The Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins) are a striking case in point and, in particular, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.)....
Topics: Conservation, Indian Ocean, Phylogeography, Pleistocene, Taxonomy, Tursiops aduncus
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The establishment of monsoon climate and the consequent aridification has been one of the most important climate change episodes in the Indian subcontinent. However, little is known about how these events might have shaped the diversification patterns among the widely distributed taxa. Fan-throated lizards (FTL) (Genus: Sitana, Sarada) are widespread, diurnal and restricted to the semi-arid zones of the Indian subcontinent. We sampled FTL in 107 localities across its range. We used molecular...
Topics: Aridification, Biogeography, Diversification, Evolution, Fan-throated lizards, Species delimitation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Currently, the genus Kurixalus comprises 14 species distributed in Southern, Southeast and East Asia. Because of their relatively low dispersal capability and intolerance of seawater, this group is ideal for the study of terrestrial range evolution, especially that portion of its range that extends into the island archipelagos of Southern Asia. We assembled a large dataset of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and estimated phylogeny by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and we explored the...
Topics: Kurixalus, Phylogeny, Southeast Asia, Speciation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Shivani Garg; Hao Wu; James M. Clomburg; George N. Bennett
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Methane, the primary component of natural gas, is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) and contributes significantly to climate change. The conversion of methane to industrial platform chemicals provides an attractive opportunity to decrease GHG emissions and utilize this inexpensive and abundantly available gas as a carbon feedstock. While technologies exist for chemical conversion of methane to liquid fuels, the technical complexity of these processes mandate high capital...
Topics: Butyric acid, Crotonic acid, Gas-to-liquid conversion, Methanotroph, Methylomicrobium buryatense,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Kai Cui; Wujiao Li; Jake George James; Changjun Peng; Jiazheng Jin; Chaochao Yan; Zhenxin Fan; Lianming Du; Megan Price; Yongjie Wu; Bisong Yue
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The monal genus (Lophophorus) is a branch of Phasianidae and its species inhabit the high-altitude mountains of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The Chinese monal, L. lhuysii, is a threatened endemic bird of China that possesses high-altitude adaptability, diversity of plumage color and potentially low reproductive life history. This is the first study to describe the monal genome using next generation sequencing technology. The Chinese monal genome size is 1.01 Gb, with 16,940 protein-coding genes....
Topics: Adaptation, Chinese monal, De novo assembly, Genome, Lophophorus lhuysii
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Kyungmun Kim; Ju Hyeon Kim; Young Ho Kim; Seong Eui Hong; Si Hyeock Lee
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Perturbation of normal behaviors in honey bee colonies by any external factor can immediately reduce the colony's capacity for brood rearing, which can eventually lead to colony collapse. To investigate the effects of brood-rearing suppression on the biology of honey bee workers, gene-set enrichment analysis of the transcriptomes of worker bees with or without suppressed brood rearing was performed. When brood rearing was suppressed, pathways associated with both protein degradation and...
Topics: Honey bee worker, Stress
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 John C. Wingfield; Michaela Hau; P. Dee Boersma; L. Michael Romero; Nigella Hillgarth; Marilyn Ramenofsky; Peter Wrege; Robert Scheibling; J. Patrick Kelley; Brian Walker; Martin Wikelski
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El Niño Southern Oscillation events (ENSO) and the subsequent opposite weather patterns in the following months and years (La Niña) have major climatic impacts, especially on oceanic habitats, affecting breeding success of both land and sea birds. We assessed corticosterone concentrations from blood samples during standardized protocols of capture, handling and restraint to simulate acute stress from 12 species of Galapagos Island birds during the ENSO year of 1998 and a La Niña year of...
Topics: Corticosterone, El Niño Southern Oscillation event, La Niña Southern Oscillation event, Land...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 T. Distefano; M. Riccaboni; G. Marin
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The issue of water access and security has been emphasized in the recent policy debate on sustainable development (Sustainable Development Goal No. 6) and adaptation to climate change (CoP21 in Paris, 2015). This study provides new evidence about the Blue Virtual Water Input-Output Network. The main novelty of our approach is the combination of Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) with Network Theory. SDA reveals that size-related, technological and structural components have contributed...
Topics: Network analysis, Virtual water trade
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Duncan Macqueen; Anna Bolin; Martin Greijmans; Sophie Grouwels; Shoana Humphries
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The combined impacts of multiple locally-controlled forestry (LCF) businesses will play a key role in shaping the fate of forest landscapes. This article analyses how such enterprises contribute to a broad notion of prosperity as ‘that which people value and have reason to value in line with the common good’. It focuses on innovations that are found in those businesses and highlights how these differ from other models of business, which often pursue, for a limited number of people, a...
Topics: Business models, Global, Locally controlled forestry (LCF), Prosperity, SDGs, Small and medium...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Marco Letta; Pierluigi Montalbano; Richard S.J. Tol
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Using the LSMS-ISA Tanzania National Panel Survey by the World Bank, we study the relationship between rural household consumption growth and temperature shocks over the period 2008–2013. Temperature shocks have a negative and significant impact on household growth if their initial consumption lies below a critical threshold. As such, temperature shocks slow income convergence among households, at least in the short run. Crop yields and total factor productivity in agriculture are the main...
Topics: Climate change, Rural development, Weather shocks
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Joshua Busby; Todd G. Smith; Nisha Krishnan; Charles Wight; Santiago Vallejo-Gutierrez
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Asian countries have among the highest numbers of people exposed to the impacts of climate-related hazards and, thus, at greatest risk of mass death. Floods, droughts, and storms have always tested civilian governments and international humanitarian aid agencies. However, climate change threatens to make the problem worse by increasing the intensity and possibly the frequency of climate-related hazards. Humanitarian emergencies potentially upend and reverse progress on development priorities,...
Topics: Adaptation, Asia, Climate change, Vulnerability
Approaches to resilience to climate change can be socially exclusionary if they do not acknowledge diverse experiences of risks or socio-economic barriers to resilience. This paper contributes to analyses of resilience by studying how theories of change (ToC) processes used by development organizations might lead to social exclusions, and seeking ways to make these more inclusive. Adopting insights from participatory monitoring and evaluation, the paper first presents fieldwork from four...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Livelihoods, Myanmar, Resilience, Theories of change
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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How different groups perceive climate-related problems and changes is of growing interest in research and practice, especially in relation to the adaptation of vulnerable communities to climate change. However, research on local climate perceptions to date has tended to focus on what changes are perceived, not on how those changes are interpreted in particular socio-cultural contexts and given meaning within local worldviews and systems of values and beliefs. Based on fieldwork in agro-pastoral...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, Indigenous worldviews, Latin America, Narratives, Peru, Religious beliefs
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Morey Burnham; Laura Vang Rasmussen; Zhao Ma
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The world's poor are frequently considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change (Niang et al., 2014), and thus most in need of adaptation to reduce the harms and risks climate change poses to their lives and livelihoods. As climate change adaptation projects are increasingly linked to socioeconomic development, scholars have recognized that planned adaptation interventions must go beyond abating climate risk and address the various structural deficits,” such as lack of income,...
Subsistence farmers in Sahelian Africa are highly vulnerable to the rainfall effects associated with climate change. Permanent or temporary out-migration can provide an individual or family the opportunity to mitigate against these effects. One major challenge to quantifying the impact of climate change on out-migration is lack of appropriate spatial and temporal data. Out-migration data must be adequately detailed to include both long- and short-term departures. The climate data must provide...
Topics: Food security, Mali, Out-migration, Rainfall
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Using the notion of institutional interplay, which refers to situations where the operation or consequences of one regime influence another regime, the article explores the interplay between planned adaptation and farmer households’ autonomous adaptation. Drawing empirical data from two drought-prone districts in Northeastern Ethiopia (Kobo and Raya Azebo), this article deals with the differentiated effects of planned adaptation, exemplified by Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Programme...
Topics: Ethiopia, Gender, Productive Safety Net Programme
This paper argues that climate change adaptation through strategic greenspace planning requires scholars and planners to think differently about what equity means in an urban greenspace context. We use the heat mitigation potential of greenspace and the case of Taipei Metropolis in Taiwan to assess challenges arising from thinking about fairness in terms of distribution of benefits from greenspace functions, as opposed to fairness in greenspace accessibility and availability. Urban greening to...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, Ecosystem services, Taipei, Urban greenspace, Urban heat island effect
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Joshua Eastin
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It is commonly accepted that women can be more vulnerable than men to the adverse environmental effects of climate change. This paper evaluates whether the unequal distribution of costs women bear as a result of climate change are reflected across broader macro-social institutions to the detriment of gender equality and women's rights. It argues that gender disparities in climate change vulnerability not only reflect preexisting gender inequalities, they also reinforce them. Inequalities in the...
Topics: Climate change, Developing states, Development, Gender equality, Vulnerability, Women's rights
Adaptation research often uses identity categories. This article argues that a performativity approach allows us to understand identity in ways that are important for adaptation. Performativity sees identity as constructed through practices in an ongoing process of negotiation and renegotiation. Individuals and groups can thus be understood as having the agency to redefine identity by changing their everyday practices; changed practices, in turn, can influence the construction of identity....
Topics: Africa, Agency, Category, Kenya, Pastoralism, Practice
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Paul McCord; Kurt Waldman; Elizabeth Baldwin; Jampel Dell'Angelo; Tom Evans
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Smallholder agriculturalists employ a range of strategies to adapt to climate variability. These adaptive strategies include decisions to plant different seed varieties, changes to the array of cultivated crops, and shifts in planting dates. Smallholder access to irrigation water is crucial to the adoption of such strategies, and uncertainty of water availability may prove to be a stimulating force in a smallholder's decision to adjust their on-farm practices. Within smallholder irrigation...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, Collective action, Kenya, Seed choice, Smallholder agriculture, Water...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Carol Hunsberger; Courtney Work; Roman Herre
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This paper investigates how climate change strategies and resource conflicts are shaping each other in the Greater Aural region of western Cambodia. Agro-industrial projects linked to climate change goals are reshaping both social and ecological dynamics, by altering patterns of access to land and water resources as well as the nature of the resources themselves. Using a landscape perspective, we investigate these social and ecological changes occurring across space and time. Drawing on data...
Topics: Asia, Biofuel, Cambodia, Climate change, Conflict, Irrigation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Sharon Pailler; Magda Tsaneva
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Climate variability has been shown to have adverse effects on morbidity and mortality. Less is known about its effects on psychological well-being, especially in developing countries with agriculture-based economies. In this paper, we test whether extreme temperature and precipitation in India have an effect on self-reported depression symptoms, cognitive and sleep difficulties, and ability to cope with and control life. We use time and geographic variation in weather and show that hot weather...
Topics: Climate variability, India, Psychological well-being
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Sonia Graham; Jon Barnett; Colette Mortreux; Anna Hurlimann; Ruth Fincher
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A key criterion of successful adaptation to climate change is that it avoids potential inequalities arising from climate impacts or from adaptation strategies themselves. Recent research on adaptation in developing and developed countries argues that the measures of such fairness cannot be captured by standard metrics of vulnerability and should be situated in the milieu of people's daily lives and temporalities. Yet there is little empirical evidence to support this theoretical argument. This...
Topics: Equity, Justice, Lived values, Quotidian practices, Vulnerability
Adaptation to climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing coastal communities today. Coastal communities are subject to a wide range of stressors related to climate change, including biological resource decline and natural hazards. Small historically natural-resource-dependent communities are particularly vulnerable because of their close reliance on ecosystem goods and services that are likely to be affected by climate change (e.g., fisheries, forests) and their limited access to...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Coastal Oregon, Path dependency, Rural communities, USA
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 David Castells-Quintana; Maria del Pilar Lopez-Uribe; Thomas K.J. McDermott
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This paper looks at adaptation to climate change from the point of view of (poor) households. Since the development literature has firmly established the role of weather risk as a source of income volatility for the poor, and climate change is expected to increase this risk, we review the range of risk-coping mechanisms available to poorer households, with a focus on possible barriers to adaptation. We ask both how government interventions affect the set of options available for adaptation and...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Sustainable development
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Florian Weiler; Carola Klöck; Matthew Dornan
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Developed countries provide increasing amounts of aid to assist developing countries adapt to the impacts of climate change. How do they distribute this aid? While donors agreed to prioritise “particularly vulnerable” countries, we know from the general aid allocation literature that donors (also) use aid as a foreign policy tool to promote their own economic and political goals. In this paper, we analyse data on bilateral adaptation aid from 2010 through 2015 to assess to what extent...
Topics: Adaptation aid, Aid allocation, Climate change adaptation, Climate finance
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Nibedita S. Ray-Bennett
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Natural disasters (such as floods, cyclones, heat waves, and lightning) have the potential to cause human loss and injury. Due to climate change, the number of people affected by natural disasters is increasing every year with a marked debilitating effect on developing countries as compared to developed countries. To tackle these challenges, the United Nations “Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–30” identified “seven global targets”, of which the first target is to...
Topic: vulnerability
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Solomon Asfaw; Giacomo Pallante; Alessandro Palma
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The paper provides fresh empirical evidence on the adaptation process in Niger rural communities using original longitudinal socio-economic panel data merged with granular geo-referenced climatic information. We identify the main drivers and impacts of crop and labor diversification which constitute two livelihood strategies on moderating the adaptation deficit. In doing so, we account for the interdependence between the two diversification practices and potential reverse causality between...
Topics: Niger, SSA, adaptation, climate change, diversification, livelihood strategy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Morey Burnham; Zhao Ma
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Smallholder farmers in the Loess Plateau Region of China are highly vulnerable to climate change. Effective adaptation governance requires in-depth, situated understanding of how adaptation is embedded in particular environmental, social, political, economic, and institutional contexts. Drawing on 93 qualitative interviews with smallholder households in five counties across three provinces on the Loess Plateau, we use a multi-scalar pathways approach to analyze two particular adaptations...
Topics: China, agricultural decision-making, climate change adaptation, livelihoods, pathways,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Anamika Dey; Gurdeep Singh; Anil K. Gupta
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Women, especially in the marginalized communities of the high-risk regions prone to flood and drought are considered most vulnerable to climate change risks. They play a very important role in household nutrition management and resource management in terms of labor, off-farm products, and small savings. In the absence of help from formal and informal R and D and technology institutions, their knowledge and resources’ exchange system has to be very robust to cope with the seasonal shortages...
Topics: India, climate adaptation, food availability, gender
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Claudia Radel; Birgit Schmook; Lindsey Carte; Sofia Mardero
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Smallholder labor migration and its relationship to climate change adaptation has received increasing attention, with migration often represented either as part of successful adaptive livelihood diversification or as symptomatic of a lack of in-place adaptive capacity. Using a case study, we focus on the relationship between labor migration, agrarian livelihood diversification, and climate change to further a more nuanced understanding of “migration as adaptation” than is implied by a...
Topics: double exposure, drought, environmental migration, livelihood diversification, neoliberalism,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Zhejin Li; Lingling Yan; Xiaolong Wang; Peng Yan; Yawen Shen; Hongcui Dai; Xiaolei Yang; Jixiao Cui; Yuanquan Chen
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Large quantities and many varieties of agricultural organic wastes are produced in China annually. Applying agricultural organic wastes to soil plays an essential role in coping with the environmental pollution from agricultural wastes, solving the energy crisis and responding global climate change. But there is little information available on the effects of different agricultural organic wastes on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare...
Topics: Characteristics of organic wastes, Cropping system, Emission factors, North China Plain, Organic...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Taiwo Babatunde Hammed; Shem O. Wandiga; Yacob Mulugetta; M. K.C. Sridhar
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Throughout the world, waste sector has been implicated in significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Involving communities in recycling their solid waste would ensure climate change effect mitigation and resilience. This study was carried out to improve waste management practices through a community-led intervention at Kube-Atenda community in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design, comprising mixed method of data collection such as semi-...
Topics: Greenhouse gas, Life-cycle-based model, Waste management practices
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Dickella Gamaralalage Jagath Premakumara; S. N.M. Menikpura; Rajeev Kumar Singh; Matthew Hengesbaugh; Albert Altarejos Magalang; Eligio T. Ildefonso; Maria Delia Cristina M. Valdez; Liz C. Silva
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Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is considered one of the serious environmental issues in the Philippines, with corresponding linkages to the climate change and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, methane (CH4) linked with indiscriminate dumping of municipal solid waste has received the much attention with regard to public health and climate change. The impacts of black carbon (BC) are less documented and understood. This paper aims to review the status of MSWM in the...
Topics: Black carbon (BC), Climate change, Greenhouse gases (GHGs), Municipal solid waste management...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Waste-sector greenhouse gas emissions have long been accepted as a critical component of climate change mitigation efforts because of the significant radiative forcing of methane (CH4) production from municipal landfills and other emissions from waste management processes. In developed countries, waste generation is expected to peak and decline by the end of the century, whereas waste generation is rapidly rising in many developing nations. The extent to which the countries of the world are...
Topics: Greenhouse gas, Paris Climate Agreement, Waste policy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Atul Kumar; S. R. Samadder; Nitin Kumar; Chandrakant Singh
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Plastic waste generation is an inevitable product of human activities, however its management faces challenges in many cities. Understanding the existing patterns of plastic waste generation and recycling is essential for effective management planning. The present study established a relationship between plastic waste generation rate and the identified socioeconomic groups, higher socioeconomic group (HSEG), middle socioeconomic group (MSEG), and lower socioeconomic group (LSEG) of the study...
Topics: Informal, Machine learning models, Recycling, Revenue generation, Socioeconomic groups
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Jean O'Dwyer; Dylan Walshe; Kenneth A. Byrne
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Large quantities of wood products have historically been disposed of in landfills. The fate of this vast pool of carbon plays an important role in national carbon balances and accurate emission reporting. The Republic of Ireland, like many EU countries, utilises the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for greenhouse gas reporting in the waste sector, which provides default factors for emissions estimation. For wood products, the release of carbon is directly...
Topics: IPCC, Landfill, Methane emissions, Wood product decomposition
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Hyeyoung Lee; Seung Muk Yi; Thomas M. Holsen; Yong Seok Seo; Eunhwa Choi
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Climate-relevant CO 2 emissions from waste incineration were compared using three methods: making use of CO 2 concentration data, converting O 2 concentration and waste characteristic data, and using a mass balance method following Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. For the first two methods, CO 2 and O 2 concentrations were measured continuously from 24 to 86 days. The O 2 conversion method in comparison to the direct CO 2 measurement method had a 4.8% mean difference...
Topics: Carbon dioxide, IPCC guidelines, O 2 conversion, Waste incineration
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Fabiano A. Ximenes; Annette L. Cowie; Morton A. Barlaz
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Large volumes of engineered wood products (EWPs) and paper are routinely placed in landfills in Australia, where they are assumed to decay. However, the extent of decay for EWPs is not well-known. This study reports carbon loss from EWPs and paper buried in landfills in Sydney, Brisbane and Cairns in Australia, located in temperate, subtropical and tropical climates, respectively. The influence of pulp type (mechanical and chemical) and landfill type (municipal solid waste – MSW and...
Topics: Carbon, Engineered wood products, Landfill, Paper
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Nor Aishah Saidina Amin; Amin Talebian-Kiakalaieh
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As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill...
Topics: Biomass, Carbon emission, Climate change, Oil palm, Renewable energy
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Rongxing Bian; Danhui Xin; Xiaoli Chai
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Global climate change and ecological problems brought about by greenhouse gas effect have become a severe threat to humanity in the 21st century. Vegetation plays an important role in methane (CH 4 ) transport, oxidation and emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills as it modifies the physical and chemical properties of the cover soil, and transports CH 4 to the atmosphere directly via their conduits, which are mainly aerenchymatous structures. In this study, a novel 2-D simulation...
Topics: CH 4 emissions, CH 4 oxidation, Landfill, Simulation, Vegetation embedded module
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Lidia Lombardi; Ennio A. Carnevale
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Residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has an average lower heating value higher than 10 GJ/Mg in the EU, and can be recovered in modern Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants, producing combined heat and power (CHP) and reaching high levels of energy recovery. CHP is pinpointed as the best technique for energy recovery from waste. However, in some cases, heat recovery is not technically feasible – due to the absence of a thermal user (industrial plant or district heating) in the vicinity of the WtE...
Topics: Cogeneration, Electric efficiency, Life cycle assessment, Municipal solid waste, Plant size, R1
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Christian Sonne; Emilie Andersen-Ranberg; Elisabeth L. Rajala; Jørgen S. Agerholm; Eva Bonefeld-Jørgensen; Jean Pierre Desforges; Igor Eulaers; Bjørn M. Jenssen; Aqqalu Rosing-Asvid; Ursula Siebert; Morten Tryland; Gert Mulvad; Tero Härkönen; Mario Acquarone; Erling S. Nordøy
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Zoonotic infections transmitted from marine mammals to humans in the Baltic and European Arctic are of unknown significance, despite given considerable potential for transmission due to local hunt. Here we present results of an initial screening for Brucella spp. in Arctic and Baltic seal species. Baltic ringed seals (Pusa hispida, n = 12) sampled in October 2015 and Greenland Sea harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus, n = 6) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata, n = 3) sampled in March 2015...
Topics: Arctic, Humans, One health, Zoonosis
Climate change, resulting in increased temperatures, has the potential to alter the species composition of urban tree populations. We examined the likely changes in composition of common street tree species in California (USA), using a space-for-time substitution approach which paired each of the 16 cities covering the climatic range of the state (“representative city”) with a “warm city” counterpart, where the climate of today approximates the climate of the representative city in...
Topics: Adaptation, Global warming, Resilience, Tree palette, Urban forest
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Amin Rastandeh; Daniel K. Brown; Maibritt Pedersen Zari
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Biodiversity loss in urban landscapes is a global challenge. Climate change is a major driving force behind biodiversity loss worldwide. Using Wellington, New Zealand as a research site, the aim of this research is to show how the most suitable patches of vegetation in urban landscapes can be identified, ranked, and prioritised as potential urban wildlife sanctuaries. This is in order to protect vulnerable indigenous fauna from some of the indirect impacts of climate change such as increased...
Topics: Indigenous fauna, Landscape composition and configuration, Rising temperatures, Urban biodiversity,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Street trees provide shade and increase human thermal comfort during hot summer. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of shade provision of street trees in Boston, Massachusetts. The sky view factor (SVF), which influences the solar radiation to the ground and affects human thermal comfort, was used to indicate the contribution of street trees on shade provision. Google Street View (GSV) panoramas were used to calculate the photographic method based SVF (SVFP), with the...
Topics: Google Street View (GSV), Shade provision, Sky view factor, Street trees
The transformation of natural landscapes into impervious built-up surfaces through urbanization is known to significantly interfere with the ecological integrity of urban landscapes and accelerate climate change and associated impacts. Although urban reforestation is widely recognised as an ideal mitigation practice against these impacts, it often has to compete with other lucrative land uses within an urban area. The often limited urban space provided for reforestation therefore necessitates...
Topics: Elevation, Partial least squares regression, Slope, Topographic wetness index, Urban ecological...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Laura Myrtiá Faní Stratópoulos; Swantje Duthweiler; Karl Heinz Häberle; Stephan Pauleit
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Vegetation in urban areas provides benefits to people, which are increasingly assessed and valued as ecosystem services (ESS). The regulation of the urban microclimate is one of these services, since trees have the potential to reduce urban heat loads by evapotranspiration and shading. Simultaneously, it has been suggested that trees from dry habitats should be used to cope with the increasing risks of drought under climate change in Central Europe. The underlying properties that enable those...
Topics: Transpiration, Urban trees, Water-use efficiency
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Natalie S. van Doorn; E. Gregory McPherson
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The aim of this study was to quantify street tree population dynamics in the city of Claremont, CA. A repeated measures survey (2000 and 2014) based on a stratified random sampling approach across size classes and for the most abundant 21 species was analyzed to calculate removal, growth, and replacement planting rates. Demographic rates were estimated using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The community-level (all species) median growth rate was 1.41% per year (95% CI: 1.21–1.65%) with...
Topics: Growth, Mortality, Resilience, Tree demography, Urban forest monitoring
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 H. M.P.I.K. Herath; R. U. Halwatura; G. Y. Jayasinghe
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Incorporation of strategic green infrastructure into urban settings has a potential to mitigate climate change, urban heat island (UHI) effect, flood risk and subsequent increase in quality of human life in general. UHI induces through low surface albedo, building geometry and absence of greenery and it deteriorates the thermal comfort and well-being of city dwellers and occupants. This study examined the implication of urban green infrastructure on enhanced microclimatic condition in tropical...
Topics: ENVI-met, Green infrastructure, Microclimatic mitigation strategies, Urban heat island, Urbanization
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 E. Gregory McPherson; Alison M. Berry; Natalie S. van Doorn
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Urban forests produce ecosystem services that can benefit city dwellers, but are especially vulnerable to climate change stressors such as heat, drought, extreme winds and pests. Tree selection is an important decision point for managers wanting to transition to a more stable and resilient urban forest structure. This study describes a five-step process to identify and evaluate the performance of promising but infrequently used tree species. The approach is illustrated for the Central Valley of...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Growth, Resilience, Tree selection, Urban forest
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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This study examines the association among perception regarding climate change and climatic shocks with a set of socio-demographic variables like age, education, occupation, annual income, socio-economic status and land. Random sampling method was followed to conduct household survey, a total of 279 households were interviewed from rural mountainous areas of Swat District (Pakistan). For this purpose, structured and semi-structured questionnaire was designed to gather the household information....
Topics: Climate change, Climatic shocks, Livelihood practices, Precipitation, Temperature
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Urban heat island (UHI) has been identified as a threat to urban living quality in the context of climate change. As awareness of the impacts of urban expansion on local climate increases, urban planners/decision makers attempt to incorporate climatic considerations into the planning process. An increasingly-used urban climatic analysis scheme— Local Climate Zone (LCZ) classification— has been applied in Hong Kong, a high-density city with heterogeneous an urban environment. This study aims...
Topics: High-density city, Hong Kong, Local climate zone (LCZ), Mobile measurement, Urban heat island,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Heat-related mortality is increasing as the result of climate change, extreme heat events and higher ambient temperature because of urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. We coupled the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRFV3.6.1) with a multi-layer of the Urban Canopy Model (ML-UCM) to investigate the effects of UHI intensity during the 2005 and 2011 heat wave periods in Greater Montreal Area (GMA), Canada. Each day of simulation is categorized into an air mass type using the Spatial...
Topics: Heat-related mortality, Increasing surface reflectivity, Spatial synoptic classification, Urban...
Coastal cities on the U.S. East Coast are emerging hotspots of global sea level rise as well as increasingly attractive real estate markets. In this context, proactive real estate firms are engaging in various strategies for flood risk management. Analyzing firms’ urban adaptation practices, this paper builds on theories of growth coalitions and climate change imaginaries, identifying forms of resilience that promote an ascendant competitive resilience regime. The most proactive firms treat...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate governance, Growth coalition, Private sector, Resilience, Urban politics
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Paul Kirshen; Neil Fennessey; Renee Bourdeau; Lorilee Mather
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Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) is the holistic management of urban water supply, sanitation, stormwater, and wastewater to achieve sustainable economic, social and environmental objectives. All parts of the urban water cycle are managed together instead of separately. IUWM can be part of the solution for cities facing singular or multiple water management stresses under present and future climates. It has particular advantages for adaptation because it can be implemented over time and...
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Integrated management, New Hampshire, Urban, Water
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In recent years, many cities have joined transnational municipal climate networks (TMCNs), which were set up in response to climate change. Despite the fact that some of these TMCNs have been active for more than two decades, there has been no systematic investigation of the networks' impact on local climate governance. In this article we attempt to answer if and how local climate governance has been influenced by municipalities' memberships in TMCNs. Our assessment is based on an online survey...
Topic: Urban planning
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Heba Allah Essam E. Khalil; Abdel Khalek Ibrahim; Noheir Elgendy; Nahla Makhlouf
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Many researches have highlighted the importance of environmental justice, where healthy environment is a right to all. Currently, the most vulnerable groups to climate change are low-income urban dwellers, typically residing in urban informalities within cities of the Global South. In Cairo, the awareness about climate change and responsive consumption is minimal and the increase in temperature could have serious effects on residents' health. In 2012, informalities were reported to house two...
Topics: Open spaces, Urban climate, Urban heat islands
Land surface temperature (LST) is an essential indicator of the Earth's surface energy budget. It is essential for urban micro-climate change studies and acts as a controlling variable in climatic models. The present study, LST retrieves with the improved mono-window algorithm from the Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor Band 10. The proportion of vegetation cover coupled with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) used for the estimation of emissivity. The derived emissivity and surface...
Topics: Emissivity, Land surface temperature, Landsat 8, Mono-window algorithm, NCR-India, NDVI
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Fongnzossie Fedoung Evariste; Sonwa Denis Jean; Kemeuze Victor; Mengelt Claudia
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This study assesses vulnerability to climate change and local adaption strategies in the Kribi-Campo coastal area. Variables of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity are described and assessed based on the community's perception and biophysical evidence. Historical changes in rainfall and temperature variables, mangrove cover and occurrence of extreme climatic events are taken as indicators of exposure. Losses of property and income structure are used as indicators of sensitivity. Human,...
Topics: Kribi-Campo coastal area, Sensitivity
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Rajashree Kotharkar; Aparna Ramesh; Anurag Bagade
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South Asian cities are home to nearly 15% of the world's urban population. These cities are experiencing rampant environmental deterioration, making them vulnerable to the impacts of climate change phenomenon, one of which is urban-rural temperature difference known as urban heat island (UHI) effect. While South Asian UHI research publications have tripled since 2000, a comprehensive overview of the experimental results, significant advancements and predominant directions in research is...
Topics: South Asia, Tropical Climate, Urban Heat Islands
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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The impacts of urban surface characteristics on urban heat islands have been extensively studied. However, the influence of local climate on the urban heat island intensity remains elusive. This study aims to quantify the influence of precipitation on the urban heat island intensity over the Continental United States (CONUS) at climate scales. Results from numerical experiments show that across the CONUS, the urban heat island intensities are positively correlated with the precipitation amounts...
Topics: CONUS, Precipitation, Urban canopy model, Urban heat island
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Pengjun Zhao; Mengzhu Zhang
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Cities are a major battlefield in humanity's struggle to save energy and combat climate change. In China, the cities have surpassed the industrial sector and become the largest consumers of energy. This paper explores how the process of urbanisation affected energy use in China 1980–2010. The results of the analyses show that for every 1% increase in the urban population relative to the total population, national energy consumption rose 1.4%, while industrialisation was not significantly...
Topics: China, Climate change, Energy use, Energy-efficient city, Urbanisation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Gemechu Fanta Garuma
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Built environment changes the radiative, thermal and hydrological properties of the land surface creating higher temperature over urban regions known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI), enhancement of precipitation and warm season thunderstorms causing flash flooding, and intensification of pollutant concentrations in urban regions. Rapid urbanization and climate change are expected to exacerbate urban surface effects on health, economy and the environment. It is therefore necessary to study the...
Topics: Dynamic urban fraction, Sensible and latent heat fluxes, Urban canopy, Urban climate, Urban energy...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Jean Martial Cohard; Jean Michel Rosant; Fabrice Rodriguez; Hervé Andrieu; Patrice G. Mestayer; Pierre Guillevic
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Urban areas are subject to high human pressure and forthcoming enhanced hydrologic and climatic risks due to both city development and climate change. An asphalt concrete parking lot was instrumented in Nantes, France, to quantify the energy and hydrological responses of the surface to simulated rainfalls. The surface fluxes (precipitation, evaporation, radiation exchanges, sensible heat convection and conduction, runoff) were measured in situ and used to close the water budget with residual...
Topics: Asphalt concrete surface, Eddy-correlation, Scintillometry, Surface evaporation, Urban...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Kota with a high proportion of slum dwellers and extremely high temperatures is under great demand to assess the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of different groups of its inhabitants to the impacts of climatic variability and change. Participatory workshops with key stakeholders in urban administration undertook a short vulnerability assessment to gauge current climate adaptation awareness and measures and discuss and decide on a numbered of proposed actions. The city has many policies and...
Topics: Flood prevention, Heat waves, Participatory vulnerability assessments, Urban climate resilience,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 V. Masson; A. Lemonsu; J. Voogt
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© 2016. The study of urban climates now represents a full scientific field on its own. The 9th International Conference on Urban Climate (ICUC-9), held in July 2015 in Toulouse, France, provided a recent forum for urban climate scientists to share the results of their research. This introduction paper presents the 20 articles of this special issue. They are representative of the variety of the themes that are encompassed by the urban climate community: study of urban climate processes,new...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Edward Ng; Chao Ren
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Since the conclusion of the 2014 Climate Summit in New York and the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris, China has been actively advancing its national policies on climate change mitigation and adaptation since more unpredictable extreme weather events are expected, which may incur a heavy cost in terms of economics and public health. Since China is still in the process of urbanisation, the greatest challenge it faces is finding a balance between economic growth and keeping carbon...
Topics: China's adaptation straggles, Climate change, Urban climate
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Replacing dark conventional roofs with more reflective “cool” roofs has been proposed as a method to lower urban air temperatures. Many meteorological studies have simulated potential cool roof air temperature reductions. However, economic and logistical challenges make it difficult to perform the large-scale demonstrations needed to verify these model results. This work assesses whether a neighborhood-scale cool roof demonstration could yield an observable air temperature change. We use...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, Cool roofs, Urban heat island, Urban meteorology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Geoff Levermore; John Parkinson; Kwanho Lee; Patrick Laycock; Sarah Lindley
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This paper examines the urban heat island intensity in detail in the city of Manchester, UK. An increasing intensity is found over time. The urban heat island intensity (UHII) data is examined in more detail giving relationships between weather parameters, cloud cover, wind speed and the urban morphology. The urban heat island intensity in Manchester has a highly significant rising trend which by the end of the century could add 2.4 K to the average annual urban temperature, on top of the...
Topics: Rising trend, Temperature measurements, Urban heat island
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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UHI is the most studied phenomenon of climate change and refers to the increased ambient temperature of cities compared to rural settings. Implementation of reflective materials to urban structures, such as roads and pavements, reduces the surface and ambient temperature and contributes to counterbalance the impact of the phenomenon. The present paper describes the design and the experimental evaluation of a large scale implementation of cool asphaltic and concrete pavements in a major traffic...
Topics: Cool coloured thin layer asphalt, Cool materials and pavements, Heat island, Heat island mitigation...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Recent climate projections predict an amplification of global warming and more frequent extreme events such as heat waves. Therefore, the adaptation of cities to counterbalance these adverse changes is urgent. Among available adaptation strategies, urban greening is a measure that is frequently encouraged to improve thermal comfort or energy demand, but whose impacts are not well known at the scale of cities. In this study we evaluate the effects of various urban greening scenarios based on...
Topics: Climate change adaptation, Energy consumption, Thermal comfort, Water resources
Climate change will bring more heat extremes to the already warm tropical areas in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The resulting surge in cooling demand will only make the thermal discomfort in tropical cities even worse. This paper presents evidence to the approaching air conditioned cooling load deluge and shows why the air conditioned management of cooling load is particularly problematic in the tropics. It then presents the technical, institutional and cultural challenges to passive...
Topics: Cooling load, Thermal comfort, Tropical urban climate, Urban design, Urban heat island
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Yurong Shi; Yufeng Zhang
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With the rapid urbanization and the global climate change, the urban climate problems become increasingly serious in the hot-humid region of China. This study established the satellite-based remote sensing retrieval methods for urban land surface temperature (LST) based on the mono-window algorithm and the estimation methods of ground emissivity and atmospheric transmittance. Through retrieving LST of Haizhu district in Guangzhou in a sunny summer day, it was found that the retrieval methods...
Topics: Field observation, Land surface temperature, Mono-window algorithm, Remote sensing, Urban climate
Mendeley Climate Change Library
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Increasing heat-wave risk due to regional climate evolutions, exacerbated by urban heat island (UHI) effects, is a major threat for the inhabitants of many cities. Adaptive policies such as greening the urban environment are often proposed to limit population vulnerability, as vegetation enables to regulate the microclimate by evapotranspiration. The efficiency of such strategies depends on water availability and raises the issues of water supply for irrigation and of vegetation efficiency....
Topics: Adaptation, Climate change, Irrigation, Pavement watering, Urban climate, Urban heat island effect
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 C. Heffernan
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No Abstract - Personal View
Topics: Climate change, Disease cascades, Land use change, Spillover, Urbanisation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Johan G.S.N. Visser
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Today, transportation of freight by trucks and vans faces congestion within most of the urbanized areas around the world, making supply chains less efficient and causing air pollution, noise, reducing traffic safety and also contributing to climate change. Underground freight transport (UFT) can be an alternative for, but also an addition to existing transport modes for freight, like road, rail and waterborne. It combines the advantages of taking the traffic movements underground and applying...
Topics: Capsules, Pipelines, Underground freight transport
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Jordan N. Minigan; Heather A. Hager; Andrew S. Peregrine; Jonathan A. Newman
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The American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) is medically and economically important in North America. This species is found across central and eastern North America from the Gulf Coast of Mexico through southern Canada. In parts of this region, D. variabilis is a vector for pathogens that cause diseases in humans and animals. Our aim was to determine whether climate change would affect the distribution of the climatically suitable area for D. variabilis in North America, to aid monitoring...
Topics: Climate change, Dermacentor variabilis, Species distribution model
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 L. Prentza; I. P. Koronaki; E. G. Papoutsis; V. D. Papaefthimiou
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The control of CO2emissions released in the atmosphere is an indisputable need in order to avoid environmental and health consequences, as well as to reach European and global targets for climate change confrontation. During the last decades, various methods have been proposed towards this direction. As fossil fuels remain dominant in the energy field, technologies focused on CO2capture have been developed, known as Carbon Capture Systems (CCS). During the last decade, CCS have managed to...
Topics: Alkanolamines, CO2, Dynamic model, FDM, Parametric analysis, Reactive absorption, Sensitivity...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Alistair Morten; Birgitta Gatersleben; Donna C. Jessop
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Air travel has been highlighted as a key environmental behaviour contributing to climate change. Given this, there is a surprising lack of theory-based research aimed at identifying factors that underpin motivation to reduce the number of flights taken. This study explored whether an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model could be usefully applied to identify significant predictors of intentions to reduce the number of flights taken for leisure, holidays or to visit family or friends....
Topics: Air travel, Climate change, Pro-environmental behaviour, Self-identity, Theory of planned behaviour
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Nico Eisenhauer; Sylvie Herrmann; Jes Hines; François Buscot; Julia Siebert; Madhav P. Thakur
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Research exploring the timing of recurring biological events has shown that anthropogenic climate change dramatically alters the phenology of many plants and animals. However, we still lack studies on how climate change might alter the phenology of soil invertebrates as well as how this can subsequently affect ecosystem functions.
Topics: aboveground–belowground interactions, biotic interactions, climate change, soil animals, temporal...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 David Nogués-Bravo; Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez; Luisa Orsini; Erik de Boer; Roland Jansson; Helene Morlon; Damien A. Fordham; Stephen T. Jackson
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How individual species and entire ecosystems will respond to future climate change are among the most pressing questions facing ecologists. Past biodiversity dynamics recorded in the paleoecological archives show a broad array of responses, yet significant knowledge gaps remain. In particular, the relative roles of evolutionary adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and dispersal in promoting survival during times of climate change have yet to be clarified. Investigating the paleo-archives offers...
Topics: adaptation, dispersal, experiments, extinction, forecast, models, paleoecology
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Isaac Brito-Morales; Jorge García Molinos; David S. Schoeman; Michael T. Burrows; Elvira S. Poloczanska; Christopher J. Brown; Simon Ferrier; Tom D. Harwood; Carissa J. Klein; Eve McDonald-Madden; Pippa J. Moore; John M. Pandolfi; James E.M. Watson; Amelia S. Wenger; Anthony J. Richardson
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Climate change is shifting the ranges of species. Simple predictive metrics of range shifts such as climate velocity, that do not require extensive knowledge or data on individual species, could help to guide conservation. We review research on climate velocity, describing the theory underpinning the concept and its assumptions. We highlight how climate velocity has already been applied in conservation-related research, including climate residence time, climate refugia, endemism, historic and...
Topics: biodiversity, climate change, climate velocity, climate-analog velocity, conservation
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 J. Grey Monroe; David W. Markman; Whitney S. Beck; Andrew J. Felton; Megan L. Vahsen; Yamina Pressler
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Climate change is altering natural selection globally, which could shift the evolutionary trajectories of traits central to the carbon (C) cycle. Here, we examine the components necessary for the evolution of C cycling traits to substantially drive changes in global C cycling and integrate these components into a framework of ecoevolutionary dynamics. Recent evidence points to the evolution of C cycling traits during the Anthropocene and the potential to significantly affect atmospheric CO2. We...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Pierre Mariotte; Zia Mehrabi; T. Martijn Bezemer; Gerlinde B. De Deyn; Barbara Drigo; G. F.(Ciska) Veen; Marcel G.A. van der Heijden; Paul Kardol
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In agricultural and natural systems researchers have demonstrated large effects of plant–soil feedback (PSF) on plant growth. However, the concepts and approaches used in these two types of systems have developed, for the most part, independently. Here, we present a conceptual framework that integrates knowledge and approaches from these two contrasting systems. We use this integrated framework to demonstrate (i) how knowledge from complex natural systems can be used to increase agricultural...
Topics: biodiversity conservation, climate change, crop rotation, plant root traits, productivity,...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Amely Gundlach; Marius Ehrlinspiel; Svenja Kirsch; Alexander Koschker; Julian Sagebiel
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In the face of climate change and growing health hazards due to air pollution in urban centers, private car use is being increasingly criticized. At the same time, research suggests that there is an unsatisfied demand for modes of transportation other than private cars. In fact, many cities all over Europe have already established car-restricted or car-free areas. This paper uses a discrete choice experiment to learn more about people's preferences regarding a car-free city center in Berlin,...
Topics: Berlin, Germany, Mobility, Random parameters logit model, Stated preferences
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Kevin R. Fingerman; Colin Sheppard; Andrew Harris
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The transition to low-carbon transportation fuels plays a key role in ongoing efforts to combat climate change. This analysis seeks to optimize potential alternative fuel portfolios that would lead to a 10% reduction in fuel carbon intensity by 2020 as required under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). We present a novel, probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating alternative fuel portfolios based on their marginal greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement costs. Applied to a case study...
Topics: Electric vehicles, Low Carbon Fuel Standard, MAC curve, Marginal abatement cost, Transportation fuel
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Qing Miao; Mary K. Feeney; Fengxiu Zhang; Eric W. Welch; P. S. Sriraj
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The increase in extreme weather events due to climate change poses serious challenges to public transit systems. These events disrupt transit operations, impair service quality, increase threats to public safety, and damage infrastructure. Despite the growing risk of extreme weather and climate change, little is known about how public managers recognize, experience and address these risks. Using data from a national study of public transit agencies we investigate the types of extreme weather...
Topics: Extreme weather, Public transit, Risk perceptions
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Nicolas Coulombel; Laetitia Dablanc; Mathieu Gardrat; Martin Koning
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This paper investigates the environmental impact of urban road freight in the Paris region, focusing on pollutant emissions. We develop a modeling chain including a freight demand model, a multiclass traffic assignment model, and a road emission model. This allows for a detailed representation - spatially and with regard to operations - of urban road freight. We find that while urban road freight represents only 6% of trips and 8% of distances traveled by road in the Paris region, it accounts...
Topics: Air quality, Climate change, Environmental economics, Paris region, Urban freight
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Mohammad Tayarani; Amir Poorfakhraei; Razieh Nadafianshahamabadi; Gregory Rowangould
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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) must be cut 40–70% by 2050 to prevent a greater than 2 °Celsius increase in the global mean temperature; a threshold that may avoid the most severe climate change impacts. Transportation accounts for about one third of GHG emissions in the United States; reducing these emissions should therefore be an important part of any strategy aimed at meeting the IPCC targets. Prior studies find that...
Topics: Active transportation, GHG Emissions, Land-use planning, Smart growth, Transportation planning, VMT...
Mendeley Climate Change Library
Jul 6, 2019 Ran Tu; Islam Kamel; An Wang; Baher Abdulhai; Marianne Hatzopoulou
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The development of accurate emission inventories at an urban scale is of utmost importance for cities in light of climate change commitments and the need to identify the emission reduction potential of various strategies. Emission inventories for on-road transportation are sensitive to the network models used to generate traffic activity data. For large networks (cities or regions), average-speed models have been relied upon extensively in research and practice, primarily due to their...
Topics: Microscopic emissions, Traffic emission modelling, Traffic simulation
The South Korean government released a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation target for 2030 under the 2015 Paris Agreement and developed a detailed implementation plan in 2016 to achieve the target. In this study, we analyzed the GHG emission reduction potential of South Korea's transportation sector under the implementation plan. We first identified six technology policy options already adopted or being considered for adoption by the Korean government in the near future. Next, we...
Topics: Energy system model, GHG emission, Mitigation potential, Technology policy
Transportation considers the highly volatile sector that deteriorates the environment with carbon dioxide (CO2) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Such emissions are not only responsible for climate change, but also escalate the natural resource rents that are mediated with national scale economic indicators to diffuse the sustainability agenda across the globe. This study mainly focused on air-railways transportation, energy demand, bilateral aid flows, population density and environmental...
Topics: Bilateral aid flows, Energy demand, Environmental degradation, Next-11 countries, Population density
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Emissions from shipping contribute significantly to both climate change and local air pollution. Cold ironing (onshore power supply) reduces emissions while ships are berthed in port by providing power from shore-side electricity rather than onboard auxiliary generators. Previous research has focused on installing the technology in large ports but if policy goals (particularly in the EU) are to be achieved then smaller ports must also install the technology. Therefore, this study examines the...
Topics: Cold ironing, Environmental, Onshore power supply, Policy, Seaports, Shore-side power,...